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Results on ultra-relativistic nucleus-nucleus interactions from balloon-borne emulsion chambers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of balloon-borne emulsion-chamber measurements on high-energy cosmic-ray nuclei (Burnett et al., 1983) are summarized in tables and graphs and briefly characterized. Special consideration is given to seven nucleus-nucleus interaction events at energy in excess of 1 TeV/A with multiplicity greater than 400, and to Fe interactions (53 with CHO, 10 with emulsion, and 14 with Pb) at 20-60 GeV/A.

Burnett, T. H.; Dake, S.; Derrickson, J. H.; Fountain, W.; Meegan, C. A.; Takahashi, Y.; Watts, J. W.; Fuki, M.; Gregory, J. C.; Hayashi, T.



Fluctuation analysis of relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions in emulsion chambers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analytical technique was developed for identifying enhanced fluctuations in the angular distributions of secondary particles produced from relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions. The method is applied under the assumption that the masses of the produced particles are small compared to their linear momenta. The importance of particles rests in the fact that enhanced fluctuations in the rapidity distributions is considered to be an experimental signal for the creation of the quark-gluon-plasma (QGP), a state of nuclear matter predicted from the quantum chromodynamics theory (QCD). In the approach, Monte Carlo simulations are employed that make use of a portable random member generator that allow the calculations to be performed on a desk-top computer. The method is illustrated with data taken from high altitude emulsion exposures and is immediately applicable to similar data from accelerator-based emulsion exposures.

Mcguire, Stephen C.



Large area emulsion chamber experiments for the Space Shuttle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Emulsion-chamber experiments employing nuclear-track emulsions, etchable plastic detectors, metal plates, and X-ray films continue to demonstrate high productivity and potential in the study of cosmic-ray primaries and their interactions. Emulsions, with unsurpassed track-recording capability, provide an appropriate medium for the study of nucleus-nucleus interactions at high energy, which will likely produce observations of a phase change in nuclear matter. The many advantages of emulsion chambers (excellent multitrack recording capability, large geometry factor, low apparatus cost, simplicity of design and construction) are complemented by the major advantages of the Space Shuttle as an experiment carrier. A Shuttle experiment which could make a significant advance in both cosmic-ray primary and nucleus-nucleus interaction studies is described. Such an experiment would serve as a guide for use of emulsions during the Space Station era. Some practical factors that must be considered in planning a Shuttle exposure of emulsion chambers are discussed.

Parnell, T. A.



Meson multiplicity versus energy in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A systematic study of meson multiplicity as a function of energy at energies up to 100 GeV/u in nucleus-nucleus collisions has been made, using cosmic-ray data in nuclear emulsion. The data are consistent with simple nucleon-nucleon superposition models. Multiplicity per interacting nucleon in AA collisions does not appear to differ significantly from pp collisions.

Atwater, T. W.; Freier, P. S.



Average transverse momentum and energy density in high-energy nucleus-nucleus collisions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Emulsion chambers were used to measure the transverse momenta of photons or pi(0) mesons produced in high-energy cosmic-ray nucleus-nucleus collisions. A group of events having large average transverse momenta has been found which apparently exceeds the expected limiting values. Analysis of the events at early interaction times, of the order of 1 fm/c, indicates that the observed transverse momentum increases with both rapidity density and energy density.

Burnett, T. H.; Dake, S.; Fuki, M.; Gregory, J. C.; Hayashi, T.; Holynski, R.; Iwai, J.; Jones, W. V.; Jurak, A.; Lord, J. J.



Single nucleon emission in relativistic nucleus-nucleus reactions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Significant discrepancies between theory and experiment have previously been noted for nucleon emission via electromagnetic processes in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions. The present work investigates the hypothesis that these discrepancies have arisen due to uncertainties about how to deduce the experimental electromagnetic cross section from the total measured cross section. An optical-model calculation of single neutron removal is added to electromagnetic cross sections and compared to the total experimental cross sections. Good agreement is found thereby resolving some of the earlier noted discrepancies. A detailed comparison to the recent work of Benesh, Cook, and Vary is made for both the impact parameter and the nuclear cross section. Good agreement is obtained giving an independent confirmation of the parameterized formulas developed by those authors.

Norbury, John W.; Townsend, Lawrence W.



Transverse Energy in nucleus-nucleus collisions: A review  

SciTech Connect

The status of Transverse Energy (E/sub T/) in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions at the Brookhaven AGS and the CERN SPS is reviewed. The definition of E/sub T/ and its physical significance are discussed. The basic techniques and limitations of the experimental measurements are presented. The acceptances of the major experiments to be discussed are shown, along with remarks about their idiosyncrasies. The data demonstrate that the nuclear geometry of colliding spheres primarily determines the shapes of the observed spectra. Careful account of the acceptances is crucial to comparing and interpreting results. It is concluded that nuclear stopping power is high, and that the amount of energy deposited into the interaction volume is increasing with beam energy even at SPS energies. The energy densities believed to be obtained at the SPS are close to the critical values predicted for the onset of a quark-gluon plasma. 25 refs., 8 figs.

Tincknell, M.



Polarization of Lambda^0 hyperons in nucleus-nucleus collisions at high energies  

E-print Network

The measurement of Lambda^0 hyperons polarization in nucleus-nucleus collisions is considered as one of possible tools to study the phase transition. Fixed target and collider experiments are discussed for the case of Lambda^0's production from Au-Au central collisions at \\sqrt{s_{NN}} of several GeV.

V. P. Ladygin; A. P. Jerusalimov; N. B. Ladygina



The emulsion chamber technology experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Photographic emulsion has the unique property of recording tracks of ionizing particles with a spatial precision of 1 micron, while also being capable of deployment over detector areas of square meters or 10's of square meters. Detectors are passive, their cost to fly in Space is a fraction of that of instruments of similar collecting. A major problem in their continued use has been the labor intensiveness of data retrieval by traditional microscope methods. Two factors changing the acceptability of emulsion technology in space are the astronomical costs of flying large electronic instruments such as ionization calorimeters in Space, and the power and low cost of computers, a small revolution in the laboratory microscope data-taking. Our group at UAH made measurements of the high energy composition and spectra of cosmic rays. The Marshall group has also specialized in space radiation dosimetry. Ionization calorimeters, using alternating layers of lead and photographic emulsion, to measure particle energies up to 10(exp 15) eV were developed. Ten balloon flights were performed with them. No such calorimeters have ever flown in orbit. In the ECT program, a small emulsion chamber was developed and will be flown on the Shuttle mission OAST-2 to resolve the principal technological questions concerning space exposures. These include assessments of: (1) pre-flight and orbital exposure to background radiation, including both self-shielding and secondary particle generation; the practical limit to exposure time in space can then be determined; (2) dynamics of stack to optimize design for launch and weightlessness; and (3) thermal and vacuum constraints on emulsion performance. All these effects are cumulative and affect our ability to perform scientific measurements but cannot be adequately predicted by available methods.

Gregory, John C.



Experiment S009: Nuclear Emulsion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The first exposure on a spacecraft of a nuclear emulsion apparatus designed to collect 1000 high quality tracks of heavy nuclei under a negligible thickness of matter (0.07 g/sq cm) is described. The cosmic ray detector consisted of a stack of nuclear emulsions that were designed to register at least 400 heavy nuclei tracks for each 10 hours of useful exposure. The spacecraft had to be oriented in a heads-up attitude during the 10-hour period to eliminate atmospheric albedo particles. The results are as follows: (1) a definite odd-even effect, with low abundances for elements of atomic number 7, 9, and 11; (2) a ratio O/C approximately 0.9; (3) Ne/C, Mg/C, and Si/C ratios between 0.2 and 0.3; (4) an abundance gap in the region 15 less than or equal to Z less than or equal to 19; and (5) a ratio (20 less than or equal to Z less than or equal to 28)/C 0.2, with a large concentration at Z = 26. These results are indicative that successful exposures of nuclear emulsions were obtained on the Gemini 11 mission.

Odell, F. W.; Shapiro, M. M.; Silberberg, R.; Stiller, B.; Tsao, C. H.; Durgaprasad, N.; Fichtel, C. E.; Guss, D. E.; Reames, D. V.



Nucleus-nucleus interactions between 20 and 65 GeV per nucleon  

SciTech Connect

A hybrid electronic-counter--emulsion-chamber instrument was exposed to high-energy cosmic rays on a balloon. The data on 105 nucleus-nucleus collisions in the energy range 20--65 GeV/nucleon and for incident nuclear charges 22less than or equal toZ/sub p/less than or equal to28 are presented. Inclusive characteristics of particle production on different targets (plastic, emulsion, and lead) are shown and compared with models based on the superposition of nucleon-nucleus interactions. Features of a subset of the more central collisions with plastic target and some characteristics of individual events with the highest multiplicity of produced particles are described.

Burnett, T.H.; Dake, S.; Derrickson, J.H.; Fountain, W.F.; Fuki, M.; Gregory, J.C.; Hayashi, T.; Hayashi, T.; Holynski, R.; Iwai, J.; and others



Nuclear Emulsion - Skylab Experiment S009  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This photograph shows Skylab's Nuclear Emulsion experiment, a Skylab science facility that was mounted inside the Multiple Docking Adapter used to record the relative abundance of primary, high-energy heavy nuclei outside the Earth's atmosphere. The Marshall Space Flight Center had program management responsibility for the development of Skylab hardware and experiments.



Nuclear rainbow scattering and nucleus-nucleus potential  

E-print Network

Elastic scattering of alpha-particle and some tightly-bound light nuclei has shown the pattern of rainbow scattering at medium energies, which is due to the refraction of the incident wave by a strongly attractive nucleus-nucleus potential. This review gives an introduction to the physics of the nuclear rainbow based essentially on the optical model description of the elastic scattering. Since the realistic nucleus-nucleus optical potential (OP) is the key to explore this interesting process, an overview of the main methods used to determine the nucleus-nucleus OP is presented. The refractive rainbow-like structures observed in other quasi-elastic scattering reactions have also been discussed. Some evidences for the refractive effect in the elastic scattering of unstable nuclei are presented and perspectives for the future studies are discussed.

Dao T. Khoa; W. von Oertzen; H. G. Bohlen; S. Ohkubo



Fusion cross sections for reactions involving medium & heavy nucleus-nucleus systems  

E-print Network

Existing data on near-barrier fusion excitation functions of medium and heavy nucleus-nucleus systems have been analyzed using a simple diffused barrier formula derived assuming the Gaussian shape of the barrier height distributions. Fusion cross section is obtained by folding the Gaussian barrier distribution with the classical expression for the fusion cross section for a fixed barrier. The energy dependence of the fusion cross section, thus obtained, provides good description to the existing data on near-barrier fusion and capture excitation functions for medium and heavy nucleus-nucleus systems. The fusion or capture cross section predictions are especially important for planning experiments for synthesizing new super-heavy elements.

Debasis Atta; D. N. Basu



Fusion cross sections for reactions involving medium and heavy nucleus-nucleus systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Existing data on near-barrier fusion excitation functions of medium and heavy nucleus-nucleus systems have been analyzed by using a simple diffused-barrier formula derived assuming the Gaussian shape of the barrier-height distributions. The fusion cross section is obtained by folding the Gaussian barrier distribution with the classical expression for the fusion cross section for a fixed barrier. The energy dependence of the fusion cross section, thus obtained, provides good description to the existing data on near-barrier fusion and capture excitation functions for medium and heavy nucleus-nucleus systems. The theoretical values for the parameters of the barrier distribution are estimated which can be used for fusion or capture cross-section predictions that are especially important for planning experiments for synthesizing new superheavy elements.

Atta, Debasis; Basu, D. N.



Nucleon emission via electromagnetic excitation in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions: Reanalysis of the Weizsaecker-Williams method  

SciTech Connect

Previous analyses of the comparison of Weizsaecker-Williams theory to experiment for nucleon emission via electromagnetic excitations in nucleus-nucleus collisions have not been definitive because of different assumptions concerning the value of the minimum impact parameter. This situation is corrected by providing criteria that allow one to make definitive statements concerning agreement or disagreement between Weizsaescker-Williams theory and experiment.

Norbury, J.W. (Department of Physics, Rider College, Lawrenceville, New Jersey 08648 (US))



Nucleon emission via electromagnetic excitation in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions: Re-analysis of the Weizsacker-Williams method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Previous analyses of the comparison of Weizsacker-Williams (WW) theory to experiment for nucleon emission via electromagnetic (EM) excitations in nucleus-nucleus collisions were not definitive because of different assumptions concerning the value of the minimum impact parameter. This situation is corrected by providing criteria that allows definitive statements to be made concerning agreement or disagreement between WW theory and experiment.

Norbury, John W.



Electric quadrupole excitations in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Calculations are presented for electric quadrupole excitations in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions. The theoretical results are compared to an extensive data set and it is found that electric quadrupole effects provide substantial corrections to cross sections, especially for heavier nuclei.

Norbury, John W.



Comparison of potential models of nucleus-nucleus bremsstrahlung  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At low photon energies, the potential models of nucleus-nucleus bremsstrahlung are based on electric transition multipole operators, which are derived either only from the nuclear current or only from the charge density by making the long-wavelength approximation and using the Siegert theorem. In the latter case, the bremsstrahlung matrix elements are divergent and some regularization techniques are used to obtain finite values for the bremsstrahlung cross sections. From an extension of the Siegert theorem, which is not based on the long-wavelength approximation, a new potential model of nucleus-nucleus bremsstrahlung is developed. Only convergent integrals are included in this approach. Formal links between bremsstrahlung cross sections obtained in these different models are made. Furthermore, three different ways to calculate the regularized matrix elements are discussed and criticized. Some prescriptions for a proper implementation of the regularization are deduced. A numerical comparison between the different models is done by applying them to the ? +? bremsstrahlung.

Dohet-Eraly, J.; Baye, D.



Hadronic Reaction Zones in Relativistic Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On the basis of the proposed algorithm for calculation of the hadron reaction rates, the space-time structure of the relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions is studied. The reaction zones and the reaction frequencies for various types of reactions are calculated for Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) and Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) energies within the microscopic transport model. The relation of the reaction zones to the kinetic and chemical freeze-out processes is discussed. It is shown that the space-time freeze-out layer is most extended in time in the central region, while, especially for higher collision energies, the layer becomes very narrow at the sides. The parametrization of freeze-out hypersurface in the form of specific hyperbola of constant proper time was confirmed. The specific characteristic time moments of the fireball evolution are introduced. It is found that the time of the division of a reaction zone into two separate parts does not depend on the collision energy. Calculations of the hadronic reaction frequency show that the evolution of nucleus-nucleus collision can be divided into two hadronic stages.

Anchishkin, D.; Vovchenko, V.; Yezhov, S.



Dynamical nucleus-nucleus potential at short distances  

SciTech Connect

The dynamical nucleus-nucleus potentials for fusion reactions {sup 40}Ca+{sup 40}Ca, {sup 48}Ca+{sup 208}Pb, and {sup 126}Sn+{sup 130}Te are studied with the improved quantum molecular dynamics model together with the extended Thomas-Fermi approximation for the kinetic energies of nuclei. The obtained fusion barrier for {sup 40}Ca+{sup 40}Ca is in good agreement with the extracted fusion barrier from the measured fusion excitation function, and the depths of the fusion pockets are close to the results of time-dependent Hartree-Fock calculations. The energy dependence of the fusion barrier is also investigated. The fusion pocket becomes shallow for a heavy fusion system and almost disappears for heavy nearly symmetric systems, and the obtained potential at short distances is higher than the adiabatic potential.

Jiang Yongying; Wang Ning [Department of Physics, Guangxi Normal University, Guilin 541004 (China); Li Zhuxia [China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing 102413 (China); Scheid, Werner [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Justus-Liebig-University, D-35392 Giessen (Germany)



Rheology and microstructure of magmatic emulsions - Theory and experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The rheological properties of a dilute mixture of melt plus vapor bubbles, referred to as emulsion, are investigated theoretically and in rheometric experiments on dilute viscous germanium dioxide emulsions at temperatures between 1100 and 1175 C and at 100 kPa pressure in a rotating rod rheometer at shear rates between 0.05/s and 7/s. The results indicate that the emulsions may be described by a power-law constitutive relation when observations cover a sufficient range of shear rates to resolve nonlinear flow.

Stein, Daniel J.; Spera, Frank J.



Japanese-American Cooperative Emulsion Experiment /JACEE/. [high energy cosmic ray studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The instrumentation and results of long duration balloon flights carried out jointly by U.S. and Japan researchers to examine high energy cosmic rays are reported. Basic detector geometries are 2.5 sq m sr with operation at altitudes with 3-4 g/sq cm pressure, with observations thus far of over 100 hr. Energies from 2-100 TeV are recorded for nucleus-nucleus and hadron-nucleus interactions, and searches are made for new particle or interactions. The detector is an emulsion chamber which comprises doubly-coated nuclear emulsions on 800 micron thick methacryl substrates, X-ray films, etchable detectors, low density spacers, and lead sheets. Segmentation of the instrument into a primary charge module, a target section, a spacer section, and a lead-emulsion calorimeter allows accurate charge measurement for primary nuclei, reliable energy resolution, and a large geometrical factor for collecting high energy events. A primary Ca nucleus of 300 TeV has been observed.

Huggett, R. W.; Hunter, S. D.; Jones, W. V.; Takahashi, Y.; Ogata, T.; Saito, T.; Holynski, R.; Jurak, A.; Wolter, W.; Parnell, T. A.



Temperature measurement of quark-gluon plasma formed in high energy nucleus-nucleus collisions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss lepton pair and real photon emission from quark-gluon plasma, which is very likely to be formed in high energy nucleus-nucleus collisions. Measurement of pair production crosssection will provide one with accurate information of the temperature of this plasma.

K. Kajantie; H. I. Miettinen



Double-? hypernuclei observed in a hybrid emulsion experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A hybrid experiment with nuclear emulsion and scintillating-fiber detectors (KEK-E373) has been performed to search for double-strangeness systems. Among about 103 events of ?- hyperons captured at rest by emulsion nuclei, we have observed four events which clearly show the topology of cascade weak decays of double-? hypernuclei including the “Nagara” event. Regarding the Nagara event, values of the two-? binding energy (B??) and the ?-? interaction energy (?B??) of ??6He have been revised to 6.91 ± 0.16 and 0.67 ± 0.17 MeV, respectively, due to the recent change of the ?- mass value (Particle Data Group). For another three events, we have determined possible species of double-? hypernuclei together with their binding energies.

Ahn, J. K.; Akikawa, H.; Aoki, S.; Arai, K.; Bahk, S. Y.; Baik, K. M.; Bassalleck, B.; Chung, J. H.; Chung, M. S.; Davis, D. H.; Fukuda, T.; Hoshino, K.; Ichikawa, A.; Ieiri, M.; Imai, K.; Itonaga, K.; Iwata, Y. H.; Iwata, Y. S.; Kanda, H.; Kaneko, M.; Kawai, T.; Kawasaki, M.; Kim, C. O.; Kim, J. Y.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, S. J.; Kondo, Y.; Kouketsu, T.; Kyaw, H. N.; Lee, Y. L.; McNabb, J. W. C.; Min, A. A.; Mitsuhara, M.; Miwa, K.; Nakazawa, K.; Nagase, Y.; Nagoshi, C.; Nakanishi, Y.; Noumi, H.; Ogawa, S.; Okabe, H.; Oyama, K.; Park, B. D.; Park, H. M.; Park, I. G.; Parker, J.; Ra, Y. S.; Rhee, J. T.; Rusek, A.; Sawa, A.; Shibuya, H.; Sim, K. S.; Saha, P. K.; Seki, D.; Sekimoto, M.; Song, J. S.; Takahashi, H.; Takahashi, T.; Takeutchi, F.; Tanaka, H.; Tanida, K.; Tint, K. T.; Tojo, J.; Torii, H.; Torikai, S.; Tovee, D. N.; Tsunemi, T.; Ukai, M.; Ushida, N.; Wint, T.; Yamamoto, K.; Yasuda, N.; Yang, J. T.; Yoon, C. J.; Yoon, C. S.; Yosoi, M.; Yoshida, T.; Zhu, L.



Skylab experiment performance evaluation manual. Appendix K: Experiment S009 nuclear emulsion (MSFC)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A series of analyses are presented for Experiment S009, nuclear emulsion (MSFC), to be used for evaluating the performance of the Skylab corollary experiments under preflight, inflight, and postflight conditions. Experiment contingency plan workaround procedure and malfunction analyses are included in order to assist in making the experiment operationally successful.

Meyers, J. E.



PREFACE: 11th International Conference on Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions (NN2012)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 11th International Conference on Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions (NN2012) was held from 27 May to 1 June 2012, in San Antonio, Texas, USA. It was jointly organized and hosted by The Cyclotron Institute at Texas A&M University, College Station and The Department of Physics and Astronomy at Texas A&M University-Commerce. Among the approximately 300 participants were a large number of graduate students and post-doctoral fellows. The Keynote Talk of the conference, 'The State of Affairs of Present and Future Nucleus-Nucleus Collision Science', was given by Dr Robert Tribble, University Distinguished Professor and Director of the TAMU Cyclotron Institute. During the conference a very well-received public lecture on neutrino astronomy, 'The ICEcube project', was given by Dr Francis Halzen, Hilldale and Gregory Breit Distinguished Professor at the University of Wisconsin, Madison. The Scientific program continued in the general spirit and intention of this conference series. As is typical of this conference a broad range of topics including fundamental areas of nuclear dynamics, structure, and applications were addressed in 42 plenary session talks, 150 parallel session talks, and 21 posters. The high quality of the work presented emphasized the vitality and relevance of the subject matter of this conference. Following the tradition, the NN2012 International Advisory Committee selected the host and site of the next conference in this series. The 12th International Conference on Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions (NN2015) will be held 21-26 June 2015 in Catania, Italy. It will be hosted by The INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, INFN, Catania and the Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia of the University of Catania. The NN2012 Proceedings contains the conference program and 165 articles organized into the following 10 sections 1. Heavy and Superheavy Elements 2. QCD and Hadron Physics 3. Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collisions 4. Nuclear Structure 5. Nuclear Energy and Applications of Nuclear Science and Technologies 6. Nuclear Reactions and Structure of Unstable Nuclei 7. Equation of State of Neutron-Rich Nuclear Matter, Clusters in Nuclei and Nuclear Reactions 8. Fusion and Fission 9. Nuclear Astrophysics 10. New Facilities and Detectors We would like to thank Texas A&M University and Texas A&M University-Commerce for their organizational support and for providing financial support for many students and postdocs and those who had special need. This support helped assure the success of NN2012. Special thanks also go to all members of the International Advisory Committee and the Local Organizing Committee (listed below) for their great work in advising upon, preparing and executing the NN2012 scientific program as well as the social events that all together made the NN2012 an enjoyable experience for both the participants and their companions. NN2012 International Advisory Committee N Auerbach (Israel) J Aysto (Finland) C Beck (France) S Cherubini (Italy) L Ferreira (Portugal) C Gagliardi (USA) S Gales (France) C Gale (Canada) W Gelletly (Great Britain) Paulo R S Gomes (Brazil) W Greiner (Germany) W Henning (USA) D Hinde (Australia) S Hofmann (Germany) M Hussein (Brazil) B Jacak (USA) S Kailas (India) W G Lynch (USA) Z Majka (Poland) L McLerran (USA) V Metag (Germany) K Morita (Japan) B Mueller (USA) D G Mueller (France) T Motobayashi (Japan) W Nazarewicz (USA) Y Oganessian (Russia) J Nolen (USA) E K Rehm (USA) N Rowley (France) B Sherrill (USA) J Schukraft (Switzerland) W Q Shen (China) A Stefanini (Italy) H Stoecker (Germany) A Szanto de Toledo (Brazil) U van Kolck (USA) W von Oertzen (Germany) M Wiescher (USA) N Xu (USA) N V Zamfir (Romania) W L Zhan (China) H Q Zhang (China) NN2012 Local Organizing Committee Marina Barbui Carlos Bertulani Robert Burch Jr Cheri Davis Cody Folden Kris Hagel John Hardy Bao-An Li (Co-Chair and Scientific Secretary) Joseph Natowitz (Co-Chair) Ralf Rapp Livius Trache Sherry Yennello Editors of NN2012 Proceedings Bao-An Li (Texas A&M University-Commerce) and Joseph Natowitz (Texas A&M Unive

Li, Bao-An; Natowitz, Joseph B.



Systematic investigation of scaled factorial cumulant moments for nucleus-nucleus interactions  

SciTech Connect

We use scaled factorial cumulant moments to analyze pseudorapidity fluctuations in nucleus-nucleus collisions. This approach is similar to the method of scaled factorial moments except that it removes the effects of lower-order correlations upon a given moment. Significant second-order cumulants and cumulant indices (slopes with respect to bin size) are found for all of the interactions studied. These indices are found to have an inverse dependence upon average pseudorapidity particle density.

Adamovich, M.I.; Aggarwal, M.M.; Alexandrov, Y.A.; Andreeva, N.P.; Anson, Z.V.; Arora, R.; Avetyan, F.A.; Badyal, S.K.; Basova, E.; Bazarov, I.K.; Bhalla, K.B.; Bhasin, A.; Bhatia, V.S.; Bogdanov, V.G.; Bubnov, V.I.; Burnett, T.H.; Cai, X.; Carshiev, D.A.; Chasnicov, I.Y.; Chernova, L.P.; Chernyavski, M.M.; Eligbaeva, G.Z.; Eremenko, L.E.; Gaitinov, A.S.; Ganssauge, E.R.; Garpman, S.; Gerassimov, S.G.; Grote, J.G.; Gulamov, K.G.; Gupta, S.K.; Gupta, V.K.; Heckman, H.H.; Huang, H.; Jacobsson, B.; Judek, B.; Kachroo, S.; Kalyachkina, G.S.; Kanygina, E.K.; Karabova, M.; Kharlamov, S.P.; Kitroo, S.; Koss, T.; Krasnov, S.A.; Kumar, V.; Lal, P.; Larionova, V.G.; Lepetan, V.N.; Liu, L.S.; Lokanathan, S.; Lord, J.J.; Lukicheva, N.S.; Luo, S.B.; Mangotra, L.K.; Marutyan, N.A.; Maslennikova, N.V.; Mittra, I.S.; Mookerjee, S.; Nasyrov, S.Z.; Navotny, V.S.; Nystrand, J.; Orlova, G.I.; Otterlund, I.; Palsania, H.; Peresadko, N.G.; Petrov, N.V.; Plyuschev, V.A.; Qian, W.Y.; Qin, Y.M.; Raniwala, R.; (The EMU01 Collaboration)



Analysis of nucleus-nucleus collisions at high energies and Random Matrix Theory  

E-print Network

We propose a novel statistical approach to the analysis of experimental data obtained in nucleus-nucleus collisions at high energies which borrows from methods developed within the context of Random Matrix Theory. It is applied to the detection of correlations in momentum distributions of emitted particles. We find good agreement between the results obtained in this way and a standard analysis based on the method of effective mass spectra and two-pair correlation function often used in high energy physics. The method introduced here is free from unwanted background contributions.

R. G. Nazmitdinov; E. I. Shahaliev; M. K. Suleymanov; S. Tomsovic



Pion and Kaon Lab Frame Differential Cross Sections for Intermediate Energy Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space radiation transport codes require accurate models for hadron production in intermediate energy nucleus-nucleus collisions. Codes require cross sections to be written in terms of lab frame variables and it is important to be able to verify models against experimental data in the lab frame. Several models are compared to lab frame data. It is found that models based on algebraic parameterizations are unable to describe intermediate energy differential cross section data. However, simple thermal model parameterizations, when appropriately transformed from the center of momentum to the lab frame, are able to account for the data.

Norbury, John W.; Blattnig, Steve R.



Effects of a chiral three-nucleon force on nucleus-nucleus scattering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the effects of next-to-next-to leading order (NNLO) chiral three-nucleon force (3NF) on nucleus-nucleus elastic scattering, using a standard prescription based on the Brueckner-Hartree-Fock method and the g -matrix folding model. The g -matrix calculated in nuclear matter from the next-to-next-to-next-to leading order (N3LO) chiral two-nucleon forces (2NF) is close to that from the Bonn-B 2NF. Since the Melbourne group has already developed a practical g -matrix interaction by localizing the nonlocal g -matrix calculated from the Bonn-B 2NF, as this first attempt we consider the effects of chiral 3NF by modifying the local Melbourne g matrix according to the difference between the g matrices of the chiral 2NF and 2NF+3NF. For nucleus-nucleus elastic scattering, the 3NF corrections make the folding potential less attractive and more absorptive. The latter effect is due to the enhanced tensor correlations in triplet channels. These changes reduce the differential cross section at middle and large angles and improve the agreement with the experimental data for 16O-16O scattering at 70 MeV/nucleon and 12C-12C scattering at 85 MeV/nucleon.

Minomo, Kosho; Toyokawa, Masakazu; Kohno, Michio; Yahiro, Masanobu



Influence of the partonic Pauli blocking on the hadronic final state in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions  

SciTech Connect

A simple transport model for ultra-relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions is proposed to investigate the effect of Pauli blocking, in the transition from the hadron phase to parton phase, on the hadronic final state. A boost invariant study of the Pauli blocking is implemented in the Monte Carlo simulation for the first time. It turns out that this partonic Pauli effect on the final hadron multiplicity in a nucleus-nucleus collision is negligible at SPS energy, around two percent at RHIC energy, but reaching ten percent at LHC energy. The higher reaction energy the stronger is the partonic Pauli effect.

Sa Benhao [China Institute of Atomic Energy, P.O. Box 275 (18), Beijing, 102413 (China); Laboratorio Nazionale del Sud, Istituto Nazionale Di Fisica Nucleare, Via S. Sofia 44, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Institute of Theoretical Physics, Academy Sciences, Beijing, 100080 (China); Bonasera, A. [Laboratorio Nazionale del Sud, Istituto Nazionale Di Fisica Nucleare, Via S. Sofia 44, I-95123 Catania (Italy)



Investigation of high p$_{t}$ events in Nucleus-Nucleus collisions using the Hijing event generator  

E-print Network

In recent years lot of interest has been observed in the nucleus-nucleus collisions at RHIC energies in phenomena related to high $p_{t}$ physics \\cite{ref1}. The suppression of high $p_{t}$ particles and disappearance of back-to-back jets compared to the scaling with number of binary nucleon-nucleon collisions indicates that a nearly perfect liquid is produced in these collisions. Results on self shadowing of high $p_{t}$ events are presented using hadron multiplicity associated to high $p_{t}$ and unbiased events in nucleus-nucleus collisions \\cite{ref2} obtained from the hijing event generator.

Natasha Sharma; Madan M. Aggarwal



Search for ?? Interactions with the Nuclear Emulsion Films of the Opera Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The OPERA experiment aims at measuring the ?? ? ?? oscillation through the ?? appearance in an almost pure ?? beam (CNGS). For the direct identification of the short-lived ? lepton, produced in ?? CC interactions, a micrometric detection resolution is needed. Therefore the OPERA detector makes use of nuclear emulsion films, the highest spatial resolution tracking device, combined with lead plates in an emulsion cloud chamber (ECC) structure called `brick'. In this paper the nuclear emulsion analysis chain is reported; the strategy and the algorithms set up will be described together with their performances.

Pupilli, Fabio



Photographic Emulsions in the OPERA Long Baseline Experiment Status and First Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The OPERA experiment (Oscillation Project with Emulsion tRacking Apparatus) has been designed to confirm the neutrino oscillation hypothesis by direct observation of the tau neutrino appearance coming out of a (almost) pure muon neutrino beam. The beam is extracted from the SPS at CERN towards the Gran Sasso Underground Laboratory, the location of OPERA, 730km afar. In order to detect the leptonic tau decays, the vertex detector needs a spatial resolution of the order of micrometers. Nuclear emulsion films are the only detector materials capable of fulfilling this tight condition. In addition, emulsion scanning techniques have been significantly improved during the last recent neutrino experiments. This article is going to review the status of the detector, the neutrino beam properties, the first results from the 2008 run and the neutrino event analyses putting special emphasis on the emulsion detection technique.

Meisel, Frank W.



Nonmonotonic Target Excitation Dependence of Pion Clans in Relativistic Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Target excitation dependence of fluctuation of produced pions (i.e. classifying data of the fluctuation pattern on pions on the basis of the number of gray tracks) is studied for nucleus-nucleus collisions at different projectile energies. In each set the experimental multiplicity distribution is compared with the negative binomial distribution (NBD), which is found to describe the experimental distribution quite well. Target excitation dependence is studied in respect of the clan model parameters bar {n}c and bar {N}, which are extracted from the NBD fit parameters bar {n} and k. A detailed comparison between different interactions at the same energy and the same interactions at different energies is also drawn. A nonmonotonic dependence of D2/bar {n} on is revealed, which is also a characteristic of multiplicity fluctuations at RHIC data.

Ghosh, Dipak; Deb, Argha; Dutta, Srimonti


On the geometric nature of high energy nucleus-nucleus reaction cross sections  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Within the context of a high energy double-folding optical potential approximation to the exact nucleus-nucleus multiple-scattering series, eikonal scattering theory is used to investigate the validity of geometric reaction cross sections in relativistic heavy ion collisions. The potential used includes a finite range interaction and nuclear single-particle densities extracted from nuclear charge distributions by unfolding the finite proton charge distribution. Pauli correlation effects are also included in an approximate way. The sensitivity of the predictions to the assumed interaction, Pauli correlation approximation, and nuclear density distributions is investigated. These results are in agreement with early predictions concerning the geometric nature of relativistic heavy ion collisions and in disagreement with a recent analysis, utilizing the zero range approximation, which suggested otherwise. Reasons for the lack of agreement between the analyses are also presented. Finally, approximate applicability limits for geometric reaction cross sections are determined.

Townsend, L. W.; Wilson, J. W.; Bidasaria, H. B.



A unified approach to hadron-hadron, hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions at high energy  

SciTech Connect

The problem of multiparticle production in high-energy hadron-hadron, hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions are studied systematically in the framework of the Geometrical Branching (GBM). The model is based on the geometrical properties of nucleons and the stochastic nature of the interaction among the soft partons. The eikonal formalism is used to relate the elastic and inelastic cross sections and AGK cutting rule is used in connection with the multiparticle production process. The stochastic process of Furry branching is employed to describe the proliferation and hadronization of partons which lead to the produced particles. The approach describes hh, hA and AA collisions in a unified formalism for c.m. energies less than 100 GeV. The result of multiplicity distribution of produced particles exhibits Koba-Nielsen-Olesen (KNO) scaling. The universality of KNO scaling breaks down due to the different geometrical sizes of the hadron and nuclei. For hA and AA collisions, the formalism of GBM allows the hadron to be broken (to h{prime}) by the first collision; indeed, it in the attention given to h{prime}h and h{prime}h{prime} collisions that distinguishes this work from other earlier investigations on the subject. All of the calculated results are in good agreement with experiments. A general Monte Carlo simulation of GBM for multiparticle production in hh, hA and AA collisions is also given. The particle productivity in particular is studied in detail and is contrasted from the case where quark-gluon plasma (QGP) is produced in the AA collisions. This work forms a definitive description of hadronic and nuclear collisions that can serve as a basis from which exotic features such as the formation of QGP can be recognized as signatures deviating from the normal background.

Wang, Xinnian.



a Unified Approach to Hadron-Hadron Hadron-Nucleus and Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions at High Energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of multiparticle production in high -energy hadron-hadron, hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions are studied systematically in the framework of the Geometrical Branching Model (GBM). The model is based on the geometrical properties of nucleons and the stochastic nature of the interaction among the soft partons. The eikonal formalism is used to relate the elastic and inelastic cross sections and AGK cutting rule is used in connection with the multiparticle production process. The stochastic process of Furry branching is employed to describe the proliferation and hadronization of partons which lead to the produced particles. The approach describes hh, hA and AA collisions in a unified formalism for c.m. energies less than 100 GeV. The result of multiplicity distribution of produced particles exhibits Koba-Nielsen-Olesen (KNO) scaling. The universality of KNO scaling breaks down due to the different geometrical sizes of the hadron and nuclei. For hA and AA collisions, the formalism of GBM allows the hadron to be broken (to h^') by the first collision; indeed, it is the attention given to h^'h and h ^'h^' collisions that distinguishes this work from other earlier investigations on the subject. All of the calculated results are in good agreement with experiments. A general Monte Carlo simulation of GBM for multiparticle production in hh, hA and AA collisions is also given. The particle productivity in particular is studied in detail and is contrasted from the case where quark-gluon plasma (QGP) is produced in the AA collisions. This work forms a definitive description of hadronic and nuclear collisions that can serve as a basis from which exotic features such as the formation of QGP can be recognized as signatures deviating from the normal background.

Wang, Xin-Nian


Statistical analysis of secondary particle distributions in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use is described of several statistical techniques to characterize structure in the angular distributions of secondary particles from nucleus-nucleus collisions in the energy range 24 to 61 GeV/nucleon. The objective of this work was to determine whether there are correlations between emitted particle intensity and angle that may be used to support the existence of the quark gluon plasma. The techniques include chi-square null hypothesis tests, the method of discrete Fourier transform analysis, and fluctuation analysis. We have also used the method of composite unit vectors to test for azimuthal asymmetry in a data set of 63 JACEE-3 events. Each method is presented in a manner that provides the reader with some practical detail regarding its application. Of those events with relatively high statistics, Fe approaches 0 at 55 GeV/nucleon was found to possess an azimuthal distribution with a highly non-random structure. No evidence of non-statistical fluctuations was found in the pseudo-rapidity distributions of the events studied. It is seen that the most effective application of these methods relies upon the availability of many events or single events that possess very high multiplicities.

Mcguire, Stephen C.



a Unified Approach to Hadron-Hadron Hadron-Nucleus and Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions at High Energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of multiparticle production in high -energy hadron-hadron, hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions are studied systematically in the framework of the Geometrical Branching Model (GBM). The model is based on the geometrical properties of nucleons and the stochastic nature of the interaction among the soft partons. The eikonal formalism is used to relate the elastic and inelastic cross sections and

Xin-Nian Wang; Xinnian



JACEE long duration balloon flights. [Japanese-American Cooperative Emulsion Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

JACEE balloon-borne emulsion chamber detectors are used to observe the spectra and interactions of cosmic ray protons and nuclei in the energy range 1 to 100A TeV. Experiments with long duration mid-latitude balloon flights and characteristics of the detector system that make it ideal for planned Antarctic balloon flights are discussed.

Burnett, T.; Iwai, J.; Dake, S.; Derrickson, J.; Fountain, W.; Fuki, M.; Gregory, J.; Hayashi, T.; Holynski, R.; Jones, W. V.



Development of nuclear emulsions with 1 ?m spatial resolution for the AEgIS experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main goal of the AEgIS experiment at CERN is to test the weak equivalence principle for antimatter. We will measure the Earth's gravitational acceleration gbar with antihydrogen atoms being launched in a horizontal vacuum tube and traversing a moiré deflectometer. We intend to use a position sensitive device made of nuclear emulsions (combined with a time-of-flight detector such as silicon ?-strips) to measure precisely their annihilation points at the end of the tube. The goal is to determine gbar with a 1% relative accuracy. In 2012 we tested emulsion films in vacuum and at room temperature with low energy antiprotons from the CERN antiproton decelerator. First results on the expected performance for AEgIS are presented.

Kimura, M.; Aghion, S.; Ahlén, O.; Amsler, C.; Ariga, A.; Ariga, T.; Belov, A. S.; Bonomi, G.; Bräunig, P.; Bremer, J.; Brusa, R. S.; Burghart, G.; Cabaret, L.; Canali, C.; Caravita, R.; Castelli, F.; Cerchiari, G.; Cialdi, S.; Comparat, D.; Consolati, G.; Di Domizio, S.; Di Noto, L.; Doser, M.; Dudarev, A.; Ereditato, A.; Ferragut, R.; Fontana, A.; Genova, P.; Giammarchi, M.; Gligorova, A.; Gninenko, S. N.; Haider, S.; Hogan, S. D.; Huse, T.; Jordan, E.; Jørgensen, L. V.; Kaltenbacher, T.; Kawada, J.; Kellerbauer, A.; Knecht, A.; Krasnický, D.; Lagomarsino, V.; Mariazzi, S.; Matveev, V. A.; Merkt, F.; Moia, F.; Nebbia, G.; Nédélec, P.; Oberthaler, M. K.; Pacifico, N.; Petrá?ek, V.; Pistillo, C.; Prelz, F.; Prevedelli, M.; Regenfus, C.; Riccardi, C.; Røhne, O.; Rotondi, A.; Sandaker, H.; Scampoli, P.; Storey, J.; Subieta Vasquez, M. A.; Špa?ek, M.; Testera, G.; Trezzi, D.; Vaccarone, R.; Zavatarelli, S.



The characteristics of particles emitted in energetic nucleus-nucleus interactions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The analysis of the interactions of heavy cosmic ray nuclei in nuclear emulsion exposed over Texas is continued, with 500 interactions of nuclei of E greater than 1.5 GeV/nucleon added. In this paper the experimental data correlating meson production with fragmentation of the projectile and target nuclei are given. These data, combined with earlier results, are also used to reexamine the problem of the mean free path of secondary fragments. Using the same techniques of analysis used for the accelerator ions, evidence is found for anomalously short mean free paths of secondary fragments in the first centimeter after production.

Barber, H. B.; Freier, P. S.; Waddington, C. J.



Improved Partial Cross Section Calculations of Nucleus-Nucleus Reactions, for Cosmic-Ray Propagation in Materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The S-T semiempirical proton-nucleus cross section calculations have recently been improved(Silberberg R., Tsao C.H. and Barghouty A.F., to be published in "Towards the Millennium in Astrophysics" by the World Scientific Publication Co., Singapore, 1997) based on measurements of several groups. These are now being extended to nucleus-nucleus reactions, using scaling, supplemented by empirical factors. We have improved the charge-pick cross sections based on the work of Nilsen et al. (Nilsen B.S. et al. (1994), Phys. Rev. C50, 1065) We are also exploring the electromagnetic dissociation calculations by Norbury and Townsend(Norbury J.W. and Townsend L.W. (1993), Ap. J. Suppl. 86, 307), which have large cross sections for the removal of a few nucleons in heavy nucleus - heavy nucleus collisions.

Tsao, C. H.; Silberberg, R.; Barghouty, A. F.



Forward-backward emission of target evaporated evaporated fragments at high energy nucleus-nucleus collisions  

E-print Network

The multiplicity distribution, multiplicity moment, scaled variance, entropy and reduced entropy of target evaporated fragment emitted in forward and backward hemispheres in 12 A GeV $^{4}$He, 3.7 A GeV $^{16}$O, 60 A GeV $^{16}$O, 1.7 A GeV $^{84}$Kr and 10.7 A GeV $^{197}$Au induced emulsion heavy targets (AgBr) interactions are investigated. It is found that the multiplicity distribution of target evaporated fragments emitted in forward and backward hemispheres can be fitted by a Gaussian distribution. The multiplicity moments of target evaporated particles emitted in forward and backward hemispheres increase with the order of the moment {\\em q}, and second-order multiplicity moment is energy independent over the entire energy for all the interactions in the forward and backward hemisphere respectively. The scaled variance, a direct measure of multiplicity fluctuations, is close to one for all the interactions which may be said that there is a feeble correlation among the produced particles. The entropy of...

Zhang, Zhi; Zhang, Dong-Hai



Systematic study of rapidity dispersion parameter in high energy nucleus-nucleus interactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A systematic study of rapidity dispersion parameter as a quantitative measure of clustering of particles has been carried out in the interactions of 16O, 28Si and 32S projectiles at 4.5 A GeV/c with heavy (AgBr) and light (CNO) groups of targets present in the nuclear emulsion. For all the interactions, the total ensemble of events has been divided into four overlapping multiplicity classes depending on the number of shower particles. For all the interactions and for each multiplicity class, the rapidity dispersion parameter values indicate the occurrence of clusterization during the multiparticle production at Dubna energy. The measured rapidity dispersion parameter values are found to decrease with the increase of average multiplicity for all the interactions. The dependence of rapidity dispersion parameter on the average multiplicity can be successfully described by a relation D(?) = a + b + c2. The experimental results have been compared with the results obtained from the analysis of Monte Carlo simulated (MC-RAND) events. MC-RAND events show weaker clusterization among the pions in comparison to the experimental data.

Bhattacharyya, Swarnapratim; Haiduc, Maria; Neagu, Alina Tania; Firu, Elena



Event-by-event pseudo-rapidity fluctuations in high energy nucleus-nucleus interactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A detailed study of event-by-event pseudo-rapidity fluctuations in relativistic heavy-ion collisions in terms of the ? measure and its multiplicity and target dependence has been carried out for heavy (AgBr) and light (CNO) groups of targets present in the nuclear emulsion using O16 (at an incident momentum of 4.5 A GeV/c), Ne22 (at an incident momentum of 4.1 A GeV/c), Si28 (at an incident momentum of 4.5 A GeV/c) and S32 (at an incident momentum of 4.5 A GeV/c) projectiles. For all the interactions, the total ensemble of events has been divided into three overlapping multiplicity classes depending on the number of shower particles. For all the interactions and for each multiplicity class, the ? values are found to be greater than zero indicating the presence of strong correlation in the multiparticle production at Dubna energy. The measured ? values are found to decrease with the increase of average multiplicity for all the interactions. The ? values for the AgBr target are found to be greater than that for the CNO target for all the projectiles. This observation indicates the presence of stronger correlation for heavier projectiles. The experimental results have been compared with the modified FRITIOF model. It has been seen that the modified FRITIOF model cannot reproduce the experimental results.

Bhattacharyya, Swarnapratim; Haiduc, Maria; Neagu, Alina Tania; Firu, Elena



Development of nuclear emulsions operating in vacuum for the AEgIS experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the first time the AEgIS (Antihydrogen Experiment: Gravity, Interferometry, Spectroscopy) experiment will measure the Earth's local gravitational acceleration g on antimatter through the evaluation of the vertical displacement of an antihydrogen horizontal beam. This will be a model independent test of the Weak Equivalence Principle at the base of the general relativity. The initial goal of a g measurement with a relative uncertainty of 1% will be achieved with less than 1000 detected antihydrogens, provided that their vertical position could be determined with a precision of a few micrometers. An emulsion based detector is very suitable for this purpose featuring an intrinsic sub-micrometric spatial resolution. Nevertheless, the AEgIS experiment requires unprecedented operational conditions for this type of detector, namely vacuum environment and very low temperature. An intense R&D activity is presently going on to optimize the detector for the AEgIS experimental requirements with rather encouraging results.

Scampoli, P.; Aghion, S.; Ahlén, O.; Amsler, C.; Ariga, A.; Ariga, T.; Belov, A. S.; Berggren, K.; Bonomi, G.; Bräunig, P.; Bremer, J.; Brusa, R. S.; Cabaret, L.; Caccia, M.; Canali, C.; Caravita, R.; Castelli, F.; Cerchiari, G.; Cialdi, S.; Comparat, D.; Consolati, G.; Derking, H.; Di Domizio, S.; Di Noto, L.; Doser, M.; Dudarev, A.; Ereditato, A.; Ferragut, R.; Fontana, A.; Genova, P.; Giammarchi, M.; Gligorova, A.; Gninenko, S. N.; Haider, S.; Huse, T.; Jordan, E.; Jørgensen, L. V.; Kaltenbacher, T.; Kawada, J.; Kellerbauer, A.; Kimura, M.; Knecht, A.; Krasnický, D.; Lagomarsino, V.; Lehner, S.; Malbrunot, C.; Mariazzi, S.; Matveev, V. A.; Moia, F.; Nebbia, G.; Nédélec, P.; Oberthaler, M. K.; Pacifico, N.; Petrá?ek, V.; Pistillo, C.; Prelz, F.; Prevedelli, M.; Regenfus, C.; Riccardi, C.; Røhne, O.; Rotondi, A.; Sandaker, H.; Storey, J.; Subieta Vasquez, M. A.; Špa?ek, M.; Testera, G.; Wildmann, E.; Zavatarelli, S.; Zmeskal, J.



Three-hadron angular correlations in high-energy proton-proton and nucleus-nucleus collisions from perturbative QCD  

SciTech Connect

We study three-hadron azimuthal angular correlations in high-energy proton-proton and central nucleus-nucleus collisions at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and the CERN Large Hadron Collider at midrapidity. We use the leading-order parton matrix elements for 2{yields}3 processes and include the effect of parton energy loss in the quark-gluon plasma using the modified fragmentation function approach. For the case when the produced hadrons have either the same or not too different momenta, we observe two away-side peaks at 2{pi}/3 and 4{pi}/3. We consider the dependence of the angular correlations on energy loss parameters that have been used in studies of single inclusive hadron production at RHIC. Our results on the angular dependence of the cross section agree well with preliminary data by the PHENIX Collaboration. We comment on the possible contribution of 2{yields}3 processes to dihadron angular correlations and how a comparison of the two processes may help characterize the plasma further.

Ayala, Alejandro; Ortiz, Antonio; Paic, Guy [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 70-543, Mexico Distrito Federal 04510 (Mexico); Jalilian-Marian, Jamal [Department of Natural Sciences, Baruch College, New York, New York 10010, USA and CUNY Graduate Center, 365 Fifth Avenue, New York, New York 10016 (United States); Magnin, J. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, CBPF, Rua Dr. Xavier Sigaud 150, 22290-180 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Tejeda-Yeomans, Maria Elena [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Sonora, Boulevard Luis Encinas J. y Rosales, Colonia Centro, Hermosillo, Sonora 83000 (Mexico)



Collective flow and azimuthal correlations in nucleus-nucleus collisions at the Bevalac  

SciTech Connect

The EOS experiment at the Bevalac has recently carried out exclusive event-by-event measurements of relativistic heavy ion collisions with a variety of projectile, target and beam energy combinations. The data was obtained using the EOS Time Projection Chamber. We present preliminary results on inclusive spectra, collective flow and azimuthal correlations obtained from a study of Au + Au reactions with beam energies covering 0.6 {minus} 1.2 A GeV.

Rai, G.; EOS Collaboration



Partition of cross sections in asymmetric nucleus-nucleus reactions and the origin of fast alpha particles  

SciTech Connect

To investigate the mechanism of asymmetric nucleus-nucleus reactions from the Coulomb barrier to intermediate energies the /sup 14/N + /sup 159/Tb reaction was studied at five bombarding energies between 8 and 23 MeV/u via particle-particle correlations (at selected energies) and particle KX-ray coincidences to identify the specific reaction channels. With the KX-ray method partial cross sections for projectile-like fragments (PLF) as a function of the atomic number (Z/sub res/) of the residual nucleus can be determined. The charge balance yields the ''missing charge'' dZ = Z/sub proj/ + Z/sub targ/ - Z/sub PLF/ - Z/sub TLF/ that indicates whether, in addition to the PLF, other charged particles are emitted. A large fraction of the inclusive cross sections is found to originate from such channels with two or more fragments in the exit channel, and this fraction increases as the PLF is further removed in mass from the incident projectile, and with increasing bombarding energy. From the particle-particle correlation studies it is found that sequential decays of PLF's are dominant. ''Non-sequential'' processes, if present, are associated with inelastic reactions involving excitations of both projectile and target. The bulk of the large alpha-particle cross section at small angles is found to be associated with channels in which, in addition to the alpha particle, only nucleons and other alpha particles are emitted. From ..gamma..-ray multiplicity measurements and from the broad distribution of the strength with Z/sub res/ it is concluded that these alpha particles originate from inelastic (damped) processes. 27 refs., 10 figs.

Siemssen, R.H.



Mass, quark-number, and root s(NN) dependence of the second and fourth flow harmonics in ultrarelativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions  

E-print Network

. Cosentino,37 J. G. Cramer,47 H. J. Crawford,5 D. Das,45 S. Das,45 S. Dash,15 M. Daugherity,42 M. M. de Moura,37 T. G. Dedovich,12 M. DePhillips,3 A. A. Derevschikov,32 L. Didenko,3 T. Dietel,14 P. Djawotho,17 S. M. Dogra,19 X. Dong,38 J. L. Drachenberg,41...PHYSICAL REVIEW C 75, 054906 (2007) Mass, quark-number, and?sNN dependence of the second and fourth flow harmonics in ultrarelativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions B. I. Abelev,50 M. M. Aggarwal,30 Z. Ahammed,45 B. D. Anderson,20 D. Arkhipkin,13 G...

Abelev, B. I.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Ahammed, Z.; Anderson, B. D.; Arkhipkin, D.; Averichev, G. S.; Bai, Y.; Balewski, J.; Barannikova, O.; Barnby, L. S.; Baudot, J.; Baumgart, S.; Bekele, S.; Belaga, V. V.; Bellingeri-Laurikainen, A.; Bellwied, R.; Benedosso, F.; Betts, R. R.; Bhardwaj, S.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A. K.; Bichsel, H.; Bielcik, J.; Bielcikova, J.; Bland, L. C.; Blyth, S-L; Bombara, M.; Bonner, B. E.; Botje, M.; Bouchet, J.; Brandin, A. V.; Bravar, A.; Burton, T. P.; Bystersky, M.; Cadman, R. V.; Cai, X. Z.; Caines, H.; Sanchez, M. Calderon de la Barca; Callner, J.; Castillo, J.; Catu, O.; Cebra, D.; Chajecki, Z.; Chaloupka, P.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen, H. F.; Chen, J. H.; Cheng, J.; Cherney, M.; Chikanian, A.; Christie, W.; Chung, S. U.; Coffin, J. P.; Cormier, T. M.; Cosentino, M. R.; Cramer, J. G.; Crawford, H. J.; Das, D.; Das, S.; Dash, S.; Daugherity, M.; de Moura, M. M.; Dedovich, T. G.; DePhillips, M.; Derevschikov, A. A.; Didenko, L.; Dietel, T.; Djawotho, P.; Dogra, S. M.; Dong, X.; Drachenberg, J. L.; Draper, J. E.; Du, F.; Dunin, V. B.; Dunlop, J. C.; Mazumdar, M. R. Dutta; Eckardt, V.; Edwards, W. R.; Efimov, L. G.; Emelianov, V.; Engelage, J.; Eppley, G.; Erazmus, B.; Estienne, M.; Fachini, P.; Fatemi, R.; Fedorisin, J.; Filimonov, K.; Filip, P.; Finch, E.; Fine, V.; Fisyak, Y.; Fu, J.; Gagliardi, Carl A.; Gaillard, L.; Ganti, M. S.; Garcia-Solis, E.; Ghazikhanian, V.; Ghosh, P.; Gorbunov, Y. G.; Gos, H.; Grebenyuk, O.; Grosnick, D.; Guertin, S. M.; Guimaraes, K. S. F. F.; Gupta, N.; Haag, B.; Hallman, T. J.; Hamed, A.; Harris, J. W.; He, W.; Heinz, M.; Henry, T. W.; Hepplemann, S.; Hippolyte, B.; Hirsch, A.; Hjort, E.; Hoffman, A. M.; Hoffmann, G. W.; Hofman, D.; Hollis, R.; Horner, M. J.; Huang, H. Z.; Huang, S. L.; Hughes, E. W.; Humanic, T. J.; Igo, G.; Iordanova, A.; Jacobs, P.; Jacobs, W. W.; Jakl, P.; Jia, F.; Jones, P. G.; Judd, E. G.; Kabana, S.; Kang, K.; Kapitan, J.; Kaplan, M.; Keane, D.; Kechechyan, A.; Kettler, D.; Khodyrev, V. Yu; Kim, B. C.; Kiryluk, J.; Kisiel, A.; Kislov, E. M.; Klein, S. R.; Knospe, A. G.; Kocoloski, A.; Koetke, D. D.; Kollegger, T.; Kopytine, M.; Kotchenda, L.; Kouchpil, V.; Kowalik, K. L.; Kravtsov, P.; Kravtsov, V. I.; Krueger, K.; Kuhn, C.; Kulikov, A. I.; Kumar, A.; Kurnadi, P.; Kuznetsov, A. A.; Lamont, M. A. C.; Landgraf, J. M.; Lange, S.; LaPointe, S.; Laue, F.; Lauret, J.; Lebedev, A.; Lednicky, R.; Lee, C-H; Lehocka, S.; LeVine, M. J.; Li, C.; Li, Q.; Li, Y.; Lin, G.; Lin, X.; Lindenbaum, S. J.; Lisa, M. A.; Liu, F.; Liu, H.; Liu, J.; Liu, L.; Liu, Z.; Ljubicic, T.; Llope, W. J.; Long, H.; Longacre, R. S.; Love, W. A.; Lu, Y.; Ludlam, T.; Lynn, D.; Ma, G. L.; Ma, J. G.; Ma, Y. G.; Magestro, D.; Mahapatra, D. P.; Majka, R.; Mangotra, L. K.; Manweiler, R.; Margetis, S.; Markert, C.; Martin, L.; Matis, H. S.; Matulenko, Yu A.; McClain, C. J.; McShane, T. S.; Melnick, Yu; Meschanin, A.; Millane, J.; Miller, M. L.; Minaev, N. G.; Mioduszewski, Saskia; Mironov, C.; Mischke, A.; Mishra, D. K.; Mitchell, J.; Mohanty, B.; Molnar, L.; Moore, C. F.; Morozov, D. A.; Munhoz, M. G.; Nandi, B. K.; Nattrass, C.; Nayak, T. K.; Nelson, J. M.; Nepali, C.; Netrakanti, P. K.; Nogach, L. V.; Nurushev, S. B.; Odyniec, G.; Ogawa, A.; Okorokov, V.; Oldenburg, M.; Olson, D.; Pachr, M.; Pal, S. K.; Panebratsev, Y.; Pavlinov, A. I.; Pawlak, T.; Peitzmann, T.; Perevoztchikov, V.; Perkins, C.; Peryt, W.; Phatak, S. C.; Planinic, M.; Pluta, J.; Poljak, N.; Porile, N.; Porter, J.; Poskanzer, A. M.; Potekhin, M.; Potrebenikova, E.; Potukuchi, B. V. K. S.; Prindle, D.; Pruneau, C.; Putschke, J.; Qattan, I. A.; Rakness, G.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Ray, R. L.; Razin, S. V.; Reinnarth, J.; Relyea, D.; Ridiger, A.; Ritter, H. G.; Roberts, J. B.; Rogachevskiy, O. V.; Romero, J. L.; Rose, A.; Roy, C.; Ruan, L.; Russcher, M. J.; Sahoo, R.; Sakuma, T.; Salur, S.; Sandweiss, J.; Sarsour, M.; Sazhin, P. S.; Schambach, J.; Scharenberg, R. P.; Schmitz, N.; Schweda, K.; Seger, J.; Selyuzhenkov, I.; Seyboth, P.; Shabetai, A.; Shahaliev, E.; Shao, M.; Sharma, M.; Shen, W. Q.; Shimanskiy, S. S.; Sichtermann, E. P.; Simon, F.; Singaraju, R. N.; Smirnov, N.; Snellings, R.; Sorensen, P.; Sowinski, J.; Speltz, J.; Spinka, H. M.; Srivastava, B.; Stadnik, A.; Stanislaus, T. D. S.; Staszak, D.; Stock, R.; Stolpovsky, A.; Strikhanov, M.; Stringfellow, B.; Suaide, A. A. P.; Suarez, M. C.; Subba, N. L.; Sugarbaker, E.; Sumbera, M.; Sun, Z.; Surrow, B.; Swanger, M.; Symons, T. J. M.; de Toledo, A. Szanto; Takahashi, J.; Tang, A. H.; Tarnowsky, T.; Thomas, J. H.; Timmins, A. R.; Timoshenko, S.; Tokarev, M.; Trainor, T. A.; Trentalange, S.; Tribble, Robert E.; Tsai, O. D.; Ulery, J.; Ullrich, T.; Underwood, D. G.; Van Buren, G.; van der Kolk, N.; van Leeuwen, M.



Development of High Sensitivity Nuclear Emulsion and Fine Grained Emulsion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nuclear emulsion is a particle detector having high spacial resolution and angular resolution. It became useful for large statistics experiment thanks to the development of automatic scanning system. In 2010, a facility for emulsion production was introduced and R&D of nuclear emulsion began at Nagoya university. In this paper, we present results of development of the high sensitivity emulsion and fine grained emulsion for dark matter search experiment. Improvement of sensitivity is achieved by raising density of silver halide crystals and doping well-adjusted amount of chemicals. Production of fine grained emulsion was difficult because of unexpected crystal condensation. By mixing polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) to gelatin as a binder, we succeeded in making a stable fine grained emulsion.

Kawahara, H.; Asada, T.; Naka, T.; Naganawa, N.; Kuwabara, K.; Nakamura, M.



Investigation of gamma-ray families originating from nucleus-nucleus interactions at ultrahigh energies E 0 in excess of 1016 eV  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Various spatial and energy features of gamma-ray families originating from the interactions of primary nuclei of galactic cosmic rays with nuclei of atmospheric atoms ( AA interactions) are studied. The mass composition of galactic cosmic rays is analyzed on the basis of data from x-ray emulsion chambers of the Pamir experiment with the aid of a criterion for selecting gamma-ray families originating from AA interactions ( A families) at energies E 0 of primary galactic cosmic rays in excess of 1016 eV. According to the results obtained in this way only the experimental spatial parameters R 1 E and ? differ from their counterparts in the MC0 model.

Yuldashbaev, T. S.; Nuritdinov, Kh.



Forward-backward multiplicity correlation in high-energy nucleus-nucleus interactions at a few AGeV/c  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have presented a systematic study of two-particle rapidity correlations in terms of investigating the dynamical fluctuation observable \\sigma _c^2 in the forward-backward pseudo-rapidity windows by analyzing the experimental data of {}_{}^{16} O{--}AgBr interactions at 4.5 AGeV/c, {}_{}^{22} Ne{--}AgBr interactions at 4.1 AGeV/c, {}_{}^{28} Si{--}AgBr and {}_{}^{32} S{--}AgBr interactions at 4.5 AGeV/c. The experimental results have been compared with the results obtained from the analysis of event sample simulated (MC-RAND) by generating random numbers and also with the analysis of events generated by the UrQMD and AMPT model. Our study confirms the presence of strong short-range correlations among the produced particles in the forward and the backward pseudo-rapidity region. The analysis of the simple Monte Carlo-simulated (MC-RAND) events signifies that the observed correlations are not due to mere statistics only; explanation of such correlations can be attributed to the presence of dynamical fluctuations during the production of charged pions. Comparisons of the experimental results with the results obtained from analyzing the UrQMD data sample indicate that the UrQMD model cannot reproduce the experimental findings. The AMPT model also cannot explain the experimental results satisfactorily. Comparisons of our experimental results with the results obtained from the analysis of higher energy emulsion data and with the results of the RHIC data have also been presented.

Bhattacharyya, Swarnapratim; Haiduc, Maria; Neagu, Alina Tania; Firu, Elena



A search for the production of direct leptons in nucleon-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the following topics: subthreshold production experiment; testing and selection of PCOS amplifiers; transverse energy detector; development of a sensitive new amplifiers; single-lepton experiment. (LSP)

Kirk, P.N.



Attained energy densities and neutral pion spectra in nucleus-nucleus collisions at 200 GeV/nucleon  

SciTech Connect

The main goal of the CERN heavy-ion experiments is the search for an indication that the predicted state of deconfined quarks and gluons, the quark-gluon plasma (QGP), has been produced. The quantity most crucial to the probability of QGP formation is the thermalized energy density attained during the heavy-ion reaction. The amount of energy radiated transverse to the beam direction is the experimental quantity which is believed to be a measure of the amount of energy deposition in the reaction, and hence to reflect the energy density attained. In this presentation we consider the systematics of transverse energy production at CERN SPS energies, and we use the results to make estimates, under various assumptions, of attained energy densities. 18 refs., 2 figs.

Plasil, F.; Albrecht, R.; Awes, T.C.; Baktash, C.; Beckmann, P.; Berger, F.; Bock, R.; Claesson, G.; Clewing, G.; Dragon, L.



Fish oil-based lipid emulsions in the treatment of parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease: an ongoing positive experience.  


We previously reported the beneficial effect of fish oil-based lipid emulsions (FOLEs) as monotherapy in the treatment of parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease (PNALD). In this report, we share our ongoing experience at Texas Children's Hospital, Houston, Texas in the use of FOLE in treatment of PNALD as presented at the 2013 Experimental Biology meeting. We describe the findings of a single center, prospective, observational study of infants <6 mo of age with PNALD who received parenteral FOLE as monotherapy. A total of 97 infants received FOLE under the compassionate-use protocol for the treatment of PNALD. Eighty-three (86%) survived with resolution of cholestasis and 14 (14%) died. The median conjugated bilirubin (CB) concentration at the initiation of FOLE therapy was 4.8 mg/dL (range 2.1-26). The median time to resolution of cholestasis was 40 d (range 3-158). Compared with infants with mild cholestasis (CB of 2.1-5 mg/dL at the initiation of FOLE), nonsurvivors were significantly more premature and took longer to resolve their cholestasis. Gestational age at birth correlated inversely with CB at the beginning of FOLE and peak CB. Infants with an initial CB >10 mg/dL had a higher mortality rate than infants with an initial CB <5 mg/dL (35% vs. 6%; P < 0.05). Our experience with the use of FOLE in PNALD continues to be encouraging. Prematurity continues to be a major determinant in mortality and severity of cholestasis. This calls for further controlled studies designed to optimize dose and timing of intervention in the use of FOLE in neonates. PMID:24425724

Premkumar, Muralidhar H; Carter, Beth A; Hawthorne, Keli M; King, Kristi; Abrams, Steven A



Limiting Fragmentation Behavior of Projectile Helium (Z = 2) Fragments in Nucleus--Nucleus Interactions at 14.6 A GeV  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An analysis of projectile helium (Z = 2) fragments based on 855 minimum-bias inelastic events induced by 14.6 A GeV 28Si beam in a nuclear emulsion is presented in order to test the hypothesis of limiting fragmentation. The projected angular distributions of projectile helium fragments have been fitted with Gaussian curves in individual helium reaction channels and also in different emulsion target events. Furthermore, average emission angle of projectile helium fragments has been studied in individual helium reaction channels with different emulsion target groups. On the basis of pseudo-rapidity distribution, an energy independent limiting fragmentation behavior of projectile helium fragments is also investigated in the fragmentation region.

Kumar, Ashwini; Singh, Gurmukh; Singh, Bhartendu K.



Detector developing for directional dark matter search with nuclear emulsion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are planing the directional dark matter search experiment with nuclear emulsion. Recoiled atoms inside of the emulsion fly several hundred nm, and it is too short to detect with usual emulsion. Fine crystal emulsion was needed to detect such tracks. We developed new method to produce them and succeeded to make crystals small as 20 nm at the minimum size. We also study several methods to improve sensitivity and reduce background noise to survey very interesting cross section region.

Asada, T.; Naka, T.; Kuwabara, K.; Katsuragawa, T.; Yoshimoto, M.; Hakamata, K.; Ishikawa, M.; Nakamura, M.; Sato, O.; Nakano, T.



Emulsion Droplet Combustion in Microgravity: Water/Heptane Emulsions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This presentation reviews a series of experiments to further examine parametric effects on sooting processes of droplet flames in microgravity. The particular focus is on a fuel droplet emulsified with water, specifically emulsions of n-heptane as the fuel-phase and water as the dispersed phase. Water was selected as the additive because of its anticipated effect on soot formation, and the heptane fuel phase was chosen to theoretically reduce the likelihood of microexplosions because its boiling point is nearly the same as that of water: 100 C for water and 98 C for heptane. The water content was varied while the initial droplet diameter was kept within a small range. The experiments were carried out in microgravity to reduce the effects of buoyancy and to promote spherical symmetry in the burning process. Spherically symmetric droplet burning is a convenient starting point for analysis, but experimental data are difficult to obtain for this situation as evidenced by the fact that no quantitative data have been reported on unsupported emulsion droplet combustion in a convection-free environment. The present study improves upon past work carried out on emulsion droplet combustion in microgravity which employed emulsion droplets suspended from a fiber. The fiber can be instrusive to the emulsion droplet burning process as it can promote coalescence of the dispersed water phase and heterogeneous nucleation on the fiber. Prior work has shown that the presence of water in liquid hydrocarbons can have both beneficial and detrimental effects on the combustion process. Water is known to reduce soot formation and radiation heat transfer to combustor walls Gollahalli (1979) reduce flame temperatures and thereby NOx emissions, and encourage secondary droplet atomization or microexplosion. Water also tends to retard ignition and and promote early extinction. The former effect restricted the range of water volume fractions as discussed below.

Avedisian, C. Thomas



An instrument employing electronic counters and an emulsion chamber for studying heavy cosmic ray interactions (JACEE-3)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A JACEE-3 instrument was flown on a balloon in June 1982 for 6.1 sq m sr hr exposure at an average atmospheric depth of 5 gm/sq cm in order to study the cosmic ray spectra, composition, and interactions above 1 TeV. The nucleus-nucleus interactions were studied above 20 GeV/amu from z = 6 to z = 26. The electronic counters contained gas Cerenkov structures with a 1.0-cm thick lead glass and a 1.27-cm thick Teflon radiator. A comparison to the instrument prototype is made. Based on the electronic counter event data, the finding efficiency of the hodoscope is noted to be near 100 percent for z greater than or equal to 22. A comparison is made between the hodoscope-predicted position and track found at P3 in an emulsion chamber.

Austin, R. W.; Meegan, C. A.; Parnell, T. A.; Selig, W. J.; Watts, J. W.; Burnett, T. H.; Iwai, J.; Lord, J. J.; Strauscz, S.; Wilkes, R. J.; Jones, W. V.



Oil emulsions of fluorosilicone fluids  

SciTech Connect

Emulsions of fluorosilicone fluids in mineral oil are disclosed. These emulsions are stabilized by a polydimethylsiloxane-polybutadiene copolymer or a polydimethylsiloxane-hydrogenated polybutadiene copplymer. The emulsions are an effective foam suppressant for organic liquids, especially crude petroleum.

Keil, J. W.



Development of a membrane-assisted fluidized bed reactor - 1 - Gas phase back-mixing and bubble-to-emulsion phase mass transfer using tracer injection and ultrasound experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

A small laboratory-scale membrane-assisted fluidized bed reactor (MAFBR) was constructed in order to experimentally demonstrate the benefits of this reactor concept, especially the enhanced bubble-to-emulsion phase mass transfer and the reduced overall axial gas phase back-mixing, due to the presence of the membranes and permeation of gas through the membranes. With steady-state tracer gas injection experiments, it was demonstrated that

S. A. R. K. Deshmukh; J. A. Laverman; A. H. G. Cents; Sint Annaland van M; J. A. M. Kuipers



System-size and centrality dependence of charged kaon and pion production in nucleus-nucleus collisions at 40A GeV and 158A GeV beam energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of charged pion and kaon production are presented in centrality selected Pb+Pb collisions at 40A GeV and 158A GeV beam energy as well as in semicentral C+C and Si+Si interactions at 40A GeV. Transverse mass spectra, rapidity spectra, and total yields are determined as a function of centrality. The system-size and centrality dependence of relative strangeness production in nucleus-nucleus collisions at 40A GeV and 158A GeV beam energy are derived from the data presented here and from published data for C+C and Si+Si collisions at 158A GeV beam energy. At both energies a steep increase with centrality is observed for small systems followed by a weak rise or even saturation for higher centralities. This behavior is compared to calculations using transport models (ultra-relativistic quantum molecular dynamics and hadron-string dynamics), a percolation model, and the core-corona approach.

Anticic, T.; Baatar, B.; Barna, D.; Bartke, J.; Beck, H.; Betev, L.; Bia?kowska, H.; Blume, C.; Bogusz, M.; Boimska, B.; Book, J.; Botje, M.; Bun?i?, P.; Cetner, T.; Christakoglou, P.; Chung, P.; Chvala, O.; Cramer, J. G.; Dinkelaker, P.; Eckardt, V.; Fodor, Z.; Foka, P.; Friese, V.; Ga?dzicki, M.; Grebieszkow, K.; Höhne, C.; Kadija, K.; Karev, A.; Kliemant, M.; Kolesnikov, V. I.; Kollegger, T.; Kowalski, M.; Kresan, D.; Laszlo, A.; Lacey, R.; van Leeuwen, M.; Lungwitz, B.; Mackowiak, M.; Makariev, M.; Malakhov, A. I.; Mateev, M.; Melkumov, G. L.; Mitrovski, M.; Mrówczy?ski, St.; Nicolic, V.; Pálla, G.; Panagiotou, A. D.; Peryt, W.; Pluta, J.; Prindle, D.; Pühlhofer, F.; Renfordt, R.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rybczy?ski, M.; Rybicki, A.; Sandoval, A.; Schmitz, N.; Schuster, T.; Seyboth, P.; Siklér, F.; Skrzypczak, E.; Slodkowski, M.; Stefanek, G.; Stock, R.; Ströbele, H.; Susa, T.; Szuba, M.; Utvi?, M.; Varga, D.; Vassiliou, M.; Veres, G. I.; Vesztergombi, G.; Vrani?, D.; W?odarczyk, Z.; Wojtaszek-Szwarc, A.



Project blob: Edible emulsions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most blobs are emulsions. From a chemistry perspective, emulsions turn two liquid phases into what appears to be one continuous phase through the use of surfactants. This lesson, created by a chemical engineering graduate student, allows the secondary students to observe this phenomenon in the transformation of vinegar, oil, and egg yolks into mayonnaise. The students, juniors at Western Hills

Amina Darwish; Mary Ann Schnieders; Andrea Burrows; Anant Kukreti; Stephen Thiel



Fish Oil–Based Lipid Emulsions in the Treatment of Parenteral Nutrition-Associated Liver Disease: An Ongoing Positive Experience123  

PubMed Central

We previously reported the beneficial effect of fish oil-based lipid emulsions (FOLEs) as monotherapy in the treatment of parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease (PNALD). In this report, we share our ongoing experience at Texas Children’s Hospital, Houston, Texas in the use of FOLE in treatment of PNALD as presented at the 2013 Experimental Biology meeting. We describe the findings of a single center, prospective, observational study of infants <6 mo of age with PNALD who received parenteral FOLE as monotherapy. A total of 97 infants received FOLE under the compassionate-use protocol for the treatment of PNALD. Eighty-three (86%) survived with resolution of cholestasis and 14 (14%) died. The median conjugated bilirubin (CB) concentration at the initiation of FOLE therapy was 4.8 mg/dL (range 2.1–26). The median time to resolution of cholestasis was 40 d (range 3–158). Compared with infants with mild cholestasis (CB of 2.1–5 mg/dL at the initiation of FOLE), nonsurvivors were significantly more premature and took longer to resolve their cholestasis. Gestational age at birth correlated inversely with CB at the beginning of FOLE and peak CB. Infants with an initial CB >10 mg/dL had a higher mortality rate than infants with an initial CB <5 mg/dL (35% vs. 6%; P < 0.05). Our experience with the use of FOLE in PNALD continues to be encouraging. Prematurity continues to be a major determinant in mortality and severity of cholestasis. This calls for further controlled studies designed to optimize dose and timing of intervention in the use of FOLE in neonates. PMID:24425724

Premkumar, Muralidhar H.; Carter, Beth A.; Hawthorne, Keli M.; King, Kristi; Abrams, Steven A.



Semiclassical and microscopic calculations of the spin-orbit density part of the Skyrme nucleus-nucleus interaction potential with temperature effects included  

SciTech Connect

The semiclassical formulation of the Skyrme energy density functional for spin-orbit density part of the interaction potential is compared with the microscopic shell model formulation, at both the ground state and finite temperatures. The semiclassical spin-orbit interaction potential is shown to contain exactly the same shell effects as are there in the microscopic shell model, provided a normalization of all semiclassical results to the spin-saturated case (for one or both nuclei as spin-saturated) is made. On the other hand, the {alpha} nucleus structure present in microscopic shell model is found absent in semiclassical approach. The role of temperature is found not to change the behavior of shell or {alpha} nucleus structure effects up to about 3 MeV, and increase or decrease the height of the (normalized) barriers in accordance with the shell structure of nuclei. Calculations are made for three two-nucleon transfer reactions forming the {alpha}-nucleus A=4n,N=Z compound systems {sup 56}Ni{sup *} and {sup 48}Cr{sup *} and the non-{alpha}-nucleus compound system {sup 52}Cr{sup *}, and for Skyrme forces SIII and SLy4. The two parameter Fermi density, with its parameters fitted to experiments and made temperature dependent in a model way, is used for the nuclear density in semiclassical calculations, and the same in microscopic shell model is achieved via the Fermi-Dirac occupation of shell model states and particle number conservation.

Gupta, Raj K.; Singh, Dalip [Department of Physics, Panjab University, Chandigarh-160014 (India); Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies (FIAS), Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universitaet, Max-von-Laue-Str. 1, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Greiner, Walter [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies (FIAS), Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universitaet, Max-von-Laue-Str. 1, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)



The ALICE experiment at the CERN LHC  

Microsoft Academic Search

ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) is a general-purpose, heavy-ion detector at the CERN LHC which focuses on QCD, the strong-interaction sector of the Standard Model. It is designed to address the physics of strongly interacting matter and the quark-gluon plasma at extreme values of energy density and temperature in nucleus-nucleus collisions. Besides running with Pb ions, the physics programme

K. Aamodt; A. Abrahantes Quintana; R. Achenbach; S. Acounis; D. Adamová; C. Adler; M. Aggarwal; F. Agnese; G. Aglieri Rinella; Z. Ahammed; A. Ahmad; N. Ahmad; S. Ahmad; A. Akindinov; P. Akishin; D. Aleksandrov; B. Alessandro; R. Alfaro; G. Alfarone; A. Alici; J. Alme; T. Alt; S. Altinpinar; W. Amend; C. Andrei; Y. Andres; A. Andronic; G. Anelli; M. Anfreville; V. Angelov; A. Anzo; C. Anson; T. Anticic; V. Antonenko; D. Antonczyk; F. Antinori; S. Antinori; P. Antonioli; L. Aphecetche; H. Appelshäuser; V. Aprodu; M. Arba; S. Arcelli; A. Argentieri; N. Armesto; R. Arnaldi; A. Arefiev; I. Arsene; A. Asryan; A. Augustinus; T. C. Awes; J. Äysto; M. Danish Azmi; S. Bablock; A. Badalà; S. K. Badyal; J. Baechler; S. Bagnasco; R. Bailhache; R. Bala; A. Baldisseri; A. Baldit; J. Bán; R. Barbera; P.-L. Barberis; J. M. Barbet; G. Barnäfoldi; V. Barret; J. Bartke; D. Bartos; M. Basile; V. Basmanov; N. Bastid; G. Batigne; B. Batyunya; J. Baudot; C. Baumann; I. Bearden; B. Becker; J. Belikov; R. Bellwied; E. Belmont-Moreno; A. Belogianni; S. Belyaev; A. Benato; J. L. Beney; L. Benhabib; F. Benotto; S. Beolé; I. Berceanu; A. Bercuci; E. Berdermann; Y. Berdnikov; C. Bernard; R. Berny; J. D. Berst; H. Bertelsen; L. Betev; A. Bhasin; P. Baskar; A. Bhati; N. Bianchi; J. Bielcik; J. Bielciková; L. Bimbot; G. Blanchard; F. Blanco; D. Blau; C. Blume; S. Blyth; M. Boccioli; A. Bogdanov; H. Bøggild; M. Bogolyubsky; L. Boldizsár; M. Bombara; C. Bombonati; M. Bondila; D. Bonnet; V. Bonvicini; H. Borel; F. Borotto; V. Borshchov; Y. Bortoli; O. Borysov; S. Bose; L. Bosisio; M. Botje; S. Böttger; G. Bourdaud; O. Bourrion; S. Bouvier; A. Braem; M. Braun; P. Braun-Munzinger; L. Bravina; M. Bregant; G. Bruckner; R. Brun; E. Bruna; O. Brunasso; G. E. Bruno; D. Bucher; V. Budilov; D. Budnikov; H. Buesching; P. Buncic; M. Burns; S. Burachas; O. Busch; J. Bushop; X. Cai; H. Caines; F. Calaon; M. Caldogno; I. Cali; P. Camerini; R. Campagnolo; M. Campbell; X. Cao; G. P. Capitani; G. Cara Romeo; M. Cardenas-Montes; H. Carduner; F. Carena; W. Carena; P. Cariola; F. Carminati; J. Casado; A. Casanova Diaz; M. Caselle; J. Castillo Castellanos; J. Castor; V. Catanescu; E. Cattaruzza; D. Cavazza; P. Cerello; S. Ceresa; V. Cerný; V. Chambert; S. Chapeland; A. Charpy; D. Charrier; M. Chartoire; J. L. Charvet; S. Chattopadhyay; V. Chepurnov; S. Chernenko; M. Cherney; C. Cheshkov; B. Cheynis; P. Chochula; E. Chiavassa; V. Chibante Barroso; J. Choi; P. Christakoglou; P. Christiansen; C. Christensen; O. A. Chykalov; C. Cicalo; L. Cifarelli-Strolin; M. Ciobanu; F. Cindolo; C. Cirstoiu; O. Clausse; J. Cleymans; O. Cobanoglu; J.-P. Coffin; S. Coli; A. Colla; C. Colledani; C. Combaret; M. Combet; M. Comets; G. Conesa Balbastre; Z. Conesa del Valle; G. Contin; J. Contreras; T. Cormier; F. Corsi; P. Cortese; F. Costa; E. Crescio; P. Crochet; E. Cuautle; J. Cussonneau; M. Dahlinger; A. Dainese; H. H. Dalsgaard; L. Daniel; I. Das; T. Das; A. Dash; R. Da Silva; M. Davenport; H. Daues; A. DeCaro; G. de Cataldo; J. DeCuveland; A. DeFalco; M. de Gaspari; P. de Girolamo; J. de Groot; D. DeGruttola; A. DeHaas; N. DeMarco; S. DePasquale; P. DeRemigis; D. de Vaux; G. Decock; H. Delagrange; M. DelFranco; G. Dellacasa; A. Deloff; V. Demanov; E. Dénes; G. D'Erasmo; D. Derkach; A. Devaux; D. Di Bari; A. Di Bartelomen; C. Di Giglio; S. Di Liberto; A. Di Mauro; P. Di Nezza; M. Dialinas; L. Diaz; R. Díaz Valdes; T. Dietel; R. Dima; H. Ding; C. Dinca; R. Divià; V. Dobretsov; A. Dobrin; B. Doenigus; T. Dobrowolski; I. Domínguez; M. Dorn; S. Drouet; A. E. Dubey; L. Ducroux; F. Dumitrache; E. Dumonteil; P. Dupieux; V. Duta; A. Dutta Majumdar; M. Dutta Majumdar; Th Dyhre; L. Efimov; A. Efremov; D. Elia; D. Emschermann; C. Engster; A. Enokizono; B. Espagnon; M. Estienne; A. Evangelista; D. Evans; S. Evrard; C. W. Fabjan; D. Fabris; J. Faivre; D. Falchieri; A. Fantoni; R. Farano; R. Fearick; O. Fedorov; V. Fekete; D. Felea; G. Feofilov; A. Férnandez Téllez; A. Ferretti; F. Fichera; S. Filchagin; E. Filoni; C. Finck; R. Fini; E. M. Fiore; D. Flierl; M. Floris; Z. Fodor; Y. Foka; S. Fokin; P. Force; F. Formenti; E. Fragiacomo; M. Fragkiadakis; D. Fraissard; A. Franco; M. Franco; U. Frankenfeld; U. Fratino; S. Fresneau; A. Frolov; U. Fuchs; J. Fujita; C. Furget; M. Furini; M. Fusco Girard; J.-J. Gaardhøje; S. Gadrat; M. Gagliardi; A. Gago; L. Gaido; A. Gallas Torreira; M. Gallio; E. Gandolfi; P. Ganoti; M. Ganti; J. Garabatos; A. Garcia Lopez; L. Garizzo; L. Gaudichet; R. Gemme; M. Germain; A. Gheata; M. Gheata; B. Ghidini; P. Ghosh; G. Giolu; G. Giraudo; P. Giubellino; R. Glasow; P. Glässel; E. G. Ferreiro; C. Gonzalez Gutierrez; L. H. Gonzales-Trueba; S. Gorbunov; Y. Gorbunov; H. Gos; J. Gosset; S. Gotovac; H. Gottschlag; D. Gottschalk; V. Grabski; T. Grassi; H. Gray; O. Grebenyuk; K. Grebieszkow; C. Gregory; C. Grigoras; N. Grion



Topical delivery of acetyl hexapeptide-8 from different emulsions: Influence of emulsion composition and internal structure.  


Acetyl hexapeptide-8 (AH-8) is a well-known component of anti-aging products and was recently explored as a promising topical treatment of blepharospasm. Although AH-8 appears in a variety of cosmetic products, its skin penetration is sparsely studied and controversially discussed. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of the vehicle type on the AH-8 delivery to the skin. Besides skin permeation experiments with Franz type diffusion cells, the spatial distribution of AH-8 in the stratum corneum after a real in-use application was investigated by in vitro tape stripping on porcine ear skin. By applying LC-MS/MS for quantification of AH-8, we demonstrated that a multiple water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) emulsion can significantly increase penetration of AH-8 into porcine skin compared to simple O/W and W/O emulsions. The internal structure of the developed multiple emulsion was confirmed by electron microscopic investigations and NMR self diffusion studies. In general, a clear superiority of water-rich W/O/W and O/W emulsions over an oil-rich W/O emulsion in terms of dermal delivery of AH-8 was found. This enhanced delivery of AH-8 could be explained by an increased absorption of the water-rich emulsions into the skin, confirmed by combined ATR-FTIR and tape stripping experiments. PMID:25497319

Hoppel, Magdalena; Reznicek, Gottfried; Kählig, Hanspeter; Kotisch, Harald; Resch, Günter P; Valenta, Claudia



Isotachophoresis with emulsions  

PubMed Central

An experimental study on isotachophoresis (ITP) in which an emulsion is used as leading electrolyte (LE) is reported. The study aims at giving an overview about the transport and flow phenomena occurring in that context. Generally, it is observed that the oil droplets initially dispersed in the LE are collected at the ITP transition zone and advected along with it. The detailed behavior at the transition zone depends on whether or not surfactants (polyvinylpyrrolidon, PVP) are added to the electrolytes. In a system without surfactants, coalescence is observed between the droplets collected at the ITP transition zone. After having achieved a certain size, the droplets merge with the channel walls, leaving an oil film behind. In systems with PVP, coalescence is largely suppressed and no merging of droplets with the channel walls is observed. Instead, at the ITP transition zone, a droplet agglomerate of increasing size is formed. In the initial stages of the ITP experiments, two counter rotating vortices are formed inside the terminating electrolyte. The vortex formation is qualitatively explained based on a hydrodynamic instability triggered by fluctuations of the number density of oil droplets. PMID:24404037

Goet, G.; Baier, T.; Hardt, S.; Sen, A. K.



Emulsions for interfacial filtration.  

SciTech Connect

We have investigated a novel emulsion interfacial filter that is applicable for a wide range of materials, from nano-particles to cells and bacteria. This technology uses the interface between the two immiscible phases as the active surface area for adsorption of targeted materials. We showed that emulsion interfaces can effectively collect and trap materials from aqueous solution. We tested two aqueous systems, a bovine serum albumin (BSA) solution and coal bed methane produced water (CBMPW). Using a pendant drop technique to monitor the interfacial tension, we demonstrated that materials in both samples were adsorbed to the liquid-liquid interface, and did not readily desorb. A prototype system was built to test the emulsion interfacial filter concept. For the BSA system, a protein assay showed a progressive decrease in the residual BSA concentration as the sample was processed. Based on the initial prototype operation, we propose an improved system design.

Grillet, Anne Mary; Bourdon, Christopher Jay; Souza, Caroline Ann; Welk, Margaret Ellen; Hartenberger, Joel David; Brooks, Carlton, F.



Kinetics of Emulsion Polymerization  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a basis for understanding emulsion polymerization, the kinetics of free radical reactions in isolated loci is discussed subject to the condition that the free radicals are supplied to the loci from an external source. Three cases of interest are considered: that in which the average number of free radicals per locus is small compared with unity, that in which

Wendell V. Smith; Roswell H. Ewart



Preparation and stabilization of D-limonene Pickering emulsions by cellulose nanocrystals.  


The aim of this study was to investigate D-limonene Pickering emulsion stabilized by cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) and factors that may affect its properties. CNCs were prepared by ammonium persulfate hydrolysis of corncob cellulose, and D-limonene Pickering emulsions were generated by ultrasonic homogenizing method. The morphology and size of the prepared emulsions with different CNCs concentrations were studied by optical microscopy and laser light diffraction. In addition, factors that may affect the stability of emulsions such as ionic concentration, pH and temperature were also studied. As indicated by the experiment data, when temperature rose, the stability to of emulsions would be increased, and the stability of emulsions was reduced with low pH or high salt concentration due to electrostatic screening of the negatively charged CNC particles. In conclusion, high stability of D-limonene Pickering emulsions could be obtained by CNCs. PMID:25129799

Wen, Chunxia; Yuan, Qipeng; Liang, Hao; Vriesekoop, Frank



On formulating ophthalmic emulsions.  


The formulation of dilute, transparent ophthalmic emulsions (eye drops) with long shelf lives is a challenge because of the tendency of the emulsion droplets to aggregate, particularly in the presence of the water-soluble polymers typically used in eye drops. While many functions of eye drops, such as lubricity and residence time in the eye, are promoted by high concentrations of high molecular weight water-soluble polymers, emulsified lipids and drugs aggregate in the eye drop bottle if the polymer concentration is above the critical flocculation concentration (CFC). The purpose is to develop a simple approach to predict the CFC for polymers based on information readily available in the literature. High molecular weight guar was hydrolyzed to give a series of guar samples spanning a wide range of average molecular weights. The CFC values and critical viscosity concentrations were measured as functions guar properties, using electrophoresis, dynamic light scattering and rheology measurements. The higher the guar molecular weight, the lower was the CFC, the maximum concentration that can be tolerated in the eye drop formulation. The guar CFC values were approximately equal to the overlap concentrations where guar molecules start to overlap in solution. We propose that the CFC can be estimated for any water-soluble polymer using the polymer molecular weight and the readily available Mark-Houwink parameters, thus providing a design rule for ophthalmic emulsions. PMID:25016540

Mafi, Roozbeh; Gray, Cameron; Pelton, Robert; Ketelson, Howard; Davis, James



Showing Emulsion Properties with Common Dairy Foods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Foods are mixtures of different chemical compounds, and the quality we sense (taste, texture, color, etc.) are all manifestations of its chemical properties. Some of them can be visualized with the aid of simple, safe and inexpensive experiments using dairy products that can be found in any kitchen and using almost exclusively kitchen utensils. In this paper we propose some of them related with food emulsions. Food emulsions cover an extremely wide area of daily-life applications such as milk, sauces, dressings and beverages. Experimentation with some culinary recipes to prepare them and the analyisis of the observed results is close to ideal subject for the introduction of chemical principles, allowing to discuss about the nature and composition of foods, the effects of additives, etc. At the same time it allows to get insights into the scientific reasons that underlie on the recipes (something that it is not usually found in most cookbooks). For example, when making an emulsion like mayonnaise, why the egg yolks and water are the first materials in the bowl , and the oil is added to them rather than in the other way around? How you can "rescue" separate emulsions (mayonnaise)? Which parameters affect emulsion stability? Since safety, in its broad sense, is the first requisite for any food, concerns about food exist throughout the world and the more we are aware of our everyday life, the more likely we will be to deal productively with the consequences. On the other hand, understanding what foods are and how cooking works destroys no delightful mystery of the art of cuisine, instead the mystery expands.

Bravo-Diaz, Carlos; Gonzalez-Romero, Elisa



Rheology of Monodisperse Emulsions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have conducted an extensive investigation of the rheology of monodisperse emulsions which have a uniform droplet size and are highly controllable. Their rheological behavior ranges from purely viscous to highly elastic depending on the degree of deformation of the droplet interfaces. We have made the first measurements of their osmotic pressure and shear elasticity as a function of droplet size, volume fraction, and viscosity from weak to strong droplet compression limits. We find a remarkable similarity in the volume fraction dependence of the shear modulus and the osmotic pressure which has not been previously observed. We attribute this to the coupling of transverse shear and osmotic compression of droplets within the emulsion. Using optical and mechanical techniques, we have measured the linear shear viscoelastic susceptibility of a compressed emulsion over nine orders of magnitude in frequency. To compare with emulsions, which have deformable droplet interfaces, we have measured the frequency dependence of the linear shear viscoelasticity of concentrated hard spheres. This spectrum shows high and low frequency viscous relaxations with a dominant elasticity at intermediate frequencies. We have developed a theory for the observed spectrum which incorporates mode coupling theories of glassy dynamics with diffusional boundary layer theories. This is the first observation of the consequences of the glass transition in the viscoelasticity of hard sphere suspensions and is the first application of mode coupling theory to their rheology. Finally, we have also developed a novel light scattering technique to measure the frequency dependent viscoelastic moduli of complex fluids. This establishes a very general framework connecting the average microscopic motion of particles suspended in a complex fluid to its bulk viscoelasticity. Because optical techniques can measure particle motion over a large temporal dynamic range, we can determine the viscoelasticity over a similarly broad range in frequencies, including high frequencies which are difficult to achieve with mechanical techniques. This optical technique is suitable for concentrated suspensions and for tracer particles suspended in general complex fluids. With it, we have measured the viscoelasticity of monodisperse emulsions, hard sphere suspensions, and polymeric solutions over a greatly extended frequency range.

Mason, Thomas Graves



Cyclodextrin stabilised emulsions and cyclodextrinosomes.  


We report the preparation of o/w emulsions stabilised by microcrystals of cyclodextrin-oil inclusion complexes. The inclusion complexes are formed by threading cyclodextrins from the aqueous phase on n-tetradecane or silicone oil molecules from the emulsion drop surface which grow further into microrods and microplatelets depending on the type of cyclodextrin (CD) used. These microcrystals remain attached on the surface of the emulsion drops and form densely packed layers which resemble Pickering emulsions. The novelty of this emulsion stabilisation mechanism is that molecularly dissolved cyclodextrin from the continuous aqueous phase is assembled into colloid particles directly onto the emulsion drop surface, i.e. molecular adsorption leads to effective Pickering stabilisation. The ?-CD stabilised tetradecane-in-water emulsions were so stable that we used this system as a template for preparation of cyclodextrinosomes. These structures were produced solely through formation of cyclodextrin-oil inclusion complexes and their assembly into a crystalline phase on the drop surface retained its stability after the removal of the core oil. The structures of CD-stabilised tetradecane-in-water emulsions were characterised using optical microscopy, fluorescence microscopy, cross-polarised light microscopy and WETSEM while the cyclodextrinosomes were characterised by SEM. We also report the preparation of CD-stabilised emulsions with a range of other oils, including tricaprylin, silicone oil, isopropyl myristate and sunflower oil. We studied the effect of the salt concentration in the aqueous phase, the type of CD and the oil volume fraction on the type of emulsion formed. The CD-stabilised emulsions can be applied in a range of surfactant-free formulations with possible applications in cosmetics, home and personal care. Cyclodextrinosomes could find applications in pharmaceutical formulations as microencapsulation and drug delivery vehicles. PMID:24043288

Mathapa, Baghali G; Paunov, Vesselin N



Sub-micron alignment for nuclear emulsion plates using low energy electrons caused by radioactive isotopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nuclear emulsion plates are employed in three-dimensional charged particle detectors that have sub-micron position resolution over 1 m2 with no dead space and no dead time. These detectors are suitable for the study of short-lived particle decays, and direct detection of neutrino interactions of all flavors. Typically emulsion plates are used in a stacked structure. Precise alignment between plates is required for physics analysis. The most accurate alignment method is to use tracks passing through the emulsion plates. The accuracy is about 0.2 ?m. However, in an experiment with low track density alignment accuracy decreases to 20 ?m because of plate distortion and it becomes more difficult to perform the analysis. This paper describes a new alignment method between emulsion plates by using trajectories of low energy electrons originating from environmental radioactive isotopes. As a trial emulsion plates were exposed to ?-rays and ?-rays from K40. The trajectories which passed through emulsion layers were detected by a fully automated emulsion readout system. Using this method, the alignment between emulsion plates is demonstrated to be sub-micron. This method can be applied to many nuclear emulsion experiments. For example, the location of neutrino interaction vertices in the OPERA experiment can benefit from this new technique.

Miyamoto, S.; Ariga, A.; Fukuda, T.; Kazuyama, M.; Komatsu, M.; Nakano, T.; Niwa, K.; Sato, O.; Takahashi, S.



Emulsion stabilizing properties of pectin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Citrus pectin and beet pectin are able to reduce the interfacial tension between an oil phase and a water phase and can be efficient for the preparation of emulsions. Investigations were made to evaluate the effect of various parameters of pectin on its emulsifying capacity. Orange and rapeseed oils emulsions were prepared with pectin as an emulsifier. They were then

J. Leroux; V. Langendorff; G. Schick; V. Vaishnav; J. Mazoyer



Rubberized asphalt emulsion  

SciTech Connect

A method is described of making a rubberized asphalt composition which comprises the steps of: (a) combining asphalt with a hydrocarbon oil having a flash point of 300/sup 0/F. or more to provide a homogenous asphalt-oil mixture or solution, (b) then combining the asphalt-oil mixture with a particulate rubber at a temperature sufficient to provide a homogenous asphalt-rubber-oil gel, and (c) emulsifying the asphalt-rubber-oil gel by passing the gel, water, and an emulsifying agent through a colloid mill to provide an emulsion.

Wilkes, E.



A quality by design approach to optimization of emulsions for electrospinning using factorial and D-optimal designs.  


Emulsion electrospinning is a multifactorial process used to generate nanofibers loaded with hydrophilic drugs or macromolecules for diverse biomedical applications. Emulsion electrospinnability is greatly impacted by the emulsion pharmaceutical attributes. The aim of this study was to apply a quality by design (QbD) approach based on design of experiments as a risk-based proactive approach to achieve predictable critical quality attributes (CQAs) in w/o emulsions for electrospinning. Polycaprolactone (PCL)-thickened w/o emulsions containing doxycycline HCl were formulated using a Span 60/sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) emulsifier blend. The identified emulsion CQAs (stability, viscosity and conductivity) were linked with electrospinnability using a 3(3) factorial design to optimize emulsion composition for phase stability and a D-optimal design to optimize stable emulsions for viscosity and conductivity after shifting the design space. The three independent variables, emulsifier blend composition, organic:aqueous phase ratio and polymer concentration, had a significant effect (p<0.05) on emulsion CQAs, the emulsifier blend composition exerting prominent main and interaction effects. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of emulsion-electrospun NFs and desirability functions allowed modeling of emulsion CQAs to predict electrospinnable formulations. A QbD approach successfully built quality in electrospinnable emulsions, allowing development of hydrophilic drug-loaded nanofibers with desired morphological characteristics. PMID:24704153

Badawi, Mariam A; El-Khordagui, Labiba K



A fast automatic plate changer for the analysis of nuclear emulsions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the design and performance of a computer controlled emulsion Plate Changer for the automatic placement and removal of nuclear emulsion films for the European Scanning System microscopes. The Plate Changer is used for mass scanning and measurement of the emulsions of the OPERA neutrino oscillation experiment at the Gran Sasso lab on the CNGS neutrino beam. Unlike other systems it works with both dry and oil objectives. The film changing takes less than 20 s and the accuracy on the positioning of the emulsion films is about 10 ?m. The final accuracy in retrieving track coordinates after fiducial marks measurement is better than 1 ?m.

Balestra, S.; Bertolin, A.; Bozza, C.; Calligola, P.; Cerroni, R.; D'Ambrosio, N.; Degli Esposti, L.; De Lellis, G.; De Serio, M.; Di Capua, F.; Di Crescenzo, A.; Di Ferdinando, D.; Di Marco, N.; Dusini, S.; Esposito, L. S.; Fini, R. A.; Giacomelli, G.; Giacomelli, R.; Grella, G.; Ieva, M.; Kose, U.; Longhin, A.; Mandrioli, G.; Mauri, N.; Medinaceli, E.; Monacelli, P.; Muciaccia, M. T.; Pasqualini, L.; Pastore, A.; Patrizii, L.; Pozzato, M.; Pupilli, F.; Rescigno, R.; Rosa, G.; Ruggieri, A.; Russo, A.; Sahnoun, Z.; Simone, S.; Sioli, M.; Sirignano, C.; Sirri, G.; Stellacci, S. M.; Strolin, P.; Tenti, M.; Tioukov, V.; Togo, V.; Valieri, C.



A new method to correct deformations in emulsion using a precise photomask  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new method to correct the emulsion deformation, mainly produced in the development process, is developed to recover the high accuracy of nuclear emulsion as a tracking device. The method is based on a precise photomask and a careful treatment of the emulsion films. A position measurement accuracy of 0.6 ?m is obtained over an area of 5 cm×7 cm. The method allows to measure positions of track segments with submicron accuracy in an ECC brick with as few as 10 reference tracks for alignment. Such a performance can be important for hybrid emulsion experiments at underground laboratories where only a small number of reference tracks for alignment are available.

Kimura, M.; Ishida, H.; Shibuya, H.; Ogawa, S.; Matsuo, T.; Fukushima, C.; Takahashi, G.; Kuge, K.; Sato, Y.; Tezuka, I.; Mikado, S.



The Preparation and Testing of a Common Emulsion and Personal Care Product: Lotion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A chemical analysis of lotions, which comprises of categorizations of moisturizers and emulsions, with the preparation and testing of three lotions, is done. The experiment piques students' interest in preparing lotions and emulsions, and proves the value of chemistry in satisfying the needs of everyday life.

Mabrouk, Suzanne T.



Modeling selected emulsions and double emulsions as memristive systems.  


The recent development in basic and applied science and engineering of finely dispersed systems is presented in general, but more attention has been paid to the liquid-liquid finely dispersed systems or to the particular emulsions and double emulsions. The selected systems for theoretical and experimental research were emulsions and double emulsions that appeared in the pilot plant for extraction of uranium from wet phosphoric acid. The objective of this research was to try to provide a new or different approach to elaborate the complex phenomena that occur at developed liquid-liquid interfaces. New concepts were introduced, the first is a concept of an entity, and the corresponding classification of finely dispersed systems and the second concept consider the introduction of an almost forgotten basic electrodynamics element memristor, and the corresponding memristive systems. Based on these concepts a theory of electroviscoelasticity was proposed and experimentally corroborated using the selected representative liquid-liquid system. Also, it is shown that the droplet, and/or droplet-film structure, that is, selected emulsion and/or double emulsion may be considered as the particular example of memristive systems. PMID:22482789

Spasic, Aleksandar M; Jovanovic, Jovan M; Jovanovic, Mica



Thermocapillary Motion in an Emulsion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The phenomenological model for the motion of an emulsion or a gas-liquid mixture exposed to thermocapillary forces and micro-acceleration is formulated. The analytical and numerical investigation of one-dimensional flows for these media is fulfilled, the structure of discontinuous motion is studied. The stability conditions of a space-uniform state and of the interface between an emulsion and a pure liquid are obtained.

Pukhnachov, Vladislav V.; Voinov, Oleg V.



Development of emulsion chamber detector for space observation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At present, the research on dark matter is the cutting edge of science. It is the hotspot to find out if the dark matter exist in the form of particle by observing the electrons and ?-rays resulted from the disintegration or reciprocity of dark matter. Emulsion chamber is a powerful detector for high-energy electrons and ?-rays with high special and energy resolution. As one of the payloads of ``ShiJian eight" satellite, the emulsion chamber detector is the first one in China designed for space observing the high-energy electrons and ?-rays. In this paper, several problems are discussed, such as the design principle of the detector, data analysis, process of designing and some results of this experiment. The design life of this detector is about 15 days in its orbit, and the energy range of the particle detected by the emulsion chamber is about 100GeV to 5 TeV.

Hu, Y. M.; Chang, J.; Gong, Y. Z.; Zhang, R. J.; Wang, N. S.; Tang, H. S.; Torii, S.; Nishimura, J.; Kobayashi, T.; Shimizu, Y.; Makino, F.



Arrested of coalescence of emulsion droplets of arbitrary size  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With applications ranging from food products to cosmetics via targeted drug delivery systems, structured anisotropic colloids provide an efficient way to control the structure, properties and functions of emulsions. When two fluid emulsion droplets are brought in contact, a reduction of the interfacial tension drives their coalescence into a larger droplet of the same total volume and reduced exposed area. This coalescence can be partially or totally hindered by the presence of nano or micron-size particles that coat the interface as in Pickering emulsions. We investigate numerically the dependance of the mechanical stability of these arrested shapes on the particles size, their shape anisotropy, their polydispersity, their interaction with the solvent, and the particle-particle interactions. We discuss structural shape changes that can be induced by tuning the particles interactions after arrest occurs, and provide design parameters for the relevant experiments.

Mbanga, Badel L.; Burke, Christopher; Blair, Donald W.; Atherton, Timothy J.



First results on proton radiography with nuclear emulsion detectors  

E-print Network

We propose an innovative method for proton radiography based on nuclear emulsion film detectors, a technique in which images are obtained by measuring the position and the residual range of protons passing through the patient's body. For this purpose, nuclear emulsion films interleaved with tissue equivalent absorbers can be used to reconstruct proton tracks with very high accuracy. This is performed through a fully automated scanning procedure employing optical microscopy, routinely used in neutrino physics experiments. Proton radiography can be used in proton therapy to obtain direct information on the average tissue density for treatment planning optimization and to perform imaging with very low dose to the patient. The first prototype of a nuclear emulsion based detector has been conceived, constructed and tested with a therapeutic proton beam. The first promising experimental results have been obtained by imaging simple phantoms.

Braccini, S; Kreslo, I; Moser, U; Pistillo, C; Studer, S; Scampoli, P; Coray, A; Pedroni, E



How emulsion composition and structure affect sensory perception of low-viscosity model emulsions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oral residence time of low-viscosity emulsions, like milk, is relatively short. Despite this short residence time, people can easily perceive differences between these emulsions. Our research is dedicated to unravel the oral behaviour of emulsions in relation to sensory perception. The aim of this study is to thoroughly evaluate the sensory perception of low-viscosity emulsions in relation to a

Monique H. Vingerhoeds; René A. de Wijk; Franklin D. Zoet; Ronald R. Nixdorf; George A. van Aken



Emulsions stabilised solely by colloidal particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The preparation and properties of emulsions, stabilised solely by the adsorption of solid particles at the oil–water interface, are reviewed especially in the light of our own work with particles of well-controlled surface properties. Where appropriate, comparison is made with the behaviour of surfactant-stabilised emulsions. Hydrophilic particles tend to form oil-in-water (o\\/w) emulsions whereas hydrophobic particles form water-in-oil (w\\/o) emulsions.

Robert Aveyard; Bernard P Binks; John H Clint



Oscillatory, creep and steady flow behavior of xanthan-thickened oil-in-water emulsions  

SciTech Connect

In the handling, mixing, storage, and pipeline transportation of emulsions, knowledge of rheological properties is required for the design, selection, and operation of the equipment involved. The rheological behavior of xanthan gum-thickened oil-in-water emulsions is studied with a cone-and-plate system using a constant-stress rheometer. Xanthan gum solutions and xanthan-thickened oil-in-water emulsions are strongly shear-thinning and viscoelastic in nature. The effects of polymer and oil concentrations on the rheological behavior of emulsions are investigated. The relative viscosity for the thickened emulsions, at any given oil concentration, increases with an increase in the shear rate, whereas the unthickened emulsions show the opposite trend. The theoretical models give reasonable predictions for the relative viscosity, storage modulus, and loss modulus of xanthan-thickened emulsions. The ratio of storage to loss moduli increases considerably with the increase in polymer and oil concentrations. The creep/recovery experiments confirm that the xanthan-thickened emulsions are highly viscoelastic in nature and that the degree of elasticity increases with the increase in polymer and oil concentrations.

Pal, R. [Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering



Microfluidic preparation and self diffusion PFG-NMR analysis of monodisperse water-in-oil-in-water double emulsions.  


Monodisperse water-in-oil-in-water (WOW) double emulsions have been prepared using microfluidic glass devices designed and built primarily from off the shelf components. The systems were easy to assemble and use. They were capable of producing double emulsions with an outer droplet size from 100 to 40 ?m. Depending on how the devices were operated, double emulsions containing either single or multiple water droplets could be produced. Pulsed-field gradient self-diffusion NMR experiments have been performed on the monodisperse water-in-oil-in-water double emulsions to obtain information on the inner water droplet diameter and the distribution of the water in the different phases of the double emulsion. This has been achieved by applying regularization methods to the self-diffusion data. Using these methods the stability of the double emulsions to osmotic pressure imbalance has been followed by observing the change in the size of the inner water droplets over time. PMID:22964093

Hughes, Eric; Maan, Abid Aslam; Acquistapace, Simone; Burbidge, Adam; Johns, Michael L; Gunes, Deniz Z; Clausen, Pascal; Syrbe, Axel; Hugo, Julien; Schroen, Karin; Miralles, Vincent; Atkins, Tim; Gray, Richard; Homewood, Philip; Zick, Klaus



Adelphi-Goddard emulsified fuel project. [using water/oil emulsions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermal efficiency and particle emissions were studied using water/oil emulsions. These studies were done using number 2 and number 6 fuel oil. The number 6 oil had a sulfur content greater than one percent and experiments were conducted to remove the sulfur dioxide from the stack gases. Test findings include: (1) emulsion effected a reduction in soot at a low excess air levels; (2) a steam atomizing system will produce a water/oil emulsion. The fuel in the study was emulsified in the steam atomization process, hence, pre-emulsification did not yield a dramatic reduction in soot or an increase in thermal efficiency.



Polymerization in emulsion microdroplet reactors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of this research project is to utilize emulsion droplets as chemical reactors for execution of complex polymerization chemistries to develop unique and functional particle materials. Emulsions are dispersions of immiscible fluids where one fluid usually exists in the form of drops. Not surprisingly, if a liquid-to-solid chemical reaction proceeds to completion within these drops, the resultant solid particles will possess the shape and relative size distribution of the drops. The two immiscible liquid phases required for emulsion polymerization provide unique and complex chemical and physical environments suitable for the engineering of novel materials. The development of novel non-ionic fluorosurfactants allows fluorocarbon oils to be used as the continuous phase in a water-free emulsion. Such emulsions enable the encapsulation of almost any hydrocarbon compound in droplets that may be used as separate compartments for water-sensitive syntheses. Here, we exemplify the promise of this approach by suspension polymerization of polyurethanes (PU), in which the liquid precursor is emulsified into droplets that are then converted 1:1 into polymer particles. The stability of the droplets against coalescence upon removal of the continuous phase by evaporation confirms the formation of solid PU particles. These results prove that the water-free environment of fluorocarbon based emulsions enables high conversion. We produce monodisperse, cross-linked, and fluorescently labeled PU-latexes with controllable mesh size through microfluidic emulsification in a simple one-step process. A novel method for the fabrication of monodisperse mesoporous silica particles is presented. It is based on the formation of well-defined equally sized emulsion droplets using a microfluidic approach. The droplets contain the silica precursor/surfactant solution and are suspended in hexadecane as the continuous oil phase. The solvent is then expelled from the droplets, leading to concentration and micellization of the surfactant. At the same time, the silica solidifies around the surfactant structures, forming equally sized mesoporous particles. The procedure can be tuned to produce well-separated particles or alternatively particles that are linked together. The latter allows us to create 2D or 3D structures with hierarchical porosity. Oil, water, and surfactant liquid mixtures exhibit very complex phase behavior. Depending on the conditions, such mixtures give rise to highly organized structures. A proper selection of the type and concentration of surfactants determines the structuring at the nanoscale level. In this work, we show that hierarchically bimodal nanoporous structures can be obtained by templating silica microparticles with a specially designed surfactant micelle/microemulsion mixture. Tuning the phase state by adjusting the surfactant composition and concentration allows for the controlled design of a system where microemulsion droplets coexist with smaller surfactant micellar structures. The microemulsion droplet and micellar dimensions determine the two types of pore sizes (single nanometers and tens of nanometers). We also demonstrate the fabrication of carbon and carbon/platinum replicas of the silica microspheres using a "lost-wax" approach. Such particles have great potential for the design of electrocatalysts for fuel cells, chromatography separations, and other applications. It was determined that slight variations in microemulsion mixture components (electrolyte concentration, wt% of surfactants, oil to sol ratio, etc.) produces strikingly different pore morphologies and particle surface areas. Control over the size and structure of the smaller micelle-templated pores was made possible by varying the length of the hydrocarbon block within the trimethyl ammonium bromide surfactant and characterized using X-ray diffraction. The effect of emulsion aging was studied by synthesizing particles at progressive time levels from a sample emulsion. It was discovered surface pore size increases after just a few hours, with

Carroll, Nick J.


Steroidal Compounds in Commercial Parenteral Lipid Emulsions  

PubMed Central

Parenteral nutrition lipid emulsions made from various plant oils contain steroidal compounds, called phytosterols. During parenteral administration of lipid emulsions, phytosterols can reach levels in the blood that are many fold higher than during enteral administration. The elevated phytosterol levels have been associated with the development of liver dysfunction and the rare development of liver failure. There is limited information available in the literature related to phytosterol concentrations in lipid emulsions. The objective of the current study was to validate an assay for steroidal compounds found in lipid emulsions and to compare their concentrations in the most commonly used parenteral nutrition lipid emulsions: Liposyn® II, Liposyn® III, Lipofundin® MCT, Lipofundin® N, Structolipid®, Intralipid®, Ivelip® and ClinOleic®. Our data demonstrates that concentrations of the various steroidal compounds varied greatly between the eight lipid emulsions, with the olive oil-based lipid emulsion containing the lowest levels of phytosterols and cholesterol, and the highest concentration of squalene. The clinical impression of greater incidences of liver dysfunction with soybean versus MCT/LCT and olive/soy lipid emulsions may be reflective of the levels of phytosterols in these emulsions. This information may help guide future studies and clinical care of patients with lipid emulsion-associated liver dysfunction. PMID:23016123

Xu, Zhidong; Harvey, Kevin A.; Pavlina, Thomas; Dutot, Guy; Hise, Mary; Zaloga, Gary P.; Siddiqui, Rafat A.



Removal of pesticides from aqueous solutions using liquid membrane emulsions  

SciTech Connect

Extractive liquid membrane technology is based on a water-in-oil emulsion as the vehicle to effect separation. An aqueous internal reagent phase is emulsified into an organic phase containing a surfactant and optional complexing agents. The emulsion, presenting a large membrane surface area, is then dispersed in an aqueous continuous phase containing the species to be removed. The desired species is transferred from the continuous, phase through the organic liquid membrane and concentrated in the internal reagent phase. Extraction and stripping occur simultaneously rather than sequentially as in conventional solvent extraction. Experiments were conducted to assess the feasibility of using liquid membranes to extract pesticides from rinsewaters typical of those generated by fertilizer/agrichemical dealers. A liquid membrane emulsion containing 10% NaOH as the internal reagent phase was used to extract herbicides from aqueous solution at a continuous phase:emulsion ratio of 5:1. Removals of 2,4-D, MCPA, Carbaryl, Diazinon, and Atrazine were investigated.

Norwood, V.M. III



Removal of pesticides from aqueous solutions using liquid membrane emulsions  

SciTech Connect

Extractive liquid membrane technology is based on a water-in-oil emulsion as the vehicle to effect separation. An aqueous internal reagent phase is emulsified into an organic phase containing a surfactant and optional complexing agents. The emulsion, presenting a large membrane surface area, is then dispersed in an aqueous continuous phase containing the species to be removed. The desired species is transferred from the continuous, phase through the organic liquid membrane and concentrated in the internal reagent phase. Extraction and stripping occur simultaneously rather than sequentially as in conventional solvent extraction. Experiments were conducted to assess the feasibility of using liquid membranes to extract pesticides from rinsewaters typical of those generated by fertilizer/agrichemical dealers. A liquid membrane emulsion containing 10% NaOH as the internal reagent phase was used to extract herbicides from aqueous solution at a continuous phase:emulsion ratio of 5:1. Removals of 2,4-D, MCPA, Carbaryl, Diazinon, and Atrazine were investigated.

Norwood, V.M. III.



Use of micro-emulsion technology for the directed evolution of antibodies.  


Affinity reagents, such as antibodies, are needed to study protein expression patterns, sub-cellular localization, and post-translational modifications in complex mixtures and tissues. Phage Emulsion, Secretion, and Capture (ESCape) is a novel micro-emulsion technology that utilizes water-in-oil (W/O) emulsions for the identification and isolation of cells secreting phage particles that display desirable antibodies. Using this method, a large library of antibody-displaying phage will bind to beads in individual compartments. Rather than using biopanning on a large mixed population, phage micro-emulsion technology allows us to individually query clonal populations of amplified phage against the antigen. The use of emulsions to generate microdroplets has the promise of accelerating phage selection experiments by permitting fine discrimination of kinetic parameters for binding to targets. In this study, we demonstrate the ability of phage micro-emulsion technology to distinguish two scFvs with a 300-fold difference in binding affinities (100nM and 300pM, respectively). In addition, we describe the application of phage micro-emulsion technology for the selection of scFvs that are resistant to elevated temperatures. PMID:22819852

Buhr, Diane L; Acca, Felicity E; Holland, Erika G; Johnson, Katie; Maksymiuk, Gail M; Vaill, Ada; Kay, Brian K; Weitz, David A; Weiner, Michael P; Kiss, Margaret M



Ultrasonic imaging of gravitational separation in emulsions  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ultrasonic imaging technique was developed to monitor gravitational separation in emulsions. A series of 20 wt.% corn oil-in-water emulsions (d32 = 1.32 ?m), stabilized by a non-ionic surfactant, were prepared with different concentrations of xanthan in the aqueous phase (0–0.08 wt.%). Gravitational separation in these emulsions was then measured at 0 and 24 h using ultrasonic imaging. Data is

T. K. Basaran; K. Demetriades; D. J. McClements



[Biophysical mechanisms of toxicity of fluorocarbon emulsions].  


Intravenous administration of emulsions of some perfluorochemicals (PFCs) are followed by lung gas-exchange alterations, lung inflation and animal death. The emulsion toxicity can be caused by both low aggregation stability of the emulsion in the blood stream and appearance of the additional gas pressure in alveoli as a result of difference in the rates of alveolar gas and PFC vapor diffusion. Theoretical and experimental analysis shows that (1) absence of emulsion particle aggregation into blood stream, (2) low pressure of saturated vapors of PFC phase and (3) relatively low rate of PFC expiration from the organism are essential conditions for the creation of a safe fluorocarbon blood substitutes. PMID:7981282

Obratsov, V V; Tarakhovski?, Iu S; Ponomarchuk, V V; Sklifas, A N



Controlled Generation of Double Emulsions in Air  

PubMed Central

This communication describes the controlled generation of double emulsions in the gas phase, which was carried out using an integrated emitter in a PDMS (poly(dimethylsiloxane)) microfluidic chip. The integrated emitter was formed using a molding approach, in which metal wires with desirable diameters were used as emitter molds. The generation of double emulsions in air was achieved with electrohydrodynamics actuation, which offers controllable force exerting on the double emulsions. We developed this capability for future integration of droplet microfluidics with mass spectrometry (MS), where each aqueous droplet in the microchannel is introduced into the gas phase as a double emulsion for subsequent ionization and MS analysis. PMID:23767768

liu, Dingsheng; Hakimi, Bejan; Volny, Michael; Rolfs, Joelle; Chen, Xudong; Turecek, Frantisek; Chiu, Daniel T.



Isospin-violating dark matter search by nuclear emulsion detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dark matter signal and its annual modulation of event number are observed by some direct searches. However, these parameter spaces have been excluded by other experiments. Isospin-violating dark matter is a hopeful candidate to solve the discrepancy. We study the possibility that a future dark matter search project using nuclear emulsion can reach the region favored by the isospin-violating dark matter. Since the detector has directional sensitivity, it is expected to examine the region including the modulation property.

Nagao, Keiko I.; Naka, Tatsuhiro



Proton and ? hyperon production in nucleus-nucleus collisions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimental data obtained by the NA35 Collaboration for the difference of the p and spectra and the difference of the ? and spectra (net proton and ?-hyperon spectra), as well as the inclusive ? and spectra measured by the NA49, NA57, and STAR Collaborations, are compared with the predictions of the quark-gluon string model. The contribution of string-junction diffusion is calculated, and interaction with nuclear clusters is taken into account along with the corrections for inelastic screening. The level of numerical agreement with experimental data is between 20 and 30%. The predictions for the LHC energy are given.

Arakelyan, G. H.; Merino, C.; Shabelski, Yu. M.



Forward baryons in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the rapidity and transverse momentum distributions of protons and neutrons from collisions between 14.6 GeV/nucleon beams of 28Si and targets of Al, Cu, and Pb. The data were measured in the forward spectrometer/target calorimeter detectors of the E814 apparatus. The results indicate the existence of two distinct domains, one of beam rapidity projectilelike nucleons, and the second of participant nucleons. From the former, the in-medium inelastic nucleon-nucleon cross section is deduced. It is found to agree, within 10%, with the ``free'' value of 30 mb although under present conditions one of the two colliding nucleons has been struck before with a high probability. We compare with the present data the predictions of a fragmentation model as well as of models dealing explicitly with the heavy-ion collision and particle creation and emission.

Barrette, J.; Bellwied, R.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Cleland, W. E.; David, G.; Dee, J.; Fatyga, M.; Fox, D.; Greene, S. V.; Hall, J.; Hemmick, T. K.; Heifetz, R.; Herrmann, N.; Hogue, R. W.; Ingold, G.; Jayananda, K.; Kraus, D.; Shiva Kumar, B.; Lisa, M.; Lissauer, D.; Llope, W. J.; Ludlam, T.; Majka, R.; Makowiecki, D.; Mark, S. K.; Mitchell, J. T.; Muthuswamy, M.; O'brien, E.; Polychronakos, V.; Pruneau, C.; Rotondo, F.; Sandweiss, J.; Simon, J.; Sonnadara, U.; Stachel, J.; Takai, H.; Throwe, T.; Waters, L.; Winter, C.; Woody, C.; Wolf, K.; Wolfe, D.; Zhang, Y.



Subthreshold Antiproton Production in Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions  

E-print Network

value of =5 mb. Again, we have neglected the small contribution from other processes in deriving Eq. (2). The initial condition of the fireball is determined by as- suming that it is formed from the overlap of two Lorentz contracted nuclei as in Ref...

Ko, Che Ming; Xia, L. H.



Subthreshold multiple pion production in nucleus-nucleus collisions  

SciTech Connect

With the intermediate energy heavy in accelerators which will begin operation soon, multiple subthreshold pion production will become more feasible. The authors derive within a geometrical model the distribution function of available energy for particle production of secondaries and calculate the ratio between the probability of double and single pion production in subthreshold processes. This quantity is model dependent and its measurements could thus help in discriminating between different models.

Friedlander, E.M.; Navarra, F.S.; Weiner, R.M. (Physics Dept., Univ. of Marburg (DE))



Evaluating factors affecting the permeability of emulsions used to stabilize radioactive contamination from a radiological dispersal device.  


Present strategies for alleviating radioactive contamination from a radiological dispersal device (RDD) or dirty bomb involve either demolishing and removing radioactive surfaces or abandoning portions of the area near the release point. In both cases, it is imperative to eliminate or reduce migration of the radioisotopes until the cleanup is complete or until the radiation has decayed back to acceptable levels. This research investigated an alternative strategy of using emulsions to stabilize radioactive particulate contamination. Emergency response personnel would coat surfaces with emulsions consisting of asphalt or tall oil pitch to prevent migration of contamination. The site can then be evaluated and cleaned up as needed. In order for this approach to be effective, the treatment must eliminate migration of the radioactive agents in the terror device. Water application is an environmental condition that could promote migration into the external environment. This research investigated the potential for water, and correspondingly contaminant, migration through two emulsions consisting of Topein, a resinous byproduct during paper manufacture. Topein C is an asphaltic-based emulsion and Topein S is a tall oil pitch, nonionic emulsion. Experiments included water adsorption/ mobilization studies, filtration tests, and image analysis of photomicrographs from an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) and a stereomicroscope. Both emulsions were effective at reducing water migration. Conductivity estimates were on the order of 10(-80) cm s(-1) for Topein C and 10(-7) cm s(-1) for Topein S. Water mobility depended on emulsion flocculation and coalescence time. Photomicrographs indicate that Topein S consisted of greater and more interconnected porosity. Dilute foams of isolated spherical gas cells formed when emulsions were applied to basic surfaces. Gas cells rose to the surface and ruptured, leaving void spaces that penetrated throughout the emulsion. These experiments indicate that emulsions may be a viable means for containing RDD residuals; however, improvements are needed for optimal performance. PMID:15952383

Fox, Garey A; Medina, Victor F



Oil-in-water emulsion  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an oil-in-water emulsion composition consisting essentially of 100 parts by weight of a water-insoluble oil, at least 0.05 millimol of a nonionic tertiary surfactant having an HLB number of at least 16, at least 3 millimols of a nonionic primary surfactant having an HLB number of from 13 to 15, from 1 to 5 millimols, per millimol of the primary surfactant, of a nonionic secondary surfactant having an HLB number of from 7 to 9, and at least 10 parts by weight of water.

Narula, D.



Cocoa particles for food emulsion stabilisation.  


Emulsifying properties of cocoa particles have been investigated in systems containing purified sunflower oil (PSO) and water at varying pH, concentration and source of cocoa particles including cocoa powders (CP), cocoa fibre (CF) and cocoa mass (CM). The effect of cocoa particle source, pH and cocoa particle concentration on emulsion stability was evaluated by following changes in characteristic droplet diameter. Size distributions acquired on the emulsions and aqueous cocoa particle suspensions overlapped. Based on cryo-SEM imaging of the emulsions, isolation of cocoa particle fines and a process of washing the cocoa particles to remove any water soluble molecules, it was concluded that the cocoa particle fines not captured by the small angle laser diffraction method employed for sizing, act as Pickering particles. This research has demonstrated a universal nature of a natural food particle to stabilise oil-in-water emulsions not requiring particle modification or adjusting of the solution properties of the emulsion phases. PMID:23851644

Gould, Joanne; Vieira, Josélio; Wolf, Bettina



Emulsion Ripening through Molecular Exchange at Droplet Contacts.  


Two coarsening mechanisms of emulsions are well established: droplet coalescence (fusion of two droplets) and Ostwald ripening (molecular exchange through the continuous phase). Here a third mechanism is identified, contact ripening, which operates through molecular exchange upon droplets collisions. A contrast manipulated small-angle neutron scattering experiment was performed to isolate contact ripening from coalescence and Ostwald ripening. A kinetic study was conducted, using dynamic light scattering and monodisperse nanoemulsions, to obtain the exchange key parameters. Decreasing the concentration or adding ionic repulsions between droplets hinders contact ripening by decreasing the collision frequency. Using long surfactant chains and well-hydrated heads inhibits contact ripening by hindering fluctuations in the film. Contact ripening can be controlled by these parameters, which is essential for both emulsion formulation and delivery of hydrophobic ingredients. PMID:25504340

Roger, Kevin; Olsson, Ulf; Schweins, Ralf; Cabane, Bernard



Monodisperse Double Emulsions Generated from a Microcapillary Device  

Microsoft Academic Search

Double emulsions are highly structured fluids consisting of emulsion drops that contain smaller droplets inside. Although double emulsions are potentially of commercial value, traditional fabrication by means of two emulsification steps leads to very ill-controlled structuring. Using a microcapillary device, we fabricated double emulsions that contained a single internal droplet in a core- shell geometry. We show that the droplet

A. S. Utada; E. Lorenceau; P. D. Kaplan; H. A. Stone; D. A. Weitz



Drops deformation and magnetic permeability of a ferrofluid emulsion  

E-print Network

In the paper the novel soft magnetic composite system is investigated. A ferrofluid emulsion studied demonstrates the strong magnetic properties which are atypical for commonly known emulsions. Interaction of ferrofluid emulsions with a magnetic field is considered. Structural transformations in these media, such as deformation of emulsion microdroplets and emulsion inversion, are studied. The changes in the relative permeability of emulsion associated with structural transformations are investigated. The theory of the observed phenomena is developed, and the feasibility of effectively controlling the magnetic properties of ferrofluid emulsions by applying a magnetic field is demonstrated.

Arthur Zakinyan; Yury Dikansky



Enhancement of the antimicrobial properties of bacteriophage-K via stabilization using oil-in-water nano-emulsions.  


Bacteriophage therapy is a promising new treatment that may help overcome the threat posed by antibiotic-resistant pathogenic bacteria, which are increasingly identified in hospitalized patients. The development of biocompatible and sustainable vehicles for incorporation of viable bacterial viruses into a wound dressing is a promising alternative. This article evaluates the antimicrobial efficacy of Bacteriophage K against Staphylococcus aureus over time, when stabilized and delivered via an oil-in-water nano-emulsion. Nano-emulsions were formulated via thermal phase inversion emulsification, and then bacterial growth was challenged with either native emulsion, or emulsion combined with Bacteriophage K. Bacteriophage infectivity, and the influence of storage time of the preparation, were assessed by turbidity measurements of bacterial samples. Newly prepared Bacteriophage K/nano-emulsion formulations have greater antimicrobial activity than freely suspended bacteriophage. The phage-loaded emulsions caused rapid and complete bacterial death of three different strains of S. aureus. The same effect was observed for preparations that were either stored at room temperature (18-20°C), or chilled at 4°C, for up to 10 days of storage. A response surface design of experiments was used to gain insight on the relative effects of the emulsion formulation on bacterial growth and phage lytic activity. More diluted emulsions had a less significant effect on bacterial growth, and diluted bacteriophage-emulsion preparations yielded greater antibacterial activity. The enhancement of bacteriophage activity when delivered via nano-emulsions is yet to be reported. This prompts further investigation into the use of these formulations for the development of novel anti-microbial wound management strategies. PMID:24616404

Esteban, Patricia Perez; Alves, Diana R; Enright, Mark C; Bean, Jessica E; Gaudion, Alison; Jenkins, A T A; Young, Amber E R; Arnot, Tom C



Squalene and squalane emulsions as adjuvants.  


Microfluidized squalene or squalane emulsions are efficient adjuvants, eliciting both humoral and cellular immune responses. Microfluidization stabilizes the emulsions and allows sterilization by terminal filtration. The emulsions are stable for years at ambient temperature and can be frozen. Antigens are added after emulsification so that conformational epitopes are not lost by denaturation and to facilitate manufacture. A Pluronic block copolymer can be added to the squalane or squalene emulsion. Soluble antigens administered in such emulsions generate cytotoxic T lymphocytes able to lyse target cells expressing the antigen in a genetically restricted fashion. Optionally a relatively nontoxic analog of muramyl dipeptide (MDP) or another immunomodulator can be added; however, the dose of MDP must be restricted to avoid systemic side effects in humans. Squalene or squalane emulsions without copolymers or MDP have very little toxicity and elicit potent antibody responses to several antigens in nonhuman primates. They could be used to improve a wide range of vaccines. Squalene or squalane emulsions have been administered in human cancer vaccines, with mild side effects and evidence of efficacy, in terms of both immune responses and antitumor activity. PMID:10525443

Allison, A C



Physico-chemical characterization of Intralipid emulsions.  


Fat emulsions containing soy triacylglycerols (100-300 g/l) and egg-yolk phospholipids (12 g/l) are often used for intravenous feeding. Previous studies have shown that these emulsions contain chylomicron-like emulsion particles of diameters of 300-400 nm and excess phospholipids aggregated as vesicles (liposomes), which remain in the infranatant upon floatation of the emulsion particles by ultracentrifugation. This work is devoted to the characterization of the commercial lipid emulsions commonly denoted Intralipids, with special emphasis on the presently ill-defined liposomes. The lipid particles composing commercial lipid emulsions (10%, 20% and 30% Intralipids, Kabivitrum Nutrition) were characterized by the combined use of physical and chemical methods. Each of the emulsions was fractionated by ultracentrifugation in saline into a 'cream' layer which floats to the top of the dispersion upon ultracentrifugation and a relatively transparent infranatant. The cream layer contains large emulsion particles of diameters ranging from 300 to 400 nm, in agreement with theoretical considerations based on their chemical composition as determined by chemical analysis. The infranatants contain about 1 g/l triacylglycerols in addition to phospholipids (from 7.2 g/l in 10% Intralipid to 2.4 g/l in 30% Intralipid) in the form of smaller particles of 70-100 nm diameter. Cryo-transmission electron microscopy shows that the infranatants contain vesicles (mostly unilamellar) at the side of residual small emulsion particles. This conclusion is also consistent with the distribution of phospholipids between outer and inner lamellae, as determined by 31P-NMR. PMID:1742317

Rotenberg, M; Rubin, M; Bor, A; Meyuhas, D; Talmon, Y; Lichtenberg, D



Solubility of volatile anesthetics in plasma substitutes, albumin, intravenous fat emulsions, perfluorochemical emulsion, and aqueous solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the gas chromatographic headspace sampling technique, we determined the solubility of volatile anesthetics (halothane,\\u000a enflurane, isoflurane, and sevoflurane) in plasma substitutes, albumin solution, intravenous fat emulsions, perfluorochemical\\u000a FC-43 emulsion, and aqueous solutions at 37°C. The order of magnitude of ? value (liquid\\/gas partition coefficients) was halothane\\u000a >enflurane>isoflurane> sevoflurane in all the parenteral infusion fluids except the perfluorochemical emulsion (FC-43).

Jaes Chol Shim; Yoshiroh Kaminoh; Chikara Tashiro; Yoshikazu Miyamoto; Hee Koo Yoo



40 CFR 428.20 - Applicability; description of the emulsion crumb rubber subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Applicability; description of the emulsion crumb rubber subcategory. 428...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Emulsion Crumb Rubber Subcategory § 428...Applicability; description of the emulsion crumb rubber subcategory....



Comment on ``Thermal fluctuations of the shapes of droplets in dense and compressed emulsions''  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The quasielastic differential cross section of light scattered from noninteracting emulsion droplets fluctuating in the shape is calculated. The result is compared with the shape fluctuation correlation function measured in the diffusing-wave spectroscopy experiments by Gang, Krall, and Weitz [Phys. Rev. E 52, 6289 (1995)]. Assuming incompressible bulk fluids and the interfacial surfactant layer, we demonstrate that the experiments can be described more precisely than in the original paper. The time behavior of the calculated shape correlation function resembles better the observed one and its amplitude (as distinct from the discussed paper) almost exactly corresponds to the experimental value extrapolated to the zero volume fraction of the droplets in emulsion.

Lisy, V.; Brutovsky, B.



Multi-body coalescence in Pickering emulsions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Particle-stabilized Pickering emulsions have shown unusual behaviours such as the formation of non-spherical droplets and the sudden halt of coalescence between individual droplets. Here we report another unusual behaviour of Pickering emulsions—the simultaneous coalescence of multiple droplets in a single event. Using latex particles, silica particles and carbon nanotubes as model stabilizers, we show that multi-body coalescence can occur in both water-in-oil and oil-in-water emulsions. The number of droplets involved in the nth coalscence event equals four times the corresponding number of the tetrahedral sequence in close packing. Furthermore, coalescence is promoted by repulsive latex and silica particles but inhibited by attractive carbon nanotubes. The revelation of multi-body coalescence is expected to help better understand Pickering emulsions in natural systems and improve their designs in engineering applications.

Wu, Tong; Wang, Haitao; Jing, Benxin; Liu, Fang; Burns, Peter C.; Na, Chongzheng



Aging properties of Kodak type 101 emulsions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aging tests for several batches of Kodak type 101 emulsion show that storage conditions significantly influence how well the film will maintain its sensitometric properties, with sensitivity and density increasing to a maximum during this period. Any further aging may result in higher fog levels and sensitivity loss. It is noted that storage in an environment free of photographically active compounds allows film property optimization, and that film batches with different sensitivities age differently. Emulsions with maximum 1700-A sensitivity are 2.5 times faster than those at the low end of the sensitivity scale. These sensitive emulsions exhibit significantly accelerated changes in aging properties. Their use in space applications requires careful consideration of time and temperature profiles, encouraging the use of less sensitive emulsions when the controllability of these factors is limited.

Dohne, B.; Feldman, U.; Neupert, W.



Multi-body coalescence in Pickering emulsions.  


Particle-stabilized Pickering emulsions have shown unusual behaviours such as the formation of non-spherical droplets and the sudden halt of coalescence between individual droplets. Here we report another unusual behaviour of Pickering emulsions-the simultaneous coalescence of multiple droplets in a single event. Using latex particles, silica particles and carbon nanotubes as model stabilizers, we show that multi-body coalescence can occur in both water-in-oil and oil-in-water emulsions. The number of droplets involved in the nth coalscence event equals four times the corresponding number of the tetrahedral sequence in close packing. Furthermore, coalescence is promoted by repulsive latex and silica particles but inhibited by attractive carbon nanotubes. The revelation of multi-body coalescence is expected to help better understand Pickering emulsions in natural systems and improve their designs in engineering applications. PMID:25581366

Wu, Tong; Wang, Haitao; Jing, Benxin; Liu, Fang; Burns, Peter C; Na, Chongzheng



Surfactant-enhanced cellulose nanocrystal Pickering emulsions.  


The effect of surfactants on the properties of Pickering emulsions stabilized by cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) was investigated. Electrophoretic mobility, interfacial tension, confocal microscopy and three-phase contact angle measurements were used to elucidate the interactions between anionic CNCs and cationic alkyl ammonium surfactants didecyldimethylammonium bromide (DMAB) and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). Both surfactants were found to adsorb onto CNCs with concentration-dependent morphology. At low concentrations, individual surfactant molecules adsorbed with alkyl tails pointing outward leading to hydrophobic CNCs. At higher concentrations, above the surfactant's apparent critical micelle concentration, surfactant aggregate morphologies on CNCs were inferred and the hydrophobicity of CNCs decreased. DMAB, which has two alkyl tails, rendered the CNCs more hydrophobic than CTAB which has only a single alkyl tail, at all surfactant concentrations. The change in CNC wettability from surfactant adsorption was directly linked to emulsion properties; adding surfactant increased the emulsion stability, decreased the droplet size, and controlled the internal phase of CNC Pickering emulsions. More specifically, a double transitional phase inversion, from oil-in-water to water-in-oil and back to oil-in-water, was observed for emulsions with CNCs and increasing amounts of DMAB (the more hydrophobic surfactant). With CNCs and CTAB, no phase inversion was induced. This work represents the first report of CNC Pickering emulsions with surfactants as well as the first CNC Pickering emulsions that can be phase inverted. The ability to surface modify CNCs in situ and tailor emulsions by adding surfactants may extend the potential of CNCs to new liquid formulations and extruded/spray-dried materials. PMID:25463186

Hu, Zhen; Ballinger, Sarah; Pelton, Robert; Cranston, Emily D



The droplet group microexplosions in water-in-oil emulsion sprays and their effects on diesel engine combustion  

SciTech Connect

To clarify the combustion mechanism of water-in-diesel fuel emulsion sprays and to evaluate the possible benefit of emulsions in practical usage, combustion bomb experiments, dynamic engine tests, and computer simulation were carried out, and some useful conclusions have been reached. The droplet group (lump-fashioned) microexplosions in water-in-diesel fuel emulsion sprays on an eddy-size scale during the atomization, evaporation, and combustion processes in a high-pressure, high-temperature bomb were observed with a multipulsed, off-axis, image-plane, ruby laser holocamera and a high-speed camera. The explosions eject droplet fragments from the spray region to several millimeters away, improving the fuel-air mixing process and speeding up the flame propagation. A no-water layer formed by a Hill vortex was also observed in emulsion droplets. The ambient temperature has the most important influence on the occurrence and violence of the microexplosion. Road-load-simulation engine tests were carried out on a dynamic engine test bed. The experimental results show that emulsion fuels have no significant influence on fuel consumption and reduce engine torque if no adjustment is made for the injection system, but that smoke emission is much improved when emulsion fuel is used. The combustion characteristics and the rate of heat release are also analyzed to reveal the difference between emulsion and diesel fuel. The relationships between the optimum water percentages and fuel consumption under various operating conditions were analyzed by numerical combustion modeling.

Sheng, H.Z.; Chen, L.; Zhang, Z.P.; Wu, C.K. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Inst. of Mechanics; An, C.; Cheng, C.Q. [Beijing Inst. of Technology (China). Dept. of Vehicle Engineering



The Use of Fish Oil Lipid Emulsion in the Treatment of Intestinal Failure Associated Liver Disease (IFALD)  

PubMed Central

Since 2004, fish oil based lipid emulsions have been used in the treatment of intestinal failure associated liver disease, with a noticeable impact on decreasing the incidence of morbidity and mortality of this often fatal condition. With this new therapy, however, different approaches have emerged as well as concerns about potential risks with using fish oil as a monotherapy. This review will discuss the experience to date with this lipid emulsion along with the rational for its use, controversies and concerns. PMID:23363993

Chang, Melissa I.; Puder, Mark; Gura, Kathleen M.



S-190 exposure verification flight test. [photographic emulsions and film  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A flight test was conducted to determine the optimum exposures for the Skylab S-190A experiment. An aircraft multispectral photographic system (AMPS) which is installed in the NASA Earth Resources aircraft NP3A was used to simulate the S-190A system. The same film emulsions to be used for S-190A were used in the flight test. These rolls were on factory-loaded spools for use in the AMPS camera system. It was found that some variation is to be expected between these rolls and the S-190A flight loads.

Perry, L.



Shock compression and recovery of microorganism-loaded broths and an emulsion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The microorganisms Escherichia coli, Enterococcus feacalis and Zygosaccharomyces bailii and an oil-based emulsion, have been subjected to shock compression using the flyer-plate technique to initial pressures of 0.8 GPa (in the suspension). In each experiment, a stainless steel capsule was used to contain the broths and allow for recovery without contamination. Where cavitation was suppressed by virtue of simultaneous shock and quasi-static compression, no kill was observed. By introducing an air gap behind the suspension, limited kill was measured in the yeast. Results also suggest that emulsification occurs in oil-based emulsions that are subjected to shock.

Hazell, Paul; Beveridge, Cliff; Groves, Kathy



Shock Compression and Recovery of Microorganism-Loaded Broths and AN Emulsion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The microorganisms Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis and Zygosaccharomyces bailii and an oil-based emulsion, have been subjected to shock compression using the flyer-plate technique to initial pressures of 0.8 GPa (in the suspension). In each experiment, a stainless steel capsule was used to contain the broths and allow for recovery without contamination. Where cavitation was mostly suppressed by virtue of simultaneous shock and dynamic compression, no kill was observed. By introducing an air gap behind the suspension, limited kill was measured in the yeast. Results also suggest that stable emulsification occurs in coarse oil-based emulsions that are subjected to shock.

Hazell, P. J.; Beveridge, C.; Groves, K.; Stennett, C.



Nuclear Emulsion Scanning in Opera:. Methods and Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design of the OPERA experiment was also motivated and justified by the revival of nuclear emulsion handling and scanning in a modem, automatic fashion, as it took previously place, although at a smaller scale, for the CHORUS experiment. Nuclear emulsions are still the only detector to allow a very detailed topological study of an interaction/decay vertex at the sub-micrometer level. They are most suitable in experiments where topology is a non-ambiguous signature of a certain class of events. This is for instance the case of neutrino oscillation detection and measurement by the study of a tau-appearance signal. The design and performance of the two different scanning systems used in OPERA (ESS and S-UTS) are discussed. Their unique features in terms of speed, precision, background suppression, particle identification, and kinematical reconstruction are shown in close connection with the technical details that make them possible. Unequalled precision, almost vanishing background, and a wealth of information about each single event are the results presented.

Bozza, Cristiano



Factors affecting the emulsifying and rheological properties of gum acacia in beverage emulsions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gum acacia, a natural hydrocolloid, is extensively used as an emulsifier\\/stabilizer in beverage emulsions. Factors that may affect emulsion formation, emulsion stability and viscosity of the emulsion concentrate were studied to assess their significance, including proximal composition of the gum (protein content and mineral content), gum processing prior to emulsion preparation (pasteurization and demineralization), and pH of the dilute emulsion.

R. A Buffo; G. A Reineccius; G. W Oehlert



Annatto Polymeric Microparticles: Natural Product Encapsulation by the Emulsion-Solvent Evaporation Method  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this experiment, the extract from annatto seeds was encapsulated in poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) particles by the emulsion-solvent evaporation method. The particles were washed and centrifuged to remove excess stabilizer and then freeze-dried. The main compound of annatto seeds, bixin, has antioxidant properties as well…

Teixeira, Zaine; Duran, Nelson; Guterres, Silvia S.



High-yield aqueous phase exfoliation of graphene for facile nanocomposite synthesis via emulsion polymerization.  


Aqueous phase exfoliation was developed for producing high-yield graphene nanosheets from expanded graphite (EG). The process included ultrasonication with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) emulsion in aqueous phase. The high throughput exfoliation process was characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Controlled sonication experiments revealed that optimum exfoliation corresponds to maxima in UV-vis spectra. TEM results showed that the exfoliated graphene comprised nanoflakes having ?5 layers (~60%) and ?10 layers for 90% of the product. The potential use of this highly dispersed graphene was demonstrated by one-pot synthesis of graphene/polymer composite via in situ emulsion polymerization with styrene. The integrated role of SDS included adsorption and exfoliation of graphite, dispersion of graphene produced and assisting with micelle formation in emulsion. The high surface area graphene nanosheets as dispersed phase in polymeric nanocomposites showed significant improvement in thermal stability and electrical conductivity. PMID:24034217

Hassan, Mahbub; Reddy, Kakarla Raghava; Haque, Enamul; Minett, Andrew I; Gomes, Vincent G



Measurement of Particle Size Distribution and Volume Concentration based on Ultrasonic Attenuation Spectrum in Fat Emulsion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The determination of particle size distribution in concentrated polydisperse fat emulsions measured by ultrasonic attenuation spectrum is studied in this paper. Based on theoretical analysis, ultrasonic attenuation spectrum of fat emulsion samples containing different droplet concentrations (1˜20%) is measured over the range of 2˜13MHz. Then the droplet size and distribution are determined by processing the experiment data with inversion arithmetic. The particle size distribution of original sample determined by ultrasonic spectrum gives excellent agreement with that of diluted sample measured by an optical instrument TSM(Totally Scattering Measurement). This indicates that ultrasonic spectrum is capable of determining the particle size distribution and dispersed-phase volume fraction of concentrated fat emulsions in a non-destructive approach.

Dong, Lili; Su, Mingxu; Xue, Minghua; Cai, Xiaoshu; Shang, Zhitao



Prospects for measuring the gravitational free-fall of antihydrogen with emulsion detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main goal of the AEgIS experiment at CERN is to test the weak equivalence principle for antimatter. AEgIS will measure the free-fall of an antihydrogen beam traversing a moir&apose deflectometer. The goal is to determine the gravitational acceleration bar g with an initial relative accuracy of 1% by using an emulsion detector combined with a silicon ?-strip detector to measure the time of flight. Nuclear emulsions can measure the annihilation vertex of antihydrogen atoms with a precision of ~ 1-2 ?m r.m.s. We present here results for emulsion detectors operated in vacuum using low energy antiprotons from the CERN antiproton decelerator. We compare with Monte Carlo simulations, and discuss the impact on the AEgIS project.

Aghion, S.; Ahlén, O.; Amsler, C.; Ariga, A.; Ariga, T.; Belov, A. S.; Bonomi, G.; Bräunig, P.; Bremer, J.; Brusa, R. S.; Cabaret, L.; Canali, C.; Caravita, R.; Castelli, F.; Cerchiari, G.; Cialdi, S.; Comparat, D.; Consolati, G.; Derking, J. H.; Di Domizio, S.; Di Noto, L.; Doser, M.; Dudarev, A.; Ereditato, A.; Ferragut, R.; Fontana, A.; Genova, P.; Giammarchi, M.; Gligorova, A.; Gninenko, S. N.; Haider, S.; Harasimovicz, J.; Hogan, S. D.; Huse, T.; Jordan, E.; Jørgensen, L. V.; Kaltenbacher, T.; Kawada, J.; Kellerbauer, A.; Kimura, M.; Knecht, A.; Krasnický, D.; Lagomarsino, V.; Magnani, A.; Mariazzi, S.; Matveev, V. A.; Moia, F.; Nebbia, G.; Nédélec, P.; Oberthaler, M. K.; Pacifico, N.; Petrá?ek, V.; Pistillo, C.; Prelz, F.; Prevedelli, M.; Regenfus, C.; Riccardi, C.; Røhne, O.; Rotondi, A.; Sandaker, H.; Scampoli, P.; Sosa, A.; Storey, J.; Subieta Vasquez, M. A.; Špa?ek, M.; Testera, G.; Trezzi, D.; Vaccarone, R.; Welsch, C. P.; Zavatarelli, S.



Optical transmission measurements for in-line monitoring of turbid oil-water emulsions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For absorbing media the concentration may be calculated directly from the optical transmission following the logarithmic dependence given in the Lambert-Beer law. Due to multiple scattering events in oil-water emulsions (e.g. milk, cream, etc.), these exhibit a nonlinear relationship between the attenuation and the oil concentration. We demonstrate that for increasing oil content in oil-water emulsions the attenuation first increases, then levels out, and finally even decreases for a fat content of 60%. Single-wavelength optical transmission measurements are found to be well suited for the in-line monitoring of oil-water emulsions of fat contents below 20%, e.g., for the in-line fat content monitoring of milk. Using experiments and ray-tracing simulations we evaluate system optimization.

Metz, Philipp; Dopf, Katja; Aichholz, Markus; Riedel, Boris; Lemmer, Uli; Freudig, Barbara; Zimmermann, Clifton; Gerken, Martina



Second-generation perfluorocarbon emulsion blood substitutes.  


A novel series of perfluorocarbon (PFC) emulsions, based on perfluorodecalin (C10F18) and stabilised with up to 2.5% (w/v) of lecithin have been produced for evaluation as injectable, temporary respiratory gas-carrying blood substitutes. Some formulations contained 1.0% (w/v) of perfluorodimorpholinopropane (C11F22N2O2) to retard droplet growth through molecular diffusion (Ostwald Ripening). Other emulsions contained novel, amphiphilic fluorinated surfactants, such as, for example, the monocarbamate, C8F17C2H4NHC(O)(CH2CH2O)2Me (designated compound P6), at 0.1% (w/v) to enhance stability. Emulsions were prepared by homogenisation, were steam sterilisable and were stable for > 300 days (25 degrees C). Injection of rats (7.5 ml kg-1 b.w.) with emulsions produced significant (P < 0.05), transient increases in liver and spleen weights. One emulsion inhibited phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-stimulated, Luminol-enhanced, chemiluminescence of human polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMNL) in vitro, suggesting possible applications in ischaemic tissues for suppressing PMNL-mediated inflammation. The P6 fluoro-surfactant inhibited spontaneous platelet aggregation in hirudin-anticoagulated human blood in vitro, suggesting possible applications as an anti-thrombotic agent. PMID:10676575

Lowe, K C



High pressure-resistant nonincendive emulsion explosive  


An improved emulsion explosive composition including hollow microspheres/bulking agents having high density and high strength. The hollow microspheres/bulking agents have true particle densities of about 0.2 grams per cubic centimeter or greater and include glass, siliceous, ceramic and synthetic resin microspheres, expanded minerals, and mixtures thereof. The preferred weight percentage of hollow microspheres/bulking agents in the composition ranges from 3.0 to 10.0 A chlorinated paraffin oil, also present in the improved emulsion explosive composition, imparts a higher film strength to the oil phase in the emulsion. The emulsion is rendered nonincendive by the production of sodium chloride in situ via the decomposition of sodium nitrate, a chlorinated paraffin oil, and sodium perchlorate. The air-gap sensitivity is improved by the in situ formation of monomethylamine perchlorate from dissolved monomethylamine nitrate and sodium perchlorate. The emulsion explosive composition can withstand static pressures to 139 bars and dynamic pressure loads on the order of 567 bars.

Ruhe, Thomas C. (Duquesne, PA); Rao, Pilaka P. (Baghlingampalli, IN)



Liposomes in Double-Emulsion Globules  

PubMed Central

Tubular liposomes containing a hydrophilic model compound (fluorescein sodium salt, FSS) were entrapped inside the internal aqueous phase (W1) of water-in-oil-in-water (W1/O/W2) double-emulsion globules. Our hypothesis was that the oil membrane of double emulsions can function as a layer of protection to liposomes and their contents and thus better control their release. Liposomes were prepared in bulk, and their release was observed microscopically from individual double-emulsion globules. The liposomes containing FSS were released through external coalescence, and the behavior of this system was monitored visually by capillary video microscopy. Double-emulsion globules were stabilized with Tween 80 as the water-soluble surfactant, with Span 80 as the oil-soluble surfactant, while the oil phase (O) was n-hexadecane. The lipids in the tubular liposomes consist of l-?-phosphatidylcholine and Ceramide-VI. Variations of Tween 80 concentration in the external aqueous phase (W2) and Span 80 concentration in the O phase controlled the release of liposomes from the W1 phase to the W2 phase. The major finding of this work is that the sheer presence of liposomes in the W1 phase is by itself a stabilizing factor for double-emulsion globules. PMID:19958007

Wang, Qing; Tan, Grace; Lawson, Louise B.; John, Vijay T.; Papadopoulos, Kyriakos D.



Physical properties of phase-change emulsions.  


Phase-change emulsions (PCE) are important in a variety of applications, from ultrasound imaging to the explosive material used in the mining industry, but until now there has been no adequate theory to describe their activation properties. The PCE consists of a low-boiling-point liquid, known as the volatile phase, dispersed in an aqueous phase. The volatile phase boils as a result of an increase in the temperature of the emulsion. The volume of the emulsion will increase during this phase transition, with the transition temperature and final volume of the emulsion highly dependent on the initial radius of the liquid droplets. Here a description of the change in boiling point and freezing point of the volatile phase, as well as the volume change of a droplet in the emulsion as a function of the initial droplet radius, is presented. The influence of volatile phase solubility, liquid-liquid interfacial tension, and final temperature are explored, accounting for the influence of confinement on the properties of the volatile phase. Beyond this, a means by which the diffusivity of the gas in the continuous liquid phase can be measured is derived. PMID:17073477

Evans, Drew R; Parsons, Drew F; Craig, Vincent S J



21 CFR 524.802 - Enrofloxacin, silver sulfadiazine emulsion.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Enrofloxacin, silver sulfadiazine emulsion. 524.802 ...ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.802 Enrofloxacin, silver sulfadiazine emulsion. (a) Specifications...milligrams (mg) enrofloxacin and 10 mg silver sulfadiazine. (b) Sponsor ....



21 CFR 524.802 - Enrofloxacin, silver sulfadiazine emulsion.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Enrofloxacin, silver sulfadiazine emulsion. 524.802 ...ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.802 Enrofloxacin, silver sulfadiazine emulsion. (a) Specifications...milligrams (mg) enrofloxacin and 10 mg silver sulfadiazine. (b) Sponsor ....



21 CFR 524.802 - Enrofloxacin, silver sulfadiazine emulsion.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Enrofloxacin, silver sulfadiazine emulsion. 524.802 ...ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.802 Enrofloxacin, silver sulfadiazine emulsion. (a) Specifications...milligrams (mg) enrofloxacin and 10 mg silver sulfadiazine. (b) Sponsor ....



Combustion Study of Stabilized Water-in-Diesel Fuel Emulsion  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental investigation has been carried out to produce a stable diesel\\/water emulsion fuel and use it in a diesel engine under different operating and design conditions. The emulsion stayed stable for up to 30% water in diesel for up to one week and 20% water in diesel for four weeks. The physical properties of the stable W\\/D emulsions in

M. Y. E. Selim; M. T. Ghannam



Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochem. Eng. Aspects 251 (2004) 5358 Nano-emulsion formation by emulsion phase inversion  

E-print Network

that is generally achieved by high-shear stirring, high-pressure homogenizers, or ultra- sound generators. The highColloids and Surfaces A: Physicochem. Eng. Aspects 251 (2004) 53­58 Nano-emulsion formation 2004 Abstract The droplet size distribution of an emulsion governs emulsion properties such as long

Kühnle, Angelika


Multi-stage shifter for subsecond time resolution of emulsion gamma-ray telescopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To observe gamma-ray sources precisely, a balloon-borne experiment with a new type of detector, the emulsion gamma-ray telescope, is planned. A multi-stage shifter mechanism based on the concept of an analog clock serves as a time stamper with subsecond time resolution and uses multiple moving stages mounted on the emulsion chambers. This new technique was employed in a test experiment using a small-scale model in a short-duration balloon flight. Tracks recorded in nuclear emulsion were read by a fully automated scanning system, were reconstructed, and time information were assigned by analysis of their position displacements in the shifter layers. The estimated time resolution was 0.06-0.15 s. The number of tracks passing through the detector was counted every second, and hadron jets were detected as significant excesses observed in the counting rate. In future, the multi-stage shifter is greatly contributing to ongoing efforts to increase the effective area of emulsion gamma-ray telescopes.

Rokujo, H.; Aoki, S.; Takahashi, S.; Kamada, K.; Mizutani, S.; Nakagawa, R.; Ozaki, K.



Na-caseinate/oil/water systems: emulsion morphology diagrams.  


The concentrated (dispersed phase 50-70 wt%) composition space of Na-caseinate, a family of milk proteins, stabilised emulsions was investigated for three different oils: soybean oil, palm olein and tetradecane with pH 6.8 phosphate buffer continuous phase. The variation of emulsion stability and microstructure were explored using static light scattering, diffusion nuclear magnetic resonance, cryo-scanning electron microscopy, rheology and the time varying macroscopic phase separation of the emulsions. For soybean oil and palm olein a rich diversity of emulsion microstructures and stabilities are realised. Five emulsion domains, each having a different microstructure and macroscopic stability have been identified within the composition space probed. For the lowest concentrations of emulsifier bridging flocculation is evident and emulsions are of low stability. Increasing Na-caseinate concentration leads to an increased stability and the existence of distinct individual oil droplets, visualised using cryo-scanning electron microscopy. Further increases in Na-caseinate concentration reduce emulsion stability due to depletion flocculation. Na-caseinate self-assembly is then initiated. At sufficiently high Na-caseinate and/or oil concentrations the continuous phase of the emulsion is a three-dimensional protein network and emulsion stability is again enhanced. At the limits of the emulsion composition space a gel-like paste is formed. The diversity of emulsion microstructure is reduced when tetradecane is the discrete phase. Na-caseinate self-assembly is limited and there is no evidence for formation of a protein network. PMID:22709624

Tan, Hui Lin; McGrath, Kathryn M



Lipid Injectable Emulsions: Pharmacopeial and Safety Issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract  Lipid injectable emulsions have been routinely used in patients worldwide for over 40 years as a nutritional supplement in patients requiring parenteral nutrition. They can be given as a separate infusion or added into total parenteral nutrition admixtures. Despite such broad use, no pharmacopeial standards exist with respect to the optimal pharmaceutical characteristics of the formulation. Several attempts to establish

David F. Driscoll



Probing Interfacial Emulsion Stability Controls using Electrorheology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The stability of water-in-oil emulsions is controlled by interfacial mechanisms that include oil film rheology of approaching drops and the strength of drop interfaces. Film drainage is mainly a function of the continuous phase rheology. Temperature is used to regulate the viscosity of the continuous phase and hence determine its effect on emulsion stability through film drainage, in contrast with interfacial strength. In this study, one crude oil is used to formulate water-in-oil emulsions. Oil-water interfacial tension is measured to gauge other interfacial changes with temperature. The critical field value, used as proxy of emulsion stability, approaches a plateau value for each crude oil- aqueous solution pair, at sufficiently high temperature (50 ^oC), which is interpreted to reflect the intrinsic drop-coating film resistance to coalescence. Interfacial tension does vary significantly with either aqueous phase composition or temperature. From comparison with previous results, we speculate that drop coating film is composed of a fraction of asphaltic compunds.

Wang, Xiuyu; Brandvik, Amy; Alvarado, Vladimir



Lipid emulsions of palmitoylrhizoxin: effects of particle size on blood dispositions of emulsion lipid and incorporated compound in rats.  


Emulsion formulations of various particle sizes for the highly lipophilic antitumour agent, RS-1541 (13-O-palmitoylrhizoxin), were prepared using dioctanoyldecanoylglycerol (ODO) as lipids and polyoxyethylene-(60)-hydrogenated castor oil (HCO-60) as a surfactant. These emulsions were evaluated as injectable drug carriers and compared with a colloidal solution. Both in vitro and in vivo after i.v. administration, RS-1541 was distributed into lipoproteins from the colloidal solution. When applied as emulsions of various particle sizes (124-419 nm) in vitro, RS-1541 was retained and stabilized within the emulsions. In the in vivo study, however, retention of RS-1541 in the emulsions after i.v. injection depended on their size. The small-particle emulsions (94-112 nm) resulted in long retention, and the large-particle emulsions (415-474 nm) led to short retention. Lipolysis rates of emulsion particles by lipoprotein lipase also depended on their size, indicating rapid lipolysis for small-particle emulsions (133 nm). However, the lipolysis was not such an extensive one, showing 10-30% release of capric acid from ODO within 6 h. Blood dispositions of capric acids approximately paralleled those of RS-1541 after i.v. injection of various particle size emulsions (130-368 nm) to rats, although relatively rapid eliminations of capric acids compared with RS-1541 were observed for the small-particle size emulsions (130 nm). These results suggest that when injected as emulsion formulations, the highly lipophilic antitumour agent, RS-1541, has behaviour similar to that of the emulsion particles in the body, which is dependent on the size of the latter. Thus, by properly selecting the particle size, lipid emulsions consisting of ODO and HCO-60 are expected to be effective and useful DDS carriers for RS-1541. PMID:8743405

Kurihara, A; Shibayama, Y; Yasuno, A; Ikeda, M; Hisaoka, M



Automatic track recognition for large-angle minimum ionizing particles in nuclear emulsions  

E-print Network

We previously developed an automatic track scanning system which enables the detection of large-angle nuclear fragments in the nuclear emulsion films of the OPERA experiment. As a next step, we have investigated this system's track recognition capability for large-angle minimum ionizing particles $(1.0 \\leq |tan \\theta| \\leq 3.5)$. This paper shows that, for such tracks, the system has a detection efficiency of 95$\\%$ or higher and reports the achieved angular accuracy of the automatically recognized tracks. This technology is of general purpose and will likely contribute not only to various analyses in the OPERA experiment, but also to future experiments, e.g. on low-energy neutrino and hadron interactions, or to future research on cosmic rays using nuclear emulsions carried by balloons.

Fukuda, T; Ishida, H; Matsumoto, T; Matsuo, T; Mikado, S; Nishimura, S; Ogawa, S; Shibuya, H; Sudou, J; Ariga, A; Tufanli, S



Automatic track recognition for large-angle minimum ionizing particles in nuclear emulsions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We previously developed an automatic track scanning system which enables the detection of large-angle nuclear fragments in the nuclear emulsion films of the OPERA experiment. As a next step, we have investigated this system's track recognition capability for large-angle minimum ionizing particles (1.0 <= |tan ?| <= 3.5). This paper shows that, for such tracks, the system has a detection efficiency of 95% or higher and reports the achieved angular accuracy of the automatically recognized tracks. This technology is of general purpose and will likely contribute not only to various analyses in the OPERA experiment, but also to future experiments, e.g. on low-energy neutrino and hadron interactions, or to future research on cosmic rays using nuclear emulsions carried by balloons.

Fukuda, T.; Fukunaga, S.; Ishida, H.; Matsumoto, T.; Matsuo, T.; Mikado, S.; Nishimura, S.; Ogawa, S.; Shibuya, H.; Sudou, J.; Ariga, A.; Tufanli, S.



Status and analysis system of directional dark matter search with nuclear emulsion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have been doing research and development for direct dark matter search by nuclear emulsion which is a solid state detector. This experiment enable directional detection of dark matter with the large mass target and model independent. Until now, we constructed a base of fully automatic analysis system and nuclear emulsion which can detect sub-micron tracks. We have demonstrated that it is possible to detect recoiled tracks of 100 nm or more by neutron irradiation. This track length is correspond to 37 keV in C(N,O) target. Additionally, we evaluated the angular resolution of the energy basis by using an ion implant system, and obtained 25 degrees or better resolution in 80 keV carbon ions. The fully automatic analysis system which can analyze very short tracks lead the experiment to next phase, we will do a quantitative study of the background toward gram scale test experiment at the Gran Sasso underground laboratory.

Katsuragawa, T.; Naka, T.; Asada, T.; Yoshimoto, M.; Hakamata, K.; Ishikawa, M.



A novel approach for fast scanning of nuclear emulsions with continuous motion of the microscope stage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nuclear emulsions have been used in particle physics experiments for many decades because of their unique spatial resolution. The use of nuclear emulsions as precise tracking detectors in large experiments has recently been made possible due to advances in the production of emulsion films and to the development of very fast automatic scanning devices. The present scanning speed of the European Scanning System (ESS), which has been developed within the OPERA Collaboration, is about 20 cm2/h. In addition to the scanning of OPERA films, the ESS is used for other applications with ever-growing demands for scanning speed, such as the muon radiography of volcanoes. In order to further increase the scanning speed of the ESS, we are testing a novel approach different from the standard stop-and-go motion of the microscope stage in the horizontal plane. Indeed we perform data acquisition with the stage moving at constant speed, using an objective lens with wide field of view. Unlike the implementation realized in Japan where the movement of objective lens and stage are synchronized to pile up images of the same view in a vertical stack, in this approach only the stage is moving horizontally. Thus images at different depths are not fully overlapped and special care is needed in the reconstruction. This approach can give a substantial increase in the scanning speed, especially for thin emulsion layers and wide field of view. In this paper we demonstrate that, after applying special corrections, the emulsion data quality can be as good as with the standard stop-and-go approach. This technique allows to double the scanning speed of the ESS, bringing it to 40 cm2/h without any hardware modification.

Aleksandrov, A.; Tioukov, V.



Phase transitions and microstructure of emulsion systems prepared with acylglycerols/zinc stearate emulsifier.  


The emulsification processes, during which acylglycerols/zinc stearate emulsifier, water, and oil phase formed ternary systems, such as water-in-oil (W/O) emulsions, oil-in-water (O/W) dispersions, and unstable oil-water mixtures, were investigated in order to characterize the progressive transformations of the dispersed systems. The type, structure, and phase transitions of the systems were found to be determined by temperature and water phase content. Crystallization of the emulsifier caused the destabilization and subsequent phase inversion of the emulsions studied, at a temperature of 60-61 degrees C. The observed destabilization was temporary and led, at lower temperature, to W/O emulsions, "O/W + O" systems, or O/W dispersions, depending on the water content. Simultaneous emulsification and cooling of 20-50 wt % water systems resulted in the formation of stable W/O emulsions that contained a number of large water droplets with dispersed oil globules inside them ("W/O + O/W/O"). In water-rich systems (60-80 wt % of water), crystallization of the emulsifier was found to influence the formation of crystalline vesicle structures that coexisted, in the external water phase, with globules of crystallized oil phase. Results of calorimetric, rheological, and light scattering experiments, for the O/W dispersions obtained, indicate the possible transition of a monostearoylglycerol-based alpha-crystalline gel phase to a coagel state, in these multicomponent systems. PMID:16519445

Macierzanka, Adam; Szelag, Halina; Moschakis, Thomas; Murray, Brent S



Continuous phases in emulsions of three liquids  

SciTech Connect

For three-phase (macro)emulsions formed by the top (T), middle (M), and bottom (B) phases of amphiphile/oil/water systems, it has been variously stated in the literature either (1) that the continuous phase is always M or (2) that the continuous phase is B below the phase inversion temperature (PIT) and T above the PIT. We show by means of isothermal electrical conductivity measurements at various temperatures on emulsions of known phase volume fractions that neither hypothesis is generally correct. For our experimental conditions the [open quotes]choice[close quotes] of continuous phase depends on the phase volume fractions, and at all temperatures - by appropriate choice of phase volume fractions - any of T, M, or B may be made the continuous phase. 21 refs., 6 figs.

Smith, D.H. (Morgantown Energy Technology Center, WV (United States) Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman (United States)); Johnson, G.K. (Morgantown Energy Technology Center, WV (United States)); Dadyburjor, D.B. (West Virginia Univ., Morgantown (United States))



Automatic readout for nuclear emulsions in muon radiography of volcanoes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nuclear emulsions are an effective choice in many scenarios of volcano radiography by cosmic-ray muons. They are cheap and emulsion-based detectors require no on-site power supply. Nuclear emulsion films provide sub-micrometric tracking precision and intrinsic angular accuracy better than 1 mrad. Imaging the inner structure of a volcano requires that the cosmic-ray absorption map be measured on wide angular range. High-absorption directions can be probed by allowing for large statistics, which implies a large overall flux, i.e. wide surface for the detector. A total area of the order of a few m2 is nowadays typical, thanks to the automatic readout tools originally developed for high-energy physics experiments such as CHORUS, PEANUT, OPERA. The European Scanning System is now being used to read out nuclear emulsion films exposed to cosmic rays on the side of volcanoes. The structure of the system is described in detail with respect to both hardware and software. Its present scanning speed of 20 cm2/h/side/microscope is suitable to fulfil the needs of the current exposures of nuclear emulsion films for muon radiograph, but it is worth to notice that applications in volcano imaging are among the driving forces pushing to increase the performances of the system. Preliminary results for the Unzen volcano of a joint effort by research groups in Italy and Japan show that the current system is already able to provide signal/background ratio in the range 100÷10000:1, depending on the quality cuts set in the off-line data analysis. The size of the smallest detectable structures in that experimental setup is constrained by the available statistics in the region of highest absorption to about 50 mrad, or 22 m under the top of the mountain. Another exposure is currently taking data at the Stromboli volcano. Readout of the exposed films is expected to begin in March 2012, and preliminary results will be available soon after. An effort by several universities and INFN has already started to increase the scanning speed, to exceed 100 cm2/h and approach the order of magnitude of 1000 cm2/h. Muon radiography also demands high signal/background ratio to probe high absorption regions in volcanoes. A new camera, a new image acquisition device, an improved motion control board and extensive use of GPU-based processing are the keys to make a new leap in speed while even improving data quality. With most of the new hardware already finalised, software development is quickly progressing, and a stable, user-friendly and cheap prototype is expected to be ready to take data already this summer. The amount of raw data collected is typically of the order of 10 TB/m2. The operation of automatic microscopes is thus complemented with an automatic data management and processing system based on a distributed computing model. The processing power can be scaled up linearly by just increasing the number of available computers. An evolution is underway on this side too, and algorithms designed for GPU-based processing will soon help increase the available power while decreasing the overall cost of typical installations.

Aleksandrov, A.; Bozza, C.; Consiglio, L.; D'Ambrosio, N.; De Lellis, G.; Di Crescenzo, A.; Di Marco, N.; Kose, U.; Lauria, A.; Medinaceli, E.; Miyamoto, S.; Montesi, C.; Pupilli, F.; Rescigno, R.; Russo, A.; Sirignano, C.; Stellacci, S. M.; Strolin, P.; Tioukov, V.



Imaging techniques applied to characterize bitumen and bituminous emulsions.  


The purpose of this article is to present some important advances in the imaging techniques currently used in the characterization of bitumen and bituminous emulsions. Bitumen exhibits some properties, such as a black colour and a reflecting surface at rest, which permit the use of optical techniques to study the macroscopic behaviour of asphalt mixes in the cold mix technology based on emulsion use. Imaging techniques allow monitoring in situ the bitumen thermal sensitivity as well as the complex phenomenon of emulsion breaking. Evaporation-driven breaking was evaluated from the shape of evaporating emulsion drops deposited onto non-porous and hydrophobic substrates. To describe the breaking kinetics, top-view images of a drying emulsion drop placed on an aggregate sheet were acquired and processed properly. We can conclude that computer-aided image analysis in road pavement engineering can elucidate the mechanism of breaking and curing of bituminous emulsion. PMID:17825782

Rodríguez-Valverde, M A; Ramón-Torregrosa, P; Páez-Dueñas, A; Cabrerizo-Vílchez, M A; Hidalgo-Alvarez, R



Turbulent flow of oil-water emulsions with polymer additives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The article outlines direct and reverse oil-water emulsions. Microphotography study of these emulsions was carried out. The effect of water-soluble and oil soluble polymers on the emulsion structure and their turbulent flow velocity in cylindrical channel was investigated. It has been experimentally proven that if the fluid being transported is not homogeneous, but a two-phase oil-water emulsion, only the polymer that is compatible with dispersion medium and capable of dissolving in this medium can reduce the hydrodynamic resistance of the fluid flow. Thus, the resistance in direct emulsions can be reduced by water- soluble polyacrylamide, while oil-soluble polyhexene can be applied for reverse emulsions.

Manzhai, V. N.; Monkam Clovis Le Grand, Monkam; Abdousaliamov, A. V.



Biomedical Applications of Emulsion Templated Scaffolds  

E-print Network

. Furthermore, the emulsion structure-property relationships explored here can be used in designing future polyHIPEs for tissue engineering or other applications. iv DEDICATION I would like to thank my family and friends for shaping me... into the person I am today, and my wife, Stephanie, for believing in me even when I did not. v ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS My time here in “Aggieland” has been a formative part of my education, career, and life, in part because of all those who helped...

Moglia, Robert Scott



Emulsions Containing Perfluorocarbon Support Cell Cultures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Addition of emulsion containing perfluorocarbon liquid to aqueous cell-culture medium increases capacity of medium to support mammalian cells. FC-40 Fluorinert (or equivalent) - increases average density of medium so approximately equal to that of cells. Cells stay suspended in medium without mechanical stirring, which damages them. Increases density enough to prevent cells from setting, and increases viscosity of medium so oxygen bubbled through it and nutrients stirred in with less damage to delicate cells.

Ju, Lu-Kwang; Lee, Jaw Fang; Armiger, William B.



Intravenous lipid emulsion for the treatment of drug toxicity.  


Intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE) has emerged as a powerful antidote for the treatment of drug toxicity in the past decade. Initial efficacy of ILE was shown in the setting of local anesthetic systemic toxicity (LAST), but recent case reports suggest its consideration in a variety of other drug toxicities. In this review, we will summarize the experimental evidence as well as the clinical experience in using ILE as an antidote. Specifically, we will look at the evidence for using ILE in LAST as well as toxicity due to beta-blockers, calcium-channel blockers, and tricyclic antidepressants. We will also review the current dosing recommendations as well as potential side effects of ILE as an antidote. PMID:22733724

Ozcan, Mehmet S; Weinberg, Guy



Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Fibrotic Profile of Fish Oil Emulsions Used in Parenteral Nutrition-Associated Liver Disease  

PubMed Central

Home parenteral nutrition (PN) is associated with many complications including severe hepatobiliary dysfunction. Commercial ?-6 fatty acid-soybean based-lipid emulsions in PN may mediate long term PN associate liver disease (PNALD) whereas ?-3-fish oil parenteral emulsions have shown to reverse PNALD in children. However, its clinical effectiveness in adults has been scarcely reported. In this work, we study the role of soybean and fish oil lipid commercial emulsions on inflammatory and profibrotic liver markers in adults with long term PNALD and in in vitro cellular models. Inflammatory and profibrotic markers were measured in serum of ten adults with long term PNALD and in culture supernatants of monocytes. Liver epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) was induced by transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF?1) to evaluate in vitro liver fibrosis. Omegaven®, a 100% fish oil commercial emulsion, was infused during four months in two patients with severe long term PNALD reversing, at the first month, the inflammatory, profibrotic and clinical parameters of PNALD. The effect was maintained during the treatment course but impaired when conventional lipid emulsions were reintroduced. The other patients under chronic soybean oil-based PN showed elevated inflammatory and profibrotic parameters. In vitro human monocytes stimulated with lipopolysaccharide induced a strong inflammatory response that was suppressed by Omegaven®, but increased by soybean emulsions. In other experiments, TGF?1 induced EMT that was suppressed by Omegaven® and enhanced by soybean oil lipid emulsions. Omegaven® improves clinical, anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic parameters in adults with long-term home PNALD. PMID:25502575

Pastor-Clerigues, Alfonso; Marti-Bonmati, Ezequiel; Milara, Javier; Almudever, Patricia; Cortijo, Julio



[Multiple emulsions; bioactive compounds and functional foods].  


The continued appearance of scientific evidence about the role of diet and/or its components in health and wellness, has favored the emergence of functional foods which currently constitute one of the chief factors driving the development of new products. The application of multiple emulsions opens new possibilities in the design and development of functional foods. Multiple emulsions can be used as an intermediate product (food ingredient) into technological strategies normally used in the optimization of the presence of bioactive compounds in healthy and functional foods. This paper presents a summary of the types, characteristics and formation of multiple emulsions, possible location of bioactive compounds and their potential application in the design and preparation of healthy and functional foods. Such applications are manifested particularly relevant in relation to quantitative and qualitative aspects of lipid material (reduced fat/calories and optimization of fatty acid profile), encapsulation of bioactive compounds mainly hydrophilic and sodium reduction. This strategy offers interesting possibilities regarding masking flavours and improving sensory characteristics of foods. PMID:24160194

Jiménez-Colmenero, Francisco



Destabilization of cutting oil emulsions using inorganic salts as coagulants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oily wastewater generated by steel and metal-finishing industries form emulsions which typically contain 100 to 30?000ppm of emulsified oil. Data on the breaking of O\\/W emulsions of commercial soluble oils using CaCl2 and AlCl3 as coagulants are reported. Demulsification rates were studied in a temperature range of 20 to 80°C and electrolyte concentrations of 5 to 40gl?1. The emulsion breaking

G R??os; C Pazos; J Coca



40 CFR 443.10 - Applicability; description of the asphalt emulsion subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Applicability; description of the asphalt emulsion subcategory. 443.10 Section...ASPHALT) POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asphalt Emulsion Subcategory § 443.10 Applicability; description of the asphalt emulsion subcategory. The...



40 CFR 467.60 - Applicability; description of the drawing with emulsions or soaps subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Applicability; description of the drawing with emulsions or soaps subcategory. 467.60 Section...POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Drawing With Emulsions or Soaps Subcategory § 467.60 ...Applicability; description of the drawing with emulsions or soaps subcategory. This...



40 CFR 467.20 - Applicability; description of the rolling with emulsions subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...description of the rolling with emulsions subcategory. 467.20 Section...POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Rolling With Emulsions Subcategory § 467.20 Applicability...description of the rolling with emulsions subcategory. This...




PubMed Central

Thickened oil-in-water emulsions are useful model foods in rat studies due to their high acceptance and similarity to foods consumed by humans. Previous work from this laboratory used oil-in-water emulsions thickened with a biopolymer blend containing starch. Intake and effects of baclofen, a GABA-B agonist that decreases fat intake and drug self-administration, were reported, but the contribution of starch was not assessed. In the present study, intake and effects of baclofen were assessed in rats using emulsions prepared with two fat types (32% vegetable shortening, 32% corn oil) and thickened with three biopolymer blends. One biopolymer blend contained starch and the other two did not. Daily 1-h intake of the vegetable shortening emulsion containing starch was significantly greater than the other emulsions. When starch was added to the emulsions originally containing no starch, intake significantly increased. Baclofen generally reduced intake of all emulsions regardless of starch content and stimulated intake of chow. However, effects were more often significant for vegetable shortening emulsions. This report: 1) demonstrates that products used to prepare thickened oil-in-water emulsions have significant effects on rat ingestive behavior, and 2) confirms the ability of baclofen to reduce consumption of fatty foods, while simultaneously stimulating intake of chow. PMID:21855586

Wang, Y; Wilt, DC; Wojnicki, FHE; Babbs, RK; Coupland, JN; Corwin, RLC



Field testing of asphalt-emulsion radon-barrier system  

SciTech Connect

Three years of laboratory and field testing have demonstrated that asphalt emulsion seals are effective radon diffusion barriers. Both laboratory and field tests in 1979, 1980 and 1981 have shown that an asphalt emulsion seal can reduce radon fluxes by greater than 99.9%. The effective diffusion coefficient for the various asphalt emulsion admix seals averages about 10/sup -6/ cm/sup 2//s. The 1981 joint field test is a culmination of all the technology developed to date for asphalt emulsion radon barrier systems. Preliminary results of this field test and the results of the 1980 field test are presented. 18 figures, 6 tables.

Hartley, J.N.; Freeman, H.D.; Baker, E.G.; Elmore, M.R.; Nelson, D.A.; Voss, C.F.; Koehmstedt, P.L.



Induction of Hyperlipidemia by Intravenous Infusion of Tallow Emulsion Causes Insulin Resistance in Holstein Cows  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective was to test whether the induction of elevated blood nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) by i.v. infusion of a tallow emulsion altered glucose tolerance andresponsivenessto insulininHolsteincows. Sixnon- lactating, nongestating Holstein cows were assigned to a crossover design. One cow was excluded before initiation of the experiment because of complications from mastitis. Treatments consisted of 11-h i.v. infu- sions of

J. A. A. Pires; A. H. Souza; R. R. Grummer



Bedside to bench: The risk of bleeding with parenteral omega-3 lipid emulsion therapy.  


Our clinical experience led us to reassess the effect of sole omega-3 lipid therapy on hemostasis. We compared thromboelastography platelet mapping in neonatal piglets given sole omega-3 lipid. We identified abnormalities in reaction time (P = .025) and the arachidonic acid pathway (P = .025). The potential for bleeding complications from parenteral omega-3 lipid emulsion therapy in high-risk infants with liver disease has been dismissed but, on the basis of this data, should be reconsidered. PMID:24321533

Dicken, Bryan J; Bruce, Aisha; Samuel, Tarah M; Wales, Paul W; Nahirniak, Susan; Turner, Justine M



Cold heat-release characteristics of phase-change emulsion by air-emulsion direct-contact heat exchange method  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with cold heat-release characteristics of the oil (tetradecane, C14H30, latent heat 229 kJ\\/kg, melting point 278.9 K)\\/water emulsion as a latent heat-storage material having a low melting point. An air-emulsion direct-contact heat exchange method was selected for the cold heat-release from the emulsion layer including solidified tetradecane. The temperature effectiveness, the sensible heat release time and the

Shin-Ichi Morita



A novel approach to dark matter search based on nanometric emulsions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The most convincing candidate as main constituent of the dark matter in the Universe consists of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMP). WIMPs must be electrically neutral and interact with a very low cross-section (? < 10?40 cm2) which makes them detectable in direct searches only through the observation of nuclear recoils induced by the WIMP rare scatterings. In the experiments carried out so far, recoiled nuclei are searched for as a signal over a background produced by Compton electrons and neutron scatterings. Signal found by some experiments have not been confirmed by other techniques. None of these experiments is able to detect the track, typically less than one micron long, of the recoiled nucleus and therefore none is able to directly detect the incoming direction of WIMPs. We propose an R&D program for a new experimental method able to observe the track of the scattered nucleus based on new developments in the nuclear emulsion technique: films with nanometric silver grains, expansion of emulsions and very fast completely automated scanning systems. Nuclear emulsions would act both as the WIMP target and as the tracking detector able to reconstruct the direction of the recoiled nucleus. This unique characteristic would provide a new and unambiguous signature of the presence of the dark matter in our galaxy.

Alexandrov, A.; Asada, T.; D'Ambrosio, N.; De Lellis, G.; Di Crescenzo, A.; Di Marco, N.; Furuya, S.; Gentile, V.; Hakamata, K.; Ishikawa, M.; Katsuragawa, T.; Kuwabara, K.; Machii, S.; Naka, T.; Pupilli, F.; Sirignano, C.; Tawara, Y.; Tioukov, V.; Umemoto, A.; Yoshimoto, M.



Steady drainage in emulsions: corrections for surface Plateau borders and a model for high aqueous volume fraction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We compare extensive experimental results for the gravity-driven steady drainage of oil-in-water emulsions with two theoretical predictions, both based on the assumption of Poiseuille flow. The first is from standard foam drainage theory, applicable at low aqueous volume fractions, for which a correction is derived to account for the effects of the confinement of the emulsion. The second arises from considering the permeability of a model porous medium consisting of solid sphere packings, applicable at higher aqueous volume fractions. We find quantitative agreement between experiment and the foam drainage theory at low aqueous volume fractions. At higher aqueous volume fractions, the reduced flow rate calculated from the permeability theory approaches the master curve of the experimental data. Our experimental data demonstrates the analogy between the problem of electrical flow and liquid flow through foams and emulsions.

Péron, N.; Cox, S. J.; Hutzler, S.; Weaire, D.



Tocopherol and tocotrienol homologs in parenteral lipid emulsions  

PubMed Central

Parenteral lipid emulsions, which are made of oils from plant and fish sources, contain different types of tocopherols and tocotrienols (vitamin E homologs). The amount and types of vitamin E homologs in various lipid emulsions vary considerably and are not completely known. The objective of this analysis was to develop a quantitative method to determine levels of all vitamin E homologs in various lipid emulsions. An HPLC system was used to measure vitamin E homologs using a Pinnacle DB Silica normal phase column and an isocratic, n-hexane:1,4 dioxane (98:2) mobile phase. An optimized protocol was used to report vitamin E homolog concentrations in soybean oil-based (Intralipid®, Ivelip®, Lipofundin® N, Liposyn® III, and Liposyn® II), medium- and long-chain fatty acid-based (Lipofundin®, MCT and Structolipid®), olive oil-based (ClinOleic®), and fish oil-based (Omegaven®) and mixture of these oils-based (SMOFlipid®, Lipidem®) commercial parenteral lipid emulsions. Total content of all vitamin E homologs varied greatly between different emulsions, ranging from 57.9 to 383.9 µg/mL. Tocopherols (?, ?, ?, ?) were the predominant vitamin E homologs for all emulsions, with tocotrienol content < 0.3%. In all of the soybean emulsions, except for Lipofundin® N, the predominant vitamin E homolog was ?-tocopherol, which ranged from 57–156 µg/mL. ClinOleic® predominantly contained ?-tocopherol (32 µg/mL), whereas ?-tocopherol content in Omegaven® was higher than most of the other lipid emulsions (230 µg/mL). Practical applications The information on the types and quantity of vitamin E homologs in various lipid emulsions will be extremely useful to physicians and healthcare personnel in selecting appropriate lipid emulsions that are exclusively used in patients with inadequate gastrointestinal function, including hospitalized and critically ill patients. Some emulsions may require vitamin E supplementation in order to meet minimal human requirements.

Xu, Zhidong; Harvey, Kevin A; Pavlina, Thomas M; Zaloga, Gary P; Siddiqui, Rafat A



Characterisation of spray-dried emulsions with mixed fat phases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fat encapsulation in spray-dried protein-stabilised emulsions is known to depend on the choice of protein, the emulsion droplet size, and the melting point of the fat. However, the fat encapsulation may also depend on the fat crystal habit. Fats may crystallise in three different forms ?, ?? and ?, of which the ?-form is thermodynamically stable. The ?-form is obtained

Anna Millqvist-Fureby



Studies on the temperature performance of SBR modified asphalt emulsion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) modified asphalt emulsions were prepared by means of SBR latex adding to aqueous solution, and it is an energy-saving, ecologically safe material because it does not need any heating processes creating gas emission and fire hazard during its use. The objective of this work was to analyze the temperature performance of SBR modified asphalt emulsions for

Qinqin Zhang; Weiyu Fan; Tiezhu Wang; Guozhi Nan



Zero-Valent Metal Emulsion for Reductive Dehalogenation of DNAPLs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A zero-valent metal emulsion is used to dehalogenate solvents, such as pooled dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs), including trichloroethylene (TCE). The zero-valent metal emulsion contains zero-valent metal particles, a surfactant, oil and water, The preferred zero-valent metal particles are nanoscale and microscale zero-valent iron particles.

Reinhart, Debra R. (Inventor); Clausen, Christian (Inventor); Gelger, Cherie L. (Inventor); Quinn, Jacqueline (Inventor); Brooks, Kathleen (Inventor)



Zero-Valent Metal Emulsion for Reductive Dehalogenation of DNAPLS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A zero-valent metal emulsion is used to dehalogenate solvents, such as pooled dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs), including trichloroethylene (TCE). The zero-valent metal emulsion contains zero-valent metal particles, a surfactant, oil and water. The preferred zero-valent metal particles are nanoscale and microscale zero-valent iron particles

Reinhart, Debra R. (Inventor); Clausen, Christian (Inventor); Geiger, Cherie L. (Inventor); Quinn, Jacqueline (Inventor); Brooks, Kathleen (Inventor)



Nanoscale and Microscale Iron Emulsions for Treating DNAPL  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study demonstrated the feasibility of using emulsified nanoscale and microscale iron particles to enhance dehalogenation of (Dense Non-Aqueous Phase Liquid) DNAPL free-phase. The emulsified system consisted of a surfactant-stabilized, biodegradable oil-in-water emulsion with nanoscale or microscale iron particles contained within the emulsion droplets. It was demonstrated that DNAPLs, such as trichloroethene (TCE), diffuse through the oil membrane of the emulsion particle whereupon they reach an aqueous interior and the surface of an iron particle where dehalogenation takes place. The hydrocarbon reaction by-products of the dehalogenation reaction, primarily ethene (no chlorinated products detected), diffuse out of the emulsion droplet. This study also demonstrated that an iron-emulsion system could be delivered in-situ to the DNAPL pool in a soil matrix by using a simulated push well technique. Iron emulsions degraded pure TCE at a rate comparable to the degradation of dissolved phase TCE by iron particles, while pure iron had a very low degradation rate for free-phase TCE. The iron-emulsion systems can be injected into a sand matrix where they become immobilized and are not moved by flowing water. It has been documented that surfactant micelles possess the ability to pull pooled TCE into emulsion droplets where degradation of TCE takes place.

Geiger, Cherie L.



Synthesis of metallic nanoshells on porphyrin-stabilized emulsions  


Metal nanostructures formed by photocatalytic interfacial synthesis using a porphyrin-stabilized emulsion template and the method for making the nanostructures. Catalyst-seeded emulsion droplets are employed as templates for hollow-nanoshell growth. The hollow metal nanospheres may be formed with or without inclusions of other materials.

Wang, Haorong (Albuquerque, NM); Song, Yujiang (Albuquerque, NM); Shelnutt, John A. (Tijeras, NM); Medforth, Craig J. (Winters, CA)



Spatially resolved emulsion droplet sizing using inverse Abel transforms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pulsed field gradient (PFG) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is well established as a tool for determining emulsion droplet-size distributions via measurement of restricted self-diffusion. Most measurements made to date have not been spatially resolved, but have measured an average size distribution for a certain volume of emulsion. This paper demonstrates a rapid method of performing spatially resolved, restricted diffusion measurements,

K. G. Hollingsworth; M. L. Johns



Emulsion design to improve the delivery of functional lipophilic components.  


The food industry has used emulsion science and technology for many years to create a diverse range of food products, such as milk, cream, soft drinks, nutritional beverages, dressings, mayonnaise, sauces, dips, deserts, ice cream, margarine, and butter. The majority of these food products are conventional oil-in-water (O/W) or water-in-oil (W/O) type emulsions. Recently, there has been increasing interest within the food industry in either improving or extending the functional performance of foods using novel structured emulsions. This article reviews recent developments in the creation of structured emulsions that could be used by the food and other industries, including nanoemulsions, multiple emulsions, multilayer emulsions, solid lipid particles, and filled hydrogel particles. These structured emulsions can be produced from food-grade [generally recognized as safe (GRAS)] ingredients (e.g., lipids, proteins, polysaccharides, surfactants, and minerals), using simple processing operations (e.g., mixing, homogenizing, and thermal processing). The structure, production, performance, and potential applications of each type of structured emulsion system are discussed. PMID:22129337

McClements, David Julian



Absorption of slow K- mesons in nuclear emulsion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The absorption of slow K- mesons in nuclear emulsion through the mesonic and nonmesonic channels has been measured. It has been shown that K- mesons are absorbed in the surface (diffuse) layer of a nucleus. The results are in qualitative agreement with theoretical calculations involving the mesonic and nonmesonic potentials of the absorption of kaons by light and heavy nuclei of nuclear emulsion.

Dubinina, V. V.; Egorenkova, N. P.; Pozharova, E. A.; Smirnitsky, V. A.



Notes & Tips A streamlined protocol for emulsion polymerase chain reaction  

E-print Network

Notes & Tips A streamlined protocol for emulsion polymerase chain reaction and subsequent online 25 November 2010 a b s t r a c t Compartmentalization of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) reduces denaturation steps in PCR [3]. A water-in-oil emulsion allows many reactions to occur inde- pendently

Konthur, Zoltán


Water-in-diesel emulsions and related systems.  


Water-in-diesel emulsions are fuels for regular diesel engines. The advantages of an emulsion fuel are reductions in the emissions of nitrogen oxides and particulate matters, which are both health hazardous, and reduction in fuel consumption due to better burning efficiency. An important aspect is that diesel emulsions can be used without engine modifications. This review presents the influence of water on the emissions and on the combustion efficiency. Whereas there is a decrease in emissions of nitrogen oxides and particulate matters, there is an increase in the emissions of hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide with increasing water content of the emulsion. The combustion efficiency is improved when water is emulsified with diesel. This is a consequence of the microexplosions, which facilitate atomization of the fuel. The review also covers related fuels, such as diesel-in-water-in-diesel emulsions, i.e., double emulsions, water-in-diesel microemulsions, and water-in-vegetable oil emulsions, i.e., biodiesel emulsions. A brief overview of other types of alternative fuels is also included. PMID:16806033

Lif, Anna; Holmberg, Krister



Maximizing the stability of pyrolysis oil/diesel fuel emulsions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Several emulsions consisting of biomass pyrolysis oil (bio-oil) in diesel fuel were produced and analyzed for stability over time. An ultrasonic probe was used to generate microscopic droplets of bio-oil suspended in diesel fuel, and this emulsion was stabilized using surfactant chemicals. The most...


Ultrasonic Production of Nano-Size Dispersions and Emulsions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultrasound is a well-established method for particle size reduction in dispersions and emulsions. Ultrasonic processors are used in the generation of nano-size material slurries, dispersions and emulsions because of the potential in the deagglomeration and the reduction of primaries. These are the mechanical effects of ultrasonic cavitation. Ultrasound can also be used to influence chemical reactions by the cavitation energy.

Thomas Hielscher



Domain and droplet sizes in emulsions stabilized by colloidal particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Particle-stabilized emulsions are commonly used in various industrial applications. These emulsions can present in different forms, such as Pickering emulsions or bijels, which can be distinguished by their different topologies and rheology. We numerically investigate the effect of the volume fraction and the uniform wettability of the stabilizing spherical particles in mixtures of two fluids. For this, we use the well-established three-dimensional lattice Boltzmann method, extended to allow for the added colloidal particles with non-neutral wetting properties. We obtain data on the domain sizes in the emulsions by using both structure functions and the Hoshen-Kopelman (HK) algorithm, and we demonstrate that both methods have their own (dis)advantages. We confirm an inverse dependence between the concentration of particles and the average radius of the stabilized droplets. Furthermore, we demonstrate the effect of particles detaching from interfaces on the emulsion properties and domain-size measurements.

Frijters, Stefan; Günther, Florian; Harting, Jens



Rejuvenation of Spent Media via Supported Emulsion Liquid Membranes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The overall goal of this project was to maximize the reuseability of spent fermentation media. Supported emulsion liquid membrane separation, a highly efficient extraction technique, was used to remove inhibitory byproducts during fermentation; thus, improve the yield while reducing the need for fresh water. The key objectives of this study were: (1) Develop an emulsion liquid membrane system targeting low molecular weight organic acids which has minimal toxicity on a variety of microbial systems. (2) Conduct mass transfer studies to allow proper modeling and design of a supported emulsion liquid membrane system. (3) Investigate the effect of gravity on emulsion coalescence within the membrane unit. (4) Access the effect of water re-use on fermentation yields in a model microbial system. and (5) Develop a perfusion-type fermentor utilizing a supported emulsion liquid membrane system to control inhibitory fermentation byproducts (not completed due to lack of funds)

Wiencek, John M.



Novel sample preparation method of polymer emulsion for SEM observation.  


The aim of this study was to design a simple and reliable method for obtaining the detailed information about the average size, size distribution, and the surface morphology of particles with variation of the sample preparation of a polymer emulsion. In this work, the characteristic features of the particles of rosin size with high viscosity were first described by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The morphologies of polymer emulsion of solid lipid nanoparticles and of the microspheres were observed. The advantage of the method is that not only the true size and shape of emulsion particles can be shown, but the problem of high-viscosity emulsion that prevents there study with SEM is solved. Using this new method, the micromorphology and size distribution of the emulsion particles with different viscosities have been clearly observed. PMID:17576124

Xu, Jing; Hou, Zhaosheng; Li, Tianduo



Spatially resolved emulsion droplet sizing using inverse Abel transforms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pulsed field gradient (PFG) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is well established as a tool for determining emulsion droplet-size distributions via measurement of restricted self-diffusion. Most measurements made to date have not been spatially resolved, but have measured an average size distribution for a certain volume of emulsion. This paper demonstrates a rapid method of performing spatially resolved, restricted diffusion measurements, which enables emulsion droplet sizing to be spatially resolved as a function of radius in cylindrical geometries or pipes. This is achieved by the use of an Abel transform. The technique is demonstrated in various annular systems containing two emulsions, with different droplet-size distributions, and/or a pure fluid. It is also shown that by modifying the pulse sequence by the inclusion of flow-compensating magnetic field gradients, the technique can measure spatially resolved droplet-size distributions in flowing emulsions, with potential applications in spatially resolved on-line droplet-size analysis.

Hollingsworth, K. G.; Johns, M. L.



Temperature dependence of emulsion morphologies and the dispersion morphology diagram  

SciTech Connect

The recently constructed dispersion morphology diagram predicts that for amphiphile/oil/water systems there exists a range of concentrations within which only OL/AQ (oil-in-water) emulsions form and another range of concentrations for which the emulsion morphology is always AQ/OL (water-in-soil), regardless of whether the temperature is below the lower critical end-point temperature, above the upper critical end point, or between these two temperatures. These predictions contradict the PIT (phase inversion temperature) idea, that below the PIT amphiphile/oil/water systems for only oil-in-water emulsions and above the PIT they form only water-in-oil emulsions. By using electrical conductivity measurements to determine the emulsion morphologies at different temperatures for systems of constant composition, the authors show for the system studied that the previous predictions of the dispersion morphology diagram are correct.

Smith, D.H. (Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman (USA)); Covatch, G.C.; Lim, Kyunghee (Dept. of Energy, Morgantown, WV (USA))



Mechanistic study on demulsification of water-in-diluted bitumen emulsions by ethylcellulose.  


In our previous study, ethylcellulose (EC), an effective, nontoxic, and biodegradable natural polymer, was found effective in dewatering water-in-diluted bitumen emulsions. In this study, the demulsification mechanism of water-in-diluted bitumen emulsions by EC is investigated. In situ experiments using a micropipet apparatus provided direct evidence on both flocculation and coalescence of water droplets in diluted bitumen by EC. The addition of EC was found to decrease naphtha-diluted bitumen-water interfacial tension significantly. At the molecular level, AFM imaging revealed disruption of the continuous interfacial films formed from surface-active components of bitumen by EC. Our study clearly indicates that the demulsification by EC is through both flocculation and coalescence of water droplets, attained by competitive adsorption of EC at the oil-water interface and disruption of the original protective interfacial films formed from the surface-active components of bitumen. PMID:20175568

Feng, Xianhua; Mussone, Paolo; Gao, Song; Wang, Shengqun; Wu, Shiau-Yin; Masliyah, Jacob H; Xu, Zhenghe



Experimental measurements of water content in crude oil emulsions by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We measured the water content (0.01%-0.25% w/w) in crude oil emulsions using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). To improve the precision and range of the measurements, we used 1 and 10 mm thick quartz cells. The experiments were performed at 20 °C and the THz wave was transmitted vertically to the samples and detected on the other side. The experimental results suggest linear relation for the THz absorption coefficient and the water content of the crude oil emulsions in the observed range. The linear dependence facilitates high-precision measurements of the water content of crude oil. This suggests the potential of THz-TDS in determining the water concentration in crude oil and borehole fluid identification.

Jin, Wu-Jun; Zhao, Kun; Yang, Chen; Xu, Chang-Hong; Ni, Hao; Chen, Shao-Hua



Research of inverted emulsions properties on the base of new emulsifiers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emulsifiers on the base of tallol and ethanolamines derived acids have been researched in the paper. Electrical stability of emulsions drilling muds has been investigated. It is proved that synthesized emulsifiers according to emulsion stability can be divided into two groups. The first group is emulsifiers with high initial electrical stability but low emulsion stability under long-term storing, and the second group is emulsifiers with low electrical stability but with high emulsion stability. Emulsions flow characteristics have been researched. It is established that emulsifier on the base of ethanolamine provides better emulsion characteristics for drilling muds emulsions.

Minaev, K.; Epikhin, A.; Novoseltsev, D.; Andropov, M.; Yanovsky, V.; Ulyanova, O.



Stability of acidic egg white protein emulsions containing xanthan gum.  


The influence of xanthan gum concentration on the physicochemical stability of model oil-in-water emulsions prepared with egg white protein at pH 3.8 and containing 150 mM NaCl was investigated by following droplet aggregate formation, rheological changes, and serum separation with storage time. Egg white emulsions were more strongly flocculated and exhibited higher stability against creaming than those of yolk, irrespective of the presence or absence of xanthan. Depletion effects, originating from the presence in the continuous phase of the emulsions of nonadsorbing xanthan molecules, intensified droplet-droplet flocculation effects and resulted in large droplet flocs. At relatively low xanthan contents, the emulsions exhibited higher stability against creaming compared to the respective control emulsions probably due to the formation of a continuous droplet aggregate network structure. At higher xanthan contents, less extensive droplet interactions, due to slowly evolving microstructure of phase-separated xanthan-rich and xanthan-depleted regions, resulted in emulsions exhibiting increased stability against creaming. The role of interactions between protein molecules adsorbed on neighboring droplets in these changes and their effect on emulsion aging are discussed. PMID:17177555

Drakos, Antonios; Kiosseoglou, Vassilis



Factors that affect Pickering emulsions stabilized by graphene oxide.  


Stable Pickering emulsions were prepared using only graphene oxide (GO) as a stabilizer, and the effects of the type of oil, the sonication time, the GO concentration, the oil/water ratio, and the pH value on the stability, type, and morphology of these emulsions were investigated. In addition, the effects of salt and the extent of GO reduction on emulsion formation and stability were studied and discussed. The average droplet size decreased with sonication time and with GO concentration, and the emulsions tended to achieve good stability at intermediate oil/water ratios and at low pH values. In all solvents, the emulsions were of the oil-in-water type, but interestingly, some water-in-oil-in-water (w/o/w) multiple emulsion droplets were also observed with low GO concentrations, low pH values, high oil/water ratios, high salt concentrations, or moderately reduced GO in the benzyl chloride-water system. A Pickering emulsion stabilized by Ag/GO was also prepared, and its catalytic performance for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol was investigated. This research paves the way for the fabrication of graphene-based functional materials with novel nanostructures and microstructures. PMID:23647467

He, Yongqiang; Wu, Fei; Sun, Xiying; Li, Ruqiang; Guo, Yongqin; Li, Chuanbao; Zhang, Lu; Xing, Fubao; Wang, Wei; Gao, Jianping



Thermogelling emulsions for vascular embolization and sustained release of drugs.  


Thermogelling emulsion system was developed to function as an embolic agent and sustained release system. PEG-PLGA-PEG triblock copolymer was synthesized, and blended with oily phase (Lipiodol(R)) to constitute the thermogelling emulsions. Because the polymer-rich aqueous phase dramatically increases viscosity in response to temperature change, especially within the range between 20 and 30 degrees C, the emulsions produce a stop-flowing gel with oil droplets entrapped. Thereafter, paclitaxels were released from the oily reservoir of gelled emulsions in a controlled manner. Reduced burst effect and steady drug release with near zero-order release kinetics were observed. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were collected from fresh umbilical cords for in vitro antiangiogenesis test. It demonstrated that the sustained release of paclitaxel from emulsions inhibited growth of HUVEC and that the IC(50), calculated according to release rate, was consistent with that obtained from free drug study. In addition, the emulsions forming a depot in situ inside the injection site of the blood vessel in rabbit ear obstructed the blood flow, and being monitored under X-ray angiography. Taken together, this study proved the feasibility of the thermogelling emulsions for vascular embolization and sustained drug release. The results presented a potential system for arterial transcatheter embolization on hepatocellular carcinoma combined with anti-angiogeneic treatment. PMID:16037963

Kan, Pei; Lin, Xi-Zhang; Hsieh, Ming-Fa; Chang, Ken-Yuen



New apparatus for liquid-liquid extraction, "emulsion flow" extractor.  


A simple and low-cost apparatus for continuous and efficient liquid-liquid extraction, which does not need continual mechanical forces (stirring, shaking, etc.) other than solution sending, has newly been developed. This apparatus, named "emulsion flow" extractor, is composed of a column part where an emulsified state fluid flow (emulsion flow) is generated by spraying micrometer-sized droplets of an aqueous phase into an organic phase and a phase-separating part where the emulsion flow is destabilized by means of a sudden decrease in its vertical liner velocity due to a drastic increase in cross-section area of the emulsion flow passing through. In the present study, the performance of a desktop emulsion flow extractor in the extraction of Yb(III) and U(VI) from aqueous HNO(3) solutions into isooctane containing bis(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) was evaluated. The mixing efficiency of the emulsion flow extractor was found to be comparable with that of a popular liquid-liquid extractor, mixer-settler. Moreover, the emulsion flow extractor proved to have an overwhelming advantage in terms of phase-separating ability. PMID:21321440

Yanase, Nobuyuki; Naganawa, Hirochika; Nagano, Tetsushi; Noro, Junji



Mechanical characterization of diblock copolymer ``armored'' emulsion droplets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There has been an increased interest in block copolymer vesicles due to a plethora of possible application ranging from targeted drug delivery to cosmetically active agents. In this regard, understanding the physics of the block copolymer vesicle and its morphology is critical to the rational development of these technologies. As a step towards more complex vesicle structures, we describe experiments in which we carefully examine the interface and morphology of polystyrene-b-polyethyleneoxide (PS-PEO) emulsion drops. In our study, PS-PEO acts as a surfactant and at the toluene-water interface creates a monolayer, inhibiting drop recombination and minimizing interfacial energies. Our experiments are conducted in a water cell where the buoyant force is exploited to push drops against a thin sheet of mica. The shape of the drops is measured using an upright confocal microscope and compared with a Bashforth-Adams model in order to examine the mechanical response to the buoyant force. We observe unique dynamics as the drops buckle at short timescales trapping a small pocket of fluid which slowly drains away. Furthermore, the influence of polymer concentration, changes in pH and block copolymer architecture on the morphology and dynamics of the droplets is examined.

Rozairo, Damith P.; Croll, Andrew B.



Temperature dependence of emulsion morphologies and the dispersion morphology diagram. 2. Three-phase emulsions  

SciTech Connect

Using several different compositions of the (pseudo)ternary amphiphile/oil/`water` system C{sub 6}H{sub 13}(OC{sub 2}H{sub 4}){sub 2}-OH/n-tetradecane/aqueous 10 mM NaCl, we show by means of electrical conductivity measurements that the temperature dependencies of the emulsion morphologies were consistent with predictions from isothermal dispersion morphology diagrams, thus contradicting phase inversion temperature ideas. 26 refs., 8 figs.

Smith, D.H.; Johnson, G.K. [Morgantown Energy Technology Center, WV (United States)



Automatic scanning of nuclear emulsions with wide-angle acceptance for nuclear fragment detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nuclear emulsion, a tracking detector with sub-micron position resolution, has played a successful role in the field of particle physics and the analysis speed has been substantially improved by the development of automated scanning systems. This paper describes a newly developed automated scanning system and its application to the analysis of nuclear fragments emitted almost isotropically in nuclear evaporation. This system is able to recognize tracks of nuclear fragments up to |tan ?| < 3.0 (where ? is the track angle with respect to the perpendicular to the emulsion film), while existing systems have an angular acceptance limited to |tan ?| < 0.6. The automatic scanning for such a large angle track in nuclear emulsion is the first trial. Furthermore the track recognition algorithm is performed by a powerful Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) for the first time. This GPU has a sufficient computing power to process large area scanning data with a wide angular acceptance and enough flexibility to allow the tuning of the recognition algorithm. This new system will in particular be applied in the framework of the OPERA experiment: the background in the sample of ? decay candidates due to hadronic interactions will be reduced by a better detection of the emitted nuclear fragments.

Fukuda, T.; Fukunaga, S.; Ishida, H.; Kodama, K.; Matsuo, T.; Mikado, S.; Ogawa, S.; Shibuya, H.; Sudo, J.



Further progress for a fast scanning of nuclear emulsions with Large Angle Scanning System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The LASSO (Large Angle Scanning System for OPERA) is a scanning system designed in the framework of the OPERA experiment as a result of several R&Ds aimed to improve the performance of the European Scanning System (ESS) by increasing the scanning speed, the angular acceptance and the efficiency in microtrack reconstruction. The novel Continuous Motion (CM) scanning approach allows to double the ESS nominal speed without any changes in the hardware set-up. The LASSO modular design makes the system easily adaptable to new hardware. The novel microtrack reconstruction algorithm has been developed to be efficient in both standard Stop&Go (SG) and CM modes, performing a number of corrections during the processing like corrections for vibrations, optical distortions, field of view curvature. As an intermediate step it reconstructs silver grains positions inside emulsion layer to make a transition from 2D images to real 3D traces of a charged particle. This allows the algorithm to have no internal limits on the slope of microtracks being equally efficient on all angles. The LASSO has been used for about one year for mass production scanning of emulsion films of OPERA, Muon Radiography and also of films employed to study nuclear fragmentation of ion beams used in medical physics. More than 50000 cm2 of the emulsion surface have been analyzed during this period.

Alexandrov, A.; Tioukov, V.; Vladymyrov, M.



Microwave Enhanced Separation of Water-In-Oil Emulsions  

E-print Network

of electro magnetic waves. INTRODUCTION Viscous and stable water-in-oil emulsions are generated in various industrial operations, such as petroleum refining, natural gas pipeline opera bon, and cutting or grinding in equiprent fabrica tion. Since itis... and oil. For water-in-oil emulsion with 50% emulsified water, attenuation factor varies from 0.00876 em-I at 28?C to 0.00588 em-I at 69.3?C. For water-in-oil emulsion with 30% water, attenuation factor varies from 0.00463 em-I at 28.8?C to 0.00341 em...

Fang, C. S.; Lai, P.


Temperature dependence of emulsion morphologies and the dispersion morphology diagram for three-phase emulsions  

SciTech Connect

Using several different compositions of the (pseudo)ternary amphiphile/oil/{open_quotes}water{close_quotes} system C{sub 6}H{sub 13}(OC{sub 2}H{sub 4}){sub 2}OH/n-tetradecane/aqueous 10 mM NaCl that form oil-rich top phases (J), water-rich bottom phases ({Beta}), and middle-phase microemulsions (m), we showed by means of electrical conductivity measurements that the temperature dependencies of the three-phase emulsion morphologies were consistent with predictions from isothermal dispersion morphology diagrams, thus contradicting ideas derived from the PIT (phase inversion temperature) model for two-phase emulsions. In particular, we formed three-phase emulsions in which either (1) the continuous phase was an oil-rich phase (actually, m) below the PIT and the water-rich phase ({Beta}) above that temperature; (2) the water-rich phase was continuous both below and above the PIT; or (3) oil-rich phase was the continuous phase both below and above the PIT.

Smith, D.H.; Johnson, G.K. [Morgantown Energy Technology Center, WV (United States)



Cationic acrylamide emulsion polymer brine thickeners  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a thickened, solids free, aqueous drilling and servicing brine having a density of at least 14.4 ppg. comprising (a) an aqueous solution of at least one water-soluble salt of a multivalent metal, and (b) a cationic water-in-oil emulsion polymer of acrylamide or methacrylamide and a cationic monomer selected from the group consisting of a dialkylaminoalkyl acrylamide or methacrylamide, a trialkylaminoalkyl acrylamide or methacrylamide, a trialkylaminoalkyl acrylate or methacrylate, and a dialkyldialkyl ammonium halide. The acrylamide or methacrylamide to cationic monomer molar ratio of the polymer is about 70:30 to 95:5, the polymer having an I.V. in 1.0N KCl of about 1.0 to 7.0 dl/g and being present in a compatible and viscosifying amount; the thickened brine characterized by being substantially non-dilatent.

Gleason, P.A.; Piccoline, M.A.



Bacterial imprinting at Pickering emulsion interfaces.  


The tendency of bacteria to assemble at oil-water interfaces can be utilized to create microbial recognition sites on the surface of polymer beads. In this work, two different groups of bacteria were first treated with acryloyl-functionalized chitosan and then used to stabilize an oil-in-water emulsion composed of cross-linking monomers that were dispersed in aqueous buffer. Polymerization of the oil phase followed by removal of the bacterial template resulted in well-defined polymer beads bearing bacterial imprints. Chemical passivation of chitosan and cell displacement assays indicate that the bacterial recognition on the polymer beads was dependent on the nature of the pre-polymer and the target bacteria. The functional materials for microbial recognition show great potential for constructing cell-cell communication networks, biosensors, and new platforms for testing antibiotic drugs. PMID:25111359

Shen, Xiantao; Svensson Bonde, Johan; Kamra, Tripta; Bülow, Leif; Leo, Jack C; Linke, Dirk; Ye, Lei



Biofilm Formation in Microscopic Double Emulsion Droplets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In natural, medical, and industrial settings, there exist surface-associated communities of bacteria known as biofilms. These highly structured films are composed of bacterial cells embedded within self-produced extracellular matrix, usually composed of exopolysaccharides, proteins, and nucleic acids; this matrix serves to protect the bacterial community from antibiotics and environmental stressors. Here, we form biofilms encapsulated within monodisperse, microscopically-sized double emulsion droplets using microfluidics. The bacteria self-organize at the inner liquid-liquid droplet interfaces, multiply, and differentiate into extracellular matrix-producing cells, forming manifold three-dimensional shell-within-a-shell structures of biofilms, templated upon the inner core of spherical liquid droplets. By using microfluidics to encapsulate bacterial cells, we have the ability to view individual cells multiplying in microscopically-sized droplets, which allows for high-throughput analysis in studying the genetic program leading to biofilm development, or cell signaling that induces differentiation.

Chang, Connie; Weitz, David



Active Emulsions: Synchronization of Chemical Oscillators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We explore the dynamical behavior of emulsions consisting of nanoliter volume droplets of the oscillatory Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) reaction separated by a continuous oil phase. Some of the aqueous BZ reactants partition into the oil leading to chemical coupling of the drops. We use microfluidics to vary the size, composition and topology of the drops in 1D and 2D. Addition of a light sensitive catalyst to the drops and illumination with a computer projector allows each drop to be individually perturbed. A variety of synchronous regimes are found that systematically vary with the coupling strength and whether coupling is dominated by activatory or inhibitory species. In 1D we observe in- and anti-phase oscillations, stationary Turing patterns in which drops stop oscillating, but form spatially periodic patterns of drops in the oxidized and reduced states, and more complex combinations of stationary and oscillatory drops. In 2D, the attractors are more complex and vary with network topology and coupling strength. For hexagonal lattices as a function of increasing coupling strength we observe right and left handed rotating oscillations, mixed oscillatory and Turing states and finally full Turing states. Reaction -- diffusion models based on a simplified description of the BZ chemistry and diffusion of messenger species reproduce a number of the experimental results. For a range of parameters, a simplified phase oscillator model provides an intuitive understanding of the complex synchronization patterns. [4pt] ``Coupled oscillations in a 1D emulsion of Belousov--Zhabotinsky droplets,'' Jorge Delgado, Ning Li, Marcin Leda, Hector O. Gonzalez-Ochoa, Seth Fraden and Irving R. Epstein, Soft Matter, 7, 3155 (2011).

Fraden, Seth



Transport of Nitric Oxide by Perfluorocarbon Emulsion  

PubMed Central

Perfluorocarbon (PFC) emulsions can transport and release various gases based on concentration gradients. The objective of this study was to determine the possibility of carrying and delivering exogenous nitric oxide (NO) into the circulation by simply loading PFC emulsion with NO prior infusion. PFC was equilibrated with room air (PFC) or 300 ppm NO (PFC-NO) at atmospheric pressure. Isotonic saline solution was used as a volume control (Saline). PFC and PFC-NO were infused at a dose of 3.5 mL/kg in the hamster window chamber model. Blood chemistry, and systemic and microvascular hemodynamic response were measured. Infusion of PFC preloaded with NO reduced blood pressure, induced microvascular vasodilation and increased capillary perfusion; although these changes lasted less than 30 min post infusion. On the other hand, infusion of PFC (without NO) produced vasoconstriction; however, the vasoconstriction was followed by vasodilatation at 30 min post infusion. Plasma nitrite and nitrate increased 15 min after infusion of NO preloaded PFC compared to PFC, 60 min after infusion nitrite and nitrate were not different, and 90 min after infusion plasma S-nitrosothiols increased in both groups. Infusion of NO preloaded PFC resulted in acute vascular relaxation, where as infusion of PFC (without NO) produced vasoconstriction, potentially due to NO sequestration by the PFC micelles. The late effects of PFC infusion are due to NO redistribution and plasma S-nitrosothiols. Gas solubility in PFC can provide a tool to modulate plasma vasoactive NO forms availability and improve microcirculatory function and promote increased blood flow. PMID:23966236

Ortiz, Daniel; Briceño, Juan C.; Cabrales, Pedro



Yielding and flow of monodisperse emulsions  

SciTech Connect

The authors have measured the yield transition of monodisperse emulsions as the volume fraction, {phi}, and droplet radius, {alpha}, are varied. They study the crossover from the perturbative shear regime, which reflects the linear viscoelastic properties, to the steady shear regime, which reflects nonlinear, plastic flow. For small oscillatory strains of peak amplitude {gamma}, the peak stress, {tau}, is linearly proportional to {gamma}. As the strain is increased, the stress becomes nonlinear in {gamma} at the yield strain, {gamma}{sub y}. The {phi} dependence of {gamma}{sub y} is independent of {alpha} and exhibits a minimum near the critical volume fraction, {phi}{sub c} = 0.635, associated with the random close packing of monodisperse spheres. They show that the yield stress, {tau}{sub y}, increases dramatically as the volume fraction increases above {phi}{sub c}; {tau}{sub y} also scales with the Laplace pressure, {sigma}/{alpha}, where {sigma} is the interfacial tension. For comparison, they also determine the steady shear stress over a wide range of strain rates, {dot {gamma}}. Below {phi} = 0.70, the flow is homogeneous throughout the sample, while for higher {phi}, the emulsion fractures resulting in highly inhomogeneous flow along the fracture plane. Above {phi} = 0.58, the steady shear stress exhibits a low strain rate plateau which corresponds with the yield stress measured with the oscillatory technique. Moreover, {tau}{sub y} exhibits a robust power law dependence on {dot {gamma}} with exponents decreasing with {phi}, varying from 2/3 to {1/2}. Below {phi} = 0.58, associated with the colloidal glass transition, the plateau stress disappears entirely.

Mason, T.G.; Bibette, J. [Centre de Recherche Paul Pascal, Pessac (France)] [Centre de Recherche Paul Pascal, Pessac (France); Weitz [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy] [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy



Emulsion Polymerization of Butyl Acrylate: Spin Trapping and EPR Study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The propagating radical in the emulsion polymerization reaction of butyl acrylate was detected by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance spectroscopy using two spin trapping agents, 2-methyl-2nitrosopropane and alpha -N-tert-butylnitrone.

Kim, S.; Westmoreland, D.



Modular ‘Click-in-Emulsion’ Bone-Targeted Nanogels  

E-print Network

A new class of nanogel demonstrates modular biodistribution and affinity for bone. Nanogels, ~70 nm in diameter and synthesized via an astoichiometric click-chemistry in-emulsion method, controllably display residual, free ...

Heller, Daniel A.


Magnetically Recoverable Efficient Demulsifier for Water-in-Oil Emulsions.  


A magnetically recoverable and efficient demulsifier is shown to demulsify surfactant-stable water-in-oil emulsions rapidly. Ferroferric oxide (Fe3 O4 ) particles are firstly coated by amorphous silicon dioxide (SiO2 ), and further functionalized with a commercial dodecyltrimethoxysilane solution (KH-1231). Owing to their paramagnetic properties, the demulsifier particles can be easily recovered with a magnet. Upon addition of demulsifier to emulsions and subsequent sonification, the supernatant becomes completely transparent and no droplets are observed in the micrographs. It was also demonstrated that this demulsifier is effective for emulsions prepared with a variety of oils. Moreover, magnetically recovered demulsifier can be recycled after simple treatment without any decline of efficiency. This work presents a feasible approach for demulsifying water-in-oil emulsions, and has potential value in industry. PMID:25504588

Chen, Yuning; Lin, Xin; Liu, Na; Cao, Yingze; Lu, Fei; Xu, Liangxin; Feng, Lin



Fine grained nuclear emulsion for higher resolution tracking detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fine grained nuclear emulsion with several 10 nm silver halide crystals can detect submicron tracks. This detector is expected to be worked as dark matter detector with directional sensitive. Now, nuclear emulsion became possible to be produced at Nagoya University, and extreme fine grained nuclear emulsion with 20 nm diameter was produced. Using this emulsion and new reading out technique with expansion technique, for optical selection and X-ray microscopy, recoiled tracks induced by dark matter can be detected automatically. Then, readout efficiency is larger than 80% at 120 nm, and angular resolution for final confirmation with X-ray microscopy is 20°. In addition, we started to construct the R&D underground facility in Gran Sasso.

Naka, T.; Asada, T.; Katsuragawa, T.; Hakamata, K.; Yoshimoto, M.; Kuwabara, K.; Nakamura, M.; Sato, O.; Nakano, T.; Tawara, Y.; De Lellis, G.; Sirignano, C.; D'Ambrossio, N.



Particle tracking using confocal microscopy to probe the microrheology in a phase-separating emulsion containing nonadsorbing polysaccharide.  


Brownian diffusion of fluorescent microspheres (0.21, 0.5, and 0.89 microm diameter) in conjunction with confocal microscopy has been used to monitor the microrheology of phase-separated regions in a protein-stabilized oil-in-water emulsion containing various low concentrations of a nonadsorbing polysaccharide, xanthan gum. The sensitivity and reliability of the technique has been demonstrated in test experiments on (i) aqueous glycerol solutions and (ii) concentrated surfactant-stabilized emulsions (30-60 vol % oil, 1-2 wt % Tween 20). From particle tracking measurements on the caseinate-stabilized emulsions (30 vol % oil, 1.4 wt % sodium caseinate, pH 7) containing xanthan (0.03-0.07 wt %), the apparent viscosity in the oil-droplet-rich regions has been estimated to be up to 10(3) times higher than that in the phase-separated xanthan-rich regions. This means that our previously determined shape relaxation times for xanthan-containing blobs in the same systems can be attributed to the dominant viscoelasticity of the surrounding regions of concentrated oil droplets and not to the rheology of the xanthan-rich blobs themselves. These data provide clear and unequivocal evidence for the dominant role of the interconnected depletion-flocculated network of oil droplets in the physicochemical mechanism by which hydrocolloid thickeners control the creaming instability of concentrated oil-in-water emulsions. PMID:16649786

Moschakis, Thomas; Murray, Brent S; Dickinson, Eric



Preparation and characterization of electrospun PLGA/gelatin nanofibers as a drug delivery system by emulsion electrospinning.  


Novel biocompatible poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanofiber mats with favorable biocompatibility and good mechanical strength were prepared, which could serve as an innovative type of tissue engineering scaffold or an ideal controllable drug delivery system. Both hydrophobic and hydrophilic drugs, Cefradine and 5-fluorouracil were successfully loaded into PLGA nanofiber mats by emulsion electrospinning. The natural bioactive protein gelatin (GE) was incorporated into the nanofiber mats to improve the surface properties of the materials for cell adhesion. Nanofibrous scaffolds were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, contact angle and tensile measurements. Emulsion electrospun fibers with GE had perfect hydrophilic and good mechanical property. The in vitro release test showed thedrugs released from emulsion electrospun fibers, which achieved lower burst release. The cells cytotoxicity experiment indicated that emulsion electrospun fibers were less toxic and tended to promote fibroblasts cells attachment and proliferation, which implied that the electrospun fibers had promising potential application in tissue engineering or drug delivery. PMID:23647252

Hu, Jun; Wei, Junchao; Liu, Wanyun; Chen, Yiwang



Ion partitioning at the oil-water interface as a source of tunable electrostatic effects in emulsions with colloids.  


We present a combined experimental and theoretical investigation of the surprisingly strong electrostatic effects that can occur in mixtures of low- and high-polar liquids (e.g. oil-water emulsions), here in the presence of colloidal particles. For our experiments, we used confocal microscopy imaging, supplemented with electrophoresis and conductivity measurements. Theoretically, we studied our systems by means of a modified Poisson-Boltzmann theory, which takes into account image charge effects and the electrostatic self-energies of the micro-ions in the different dielectric media. Our results show that the unequal partitioning of micro-ions between the two liquid phases is the common driving force behind most of the observed electrostatic effects. The structural signatures of these effects typically develop on a time scale of hours to days and are qualitatively well-described by our theory. We demonstrate how the partitioning process and its associated phenomena can be controlled by shifting the balance of the interlocked ionic dissociation and partitioning equilibria. Moreover, we present strong experimental proof that the two-dimensional colloidal crystals at the oil-water interface are due to long-ranged Coulombic repulsion through the oil phase. The acquired insight in the role of electrostatics in oil-water emulsions is important for understanding the interactions in particle-stabilized ('Pickering') and charge-stabilized emulsions, emulsion production, encapsulation and self-assembly. PMID:18060171

Leunissen, Mirjam E; Zwanikken, Jos; van Roij, René; Chaikin, Paul M; van Blaaderen, Alfons



Imaging contrast effects in alginate microbeads containing trapped emulsion droplets.  


This study focuses on spherical microparticles made of cross-linked alginate gel and microcapsules composed of an oil-in-water emulsion where the continuous aqueous phase is cross-linked into an alginate gel matrix. We have investigated the use of these easily manufactured microbeads as contrast agents for the study of the flow properties of fluids using nuclear magnetic resonance imaging. Results demonstrate that combined spin-spin (T(2)) relaxation and diffusion contrast in proton NMR imaging can be used to distinguish among rigid polymer particles, plain alginate beads, and alginate emulsion beads. Multi-echo CPMG spin-echo imaging indicates that the average spin-lattice (T(1)) and spin-spin (T(2)) relaxation times of the plain alginate and alginate emulsion beads are comparable. Meanwhile, diffusion-weighted imaging produces sharp contrast between the two types of alginate beads, due to restricted diffusion inside the embedded oil droplets of the alginate emulsion beads. While the signal obtained from most materials is severely attenuated under applied diffusion gradients, the alginate emulsion beads maintain signal strength. The alginate emulsion beads were added to a suspension and imaged in an abrupt, annular expansion flow. The emulsion beads could be clearly distinguished from the surrounding suspending fluid and rigid polystyrene particles, through either T(2) relaxation or diffusion contrast. Such a capability allows future use of the alginate emulsion beads as tracer particles and as one particle type among many in a multimodal suspension where detailed concentration profiles or particle size separation must be quantified during flow. PMID:17600742

Hester-Reilly, Holly J; Shapley, Nina C



Generation of colloidal granules and capsules from double emulsion drops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Assemblies of colloidal particles are extensively used in ceramic processing, pharmaceuticals, inks and coatings. In this project, the aim was to develop a new technique to fabricate monodispersed colloidal assemblies. The use of microfluidic devices and emulsion processing allows for the fabrication of complex materials that can be used in a variety of applications. A microfluidic device is used to create monodispersed water/oil/water (w/o/w) double emulsions with interior droplets of colloidal silica suspension ranging in size from tens to hundreds of microns. By tailoring the osmotic pressure using glycerol as a solute in the continuous and inner phases of the emulsion, we can control the final volume size of the monodispersed silica colloidal crystals that form in the inner droplets of the double emulsion. Modifying the ionic strength in the colloidal dispersion can be used to affect the particle-particle interactions and crystal formation of the final colloidal particle. This w/o/w technique has been used with other systems of metal oxide colloids and cellulose nanocrystals. Encapsulation of the colloidal suspension in a polymer shell for the generation of ceramic-polymer core-shell particles has also been developed. These core-shell particles have spawned new research in the field of locally resonant acoustic metamaterials. Systems and chemistries for creating cellulose hydrogels within the double emulsions have also been researched. Water in oil single emulsions and double emulsions have been used to create cellulose hydrogel spheres in the sub-100 micron diameter range. Oil/water/oil double emulsions allow us to create stable cellulose capsules. The addition of a second hydrogel polymer, such as acrylate or alginate, further strengthens the cellulose gel network and can also be processed into capsules and particles using the microfluidic device. This work could have promising applications in acoustic metamaterials, personal care products, pharmaceuticals, and agricultural applications, among others.

Hess, Kathryn S.


8He nuclei stopped in nuclear track emulsion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ACCULINNA fragment separator in the G. N. Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions was used to irradiate a nuclear track emulsion by a beam of radioactive 8He nuclei of energy of 60 MeV and enrichment of about 80%. Measurements of 278 decays of 8He nuclei stopped in the emulsion allow one to evaluate possibilities of ?-spectrometry and to observe a thermal drift of 8He.

Zarubin, P. I.; Zarubina, I. G.; Artemenkov, D. A.; Bezbakh, A. A.; Bradnova, V.; Golovkov, M. S.; Gorshkov, A. V.; Farrag, Al-Z.; Kaminsky, G.; Kornegrutsa, N. K.; Krupko, S. A.; Mamatkulov, K. Z.; Kattabekov, R. R.; Rusakova, V. V.; Slepnev, R. S.; Stanoeva, R.; Stepantsov, S. V.; Fomichev, A. S.; Chudoba, V.



Development of Large Area Emulsion Chamber Methods with a Super Conducting Magnet for Observation of Cosmic Ray Nuclei from 1 GeV to 1,000 TeV (Emulsion Techniques)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The research developed the fundamental techniques of the emulsion chamber methods that permit measurements of the composition and energy spectra of cosmic rays at energies ranging from 1 GeV/n to over 1,000 TeV/n. The research program consisted of exploring new principles and techniques in measuring very high energy cosmic nuclei with large-area emulsion chambers for high statistics experiments. These tasks have been accomplished and their use was essential in successful analysis of the balloon-borne emulsion chamber experiments up to 10(exp 14) eV. It also provided the fundamental technologies for designing large-area detectors that are aimed at measuring the composition at above 1015 eV region. The latter is now partially succeeded by a NASA Mission Concept, Advanced Cosmic Composition Experiments on the Space Station (ACCESS). The cosmic ray group at the University of Alabama in Huntsville has performed technological R & D as well as contributing to the Japanese-American-Emulsion-Chamber-Experiments (JACEE) Collaboration with the regular data analysis. While primary research support for other institutions' efforts in the JACEE experiments came from NSF and DOE, primary support for the University of Alabama in Huntsville was this contract. Supplemental tasks to standardize the data base and hardware upgrades (automatized microscope) had this institutions cooperation. Investigation of new techniques in this program consisted of development of a fast calorimetry, magnetic/scattering selection of high momentum tracks for a pairmeter, and high statistics momentum measurements for low energy nuclei (E < 1 TeV/n). The highest energy calorimetry and a pairmeter have been considered as strawman instruments by the GOAL (Galactic Origin and Acceleration Limit) proposal of the NASA Cosmic Ray Working Group for long- duration balloon flights. We accomplished the objectives of the GOAL program with three circumpolar, Antarctic JACEE balloon flights during 1992 - 1994.

Takahashi, Yoshiyuki; Gregory, John C.; Tominaga, Taka; Dong, Bei Lei



Stabilization Mechanisms of Water-in-Crude Oil Emulsions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the lifting and production of crude oil, water/oil emulsions are created. They are stabilized by asphaltenes and resins which are colloidally dispersed in the crude oil. Asphaltenes consist mainly of polar heterocompounds. It is known that they decrease the interfacial tension between oil and water and form stable interfacial films. Both effects favour the formation and stabilization of emulsions. Resins are complex high-molecular-weight compounds that are not soluble in ethylacetate, but are soluble in n-heptane. Their interfacial activity is less than that of asphaltenes. The role of resins in stabilizing emulsions has also been debated in literature. This study reports the results of experimental investigation of various factors affecting the stability of emulsions which are considered to be undesirable for a number of reasons, including both up-stream and down-stream operation in the petroleum industry. It was found that, the (R/A) ratio affects the emulsion and dispersion stabilities. High resin/asphaltene ratios decrease the emulsion stability.

Nour, Abdurahman H.; Suliman, A.; Hadow, Mahmmoud M.


Stabilization/solidification of munition destruction waste by asphalt emulsion.  


Destruction of discarded military munitions in an explosion chamber produces two fractions of hazardous solid waste. The first one is scrap waste that remains in the chamber after explosion; the second one is fine dust waste, which is trapped on filters of gas products that are exhausted from the chamber after explosion. The technique of stabilization/solidification of the scrap waste by asphalt emulsion is described in this paper. The technique consists of simple mixing of the waste with anionic asphalt emulsion, or two-step mixing of the waste with cationic asphalt emulsion. These techniques are easy to use and the stabilized scrap waste proves low leachability of contained heavy metals assessed by TCLP test. Hence, it is possible to landfill the scrap waste stabilized by asphalt emulsion. If the dust waste, which has large specific surface, is stabilized by asphalt emulsion, it is not fully encapsulated; the results of the leaching tests do not meet the regulatory levels. However, the dust waste solidified by asphalt emulsion can be deposited into an asphalted disposal site of the landfill. The asphalt walls of the disposal site represent an efficient secondary barrier against pollutant release. PMID:16979816

Cervinkova, Marketa; Vondruska, Milan; Bednarik, Vratislav; Pazdera, Antonin



Asystole immediately following intravenous fat emulsion for overdose.  


Use of intravenous fat emulsion (IFE) for the treatment of poisoned patients in extremis is increasing. Little literature exists describing failures and complications of IFE. We describe two cardiac arrests temporally associated with IFE. A 50-year-old woman presented after ingesting 80 total tablets of metoprolol 25 mg and bupropion 150 mg. Bradycardia and hypotension were refractory to calcium salts, catecholamines, and high dose insulin (HDI). With a pulse of 40/min and mean arterial pressure (MAP) of 30 mmHg, 100 mL of 20 % IFE was given; within 30 s, brady-asystolic arrest occurred. Pulses returned after 3 min of CPR. The patient died on hospital day 4 of multisystem organ failure (MSOF). A 53-year-old man presented after ingesting of 3,600 mg of diltiazem and 1,200 mg of propranolol. Bradycardia and hypotension were refractory to calcium salts, catecholamines, HDI, bicarbonate, and atropine. With a pulse of 30/min and a MAP of 40 mmHg, 150 mL of 20 % IFE was given; within 1 min, a brady-asystolic arrest occurred. Pulses returned after 6 min of CPR. The patient died on hospital day 7 of MSOF. Reported cases of IFE failures or potential complications are sparse. This report adds only case experience, not clarity. We report two cardiac arrests that were temporally associated with IFE. PMID:24519703

Cole, Jon B; Stellpflug, Samuel J; Engebretsen, Kristin M



Emulsion templated open porous membranes for protein purification.  


Approximately 25 cm×25 cm large sheets of crosslinked highly porous poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate-co-ethylhexyl methacrylate) membranes with an average thicknesses between 285 and 565 ?m were prepared by casting a high internal phase emulsion (HIPE) containing monomers onto glass substrates and subsequent polymerisation. Open cellular porous polyHIPE type membranes were obtained with large pores (cavity) sizes between 3 and 10 ?m while interconnecting pores were between 1 and 3 ?m. The percentage of ethylhexyl acrylate and ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate influenced the flexibility and morphology of the resulting membranes. Porous membranes were chemically modified with diethylamine to yield functionalised supports for ion exchange chromatography. Cylindrical housings were used for positioning of the membranes and allowing flow of the mobile phase. Pulse experiments were used to study the flow characteristics and a homogeneous flow through the entire area of the membrane was found. Bovine serum albumin was purified by a 8 ml column containing functional membrane in modular shape; dynamic binding capacity was measured to be as high as 45 mg/ml. PMID:21168141

Pulko, Irena; Smrekar, Vida; Podgornik, Aleš; Krajnc, Peter



Asphaltene and solids-stabilized water-in-oil emulsions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water-in-crude oil emulsions are a problem in crude oil production, transportation, and processing. Many of these emulsions are stabilized by asphaltenes and native oilfield solids adsorbed at the oil-water interface. Design of effective emulsion treatments is hampered because there is a lack of understanding of the role asphaltenes and solids play in stabilizing these emulsions. In this work, the structural, compositional and rheological properties of water/hydrocarbon interfaces were determined for model emulsions consisting of water, toluene, heptane, asphaltenes and native oilfield solids. The characteristics of the interface were related to the properties of asphaltenes and native solids. Emulsion stability was correlated to interfacial rheology. A combination of vapour pressure osmometry, interfacial tension and emulsion gravimetric studies indicated that asphaltenes initially adsorb at the interface as a monolayer of self-associated molecular aggregates. It was demonstrated why it is necessary to account for asphaltene self-association when interpreting interfacial measurements. The interfacial area of Athabasca asphaltenes was found to be approximately 1.5 nm2 and did not vary with concentration or asphaltene self-association. Hence, more self-associated asphaltenes simply formed a thicker monolayer. The interfacial monolayer observed in this work varied from 2 to 9 nm in thickness. The asphaltene monolayer was shown to adsorb reversibly only at short interface aging times. The film gradually reorganizes at the interface to form a rigid, irreversibly adsorbed network. The elastic and viscous moduli can be modeled using the Lucassen-van den Tempel (LVDT) model when the aging time is less than 10 minutes. An increase in film rigidity can be detected with an increase in the total elastic modulus. Increased film rigidity was shown to reduce the rate of coalescence in an emulsion and increase overall emulsion stability (reduce free water resolution). The rate of coalescence and the free water resolution of emulsions decreased when the interface aging time increased, the heptane fraction in heptol increased, and the asphaltene concentration decreased. For systems in which asphaltenes do not leave the interface during coalescence, the rate of coalescence correlated to the measured total modulus over a range of asphaltene concentrations, solvent qualities, and interface aging times. For systems in which asphaltenes leave the interface during coalescence, the correlation under-predicted the coalescence rate because the total modulus increases as material leaves the interface. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Sztukowski, Danuta M.


Interaction of polyhexamethylene biguanide hydrochloride (PHMB) with phosphatidylcholine containing o/w emulsion and consequences for microbicidal efficacy and cytotoxicity.  


Oil-in-water (o/w) emulsions containing egg yolk phosphatidylcholine (EPC) were combined with aqueous polyhexamethylene biguanide hydrochloride (PHMB). The PHMB concentration in the aqueous phase was estimated by filtration centrifugation experiments. In parallel, PHMB concentration was assessed utilizing cytotoxicity assays (neutral red) on cultured murine fibroblasts (L929 cells) and tests of bactericidal efficacy on either Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Staphylococcus aureus. Biological tests were performed in cell culture medium. Filtration centrifugation experiments demonstrated much higher aqueous PHMB concentrations than did the assays for biologically effective PHMB. Therefore, biological test systems should preferably be used to verify effective PHMB concentrations. Tests of microbicidal efficacy in which the same 0.05% PHMB o/w emulsion was re-used 8 times revealed a drug delivery system activated by the presence of test bacteria. PMID:23313712

Müller, Gerald; Koburger, Torsten; Kramer, Axel



Tunable WGM resonators from optically trapped dye doped liquid crystal emulsion droplets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have built a complex apparatus for optical trapping, stretching, heating and concurrent whispering gallery mode (WGM) lasing excitation of liquid crystal (LC) emulsion micro-droplets doped with various fluorescent dyes. We have explored the changes of WGM lasing wavelength when the LC droplets were optically stretched or electrically heated beyond the transition to the isotropic phase. We have found that the range of lasing wavelengths was in some cases considerably higher than when we optically stretched ordinary fluorescent oil droplets in our previous experiments.

Šerý, Mojmír.; Pilát, Zden?k.; Ježek, Jan; Aas, Mehdi; Kiraz, Alper; Zemánek, Pavel



Flow and cold heat-storage characteristics of phase-change emulsion in a coiled double-tube heat exchanger  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper dealt with the flow and cold heat-storage characteristics of the oil (tetradecane, CââHââ, freezing point 278.9 K)\\/water emulsion as a latent heat-storage material having a low melting point. A coiled double-tube heat exchanger was used for the cold heat storage experiment. The pressure drop, the heat transfer coefficient, and the finishing time of cold heat storage in the

H. Inaba; S. Morita



Emulsifying and emulsion-stabilizing properties of gluten hydrolysates.  


Gluten is produced as a coproduct of the wheat starch isolation process. In this study, gluten was hydrolyzed to degrees of hydrolysis (DH) of 3-6-10 and 1-2-3 with alcalase and trypsin, respectively. These peptidases have a clearly distinct substrate specificity. Corn oil-in-water emulsions (10 wt % oil) were prepared by high-pressure homogenization at pH 7.5. Gluten peptides with DH 3 proved to be the most effective in producing peptides displaying emulsifying properties. Higher levels of alcalase hydrolysates (2.0 wt %) than of trypsin hydrolysates (1.0 wt %) were required to produce stable emulsions with small droplet sizes, which is attributed to differences in the nature of the peptides formed. The emulsions had small mean droplet diameters (d32 < 1000 nm). Emulsions produced with trypsin hydrolysates (stable after 9 days at 55 °C) displayed better thermal stability compared to those produced with alcalase hydrolysates (destabilized after 2 days at 37 °C). The hydrolysate-containing emulsions, however, were quickly destabilized by salt addition (?100 mM NaCl) and when the pH approached the isoelectric point of the coated droplets (pH ~5.5). Microscopic analysis revealed the formation of air-in-oil-in-water emulsions at lower hydrolysate concentrations, whereas at higher concentrations (?3.0 wt %) extensive flocculation occurred. Both phenomena contributed to creaming of the emulsions. These results may be useful for the utilization of gluten hydrolysates in food and beverage products. PMID:24571632

Joye, Iris J; McClements, David J



Ostwald ripening of water-in-hydrocarbon emulsions.  


The purposes of this study are to determine Ostwald ripening rates in water-in-oil (W/O) emulsions and evaluate the potential application of the LSW theory to W/O emulsions. Water-in-oil emulsions were prepared by mixing water and hydrocarbon phases containing Span 83 and homogenizing. n-Heptane, n-decane, n-dodecane, and n-tetradecane were used to obtain a range of solubilities. A linear increase in the cube of the droplet size with time was observed (within the initial period of 1-2 h after emulsion preparation), supporting the LSW theory. Based on this linear relationship, Ostwald ripening rates were determined to be 3.0 x 10(-24), 2.3 x 10(-24), 1.8 x 10(-24), and 5.8 x 10(-25) m3 s(-1) for water-in-heptane, water-in-decane, water-in-dodecane, and water-in-tetradecane emulsions, respectively. These values are in agreement with theoretical predictions calculated using the LSW equation. It was observed that the ripening process gradually slowed, resulting in deviations from the LSW theory. This was attributed to the effect of the interfacial surfactant film through which the dispersed material has to diffuse during Ostwald ripening. This effect is not taken into consideration by the LSW theory. The results showed that Ostwald ripening of W/O emulsions was less sensitive to the nature of oil used and slower compared to O/W emulsions consisting of the same hydrocarbons. PMID:16256672

Jiao, Jim; Burgess, Diane J




NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experiments were performed on the CERN cyclotron. Pion capture in Ta, Re, and Bi, quadrupole moments, nuclear gamma transitions, pion absorption in the nucleus, neutron multiplicity and angular momentum, and charged particles emission after pion absorption were studied.

Konijn, J.


Phase Behavior and Emulsion Stability of the Aot/Decane/ Water/NaCl System at Very Low Volume Fractions of Oil  

E-print Network

The stability of a ternary system composed of decane/water/Aerosol-OT and salt is revisited. Phase diagrams and emulsions similar in composition to those previously studied by Hofman and Stein [Hofman, 1991] were made. Ac- cording to our results, and contrary to the common experience, these systems exhibit a maximum of stability very close to the balance zone.

Yithanllili Bastidas; Lisset Hernaandez; Issarly Rivas; Kareem Rahn-Chique; German Urbina-Villalba



Highlights from the OPERA experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The OPERA neutrino experiment is designed to detect ?? ? ?? oscillations in direct appearance mode. The hybrid apparatus consists of an emulsion/lead target complemented by electronic detectors. It is placed in the long-baseline CERN to Gran Sasso neutrino beam (CNGS) 730 km away from the source. The running of the experiment and the extraction of data recorded in the emulsion will be described, together with the special procedures used to locate interaction vertices and detect short decay topologies. New oscillation search results with increased statistics will be presented. Up-to-date results of the neutrino velocity measurements will also be reported.

Mauri, N.



Influence of processing parameters on morphology of polymethoxyflavone in emulsions.  


Polymethoxyflavones (PMFs) are groups of compounds isolated from citrus peels that have been documented with wide arrays of health-promoting bioactivities. Because of their hydrophobic structure and high melting point, crystallized PMFs usually have poor systemic bioavailability when consumed orally. To improve the oral efficiency of PMFs, a viscoelastic emulsion system was formulated. Because of the crystalline nature, the inclusion of PMFs into the emulsion system faces great challenges in having sufficient loading capacity and stabilities. In this study, the process of optimizing the quality of emulsion-based formulation intended for PMF oral delivery was systematically studied. With alteration of the PMF loading concentration, processing temperature, and pressure, the emulsion with the desired droplet and crystal size can be effectively fabricated. Moreover, storage temperatures significantly influenced the stability of the crystal-containing emulsion system. The results from this study are a good illustration of system optimization and serve as a great reference for future formulation design of other hydrophobic crystalline compounds. PMID:25537008

Ting, Yuwen; Li, Colin C; Wang, Yin; Ho, Chi-Tang; Huang, Qingrong



Evaporation of an emulsion trapped in a yield stress fluid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present work deals with emulsions of volatile alkanes in an aqueous clay suspension, Laponite, which forms a yield stress fluid. For a large enough yield stress (i.e. Laponite concentration), the oil droplets are prevented from creaming and the emulsions are thus mechanically stabilized. We have studied the evaporation kinetics of the oil phase of those emulsions in contact with the atmosphere. We show that the evaporation process is characterized by the formation of a sharp front separating the emulsion from a droplet-free Laponite phase, and that the displacement of the front vs. time follows a diffusion law. Experimental data are confronted to a diffusion-controlled model, in the case where the limiting step is the diffusion of the dissolved oil through the aqueous phase. The nature of the alkane, as well as its volume fraction in the emulsion, has been varied. Quantitative agreement with the model is achieved without any adjustable parameter and we describe the mechanism leading to the formation of a front.

Guéna, G.; Corde, J.; Fouilloux, S.; D'Espinose, J.-B.; Lequeux, F.; Talini, L.



Treatment methods for breaking certain oil and water emulsions  


Disclosed are treatment methods for breaking emulsions of petroleum oil and salt water, fatty oil and water, and those resulting from liquefication of organic material. The emulsions are broken by heating to a predetermined temperature at or above about C. and pressurizing to a predetermined pressure above the vapor pressure of water at the predetermined temperature to produce a heated and pressurized fluid. The heated and pressurized fluid is contained in a single vessel at the predetermined temperature and pressure for a predetermined period of time to effectively separate the emulsion into substantially distinct first and second phases, the first phase comprising primarily the petroleum oil, the second phase comprising primarily the water. The first and second phases are separately withdrawn from the vessel at a withdraw temperature between about C. and C. and a withdraw pressure above the vapor pressure of water at the withdraw temperature. Where solids are present in the certain emulsions, the above described treatment may also effectively separate the certain emulsion into a substantially distinct third phase comprising primarily the solids.

Sealock, Jr., L. John (W. Richland, WA); Baker, Eddie G. (Richland, WA); Elliott, Douglas C. (Richland, WA)



Water mass transfer in W/O emulsions.  


Water transportation through the oil phase in W/O emulsions and in W1/O/W2 systems (W/O emulsion in contact with water) was examined. Substance diffusion through interfaces led to interface instability and spontaneous emulsification which caused nanodispersion formation. The photomicrographs of Pt/C replicas of emulsions showed the presence in the continuous oil phase a lot of nanodispersion droplets with a diameter in the range 17-25 nm. Diffusion coefficient (D) of water calculated on the base of Lifshiz-Slezov-Wagner (LSW) equation was about 15 times lower than the coefficients of molecular diffusion. Since such emulsions were extremely unstable toward coalescence, the growth of water droplets took place through as Ostwald ripening as coalescence. In three-phase W1/O/W2 systems diffusion of water, Rhodamine C, and ethanol was studied. D calculated on the base of the equation of nonstationary diffusion were approximately 1000 times lower than molecular ones. It was assumed, that nanodispersion droplets were more likely water carriers in investigated W/O emulsions stabilized by sorbitan monooleate. PMID:16298381

Koroleva, Marina Yu; Yurtov, Evgeny V



Rejuvenation of Spent Media via Supported Emulsion Liquid Membranes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The overall goal of this project is to maximize the reuseability of spent fermentation media. Supported emulsion liquid membrane separation, a highly efficient extraction technique, is used to remove inhibitory byproducts during fermentation; thus, improving the yield while reducing the need for fresh water. The key objectives of this study are: Develop an emulsion liquid membrane system targeting low molecular weight organic acids which has minimal toxicity on a variety of microbial systems; Conduct mass transfer studies to allow proper modeling and design of a supported emulsion liquid membrane system; Investigate the effect of gravity on emulsion coalescence within the membrane unit; Access the effect of water re-use on fermentation yields in a model microbial system; Develop a perfusion-type fermentor utilizing a supported emulsion liquid membrane system to control inhibitory fermentation byproducts; Work for the coming year will focus on the determination of toxicity of various solvents, selection of the emulsifying agents, as well as characterizing the mass transfer of hollow-fiber contactors.

Wiencek, John M.



Preparation of double Pickering emulsions stabilized by chemically tailored nanocelluloses.  


Nanocelluloses are bio-based nanoparticles of interest as stabilizers for oil-in-water (o/w) Pickering emulsions. In this work, the surface chemistry of nanocelluloses of different length, nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC, long) and cellulose nanocrystals (CNC, short), was successfully tailored by chemical modification with lauroyl chloride (C12). The resulting nanofibers were less hydrophilic than the original and able to stabilize water-in-oil (w/o) emulsions. The combination of the two types of nanocelluloses (C12-modified and native) led to new surfactant-free oil-in-water-in-oil (o/w/o) double emulsions stabilized by nanocellulose at both interfaces. Characterization was performed with respect to droplet size distribution, droplet stability over time, and stability after centrifugation. Nanocellulose-based Pickering emulsions can be designed with a substantial degree of control, as demonstrated by the stability of the chemically tailored NFC double emulsions. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that increased nanofiber length leads to increased stability. PMID:25046221

Cunha, Ana G; Mougel, Jean-Bruno; Cathala, Bernard; Berglund, Lars A; Capron, Isabelle



21 CFR 524.802 - Enrofloxacin and silver sulfadiazine otic emulsion.  

...2014-04-01 false Enrofloxacin and silver sulfadiazine otic emulsion. 524.802...DRUGS § 524.802 Enrofloxacin and silver sulfadiazine otic emulsion. (a) Specifications...milligrams (mg) enrofloxacin and 10 mg silver sulfadiazine. (b) Sponsor....



40 CFR 443.10 - Applicability; description of the asphalt emulsion subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Applicability; description of the asphalt emulsion subcategory. 443.10 Section 443...FOR THE PAVING AND ROOFING MATERIALS (TARS AND ASPHALT) POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asphalt Emulsion Subcategory § 443.10...



40 CFR 443.10 - Applicability; description of the asphalt emulsion subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Applicability; description of the asphalt emulsion subcategory. 443.10 Section 443...FOR THE PAVING AND ROOFING MATERIALS (TARS AND ASPHALT) POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asphalt Emulsion Subcategory § 443.10...



40 CFR 443.10 - Applicability; description of the asphalt emulsion subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Applicability; description of the asphalt emulsion subcategory. 443.10 Section 443...FOR THE PAVING AND ROOFING MATERIALS (TARS AND ASPHALT) POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asphalt Emulsion Subcategory § 443.10...



40 CFR 443.10 - Applicability; description of the asphalt emulsion subcategory.  

... false Applicability; description of the asphalt emulsion subcategory. 443.10 Section 443...FOR THE PAVING AND ROOFING MATERIALS (TARS AND ASPHALT) POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asphalt Emulsion Subcategory § 443.10...



Role of liquid crystal in the emulsification of a gel emulsion with high internal phase fraction.  


A gel emulsion with high internal oil phase volume fraction was formed via an inversion process induced by a water-oil ratio change. The process involved the formation of intermediate multiple emulsions prior to inversion. The multiple emulsions contain a liquid crystal formed by the surfactant with water; this was both predicted by the equilibrium phase diagram as well as observed using polarization microscopy. These multiple emulsions were more stable compared to alternative multiple emulsions prepared in the same way with a surfactant that does not form liquid crystals. While the formation of a stable intermediate multiple emulsion may not be a necessary condition for the inversion to occur, the transitional presence of a liquid crystal proved to be a significant factor in the stabilization of the intermediate multiple emulsions. The resulting gel emulsion contained a small fraction of the liquid crystal according to the phase diagram, and it exhibited excellent stability. PMID:19781712

Liu, Yihan; Friberg, Stig E




Microsoft Academic Search

A quat-silicone micro-emulsion (particle size <40 nm), an amino-silicone macro-emulsion (110 nm), and an alkyl modified silicone macro-emulsion (740 nm) were used to modify Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) sapwood. Treated and uncoated boards were exposed to natural weathering for one year along with water treated controls according to EN 927-3. The treatment with silicone emulsions did not enhance the

Shyamal C. Ghosh; Holger Militz; Carsten Mai


Phase and emulsion morphology diagrams of nonionic- amphiphile/oil/water systems and their interrelationships  

SciTech Connect

For two-phase, non-multiple emulsions, the emulsion morphology diagram shows, as a function of temperature and phase or component concentration, which phase is dispersed and which is the continuous one, as well as the temperatures and compositions at which inversions occur. The emulsion morphology diagram plays for emulsions a role that is similar to the role played by phase diagrams for phases.

Smith, D.H. (USDOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center, WV (United States)); Kyunghee Lim (West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)



Phase and emulsion morphology diagrams of nonionic- amphiphile/oil/water systems and their interrelationships  

SciTech Connect

For two-phase, non-multiple emulsions, the emulsion morphology diagram shows, as a function of temperature and phase or component concentration, which phase is dispersed and which is the continuous one, as well as the temperatures and compositions at which inversions occur. The emulsion morphology diagram plays for emulsions a role that is similar to the role played by phase diagrams for phases.

Smith, D.H. [USDOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center, WV (United States); Kyunghee Lim [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering



Liposome-stabilized oil-in-water emulsions as adjuvants: increased emulsion stability promotes induction of cytotoxic T lymphocytes against an HIV envelope antigen.  


Protective or therapeutic immunity against HIV infection is currently believed to require both antibody and CTL responses against the envelope protein. In the present study, the adjuvant activity of a unique oil-in-water emulsion, in which liposomes containing lipid A (LA) and encapsulated antigen served as the emulsifying agent, was examined in mice using oligomeric gp140 (ogp140) derived from the HIV-1 envelope as the antigen. Emulsions rendered either highly stable or unstable by altering the ratio of liposomes to oil were used to examine the effect of stability of the emulsion on adjuvant activity. Stable and unstable emulsions had similar potencies for inducing both IgG antibodies to ogp140 and antigen-specific T-lymphocyte proliferation. Stable emulsions, but not unstable emulsions, induced antigen-specific CTL responses, possibly because of the depot effect of the stable emulsions. Furthermore, stable emulsions induced lower IgG2a/IgG1 ratios than the unstable emulsions. We conclude that stable liposomal oil-in-water emulsions provide an effective means of obtaining both antibody and CTL responses against an HIV envelope antigen. PMID:15479439

Richards, Roberta L; Rao, Mangala; Vancott, Thomas C; Matyas, Gary R; Birx, Deborah L; Alving, Carl R



Influence of fat crystallization on the stability of flocculated emulsions.  


Various degrees of flocculation were induced in a 20 wt % n-hexadecane and confectionery-coating fat emulsion by adding xanthan gum (0-0.3 wt %). The emulsions were temperature cycled (40 to -10 to 40 to -10 degrees C) in a differential scanning calorimeter. The emulsified and de-emulsified fat crystallized at different temperatures, and the ratio of the two enthalpies was used to calculate the proportion of de-emulsified fat and hence the extent of breakdown of the emulsion. The n-hexadecane droplets were stable to temperature cycling, whereas the confectionery-coating fat destabilized to a greater or lesser extent. The maximum destabilization of the confectionery-coating fat occurred at those concentrations of xanthan required to induce creaming. PMID:12188634

Vanapalli, Siva A; Palanuwech, Jirin; Coupland, John N



Breakup of double emulsions in wedge-shaped microfluidic channels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Double emulsion droplets can serve as drug delivery vehicles and individual compartments for chemical reactions, and such materials are relevant to new kinds of microfluidic applications. We study experimentally the dynamics and breakup of double emulsion droplets flowing through poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) channels. As water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) double emulsion droplets flow through such wedge-shaped channels, the breakup of the droplets is controlled by the capillary number and the droplet-to-orifice size ratio. We obtain a phase diagram of droplet breakup morphology from the experimental results, and explain the results via a combination of the capillary instability and thin film dynamics. The phase diagram is useful for predicting and controlling the breakup of the droplet. Finally, differences between results obtained in PDMS channels and capillary channels are discussed.

Li, Jiang; Chen, Haosheng; Stone, Howard A.



Structures of octenylsuccinylated starches: effects on emulsions containing ?-carotene.  


Starches with different amylopectin contents and different molecular sizes prepared using acid hydrolysis were hydrophobically modified using octenylsuccinic anhydride (OSA). The OSA-modified starches were used as surfactants to stabilize emulsions of ?-carotene and canola oil dispersed in water. The objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between starch molecular structure and the chemical stability of the emulsified ?-carotene, as well as the colloidal stability of emulsion droplets during storage. The oil droplet size in emulsions was smaller when starch had (a) lower hydrodynamic volume (Vh) and (b) higher amylopectin content. The oxidative stability of ?-carotene was similar across samples, with higher results at increased amylopectin content but higher Vh. Steric hindrance to coalescence provided by adsorbed OSA-modified starches appears to be improved by more rigid molecules of higher degree of branching. PMID:25129720

Sweedman, Michael C; Hasjim, Jovin; Schäfer, Christian; Gilbert, Robert G



Degradation of kinetically-stable o/w emulsions.  


This article summarizes the studies on the degradation of the thermodynamically unstable o/w (nano)emulsion--a dispersion of one liquid in another, where each liquid is immiscible, or poorly miscible in the other. Emulsions are unstable exhibiting flocculation, coalescence, creaming and degradation. The physical degradation of emulsions is due to the spontaneous trend toward a minimal interfacial area between the dispersed phase and the dispersion medium. Minimizing the interfacial area is mainly achieved by two mechanisms: first coagulation possibly followed by coalescence and second by Ostwald ripening. Coalescence is often considered as the most important destabilization mechanism leading to coursing of dispersions and can be prevented by a careful choice of stabilizers. The molecular diffusion of solubilizate (Ostwald ripening), however, will continuously occur as soon as curved interfaces are present. Mass transfers in emulsion may be driven not only by differences in droplet curvatures, but also by differences in their compositions. This is observed when two or more chemically different oils are emulsified separately and the resulting emulsions are mixed. Compositional ripening involves the exchange of oil molecules between emulsion droplets with different compositions. The stability of the electrostatically- and sterically-stabilized dispersions can be controlled by the charge of the electrical double layer and the thickness of the droplet surface layer formed by non-ionic emulsifier. In spite of the similarities between electrostatically- and sterically-stabilized emulsions, there are large differences in the partitioning of molecules of ionic and non-ionic emulsifiers between the oil and water phases and the thickness of the interfacial layers at the droplet surface. The thin interfacial layer (the electrical double layer) at the surface of electrostatically stabilized droplets does not create any steric barrier for mass transfer. This may not be true for the thick interfacial layer formed by non-ionic emulsifier. The interactive sterically-stabilized oil droplets, however, can favor the transfer of materials within the intermediate agglomerates. The stability of electrosterically-stabilized emulsion is controlled by the ratio of the thickness of the non-ionic emulsifier adsorption layer (delta) to the thickness of the electrical double layer (kappa(-1)) around the oil droplets (delta/(kappa(-1))) = (deltakappa). The monomer droplet degradation can be somewhat depressed by transformation of coarse emulsions to nano-emulsion (miniemulsion) by intensive homogenization and by the addition of a surface active agent (coemulsifier) or/and a water-insoluble compound (hydrophobe). The addition of hydrophobe (hexadecane) to the dispersed phase significantly retards the rate of ripening. A long chain alcohol (coemulsifier) resulted in a marked improvement in stability, as well, which was attributed to a specific interaction between alcohol and emulsifier and to the alcohols tendency to concentrate at the o/w interface to form stronger interfacial film. The rate of ripening, according to the Lifshitz-Slyozov-Wagner (LSW) model, is directly proportional to the solubility of the dispersed phase in the dispersion medium. The increased polarity of the dispersed phase (oil) decreases the stability of the emulsion. The molar volume of solubilizate is a further parameter, which influences the stability of emulsion or the transfer of materials through the aqueous phase. The interparticle interaction is expected to favor the transfer of solubilizate located at the interfacial layer. The kinetics of solubilization of non-polar oils by ionic micelles is strongly related to the aqueous solubility of the oil phase (the diffusion approach), whilst their solubilization into non-ionic micelles can be contributed by interparticle collisions. PMID:15026289

Capek, Ignác



Stabilization/solidification of galvanic sludges by asphalt emulsions.  


A combination of two-aqueous asphalt emulsions was proposed for stabilization/solidification treatment of galvanic sludges prior to landfilling. The presented procedure comprises mixing the galvanic sludge with a slow setting nonionic asphalt emulsion and subsequently forming a secondary asphalt barrier by means of a rapid setting anionic asphalt emulsion. The method was tested on four samples of galvanic sludge from various galvanizing plants, with various water and pollutant contents. Stabilization efficiency was assessed by water-leaching test, TCLP test and by determining ecotoxicity of leachates. Leachate parameters exhibited very low values and favorable results of ecotoxicological tests indicate high efficiency of the developed procedure for galvanic sludge disposal. PMID:15943936

Bednarik, Vratislav; Vondruska, Milan; Koutny, Marek



The jamming elasticity of emulsions stabilized by ionic surfactants.  


Oil-in-water emulsions composed of colloidal-scale droplets are often stabilized using ionic surfactants that provide a repulsive interaction between neighboring droplet interfaces, thereby inhibiting coalescence. If the droplet volume fraction is raised rapidly by applying an osmotic pressure, the droplets remain disordered, undergo an ergodic-nonergodic transition, and jam. If the applied osmotic pressure approaches the Laplace pressure of the droplets, then the jammed droplets also deform. Because solid friction and entanglements cannot play a role, as they might with solid particulate or microgel dispersions, the shear mechanical response of monodisperse emulsions can provide critical insight into the interplay of entropic, electrostatic, and interfacial forces. Here, we introduce a model that can be used to predict the plateau storage modulus and yield stress of a uniform charge-stabilized emulsion accurately if the droplet radius, interfacial tension, surface potential, Debye screening length, and droplet volume fraction are known. PMID:24913542

Scheffold, Frank; Wilking, James N; Haberko, Jakub; Cardinaux, Frédéric; Mason, Thomas G



Fish oil-containing lipid emulsions in patients with sepsis.  


Lipid emulsions based on soybean oil have been an integral part of parenteral nutrition supplying n-6 fatty acids, with possible negative effects in critically ill patients. Newer lipid emulsions supply less n-6 fatty acids. In addition, fish oil-based lipids may be included in the lipid component of parenteral nutrition. While clinical benefits of lipid emulsions with a reduced fraction in n-6 lipids and the addition of fish oil have been described in postoperative patients, data are less clear in critically ill or septic patients. Recent data suggest that beneficial effects may be achieved when used early but clearly more data are needed to come to a definitive conclusion. The present commentary will highlight current data in critically ill and septic patients and the use of fish oil as a part of parenteral nutrition. PMID:20236465

Mayer, Konstantin; Seeger, Werner



Histological localization of methylmercury in mouse brain and kidney by emulsion autoradiography of 203Hg.  


Some investigators have abandoned the use of 203Hg emulsion autoradiography in favor of chemical methods of microscopic localization of mercury. However, recent studies indicate that the latter methods identify only inorganic mercury, or some product of inorganic mercury, making them of little or no value for studies of methylmercury toxicity. Doubts about the use of 203Hg for microscopic localization arose because of the high maximum energy of its emissions and the concern that its latent images might be confounded with silver grains produced by chemical reactions between tissue Hg and the silver supplied by photographic emulsions. Examination of the spectrum of emissions from 203Hg demonstrates that its maximum energy emissions are rare. The mean energy of 203Hg emissions is in the 50-ke V range and the modal emissions are close to 0 ke V, indicating sufficient low energy emissions for autoradiography. In preliminary experiments, methylmercury content of mouse brain was shown to be stable through the steps of tissue processing for plastic sections. A direct comparison of autoradiographic grain counts from tissue treated with "cold" or "hot" methylmercury demonstrated that no grains above background were produced in the absence of nuclear emissions--only "hot" samples affected emulsion. In the kidneys of mice killed 24 hr after dosing, grains were most numerous over cortical tubules and significantly less numerous over glomeruli. In the cerebellum, the molecular layer was significantly more heavily labeled than the granular layer. The number of grains was greatly increased in every region by increasing the specific activity of the methylmercury dosing solution while holding the dose of methylmercury constant. Like the differential effect of "hot" vs "cold" tissue, the differential effect of low vs high specific activity confirms that the grain counts reflect nuclear emissions from the sample tissues, rather than a chemical effect dependent only on mercury content. Grain counts provided a measure of methylmercury content that matched the content measured by atomic absorption (AA). For example, the ratio of kidney/brain content was 32 by AA and 31 by grain counts in one experiment. Thus, 203Hg emulsion autoradiography appears to be a useful approach to localization of methylmercury in tissue sections processed for light microscopy. PMID:3341035

Rodier, P M; Kates, B



Development of a frozen yogurt fortified with a nano-emulsion containing purple rice bran oil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objectives of this study were to develop and evaluate a frozen yogurt (FY) fortified with a nano-emulsion containing purple rice bran oil (NPRBO). A nano-emulsion with a droplet size range of 150-300 nm was produced by sonication followed by ultra-shear homogenization. The nano-emulsion was mi...


Energy saving heavy crude oil emulsion treating method and apparatus for use therewith  

Microsoft Academic Search

An apparatus and method are disclosed for using the same to separate a heavy crude oil emulsion into gas, brine and oil, as the emulsion flows longitudinally through first, second, and third elongate zones. The crude oil emulsion is heated while in the first and second zone allowing the free brine and gas to separate therefrom. The heated crude oil




The Stability of Aerated Milk Protein Emulsions in the Presence of Small Molecule Surfactants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of milk proteins and small molecular surfactants on oil droplet surface coverage and emul- sion stability were studied in model emulsions, and the results were related to the microstructure and physical properties of ice creams. Emulsions became increasingly more stable during partial coalescence at increased surface coverage as the protein concentra- tion was increased. Model emulsions of 20%

B. M. C. Pelan; K. M. Watts; I. J. Campbell; A. Lips



Influence of thickness in the holographic emulsion composed by rosin and BPB dye  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyze diffraction gratings behavior recorded on a phase holographic emulsion. This emulsion is composed with resin and bromophenol blue dye (BPB) they have a diffraction efficiency (?) from 0.22 to 0.615% order, and their thickness are different in the holographic emulsion.

Ibarra, Juan C.; Ortiz-Gutierrez, Mauricio; Olivares-Perez, Arturo; Perez-Cortes, Mario



A Simple Experiment Illustrating the Structure of Association Colloids.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The experiment described is intended to illustrate the intermolecular phenomena involved in association colloids. These are normal and inverse micelles and lyotropic liquid crystals. Solubilization, microemulsion and emulsion are discussed. (Author/SA)

Friberg, Stig. E.; Bendiksen, Beverly



Microscopic structure of water in a water/oil emulsion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have determined the microscopic structure of water within a water/oil emulsion, by combining neutron diffraction data, exploiting the isotopic H/D substitution, and a fully atomistic Monte Carlo simulation of a portion of a water droplet, containing the water/oil interface. The dependence of the data on the simulation box size and the reliability of the water-water radial distribution functions are discussed. Although water in the emulsion forms shorter and stronger hydrogen bonds compared to pure bulk water, its overall microscopic structure looks more disordered.

Mancinelli, R.; Bruni, F.; Ricci, M. A.; Imberti, S.



Electrohydrodynamics of magnetic emulsions and diffraction light scattering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of studies of the electrohydrodynamic instabilities arising from microdrops in a magnetic emulsion are described. The object of the investigation is the magnetic emulsion (structured ferrofluid) containing multitudes of tiny drop aggregates 5-7 ?m in size, which have a higher content of magnetite than their medium. The dependence of the instability pattern on the electric field strength is shown. The initiation of the vortex flows at low frequencies (20-400 Hz) leads to the appearance in such a medium of diffraction light scattering with a number of specific peculiarities.

Dikansky, Yu. I.; Shatsky, V. P.



Dynamics of step-emulsification: From a single to a collection of emulsion droplet generators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microfluidics has proven to be an efficient tool for making fine and calibrated emulsion droplets. The parallelization of drop makers is required for producing large amounts. Here, we investigate the generation of emulsion drops along a series of shallow microchannels emerging in a deep one, in other words the step-emulsification process. The dynamics of a single drop maker is first characterized as a function of interfacial tension and viscosities of both phases. The characteristic time scale of drop formation, namely, the necking time that finally sets drop size, is shown to be principally governed by the outer phase viscosity to interfacial tension ratio with a minor correction linked to the viscosity ratio. The step emulsification process experiences a transition of fragmentation regime where both the necking time and drop size suddenly raise. This transition, that corresponds to a critical period of drop formation and thus defines a maximum production rate of small droplets, is observed to be ruled by the viscosity ratio of the two phases. When drops are produced along an array of microchannels with a cross flow of the continuous phase, a configuration comparable to a one-dimensional membrane having rectangular pores, a drop boundary layer develops along the drop generators. In the small drop regime, the local dynamics of drop formation is shown to be independent on the emulsion cross flow. Moreover, we note that the development of the drop boundary layer is even beneficial to homogenize drop size along the production line. On the other hand, in the large drop regime, drop collision can trigger fragmentation and thus lead to size polydispersity.

Mittal, Nitesh; Cohen, Céline; Bibette, Jérôme; Bremond, Nicolas



Recherche et Analyse D'interactions de Neutrinos dans L'emulsion Nucleaire  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cette these decrit le travail effectue dans l'emulsion nucleaire pour l'experience E-531 qui avait pour but de mesurer les temps de vie des particules charmees. Les plaques d'emulsion ont ete exposees au faisceau de neutrinos produit par l'interaction de protons de 400 GeV avec une cible de BeO au Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. Les evenements neutrinos trouves ont ete analyses et les candidats charmes identifies. Un evenement en particulier a ete etudie en profondeur. Il s'agit de la desintegration par interaction faible d'une particule neutre qui n'a pu etre reconstruite en un D^0. Apres l'essai de plusieurs hypotheses, l'interpretation la plus probable pour l'evenement est celle qui implique la production et la desintegration d'une particule contenant un quark beaute et probablement aussi un quark etrange (le meson B _sp{s}{0}). Le temps de vie de cette particule d'une etrange beaute serait d'environ 10^{-12}s. Les distributions de pseudorapidites provenant des evenements neutrino sont analysees a l'aide de moments factoriels. Ces moments manifestent une variation en loi de puissance en fonction de la resolution de la pseudorapidite. Ce comportement est appele intermittence et peut etre caracterise par l'exposant d'echelle nu qui possede des qualites universelles. La valeur obtenue pour les interactions neutrino-emulsion, nu = 1.84 +/- 0.14, est plus elevee que pour toute autre interaction. Ceci est le reflet d'un processus dynamique autosimilaire base sur des mecanismes de cascade. L'etude multifractale, effectuee a l'aide des dimensions generalisees et des moments G_ {q} de Hwa, corrobore cette observation.

Cote, Pierre


The coalescence stability of protein-stabilized emulsions estimated by analytical photo-centrifugation.  


Various protein solutions were studied in order to quantify the emulsifying activity of proteins, and to explore oil-water interfacial tension, oil particle size analysis, and oil phase separation behaviors in protein-stabilized oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions. Three proteins, bovine serum albumin (BSA), ?-lactoglobulin (?-lg), and ?-casein (?-ca), were employed to disperse hexadecane in various pH and ionic strength solutions in a wide range of oil-water ratios. It was confirmed that the volume mean oil droplet diameter, d(43), changed depending on the oil content, the pH, the ionic strength, and the used protein. In a dilute protein solution (0.01 %) at pH 7, droplet size increased with oil content in so-called surfactant-poor regimes (e.g., above 5%, 10%, and 20% oil content for BSA, ?-lg, and ?-ca emulsion, respectively) but remained constant at ca. 10 mm, 6 mm, and 20 mm, respectively, in lower oil content surfactant-rich regimes. In surfactant-poor regimes, the most important factor determining the oil drop size was the threshold amount of protein adsorption onto the oil-water interface. In surfactant-rich regimes, on the other hand, it is suggested that drop size may be governed mainly by the mechanical strength of protein films covering the oil drops during emulsification, and this was quantified by the critical osmotic pressure, P(CR). In this study, the P(CR) was measured conveniently in the oil phase separation experiments for protein-stabilized emulsions using analytical photo-centrifugal apparatus. The correlation between the P(CR) and oil droplet size prepared by emulsification at different pH and ionic strength media is discussed. PMID:21768743

Cheetangdee, Nopparat; Oki, Mariko; Fukada, Kazuhiro



Spectra, composition, and interactions of nuclei with magnet interaction chambers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Emulsion chambers will be flown in the Astromag Facility to measure the cosmic ray composition and spectra to 10 exp 15 eV total energy and to definitively study the characteristics of nucleus-nucleus interactions above 10 exp 12 eV/n. Two configurations of emulsion chambers will be flown in the SCIN/MAGIC experiment. One chamber has an emulsion target and a calorimeter similar to those recently flown on balloons for composition and spectra measurements. The other has an identical calorimeter and a low-density target section optimized for performing rigidity measurements on charged particles produced in interactions. The transverse momenta of charged and neutral mesons, direct hadronic pairs from resonance decays and interference effects, and possible charge clustering in high-density states of matter will be studied.

Parneil, T. A.; Derrickson, J. H.; Fountain, W. F.; Roberts, F. E.; Tabuki, T.; Watts, J. W.; Burnett, T. H.; Cherry, M. C.; Dake, S.; Fuki, M.



The FASES instrument development and experiment preparation for the ISS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The FASES experiments target the investigation of the stability of emulsions. The main objec-tives are the study of the surfactant adsorption at the liquid / liquid interfaces, the interaction of the droplets as well as the behaviour of the liquid film between nearby drops. Particular focus is given to the dynamic droplet evolution during emulsion destabilisation. The results of the experiments shall support development of methods for the modelling of droplet size distri-butions, which are important to many industries using stable emulsions like food production, cosmetics and pharmaceutics or unstable emulsions as required for applications in waste water treatment or crude oil recovery. The development of the experimental instrumentation was initiated in 2002. The flight instru-ment hardware development was started in 2004 and finally the flight unit was completed in 2009. Currently the final flight preparation is proceeding targeting a launch to the International Space Station (ISS) with Progress 39P in September 2010. The experiment setup of the instrument is accommodated in a box type insert called Experiment Container (EC), which will be installed in the Fluid Science Laboratory part of the European Columbus module of the ISS. The EC is composed of two diagnostics instruments for the investigation of transparent and opaque liquid emulsion. The transparent emulsions will be subject to the experiment called "Investigations on drop/drop interactions in Transparent Emulsions" (ITEM). The opaque emulsion samples will be studied in the experiment called "Investigations on concentrated or opaque Emulsions and on Phase Inversions" (EMPI). The thermal conditioning unit (TCU) allows performing homogeneous thermalization, tem-perature sweeps, emulsion preparation by stirrer, and optical diagnostics with a scanning mi-croscope. The objective of the instrument is the 3D reconstruction of the emulsion droplet distribution in the liquid matrix in terms of the droplet sizes, location and their time depen-dent evolution. The TCU will be used for the stability experiment ITEM-S and the droplet freezing experiment ITEM-F. The Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) will give an information about the evolution of the emulsion through the droplet size distribution and the dispersion state of the droplets within the emulsion during a controlled temperature sweep by measuring the latent heat of droplet freezing and melting during the EMPI experiments. For this purpose the calorimeter is equipped with a reference sample filled with a pure liquid matrix and a similar measurement sample filled with the specific emulsion under investigation. The differential heat flux between measurement sample and reference sample is measured with a sensitive heat flux sensor. Each instrument is serviced by a robotic sample stowage system, which accommodates in total 44 different ITEM and EMPI emulsion samples each filled with a specific composition of the emulsion. Currently the flight preparation is ongoing with particular focus on the preparation of the emulsion flight sample set and the instrument's operating parameters. The FASES flight instrument was developed by ASTRIUM Space Transportation Germany with support of RUAG Aerospace Wallisellen under ESA / ESTEC contract. The science team of FASES is supported by ESA/ESTEC (Microgravity Application Programme, AO99-052).

Picker, Gerold; Gollinger, Klaus; Greger, Ralf; Dettmann, Jan; Winter, Josef; Dewandre, Thierry; Castiglione, Luigi; Vincent-Bonnieu, Sebastien; Liggieri, Libero; Clausse, Daniele; Antoni, Mickael


Forward Physics in Proton-Nucleus and Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions  

SciTech Connect

We present an universal treatment for a substantial nuclear suppression representing a common feature of all known reactions on nuclear targets (forward production of high-p{sub T} hadrons, production of direct photons, the Drell-Yan process, heavy flavor production, etc.). Such a suppression at large Feynman x{sub F}, corresponding to region of minimal light-cone momentum fraction variable x{sub 2} in nuclei, is tempting to interpret as a manifestation of coherence or the Color Glass Condensate. We demonstrate, however, that it is actually a simple consequence of energy conservation and takes place even at low energies, where no effects of coherence are possible. We analyze this common suppression mechanism for several processes performing model predictions in the light-cone dipole approach. Our calculations agree with the data.

Nemchik, J. [Institute of Experimental Physics SAS, Watsonova 47, 04001 Kosice (Slovakia); Czech Technical University, FNSPE, Brehova 7, 11519 Praque (Czech Republic); Potashnikova, I. K. [Departamento de Fisica y Centro de Estudios Subatomicos, Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Casilla 110-V, Valparaiso (Chile)



Strange particle production in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions at RHIC and LHC energy regions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PACIAE, a parton and hadron cascade model, is utilized to systematically investigate strange particle production and strangeness enhancement in Au+Au collisions and in Pb+Pb collisions with the ?sNN = 200 GeV at the RHIC and 2.76 TeV at the LHC, respectively. The experimental results at different centralities, using data from the STAR collaboration and the ALICE collaboration, are well described by the PACIAE model. This may represent the importance of the parton and hadron rescatterings, as well as the reduction mechanism for strange quark suppression, that are implemented in the PACIAE model.

Ren, Xiao-Wen; Feng, Sheng-Qin; Yuan, Xian-Bao



Heavy flavour in nucleus-nucleus collisions at RHIC and LHC: a Langevin approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A snapshot of the results for heavy-flavour observables in heavy-ion (AA) collisions at RHIC and LHC obtained with our transport calculations is displayed. The initial charm and beauty production is simulated through pQCD tools (POWHEG+PYTHIA) and is validated through the comparison with data from pp collisions. The propagation of c and b quarks in the medium formed in heavy-ion collisions is studied through a transport setup based on the relativistic Langevin equation. With respect to past works we perform a more systematic study, providing results with different choices of transport coefficients, either from weak-coupling calculations or from lattice-QCD simulations. Our findings are compared to a rich set of experimental data (D-mesons, non-photonic electrons, non-prompt J/?'s) which have meanwhile become accessible.

Beraudo, A.; De Pace, A.; Monteno, M.; Prino, F.; Alberico, W. M.; Molinari, A.; Nardi, M.



Heavy flavour in nucleus-nucleus collisions at RHIC and LHC: a Langevin approach  

E-print Network

A snapshot of the results for heavy-flavour observables in heavy-ion (AA) collisions at RHIC and LHC obtained with our transport calculations is displayed. The initial charm and beauty production is simulated through pQCD tools (POWHEG+PYTHIA) and is validated through the comparison with data from pp collisions. The propagation of c and b quarks in the medium formed in heavy-ion collisions is studied through a transport setup based on the relativistic Langevin equation. With respect to past works we perform a more systematic study, providing results with different choices of transport coefficients, either from weak-coupling calculations or from lattice-QCD simulations. Our findings are compared to a rich set of experimental data (D-mesons, non-photonic electrons, non-prompt J/\\psi's) which have meanwhile become accessible.

Beraudo, A



Azimuthally integrated HBT parameters for charged pions in nucleus-nucleus interactions versus collision energy  

E-print Network

In the paper energy dependence of space-time extent of emission region obtained from Bose - Einstein correlations is studied for charged pions in various ion collisions for all experimentally available energies. There is no dramatic change of HBT parameters with increasing of collision energy per nucleon-nucleon pair, $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$, in domain of energies $\\sqrt{s_{NN}} \\geq 5$ GeV. Energy dependence of estimations for emission duration is almost flat for all energy domain under study within large error bars. Analytic function is suggested for smooth approximation of energy dependence of main HBT parameters. Fit curves demonstrate reasonable agreement with experimental data for most HBT parameters in energy domain $\\sqrt{s_{NN}} \\geq 5$ GeV. Estimations of some observables are obtained for energies of the LHC and FCC project.

V. A. Okorokov



Relativistic Vlasov-Uehling-Uhlenbeck Equation for Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions  

E-print Network

pursue here such a derivation by generalizing the nonrelativistic approach of Refs. 13 and 14. In the Walecka model, only the nucleon field g, the scalar-meson field P, and the vector-meson field V" are I included. Other mesons such as the pion... these other mesons, we neglect them in the following for simplicity. The Lagrangian density in the Walecka model is given by L (x)=g[y"(it)?g, V??)?(m g, P)]g- + , ' ( tJ?tti tJ"p ?m,p ) ?,' F" F?,+??,' m ~ Vu V??, (1) where F?.=a?v.?a.V?. The masses...

LI, Q.; Wu, J. Q.; Ko, Che Ming.



Results on the production of exotic objects in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have used the E814 forward spectrometer to conduct searches for rare particles formed in collisions of 14.6 GeV per nucleon 28Si ions with targets of Al, Sn, Cu, and Pb. Preliminary results of the searches for anti-matter nuclei, positively charged strange matter, and pion-neutron bound states are discussed.

Barrette, J.; Bellwied, R.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Cleland, W. E.; David, G.; Fatyga, M.; Fox, D.; Greene, S. V.; Hall, J.; Heifetz, R.; Hemmick, T. K.; Herrmann, N.; Hogue, R.; Ingold, G.; Jayananda, K.; Kraus, D.; Lissauera, D.; Llope, W. J.; Ludlam, T.; Majka, R.; Makowiecki, D.; Mitchell, J. T.; Muthuswami, M.; Mark, S. K.; O'Brien, E.; Polychronakos, V.; Pruneau, C.; Rawool-Sullivan, M.; Rqtondo, F.; Sandweiss, J.; Shivakumar, B.; Simon, J.; Slaughter, J.; Sonnadara, U.; Sullivan, J.; Sunier, J.; Stachel, J.; Takai, H.; Throwe, T.; Van Hecke, H.; Waters, L.; Wolf, K.; Wolfe, D.; Woody, C.; Hemmick, Thomas K.; E814 Collaboration



Collective properties of nucleus-nucleus collisions from AGS to LHC energies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The azimuthal anisotropies of the collective transverse flow of charged hadrons are investigated in a wide range of heavy-ion collision energies within the microscopic Parton-Hadron-String Dynamics (PHSD) transport approach which incorporates explicit partonic degrees-of-freedom in terms of strongly interacting quasiparticles (quarks and gluons) in line with an equation-of-state from lattice QCD as well as the dynamical hadronization and hadronic collision dynamics in the final reaction phase. The experimentally observed increase of the elliptic flow v2 of charged hadrons with collision energy is successfully described in terms of the PHSD approach. The analysis of higher-order harmonics v3 and v4 in the azimuthal angular distribution shows a similar tendency of growing deviations between partonic and purely hadronic models with increasing collision energy. This demonstrates that the excitation functions of azimuthal anisotropies reflect the increasing role of quark-gluon degrees of freedom in the early phase of relativistic heavy-ion collisions. Furthermore, the specific variation of the ratio v4/(v2)2 with respect to bombarding energy, centrality and transverse momentum is found to provide valuable information on the underlying partonic dynamics.

Konchakovski, V. P.; Toneev, V. D.; Cassing, W.; Bratkovskaya, E. L.; Voloshin, S. A.; Voronyuk, V.



Drug delivery to the ocular posterior segment using lipid emulsion via eye drop administration: effect of emulsion formulations and surface modification.  


This work explored submicron-sized lipid emulsion as potential carriers for intraocular drug delivery to the posterior segment via eye drops. The effects of physicochemical properties of lipid emulsion on drug delivery were evaluated in vivo using mice. Different formulations of submicron-sized lipid emulsions were prepared using a high pressure homogenization system. Using coumairn-6 as a model drug and fluorescent marker, fluorescence could be observed in the retina after administration of the lipid emulsion. The fluorescence intensity observed after administration of medium chain triglycerides containing the same amount of coumarin-6 was much lower than that observed after administration of lipid emulsions. The inner oil property and phospholipid emulsifier did not affect the drug delivery efficiency to the retina. However, compared with unmodified emulsions, the fluorescence intensity in the retina increased by surface modification using a positive charge inducer and the functional polymers chitosan (CS) and poloxamer 407 (P407). CS-modified lipid emulsions could be electrostatically interacted with the eye surface. By its adhesive property, poloxamer 407, a surface modifier, possibly increased the lipid emulsion retention time on the eye surface. In conclusion, we suggested that surface-modified lipid emulsions could be promising vehicles of hydrophobic drug delivery to the ocular posterior segment. PMID:23796836

Ying, Lin; Tahara, Kohei; Takeuchi, Hirofumi



Pickering emulsions prepared by layered niobate K?Nb?O?? intercalated with organic cations and photocatalytic dye decomposition in the emulsions.  


We investigated emulsions stabilized with particles of layered hexaniobate, known as a semiconductor photocatalyst, and photocatalytic degradation of dyes in the emulsions. Hydrophobicity of the niobate particles was adjusted with the intercalation of alkylammonium ions into the interlayer spaces to enable emulsification in a toluene-water system. After the modification of interlayer space with hexylammonium ions, the niobate stabilized water-in-oil (w/o) emulsions in a broad composition range. Optical microscopy showed that the niobate particles covered the surfaces of emulsion droplets and played a role of emulsifying agents. The niobate particles also enabled the generation of oil-in-water (o/w) emulsions in a limited composition range. Modification with dodecylammonium ions, which turned the niobate particles more hydrophobic, only gave w/o emulsions, and the particles were located not only at the toluene-water interface but also inside the toluene continuous phase. On the other hand, interlayer modification with butylammonium ions led to the formation of o/w emulsions. When porphyrin dyes were added to the system, the cationic dye was adsorbed on niobate particles at the emulsion droplets whereas the lipophilic dye was dissolved in toluene. Upon UV irradiation, both of the dyes were degraded photocatalytically. When the cationic and lipophilic porphyrin molecules were simultaneously added to the emulsions, both of the dyes were photodecomposed nonselectively. PMID:22850398

Nakato, Teruyuki; Ueda, Hiroaki; Hashimoto, Sachika; Terao, Ryosuke; Kameyama, Miyuki; Mouri, Emiko



Immunomodulatory and Physical Effects of Oil Composition in Vaccine Adjuvant Emulsions  

PubMed Central

Squalene-based oil-in-water emulsions have been used for years in some seasonal and pandemic influenza vaccines. However, concerns have been expressed regarding squalene source and potential biological activities. Little information is available regarding the immunomodulatory activity of squalene in comparison with other metabolizable oils in the context of oil-in-water emulsions formulated with vaccines. The present work describes the manufacture and physical characterization of emulsions composed of different classes of oils, including squalene, long chain triglycerides, a medium chain triglyceride, and a perfluorocarbon, all emulsified with egg phosphatidylcholine. Some differences were apparent among the non-squalene oils in terms of emulsion stability, including higher size polydispersity in the perfluorocarbon emulsion, more rapid visual instability at 60 °C for the long-chain triglyceride and perfluorocarbon emulsions, and an increased creaming rate in the medium-chain triglyceride emulsion at 60 °C as detected by laser scattering optical profiling. The biological activity of each of these emulsions was compared when formulated with either a recombinant malaria antigen or a split-virus inactivated influenza vaccine. Overall, vaccines containing the squalene emulsion elicited higher antibody titers and more abundant long-lived plasma cells than vaccines containing emulsions based on other oils. Since squalene-based emulsions show higher adjuvant potency compared to the other oils tested, non-squalene oils may be more suitable as carriers of amphiphilic or hydrophobic immunostimulatory molecules (such as TLR agonists) rather than as stand-alone adjuvants. PMID:21906648

Fox, Christopher B.; Baldwin, Susan L.; Duthie, Malcolm S.; Reed, Steven G.; Vedvick, Thomas S.



Polymersomes Fabrication of Polymersomes using Double-Emulsion  

E-print Network

Polymersomes Fabrication of Polymersomes using Double-Emulsion Templates in Glass-Coated Stamped¨rster, and David A. Weitz* Polymersomes are vesicular self-assemblies of amphiphilic diblock copolymers;[1 and functionalization of the copoly- mers, polymersomes with controlled biological, chemical


Intravenous lipid emulsion for treating permethrin toxicosis in a cat  

PubMed Central

A 2-year-old cat was presented with acute onset seizures, tremors, and hypersalivation. Permethrin toxicity was diagnosed based on a history of recent flea treatment. Measures were taken to minimize further absorption of permethrin, and methocarbamol and intravenous lipid emulsion were used to control tremors. The cat recovered and was discharged within 42 h. PMID:24381347

DeGroot, Whitney D.



Rheological investigations on the creaming of depletion-flocculated emulsions.  


Preventing creaming or sedimentation by the addition of thickeners is an important industrial challenge. We study the effect of the addition of a "free" nonadsorbing polymer (xanthan gum) on the stability against creaming of sterically stabilized O/W emulsions. Therefore, we analyze our samples using microscopy and rheological measurements. At low xanthan concentrations, the emulsions cream. However, above a certain concentration a three-dimensional network of droplets is formed, which can prevent creaming. We attribute the formation of this structure to depletion attraction. The rheological behavior of an emulsion that is macroscopically stable should be elastic, while it should be viscous for a creaming emulsion. In order to distinguish between stable and unstable samples, we measure their relaxation time by mechanical rheology and find a good correlation to the visual observation. However, the measured relaxation times are much shorter than the time-scales, on which we observe creaming. We hypothesize that the measured relaxation time is related to the droplet-droplet interaction. This determines the frequency at which microscopic rearrangements occur, which weaken the network structure prior to creaming. Based on this interpretation, the relaxation time gives direct access to the microstructural processes involved in creaming. We therefore suggest using it as a predictive parameter of creaming stability. PMID:22554128

Aben, Simon; Holtze, Christian; Tadros, Tharwat; Schurtenberger, Peter



Drug Release From Emulsions Stabilized by Colloidal Macrocrystalline Cellulose  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drug release from water-in oil-in water (w\\/o\\/w)multiple emulsions stabilized with colloidal microcrystal-line cellulose and various surface-active agents has been studied in vitro. Lidocaine hydrochloride and lidocaine base were used as model drugs for these studies. Drug concentrations were measured by HPLC, and effective diffusion coefficients were determined.

Kamlesh P. Oza; Sylvan G. Frank



Development of Foamed Emulsion Bioreactor for Air Pollution Control  

E-print Network

Development of Foamed Emulsion Bioreactor for Air Pollution Control Eunsung Kan, Marc A. Deshusses: 10.1002/bit.10767 Abstract: A new type of bioreactor for air pollution con- trol has been developed used bioreactors for air pollution control. © 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 84: 240


Emulsification, drying and film formation of alkyd emulsions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method was developed and optimised for the emulsification of a conventional short oil alkyd resin which was solid at room temperature. The method was based on the emulsion inversion point (EIP) method whereby hot water (90°C) was added to molten alkyd resin (90°C) containing the emulsifier. Under slow mixing and addition of water, a point was reached where the

P. K. Weissenborn; A. Motiejauskaite



Separating oil from oil-water emulsions by electroflotation technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

The separation of finely dispersed oil from oil-water emulsions was carried out in an electroflotation cell which has a set of electrodes, a lead anode and stainless steel screen cathode. The effect of operating parameters on the performance of the batch cell was examined. The parameters investigated are electrical current, oil concentration, flotation time and flocculant agent concentrations. A well-fitted

Ashraf Y. Hosny



Paramagnetic oil emulsions as oral magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents.  


The combination of a paramagnetic agent with an oil emulsion can uniformly enhance the small bowel. We discovered that the entire small bowel becomes homogeneously brighter than its surroundings when imaged with all commonly utilized pulse sequences. We have tried various combinations of ferric ammonium citrate, ferrous sulfate, gadolinium-DPTA and corn oil, olive oil and peanut oil. All paramagnetic oil emulsions tested were uniformly distributed throughout the small bowel, but the enhancement effect is much stronger with the ferric ammonium citrate and gadolinium-DPTA oil emulsions. We have also developed a mixture of Geritol, corn oil, ice cream and milk, which uniformly coats the small bowel wall, has good enhancement effect, tastes good, and is nutritious. With this dietary contrast, retroperitoneal structures including the pancreas can be well delineated. We conclude that the combination of a paramagnetic agent with an oil emulsion can work as a safe and effective magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) oral contrast agent with high patient acceptance. PMID:2082129

Li, K C; Ang, P G; Tart, R P; Storm, B L; Rolfes, R; Ho-Tai, P C



Portulaca oleracea gum and casein interactions and emulsion stability  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well documented that weak or strong interactions between macromolecules such as proteins or polysaccharides can synergistically improve the emulsifying capabilities of each of the biopolymers. The present study explores the nature of the adsorbed layer in emulsions formed in the presence of casein and a new anionic hydrocolloid extracted from Portulaca oleracea L. (POG). in several emulsification protocols.Electrophoretic

N Garti; Y Slavin; A Aserin



Design and Testing of an Emulsion Liquid Membrane Pilot Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

An emulsion liquid membrane (ELM) extraction rotating disc contactor (RDC) column with auxiliary equipment has been designed and tested. An ELM spray column was designed as well. ELM is a suitable technique for the removal of heavy metal ions from waste or process streams. However, no design rules are available yet. This paper proposes and verifies a design procedure based




Recent advances in the combustion of water fuel emulsion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in the combustion of water fuel emulsion which consists of base fuel and water doped with or without a trace content of surfactant are reviewed. The focus is on the fundamental mechanism relevant to the micro-explosion phenomena leading to the secondary atomization which is not common to the combustion of pure fuel. Described at first are the kinetic

T. Kadota; H. Yamasaki



Viscoelastic Properties of Protein-Stabilized Emulsions: Effect of Protein-Surfactant Interactions.  


Viscoelastic properties of whey protein isolate-stabilized emulsions have been investigated by determining storage and loss moduli of both fresh emulsions and heat-set emulsion gels. Gel strength increases with the increase of protein concentration in the system. The flocculated protein-covered oil droplets behave as active fillers and hence dramatically enhance the gel strength. The presence of water-soluble surfactant Tween 20 induces a dramatic reduction in emulsion gel strength, which is attributable to protein displacement from the oil-water interface. Oil droplets that are fully covered with Tween 20 do not adhere to protein gel matrix and do not contribute to gel strength. The presence of oil-soluble monopalmitin increases the viscous character of fresh emulsions and substantially reduces the modulus of heat-set emulsion gels. The viscoelastic properties of heat-set emulsion gels containing monopalmitin are only slightly frequency-dependent, and these gels can be classified as "strong gels". PMID:10554201

Chen; Dickinson



The influence of emulsion structure on the Maillard reaction of ghee.  


Food systems, such as cream and butter, have an emulsion or emulsion-like structure. When these food emulsions are heated to high temperatures to make products such as ghee, the Maillard reaction forms a range of volatile flavour compounds. The objective of this paper was to unravel the specific influence of emulsion structure on the Maillard reaction pathways that occur during the cooking of ghee using model systems. Switching the dispersed phase from oil to water provided a means of altering the ratios of volatile compounds produced in the cooked samples. The oil-in-water emulsion generated a volatile compound profile similar to that of the fat containing two phase model matrix, whereas the water-in-oil emulsion produced a different ratio of these compounds. The ability to generate different volatile compound profiles through the use of inverted emulsion structures could point to a new avenue for control of the Maillard reaction in high temperature food systems. PMID:25466150

Newton, Angela E; Fairbanks, Antony J; Golding, Matt; Andrewes, Paul; Gerrard, Juliet A



Comparative studies of salinomycin-loaded nanoparticles prepared by nanoprecipitation and single emulsion method  

PubMed Central

To establish a satisfactory delivery system for the delivery of salinomycin (Sal), a novel, selective cancer stem cell inhibitor with prominent toxicity, gelatinase-responsive core-shell nanoparticles (NPs), were prepared by nanoprecipitation method (NR-NPs) and single emulsion method (SE-NPs). The gelatinase-responsive copolymer was prepared by carboxylation and double amination method. We studied the stability of NPs prepared by nanoprecipitation method with different proportions of F68 in aqueous phase to determine the best proportion used in our study. Then, the NPs were prepared by nanoprecipitation method with the best proportion of F68 and single emulsion method, and their physiochemical traits including morphology, particle size, zeta potential, drug loading content, stability, and in vitro release profiles were studied. The SE-NPs showed significant differences in particle size, drug loading content, stability, and in vitro release profiles compared to NR-NPs. The SE-NPs presented higher drug entrapment efficiency and superior stability than the NR-NPs. The drug release rate of SE-NPs was more sustainable than that of the NR-NPs, and in vivo experiment indicated that NPs could prominently reduce the toxicity of Sal. Our study demonstrates that the SE-NPs could be a satisfactory method for the preparation of gelatinase-responsive NPs for intelligent delivery of Sal. PMID:25147486



Ethyl ferulate, a component with anti-inflammatory properties for emulsion-based creams.  


Ethyl ferulate (FAEE) has been widely studied due to its beneficial heath properties and, when incorporated in creams, shows a high sun protection capacity. Here we aimed to compare FAEE and its precursor, ferulic acid (FA), as free radical scavengers, inhibitors of oxidants produced by leukocytes and the alterations in rheological properties when incorporated in emulsion based creams. The cell-free antiradical capacity of FAEE was decreased compared to FA. However, FAEE was more effective regarding the scavenging of reactive oxygen species produced by activated leukocytes. Stress and frequency sweep tests showed that the formulations are more elastic than viscous. The viscoelastic features of the formulations were confirmed in the creep and recovery assay and showed that the FAEE formulation was less susceptive to deformation. Liberation experiments showed that the rate of FAEE release from the emulsion was slower compared to FA. In conclusion, FAEE is more effective than FA as a potential inhibitor of oxidative damage produced by oxidants generated by leukocytes. The rheological alterations caused by the addition of FAEE are indicative of lower spreadability, which could be useful for formulations used in restricted areas of the skin. PMID:24941338

Nazaré, Ana C; de Faria, Carolina M Q G; Chiari, Bruna G; Petrônio, Maicon S; Regasini, Luis O; Silva, Dulce H S; Corrêa, Marcos A; Isaac, Vera L B; da Fonseca, Luiz M; Ximenes, Valdecir F



Nuclear research emulsion neutron spectrometry at the Little-Boy replica  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear research emulsions (NRE) have been used to characterize the neutron spectrum emitted by the Little-Boy replica. NRE were irradiated at the Little-Boy surface as well as approximately 2 m from the center of the Little-Boy replica using polar angles of 0/sup 0/, 30/sup 0/, 60/sup 0/ and 90/sup 0/. For the NRE exposed at 2 m, neutron background was determined using shadow shields of borated polyethylene. Emulsion scanning to date has concentrated exclusively on the 2-m, 0/sup 0/ and 2-m, 90/sup 0/ locations. Approximately 5000 proton-recoil tracks have been measured in NRE irradiated at each of these locations. Neutron spectra obtained from these NRE proton-recoil spectra are compared with both liquid scintillator neutron spectrometry and Monte Carlo calculations. NRE and liquid scintillator neutron spectra generally agree within experimental uncertainties at the 2-m, 90/sup 0/ location. However, at the 2-m, 0/sup 0/ location, the neutron spectra derived from these two independent experimental methods differ significantly. NRE spectra and Monte Carlo calculations exhibit general agreement with regard to both intensity as well as energy dependence. Better agreement is attained between theory and experiment at the 2-m, 90/sup 0/ location, where the neutron intensity is considerably higher. 14 refs., 18 figs., 11 tabs.

Gold, R.; Roberts, J.H.; Preston, C.C.



Mechanism of aerobic biological destabilisation of wool scour effluent emulsions.  


Wool scouring effluent is a highly polluted industrial wastewater in which the main pollutant, wool wax, is held in a stable oil-in-water emulsion by non-ionic detergent. The use of microbial action to cause emulsion destabilisation has been proposed as a new treatment strategy for this effluent stream. This strategy aims at improving aerobic treatment performance by physically removing the high-COD, slowly bio-degradable wool wax from the system without bio-degradation. The mechanism by which an aerobic-mixed culture destabilises the wool scouring effluent emulsion was investigated. Our results show that destabilisation is due to partial bio-degradation of both the scouring detergent and the wool wax. Cleavage of the wool wax esters was the first stage in wax degradation, when 40-50% of wax was de-emulsified. Over the same period, detergent degradation was low, at 7-21%. With further incubation, detergent degradation increased, aiding further breakdown of the emulsion. The degradation of the detergent, a nonylphenol ethoxylate, resulted in both a reduction in molar concentration (of up to 82%) and a shortening of the ethoxylate chain length. The latter reduced the hydrophile-lipophile balance (HLB) from 12 to approximately 7, thereby reducing the ability of the residual detergent to stabilise the emulsion. Analysis of the emulsified and de-emulsified wax fractions could not identify a group of compounds that were preferentially de-emulsified based on molecular weight or polarity. These findings will assist in using a de-emulsification strategy in both existing and new treatment systems in order to save on aeration costs and treatment times for biological treatment of this highly polluted wastewater. PMID:15979119

Poole, Andrew J; Cord-Ruwisch, Ralf; William Jones, F



Lipid emulsions – Guidelines on Parenteral Nutrition, Chapter 6  

PubMed Central

The infusion of lipid emulsions allows a high energy supply, facilitates the prevention of high glucose infusion rates and is indispensable for the supply with essential fatty acids. The administration of lipid emulsions is recommended within ?7 days after starting PN (parenteral nutrition) to avoid deficiency of essential fatty acids. Low-fat PN with a high glucose intake increases the risk of hyperglycaemia. In parenterally fed patients with a tendency to hyperglycaemia, an increase in the lipid-glucose ratio should be considered. In critically ill patients the glucose infusion should not exceed 50% of energy intake. The use of lipid emulsions with a low phospholipid/triglyceride ratio is recommended and should be provided with the usual PN to prevent depletion of essential fatty acids, lower the risk of hyperglycaemia, and prevent hepatic steatosis. Biologically active vitamin E (?-tocopherol) should continuously be administered along with lipid emulsions to reduce lipid peroxidation. Parenteral lipids should provide about 25–40% of the parenteral non-protein energy supply. In certain situations (i.e. critically ill, respiratory insufficiency) a lipid intake of up to 50 or 60% of non-protein energy may be reasonable. The recommended daily dose for parenteral lipids in adults is 0.7–1.3 g triglycerides/kg body weight. Serum triglyceride concentrations should be monitored regularly with dosage reduction at levels >400 mg/dl (>4.6 mmol/l) and interruption of lipid infusion at levels >1000 mg/dl (>11.4 mmol/l). There is little evidence at this time that the choice of different available lipid emulsions affects clinical endpoints. PMID:20049078

Adolph, M.; Heller, A. R.; Koch, T.; Koletzko, B.; Kreymann, K. G.; Krohn, K.; Pscheidl, E.; Senkal, M.



Dose and timing requirements for immunogenicity of viral poultry vaccine antigen: investigations of emulsion-based depot function.  


The release requirements for vaccine antigens delivered by adjuvants with presumed depot function are poorly understood. Water-in-oil (W/O) emulsions are routinely used in many poultry vaccines. They strongly activate antibody production, and are regarded as a depot from which antigens are slowly released, resulting in prolonged antigen residence. However, from earlier studies we concluded that W/O adjuvant activity is partly based on the immunostimulatory activity of the oil phase. Here we assess the dose and regimen requirements for viral antigen in immunization experiments in chickens. Three-week-old to 4-week-old White Leghorn chickens were repeatedly injected with inactivated infectious bursal disease virus antigen over 48 days. Our aim was to compare the antibody responses in repeatedly injected animals, receiving fractioned doses of antigen, with the responses in animals receiving only one injection of the full dose of antigen formulated in either a W/O emulsion or in saline. We observed that repeated administration of small amounts of antigen results in a gradual increase of specific humoral immune responses during the immunization regimen. Immunization with a higher first dose evoked an early higher antibody response, which, however, reached a similar plateau level at the end of the regimen. When compared with lower first-dose regimens, a slow decline of serum antibody titre 2 weeks after the end of antigen injections indicated that repeated injection of small doses of antigen indeed mimics the efficacy of depot-forming adjuvants. All regimens of fractioned antigen in saline, however, proved less effective, when compared with a single-dose vaccination of the cumulative amount of antigen formulated in a W/O emulsion. From our data we confirm that W/O emulsions are very effective vaccine vehicles for improving antigen-specific humoral responses in chickens, owing to a combination of antigen residence-prolonging activity and direct immune stimulation. PMID:17899459

Jansen, Theo; Hofmans, Marij P M; Theelen, Marc J G; Manders, Frans G A; Schijns, Virgil E J C



Upgrade of the ALICE Experiment: Letter Of Intent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) is studying the physics of strongly interacting matter, and in particular the properties of the Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP), using proton-proton, proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions at the CERN LHC (Large Hadron Collider). The ALICE Collaboration is preparing a major upgrade of the experimental apparatus, planned for installation in the second long LHC shutdown in the years 2018-2019. These plans are presented in the ALICE Upgrade Letter of Intent, submitted to the LHCC (LHC experiments Committee) in September 2012. In order to fully exploit the physics reach of the LHC in this field, high-precision measurements of the heavy-flavour production, quarkonia, direct real and virtual photons, and jets are necessary. This will be achieved by an increase of the LHC Pb-Pb instant luminosity up to 6×1027 cm-2s-1 and running the ALICE detector with the continuous readout at the 50 kHz event rate. The physics performance accessible with the upgraded detector, together with the main detector modifications, are presented.

Abelev, B.; ALICE Collaboration; et al.



Pharmacokinetics of highly lipophilic antitumor agent palmitoyl rhizoxin incorporated in lipid emulsions in rats.  


The effects of i.v. formulations on the pharmacokinetics were examined for two antitumor agents with different lipophilicities: rhizoxin and palmitoyl-rhizoxin (RS-1541). Blood disposition and tissue distributions in rats were evaluated using three formulations: polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG)/dimethylacetamide (DMA) solution, colloidal solution, and lipid emulsions composed of dioctanoyl decanoyl glycerol (ODO) and polyoxyethylene-(60)-hydrogenated castor oil (HCO-60). The effects of emulsion particle size on the pharmacokinetics were also investigated. Rhizoxin rapidly disappeared from the plasma and showed high distribution in the tissues, and in vitro rapidly degraded in the plasma independent of the formulations used. In in vitro plasma, rhizoxin was easily released from the emulsion particles. In contrast to rhizoxin, the pharmacokinetics of RS-1541 with greater lipophilicity changed considerably depending on the formulations. The emulsions showed high and sustained plasma concentrations for RS-1541. RS-1541 was stably incorporated in the emulsion droplets and protected from the degradation when it was applied as an emulsion. Tissue distributions of RS-1541 in rats after an injection as lipid emulsion were strongly affected by the emulsion particle size. Small size emulsions (100-110 nm) showed the highest plasma concentrations of RS-1541, though they were unable to suppress distributions of the drug in peripheral tissues. Emulsions larger than 200 nm (approx.) in size, on the contrary, effectively inhibited the drug from entering the bone marrow, small intestine and other non-reticuloendothelial system (non-RES) organs, where many cytotoxic compounds showed undesired toxicities. These results indicate that the lipid emulsions composed of ODO and HCO-60 could be a promising and effective DDS carrier for RS-1541, which is highly lipophilic and stabilized in the emulsions. This was not the case for rhizoxin, however, which was less lipophilic than palmitoyl analogue RS-1541. The work described herein has demonstrated that by properly selecting the particle size, these lipid emulsions can control the behavior of a drug in the body. PMID:8850317

Kurihara, A; Shibayama, Y; Mizota, A; Yasuno, A; Ikeda, M; Hisaoka, M



Antioxidant activity and emulsion-stabilizing effect of pectic enzyme treated pectin in soy protein isolate-stabilized oil/water emulsion.  


The antioxidant activity of pectic enzyme treated pectin (PET-pectin) prepared from citrus pectin by enzymatic hydrolysis and its potential use as a stabilizer and an antioxidant for soy protein isolate (SPI)-stabilized oil in water (O/W) emulsion were investigated. Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) was found to be positively associated with molecular weight (M(w)) of PET-pectin and negatively associated with degree of esterification (DE) of PET-pectin. PET-pectin (1 kDa and 11.6% DE) prepared from citrus pectin after 24 h of hydrolysis by commercial pectic enzyme produced by Aspergillus niger expressed higher ?,?-diphenyl-?-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, TEAC, and reducing power than untreated citrus pectin (353 kDa and 60% DE). The addition of PET-pectin could increase both emulsifying activity (EA) and emulsion stability (ES) of SPI-stabilized O/W emulsion. When the SPI-stabilized lipid droplet was coated with the mixture of PET-pectin and pectin, the EA and ES of the emulsion were improved more than they were when the lipid droplet was coated with either pectin or PET-pectin alone. The amount of secondary oxidation products (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) produced in the emulsion prepared with the mixture of SPI and PET-pectin was less than the amount produced in the emulsion prepared with either SPI or SPI/pectin. These results suggest that PET-pectin has an emulsion-stabilizing effect and lipid oxidation inhibition ability on SPI-stabilized emulsion. Therefore, PET-pectin can be used as a stabilizer as well as an antioxidant in plant origin in SPI-stabilized O/W emulsion and thus prolong the shelf life of food emulsion. PMID:21806056

Huang, Ping-Hsiu; Lu, Hao-Te; Wang, Yuh-Tai; Wu, Ming-Chang



Poly(isobutylene) Nanoparticles via Cationic Polymerization in Nonaqueous Emulsions.  


The preparation of poly(isobutylene) (PIB) nanoparticles via cationic emulsion polymerization is presented. As a requirement, an oil-in-perfluoroalkane nonaqueous emulsion is developed, which is inert under the carbocationic polymerization conditions. To stabilize the dichloromethane/hexane droplets in the fluorinated, continuous phase, an amphiphilic block copolymer emulsifier is prepared containing PIB and 1H,1H-perfluoroalkylated poly(pentafluorostyrene) blocks. This system allows for the polymerization of isobutylene with number-average molecular weights (M¯n) up to 27 000 g mol(-1) . The particle morphologies are characterized via dynamic light scattering and electron microscopy. For M¯n > 20 000 g mol(-1) , the particles exhibit shape-persistence at room temperature and are ?100 nm in diameter. PMID:25250857

Schuster, Thomas; Golling, Florian E; Krumpfer, Joseph W; Wagner, Manfred; Graf, Robert; Alsaygh, Abdulhamid A; Klapper, Markus; Müllen, Klaus



Interaction between protein allergens and model gastric emulsions.  


The observed resistance to pepsinolysis of known food allergens has been suggested as a predictor of their allergenic risk. Consequently, resistance to pepsinolysis has become incorporated into decision tree assessment for potential allergenic risk posed by novel foods. However, existing methods take little account of the interaction between food structure and physiological conditions existing during digestion in vivo. Here we show that a range of protein allergens can adsorb to model stomach emulsions, providing a further means of resisting digestion. We also show that raising the pH and the addition of bile salts to a model stomach emulsion, thereby mimicking the duodenal environment, has the effect of desorbing the adsorbed protein. PMID:12440946

Burnett, G R; Wickham, M; Fillery-Travis, A; Robertson, J A; Belton, P S; Gilbert, S M; Tatham, A S; Shewry, P R; Mills, E N



Asphalt emulsion sealing of uranium mill tailings. 1979 annual report  

SciTech Connect

Uranium mill tailings are a source of low-level radiation and radioactive materials that may be released into the environment. Stabilization or disposal of these tailings in a safe and environmentally sound way is necessary to minimize radon exhalation and other radioactive releases. One of the most promising concepts for stabilizing uranium tailings is being investigated at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory: the use of asphalt emulsion to contain radon and other potentially hazardous materials in uranium tailings. Results of these studies indicate that radon flux from uranium tailings can be reduced by greater than 99% by covering the tailings with an asphalt emulsion that is poured on or sprayed on (3.0 to 7.0 mm thick), or mixed with some of the tailings and compacted to form an admixture seal (2.5 to 15.2 cm) containing 18 wt % residual asphalt.

Hartley, J.N.; Koehmstedt, P.L.; Esterl, D.J.; Freeman, H.D.



High energy primary electron spectrum observed by the emulsion chamber  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A detector of the emulsion chamber type is used to measure the energy spectrum of cosmic-ray electrons. Two large emulsion chambers, each having an area of 40 by 50 sq cm, are exposed for about 25.5 hr at an average pressure altitude of 3.9 mbar. About 500 high-energy cascades (no less than about 600 GeV) are detected by searching for dark spots on the X-ray films. A power-law energy dependence formula is derived for the spectrum of primary cosmic-ray electrons in the energy region over 100 GeV. The results are in good agreement with the transition curves obtained previously by theoretical and Monte Carlo calculations.

Nishimura, J.; Fujii, M.; Aizu, H.; Hiraiwa, N.; Taira, T.; Kobayashi, T.; Niu, K.; Koss, T. A.; Lord, J. J.; Golden, R. L.



Lateral distortions of electromagnetic cascades in emulsion chambers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electromagnetic cascades in a lead-emulsion chamber have been studied to determine the effect of air gaps on the upstream sides of the emulsions. Such air gaps cause a change in the form of the radial distribution of electron tracks, making cascades appear older and giving incorrect energy estimates. The number of tracks remaining within a radius r was found to vary as exp(-g/G), where g is the gap thickness. The characteristic gap thickness in mm is G = 3.04 + 1.30 ln (Err per GeV per sq mm) where E is the energy of the initiating gamma ray. Use of this relation provides a significant correction to cascade-energy estimates and allows one to calculate the effect of different gap thicknesses on the energy threshold for visual detection of cascades.

Porter, L. G.; Levit, L. B.; Jones, W. V.; Huggett, R. W.; Barrowes, S. C.



Bioreactor droplets from liposome-stabilized all-aqueous emulsions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Artificial bioreactors are desirable for in vitro biochemical studies and as protocells. A key challenge is maintaining a favourable internal environment while allowing substrate entry and product departure. We show that semipermeable, size-controlled bioreactors with aqueous, macromolecularly crowded interiors can be assembled by liposome stabilization of an all-aqueous emulsion. Dextran-rich aqueous droplets are dispersed in a continuous polyethylene glycol (PEG)-rich aqueous phase, with coalescence inhibited by adsorbed ~130-nm diameter liposomes. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching and dynamic light scattering data indicate that the liposomes, which are PEGylated and negatively charged, remain intact at the interface for extended time. Inter-droplet repulsion provides electrostatic stabilization of the emulsion, with droplet coalescence prevented even for submonolayer interfacial coatings. RNA and DNA can enter and exit aqueous droplets by diffusion, with final concentrations dictated by partitioning. The capacity to serve as microscale bioreactors is established by demonstrating a ribozyme cleavage reaction within the liposome-coated droplets.

Dewey, Daniel C.; Strulson, Christopher A.; Cacace, David N.; Bevilacqua, Philip C.; Keating, Christine D.



$^8$He nuclei stopped in nuclear track emulsion  

E-print Network

The fragment separator ACCULINNA in the G. N. Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions of JINR was used to expose a nuclear track emulsion to a beam of radioactive $^{8}$He nuclei of energy of 60 MeV and enrichment of about 80%. Measurements of decays of $^{8}$He nuclei stopped in the emulsion allow one to evaluate possibilities of $\\alpha$-spectrometry and to observe a thermal drift of $^{8}$He atoms in matter. Knowledge of the energy and emission angles of $\\alpha$-particles allows one to derive the energy distribution of $\\alpha$-decays Q$_{2\\alpha}$. The presence of a "tail" of large values Q$_{2\\alpha}$ is established. The physical reason for the appearance of this "tail" in the distribution Q$_{2\\alpha}$ is not clear. Its shape could allow one to verify calculations of spatial structure of nucleon ensembles emerging as $\\alpha$-pairs of decays via the state $^8$Be$_{2+}$.

D. A. Artemenkov; A. A. Bezbakh; V. Bradnova; M. S. Golovkov; A. V. Gorshkov; G. Kaminsky; N. K. Kornegrutsa; S. A. Krupko; K. Z. Mamatkulov; R. R. Kattabekov; V. V. Rusakova; R. S. Slepnev; R. Stanoeva; S. V. Stepantsov; A. S. Fomichev; V. Chudoba; P. I. Zarubin; I. G. Zarubina



Intralipid emulsion treatment as an antidote in lipophilic drug intoxications.  


Intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE) is a lifesaving treatment of lipophilic drug intoxications. Not only does ILE have demonstrable efficacy as an antidote to local anesthetic toxicity, it is also effective in lipophilic drug intoxications. Our case series involved 10 patients with ingestion of different types of lipophilic drugs. Intravenous lipid emulsion treatment improved Glasgow Coma Scale or blood pressure and pulse rate or both according to the drug type. Complications were observed in 2 patients (minimal change pancreatitis and probable ILE treatment-related fat infiltration in lungs). In our case series, ILE was used for different lipophilic drug intoxications to improve cardiovascular and neurologic symptoms. According to the results, it was found that ILE treatment is a lifesaving agent in lipophilic drug intoxications and it can be used in unconscious patients who have cardiac and/or neurologic symptoms but no history of a specific drug ingestion. PMID:24974371

Eren Cevik, Sebnem; Tasyurek, Tanju; Guneysel, Ozlem



Effect of oil soluble surfactant in emulsions stabilised by clay particles.  


Although surfactants and particles are often mixed together in emulsions, the contribution of each species to the stabilisation of the oil-water interface is poorly understood. We report the results of investigations into the formation of emulsions from solutions of surfactant in oil and aqueous suspensions of laponite. Depending on the salt concentration in the aqueous suspensions, the laponite dispersed as individual disc-shaped particles, 30 nm in diameter, or flocculated into aggregates tens of micrometres in diameter. At the concentrations studied, the flocculated particles alone stabilized oil-in-water emulsions. Synergistic interactions between the particles and octadecylamine at the oil-water interface reduced the average emulsion drop size, while antagonistic interactions with octadecanoic acid enhanced coalescence processes in the emulsions. The state of particle dispersion had dramatic effects on the emulsions formed. Measurements of the oil-water interfacial tension revealed the origins of the interactions between the surfactants and particles. PMID:18452938

Whitby, Catherine P; Fornasiero, Daniel; Ralston, John



Impact of pNIPAM microgel size on its ability to stabilize Pickering emulsions.  


We study the influence of the particle size on the ability of poly(N-isoprolylacrylamide) microgels to stabilize direct oil-in-water Pickering emulsions. The microgel size is varied from 250 to 760 nm, the cross-linking density being kept constant. The emulsion properties strongly depend on the stabilizer size: increasing the particle size induces an evolution from dispersed drops and fluid emulsions toward strongly adhesive drops and flocculated emulsions. In order to get insight into this dependency, we study how particles adsorb at the interface and we determine the extent of their deformation. We propose a correlation between microgel ability to deform and emulsion macroscopic behavior. Indeed, as the microgels size increases, their internal structure becomes more heterogeneous and so does the polymeric interfacial layer they form. The loss of a uniform dense layer favors bridging between neighboring drops, leading to flocculated and therefore less handleable emulsions. PMID:24450736

Destribats, Mathieu; Eyharts, Mayalen; Lapeyre, Véronique; Sellier, Elisabeth; Varga, Imre; Ravaine, Valérie; Schmitt, Véronique



The interaction of K ? -mesons with photographic emulsion nuclei  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The emission of ?-hyperons from 3 037 K? capture stars at rest in nuclear emulsion has been studied. The identification of the hyperons is discussed. Charged ?-hyperons\\u000a are emitted from (17.6±1.0)% of all K?-stars while (9.6±0.6)% of them lead to the emission of both ?-hyperons and ?-mesons. The ??\\/?+ ratio for all stars is 0.86±0.12 while for stars in which

B. Bhowmik; D. Evans; D. Falla; F. Hassan; A. A. Kamal; K. K. Nagpaul; D. J. J. Prowse; M. René; G. Alexander; R. H. W. Johnston; C. O’Ceallaigh; D. Keefe; E. H. S. Burhop; D. H. Davis; R. C. Kumar; W. B. Lasich; M. A. Shaukat; F. R. Stannard; M. Bacchella; A. Bonetti; C. Dilworth; G. Occhialini; L. Scarsi; M. Grilli; L. Guerriero; L. von Lindern; M. Merlin; A. Salandin



Structure Formation in Micro-Confined Polymeric Emulsions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the present work, we present results of concentrated solutions under shear, with particular emphasis on the case that the emulsion is microconfined. When the size of a typical droplet is comparable to the gap width between the shearing plates, we observe interesting non-equilibrium pattern formation of the collective behavior. We present three results in which spontaneous structures emerge in the system; string formation, the pearl necklace structure and droplet layering.

Pathak, J. A.



Novel urethane\\/acrylic hybrid emulsions for VOC compliant coatings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to develop a volatile organic component-free water-based binder with improved coating properties from urethane-alkyd acrylate by emulsion polymerisation. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Alkyd resin based on interesterification of sardine fish and linseed oil (50:50 w\\/w) was synthesised and reacted with isophorone diisocyanate to form urethane alkyd. The resultant urethane alkyd and acrylic monomers in

V. D. Athawale; R. V. Nimbalkar



8He Nuclei Stopped in Nuclear Track Emulsion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A nuclear track emulsion (NTE) is exposed to 60 MeV 8He nuclei. Measurements of decays of 8He nuclei stopped in NTE allow one to evaluate possibilities of ?-spectrometry. Thermal drift of 8He atoms is observed. Knowledge of the energy and emission angles of ?-particles allows one to derive the energy distribution of ?-decays Q2 ? . The presence of a "tail" of large values Q2 ? is established.

Artemenkov, D. A.; Bezbakh, A. A.; Bradnova, V.; Chudoba, V.; Golovkov, M. S.; Gorshkov, A. V.; Farrag, Al-Z.; Kaminski, G.; Kornegrutsa, N. K.; Krupko, S. A.; Mamatkulov, K. Z.; Kattabekov, R. R.; Rusakova, V. V.; Slepnev, R. S.; Stanoeva, R.; Stepantsov, S. V.; Fomichev, A. S.; Zarubin, P. I.; Zarubina, I. G.



Development of emulsion chamber detector for space observation  

Microsoft Academic Search

At present, the research on dark matter is the cutting edge of science. It is the hotspot to find out if the dark matter exist in the form of particle by observing the electrons and gamma-rays resulted from the disintegration or reciprocity of dark matter. Emulsion chamber is a powerful detector for high-energy electrons and gamma-rays with high special and

Y. M. Hu; J. Chang; Y. Z. Gong; R. J. Zhang; N. S. Wang; H. S. Tang; S. Torii; J. Nishimura; T. Kobayashi; Y. Shimizu; F. Makino



Intermediate mass fragment emission by [sup 197]Au projectiles at relativistic energy in nuclear emulsion  

SciTech Connect

The charge distribution of multifragment decays of [sup 197]Au projectiles at 10.6[ital A] GeV in nuclear emulsion is fitted with a power law. The correlations between the charges emitted are given as a function of the total charge confined in fragments [ital Z][sub bound] for [ital Z][ge]2, which is a measure of the violence of the collision. The observables of the present experiment are compared to the [sup 197]Au beam at 600[ital A] MeV in the domain of limiting fragmentation and they are also reproduced by the predictions of the statistical and the percolation models. Small changes in the values of some of these observables are revealed in the two energies.

Jain, P.L.; Singh, G.; Mukhopadhyay, A. (High Energy Experimental Laboratory, Department of Physics, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York 14260 (United States))



Electrical conductivities of three-phase emulsions. 1. Strongly wetting middle phase  

SciTech Connect

Electrical conductivities of steady-state, three-phase (macro)emulsions formed by the top (T), middle (M), and bottom (B) phases of the amphiphile/oil/[open quotes]water[close quotes] (i.e., aqueous 10 mM NaCl) system C[sub 4]H[sub 9]OC[sub 2]H[sub 4]OH/n-decane/water have been measured and compared with the predictions of equations from the literature or that we have proposed. In all cases the continuous phase could be deduced from the combination of experiment and theory, but less information was obtained about dispersed-phase structures. Three new conductivity equations and two new three-phase dispersion morphologies have been proposed. 30 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

Smith, D.H. (Morgantown Energy Technology Center, WV (United States) Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States)); Johnson, G.K. (Morgantown Energy Technology Center, WV (United States)); Wang, Y.H.C.; Lim, K.H. (WASC, Inc., Morgantown, WV (United States))



Stabilising emulsion-based colloidal structures with mixed food ingredients.  


The physical scientist views food as a complex form of soft matter. The complexity has its origin in the numerous ingredients that are typically mixed together and the subtle variations in microstructure and texture induced by thermal and mechanical processing. The colloid science approach to food product formulation is based on the assumption that the major product attributes such as appearance, rheology and physical stability are determined by the spatial distribution and interactions of a small number of generic structural entities (biopolymers, particles, droplets, bubbles, crystals) organised in various kinds of structural arrangements (layers, complexes, aggregates, networks). This review describes some recent advances in this field with reference to three discrete classes of dispersed systems: particle-stabilised emulsions, emulsion gels and aerated emulsions. Particular attention is directed towards explaining the crucial role of the macromolecular ingredients (proteins and polysaccharides) in controlling the formation and stabilisation of the colloidal structures. The ultimate objective of this research is to provide the basic physicochemical insight required for the reliable manufacture of novel structured foods with an appealing taste and texture, whilst incorporating a more healthy set of ingredients than those found in many existing traditional products. PMID:23280883

Dickinson, Eric



Preparation and evaluation of minoxidil foamable emu oil emulsion  

PubMed Central

The aim of this work was to develop and evaluate a minoxidil foamable emu oil emulsion with the purpose of improving minoxidil permeation into the skin, increasing hair growth, reducing skin irritation, and increasing consumer compliance. Minoxidil was dissolved in a solvent system comprising ethanol: glycerin: lactic acid: water (10:20:5:65). The foamable emulsion was prepared by mixing the oil phase with minoxidil solution using different amount of various emulsifiers. Seventeen formulations were prepared and the most stable foamable emulsion was selected and evaluated for various pharmaceutical parameters such as homogeneity, pH, stability to centrifugal stress, freeze-thaw and foamability. The adopted formulation showed good pharmaceutical characteristics. In vitro release rate of the formulations were evaluated using Franz diffusion cell using phosphate buffer pH 7.4 and ethanol as the receiver medium at sink condition. The release rate of formulations was found to obey Higuchi kinetic model. Experimental animal study was performed to evaluate hair growth potential of the formulation. Different cyclic phases of hair follicles, like anagen, and telogen phases, were determined at one month period. Histological study after treatment with adopted formulation exhibited greater number of hair follicles in anagenic phase (96%) which were higher as compared to marketed 5% minoxidil solution (Pakdaru® 70%) and the control group (42%). From animal study it was concluded that the selected formulation exhibited a significant potency in promoting hair growth in comparison with marketed 5% minoxidil solution Pakdaru®.

Shatalebi, M.A.; Rafiei, Y.



Novel anhydrous emulsions: formulation as controlled release vehicles.  


Novel anhydrous emulsions, which may offer some advantages as depot or reservoir vehicles for lipophilic drugs in controlled delivery systems, were formulated using castor oil as the disperse phase and dimethicone or cyclopentasiloxane as the continuous phase. Among the emulsifiers studied only silicone surfactants (cyclomethicone/dimethicone copolyols) which were miscible in silicone oil stabilized the emulsions. Cyclomethicone/PEG/PPG-18/18 Dimethicone and Cyclopentasiloxane/PEG/PPG-18/18 Dimethicone were more effective in lowering the interfacial tension between castor oil and both dimethicone and cyclopentasiloxane. Emulsions formulated using either of these two surfactants were found to be stable against phase separation and exhibited least globule growth over 168 h. The average particle size was found to be 2-6 microm in these systems formed by probe sonication. Slow release patterns of 3H-dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and 3H-dexamethasone solubilized in the disperse castor oil phase into an aqueous dialyzing medium were observed over 48 h. PMID:15941632

Suitthimeathegorn, Orawan; Jaitely, Vikas; Florence, Alexander T



Feasibility of Surfactant-Free Supported Emulsion Liquid Membrane Extraction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Supported emulsion liquid membrane (SELM) is an effective means to conduct liquid-liquid extraction. SELM extraction is particularly attractive for separation tasks in the microgravity environment where density difference between the solvent and the internal phase of the emulsion is inconsequential and a stable dispersion can be maintained without surfactant. In this research, dispersed two-phase flow in SELM extraction is modeled using the Lagrangian method. The results show that SELM extraction process in the microgravity environment can be simulated on earth by matching the density of the solvent and the stripping phase. Feasibility of surfactant-free SELM (SFSELM) extraction is assessed by studying the coalescence behavior of the internal phase in the absence of the surfactant. Although the contacting area between the solvent and the internal phase in SFSELM extraction is significantly less than the area provided by regular emulsion due to drop coalescence, it is comparable to the area provided by a typical hollow-fiber membrane. Thus, the stripping process is highly unlikely to become the rate-limiting step in SFSELM extraction. SFSELM remains an effective way to achieve simultaneous extraction and stripping and is able to eliminate the equilibrium limitation in the typical solvent extraction processes. The SFSELM design is similar to the supported liquid membrane design in some aspects.

Hu, Shih-Yao B.; Li, Jin; Wiencek, John M.



Particle shape anisotropy in pickering emulsions: cubes and peanuts.  


We have investigated the effect of particle shape in Pickering emulsions by employing, for the first time, cubic and peanut-shaped particles. The interfacial packing and orientation of anisotropic microparticles are revealed at the single-particle level by direct microscopy observations. The uniform anisotropic hematite microparticles adsorb irreversibly at the oil-water interface in monolayers and form solid-stabilized o/w emulsions via the process of limited coalescence. Emulsions were stable against further coalescence for at least 1 year. We found that cubes assembled at the interface in monolayers with a packing intermediate between hexagonal and cubic and average packing densities of up to 90%. Local domains displayed densities even higher than theoretically achievable for spheres. Cubes exclusively orient parallel with one of their flat sides at the oil-water interface, whereas peanuts preferentially attach parallel with their long side. Those peanut-shaped microparticles assemble in locally ordered, interfacial particle stacks that may interlock. Indications for long-range capillary interactions were not found, and we hypothesize that this is related to the observed stable orientations of cubes and peanuts that marginalize deformations of the interface. PMID:24020650

de Folter, Julius W J; Hutter, Eline M; Castillo, Sonja I R; Klop, Kira E; Philipse, Albert P; Kegel, Willem K



An emulsion polymerization process for soluble and electrically conductive polyaniline  

SciTech Connect

A new emulsion process has been developed for the direct synthesis of the emeraldine salt of polyaniline (PANI) that is soluble in organic solvents. The process entails forming an emulsion composed of water, a water soluble organic solvent (e.g., 2-butoxyethanol), a water insoluble organic acid (e.g., dinonylnaphthalene sulfonic acid) and aniline. Aniline is protonated by the organic acid to form a salt which partitions into the organic phase. As oxidant (ammonium peroxydisulfate) is added, PANI salt forms in the organic phase and remains soluble. As the reaction proceeds, the reaction mixture changes from an emulsion to a two phase system, the soluble PANI remaining in the organic phase. With dinonylnaphthalene sulfonic acid (DNNSA) as the organic acid, the resulting product is truly soluble in organic solvents such as xylene and toluene (not a dispersion), of high molecular weight (M{sub w} > 22,000), film forming and miscible with many polymers such as polyurethanes, epoxies and phenoxy resins. As cast, the polyaniline film is only moderately conductive, (10{sup {minus}5} S/cm), however treatment of the film with surfactants such as benzyltriethylammonium chloride (BTEAC) or low molecular weight alcohols and ketones such as methanol and acetone increases the conductivity 2--3 orders of magnitude.

Kinlen, P.J.; Ding, Y.; Graham, C.R.; Liu, J.; Remsen, E.E.



Effect of ?-carrageenan addition to dairy emulsions containing sodium caseinate and locust bean gum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sodium caseinate-stabilized emulsions containing locust bean gum (LBG) were formulated to resemble soft-serve ice cream mixes, in order to study the effect of ?-carrageenan on the inhibition of phase separation in such systems. These emulsions behaved very different than skim milk powder (SMP)-stabilized emulsions, at similar protein concentration. Fat globule creaming was observed, due to depletion flocculation between sodium caseinate-coated

C. Vega; D. G. Dalgleish; H. D. Goff



Water vapor permeability properties of edible whey protein-lipid emulsion films  

Microsoft Academic Search

The water vapor permeability (WVP) of whey protein emulsion films was investigated. The exponential effect of relative humidity\\u000a on the WVP of whey protein films was reduced through lipid incorporation. Film orientation had a significant effect on WVP\\u000a due to emulsion separation during film formation. Heat denaturation of whey proteins lowered emulsion film WVP. Increasing\\u000a fatty acid and fatty alcohol

Tara Habig McHugh; John M. Krochta



Preparation of poly( N-vinylcarbazole) (PVK) nanoparticles by emulsion polymerization and PVK hollow particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

PVK nanoparticles were obtained by oil-in-water emulsion polymerization of N-vinylcarbazole (VCz). VCz is a white crystalline material with a melting point of 65°C, which is an unsuitable monomer for conventional emulsion polymerization because of its crystallinity. However, we could successfully synthesize PVK nanoparticles by emulsion polymerization from VCz solution with organic solvent. And then, we found that the concentration of

Su-Jung Yoon; Hyunaee Chun; Mi-Sun Lee; Nakjoong Kim



Nano-Emulsion Production by Sonication and Microfluidization—A Comparison  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficiency of sonication and microfluidization to produce nano-emulsions were evaluated in this study. The purpose was to produce an oil-in-water nano-emulsion of d-limonene to apply it in the next step for nano-particle encapsulation. In the entrapment and retention of volatiles or for the microencapsulation efficiency, emulsion size is one of the critical factors. In this study, a bench-top sonicator

Seid Mahdi Jafari; Yinghe He; Bhesh Bhandari



Spontaneously Formed trans-Anethol/Water/Alcohol Emulsions: Mechanism of Formation and Stability  

E-print Network

Articles Spontaneously Formed trans-Anethol/Water/Alcohol Emulsions: Mechanism of Formation the spontaneous emulsification and droplet growth mechanism in trans-anethol/water/ ethanol solutions, also known

Sprik, Rudolf


A computer system to analyze showers in nuclear emulsions: Center Director's discretionary fund report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A system to rapidly digitize data from showers in nuclear emulsions is described. A TV camera views the emulsions though a microscope. The TV output is superimposed on the monitor of a minicomputer. The operator uses the computer's graphics capability to mark the positions of particle tracks. The coordinates of each track are stored on a disk. The computer then predicts the coordinates of each track through successive layers of emulsion. The operator, guided by the predictions, thus tracks and stores the development of the shower. The system provides a significant improvement over purely manual methods of recording shower development in nuclear emulsion stacks.

Meegan, C. A.; Fountain, W. F.; Berry, F. A., Jr.



Changes of the diffraction efficiency due to emulsions thicknesses in holographic gratings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyze the behavior of the diffraction efficiency as a function of the thickness of the relief holographic grating recorded on a phase emulsion composed by rosin and bromophenol blue (BPB) dye. The emulsions thicknesses are mainly due to the rosin quantity deposited on a substrate. We record holographic gratings on each emulsion using the spectral line ? = 457 nm of an argon laser, after this we developed the emulsion with a quick process. The diffraction efficiencies for each grating vary from 0.25% to 0.62%.

Ibarra, J. C.; Ortiz-Gutiérrez, M.; Olivares-Pérez, A.; Obregón-Pulido, G.; Pérez-Cortés, M.



Pickering emulsions stabilized by soft microgels: influence of the emulsification process on particle interfacial organization and emulsion properties.  


This work reports a new evidence of the versatility of soft responsive microgels as stabilizers for Pickering emulsions. The organization of microgels at the oil-water interface is a function of the preparation pathway. The present results show that emulsification energy can be used as a trigger to modify microgel deformation at the oil-water interface and their packing density: high shear rates bring strong flattening of the microgels, whereas low shear rates lead to dense monolayers, where the microgels are laterally compressed. As a consequence, the resulting emulsions have opposite behavior in terms of flocculation, which arises from bridging between neighboring drops and is strongly dependent on their surface coverage. This strategy can be applied to any microgel which can sufficiently adsorb at low shear rates, i.e. small microgels or lightly cross-linked ones. The control of the organization of microgels at the interface does not only modify emulsion end-use properties but also constitutes a new tool for the development of Janus-type microgels, obtained by chemical modification of the adsorbed microgels. PMID:24050149

Destribats, Mathieu; Wolfs, Mélanie; Pinaud, Florent; Lapeyre, Véronique; Sellier, Elisabeth; Schmitt, Véronique; Ravaine, Valérie



Discovery of naked charm particles and lifetime differences among charm species using nuclear emulsion techniques innovated in Japan  

PubMed Central

This is a historical review of the discovery of naked charm particles and lifetime differences among charm species. These discoveries in the field of cosmic-ray physics were made by the innovation of nuclear emulsion techniques in Japan. A pair of naked charm particles was discovered in 1971 in a cosmic-ray interaction, three years prior to the discovery of the hidden charm particle, J/?, in western countries. Lifetime differences between charged and neutral charm particles were pointed out in 1975, which were later re-confirmed by the collaborative Experiment E531 at Fermilab. Japanese physicists led by K.Niu made essential contributions to it with improved emulsion techniques, complemented by electronic detectors. This review also discusses the discovery of artificially produced naked charm particles by us in an accelerator experiment at Fermilab in 1975 and of multiple-pair productions of charm particles in a single interaction in 1987 by the collaborative Experiment WA75 at CERN. PMID:18941283

NIU, Kiyoshi




SciTech Connect

This final technical report describes work performed under DOE Grant No. DE-FG26-97FT97278 during the period October 01, 1997 to August 31, 2001 which covers the total performance period of the project. During this period, detailed information on optimal salinity, temperature, emulsion morphologies, effectiveness for surfactant retention and oil recovery was obtained for an Alcohol Ethoxycarboxylate (AEC) surfactant to evaluate its performance in flooding processes. Tests were conducted on several AEC surfactants and NEODOX (23-4) was identified as the most suitable hybrid surfactant that yielded the best proportion in volume for top, middle, and bottom phases when mixed with oil and water. Following the selection of this surfactant, temperature and salinity scans were performed to identify the optimal salinity and temperature, and the temperature and salinity intervals in which all three phases coexisted. NEODOX 23-4 formed three phases between 4 and 52.5 C. It formed an aqueous rich microemulsion phase at high temperatures and an oleic rich microemulsion phase at low temperatures--a characteristic of the ionic part of the surfactant. The morphology measurement system was set-up successfully at CAU. The best oil/water/surfactant system defined by the above phase work was then studied for emulsion morphologies. Electrical conductivities were measured for middle and bottom phases of the NEODOX 23-4/dodecane/10mM water system and by mixing measured volumes of the middle phase into a fixed volume of the bottom phase and vice versa at room temperature. Electrical conductivity of the mixture decreased as the fraction of volume of the middle phase was increased and vice versa. Also inversion phenomena was observed. These experiments were then repeated for bottom/middle (B/M) and middle/bottom (M/B) conjugate pair phases at 10, 15, 25, 30, 35, 40, and 45 C. Electrical conductivity measurements were then compared with the predictions of the conductivity model developed in this project. The M/B and B/M morphologies and their inversion hysteresis lines conformed to the previously postulated dispersion morphology diagram; that is, within experimental uncertainties, the two emulsion inversion lines in phase volume-temperature space met at a critical point that coincided with the upper critical end point for the phases. Coreflooding measurements were performed by our industrial partner in this project, Surtek, Golden, CO which showed poor hydrocarbon recovery (38.1%) for NEODOX 23-4. It was also found that NEODOX 23-4 surfactant adsorbed too much to the rock (97.1% surfactant loss to the core), a characteristic of the non-ionic part of the surfactant.

Lebone T. Moeti; Ramanathan Sampath



Cellulose nanofibrils for one-step stabilization of multiple emulsions (W/O/W) based on soybean oil.  


Cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) were incorporated in water-in-oil (W/O) microemulsions and emulsions, as well as water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) multiple emulsions using soybean oil. The addition of CNF to the aqueous phase expanded the composition range to obtain W/O/W emulsions. CNF also increased the viscosity of the continuous phase and reduced the drop size both of which increased the stability and effective viscosity of the emulsions. The effects of oil type and polarity on the properties of the W/O/W emulsions were tested with limonene and octane, which compared to soybean oil produced a smaller emulsion drop size, and thus a higher emulsion viscosity. Overall, CNF are a feasible alternative to conventional polysaccharides as stability enhancers for normal and multiple emulsions that exhibit strong shear thinning behavior. PMID:25617611

Carrillo, Carlos A; Nypelö, Tiina E; Rojas, Orlando J



Stable emulsion copolymers of acrylamide and ammonium acrylate for use in enhanced oil recovery  

SciTech Connect

There is provided a process for recovering oil from oil bearing formations employing the use of a water treating medium, which medium comprises the inclusion of a novel stable emulsion copolymer of acrylamide and ammonium acrylate as well as the emulsion copolymer per se.

Frank, S.; Coscia, A.T.; Schmitt, J.M.



Effects of diesel engine speed and water content on emission characteristics of three-phase emulsions.  


The effects of water content of three-phase emulsions and engine speed on the combustion and emission characteristics of diesel engines were investigated in this study. The results show that a larger water content of water-in oil (W/O) and oil-in-water-in-oil (O/W/O) emulsion caused a higher brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) value and a lower O2, as well as a lower NOx emission, but a larger CO emission. The increase in engine speed resulted in an increase of bsfc, exhaust gas temperature, fuel-to-air ratio, CO2 emission and a decrease of NOx, CO emission, and smoke opacity. Because of the physical structural differences, the three-phase O/W/O emulsions were observed to produce a higher exhaust gas temperature, a higher emulsion viscosity and a lower CO emission, in comparison with that of the two-phase W/O emulsion. In addition, the use of W/O emulsions with water content larger than 20% may cause diesel engines to shut down earlier than those running on O/W/O emulsions with the same water content. Hence, it is suggested that the emulsions with water content larger than 20% are not suitable for use as alternative fuel for diesel engines. PMID:15137702

Lin, Cherng-Yuan; Wang, Kuo-Hua




PubMed Central

Purpose Ultrasound can be used to release a therapeutic payload encapsulated within a perfluorocarbon (PFC) emulsion via acoustic droplet vaporization (ADV), a process whereby the PFC phase is vaporized and the agent is released. ADV-generated microbubbles have been previously used to selectively occlude blood vessels in vivo. The coupling of ADV-generated drug delivery and occlusion has therapeutically, synergistic potentials. Methods Micron-sized, water-in-PFC-in-water (W1/PFC/W2) emulsions were prepared in a two-step process using perfluoropentane (PFP) or perfluorohexane (PFH) as the PFC phase. Fluorescein or thrombin was contained in the W1 phase. Results Double emulsions containing fluorescein in the W1 phase displayed a 5.7±1.4 fold and 8.2±1.3 fold increase in fluorescein mass flux, as measured using a Franz diffusion cell, after ADV for the PFP and PFH emulsions, respectively. Thrombin was stably retained in four out of five double emulsions. For three out of five formulations tested, the clotting time of whole blood decreased, in a statistically significant manner (p < 0.01), when incubated with thrombin-loaded emulsions exposed to ultrasound compared to emulsions not exposed to ultrasound. Conclusions ADV can be used to spatially and temporally control the delivery of water-soluble compounds formulated in PFC double emulsions. Thrombin release could extend the duration of ADV-generated, microbubble occlusions. PMID:20872050

Fabiilli, Mario L.; Lee, James A.; Kripfgans, Oliver D.; Carson, Paul L.; Fowlkes, J. Brian



Adding reagent to droplets with controlled rupture of encapsulated double emulsions  

PubMed Central

We present a method to add reagent to microfluidic droplets by enveloping them as a double emulsions in reagent-filled droplets and then rupturing them with an electric field. When the double emulsions rupture, they release their contents into the enveloping droplets, ensuring mixing with reagent while limiting cross-droplet contamination. PMID:24404045

Sciambi, Adam; Abate, Adam R.



Stability of citral in protein- and gum arabic-stabilized oil-in-water emulsions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Citral is a major flavor component of citrus oils that can undergo chemical degradation leading to loss of aroma and formation of off-flavors. Engineering the interface of emulsion droplets with emulsifiers that inhibit chemical reactions could provide a novel technique to stabilize citral. The objective of this study was to determine if citral was more stable in emulsions stabilized with

Darinka Djordjevic; Luisito Cercaci; Jean Alamed; D. Julian McClements; Eric A. Decker



Determination of emulsion explosives with Span-80 as emulsifier by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  


A novel approach for identification and determination of emulsion explosives with Span-80 (sorbitol mono-oleate) as the emulsifier and their postblast residues by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) has been developed. 24 kinds of emulsion explosives collected have been processed by transesterification reaction with metholic KOH solution and the emulsifier has turned into methyl esters of fatty acids. From the peak area ratios of their methyl esters, most of these emulsion explosives can be differentiated. In order to detect the postblast residues of emulsion explosives, the sorbitols in the emulsifier Span-80 obtained after transesterification reaction have been further derivatized by silylation reaction with N,O-bis-(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA) containing 1% trimethylchlorosilane (TMCS) as the derivatizing reagent. The derivatization conditions were optimized and the derivatives were determined by GC-MS. The results showed that the silylation derivatives of sorbitol and it isomers, combined with hydrocarbon compounds and methyl esters of fatty acids, were the characteristic components for identification of the emulsion explosives. The established approach was applied to analyze the postblast residues of emulsion explosives. It has been found that the method was sensitive and specific, especially when detecting the derivatives of sorbitol and its isomers by GC-MS in selecting ion mode. The information of the characteristic components can help probe the origin of the emulsion explosives and providing scientific evidences and clues for solving the crimes of the emulsion explosive explosion. PMID:21497820

Tian, Fei-Fei; Yu, Jing; Hu, Jia-Hong; Zhang, Yong; Xie, Meng-Xia; Liu, Yuan; Wang, Xiang-Feng; Liu, Hai-Ling; Han, Jie



Performance and Engine Roughness of a Diesel Engine Running on Stabilized Water Diesel Emulsion  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental investigation has been carried out to produce a stable diesel \\/ water emulsion fuel and use it in a diesel engine under different operating and design conditions. The use of advanced mixing technique and emulsifying agent enabled the production of stable emulsion of up to 30% water in diesel for up to one week. In some of the

Mohamed Y. E. Selim; Mamdouh T. Ghannam


A 3D-printed microcapillary assembly for facile double emulsion generation.  


The design, fabrication and testing of facile microcapillary device assembly, suitable for monodisperse double emulsion production is reported. The interface is fabricated in a direct and rapid manner via 3D printing and shown to be robust in the controllable generation of both single and double emulsions at high generation frequencies. PMID:25202859

Martino, Chiara; Berger, Simon; Wootton, Robert C R; deMello, Andrew J



Adsorption of Cetyldimethylbenzylammonium Chloride on Octane Emulsions Droplets: The Effect of the Presence of Tween 80  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adsorption of the cationic surfactant cetyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride (CDBACl) on octane-in-water emulsion droplets is estimated and the adsorption isotherms are determined. The adsorbed amount of CDBACl is also measured in the presence of the nonionic surfactant Tween 80, at concentrations below and above its critical micellar concentration (CMC). Various combinations are made concerning the preparation of the emulsions and the

Antonis Avranas; Efi Malasidou; Irene Mandrazidou



Surfactant effects on bio-based emulsions used as lubrication fluids  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The successful formulation of a lubricating emulsion requires carefully balancing the mixture of base oil, water and a plethora of additives. The factors that affect the performance of lubrication emulsions range from the macroscopic stability to the microscopic surface properties of the base oil. ...


Formulation of an ophthalmic lipid emulsion containing an anti-inflammatory steroidal drug, difluprednate.  


Preparation of oil-in-water (o/w) type lipid emulsion is one of the approaches to formulate drugs that are poorly water-soluble but can be dissolved in the oil phase of the emulsions. A synthetic glucocorticoid medicine, difluprednate (DFBA), is a water-insoluble compound. We formulated DFBA (0.05%, w/v) ophthalmic lipid emulsion containing 5.0% (w/v) caster oil and 4.0% (w/v) polysorbate 80. The appearance of the emulsion was blue and translucent lipid emulsion, and the median particle size of the lipid emulsion was 104.4 nm. Neither separation nor change in particle size was observed after 6 months at 40 degrees C. Furthermore, when compared with DFBA (0.05%, w/v) ophthalmic suspension, the lipid emulsion showed 5.7-fold higher concentration of DFB that was an active metabolite of DFBA in aqueous humor at 1h after instillation. Ophthalmic lipid emulsion enhances the intraocular penetration of drugs, and it is useful as a delivery system for the ophthalmic preparations of lipophilic drugs. PMID:16023810

Yamaguchi, Masazumi; Yasueda, Shin-ichi; Isowaki, Akiharu; Yamamoto, Makiko; Kimura, Masako; Inada, Katsuhiro; Ohtori, Akira



Research News: Emulsion Liquid Membrane Extraction in a Hollow-Fiber Contactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This article describes how ELMs (emulsion liquid membranes) can be used for extraction. The article addresses the disadvantages of ELM extraction in a stirred contactor, and the advantages of SELMs (supported emulsion liquid membranes). The introduction of the article provides background information on liquid-liquid solvent extraction and dispersion-free solvent extraction.

Wiencek, John M.; Hu, Shih-Yao




EPA Science Inventory

Billions of gallons of oily wastewaters are generated daily by a variety of industrial sources. A large fraction of these are oil/water emulsions for which current treatment technologies are often costly and ineffective. Although such emulsions can be separated using crossf...



Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the possible utilization of three emulsions obtained from karanja methyl ester (KME) and wood pyrolysis oil (WPO) as fuels in a direct injection diesel engine. For this study, the three emulsions namely WPO5, WPO10 and WPO15 were prepared by taking WPO at 5%, 10% and 15% with KME at 95%, 90% and 85% respectively using a suitable

R. Prakash; R. K. Singh; S. Murugan



Premature detonation of an NH4NO3 emulsion in reactive ground.  


When NH4NO3 emulsions are used in blast holes containing pyrite, they can exothermally react with pyrite, causing the emulsion to intensively heat and detonate prematurely. Such premature detonations can inflict fatal and very costly damages. The mechanism of heating of the emulsions is not well understood though such an understanding is essential for designing safe blasting. In this study the heating of an emulsion in model blast holes was simulated by solving the heat equation. The physical factors contributing to the heating phenomenon were studied using microscopic and calorimetric methods. Microscopic studies revealed the continuous formation of a large number of gas bubbles as the reaction progressed at the emulsion-pyrite interface, which made the reacting emulsion porous. Calculations show that the increase in porosity causes the thermal conductivity of a reacting region of an emulsion column in a blast hole to decrease exponentially. This large reduction in the thermal conductivity retards heat dissipation from the reacting region causing its temperature to rise. The rise in temperature accelerates the exothermic reaction producing more heat. Simulations predict a migration of the hottest spot of the emulsion column, which could dangerously heat the primers and boosters located in the blast hole. PMID:25305361

Priyananda, Pramith; Djerdjev, Alex M; Gore, Jeff; Neto, Chiara; Beattie, James K; Hawkett, Brian S



Development of neutron measurement in high gamma field using new nuclear emulsion  

SciTech Connect

To precisely measure the neutron emissions from a spent fuel assembly of a fast breeder reactor, we formed nuclear emulsions based on a non-sensitized Oscillation Project with Emulsion tracking Apparatus (OPERA) film with AgBr grain sizes of 60, 90, and 160 nm. The efficiency for {sup 252}Cf neutron detection of the new emulsion was calculated to be 0.7 x 10{sup -4}, which corresponded to an energy range from 0.3 to 2 MeV and was consistent with a preliminary estimate based on experimental results. The sensitivity of the new emulsion was also experimentally estimated by irradiating with 565 keV and 14 MeV neutrons. The emulsion with an AgBr grain size of 60 nm had the lowest sensitivity among the above three emulsions but was still sensitive enough to detect protons. Furthermore, the experimental data suggested that there was a threshold linear energy transfer of 15 keV/{mu}m for the new emulsion, below which no silver clusters developed. Further development of nuclear emulsion with an AgBr grain size of a few tens of nanometers will be the next stage of the present study. (authors)

Kawarabayashi, J.; Ishihara, K.; Takagi, K.; Tomita, H.; Iguchi, T.; Naka, T.; Morishima, K. [Nagoya Univ., Nagoya, Aichi (Japan); Maeda, S. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Narita-cho, Oarai-machi, Ibaragi (Japan)



A double-emulsion microfluidic platform for in vitro green fluorescent protein expression  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microfluidic droplet technology has gained popularity due to the advantages over conventional emulsion techniques and capabilities for a wide range of applications. In this paper, the development of a simple microfluidic-based double-emulsion system is reported. Such a system could be potentially used for in vitro protein synthesis. The system involves a two-step process to make water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) emulsions. A PMMA microchip is used for the formation of water-in-oil (W/O) single-emulsion droplets. Then, the single-emulsion droplets are transported to a PDMS/glass microchip to make the W/O/W double-emulsion droplets. The system was first characterized by detecting fluorescein sodium salt as a model dye in the internal aqueous droplets using laser-induced fluorescence. The effect of the flow rates of the internal aqueous phase and outer continuous aqueous phase on the formation of the double-emulsion droplets is investigated to provide information for system optimization. On-chip storage of double-emulsion droplets is also investigated to allow for protein synthesis from a PCR-generated DNA template using either commercial in vitro transcription and translation kits or crude Escherichia coli S30 extracts. In vitro expression of the green fluorescent protein is successfully demonstrated in this system.

Wu, N.; Oakeshott, J. G.; Easton, C. J.; Peat, T. S.; Surjadi, R.; Zhu, Y.




Microsoft Academic Search

The efficiency of sodium lignin sulfonate (SLS) as an anionic surfactant derived from waste wood pulping industry in stabilizing an Egyptian heavy crude oil (Geisum)-in-water emulsions for pipeline transportation has been investigated. The stability and rheology of the emulsions stabilized by SLS or with a nonionic surfactant nonyl phenol diethylenetriamine formaldehyde ethoxylate (NDFE) individually or in a mixture have been




A Novel Process for Demulsification of Water-in-Crude Oil Emulsions by Dense Carbon Dioxide  

E-print Network

A Novel Process for Demulsification of Water-in-Crude Oil Emulsions by Dense Carbon Dioxide Nael N State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695-7905 CO2 was used to break several water-in-crude oil density and mole fraction. The proposed mechanism by which CO2 destabilizes water-in-crude oil emulsions

Kilpatrick, Peter K.


Preparation and impact of multiple (water-in-oil-in-water) emulsions in meat systems.  


The aim of this paper was to prepare and characterise multiple emulsions and assess their utility as pork backfat replacers in meat gel/emulsion model systems. In order to improve the fat content (in quantitative and qualitative terms) pork backfat was replaced by a water-in-oil-in-water emulsion (W1/O/W2) prepared with olive oil (as lipid phase), polyglycerol ester of polyricinoleic acid (PGPR) as a lipophilic emulsifier, and sodium caseinate (SC) and whey protein concentrate (WP) as hydrophilic emulsifiers. The emulsion properties (particle size and distribution, stability, microstructure) and meat model system characteristics (composition, texture, fat and water binding properties, and colour) of the W1/O/W2, as affected by reformulation, were evaluated. Multiple emulsions showed a well-defined monomodal distribution. Freshly prepared multiple emulsions showed good thermal stability (better using SC) with no creaming. The meat systems had good water and fat binding properties irrespective of formulation. The effect on texture by replacement of pork backfat by W1/O/W2 emulsions generally depends on the type of double emulsion (associated with the hydrophilic emulsifier used in its formulation) and the fat level in the meat system. PMID:23768366

Cofrades, S; Antoniou, I; Solas, M T; Herrero, A M; Jiménez-Colmenero, F



Mechanical characterization of acrylic — Emulsion polymer-modified concrete reinforced with steel fibre by Taguchi application  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, acrylic emulsion polymer as a polymeric admixture was applied in lightweight steel fibre reinforced cement concrete. The effects of curing conditions and polymer -cement ratio on the compressive and flexural strengths of acrylic emulsion polymer-modified concrete reinforced with steel fibre were investigated. Combined dry and wet curing enable to developed both the strengths of cement matrix and

D. S. Hazimmah; S. Mohd



Bimodal Molecular Weight Distribution Formed in Emulsion Polymerization with Long?Chain Branching  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is known that the molecular weight distribution (MWD) formed in emulsion polymerization of ethylene can be bimodal. A simplified model is used to investigate the emulsion polymerization that involves chain transfer to polymer, aiming at finding necessary conditions to form a bimodal MWD. According to the present theoretical investigation, a bimodal MWD can be formed when the probability that

H. Tobita



High temperature structural, polymeric foams from high internal emulsion polymerization  

SciTech Connect

In 1982, a high internal phase emulsion (HIPE) polymerization process to manufacture microcellular, polymeric foam systems was patented by Unilever. This patent discloses a polymerization process that occurs in a water-in-oil emulsion in which the water represents at least 76% of the emulsion by volume. The oil phase consists of vinyl monomers such as styrene and acrylates that are crosslinked by divinyl monomers during polymerization. After polymerization and drying to remove the water phase, the result is a crosslinked polymer foam with an open cell microstructure that is homogeneous throughout in terms of morphology, density, and mechanical properties. Since 1982, numerous patents have examined various HIPE polymerized foam processing techniques and applications that include absorbents for body fluids, cleaning materials, and ion exchange systems. All the published HIPE polymerized foams have concentrated on materials for low temperature applications. Copolymerization of styrene with maleic anhydride and N-substituted maleimides to produce heat resistant thermoplastics has been studied extensively. These investigations have shown that styrene will free radically copolymerize with N-substituted maleimides to create an alternating thermoplastic copolymer with a Tg of approximately 200{degrees}C. However, there are many difficulties in attempting the maleimide styrene copolymerization in a HIPE such as lower polymerization temperatures, maleimide solubility difficulties in both styrene and water, and difficulty obtaining a stable HIPE with a styrene/maleimide oil phase. This work describes the preparation of copolymer foams from N-ethylmaleimide and Bis(3-ethyl-5-methyl-4-maleimide-phenyl)methane with styrene based monomers and crosslinking agents.

Hoisington, M.A.; Duke, J.R.; Apen, P.G.



N-3 Fatty Acid Rich Triglyceride Emulsions Are Neuroprotective after Cerebral Hypoxic-Ischemic Injury in Neonatal Mice  

PubMed Central

We questioned if acute administration of n-3 fatty acids (FA) carried in n-3 rich triglyceride (TG) emulsions provides neuroprotection in neonatal mice subjected to hypoxic-ischemic (H/I) brain injury. We examined specificity of FA, optimal doses, and therapeutic windows for neuroprotection after H/I. H/I insult was induced in C57BL/6J 10-day-old mice by right carotid artery ligation followed by exposure to 8% O2 for 15 minutes at 37°C. Intraperitoneal injection with n-3-rich TG emulsions, n-6 rich TG emulsions or saline for control was administered at different time points before and/or after H/I. In separate experiments, dose responses were determined with TG containing only docosahexaenoic acid (Tri-DHA) or eicosapentaenoic acid (Tri-EPA) with a range of 0.1–0.375 g n-3 TG/kg, administered immediately after H/I insult. Infarct volume and cerebral blood flow (CBF) were measured. Treatment with n-3 TG emulsions both before- and after- H/I significantly reduced total infarct volume by a mean of 43% when administered 90 min prior to H/I and by 47% when administered immediately after H/I. In post-H/I experiments Tri-DHA, but not Tri-EPA exhibited neuroprotective effects with both low and high doses (p<0.05). Moreover, delayed post-H/I treatment with Tri-DHA significantly decreased total infarct volume by a mean of 51% when administered at 0 hr, by 46% at 1 hr, and by 51% at 2 hr after H/I insult. No protective effect occurred with Tri-DHA injection at 4 hr after H/I. There were no n-3 TG related differences in CBF. A significant reduction in brain tissue death was maintained after Tri-DHA injection at 8 wk after the initial brain injury. Thus, n-3 TG, specifically containing DHA, is protective against H/I induced brain infarction when administered up to 2 hr after H/I injury. Acute administration of TG-rich DHA may prove effective for treatment of stroke in humans. PMID:23437099

Vannucci, Susan J.; Mastropietro, Christopher; Bazan, Nicolas G.; Ten, Vadim S.; Deckelbaum, Richard J.



Vorticity alignment and negative normal stresses in sheared attractive emulsions.  


Attractive emulsions near the colloidal glass transition are investigated by rheometry and optical microscopy under shear. We find that (i) the apparent viscosity eta drops with increasing shear rate, then remains approximately constant in a range of shear rates, then continues to decay; (ii) the first normal stress difference N1 transitions sharply from nearly zero to negative in the region of constant shear viscosity; and (iii) correspondingly, cylindrical flocs form, align along the vorticity, and undergo a log-rolling movement. An analysis of the interplay between steric constraints, attractive forces, and composition explains this behavior, which seems universal to several other complex systems. PMID:14995347

Montesi, Alberto; Peña, Alejandro A; Pasquali, Matteo



Affine and nonaffine motions in sheared polydisperse emulsions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study dense and highly polydisperse emulsions at droplet volume fractions ? ?0.65 . We apply oscillatory shear and observe droplet motion using confocal microscopy. The presence of droplets with sizes several times the mean size dramatically changes the motion of smaller droplets. Both affine and nonaffine droplet motions are observed, with the more nonaffine motion exhibited by the smaller droplets which are pushed around by the larger droplets. Droplet motions are correlated over length scales from one to four times the mean droplet diameter, with larger length scales corresponding to higher strain amplitudes (up to strains of about 6%).

Clara-Rahola, J.; Brzinski, T. A.; Semwogerere, D.; Feitosa, K.; Crocker, J. C.; Sato, J.; Breedveld, V.; Weeks, Eric R.



Mechanism of disintegration of emulsion nuclei by relativistic light nuclei  

SciTech Connect

The charged secondary multiplicity distributions as a function of emitting various noninteracting projectile fragments of [sup 12]C at 4.5 GeV/[ital c] per nucleon by using nuclear emulsion detectors is presented and discussed. The correlations between various kinds of particles and the angular distributions of multiple production in [sup 12]C ion collisions are studied. Also a systematic comparison using the calculations of the cascade-evaporative model is made. An investigation of energy dependence of grey prongs produced in different interaction beams at energy range [similar to](4--200)[ital A] GeV is reported.

El-Nagdy, M.S. (Department of Basic Science and Mathematics, Faculty of Petroleum Mining Engineering, Suez Canal University, Suez (Egypt))



Self-Diffusion of Drops in a Dilute Sheared Emulsion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Self-diffusion coefficients that describe cross-flow migration of non-Brownian drops in a dilute sheared emulsion were obtained by trajectory calculations. A boundary integral formulation was used to describe pairwise interactions between deformable drops; interactions between undeformed drops were described with mobility functions for spherical drops. The results indicate that drops have large anisotropic self-diffusivities which depend strongly on the drop viscosity and modestly on the shear-rate. Pairwise interactions between drops in shear-flow do not appreciably promote drop breakup.

Loewenberg, Michael; Hinch, E. J.



Electrohydrodynamic deformation and interaction of a pair of emulsion drops  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The response of a pair of emulsion drops to the imposition of a uniform electric field is examined. The case studied is that of equal-sized drops whose line of centers is parallel to the axis of the applied field. A new boundary integral solution to the governing equations of the leaky dielectric model is developed; the formulation accounts for the electrostatic and hydrodynamic interactions between the drops, as well as their deformations. Numerical calculations show that, after an initial transient during which the drops primarily deform, the pair drift slowly together due to their electrostatic interactions.

Baygents, James C.



Physical properties of emulsion-based hydroxypropyl methylcellulose films: effect of their microstructure.  


The initial characteristics of emulsions and the rearrangement of the oil droplets in the film matrix during film drying, which defines its microstructure, has an important role in the physical properties of the emulsion-based films. The objective of this work was to study the effect of the microstructure (two droplet size distributions) and stability (with or without surfactant) of HPMC oil-in-water emulsions over physical properties of HPMC emulsion-based edible films. HPMC was used to prepare sunflower oil-in-water emulsions containing 0.3 or 1.0% (w/w) of oil with or without SDS, as surfactant, using an ultrasonic homogenizer. Microstructure, rheological properties and stability of emulsions (creaming) were measured. In addition, microstructure, coalescence of oil droplets, surface free energy, optical and mechanical properties and water vapor transfer of HPMC films were evaluated. Image analysis did not show differences among droplet size distributions of emulsions prepared at different oil contents; however, by using SDS the droplet size distributions were shifted to lower values. Volume mean diameters were 3.79 and 3.77 ?m for emulsions containing 0.3 and 1.0% without surfactant, respectively, and 2.72 and 2.71 ?m for emulsions with SDS. Emulsions formulated with 1.0% of oil presented higher stability, with almost no change during 5 and 3 days of storage, for emulsions with and without SDS, respectively. Internal and surface microstructure of emulsion-based films was influenced by the degree of coalescence and creaming of the oil droplets. No effect of microstructure over the surface free energy of films was found. The incorporation of oil impaired the optical properties of films due to light scattering of light. Addition of oil and SDS decreased the stress at break of the emulsion-based films. The replace of HPMC by oil and SDS produce a lower "amount" of network structure in the films, leading to a weakening of their structure. The oil content and SDS addition had an effect over the microstructure and physical properties of HPMC-based emulsions which lead to different microstructures during film formation. The way that oil droplets were structured into the film had an enormous influence over the physical properties of HPMC films. PMID:22840052

Zúñiga, R N; Skurtys, O; Osorio, F; Aguilera, J M; Pedreschi, F



Osmotically driven formation of double emulsions stabilized by amphiphilic block copolymers.  


Double emulsions are valuable for the formation of multi-compartmental structures. A variety of pathways to prepare double emulsions have been developed, but high-throughput routes to droplets of controlled size and architecture remain scarce. A new single-step process is introduced for preparation of water-in-oil-in-water double emulsions by a previously unexplained process of self-emulsification. We show that the origin of this process is the osmotic stress resulting from the presence of salt impurities within the amphiphilic block copolymers used for emulsion stabilization. Further, we utilize osmotically driven emulsification to tailor the structures of multiple emulsions, which upon solvent evaporation can yield multi-compartmental capsules or hierarchically structured porous films. PMID:24931713

Bae, Jinhye; Russell, Thomas P; Hayward, Ryan C



Rheological characterization of O/W emulsions incorporated with neutral and charged polysaccharides.  


The effects of polysaccharides, including xyloglucan from Hymenaea courbaril (XG), galactomannans from Schizolobium parahybae (GMSP) and Mimosa scabrella (GMMS), xanthan gum (XT), sodium hyaluronate (HNa) and Fucogel(®) (FG), on the rheological behavior of cosmetic emulsions were evaluated. These incorporations gave rise to six emulsified systems, denoted XGE, GMSPE, GMMSE, XTE, HNaE and FGE, respectively. The emulsion consistency was found to follow the trend GMSPE>XGE>HNaE>FGE>XTE>GMMSE. In general, the addition of polysaccharides increased the viscoelastic properties of the emulsions and decreased the creep compliance. The neutral polysaccharides (GMSPE, GMMSE) led to better stability of the emulsions after storing for 20 days relative to charged polymers. It was found that polysaccharides XG, GMSP and GMMS, which come from the seeds of native Brazilian plant species, might be used to modify the flow properties and stabilities of oil-water emulsions. PMID:23465929

Vianna-Filho, Ricardo Padilha; Petkowicz, Carmen Lúcia Oliveira; Silveira, Joana Léa Meira



Pickering interfacial catalysis for biphasic systems: from emulsion design to green reactions.  


Pickering emulsions are surfactant-free dispersions of two immiscible fluids that are kinetically stabilized by colloidal particles. For ecological reasons, these systems have undergone a resurgence of interest to mitigate the use of synthetic surfactants and solvents. Moreover, the use of colloidal particles as stabilizers provides emulsions with original properties compared to surfactant-stabilized emulsions, microemulsions, and micellar systems. Despite these specific advantages, the application of Pickering emulsions to catalysis has been rarely explored. This Minireview describes very recent examples of hybrid and composite amphiphilic materials for the design of interfacial catalysts in Pickering emulsions with special emphasis on their assets and challenges for industrially relevant biphasic reactions in fine chemistry, biofuel upgrading, and depollution. PMID:25644631

Pera-Titus, Marc; Leclercq, Loïc; Clacens, Jean-Marc; De Campo, Floryan; Nardello-Rataj, Véronique



Brine-in-crude-oil emulsions at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve.  

SciTech Connect

Metastable water-in-crude-oil emulsion formation could occur in a Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) cavern if water were to flow into the crude-oil layer at a sufficient rate. Such a situation could arise during a drawdown from a cavern with a broken-hanging brine string. A high asphaltene content (> 1.5 wt %) of the crude oil provides the strongest predictor of whether a metastable water-in-crude-oil emulsion will form. However there are many crude oils with an asphaltene content > 1.5 wt % that don't form stable emulsions, but few with a low asphaltene content that do form stable emulsions. Most of the oils that form stable emulsions are %E2%80%9Csour%E2%80%9D by SPR standards indicating they contain total sulfur > 0.50 wt %.

Nemer, Martin B.; Lord, David L.; MacDonald, Terry L.



Microbial Growth in Neonatal Intravenous Fat Emulsion Administered Over 12 Versus 24 Hours  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES To determine whether an extended infusion time (24 hours) of intravenous fat emulsion is associated with an increase in microbial growth, versus a shorter infusion time (12 hours). METHODS Samples were collected from intravenous fat emulsions (n=132), from intravenous fat emulsions prepared in the current 24-hour infusion method (n=55), and from intravenous fat emulsions prepared in the twice-daily (12-hour infusion) method (n=55). In addition, samples were collected from pharmacy (n=22) to test for possible contamination. RESULTS No growth was observed in either arm of the study. CONCLUSIONS Current Kern Medical Center policy of preparation and administration of neonatal intensive care unit intravenous fat emulsion is safe and effective in regard to microbial growth. PMID:24719590

DeDonato, Bethany M.; Bickford, Lisa I.; Gates, Ryan J.



Characterization of the spray drying behaviour of emulsions containing oil droplets with a structured interface.  


The aim of this study was to characterize the process of atomization and drying of layer-by-layer emulsions containing lecithin (single layer emulsion) and lecithin/chitosan (bilayer emulsion) and the oxidative stability of the microcapsules during storage. For this purpose, the analysis of the emulsion spray droplet size during two-fluid nozzle and rotary atomization was carried out to identify suitable process parameters. The drying behaviour of single and bilayer emulsions was investigated by calculation of the volume flow density during single-droplet drying during acoustic levitation. In spray-dried solid particles, the oxidative stability in the single layer microcapsules was higher than in the bilayer microcapsules. This was partly attributed to lower microencapsulation efficiency in the bilayer microcapsules compared to the single layer microcapsules. Furthermore, it could be shown, that excess chitosan in the bulk carrier matrix affects the free volume elements and thus oxygen diffusion. PMID:23088319

Serfert, Y; Schröder, J; Mescher, A; Laackmann, J; Shaikh, M Q; Rätzke, K; Gaukel, V; Schuchmann, H P; Walzel, P; Moritz, H-U; Drusch, S; Schwarz, K



Fabrication of ceramic microspheres by diffusion-induced sol-gel reaction in double emulsions.  


We demonstrate an approach to prepare zirconium dioxide (ZrO2) microspheres by carrying out a diffusion-induced sol-gel reaction inside double emulsion droplets. A glass capillary microfluidic device is introduced to generate monodisperse water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) double emulsions with a zirconium precursor as the inner phase. By adding ammonia to the continuous aqueous phase, the zirconium precursor solution is triggered to gel inside the emulsions. The double emulsion structure enhances the uniformity in the rate of the sol-gel reaction, resulting in sol-gel microspheres with improved size uniformity and sphericity. ZrO2 ceramic microspheres are formed following subsequent drying and sintering steps. Our approach, which combines double-emulsion-templating and sol-gel synthesis, has great potential for fabricating versatile ceramic microspheres for applications under high temperature and pressure. PMID:23865771

Zhang, Lei; Hao, Shaochang; Liu, Bing; Shum, Ho Cheung; Li, Jiang; Chen, Haosheng



Correlation of individual cosmic ray nuclei with the observation of light flashes by Apollo astronauts. [nuclear emulsion detector design and operation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A nuclear emulsion detector known as the Apollo Light Flash Moving Emulsion Detector (ALFMED) was designed: (1) to record tracks of primary cosmic rays; (2) to provide time-of-passage information via a relative plate translation technique; (3) to provide particle trajectory information; and (4) to fit into a masklike device that could be located about the head and eyes of an astronaut. An ALFMED device was worn by an astronaut observing light flashes for 60 minutes on each of the last two Apollo missions. During the Apollo 17 experiment seventeen separate flashes were reported by the observer. With one-third of the total plate area completely analyzed, two definite correlations have been found between Z greater than 8 cosmic ray nuclei traversing an eye and the reports of visual sensations.

Pinsky, L. S.; Osborne, W. Z.; Bailey, J. V.



Depletion and biodegradation of hydrocarbons in dispersions and emulsions of the Macondo 252 oil generated in an oil-on-seawater mesocosm flume basin.  


Physically and chemically (Corexit 9500) generated Macondo 252 oil dispersions, or emulsions (no Corexit), were prepared in an oil-on-seawater mesocosm flume basin at 30-32 °C, and studies of oil compound depletion performed for up to 15 days. The use of Corexit 9500 resulted in smaller median droplet size than in a physically generated dispersion. Rapid evaporation of low boiling point oil compounds (C?15) appeared in all the experiments. Biodegradation appeared to be an important depletion process for compounds with higher boiling points in the dispersions, but was negligible in the surface emulsions. While n-alkane biodegradation was faster in chemically than in physically dispersed oil no such differences were determined for 3- and 4-ring PAH compounds. In the oil dispersions prepared by Corexit 9500, increased cell concentrations, reduction in bacterial diversity, and a temporary abundance of bacteria containing an alkB gene were associated with oil biodegradation. PMID:24928454

Brakstad, Odd G; Daling, Per S; Faksness, Liv-G; Almås, Inger K; Vang, Siv-H; Syslak, Line; Leirvik, Frode



The OPERA Experiment and Recent Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

OPERA (Oscillation Project with Emulsion tRacking Apparatus) is a long-baseline neutrino experiment, designed to perform the first direct detection of ?? ? ?? oscillation in appearance mode. The OPERA detector is placed in the CNGS long baseline ?? beam, 732 km away from the neutrino source. The detector, consisting of a modular target made of lead - nuclear emulsion units complemented by electronic trackers and muon spectrometers, has been conceived to select ?? charged current interactions through the observation of the outcoming tau leptons and their subsequent decays. Runs with CNGS neutrinos were carried out from 2008 to 2012. In this paper results on ?? ? ?? oscillations with background estimation and statistical significance are reported.

Tufanli, Serhan



Investigation of Phase and Emulsion Behavior, Surfactant Retention and Condensate Recovery for Condensate/Water/Ethanol Mixtures  

SciTech Connect

This semi-annual technical progress report describes work performed at Morehouse College under DOE Grant No. DE-FG26-02NT15447 during the period April 01, 2004 to September 30, 2004 which covers the fourth six months of the project. Presently work is in progress to characterize phase and emulsion behavior for ethylbenzene/water/ethanol system. Ethylbenzene that has the equivalent carbon number is used as the model condensate. During this reporting period, work was under way and the electrical conductivity experimental system was set up at the Atlanta University Center. Following the set-up of the emulsion measurement system, the electronic instruments and data acquisition modules involved were tested for proper operation of the system. Then, the conductivity output was normalized with that obtained for 10mM NaCl water. Radial coreflooding experiments with ethanol injection prior to and after water injection were completed to assess the effectiveness of the surfactant flooding in the recovery of condensate by our industrial partner, Surtek, CO, in this reporting period. In Run 1, 10 mM NaCl without ethanol injection recovered 31.5% of the initial ethyl benzene saturation. Injection of ethanol following 10 mM NaCl produced a tertiary ethyl benzene bank with maximum ethyl benzene cuts of 32%. In Run 2, 50 vol% of pure (100%) ethanol was injected and flowed through the Berea sandstone after Ethyl Benzene Saturation. 69% of the initial ethyl benzene was recovered. Results of the radial corefloods are very encouraging. Emulsion conductivity measurements for conjugate pair phases are in progress at Morehouse.

Ramanathan Sampath



Preparation of submicrometer-sized quaternary ammonium-based poly(ionic liquid) particles via emulsion polymerization and switchable responsiveness of emulsion film.  


Emulsion polymerization of ionic liquid monomer [2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl]trimethylammonium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amide ([MTMA][TFSA]) was performed. In the presence of potassium persulfate and sodium dodecyl sulfate as the ionic initiator and emulsifier, respectively, the system was colloidally unstable and coagulated, owing to anion exchange between the ionic liquid monomer and ionic emulsifier. When a nonionic initiator and emulsifier were used (2,2'-azobis 2-methyl-[1,1-bis(hydroxymethyl)-2-hydroxyethylpropionamide]; VA-080, polyoxyethylenesorbitan monooleate; Tween 80, respectively), a stable emulsion was obtained without coagulation, and the zeta potential of the prepared particles exhibited a high positive charge. Utilizing this surface charge, poly([MTMA][TFSA]) (PIL) particles were then successfully prepared via emulsifier-free emulsion polymerization without an ionic initiator. Moreover, the contact angle of water on the PIL emulsion film (emulsifier-free emulsion polymerization) was found to be ?70° (static measurement), indicating that the surface of the PIL film was relatively hydrophobic. The retreating contact angle (?28°) also indicated water wettability. However, when water was dropped on the PIL film just after the water already on the surface had completely retreated, the PIL film was instantaneously hydrophobic again. This result suggests that responsiveness of the PIL emulsion film was switchable between hydrophobic (in air) and hydrophilic (in water). PMID:24655108

Tokuda, Masayoshi; Sanada, Toshiharu; Shindo, Tatsunori; Suzuki, Toyoko; Minami, Hideto



Comparison of Pickering and network stabilization in water-in-oil emulsions.  


We compared the efficacy of Pickering crystals, a continuous phase crystal network, and a combination thereof against sedimentation and dispersed phase coalescence in water-in-oil (W/O) emulsions. Using 20 wt % water-in-canola oil emulsions as our model, glycerol monostearate (GMS) permitted Pickering-type stabilization, whereas simultaneous usage of hydrogenated canola oil (HCO) and glycerol monooleate (GMO) primarily led to network-stabilized emulsions. A minimum of 4 wt % GMS or 10 wt % HCO was required for long-term sedimentation stability. Although there were no significant differences between the two in mean droplet size with time, the free water content of the network-stabilized emulsions was higher than Pickering-stabilized emulsions, suggesting higher instability. Microscopy revealed the presence of crystal shells around the dispersed phase in the GMS-stabilized emulsions, whereas in the HCO-stabilized emulsion, spherulitic growth in the continuous phase and on the droplet surface occurred. The displacement energy (E(disp)) to detach crystals from the oil-water interface was ?10(4) kT, and was highest for GMS crystals. Thermal cycling to induce dispersed phase coalescence of the emulsions resulted in desorption of both GMS and GMO from the interface, which we ascribed to solute-solvent hydrogen bonding between the emulsifier molecules and the solvent oil, based on IR spectra. Overall, Pickering crystals were more effective than network crystals for emulsion stabilization. However, the thermal stability of all emulsions was hampered by the diffusion of the molten emulsifiers from the interface. PMID:21528852

Ghosh, Supratim; Tran, Tu; Rousseau, Dérick



Microscopic rearrangements and macroscopic stress fluctuations in dense emulsion flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One characteristic of dense granular materials is they can resist small stresses but start to flow under large stresses. During granular flow, the stress exerted on the boundaries of the flow can have large fluctuations. These fluctuations are thought to originate from internal rearrangements and from changes of force chains; however, the connection between these internal microscopic changes and the macroscopic influences seen at the boundaries is not yet clear. We experimentally study the shear flow of oil-in-water emulsion droplets in a Hele-Shaw cell with a hopper shape. Due to the thinness of the Hele-Shaw cell, the droplets are deformed into quasi-2D pancakes, somewhat analogous to soft photoelastic disks. As droplets approach the hopper exit, they shear past one another and droplets are forced to rearrange. We focus on a typical plastic rearrangement called T1 event, where local four particles have neighbor exchanges. Simultaneously, we use the deformation of the droplets to determine the interdroplet forces, which also change as the sample is sheared. These forces fluctuate over large regions as expected. Our analysis of this emulsion system shows a direct and local relationship between microscopic T1 rearrangements and macroscopic stress ?uctuations.

Chen, Dandan; Desmond, Kenneth W.; Weeks, Eric R.



Influence of droplet deformability on the coalescence rate of emulsions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this article the influence of deformation on the coalescence rates of oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions is analyzed. Calculations for doublets and many-particles systems were performed based on a Brownian dynamics algorithm. Extensional and bending energies were included in order to quantify the effect of the changes in the surface geometry on the coalescence rates. Also, the hydrodynamic resistance due to the flat film was included through a correction to the diffusion coefficient in the lubrication limit. Results of two particles calculations were compared with previous analytical evaluations of the coalescence time in absence of highly repulsive barriers [Danov , Langmuir 9, 1731 (1993)]. Lifetime of doublets was calculated as a function of the particle radius from 100 nm to 100?m . It was found that the doublets lifetime strongly depends on the interplay between the potential of interaction between the droplets and the hydrodynamic resistance. Depending on the repulsive barrier either a monotonous increase of the lifetime with the droplet size or a maximum value is observed. Finally, the evolution of O/W emulsions with a volume fraction of ?=0.10 was studied. For these many-particle systems, the results show a sensitive dependence of the aggregation behavior on the interfacial tension. The procedure reported here allows us to include Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) and non-DLVO forces and the film drainage velocity of many different systems.

Toro-Mendoza, Jhoan; Lozsan, Aileen; Garcia-Sucre, Maximo; Castellanos S., Aly J.; Urbina-Villalba, German



Clusters and inverse emulsions from nanoparticle surfactants in organic solvents.  


A method is presented for the synthesis of self-assembling nanoparticle surfactants in nonpolar organic solvents. The method relies on the control of long-range steric repulsion imparted by grafted polystyrene and short-range attraction from short-chain thiol molecules with an alcohol or carboxylic functionality. Similar to water-based nanoparticle surfactants, these oil-dispersed materials are found to cluster in dispersion and also to stabilize oil-water interfaces to form water-in-oil emulsions. The clustering process is characterized with dynamic light scattering (DLS), small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), UV-vis spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) is used to quantify the surface concentration of grafted polymer, which is found to be a parameter of critical importance for the formation of stable clusters. The clustering kinetics and dispersion stability are both affected by the polymer molecular weight, surface concentration, and chemical structure of the thiol molecules that induce particle attraction. Nanometer-sized water-in-oil emulsions are formed by sonication in the presence of nanoparticle surfactants. A large broadening of the optical absorption spectrum in the NIR region is observed because of changes in the collective surface plasmon resonance of the gold particle shell. PMID:25584773

Lombardo, Michael T; Pozzo, Lilo D



An integrated system for large scale scanning of nuclear emulsions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The European Scanning System, developed to analyse nuclear emulsions at high speed, has been completed with the development of a high level software infrastructure to automate and support large-scale emulsion scanning. In one year, an average installation is capable of performing data-taking and online analysis on a total surface ranging from few m2 to tens of m2, acquiring many billions of tracks, corresponding to several TB. This paper focuses on the procedures that have been implemented and on their impact on physics measurements. The system proved robust, reliable, fault-tolerant and user-friendly, and seldom needs assistance. A dedicated relational Data Base system is the backbone of the whole infrastructure, storing data themselves and not only catalogues of data files, as in common practice, being a unique case in high-energy physics DAQ systems. The logical organisation of the system is described and a summary is given of the physics measurement that are readily available by automated processing.

Bozza, Cristiano; D'Ambrosio, Nicola; De Lellis, Giovanni; De Serio, Marilisa; Di Capua, Francesco; Di Crescenzo, Antonia; Di Ferdinando, Donato; Di Marco, Natalia; Esposito, Luigi Salvatore; Fini, Rosa Anna; Giacomelli, Giorgio; Grella, Giuseppe; Ieva, Michela; Kose, Umut; Longhin, Andrea; Mauri, Nicoletta; Medinaceli, Eduardo; Monacelli, Piero; Muciaccia, Maria Teresa; Pastore, Alessandra; Patrizii, Laura; Pozzato, Michele; Pupilli, Fabio; Rescigno, Regina; Romano, Giorgio; Rosa, Giovanni; Ruggieri, Alessandro; Russo, Andrea; Simone, Saverio; Sirignano, Chiara; Sirri, Gabriele; Stellacci, Simona Maria; Tenti, Matteo; Tioukov, Valeri; Togo, Vincent; Valieri, Claudia



Heavy-ion physics with the ALICE experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider.  


After close to 20 years of preparation, the dedicated heavy-ion experiment A Large Ion Collider Experiment (ALICE) took first data at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) accelerator with proton collisions at the end of 2009 and with lead nuclei at the end of 2010. After a short introduction into the physics of ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions, this article recalls the main design choices made for the detector and summarizes the initial operation and performance of ALICE. Physics results from this first year of operation concentrate on characterizing the global properties of typical, average collisions, both in proton-proton (pp) and nucleus-nucleus reactions, in the new energy regime of the LHC. The pp results differ, to a varying degree, from most quantum chromodynamics-inspired phenomenological models and provide the input needed to fine tune their parameters. First results from Pb-Pb are broadly consistent with expectations based on lower energy data, indicating that high-density matter created at the LHC, while much hotter and larger, still behaves like a very strongly interacting, almost perfect liquid. PMID:22253244

Schukraft, J



Effects of milk proteins on release properties and particle morphology of ?-carotene emulsions during in vitro digestion.  


In the present study, ?-lactoglobulin, sodium caseinate, lactalbumin and lactoferrin were used to prepare ?-carotene emulsions. The milk protein-stabilized emulsions were explored using an in vitro release model to elucidate the effects of different milk proteins on ?-carotene release properties in the stomach, duodenum and small intestine, respectively. Notable changes in the droplet size and size distribution were observed among these four oil-in-water (O/W) milk protein emulsions. In the gastric environment, the highest ?-carotene release rate (2.9%) was achieved in ?-lactoglobulin emulsion with a remarkable change in the particle size. In the simulated intestine, the best ?-carotene micellarization potency (92%) was observed in ?-lactoglobulin emulsion and its droplet diameter moderately increased from 215 nm to 471 nm. Moreover, substantial release of ?-carotene was found in the small intestine for the four types of emulsions. It was concluded that ?-carotene release in different digestive stages was characterized by the emulsion interfacial composition. PMID:25215854

Liu, Yuwei; Lei, Fei; Yuan, Fang; Gao, Yanxiang



Baclofen, raclopride, and naltrexone differentially reduce solid fat emulsion intake under limited access conditions.  


Previous work in rats has demonstrated that an Intermittent (Monday, Wednesday, Friday) schedule of access promotes binge-type consumption of 100% vegetable shortening during a 1-h period of availability. The present study used novel shortening-derived stable solid emulsions of various fat concentrations. These emulsions were the consistency of pudding and did not demonstrate oil and water phase separation previously reported with oil-based liquid emulsions. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were grouped according to schedule of access (Daily or Intermittent) to one of three concentrations (18%, 32%, 56%) of solid fat emulsion. There were no significant Intermittent vs. Daily differences in amount consumed, due to high intakes in all groups. This indicated the acceptability of the emulsions. Baclofen (GABA(B) agonist) and raclopride (D2-like antagonist) both significantly reduced emulsion intake in all Daily groups, but only in the 56% fat Intermittent group. Naltrexone (opioid antagonist), in contrast, significantly reduced 32% and 56% fat emulsion intake in the Intermittent, as well as the Daily groups. These results indicate that the fat intake-reducing effects of GABA(B) activation and D(2) blockade depend upon fat concentration and schedule of fat access, while the fat intake-reducing effects of opioid blockade depend upon fat concentration but not schedule of access. PMID:18353432

Rao, R E; Wojnicki, F H E; Coupland, J; Ghosh, S; Corwin, R L W



Emulsion graft polymerization of 4-chloromethylstyrene on kenaf fiber by pre-irradiation method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The stability of micelle size in 3% 4-chloromethylstyrene (CMS), 0.3% Tween 20 in water emulsion over time was studied using a static light scattering. It was found that the micelle diameter decreased with storage time and temperature. The influence of micelle size over time was then explored by adjusting the ratio of CMS to Tween 20 (10:1, 10:2, 10:4) at CMS concentration of 0.2-5.0%. It was found that the increase in average micelle diameter resulted in a decreased in the stability of CMS emulsion. Graft polymerization of CMS on kenaf fiber was carried out in emulsion with 350 nm micelle at various CMS concentrations at a dose of 150 kGy. It was found that the degree of grafting (Dg) was strongly dependent on the monomer concentration and time. However, the increase in micelles diameter from 250 nm to 500 nm resulted in the increased in Dg from 3% to 153%. This extraordinary result led us to investigate the micelle size distributions of CMS emulsion during graft polymerization. It was found that the diameter of micelle decreased rapidly to 100 nm within 2 h. It was discovered from digital photomicrography the existence of multiple emulsions in the CMS emulsion. It was proposed that the enhancement of grafting yield is governed by emulsion breakdown mechanisms through radical effect during radiation induced graft polymerization.

Mohamed, Nor Hasimah; Tamada, Masao; Ueki, Yuji; Seko, Noriaki



Rheology and stability of acidified food emulsions treated with high pressure.  


The stability and rheology of acidified model oil-in-water emulsions (pH 3.6 +/- 0.1) were evaluated before and after high-pressure treatments. Varying concentrations of canola oil (0-50% w/w), whey protein isolate, polysorbate 60, soy lecithin (0.1-1.5% w/w each), and xanthan (0.0-0.2% w/w) were chosen. Exposure to high pressures (up to 800 MPa for 5 min at 30 degrees C) did not significantly affect the equivalent surface mean diameter D[3,2], flow behavior, and viscoelasticity of the whey protein isolate and polysorbate 60-stabilized emulsions. Pressure treatments had negligible effects on emulsion stability in these systems, except when xanthan (0.2% w/w) was present in which pressure improved the stability of polysorbate 60-stabilized emulsions. Soy lecithin-stabilized emulsions had larger mean particles sizes and lower emulsion volume indices than the others, indicating potential instability, and application of pressure further destabilized these emulsions. PMID:12696942

Arora, Akshay; Chism, Grady W; Shellhammer, Thomas H



Influence of Steam Injection and Water-in-Oil Emulsions on Diesel Fuel Combustion Performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water injection can be an effective strategy for reducing NOx because water's high specific heat allows it to absorb heat and lower system temperatures. Introducing water as an emulsion can potentially be more effective at reducing emissions than steam injection due to physical properties (such as microexplosions) that can improve atomization and increase mixing. Unfortunately, the immiscibility of emulsions makes them difficult to work with so they must be mixed properly. In this effort, a method for adequately mixing surfactant-free emulsions was established and verified using high speed cinematography. As the water to fuel mass ratio (W/F) increased, emulsion atomization tests showed little change in droplet size and spray angle, but a shorter overall breakup point. Dual-wavelength planar laser induced fluorescence (D-PLIF) patternation showed an increase in water near the center of the spray. Steam injection flames saw little change in reaction stability, but emulsion flames experienced significant losses in stability that limited reaction operability at higher W/F. Emulsions were more effective at reducing NOx than steam injection, likely because of liquid water's latent heat of vaporization and the strategic injection of water into the flame core. OH* chemiluminescence showed a decrease in heat release for both methods, though the decrease was greater for emulsions. Both methods saw decreases in flame length for W/F 0.15. Lastly, flame imaging showed a shift towards a redder appearance with the addition or more water, as well as a reduction in flame flares.

Sung, Meagan


Modified montmorillonite clay microparticles for stable oil-in-seawater emulsions.  


Environmentally benign clay particles are of great interest for the stabilization of Pickering emulsions. Dodecane-in-synthetic seawater (SSW) emulsions formed with montmorillonite (MMT) clay microparticles modified with bis(2-hydroxyethyl)oleylamine were stable against coalescence, even at clay concentrations down to 0.1% w/v. Remarkably, as little as 0.001% w/v surfactant lowered the hydrophilicity of the clay to a sufficient level for stabilization of oil-in-SSW emulsions. The favorable effect of SSW on droplet size reduction and emulsion stability enhancement is hypothesized to be due to reduced electrostatic repulsion between adsorbed clay particles and a consequent increase in the continuous phase (an aqueous clay suspension) viscosity. Water/oil (W/O) emulsions were inverted to O/W either by decreasing the mass ratio of surfactant-to-clay (transitional inversion) or by increasing the water volume fraction (catastrophic inversion). For both types of emulsions, coalescence was minimal and the sedimentation or creaming was highly correlated with the droplet size. For catastrophic inversions, the droplet size of the emulsions was smaller in the case of the preferred curvature. Suspensions of concentrated clay in oil dispersions in the presence of surfactant were stable against settling. The mass transfer pathways during emulsification of oil containing the clay particles were analyzed on the droplet size/stability phase diagrams to provide insight for the design of dispersant systems for remediating surface and subsurface oceanic oil spills. PMID:24932773

Dong, Jiannan; Worthen, Andrew J; Foster, Lynn M; Chen, Yunshen; Cornell, Kevin A; Bryant, Steven L; Truskett, Thomas M; Bielawski, Christopher W; Johnston, Keith P



Transitional phase inversion of emulsions monitored by in situ near-infrared spectroscopy.  


Water-heptane/toluene model emulsions were prepared to study emulsion transitional phase inversion by in situ near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR). The first emulsion contained a small amount of ionic surfactant (0.27 wt % of sodium dodecyl sulfate) and n-pentanol as a cosurfactant. In this emulsion, the study was guided by an inversion coordinate route based on a phase behavior study previously performed. The morphology changes were induced by rising aqueous phase salinity in a "steady-state" inversion protocol. The second emulsion contained a nonionic surfactant (ethoxylated nonylphenol) at a concentration of 3 wt %. A continuous temperature change induced two distinct transitional phase inversions: one occurred during the heating of the system and another during the cooling. NIR spectroscopy was able to detect phase inversion in these emulsions due to differences between light scattered/absorbed by water in oil (W/O) and oil in water (O/W) morphologies. It was observed that the two model emulsions exhibit different inversion mechanisms closely related to different quantities of the middle phases formed during the three-phase behavior of Winsor type III. PMID:23656562

Charin, R M; Nele, M; Tavares, F W



Pickering emulsions stabilized by cellulose nanocrystals grafted with thermo-responsive polymer brushes.  


Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) from ramie fibers are studied as stabilizers of oil-in-water emulsions. The phase behavior of heptane and water systems is studied, and emulsions stabilized by CNCs are analyzed by using drop sizing (light scattering) and optical, scanning, and freeze-fracture electron microscopies. Water-continuous Pickering emulsions are produced with cellulose nanocrystals (0.05-0.5 wt%) grafted with thermo-responsive poly(NIPAM) brushes (poly(NIPAM)-g-CNCs). They are observed to be stable during the time of observation of 4 months. In contrast, unmodified CNCs are unable to stabilize heptane-in-water emulsions. After emulsification, poly(NIPAM)-g-CNCs are observed to form aligned, layered structures at the oil-water interface. The emulsions stabilized by poly(NIPAM)-g-CNCs break after heating at a temperature above the LCST of poly(NIPAM), which is taken as indication of the temperature responsiveness of the brushes installed on the particles and thus the responsiveness of the Pickering emulsions. This phenomenon is further elucidated via rheological measurements, in which viscosities of the Pickering emulsions increase on approach of the low critical solution temperature of poly(NIPAM). The effect of temperature can be counterbalanced with the addition of salt which is explained by the reduction of electrostatic and steric interactions of poly(NIPAM)-g-CNCs at the oil-water interface. PMID:22204973

Zoppe, Justin O; Venditti, Richard A; Rojas, Orlando J



Polymerization of styrene in microemulsions and water-in-oil-in-water emulsions  

SciTech Connect

Two types of emulsion polymerization media were studied in the formation of polystyrene: two O/W microemulsions and a WOW emulsion. The microemulsions and isolated polystyrene were studied using photon correlation spectroscopy and time-averaged light scattering. GPC verified the polymer's size distribution and FTIR determined the polymer's end groups. Photomicroscopy was used to size the WOW emulsion droplets. The effect of an oil-soluble, azoisobisbutyronitrile (AIBN), versus water-soluble, potassium persulfate (KPS), free-radical generator in the polymerization of styrene in microemulsions was investigated. The microemulsions contained styrene, brine, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and pentanol. Under the dilute conditions the microemulsions and lattices were stable and the droplets independent of each other. Both AIBN and KPS produced polystyrene containing two different size fractions; the molecular weight of the two fractions were of the order of magnitude of 10{sup 5} and 10{sup 6}. End group analysis indicated that initiator fragments and alcohol fragments were present in the polystyrene. The WOW emulsions contained styrene, water, Tween 80, and Span 80. The multiple phase emulsion had a polydisperse droplet size distribution with globule diameters ranging from 1 {mu}m to 190 {mu}m. Both single and multiple phase globules were present in the emulsion due to < 100% yield. WOW emulsion polymerization was slower than microemulsion polymerization and the reaction never reached completion. The isolated polymer showed a wide size distribution with an average molecular weight of {approximately} 4.6 {times} 10{sup 5}.

Johnson, P.L.



Front-face fluorescence spectroscopy study of globular proteins in emulsions: influence of droplet flocculation.  


Measurement of the intensity (I(MAX)) and/or wavelength (lambda(MAX)) of the maximum in the tryptophan (TRP) emission spectrum using front-face fluorescence spectroscopy (FFFS) can be used to provide information about the molecular environment of proteins in nondiluted emulsions. Many protein-stabilized emulsions in the food industry are flocculated, and therefore, we examined the influence of droplet flocculation on FFFS. Stock oil-in-water emulsions stabilized by bovine serum albumin were prepared by high-pressure valve homogenization (30 wt % n-hexadecane, 0.35 wt % BSA, pH 7). These emulsions were used to create model systems with different degrees of droplet flocculation, either by changing the pH, adding surfactant, or adding xanthan. Emulsions (21 wt % n-hexadecane, 0.22 wt % BSA) with different pH (5 and 7) and molar ratios of Tween 20 to BSA (R = 0-131) were prepared by dilution of the stock emulsion. As the surfactant concentration was increased, the protein was displaced from the droplet surfaces, which caused an increase in both I(MAX) and lambda(MAX), because of the change in TRP environment. The dependence of I(MAX) and lambda(MAX) on surfactant concentration followed a similar pattern in emulsions that were initially flocculated (pH 5) and nonflocculated (pH 7). Relatively small changes in FFFS emission spectra were observed in emulsions (21 wt % n-hexadecane, 0.22 wt % BSA, pH 7) with different levels of depletion flocculation induced by adding xanthan. These results suggested that droplet flocculation did not have a major impact on FFFS. This study shows that FFFS is a powerful technique for nondestructively providing information about the molecular environment of proteins in concentrated and flocculated protein-stabilized emulsions. Nevertheless, in general the suitability of the technique may also depend on protein type and the nature of the physicochemical matrix surrounding the proteins. PMID:12696925

Rampon, V; Genot, C; Riaublanc, A; Anton, M; Axelos, M A V; McClements, D J



Dispersion morphology diagrams for three-phase, [open quotes]microemulsion[close quotes] emulsions. 2. [open quotes]Disappearance[close quotes] of morphology-transition lines  

SciTech Connect

The limits over which the oil-rich top phase (T), middle-phase microemulsion (M), or water-rich bottom phase (B) is the continuous phase in steady-state, three-phase macroemulsions have been determined by means of electrical conductivity measurements for the amphiphile/oil/[open quotes]water[close quotes] system C[sub 6]H[sub 13](OC[sub 2]H[sub 4])[sub 2]OH/n-tetradecane/aqueous 10 mM NaCl. Measurements were made at three different temperatures and apparent wettability conditions: (a) 45[degrees]C, wetting middle phase; (b) 25[degrees]C, no wetting phase; and (c) 12[degrees]C, wetting bottom phase. The results at 25[degrees]C were in accord with expectations from previous predictions and experiments; but for both two-phase and three-phase emulsions no abrupt, [open quotes]first-order[close quotes] transitions between M- and T-continuous emulsions at 45[degrees]C or between M- and B-continuous emulsions at 12[degrees]C were found. Instead, these changes of continuous phase appeared to occur smoothly and continuously between their respective single-phase and two-phase limits. It is not yet clear if the [open quotes]disappearance[close quotes] of first-order morphology transitions correlates with phase wettability transitions; the phenomenon suggests the possibility of bicontinuous two-phase and three-phase macroemulsions. 31 refs., 11 figs.

Johnson, G.K. (Morgantown Energy Technology Center, WV (United States)); Dadyburjor, D.B. (West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)); Smith, D.H. (Morgantown Energy Technology Center, WV (United States) Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States))



Colloidal particles as liquid dispersion stabilizer: Pickering emulsions and materials thereof  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solid stabilized emulsions, also referred to as Pickering emulsions, are very diverse owing to the large variety of available colloidal particles from naturally occurring to synthesized ones, from hard to very deformable ones and from spheres to more complex shaped particles. Here we illustrate this variety and, despite this huge diversity, we aim at highlighting the common features. We discuss next the remaining open questions that, in our point of view, should sustain special efforts in the future and we illustrate elaboration of original materials based on Pickering emulsions. xml:lang="fr"

Schmitt, Véronique; Destribats, Mathieu; Backov, Rénal



Asphalt emulsion sealing of uranium mill tailings. 1980 annual report  

SciTech Connect

Studies of asphalt emulsion sealants conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory have demonstrated that the sealants are effective in containing radon and other potentially hazardous material within uranium tailings. The laboratory and field studies have further demonstrated that radon exhalation from uranium tailings piles can be reduced by greater than 99% to near background levels. Field tests at the tailings pile in Grand Junction, Colorado, confirmed that an 8-cm admix seal containing 22 wt% asphalt could be effectively applied with a cold-mix paver. Other techniques were successfully tested, including a soil stabilizer and a hot, rubberized asphalt seal that was applied with a distributor truck. After the seals were applied and compacted, overburden was applied over the seal to protect the seal from ultraviolet degradation.

Hartley, J.N.; Koehmstedt, P.L; Esterl, D.J.; Freeman, H.D.; Buelt, J.L.; Nelson, D.A.; Elmore, M.R.



Treatment of pieris ingestion in goats with intravenous lipid emulsion.  


Seven goats and one ram presented with clinical signs including regurgitation, obtundation, anorexia, apparent pain, and bloat. The animals had escaped from their barn, and it was discovered that they had ingested leaves of Pieris japonica, Japanese pieris, a grayanotoxin-containing plant. Animals were treated with antibiotics, calcium borogluconate, B vitamins, and activated charcoal within the first 24-h postexposure, which was followed by the recovery of the ram and two goats and the death of two goats. Approximately 36 h after Japanese pieris ingestion, one of the three remaining anorectic goats was dosed with intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE). This goat recovered within a few hours. The remaining two goats were given ILE the next day and appeared to recover, but one died a week later of aspiration pneumonia. PMID:25193885

Bischoff, Karyn; Smith, Mary C; Stump, Samuel



The toxicity of different emulsions of toxaphene to cotton insects  

E-print Network

, 00 2, 04 5?55 1?ll ~ 64 2?60 ?V8 1, 08 5 ?50 4, 00 2, 04 3 ?55 1. 11 ~ 54 2?50 ~ V8 1?08 5?50 4, 00 2 ?04 5?55 1?ll 24 ?5 16, 8 20?5 20, 5 29, 9 14, 9 21, 5 22?1 16?l 1V?5 56?9 25?4 21?9 25?V 4V, 8 51, 8 ll?O 14?0 55?6... the salt-marsh caterpillar, PER GENT MORTALITY 99 95 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 IO 5 r 5 / r ~~a/ . 02 04 06 . 08 I . 2 4 6 8 2 POUNDS ACTIVE INGREDIENTS PER ACRE Figure 2 - Dosage-mortality curve for the toxaphene emulsions; (1) Hegular...

Selby, James Winford



Optical conveyors: Active tractor beams for colloids, emulsions and aerosols  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A tractor beam is a travelling wave that transports material back to its source. We experimentally demonstrate such a beam by coherently superposing coaxial Bessel beams. These optical conveyors have periodic intensity variations along their axes that act as highly effective optical traps for micrometer-scale objects. Varying the Bessel beams' relative phase shifts the traps axially and thereby selectively transports trapped objects either downstream or upstream along the length of the beam. The same methods used to project a single optical conveyor can project arrays of independent optical conveyors, allowing bidirectional motion. This opens up new possibilities for three dimensional transport of colloids, emulsion droplets and aerosol particles with sub-micrometer resolution over ranges extending to 50 micrometers and potentially beyond.

Ruffner, David; Grier, David



The role of difluprednate ophthalmic emulsion in clinical practice  

PubMed Central

The mainstay in the treatment of ocular inflammation, either post-surgical or endogenous, is the use of steroids. While these agents effectively address inflammation, they are not without their risks, including ocular hypertension and acceleration of cataract formation. The most notorious culprits are the strong steroids, such as prednisolone acetate and betamethasone. This review aims to cover the biochemistry and drug development of difluprednate, a novel synthetic strong steroid emulsion. In vivo pharmacokinetics as well as ocular distribution and metabolism are discussed, followed by a comprehensive summary of phase I, II, and III clinical trials evaluating safety and efficacy in patients suffering from postoperative inflammation or anterior uveitis. The objective is to provide an increased familiarity with this newly approved medication as a welcome addition to the ophthalmologist’s armamentarium. PMID:19668594

Jamal, Karim N; Callanan, David G



The role of difluprednate ophthalmic emulsion in clinical practice.  


The mainstay in the treatment of ocular inflammation, either post-surgical or endogenous, is the use of steroids. While these agents effectively address inflammation, they are not without their risks, including ocular hypertension and acceleration of cataract formation. The most notorious culprits are the strong steroids, such as prednisolone acetate and betamethasone. This review aims to cover the biochemistry and drug development of difluprednate, a novel synthetic strong steroid emulsion. In vivo pharmacokinetics as well as ocular distribution and metabolism are discussed, followed by a comprehensive summary of phase I, II, and III clinical trials evaluating safety and efficacy in patients suffering from postoperative inflammation or anterior uveitis. The objective is to provide an increased familiarity with this newly approved medication as a welcome addition to the ophthalmologist's armamentarium. PMID:19668594

Jamal, Karim N; Callanan, David G



Microencapsulation of xylitol by double emulsion followed by complex coacervation.  


The objective of this study was to produce and characterise xylitol microcapsules for use in foods, in order to prolong the sweetness and cooling effect provided by this ingredient. Complex coacervation was employed as the microencapsulation method. A preliminary double emulsion step was performed due to the hydrophilicity of xylitol. The microcapsules obtained were characterised in terms of particle size and morphology (optical, confocal and scanning electron microscopy), solubility, sorption isotherms, FTIR, encapsulation efficiency and release study. The microcapsules of xylitol showed desirable characteristics for use in foods, such as a particle size below 109 ?m, low solubility and complete encapsulation of the core by the wall material. The encapsulation efficiency ranged from 31% to 71%, being higher in treatments with higher concentrations of polymers. Release of over 70% of the microencapsulated xylitol in artificial saliva occurred within 20 min. PMID:25308639

Santos, Milla G; Bozza, Fernanda T; Thomazini, Marcelo; Favaro-Trindade, Carmen S



Marietta Blau: Pioneer of Photographic Nuclear Emulsions and Particle Physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the 1920s and 1930s, Viennese physicist Marietta Blau (1894-1970) pioneered the use of photographic methods for imaging high-energy nuclear particles and events. In 1937 she and Hertha Wambacher discovered "disintegration stars" - the tracks of massive nuclear disintegrations - in emulsions exposed to cosmic radiation. This discovery launched the field of particle physics, but Blau's contributions were underrecognized and she herself was nearly forgotten. I trace Blau's career at the Institut für Radiumforschung in Vienna and the causes of this "forgetting," including her forced emigration from Austria in 1938, the behavior of her colleagues in Vienna during and after the National Socialist period, and the flawed Nobel decision process that excluded her from a Nobel Prize.

Sime, Ruth Lewin



Influence of calcium, magnesium, or potassium ions on the formation and stability of emulsions prepared using highly hydrolyzed whey proteins.  


Oil-in-water emulsions (4 wt % soy oil) containing 4 wt % whey protein hydrolysate (WPH) (27% degree of hydrolysis) and different levels of calcium, magnesium, or potassium chloride were prepared in a two-stage homogenizer. Other emulsions containing 4 wt % WPH but including 0.35 wt % hydroxylated lecithin and different levels of the above minerals were similarly prepared. The formation and stability of these emulsions were determined by measuring oil droplet size distributions using laser light scattering and by confocal scanning laser microscopy and a gravity creaming test. Both lecithin-free and lecithin-containing emulsions showed no change in droplet size distributions with increasing concentration of potassium in the range 0-37.5 mM. In contrast, the diameter of emulsion droplets increased with increasing calcium or magnesium concentration >12.5 mM. Emulsions containing hydroxylated lecithin were more sensitive to the addition of calcium or magnesium than the lecithin-free emulsions. Storage of emulsions at 20 degrees C for 24 h further increased the diameter of droplets and resulted in extensive creaming in emulsions containing >25 mM calcium or magnesium. It appears that both flocculation and coalescence processes were involved in the destabilization of emulsions induced by the addition of divalent cations. PMID:10820065

Ramkumar, C; Singh, H; Munro, P A; Singh, A M



Enhancing vitamin E bioaccessibility: factors impacting solubilization and hydrolysis of ?-tocopherol acetate encapsulated in emulsion-based delivery systems.  


Oil-soluble vitamins are often encapsulated within emulsion-based delivery systems to facilitate their incorporation into aqueous-based products. We have examined the influence of carrier oil type and simulated small intestinal fluid (SSIF) composition on the bioaccessibility of emulsified vitamin E using a gastrointestinal model. Oil-in-water emulsions containing vitamin E acetate were prepared using bile salts as emulsifier, and either long chain triacylglycerols (glyceryl trioleate, LCT) or medium chain triacylglycerols (glyceryl trioctanoate, MCT) as carrier oils. The addition of calcium (CaCl2) to the SSIF increased the extent of lipid digestion in LCT-emulsions, but had little impact in MCT-emulsions. The bioaccessibility of vitamin E increased in the presence of calcium and phospholipids (DOPC) in LCT-emulsions, but decreased in MCT-emulsions. The highest bioaccessibility (? 66%) was achieved for LCT-emulsions when the SSIF contained both calcium and phospholipids. The conversion of ?-tocopherol acetate to ?-tocopherol after in vitro digestion was considerably higher for LCT-emulsions when calcium ions were present in the SSIF, but was not strongly affected by SSIF composition for MCT-emulsions. In general, this research provides important information about the factors influencing the bioaccessibility of emulsified vitamin E, which could be used to design more effective emulsion-based delivery systems for increasing the oral bioavailability of this important bioactive component. PMID:25312787

Yang, Ying; Decker, Eric Andrew; Xiao, Hang; McClements, David Julian



Separation Properties of Wastewater Containing O/W Emulsion Using Ceramic Microfiltration/Ultrafiltration (MF/UF) Membranes  

PubMed Central

Washing systems using water soluble detergent are used in electrical and mechanical industries and the wastewater containing O/W emulsion are discharged from these systems. Membrane filtration has large potential for the efficient separation of O/W emulsion for reuses of treated water and detergent. The separation properties of O/W emulsions by cross-flow microfiltration and ultrafiltration were studied with ceramic MF and UF membranes. The effects of pore size; applied pressure; cross-flow velocity; and detergent concentration on rejection of O/W emulsion and flux were systematically studied. At the condition achieving complete separation of O/W emulsion the pressure-independent flux was observed and this flux behavior was explained by gel-polarization model. The O/W emulsion tended to permeate through the membrane at the conditions of larger pore size; higher emulsion concentration; and higher pressure. The O/W emulsion could permeate the membrane pore structure by destruction or deformation. These results imply the stability of O/W emulsion in the gel-layer formed on membrane surface play an important role in the separation properties. The O/W emulsion was concentrated by batch cross-flow concentration filtration and the flux decline during the concentration filtration was explained by the gel- polarization model. PMID:24958621

Nakamura, Kazuho; Matsumoto, Kanji



Physical Properties and Biological Activity of Poly(butyl acrylate–styrene) Nanoparticle Emulsions Prepared with Conventional and Polymerizable Surfactants  

PubMed Central

Recent efforts in our laboratory have explored the use of polyacrylate nanoparticles in aqueous media as stable emulsions for potential applications in treating drug-resistant bacterial infections. These emulsions are made by emulsion polymerization of acrylated antibiotic compounds in a mixture of butyl acrylate and styrene (7:3 w:w) using sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as a surfactant. Prior work in our group established that the emulsions required purification to remove toxicity associated with extraneous surfactant present in the media. This paper summarizes our investigations of poly(butyl acrylate-styrene) emulsions made using anionic, cationic, zwitterionic, and non-charged (amphiphilic) surfactants, as well as attachable surfactant monomers (surfmers), comparing the cytotoxicity and microbiological activity levels of the emulsion both before and after purification. Our results show that the attachment of a polymerizable surfmer onto the matrix of the nanoparticle neither improves nor diminishes cytotoxic or antibacterial effects of the emulsion, regardless of whether the emulsions are purified or not, and that the optimal properties are associated with the use of the non-ionic surfactants versus those carrying anionic, cationic, or zwitterionic charge. Incorporation of an N-thiolated ?-lactam antibacterial agent onto the nanoparticle matrix via covalent attachment endows the emulsion with antibiotic properties against pathogenic bacteria such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), without changing the physical properties of the nanoparticles or their emulsions. PMID:19523413

Garay-Jimenez, Julio C.; Gergeres, Danielle; Young, Ashley; Dickey, Sonja; Lim, Daniel V.; Turos, Edward



Dewetting Instability during the Formation of Polymersomes from Block-Copolymer-Stabilized Double Emulsions  

E-print Network

Letters Dewetting Instability during the Formation of Polymersomes from Block, or polymersomes, of polystyrene-block-poly(ethylene oxide) diblock copolymers using double emulsion droplets of controlled architecture as templates. To engineer the structure of the polymersomes, it is important


Stretching properties of xanthan, carob, modified guar and celluloses in cosmetic emulsions.  


The filament stretching properties of various polysaccharides (including xanthan, carob, hydroxypropyl guar, hydroxypropylmethyl and hydroxyethyl celluloses) were investigated and compared to synthetic polymers generally used as texturing agents in cosmetic emulsions. The stretchability was examined by sensory evaluation as "the amount of sample that strings rather than breaks when fingers are separated". Different behaviors were evidenced: the xanthan emulsion showed the highest stretchability, followed by the hydroxypropyl guar and hydroxyethyl cellulose emulsions while the synthetic polymers presented stretching properties to a much lesser extent. The instrumental characterization of the stretchability was conducted at a controlled speed and recorded with a camera using a texture analyzer. The maximum stretchable length at 40mm/s was highly significantly correlated to the sensory Stringiness, thus allowing a good predictability of this attribute. Finally, this method was applied to aqueous solutions to better understand the role of the polymers in emulsion and to validate the measurement on a wider range of products. PMID:23499107

Gilbert, Laura; Loisel, Vincent; Savary, Géraldine; Grisel, Michel; Picard, Céline



Diffraction-like effects in a highly concentrated W/O emulsion: a PFG NMR study.  


Diffraction-like effects have been observed by applying pulsed field gradient (PFG) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to a highly concentrated water-in-oil (W/O) emulsion, made up of the nonionic surfactant C12E4 [CH3(CH2)11(OCH2CH2)4OH], n-decane, and brine [1 wt% NaCl(aq) solution]. The pulsed field gradient NMR data show one pronounced maximum and the shoulder of a second maximum in the attenuation curve of the NMR signal from water, the so-called Bragg interference peaks. From the diffraction-like peaks, the average distance (center to center) between the emulsion droplets can be obtained, in this case related to the average size of an emulsion droplet. Furthermore, we note that the long-term stability of the emulsion can be followed by pulsed field gradient NMR. PMID:9803929

Håkansson, B; Pons, R; Söderman, O



Application of microfluidic emulsion technology to biochemistry, drug delivery and Lab-on-a-Chip programmability  

E-print Network

This research applies microfluidic emulsion technology to three diverse problems; biochemistry, drug delivery and lab-on-a-chip programmability. These subjects represent distinct research programs, but the underlying physics ...

Urbanski, John Paul




E-print Network

PROPOSITION DE SUJET DE STAGE OIL DROPLETS IN FOAM: CAN WE MAKE FOAMED ASPHALT EMULSION? Foamed is not always so easy. Bitumen (a mixture of crude oils) is an essential part of asphalt, and as it consists

Paris-Sud 11, Université de

420 On the Possible Role of Surface Elasticity in Emulsion Stability  

E-print Network On the Possible Role of Surface Elasticity in Emulsion Stability Daniela to compression of various types of surfactant layers adsorbed at oil-water interfaces. We prepared reasonably

Weeks, Eric R.


Experimental Study of Solvent Based Emulsion Injection to Enhance Heavy Oil Recovery  

E-print Network

This study presents the results of nano-particle and surfactant-stabilized solvent-based emulsion core flooding studies under laboratory conditions that investigate the recovery mechanisms of chemical flooding in a heavy oil reservoir. In the study...

Qiu, Fangda



Chip Seals for Asphalt Concrete Pavements: A Proposed Emulsion Residue Specification and Existing Pavement Texture Evaluation  

E-print Network

seal emulsion must be applied. In this project, existing pavement macrotextures were measured at three chip seal projects immediately before construction using both the sand patch test and the circular track meter, CT Meter. The CT Meter was found...

Hoyt, Denise



Particle self-assembly in oil-in-ionic liquid Pickering emulsions.  


We have studied polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-in-1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([BMIM][PF(6)]) Pickering emulsions stabilized by polystyrene microparticles with different surface chemistry. Surprisingly, in contrast to the consensus originating from oil/water Pickering emulsions in which the solid particles equilibrate at the oil-water droplet interfaces and provide effective stabilization, here the polystyrene microparticles treated with sulfate, aldehyde sulfate, or carboxylate dissociable groups mostly formed monolayer bridges among the oil droplets rather than residing at the oil-ionic liquid interfaces. The bridge formation inhibited individual droplet-droplet coalescence; however, due to low density and large volume (thus the buoyant effect), the aggregated oil droplets actually promoted oil/ionic liquid phase separation and distressed emulsion stability. Systems with binary heterogeneous polystyrene microparticles exhibited similar, even enhanced (in terms of surface chemistry dependence), bridging phenomenon in the PDMS-in-[BMIM][PF(6)] Pickering emulsions. PMID:21840016

Walker, Elizabeth M; Frost, Denzil S; Dai, Lenore L



Preparation and characterization of narrow sized (o/w) magnetic emulsion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The preparation of well-defined (o/w) magnetic emulsions from an organic ferrofluid is reported. The ferrofluid synthesis is first described and a complete characterization is achieved by using numerous techniques. The ferrofluid is found to be composed of superparamagnetic maghemite nanoparticles, with a diameter below 10 nm, stabilized in octane by a surrounding oleic acid layer. This magnetic fluid is then emulsified in aqueous media in order to obtain stable ferrofluid droplets. The use of a couette mixer and a size sorting step under magnetic field allowed to produce magnetic emulsion with a narrow size distribution. Morphology and chemical composition of the magnetic emulsion are investigated. Magnetic properties of both ferrofluid and magnetic emulsion are also compared and discussed. In particular, it is showed that the superparamagnetic behavior is still observed after the emulsification process.

Montagne, F.; Mondain-Monval, O.; Pichot, C.; Mozzanega, H.; Ela??ssari, A.



Current trends in water-in-diesel emulsion as a fuel.  


Water-in-diesel emulsion (WiDE) is an alternative fuel for CI engines that can be employed with the existing engine setup with no additional engine retrofitting. It has benefits of simultaneous reduction of both NO x and particulate matters in addition to its impact in the combustion efficiency improvement, although this needs further investigation. This review paper addresses the type of emulsion, the microexplosion phenomenon, emulsion stability and physiochemical improvement, and effect of water content on the combustion and emissions of WiDE fuel. The review also covers the recent experimental methodologies used in the investigation of WiDE for both transport and stationary engine applications. In this review, the fuel injection pump and spray nozzle arrangement has been found to be the most critical components as far as the secondary atomization is concerned and further investigation of the effect of these components in the microexplosion of the emulsion is suggested to be center of focus. PMID:24563631

Yahaya Khan, Mohammed; Abdul Karim, Z A; Hagos, Ftwi Yohaness; Aziz, A Rashid A; Tan, Isa M



Intramuscular absorption and biodistribution of dexamethasone from non-aqueous emulsions in the rat.  


Non-aqueous or oil-in-oil emulsions may be used as reservoirs to deliver lipophilic or hydrolytically unstable drugs. Emulsions of castor oil-in-silicone oil (co/so) release drugs slowly in vitro. To investigate the potential use of such formulations as depot preparations in vivo, drug absorption and distribution from an intramuscular injection site to various organs in the rat was studied. (3)H-dexamethasone (0.1mg/kg) was incorporated into the castor oil (disperse phase) of co/so emulsions and in castor oil-in-water (co/w) emulsions, the latter serving as control. (3)H-dexamethasone was absorbed after intramuscular injection of co/w emulsions, reaching a plasma C(max) of 0.078 microg/ml at 2.0 h (T(max)). For co/so emulsions, a lower C(max) (0.048 microg/ml) was observed with a longer T(max) (4.0 h). No significant difference was found between the two formulations in the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC(infinity)), or in clearance (CL). Administration of (3)H-dexamethasone in the co/so emulsion improved the mean residence time (MRT) and the elimination half-life (t(1/2)) in comparison to the co/w emulsion. The clearance of (3)H-dexamethasone from the co/so emulsions at the injection site was also slower and at 4.0 h post-injection the amount of drug remaining in the muscle was found to be eight times higher than with the co/w emulsions. For both formulations, a high uptake of (3)H-dexamethasone was identified in the liver and kidneys whereas smaller amounts were found in other tissues. Non-aqueous emulsions could be considered as depot formulations for sustained release drug delivery, but further studies on the choice of the continuous phase are necessary to optimize effects. PMID:17250983

Suitthimeathegorn, Orawan; Turton, John A; Mizuuchi, Hiroshi; Florence, Alexander T



Behaviour of formula emulsions containing hydrolysed whey protein and various lecithins.  


Formula emulsion systems are used as enteral, sports and health products. In some formulas addition of hydrolysed protein is necessary to guarantee ease of digestion and hypoallergenicity. In the low fat emulsion model an increase in the content of lecithin (phospholipid mixture) was required, in consideration of the advice of the Food and Nutrition Board (USA) for choline supplementation. The individual and interactive effects of whey protein isolate (WPI) or hydrolysate (WPH) (3.7 and 4.9% w/w), unmodified deoiled or hydrolysed lecithin (0.48 or 0.7% w/w) and carbohydrate in the form of maltodextrin with dextrose equivalent (DE) 18.5 or glucose syrup with DE 34 (11% w/w) on the properties of formula emulsions with 4% v/w sunflower oil, were investigated using a full factorial design. The emulsions were characterised by particle size distribution, coalescence stability, creaming rate, and also surface protein and lecithin concentration. WPI-containing emulsions proved to be stable against coalescence and showed only little creaming after 1 and 7 days standing. There was a significant increase in the mean droplet size and a significant deterioration of coalescence and creaming stability when WPH instead of WPI was used as the protein source, due to the lower number of large peptides and lower surface activity of the WPH. Increasing the WPH concentration led to an increase in oil droplet size and further deterioration of the stability of the emulsions. The starch hydrolysate and lecithin also significantly influenced the emulsion properties. Their influence was less strong when the emulsion contained WPI. Under the conditions used WPH-based emulsions were more stable, in terms of creaming and coalescence, when a low level of protein was used in conjunction with hydrolysed lecithin and glucose syrup. Oil droplets in emulsions containing unmodified lecithin in either the continuous or disperse phase and WPH in the continuous phase were very sensitive to coalescence. The addition of starch hydrolysates (DE 18.5) induced intensive flocculation and phase separation in these emulsions. PMID:11377944

Tirok, S; Scherze, I; Muschiolik, G



Celebrating Soft Matter's 10th Anniversary: Stimuli-responsive Pickering emulsion polymerized smart fluids.  


The Pickering emulsion process is an important and interesting way of forming hybrid soft matter particles stabilized by solid particles as surfactants instead of the extensive use of conventionally available organic surfactant molecules. This Highlight briefly reviews stimuli-responsive polymer/inorganic hybrid materials fabricated by Pickering emulsion polymerization along with the rheological characteristics of their electrorheological and magnetorheological smart fluids under electric and magnetic fields, respectively. PMID:25515644

Piao, Shang Hao; Kwon, Seung Hyuk; Zhang, Wen Ling; Choi, Hyoung Jin



Effect of arabic gum and xanthan gum on the stability of pesticide in water emulsion.  


The effect of arabic gum (AG) and xanthan gum (XG) on the physicochemical properties of 2% pesticide avermyctin in water emulsions was systematically investigated by measuring creaming stability, droplet size, zeta potential, and rheology. Addition of AG and XG had significant influence on the physicochemical properties of emulsions. Emulsions showed high stability throughout the storage time in the AG concentration range of 0-0.14%. In contrast, addition of XG induced the apparent creaming of emulsion as the XG concentration increased from 0.011 to 0.15%, which might be well explained by the depletion flocculation of droplets. The droplet diameter increased progressively with increasing AG concentration; however, it sharply grew initially with XG concentration and reached a maximum, followed by a gradual decrease. Zeta potential increased gradually as AG concentration was lower than 0.081%, followed by a slight decrease, whereas it reduced dramatically as XG concentration increased from 0.011 to 0.040% and then remained almost unchanged. In the AG concentration range of 0-0.14%, the emulsion exhibited typical Newtonian flow behavior and the viscosity decreased a little. The XG emulsion exhibited Newtonian flow behavior at low XG concentrations (?0.019%), whereas, non-Newtonian flow behavior was displayed at relatively high XG concentrations (>0.019%), wherein viscosity value and yield value increased gradually as XG concentration increased. In addition, the curves of shear stress versus shear rate for XG emulsion and solution were well fitted by a power law model and the Herschel-Bulkley model; the Herschel-Bulkley model fitted much better. The present study would provide useful information for the reasonable application of AG and XG in making stable pesticide emulsion. PMID:21226518

Zhang, Xiaoguang; Liu, Jiexiang



Mechanism of dissociation of 2,2'-Azobisisobutyronitrile in aqueous emulsions  

SciTech Connect

The dissociation of 2,2'-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN) in aqueous emulsions of chlorobenzene (a 1:1 ratio of phase) was studied. It was shown that the rate of dissociation of AIBN decreases with increase in the degree of dispersion of the system. The activation energy of the dissociation of AIBN in emulsions is 21 kJ/mole higher than in a homogeneous system.

Arutyunyan, R.S.; Beileryan, N.M.; Nalbandyan, D.M.



Suppression of depletion flocculation in oil-in-water emulsions: a kinetic effect of ?-lactoglobulin  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on creaming and flocculation in 10% (w\\/w) oil-in-water emulsions, stabilised by ?-lactoglobulin (?-lg) and flocculated by dextran. Dextran and an additional amount of ?-lg were added at various concentrations after emulsion formation. A substantial effect of the ?-lg concentration was observed. At higher ?-lg concentrations, a larger dextran concentration was required to induce network formation. This effect

T. B. J. Blijdenstein; T. van Vliet; E. van der Linden; G. A. van Aken



Cationic emulsions improves the delivery of oligonucleotides to leukemic P388/ADR cells in ascite.  


The aim of this study was to investigate the in vivo ability of O/W cationic emulsions to deliver oligonucleotides (ON) in leukemic P388/ADR cells in ascite, after intraperitoneal (IP) administration in mice. Cationic emulsions were prepared by microfluidization as previously described by Teixeira et al. [Pharm. Res 16 (1999) 30]. The formulations consisted mainly of medium chain triglycerides, phosphatidylcholine (PC), poloxamer, and either a monocationic lipid stearylamine (PC/SA-emulsion) or a polycationic lipid RPRC(18) (PC/RPRC(18)-emulsion). A model ON (33P-pdT(16)) was associated with cationic emulsions by single addition at the end of the manufacturing process. Seven days after P388/ADR inoculation IP to mice, ON free or associated with PC/SA or PC/RPRC(18) emulsions was injected IP at a dose of 0.5 mg/kg. At different interval times, ascite including cells, blood and the main organs were collected and the radioactivity counted by liquid scintillation. The overall results showed significantly high amounts of ON in the leukemic cell pellet, 24 h after administration of ON associated to either PC/SA (AUC(0-24 h)=13634, %injected dose/min) or PC/RPRC(18) (AUC(0-24 h)=22592, % injected dose/min), contrary to the free ON solution (AUC(0-24 h)=3095, %injected dose/min), which displayed only reduced capture by cancer cells. In conclusion, complexation of ON with cationic emulsions had a beneficial effect in increasing tumor cells uptake in vivo (up to sevenfold for PC/RPRC(18)-emulsion) after IP administration. This could open interesting prospects for the treatment of ovarian cancers. PMID:12737849

Teixeira, H; Dubernet, C; Chacun, H; Rabinovich, L; Boutet, V; Deverre, J R; Benita, S; Couvreur, P



Water-in-oil emulsions that improve the storage and delivery of the biolarvacide Lagenidium giganteum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lagenidium giganteum is an effective biological control agent for mosquitoes with limited use due to poor survival and contamination during storage.\\u000a Invert (water-in-oil) emulsions using crop oils were investigated for formulating L. giganteum mycelium for improved shelf life and delivery. Cells formulated in a water-in-oil (W\\/O) emulsion were just as effective against\\u000a larvae as those formulated in aqueous suspension. Cells

Jean Vandergheynst; Herbert Scher; Hong-Yun Guo; Damien Schultz



Influence of the hydrophilic-lipophilic balance of sunscreen emulsions on their water resistance property.  


The use of sunscreens with sun protective cloths is the photoprotection way mostly used by Occidentals. During sweating or a bath, those products should be still efficient. As the emulsion is the mostly used type of product format, it is essential that the scientist knows how to formulate an emulsion which will be water resistant. The HLB (hydrophilic-lipophilic balance) of a formulation has high influence on this characteristic. PMID:22435388

Couteau, Céline; Demé, Alexandre; Cheignon, Clotilde; Coiffard, Laurence J M



Immunomodulation by fish-oil containing lipid emulsions in murine acute respiratory distress syndrome  

PubMed Central

Introduction Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a major cause of mortality in intensive care units. Patients with ARDS often require parenteral nutrition with lipid emulsions as essential components. Besides being an energy supply, these lipid emulsions might display differential modulatory effects on lung integrity and inflammation. Methods In a pre-emptive strategy, we investigated the impact of three different intravenously infused lipid emulsions on lung morphology, leukocyte invasion, protein leakage and cytokines in a murine model of ARDS. Mice received an infusion of normal saline solution, a pure long-chain triglycerides (LCT) emulsion, a medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) containing mixed emulsion (LCT/MCT), or a fish oil (FO) containing mixed emulsion (LCT/MCT/FO) before lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Results Mice pre-infused with fish oil-containing lipid emulsion showed decreased leukocyte invasion, protein leakage, myeloperoxidase activity, and cytokine production in their alveolar space after LPS challenge compared to mice receiving LCT or LCT/MCT. In line with these findings, lung morphology assessed by histological staining after LPS-induced lung injury improved faster in the LCT/MCT/FO group. Concerning the above mentioned parameters, no significant difference was observed between mice infused with LCT or the combination of LCT and MCT. Conclusion Fish oil-containing lipid emulsions might exert anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving effects in the murine model of acute lung injury. Partial replacement of n-6 fatty acids with n-3 fatty acids may thus be of benefit for critically ill patients at risk for ARDS which require parenteral nutrition. PMID:24780004



A comment on the validity of fragmentation parameters measured in nuclear emulsions. [cosmic ray nuclei  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Evidence is reexamined which has been cited as suggesting serious errors in the use of fragmentation parameters appropriate to an airlike medium deduced from measurements made in nuclear emulsions to evaluate corrections for certain effects in balloon-borne observations of cosmic-ray nuclei. Fragmentation parameters for hydrogenlike interactions are calculated and shown to be in overall good agreement with those obtained previously for air. Experimentally measured fragmentation parameters in emulsion are compared with values computed semiempirically, and reasonable agreement is indicated.

Waddington, C. J.



Capacity fading of LiMn 2O 4 electrode synthesized by the emulsion drying method  

Microsoft Academic Search

We adapted the emulsion drying method to obtain highly crystalline spinel LiMn2O4 phase using LiNO3 and Mn(NO3)2·6H2O as starting materials. The emulsion-dried powders were calcined at various temperatures for 24 h in air, and their crystalline phases were identified as a cubic spinel structure with the space group Fd3m by X-ray diffraction study. The initial discharge capacity of the samples

Seung-Taek Myung; Hoon-Taek Chung; Shinichi Komaba; Naoaki Kumagai; Hal-Bon Gu



Atlas of nuclear emulsion micrographs from personnel dosimeters of manned space missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A collection of micrographs is presented taken from nuclear emulsions of personnel dosimeter packs carried by the astronauts on near-earth orbital and lunar missions. It is intended as a pictorial record and illustration of the radiation environment in space and as a supplement to earlier reports and publications of the laboratory in which the emulsion findings have been presented in detail for individual missions. A complete list of those earlier accounts precedes the picture sections.

Schaefer, H. J.; Sullivan, J. J.



Invert emulsions for well-drilling comprising a polydiorganosiloxane and method therefor  

SciTech Connect

The preparation of emulsions of light and heavy brines in a liquid hydrocarbon is described, using a polydiorganosiloxane bearing at least one polyoxyalkylene radical and at least one monovalent hydrocarbon radical having from 6 to 18 carbon atoms. The emulsions are useful in the well-drilling art as drilling fluids, completion fluids, packer fluids, spacer fluids and workover fluids because of their thermal stability and because they can be formulated to have a relatively high density, with or without added weighting agents.

Romenesko, D.J.; Schiefer, H.M.



Oil emulsions increase efficacy of Phoma herbarum to control dandelion but are phytotoxic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paraffinic-vegetable and vegetable oil emulsions were investigated for their ability to increase efficacy of the fungal pathogen Phoma herbarum as a bioherbicide to control dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) under sub-optimal leaf wetness durations (LWDs) in controlled environments. Mycelia of P. herbarum (20%, v\\/v) were formulated in 10 oil emulsions; two based on paraffinic-vegetable (soybean) oil mixtures, and eight based on vegetable

S. M. Stewart-Wade; G. J. Boland