These are representative sample records from related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at

Analysis of relativistic nucleus-nucleus interactions in emulsion chambers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of a computer-assisted method is reported for the determination of the angular distribution data for secondary particles produced in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions in emulsions. The method is applied to emulsion detectors that were placed in a constant, uniform magnetic field and exposed to beams of 60 and 200 GeV/nucleon O-16 ions at the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) of the European Center for Nuclear Research (CERN). Linear regression analysis is used to determine the azimuthal and polar emission angles from measured track coordinate data. The software, written in BASIC, is designed to be machine independent, and adaptable to an automated system for acquiring the track coordinates. The fitting algorithm is deterministic, and takes into account the experimental uncertainty in the measured points. Further, a procedure for using the track data to estimate the linear momenta of the charged particles observed in the detectors is included.

Mcguire, Stephen C.



Fluctuation analysis of relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions in emulsion chambers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analytical technique was developed for identifying enhanced fluctuations in the angular distributions of secondary particles produced from relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions. The method is applied under the assumption that the masses of the produced particles are small compared to their linear momenta. The importance of particles rests in the fact that enhanced fluctuations in the rapidity distributions is considered to be an experimental signal for the creation of the quark-gluon-plasma (QGP), a state of nuclear matter predicted from the quantum chromodynamics theory (QCD). In the approach, Monte Carlo simulations are employed that make use of a portable random member generator that allow the calculations to be performed on a desk-top computer. The method is illustrated with data taken from high altitude emulsion exposures and is immediately applicable to similar data from accelerator-based emulsion exposures.

Mcguire, Stephen C.



Nucleus-nucleus collisions at relativistic energies: The CERN WA80 experiment  

SciTech Connect

QCD lattice calculations predict that, at sufficiently high energy densities, hadronic matter undergoes a transition to a new phase of matter, the quark-gluon plasma, in which quarks and gluons are deconfined over a relatively large volume. It has been suggested that collisions between heavy nuclei at ultrarelativistic energies may produce the energy densities, estimated to be greater than 2 to 3 GeV/fm/sup 3/, necessary for this phase transition to occur. An important goal of the first experiments with ultrarelativistic heavy-ion beams at the SPS accelerator at CERN is to investigate the extent to which this suggestion is correct. The primary experimental quantity used for estimating the energy density is the transverse energy, E/sub T/. We present here energies measured at zero degrees, together with transverse energy measurements. Estimates of attained energy densities and preliminary transverse momentum distributions of neutral products are also presented. 24 refs., 7 figs.

Plasil, F.; Albrecht, R.; Awes, T.C.; Baktash, C.; Beckmann, P.; Berger, F.; Bock, R.; Claesson, G.; Dragon, L.; Ferguson, R.L.



Analytic optical potentials for nucleon-nucleus nucleus-nucleus collisions involving light and medium nuclei  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Utilizing an optical model potential approximation to the exact nucleus-nucleus multiple-scattering series, optical potentials for nucleon-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions are analytically derived. These expressions are applicable to light and medium cosmic ray nuclei as their single-particle density distributions are analytically determined, without approximation, from their actual harmonic well charge density distributions. Pauli correlation effects are included through the use of a simple Gaussian function to replace the usual expression obtained in the infinite nuclear matter approximation.

Bidasaria, H. B.; Townsend, L. W.



Single nucleon emission in relativistic nucleus-nucleus reactions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Significant discrepancies between theory and experiment have previously been noted for nucleon emission via electromagnetic processes in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions. The present work investigates the hypothesis that these discrepancies have arisen due to uncertainties about how to deduce the experimental electromagnetic cross section from the total measured cross section. An optical-model calculation of single neutron removal is added to electromagnetic cross sections and compared to the total experimental cross sections. Good agreement is found thereby resolving some of the earlier noted discrepancies. A detailed comparison to the recent work of Benesh, Cook, and Vary is made for both the impact parameter and the nuclear cross section. Good agreement is obtained giving an independent confirmation of the parameterized formulas developed by those authors.

Norbury, John W.; Townsend, Lawrence W.



Transverse Energy in nucleus-nucleus collisions: A review  

SciTech Connect

The status of Transverse Energy (E/sub T/) in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions at the Brookhaven AGS and the CERN SPS is reviewed. The definition of E/sub T/ and its physical significance are discussed. The basic techniques and limitations of the experimental measurements are presented. The acceptances of the major experiments to be discussed are shown, along with remarks about their idiosyncrasies. The data demonstrate that the nuclear geometry of colliding spheres primarily determines the shapes of the observed spectra. Careful account of the acceptances is crucial to comparing and interpreting results. It is concluded that nuclear stopping power is high, and that the amount of energy deposited into the interaction volume is increasing with beam energy even at SPS energies. The energy densities believed to be obtained at the SPS are close to the critical values predicted for the onset of a quark-gluon plasma. 25 refs., 8 figs.

Tincknell, M.



Convergence of the nucleus-nucleus Glauber multiple scattering series  

SciTech Connect

The Glauber {ital S}-matrix operator for nucleus-nucleus scattering is expressed as a finite series of matrix elements involving Bell's polynomials. Analyzing {alpha}{sup 4}He elastic-scattering data at the incident momentum of 4.32 GeV/{ital c}, we infer that our expansion is appreciably converging. Further, by applying closure over target and projectile states and neglecting a certain class of terms involving intermediate excitations, we arrive at a recurrence relation for nucleus-nucleus multiple scattering series terms, which invites further study as it seems to provide a simple method for calculating the nucleus-nucleus elastic-scattering cross section.

Usmani, A.A.; Ahmad, I. (Department of Physics, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202 002, Uttar Pradesh, India (IN))



Subthreshold Antiproton Production in Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions  

E-print Network

Antiproton production in nucleus-nucleus collisions at energies below the threshold for its production from the nucleon-nucleon interaction in free space is studied in the relativistic Vlasov-Uehling-Uhlenbeck model. The antiproton self...

LI, GQ; Ko, Che Ming; Fang, X. S.; Zheng, Y. M.



Nuclear rainbow scattering and nucleus-nucleus potential  

E-print Network

Elastic scattering of alpha-particle and some tightly-bound light nuclei has shown the pattern of rainbow scattering at medium energies, which is due to the refraction of the incident wave by a strongly attractive nucleus-nucleus potential. This review gives an introduction to the physics of the nuclear rainbow based essentially on the optical model description of the elastic scattering. Since the realistic nucleus-nucleus optical potential (OP) is the key to explore this interesting process, an overview of the main methods used to determine the nucleus-nucleus OP is presented. The refractive rainbow-like structures observed in other quasi-elastic scattering reactions have also been discussed. Some evidences for the refractive effect in the elastic scattering of unstable nuclei are presented and perspectives for the future studies are discussed.

Dao T. Khoa; W. von Oertzen; H. G. Bohlen; S. Ohkubo



Higgs-Boson Production in Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cross section calculations are presented for the production of intermediate-mass Higgs bosons produced in ultrarelativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions via two photon fusion. The calculations are performed in position space using Baur's method for folding together the Weizsacker-Williams virtual-photon spectra of the two colliding nuclei. It is found that two photon fusion in nucleus-nucleus collisions is a plausible way of finding intermediate-mass Higgs bosons at the Superconducting Super Collider or the CERN Large Hadron Collider.

Norbury, John W.



Higgs-boson production in nucleus-nucleus collisions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cross-section calculations are presented for the production of intermediate-mass Higgs bosons produced in ultrarelativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions via two-photon fusion. The calculations are performed in position space using Baur's method for folding together the Weizsacker-Williams virtual-photon spectra of the two colliding nuclei. It is found that two-photon fusion in nucleus-nucleus collisions is a plausible way of finding intermediate-mass Higgs bosons at the Superconducting Super Collider or the CERN Large Hadron Collider.

Norbury, J. W.; Townsend, L. W. (Principal Investigator)



Fusion cross sections for reactions involving medium & heavy nucleus-nucleus systems  

E-print Network

Existing data on near-barrier fusion excitation functions of medium and heavy nucleus-nucleus systems have been analyzed using a simple diffused barrier formula derived assuming the Gaussian shape of the barrier height distributions. Fusion cross section is obtained by folding the Gaussian barrier distribution with the classical expression for the fusion cross section for a fixed barrier. The energy dependence of the fusion cross section, thus obtained, provides good description to the existing data on near-barrier fusion and capture excitation functions for medium and heavy nucleus-nucleus systems. The fusion or capture cross section predictions are especially important for planning experiments for synthesizing new super-heavy elements.

Debasis Atta; D. N. Basu



Electric quadrupole excitations in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Calculations are presented for electric quadrupole excitations in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions. The theoretical results are compared to an extensive data set and it is found that electric quadrupole effects provide substantial corrections to cross sections, especially for heavier nuclei.

Norbury, John W.



Emulsion Chamber Technology Experiment (ECT)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The experimental objective of Emulsion Chamber Technology (ECT) was to develop space-borne emulsion chamber technology so that cosmic rays and nuclear interactions may subsequently be studied at extremely high energies with long exposures in space. A small emulsion chamber was built and flown on flight STS-62 of the Columbia in March 1994. Analysis of the several hundred layers of radiation-sensitive material has shown excellent post-flight condition and suitability for cosmic ray physics analysis at much longer exposures. Temperature control of the stack was 20 +/-1 C throughout the active control period and no significant deviations of temperature or pressure in the chamber were observed over the entire mission operations period. The unfortunate flight attitude of the orbiter (almost 90% Earth viewing) prevented any significant number of heavy particles (Z greater than or equal to 10) reaching the stack and the inverted flow of shower particles in the calorimeter has not allowed evaluation of absolute primary cosmic ray-detection efficiency nor of the practical time limits of useful exposure of these calorimeters in space to the level of detail originally planned. Nevertheless, analysis of the observed backgrounds and quality of the processed photographic and plastic materials after the flight show that productive exposures of emulsion chambers are feasible in low orbit for periods of up to one year or longer. The engineering approaches taken in the ECT program were proven effective and no major environmental obstacles to prolonged flight are evident.

Gregory, John C.; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki



The emulsion chamber technology experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Photographic emulsion has the unique property of recording tracks of ionizing particles with a spatial precision of 1 micron, while also being capable of deployment over detector areas of square meters or 10's of square meters. Detectors are passive, their cost to fly in Space is a fraction of that of instruments of similar collecting. A major problem in their continued use has been the labor intensiveness of data retrieval by traditional microscope methods. Two factors changing the acceptability of emulsion technology in space are the astronomical costs of flying large electronic instruments such as ionization calorimeters in Space, and the power and low cost of computers, a small revolution in the laboratory microscope data-taking. Our group at UAH made measurements of the high energy composition and spectra of cosmic rays. The Marshall group has also specialized in space radiation dosimetry. Ionization calorimeters, using alternating layers of lead and photographic emulsion, to measure particle energies up to 10(exp 15) eV were developed. Ten balloon flights were performed with them. No such calorimeters have ever flown in orbit. In the ECT program, a small emulsion chamber was developed and will be flown on the Shuttle mission OAST-2 to resolve the principal technological questions concerning space exposures. These include assessments of: (1) pre-flight and orbital exposure to background radiation, including both self-shielding and secondary particle generation; the practical limit to exposure time in space can then be determined; (2) dynamics of stack to optimize design for launch and weightlessness; and (3) thermal and vacuum constraints on emulsion performance. All these effects are cumulative and affect our ability to perform scientific measurements but cannot be adequately predicted by available methods.

Gregory, John C.



Comparison of potential models of nucleus-nucleus bremsstrahlung  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At low photon energies, the potential models of nucleus-nucleus bremsstrahlung are based on electric transition multipole operators, which are derived either only from the nuclear current or only from the charge density by making the long-wavelength approximation and using the Siegert theorem. In the latter case, the bremsstrahlung matrix elements are divergent and some regularization techniques are used to obtain finite values for the bremsstrahlung cross sections. From an extension of the Siegert theorem, which is not based on the long-wavelength approximation, a new potential model of nucleus-nucleus bremsstrahlung is developed. Only convergent integrals are included in this approach. Formal links between bremsstrahlung cross sections obtained in these different models are made. Furthermore, three different ways to calculate the regularized matrix elements are discussed and criticized. Some prescriptions for a proper implementation of the regularization are deduced. A numerical comparison between the different models is done by applying them to the ? +? bremsstrahlung.

Dohet-Eraly, J.; Baye, D.



Toward a systematic nucleus-nucleus potential for peripheral collisions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A systematic nucleus-nucleus potential is proposed based on an optical model analysis of angular distributions of differential cross sections of 6Li and 7Li elastic scattering from targets with A?40 with incident energies between 5 and 40 MeV/nucleon. A single-folding model based on the Bruyères Jeukenne-Lejeune-Mahaux (JLMB) model nucleon-nucleus potentials was used. Systematics in energy dependence of the potential parameters were obtained. This systematics was found to give reasonable account for both elastic scattering and total reaction cross sections for projectiles with mass numbers up to A˜40, including both stable and unstable nuclei, for incident energies from the vicinity of the Coulomb barrier to about 100 MeV/nucleon.

Xu, Y. P.; Pang, D. Y.



Rheology and microstructure of magmatic emulsions - Theory and experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The rheological properties of a dilute mixture of melt plus vapor bubbles, referred to as emulsion, are investigated theoretically and in rheometric experiments on dilute viscous germanium dioxide emulsions at temperatures between 1100 and 1175 C and at 100 kPa pressure in a rotating rod rheometer at shear rates between 0.05/s and 7/s. The results indicate that the emulsions may be described by a power-law constitutive relation when observations cover a sufficient range of shear rates to resolve nonlinear flow.

Stein, Daniel J.; Spera, Frank J.



Pion production at 180/sup 0/ in nucleus-nucleus collisions  

SciTech Connect

A survey experiment of pion production at 180/sup 0/ in nucleus-nucleus collisions is presented. Beams of 1.05 GeV/A and 2.1 GeV/A protons, alphas, and carbon were used, as well as proton beams of 0.80 GeV, 3.5 GeV, and 4.89 GeV, and argon beams of 1.05 GeV/A and 1.83 GeV/A. This is the first such experiment to use the heavier beams. Targets used ranged from carbon to lead. An in-depth review of the literature, both experimental and theoretical, is also presented. The systematics of the data are discussed, and comparisons are made both with prior experiments and with the predictions of the models reviewed. The cross sections appear consistent with a simple single nucleon-nucleon collision picture, without the need for collective or other exotic effects. Suggestions for future work are made.

Chessin, S.A.



Medium effect in the high-density region probed by nucleus-nucleus elastic scattering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the sensitivity of the medium effect in the high-density region on nucleus-nucleus elastic scattering in the framework of the double-folding (DF) model with the complex G-matrix interaction. The medium effect including the three-body-force (TBF) effect is investigated with two methods. In both methods, the medium effect is clearly seen on the potential and the elastic cross section. Finally, we make clear the crucial role of the TBF effect up to kF=1.6 fm-1 in nucleus-nucleus elastic scattering.

Furumoto, T.; Sakuragi, Y.; Yamamoto, Y.



(Nucleus-nucleus collisions): Foreign trip report, June 5--11, 1988  

SciTech Connect

The traveler attended the Third International Conference on Nucleus- Nucleus Collisions in St. Malo, France. The conference was attended by 450 physicists and provided a good review of the status of heavy-ion research from low to ultrarelativistic energies. The traveler was the convenor of the ''Round Table Discussion'' held during the closing session of the conference. The traveler proposed that the Fourth International Conference on Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions be held in Gatlinburg, Tennessee, in 1991. The present and voting members of the International Advisory Committee and of the National Organizing Committee deadlocked 10-10 between the traveler's proposal and a Japanese proposal.

Plasil, F.



Computer program for parameterization of nucleus-nucleus electromagnetic dissociation cross sections  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computer subroutine parameterization of electromagnetic dissociation cross sections for nucleus-nucleus collisions is presented that is suitable for implementation in a heavy ion transport code. The only inputs required are the projectile kinetic energy and the projectile and target charge and mass numbers.

Norbury, John W.; Townsend, Lawrence W.; Badavi, Forooz F.



Calorimetry applied to nucleus-nucleus collisions at ultrarelativistic energies  

SciTech Connect

A general introduction to high-energy calorimetry is presented, together with brief descriptions of the two types of cascades relevant to calorimetric measurements. This is followed by a discussion of ''compensation'' and of the ''e/h'' ratio. A detailed description of two calorimeters designed and constructed for the CERN WA80 experiment are also given. 16 refs., 17 figs., 5 tabs.

Plasil, F.



PREFACE: 11th International Conference on Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions (NN2012)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 11th International Conference on Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions (NN2012) was held from 27 May to 1 June 2012, in San Antonio, Texas, USA. It was jointly organized and hosted by The Cyclotron Institute at Texas A&M University, College Station and The Department of Physics and Astronomy at Texas A&M University-Commerce. Among the approximately 300 participants were a large number of graduate students and post-doctoral fellows. The Keynote Talk of the conference, 'The State of Affairs of Present and Future Nucleus-Nucleus Collision Science', was given by Dr Robert Tribble, University Distinguished Professor and Director of the TAMU Cyclotron Institute. During the conference a very well-received public lecture on neutrino astronomy, 'The ICEcube project', was given by Dr Francis Halzen, Hilldale and Gregory Breit Distinguished Professor at the University of Wisconsin, Madison. The Scientific program continued in the general spirit and intention of this conference series. As is typical of this conference a broad range of topics including fundamental areas of nuclear dynamics, structure, and applications were addressed in 42 plenary session talks, 150 parallel session talks, and 21 posters. The high quality of the work presented emphasized the vitality and relevance of the subject matter of this conference. Following the tradition, the NN2012 International Advisory Committee selected the host and site of the next conference in this series. The 12th International Conference on Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions (NN2015) will be held 21-26 June 2015 in Catania, Italy. It will be hosted by The INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, INFN, Catania and the Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia of the University of Catania. The NN2012 Proceedings contains the conference program and 165 articles organized into the following 10 sections 1. Heavy and Superheavy Elements 2. QCD and Hadron Physics 3. Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collisions 4. Nuclear Structure 5. Nuclear Energy and Applications of Nuclear Science and Technologies 6. Nuclear Reactions and Structure of Unstable Nuclei 7. Equation of State of Neutron-Rich Nuclear Matter, Clusters in Nuclei and Nuclear Reactions 8. Fusion and Fission 9. Nuclear Astrophysics 10. New Facilities and Detectors We would like to thank Texas A&M University and Texas A&M University-Commerce for their organizational support and for providing financial support for many students and postdocs and those who had special need. This support helped assure the success of NN2012. Special thanks also go to all members of the International Advisory Committee and the Local Organizing Committee (listed below) for their great work in advising upon, preparing and executing the NN2012 scientific program as well as the social events that all together made the NN2012 an enjoyable experience for both the participants and their companions. NN2012 International Advisory Committee N Auerbach (Israel) J Aysto (Finland) C Beck (France) S Cherubini (Italy) L Ferreira (Portugal) C Gagliardi (USA) S Gales (France) C Gale (Canada) W Gelletly (Great Britain) Paulo R S Gomes (Brazil) W Greiner (Germany) W Henning (USA) D Hinde (Australia) S Hofmann (Germany) M Hussein (Brazil) B Jacak (USA) S Kailas (India) W G Lynch (USA) Z Majka (Poland) L McLerran (USA) V Metag (Germany) K Morita (Japan) B Mueller (USA) D G Mueller (France) T Motobayashi (Japan) W Nazarewicz (USA) Y Oganessian (Russia) J Nolen (USA) E K Rehm (USA) N Rowley (France) B Sherrill (USA) J Schukraft (Switzerland) W Q Shen (China) A Stefanini (Italy) H Stoecker (Germany) A Szanto de Toledo (Brazil) U van Kolck (USA) W von Oertzen (Germany) M Wiescher (USA) N Xu (USA) N V Zamfir (Romania) W L Zhan (China) H Q Zhang (China) NN2012 Local Organizing Committee Marina Barbui Carlos Bertulani Robert Burch Jr Cheri Davis Cody Folden Kris Hagel John Hardy Bao-An Li (Co-Chair and Scientific Secretary) Joseph Natowitz (Co-Chair) Ralf Rapp Livius Trache Sherry Yennello Editors of NN2012 Proceedings Bao-An Li (Texas A&M University-Commerce) and Joseph Natowitz (Texas A&M Unive

Li, Bao-An; Natowitz, Joseph B.



Subthreshold Antiproton Production in Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions  

E-print Network

. In an expanding fireball model, we determine the p abundance from the fusion of pions and find that for collisions at 2. 1 GeV/nucleon the antiproton to negative pion ra- tio is = 5.5&10 and has a similar magnitude to that of the data. Recently, experiments... on this model can be found in Ref. 6 where it is used to study kaon production in heavy-ion collisions. In particular, p mesons are produced from the fireball via the fusion of two pions with the pro- duction rate calculated from the p meson width I ~ (153...

Ko, Che Ming; Xia, L. H.



Sensitivity of cross sections for elastic nucleus-nucleus scattering to halo nucleus density distributions  

SciTech Connect

In order to clear up the sensitivity of the nucleus-nucleus scattering to the nuclear matter distributions in exotic halo nuclei, we have calculated differential cross sections for elastic scattering of the {sup 6}He and {sup 11}Li nuclei on several nuclear targets at the energy of 0.8 GeV/nucleon with different assumed nuclear density distributions in {sup 6}He and {sup 11}Li.

Alkhazov, G. D.; Sarantsev, V. V., E-mail: [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute NRC KI (Russian Federation)



Nucleus-nucleus potential with shell-correction contribution and deep sub-barrier fusion of heavy nuclei  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is suggested that the full nucleus-nucleus potential consists of the macroscopic and shell-correction parts. The deep sub-barrier fusion hindrance takes place in a nucleus-nucleus system with a strong negative shell-correction contribution to the full heavy-ion potential, while a strong positive shell-correction contribution to the full potential leads to weak enhancement of the deep sub-barrier fusion cross section.

Denisov, V. Yu.



Pion and Kaon Lab Frame Differential Cross Sections for Intermediate Energy Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space radiation transport codes require accurate models for hadron production in intermediate energy nucleus-nucleus collisions. Codes require cross sections to be written in terms of lab frame variables and it is important to be able to verify models against experimental data in the lab frame. Several models are compared to lab frame data. It is found that models based on algebraic parameterizations are unable to describe intermediate energy differential cross section data. However, simple thermal model parameterizations, when appropriately transformed from the center of momentum to the lab frame, are able to account for the data.

Norbury, John W.; Blattnig, Steve R.



Pion-nucleon scattering and pion production in nucleon-nucleon and nucleus-nucleus collisions  

SciTech Connect

Lecture notes are presented on the following: (1) basic aspects of ..pi..N interactions (properties of pions and nucleons, SU(3) and SU(6) classification phenomenology of ..pi..N scattering ((3.3) resonance; phase shift analysis, and bag model approach to ..pi..N); (2) pion production and absorption in the two nucleon system (NN ..-->.. NN..pi.. (isobar model) and ..pi..d reversible NN (existence of dibaryon resonances)); (3) pion absorption in complex nuclei (multiparticle aspects and cascade calculations); and (4) pion production with nuclear targets including (a) nucleon-nucleus, (b) nucleus-nucleus (Fermi-averaged 2-body vs thermodynamic models), and (c) ..pi pi.. interoferometry.

Dover, C.B.



Analysis of nucleus-nucleus collisions at high energies and Random Matrix Theory  

E-print Network

We propose a novel statistical approach to the analysis of experimental data obtained in nucleus-nucleus collisions at high energies which borrows from methods developed within the context of Random Matrix Theory. It is applied to the detection of correlations in momentum distributions of emitted particles. We find good agreement between the results obtained in this way and a standard analysis based on the method of effective mass spectra and two-pair correlation function often used in high energy physics. The method introduced here is free from unwanted background contributions.

R. G. Nazmitdinov; E. I. Shahaliev; M. K. Suleymanov; S. Tomsovic



Effects of a chiral three-nucleon force on nucleus-nucleus scattering  

E-print Network

We investigate the effects of chiral NNLO three-nucleon force (3NF) on nucleus-nucleus elastic scattering, using a standard prescription based on the Brueckner-Hartree-Fock method and the g-matrix folding model. The g-matrix calculated in nuclear matter from the chiral N3LO two-nucleon forces (2NF) is close to that from the Bonn-B 2NF. Because the Melbourne group have already developed a practical g-matrix interaction by localizing the nonlocal g-matrix calculated from the Bonn-B 2NF, we consider the effects of chiral 3NF, in this first attempt to study the 3NF effects, by modifying the local Melbourne g-matrix according to the difference between the g-matrices of the chiral 2NF and 2NF+3NF. For nucleus-nucleus elastic scattering, the 3NF corrections make the folding potential less attractive and more absorptive. The latter novel effect is due to the enhanced tensor correlations in triplet channels. These changes reduce the differential cross section at the middle and large angles, improving the agreement with the experimental data for 16O-16O scattering at 70 MeV/nucleon and 12C-12C scattering at 85 MeV/nucleon.

Kosho Minomo; Masakazu Toyokawa; Michio Kohno; Masanobu Yahiro



Experiments and network model of flow of oil-water emulsion in porous media.  


Transport of emulsions in porous media is relevant to several subsurface applications. Many enhanced oil recovery (EOR) processes lead to emulsion formation and as a result conformance originating in the flow of a dispersed phase may arise. In some EOR processes, emulsion is injected directly as a mobility control agent. Modeling the flow of emulsion in porous media is extremely challenging due to the complex nature of the associated flows and numerous interfaces. The descriptions based on effective viscosity are not valid when the drop size is of the same order of magnitude as the pore-throat characteristic length scale. An accurate model of emulsion flow through porous media should describe this local change in mobility. The available filtration models do not take into account the variation of the straining and capturing rates with the local capillary number. In this work, we present experiments of emulsion flow through sandstone cores of different permeability and a first step on a capillary network model that uses experimentally determined pore-level constitutive relationships between flow rate and pressure drop in constricted capillaries to obtain representative macroscopic flow behavior emerging from microscopic emulsion flow at the pore level. A parametric analysis is conducted to study the effect of the permeability and dispersed phase droplet size on the flow response to emulsion flooding in porous media. The network model predictions qualitatively describe the oil-water emulsion flow behavior observed in the experiments. PMID:22181259

Romero, Mao Illich; Carvalho, Marcio S; Alvarado, Vladimir



Experiments and network model of flow of oil-water emulsion in porous media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transport of emulsions in porous media is relevant to several subsurface applications. Many enhanced oil recovery (EOR) processes lead to emulsion formation and as a result conformance originating in the flow of a dispersed phase may arise. In some EOR processes, emulsion is injected directly as a mobility control agent. Modeling the flow of emulsion in porous media is extremely challenging due to the complex nature of the associated flows and numerous interfaces. The descriptions based on effective viscosity are not valid when the drop size is of the same order of magnitude as the pore-throat characteristic length scale. An accurate model of emulsion flow through porous media should describe this local change in mobility. The available filtration models do not take into account the variation of the straining and capturing rates with the local capillary number. In this work, we present experiments of emulsion flow through sandstone cores of different permeability and a first step on a capillary network model that uses experimentally determined pore-level constitutive relationships between flow rate and pressure drop in constricted capillaries to obtain representative macroscopic flow behavior emerging from microscopic emulsion flow at the pore level. A parametric analysis is conducted to study the effect of the permeability and dispersed phase droplet size on the flow response to emulsion flooding in porous media. The network model predictions qualitatively describe the oil-water emulsion flow behavior observed in the experiments.

Romero, Mao Illich; Carvalho, Marcio S.; Alvarado, Vladimir



Recent Developments in the Study of Deconfinement in Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions  

E-print Network

Deconfinement refers to the creation of a state of quasi-free quarks and gluons in strongly interacting matter. Model predictions and experimental evidence for the onset of deconfinement in nucleus-nucleus collisions were discussed in our first review on this subject. These results motivated further experimental and theoretical studies. This review addresses two subjects. First, a summary of the past, present and future experimental programmes related to discovery and study of properties of the onset of deconfinement are %briefly presented. Second, recent progress is reviewed on analysis methods and preliminary experimental results for new strongly intensive fluctuation measures are discussed, which are relevant for current and future studies of the onset of deconfinement and searches for the critical point of strongly interacting matter

M. Gazdzicki; M. I. Gorenstein; P. Seyboth



Forward-backward correlations in nucleus-nucleus collisions: Baseline contributions from geometrical fluctuations  

SciTech Connect

We discuss the effects of initial collision geometry and centrality bin definition on correlation and fluctuation observables in nucleus-nucleus collisions. We focus on the forward-backward correlation coefficient recently measured by the STAR Collaboration in Au+Au collisions at RHIC. Our study is carried out within two models: the Glauber Monte Carlo code with a 'toy' wounded-nucleon model and the hadron-string dynamics (HSD) transport approach. We show that strong correlations can arise from averaging over events in one centrality bin. We, furthermore, argue that a study of the dependence of correlations on the centrality bin definition as well as the bin size may distinguish between these trivial correlations and correlations arising from new physics.

Konchakovski, V. P. [Helmholtz Research School, University of Frankfurt, Frankfurt (Germany); Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kiev (Ukraine); Hauer, M. [Helmholtz Research School, University of Frankfurt, Frankfurt (Germany); Torrieri, G [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Goethe Universitaet, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Gorenstein, M. I. [Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kiev (Ukraine); Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Frankfurt (Germany); Bratkovskaya, E. L. [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Frankfurt (Germany)



Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions at Low Energies. The Effects from Non Vacuum Exchange  

E-print Network

Experimental data on total and differential elastic cross sections for $p+p(\\bar{p})$, $n+p(\\bar{p})$, $K^\\pm+p$, $K^\\pm+n$, $\\pi^\\pm+p$ starting from energy 3.5 GeV in CMS are used to determine parameters of vacuum contribution and parameters of basic non vacuum reggeons: $f$, $\\omega$, $\\rho$ and $A_2$. It is argued that non vacuum contributions to proton-proton and proton-neutron collisions correspond to spectrum in which baryon number is moved from the fragmentation region to central region in rapidity space. In this case it is possible that chemical potential is increased in central region of spectrum of nucleus-nucleus interaction at low energies. This effect might be important for facilities FAIR and NICA.

N. V. Radchenko; A. V. Dmitriev



Production of cold fragments in nucleus-nucleus collisions in the Fermi-energy domain  

E-print Network

The reaction mechanism of nucleus-nucleus collisions at projectile energies around the Fermi energy is investigated with emphasis on the production of fragmentation-like residues. The results of simulations are compared to experimental mass distributions of elements with Z = 21 - 29 observed in the reactions 86Kr+124,112Sn at 25 AMeV. The model of incomplete fusion is modified and a component of excitation energy of the cold fragment dependent on isospin asymmetry is introduced. The modifications in the model of incomplete fusion appear consistent with both overall model framework and available experimental data. A prediction is provided for the production of very neutron-rich nuclei using a secondary beam of 132Sn where e.g. the reaction 132Sn+238U at 28 AMeV appears as a possible alternative to the use of fragmentation reactions at higher energies.

Veselsky, M



Production of cold fragments in nucleus-nucleus collisions in the Fermi-energy domain  

E-print Network

The reaction mechanism of nucleus-nucleus collisions at projectile energies around the Fermi energy is investigated with emphasis on the production of fragmentation-like residues. The results of simulations are compared to experimental mass distributions of elements with Z = 21 - 29 observed in the reactions 86Kr+124,112Sn at 25 AMeV. The model of incomplete fusion is modified and a component of excitation energy of the cold fragment dependent on isospin asymmetry is introduced. The modifications in the model of incomplete fusion appear consistent with both overall model framework and available experimental data. A prediction is provided for the production of very neutron-rich nuclei using a secondary beam of 132Sn where e.g. the reaction 132Sn+238U at 28 AMeV appears as a possible alternative to the use of fragmentation reactions at higher energies.

M. Veselsky; G. A. Souliotis



Recent results on (anti)nucleus and (anti)hyperon production in nucleus-nucleus collisions at CERN SPS energies  

E-print Network

The NA49 experiment has collected comprehensive data on particle production in nucleus-nucleus collisions over the whole SPS beam energies range, the critical energy domain where the expected phase transition to a deconfined phase is expected to occur. The latest results from Pb+Pb collisions between 20$A$ GeV and 158$A$ GeV on baryon stopping and light nuclei production as well as those for strange hyperons are presented. The measured data on $p$, $\\bar{p}$, $\\Lambda$, $\\bar{\\Lambda}$, $\\Xi^-$ and $\\bar{\\Xi}^+$ production were used to evaluate the rapidity distributions of net-baryons at SPS energies and to compare with the results from the AGS and the RHIC for central Pb+Pb (Au+Au) collisions. The dependence of the yield ratios and the inverse slope parameter of the $m_t$ spectra on the collision energy and centrality, and the mass number of the produced nuclei $^3He$, $t$, $d$ and $\\bar{d}$ are discussed within coalescence and statistical approaches. Analysis of the total multiplicity exhibits remarkable agreement between the measured yield for $^3He$ and those predicted by the statistical hadronization model. In addition, new results on $\\Lambda$ and $\\bar{\\Lambda}$ as well as $\\Xi^-$ production in minimum bias Pb+Pb reactions at 40$A$ GeV and 158$A$ GeV and central C+C, Si+Si and Pb+Pb collisions are presented. The system size dependence of the yields of these hyperons was analysed to determine the evolution of strangeness enhancement relative to elementary p+p collisions.

G. L. Melkumov; for the NA49 collaboration



Energy-Dependence of Nucleus-Nucleus Potential and Friction Parameter in Fusion Reactions  

E-print Network

Applying a macroscopic reduction procedure on the improved quantum molecular dynamics (ImQMD), the energy dependences of the nucleus-nucleus potential, the friction parameter, and the random force characterizing a one-dimensional Langevin-type description of the heavy-ion fusion process are investigated. Systematic calculations with the ImQMD show that the fluctuation-dissipation relation found in the symmetric head-on fusion reactions at energies just above the Coulomb barrier fades out when the incident energy increases. It turns out that this dynamical change with increasing incident energy is caused by a specific behavior of the friction parameter which directly depends on the microscopic dynamical process, i.e., on how the collective energy of the relative motion is transferred into the intrinsic excitation energy. It is shown microscopically that the energy dissipation in the fusion process is governed by two mechanisms: One is caused by the nucleon exchanges between two fusing nuclei, and the other is ...

Wen, Kai; Li, Zhu-Xia; Wu, Xi-Zhen; Zhang, Ying-Xun; Zhou, Shan-Gui



Energy-Dependence of Nucleus-Nucleus Potential and Friction Parameter in Fusion Reactions  

E-print Network

Applying a macroscopic reduction procedure on the improved quantum molecular dynamics (ImQMD) model, the energy dependences of the nucleus-nucleus potential, the friction parameter, and the random force characterizing a one-dimensional Langevin-type description of the heavy-ion fusion process are investigated. Systematic calculations with the ImQMD model show that the fluctuation-dissipation relation found in the symmetric head-on fusion reactions at energies just above the Coulomb barrier fades out when the incident energy increases. It turns out that this dynamical change with increasing incident energy is caused by a specific behavior of the friction parameter which directly depends on the microscopic dynamical process, i.e., on how the collective energy of the relative motion is transferred into the intrinsic excitation energy. It is shown microscopically that the energy dissipation in the fusion process is governed by two mechanisms: One is caused by the nucleon exchanges between two fusing nuclei, and the other is due to a rearrangement of nucleons in the intrinsic system. The former mechanism monotonically increases the dissipative energy and shows a weak dependence on the incident energy, while the latter depends on both the relative distance between two fusing nuclei and the incident energy. It is shown that the latter mechanism is responsible for the energy dependence of the fusion potential and explains the fading out of the fluctuation-dissipation relation.

Kai Wen; Fumihiko Sakata; Zhu-Xia Li; Xi-Zhen Wu; Ying-Xun Zhang; Shan-Gui Zhou



Statistical analysis of secondary particle distributions in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use is described of several statistical techniques to characterize structure in the angular distributions of secondary particles from nucleus-nucleus collisions in the energy range 24 to 61 GeV/nucleon. The objective of this work was to determine whether there are correlations between emitted particle intensity and angle that may be used to support the existence of the quark gluon plasma. The techniques include chi-square null hypothesis tests, the method of discrete Fourier transform analysis, and fluctuation analysis. We have also used the method of composite unit vectors to test for azimuthal asymmetry in a data set of 63 JACEE-3 events. Each method is presented in a manner that provides the reader with some practical detail regarding its application. Of those events with relatively high statistics, Fe approaches 0 at 55 GeV/nucleon was found to possess an azimuthal distribution with a highly non-random structure. No evidence of non-statistical fluctuations was found in the pseudo-rapidity distributions of the events studied. It is seen that the most effective application of these methods relies upon the availability of many events or single events that possess very high multiplicities.

Mcguire, Stephen C.



Formation of dense partonic matter in relativistic nucleus–nucleus collisions at RHIC: Experimental evaluation by the PHENIX Collaboration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extensive experimental data from high-energy nucleus-nucleus collisions were recorded using the PHENIX detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The comprehensive set of measurements from the first three years of RHIC operation includes charged particle multiplicities, transverse energy, yield ratios and spectra of identified hadrons in a wide range of transverse momenta (pT), elliptic flow, two-particle correlations, nonstatistical fluctuations,

K. Adcox; S. S. Adler; S. Afanasiev; C. Aidala; N. N. Ajitanand; Y. Akiba; A. Al-Jamel; J. Alexander; R. Amirikas; K. Aoki; L. Aphecetche; Y. Arai; R. Armendariz; S. H. Aronson; R. Averbeck; T. C. Awes; R. Azmoun; V. Babintsev; A. Baldisseri; K. N. Barish; P. D. Barnes; J. Barrette; B. Bassalleck; S. Bathe; S. Batsouli; V. Baublis; F. Bauer; A. Bazilevsky; S. Belikov; F. G. Bellaiche; S. T. Belyaev; M. J. Bennett; Y. Berdnikov; S. Bhagavatula; M. T. Bjorndal; J. G. Boissevain; H. Borel; S. Borenstein; M. L. Brooks; D. S. Brown; N. Bruner; D. Bucher; H. Buesching; V. Bumazhnov; G. Bunce; J. M. Burward-Hoy; S. Butsyk; X. Camard; T. A. Carey; J.-S. Chai; P. Chand; J. Chang; W. C. Chang; L. L. Chavez; S. Chernichenko; C. Y. Chi; J. Chiba; M. Chiu; I. J. Choi; R. K. Choudhury; T. Christ; M. S. Chung; P. Chung; V. Cianciolo; C. R. Cleven; Y. Cobigo; B. A. Cole; M. P. Comets; P. Constantin; M. Csanád; T. Csörg?; J. P. Cussonneau; D. d'Enterria; T. Dahms; K. Das; G. David; F. Deák; H. Delagrange; A. Denisov; A. Deshpande; E. J. Desmond; A. Devismes; O. Dietzsch; B. V. Dinesh; J. L. Drachenberg; O. Drapier; A. Drees; A. K. Dubey; R. du Rietz; A. Durum; D. Dutta; V. Dzhordzhadze; K. Ebisu; Y. V. Efremenko; J. Egdemir; K. El Chenawi; A. Enokizono; H. En'yo; B. Espagnon; S. Esumi; L. Ewell; T. Ferdousi; D. E. Fields; C. Finck; F. Fleuret; S. L. Fokin; B. Forestier; Z. Fraenkel; J. E. Frantz; A. Franz; A. D. Frawley; Y. Fukao; S.-Y. Fung; S. Gadrat; S. Garpman; F. Gastineau; M. Germain; T. K. Ghosh; A. Glenn; A. L. Godoi; G. Gogiberidze; M. Gonin; J. Gosset; Y. Goto; R. Granier de Cassagnac; N. Grau; S. V. Greene; M. Grosse Perdekamp; T. Gunji; S. K. Gupta; W. Guryn; H.-Å. Gustafsson; T. Hachiya; A. Hadjhenni; J. S. Haggerty; M. N. Hagiwara; H. Hamagaki; A. G. Hansen; H. Hara; H. Harada; E. P. Hartouni; K. Haruna; M. Harvey; E. Haslum; K. Hasuko; R. Hayano; N. Hayashi; X. He; M. Heffner; T. K. Hemmick; J. M. Heuser; P. Hidas; H. Hiejima; J. C. Hill; D. S. Ho; R. Hobbs; M. Holmes; W. Holzmann; K. Homma; B. Hong; A. Hoover; T. Horaguchi; H. M. Hur; T. Ichihara; V. V. Ikonnikov; K. Imai; M. Inaba; M. Inuzuka; M. S. Ippolitov; D. Isenhower; L. Isenhower; M. Ishihara; T. Isobe; M. Issah; A. Isupov; B. V. Jacak; W. Y. Jang; J. Jia; O. Jinnouchi; B. M. Johnson; S. C. Johnson; K. S. Joo; D. Jouan; F. Kajihara; S. Kametani; N. Kamihara; M. Kaneta; J. H. Kang; M. Kann; S. S. Kapoor; K. Katou; T. Kawabata; T. Kawagishi; A. V. Kazantsev; S. Kelly; B. Khachaturov; A. Khanzadeev; J. Kikuchi; D. H. Kim; D. J. Kim; D. W. Kim; E. Kim; G.-B. Kim; H. J. Kim; S. Y. Kim; Y. G. Kim; E. Kinney; W. W. Kinnison; A. Kiss; E. Kistenev; A. Kiyomichi; K. Kiyoyama; C. Klein-Boesing; S. Klinksiek; H. Kobayashi; L. Kochenda; V. Kochetkov; D. Koehler; T. Kohama; R. Kohara; B. Komkov; M. Konno; M. Kopytine; D. Kotchetkov; A. Kozlov; P. J. Kroon; C. H. Kuberg; G. J. Kunde; N. Kurihara; K. Kurita; Y. Kuroki; M. J. Kweon; Y. Kwon; G. S. Kyle; R. Lacey; V. Ladygin; J. G. Lajoie; J. Lauret; Y. Le Bornec; A. Lebedev; S. Leckey; D. M. Lee; S. Lee; M. J. Leitch; M. A. L. Leite; X. H. Li; Z. Li; D. J. Lim; H. Lim; A. Litvinenko; M. X. Liu; X. Liu; X. Liu; Z. Liu; C. F. Maguire; J. Mahon; Y. I. Makdisi; A. Malakhov; M. D. Malik; V. I. Manko; Y. Mao; S. K. Mark; S. Markacs; G. Martinez; M. D. Marx; A. Masaike; H. Masui; F. Matathias; T. Matsumoto; M. C. McCain; P. L. McGaughey; E. Melnikov; M. Merschmeyer; F. Messer; M. Messer; Y. Miake; J. Milan; T. E. Miller; A. Milov; S. Mioduszewski; R. E. Mischke; G. C. Mishra; J. T. Mitchell; A. K. Mohanty; D. P. Morrison; J. M. Moss; T. V. Moukhanova; F. Mühlbacher; D. Mukhopadhyay; M. Muniruzzaman; J. Murata; S. Nagamiya; Y. Nagasaka; J. L. Nagle; M. Naglis; Y. Nakada; T. Nakamura; B. K. Nandi; M. Nara; J. Newby; M. Nguyen; L. Nikkinen; P. Nilsson; S. Nishimura; B. Norman; A. S. Nyanin; J. Nystrand; E. O'Brien; C. A. Ogilvie; H. Ohnishi; I. D. Ojha; H. Okada; K. Okada; O. O. Omiwade; M. Ono; V. Onuchin; A. Oskarsson; L. Österman; I. Otterlund; K. Oyama; L. Paffrath; D. Pal; A. P. T. Palounek; V. Pantuev; V. Papavassiliou; W. J. Park; A. Parmar; S. F. Pate; H. Pei; T. Peitzmann; V. Penev; J.-C. Peng; H. Pereira; V. Peresedov; D. Yu. Peressounko; A. N. Petridis; A. Pierson; C. Pinkenburg; R. P. Pisani; F. Plasil; M. Pollack; K. Pope; M. L. Purschke; A. K. Purwar; H. Qu; J. M. Qualls; J. Rak; I. Ravinovich; K. F. Read; M. Reuter; K. Reygers; V. Riabov; G. Roche; A. Romana; M. Rosati; A. A. Rose; S. S. E. Rosendahl; P. Rosnet; P. Rukoyatkin; V. L. Rykov; S. S. Ryu; M. E. Sadler; B. Sahlmueller; N. Saito; A. Sakaguchi; T. Sakaguchi; M. Sakai; S. Sakai; H. Sako; T. Sakuma; V. Samsonov; L. Sanfratello; T. C. Sangster; R. Santo; H. D. Sato; S. Sato; S. Sawada; B. R. Schlei; Y. Schutz; V. Semenov; R. Seto; D. Sharma; M. R. Shaw; T. K. Shea; I. Shein; T.-A. Shibata; K. Shigaki; T. Shiina



Stopping powers and cross sections due to two-photon processes in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of electromagnetic-production processes due to two-photon exchange in nucleus-nucleus collisions are discussed. Feynman diagrams for two-photon exchange are evaluated using quantum electrodynamics. The total cross section and stopping power for projectile and target nuclei of identical charge are found to be significant for heavy nuclei above a few GeV per nucleon-incident energy.

Cheung, Wang K.; Norbury, John W.



Development of nuclear emulsions with 1 ?m spatial resolution for the AEgIS experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main goal of the AEgIS experiment at CERN is to test the weak equivalence principle for antimatter. We will measure the Earth's gravitational acceleration gbar with antihydrogen atoms being launched in a horizontal vacuum tube and traversing a moiré deflectometer. We intend to use a position sensitive device made of nuclear emulsions (combined with a time-of-flight detector such as silicon ?-strips) to measure precisely their annihilation points at the end of the tube. The goal is to determine gbar with a 1% relative accuracy. In 2012 we tested emulsion films in vacuum and at room temperature with low energy antiprotons from the CERN antiproton decelerator. First results on the expected performance for AEgIS are presented.

Kimura, M.; Aghion, S.; Ahlén, O.; Amsler, C.; Ariga, A.; Ariga, T.; Belov, A. S.; Bonomi, G.; Bräunig, P.; Bremer, J.; Brusa, R. S.; Burghart, G.; Cabaret, L.; Canali, C.; Caravita, R.; Castelli, F.; Cerchiari, G.; Cialdi, S.; Comparat, D.; Consolati, G.; Di Domizio, S.; Di Noto, L.; Doser, M.; Dudarev, A.; Ereditato, A.; Ferragut, R.; Fontana, A.; Genova, P.; Giammarchi, M.; Gligorova, A.; Gninenko, S. N.; Haider, S.; Hogan, S. D.; Huse, T.; Jordan, E.; Jørgensen, L. V.; Kaltenbacher, T.; Kawada, J.; Kellerbauer, A.; Knecht, A.; Krasnický, D.; Lagomarsino, V.; Mariazzi, S.; Matveev, V. A.; Merkt, F.; Moia, F.; Nebbia, G.; Nédélec, P.; Oberthaler, M. K.; Pacifico, N.; Petrá?ek, V.; Pistillo, C.; Prelz, F.; Prevedelli, M.; Regenfus, C.; Riccardi, C.; Røhne, O.; Rotondi, A.; Sandaker, H.; Scampoli, P.; Storey, J.; Subieta Vasquez, M. A.; Špa?ek, M.; Testera, G.; Trezzi, D.; Vaccarone, R.; Zavatarelli, S.



Cosmic-ray experiment on very high energy nuclear collisions  

SciTech Connect

The Japanese-American Cooperative Emulsion Experiment (JACEE) was conceived in 1978 to study high energy nucleus-nucleus collisions and the composition and energy spectra of primary cosmic rays up to 10/sup 15/ eV. The primary detection aparatus is a balloon with a 0.8 x 1 m emulsion chamber whose acceptance aperture exceeds ..pi.. radians. The detector operation altitude and exposure time are 4g/cm/sup 2/ and 40 hrs, respectively. The purpose of this paper is to report on searches for new channels of particle production at high nuclear energy densities and temperatures via transverse momenta studies, particle correlations in the pion condensation region, and quark-gluon plasma studies. (AIP)

Jones, W.V.; Takahashi, Y.; Wosiek, B.; Miyamura, O.



Experiments and network model of flow of oil-water emulsion in porous media  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transport of emulsions in porous media is relevant to several subsurface applications. Many enhanced oil recovery (EOR) processes lead to emulsion formation and as a result conformance originating in the flow of a dispersed phase may arise. In some EOR processes, emulsion is injected directly as a mobility control agent. Modeling the flow of emulsion in porous media is extremely

Mao Illich Romero; Marcio S. Carvalho; Vladimir Alvarado



Nucleus-nucleus cold fusion reactions analyzed with the l-dependent ``fusion by diffusion'' model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a modified version of the Fusion by Diffusion (FBD) model aimed at describing the synthesis of superheavy nuclei in cold fusion reactions, in which a low excited compound nucleus emits only one neutron. The modified FBD model accounts for the angular momentum dependence of three basic factors determining the evaporation residue cross section: the capture cross section ?cap(l), the fusion probability Pfus(l), and the survival probability Psurv(l). The fusion hindrance factor, the inverse of Pfus(l), is treated in terms of thermal fluctuations in the shape degrees of freedom and is expressed as a solution of the Smoluchowski diffusion equation. The l dependence of Pfus(l) results from the l-dependent potential energy surface of the colliding system. A new parametrization of the distance of starting point of the diffusion process is introduced. An analysis of a complete set of 27 excitation functions for production of superheavy nuclei in cold fusion reactions, studied in experiments at GSI Darmstadt, RIKEN Tokyo, and LBNL Berkeley, is presented. The FBD model satisfactorily reproduces shapes and absolute cross sections of all the cold fusion excitation functions. It is shown that the peak position of the excitation function for a given 1n reaction is determined by the Q value of the reaction and the height of the fission barrier of the final nucleus. This fact could possibly be used in future experiments (with well-defined beam energy) for experimental determination of the fission barrier heights.

Cap, T.; Siwek-Wilczy?ska, K.; Wilczy?ski, J.



Nucleus-nucleus cold fusion reactions analyzed with the l-dependent 'fusion by diffusion' model  

SciTech Connect

We present a modified version of the Fusion by Diffusion (FBD) model aimed at describing the synthesis of superheavy nuclei in cold fusion reactions, in which a low excited compound nucleus emits only one neutron. The modified FBD model accounts for the angular momentum dependence of three basic factors determining the evaporation residue cross section: the capture cross section {sigma}{sub cap}(l), the fusion probability P{sub fus}(l), and the survival probability P{sub surv}(l). The fusion hindrance factor, the inverse of P{sub fus}(l), is treated in terms of thermal fluctuations in the shape degrees of freedom and is expressed as a solution of the Smoluchowski diffusion equation. The l dependence of P{sub fus}(l) results from the l-dependent potential energy surface of the colliding system. A new parametrization of the distance of starting point of the diffusion process is introduced. An analysis of a complete set of 27 excitation functions for production of superheavy nuclei in cold fusion reactions, studied in experiments at GSI Darmstadt, RIKEN Tokyo, and LBNL Berkeley, is presented. The FBD model satisfactorily reproduces shapes and absolute cross sections of all the cold fusion excitation functions. It is shown that the peak position of the excitation function for a given 1n reaction is determined by the Q value of the reaction and the height of the fission barrier of the final nucleus. This fact could possibly be used in future experiments (with well-defined beam energy) for experimental determination of the fission barrier heights.

Cap, T.; Siwek-Wilczynska, K.; Wilczynski, J. [Institute of Experimental Physics, Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, Hoza 69, PL-00-681 Warsaw (Poland); Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, PL-05-400 Otwock-Swierk (Poland)



Quark Matter 2004: The 17th International Conference on Ultra-Relativistic Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions (Oakland, California, USA, 11-17 January 2004)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Quark Matter 2004 conference was held on 11--17 January 2004 at the Oakland Marriott City Center Hotel in downtown Oakland, California. It was the 17th International Conference on Ultra-Relativistic Nucleus--Nucleus Collisions, held for the third time in California. The conference was preceded by two well-attended meetings: a pre-conference symposium for young scientists and a workshop for local high school

Hans Georg Ritter; Xin-Nian Wang



Partition of cross sections in asymmetric nucleus-nucleus reactions and the origin of fast alpha particles  

SciTech Connect

To investigate the mechanism of asymmetric nucleus-nucleus reactions from the Coulomb barrier to intermediate energies the /sup 14/N + /sup 159/Tb reaction was studied at five bombarding energies between 8 and 23 MeV/u via particle-particle correlations (at selected energies) and particle KX-ray coincidences to identify the specific reaction channels. With the KX-ray method partial cross sections for projectile-like fragments (PLF) as a function of the atomic number (Z/sub res/) of the residual nucleus can be determined. The charge balance yields the ''missing charge'' dZ = Z/sub proj/ + Z/sub targ/ - Z/sub PLF/ - Z/sub TLF/ that indicates whether, in addition to the PLF, other charged particles are emitted. A large fraction of the inclusive cross sections is found to originate from such channels with two or more fragments in the exit channel, and this fraction increases as the PLF is further removed in mass from the incident projectile, and with increasing bombarding energy. From the particle-particle correlation studies it is found that sequential decays of PLF's are dominant. ''Non-sequential'' processes, if present, are associated with inelastic reactions involving excitations of both projectile and target. The bulk of the large alpha-particle cross section at small angles is found to be associated with channels in which, in addition to the alpha particle, only nucleons and other alpha particles are emitted. From ..gamma..-ray multiplicity measurements and from the broad distribution of the strength with Z/sub res/ it is concluded that these alpha particles originate from inelastic (damped) processes. 27 refs., 10 figs.

Siemssen, R.H.



Revised data on ?-families observed in X-ray emulsion chambers of the Experiment PAMIR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently essential efforts were made to improve measurement routine with X-ray films exposed in the X-ray emulsion chambers at the Pamirs. Analysis of X-ray emulsion response upon recorded events show that ?-family energy and intensity in early publications were over estimated. The main physical results of the new analysis are presented.

Borisov, A. S.; Guseva, Z. M.; Denisova, V. G.; Kanevskaya, E. A.; Kogan, M. G.; Maximenko, V. M.; Morozov, A. E.; Mukhamedshin, R. A.; Puchkov, V. S.; Pyatovsky, S. E.; Smirnova, M. D.



Nucleus-nucleus collisions at 60 to 200 GeV/nucleon: Results from the WA80 experiment at CERN  

SciTech Connect

Results from {sup 16}O- and {sup 32}S-induced reactions obtained by the WA80 collaboration at the CERN SPS are presented with reference to global event characteristics such as collision geometry, the degree of nuclear stopping, and the energy density attained. Transverse momentum spectra of neutral pions and of direct photons are also presented. At an accuracy within 15{percent} limits, all observed photons are accounted for by known hadronic decays. 13 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

Plasil, F.; Awes, T.C.; Baktash, C.; Ferguson, R.L.; Lee, I.Y.; Saini, S.; Tincknell, M.L.; Young, G.R. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Obenshain, F.E.; Sorensen, S.P. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA) Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (USA)); Albrecht, R.; Bock, R.; Claesson, G.; Gutbrod, H.H.; Kolb, B.W.; Lund, I.; Schmidt, H.R.; Siemiarczuk, T. (Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germa



Influence of the nucleon-nucleon collision geometry on the determination of the nuclear modification factor for nucleon-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions  

SciTech Connect

The influence of the underlying nucleon-nucleon collision geometry on evaluations of the nuclear overlap function (TAB) and number of binary collisions (Ncoll) is studied. A narrowing of the spatial distribution of the hard-partons with large light-cone fraction x in nucleons leads to a downward correction for Ncoll and TAB, which in turn, results in an upward correction for the nuclear modification factor RAB. The size of this correction is estimated for several experimentally motivated nucleon-nucleon overlap functions for hard-partons. It is found to be significant in peripheral nucleus-nucleus and nucleon-nucleus collisions, and is much larger at the LHC energy of {radical}s = 5.5 TeV than for the RHIC energy of {radical}s = 200 GeV. The implications for experimental measurements are also discussed.

Jia, J.i.



Investigation of gamma-ray families originating from nucleus-nucleus interactions at ultrahigh energies E 0 in excess of 1016 eV  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Various spatial and energy features of gamma-ray families originating from the interactions of primary nuclei of galactic cosmic rays with nuclei of atmospheric atoms ( AA interactions) are studied. The mass composition of galactic cosmic rays is analyzed on the basis of data from x-ray emulsion chambers of the Pamir experiment with the aid of a criterion for selecting gamma-ray families originating from AA interactions ( A families) at energies E 0 of primary galactic cosmic rays in excess of 1016 eV. According to the results obtained in this way only the experimental spatial parameters R 1 E and ? differ from their counterparts in the MC0 model.

Yuldashbaev, T. S.; Nuritdinov, Kh.



Droplet freezing experiments in stearic acid-water emulsions, role of the droplet-medium interface  

SciTech Connect

Droplets of stearic acid emulsions in water, stabilized with cationic or anionic emulsifiers, undergoing freezing-melting cycles with constant temperature scanning rate, freeze as monocrystals and independently from one another, even when visible clustering takes place. The study of the nucleation kinetics by differential scanning calorimetry shows that nucleation threshold (critical undercooling) depends on the nature of the emulsifier, adsorbed at the droplet-medium interface. 30 references.

Cordiez, J.P.; Grange, G.; Mutaftschiev, B.



Attained energy densities and neutral pion spectra in nucleus-nucleus collisions at 200 GeV/nucleon  

SciTech Connect

The main goal of the CERN heavy-ion experiments is the search for an indication that the predicted state of deconfined quarks and gluons, the quark-gluon plasma (QGP), has been produced. The quantity most crucial to the probability of QGP formation is the thermalized energy density attained during the heavy-ion reaction. The amount of energy radiated transverse to the beam direction is the experimental quantity which is believed to be a measure of the amount of energy deposition in the reaction, and hence to reflect the energy density attained. In this presentation we consider the systematics of transverse energy production at CERN SPS energies, and we use the results to make estimates, under various assumptions, of attained energy densities. 18 refs., 2 figs.

Plasil, F.; Albrecht, R.; Awes, T.C.; Baktash, C.; Beckmann, P.; Berger, F.; Bock, R.; Claesson, G.; Clewing, G.; Dragon, L.



Properties of microscopic nucleus-nucleus interaction for molecular resonance formation in 12C+12C and 3?+3? systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Properties of microscopic interaction potentials between two 12C nuclei are discussed in connection with the formation of 12C+12C and 3?+3? molecular resonances. The nucleus-nucleus interactions are calculated by the double-folding procedure based on a realistic nucleon-nucleon interaction (DDM3Y) and microscopic 12C transition densities calculated from 3?-RGM wave functions. The interaction potential can be written as the sum of the monopole part obtained from the monopole density and the multiple parts generated from the quadrupole component of the density. We discuss the role of the monopole and multipole parts of the potential separately. It is shown that the multipole part is very strong in the channels with 3?+3? structure and the energy positions of the 3?+3? molecular bands generated by the monopole potential are largely modified. The effect is moderate but non-negligible on the molecular bands with the 12C+12C dinuclearlike structure and largely modifies the band crossing diagram between the elastic and aligned-inelastic molecular bands. The channel coupling effect among the 12C+12C channels, namely, the elastic channel and the single- and mutual-2+1 excitation channels is also investigated. Due to the strong coupling between the ground and 2+1 states of 12C, the resonance wave functions obtained by the coupled-channel calculation have an additional radial node compared with those of the single-channel resonances. All the results are discussed in connection with the band crossing model which was believed to be successful in describing the 12C+12C molecular resonances.

Ito, M.; Sakuragi, Y.; Hirabayashi, Y.



Clinical experience with intravenous lipid emulsion for drug-induced cardiovascular collapse.  


Intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE) is an emerging therapy for refractory cardiotoxicity due to lipid-soluble drugs. The purpose of this study was to assess survival to hospital discharge, effects on hemodynamic parameters, and adverse event occurrence for patients who were treated with ILE as part of the resuscitative effort for drug-induced cardiotoxicity. This is a multicenter retrospective chart review of inpatients at three tertiary referral medical centers receiving ILE for drug-induced cardiotoxicity between November 2007 and March 2009. Nine cases with drug-induced cardiovascular collapse, defined as cardiac arrest or refractory shock, were selected for review if patients received either bolus or infusion of ILE in any combination. No interventions were done. The main outcome measures were survival to hospital discharge, effect on hemodynamic parameters, and adverse event. Hemodynamic vital signs (heart rate, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, calculated mean arterial pressure [MAP]) were measured before administration of ILE and up to five measurements (if available) were recorded after administration of ILE. Attribution of adverse events was determined by assignment of Naranjo adverse drug reaction (ADR) likelihood score (3) with adjudication of three medical toxicologists; disagreements were settled by majority consensus. Of nine cases identified based on inclusion criteria (three cardiac arrest, six refractory shock), five (55%) survived to hospital discharge. ILE regimens were bolus alone in five patients and bolus plus infusion in four patients. Hemodynamic trends in response to ILE demonstrated no difference in MAP immediately pre- and post-administration of ILE (p?=?NS). Administration of infusion (versus boluses alone) did not demonstrate a statistically significant improvement in MAP. Adverse events due to ILE therapy that were categorized as "possible" or "probable" based on Naranjo scores included lipemia, digit amputation, lung injury, renal failure, and deep venous thrombosis. ILE administered to patients with drug-induced cardiovascular collapse was associated with 55% survival but with clinically significant adverse effects. At this time, ILE should be restricted to cardiotoxicity involving cardiac arrest or refractory shock until further prospective studies can better evaluate risks and benefits of ILE therapy. PMID:21989640

Geib, Ann-Jeannette; Liebelt, Erica; Manini, Alex F



Observation of High Energy Jets with Emulsion Chambers GammaRays on Mt. Norikura---  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contents 1. Introduction 2. Design of the emulsion chamber 2.1 Early design of emulsion chamber 2.2 Emulsion chambers in the balloon experiment of 1955-56 2.3 Early emulsion chamber study at mountain altitudes, 1957-58 2.4 Emulsion chambers of the Mt. Norikura experiment, since 1958 3. Experimental procedure 3.1 Exposures 3.2 Processing of the nuclear emulsion plates and N-type films 3.3 Detection

Makoto Akashi; Zenjirô Watanabe; Akeo Misaki; Iwao Mito; Yoshito Oyama; Senzo Tokunaga; Takeshi Ogata; Yoshikazu Tsuneoka; Shoji Dake; Kei Yokoi; Shunichi Hasegawa; Jun Nishimura; Kiyoshi Niu; Toshio Taira; Akio Nishio; Y?ichi Fujimoto; Naofumi Ogita



Nucleus-nucleus collisions at 60 to 200 GeV/nucleon: Photon measurement results from the WA80 experiment at CERN  

SciTech Connect

Photon measurement results from {sup 16}O+{sup 197}Au reactions at 200 GeV/nucleon obtained by the WA80 collaboration at the CERN SPS are presented. Transverse momentum spectra of neutral pions and of direct photons are shown. At an accuracy within 15% limits, all observed photons are accounted for by known hadronic decays.

Not Available



Systematic study of projectile fragments in nucleus-nucleus collisions at 4.1-4.5 A GeV/c and multi-source thermal model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The multiplicity distributions of projectile fragments (PFs) produced in interactions of (4He, 12C, 16O, 22Ne and 28Si with emulsion (Em) at 4.1-4.5 A GeV/ c beam energies, and their dependence on target groups (H, CNO and AgBr) are presented and have been reproduced by using a multi-source thermal model. The dependence of the mean multiplicities on masses of projectile and target nuclei is investigated. The experimental results are compared with the corresponding ones from the theoretically calculated ones. The experimental results agree with theoretical calculations using the multi-source thermal model.

Rahim, M. A.; Fakhraddin, S.; Asharabi, H.



Measuring GBAR with emulsion detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The motivation of the AEgIS experiment is to test the universality of free fall with antimatter. The goal is to reach a relative uncertainty of 1% for the measurement of the earth's gravitational acceleration \\bar {g} on an antihydrogen beam. High vertex position resolution is required for a position detector. An emulsion based detector can measure the annihilation vertex of antihydrogen atoms with a resolution of 1-2 ?m, which if realized in the actual experiment will enable a 1% measurement of \\bar {g} with less than 1000 \\bar {H} atoms. Developments and achievements on emulsion detectors for the AEgIS experiment are presented here.

Ariga, T.; Aghion, S.; Ahlén, O.; Amsler, C.; Ariga, A.; Belov, A. S.; Berggren, K.; Bonomi, G.; Bräunig, P.; Bremer, J.; Brusa, R. S.; Cabaret, L.; Canali, C.; Caravita, R.; Castelli, F.; Cerchiari, G.; Cialdi, S.; Comparat, D.; Consolati, G.; Derking, H.; di Domizio, S.; di Noto, L.; Doser, M.; Dudarev, A.; Ereditato, A.; Ferragut, R.; Fontana, A.; Genova, P.; Giammarchi, M.; Gligorova, A.; Gninenko, S. N.; Haider, S.; Huse, T.; Jordan, E.; Jørgensen, L. V.; Kaltenbacher, T.; Kawada, J.; Kellerbauer, A.; Kimura, M.; Knecht, A.; Krasniký, D.; Lagomarsino, V.; Lehner, S.; Magnani, A.; Malbrunot, C.; Mariazzi, S.; Matveev, V. A.; Nebbia, G.; Nédélec, P.; Oberthaler, M. K.; Pacifico, N.; Petrá?ek, V.; Pistillo, C.; Prelz, F.; Prevedelli, M.; Regenfus, C.; Riccardi, C.; Røhne, O.; Rotondi, A.; Sandaker, H.; Scampoli, P.; Storet, J.; Subieta Vasquez, M. A.; Špa?ek, M.; Testera, G.; Widmann, E.; Yzombard, P.; Zavaterelli, S.; Zmeskal, J.



Emulsions Droplet Capture Mechanism in Porous Media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study was undertaken to investigate the physics of emulsion flow in porous media. The objective of experiments were to study the applicability of oil-in-water emulsion as a plugging agent in the vicinity of the well bore for thousands of Canadian gas wells that are continuously leaking gas to surface. The motion of oil droplets and the capture mechanisms were investigated through visualized experiments. Well-characterized emulsions were injected into a micro model resembling a two parallel plate model packed with glass beads. Effects of emulsion properties and wettability of the medium were studied on a plugging mechanism. The results demonstrate the reduction in permeability mainly due to droplets size exclusion compared to the pore constrictions. Also, smaller droplets may lodge and coalesce in pores crevices thereby accelerating the blockage process. Moreover, more viscous emulsions are more effective compared with the less viscous ones due to combined effects of capillary and viscous forces. The deposition of droplets was adjusted through utilizing different preflush solutions. Criteria were set for enhancing emulsion penetration depth thereby defining the extent of the blocked region. In conclusion, this work characterizes the physics of emulsion flow in porous media and demonstrates its application as a novel sealant in near well bore region. The novelty, which constitutes a step-change in technology, is a method that emplaces an emulsion at a desired location in underground media.

Zeidani, Khalil; Polikar, Marcel



The effect of additives on the treatment of oil-in-water emulsions by vacuum evaporation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple batch vacuum evaporation process for the treatment of several oil-in-water (O\\/W) emulsions is reported. The experiments were carried out with waste emulsions from an industrial copper rolling process and with model emulsions prepared in the laboratory. No detailed information on the formulation of the industrial waste O\\/W emulsions was available. Several model emulsions were formulated using the same

Gemma Gutiérrez; Ángel Cambiella; José M. Benito; Carmen Pazos; José Coca



Charged particle production in interactions of 24Mg nuclei in nuclear emulsion at 3.7 A GeV  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A systematic study on the multiplicity characteristics of relativistic particles in interactions of 3.7 A GeV 24Mg projectile with nuclear emulsion targets was carried out. The dependence of average multiplicities of produced charged particles on the calculated numbers of wounded nucleons and the total number of interactions is studied. In the framework of the wounded nucleon model, the average number of produced particles per participant is independent of impact parameter. The dependence of the mean produced particle multiplicities in nucleus-nucleus interactions langlenpirangle on the normalized charge flow in the forward direction zeta, which is experimentally measured and strongly correlated with the impact parameter b, is investigated via a single formula based on a simple geometrical model. A strong dependence of the average value of the produced charged particles on both size and energy of the beam nucleus is observed. The experimental values are in good agreement with the theoretical calculations based on a simple geometrical model.

Jilany, M. A.



System-size and centrality dependence of charged kaon and pion production in nucleus-nucleus collisions at 40A GeV and158A GeV beam energy  

E-print Network

Measurements of charged pion and kaon production are presented in centrality selected Pb+Pb collisions at 40A GeV and 158A GeV beam energy as well as in semi-central C+C and Si+Si interactions at 40A GeV. Transverse mass spectra, rapidity spectra and total yields are determined as a function of centrality. The system-size and centrality dependence of relative strangeness production in nucleus-nucleus collisions at 40A GeV and 158A GeV beam energy are derived from the data presented here and published data for C+C and Si+Si collisions at 158A GeV beam energy. At both energies a steep increase with centrality is observed for small systems followed by a weak rise or even saturation for higher centralities. This behavior is compared to calculations using transport models (UrQMD and HSD), a percolation model and the core-corona approach.

T. Anticic; B. Baatar; D. Barna; J. Bartke; H. Beck; L. Betev; H. Bialkowska; C. Blume; M. Bogusz; B. Boimska; J. Book; M. Botje; P. Buncic; T. Cetner; P. Christakoglou; P. Chung; O. Chvala; J. G. Cramer; P. Dinkelaker; V. Eckardt; Z. Fodor; P. Foka; V. Friese; M. Gazdzicki; K. Grebieszkow; C. Höhne; K. Kadija; A. Karev; M. Kliemant; V. I. Kolesnikov; T. Kollegger; M. Kowalski; D. Kresan; A. Laszlo; R. Lacey; M. van Leeuwen; B. Lungwitz; M. Mackowiak; M. Makariev; A. I. Malakhov; M. Mateev; G. L. Melkumov; M. Mitrovski; St. Mrowczynski; V. Nicolic; G. Palla; A. D. Panagiotou; W. Peryt; J. Pluta; D. Prindle; F. Pühlhofer; R. Renfordt; C. Roland; G. Roland; M. Rybczynski; 1 A. Rybicki; A. Sandoval; N. Schmitz; T. Schuster; P. Seyboth; F. Sikler; E. Skrzypczak; M. Slodkowski; G. Stefanek; R. Stock; H. Ströbele; T. Susa; M. Szuba; M. Utvic; D. Varga; M. Vassiliou; G. I. Veres; G. Vesztergombi; D. Vranic; Z. Wlodarczyk; A. Wojtaszek-Szwarc



A search for the production of direct leptons in nucleon-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions. Progress report, April 1, 1992--December 1, 1992  

SciTech Connect

Activities included contributions to the AMY Collaboration, the transverse energy detector, the Di-Lepton Spectrometer, with emphasis on the single-lepton experiment. Elastic and inelastic scattering differential cross sections and total cross sections are shown for {pi}{sup +} and {pi}{sup {minus}} on {sup 9}Be and C.

Kirk, P.N. [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy



Emulsion Droplet Combustion in Microgravity: Water/Heptane Emulsions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This presentation reviews a series of experiments to further examine parametric effects on sooting processes of droplet flames in microgravity. The particular focus is on a fuel droplet emulsified with water, specifically emulsions of n-heptane as the fuel-phase and water as the dispersed phase. Water was selected as the additive because of its anticipated effect on soot formation, and the heptane fuel phase was chosen to theoretically reduce the likelihood of microexplosions because its boiling point is nearly the same as that of water: 100 C for water and 98 C for heptane. The water content was varied while the initial droplet diameter was kept within a small range. The experiments were carried out in microgravity to reduce the effects of buoyancy and to promote spherical symmetry in the burning process. Spherically symmetric droplet burning is a convenient starting point for analysis, but experimental data are difficult to obtain for this situation as evidenced by the fact that no quantitative data have been reported on unsupported emulsion droplet combustion in a convection-free environment. The present study improves upon past work carried out on emulsion droplet combustion in microgravity which employed emulsion droplets suspended from a fiber. The fiber can be instrusive to the emulsion droplet burning process as it can promote coalescence of the dispersed water phase and heterogeneous nucleation on the fiber. Prior work has shown that the presence of water in liquid hydrocarbons can have both beneficial and detrimental effects on the combustion process. Water is known to reduce soot formation and radiation heat transfer to combustor walls Gollahalli (1979) reduce flame temperatures and thereby NOx emissions, and encourage secondary droplet atomization or microexplosion. Water also tends to retard ignition and and promote early extinction. The former effect restricted the range of water volume fractions as discussed below.

Avedisian, C. Thomas



Flow of Super-Concentrated Emulsions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Super concentrated emulsions, e.g., emulsion explosives, are two-phase systems consisting of aqueous droplets dispersed in an oil phase. The concentration of the disperse phase is 92-96 w.%, liquid droplets, containing a supersaturated aqueous solution of inorganic oxidizer salts. The flow of such emulsions is determined by their Theological properties as well as the time-dependent processes of "aging" which take place due to the thermodynamic instability of these emulsions. This work presents the results of experimental studies of the main effects that accompany the flow of such materials: non-Newtonian flow behavior, rheopexy which manifests as a slow increase of viscosity in the low shear rate domain, linear viscoelastic behavior, and the transition of elastic modulus to non-linearity at high amplitudes of deformation. The emulsions under study are non-Newtonian liquids. Experiments with the shear rate sweep demonstrate that the upward and downward branches of the flow curves coincide above some specific shear rate value. The upward experiments show the existence of a Newtonian section of the flow curve in the low-shear-rate domain, while the effect of yielding is observed on the downward curve. The wall slip in the flow of the emulsions under study is negligible. The elastic modulus is constant over a wide frequency range. Hence, viscoelastic relaxation processes might be expected at characteristic times of either >>100s or <0.01s. Strong non-linear behavior was observed in high amplitude experiments. The elastic modules (measured in oscillating testing and in elastic recovery) as well as the yield stress are proportional to D-2, while the Newtonian viscosity is proportional to D-1. Concentration dependence of rheological parameters is also discussed. The possible mechanism of emulsion flow is proposed. Aging leads to enhancement of the solid-like properties of emulsions, which can be treated as an "emulsion-to-suspension transition". However, this transition is incomplete because dispersions retain an ability to flow at stresses exceeding the yield stress value. It is shown that the aging of emulsions is caused by the slow crystallization of a supercooled salt solution without any noticeable coalescence effect. The evolution of mechanical properties of emulsions is correlated with the kinetics of structural changes during aging. The problem of transport characteristics of such emulsions is also discussed. It is shown that the choice of the flow curve fitting equation is not crucial for pipe flow design. The result can be used for practical applications in designing pipe transportation systems.

Masalova, Irina; Malkin, Alexander Ya.



Fluctuations in transverse energy and mulitplicity, energy densities, and neutral pion spectra in nucleus-nucleus collisions at 200 GeV/nucleon  

SciTech Connect

The main goal of the CERN heavy-ion experiments is the search for an indication that the predicted state of deconfined quarks and gluons, the quark-gluon plasma (QGP), has been produced. The quantity most crucial to the probability of QGP formation is the thermalized energy density attained during the heavy-ion reaction. The amount of energy radiated transverse to the beam direction is the experimental quantity which is believed to be a measure of the amount of energy deposition in the reaction, and hence to reflect the energy density attained. In this presentation we consider the systematics of transverse energy production at CERN SPS energies, and we use the results to make estimates, under various assumptions, of attained energy densities.

Not Available



Cationic bituminous emulsions and emulsion aggregate slurries  

SciTech Connect

A cationic bituminous emulsion is described which consists of from about 30% to about 80% by weight of bitumen, from about 0.1% to about 10% by weight of an emulsifier selected from the group consisting of reaction products of a polyamine reacted with a member of the group consisting of epoxidized unsaturated fatty acids of chain lengths between C/sub 8/ and C/sub 22/ and the esters thereof and adding water to make up 100% by weight, the emulsion having a pH in the range of from 2-7.

Schilling, P.



Determining gas hydrate kinetic inhibitor effectiveness using emulsions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we measure the effect of hydrate kinetic inhibition in emulsions. Because hydrate nucleation is stochastic, many experiments normally are needed to obtain accurate analysis of the effectiveness of kinetic inhibitors. Using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), we show how emulsions can reduce the number of kinetic samples needed to obtain a statistical analysis of the effectiveness of polyvinylcaprolactam,

Jason W. Lachance; E. Dendy Sloan; Carolyn A. Koh



Semi-batch emulsion copolymerization of styrene and butyl acrylate for production of high solids content latexes: Experiments and mathematical model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polymer latexes with high solids content exhibit several advantages such as lower costs of transport and storage and shorter drying and film formation times. To keep the apparent viscosity at satisfactory levels, the particle size distributions should be either broad or multimodal. In the present work, the production of high solid content latexes by emulsion copolymerization of styrene and butyl

Giovane Marinangelo; Wilson H. Hirota; Reinaldo Giudici



Immunity to Newcastle disease in fowl of different breeds, primarily vaccinated with commercial inactivated oil?emulsion vaccines: A laboratory experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fowl were primarily vaccinated with commercial inactivated oil emulsion (10E) Newcastle disease (ND) vaccines and immunity was established by both determination of haemagglutination inhibiting (HI) antibodies and by challenge, over periods similar to the economic life span of the birds. The effect of level of maternal antibodies, route of vaccine administration, and vaccine dose on the vaccination results were studied.

J. H. H. van Eck



Fast helium production in interactions of 3.7 A GeV 24Mg with emulsion nuclei  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have studied the properties of the relativistic helium fragments emitted from the projectile in the interactions of 24Mg ions accelerated at an energy of 3.7 A GeV with emulsion nuclei. The total, partial nuclear cross-sections and production rates of helium fragmentation channels in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions and their dependence on the mass and energy of the incident projectile nucleus are investigated. The yields of multiple helium projectile fragments disrupted from the interactions of 24Mg projectile nuclei with hydrogen H, light CNO and heavy AgBr groups of target emulsion nuclei are discussed and they indicate that the breakup mechanism of the projectile seems to be independent of the target mass. Limiting fragmentation behavior of fast-moving helium fragments is observed in both the projectile and target nuclei. The multiplicity distributions of helium projectile fragments emitted in the interactions of 24Mg projectile nuclei with the different target nuclei of the emulsion are well described by the KNO scaling presentation. The mean multiplicities of the different charged secondary particles, normally defined shower, grey and black ( , and ) emitted in the interactions of 3.7 A GeV 24Mg with the different groups of emulsion nuclei at different ranges of projectile fragments are decreasing when the number of He fragments stripped from projectile increases. These values of ( i = s, g, b and h particles) in the events where the emission of fast helium fragments were accompanied by heavy fragments having Z ? 3 seem to be constant as the He multiplicity increases, and exhibit a behavior independent of the He multiplicity.

Jilany, M. A.



Emulsions from Aerosol Sprays  


An electrostatic emulsification apparatus has been designed for the purpose of studying diffusion from oil droplets which have a mean size in the range of approximately 1.5-3.5 &mgr;m, with standard deviations of 40-50%. The emulsification technique involves the collection of a spray of electrically charged oil droplets onto a rotating water film which is sustained from a reservoir. In this way, emulsions with volume fractions of approximately 10(-3) are produced within several minutes at oil flow rates of around 10(-2) ml min-1. Phase-Doppler anemometry (PDA) was used to assess droplet size distributions for the sprays and emulsions. Results show that the mean emulsion droplet size was smaller than the mean spray droplet size by several orders of magnitude. At flow rates around 10(-2) ml min-1, the spray droplet size distribution was little affected by the applied potential between about -4.20 and -4.65 kV (mean droplet size between approximately 7.6 and 7.8 &mgr;m, with standard deviations of approximately 20%), whereas the mean droplet size of the corresponding emulsion decreased more rapidly with applied potential. Above an applied potential of approximately -4.30 kV, which corresponded to an emulsion droplet size below approximately 2 &mgr;m, the measured volume fraction of the emulsion decreased with respect to the volume fraction as calculated on the basis of total amount of injected oil. Copyright 1997 Academic Press. Copyright 1997Academic Press PMID:9441645

Hengelmolen; Vincent; Hassall



Nano-emulsions of fluorinated trityl radicals as sensors for EPR oximetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article reports the development and evaluation of two nano-emulsions (F45T-03/HFB and F15T-03/PFOB) containing fluorinated trityl radicals dissolved in perfluorocarbons. Preparation with a high-pressure homogenizer conferred sub-micronic size to both nano-emulsions. In vitro and in vivo EPR spectroscopy showed that the nano-emulsions had much greater oxygen sensitivity than the hydrophilic trityl, CT-03. In vivo experiments in rodents confirmed the ability of the nano-emulsions to follow the changes in oxygen concentration after induced ischemia. Histological evaluation of the tissue injected with the nano-emulsions revealed some acute toxicity for the F45T-03/HFB nano-emulsion but none for the F15T-03/PFOB nano-emulsion. These new formulations should be considered for further EPR oximetry experiments in pathophysiological situations where subtle changes in tissue oxygenation are expected.

Charlier, N.; Driesschaert, B.; Wauthoz, N.; Beghein, N.; Préat, V.; Amighi, K.; Marchand-Brynaert, J.; Gallez, B.



Observation of a high-energy cosmic-ray family caused by a Centauro-type nuclear interaction in the joint emulsion chamber experiment at the Pamirs  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exotic cosmic-ray family event is observed in the large emulsion chamber exposed by the joint at the Pamirs (4360 m above sea level). The family is composed of 120gamma-ray-induced showers and 37 hadron-induced showers with individual visible energy exceeding 1 TeV. The decisive feature of the event is the hadron dominance: SigmaEgamma, SigmaE(gamma)h, , and being

A. S. Borisov; K. V. Cherdyntseva; Z. M. Guseva; V. G. Denisova; A. M. Dunaevsky; E. A. Kanevskaya; V. M. Maximenko; R. A. Nam; V. S. Puchkov; S. A. Slavatinsky; M. D. Smirnova; Yu. A. Smorodin; A. V. Uryson; N. G. Zelevinskaya; M. V. Zimin; G. B. Zhdanov; I. A. Mikhailova; R. A. Mukhamedshin; O. E. Nedel'Ko; L. P. Nikolaeva; G. T. Zatsepin; T. P. Amineva; L. T. Baradzei; I. P. Ivanenko; N. P. Iljina; T. V. Lazareva; A. K. Managadze; E. A. Murzina; E. I. Pomelova; E. G. Popova; I. V. Rakobolskaya; T. M. Roganova; N. G. Ryabova; L. G. Sveshnikova; S. D. Cananov; L. Kh. Chadranyan; L. A. Khisanishvilli; M. K. Ladarija; G. G. Leptukh; N. N. Roinishvili; M. S. Svanidze; Z. A. Azimov; I. B. Bobodjanov; N. E. Gubar; Yu. A. Gulov; F. Normuradov; Kh. Shoboronov; S. A. Azimov; D. A. Khalilov; Sh. Myrtojieva; E. G. Mullajanov; A. N. Nosov; Kh. Nuritdinov; T. S. Yuldashbaev; S. E. Bakhtigereev; N. A. Dobrotin; Yu. A. Emelyanov; E. G. Zaitseva; H. Bielawska; H. Bialobrzeska; M. Linke; J. Malinowski; J. Maciaszszyk; A. Krys; A. Tomaszewski; J. Nowicka; Z. Wlodarczyk; J. A. Chinellato; C. Dobrigkeit; J. Bellandi Filho; A. C. Fauth; C. M. G. Lattes; M. J. Menon; C. E. Navia O; K. Sawayanagi; E. H. Shibuya; A. Turtelli; N. M. Amato; N. Arata; F. M. Oliveira Castro; R. H. C. Maldonado; H. Aoki; Y. Fujimoto; Y. Funayama; S. Hasegawa; H. Kumano; H. Semba; M. Tamada; S. Yamashita; T. Shibata; K. Yokoi; A. Ohsawa



Rapid crystallization and morphological adjustment of zeolite ZSM-5 in nonionic emulsions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zeolite ZSM-5 was synthesized for the first time in a nonionic emulsion composed of polyoxyethylated alkylphenol, butanol, cyclohexane and tetraethylammonium hydroxide (TEAOH)-containing zeolite synthesis mixture. The crystallization kinetics in the emulsion was investigated and the ZSM-5 product was characterized in detail by XRD, SEM, FT-IR, TG, N 2 adsorption and CHN analysis techniques. Compared with the conventionally hydrothermal synthesis with the same structure directing agent TEAOH, the emulsion system allows rapid crystallization of ZSM-5. The ZSM-5 product exhibits unusual agglomerated structure and possesses larger specific surface area. The FT-IR, TG results plus CHN analysis show the encapsulation of a trace of emulsion components in the emulsion ZSM-5. Control experiments show the emulsion system exerts the crystallization induction and morphological adjustment effects mainly during the aging period. The effects are tentatively attributed to the confined space domains, surfactant-water interaction as well as surfactant-growing crystals interaction existing in the emulsion.

Zhang, Ying; Jin, Chao



Petroleum emulsions, micro-emulsions, and micellar solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Petroleum is a micellar solution of asphaltenes and resins. Crude oils mostly are recovered as water in oil emulsions. Micro-emulsions\\u000a in the state of phase inversion are very important for an enhanced oil recovery by surfactant flooding.\\u000a \\u000a The results of investigations on the composition and the properties of asphaltenes and petroleum resins are discussed along\\u000a with the importance of micro-emulsions

H.-J. Neumann; B. Paczy?ska-Lahme


Double Emulsion Templated Celloidosomes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a novel approach for fabricating celloidosomes, which represent a hollow and spherical three-dimensional self-assembly of living cells encapsulating an aqueous core. Glass- capillary microfluidics is used to generate monodisperse water-in-oil-in-water double emulsion templates using lipids as stabilizers. Such templates allow for obtaining single but also double concentric celloidosomes. In addition, after a solvent removal step the double emulsion templates turn into monodisperse lipid vesicles, whose membrane spontaneously phase separates when choosing the adequate lipid composition, providing the adequate scaffold for fabricating Janus-celloidosomes. These structures may find applications in the development of bioreactors in which the synergistic effects of two different types of cells selectively adsorbed on one of the vesicle hemispheres may be exploited.

Arriaga, Laura R.; Marquez, Samantha M.; Kim, Shin-Hyun; Chang, Connie; Wilking, Jim; Monroy, Francisco; Marquez, Manuel; Weitz, David A.



Combustion characteristics of heavy oil-water emulsions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combustion of heavy oil and its emulsions with water was investigated in experiments on a semi-industrial scale. Two comparisons between heavy oil and oil-water emulsion flames are presented that, due to the different initial conditions of the spray, provide complementary information. Reported results include spatial distributions in the flame of temperature and species concentrations (O2, CO, UHC, NOx) as

Javier M. Ballester; Norberto Fueyo; César Dopazo



On formulating ophthalmic emulsions.  


The formulation of dilute, transparent ophthalmic emulsions (eye drops) with long shelf lives is a challenge because of the tendency of the emulsion droplets to aggregate, particularly in the presence of the water-soluble polymers typically used in eye drops. While many functions of eye drops, such as lubricity and residence time in the eye, are promoted by high concentrations of high molecular weight water-soluble polymers, emulsified lipids and drugs aggregate in the eye drop bottle if the polymer concentration is above the critical flocculation concentration (CFC). The purpose is to develop a simple approach to predict the CFC for polymers based on information readily available in the literature. High molecular weight guar was hydrolyzed to give a series of guar samples spanning a wide range of average molecular weights. The CFC values and critical viscosity concentrations were measured as functions guar properties, using electrophoresis, dynamic light scattering and rheology measurements. The higher the guar molecular weight, the lower was the CFC, the maximum concentration that can be tolerated in the eye drop formulation. The guar CFC values were approximately equal to the overlap concentrations where guar molecules start to overlap in solution. We propose that the CFC can be estimated for any water-soluble polymer using the polymer molecular weight and the readily available Mark-Houwink parameters, thus providing a design rule for ophthalmic emulsions. PMID:25016540

Mafi, Roozbeh; Gray, Cameron; Pelton, Robert; Ketelson, Howard; Davis, James



Showing Emulsion Properties with Common Dairy Foods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Foods are mixtures of different chemical compounds, and the quality we sense (taste, texture, color, etc.) are all manifestations of its chemical properties. Some of them can be visualized with the aid of simple, safe and inexpensive experiments using dairy products that can be found in any kitchen and using almost exclusively kitchen utensils. In this paper we propose some of them related with food emulsions. Food emulsions cover an extremely wide area of daily-life applications such as milk, sauces, dressings and beverages. Experimentation with some culinary recipes to prepare them and the analyisis of the observed results is close to ideal subject for the introduction of chemical principles, allowing to discuss about the nature and composition of foods, the effects of additives, etc. At the same time it allows to get insights into the scientific reasons that underlie on the recipes (something that it is not usually found in most cookbooks). For example, when making an emulsion like mayonnaise, why the egg yolks and water are the first materials in the bowl , and the oil is added to them rather than in the other way around? How you can "rescue" separate emulsions (mayonnaise)? Which parameters affect emulsion stability? Since safety, in its broad sense, is the first requisite for any food, concerns about food exist throughout the world and the more we are aware of our everyday life, the more likely we will be to deal productively with the consequences. On the other hand, understanding what foods are and how cooking works destroys no delightful mystery of the art of cuisine, instead the mystery expands.

Bravo-Diaz, Carlos; Gonzalez-Romero, Elisa



Emulsions and microemulsions with a fluorocarbon phase  

Microsoft Academic Search

A phase III clinical study of a perfluorooctyl bromide emulsion demonstrated reduction and avoidance of donor blood transfusion in surgery. Novel fluorocarbon-in-water emulsions are being investigated, including emulsions highly stabilized by fluorocarbon–hydrocarbon diblocks and targeted emulsions for molecular imaging, diagnosis and drug delivery. Reverse water-in-fluorocarbon emulsions and microemulsions that have potential for pulmonary drug delivery are also being studied. Microemulsions

Marie Pierre Krafft; Alba Chittofrati; Jean G Riess



Analysis of the Invert Emulsion Oil Mud-Polycrystalline Diamond Bit System in Shallow Permeable Formations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent field experience with shallow, normal pressured wells in South Texas demonstrated an invert emulsion oil mud employed with a polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) bit significantly increased PDC bit rate of penetration (ROP) and life. Each well used an invert emulsion oil mud from surface casing to total depth and a PDC bit to drill the majority of the same

S. W. Golis



Microdisk fabrication by emulsion evaporation  

E-print Network

dedecyl sulfate (SDS). The monodisperse chloroform emulsions, generated by the glass-based microfluidic devices, ensure the precise control on microdisk particle size and shape. A systematic investigation was performed to study the relation between...

Wong, Susanna Wing Man



Invert emulsion well servicing fluids  

SciTech Connect

An invert emulsion well servicing fluid containing an oleaginous phase, an aqueous phase, an invert emulsifier and an effective amount of a solid, particulate polyolefin having a density of about 0.90 gms/cc or greater.

Carnicom, W.M.



Responsiveness of emulsions stabilized by lactoferrin nano-particles to simulated intestinal conditions.  


There is an upsurge of interest in the use of nano-particles to fabricate emulsions and modulate their functionality, with particular emphasis on modulating emulsion digestive fate. Food grade nano-particles formed through controlled processing and electrostatic biopolymer interactions are yet to be systematically studied for their ability to stabilize emulsions and modulate emulsion digestibility. This study focused on the responsiveness of emulsions stabilized by lactoferrin (LF) nano-particles (NPs) and dietary fibers to key digestive parameters. Compared to native LF, LF-NPs comprised emulsion exhibited elevated creaming rates as evident from accelerated stability tests performed by analytical centrifugation. The electrostatic deposition of alginate or carrageenan onto the LF-NPs significantly improved the stability of the corresponding emulsions. Further, the use of various nano-particles showed to have both beneficial and deleterious effects on emulsion responsiveness to pH (2.0 < pH < 10.0), CaCl2 (0-40 mM) and bile (0-25 mg mL(-1)). Simulated pH-stat lipolysis experiments show that the use of LF or LF-NPs had no marked effect on lipolysis. Intriguingly, the use of LF-NPs and alginate reduced emulsion lipolysis by 14% while the use of LF-NPs and carrageenan increased lipolysis by 10%. Microscopy images as well as droplet characterization in terms of size and charge indicate that the altered emulsion responsiveness may be due to physical differences in emulsion properties (e.g. droplet size) and overall organization during digestion (e.g. aggregation vs. coalescence). Overall, this study's insights could prospectively be used to harness protein nano-particles to tweak emulsion behavior during digestion. PMID:24247725

Meshulam, Dafna; Lesmes, Uri



Characterization of Surfactant Free Emulsions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a pharmacological interest in providing a delivery mechanism for highly hydrophobic drugs through the bloodstream. A typical methodology would be to introduce a surfactant which would serve to bind the hydrophobic molecule to the aqueous environment. Because of the need for the surfactant to be non-toxic this avenue proves problematic and many highly hydrophobic drugs which could prove effective are not useable. We have demonstrated the formation of a stable emulsion of Silicone Oil in degassed water alone. The emulsion droplets were on the order of 50 nm in diameter and stable over a period of 8 hours. Previous studies have shown that the surfactant free emulsions do not lose their stability when the previously removed gasses are reintroduced. The formation of a stable emulsion in the complete absence of a surfactant could provide an alternative approach to a physiologically safe drug carrier. The present work involves the formation of stabilized surfactant free emulsions in a homologous series from pentane through decane. The emulsion's structure and thermodynamic stability were then characterized using small angle x-ray scattering.

Brar, Ramaninder; Urquidi, Jacob



A search for the production of direct leptons in nucleon-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions. [Intermediate Energy Nuclear Physics Group, Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State Univ. , Baton Rouge  

SciTech Connect

Activities included contributions to the AMY Collaboration, the transverse energy detector, the Di-Lepton Spectrometer, with emphasis on the single-lepton experiment. Elastic and inelastic scattering differential cross sections and total cross sections are shown for [pi][sup +] and [pi][sup [minus

Kirk, P.N. (Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy)



Arrested of coalescence of emulsion droplets of arbitrary size  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With applications ranging from food products to cosmetics via targeted drug delivery systems, structured anisotropic colloids provide an efficient way to control the structure, properties and functions of emulsions. When two fluid emulsion droplets are brought in contact, a reduction of the interfacial tension drives their coalescence into a larger droplet of the same total volume and reduced exposed area. This coalescence can be partially or totally hindered by the presence of nano or micron-size particles that coat the interface as in Pickering emulsions. We investigate numerically the dependance of the mechanical stability of these arrested shapes on the particles size, their shape anisotropy, their polydispersity, their interaction with the solvent, and the particle-particle interactions. We discuss structural shape changes that can be induced by tuning the particles interactions after arrest occurs, and provide design parameters for the relevant experiments.

Mbanga, Badel L.; Burke, Christopher; Blair, Donald W.; Atherton, Timothy J.



Anionic Emulsion-Mediated Synthesis of Zeolite Beta  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Well-crystallized zeolite beta is first synthesized in the anionic emulsion systems of cyclohexane/sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate(SDBS)/pentanol/zeolite synthesis mixture. Beta materials are then characterized by XRD, SEM, and N2-adsorption techniques. Compared to beta samples grown using the same synthesis mixture in the absence of the anionic emulsion, the as-synthesized beta presents uniform and well-defined larger crystals. Interestingly, N2-adsorption results show that such beta sample possesses both ordered mesopores at 3.9 nm and macropores centered at 60.5 nm. These pores combined with the intricate micropores of the Beta crystal comprise the hierarchical porosity. The hierarchical pore-structured zeolite beta may have potential catalysis application in reactions involving large molecules. Additionally, control experiments are also performed to ascertain the effects of the individual emulsion components. Further synthesis study finds the transformation of zeolite beta to ZSM-5 through increasing oil contents, crystallization temperature and time.

Jin, Chao; Zhang, Ying; Gao, Wei; Cui, Lishan


Emulsions stabilised solely by colloidal particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The preparation and properties of emulsions, stabilised solely by the adsorption of solid particles at the oil–water interface, are reviewed especially in the light of our own work with particles of well-controlled surface properties. Where appropriate, comparison is made with the behaviour of surfactant-stabilised emulsions. Hydrophilic particles tend to form oil-in-water (o\\/w) emulsions whereas hydrophobic particles form water-in-oil (w\\/o) emulsions.

Robert Aveyard; Bernard P Binks; John H Clint



Using silver chloride emulsions as adaptive optical filters for image processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fine-grain high-sensitive silver chloride emulsions with “print-out” effect were synthesized for the purposes of adaptive amplitude spatial frequency filtering of images. Their characteristics were studied and experiments were conducted for contrast enhancement and contouring.

K. Stoyanova; Ts. Petrova; N. Pangelova; M. Kovatchev



High-speed particle tracking in nuclear emulsion by last-generation automatic microscopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The technique of nuclear emulsions for high-energy physics experiments is being revived, thanks to the remarkable progress in measurement automation achieved in the past years. The present paper describes the features and performances of the European Scanning System, a last-generation automatic microscope working at a scanning speed of 20 cm2/h. The system has been developed in the framework of the OPERA experiment, designed to unambigously detect ????? oscillations in nuclear emulsions.

Armenise, N.; De Serio, M.; Ieva, M.; Muciaccia, M. T.; Pastore, A.; Simone, S.; Damet, J.; Kreslo, I.; Savvinov, N.; Waelchli, T.; Consiglio, L.; Cozzi, M.; Di Ferdinando, D.; Esposito, L. S.; Giacomelli, G.; Giorgini, M.; Mandrioli, G.; Patrizii, L.; Sioli, M.; Sirri, G.; Arrabito, L.; Laktineh, I.; Royole-Degieux, P.; Buontempo, S.; D'Ambrosio, N.; De Lellis, G.; De Rosa, G.; Di Capua, F.; Coppola, D.; Formisano, F.; Marotta, A.; Migliozzi, P.; Pistillo, C.; Scotto Lavina, L.; Sorrentino, G.; Strolin, P.; Tioukov, V.; Juget, F.; Hauger, M.; Rosa, G.; Barbuto, E.; Bozza, C.; Grella, G.; Romano, G.; Sirignano, C.



Hollandaise Sauce: Emulsion at Work  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners follow a recipe to make hollandaise sauce. Learners discover how cooks use egg yolks to blend oil and water together into a smooth mix. In chemistry, this mixture is known as an emulsion. Substances like egg yolks that assist with emulsification are called emulsifiers.




Influence of the 100% w/v perfluorooctyl bromide (PFOB) emulsion dose on tumour radiosensitivity.  


The radiosensitizing effect of a 100% w/v emulsion of a fluorocarbon, PFOB, which carries 4 times more oxygen than does Fluosol-DA 20% emulsion, was studied on two human tumour xenografts (HRT18 and HT29) and the murine tumour EMT6. This effect was compared with that obtained with carbogen alone. The fluorocrit (amount of fluorocarbon in the blood) and haematocrit remained unchanged from 7 to 65 min post-injection of the emulsion (8 ml/kg). Tumour-bearing mice were pretreated with 100% w/v PFOB emulsion doses ranging from 2 to 15 ml/kg in the presence of carbogen for 30 min prior to and during irradiation. The fluorocrit increased from 1.5% to 9.5% as the dose of 100% w/v PFOB emulsion increased from 2 to 15 ml/kg. The haematocrit remained the same for all the fluorocarbon emulsion doses used. Tumour radiosensitization varied with the fluorocarbon emulsion dose. Clinically relevant doses (2-4 ml/kg) of the 100% w/v PFOB emulsion plus carbogen produced significantly more radiosensitization than carbogen alone, with sensitizing enhancement ratios of 1.4 for EMT6 and 1.7 for HRT18. The radiosensitivity of HRT18 cells was thus very close to that obtained with normally oxygenated cells. For higher doses (8-15 ml/kg) the radiosensitizing effect of 100% w/v PFOB emulsion plus carbogen becomes comparable to that of carbogen alone. These experiments show that clinically useful doses of 100% w/v PFOB plus carbogen produced tumour radiosensitization only at relatively low fluorocrits. Thus the fluorocrit, and hence the fluorocarbon's oxygen-carrying capacity, is not the only factor involved in radiosensitizing tumour cells by oxygen-carrying fluorocarbon emulsions. PMID:1671693

Thomas, C; Riess, J; Guichard, M



Spectator fragmentation in nucleus-nucleus collisions: Phase space approach  

E-print Network

Dynamics of spectator matter break-up in non-central collisions of $^{197}$Au+ $^{197}$Au at 1000 AMeV are explored within framework of quantum molecular dynamics (QMD) model. The phase space of nucleons bound in intermediate mass fragments are studied using two clusterization subroutines. Backtracking the origin of fragments to the time of initial contact between colliding nuclei indicates that \\textit{simulated annealing clusterization algorithm} (SACA) results into significant yield of projectile-like and target-like fragments. Simplest clusterization approach based on spatial correlation technique, however, predicted much lesser production probability of fragments in spectator zone.

Yogesh K. Vermani; Ashok Jangid



QCD at small x and nucleus-nucleus collisions  

E-print Network

At large collision energy sqrt(s) and relatively low momentum transfer Q, one expects a new regime of Quantum Chromo-Dynamics (QCD) known as "saturation". This kinematical range is characterized by a very large occupation number for gluons inside hadrons and nuclei; this is the region where higher twist contributions are as large as the leading twist contributions incorporated in collinear factorization. In this talk, I discuss the onset of and dynamics in the saturation regime, some of its experimental signatures, and its implications for the early stages of Heavy Ion Collisions.

Francois Gelis



Neutron Spectra from Intermediate-Energy Nucleus-Nucleus Reactions  

SciTech Connect

Double-differential cross sections of neutron production at angles from 0 to 110 degrees from many reactions induced by light and medium nuclei on targets from 12C to 208Pb, at several incident energies from 95 to 600 MeV/nucleon have been measured recently at the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN) Ring Cyclotron in Japan and at the Heavy-Ion Medical Accelerator of the National Institute of Radiological Science in Chiba, Japan using the time-of-flight technique. We have analyzed all these new measurements using the Quantum Molecular Dynamics (QMD) model, the Oak Ridge intranuclear cascade model HIC, the ISABEL intranuclear cascade model from LAHET, and the Los Alamos version of the Quark-Gluon String Model code LAQGSM03. On the whole, all four models used here describe reasonably well most of the measured neutron spectra, although different models agree differently with data from specific reactions and some serious discrepances are observed for some reactions. We present here some illustrative results from our study, discuss possible reasons for some of the observed discrepancies and try to outline ways to further improve the tested codes in order to address these problems.

Iwase, Hiroshi [GSI, Planckstr. 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Iwata, Yoshiyuki [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Nakamura, Takashi [Tohoku University, Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Gudima, Konstantin [Institute of Applied Physics, Academy of Science of Moldova, Chisinau, MD-2028 (Moldova, Republic of); Mashnik, Stepan; Sierk, Arnold; Prael, Richard [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)



Polymerization in emulsion microdroplet reactors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of this research project is to utilize emulsion droplets as chemical reactors for execution of complex polymerization chemistries to develop unique and functional particle materials. Emulsions are dispersions of immiscible fluids where one fluid usually exists in the form of drops. Not surprisingly, if a liquid-to-solid chemical reaction proceeds to completion within these drops, the resultant solid particles will possess the shape and relative size distribution of the drops. The two immiscible liquid phases required for emulsion polymerization provide unique and complex chemical and physical environments suitable for the engineering of novel materials. The development of novel non-ionic fluorosurfactants allows fluorocarbon oils to be used as the continuous phase in a water-free emulsion. Such emulsions enable the encapsulation of almost any hydrocarbon compound in droplets that may be used as separate compartments for water-sensitive syntheses. Here, we exemplify the promise of this approach by suspension polymerization of polyurethanes (PU), in which the liquid precursor is emulsified into droplets that are then converted 1:1 into polymer particles. The stability of the droplets against coalescence upon removal of the continuous phase by evaporation confirms the formation of solid PU particles. These results prove that the water-free environment of fluorocarbon based emulsions enables high conversion. We produce monodisperse, cross-linked, and fluorescently labeled PU-latexes with controllable mesh size through microfluidic emulsification in a simple one-step process. A novel method for the fabrication of monodisperse mesoporous silica particles is presented. It is based on the formation of well-defined equally sized emulsion droplets using a microfluidic approach. The droplets contain the silica precursor/surfactant solution and are suspended in hexadecane as the continuous oil phase. The solvent is then expelled from the droplets, leading to concentration and micellization of the surfactant. At the same time, the silica solidifies around the surfactant structures, forming equally sized mesoporous particles. The procedure can be tuned to produce well-separated particles or alternatively particles that are linked together. The latter allows us to create 2D or 3D structures with hierarchical porosity. Oil, water, and surfactant liquid mixtures exhibit very complex phase behavior. Depending on the conditions, such mixtures give rise to highly organized structures. A proper selection of the type and concentration of surfactants determines the structuring at the nanoscale level. In this work, we show that hierarchically bimodal nanoporous structures can be obtained by templating silica microparticles with a specially designed surfactant micelle/microemulsion mixture. Tuning the phase state by adjusting the surfactant composition and concentration allows for the controlled design of a system where microemulsion droplets coexist with smaller surfactant micellar structures. The microemulsion droplet and micellar dimensions determine the two types of pore sizes (single nanometers and tens of nanometers). We also demonstrate the fabrication of carbon and carbon/platinum replicas of the silica microspheres using a "lost-wax" approach. Such particles have great potential for the design of electrocatalysts for fuel cells, chromatography separations, and other applications. It was determined that slight variations in microemulsion mixture components (electrolyte concentration, wt% of surfactants, oil to sol ratio, etc.) produces strikingly different pore morphologies and particle surface areas. Control over the size and structure of the smaller micelle-templated pores was made possible by varying the length of the hydrocarbon block within the trimethyl ammonium bromide surfactant and characterized using X-ray diffraction. The effect of emulsion aging was studied by synthesizing particles at progressive time levels from a sample emulsion. It was discovered surface pore size increases after just a few hours, with

Carroll, Nick J.


Analysis of emulsion stability in acrylic dispersions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emulsions either micro or nano permit transport or solubilization of hydrophobic substances within a water-based phase. Different methods have been introduced at laboratory and industrial scales: mechanical stirring, high-pressure homogenization, or ultrasonics. In digital imaging, toners may be formed by aggregating a colorant with a latex polymer formed by batch or semi-continuous emulsion polymerization. Latex emulsions are prepared by making a monomer emulsion with monomer like Beta-carboxy ethyl acrylate (?-CEA) and stirring at high speed with an anionic surfactant like branched sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonates , aqueous solution until an emulsion is formed. Initiator for emulsion polymerization is 2-2'- azobis isobutyramide dehydrate with chain transfer agent are used to make the latex. If the latex emulsion is unstable, the resulting latexes produce a toner with larger particle size, broader particle size distribution with relatively higher latex sedimentation, and broader molecular weight distribution. Oswald ripening and coalescence cause droplet size to increase and can result in destabilization of emulsions. Shear thinning and elasticity of emulsions are applied to determine emulsion stability.

Ahuja, Suresh



Steroidal compounds in commercial parenteral lipid emulsions.  


Parenteral nutrition lipid emulsions made from various plant oils contain steroidal compounds, called phytosterols. During parenteral administration of lipid emulsions, phytosterols can reach levels in the blood that are many fold higher than during enteral administration. The elevated phytosterol levels have been associated with the development of liver dysfunction and the rare development of liver failure. There is limited information available in the literature related to phytosterol concentrations in lipid emulsions. The objective of the current study was to validate an assay for steroidal compounds found in lipid emulsions and to compare their concentrations in the most commonly used parenteral nutrition lipid emulsions: Liposyn(®) II, Liposyn(®) III, Lipofundin(®) MCT, Lipofundin(®) N, Structolipid(®), Intralipid(®), Ivelip(®) and ClinOleic(®). Our data demonstrates that concentrations of the various steroidal compounds varied greatly between the eight lipid emulsions, with the olive oil-based lipid emulsion containing the lowest levels of phytosterols and cholesterol, and the highest concentration of squalene. The clinical impression of greater incidences of liver dysfunction with soybean versus MCT/LCT and olive/soy lipid emulsions may be reflective of the levels of phytosterols in these emulsions. This information may help guide future studies and clinical care of patients with lipid emulsion-associated liver dysfunction. PMID:23016123

Xu, Zhidong; Harvey, Kevin A; Pavlina, Thomas; Dutot, Guy; Hise, Mary; Zaloga, Gary P; Siddiqui, Rafat A



Formation of curcumin nanoparticles by flash nanoprecipitation from emulsions.  


Nanometric particles of a model hydrophobic substance curcumin were prepared by a novel method, namely, flash nanoprecipitation from a coarse oil-in-water emulsion. The method employs turbulent co-mixing of water with curcumin-loaded emulsion using manually-operated confined impingement jets mixer. A clear and stable dispersion of nanoparticles was formed in this process, and could be converted to dry, easily water-dispersible powder by spray drying. The mean size of the particles was about 40nm by DLS, confirmed by Cryo-TEM. The obtained particles contained 20.4wt% curcumin, X-ray analysis showed it was amorphous. The significant advantages of the studied process are its feasibility, speed and low cost. It does not require any special high-energy input equipment to reduce the droplet size of the initial emulsion as required by the vast majority of other methods, and relies on rapid turbulent mixing and on flow-induced shear stress formed in the simple, manually-operated mixer. Control experiments clearly indicate that employing emulsion, instead of a plain solution and flash nanoprecipitation instead of a simple antisolvent precipitation are advantageous in terms of particle size and stability. PMID:25168584

Margulis, Katherine; Magdassi, Shlomo; Lee, Han Seung; Macosko, Christopher W



Electrochromism in switchable nematic emulsions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Switchable nematic emulsions are composite systems formed by liquid-crystal droplets dispersed in a fluid, homogeneous, monomer matrix, which can be turned from an opaque to an optically transparent state by application of a suitable ac electric field. An electrochromic device provides a reversible and visible change in its transmittance and/or reflectance as the result of either oxidation or reduction electrochemical processes. Both devices have been proven to be useful for a variety of electro-optical applications as switchable windows, electromagnetic shutters, and displays. This letter reports preliminary results on a bifunctional device based on a switchable nematic emulsion, which hosts electrochemical reactions. The presence of a liquid-crystal dispersion ensures the switching from a scattering and opaque state to a transmissive and transparent state, while the oxidation-reduction reactions allow a contemporary and independent change in color.

Nicoletta, F. P.; Cupelli, D.; De Filpo, G.; Chidichimo, G.



Thermally stable emulsion explosive composition  

SciTech Connect

A thermally stable, cap-sensitive, water-in-oil emulsion explosive composition is described which has a discontinuous aqueous oxidizer salt solution phase containing calcium nitrate, a continuous oil or water-immiscible liquid or organic phase, an emulsifier, and a density reducing agent. The salt solution contains calcium nitrate in an amount of at least 20% by weight based on the total composition. 9 claims.

Sudweeks, W.B.; Lawrence, L.D.



Study on Demulsification of Crude Oil Emulsions by Microwave Chemical Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The demulsifying and separating experiments of crude oil emulsion were performed by using the heating method, the thermal chemical method, the microwave radiating method, and the microwave chemical method separately. The water content of this emulsion was 78 v\\/v%, and the type was water?in?oil (w\\/o). The influence tendencies of the key factors on demulsification effect were explored by changing the heating

Wei Tan



Effect of fibrous filter properties on the oil-in-water-emulsion separation and filtration performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Separation of secondary emulsions of dispersed droplet size less than 10?m, by means of fibrous medium is a very complex but important process. The study investigates the influence of thin fibrous filter properties, i.e. surface energy, pore size and porosity on the separation performance of an isooctane in water emulsion (0.2%, mean drop size 2?m). Experiments were carried out on

Swarna Bansal; Volkmar von Arnim; Thomas Stegmaier; Heinrich Planck



Vacuum evaporation of surfactant solutions and oil-in-water emulsions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vacuum evaporation of surfactant solutions and oil-in-water (O\\/W) emulsions at laboratory-scale set-up was investigated. Experiments were performed with surfactant solutions and model emulsions formulated with a base oil (85–15% (w\\/w) mixture of a synthetic poly-?-olefin and a trimethylol propane trioleate ester, respectively) and the following surfactants: Brij-76 (polyethylene glycol octadecyl ether, non-ionic), CTAB (hexadecyltrimethyl ammonium bromide, cationic), or Oleth-10 (glycolic

Gemma Gutiérrez; José M. Benito; José Coca; Carmen Pazos



Treatment of waste oil\\/water emulsion by ultrafiltration and ion exchange  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work investigates the treatment of waste drawing oil which is a high-strength waste oil\\/water emulsion commonly used in the cable and wire industries. Semi-batch ultrafiltration (UF) and ion exchange processes were employed to treat the waste oil\\/water emulsion. Experiments were conducted to examine the performance characteristics of the UF membranes of hydrophilic and hydrophobic types and of different

Sheng H. Lin; Wen J. Lan



Deactivation efficiency of stabilized bactericidal emulsions.  


Biocide emulsions stabilized with various stabilizing agents were prepared and characterized, and their efficiency in bacteria deactivation was evaluated. A number of stabilizing agents were tested for their stabilizing effect on emulsions of thiocyanomethylthiobenzothiazole (TCMTB) biocide. Two agents, the most successful in stabilizing the biocide, were chosen for further studies: high molecular weight polyethyleneimine (PEI) and an amphiphilic block copolymer of poly(caprolactone)-b-poly(acrylic acid) (PCL(33)-b-PAA(33)). The emulsion droplet sizes varied between 325 and 500 nm. Deactivation of bacteria was studied by exposing E. coli ATCC 11229 bacteria dispersions to emulsions stabilized by positively charged PEI or negatively charged PCL-b-PAA micelles and by measuring their absorbance; E. coli do not grow with time in the presence of biocide emulsions. PEI molecules alone act as biocide and deactivate the bacteria. PCL-b-PAA micelles as stabilizing agent do not affect the growth of the E. coli ; bacteria are deactivated by TCMTB released from the emulsion droplets. The kinetics of emulsion dissolution studies revealed for both stabilizing agents a decrease in droplet size with time while the emulsions were subjected to dialysis. The biocide was released from the emulsions within ?250 min; the droplet shells consist mostly of PEI or PCL-b-PAA insoluble complexes with the biocide, which do not dissolve during dialysis. SEM images confirm the presence of residual crumbled shells with holes after 24 h of dialysis. PMID:21823610

Vyhnalkova, Renata; Eisenberg, Adi; van de Ven, Theo G M



Measuring the Free Fall of Antihydrogen with Emulsion Detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The AEgIS experiment at CERN is designed to perform the first direct measurement of gravitational interaction between antimatter and matter by detecting the fall of a horizontally accelerated cold antihydrogen beam in the Earth's gravitational field. The spatial resolution of the position sensitive detector is a key issue for the success of the experiment. For this reason, the employment of emulsion film detectors is being considered and an intense R&D is being conducted to define the use of this technology in the AEgIS apparatus. We present the results of test beams conducted in 2012, when emulsion film detectors were directly exposed to a ˜ 100 keV antiproton beam and annihilation vertices successfully reconstructed with a few micrometers resolution. The prospects for the realization of the final detector are also presented.

Pistillo, C.



Wide band gap photonic structures in dichromate gelatin emulsions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The authors report the fabrication of wide band gap photonic crystals with planar structures in dichromate gelatin emulsions using a two-beam holographic method. By exploiting the differential swelling of the gelatin, planar structures with gradient spacing are fabricated. The crystals exhibit high efficiencies and wide band gaps in the visible range. The authors model the planar gelatin system by an effective medium approach and use transfer matrix to calculate the reflectance and transmittance. Good agreement is obtained between theory and experiment.

Ma, Rui; Xu, Jun; Tam, Wing Yim



Microwave emulsion treater with internal coalescer  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes an improvement in a microwave-based emulsion treating system comprising a microwave energy source and a microwave energy applicator having an inlet for an oil and water emulsion to be treated with microwave energy and an outlet for discharge of treated oil and water. The improvement comprising a coalescer medium having a dielectric constant at 2450 MHz of

N. O. Wolf; D. S. Seidner



Quantitative approach to ultrasonic emulsion separation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultrasound of 2MHz was irradiated to the emulsion prepared from canola oil and water and flocculation of the oil droplets occurred immediately. By putting the emulsion sample in a thin glass cell and setting it in bath type irradiation equipment, the progress of the separation was quantitatively monitored with the optical absorbance. The use of the cell enables visual observation

Susumu Nii; Shunsuke Kikumoto; Hideaki Tokuyama



Treatment of oil-in-water emulsions  

SciTech Connect

Petroleum is separated from an oil-in-water emulsion containing water-soluble polymer such as polyacrylamide prior to refining by adding amphoteric metal cations (Zn, Al, Sn, and Co) to the emulsion to form a flocculate and then treating the resulting flocculate with a strong base to recover the oil and metal. 11 claims.

Presley, C.T.; Harrison, R.J.



Treatment of oil-in-water emulsions  

SciTech Connect

Petroleum is separated from an ''oil-in-water'' emulsion containing water-soluble polymer prior to refining by adding amphoteric metal cations to the emulsion to form a flocculate and then treating the resulting flocculate with a strong base to recover the oil and metal.

Harrison, R.J.; Presley, C.T.



Rheology and processing of salad dressing emulsions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to study the influence that the processing parameters exert on the rheology and stability of salad dressing emulsions, both steady-state shear and oscillatory measurements, as well as droplet size distribution tests were performed. Emulsions containing a mixture of egg yolk and sucrose stearate as emulsifier were prepared using two different emulsification machines, a rotor-stator turbine and a colloidal

Jose Maria Franco; Antonio Guerrero; Crispulo Gallegos



Cocoa particles for food emulsion stabilisation.  


Emulsifying properties of cocoa particles have been investigated in systems containing purified sunflower oil (PSO) and water at varying pH, concentration and source of cocoa particles including cocoa powders (CP), cocoa fibre (CF) and cocoa mass (CM). The effect of cocoa particle source, pH and cocoa particle concentration on emulsion stability was evaluated by following changes in characteristic droplet diameter. Size distributions acquired on the emulsions and aqueous cocoa particle suspensions overlapped. Based on cryo-SEM imaging of the emulsions, isolation of cocoa particle fines and a process of washing the cocoa particles to remove any water soluble molecules, it was concluded that the cocoa particle fines not captured by the small angle laser diffraction method employed for sizing, act as Pickering particles. This research has demonstrated a universal nature of a natural food particle to stabilise oil-in-water emulsions not requiring particle modification or adjusting of the solution properties of the emulsion phases. PMID:23851644

Gould, Joanne; Vieira, Josélio; Wolf, Bettina



Destabilization of emulsions by natural minerals.  


This study developed a novel method to destabilize emulsions and recycle oils, particularly for emulsified wastewater treatment. Natural minerals were used as demulsifying agents, two kinds of emulsions collected from medical and steel industry were treated. The addition of natural minerals, including artificial zeolite, natural zeolite, diatomite, bentonite and natural soil, could effectively destabilize both emulsions at pH 1 and 60 °C. Over 90% of chemical oxygen demand (COD) can be removed after treatment. Medical emulsion can be even destabilized by artificial zeolite at ambient temperature. The mechanism for emulsion destabilization by minerals was suggested as the decreased electrostatic repulsion at low pH, the enhanced gathering of oil microdroplets at elevated temperature, and the further decreased surface potential by the addition of minerals. Both flocculation and coalescence were enhanced by the addition of minerals at low pH and elevated temperature. PMID:21784583

Yuan, Songhu; Tong, Man; Wu, Gaoming



Evaluating factors affecting the permeability of emulsions used to stabilize radioactive contamination from a radiological dispersal device.  


Present strategies for alleviating radioactive contamination from a radiological dispersal device (RDD) or dirty bomb involve either demolishing and removing radioactive surfaces or abandoning portions of the area near the release point. In both cases, it is imperative to eliminate or reduce migration of the radioisotopes until the cleanup is complete or until the radiation has decayed back to acceptable levels. This research investigated an alternative strategy of using emulsions to stabilize radioactive particulate contamination. Emergency response personnel would coat surfaces with emulsions consisting of asphalt or tall oil pitch to prevent migration of contamination. The site can then be evaluated and cleaned up as needed. In order for this approach to be effective, the treatment must eliminate migration of the radioactive agents in the terror device. Water application is an environmental condition that could promote migration into the external environment. This research investigated the potential for water, and correspondingly contaminant, migration through two emulsions consisting of Topein, a resinous byproduct during paper manufacture. Topein C is an asphaltic-based emulsion and Topein S is a tall oil pitch, nonionic emulsion. Experiments included water adsorption/ mobilization studies, filtration tests, and image analysis of photomicrographs from an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) and a stereomicroscope. Both emulsions were effective at reducing water migration. Conductivity estimates were on the order of 10(-80) cm s(-1) for Topein C and 10(-7) cm s(-1) for Topein S. Water mobility depended on emulsion flocculation and coalescence time. Photomicrographs indicate that Topein S consisted of greater and more interconnected porosity. Dilute foams of isolated spherical gas cells formed when emulsions were applied to basic surfaces. Gas cells rose to the surface and ruptured, leaving void spaces that penetrated throughout the emulsion. These experiments indicate that emulsions may be a viable means for containing RDD residuals; however, improvements are needed for optimal performance. PMID:15952383

Fox, Garey A; Medina, Victor F



Emulsion-based encapsulation and delivery of nanoparticles for the controlled release of alkalinity within the subsurface environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many current approaches to managing groundwater contamination rely on further advances in amendment delivery in order to initiate and sustain contaminant degradation or immobilization. In fact, limited or ineffective delivery is often cited when treatment objectives are not attained. Emulsions, specifically oil-in-water emulsions, have demonstrated potential to aid delivery of remediation amendments. Emulsions also afford opportunities to control the release of active ingredients encapsulated within the droplets. Our research is currently focused on the controlled release of nanoparticle-based buffering agents using oil-in-water emulsions. This interest is motivated by the fact that chemical and biological processes employed for the remediation and stewardship of contaminated sites often necessitate control of pH during treatment and, in some cases, long thereafter. Alkalinity-release nanoparticles (e.g., CaCO3, MgO) were suspended within soybean oil and subsequently encapsulated by through the creation of oil-in-water emulsions. These oil-in-water emulsions are designed to have physical properties which are favorable for subsurface delivery (nominal properties: 1 g/mL density; 10 cP viscosity; and 1.5 ?m droplet diameter). Buffer capacity titrations suggest that MgO particles are moderately more accessible within the oil phase and nearly twice as effective (on a per mass basis) at releasing alkalinity (as compared to the CaCO3 particles). Results from experiments designed to assess the release kinetics suggest that a linear driving force model is capable of describing the release process and mass transfer coefficients are constant through the reactive life of the emulsion. The release kinetics in emulsions containing MgO particles were found to be three orders of magnitude faster than those quantified for emulsions containing CaCO3. The slower release kinetics of the emulsions containing CaCO3 particles may prove beneficial when considering pH control at sites where acid fluxes are lower. The ability of emulsions to sustain alkalinity release within porous media was preliminarily examined using a series of 1-D column experiments. Emulsions were introduced for 2 pore volumes in a medium sand at Darcy velocities of approximately 0.8 cm/hr. Following the emulsion pulse, a pH 4 solution (adjusted with HCl) was introduced into the column and the effluent was monitored for pH, oil content, and droplet size distributions. All un-retained emulsion (~20% wt. was retained) was flushed from the column within approximately 2 pore volumes of terminating the emulsion pulse. The effluent pH at quasi-steady state and the reactive life of the emulsion depended on the retention characteristics, as well as the type and loading of nanoparticles employed within the emulsion. For the scenarios considered here, quasi-steady effluent pHs were observed to be between 6.5 and 10, and reactive lifetimes (i.e., the number of pore volumes for which the retained emulsion resulted in the effluent pH exceeding that of the influent) were between 15 and 100 pore volumes. These results demonstrate the ability of the emulsion to offer longer-term release and highlight the ability to tune the alkalinity release rate to match site characteristics by adjusting the emulsion content. Current research is directed toward evaluation release properties in heterogeneous aquifer cell experiments.

Ramsburg, C. A.; Muller, K.; Gill, J.



Emulsions on demand using microsturctured devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emulsions are very common in the field of cosmetics. Unfortunately, most emulsions contain ineffective substances to increase the stability of the products for a long time. These stabilizers can cause some severe healthy problems in several cases. One possible solution is the production of emulsions on demand to prevent the use of stabilizers. Stable emulsion can be achieved if the diameters of the droplets of one solution surrounded by a second solution are smaller than 1?m. Microstructured devices are suited in principle to generate such droplet distributions. Basic task of the development was a micro emulsifier that can be integrated into cosmetic flacons and that can deliver emulsions on demand by pressing a human fingertip onto a part of the flacon. Standardized cosmetic flacons have been used as basic devices. They consist of two separate glass bottles for two different liquid phases and two mechanical pumps integrated in a multifunctional cap. Regarding the viscosity ranges of the two liquids different microemulsifier structures have been developed. External dimensions and connections of the device have been chosen in a way that allows an integration of the devices into the cap. The second design conists of several streaming paths in parallel that allow a reduction of the pressure drop. Furthermore, it consists of three structured silicon chips bonded together. Emulsions with a stability of about 15-30 min have been achieved without any stabilizers. External forces of less than 10N were sufficient to generate emulsions on demand.

Mahe, Christian; Tranchant, Jean Francois; Tromeur, Melanie; Schwesinger, Norbert



The stability behavior of sol-emulsion systems  

SciTech Connect

Sol-emulsion systems, i.e., colloids consisting of mixed populations of solid particles and emulsion droplets, are encountered in a number of applications, e.g., oil-assisted agglomeration for particle removal (coal fines from water). The stability characteristics of mixed aqueous dispersions of titanium dioxide and mineral oil emulsion droplets are examined as a function of pH and emulsifier type and content. Zeta potentials of both the titanium dioxide and the mineral oil particles are measured under all conditions to identify regions of expected heterocoagulation and to quantify the electrostatic boundary conditions. The latter are used in the numerical solution of the pair interaction potentials based on the recent theory of McCormack et al. The potential functions are used in a modified version of the stability model of Hogg, Healy, and Fuerstenau to calculate early-stage aggregation rates. Photon correlation spectroscopy is used to determine stability ratios for homo- and heterocoagulation, and initial results indicate good agreement between experiments and computations.

Sunkel, J.M.; Berg, J.C. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering



Development and Assessment of Oil-in-Water Emulsions for Encapsulation of Reactive Iron Particles for Subsurface Delivery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reactive iron particles hold promise for use in the destruction of contaminants in the subsurface environment. Application of these nano- to submicron-scale particles, however, may be limited by poor subsurface transport and non-uniform distribution of the reactive material. Delivery issues are particularly important when evaluating the efficacy of iron-based technologies for treatment of dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) source zones. Current approaches for the delivery of reactive iron particles within DNAPL source zones are hindered by particle agglomeration, flow bypassing, and presence of non-target reactions. Encapsulation of the reactive particles within an oil-in-water emulsion is a novel approach that may overcome these limitations. Development of kinetically-stable, iron-laden, oil-in-water emulsions commenced by identifying surfactant-based coatings to increase the stability of commercially-available iron particles within non-polar organic phases (e.g., soy oil). A phase inversion technique was employed to disperse approximately 10% wt of the iron-laden, organic phase within a continuous aqueous phase containing nonionic emulsifiers. Emulsions were designed to ensure emulsifier proportions yielded hydrophilic-lipophilic balances affiliated with oil-in-water emulsions. Micrographs of the oil-in-water emulsions suggest that the average diameter of the oil droplets is approximately one micrometer. The presence of iron within oil droplets was confirmed in the micrographs and supported by an absence of iron agglomeration within the continuous phase. Bulk characteristics of each emulsion (density and viscosity) were used in conjunction with interfacial tension measurements in total trapping number analyses to assess the propensity of these emulsions to mobilize an entrapped trichloroethene (TCE)-DNAPL. Results suggest that the emulsions described herein should not cause significant mobilization of entrapped TCE-DNAPL in fine-to-medium grain sandy media. Column experiments are being conducted to evaluate the transport of these emulsions through sandy media. Preliminary results from experiments with iron-free emulsions suggest conductivity reductions occurring during emulsion flushing are not the result of extensive pore-clogging but rather are due to viscosity changes (emulsion viscosities range from 2 to 10 cP). Current efforts are focused on assessing and comparing both transport and reaction of commercially available iron particles and iron-laden emulsions within sandy porous media.

Berge, N. D.; Taghavy, A.; Ramsburg, A.



Decompressing emulsion droplets favors coalescence.  


The destabilization process of an emulsion under flow is investigated in a microfluidic device. The experimental approach enables us to generate a periodic train of droplet pairs, and thus to isolate and analyze the basic step of the destabilization, namely, the coalescence of two droplets which collide. We demonstrate a counterintuitive phenomenon: coalescence occurs during the separation phase and not during the impact. Separation induces the formation of two facing nipples in the contact area that hastens the connection of the interfaces prior to fusion. Moreover, droplet pairs initially stabilized by surfactants can be destabilized by forcing the separation. Finally, we note that the fusion mechanism is responsible for a cascade of coalescence events in a compact system of droplets where the separation is driven by surface tension. PMID:18232876

Bremond, Nicolas; Thiam, Abdou R; Bibette, Jérôme



Emulsifier for water-in-oil emulsions  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a water-in-oil emulsion. It comprises: a continuous oil phase, a discontinuous aqueous phase, and an emulsion stabilizing amount of a thermally altered lecithin composition which has been prepare by heating lecithin at a temperature in the range of from about 100{degrees}C, to about 250{degrees}C, for a period of time ranging from about 15 to about 480 minutes.

Weete, J.D.; Griffith, G.L.



Intravenous lipid emulsion in clinical toxicology  

PubMed Central

Intravenous lipid emulsion is an established, effective treatment for local anesthetic-induced cardiovascular collapse. The predominant theory for its mechanism of action is that by creating an expanded, intravascular lipid phase, equilibria are established that drive the offending drug from target tissues into the newly formed 'lipid sink'. Based on this hypothesis, lipid emulsion has been considered a candidate for generic reversal of toxicity caused by overdose of any lipophilic drug. Recent case reports of successful resuscitation suggest the efficacy of lipid emulsion infusion for treating non-local anesthetic overdoses across a wide spectrum of drugs: beta blockers, calcium channel blockers, parasiticides, herbicides and several varieties of psychotropic agents. Lipid emulsion therapy is gaining acceptance in emergency rooms and other critical care settings as a possible treatment for lipophilic drug toxicity. While protocols exist for administration of lipid emulsion in the setting of local anesthetic toxicity, no optimal regimen has been established for treatment of acute non-local anesthetic poisonings. Future studies will shape the evolving recommendations for lipid emulsion in the setting of non-local anesthetic drug overdose. PMID:20923546



Bond graph modeling and validation of an energy regenerative system for emulsion pump tests.  


The test system for emulsion pump is facing serious challenges due to its huge energy consumption and waste nowadays. To settle this energy issue, a novel energy regenerative system (ERS) for emulsion pump tests is briefly introduced at first. Modeling such an ERS of multienergy domains needs a unified and systematic approach. Bond graph modeling is well suited for this task. The bond graph model of this ERS is developed by first considering the separate components before assembling them together and so is the state-space equation. Both numerical simulation and experiments are carried out to validate the bond graph model of this ERS. Moreover the simulation and experiments results show that this ERS not only satisfies the test requirements, but also could save at least 25% of energy consumption as compared to the original test system, demonstrating that it is a promising method of energy regeneration for emulsion pump tests. PMID:24967428

Li, Yilei; Zhu, Zhencai; Chen, Guoan



The droplet group microexplosions in water-in-oil emulsion sprays and their effects on diesel engine combustion  

SciTech Connect

To clarify the combustion mechanism of water-in-diesel fuel emulsion sprays and to evaluate the possible benefit of emulsions in practical usage, combustion bomb experiments, dynamic engine tests, and computer simulation were carried out, and some useful conclusions have been reached. The droplet group (lump-fashioned) microexplosions in water-in-diesel fuel emulsion sprays on an eddy-size scale during the atomization, evaporation, and combustion processes in a high-pressure, high-temperature bomb were observed with a multipulsed, off-axis, image-plane, ruby laser holocamera and a high-speed camera. The explosions eject droplet fragments from the spray region to several millimeters away, improving the fuel-air mixing process and speeding up the flame propagation. A no-water layer formed by a Hill vortex was also observed in emulsion droplets. The ambient temperature has the most important influence on the occurrence and violence of the microexplosion. Road-load-simulation engine tests were carried out on a dynamic engine test bed. The experimental results show that emulsion fuels have no significant influence on fuel consumption and reduce engine torque if no adjustment is made for the injection system, but that smoke emission is much improved when emulsion fuel is used. The combustion characteristics and the rate of heat release are also analyzed to reveal the difference between emulsion and diesel fuel. The relationships between the optimum water percentages and fuel consumption under various operating conditions were analyzed by numerical combustion modeling.

Sheng, H.Z.; Chen, L.; Zhang, Z.P.; Wu, C.K. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Inst. of Mechanics; An, C.; Cheng, C.Q. [Beijing Inst. of Technology (China). Dept. of Vehicle Engineering



The Use of Fish Oil Lipid Emulsion in the Treatment of Intestinal Failure Associated Liver Disease (IFALD)  

PubMed Central

Since 2004, fish oil based lipid emulsions have been used in the treatment of intestinal failure associated liver disease, with a noticeable impact on decreasing the incidence of morbidity and mortality of this often fatal condition. With this new therapy, however, different approaches have emerged as well as concerns about potential risks with using fish oil as a monotherapy. This review will discuss the experience to date with this lipid emulsion along with the rational for its use, controversies and concerns. PMID:23363993

Chang, Melissa I.; Puder, Mark; Gura, Kathleen M.



Emulsion Paint of Aromatic Petroleum Resin II. Improvement On Poor Corrosion Resistance of Emulsion Paint Film  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poor corrosion resistance of an emulsion paint film using the emulsion produced from an industrially produced aromatic petroleum resin with a thermally denaturated linseed oil, as corrosion inhibitor for metal plates, was improved much better by use of a suitable nonionic emulsifier Emulgen A-90 rather than cationic and anionic ones as wetting agent for pigments and by addition of a

Yoshiyuki Iwase



Quick setting anionic bituminous emulsions  

SciTech Connect

A bituminous emulsion is described comprising: (a) from about 50% to about 70% by weight of non-coal tar bitumen; (b) from about 0.1% to about 3% by weight of an emulsifier which is the amine salt of an alkylbenzene sulfonic acid in which the alkyl contains from about 8 to about 16 carbon atoms. The salt-forming amine is selected from amines having the formula: wherein R/sub 1/ is selected from the group consisting of aminoalkyl and monohydroxyalkyl radicals containing from 1 to about 6 carbon atoms and R/sub 2/ and R/sub 3/ are each selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, alkyl, aminoalkyl and monohydroxyalkyl radicals containing from 1 to about 6 carbon atoms and wherein the molar ratio of alkylbenzene sulfonic acid to amine in the amine salt is 1:1; and (c) from about 30% to about 50% water, the composition having a pH of from about 2.5 to about 10.

Russell, A.



Factors affecting the emulsifying and rheological properties of gum acacia in beverage emulsions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gum acacia, a natural hydrocolloid, is extensively used as an emulsifier\\/stabilizer in beverage emulsions. Factors that may affect emulsion formation, emulsion stability and viscosity of the emulsion concentrate were studied to assess their significance, including proximal composition of the gum (protein content and mineral content), gum processing prior to emulsion preparation (pasteurization and demineralization), and pH of the dilute emulsion.

R. A Buffo; G. A Reineccius; G. W Oehlert



Measurement of emulsion flow in porous media: Improvements in heavy oil recovery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many heavy oil and bitumen reservoirs in the world are too small or thin for thermal enhanced oil recovery methods to be economic. In these fields, novel methods of less energy intensive, non-thermal technologies are required. Previous experience has shown that the injection of low concentrations of aqueous alkali-surfactant solutions into the reservoir can significantly improve the oil recovery, beyond that of waterflooding. This is due to the in-situ formation of emulsions, which plug off the water channels and lead to improved sweep efficiency in the reservoir. The proper control of these floods requires methods for monitoring the formation and effect of these emulsions. In this paper, the results of laboratory core floods are interpreted to demonstrate how the pressure and flow response can be related to the formation of these emulsions. A new technique (low field NMR) is also used to directly measure W/O emulsions in porous media. Finally, a numerical study is performed in order to demonstrate how the in-situ formation of emulsions can be simply represented in simulation software.

Bryan, J.; Wang, J.; Kantzas, A.



Interfacial properties in solid-stabilized emulsions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We prepared concentrated monodisperse oil-in-water emulsions stabilized by solid particles. The osmotic resistance, ?, of the emulsions was measured for different oil volume fractions above the random close packing (? ^*? 64{%}). The dimensionless osmotic resistance, ?/(?/R) (? being the interfacial tension and R being the undeformed drop radius), was always substantially higher than the corresponding values obtained for surfactant-stabilized emulsions. It can be concluded that droplet deformation in solid-stabilized emulsions is not controlled by the capillary pressure, ?/R, of the non-deformed droplets but rather by ?0/R, ?0 being a parameter characterizing the rigidity of the droplets surfaces. The data can be interpreted considering that the interfacial layers are elastic at small deformations and exhibit plasticity at intermediate deformations. ?0 corresponds to the surface yield stress, i.e. the transition between elastic and plastic regimes. We discuss the origin of the surface behavior considering the strong lateral interactions that exist between the adsorbed solid particles. We propose an independent measurement of ?0 based on the critical bulk stress that produces droplet fragmentation in dilute emulsions submitted to shear. Finally, the bulk shear elastic modulus was measured as a function of ? and confirms many of the features revealed by the osmotic resistance.

Arditty, S.; Schmitt, V.; Lequeux, F.; Leal-Calderon, F.



High pressure-resistant nonincendive emulsion explosive  


An improved emulsion explosive composition including hollow microspheres/bulking agents having high density and high strength. The hollow microspheres/bulking agents have true particle densities of about 0.2 grams per cubic centimeter or greater and include glass, siliceous, ceramic and synthetic resin microspheres, expanded minerals, and mixtures thereof. The preferred weight percentage of hollow microspheres/bulking agents in the composition ranges from 3.0 to 10.0 A chlorinated paraffin oil, also present in the improved emulsion explosive composition, imparts a higher film strength to the oil phase in the emulsion. The emulsion is rendered nonincendive by the production of sodium chloride in situ via the decomposition of sodium nitrate, a chlorinated paraffin oil, and sodium perchlorate. The air-gap sensitivity is improved by the in situ formation of monomethylamine perchlorate from dissolved monomethylamine nitrate and sodium perchlorate. The emulsion explosive composition can withstand static pressures to 139 bars and dynamic pressure loads on the order of 567 bars.

Ruhe, Thomas C. (Duquesne, PA); Rao, Pilaka P. (Baghlingampalli, IN)



Prospects for measuring the gravitational free-fall of antihydrogen with emulsion detectors  

E-print Network

The main goal of the AEgIS experiment at CERN is to test the weak equivalence principle for antimatter. AEgIS will measure the free-fall of an antihydrogen beam traversing a moir\\'e deflectometer. The goal is to determine the gravitational acceleration g for antihydrogen with an initial relative accuracy of 1% by using an emulsion detector combined with a silicon micro-strip detector to measure the time of flight. Nuclear emulsions can measure the annihilation vertex of antihydrogen atoms with a precision of about 1 - 2 microns r.m.s. We present here results for emulsion detectors operated in vacuum using low energy antiprotons from the CERN antiproton decelerator. We compare with Monte Carlo simulations, and discuss the impact on the AEgIS project.

AEgIS Collaboration; S. Aghion; O. Ahlén; C. Amsler; A. Ariga; T. Ariga; A. S. Belov; G. Bonomi; P. Bräunig; J. Bremer; R. S. Brusa; L. Cabaret; C. Canali; R. Caravita; F. Castelli; G. Cerchiari; S. Cialdi; D. Comparat; G. Consolati; J. H. Derking; S. Di Domizio; L. Di Noto; M. Doser; A. Dudarev; A. Ereditato; R. Ferragut; A. Fontana; P. Genova; M. Giammarchi; A. Gligorova; S. N. Gninenko; S. Haider; J. Harasimovicz; S. D. Hogan; T. Huse; E. Jordan; L. V. Jørgensen; T. Kaltenbacher; J. Kawada; A. Kellerbauer; M. Kimura; A. Knecht; D. Krasnický; V. Lagomarsino; A. Magnani; S. Mariazzi; V. A. Matveev; F. Moia; G. Nebbia; P. Nédélec; M. K. Oberthaler; N. Pacifico; V. Petrácek; C. Pistillo; F. Prelz; M. Prevedelli; C. Regenfus; C. Riccardi; O. Røhne; A. Rotondi; H. Sandaker; P. Scampoli; A. Sosa; J. Storey; M. A. Subieta Vasquez; M. Spacek; G. Testera; D. Trezzi; R. Vaccarone; C. P. Welsch; S. Zavatarelli



High-yield aqueous phase exfoliation of graphene for facile nanocomposite synthesis via emulsion polymerization.  


Aqueous phase exfoliation was developed for producing high-yield graphene nanosheets from expanded graphite (EG). The process included ultrasonication with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) emulsion in aqueous phase. The high throughput exfoliation process was characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Controlled sonication experiments revealed that optimum exfoliation corresponds to maxima in UV-vis spectra. TEM results showed that the exfoliated graphene comprised nanoflakes having ?5 layers (~60%) and ?10 layers for 90% of the product. The potential use of this highly dispersed graphene was demonstrated by one-pot synthesis of graphene/polymer composite via in situ emulsion polymerization with styrene. The integrated role of SDS included adsorption and exfoliation of graphite, dispersion of graphene produced and assisting with micelle formation in emulsion. The high surface area graphene nanosheets as dispersed phase in polymeric nanocomposites showed significant improvement in thermal stability and electrical conductivity. PMID:24034217

Hassan, Mahbub; Reddy, Kakarla Raghava; Haque, Enamul; Minett, Andrew I; Gomes, Vincent G



Rheology and flow of water-in-oil emulsions in porous media  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study was to determine the effects of injected drop size distribution, volume fraction of the dispersed phase, and emulsifier concentration on the flow of water-in-oil emulsions in porous media. Experiments were conducted with a model emulsion system comprising a synthetic mineral oil, deionized water, and a non-ionic surfactant. Bulk rheological properties of the emulsions were measured with a Couette flow viscometer. The drop size distributions were measured from optical micrographs using an image analysis technique. Flow tests were carried out in a sand pack. A microwave attenuation technique was employed to measure in situ water saturation. Experimental data collected in the flow tests included: measurements of pressure drop across the sand pack at different flow rates; in situ water saturation at a fixed location in the sand pack; and changes in the drop size distribution resulting from the flow through a porous medium.

Woo, R.; Jackson, C.; Maini, B.B. [Petroleum Recovery Institute, Calgary, Alberta (Canada)] [and others



Experimental study of source of background noise in muon radiography using emulsion film detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study is to ascertain and confirm the source of background noise in cosmic-ray muon radiography (muography) using emulsion film detectors. For this, we build two types of emulsion detectors with different momentum thresholds and perform test measurements of an actual geoscientific target. This experiment reveals that contamination of nonsignal particles with momenta of less than 2 GeV c-1 cause significant systematic errors for the density estimation of muography. Utilizing the results of precedent studies, we conclude that the origin of these low-momentum particles is either electromagnetic components of air showers or cosmic-ray muons scattered in topographic material. In this paper, we analyze the emulsion data in detail, including the film-inefficiency compensation and momentum selection by applying an upper bound to the chi-square distribution for the data.

Nishiyama, R.; Miyamoto, S.; Naganawa, N.



Annatto Polymeric Microparticles: Natural Product Encapsulation by the Emulsion-Solvent Evaporation Method  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this experiment, the extract from annatto seeds was encapsulated in poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) particles by the emulsion-solvent evaporation method. The particles were washed and centrifuged to remove excess stabilizer and then freeze-dried. The main compound of annatto seeds, bixin, has antioxidant properties as well…

Teixeira, Zaine; Duran, Nelson; Guterres, Silvia S.




Microsoft Academic Search

Emulsions of silicone oil-in water were formed using a Brinkmann Polytron homogenizer with Igepal CO-530 as an emulsifier. Silicone viscosities ranged from 10 to 33,000 mPa.s at 25°C. Rheological characteristics and particle size analyses of silicone oil-in-water emulsions were studied. At high volume fraction of the dispersed phase (70%-75%), silicone oil-in-water emulsions were stable. At lower volume fractions (50%-60%), emulsions




A lipid emulsion reduces mortality from clomipramine overdose in rats.  


Tricyclic antidepressants are a common cause of self poisoning. Since these drugs are highly lipid soluble, we examined the interaction between imipramine and a lipid emulsion. Rats were given an iv dose of imipramine with either normal saline or a lipid emulsion as vehicle. The rats who received the lipid emulsion had a significantly lower mortality. The role of lipid emulsions poisoning therapy is reviewed. PMID:11824772

Yoav, Goor; Odelia, Goor; Shaltiel, Cabilil; Goor, Yoav; Goor, Odelia; Cabili, Shaltiel



Extraction of oil from stable oil-water emulsions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a process of extracting oil from oil-water emulsions containing suspended solid particulates comprising the steps of: (A) introducing the emulsion into a vessel, (B) pressurizing the vessel by adding a volatile hydrocarbon whereby the volatile hydrocarbon in the vessel is in the liquefied state and forms a two-phase system with the emulsion, (C) maintaining the pressure for

S. C. Paspek; C. P. Eppig



Tweens demulsification effects on heavy crude oil\\/water emulsion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The demulsification role of Tweens (nonionic polymers) was determined in the separation of water from heavy crude oil emulsion. According to the previous researches, these nonionic polymers, having hydrophilic and lipophilic groups, are appropriate for making oil in water emulsion. In this research their effects in certain concentrations on demulsifying of water in crude oil emulsion were proved. High molecular

Esmaiel Soleimani; Nastaran Hayati Roodbari; Alireza Badiei; Yeganeh Khaniani


Extraction of oil from stable oil-water emulsions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a process of extracting oil from oil-water emulsions containing suspended solid particulates comprising the steps of: (A) introducing the emulsion into a vessel, (B) pressurizing the vessel by adding a volatile hydrocarbon whereby the volatile hydrocarbon in the vessel is in the liquefied state and forms a two-phase system with the emulsion, (C) maintaining the pressure for

S. C. Paspek; C. P. Eppig



Extraction of oil from stable oil-water emulsions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a process of extracting oil from oil-water emulsions containing suspended solid particulates. It comprises introducing the emulsion into vessel in an extraction system, pressurizing the vessel with a volatile hydrocarbon whereby the volatile hydrocarbon is in the liquified state and forms a two-phase system with the emulsion, maintaining the pressure for a period of time sufficient to

S. C. Paspek; C. P. Eppig



Creaming Rate of Amyl Alcohol?in?Water Emulsions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amyl alcohol\\/water emulsion forms during dye removal from aqueous phases by solvent (amyl alcohol) extraction using reverse micelles of sodium dodecyl benzene sulphonate (SDBS). The phase separation time of the emulsion dictates the residence of the dye removal processes by reverse micelles. The creaming rate of amyl alcohol\\/water emulsion formed in the presence of SDBS has been studied and the

S. Basu; A. Kandhari; A. S. Negi



Automated track recognition and event reconstruction in nuclear emulsion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major advantages of nuclear emulsion for detecting charged particles are its submicron position resolution and sensitivity to minimum ionizing particles. These must be balanced, however, against the difficult manual microscope measurement by skilled observers required for the analysis. We have developed an automated system to acquire and analyze the microscope images from emulsion chambers. Each emulsion plate is analyzed

P. Deines-Jones; A. Aranas; M. L. Cherry; J. Dugas; D. Kudzia; B. S. Nilsen; K. Sengupta; C. J. Waddington; J. P. Wefel; B. Wilczynska; H. Wilczynski; B. Wosiek



Perfluorocarbon emulsions prevent hypoxia of pancreatic ?-cells.  


As oxygen carriers, perfluorocarbon emulsions might be useful to decrease hypoxia of pancreatic islets before transplantation. However, their hydrophobicity prevents their homogenisation in culture medium. To increase the surface of contact between islets and Perfluorooctyl bromide (PFOB), and consequently oxygen delivery, we tested effect of a PFOB emulsion in culture medium on ?-cell lines and rat pancreatic islets. RINm5F ?-cell line or pancreatic rat islets were incubated for 3 days in the presence of PFOB emulsion in media (3.5% w/v). Preoxygenation of the medium was performed before culture. Cell viability was assessed by apoptotic markers (Bax and Bcl-2) and by staining (fluoresceine diacetate and propidium iodide). ?-Cell functionality was determined by insulin release during a glucose stimulation test and. Hypoxia markers, HIF-1? and VEGF, were studied at days 1 and 3 using RT-PCR, Western blotting, and ELISA. PFOB emulsions preserved viability and functionality of RINm5F cells with a decrease of HIF-1? and VEGF expression. Islets viability was preserved during 3 days of culture. Secretion of VEGF was higher in untreated control (0.09 ± 0.041 ?g VEGF/mg total protein) than in PFOB emulsion incubated islets (0.02 ± 0.19 ?g VEGF/mg total protein, n = 4, p < 0.05) at day 1. At day 3, VEGF secretion was increased as compared to day 1 in control (0.23 ± 0.04 ?g VEGF/mg total protein) but it was imbalance by the presence of PFOB emulsion (0.09 ± 0.03 ?g VEGF/mg total protein, n = 5, p < 0.05). While insulin secretion was maintained in response to a glucose stimulation test until day 3 when islets were incubated in the presence of PFOB emulsion preoxygenated (0.81 ± 0.16 at day 1 vs. 0.75 ± 0.24 at day 3), the ability to secrete insulin in the presence of high glucose concentration was lost in islets controls (0.51 ± 0.18 at day 1 vs. 0.21 ± 0.13 at day 3). Atmospheric oxygen delivery by PFOB emulsion might be sufficient to decrease islets hypoxia. However, to improve islets functionality, overoxygenation is needed. Finally, maintenance of islet viability and functionality for several days after isolation could improve the outcome of islets transplantation. PMID:21944582

Maillard, E; Juszczak, M T; Langlois, A; Kleiss, C; Sencier, M C; Bietiger, W; Sanchez-Dominguez, M; Krafft, M P; Johnson, P R V; Pinget, M; Sigrist, S



Electrical properties of chain microstructure magnetic emulsions in magnetic field  

E-print Network

The work deals with the experimental study of the emulsion whose dispersion medium is a magnetic fluid while the disperse phase is formed by a glycerin-water mixture. It is demonstrated that under effect of a magnetic field chain aggregates form from the disperse phase drops. Such emulsion microstructure change affects its macroscopic properties. The emulsion dielectric permeability and specific electrical conductivity have been measured. It is demonstrated that under the effect of relatively weak external magnetic fields (~ 1 kA/m) the emulsion electrical parameters may change several fold. The work theoretically analyzes the discovered regularities of the emulsion electrical properties.

Arthur Zakinyan; Yuri Dikansky; Marita Bedzhanyan



Mixed O/W emulsions stabilized by solid particles: a model system for controlled mass transfer triggered by surfactant addition.  


This article deals with a model mixed oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion system developed to study the effect of surfactants on mass transfer between dispersed oil droplets of different composition. In this purpose, our goal was to formulate O/W emulsions without any surface active agents as stabilizer, which was achieved by replacing surfactants by a mixture of hydrophilic/hydrophobic silica particles. Then, to study the specific role of surfactants in the oil transfer process, different types and concentrations of surfactants were added to the mixed emulsion after its preparation. In such a way, the same original emulsion can be used for all experiments and the influence of various surface active molecules on the oil transfer mechanism can be directly studied. The model mixed emulsion used consists of a mixture of hexadecane-in-water and tetradecane-in-water emulsions. The transfer between tetradecane and hexadecane droplets was monitored by using differential scanning calorimetry, which allows the detection of freezing and melting signals characteristic of the composition of the dispersed oil droplets. The results obtained showed that it is possible to trigger the transfer of tetradecane towards hexadecane droplets by adding surfactants at concentrations above their critical micellar concentration, measured in presence of solid particles, through micellar transport mechanism. PMID:22909967

Drelich, Audrey; Grossiord, Jean-Louis; Gomez, François; Clausse, Danièle; Pezron, Isabelle



Nanoparticle silica-stabilised oil-in-water emulsions: improving emulsion stability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rapid phase separation of oil-in-water (o\\/w) emulsions prepared from non-polar oil and alkaline dispersions of hydrophilic silica nanoparticles alone is described. A study of the roles of the surface chemistry of the particles and the type and composition of the oil and aqueous phases in improving the stability of these emulsions is then reported. Alteration of the particle charge

Bernard P. Binks; Catherine P. Whitby



Na-caseinate/oil/water systems: emulsion morphology diagrams.  


The concentrated (dispersed phase 50-70 wt%) composition space of Na-caseinate, a family of milk proteins, stabilised emulsions was investigated for three different oils: soybean oil, palm olein and tetradecane with pH 6.8 phosphate buffer continuous phase. The variation of emulsion stability and microstructure were explored using static light scattering, diffusion nuclear magnetic resonance, cryo-scanning electron microscopy, rheology and the time varying macroscopic phase separation of the emulsions. For soybean oil and palm olein a rich diversity of emulsion microstructures and stabilities are realised. Five emulsion domains, each having a different microstructure and macroscopic stability have been identified within the composition space probed. For the lowest concentrations of emulsifier bridging flocculation is evident and emulsions are of low stability. Increasing Na-caseinate concentration leads to an increased stability and the existence of distinct individual oil droplets, visualised using cryo-scanning electron microscopy. Further increases in Na-caseinate concentration reduce emulsion stability due to depletion flocculation. Na-caseinate self-assembly is then initiated. At sufficiently high Na-caseinate and/or oil concentrations the continuous phase of the emulsion is a three-dimensional protein network and emulsion stability is again enhanced. At the limits of the emulsion composition space a gel-like paste is formed. The diversity of emulsion microstructure is reduced when tetradecane is the discrete phase. Na-caseinate self-assembly is limited and there is no evidence for formation of a protein network. PMID:22709624

Tan, Hui Lin; McGrath, Kathryn M



One-step process for transforming a water-in-oil emulsion into an oil-in-water emulsion  

SciTech Connect

A process is described for the production of an oil-in-water emulsion for pipeline transmission which comprises: (a) producing a hydrocarbon crude including a water-in-oil emulsion; (b) adding to the hydrocarbon crude when the crude is at a temperature of from about 100/sup 0/ to about 200/sup 0/F, an emulsifier system capable of forming and sustaining an oil-in-water emulsion at the temperature and at ambient pipeline transmission temperatures. The amount of emulsifier system added is sufficient to form and sustain an oil-in-water emulsion having a selected water content of from about 15 percent to about 35 percent by weight water and a viscosity sufficiently low for pipeline transmission; (c) agitating the hydrocarbon crude including a water-in-oil emulsion and the added emulsifier system, to form an oil-in-water emulsion; and (d) separating any excess water from the formed oil-in-water emulsion.

Prasad, R.R.S.



Status and analysis system of directional dark matter search with nuclear emulsion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have been doing research and development for direct dark matter search by nuclear emulsion which is a solid state detector. This experiment enable directional detection of dark matter with the large mass target and model independent. Until now, we constructed a base of fully automatic analysis system and nuclear emulsion which can detect sub-micron tracks. We have demonstrated that it is possible to detect recoiled tracks of 100 nm or more by neutron irradiation. This track length is correspond to 37 keV in C(N,O) target. Additionally, we evaluated the angular resolution of the energy basis by using an ion implant system, and obtained 25 degrees or better resolution in 80 keV carbon ions. The fully automatic analysis system which can analyze very short tracks lead the experiment to next phase, we will do a quantitative study of the background toward gram scale test experiment at the Gran Sasso underground laboratory.

Katsuragawa, T.; Naka, T.; Asada, T.; Yoshimoto, M.; Hakamata, K.; Ishikawa, M.



A comparative study of the physicochemical properties of a virgin coconut oil emulsion and commercial food supplement emulsions.  


Food manufacturers are interested in developing emulsion-based products into nutritional foods by using beneficial oils, such as fish oil and virgin coconut oil (VCO). In this study, the physicochemical properties of a VCO oil-in-water emulsion was investigated and compared to other commercial oil-in-water emulsion products (C1, C2, C3, and C4). C3 exhibited the smallest droplet size of 3.25 µm. The pH for the emulsion samples ranged from 2.52 to 4.38 and thus were categorised as acidic. In a texture analysis, C2 was described as the most firm, very adhesive and cohesive, as well as having high compressibility properties. From a rheological viewpoint, all the emulsion samples exhibited non-Newtonian behaviour, which manifested as a shear-thinning property. The G'G'' crossover illustrated by the VCO emulsion in the amplitude sweep graph but not the other commercial samples illustrated that the VCO emulsion had a better mouthfeel. In this context, the VCO emulsion yielded the highest zeta potential (64.86 mV), which was attributed to its strong repulsive forces, leading to a good dispersion system. C2 comprised the highest percentage of fat among all emulsion samples, followed by the VCO emulsion, with 18.44% and 6.59%, respectively. PMID:24988188

Khor, Yih Phing; Koh, Soo Peng; Long, Kamariah; Long, Shariah; Ahmad, Sharifah Zarah Syed; Tan, Chin Ping



Intelligent gels and cryogels with entrapped emulsions.  


Smart thermoresponsive gels and cryogels with incorporated emulsions have been synthesized and studied. The gels were obtained by three-dimensional copolymerization of N-isopropylacrylamide and N,N'-methylene-bis-acrylamide or N,N'-bis(acryloyl)cystamine in the presence of dispersion of tetradecane stabilized with sodium dodecylsulfate. Polymerization was performed at room temperature and below the water crystallization temperature. Both composite gels and cryogels were capable of heat-induced collapse. The extent of the collapse of the composite gel prepared at room temperature was much smaller and without squeezing of the lipophilic phase out of the shrunk composite gel. In contrast, shrinking of the composite cryogel was accompanied by release of tetradecane emulsion. PMID:18386880

Komarova, Galina A; Starodubtsev, Sergey G; Lozinsky, Vladimir I; Kalinina, Elena V; Landfester, Katharina; Khokhlov, Alexei R



Enzymatic ( R )-phenylacetylcarbinol production in benzaldehyde emulsions  

Microsoft Academic Search

(R)-Phenylacetylcarbinol [(R)-PAC)] is the chiral precursor for the production of the pharmaceuticals ephedrine and pseudoephedrine. Reaction conditions were improved to achieve increased (R)-PAC levels in a simple batch biotransformation of benzaldehyde emulsions and pyruvate, using partially purified pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) from the filamentous fungus Rhizopus javanicus NRRL 13161 as the catalyst. Lowering the temperature from 23°C to 6°C decreased initial

B. Rosche; N. Leksawasdi; V. Sandford; M. Breuer; B. Hauer; P. Rogers



Optofluidic compound microlenses made by emulsion techniques.  


Here we present a new method to make liquid lenses. It is based on the microfluidics method and involves the preparation of emulsions one drop at a time. Tests of lenses by image formation are presented. Experimental results are compared with results of an optical design program. We also present a new type of lens that we call a Compound Lens which consists of two spherical lenses, one inside the other. PMID:20940763

Calixto, Sergio; Rosete-Aguilar, Martha; Sanchez-Marin, Francisco J; Marañon, Virginia; Arauz-Lara, Jose Luis; Olivares, Diana Mendoza; Calixto-Solano, Margarita; Martinez-Prado, E Militza



Emulsions Containing Perfluorocarbon Support Cell Cultures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Addition of emulsion containing perfluorocarbon liquid to aqueous cell-culture medium increases capacity of medium to support mammalian cells. FC-40 Fluorinert (or equivalent) - increases average density of medium so approximately equal to that of cells. Cells stay suspended in medium without mechanical stirring, which damages them. Increases density enough to prevent cells from setting, and increases viscosity of medium so oxygen bubbled through it and nutrients stirred in with less damage to delicate cells.

Ju, Lu-Kwang; Lee, Jaw Fang; Armiger, William B.



Stability and demulsification of petroleum emulsions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Petroleum is predominantly recovered in form of W\\/O-emulsions which are stabilized by petroleum resins and asphaltenes, colloidal\\u000a disperse components of petroleum. Both of these substances are polydisperse, resoluble, oleophilic micellar colloids, ocurring\\u000a in dilutions in spherical form. In concentrated solutions, however, they form larger, inter-micellar structures. These structures\\u000a generally form with the enrichment of resins and asphaltenes at oil\\/water interfaces.

H. Neumann; B. Paczynska-Lahme


Turbulent flow of oil-water emulsions with polymer additives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The article outlines direct and reverse oil-water emulsions. Microphotography study of these emulsions was carried out. The effect of water-soluble and oil soluble polymers on the emulsion structure and their turbulent flow velocity in cylindrical channel was investigated. It has been experimentally proven that if the fluid being transported is not homogeneous, but a two-phase oil-water emulsion, only the polymer that is compatible with dispersion medium and capable of dissolving in this medium can reduce the hydrodynamic resistance of the fluid flow. Thus, the resistance in direct emulsions can be reduced by water- soluble polyacrylamide, while oil-soluble polyhexene can be applied for reverse emulsions.

Manzhai, V. N.; Monkam Clovis Le Grand, Monkam; Abdousaliamov, A. V.



Quantitative approach to ultrasonic emulsion separation.  


Ultrasound of 2 MHz was irradiated to the emulsion prepared from canola oil and water and flocculation of the oil droplets occurred immediately. By putting the emulsion sample in a thin glass cell and setting it in bath type irradiation equipment, the progress of the separation was quantitatively monitored with the optical absorbance. The use of the cell enables visual observation of the behavior of oil droplets. Pictures show the formation of flocks of the dispersed phase and the appearance of checkered pattern consisting of flocks at a regular interval. The observation indicates that the action of radiation forces on oil droplets, which causes the flocculation. The flocks started to rise after stopping irradiation with holding their shape. The rising rate of the flocks was significantly greater than that of oil droplets in the original emulsion. Ultrasonic irradiation caused a rapid decrease in the absorbance, which expresses a progress of the separation. Effects of two major operation parameters, power and time on the separation degree were examined. The degree improved with increasing power input and irradiation time. The dataset was arranged in a plot of normalized separation degree against the input energy. The plot suggests that effective separation was attained with a lower power input and a longer irradiation time. The plot provides a guide for setting condition for the separation. PMID:18725183

Nii, Susumu; Kikumoto, Shunsuke; Tokuyama, Hideaki



Lipid Emulsion for Local Anesthetic Systemic Toxicity  

PubMed Central

The accidental overdose of local anesthetics may prove fatal. The commonly used amide local anesthetics have varying adverse effects on the myocardium, and beyond a certain dose all are capable of causing death. Local anesthetics are the most frequently used drugs amongst anesthetists and although uncommon, local anaesthetic systemic toxicity accounts for a high proportion of mortality, with local anaesthetic-induced cardiac arrest particularly resistant to standard resuscitation methods. Over the last decade, there has been convincing evidence of intravenous lipid emulsions as a rescue in local anesthetic-cardiotoxicity, and anesthetic organisations, over the globe have developed guidelines on the use of this drug. Despite this, awareness amongst practitioners appears to be lacking. All who use local anesthetics in their practice should have an appreciation of patients at high risk of toxicity, early symptoms and signs of toxicity, preventative measures when using local anesthetics, and the initial management of systemic toxicity with intravenous lipid emulsion. In this paper we intend to discuss the pharmacology and pathophysiology of local anesthetics and toxicity, and the rationale for lipid emulsion therapy. PMID:21969824

Ciechanowicz, Sarah; Patil, Vinod



Deformation of Quasi-2D Oil-in-Water Emulsions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We create a quasi-2D nearly frictionless granular system, analogous to 2D granular systems of photoelastic disks but without static friction. To do this, we confine an oil-in-water emulsion between two glass plates such that the gap between the plates is smaller than the undeformed oil droplet diameter. For a range of droplet area fractions and plate separations, we observe the deformations the oil droplets experience due to contact with each other. The deformation of the droplet is correlated to the force its neighbors exert on it. As area fraction increases, the deformation of the droplets increases. By looking at the pattern of deformations throughout the system we visualize the location of force networks due to droplet-droplet interactions.

Golick, Laura; Desmond, Kenneth; Weeks, Eric R.



Method for treating oil-water emulsions and recovering surfactants  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process is described for breaking an oil-water-surfactant emulsion comprising crude oil, brine and surfactant, the emulsion being produced from a reservoir having a known reservoir temperature and a known reservoir salinity and having as one component a microemulsion which exhibits non-classical phase behavior. The process consists of: (a) bringing the temperature of the produced emulsion to be within an

J. R. Bragg; W. W. Gale



Crosslinkable poly(vinyl acetate) emulsions for wood adhesive  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to enhance the water resistance and the heat resistance of poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc) emulsion adhesive, by providing the emulsion with controllable thermosetting capability. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Emulsion polymerisation was used to synthesise PVAc\\/VeoVa 10 copolymers with varying proportions of acetoacetoxyethyl methacrylate (AAEM) incorporated in the copolymer chains. The AAEM component provided sites for

Jia Lu; Allan J. Easteal; Neil R. Edmonds



Semifluorinated Alkanes as Stabilizing Agents of Fluorocarbon Emulsions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We obtained highly stable, small-sized, and narrowly dispersed perfluorooctyl bromide (PFOB) emulsions using combinations of phospholipids and semifluorinated alkanes CnF2n+1CmH2m+1 (FnHm diblocks) as the emulsifying system. For example, after 6 months at 25°C the average droplet diameter of an emulsion stabilized by F6H10 was only ?80nm, compared to ?180 nm for the reference emulsion stabilized by phospholipids alone. In parallel,

Sabina Marie Bertilla; Pascal Marie; Marie Pierre Krafft


Conductivity factor in the electrostatic coalescence of crude oil emulsions  

E-print Network

STATEMENT OF PROBLEM AND OBJECTIVES. EXPERIMENTAL . . . . . . I 4 . . . . . 16 Tests of conductivity modifiers . . . . . . . . . I 6 Coalescence Test ?1: Changing the conductivity of the aqueous phase . . . . . . . . 21 Emulsion preparation... is believed to be the first research effort in this area. Background on Emulsions Formation of petroleum emulsions involves mixing two immiscible liquids, typically one aqueous and the other oil, where one of the liquids is dispersed throughout the other...

Nelson, James B



40 CFR 467.60 - Applicability; description of the drawing with emulsions or soaps subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...description of the drawing with emulsions or soaps subcategory. 467.60 Section 467...SOURCE CATEGORY Drawing With Emulsions or Soaps Subcategory § 467.60 Applicability...description of the drawing with emulsions or soaps subcategory. This subpart...



40 CFR 467.60 - Applicability; description of the drawing with emulsions or soaps subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...description of the drawing with emulsions or soaps subcategory. 467.60 Section 467...SOURCE CATEGORY Drawing With Emulsions or Soaps Subcategory § 467.60 Applicability...description of the drawing with emulsions or soaps subcategory. This subpart...



Stability of high internal phase emulsions with sole cationic surfactant and its tailoring morphology of porous polymers based on the emulsions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stable w\\/o high internal phase emulsion (HIPE) using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as the sole surfactant was prepared with long time further mixing of the emulsion after the addition of aqueous phase was completed, although it was generally considered the emulsion would be unstable according to Bancroft rule. The delta backscattering data of these emulsions showed that the further mixing enhanced

Shengmiao Zhang; Jianding Chen; V. Tamara Perchyonok



Destabilization mechanisms in a triple emulsion with Janus drops.  


The destabilization mechanism was investigated of a triple Janus emulsion. The inner part of the emulsion consisted of Janus drops of a vegetable oil (VO) and a silicone oil (SO) in an aqueous (W) drop, (VO+SO)/W. This drop, in turn was dispersed in a VO drop forming a double emulsion (VO+SO)/W/VO. Finally, these complex drops generated a complex Janus (SO+VO)/W/VO/SO triple emulsion by being dispersed in a continuous SO phase. The observations were limited to the time dependence of the over-all creaming/sedimentation processes, to the separation of layers of the compounds and to optical microscopy of the drop configuration with time. In the destabilization process the rise of the complex drops, (SO+VO)/W/VO, caused crowding in the upper part of the emulsion, which in turn led to enhanced coalescence, inversion and separation of a dilute vegetable oil emulsion. As a consequence of the separation of VO in the process, the remaining drops contained a greater W fraction and greater density. This change, in turn, resulted in sedimentation of the complex drops to form several high internal ratio morphologies in an SO continuous emulsion in the lower part of the test tube, among them a W/VO/SO emulsion. Finally, an inversion took place into an SO/VO/W double emulsion forming a separate bottom layer. PMID:21705010

Hasinovic, Hida; Friberg, Stig E



One-step process for transforming a water-in-oil emulsion into an oil-in-water emulsion  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process is described for the production of an oil-in-water emulsion for pipeline transmission which comprises: (a) producing a hydrocarbon crude including a water-in-oil emulsion; (b) adding to the hydrocarbon crude when the crude is at a temperature of from about 100° to about 200°F, an emulsifier system capable of forming and sustaining an oil-in-water emulsion at the temperature and




The SPHINX code for simulation of processes in X-ray emulsion chambers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A three-dimensional Monte Carlo program is elaborated for simulations of processes in X-ray emulsion chambers and measurement procedures used in experiments both aboard stratospheric balloons and at mountain altitudes. The code is applicable from ˜ 1 GeV to extremely high energies (˜ 10 PeV) for arbitrary type of chamber design including lead, carbon, rubber, air, e.g. The code is easy in use and of access for all the persons via Internet.

Mukhamedshin, R. A.


Nuclear interactions of super high energy cosmic-rays observed in mountain emulsion chambers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here we present a summary of joint discussions on the results of three mountain experiments with large-scale emulsion chambers, at Pamir, Mt. Fuji and Chacaltaya. Observations cover gamma quanta, hadrons and their clusters (called ``families''). The following topics are covered, concerning the characteristics of nuclear interactions the energy region 1014-1016 eV: (i) rapid dissipation seen in atmospheric diffusion of high-energy

S. G. Bayburina; A. S. Borisov; K. V. Cherdyntseva; Z. M. Guseva; V. G. Denisova; A. M. Dunaevskii; E. A. Kanevskaya; V. M. Maximenko; S. V. Pashkov; V. S. Puchkov; S. B. Shaulov; S. A. Slavatinsky; M. D. Smirnova; Yu. A. Smorodin; A. V. Urysson; N. G. Zelevinskaya; G. B. Zhdanov; L. G. Afanasjeva; L. T. Baradzei; E. I. Gorochova; I. P. Ivanenko; N. P. Iljina; G. B. Khristiansen; T. V. Lazareva; A. K. Managadze; E. A. Murzina; I. V. Rakobolskaya; T. M. Roganova; N. G. Ryabova; G. T. Zatsepin; R. A. Mukhamedshin; S. D. Cananov; L. A. Khisanishvili; N. N. Roinishvili; M. S. Svanidge; J. A. Tecliashvili; T. V. Varsimashvili; Z. A. Azimov; I. B. Bodojanov; N. E. Gubar; Yu. A. Gulov; F. Normuradov; Kh. Shobaronov; N. A. Dobrotin; Yu. A. Emeljanov; Yu. T. Lukin; B. F. Shorin; E. G. Zaitseva; S. A. Azimov; A. R. Dzhuraev; E. G. Mulladjanov; Kh. Nutritdinov; D. A. Talipov; I. Shamansurov; T. S. Juldashbaev; Z. Buja; E. Gladysz; J. Mazurkiewicz; S. Mikocki; M. Szarska; L. Zawiejski; H. Bielawska; R. Juskiewicz; J. L. Kacperski; A. Krys; J. Malinowski; K. Milczarek; J. Sroka; A. Tomaszewski; J. A. Wrotniak; K. Maluszynska; Z. Wlodarczyk; M. Akashi; M. Amenomori; E. Konishi; H. Nanjo; Z. Watanabe; K. Mizutani; K. Kasahara; S. Torii; T. Yuda; T. Shirai; N. Tateyama; T. Taira; I. Mito; M. Shibata; H. Sugimoto; K. Taira; N. Hotta; M. Ballester; C. Santos; J. Bellandi Filho; J. A. Chinellato; C. Dobrigkeit; C. M. G. Lattes; A. Marques; M. J. Menon; C. E. Navia O; K. Sawayanagi; E. Silva; E. H. Shibuya; A. Turtelli; N. M. Amato; F. M. Oliveira Castro; R. H. C. Maldonado; H. Aoki; Y. Fuyimoto; S. Hasegawa; H. Kumano; H. Semba; T. Tabuki; M. Tamada; K. Tanaka; S. Yamashita; N. Arata; T. Shibata; K. Yokoi; A. Ohsawa



Double inversion of emulsions induced by salt concentration.  


The effects of salt on emulsions containing sorbitan oleate (Span 80) and Laponite particles were investigated. Surprisingly, a novel double phase inversion was induced by simply changing the salt concentration. At fixed concentration of Laponite particles in the aqueous phase and surfactant in paraffin oil, emulsions are oil in water (o/w) when the concentration of NaCl is lower than 5 mM. Emulsions of water in oil (w/o) are obtained when the NaCl concentration is between 5 and 20 mM. Then the emulsions invert to o/w when the salt concentration is higher than 50 mM. In this process, different emulsifiers dominate the composition of the interfacial layer, and the emulsion type is correspondingly controlled. When the salt concentration is low in the aqueous dispersion of Laponite, the particles are discrete and can move to the interface freely. Therefore, the emulsions are stabilized by particles and surfactant, and the type is o/w as particles are in domination. At intermediate salt concentrations, the aqueous dispersions of Laponite are gel-like, the viscosity is high, and the transition of the particles from the aqueous phase to the interface is inhibited. The emulsions are stabilized mainly by lipophilic surfactant, and w/o emulsions are obtained. For high salt concentration, flocculation occurs and the viscosity of the dispersion is reduced; thus, the adsorption of particles is promoted and the type of emulsions inverts to o/w. Laser-induced fluorescent confocal micrographs and cryo transmission electron microscopy clearly confirm the adsorption of Laponite particles on the surface of o/w emulsion droplets, whereas the accumulation of particles at the w/o emulsion droplet surfaces was not observed. This mechanism is also supported by the results of rheology and interfacial tension measurements. PMID:22475400

Zhang, Jingchun; Li, Lu; Wang, Jun; Sun, Haigang; Xu, Jian; Sun, Dejun



Crude oil emulsions containing a compatible fluorochemical surfactant  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a crude oil in water emulsion, which is stable to both breakdown and phase inversion up to at least about 50{degrees} C., the emulsion containing an effective, compatible, emulsion stabilizing amount of a fluorochemical surfactant of the formula (R{sub {ital f}}){sub {ital n}}A{sub {ital m}}Q wherein R{sub {ital f}} is an inert, stable, oleophobic and hydrophobic fluoroaliphatic group having up to about 20 carbon atoms; n is an integer from 1 to 3; A is a direct bond or an organic linking group and is covalently bonded to both R{sub {ital f}} and Q; Q is an anionic, nonionic or amphoteric group; and m is an integer from 1 to 3; wherein the amount of weight of the fluorochemical surfactant present in the emulsion being between about 0.001 and 1% by weight of the emulsion, in the presence of absence of up to about 2% by weight of a crude oil emulsion promoting hydrocarbon surfactant, with the proviso that at least about 0.005% by weight total fluorochemical and hydrocarbon surfactant is present, based upon the weight of emulsion, and wherein the emulsion contains bout 15 to about 90 percent by weight water, based upon the weight of emulsion, such that the viscosity of the emulsion is less than about 50% of the viscosity of the crude oil, and wherein the emulsion spontaneously breaks down into an aqueous and crude oil phase at a temperature between about 55{degrees} and 75{degrees} C.

Karydas, A.; Rodgers, J.



Production of vegetable oil in milk emulsions using membrane emulsification  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of emulsions using milk as the continuous phase has a number of applications of interest from the food industry's point of view. In addition, producing an emulsion with a narrow drop size distribution is interesting since their increased stability could avoid Oswald ripening and creaming.Membrane emulsification is a novel technique which helps to obtain a narrower distribution compared

G. Gutiérrez; M. Rayner; P. Dejmek



Mathematical modeling of the UHF heating of water oil emulsions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Questions of mathematical aspects of microwave technologies development for the oil extraction complex are considered. Mathematical modeling methods are discussed. Common aspects of mathematical modeling of water oil emulsions are considered. Accent was made on the fact that mathematical model of the UHF heating of water oil emulsion was the \\

G. A. Morozov; Oleg G. Morozov



Method of breaking shale oil-water emulsion  

Microsoft Academic Search

A technique is described for breaking the very strong emulsion of shale oil and water produced by an in situ oil shale retorting process so that separate shale oil and water phases can be recovered. The emusion is broken by maintaining a volume of such emulsion at a bulk temperature of at least about 120°F, and momentarily heating portions of



Method of breaking shale oil--water emulsion  

Microsoft Academic Search

A technique is described for breaking the very strong emulsion of shale oil and water produced by an in situ oil shale retorting process so that separate shale oil and water phases can be recovered. The emulsion is broken by heating it to a temperature of at least about 120°F and holding at a temperature in the range of from



Pickering emulsions stabilized by paraffin wax and Laponite clay particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emulsions containing wax in dispersed droplets stabilized by disc-like Laponite clay particles are prepared. Properties of the emulsions prepared at different temperatures are examined using stability, microscopy and droplet-size analysis. At low temperature, the wax crystals in the oil droplets can protrude through the interface, leading to droplet coalescence. But at higher temperatures, the droplet size decreases with wax concentration.

Caifu Li; Qian Liu; Zhen Mei; Jun Wang; Jian Xu; Dejun Sun



Multi-responsive ionic liquid emulsions stabilized by microgels.  


We present a complete toolbox to use responsive ionic liquid (IL) emulsions for extraction purposes. IL emulsions stabilized by responsive microgels are shown to allow rapid extraction and reversible breaking and re-emulsification. Moreover, by using a paramagnetic ionic liquid, droplets can be easily collected in low magnetic fields. PMID:25177844

Monteillet, Hélène; Workamp, Marcel; Li, Xiaohua; Schuur, Boelo; Kleijn, J Mieke; Leermakers, Frans A M; Sprakel, Joris



Emulsion design to improve the delivery of functional lipophilic components.  


The food industry has used emulsion science and technology for many years to create a diverse range of food products, such as milk, cream, soft drinks, nutritional beverages, dressings, mayonnaise, sauces, dips, deserts, ice cream, margarine, and butter. The majority of these food products are conventional oil-in-water (O/W) or water-in-oil (W/O) type emulsions. Recently, there has been increasing interest within the food industry in either improving or extending the functional performance of foods using novel structured emulsions. This article reviews recent developments in the creation of structured emulsions that could be used by the food and other industries, including nanoemulsions, multiple emulsions, multilayer emulsions, solid lipid particles, and filled hydrogel particles. These structured emulsions can be produced from food-grade [generally recognized as safe (GRAS)] ingredients (e.g., lipids, proteins, polysaccharides, surfactants, and minerals), using simple processing operations (e.g., mixing, homogenizing, and thermal processing). The structure, production, performance, and potential applications of each type of structured emulsion system are discussed. PMID:22129337

McClements, David Julian



Demulsification of Emulsions Exploited by Enhanced Oil Recovery System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental data are presented to show the influence of the enhanced oil recovery system's components, alkali, surfactant, and polymer, on the demulsification and light transmittance of the water separated from the emulsions. Among which, the effects of surfactants, polyoxyethylene (10) alkylphenol ether (OP?10) and sodium petroleum sulfonate (CY?1) on emulsion stability, are the strongest of any component, the effects of

Lixin Xia; Shiwei Lu; Guoying Cao



Modeling of a Foamed Emulsion Bioreactor: II. Model Parametric Sensitivity  

E-print Network

ARTICLE Modeling of a Foamed Emulsion Bioreactor: II. Model Parametric Sensitivity Eunsung Kan: The sensitivity of a conceptual model of a foam emulsion bioreactor (FEBR) used for the control of toluene vapors in air was examined. Model parametric sensitivity studies showed which parameters affect the removal


Nanoscale and Microscale Iron Emulsions for Treating DNAPL  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study demonstrated the feasibility of using emulsified nanoscale and microscale iron particles to enhance dehalogenation of (Dense Non-Aqueous Phase Liquid) DNAPL free-phase. The emulsified system consisted of a surfactant-stabilized, biodegradable oil-in-water emulsion with nanoscale or microscale iron particles contained within the emulsion droplets. It was demonstrated that DNAPLs, such as trichloroethene (TCE), diffuse through the oil membrane of the emulsion particle whereupon they reach an aqueous interior and the surface of an iron particle where dehalogenation takes place. The hydrocarbon reaction by-products of the dehalogenation reaction, primarily ethene (no chlorinated products detected), diffuse out of the emulsion droplet. This study also demonstrated that an iron-emulsion system could be delivered in-situ to the DNAPL pool in a soil matrix by using a simulated push well technique. Iron emulsions degraded pure TCE at a rate comparable to the degradation of dissolved phase TCE by iron particles, while pure iron had a very low degradation rate for free-phase TCE. The iron-emulsion systems can be injected into a sand matrix where they become immobilized and are not moved by flowing water. It has been documented that surfactant micelles possess the ability to pull pooled TCE into emulsion droplets where degradation of TCE takes place.

Geiger, Cherie L.



Breakup of double emulsions in constrictions Haosheng Chen,ab  

E-print Network

, double emulsion has been shown to be an excellent structure for encapsulation and release of active materials in appli- cations such as drug delivery, food processing and cosmetics.2,3 Compared been released by breaking the encapsulating double emulsions thermally8,9 or osmotically.10 In some


Preparation of double emulsions by membrane emulsification—a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Double emulsions have potential for the production of low calorie food products, encapsulation of medicines and other high value products. The main issue is the difficulty to efficiently produce double emulsions in a well controlled manner due to their shear sensitivity. In membrane emulsification only mild shear stresses are applied and it is therefore expected that this process is very

S. van der Graaf; C. G. P. H. Schroën; R. M. Boom



Hyperpolarized xenon relaxation times in perfluorocarbon emulsion and plasma mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hyperpolarized xenon (Hyp-129Xe) has great potential in perfusion, blood flow and functional investigations of organs beyond the lungs. Injection of xenon in a dissolved carrier would be the best delivery method for this purpose. The blood substitute perfluorooctyl bromide (PFOB) emulsion is the leading candidate as a carrier. To assess the suitability of PFOB emulsion as a Hyp-129Xe carrier, spectra

Albert R. Cross; Dan McPhee; Dale Stevens; Mark McDonald; Giles E. Santyr



Notes & Tips A streamlined protocol for emulsion polymerase chain reaction  

E-print Network

Notes & Tips A streamlined protocol for emulsion polymerase chain reaction and subsequent online 25 November 2010 a b s t r a c t Compartmentalization of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) reduces denaturation steps in PCR [3]. A water-in-oil emulsion allows many reactions to occur inde- pendently

Konthur, Zoltán


Zero-Valent Metal Emulsion for Reductive Dehalogenation of DNAPLs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A zero-valent metal emulsion is used to dehalogenate solvents, such as pooled dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs), including trichloroethylene (TCE). The zero-valent metal emulsion contains zero-valent metal particles, a surfactant, oil and water, The preferred zero-valent metal particles are nanoscale and microscale zero-valent iron particles.

Reinhart, Debra R. (Inventor); Clausen, Christian (Inventor); Gelger, Cherie L. (Inventor); Quinn, Jacqueline (Inventor); Brooks, Kathleen (Inventor)



Zero-Valent Metal Emulsion for Reductive Dehalogenation of DNAPLS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A zero-valent metal emulsion is used to dehalogenate solvents, such as pooled dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs), including trichloroethylene (TCE). The zero-valent metal emulsion contains zero-valent metal particles, a surfactant, oil and water. The preferred zero-valent metal particles are nanoscale and microscale zero-valent iron particles

Reinhart, Debra R. (Inventor); Clausen, Christian (Inventor); Geiger, Cherie L. (Inventor); Quinn, Jacqueline (Inventor); Brooks, Kathleen (Inventor)



Synthesis of metallic nanoshells on porphyrin-stabilized emulsions  


Metal nanostructures formed by photocatalytic interfacial synthesis using a porphyrin-stabilized emulsion template and the method for making the nanostructures. Catalyst-seeded emulsion droplets are employed as templates for hollow-nanoshell growth. The hollow metal nanospheres may be formed with or without inclusions of other materials.

Wang, Haorong (Albuquerque, NM); Song, Yujiang (Albuquerque, NM); Shelnutt, John A. (Tijeras, NM); Medforth, Craig J. (Winters, CA)



Formulation of indomethacin emulsion using biopolymer of Prunus avium.  


The aim of the investigation was to formulate Indomethacin Emulsion using Bio-polymer as Emulsifier. Different batches of emulsions were prepared by varying concentration of biopolymer prunus avium. Based evaluation of the prepared polymers, a conclusion can be drawn that in the Prunus avium bio-material can serve as a promising film forming agent for formulating various drug. PMID:23066192

Verma, Shivangi; Dabral, Prashant; Rana, Vinod; Upadhaya, Kumud; Bhardwaj



Chitin nanocrystals for pickering high internal phase emulsions.  


Chitin is a natural polymer of glucosamine bearing N-acetyl groups. Chitin nanocrystals (ChiNCs), resulting from the acid hydrolysis of amorphous regions of chitin, are crystalline positively charged rod-like particles. ChiNCs show some interfacial properties and very efficiently stabilize oil/water interfaces, leading to the so-called Pickering emulsions. In accordance with the irreversible adsorption of particles, these Pickering emulsions proved stable over time, with constant emulsion volume for several months, even though natural creaming may occur. The emulsions produced are not clearly susceptible to ionic strength or pH in terms of average droplet diameter. However, when mixed with a large amount of oil, high internal phase emulsions (HIPE) containing up to 96% of internal phase are formed as a gel with a texture that can be modulated from soft to solid gel by adjusting concentration, pH, and ionic strength. PMID:25180643

Perrin, Emilie; Bizot, Hervé; Cathala, Bernard; Capron, Isabelle



Rejuvenation of Spent Media via Supported Emulsion Liquid Membranes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The overall goal of this project was to maximize the reuseability of spent fermentation media. Supported emulsion liquid membrane separation, a highly efficient extraction technique, was used to remove inhibitory byproducts during fermentation; thus, improve the yield while reducing the need for fresh water. The key objectives of this study were: (1) Develop an emulsion liquid membrane system targeting low molecular weight organic acids which has minimal toxicity on a variety of microbial systems. (2) Conduct mass transfer studies to allow proper modeling and design of a supported emulsion liquid membrane system. (3) Investigate the effect of gravity on emulsion coalescence within the membrane unit. (4) Access the effect of water re-use on fermentation yields in a model microbial system. and (5) Develop a perfusion-type fermentor utilizing a supported emulsion liquid membrane system to control inhibitory fermentation byproducts (not completed due to lack of funds)

Wiencek, John M.



Structure- and oil type-based efficacy of emulsion adjuvants.  


Oil-based emulsions are well-known immunopotentiators for inactivated, "killed" vaccines. We addressed the relationship between emulsion structure and levels of in vivo antibody formation to inactivated New Castle Disease virus (NDV) and Infectious Bronchitis virus (IBV) as antigens in 3-week-old chickens. The use of a polymeric emulsifier allowed for direct comparison of three types of emulsions, water-in-oil (W/O), oil-in-water (O/W) and W/O-in-water (W/O/W), while maintaining an identical content of components for each vehicle. They were prepared with either non-metabolizable, mineral oil or metabolizable, Miglyol 840. In addition, we assessed the inherent release capacity of each emulsion variant in vitro. Remarkably, we noted that W/O-type emulsions induced the best immune responses, while they released no antigen during 3 weeks. In general, mineral oil vaccines showed superior efficacy compared to Miglyol 840-based vaccines. PMID:16675072

Jansen, Theo; Hofmans, Marij P M; Theelen, Marc J G; Manders, Frans; Schijns, Virgil E J C



Radiosensitivity, blood perfusion and tumour oxygenation after perflubron emulsion injection.  


The effect of 90% and/or 100% w/v perflubron (perfluorooctyl bromide (PFOB); Alliance Pharmaceutical Corp.) emulsions on radiosensitivity, tumour relative perfusion and oxygenation was studied using EMT6 tumours in nude mice. Perflubron (2-15 ml/kg) emulsion was injected. The mice inhaled carbogen for 30 min and 60 min prior to irradiation. The radiosensitizing effect of the 90% w/v emulsion was maximal at 4 ml/kg. The tumour relative perfusion diminished after injection of both 100% and 90% w/v emulsions in carbogen-breathing mice at a dose of 15 ml/kg. This drop could explain the lack of efficiency of these treatments at this high concentration. Lastly, tumour oxygenation was increased after administration of perflubron emulsion plus carbogen. PMID:8356225

Vitu-Loas, L; Thomas, C; Chavaudra, N; Guichard, M



Domain and droplet sizes in emulsions stabilized by colloidal particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Particle-stabilized emulsions are commonly used in various industrial applications. These emulsions can present in different forms, such as Pickering emulsions or bijels, which can be distinguished by their different topologies and rheology. We numerically investigate the effect of the volume fraction and the uniform wettability of the stabilizing spherical particles in mixtures of two fluids. For this, we use the well-established three-dimensional lattice Boltzmann method, extended to allow for the added colloidal particles with non-neutral wetting properties. We obtain data on the domain sizes in the emulsions by using both structure functions and the Hoshen-Kopelman (HK) algorithm, and we demonstrate that both methods have their own (dis)advantages. We confirm an inverse dependence between the concentration of particles and the average radius of the stabilized droplets. Furthermore, we demonstrate the effect of particles detaching from interfaces on the emulsion properties and domain-size measurements.

Frijters, Stefan; Günther, Florian; Harting, Jens



Emulsion liquid membrane extraction of lactic acid from aqueous solutions and fermentation broth.  


Studies on the batch extraction of lactic acid using an emulsion liquid membrane system are reported. The membrane phase consists of the tertiary amine carrier Alamine 336 and the surfactant Span 80 dissolved in n-heptane/paraffin and aqueous solutions of sodium carbonate in the internal phase. The effects of internal phase reagent, extraction temperature, and initial external phase pH on the extraction efficiency and the emulsion swelling are examined. A statistical factorial experiment on extraction from clarified lactic acid fermentation broth was carried out to obtain knowledge of the performance of the extraction system from a broth. The extraction efficiency from the fermentation broth is found to be lower as compared to aqueous solutions of pure lactic acid. The effect of pH and the presence of other ionic species on selectivity are discussed. PMID:18609647

Schöller, C; Chaudhuri, J B; Pyle, D L



Effects of surfactant structure on the phase inversion of emulsions stabilized by mixtures of silica nanoparticles and cationic surfactant.  


Silica nanoparticles without any surface modification are not surface active at the toluene-water interface due to their extreme hydrophilicity but can be surface activated in situ by adsorbing cationic surfactant from water. This work investigates the effects of the molecular structure of water-soluble cationic surfactant on the surface activation of the nanoparticles by emulsion characterization, adsorption and zeta potential measurements, dispersion stability experiments, and determination of relevant contact angles. The results show that an adsorbed cationic surfactant monolayer on particle surfaces is responsible for the wettability modification of the particles. In the presence of a trace amount of cationic surfactant, the hydrophobicity of the particles increases, leading to the formation of stable oil-in-water O/W(1) emulsions. At high surfactant concentration (>cmc) the particle surface is retransformed to hydrophilic due to double-layer or hemimicelle formation, and the concentration of the free surfactant in the aqueous phase is high enough to stabilize emulsions alone. O/W(2) emulsions, probably costabilized by free surfactant and particles, are then formed. The monolayer adsorption seems to be charge-site dependent. Thus, using single-chain trimethylammonium bromide surfactants or a double-head gemini cationic surfactant, the hydrophobicity of the particles achieved is not sufficient to stabilize water-in-oil (W/O) emulsions, and no phase inversion is induced. However, using a double-chain cationic surfactant, the chain density on the particle surfaces endows them with a hydrophobicity high enough to stabilize W/O emulsions, and double phase inversion, O/W(1) --> W/O --> O/W(2), can then be achieved by increasing the surfactant concentration. PMID:19950938

Cui, Z-G; Yang, L-L; Cui, Y-Z; Binks, B P




Microsoft Academic Search

The kinetics of emulsion polymerization induced by BETA , gamma , and ; x radiation are discussed. Such ionizing radiations induce the polymerization of ; some vinyl monomers in aqueous emulsion with high radiation yields, and with ; identical emulsion compositions, the kinetics of this reaction and the kinetics ; of emulsion polymerization induced by water-soluble initiators are very similar.

D. Hummel



Research of inverted emulsions properties on the base of new emulsifiers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emulsifiers on the base of tallol and ethanolamines derived acids have been researched in the paper. Electrical stability of emulsions drilling muds has been investigated. It is proved that synthesized emulsifiers according to emulsion stability can be divided into two groups. The first group is emulsifiers with high initial electrical stability but low emulsion stability under long-term storing, and the second group is emulsifiers with low electrical stability but with high emulsion stability. Emulsions flow characteristics have been researched. It is established that emulsifier on the base of ethanolamine provides better emulsion characteristics for drilling muds emulsions.

Minaev, K.; Epikhin, A.; Novoseltsev, D.; Andropov, M.; Yanovsky, V.; Ulyanova, O.



Low momentum particle detector for the NA61 experiment at CERN  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NA61 Experiment at CERN SPS is a large acceptance hadron spectrometer, aimed to studying hadron-hadron, hadron-nucleus, and nucleus-nucleus interactions in a fixed target environment. The present paper discusses the construction and performance of the Low Momentum Particle Detector (LMPD), a small time projection chamber unit which has been added to the NA61 setup in 2012. The LMPD considerably extends the detector acceptance towards the backward region, surrounding the target in hadron-nucleus interactions. The LMPD features simultaneous range and ionization measurements, which allows for particle identification and momentum measurement in the 0.1-0.25 GeV/c momentum range for protons. The possibility of Z=1 particle identification in this range is directly demonstrated.

Márton, Krisztina; Kiss, Gábor; László, András; Varga, Dezs?



The Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research and the Compressed Baryonic Matter Experiment  

SciTech Connect

The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment will be one of the major scientific activities at the future Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) in Darmstadt. The goal of the CBM research program is to explore the QCD phase diagram in the region of high baryon densities using high-energy nucleus-nucleus collisions. This includes the study of the equation-of-state of nuclear matter at high densities, and the search for the deconfinement and chiral phase transitions. The CBM detector is designed to measure both bulk observables with large acceptance and rare diagnostic probes such as charmed particles and vector mesons decaying into lepton pairs. The layout and the physics performance of the proposed CBM experimental facility will be discussed.

Senger, P. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany)



Yielding and flow in adhesive and nonadhesive concentrated emulsions.  


The nonlinear rheological response of soft glassy materials is addressed experimentally by focusing on concentrated emulsions where interdroplet attraction is tuned through varying the surfactant content. Velocity profiles are recorded using ultrasonic velocimetry simultaneously to global rheological data in the Couette geometry. Our data show that nonadhesive and adhesive emulsions have radically different flow behaviors in the vicinity of yielding: while the flow remains homogeneous in the nonadhesive emulsion and the Herschel-Bulkley model for a yield stress fluid describes the data very accurately, the adhesive system displays shear localization and does not follow a simple constitutive equation, suggesting that the mechanisms involved in yielding transitions are not universal. PMID:16712042

Bécu, Lydiane; Manneville, Sébastien; Colin, Annie



Microwave Enhanced Separation of Water-In-Oil Emulsions  

E-print Network

of electro magnetic waves. INTRODUCTION Viscous and stable water-in-oil emulsions are generated in various industrial operations, such as petroleum refining, natural gas pipeline opera bon, and cutting or grinding in equiprent fabrica tion. Since itis... and oil. For water-in-oil emulsion with 50% emulsified water, attenuation factor varies from 0.00876 em-I at 28?C to 0.00588 em-I at 69.3?C. For water-in-oil emulsion with 30% water, attenuation factor varies from 0.00463 em-I at 28.8?C to 0.00341 em...

Fang, C. S.; Lai, P.


Superhydrophobic cellulose-based bionanocomposite films from Pickering emulsions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inherently superhydrophobic and flexible cellulose-based bionanocomposites were fabricated from solid stabilized (Pickering) emulsions. Emulsions were formed by dispersing cyclosiloxanes in water stabilized by layered silicate particles and were subsequently modified by blending into a zinc oxide nanofluid. The polymer matrix was a blend of cellulose nitrate and fluoroacrylic polymer (Zonyl 8740) precompatibilized in solution. Coatings were spray cast onto aluminum substrates from polymer blends dispersed in modified Pickering emulsions. No postsurface treatment was required to induce superhydrophobicity. Effect of antiseptic additives on bionanocomposite superhydrophobicity is also discussed. Replacing cellulose nitrate with commercial liquid bandage solutions produced identical superhydrophobic coatings.

Bayer, Ilker S.; Steele, Adam; Martorana, Philip J.; Loth, Eric; Miller, Lance



Temperature dependence of emulsion morphologies and the dispersion morphology diagram for three-phase emulsions  

SciTech Connect

Using several different compositions of the (pseudo)ternary amphiphile/oil/{open_quotes}water{close_quotes} system C{sub 6}H{sub 13}(OC{sub 2}H{sub 4}){sub 2}OH/n-tetradecane/aqueous 10 mM NaCl that form oil-rich top phases (J), water-rich bottom phases ({Beta}), and middle-phase microemulsions (m), we showed by means of electrical conductivity measurements that the temperature dependencies of the three-phase emulsion morphologies were consistent with predictions from isothermal dispersion morphology diagrams, thus contradicting ideas derived from the PIT (phase inversion temperature) model for two-phase emulsions. In particular, we formed three-phase emulsions in which either (1) the continuous phase was an oil-rich phase (actually, m) below the PIT and the water-rich phase ({Beta}) above that temperature; (2) the water-rich phase was continuous both below and above the PIT; or (3) oil-rich phase was the continuous phase both below and above the PIT.

Smith, D.H.; Johnson, G.K. [Morgantown Energy Technology Center, WV (United States)



Theoretical analysis of efficient microwave processing of oil–water emulsions attached with various ceramic plates  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detailed theoretical analysis has been carried out to study efficient microwave processing of 1D emulsion samples placed on ceramic plates (alumina, SiC). The effective dielectric property of an emulsion is a strong function of the continuous medium of the emulsion (o\\/w or w\\/o). A preliminary study has been carried out via average power within an emulsion vs emulsion thickness

Sujoy Kumar Samanta; Tanmay Basak



Bacterial imprinting at pickering emulsion interfaces.  


The tendency of bacteria to assemble at oil-water interfaces can be utilized to create microbial recognition sites on the surface of polymer beads. In this work, two different groups of bacteria were first treated with acryloyl-functionalized chitosan and then used to stabilize an oil-in-water emulsion composed of cross-linking monomers that were dispersed in aqueous buffer. Polymerization of the oil phase followed by removal of the bacterial template resulted in well-defined polymer beads bearing bacterial imprints. Chemical passivation of chitosan and cell displacement assays indicate that the bacterial recognition on the polymer beads was dependent on the nature of the pre-polymer and the target bacteria. The functional materials for microbial recognition show great potential for constructing cell-cell communication networks, biosensors, and new platforms for testing antibiotic drugs. PMID:25111359

Shen, Xiantao; Svensson Bonde, Johan; Kamra, Tripta; Bülow, Leif; Leo, Jack C; Linke, Dirk; Ye, Lei



Water-in-oil emulsion explosive composition  

SciTech Connect

A water-in-oil emulsion explosive composition which has enhanced storage stability is described. The explosive composition comprises a disperse phase formed of an aqueous oxidizer solution consisting of (1) ammonium nitrate or a mixture of ammonium nitrate and another oxidizer salt, (2) water and (3) a specifically limited weak acid salt or condensed phosphate, (4) a continuous phase consisting of fuel oil and/or wax, (5) an emulsifier, and (6) hollow microspheres or microbubbles. The weak acid salts consist of lithium, sodium, potassium, calcium, and ammonium salts of carbonic acid, boric acid, acetic acid, silicic acid, and citric acid. As the condensed phosphates, use is made of orthophosphates, polyphosphates, metaphosphates, and ultraphosphates. 6 claims.

Takeuchi, F.; Takahashi, M.



Nuclear Emulsion Film Detectors for Proton Radiography:. Design and Test of the First Prototype  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Proton therapy is nowadays becoming a wide spread clinical practice in cancer therapy and sophisticated treatment planning systems are routinely used to exploit at best the ballistic properties of charged particles. The information on the quality of the beams and the range of the protons is a key issue for the optimization of the treatment. For this purpose, proton radiography can be used in proton therapy to obtain direct information on the range of the protons, on the average density of the tissues for treatment planning optimization and to perform imaging with negligible dose to the patient. We propose an innovative method based on nuclear emulsion film detectors for proton radiography, a technique in which images are obtained by measuring the position and the residual range of protons passing through the patient's body. Nuclear emulsion films interleaved with tissue equivalent absorbers can be fruitfully used to reconstruct proton tracks with very high precision. The first prototype of a nuclear emulsion based detector has been conceived, constructed and tested with a therapeutic proton beam at PSI. The scanning of the emulsions has been performed at LHEP in Bern, where a fully automated microscopic scanning technology has been developed for the OPERA experiment on neutrino oscillations. After track reconstruction, the first promising experimental results have been obtained by imaging a simple phantom made of PMMA with a step of 1 cm. A second phantom with five 5 × 5 mm2 section aluminum rods located at different distances and embedded in a PMMA structure has been also imaged. Further investigations are in progress to improve the resolution and to image more sophisticated phantoms.

Braccini, S.; Ereditato, A.; Kreslo, I.; Moser, U.; Pistillo, C.; Studer, S.; Scampoli, P.



Electrical stability, emulsion stability, and wettability of invert oil-based muds  

SciTech Connect

Until now, drilling-fluid specialists measured trends in the electrical stability (ES) test to decide the appropriate emulsifier treatment for invert-emulsion oil-based muds without knowing what the ES test was measuring. This paper describes what happens in a mud during an ES test, how mud composition affects trends in the ES measurements, and how observed trends can be used to deduce mud-emulsion stability and oil wettability. During an ES test, electrical breakdown is induced in the mud between the electrodes. This process was observed, with an optical microscope, to involve formation of a conductive bridge composed of aqueous fluid and particulate matter. Experiments showed that water forms the conductive pathway in the bridge, whereas the solids appear to be involved only as carriers of the water. E[sub o], the voltage at which the conductive bridge is formed and the current rises abruptly, was found to be a function of the viscosity and the types and concentrations of solids, aqueous fluid, and emulsifiers (surfactants). These trends are consistent with a theoretical expression for breakdown of particulate-contaminated dielectric fluids, which suggests that the E[sub o] of a mud is an absolute measure of its emulsion stability but only a relative measure of its oil-wetting tendency. Trends in E[sub o] are also consistent in most cases with other field indicators of emulsion stability, such as high-temperature, high-pressure (HTHP) fluid loss. Anomalies in E[sub o] trends are explained in terms of a physicochemical model for electrical breakdown.

Growcock, F.B.; Ellis, C.F.; Schmidt, D.D.



PEGylated polyethylenimine for in vivo local gene delivery based on lipiodolized emulsion system.  


Polyethylenimine (PEI) is one of the most efficient vectors for non-viral gene delivery, whereas its poor transfection activity, compared to viral vectors, and cytotoxicity need to be improved for in vivo applications. In this study, we prepared two PEI conjugates with 6 and 10 wt.% of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) grafts (referred to PEI-PEG-6 and PEI-PEG-10, respectively) in order to investigate the effects of PEGylation on cytotoxicity and transfection activity in vitro. In addition, their suitability as vectors for local gene delivery in vivo was assessed by injecting lipiodolized emulsions containing polymer/DNA complexes into the femoral artery of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats, occluded by a surgical suture to block inflow of the blood to the leg. Both PEGylated PEIs showed significantly lower cytotoxicity and higher transfection activity in COS-1 cells than PEI taken as a control; in particular, PEI-PEG-10 produced the most promising results. The stable water-in-oil emulsion, composed of aqueous domains containing the complexes and lipiodol as an oil phase, was formed in the presence of a hydrogenated castor oil. From in vivo experiments, it was found that all the complexes, dispersed in the lipiodolized emulsion, delivered effectively gene to muscle, surrounding the injection site, rather than other organs such as liver, spleen, kidney, heart and lung. The in vivo transfection activity of PEI-PEG-10 was 3-folds higher in muscle than that of PEI. Based on these results, it can be concluded that PEGylated PEIs (based on the lipiodolized emulsion system) hold a promising potential for local gene delivery in vivo. PMID:15342189

Hong, Jung Wan; Park, Jae Hyung; Huh, Kang Moo; Chung, Hesson; Kwon, Ick Chan; Jeong, Seo Young



Transport of Nitric Oxide by Perfluorocarbon Emulsion  

PubMed Central

Perfluorocarbon (PFC) emulsions can transport and release various gases based on concentration gradients. The objective of this study was to determine the possibility of carrying and delivering exogenous nitric oxide (NO) into the circulation by simply loading PFC emulsion with NO prior infusion. PFC was equilibrated with room air (PFC) or 300 ppm NO (PFC-NO) at atmospheric pressure. Isotonic saline solution was used as a volume control (Saline). PFC and PFC-NO were infused at a dose of 3.5 mL/kg in the hamster window chamber model. Blood chemistry, and systemic and microvascular hemodynamic response were measured. Infusion of PFC preloaded with NO reduced blood pressure, induced microvascular vasodilation and increased capillary perfusion; although these changes lasted less than 30 min post infusion. On the other hand, infusion of PFC (without NO) produced vasoconstriction; however, the vasoconstriction was followed by vasodilatation at 30 min post infusion. Plasma nitrite and nitrate increased 15 min after infusion of NO preloaded PFC compared to PFC, 60 min after infusion nitrite and nitrate were not different, and 90 min after infusion plasma S-nitrosothiols increased in both groups. Infusion of NO preloaded PFC resulted in acute vascular relaxation, where as infusion of PFC (without NO) produced vasoconstriction, potentially due to NO sequestration by the PFC micelles. The late effects of PFC infusion are due to NO redistribution and plasma S-nitrosothiols. Gas solubility in PFC can provide a tool to modulate plasma vasoactive NO forms availability and improve microcirculatory function and promote increased blood flow. PMID:23966236

Ortiz, Daniel; Briceno, Juan C.; Cabrales, Pedro



Ultrasonication-assisted preparation of water-in-oil emulsions and application to the removal of cationic dyes from water by emulsion liquid membrane  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, the efficiency of emulsification by ultrasound was investigated for the preparation of water-in-oil (W\\/O) emulsions. The produced W\\/O emulsions will be employed for the recovery and separation of cationic dyes by emulsion liquid membrane (ELM), a novel and effective method. The study highlights the importance of emulsion stability that is the major problem associated with ELMs. The

Meriem Djenouhat; Oualid Hamdaoui; Mahdi Chiha; Mohamed H. Samar



Relation between viscosity and stability for heavy oil emulsions  

E-print Network

The relation between viscosity and stability has been hics. found by investigating the effect of surfactant concentration on emulsion stability. Based on the Bingham plastic model for viscosity as a function of shear rate, two parameters were found...

Ye, Sherry Qianwen



Perfluorocarbon emulsions as intravenous delivery media for hyperpolarized xenon.  


The use of perfluorooctyl bromide (PFOB) emulsions as delivery media for hyperpolarized xenon has been investigated. Emulsion droplet size was controlled by varying the content of egg yolk phospholipid (EYP), which served as an emulsifier. Hyperpolarized 129Xe nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of the dissolved gas were obtained. The NMR spectra were found to be correlated strongly with the emulsion droplet size distribution. The NMR line width is determined by xenon exchange between the PFOB droplets and the aqueous environment. Our findings show that, in a 1.5-Tesla field, relatively narrow 129Xe NMR spectra are obtained for droplet sizes larger than 5 microm. Preliminary results on animal models show that PFOB emulsions have potential as hyperpolarized 129Xe carriers for in vivo magnetic resonance applications. PMID:10204864

Wolber, J; Rowland, I J; Leach, M O; Bifone, A



Argan oil-in-water emulsions: Preparation and stabilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

We prepared stable oil-in-water emulsions of argan oil with two different types of mixtures of nonionic emulsifiers. Three\\u000a different types of oil (Israeli argan oil, Moroccan argan oil, and soybean oil) were emulsified with mixtures of Span 80 and\\u000a Tween 80. The optimum HLB value for argon oil was 11.0 (1.0). The argan oil-in-water emulsions were stable for more than

A. Yaghmur; A. Aserin; Y. Mizrahi; A. Nerd; N. Garti



New trends in double emulsions for controlled release  

Microsoft Academic Search

Double emulsions have significant potential in many applications since, at least in theory, they can serve as an entrapping\\u000a reservoir for active ingredients that can be released by a controlled and sustained transport mechanism. Many of the potential\\u000a applications are in pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and food.\\u000a \\u000a In practice, double emulsions are thermodynamically unstable systems with a strong tendency for coalescence, flocculation

N. Garti


Tailoring the morphology of emulsion-templated porous polymers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods with which to tailor the morphology of polystyrene-based emulsion-templated (PolyHIPE) materials are presented. Increasing the temperature of the aqueous phase used to prepare the parent emulsion leads to an increase in average void and interconnect size in the resulting porous material. Additionally, the presence in the aqueous phase of small quantities of organic additives that are capable of partitioning

Ross J. Carnachan; Maria Bokhari; Stefan A. Przyborski; Neil R. Cameron



Oil emulsions enhance transcuticular movement of captan in apple leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine whether oil emulsions enhanced penetration of captan, a chloroalkyl thio heterocyclic non-systemic fungicide through apple leaf cuticles. Cuticles from apple leaves were isolated with enzymes and treated with 1% soybean oil emulsified with Latron B-1956® and K1, and two commercial soybean oil emulsions, dormant oil and SunSpray on the outer morphological surface.

B. R. Bondada; C. E. Sams; D. E. Deyton; J. C. Cummins



Aqueous Polymer Emulsions by Chemical Modifications of Thermosetting Alternating Polyketones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aqueous polymer emulsions were prepared by chemical modifications of thermosetting alternating pol- yketones in a one-pot reaction. Polymeric amines derived from the polyketones can act as polymeric surfactants for the self-emulsification of polyketones. The stability and structure of the emulsions with respect to the storage time at room temperature (208C) at different experimental con- ditions were thoroughly studied by dynamic

Youchun Zhang; A. A. Broekhuis; F. Picchioni



Depletion flocculation of emulsions containing unadsorbed sodium caseinate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of unadsorbed protein on the stability of fine oil-in-water emulsions containing sodium caseinate has been investigated. Time-dependent creaming profiles were determined at 30°C using the ultrasound velocity scanning technique. The results show that, at a protein concentration (2% w\\/w) around that required for nearly saturation coverage of droplets, emulsion stability with respect to creaming is good (30 days),

Eric Dickinson; Matt Golding



Process for oil recovery from subterranean deposits by emulsion flooding  

SciTech Connect

Extensively emulsion-free oil is recovered from a subterranean reservoir of medium or high salinity by forcing an emulsion, e.g., of oil, into an injection well. Carboxymethylated ethoxylate is utilized as the emulsifier and is selected so that the phase inversion temperature of the system:oil of reservoir/formation water/tenside/optical additives lies 0/sup 0/-10/sup 0/ C. above the reservoir temperature.

Balzer, D.; Kosswig, K.



Influence of emulsion droplet size on antimicrobial properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study the effect of oil droplet size on antimicrobial activity was investigated. Oil-in-water emulsions were made\\u000a from oil possessing antimicrobial properties (lemon myrtle oil, LMO), and oil which has no antimicrobial properties (soybean\\u000a oil). The antimicrobial properties were investigated against 5 bacteria. The emulsions containing millimetre size and micron-size\\u000a droplets were produced by hand-shaking and blending using a

Umaporn Buranasuksombat; Yun Joong Kwon; Mark Turner; Bhesh Bhandari



Chemical demulsification of petroleum emulsions using oil-soluable demulsifiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the factors affecting the coalescence and interfacial behavior of water- in-crude-oil emulsions in the presence of oil-soluble demulsifiers. The emulsion-breaking characteristics and interfacial properties of East Texas Crude and a model system were compared. The variation of interfacial tension with demulsifier concentration for the model system was ascertained by measuring the interfacial tensions between the oil and

Mark A. Krawczyk; Darsh T. Wasan; Chandrashekar Shetty



Spectral sensitization of the emulsions with heterophase microcrystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The new approach to the process of spectral sensitization of emulsions created on a basis of heterophase microcrystals of structure "non- photosensitive core - photosensitive silver-haloid shell" is offered. Distinctive technological feature of the given process is introduction of sensitizer dye on border "core-shell". In view of this feature - spatial separation of dye adsorbed on a core by the shell of silver halide, it is offered the mechanism of sensitization providing expansion of area of emulsion spectral sensitivity.

Tyurin, A. V.; Popov, A. Yu.; Pavlova, O. V.; Churashov, V. P.; Zhukov, S. A.; Akhmerov, A. Yu.



High capacity, stable silicon/carbon anodes for lithium-ion batteries prepared using emulsion-templated directed assembly.  


Silicon (Si) is a promising candidate for lithium ion battery anodes because of its high theoretical capacity. However, the large volume changes during lithiation/delithiation cycles result in pulverization of Si, leading to rapid fading of capacity. Here, we report a simple fabrication technique that is designed to overcome many of the limitations that deter more widespread adoption of Si based anodes. We confine Si nanoparticles in the oil phase of an oil-in-water emulsion stabilized by carbon black (CB). These CB nanoparticles are both oil- and water-wettable. The hydrophilic/hydrophobic balance for the CB nanoparticles also causes them to form a network in the continuous aqueous phase. Upon drying this emulsion on a current collector, the CB particles located at the surfaces of the emulsion droplets form mesoporous cages that loosely encapsulate the Si particles that were in the oil. The CB particles that were in the aqueous phase form a conducting network connected to the CB cages. The space within the cages allows for Si particle expansion without transmitting stresses to the surrounding carbon network. Half-cell experiments using this Si/CB anode architecture show a specific capacity of ?1300 mAh/g Si + C and a Coulombic efficiency of 97.4% after 50 cycles. Emulsion-templating is a simple, inexpensive processing strategy that directs Si and conducts CB particles to desired spatial locations for superior performance of anodes in lithium ion batteries. PMID:24640970

Chen, Yanjing; Nie, Mengyun; Lucht, Brett L; Saha, Amitesh; Guduru, Pradeep R; Bose, Arijit



Photocurable pickering emulsion for colloidal particles with structural complexity.  


We prepared polymeric microparticles with coordinated patches using oil-in-water emulsion droplets which were stabilized by adsorbed colloidal polystyrene (PS) latex particles. The oil phase was photocurable ethoxylated trimethylolpropane triacrylate (ETPTA), and the particle-armored oil droplets were solidified by UV irradiation within a few seconds to produce ETPTA-PS composite microparticles without disturbing the structures. Large armored emulsion drops became raspberry-like particles, while small emulsion drops with a few anchored particles were transformed into colloidal clusters with well-coordinated patches. For high-molecular-weight PS particles with low chemical affinity to the ETPTA monomer, the morphology of the patchy particle was determined by the volume of the emulsion drop and the contact angle of the emulsion interface on the PS particle surface. Meanwhile, for low-molecular-weight PS particles with high affinity, the ETPTA monomers were likely to swell the adsorbed PS particles, and distinctive morphologies were induced during the shrinkage of emulsion drops and the phase separation of ETPTA from the swollen PS particles. In addition, colloidal particles with large open windows were produced by dissolving the PS particles from the patchy particles. We observed photoluminescent emission from the patchy particles in which dye molecules were dispersed in the ETPTA phase. Finally, we used Surface Evolver simulation to predict equilibrium structures of patchy particles and estimate surface energies which are essential to understand the underlying physics. PMID:18237213

Kim, Shin-Hyun; Yi, Gi-Ra; Kim, Kyu Han; Yang, Seung-Man



Droplet-based microfluidics and the dynamics of emulsions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emulsions are complex fluids already involved for a long time in a wide-range of industrial processes, such as, for example, food, cosmetics or materials synthesis [1]. More recently, applications of emulsions have been extended to new fields like biotechnology or biochemistry where the compartmentalization of compounds in emulsion droplets is used to parallelise (bio-) chemical reactions [2]. Interestingly, these applications pinpoint to fundamental questions dealing with surfactant dynamics, dynamic surface tension, hydrodynamic interactions and electrohydrodynamics. Droplet-based microfluidics is a very powerful tool to quantitatively study the dynamics of emulsions at the single droplet level or even at the single interface level: well-controlled emulsions are produced and manipulated using hydrodynamics, electrical forces, optical actuation and combination of these effects. We will describe here how droplet-based microfluidics is used to extract quantitative informations on the physical-chemistry of emulsions for a better understanding and control of the dynamics of these systems [3].[4pt] [1] J. Bibette et al. Rep. Prog. Phys., 62, 969-1033 (1999)[0pt] [2] A. Theberge et al., Angewandte Chemie Int. Ed. 49, 5846 (2010)[0pt] [3] J.-C. Baret et al., Langmuir, 25, 6088 (2009)

Baret, Jean-Christophe; Brosseau, Quentin; Semin, Benoit; Qu, Xiaopeng



Emulsion explosives containing high concentrations of calcium nitrate  

SciTech Connect

A water-in-oil emulsion blasting agent is described having a discontinuous aqueous oxidizer salt solution phase which contains a calcium nitrate (CN) to ammonium nitrate (AN) weight ratio of 1.5 or greater, a continuous oil or water-immiscible liquid organic phase, an emulsifier, and, optionally, a density reducing agent. It is found that emulsion slurry blasting agents containing this relatively high amount of CN to AN have properties that conventional emulsion slurry explosives, those containing more AN than CN or solely AN, do not. Specifically, one property is that the high-CN emulsion blasting agents of the present composition can have much smaller critical diameters but yet pass the US DOT Blasting Agent tests. This result will be shown in the examples that follow. Thus, if AN is present as the principal oxidizer salt, emulsion explosives that have small critical diameters, and even those with relatively large critical diameters, generally are too sensitive to pass the Blasting Agent tests. If CN is the principal oxidizer, the emulsion blasting agents are less sensitive and more likely to pass the tests. This effect of CN has commercial significance. 10 claims.

Jessop, H.A.; Funk, A.G.



Stabilization Mechanisms of Water-in-Crude Oil Emulsions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the lifting and production of crude oil, water/oil emulsions are created. They are stabilized by asphaltenes and resins which are colloidally dispersed in the crude oil. Asphaltenes consist mainly of polar heterocompounds. It is known that they decrease the interfacial tension between oil and water and form stable interfacial films. Both effects favour the formation and stabilization of emulsions. Resins are complex high-molecular-weight compounds that are not soluble in ethylacetate, but are soluble in n-heptane. Their interfacial activity is less than that of asphaltenes. The role of resins in stabilizing emulsions has also been debated in literature. This study reports the results of experimental investigation of various factors affecting the stability of emulsions which are considered to be undesirable for a number of reasons, including both up-stream and down-stream operation in the petroleum industry. It was found that, the (R/A) ratio affects the emulsion and dispersion stabilities. High resin/asphaltene ratios decrease the emulsion stability.

Nour, Abdurahman H.; Suliman, A.; Hadow, Mahmmoud M.


Emulsion templated open porous membranes for protein purification.  


Approximately 25 cm×25 cm large sheets of crosslinked highly porous poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate-co-ethylhexyl methacrylate) membranes with an average thicknesses between 285 and 565 ?m were prepared by casting a high internal phase emulsion (HIPE) containing monomers onto glass substrates and subsequent polymerisation. Open cellular porous polyHIPE type membranes were obtained with large pores (cavity) sizes between 3 and 10 ?m while interconnecting pores were between 1 and 3 ?m. The percentage of ethylhexyl acrylate and ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate influenced the flexibility and morphology of the resulting membranes. Porous membranes were chemically modified with diethylamine to yield functionalised supports for ion exchange chromatography. Cylindrical housings were used for positioning of the membranes and allowing flow of the mobile phase. Pulse experiments were used to study the flow characteristics and a homogeneous flow through the entire area of the membrane was found. Bovine serum albumin was purified by a 8 ml column containing functional membrane in modular shape; dynamic binding capacity was measured to be as high as 45 mg/ml. PMID:21168141

Pulko, Irena; Smrekar, Vida; Podgornik, Aleš; Krajnc, Peter



Asystole immediately following intravenous fat emulsion for overdose.  


Use of intravenous fat emulsion (IFE) for the treatment of poisoned patients in extremis is increasing. Little literature exists describing failures and complications of IFE. We describe two cardiac arrests temporally associated with IFE. A 50-year-old woman presented after ingesting 80 total tablets of metoprolol 25 mg and bupropion 150 mg. Bradycardia and hypotension were refractory to calcium salts, catecholamines, and high dose insulin (HDI). With a pulse of 40/min and mean arterial pressure (MAP) of 30 mmHg, 100 mL of 20 % IFE was given; within 30 s, brady-asystolic arrest occurred. Pulses returned after 3 min of CPR. The patient died on hospital day 4 of multisystem organ failure (MSOF). A 53-year-old man presented after ingesting of 3,600 mg of diltiazem and 1,200 mg of propranolol. Bradycardia and hypotension were refractory to calcium salts, catecholamines, HDI, bicarbonate, and atropine. With a pulse of 30/min and a MAP of 40 mmHg, 150 mL of 20 % IFE was given; within 1 min, a brady-asystolic arrest occurred. Pulses returned after 6 min of CPR. The patient died on hospital day 7 of MSOF. Reported cases of IFE failures or potential complications are sparse. This report adds only case experience, not clarity. We report two cardiac arrests that were temporally associated with IFE. PMID:24519703

Cole, Jon B; Stellpflug, Samuel J; Engebretsen, Kristin M



Are Water-in-Oil-Emulsions Suitable Model Systems for Cloud Glaciation?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The technique of studying aqueous solutions emulsified in oil matrices is widely used in the scientific community as a model system for aqueous droplets in the atmosphere, e.g., in the context of ice nucleation and cloud glaciation. These studies are based on the assumption that the interaction between aqueous and oil phase is negligible. In this study we critically test the validity of this assumption by systematically varying the parameters of the emulsification procedure for the study of the freezing behaviour of dilute and concentrated solutions of organic acids, e.g., citric acid, and inorganic salts, e.g., ammonium sulphate. In particular we vary the type of oil, the type of surfactant, the water to oil ratio, the mixing time and the temperature, at which the emulsion is prepared. These emulsions are studied in the context of cloud glaciation by cooling to < 150 K and reheating to ambient temperature. We specifically check for the droplets sizes and distribution as well as imperfectly emulsified regions from optical microscopy observations, first and second freezing events, cold-crystallization upon heating, melting events and possible glass-transitions from differential scanning calorimetry experiments as well as for the phase mixtures and types of ice (cubic vs. hexagonal) formed by powder X-ray diffraction as a function of temperature. The results clearly show that not all emulsions behave alike in these experiments and that it is important to be aware about the possibility of the oil matrix interfering with the experiment, e.g., for oils that vitrify at atmospherically relevant temperatures.

Handle, Karl; Loerting, Thomas; Bogdan, Anatoli; Weiss, Fabian; Pummer, Bernhard; Grothe, Hinrich



Effect of protein source and homogenization pressure on storage stability of retort processed dilute whey protein emulsions  

E-print Network

Emulsions stabilized with acid whey or sweet whey were prepared using homogenization pressures of 30 or 90MPa. The emulsions were then canned and sterilized at 250F for 5 minutes. Emulsion stability, particle size and rheological properties were...

Bhatia, Sachin



Biodistribution study of Ethiodized Oil Emulsion 13 for computed tomography of the liver and spleen  

SciTech Connect

Biodistribution studies were conducted with a new intravenous lipoid contrast material currently undergoing clinical trials in four hospitals. The contrast material selectively opacifies the liver and spleen for computed tomographic examination. The experiments were performed on rats with /sup 125/I-labeled ethiodized oil emulsion. The study showed that the liver accumulates nearly 80% of the injected iodine within 15 min of the injection and retains a high concentration over 3 h. The second highest concentration was found in the spleen. More than 99% of the iodine is eliminated from the liver and spleen within 48 h, primarily through the kidneys.

Vermess, M.; Lau, D.H.; Adams, M.D.; Hopkins, R.M.; Hoey, G.B.; Grimes, G.; Chatterji, D.C.; Girton, M.; Doppman, J.L.



Development of novel zein-sodium caseinate nanoparticle (ZP)-stabilized emulsion films for improved water barrier properties via emulsion/solvent evaporation.  


This work attempted to develop novel high barrier zein/SC nanoparticle (ZP)-stabilized emulsion films through microfluidic emulsification (ZPE films) or in combination with solvent (ethyl acetate) evaporation techniques (ZPE-EA films). Some physical properties, including tensile and optical properties, water vapor permeability (WVP), and surface hydrophobicity, as well as the microstructure of ZP-stabilized emulsion films were evaluated and compared with SC emulsion (SCE) films. The emulsion/solvent evaporation approach reduced lipid droplets of ZP-stabilized emulsions, and lipid droplets of ZP-stabilized emulsions were similar to or slightly lower than that of SC emulsions. However, ZP- and SC-stabilized emulsion films exhibited a completely different microstructure, nanoscalar lipid droplets were homogeneously distributed in the ZPE film matrix and interpenetrating protein-oil complex networks occurred within ZPE-EA films, whereas SCE films presented a heterogeneous microstructure. The different stabilization mechanisms against creaming or coalescence during film formation accounted for the preceding discrepancy of the microstructures between ZP-and SC-stabilized emulsion films. Interestingly, ZP-stabilized emulsion films exhibited a better water barrier efficiency, and the WVP values were only 40-50% of SCE films. A schematic representation for the formation of ZP-stabilized emulsion films was proposed to relate the physical performance of the films with their microstructure and to elucidate the possible forming mechanism of the films. PMID:24175664

Wang, Li-Juan; Yin, Ye-Chong; Yin, Shou-Wei; Yang, Xiao-Quan; Shi, Wei-Jian; Tang, Chuan-He; Wang, Jin-Mei



Phytosterol colloidal particles as Pickering stabilizers for emulsions.  


Water-insoluble phytosterols were developed into a kind of colloidal particle as Pickering stabilizers for emulsions by a classic anti-solvent method using 100% ethanol as the organic phase to solubilize the phytosterols and whey protein concentrate (WPC) as the emulsifier. The colloidal particles in the dispersion, with morphology of stacked platelet-like sheets, had a mean diameter of 44.7 and 24.7 ?m for the volume- and surface-averaged sizes, respectively. The properties and stability of the emulsions stabilized by these colloidal particles were highly dependent upon the applied total solid concentration (c; in the dispersion) and oil fraction (ø). The results indicated that (1) at a low c value (<1.0%, w/v) the emulsions were susceptible to phase separation, even at a low ø of 0.2, (2) at low ø values (e.g., 0.2 or 0.3) and a relatively high c value (1.0%, w/v, or above), a severe droplet flocculation occurred for the emulsions, and (3) when both c and ø were appropriately high, a kind of self-supporting gel-like emulsions could be formed. More interestingly, a phase inversion of the emulsions from the oil-in-water to water-in-oil type was observed, upon the ø increasing from 0.2 to 0.6 (especially at high c values, e.g., 3.0%, w/v). The elaborated Pickering emulsions stabilized by the phytosterol colloidal particles with a gel-like behavior would provide a candidate to act as a novel delivery system for active ingredients. PMID:24848560

Liu, Fu; Tang, Chuan-He



Investigation of Nuclear Matter Properties by Means of High Energy Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We review recent advances towards an understanding of high density nuclear matter, as created in central collisions of nuclei at high energy. In particular, information obtained for the nuclear matter equation of state will be discussed. The lectures focu...

R. Stock



Origin of the low-mass electron pair excess in light nucleus-nucleus collisions  

E-print Network

We report measurements of electron pair production in elementary p+p and d+p reactions at 1.25 GeV/u with the HADES spectrometer. For the first time, the electron pairs were reconstructed for n+p reactions by detecting the proton spectator from the deuteron breakup. We find that the yield of electron pairs with invariant mass Me+e- > 0.15 GeV/c2 is about an order of magnitude larger in n+p reactions as compared to p+p. A comparison to model calculations demonstrates that the production mechanism is not sufficiently described yet. The electron pair spectra measured in C+C reactions are compatible with a superposition of elementary n+p and p+p collisions, leaving little room for additional electron pair sources in such light collision systems.

The HADES Collaboration; G. Agakishiev; A. Balanda; D. Belver; A. V. Belyaev; A. Blanco; M. Böhmer; J. L. Boyard; P. Braun-Munzinger; P. Cabanelas; E. Castro; S. Chernenko; T. Christ; M. Destefanis; J. Díaz; F. Dohrmann; A. Dybczak; L. Fabbietti; O. V. Fateev; P. Finocchiaro; P. Fonte; J. Friese; I. Fröhlich; T. Galatyuk; J. A. Garzón; R. Gernhäuser; A. Gil; C. Gilardi; M. Golubeva; D. González-Díaz; F. Guber; T. Hennino; R. Holzmann; I. Iori; A. Ivashkin; M. Jurkovic; B. Kämpfer; T. Karavicheva; D. Kirschner; I. Koenig; W. Koenig; B. W. Kolb; R. Kotte; F. Krizek; R. Krücken; W. Kühn; A. Kugler; A. Kurepin; S. Lang; J. S. Lange; K. Lapidus; T. Liu; L. Lopes; M. Lorenz; L. Maier; A. Mangiarotti; J. Markert; V. Metag; B. Michalska; J. Michel; E. Morinière; J. Mousa; C. Müntz; L. Naumann; J. Otwinowski; Y. C. Pachmayer; M. Palka; Y. Parpottas; V. Pechenov; O. Pechenova; J. Pietraszko; W. Przygoda; B. Ramstein; A. Reshetin; A. Rustamov; A. Sadovsky; P. Salabura; A. Schmah; E. Schwab; Yu. G. Sobolev; S. Spataro; B. Spruck; H. Ströbele; J. Stroth; C. Sturm; M. Sudol; A. Tarantola; K. Teilab; P. Tlusty; M. Traxler; R. Trebacz; H. Tsertos; V. Wagner; M. Weber; M. Wisniowski; T. Wojcik; J. Wüstenfeld; S. Yurevich; Y. V. Zanevsky; P. Zhou



Heavy flavour in nucleus-nucleus collisions at RHIC and LHC: a Langevin approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A snapshot of the results for heavy-flavour observables in heavy-ion (AA) collisions at RHIC and LHC obtained with our transport calculations is displayed. The initial charm and beauty production is simulated through pQCD tools (POWHEG+PYTHIA) and is validated through the comparison with data from pp collisions. The propagation of c and b quarks in the medium formed in heavy-ion collisions is studied through a transport setup based on the relativistic Langevin equation. With respect to past works we perform a more systematic study, providing results with different choices of transport coefficients, either from weak-coupling calculations or from lattice-QCD simulations. Our findings are compared to a rich set of experimental data (D-mesons, non-photonic electrons, non-prompt J/?'s) which have meanwhile become accessible.

Beraudo, A.; De Pace, A.; Monteno, M.; Prino, F.; Alberico, W. M.; Molinari, A.; Nardi, M.



Multi-particle correlation observables in high energy nucleus-nucleus collisions  

SciTech Connect

Global features of exclusively measured events, including number correlations and vector correlations, and hybrid analysis of measurements of one or two specific fragments like spectator nuclei, high transverse momentum particles, polarization of one particle, etc., are considered. (GHT)

Stock, R.



Thermal Equilibration and Expansion in Nucleus-Nucleus Collision at the AGS  

E-print Network

The rather complete data set of hadron yields from central Si + A collisions at the Brookhaven AGS is used to test whether the system at freeze-out is in thermal and hadro-chemical equilibrium. Rapidity and transverse momentum distributions are discussed with regards to the information they provide on hydrodynamic flow.

P. Braun-Munzinger; J. Stachel; J. P. Wessels; N. Xu



Relativistic Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions: Zone of Reactions and Space-Time Structure of a Fireball  

E-print Network

A zone of reactions is determined and then exploited as a tool in studying the space-time structure of an interacting system formed in a collision of relativistic nuclei. The time dependence of the reaction rates integrated over spatial coordinates is also considered. Evaluations are made with the help of the microscopic transport model UrQMD. The relation of the boundaries of different zones of reactions and the hypersurfaces of sharp chemical and kinetic freeze-outs is discussed.

Dmitry Anchishkin; Anton Muskeyev; Stanislav Yezhov



Relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions: Zone of reactions and space-time structure of fireball  

SciTech Connect

A zone of reactions is determined and then exploited as a tool in studying the space-time structure of an interacting system formed in a collision of relativistic nuclei. The time dependence of the reaction rates integrated over spatial coordinates is also considered. Evaluations are made with the help of the microscopic transport model UrQMD. The relation of the boundaries of different zones of reactions and the hypersurfaces of sharp chemical and kinetic freeze-outs is discussed.

Anchishkin, D. [Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kiev 03680 (Ukraine); Muskeyev, A.; Yezhov, S. [Taras Shevchenko Kiev National University, Kiev 03022 (Ukraine)



Ratios of heavy baryons to heavy mesons in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions  

E-print Network

Heavy baryon/meson ratios Lambda(c)/D(0) and Lambda(b)/(B) over bar (0) in relativistic heavy ion collisions are studied in the quark coalescence model. For heavy baryons, we include production from coalescence of heavy quarks with free light quarks...

Oh, Yongseok; Ko, Che Ming; Lee, Su Houng; Yasui, Shigehiro.



Multiparticle azimuthal correlations of negative pions in nucleus-nucleus collisions  

SciTech Connect

Multiparticle azimuthal correlations of {pi}{sup -} mesons have been studied in dC, HeC, CC, CNe, MgMg, (d, He)Ta, CCu, CTa, and OPb collisions at momentum of 4.2, 4.5 GeV/c per nucleon within the standard transverse momentum analysis method of P. Danielewicz and G. Odyniec. The data were obtained by SKM-200-GIBS and Propane Bubble Chamber Collaborations of JINR. The axis has been selected in the phase space and with respect to this axis {pi}{sup -} meson correlations were observed. The values of the coefficient of the correlations linearly depend on the mass numbers of projectile (A{sub P}) and target (A{sub T}) nuclei. The Quark-Gluon String Model satisfactorily describes the experimental results.

Chkhaidze, L. V., E-mail:; Djobava, T. D.; Kharkhelauri, L. L. [Tbilisi State University, High Energy Physics Institute (Georgia); Kladnitskaya, E. N. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation)



Relativistic Vlasov-Uehling-Uhlenbeck Equation for Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions  

E-print Network

of the differential operators. For the right-hand side of Eq. (18), we use Eqs. (22) and (23). After some straight- forward algebra, we obtain 6nally the relativistic VUU equation, , I [i}?" (d?'X?" d?'?Xl?'}c}p?]?p?*+m (8"?m)dl' jf (x,p*)Po = f I f IMI (2ir) 5'(p... of the differential operators. For the right-hand side of Eq. (18), we use Eqs. (22) and (23). After some straight- forward algebra, we obtain 6nally the relativistic VUU equation, , I [i}?" (d?'X?" d?'?Xl?'}c}p?]?p?*+m (8"?m)dl' jf (x,p*)Po = f I f IMI (2ir) 5'(p...

LI, Q.; Wu, J. Q.; Ko, Che Ming.



Energy Dependence of Particle Production in nucleus-nucleus collisions at the CERN SPS  

E-print Network

New preliminary results on kaon and pion production in central 30AGeV Pb+Pb collisions are presented. The data are compared to data at lower and higher energies to examine the energy dependence of the kaon to pion ratios and the inverse slope parameters of kaons. The results are compared to expectations from models with and without a phase transition to the Quark Gluon Plasma.

M. van Leeuwen; for the NA49 collaboration



Electromagnetic interactions in nucleus-nucleus and proton-proton collisions  

E-print Network

The strong electromagnetic fields associated with ultra-relativistic protons and nuclei correspond to an equivalent flux of photons. At the future Large Hadron Collider at CERN, the corresponding photon-nucleon center of mass energies will be higher than at any existing accelerator. The experimental and theoretical aspects of particle production in electromagnetic interactions at hadron colliders are reviewed.

J. Nystrand



Nucleus-nucleus cold fusion reactions analyzed with the l-dependent ``fusion by diffusion'' model  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a modified version of the Fusion by Diffusion (FBD) model aimed at describing the synthesis of superheavy nuclei in cold fusion reactions, in which a low excited compound nucleus emits only one neutron. The modified FBD model accounts for the angular momentum dependence of three basic factors determining the evaporation residue cross section: the capture cross section sigmacap(l),

T. Cap; K. Siwek-Wilczynska; J. Wilczynski



Nucleus-nucleus cold fusion reactions analyzed with the l-dependent 'fusion by diffusion' model  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a modified version of the Fusion by Diffusion (FBD) model aimed at describing the synthesis of superheavy nuclei in cold fusion reactions, in which a low excited compound nucleus emits only one neutron. The modified FBD model accounts for the angular momentum dependence of three basic factors determining the evaporation residue cross section: the capture cross section {sub

T. Cap; K. Siwek-Wilczynska; J. Wilczynski



Pionic freeze-out hypersurfaces in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The space-time structure of the multipion system created in central relativistic heavy-ion collisions is investigated. Using the microscopic transport model UrQMD we determine the freeze-out hypersurface from the equation on pion density n(t,r)=nc. It turns out that for proper value of the critical energy density ?c equation ?(t,r)=?c gives the same freeze-out hypersurface. It is shown that for big enough collision energies Ekin?40A GeV (s?8A GeV) the multipion system at a time moment ? ceases to be one connected unit but splits up into two separate spatial parts (drops), which move in opposite directions from one another with velocities which approach the speed of light with an increase of collision energy. This time ? is approximately invariant of the collision energy, and the corresponding ?= const. hypersurface can serve as a benchmark for the freeze-out time or the transition time from the hydrostage in hybrid models. The properties of this hypersurface are discussed.

Anchishkin, D.; Vovchenko, V.; Csernai, L. P.



Response surface methodology for optimization of extraction yield, viscosity, hue and emulsion stability of mucilage extracted from Lepidium perfoliatum seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Response surface methodology was used to determine the optimum processing conditions that give maximum extraction yield, viscosity, hue and emulsion stability, as well as, minimum protein content for the gum extracted from Lepidium perfoliatum seed. Temperature (45–75°C), processing time (1.5–3.5h), pH (5–8) and water to seed ratio (30:1–60:1) were the factors investigated. Experiments were designed according to Central Composite Rotatable

Arash Koocheki; Ali Reza Taherian; Seyed M. A. Razavi; Aram Bostan



Evaporation of an emulsion trapped in a yield stress fluid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present work deals with emulsions of volatile alkanes in an aqueous clay suspension, Laponite, which forms a yield stress fluid. For a large enough yield stress (i.e. Laponite concentration), the oil droplets are prevented from creaming and the emulsions are thus mechanically stabilized. We have studied the evaporation kinetics of the oil phase of those emulsions in contact with the atmosphere. We show that the evaporation process is characterized by the formation of a sharp front separating the emulsion from a droplet-free Laponite phase, and that the displacement of the front vs. time follows a diffusion law. Experimental data are confronted to a diffusion-controlled model, in the case where the limiting step is the diffusion of the dissolved oil through the aqueous phase. The nature of the alkane, as well as its volume fraction in the emulsion, has been varied. Quantitative agreement with the model is achieved without any adjustable parameter and we describe the mechanism leading to the formation of a front.

Guéna, G.; Corde, J.; Fouilloux, S.; D'Espinose, J.-B.; Lequeux, F.; Talini, L.



Study of nano-emulsion formation by dilution of microemulsions.  


The influence of different dilution procedures on the properties of oil-in-water (O/W) nano-emulsions obtained by dilution of oil-in-water (O/W) and water-in-oil (W/O) microemulsions has been studied. The system water/SDS/cosurfactant/dodecane with either hexanol or pentanol as cosurfactant was chosen as model system. The dilution procedures consisted of adding water (or microemulsion) stepwise or at once over a microemulsion (or water). Starting emulsification from O/W microemulsions, nano-emulsions with droplet diameters of 20 nm are obtained, independently on the microemulsion composition and the dilution procedure used. In contrast, starting emulsification from W/O microemulsions, nano-emulsions are only obtained if the emulsification conditions allow reaching the equilibrium in an O/W microemulsion domain during the process. These conditions are achieved by stepwise addition of water over W/O microemulsions with O/S ratios at which a direct microemulsion domain is crossed during emulsification. The nature of the alcohol used as cosurfactant has been found to play a key role on the properties of the nano-emulsions obtained: nano-emulsions in the system using hexanol as cosurfactant are smaller in size, lower in polydispersity, and have a higher stability than those with pentanol. PMID:22480397

Solè, I; Solans, C; Maestro, A; González, C; Gutiérrez, J M



Study on Formation of High Performance Ice Slurry by Emulsion in Ice Storage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study is focused on an emulsion as a new thermal storage material for ice storage. Two types of emulsions are made of oil-water mixture with a little additive. Oils used are silicone, light and lump oils. Water contents of emulsions are 70,80 and 90 %. The additive is amino group modified silicone oil, and there is no depression of freezing point for the emulsions because of its hydrophobic property. In order to know structures of emulsions, those electric resistances were measured. And components of liquids separating from emulsions were investigated. From above results, it was found that one was W/O type and the other was O/W type. And then, adaptability of two emulsions to the ice storage was discussed, and then, it was found that a high performance ice slurry could be formed by the W/O type emulsion.

Matsumoto, Koji; Oikawa, Ken; Okada, Masashi; Teraoka, Yoshikazu; Kawagoe, Tetsuo


Phase Behavior and Emulsion Stability of the Aot/Decane/ Water/NaCl System at Very Low Volume Fractions of Oil  

E-print Network

The stability of a ternary system composed of decane/water/Aerosol-OT and salt is revisited. Phase diagrams and emulsions similar in composition to those previously studied by Hofman and Stein [Hofman, 1991] were made. Ac- cording to our results, and contrary to the common experience, these systems exhibit a maximum of stability very close to the balance zone.

Yithanllili Bastidas; Lisset Hernaandez; Issarly Rivas; Kareem Rahn-Chique; German Urbina-Villalba



Rapid enumeration of phage in monodisperse emulsions.  


Phage-based detection assays have been developed for the detection of viable bacteria for applications in clinical diagnosis, monitoring of water quality, and food safety. The majority of these assays deliver a positive readout in the form of newly generated progeny phages by the bacterial host of interest. Progeny phages are often visualized as plaques, or holes, in a lawn of bacteria on an agar-filled Petri dish; however, this rate-limiting step requires up to 12 h of incubation time. We have previously described an amplification of bacteriophages M13 inside droplets of media suspended in perfluorinated oil; a single phage M13 in a droplet yields 10(7) copies in 3-4 h. Here, we describe that encapsulation of reporter phages, both lytic T4-LacZ and nonlytic M13, in monodisperse droplets can also be used for rapid enumeration of phage. Compartmentalization in droplets accelerated the development of the signal from the reporter enzyme; counting of "positive" droplets yields accurate enumeration of phage particles ranging from 10(2) to 10(6) pfu/mL. For enumeration of T4-LacZ phage, the fluorescent signal appeared in as little as 90 min. Unlike bulk assays, quantification in emulsion is robust and insensitive to fluctuations in environmental conditions (e.g., temperature). Power-free emulsification using gravity-driven flow in the absence of syringe pumps and portable fluorescence imaging solutions makes this technology promising for use at the point of care in low-resource environments. This droplet-based phage enumeration method could accelerate and simplify point-of-care detection of the pathogens for which reporter bacteriophages have been developed. PMID:24892245

Tjhung, Katrina F; Burnham, Sean; Anany, Hany; Griffiths, Mansel W; Derda, Ratmir



Demulsification of Gas Oil\\/Water Emulsion via High Intensity Ultrasonic Standing Wave  

Microsoft Academic Search

High intensity ultrasonic standing wave field was established in a horizontal direction and its effect on “gas oil” in “water” emulsion separation rate was studied. Also, effects of four parameters on emulsion instability behavior were investigated: ultrasound irradiation time(5-30 min), emulsion position in ultrasound field(17-37 cm), ultrasound input intensity(20,45 and 75%) and dispersed phase concentration(0.5,2 and 10%). Emulsion light absorbance, droplet diameter

H. Ghafourian Nasiri; M. T. Hamed Mosavian; R. Kadkhodaee



Automated Track Recognition and Event Reconstruction in Nuclear Emulsion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The major advantages of nuclear emulsion for detecting charged particles are its submicron position resolution and sensitivity to minimum ionizing particles. These must be balanced, however, against the difficult manual microscope measurement by skilled observers required for the analysis. We have developed an automated system to acquire and analyze the microscope images from emulsion chambers. Each emulsion plate is analyzed independently, allowing coincidence techniques to be used in order to reject back- ground and estimate error rates. The system has been used to analyze a sample of high-multiplicity Pb-Pb interactions (charged particle multiplicities approx. 1100) produced by the 158 GeV/c per nucleon Pb-208 beam at CERN. Automatically reconstructed track lists agree with our best manual measurements to 3%. We describe the image analysis and track reconstruction techniques, and discuss the measurement and reconstruction uncertainties.

Deines-Jones, P.; Cherry, M. L.; Dabrowska, A.; Holynski, R.; Jones, W. V.; Kolganova, E. D.; Kudzia, D.; Nilsen, B. S.; Olszewski, A.; Pozharova, E. A.; Sengupta, K.; Szarska, M.; Trzupek, A.; Waddington, C, J.; Wefel, J. P.; Wilczynska, B.; Wilczynski, H.; Wolter, W.; Wosiek, B.; Wozniak, K.



Method of extracting and reutilizing surfactants from emulsions  

SciTech Connect

The invention extracts surfactants from produced emulsions of oil, water and surfactants from enhanced oil recovery operations and concentrates the surfactants into an aqueous solution. The produced emulsion is mixed with an alkali metal chloride salt, and butanol or pentanol, and allowed to separate into two phases, an oleic phase and an aqueous phase. The oleic phase is then mixed with fresh water containing about 1% to about 10% by weight of isopropanol, ethanol or methanol, and the mixture is allowed to separate into at least two phases, a substantially water-free and surfactant-free crude oil phase and an aqueous phase containing virtually all of the enhanced oil recovery surfactants originally within the produced emulsion. The surfactants in the aqueous phase may be reutilized for further enhanced oil recovery operations.

Ashwari, S. S.; Prukop, G.



Structures of octenylsuccinylated starches: effects on emulsions containing ?-carotene.  


Starches with different amylopectin contents and different molecular sizes prepared using acid hydrolysis were hydrophobically modified using octenylsuccinic anhydride (OSA). The OSA-modified starches were used as surfactants to stabilize emulsions of ?-carotene and canola oil dispersed in water. The objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between starch molecular structure and the chemical stability of the emulsified ?-carotene, as well as the colloidal stability of emulsion droplets during storage. The oil droplet size in emulsions was smaller when starch had (a) lower hydrodynamic volume (Vh) and (b) higher amylopectin content. The oxidative stability of ?-carotene was similar across samples, with higher results at increased amylopectin content but higher Vh. Steric hindrance to coalescence provided by adsorbed OSA-modified starches appears to be improved by more rigid molecules of higher degree of branching. PMID:25129720

Sweedman, Michael C; Hasjim, Jovin; Schäfer, Christian; Gilbert, Robert G



Critical Review of Techniques and Methodologies for Characterization of Emulsion Stability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficient development and production of high quality emulsion-based products depends on knowledge of their physicochemical properties and stability. A wide variety of different analytical techniques and methodologies have been developed to characterize the properties of food emulsions. The purpose of this review article is to provide a critical overview of the most important properties of emulsions that are of

David Julian Mcclements



Characterization and Interfacial Behavior of Oil Sands Solids Implicated in Emulsion Stability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Model water?in?hydrocarbon emulsions were used to assess the configuration of oil sands solids in the interfacial region. The model emulsions consisted of toluene, heptane, and water as well as asphaltenes and solids separated from Athabasca bitumen. A combination of emulsion gravimetric measurements, water drop size measurements, and geometrical considerations was employed to determine the fractional area of the interface occupied

Danuta M. Sztukowski; Harvey W. Yarranton



Use of microwave radiation in separating emulsions and dispersions of hydrocarbons and water  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is described for enhancing the separation of hydrocarbon and water from an emulsion or dispersion thereof comprising the steps of subjecting the emulsion or dispersion to microwave radiation in the range of one millimeter to 30 centimeters and heating the microwave irradiated emulsion or dispersion to a separating temperature using conventional heating means. A method is also described



High internal phase emulsion templating as a route to well-defined porous polymers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of high internal phase emulsions (HIPEs) as templates to create highly porous materials (PolyHIPEs) is described. Polymerisation occurs around emulsion droplets, which create voids in the final material. The void fraction is very high and can reach levels of 0.99. Varying the emulsion composition can control features of the morphology of the resulting porous materials, such as the

Neil R. Cameron



The Stabilization of Water-in-Hydrocarbon Emulsions by Asphaltenes and Resins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of asphaltenes and resins in stabilizing water-in-crude oil emulsions was investigated by measuring the interfacial composition and stability of model emulsions composed of water with mixtures of toluene, heptane, asphaltenes, resins, and native solids. The interfacial composition (mass surface coverage) was determined from a combination of emulsion surface area measurements and concentration measurements of both the continuous and

Olga V. Gafonova; Harvey W. Yarranton



A stable, radioactive substrate emulsion for assay of I i poprotein I ipase  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is described for the assay of lipoprotein lipase, using a stable, radioactive substrate emulsion. Fatty acid-labeled trioleoylglycerol was emulsified by homoge- nization in glycerol with lecithin as detergent. This anhy- drous emulsion was stable for at least six weeks. Substrate solutions for enzyme assay were prepared by diluting the emulsion with buffer containing serum and albumin. The fatty

Peter Nilsson-Ehle; Michael C. Schotz


Radiation dose mapping using magnetic resonance imaging in a superheated emulsion chamber  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work describes the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging techniques and image processing algorithms developed for radiation dosimetry with the superheated emulsion chamber. The chamber contains an emulsion of chloropentafluoroethane droplets in a tissue-equivalent glycerin-based gel. The droplets are highly superheated and expand into vapor bubbles upon exposure to irradiation. Brachytherapy sources can be inserted into the superheated emulsion chamber to

Michael A. S. Lamba



Impact of Weighting Agents and Sucrose on Gravitational Separation of Beverage Emulsions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of weighting agents and sucrose on gravitational separation in 1 wt % oil-in-water emulsions was studied by measuring changes in the intensity of backscattered light from the emulsions with height. Emulsions with different droplet densities were prepared by mixing weighting agents (brominated vegetable oil (BVO), ester gum (EG), damar gum (DG), or sucrose acetate isobutyrate (SAIB)) with soybean

Ratjika Chanamai; D. Julian McClements



Enhancement of ultrasound reflectivity depends on the specific perfluorocarbons utilized to formulate nanoparticle emulsion contrast agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

A nongaseous, ligand-targeted perfluorocarbon nanoparticle emulsion has been developed which can acoustically enhance the presence of molecular epitopes on tissue surfaces. We demonstrate the impact of incorporating perfluorocarbons with specific phase velocities into the emulsions on the acoustic reflectivity of plasma clots targeted using these nanoparticles. Porcine plasma clots were targeted in vitro with specific perfluorocarbon emulsions using anti-fibrin antibody

Jon N. Marsh; Christopher S. Hall; Michael J. Scott; Ralph J. Fuhrhop; Patrick J. Gaffney; Samuel A. Wickline; Gregory M. Lanza



Evaluation of aging mechanisms of olive oil–lemon juice emulsion through digital image analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aging mechanisms of olive oil–lemon juice emulsions were investigated. The emulsions were prepared with xanthan gum where different concentrations of modified starch or maltodextrin were added. Emulsions stability was followed through analysis of the evolution of mean droplet size measured by image analysis during 203days. All the samples presented phase separation at the end of the studied storage period.

Kelly A. Silva; Maria H. Rocha-Leão; Maria Alice Z. Coelho



Depletion flocculation effects in egg-based model salad dressing emulsions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of dehydrated egg white (DEW) addition on the droplet aggregation of yolk-based model salad dressing emulsions was studied in an attempt to investigate the role of the egg albumen fraction in the physicochemical changes that take place during the storage of acidic emulsions containing whole egg. Analysis of the adsorbed protein in emulsion by the application of SDS–PAGE

Antonios Drakos; Vassilis Kiosseoglou



Measurement of charge of heavy ions in emulsion using a CCD camera  

Microsoft Academic Search

A system has been developed for semi-automated determination of the charges of heavy ions recorded in nuclear emulsions. The profiles of various heavy ion tracks in emulsion, both accelerator beam ions and fragments of heavy projectiles, were obtained with a CCD camera mounted on a microscope. The dependence of track profiles on illumination, emulsion grain size and density, background in

D. Kudzia; M. L. Cherry; P. Deines-Jones; R. Holynski; A. Olszewski; B. S. Nilsen; K. Sengupta; M. Szarska; A. Trzupek; C. J. Waddington; J. P. Wefel; B. Wilczynska; H. Wilczynski; W. Wolter; B. Wosiek; K. Wozniak



Breakup of bubbles and drops in steadily sheared foams and concentrated emulsions.  


This experimental study is focused on the process of bubble breakup in steadily sheared foams, at constant shear rate or constant shear stress. Two different types of surfactants were used and glycerol was added to the aqueous phase, to check how the bubble breakup depends on the surface modulus and on bulk viscosity of the foaming solutions. The experiments show that bubble breakup in foams occurs above a well defined critical dimensionless stress, tau[over]CR identical with(tauCRR/sigma) approximately 0.40, which is independent of surfactant used, solution viscosity, and bubble volume fraction (varied between 92 and 98%). Here tauCR is the dimensional shear stress, above which a bubble with radius R and surface tension sigma would break in sheared foam. The value of the critical stress experimentally found by us tau[over]CR approximately 0.40, is about two orders of magnitude lower than the critical stress for breakup of single bubbles in sheared Newtonian liquids, tau[over]CR approximately 25. This large difference in the critical stress is explained by the strong interaction between neighboring bubbles in densely populated foams, which facilitates bubble subdivision into smaller bubbles. A strong effect of bubble polydispersity on the kinetics of bubble breakup (at similar mean bubble size) was observed and explained. Experiments were also performed with hexadecane-in-water emulsions of drop volume fraction 83%emulsions. Qualitatively similar behavior was observed to that of foams, with the critical dimensionless stress for drop breakup being lower, tau[over]CR approximately 0.15, and practically independent of the drop volume fraction and viscosity ratio (varied between 0.01 and 1). This critical stress is by several times lower than the critical stress for breakage of single drops in sheared Newtonian fluids at comparable viscosity ratio, which evidences for facilitated drop subdivision in concentrated emulsions. To explain the measured low values of the critical stress, a different type of capillary instability of the breaking bubbles and drops in concentrated foams and emulsions is proposed and discussed. PMID:19113128

Golemanov, K; Tcholakova, S; Denkov, N D; Ananthapadmanabhan, K P; Lips, A



Functional polymeric microparticles engineered from controllable microfluidic emulsions.  


Functional polymeric microparticles with typical sizes of 1-1000 ?m have received considerable attention for many applications. Especially in biomedical fields, polymeric microparticles with advanced functions such as targeted delivery, controlled encapsulation, or "capture and release" show great importance as delivery systems for active molecules and drugs, as imaging agents for analytics and diagnostics, as microreactors for confined bioreactions, and more. Generally, the functions of these microparticles rely on both their structures and the properties of their component materials. Thus, creating unique structures from functional materials provides an important strategy for developing advanced functional polymeric microparticles. Several methods, such as dispersion polymerization, precipitation polymerization, copolymer self-assembly, and phase-separated polymer precipitation can be used to make functional microparticles, but each has limitations, for example, their limited control over the particle size and structure. Using emulsions as templates, however, allows precise control over the size, shape, composition, and structure of the resulting microparticles by tuning those of the emulsions via specific emulsification techniques. Microfluidic methods offer excellent control of emulsion droplets, thereby providing a powerful platform for continuous, reproducible, scalable production of polymeric microparticles with unprecedented control over their monodispersity, structures, and compositions. This approach provides broad opportunities for producing polymeric microparticles with novel structure-property combinations and elaborately designed functions. In this Account, we highlight recent efforts in microfluidic fabrication of advanced polymeric microparticles with well-designed functions for potential biomedical applications, and we describe the development of microfluidic techniques for producing monodisperse and versatile emulsion templates. We begin by describing microparticles made from single emulsions and then describe those from complex multiple emulsions, showing how the resulting microparticles combine novel structures and material properties to achieve their advanced functions. Monodisperse emulsions enable production of highly uniform microparticles of desired sizes to achieve programmed release rates and passive targeting for drug delivery and diagnostic imaging. Phase-separated multiple emulsions allow combination of a variety of functional materials to generate compartmental microparticles including hollow, core-shell, multicore-shell, and hole-shell structures for controlled encapsulation and release, selective capture, and confined bioreaction. We envision that the versatility of microfluidics for microparticle synthesis could open new frontiers and provide promising and exciting opportunities for fabricating new functional microparticles with broad implications for myriad fields. PMID:24199893

Wang, Wei; Zhang, Mao-Jie; Chu, Liang-Yin



Rapid and medium setting high float bituminous emulsions  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a rapid set high float aqueous bituminous emulsion-comprising bitumen, water, and from about 0.4% to about 0.6%, based on the weight of the emulsion, of an anionic emulsifier comprised of an alkaline solution of a combination of (1) 20% to 80% fatty acids selected from the group consisting of tall oil fatty acids, tallow fatty acids, and mixtures. (2) 20% to 80% of a product of the reaction of the fatty acids with a member of the group consists of acrylic acid, methacrylic acid, fumaric acid, and maleic anhydride.

Schilling, P.; Schreuders, H.G.



Preparation of acrylate IPN copolymer latexes by radiation emulsion polymerization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiation-induced and chemical initiation are compared in the initiation of acrylate emulsion copolymer latexes. The particle diameter, distribution and microstructure are influenced by emulsifier concentration, radiation dose and temperature. The results show that the emulsion particle diameter of radiation polymerization is smaller and better distributed in comparison to using chemical polymerization. In addition, interlude polymer net (IPN) core-shell copolymer latexes are observed by transmission electron microscope (TEM). The bounding face of core-shell acrylate copolymmer texes of radiation polymerization is clearer. The morphology of acrylate IPN copolymer latexes is further investigated.

Wu, Minghong; Zhou, Ruimin; Ma, Zue-Teh; Bao, Borong; Lei, Jianqiu



Microscopic structure of water in a water/oil emulsion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have determined the microscopic structure of water within a water/oil emulsion, by combining neutron diffraction data, exploiting the isotopic H/D substitution, and a fully atomistic Monte Carlo simulation of a portion of a water droplet, containing the water/oil interface. The dependence of the data on the simulation box size and the reliability of the water-water radial distribution functions are discussed. Although water in the emulsion forms shorter and stronger hydrogen bonds compared to pure bulk water, its overall microscopic structure looks more disordered.

Mancinelli, R.; Bruni, F.; Ricci, M. A.; Imberti, S.



Photographic study of channel effect in emulsion explosives using a high-speed framing camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The precursor air shock wave (PAS), which is propagating ahead of the detonation front in air channel, precompresses and desensitizes the unreacted explosive charges. In some conditions, the PAS causes detonation failure. This phenomenon is known as the channel effect. To investigate the mechanism of the channel effect in emulsion explosives, some experimental works have been carried out using high-speed framing camera. The results of photographic observation at the first experiments demonstrated that the difference between PAS velocity and detonation velocity was the primary factor for the channel effect. It is assumed that the decrease of the PAS velocity can prevent the channel effect. The increase of surface roughness of inner wall was adopted to decrease the PAS velocity. Some experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of surface roughness on the PAS velocity and the detonation propagation. Photographic observations were performed using rectangular tubes with sandpaper on inner ceiling wall to simulate surface roughness under various conditions. The experimental results indicate that the increase of surface roughness reduces the PAS velocity and prevents detonation failure. It is concluded that the surface roughness of wall has a great influence on detonation propagation in emulsion explosive.

Sumiya, Fumihiko; Hirosaki, Yoshikazu; Kato, Yukio; Ogata, Yuji; Wada, Yuji; Katsuyama, Kunihisa



Standard Practice for Application and Analysis of Nuclear Research Emulsions for Fast Neutron Dosimetry  

E-print Network

1.1 Nuclear Research Emulsions (NRE) have a long and illustrious history of applications in the physical sciences, earth sciences and biological sciences (1,2) . In the physical sciences, NRE experiments have led to many fundamental discoveries in such diverse disciplines as nuclear physics, cosmic ray physics and high energy physics. In the applied physical sciences, NRE have been used in neutron physics experiments in both fission and fusion reactor environments (3-6). Numerous NRE neutron experiments can be found in other applied disciplines, such as nuclear engineering, environmental monitoring and health physics. Given the breadth of NRE applications, there exist many textbooks and handbooks that provide considerable detail on the techniques used in the NRE method. As a consequence, this practice will be restricted to the application of the NRE method for neutron measurements in reactor physics and nuclear engineering with particular emphasis on neutron dosimetry in benchmark fields (see Matrix E706). 1...

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia



Histological localization of methylmercury in mouse brain and kidney by emulsion autoradiography of /sup 203/Hg  

SciTech Connect

Some investigators have abandoned the use of /sup 203/Hg emulsion autoradiography in favor of chemical methods of microscopic localization of mercury. However, recent studies indicate that the latter methods identify only inorganic mercury, or some product of inorganic mercury, making them of little or no value for studies of methylmercury toxicity. Doubts about the use of /sup 203/Hg for microscopic localization arose because of the high maximum energy of its emissions and the concern that its latent images might be confounded with silver grains produced by chemical reactions between tissue Hg and the silver supplied by photographic emulsions. Examination of the spectrum of emissions from /sup 203/Hg demonstrates that its maximum energy emissions are rare. The mean energy of /sup 203/Hg emissions is in the 50-ke V range and the modal emissions are close to 0 ke V, indicating sufficient low energy emissions for autoradiography. In preliminary experiments, methylmercury content of mouse brain was shown to be stable through the steps of tissue processing for plastic sections. A direct comparison of autoradiographic grain counts from tissue treated with cold or hot methylmercury demonstrated that no grains above background were produced in the absence of nuclear emissions--only hot samples affected emulsion. In the kidneys of mice killed 24 hr after dosing, grains were most numerous over cortical tubules and significantly less numerous over glomeruli. In the cerebellum, the molecular layer was significantly more heavily labeled than the granular layer. The number of grains was greatly increased in every region by increasing the specific activity of the methylmercury dosing solution while holding the dose of methylmercury constant.

Rodier, P.M.; Kates, B.



Dynamics of step-emulsification: From a single to a collection of emulsion droplet generators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microfluidics has proven to be an efficient tool for making fine and calibrated emulsion droplets. The parallelization of drop makers is required for producing large amounts. Here, we investigate the generation of emulsion drops along a series of shallow microchannels emerging in a deep one, in other words the step-emulsification process. The dynamics of a single drop maker is first characterized as a function of interfacial tension and viscosities of both phases. The characteristic time scale of drop formation, namely, the necking time that finally sets drop size, is shown to be principally governed by the outer phase viscosity to interfacial tension ratio with a minor correction linked to the viscosity ratio. The step emulsification process experiences a transition of fragmentation regime where both the necking time and drop size suddenly raise. This transition, that corresponds to a critical period of drop formation and thus defines a maximum production rate of small droplets, is observed to be ruled by the viscosity ratio of the two phases. When drops are produced along an array of microchannels with a cross flow of the continuous phase, a configuration comparable to a one-dimensional membrane having rectangular pores, a drop boundary layer develops along the drop generators. In the small drop regime, the local dynamics of drop formation is shown to be independent on the emulsion cross flow. Moreover, we note that the development of the drop boundary layer is even beneficial to homogenize drop size along the production line. On the other hand, in the large drop regime, drop collision can trigger fragmentation and thus lead to size polydispersity.

Mittal, Nitesh; Cohen, Céline; Bibette, Jérôme; Bremond, Nicolas



Spectra, composition, and interactions of nuclei with magnet interaction chambers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Emulsion chambers will be flown in the Astromag Facility to measure the cosmic ray composition and spectra to 10 exp 15 eV total energy and to definitively study the characteristics of nucleus-nucleus interactions above 10 exp 12 eV/n. Two configurations of emulsion chambers will be flown in the SCIN/MAGIC experiment. One chamber has an emulsion target and a calorimeter similar to those recently flown on balloons for composition and spectra measurements. The other has an identical calorimeter and a low-density target section optimized for performing rigidity measurements on charged particles produced in interactions. The transverse momenta of charged and neutral mesons, direct hadronic pairs from resonance decays and interference effects, and possible charge clustering in high-density states of matter will be studied.

Parneil, T. A.; Derrickson, J. H.; Fountain, W. F.; Roberts, F. E.; Tabuki, T.; Watts, J. W.; Burnett, T. H.; Cherry, M. C.; Dake, S.; Fuki, M.



Polarized phase functions in oil-in-water emulsion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of modeling of polarized phase functions (PPFs) in water polluted by oil-in-water emulsion are presented. The shapes of PPFs for various oil droplets size distributions and for two optically different oil types are shown for various wavelengths in the visible region. It is revealed that PPFs for two perpendicular planes are different for angles greater than 50° (with even




Separating oil from oil-water emulsions by electroflotation technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

The separation of finely dispersed oil from oil-water emulsions was carried out in an electroflotation cell which has a set of electrodes, a lead anode and stainless steel screen cathode. The effect of operating parameters on the performance of the batch cell was examined. The parameters investigated are electrical current, oil concentration, flotation time and flocculant agent concentrations. A well-fitted

Ashraf Y. Hosny



Separation of oil-water emulsion from car washes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potentials of UF and NF membrane processes have been evaluated for separation of oil water emulsion generated from car washing operations. Using membranes, wastewater can be effectively recycled and fresh water usage could be reduced. The parameters studied were membrane type, emulsifier types, pressure and competing compounds. Both an-ionic and non-ionic emulsifiers were used for the experimental runs. The

S. Panpanit; C. Visvanathan; S. Muttamara


Acoustically aided separation of oil droplets from aqueous emulsions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel method for recovering the oil phase from aqueous emulsions has been developed. The method applies a low-intensity, resonant ultrasonic field within a rectangular chamber, which is optionally filled with a highly porous medium. Oil droplets dispersed in water have negative acoustic contrast factor and thus are driven to the pressure antinodes of the standing wave field under the

Gautam D. Pangu; Donald L. Feke




Microsoft Academic Search

The possibility of increasing the sensitivity of nuclear emulsions by ; the use of gold sodium thiocyanate solutions was studied and the following ; results were obtalned: The sensitizing effect of the complex gold sodium ; thiocyanate is dependent on the ratio of the sodium thiocyanate and gold chloride ; concentrations in the sensitizing solution. In the beginning, a sensitivity



Infrared laser photography with silver-halide emulsion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infrared sensitization of photographic emulsion response to visible light is a useful technique for visualizing IR laser beams. In this work, it is demonstrated that this sensitization results from heating by the IR beam. Investigation of the dependence of sensitization by pulsed CO2 laser (10.6 micrometers) preexposures on visible background density, IR fluence, visible wavelength, delay between exposures, and spatial

Daniel Naor; Allen Flusberg; Irving Itzkan



Hydrophobin coated boehmite nanoparticles stabilizing oil in water emulsions.  


Hydrophobin coated boehmite nanoparticles have been used to establish tooth-paste like, homogenous emulsions. The surface-modified nanoparticles were simply obtained by mixing aqueous solutions of cationic boehmite particles with the anionic hydrophobin H Star Protein B® (HPB). Surface tension measurements clearly show that 1 wt.% boehmite binds up to 1 wt.% HPB. The strong interaction and aggregation of hydrophobin coated boehmite nanoparticles was proven by Cryo-TEM measurements, too. Interestingly, the combined use of 0.5 wt.% HPB and 0.5 wt.% boehmite as emulsifying agents resulted in very stable, homogenous, high internal phase emulsions (65 wt.% oil) that are stable over months. The established emulsions have also been characterized by rheological measurements. Storage moduli of more than 1000 Pa are characteristic for their high gel-like properties. Furthermore, light microscopy showed an average droplet size close to 1 ?m with low polydispersity. Cryo-SEM confirmed that the hydrophobin coated nanoparticles are located at the interface of the oil droplets and therefore stabilize the emulsion systems. PMID:22129628

Reger, Martin; Hoffmann, Heinz



Time Optimal Control of Particle Size Distribution in Emulsion Polymerization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emulsion polymers are used in a wide range of applications such as adhesives, inks, paints, coatings, drug delivery systems, gloves, floor polish, films and cosmetics. Because the end-use properties of the polymers strongly depend on the particle size distribution (PSD), modeling and control of the PSD is of high interest and is an active field of research. The aim of

Ahmad Mansour; Ala Eldin Bouaswaig; Sebastian Engell



Fluoropolymer-Based Emulsions for the Intravenous Delivery of Sevoflurane  

PubMed Central

Background The intravenous delivery of halogenated volatile anesthetics has been previously achieved using phospholipid-stabilized emulsions, e.g. Intralipid. However, fluorinated volatile anesthetics, such as sevoflurane, are partially fluorophilic and do not mix well with classic non-fluorinated lipids. This effect limits the maximum amount of sevoflurane that can be stably emulsified in Intralipid to 3.5% v/v. This is a significant limitation to the potential clinical use of Intralipid-based emulsions. Methods The authors prepared a 20% v/v sevoflurane emulsion using a novel fluorinated surfactant and tested its effectiveness and therapeutic index by administering it to male Sprague-Dawley rats via intravenous injection into the jugular vein. The median effective dose to induce anesthesia (ED50), median lethal dose (LD50), and therapeutic index (LD50 / ED50) were determined. Anesthesia was measured by loss of the forepaw righting reflex. Results The ED50 and LD50 values were found to be 0.41 and 1.05 mL emulsion / kg body weight, respectively. These lead to a therapeutic index of 2.6, which compares favorably to previously determined values of emulsified isoflurane, as well as values for propofol and thiopental. Conclusions A novel semi-fluorinated surfactant was able to considerably increase the maximum amount of stably emulsified sevoflurane compared to Intralipid. These formulations can be used to rapidly induce anesthesia with bolus dosing from which recovery is smooth and rapid. PMID:18813044

Fast, Jonathan P.; Perkins, Mark G.; Pearce, Robert A.; Waters, Ralph M.; Mecozzi, Sandro



Rheological Characterisation of Dairy Emulsions For Cold Foam Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dairy foams are complex aerated materials where the liquid matrix is an emulsion made by oil droplets dispersed in a water system. An innovative application of these systems leads to an interesting product derived from instant whipped creams that are stored and consumed at low temperatures (typically between??4 and??18°C) like an ice cream. This novel product requires a specific texture

Domenico Gabriele; Massimo Migliori; Noemi Baldino; Rosa Di Sanzo; Bruno de Cindio; Daniela Vuozzo



Intravenous lipid emulsion for treating permethrin toxicosis in a cat  

PubMed Central

A 2-year-old cat was presented with acute onset seizures, tremors, and hypersalivation. Permethrin toxicity was diagnosed based on a history of recent flea treatment. Measures were taken to minimize further absorption of permethrin, and methocarbamol and intravenous lipid emulsion were used to control tremors. The cat recovered and was discharged within 42 h. PMID:24381347

DeGroot, Whitney D.



Development of Foamed Emulsion Bioreactor for Air Pollution Control  

E-print Network

Development of Foamed Emulsion Bioreactor for Air Pollution Control Eunsung Kan, Marc A. Deshusses: 10.1002/bit.10767 Abstract: A new type of bioreactor for air pollution con- trol has been developed used bioreactors for air pollution control. © 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 84: 240


Phagocytosis of a fluorescently labeled perflubron emulsion by a human monocyte cell line.  


We hypothesized that fluorocarbon-based lipid emulsions are phagocytosed by monocytes and that many of the in vivo side effects related to the infusion of these particulate emulsions are due to release of cytokines by these monocytes. To clarify whether these emulsions are actually phagocytosed we attempted to measure by flow cytometry the apparent uptake of a fluorescently labeled high-concentration (90%, w/v) perflubron (perfluorooctyl bromide [PFOB]) emulsion by a differentiated human monocyte cell line. A fluorescent chromophore (Zynaxis Cell Science) was used to label the egg yolk phospholipid in a perflubron emulsion. This phospholipid label was used to track the perflubron emulsion during overnight incubation with the human monocyte (THP-1) cell line which had been differentiated, by exposure to PMA, into macrophage-like cells. Our results indicate that after 24 hours of incubation with the labeled perflubron emulsion, 64.9% (+/- 11.0) of differentiated THP-1 cells had cell-associated emulsion (ingested and/or membrane bound) whereas 24.4 (+/- 6.8%) of the control cells had cell-associated emulsion. We speculate that this technique may be a useful method to track the intravascular persistence and extravascular distribution of such emulsions, and that the degree of uptake of the emulsion by macrophages in this assay may correlate with its in vivo half life. PMID:7849925

Smith, D J; Kornbrust, E S; Lane, T A



Enhanced stabilization of cloudy emulsions with gum Arabic and whey protein isolate.  


Cloudy emulsions are oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions normally prepared as concentrates, further diluted, per request, into the final beverage. The cloudy emulsion provides flavor, color, and cloud (turbidity) to the soft drink. These systems are stabilized by emulsifiers and/or amphiphilic polysaccharides. Cloudy emulsions based on naturally occurring food grade emulsifiers were studied in the present work. Two charged natural biopolymers, whey protein isolate (WPI) and gum Arabic (GA), are interacted in aqueous solution to form charge-charge interactions improving the emulsion stability. The emulsions were high sheared (Microfluidizer) and characterized by particle size distribution analysis (DLS), optical centrifugation (LUMiFuge), optical microscopy observations, and turbidity measurements. Emulsions obtained from 10wt% of 3:1wt. ratio WPI:GA, at pH 7 (10wt% canola oil) show better stability than emulsions stabilized by GA or WPI alone. The droplet sizes were smaller than 1microm and did not grow significantly during 1 month of incubation at 25 degrees C. The D-limonene-based emulsion droplets were larger (> 2microm) than those made with vegetable oils immediately after preparation and underwent significant droplet size increase (coalescence) within 1 month (>8 microm). The emulsion with turbidity suitable as a cloudy emulsion was composed of 3wt% WPI:GA (3:1) and 20wt% canola oil. PMID:20149604

Klein, Miri; Aserin, Abraham; Svitov, Inna; Garti, Nissim



Non-coalescence of oppositely charged droplets in pH-sensitive emulsions  

PubMed Central

Like charges stabilize emulsions, whereas opposite charges break emulsions. This is the fundamental principle for many industrial and practical processes. Using micrometer-sized pH-sensitive polymeric hydrogel particles as emulsion stabilizers, we prepare emulsions that consist of oppositely charged droplets, which do not coalesce. We observe noncoalescence of oppositely charged droplets in bulk emulsification as well as in microfluidic devices, where oppositely charged droplets are forced to collide within channel junctions. The results demonstrate that electrostatic interactions between droplets do not determine their stability and reveal the unique pH-dependent properties of emulsions stabilized by soft microgel particles. The noncoalescence can be switched to coalescence by neutralizing the microgels, and the emulsion can be broken on demand. This unusual feature of the microgel-stabilized emulsions offers fascinating opportunities for future applications of these systems. PMID:22203968

Liu, Tingting; Seiffert, Sebastian; Thiele, Julian; Abate, Adam R.; Weitz, David A.; Richtering, Walter



Oral absorption of a valsartan-loaded spray-dried emulsion based on hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose.  


The aim of this study was to develop a novel valsartan-loaded spray-dried emulsion based on hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC) with enhanced oral absorption. The valsartan-loaded redispersible dry emulsion was prepared by using a high-pressure homogenization and spray-drying process with water, Capryol 90, HPMC, and different surfactants, based on the results of the solubility study. The spray-dried emulsions formed small and homogeneous emulsions with a mean droplet emulsion size ranging from 133.5 to 152.5nm at the dispersion state in water. The valsartan-loaded redispersible dry emulsion with HPMC/poloxamer 407 showed enhanced pH-independent valsartan release, resulting in a dramatically enhanced oral bioavailability of valsartan compared to the raw material and commercial product. Therefore, a formulation strategy using the redispersible dry emulsion with HPMC/poloxamer 407 is very effective for the development of a new dosage form containing valsartan. PMID:24879921

Baek, In-Hwan; Kim, Jung-Soo; Ha, Eun-Sol; Choo, Gwang-Ho; Cho, Wonkyung; Hwang, Sung-Joo; Kim, Min-Soo



Lipid emulsions – Guidelines on Parenteral Nutrition, Chapter 6  

PubMed Central

The infusion of lipid emulsions allows a high energy supply, facilitates the prevention of high glucose infusion rates and is indispensable for the supply with essential fatty acids. The administration of lipid emulsions is recommended within ?7 days after starting PN (parenteral nutrition) to avoid deficiency of essential fatty acids. Low-fat PN with a high glucose intake increases the risk of hyperglycaemia. In parenterally fed patients with a tendency to hyperglycaemia, an increase in the lipid-glucose ratio should be considered. In critically ill patients the glucose infusion should not exceed 50% of energy intake. The use of lipid emulsions with a low phospholipid/triglyceride ratio is recommended and should be provided with the usual PN to prevent depletion of essential fatty acids, lower the risk of hyperglycaemia, and prevent hepatic steatosis. Biologically active vitamin E (?-tocopherol) should continuously be administered along with lipid emulsions to reduce lipid peroxidation. Parenteral lipids should provide about 25–40% of the parenteral non-protein energy supply. In certain situations (i.e. critically ill, respiratory insufficiency) a lipid intake of up to 50 or 60% of non-protein energy may be reasonable. The recommended daily dose for parenteral lipids in adults is 0.7–1.3 g triglycerides/kg body weight. Serum triglyceride concentrations should be monitored regularly with dosage reduction at levels >400 mg/dl (>4.6 mmol/l) and interruption of lipid infusion at levels >1000 mg/dl (>11.4 mmol/l). There is little evidence at this time that the choice of different available lipid emulsions affects clinical endpoints. PMID:20049078

Adolph, M.; Heller, A. R.; Koch, T.; Koletzko, B.; Kreymann, K. G.; Krohn, K.; Pscheidl, E.; Senkal, M.



Selective separation of lambdacyhalothrin by porous/magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers prepared by Pickering emulsion polymerization.  


Porous/magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers (PM-MIPs) were prepared by Pickering emulsion polymerization. The reaction was carried out in an oil/water emulsion using magnetic halloysite nanotubes as the stabilizer instead of a toxic surfactant. In the oil phase, the imprinting process was conducted by radical polymerization of functional and cross-linked monomers, and porogen chloroform generated steam under the high reaction temperature, which resulted in some pores decorated with easily accessible molecular binding sites within the as-made PM-MIPs. The characterization demonstrated that the PM-MIPs were porous and magnetic inorganic-polymer composite microparticles with magnetic sensitivity (M(s) = 0.7448 emu/g), thermal stability (below 473 K) and magnetic stability (over the pH range of 2.0-8.0). The PM-MIPs were used as a sorbent for the selective binding of lambdacyhalothrin (LC) and rapidly separated under an external magnetic field. The Freundlich isotherm model gave a good fit to the experimental data. The adsorption kinetics of the PM-MIPs was well described by pseudo-second-order kinetics, indicating that the chemical process could be the rate-limiting step in the adsorption of LC. The selective recognition experiments exhibited the outstanding selective adsorption effect of the PM-MIPs for target LC. Moreover, the PM-MIPs regeneration without significant loss in adsorption capacity was demonstrated by at least four repeated cycles. PMID:23894024

Hang, Hui; Li, Chunxiang; Pan, Jianming; Li, Linzi; Dai, Jiangdong; Dai, Xiaohui; Yu, Ping; Feng, Yonghai



Experimental study of forces between quasi-two-dimensional emulsion droplets near jamming  

E-print Network

We experimentally study the jamming of quasi-two-dimensional emulsions. Our experiments consist of oil-in-water emulsion droplets confined between two parallel plates. From the droplet outlines, we can determine the forces between every droplet pair to within 8% over a wide range of area fractions $\\phi$. We study three bidisperse samples that jam at area fractions $\\phi_c \\approx 0.86$. Our data show that for $\\phi > \\phi_c$, the contact numbers and pressure have power-law dependence on $\\phi-\\phi_c$ in agreement with the critical scaling found in numerical simulations. Furthermore, we see a link between the interparticle force law and the exponent for the pressure scaling, supporting prior computational observations. We also observe linear-like force chains (chains of large inter-droplet forces) that extend over 10 particle lengths, and examine the origin of their linearity. We find that the relative orientation of large force segments are random and that the tendency for force chains to be linear is not due to correlations in the direction of neighboring large forces, but instead occurs because the directions are biased towards being linear to balance the forces on each droplet.

Kenneth W. Desmond; Pearl J. Young; Dandan Chen; Eric R. Weeks



Comparative studies of salinomycin-loaded nanoparticles prepared by nanoprecipitation and single emulsion method  

PubMed Central

To establish a satisfactory delivery system for the delivery of salinomycin (Sal), a novel, selective cancer stem cell inhibitor with prominent toxicity, gelatinase-responsive core-shell nanoparticles (NPs), were prepared by nanoprecipitation method (NR-NPs) and single emulsion method (SE-NPs). The gelatinase-responsive copolymer was prepared by carboxylation and double amination method. We studied the stability of NPs prepared by nanoprecipitation method with different proportions of F68 in aqueous phase to determine the best proportion used in our study. Then, the NPs were prepared by nanoprecipitation method with the best proportion of F68 and single emulsion method, and their physiochemical traits including morphology, particle size, zeta potential, drug loading content, stability, and in vitro release profiles were studied. The SE-NPs showed significant differences in particle size, drug loading content, stability, and in vitro release profiles compared to NR-NPs. The SE-NPs presented higher drug entrapment efficiency and superior stability than the NR-NPs. The drug release rate of SE-NPs was more sustainable than that of the NR-NPs, and in vivo experiment indicated that NPs could prominently reduce the toxicity of Sal. Our study demonstrates that the SE-NPs could be a satisfactory method for the preparation of gelatinase-responsive NPs for intelligent delivery of Sal. PMID:25147486



Comparative studies of salinomycin-loaded nanoparticles prepared by nanoprecipitation and single emulsion method.  


To establish a satisfactory delivery system for the delivery of salinomycin (Sal), a novel, selective cancer stem cell inhibitor with prominent toxicity, gelatinase-responsive core-shell nanoparticles (NPs), were prepared by nanoprecipitation method (NR-NPs) and single emulsion method (SE-NPs). The gelatinase-responsive copolymer was prepared by carboxylation and double amination method. We studied the stability of NPs prepared by nanoprecipitation method with different proportions of F68 in aqueous phase to determine the best proportion used in our study. Then, the NPs were prepared by nanoprecipitation method with the best proportion of F68 and single emulsion method, and their physiochemical traits including morphology, particle size, zeta potential, drug loading content, stability, and in vitro release profiles were studied. The SE-NPs showed significant differences in particle size, drug loading content, stability, and in vitro release profiles compared to NR-NPs. The SE-NPs presented higher drug entrapment efficiency and superior stability than the NR-NPs. The drug release rate of SE-NPs was more sustainable than that of the NR-NPs, and in vivo experiment indicated that NPs could prominently reduce the toxicity of Sal. Our study demonstrates that the SE-NPs could be a satisfactory method for the preparation of gelatinase-responsive NPs for intelligent delivery of Sal. PMID:25147486

Wang, Qin; Wu, Puyuan; Ren, Wei; Xin, Kai; Yang, Yang; Xie, Chen; Yang, Chenchen; Liu, Qin; Yu, Lixia; Jiang, Xiqun; Liu, Baorui; Li, Rutain; Wang, Lifeng



The FASES instrument development and experiment preparation for the ISS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The FASES experiments target the investigation of the stability of emulsions. The main objec-tives are the study of the surfactant adsorption at the liquid / liquid interfaces, the interaction of the droplets as well as the behaviour of the liquid film between nearby drops. Particular focus is given to the dynamic droplet evolution during emulsion destabilisation. The results of the experiments shall support development of methods for the modelling of droplet size distri-butions, which are important to many industries using stable emulsions like food production, cosmetics and pharmaceutics or unstable emulsions as required for applications in waste water treatment or crude oil recovery. The development of the experimental instrumentation was initiated in 2002. The flight instru-ment hardware development was started in 2004 and finally the flight unit was completed in 2009. Currently the final flight preparation is proceeding targeting a launch to the International Space Station (ISS) with Progress 39P in September 2010. The experiment setup of the instrument is accommodated in a box type insert called Experiment Container (EC), which will be installed in the Fluid Science Laboratory part of the European Columbus module of the ISS. The EC is composed of two diagnostics instruments for the investigation of transparent and opaque liquid emulsion. The transparent emulsions will be subject to the experiment called "Investigations on drop/drop interactions in Transparent Emulsions" (ITEM). The opaque emulsion samples will be studied in the experiment called "Investigations on concentrated or opaque Emulsions and on Phase Inversions" (EMPI). The thermal conditioning unit (TCU) allows performing homogeneous thermalization, tem-perature sweeps, emulsion preparation by stirrer, and optical diagnostics with a scanning mi-croscope. The objective of the instrument is the 3D reconstruction of the emulsion droplet distribution in the liquid matrix in terms of the droplet sizes, location and their time depen-dent evolution. The TCU will be used for the stability experiment ITEM-S and the droplet freezing experiment ITEM-F. The Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) will give an information about the evolution of the emulsion through the droplet size distribution and the dispersion state of the droplets within the emulsion during a controlled temperature sweep by measuring the latent heat of droplet freezing and melting during the EMPI experiments. For this purpose the calorimeter is equipped with a reference sample filled with a pure liquid matrix and a similar measurement sample filled with the specific emulsion under investigation. The differential heat flux between measurement sample and reference sample is measured with a sensitive heat flux sensor. Each instrument is serviced by a robotic sample stowage system, which accommodates in total 44 different ITEM and EMPI emulsion samples each filled with a specific composition of the emulsion. Currently the flight preparation is ongoing with particular focus on the preparation of the emulsion flight sample set and the instrument's operating parameters. The FASES flight instrument was developed by ASTRIUM Space Transportation Germany with support of RUAG Aerospace Wallisellen under ESA / ESTEC contract. The science team of FASES is supported by ESA/ESTEC (Microgravity Application Programme, AO99-052).

Picker, Gerold; Gollinger, Klaus; Greger, Ralf; Dettmann, Jan; Winter, Josef; Dewandre, Thierry; Castiglione, Luigi; Vincent-Bonnieu, Sebastien; Liggieri, Libero; Clausse, Daniele; Antoni, Mickael


Fast parallelized kalman filter based reconstruction of charged particle trajectories for the compressed baryonic matter experiment on a many-core server at the laboratory of information technologies, JINR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The charged particle trajectory online reconstruction in the Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment (GSI, Germany) is an extremely difficult task. It is conditioned by a high rate of the ion beam-tar-get collisions (up to 107/s), high track multiplicity in each nucleus-nucleus collision (up to 1000 particles), and charged-particle trajectory registration with the coordinate detectors located in a highly inhomogeneous magnetic field. Such a problem could be solved only by using modern high-performance computers. This work scrutinizes a Kalman filter based track reconstruction algorithm implemented using different parallelization approaches. To perform the analysis, a many-core hybrid server with two Intel Xeon X5660 CPUs and a NVidia GTX 480 GPU (JINR LIT) was used.

Ablyazimov, T. O.; Zyzak, M. V.; Ivanov, V. V.; Kisel, P. I.



Stabilization mechanism of oil-in-water emulsions by ?-lactoglobulin and gum arabic.  


Natural biopolymer stabilized oil-in-water emulsions were formulated using ?-lactoglobulin (?-lg), gum arabic (GA), and ?-lg:GA solutions as an alternative to synthetic surfactants. Emulsions using these biopolymers and their complexes were formulated varying the biopolymer total concentration, the protein-to-polysaccharide ratio, and the emulsification protocol. This work showed that whereas ?-lg enabled the formulation of emulsions at concentration as low as 0.5 (w/w)%, GA allowed to obtain emulsions at concentrations equal to or higher than 2.5 (w/w)%. In order to improve emulsion stability, ?-lg and GA were complexed through strong attractive electrostatic interactions. GA solution had to be added to previously prepared ?-lg emulsions in order to obtain stable emulsions. Interfacial tension and interfacial rheological measurements allowed a better understanding of the possible stabilizing mechanism. ?-lg and GA both induced a very effective decrease in interfacial tension and showed interfacial elastic behaviour. In the mixed system, ?-lg adsorbed at the interface and GA electrostatically bound to it, leading to the formation of a bi-layer stabilized emulsion. However, emulsion stability was not improved compared to ?-lg stabilized emulsion, probably due to depletion or bridging flocculation. PMID:21145063

Bouyer, Eléonore; Mekhloufi, Ghozlene; Le Potier, Isabelle; de Kerdaniel, Typhaine du Fou; Grossiord, Jean-Louis; Rosilio, Véronique; Agnely, Florence



Temperature cycling stability of pre-heated acidified whey protein-stabilised o\\/w emulsion gels in relation to the internal surface area of the emulsion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stability of acidified heated whey protein-based o\\/w emulsions against partial coalescence upon temperature cycling is investigated as a function of amount of fat, droplet size, and degree of protein denaturation in the emulsion. The data are explained in terms of a simple model that takes into account the average interdroplet distance and the amount of native protein at the

Sotirios Kiokias; Arjen Bot



High sensitivity 19F MRI of a perfluorooctyl bromide emulsion: application to a dynamic biodistribution study and oxygen tension mapping in the mouse liver and spleen.  


We have recently developed an optimized multi-spin echo (MSE) sequence dedicated to perfluorooctyl bromide (PFOB) imaging yielding an excellent sensitivity in vitro. The aim of the present study was to apply this sequence to quantitative measurements in the mouse liver and spleen after intravenous (i.v.) injection of PFOB emulsions. We first performed oxygenation maps 25.5 min after a single infusion of emulsion and, contrary to previous studies, shortly after injection. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in the liver and spleen was as high as 45 and 120, respectively, for 3-min images with 11.7-?L pixels. Values of oxygen tension tended to be slightly higher in the spleen than in the liver. Dynamic biodistribution experiments were then performed immediately after intravenous (i.v.) injection of PFOB emulsions grafted with different quantities of polyethylene glycol (PEG) for stealth. Images were acquired every 7 min for 84 min and the SNR measured in the liver and spleen was at least four from the first time point. Uptake rates could be assessed for each PEG amount and, in spite of high standard deviations (SDs) owing to interanimal variability, our data confirmed that increasing quantities of PEG allow more gradual uptake of the emulsion particles by the liver and spleen. In conclusion, our method seems to be a powerful tool to non-invasively perform accurate in vivo quantitative measurements in the liver and spleen using (19)F MRI. PMID:21953998

Giraudeau, Céline; Djemaï, Boucif; Ghaly, Mohamed Ahmed; Boumezbeur, Fawzi; Mériaux, Sébastien; Robert, Philippe; Port, Marc; Robic, Caroline; Le Bihan, Denis; Lethimonnier, Franck; Valette, Julien



Bioreactor droplets from liposome-stabilized all-aqueous emulsions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Artificial bioreactors are desirable for in vitro biochemical studies and as protocells. A key challenge is maintaining a favourable internal environment while allowing substrate entry and product departure. We show that semipermeable, size-controlled bioreactors with aqueous, macromolecularly crowded interiors can be assembled by liposome stabilization of an all-aqueous emulsion. Dextran-rich aqueous droplets are dispersed in a continuous polyethylene glycol (PEG)-rich aqueous phase, with coalescence inhibited by adsorbed ~130-nm diameter liposomes. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching and dynamic light scattering data indicate that the liposomes, which are PEGylated and negatively charged, remain intact at the interface for extended time. Inter-droplet repulsion provides electrostatic stabilization of the emulsion, with droplet coalescence prevented even for submonolayer interfacial coatings. RNA and DNA can enter and exit aqueous droplets by diffusion, with final concentrations dictated by partitioning. The capacity to serve as microscale bioreactors is established by demonstrating a ribozyme cleavage reaction within the liposome-coated droplets.

Dewey, Daniel C.; Strulson, Christopher A.; Cacace, David N.; Bevilacqua, Philip C.; Keating, Christine D.



Amphoteric water-in-oil self-inverting polymer emulsion  

SciTech Connect

An amphoteric water-in-oil self-inverting polymer emulsion is prepared which contains a copolymer of a nonionic vinyl monomer and an amphoteric vinyl monomer or a terpolymer of a nonionic vinyl monomer, an anionic vinyl monomer and a cationic vinyl monomer in the aqueous phase, a hydrocarbon oil for the oil phase, a water-in-oil emulsifying agent and an inverting surfactant. An example of a copolymer is a copolymer of a nonionic vinyl monomer such as acrylamide or methacrylamide and an amphoteric vinyl monomer such as a reaction product of dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate and monochloracetic acid. An example of a terpolymer is a terpolymer of a nonionic vinyl monomer such as acrylamide or methacrylamide, an anionic vinyl monomer such as sodium acrylate and a cationic vinyl monomer such as triethyl ammonium ethyl methacrylate methosulfate salt. The emulsion is useful in papermaking, treatment of sewage and industrial wastes, drilling muds and secondary and tertiary recovery of petroleum by water flooding.

Lipowski, S. A.



New perfluorocarbon emulsion improves tissue oxygenation in cat retina.  


We have studied the conditions under which a perfluorocarbon emulsion of perfluorooctyl bromide (PFOB; Alliance Pharmaceutical, San Diego, CA) enhances tissue O2 delivery. Measurements of retinal tissue O2 tension (PO2) were made in anesthetized, artificially respirated, dark-adapted, normovolemic cats before, during, and after the infusion of three successive doses of 1 g PFOB/kg body wt each. There was little immediate effect of the infusion on the tissue PO2 when the cats were breathing room air, but the mean increase in tissue PO2 during 100% O2 breathing was 60 +/- 9% (SE; n = 8 cats) greater after infusion of 1 g PFOB/kg and approximately 136% greater after 3 g PFOB/kg. Similar infusions of the emulsifying medium alone had negligible effects on tissue PO2. These results suggest that PFOB emulsion may be clinically useful in treating tissue hypoxia in normovolemic patients breathing O2-enriched air. PMID:1601805

Braun, R D; Linsenmeier, R A; Goldstick, T K



Asphalt emulsion sealing of uranium mill tailings. 1979 annual report  

SciTech Connect

Uranium mill tailings are a source of low-level radiation and radioactive materials that may be released into the environment. Stabilization or disposal of these tailings in a safe and environmentally sound way is necessary to minimize radon exhalation and other radioactive releases. One of the most promising concepts for stabilizing uranium tailings is being investigated at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory: the use of asphalt emulsion to contain radon and other potentially hazardous materials in uranium tailings. Results of these studies indicate that radon flux from uranium tailings can be reduced by greater than 99% by covering the tailings with an asphalt emulsion that is poured on or sprayed on (3.0 to 7.0 mm thick), or mixed with some of the tailings and compacted to form an admixture seal (2.5 to 15.2 cm) containing 18 wt % residual asphalt.

Hartley, J.N.; Koehmstedt, P.L.; Esterl, D.J.; Freeman, H.D.



Intralipid emulsion treatment as an antidote in lipophilic drug intoxications.  


Intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE) is a lifesaving treatment of lipophilic drug intoxications. Not only does ILE have demonstrable efficacy as an antidote to local anesthetic toxicity, it is also effective in lipophilic drug intoxications. Our case series involved 10 patients with ingestion of different types of lipophilic drugs. Intravenous lipid emulsion treatment improved Glasgow Coma Scale or blood pressure and pulse rate or both according to the drug type. Complications were observed in 2 patients (minimal change pancreatitis and probable ILE treatment-related fat infiltration in lungs). In our case series, ILE was used for different lipophilic drug intoxications to improve cardiovascular and neurologic symptoms. According to the results, it was found that ILE treatment is a lifesaving agent in lipophilic drug intoxications and it can be used in unconscious patients who have cardiac and/or neurologic symptoms but no history of a specific drug ingestion. PMID:24974371

Eren Cevik, Sebnem; Tasyurek, Tanju; Guneysel, Ozlem



Main properties of sands hydrophobized by alkoxysilane emulsions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of laboratory tests and geotechnical view on sands hydrophobized by alkoxysilane emulsions are presented. For the soils subjected to this process, very low permeability and no capillary elevation was observed. Laboratory tests also indicate that other physical and mechanical properties of hydrophobized sands remain nearly untouched, i.e., the considered hydrophobisation process does not reduce the strength of soils. Properly composed alkoxysilane emulsions can also solidify in pores to produce a stabilizing silicate binder. The filtration barriers in ground and soil stabilization are thus considered as possible applications of the hydrophobized soils. The process of treatment of granular soils with alkoxysilanes is neutral for the environment and the cost of implementation of the method is relatively low.

Wojciechowski, Marek; Bary?a, Patrycja; Lefik, Marek



Investigation of the Primary Cosmic Radiation with Nuclear Photographic Emulsions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several methods for determining the charge and energy of heavy nuclei found to be present in the primary cosmic radiation, are discussed. The application to a number of tracks of the heavy primary cosmic-ray component in Ilford C2 emulsions shows the presence of nuclei from the neighborhood of carbon in the periodic system up to the neighborhood of iron (Z~20÷30).

H. L. Bradt; B. Peters



Treatment of a Cutting Oil Emulsion by Microwave Irradiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work investigates the effect of a set of operating variables, including irradiation time, irradiation power, dosage of NaCl, settling time, pH, and the initial oil concentration, on the separation efficiency in the treatment of an oil in water (O\\/W) type cutting oil emulsion by microwave assisted demulsification. As a result of a series of batch demulsification tests a set

Chin-Hsing Kuo; Chon-Lin Lee



Quasifree p(K ?, K +) ? ? reaction in nuclear emulsion  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of 1.66 GeVc K? beam induced (K?,K+) reactions in the nuclear emulsion target is presented and 796 (K?, K+) reaction vertices (pK+ ? 1 GeV\\/c) containing 18 single hyperfragments are identified. There is no clear(spatially separated) double hyperfragment nor twin single hyperfragment in the identified 796 (K?,K+) reactions. These events are classified and their characteristics are described in

S. Aoki; S. Asai; S. Y. Bahk; S. H. Chung; H. Funahashi; C. H. Hahn; M. Hanabata; T. Hara; K. Hoshino; M. Ieiri; M. Iida; T. Iijima; K. Imai; Y. Itow; T. Jin-Ya; M. Kazuno; C. O. Kim; D. C. Kim; J. Y. Kim; K. Kodama; T. Kuze; Y. Maeda; A. Masaike; Y. Matsuda; A. Matsui; K. Murakami; C. Nagoshi; M. Nakamura; S. Nakanishi; T. Nakano; K. Nakazawa; K. Niwa; S. Ogawa; H. Okabe; S. Ono; R. Ozaki; I. G. Park; M. S. Park; K. Sakai; T. Sasaki; Y. Sato; H. Shibuya; H. M. Shimizu; Y. B. Sim; J. S. Song; M. Sugimoto; H. Tajima; R. Takashima; F. Takeutchi; K. H. Tanaka; R. Tanaka; M. Teranaka; I. Tezuka; H. Togawa; N. Ushida; N. Yasuda; J. Yokota; C. J. Yoon; C. S. Yoon



Emulsion templated bicontinuous hydrophobic-hydrophilic polymers: Loading and release  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water absorption is often poor in hydrophobic polyHIPEs, porous polymers synthesized within high internal phase emulsions (HIPEs). This paper describes bicontinuous polyHIPEs, the simultaneous polymerization of hydrophobic monomers (external phase) and hydrophilic monomers (internal phase). Integrating hydrogels within polyHIPEs extended the release of water-soluble dye from 10 h to more than 10 days. PolyHIPE capillary action promoted the rapid distribution of

Tamar Gitli; Michael S. Silverstein



Emulsion templated open porous membranes for protein purification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approximately 25cm×25cm large sheets of crosslinked highly porous poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate-co-ethylhexyl methacrylate) membranes with an average thicknesses between 285 and 565?m were prepared by casting a high internal phase emulsion (HIPE) containing monomers onto glass substrates and subsequent polymerisation. Open cellular porous polyHIPE type membranes were obtained with large pores (cavity) sizes between 3 and 10?m while interconnecting pores were

Irena Pulko; Vida Smrekar; Aleš Podgornik; Peter Krajnc



Porous interpenetrating network hybrids synthesized within high internal phase emulsions  

Microsoft Academic Search

‘PolyHIPE’ are porous polymers from the polymerization of monomers and crosslinking co-monomers in the continuous phase of high internal phase emulsions (HIPE). Elastomeric polyHIPE have been reinforced through the synthesis of nanocomposites using several different routes including the addition of co-monomers such as vinyltrialkoxysilane, polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) bearing vinyl groups, or vinyl silsesquioxane (VSQ). This paper describes the synthesis,

Jenny Normatov; Michael S. Silverstein



Self-assembly of bimodal particles inside emulsion droplets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colloidal dispersion of bimodal particles were self-organized inside water-in-oil emulsion droplets by evaporationdriven self-assembly method. After droplet shrinkage by heating the complex fluid system, small numbers of microspheres were packed into minimal second moment clusters, which are partially coated with silica nanospheres, resulting in the generation of patchy particles. The patchy particles in this study possess potential applications for selfassembly

Young-Sang Cho; Gi-Ra Yi; Seung-Man Yang; Young-Kuk Kim; Chul-Jin Choi




Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrocolloids are water-soluble biopolymers consisting of high molecular weight polysaccharides. For generations, these biopolymers were also termed gums or stabilizers imparting viscosity, gelification and long-term stability to food systems.Some hydrocolloids were also considered as emulsifying agents, since they help to form and stabilize oil-in-water emulsions. Only in the last two decades questions have been raised as to the mode of

Nissim Garti



Vaccination against Newcastle disease: Efficacy of an oil emulsion vaccine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vaccination using injectable Newcastle vaccine (inactivated) oil emulsion at 21 days of age stimulated high and persistent H.I. antibody levels.Vaccine prepared on an industrial scale contained not less then 100 PD50 in 0.5 ml.High levels of maternal antibodies had a negative influence on vaccination of chickens when carried out during the first 3 weeks of age, but not when performed

D. Cessi; L. Nardelli



Stabilization of emulsions and foams using barley ?-glucan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Barley ?-glucan (BBG) is receiving increasing attention as a food hydrocolloid. Stability of foams and emulsions was assessed using whey protein concentrate (WPC) as an emulsifier and foaming agent, and BBG gum extracted at pilot plant or laboratory scale as a stabilizer. WPC had a significant lowering effect (P?0.05) on surface tension of water and water–oil interfacial tension, while the

Zvonko Burkus; Feral Temelli



Effects of formulation, processing and storage parameters on the characteristics and stability of perflubron emulsion.  


In this study, the effects of formulation, processing and storage parameters on perflubron (perfluorooctyl bromide; PFOB) emulsions were investigated. Emulsions with varying concentrations of perflubron and egg yolk phospholipid (EYP) were prepared with different processing parameters and placed at different storage temperatures. Their characteristics and stability were compared. The emulsion droplet growth rate was nearly proportional to the perflubron percentage in the range of 15-110% w/v. The initial droplet size of perflubron emulsions was inversely proportional to the concentration of EYP until a certain lower limit of droplet size was reached. The initial droplet size and droplet growth rate of perflubron emulsion were strongly dependent upon the processing parameters. The logarithmic value of the droplet growth rate decreased linearly with l/T in the range of 5-40 degrees C. The formulation and processing parameters are the key variables to be optimized to achieve better emulsion characteristics and stability. PMID:7849938

Ni, Y; Pelura, T J; Sklenar, T A; Kinner, R A; Song, D



Boiling of an emulsion in a yield stress fluid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the boiling behavior of pentane emulsified in a yield stress fluid, a colloidal clay (Laponite) suspension. We have observed that a superheated state is easily reached: the emulsion, heated more than 50°C above the alkane boiling point, does not boil. Superheating is made possible by the suppression of heterogeneous nucleation in pentane, resulting from the emulsification process, a phenomenon evidenced decades ago in studies of the superheating of two phase fluids. We have furthermore studied the growth of isolated bubbles nucleated in the emulsion. The rate of increase of the bubble radius with time depends on both the temperature and emulsion volume fraction but, rather unexpectedly, does not depend on the fluid rheology. We show that the bubbles grow by diffusion of the alkane through the aqueous phase between liquid droplets and bubbles, analogously to an Ostwald ripening process. The peculiarity of the process reported here is that a layer depleted in oil droplets forms around the bubble, layer to which the alkane concentration gradient is confined. We successfully describe our experimental results with a simple transfer model.

Guéna, Geoffroy; Wang, Ji; D'Espinose, Jean-Baptiste; Lequeux, François; Talini, Laurence



Physics of puffing and microexplosion of emulsion fuel droplets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The physics of water-in-oil emulsion droplet microexplosion/puffing has been investigated using high-fidelity interface-capturing simulation. Varying the dispersed-phase (water) sub-droplet size/location and the initiation location of explosive boiling (bubble formation), the droplet breakup processes have been well revealed. The bubble growth leads to local and partial breakup of the parent oil droplet, i.e., puffing. The water sub-droplet size and location determine the after-puffing dynamics. The boiling surface of the water sub-droplet is unstable and evolves further. Finally, the sub-droplet is wrapped by boiled water vapor and detaches itself from the parent oil droplet. When the water sub-droplet is small, the detachment is quick, and the oil droplet breakup is limited. When it is large and initially located toward the parent droplet center, the droplet breakup is more extensive. For microexplosion triggered by the simultaneous growth of multiple separate bubbles, each explosion is local and independent initially, but their mutual interactions occur at a later stage. The degree of breakup can be larger due to interactions among multiple explosions. These findings suggest that controlling microexplosion/puffing is possible in a fuel spray, if the emulsion-fuel blend and the ambient flow conditions such as heating are properly designed. The current study also gives us an insight into modeling the puffing and microexplosion of emulsion droplets and sprays.

Shinjo, J.; Xia, J.; Ganippa, L. C.; Megaritis, A.



Specificity, flexibility and valence of DNA bonds guide emulsion architecture  

E-print Network

The specificity and thermal reversibility of DNA interactions have enabled the self-assembly of crystal structures, self-replicating materials and colloidal molecules. Grafting DNA onto liquid interfaces of emulsions leads to exciting new architectural possibilities due to the mobility of the DNA ligands and the patches they form between bound droplets. Here we show that the size and number of these adhesion patches (valency) can be controlled. Valence 2 leads to flexible polymers of emulsion droplets, while valence above 4 leads to rigid droplet networks. A simple thermodynamic model quantitatively describes the increase in the patch size with droplet radii, DNA concentration and the stiffness of the tether to the sticky-end. The patches are formed between droplets with complementary DNA strands or alternatively with complementary colloidal nanoparticles to mediate DNA binding between droplets. This emulsion system opens the route to directed self-assembly of more complex structures through distinct DNA bonds with varying strengths and controlled valence and flexibility.

Lang Feng; Lea-Laetitia Pontani; Remi Dreyfus; Paul Chaikin; Jasna Brujic



Olive Oil Based Emulsions in Frozen Puff Pastry Production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Puff pastry is an interesting food product having different industrial applications. It is obtained by laminating layers of dough and fats, mainly shortenings or margarine, having specific properties which provides required spreading characteristic and able to retain moisture into dough. To obtain these characteristics, pastry shortenings are usually saturated fats, however the current trend in food industry is mainly oriented towards unsatured fats such as olive oil, which are thought to be safer for human health. In the present work, a new product, based on olive oil, was studied as shortening replacer in puff pastry production. To ensure the desired consistency, for the rheological matching between fat and dough, a water-in-oil emulsion was produced based on olive oil, emulsifier and a hydrophilic thickener agent able to increase material structure. Obtained materials were characterized by rheological dynamic tests in linear viscoelastic conditions, aiming to setup process and material consistency, and rheological data were analyzed by using the weak gel model. Results obtained for tested emulsions were compared to theological properties of a commercial margarine, adopted as reference value for texture and stability. Obtained emulsions are characterized by interesting rheological properties strongly dependent on emulsifier characteristics and water phase composition. However a change in process temperature during fat extrusion and dough lamination seems to be necessary to match properly typical dough rheological properties.

Gabriele, D.; Migliori, M.; Lupi, F. R.; de Cindio, B.



Asphaltene self-association and water-in-hydrocarbon emulsions.  


The configuration of asphaltenes on the water-oil interface was evaluated from a combination of molar mass, interfacial tension, drop size distribution, and gravimetric measurements of model emulsions consisting of asphaltenes, toluene, heptane, and water. Molar mass measurements were required because asphaltenes self-associate and the level of self-association varies with asphaltene concentration, the resin content, solvent type, and temperature. Plots of interfacial tension versus the log of asphaltene molar concentration were employed to determine the average interfacial area of asphaltene molecules on the interface. The moles of asphaltenes per area of emulsion interface were determined from the molar mass data as well as drop size distributions and gravimetric measurements of the model emulsions. The results indicate that asphaltenes form monolayers on the interface even at concentrations as high as 40 kg/m(3). As well, large aggregates with molar masses exceeding approximately 10,000 g/mol did not appear to adsorb at the interface. The area occupied by the asphaltenes on the interface was constant indicating that self-associated asphaltenes simply extend further into the continuous phase than nonassociated asphaltenes. The thickness of the monolayer ranged from 2 to 9 nm. PMID:12927181

Sztukowski, Danuta M; Jafari, Maryam; Alboudwarej, Hussein; Yarranton, Harvey W



Commensurability-driven structural defects in double emulsions produced with two-step microfluidic techniques.  


The combination of two drop makers such as flow focusing geometries or ? junctions is commonly used in microfluidics to fabricate monodisperse double emulsions and novel fluid-based materials. Here we investigate the physics of the encapsulation of small droplets inside large drops that is at the core of such processes. The number of droplets per drop studied over time for large sequences of consecutive drops reveals that the dynamics of these systems are complex: we find a succession of well-defined elementary patterns and defects. We present a simple model based on a discrete approach that predicts the nature of these patterns and their non-trivial scheme of arrangement in a sequence as a function of the ratio of the two timescales of the problem, the production times of droplets and drops. Experiments validate our model as they concur very well with predictions. PMID:24852036

Schmit, Alexandre; Salkin, Louis; Courbin, Laurent; Panizza, Pascal



Intermediate mass fragment emission by [sup 197]Au projectiles at relativistic energy in nuclear emulsion  

SciTech Connect

The charge distribution of multifragment decays of [sup 197]Au projectiles at 10.6[ital A] GeV in nuclear emulsion is fitted with a power law. The correlations between the charges emitted are given as a function of the total charge confined in fragments [ital Z][sub bound] for [ital Z][ge]2, which is a measure of the violence of the collision. The observables of the present experiment are compared to the [sup 197]Au beam at 600[ital A] MeV in the domain of limiting fragmentation and they are also reproduced by the predictions of the statistical and the percolation models. Small changes in the values of some of these observables are revealed in the two energies.

Jain, P.L.; Singh, G.; Mukhopadhyay, A. (High Energy Experimental Laboratory, Department of Physics, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York 14260 (United States))



Defect configurations and dynamical behavior in a Gay-Berne nematic emulsion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To model a nematic emulsion consisting of a surfactant-coated water droplet dispersed in a nematic host, we performed a molecular dynamics simulation of a droplet immersed in a system of 2048 Gay-Berne ellipsoids in a nematic phase. Strong radial anchoring at the surface of the droplet induced a Saturn ring defect configuration, consistent with theoretical predictions for very small droplets. A surface ring configuration was observed for lower radial anchoring strengths, and a pair of point defects was found near the poles of the droplet for tangential anchoring. We also simulated the falling ball experiment and measured the drag force anisotropy, in the presence of strong radial anchoring as well as zero anchoring strength.

Billeter, Jeffrey L.; Pelcovits, Robert A.



Destabilization of the Emulsion Formed during Aqueous Extraction of Soybean Oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Characterization and destabilization of the emulsion formed during aqueous extraction of oil from soybean flour were investigated.\\u000a This emulsion was collected as a cream layer and was subjected to various single and combined treatments, including thermal\\u000a treatments and enzymatic treatments, aimed at recovery of free oil. The soybean oil emulsion formed during the aqueous extraction\\u000a processing of full fat flour

Ramón Morales Chabrand; Hyun-Jung Kim; Cheng Zhang; Charles E. Glatz; Stephanie Jung



Separation kinetics of an oil-in-water emulsion under enhanced gravity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The breakup of crude oil emulsions to produce clean oil and water phases is an important task in crude oil processing. We have investigated the demulsification kinetics of a model oil-in-water emulsion in a centrifugal field to mimic the forces acting on emulsion droplets in oil\\/water separators such as hydrocyclones. The rate of growth of separated oil phase and the

T. Krebs; C. G. P. H. Schroën; R. M. Boom



Behavior of soybean oil-in-water emulsion stabilized by nonionic surfactant  

Microsoft Academic Search

A soybean oil-in-water emulsion was prepared using nonionic Tween series surfactants. The effects of temperature, hydrophilic–lipophilic balance (HLB) value of the surfactant, and surfactant-to-oil ratio on the size of emulsion drops were investigated with an acoustic and electroacoustic devices. In the case of Tween 85, the influence of pH and electrolyte on the ? potential of emulsion drops was examined.

Jyh-Ping Hsu; Anca Nacu



Oil-in-Water Emulsions Stabilized by Highly Charged Polyelectrolyte-Grafted Silica Nanoparticles †  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fully sulfonated poly(styrenesulfonate) brushes were grown from the surface of colloidal silica particles and used to prepare stable trichloroethylene-in-water and heptane-in-water Pickering emulsions. These particles were highly charged and colloidally stable in water but could not be dispersed in trichloroethylene or heptane. Both two-phase (emulsion plus neat water) and three-phase (emulsion separating neat oil and water phases) systems were observed,

Navid Saleh; Traian Sarbu; Kevin Sirk; Gregory V. Lowry; Krzysztof Matyjaszewski; Robert D. Tilton



Treatment of oil-in-water emulsions by coagulation and dissolved-air flotation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The treatment of oil-in-water emulsions containing n-octane (used as simulated wastewater) was investigated by means of dissolved-air flotation jar-tests. The effect of several parameters on flotation efficiency for separation of the emulsified oil was examined, namely, (a) the presence the nonionic surfactant Tween 80, used for the stabilization of the emulsions, (b) the initial pH value of the emulsions, (c)

A. I Zouboulis; A Avranas



Preparation of Silica Particles Encapsulating Retinol Using O\\/W\\/O Multiple Emulsions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Retinol, a cosmetic ingredient, was entrapped within inorganic microspheres obtained from sol–gel reaction of TEOS in o\\/w\\/o multiple emulsions as microreactors. In o\\/w\\/o multiple emulsions, the retinol was emulsified as an internal oil phase in a aqueous solution of 3.0 wt% Tween 20 prior to emulsification into an external oil phase. The multiple emulsions appeared to be stable enough in

Myung-Han Lee; Seong-Geun Oh; Sei-Ki Moon; Seong-Youl Bae



Droplet Formation Utilizing Controllable Moving-Wall Structures for Double-Emulsion Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The formation of microscale single- and double-emulsion droplets with various sizes is crucial for a variety of industrial applications. In this paper, we report a new microfluidic device which can actively fine-tune the size of single- and double-emulsion droplets in liquids by utilizing controllable moving-wall structures. Moreover, various sizes of external and internal droplets for double emulsions are also successfully

Yen-Heng Lin; Chun-Hong Lee; Gwo-Bin Lee



Interfacial properties of oil-in-water emulsions designed to be used as metalworking fluids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The creaming stability and wetting behaviour of oil-in-water (O\\/W) emulsions, designed to be used as metalworking fluids, were evaluated. The influence of the emulsifier type and its concentration on emulsion properties (droplet size distribution, zeta potential, creaming stability, and contact angle or work of adhesion) was studied. O\\/W emulsions were prepared with 3% (w\\/w) base oil content and three different

Ángel Cambiella; José M. Benito; Carmen Pazos; José Coca



Water vapor permeability properties of edible whey protein-lipid emulsion films  

Microsoft Academic Search

The water vapor permeability (WVP) of whey protein emulsion films was investigated. The exponential effect of relative humidity\\u000a on the WVP of whey protein films was reduced through lipid incorporation. Film orientation had a significant effect on WVP\\u000a due to emulsion separation during film formation. Heat denaturation of whey proteins lowered emulsion film WVP. Increasing\\u000a fatty acid and fatty alcohol

Tara Habig McHugh; John M. Krochta



Stability of surfactant-free high internal phase emulsions and its tailoring morphology of porous polymers based on the emulsions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stable water-in-oil (w\\/o) high internal phase emulsions (HIPEs) having an internal phase of up to 95 vol% were prepared. The poly(styrene-methyl methacrylate-acrylic acid) (P(St-MMA-AA)) copolymer particles were used as stabilizer. The HIPEs prepared with addition of copolymer particles to the aqueous phase were stabilized by copolymer particles initially, followed by the mixture of copolymer particles and copolymer as the particles eventually

Shengmiao Zhang; Yun Zhu; Ye Hua; Corinne Jegat; Jianding Chen; Mohamed Taha



Ultrafine-grain silver-halide emulsions and their properties in reflection holography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method of preparing ultra-fine-grain silver halide emulsions is briefly described. It uses a computer controlled double-jet emulsifier to produce ultra-fine-grain emulsions. The average grain size is around 20 nm, which is measured by an automatic x-ray diffractometer and from TEM photographs. The emulsions have been used for recording reflection holograms, which are processed with an optimized solution physical developer. Reflection holograms of very low noise and diffraction efficiencies of over 40 percent are obtained in these emulsions without any pretreatment.

Wang, Ce; Wu, Jianhong; Xu, Ying; Tang, Minxue



Spontaneously Formed trans-Anethol/Water/Alcohol Emulsions: Mechanism of Formation and Stability  

E-print Network

Articles Spontaneously Formed trans-Anethol/Water/Alcohol Emulsions: Mechanism of Formation the spontaneous emulsification and droplet growth mechanism in trans-anethol/water/ ethanol solutions, also known

Sprik, Rudolf


Effects of perfluorocarbon emulsions on cultured human endothelial cells.  


Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) and their emulsions (PFCEs) were used in organ preservation before transplantation, but not in organ perfusion. Our purpose was to achieve organ perfusion with a PFCE at room temperature or at 37 degrees C, i. e. with oxygenation, to prevent damages related to reoxygenation after hypoxia. Therefore, we first investigated the effect of such emulsions on endothelial cells, the first cells to be in contact with the emulsion. A stem emulsion was prepared from perfluorooctyl bromide (90% w/v), emulsified with egg yolk phospholipids (2% w/v) and stabilized with a mixed fluorocarbon-hydrocarbon "molecular dowel" (1.4% w/v) (droplets of ca 0.2 micron in diameter). This emulsion was found to be stable when diluted with cell culture media or organ preservation fluids. Endothelial cells from human umbilical vein (HUVECs) were cultured in multiwell plates in M199 medium (with growth factors, 10% foetal calf serum and 5% human serum). Confluent cells were incubated overnight with 51Cr, washed and overlayed with M199 (control) or the above PFCE diluted 2x or 4x with M199 (test). After incubation, the cytotoxicity of the PFCEs was estimated by measuring 51Cr release and observing cell morphology by electron and light microscopy. The percentages of released 51Cr were identical to those of the control cells for the 2x, 3x or 4x diluted PFCEs at 4, 25 or 37 degrees C. After return to the M199 medium, the cells grew and multiplied normally. We conclude that the diluted PFCEs were devoid of cytotoxicity. The 2x diluted PFCE was however partially taken up by the cells: by microscopy, we observed intracellular PFC droplets and by density gradient analysis we found a slight increase in cellular density. The diluted PFCEs were compared to classical organ preservation solutions : HUVECs were incubated with UW (University of Wisconsin) or EC (EuroCollins) solutions at +4 and 37 degrees C (3, 17 or 24 h of incubation). The solutions were observed to be toxic to the cells under these conditions, with cell mortality after return to the M199 medium. This cytotoxicity may be attributed to the high K+ concentration of UW and EC, since similar assays performed on HUVECs with Hank's solution adjusted to 100 mM K+ showed a similar % of 51Cr release. UW and EC are therefore not acceptable as dilution media for PFCEs. PMID:9352061

Mathy-Hartert, M; Krafft, M P; Deby, C; Deby-Dupont, G; Meurisse, M; Lamy, M; Riess, J G



Phase behavior and rheological analysis of reverse liquid crystals and W/I2 and W/H2 gel emulsions using an amphiphilic block copolymer.  


This article reports the phase behavior determi-nation of a system forming reverse liquid crystals and the formation of novel disperse systems in the two-phase region. The studied system is formed by water, cyclohexane, and Pluronic L-121, an amphiphilic block copolymer considered of special interest due to its aggregation and structural properties. This system forms reverse cubic (I2) and reverse hexagonal (H2) phases at high polymer concentrations. These reverse phases are of particular interest since in the two-phase region, stable high internal phase reverse emulsions can be formed. The characterization of the I2 and H2 phases and of the derived gel emulsions was performed with small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and rheometry, and the influence of temperature and water content was studied. The H2 phase experimented a thermal transition to an I2 phase when temperature was increased, which presented an Fd3m structure. All samples showed a strong shear thinning behavior from low shear rates. The elastic modulus (G') in the I2 phase was around 1 order of magnitude higher than in the H2 phase. G' was predominantly higher than the viscous modulus (G''). In the gel emulsions, G' was nearly frequency-independent, indicating their gel type nature. Contrarily to water-in-oil (W/O) normal emulsions, in W/I2 and W/H2 gel emulsions, G', the complex viscosity (|?*|), and the yield stress (?0) decreased with increasing water content, since the highly viscous microstructure of the continuous phase was responsible for the high viscosity and elastic behavior of the emulsions, instead of the volume fraction of dispersed phase and droplet size. A rheological analysis, in which the cooperative flow theory, the soft glass rheology model, and the slip plane model were analyzed and compared, was performed to obtain one single model that could describe the non-Maxwellian behavior of both reverse phases and highly concentrated emulsions and to characterize their microstructure with the rheological properties. PMID:21288036

May, Anna; Aramaki, Kenji; Gutiérrez, José María



The influence of important factors on ultrafiltration of oil\\/water emulsion using PVDF membrane modified by nano-sized TiO 2\\/Al 2O 3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membranes modified by the nano-sized TiO2\\/Al2O3 were applied to the separation of oil\\/water emulsion. Experiments were carried out in a constant flux dead-end Ultrafiltration cell, and the influence of operating parameters such as: trans-membrane pressure (TMP), and feed properties e.g. pH, initial oil concentration, and total dissolved solid (TDS) of the feed solution on membrane performance were

X. S. Yi; S. L. Yu; W. X. Shi; N. Sun; L. M. Jin; S. Wang; B. Zhang; C. Ma; L. P. Sun



Discovery of naked charm particles and lifetime differences among charm species using nuclear emulsion techniques innovated in Japan.  


This is a historical review of the discovery of naked charm particles and lifetime differences among charm species. These discoveries in the field of cosmic-ray physics were made by the innovation of nuclear emulsion techniques in Japan. A pair of naked charm particles was discovered in 1971 in a cosmic-ray interaction, three years prior to the discovery of the hidden charm particle, J/Psi, in western countries. Lifetime differences between charged and neutral charm particles were pointed out in 1975, which were later re-confirmed by the collaborative Experiment E531 at Fermilab. Japanese physicists led by K.Niu made essential contributions to it with improved emulsion techniques, complemented by electronic detectors. This review also discusses the discovery of artificially produced naked charm particles by us in an accelerator experiment at Fermilab in 1975 and of multiple-pair productions of charm particles in a single interaction in 1987 by the collaborative Experiment WA75 at CERN. PMID:18941283

Niu, Kiyoshi



Internally self-assembled thermoreversible gelling emulsions: ISAsomes in methylcellulose, kappa-carrageenan, and mixed hydrogels.  


Self-assembled thermo-gelling emulsions were developed by blending internally self-assembled particles (ISAsomes) with thermoreversible polysaccharide hydrogels of methylcellulose (MC), kappa-carrageenan (KC), and their 1:1 mixture. In this way, the hierarchical structure of ISAsome samples was successfully promoted. The gelified polymer network corresponds to the highest level of the hierarchical structure and as such represents the capturing matrix for the medium structural level, i.e., dispersed emulsion particles, which are further internally structured as the lowest level of structure. Utilizing small-angle X-ray scattering, differential scanning calorimetry, dynamic light scattering, and oscillatory rheological experiments in the temperature regime from 20 to 70 degrees C, we were able to show that the ISAsomes stay practically intact during such embedment into a hydrogel matrix retaining its internal self-assembled structure and its functionality. The characteristic sol-gel and gel-sol transition temperatures of the ISAsome-loaded hydrogel samples showed a slight shift in comparison to the unloaded hydrogel samples. Furthermore, we found that MC is actually able to stabilize the ISAsomes at higher temperatures (tests were conducted up to 90 degrees C). Gels made from MC and KC show quite different features in terms of rheology and differential scanning calorimetry. However, the most interesting results were obtained for the ISAsome-loaded MC-KC (1:1) gelifying system, which behaves as a low- and high-temperature gel with a narrow intermediate temperature window where it is a sol. This specific thermal behavior allows for easy temperature tuning of the system's aggregate state as well as the internal self-assembled structure. As such, this system is suggested to be further tested as the potential media for a temperature-controlled burst/sustained release media of various hydrophilic, hydrophobic, or amphiphilic guest functional molecules. PMID:19505132

Tomsic, Matija; Guillot, Samuel; Sagalowicz, Laurent; Leser, Martin E; Glatter, Otto



Influence of Coagulant Salt Addition on the Treatment of Oil?in?Water Emulsions by Centrifugation, Ultrafiltration, and Vacuum Evaporation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Droplet size is a key factor in the treatment of oil?in?water (O\\/W) emulsions, because of its influence on emulsion properties. The addition of a coagulant salt generally causes emulsion destabilization, increasing the droplet size, and enhancing coalescence between oil droplets, which helps its further treatment. The influence of CaCl2 addition on droplet size distribution of a commercial O\\/W emulsion used

G. Gutiérrez; A. Lobo; D. Allende; A. Cambiella; C. Pazos; J. Coca; J. M. Benito



Single particle light scattering method for studying aging properties of Pickering emulsions stabilized by catanionic crystals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Single particle light scattering (SPLS) has been extended towards sizes near 100nm to measure particle size distributions with high precision and model free and thus to establish a diagnostic about the stage of aging emulsion properties. SPLS measurements on emulsions stabilized with catanionic crystals allowed to follow the evolution of droplet size distribution as a function of surface charge upon

Natascha Schelero; Heinz Lichtenfeld; Heidi Zastrow; Helmuth Möhwald; Monique Dubois; Thomas Zemb



Treatment of oil\\/water emulsions using seawater-assisted microwave irradiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waste oil emulsions are generated in several manufacturing processes. Such emulsions not only affect the efficacy of wastewater treatment but also influence the water quality of the effluent. Thus, many processes have been developed for demulsifying such materials and salt-assisted microwave irradiation has been shown to be most effective in this respect. In the present study, we propose that artificial

Chin-Hsing Kuo; Chon-Lin Lee



Microwave-Assisted Chemical Demulsification of Water-in-Crude-Oil Emulsions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two case studies are presented that shows the effects of chemical demulsifiers used under conventional heating and in combination with microwave radiation on efficiency of demulsification and light transmittance of the water separated from the emulsions. The data shows that the chemical demulsifiers coupling with microwave radiation does a better job at demulsifying the water-in-crude-oil emulsions than when the chemical

Lixin Xia; Ke Gong; Shuyan Wang; Jushi Li; Donghui Yang



Treatment of cutting oil\\/water emulsion by coupling coagulation and dissolved air flotation  

Microsoft Academic Search

On a purely comparative basis with former studies, the physicochemical treatment of cutting oil emulsion was applied to two different mineraI oils ( A and B). The preliminary tests of destabilization showed that the sulphuric acid and the ferric chloride do not allow an appreciable destabilization for emulsion prepared oil A, whereas for the oil B, only the calcium chloride

K. Bensadok; M. Belkacem; G. Nezzal



Break-up of oil-in-water emulsions induced by permeation through a microfiltration membrane  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new membrane technique was successfully used for separating the two phases of an industrial emulsion from the aluminum industry. Unlike other membrane processes, the membrane acts here as a coalescer. Demulsification occurs when the emulsion is permeated through some microfiltration membranes. After the permeate has been allowed to settle for 2 h, the oil concentration in the lower layer

Marc Hlavacek



Giant optical non-linearities of critical micro-emulsions (*) E. Freysz, M. Afifi, A. Ducasse  

E-print Network

L-181 Giant optical non-linearities of critical micro-emulsions (*) E. Freysz, M. Afifi, A. Ducasse compressibilité osmotique du milieu. Abstract 2014 Self-focusing of a cw laser beam in a micro-emulsion has been-focusing and phase conjugation [2, 3]. The non-linear response of the medium is due to the radiation pressure acting

Boyer, Edmond


Self-made silver-bromide-based emulsions for users in holography: manufacturing, processing, and application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Holography is the most fascinating technology for three-dimensional imaging. But despite of many decades of research, the seek for an ideal recording material has never been given up. From all ultra-fine materials, silver bromide emulsions with very small grain sizes have the highest sensitivity. In recent years however, many traditional manufacturers discontinued their production. Meanwhile, newcomers succeeded in manufacturing emulsions

Lothar Duenkel; Juergen Eichler; Gerhard Ackermann; Claudia Schneeweiss



Synthesis and characterization of porous glycidylmethacrylate–divinylbenzene monoliths using the high internal phase emulsion approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Highly porous monoliths were synthesised using glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) and divinylbenzene in the presence of a porogen, and emulsion templating as the preparation technique (polyHIPEs). Two surfactants were used as the emulsion stabiliser. It turned out that the choice of the surfactant was essential for the successful synthesis of polyHIPEs containing large amount of the functional monomer GMA, and characterised

Andrea Barbetta; Mariella Dentini; Lorenzo Leandri; Giovanni Ferraris; Alessandro Coletta; Manuele Bernabei



Organic–inorganic networks in foams from high internal phase emulsion polymerizations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybrid foams, which combine an inorganic polysilsesquioxane network with an organic polystyrene network, were successfully synthesized using high internal phase emulsions (HIPE). Methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (MPS) was copolymerized radically with styrene (S) and divinylbenzene (DVB) in the organic phase of the emulsion. The hydrolytic condensation of the trimethoxysilyl groups formed an inorganic polysilsesquioxane network, which significantly increased the high temperature modulus and

H Tai; A Sergienko; M. S Silverstein



Mechanical characterization of acrylic — Emulsion polymer-modified concrete reinforced with steel fibre by Taguchi application  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, acrylic emulsion polymer as a polymeric admixture was applied in lightweight steel fibre reinforced cement concrete. The effects of curing conditions and polymer -cement ratio on the compressive and flexural strengths of acrylic emulsion polymer-modified concrete reinforced with steel fibre were investigated. Combined dry and wet curing enable to developed both the strengths of cement matrix and

D. S. Hazimmah; S. Mohd




EPA Science Inventory

Billions of gallons of oily wastewaters are generated daily by a variety of industrial sources. A large fraction of these are oil/water emulsions for which current treatment technologies are often costly and ineffective. Although such emulsions can be separated using crossf...


Chemical deposition coating onto anodized aluminum plate from anionic polymer emulsion containing sodium citrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical deposition coating from an anionic acrylic copolymer emulsion containing sodium citrate onto anodized aluminum plates was repeated. In the absence of sodium citrate, the coating thickness decreased with the number of repeated use of the emulsion bath. However, in the presence of sodium citrate or potassium sodium tartrate, it was maintained to be constant. The reason for attainment

M. Okubo; K. Misaki; J. Tsuruta



Stable lipiodolized emulsions for hepatoma targeting and treatment by transcatheter arterial chemoembolization  

Microsoft Academic Search

We attempted to develop lipiodolized emulsions that remain in the tumour for a long period, release drug in a sustained release pattern, and thus improve the conventional treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) [1]. Polyoxyethylene derivatives of hydrogenated castor oil (HCO) were the most suitable emulsifiers in stabilizing emulsions containing Lipiodol® as an oil phase. The length of ethylene oxide coupled

Sun Woo Yi; Yong-Hee Kim; Ick Chan Kwon; Jin Wook Chung; Jae Hyung Park; Young Wook Choi; Seo Young Jeong



Modeling of a Foamed Emulsion Bioreactor: I. Model Development and Experimental Validation  

E-print Network

ARTICLE Modeling of a Foamed Emulsion Bioreactor: I. Model Development and Experimental Validation treat- ment. In the current paper, a diffusion and reaction model of the FEBR is presented and discussed. The model considers the fate of the volatile pollutant in the emulsion that constitutes the liquid films


High throughput production of single core double emulsions in a parallelized microfluidic device  

E-print Network

or high-pressure homogenizers; but using these machines to re-emulsify an emulsion usually produces over the double emulsifi- cation process, capable of producing drops with very thin shells, nearly-scale productivity of bulk emulsifiers is needed before double emulsions can truly emerge as a useable template


Effect of additives on combustion of fuel for internal-combustion engines. [Water-gasoline emulsions  

SciTech Connect

The octane number of gasoline can be increased using water-gasoline emulsions. The ignition characteristics of such emulsions were studied. The emulsifier did not change the ignition delay, but the water addition increased it and retards self-ignition. (DLC)

Mutalibov, A.A.; Gel'fand, B.E.; Sartaev, P.M.; Tsyganov, S.A.; Murashov, O.D.; Gubanov, A.V.; Timofeev, E.I.; Makhmudov, T.M.



Non-coalescence of oppositely charged droplets in pH-sensitive emulsions  

E-print Network

droplets with submicron to micron sizes. Emulsions are used in food, cosmetics, medicine, coatings, paints principle for many industrial and practical processes. Using micrometer-sized pH-sensitive poly- meric hydrogel particles as emulsion stabilizers, we prepare emul- sions that consist of oppositely charged


Histamine Release Associated with Intravenous Delivery of a Fluorocarbon-Based Sevoflurane Emulsion in Canines  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a novel fluorocarbon-based sevoflurane emulsion in dogs previously shown to produce short-term rodent anesthesia. On the basis of an unexpected allergic-type clinical reaction, we also tested the hypothesis that this type of formulation causes histamine release and complement activation. Physiological parameters, plasma histamine levels (radioimmunoassay), and complement activation (enzyme immunoassay) were quantified in response to emulsion components, including F13M5 (the emulsion’s fluorocarbon-based polymer) and methoxy poly(ethylene glycol) 5000 (the polymer’s hydrophilic block). Although the emulsion produced general anesthesia in dogs, they also experienced hypotension and clinical signs suggestive of an allergic-like response (i.e., vasodilation, urticaria, and pruritus upon recovery). Emulsions lacking sevoflurane failed to induce anesthesia but did elicit the allergic response. Plasma histamine levels were significantly increased following injection of micellar solutions of F13M5. Direct complement activation by the emulsion or its components was weak or absent. An allergic response leading to histamine release, likely initiated by the F13M5 component via an immunoglobulin pathway, is associated with an intravenous fluorocarbon-based emulsion of sevoflurane. Subsequently, its usefulness in medicine in its present formulation is limited. PMID:21246564




A 3D-printed microcapillary assembly for facile double emulsion generation.  


The design, fabrication and testing of facile microcapillary device assembly, suitable for monodisperse double emulsion production is reported. The interface is fabricated in a direct and rapid manner via 3D printing and shown to be robust in the controllable generation of both single and double emulsions at high generation frequencies. PMID:25202859

Martino, Chiara; Berger, Simon; Wootton, Robert C R; deMello, Andrew J



Vigorous intake of oil emulsion caused by chronic food deprivation remains after recovery in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oil emulsion intake over a 30-min period was compared under different dietary conditions (ad libitum feeding and chronic food deprivation) and at various concentrations of oil in rats. The pattern of intake for each dietary condition was extremely different. Food-deprived rats ingested more emulsion when the solution was thicker but intake amount became less at too high a concentration. Ad

F Kimura; Y Endo; K Fujimoto




PubMed Central

Purpose Ultrasound can be used to release a therapeutic payload encapsulated within a perfluorocarbon (PFC) emulsion via acoustic droplet vaporization (ADV), a process whereby the PFC phase is vaporized and the agent is released. ADV-generated microbubbles have been previously used to selectively occlude blood vessels in vivo. The coupling of ADV-generated drug delivery and occlusion has therapeutically, synergistic potentials. Methods Micron-sized, water-in-PFC-in-water (W1/PFC/W2) emulsions were prepared in a two-step process using perfluoropentane (PFP) or perfluorohexane (PFH) as the PFC phase. Fluorescein or thrombin was contained in the W1 phase. Results Double emulsions containing fluorescein in the W1 phase displayed a 5.7±1.4 fold and 8.2±1.3 fold increase in fluorescein mass flux, as measured using a Franz diffusion cell, after ADV for the PFP and PFH emulsions, respectively. Thrombin was stably retained in four out of five double emulsions. For three out of five formulations tested, the clotting time of whole blood decreased, in a statistically significant manner (p < 0.01), when incubated with thrombin-loaded emulsions exposed to ultrasound compared to emulsions not exposed to ultrasound. Conclusions ADV can be used to spatially and temporally control the delivery of water-soluble compounds formulated in PFC double emulsions. Thrombin release could extend the duration of ADV-generated, microbubble occlusions. PMID:20872050

Fabiilli, Mario L.; Lee, James A.; Kripfgans, Oliver D.; Carson, Paul L.; Fowlkes, J. Brian



Adding reagent to droplets with controlled rupture of encapsulated double emulsions  

PubMed Central

We present a method to add reagent to microfluidic droplets by enveloping them as a double emulsions in reagent-filled droplets and then rupturing them with an electric field. When the double emulsions rupture, they release their contents into the enveloping droplets, ensuring mixing with reagent while limiting cross-droplet contamination. PMID:24404045

Sciambi, Adam; Abate, Adam R.



Mango butter emulsion gels as cocoa butter equivalents: physical, thermal, and mechanical analyses.  


The search for cocoa butter equivalents in food and pharmaceutical industries has been gaining importance. In the present study, mango butter was explored as cocoa butter equivalent. Aqueous gelatin solution (20% w/w) containing cocoa butter and mango butter water-in-oil (fat) type emulsion gels were prepared by hot emulsification method. XRD and DSC melting profiles suggested the presence of unstable polymorphic forms (? and ?') of fats in the emulsion gels. The crystal size and solid fat content analyses suggested that the presence of aqueous phase might have hindered the transformation of unstable polymorphic forms to stable polymorphic form (?) in the emulsion gels. Fat crystals in the emulsion gels were formed by instantaneous nucleation via either uni- or bidimensional growth (Avrami analysis). The viscoelastic nature of the emulsion gels was evaluated by modified Peleg's analysis (stress relaxation study). Results inferred that the physical, thermal, and mechanical properties of mango butter emulsion gels are comparable to those of cocoa butter emulsion gels. On the basis of preliminary studies, it was suggested that the mango butter emulsion gels may have potential to be used as cocoa butter equivalents. PMID:25363450

Sagiri, Sai S; Sharma, Vijeta; Basak, Piyali; Pal, Kunal



Pressure induced surfactant recovery during ultrafiltration of water-oil emulsions  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method for recovering surfactant from an oil/water/surfactant emulsion. The method consists of contacting the emulsion with an ultrafiltration membrane having a molecular weight cut-off in the range 30,000 to 500,000 at a pressure in the range 50 to 150 psi thereby selectively permeating the surfactant through the membrane.

Sweet, J.R.



Preparation of drug nanoparticles by emulsion evaporation method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polymeric drug nanoparticles were prepared by emulsion solvent evaporation method. In this study, prepared the polymeric drug nanoparticles consist of ketoprofen and Eudragit E 100. The morphology structure was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The interactions between the drug and polymer were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The size distribution was measured by means of Dynamic Light Scattering. The nanoparticles have an average size of about 150 nm. The incorporation ability of drugs in the polymeric nanoparticles depended on the integration between polymer and drug as well as the glass transition temperature of the polymer.

Hoa, Le Thi Mai; Chi, Nguyen Tai; Triet, Nguyen Minh; Thanh Nhan, Le Ngoc; Mau Chien, Dang



Size limit for particle-stabilized emulsion droplets under gravity.  


We demonstrate that emulsion droplets stabilized by interfacial particles become unstable beyond a size threshold set by gravity. This holds not only for colloids but also for supracolloidal glass beads, using which we directly observe the ejection of particles near the droplet base. The number of particles acting together in these ejection events decreases with time until a stable acornlike configuration is reached. Stability occurs when the weight of all remaining particles is less than the interfacial binding force of one particle. We also show the importance of the curvature of the droplet surface in promoting particle ejection. PMID:23005023

Tavacoli, J W; Katgert, G; Kim, E G; Cates, M E; Clegg, P S



Mechanism of disintegration of emulsion nuclei by relativistic light nuclei  

SciTech Connect

The charged secondary multiplicity distributions as a function of emitting various noninteracting projectile fragments of [sup 12]C at 4.5 GeV/[ital c] per nucleon by using nuclear emulsion detectors is presented and discussed. The correlations between various kinds of particles and the angular distributions of multiple production in [sup 12]C ion collisions are studied. Also a systematic comparison using the calculations of the cascade-evaporative model is made. An investigation of energy dependence of grey prongs produced in different interaction beams at energy range [similar to](4--200)[ital A] GeV is reported.

El-Nagdy, M.S. (Department of Basic Science and Mathematics, Faculty of Petroleum Mining Engineering, Suez Canal University, Suez (Egypt))



Experimental measurements of stress redistribution in flowing emulsions  

E-print Network

We study how local rearrangements alter droplet stresses within flowing dense quasi-two-dimensional emulsions at area fractions $\\phi \\geq 0.88$. Using microscopy, we measure droplet positions while simultaneously using their deformed shape to measure droplet stresses. We find that rearrangements alter nearby stresses in a quadrupolar pattern: stresses on neighboring droplets tend to either decrease or increase depending on location. The stress redistribution is more anisotropic with increasing $\\phi$. The spatial character of the stress redistribution influences where subsequent rearrangements occur. Our results provide direct quantitative support for rheological theories of dense amorphous materials that connect local rearrangements to changes in nearby stress.

Kenneth W. Desmond; Eric R. Weeks



Infrared laser photography with silver-halide emulsion  

SciTech Connect

Infrared sensitization of photographic emulsion response to visible light is a useful technique for visualizing IR laser beams. In this work, it is demonstrated that this sensitization results from heating by the IR beam. Investigation of the dependence of sensitization by pulsed CO/sub 2/ laser ( preexposures on visible background density, IR fluence, visible wavelength, delay between exposures, and spatial frequency are described. Infrared fluences as low as 10 mJ/cm/sup 2/, a dynamic range greater than 100, and a resolution better than 50 lines/mm were observed. Suggestions for further improvements of the technique are made.

Naor, D.; Flusberg, A.; Itzkan, I.



Fragmentation of 28Si nuclei in nuclear emulsion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Topology of 28Si fragmentation at 14.6 A GeV in emulsion nuclei is given. In all events, the charge of each projectile fragment is measured. We report the measurements on total and some partial reactions cross sections of 28Si interactions. The data for Zicons/Journals/Common/geq" ALT="ge" ALIGN="TOP"/>6 can be qualitatively described by a statistical percolation model. The results are discussed and compared with those obtained from 28Si at 3.7 A GeV and 32S at 200 A GeV.

El-Nadi, M.; El-Nagdy, M. S.; Ali-Mossa, N.; Abdelsalam, A.; Abdalla, A. M.; Hamed, A. A.



Physical properties of emulsion-based hydroxypropyl methylcellulose films: effect of their microstructure.  


The initial characteristics of emulsions and the rearrangement of the oil droplets in the film matrix during film drying, which defines its microstructure, has an important role in the physical properties of the emulsion-based films. The objective of this work was to study the effect of the microstructure (two droplet size distributions) and stability (with or without surfactant) of HPMC oil-in-water emulsions over physical properties of HPMC emulsion-based edible films. HPMC was used to prepare sunflower oil-in-water emulsions containing 0.3 or 1.0% (w/w) of oil with or without SDS, as surfactant, using an ultrasonic homogenizer. Microstructure, rheological properties and stability of emulsions (creaming) were measured. In addition, microstructure, coalescence of oil droplets, surface free energy, optical and mechanical properties and water vapor transfer of HPMC films were evaluated. Image analysis did not show differences among droplet size distributions of emulsions prepared at different oil contents; however, by using SDS the droplet size distributions were shifted to lower values. Volume mean diameters were 3.79 and 3.77 ?m for emulsions containing 0.3 and 1.0% without surfactant, respectively, and 2.72 and 2.71 ?m for emulsions with SDS. Emulsions formulated with 1.0% of oil presented higher stability, with almost no change during 5 and 3 days of storage, for emulsions with and without SDS, respectively. Internal and surface microstructure of emulsion-based films was influenced by the degree of coalescence and creaming of the oil droplets. No effect of microstructure over the surface free energy of films was found. The incorporation of oil impaired the optical properties of films due to light scattering of light. Addition of oil and SDS decreased the stress at break of the emulsion-based films. The replace of HPMC by oil and SDS produce a lower "amount" of network structure in the films, leading to a weakening of their structure. The oil content and SDS addition had an effect over the microstructure and physical properties of HPMC-based emulsions which lead to different microstructures during film formation. The way that oil droplets were structured into the film had an enormous influence over the physical properties of HPMC films. PMID:22840052

Zúñiga, R N; Skurtys, O; Osorio, F; Aguilera, J M; Pedreschi, F



A Theoretical Model for the Formation of Functional Micro and NanoParticles from Combustion of Emulsion Droplets  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper a theoretical model is developed to simulate the process of vaporization and burning of emulsion droplets of a fuel and the evolution and formation of micro- and nano-particles. This process is usually known as the Emulsion Combustion Method (ECM). In the ECM, a proper salt solution is mixed with a fuel to form an emulsion of micro-solution

Morteza Eslamian; Mahmoud Ahmed; Ahmed Hamza H. Ali



Optimization of perfluorocarbon emulsion properties for enhancing oxygen mass transfer in a bio-artificial liver support system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oxygen carrying performance of a perfluorooctyl bromide (PFOB) emulsion is considered. The intended purpose is to enhance hepatocyte growth and function in a bio-artificial liver support system (BALSS). Such oxygen carrying emulsions have previously been used in biological systems (e.g. cell culturing). However, optimum emulsion characteristics for enhanced oxygen mass transfer have not been established nor was consideration given

F. S. Moolman; H. Rolfes; S. W. van der Merwe; W. W. Focke



Silicone oil emulsions: strategies to improve their stability and applications in hair care products.  


Silicone oils have wide range of applications in personal care products due to their unique properties of high lubricity, non-toxicity, excessive spreading and film formation. They are usually employed in the form of emulsions due to their inert nature. Until now, different conventional emulsification techniques have been developed and applied to prepare silicone oil emulsions. The size and uniformity of emulsions showed important influence on stability of droplets, which further affect the application performance. Therefore, various strategies were developed to improve the stability as well as application performance of silicone oil emulsions. In this review, we highlight different factors influencing the stability of silicone oil emulsions and explain various strategies to overcome the stability problems. In addition, the silicone deposition on the surface of hair substrates and different approaches to increase their deposition are also discussed in detail. PMID:24279388

Nazir, H; Zhang, W; Liu, Y; Chen, X; Wang, L; Naseer, M M; Ma, G



Brine-in-crude-oil emulsions at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve.  

SciTech Connect

Metastable water-in-crude-oil emulsion formation could occur in a Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) cavern if water were to flow into the crude-oil layer at a sufficient rate. Such a situation could arise during a drawdown from a cavern with a broken-hanging brine string. A high asphaltene content (> 1.5 wt %) of the crude oil provides the strongest predictor of whether a metastable water-in-crude-oil emulsion will form. However there are many crude oils with an asphaltene content > 1.5 wt % that don't form stable emulsions, but few with a low asphaltene content that do form stable emulsions. Most of the oils that form stable emulsions are %E2%80%9Csour%E2%80%9D by SPR standards indicating they contain total sulfur > 0.50 wt %.

Nemer, Martin B.; Lord, David L.; MacDonald, Terry L.



Solvent-free formation of hydroxyapatite coated biodegradable particles via nanoparticle-stabilized emulsion route  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydroxyapatite (HAp) nanoparticle-coated biodegradable polymer particles were fabricated from a nanoparticle-stabilized emulsion in the absence of any molecular surfactants or organic solvents. First, a polymer melt-in-water emulsion was prepared by mixing a water phase containing nanosized HAp particles as a particulate emulsifier and an oil phase consisting of poly(?-caprolactone) (PCL) or poly(L-lactide-co-?-caprolactone) (P(LLA-CL)) above its melting point. It was clarified that the interaction between ester/carboxyl groups of the polymers and the HAp nanoparticles at the polymer-water interface played a crucial role to prepare the nanoparticle-stabilized emulsion. The HAp nanoparticle-coated biodegradable polymer particle (a polymer solid-in-water emulsion) was fabricated by cooling the emulsion. The particle morphology and particle size were evaluated using scanning electron microscope.

Okada, Masahiro; Fujii, Syuji; Nishimura, Taiki; Nakamura, Yoshinobu; Takeda, Shoji; Furuzono, Tsutomu



Perfluorocarbon emulsions cytotoxic effects on human fibroblasts and effect of aging on particle size distribution.  


The purpose of this study was to characterize emulsion preparations made of perfluorooctyl bromide (PFOB) and egg yolk phospholipid (EYP) and their cytotoxicity. Dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy revealed that freshly prepared emulsions stored at different temperatures for a 24-h period have a unimodal particle size distribution with an average particle size of ca. 200 nm. The emulsion displayed a broader particle size distribution following a 14-day storage. Primary human fibroblasts exposure to PFOB/EYP emulsions permanently inhibited cell proliferation and decreased mitochondrial activity. Scanning electron microscopy pictures reveal the presence of spherical particles on the fibroblasts following exposure to the emulsions after thorough rinsing with culture media. PMID:17651121

Centis, Valérie; Doillon, Charles J; Vermette, Patrick



Comparison of Pickering and network stabilization in water-in-oil emulsions.  


We compared the efficacy of Pickering crystals, a continuous phase crystal network, and a combination thereof against sedimentation and dispersed phase coalescence in water-in-oil (W/O) emulsions. Using 20 wt % water-in-canola oil emulsions as our model, glycerol monostearate (GMS) permitted Pickering-type stabilization, whereas simultaneous usage of hydrogenated canola oil (HCO) and glycerol monooleate (GMO) primarily led to network-stabilized emulsions. A minimum of 4 wt % GMS or 10 wt % HCO was required for long-term sedimentation stability. Although there were no significant differences between the two in mean droplet size with time, the free water content of the network-stabilized emulsions was higher than Pickering-stabilized emulsions, suggesting higher instability. Microscopy revealed the presence of crystal shells around the dispersed phase in the GMS-stabilized emulsions, whereas in the HCO-stabilized emulsion, spherulitic growth in the continuous phase and on the droplet surface occurred. The displacement energy (E(disp)) to detach crystals from the oil-water interface was ?10(4) kT, and was highest for GMS crystals. Thermal cycling to induce dispersed phase coalescence of the emulsions resulted in desorption of both GMS and GMO from the interface, which we ascribed to solute-solvent hydrogen bonding between the emulsifier molecules and the solvent oil, based on IR spectra. Overall, Pickering crystals were more effective than network crystals for emulsion stabilization. However, the thermal stability of all emulsions was hampered by the diffusion of the molten emulsifiers from the interface. PMID:21528852

Ghosh, Supratim; Tran, Tu; Rousseau, Dérick



IIaO ultraviolet and nuclear emulsion films responses to orbital flights on STS-3, STS-7, STS-8, and STS-40  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two types of film were flown on STS-40 space shuttle mission in June 1991. The IIaO special purpose ultraviolet film showed continued desensitization because of various thermal and cosmic ray interactions. The films were exposed to the space orbital environment for 9 days. There were several built-in launch pad delays of the shuttle mission. However, there was adequate monitoring of the temperature variations on board the shuttle that allowed for adequate knowledge of the thermal film history. This IIaO film was flown on the ASTRO I mission and is currently slated for use with the ASTRO II mission. A 50 micron thick IIIford Nuclear emulsion film was also placed on a 175 micron polyester base. The exposure to space produced several cosmic ray interactions that were analyzed and measured using Digital Image Processing techniques. This same nuclear emulsion film was flown on STS-8 and produced a similar number of cosmic ray and thermal interactions. From previous experiments of film using various laboratory electromagnetic radiation sources (e.g., alpha, beta, and neutron particles), we have been able to infer the possible oribtal interactions of both IIaO and nuclear emulsion films. The characteristic responses of IIaO on STS-40 compared favorably to the results obtained from previous STS-7 and STS-8 gas can experiments. The results indicate sufficient evidence correlating increased density on the film with possible cosmic ray, thermal and shuttle out gassing interactions.

Hammond, E. C., Jr.; Peters, K. A.; Blake, S. M.; Bailey, Y.; Johnson, D.; Robancho, S.; Stober, A.



Amphoteric water-in-oil self-inverting polymer emulsion  

SciTech Connect

An amphoteric water-in-oil self-inverting polymer emulsion is prepared which contains a copolymer of a nonionic vinyl monomer and an amphoteric vinyl monomer or a terpolymer of (1) a nonionic vinyl monomer, an anionic vinyl monomer and a cationic vinyl monomer in the aqueous phase, a hydrocarbon oil for the oil phase, a water-in-oil emulsifying agent and an inverting surfactant. An example of a copolymer is a copolymer of a nonionic vinyl monomer such as acrylamide or methacrylamide and an amphoteric vinyl monomer such as a reaction product of dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate and monochloroacetic acid. An example of a terpolymer is a terpolymer of a nonionic vinyl monomer such as acrylamide or methacrylamide, an anionic vinyl monomer such as sodium acrylate and a cationic vinyl monomer such as a triethyl ammonium ethyl methacrylate methosulfate salt. The emulsion is useful in papermaking, treatment of sewage and industrial wastes, drilling muds and secondary and tertiary recovery of petroleum by water flooding.

Lipowski, S. A.; Miskel Jr., J. J.



Formulation and characterization of benzoyl peroxide gellified emulsions.  


The present investigation was carried out with the objective of formulating a gellified emulsion of benzoyl peroxide, an anti-acne agent. The formulations were prepared using four different vegetable oils, viz. almond oil, jojoba oil, sesame oil, and wheat germ oil, owing to their emollient properties. The idea was to overcome the skin irritation and dryness caused by benzoyl peroxide, making the formulation more tolerable. The gellified emulsions were characterized for their homogeneity, rheology, spreadability, drug content, and stability. In vitro permeation studies were performed to check the drug permeation through rat skin. The formulations were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity, as well as their acute skin irritation potential. The results were compared with those obtained for the marketed formulation. Later, the histopathological examination of the skin treated with various formulations was carried out. Formulation F3 was found to have caused a very mild dysplastic change to the epidermis. On the other hand, the marketed formulation led to the greatest dysplastic change. Hence, it was concluded that formulation F3, containing sesame oil (6%w/w), was the optimized formulation. It exhibited the maximum drug release and anti-microbial activity, in addition to the least skin irritation potential. PMID:23264949

Thakur, Naresh Kumar; Bharti, Pratibha; Mahant, Sheefali; Rao, Rekha



A Very High Momentum Particle Identification Detector for the ALICE experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main purpose of the ALICE experiment at CERN is to identify and study the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) in heavy ion collisions at the LHC. Among others, hadrochemistry allows for a detailed insight into the characteristics of the high temperature and density system created in these events. It is therefore important to be able to identify charged particles on a track by track basis. Moreover, results from high energy nucleus-nucleus collisions obtained by other experiments (e.g. at RHIC) indicate that it is imperative to extend the detection capability of ALICE to higher momenta. To meet these challenges, we propose the construction of the Very High Momentum Particle Identification Detector (VHMPID), which aims to identify charged pions, kaons, protons and antiprotons in the momentum range of 10 GeV/c

Mayani, Daniel



A Very High Momentum Particle Identification Detector for the ALICE experiment  

SciTech Connect

The main purpose of the ALICE experiment at CERN is to identify and study the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) in heavy ion collisions at the LHC. Among others, hadrochemistry allows for a detailed insight into the characteristics of the high temperature and density system created in these events. It is therefore important to be able to identify charged particles on a track by track basis. Moreover, results from high energy nucleus-nucleus collisions obtained by other experiments (e.g. at RHIC) indicate that it is imperative to extend the detection capability of ALICE to higher momenta. To meet these challenges, we propose the construction of the Very High Momentum Particle Identification Detector (VHMPID), which aims to identify charged pions, kaons, protons and antiprotons in the momentum range of 10 GeV/c

Mayani, Daniel [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, UNAM (Mexico)



The Offline Software Framework of the NA61/SHINE Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NA61/SHINE (SHINE = SPS Heavy Ion and Neutrino Experiment) is an experiment at the CERN SPS using the upgraded NA49 hadron spectrometer. Among its physics goals are precise hadron production measurements for improving calculations of the neutrino beam flux in the T2K neutrino oscillation experiment as well as for more reliable simulations of cosmic-ray air showers. Moreover, p+p, p+Pb and nucleus+nucleus collisions will be studied extensively to allow for a study of properties of the onset of deconfinement and search for the critical point of strongly interacting matter. Currently NA61/SHINE uses the old NA49 software framework for reconstruction, simulation and data analysis. The core of this legacy framework was developed in the early 1990s. It is written in different programming and scripting languages (C, pgi-Fortran, shell) and provides several concurrent data formats for the event data model, which includes also obsolete parts. In this contribution we will introduce the new software framework, called Shine, that is written in C++ and designed to comprise three principal parts: a collection of processing modules which can be assembled and sequenced by the user via XML files, an event data model which contains all simulation and reconstruction information based on STL and ROOT streaming, and a detector description which provides data on the configuration and state of the experiment. To assure a quick migration to the Shine framework, wrappers were introduced that allow to run legacy code parts as modules in the new framework and we will present first results on the cross validation of the two frameworks.

Sipos, Roland; Laszlo, Andras; Marcinek, Antoni; Paul, Tom; Szuba, Marek; Unger, Michael; Veberic, Darko; Wyszynski, Oskar



Laboratory Investigations in Support of Carbon Dioxide-in-Water Emulsions Stabilized by Fine Particles for Ocean and Geologic Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide  

SciTech Connect

Since the submission of our last Semi-annual Report, dated September 2006, the research objectives of this Co-operative Agreement shifted toward geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide. In the period September 2006-February 2007, experiments were conducted in a High-Pressure Batch Reactor (HPBR) for creating emulsions of liquid carbon dioxide (/CO{sub 2})-in-water stabilized by fine particles for geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. Also, emulsions were created in water of a binary mixture of liquid carbon dioxide and liquid hydrogen sulfide (/H{sub 2}S), called Acid Gas (AG). This leads to the possibility of safe disposal of AG in deep geologic formations, such as saline aquifers. The stabilizing particles included pulverized limestone (CaCO{sub 3}), unprocessed flyash, collected by an electrostatic precipitator at a local coal-fired power plant, and pulverized siderite (FeCO{sub 3}). Particle size ranged from submicron to a few micrometers. The first important finding is that /CO{sub 2} and /H{sub 2}S freely mix as a binary liquid without phase separation. The next finding is that the mixture of /CO{sub 2} and /H{sub 2}S can be emulsified in water using fine particles as emulsifying agents. Such emulsions are stable over prolonged periods, so it should not be a problem to inject an emulsion into subterranean formations. The advantage of injecting an emulsion into subterranean formations is that it is denser than the pure liquid, therefore it is likely to disperse in the bottom of the geologic formation, rather than buoying upward (called fingering). In such a fashion, the risk of the liquids escaping from the formation, and possibly re-emerging into the atmosphere, is minimized. This is especially important for H{sub 2}S, because it is a highly toxic gas. Furthermore, the emulsion may interact with the surrounding minerals, causing mineral trapping. This may lead to longer sequestration periods than injecting the pure liquids alone.

Dan Golomb; David Ryan; Eugene Barry



Effects of milk proteins on release properties and particle morphology of ?-carotene emulsions during in vitro digestion.  


In the present study, ?-lactoglobulin, sodium caseinate, lactalbumin and lactoferrin were used to prepare ?-carotene emulsions. The milk protein-stabilized emulsions were explored using an in vitro release model to elucidate the effects of different milk proteins on ?-carotene release properties in the stomach, duodenum and small intestine, respectively. Notable changes in the droplet size and size distribution were observed among these four oil-in-water (O/W) milk protein emulsions. In the gastric environment, the highest ?-carotene release rate (2.9%) was achieved in ?-lactoglobulin emulsion with a remarkable change in the particle size. In the simulated intestine, the best ?-carotene micellarization potency (92%) was observed in ?-lactoglobulin emulsion and its droplet diameter moderately increased from 215 nm to 471 nm. Moreover, substantial release of ?-carotene was found in the small intestine for the four types of emulsions. It was concluded that ?-carotene release in different digestive stages was characterized by the emulsion interfacial composition. PMID:25215854

Liu, Yuwei; Lei, Fei; Yuan, Fang; Gao, Yanxiang



Generalized boundary integral method to investigate the rheology of multiple emulsions of complex internal structures  

E-print Network

A generalized boundary integral method is developed to investigate the rheology of multiple emulsions with orderly structures up to n layers and up to mi droplets in the i-th layer in microchannels with various geometries. Recently, as fine templates to prepare microcapsules for targeted drug delivery, multiple emulsions with complex structures have been generated through microfluidics. The deformation and breakup of multiple emulsions are critical to the transport and release of their inclusion. However, the numerical investigation of the rheology of multiple emulsions is only limited to a simple case, i.e., double emulsions with only one core, currently. In this letter, two-dimensional boundary element method is employed to study the rheology of multiple emulsions under modest outer flows. Especially, the hydrodynamics of the engulfed droplets, which might be useful in their controlled coalescence for chemical reactions and in their controlled release for drug delivery, is investigated. Although the entire particle has an equilibrium shape under modest outer flows initially, the slow movement of the inner droplets might cause the contact of the outer and inner interface, and eventually induces a breakup of the particle. Thus, appropriate outer flows and internal structures of multiple emulsions might provide a possibility to execute the control release through hydrodynamics.

Jingtao Wang; Jinxia Liu; Junjie Han; Jing Guan



Introducing diffusing wave spectroscopy as a process analytical tool for pharmaceutical emulsion manufacturing.  


Emulsions are widely used for pharmaceutical, food, and cosmetic applications. To guarantee that their critical quality attributes meet specifications, it is desirable to monitor the emulsion manufacturing process. However, finding of a suitable process analyzer has so far remained challenging. This article introduces diffusing wave spectroscopy (DWS) as an at-line technique to follow the manufacturing process of a model oil-in-water pharmaceutical emulsion containing xanthan gum. The DWS results were complemented with mechanical rheology, microscopy analysis, and stability tests. DWS is an advanced light scattering technique that assesses the microrheology and in general provides information on the dynamics and statics of dispersions. The obtained microrheology results showed good agreement with those obtained with bulk rheology. Although no notable changes in the rheological behavior of the model emulsions were observed during homogenization, the intensity correlation function provided qualitative information on the evolution of the emulsion dynamics. These data together with static measurements of the transport mean free path (l*) correlated very well with the changes in droplet size distribution occurring during the emulsion homogenization. This study shows that DWS is a promising process analytical technology tool for development and manufacturing of pharmaceutical emulsions. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 103:3902-3913, 2014. PMID:25302803

Reufer, Mathias; Machado, Alexandra H E; Niederquell, Andreas; Bohnenblust, Katharina; Müller, Beat; Völker, Andreas Charles; Kuentz, Martin



Polymerization of styrene in microemulsions and water-in-oil-in-water emulsions  

SciTech Connect

Two types of emulsion polymerization media were studied in the formation of polystyrene: two O/W microemulsions and a WOW emulsion. The microemulsions and isolated polystyrene were studied using photon correlation spectroscopy and time-averaged light scattering. GPC verified the polymer's size distribution and FTIR determined the polymer's end groups. Photomicroscopy was used to size the WOW emulsion droplets. The effect of an oil-soluble, azoisobisbutyronitrile (AIBN), versus water-soluble, potassium persulfate (KPS), free-radical generator in the polymerization of styrene in microemulsions was investigated. The microemulsions contained styrene, brine, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and pentanol. Under the dilute conditions the microemulsions and lattices were stable and the droplets independent of each other. Both AIBN and KPS produced polystyrene containing two different size fractions; the molecular weight of the two fractions were of the order of magnitude of 10{sup 5} and 10{sup 6}. End group analysis indicated that initiator fragments and alcohol fragments were present in the polystyrene. The WOW emulsions contained styrene, water, Tween 80, and Span 80. The multiple phase emulsion had a polydisperse droplet size distribution with globule diameters ranging from 1 {mu}m to 190 {mu}m. Both single and multiple phase globules were present in the emulsion due to < 100% yield. WOW emulsion polymerization was slower than microemulsion polymerization and the reaction never reached completion. The isolated polymer showed a wide size distribution with an average molecular weight of {approximately} 4.6 {times} 10{sup 5}.

Johnson, P.L.



Transitional phase inversion of emulsions monitored by in situ near-infrared spectroscopy.  


Water-heptane/toluene model emulsions were prepared to study emulsion transitional phase inversion by in situ near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR). The first emulsion contained a small amount of ionic surfactant (0.27 wt % of sodium dodecyl sulfate) and n-pentanol as a cosurfactant. In this emulsion, the study was guided by an inversion coordinate route based on a phase behavior study previously performed. The morphology changes were induced by rising aqueous phase salinity in a "steady-state" inversion protocol. The second emulsion contained a nonionic surfactant (ethoxylated nonylphenol) at a concentration of 3 wt %. A continuous temperature change induced two distinct transitional phase inversions: one occurred during the heating of the system and another during the cooling. NIR spectroscopy was able to detect phase inversion in these emulsions due to differences between light scattered/absorbed by water in oil (W/O) and oil in water (O/W) morphologies. It was observed that the two model emulsions exhibit different inversion mechanisms closely related to different quantities of the middle phases formed during the three-phase behavior of Winsor type III. PMID:23656562

Charin, R M; Nele, M; Tavares, F W



Interfacial properties of emulsions stabilized with surfactant and nonsurfactant coated boehmite nanoparticles.  


The properties of emulsions stabilized with surface-modified boehmite particles of 26 and 8 nm in diameter have been investigated. The surface-modified particles were prepared by mixing aqueous dispersions of cationic boehmite particles with aqueous solutions of the surfactant p-dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid (DBSA) or the nonsurfactant p-toluenesulfonic acid (TSA). For the 26 nm particles, interfacial tension measurements indicate that p-dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid partitions between the particle surface and the oil-water interface, while p-toluenesulfonic acid remains on the particle surface. The partitioning of p-dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid supports the formation of emulsions, although in the absence of the particles the same surfactant concentration is not sufficient for emulsion stabilization. Due to the fast exchange kinetics, p-dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid is gradually replaced by particles. At equilibrium, the interfacial tension in the presence of the surface-modified particles is between the values for the pure particles and the pure surfactant solutions. However, the interfacial tension is independent of the surfactant concentration used in the preparation of the particles. Reducing the particle size to 8 nm leads to increased emulsion stability, and thus, the minimum particle concentration required to prepare stable emulsions was reduced to 0.1 g/L. However, above approximately 3.5 mmol/L of the sulfonic acids, the small particles dissolve slowly, and the emulsion stability is lost. This mechanism can be used to trigger the collapse of the emulsions. PMID:21028858

Tigges, Britta; Dederichs, Thomas; Möller, Martin; Liu, Tingting; Richtering, Walter; Weichold, Oliver



Emulsion graft polymerization of 4-chloromethylstyrene on kenaf fiber by pre-irradiation method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The stability of micelle size in 3% 4-chloromethylstyrene (CMS), 0.3% Tween 20 in water emulsion over time was studied using a static light scattering. It was found that the micelle diameter decreased with storage time and temperature. The influence of micelle size over time was then explored by adjusting the ratio of CMS to Tween 20 (10:1, 10:2, 10:4) at CMS concentration of 0.2-5.0%. It was found that the increase in average micelle diameter resulted in a decreased in the stability of CMS emulsion. Graft polymerization of CMS on kenaf fiber was carried out in emulsion with 350 nm micelle at various CMS concentrations at a dose of 150 kGy. It was found that the degree of grafting (Dg) was strongly dependent on the monomer concentration and time. However, the increase in micelles diameter from 250 nm to 500 nm resulted in the increased in Dg from 3% to 153%. This extraordinary result led us to investigate the micelle size distributions of CMS emulsion during graft polymerization. It was found that the diameter of micelle decreased rapidly to 100 nm within 2 h. It was discovered from digital photomicrography the existence of multiple emulsions in the CMS emulsion. It was proposed that the enhancement of grafting yield is governed by emulsion breakdown mechanisms through radical effect during radiation induced graft polymerization.

Mohamed, Nor Hasimah; Tamada, Masao; Ueki, Yuji; Seko, Noriaki



Influence of Steam Injection and Water-in-Oil Emulsions on Diesel Fuel Combustion Performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water injection can be an effective strategy for reducing NOx because water's high specific heat allows it to absorb heat and lower system temperatures. Introducing water as an emulsion can potentially be more effective at reducing emissions than steam injection due to physical properties (such as microexplosions) that can improve atomization and increase mixing. Unfortunately, the immiscibility of emulsions makes them difficult to work with so they must be mixed properly. In this effort, a method for adequately mixing surfactant-free emulsions was established and verified using high speed cinematography. As the water to fuel mass ratio (W/F) increased, emulsion atomization tests showed little change in droplet size and spray angle, but a shorter overall breakup point. Dual-wavelength planar laser induced fluorescence (D-PLIF) patternation showed an increase in water near the center of the spray. Steam injection flames saw little change in reaction stability, but emulsion flames experienced significant losses in stability that limited reaction operability at higher W/F. Emulsions were more effective at reducing NOx than steam injection, likely because of liquid water's latent heat of vaporization and the strategic injection of water into the flame core. OH* chemiluminescence showed a decrease in heat release for both methods, though the decrease was greater for emulsions. Both methods saw decreases in flame length for W/F 0.15. Lastly, flame imaging showed a shift towards a redder appearance with the addition or more water, as well as a reduction in flame flares.

Sung, Meagan


Influence of surfactant hydrophilicity on the formation of transparent O/I(1)-type emulsions.  


The transparency of oil in cubic (O/I(1)) emulsions formed in water/C(12)EO(n)/isododecane systems (n=7, 9) with glycerol was investigated in order to understand the relation between surfactant hydrophilicity and transparency of the emulsion. In the C(12)EO(7) system, O/I(1) emulsions prepared in the I(1)+O region are milky when glycerol is not added. However, in the presence of glycerol, transparency increases with an increasing amount of glycerol because glycerol increases the refractive index of the I(1) phase until it gradually approaches that of the oil phase. However, a phase transition to the hexagonal phase takes place before the refractive indices match; therefore, a transparent emulsion is not obtained. On the other hand, in the C(12)EO(9) system, a transparent emulsion was prepared by adding glycerol because the refractive index of the I(1) phase matches that of the oil before the phase transition. Since long EO chains are required to maintain the large curvature of the I(1) phase against the addition of glycerol, a highly hydrophilic surfactant is required for the preparation of transparent emulsions. We also found that the viscosity of the O/I(1) emulsion decreases with the decreased viscosity of the I(1) phase obtained by adding glycerol. The low viscosity of the I(1) phase in the presence of glycerol could be related to an increase in the maximum oil solubilization into the I(1) phase. PMID:21768741

Takahashi, Takuya; Sugiyama, Yuki; Watanabe, Kei; Aramaki, Kenji



The influence of thermal processing on emulsion properties of defatted hazelnut flour.  


In this study, the influences of roasting and the amount of hazelnut flour on the formation and stabilization of emulsions containing different amounts of oil were investigated. After hazelnuts were roasted in an oven at 140°C for 40 min, the oil content was removed. The emulsions with defatted hazelnut flour containing corn oil at 3%, 10% and 50% were prepared. Roasting process significantly decreased the interfacial tension values of samples down to 1.9 mN/m due to protein denaturation. There was no significant difference between the particle sizes of oil droplets in emulsions with roasted and raw hazelnut flour at the same concentration. However, diffusion coefficients of oil droplets increased for emulsions containing roasted defatted flour samples. The zeta (?) potential values of all emulsions increased when roasted hazelnut flour was used, indicating the stabilization of suspensions and the solution resistance against aggregation. Storage modulus (G'), loss modulus (G?) and complex viscosity (?(?)) of emulsions were measured. G' value was found to be greater than the G? value, which fits into weak gel model. The roasting process resulted with lower transition temperatures but with increased transition enthalpies of the flour samples based on differential scanning (DSC) measurements. Lower transition temperatures may be attributed to the partial gelatinization of starch in the flour and partial denaturation of proteins. These results may help to tailor the properties of defatted hazelnut flour when it is used in food products containing emulsions such as sauces, dressings and creams for stabilizing purposes. PMID:25148965

Turan, Deniz; Altay, Filiz; Capano?lu Güven, Esra



Results from the CHORUS neutrino oscillation experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The CHORUS experiment searches for the appearance of ?? in a beam of ??, by detecting the ?? interaction in a background of ?? induced charged and neutral current events. The tau detection is based on the observation of its short decay path, which is made possible through the high resolution of nuclear emulsion.After three years of data taking a

Kerstin Hoepfner



Monte Carlo computer simulations and electron microscopy of colloidal cluster formation via emulsion droplet evaporation.  


We consider a theoretical model for a binary mixture of colloidal particles and spherical emulsion droplets. The hard sphere colloids interact via additional short-ranged attraction and long-ranged repulsion. The droplet-colloid interaction is an attractive well at the droplet surface, which induces the Pickering effect. The droplet-droplet interaction is a hard-core interaction. The droplets shrink in time, which models the evaporation of the dispersed (oil) phase, and we use Monte Carlo simulations for the dynamics. In the experiments, polystyrene particles were assembled using toluene droplets as templates. The arrangement of the particles on the surface of the droplets was analyzed with cryogenic field emission scanning electron microscopy. Before evaporation of the oil, the particle distribution on the droplet surface was found to be disordered in experiments, and the simulations reproduce this effect. After complete evaporation, ordered colloidal clusters are formed that are stable against thermal fluctuations. Both in the simulations and with field emission scanning electron microscopy, we find stable packings that range from doublets, triplets, and tetrahedra to complex polyhedra of colloids. The simulated cluster structures and size distribution agree well with the experimental results. We also simulate hierarchical assembly in a mixture of tetrahedral clusters and droplets, and find supercluster structures with morphologies that are more complex than those of clusters of single particles. PMID:22225163

Schwarz, Ingmar; Fortini, Andrea; Wagner, Claudia Simone; Wittemann, Alexander; Schmidt, Matthias



Monte Carlo computer simulations and electron microscopy of colloidal cluster formation via emulsion droplet evaporation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider a theoretical model for a binary mixture of colloidal particles and spherical emulsion droplets. The hard sphere colloids interact via additional short-ranged attraction and long-ranged repulsion. The droplet-colloid interaction is an attractive well at the droplet surface, which induces the Pickering effect. The droplet-droplet interaction is a hard-core interaction. The droplets shrink in time, which models the evaporation of the dispersed (oil) phase, and we use Monte Carlo simulations for the dynamics. In the experiments, polystyrene particles were assembled using toluene droplets as templates. The arrangement of the particles on the surface of the droplets was analyzed with cryogenic field emission scanning electron microscopy. Before evaporation of the oil, the particle distribution on the droplet surface was found to be disordered in experiments, and the simulations reproduce this effect. After complete evaporation, ordered colloidal clusters are formed that are stable against thermal fluctuations. Both in the simulations and with field emission scanning electron microscopy, we find stable packings that range from doublets, triplets, and tetrahedra to complex polyhedra of colloids. The simulated cluster structures and size distribution agree well with the experimental results. We also simulate hierarchical assembly in a mixture of tetrahedral clusters and droplets, and find supercluster structures with morphologies that are more complex than those of clusters of single particles.

Schwarz, Ingmar; Fortini, Andrea; Wagner, Claudia Simone; Wittemann, Alexander; Schmidt, Matthias



Effects of natural antioxidants on iron-catalyzed lipid oxidation of structured lipid-based emulsions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of iron, pH, and natural antioxidants (?-tocopherol, gallic acid, and quercetin) on oxidation of structured lipid-based\\u000a emulsions were evaluated. Ten percent oil-in-water emulsions were formulated with a canola oil\\/caprylic acid structured lipid\\u000a and stabilized with 0.5% whey protein isolate. The PV, anisidine values, and Totox values of emulsions stored at 50C were\\u000a measured over a 15-d period. Iron

Hannah T. Osborn; Casimir C. Akoh



Study on removal of cadmium from wastewater by emulsion liquid membrane.  


Removal of cadmium from wastewater using emulsion liquid membrane (ELM) is studied in the present study. A polyamine-type surfactant was used for stabilizing the emulsion phase. Tri-iso-octyl amine (TIOA) has been used as a carrier for transferring of cadmium through the membrane. The results show good performance in the separation process. To determine the optimum operation conditions, the effect of several parameters such as surfactant concentration, carrier concentration, pH of external and internal phases, oil to internal phase volume ratio, emulsion to external phase volume ratio, solvent type, solute concentration, presence of iodide and chloride in external phase, and mixing conditions have been investigated. PMID:19036507

Mortaheb, Hamid R; Kosuge, Hitoshi; Mokhtarani, Babak; Amini, Mohammad H; Banihashemi, Hamid R



Fast 4$?$ track reconstruction in nuclear emulsion detectors based on GPU technology  

E-print Network

Fast 4$\\pi$ solid angle particle track recognition has been a challenge in particle physics for a long time, especially in using nuclear emulsion detectors. The recent advances in computing technology opened the way for its realization. A fast 4$\\pi$ solid angle particle track reconstruction based on GPU technology combined with a multithread programming is reported here with a detailed comparison between GPU-based and CPU-based programming. A 60 times faster processing of 3D emulsion detector data, corresponding to processing of 15 cm$^2$ emulsion surface scanned per hour, has been achieved by GPUs with an excellent tracking performance.

A. Ariga; T. Ariga



Edge-modified amphiphilic Laponite nano-discs for stabilizing Pickering emulsions.  


We investigated the effect of amphiphilic Laponite nano-discs, which were edge-modified by hydrophobic chains, on the properties of Pickering emulsions and Pickering emulsions polymerization. Comparing to unmodified Laponites, these amphiphilic nano-discs can greatly reduce the surface tension, resulting in very stable Pickering emulsions. These particles uniquely combine the Pickering effect with amphiphilic properties similar to the surfactant. Taking advantage of these amphiphilic Pickering emulsifiers, miniemulsion polymerization of styrene was performed. Homogeneous polystyrene nanoparticles with size around 150 nm could thus be prepared. PMID:23998369

Yang, Ying; Liu, Zhi; Wu, Dayong; Wu, Man; Tian, Ye; Niu, Zhongwei; Huang, Yong



Formation of fine particle emulsions by high-dose-rate polymerization  

SciTech Connect

Emulsion of chloroprene, acrylic acid, styrene, n-butyl methacrylate, and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate monomers mixed with sodium lauryl sulfate as an emulsifier were polymerized or copolymerized in a flow system for control of temperature and for mixing of the emulsion under irradiation. Electron beams of a dose rate of 0.1 to 10 Mrad/s was used as a radiation source to produce very fine particle emulsions. Significant decreases in particle diameter were noted for polymers aged for as much as 5 weeks. (BLM)

Hayashi, K. (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Neyagawa, Osaka); Kijima, T.; Okamura, S.; Egusa, S.; Makuuchi, K.



Mineralization and drug release of hydroxyapatite/poly(l-lactic acid) nanocomposite scaffolds prepared by Pickering emulsion templating.  


Biodegradable and bioactive nanocomposite (NC) biomaterials with controlled microstructures and able to deliver special drugs have gained increasing attention in bone tissue engineering. In this study, the hydroxyapatite (HAp)/poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) NC scaffolds were facilely prepared using solvent evaporation from templating Pickering emulsions stabilized with PLLA-modified HAp (g-HAp) nanoparticles. Then, in vitro mineralization experiments were performed in a simulated body fluid (SBF) to evaluate the bioactivity of the NC scaffolds. Moreover, in vitro drug release of the NC scaffolds using anti-inflammatory drug (ibuprofen, IBU) as the model drug was also investigated. The results showed that the NC scaffolds possessed interconnected pore structures, which could be modulated by varying the g-HAp nanoparticle concentration. The NC scaffolds exhibited excellent bioactivity, since they induced the formation of calcium-sufficient, carbonated apatite nanoparticles on the scaffolds after mineralization in SBF for 3 days. The IBU loaded in the NC scaffolds showed a sustained release profile, and the release kinetic followed the Higuchi model with diffusion process. Thus, solvent evaporation based on Pickering emulsion droplets is a simple and effective method to prepare biodegradable and bioactive porous NC scaffolds for bone repair and replacement applications. PMID:25127362

Hu, Yang; Zou, Shengwen; Chen, Weike; Tong, Zhen; Wang, Chaoyang



Fabrication and evaluation of magnetic/hollow double-shelled imprinted sorbents formed by Pickering emulsion polymerization.  


Magnetic/hollow double-shelled imprinted polymers (MH-MIPs) were synthesized by Pickering emulsion polymerization. In this method, attapulgite (ATP) particles were used as stabilizers to establish a stable oil-in-water emulsion, and a few hydrophilic Fe3O4 nanoparticles were allowed to be magnetic separation carriers. The imprinting system was fabricated by radical polymerization in the presence of the functional and polymeric monomers in the oil phase. The results of characterization indicated that MH-MIPs exhibited magnetic sensitivity (Ms = 4.76 emu g(-1)), thermal stability (especially below 200 °C), and hollow structure and were composed of exterior ATP shells and interior imprinted polymers shells. Then MH-MIPs were evaluated as sorbents for the selective binding of ?-cyhalothrin as a result of their magnetism, enhanced mechanical strength, hydrophilic surface, and recognition ability. The kinetic properties of MH-MIPs were well described by the pseudo-second-order equation, indicating that the chemical process could be the rate-limiting step in the adsorption process for ?-cyhalothrin. The equilibrium adsorption capacity of MH-MIPs was 60.06 ?mol g(-1) at 25 °C, and the Langmuir isotherm model gave a better fit to the experimental data, indicating the monolayer molecular adsorption for ?-cyhalothrin. The selective recognition experiments also demonstrated the high affinity and selectivity of MH-MIIPs toward ?-cyhalothrin over fenvalerate and diethyl phthalate. PMID:23742261

Pan, Jianming; Li, Linzi; Hang, Hui; Wu, Runrun; Dai, Xiaohui; Shi, Weidong; Yan, Yongsheng



Patterning nanoparticles into rings by "2-D Pickering emulsions".  


We present a simple method for the two-dimensional self-assembly of CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) into well-defined rings at the air/water interface, through the formation of "2-D Pickering emulsions". Surfactant molecules assemble at the air/water interface into islands that are subsequently surrounded by adsorption of QDs from the aqueous subphase. The QD rings emanating from this process range from ?100 nm to several micrometers in diameter, as characterized by atomic force microscopy, scanning eectron microscopy, and fluorescence microscopy. The deposition and alignment of QD rings onto large areas (cm(2)) were demonstrated by dip-coating onto a substrate. This simple method produces rings of QDs without the need for any templating or fabrication steps. PMID:24645916

Lee, Cheol Hee; Crosby, Alfred J; Hayward, Ryan C; Emrick, Todd



Microencapsulation of xylitol by double emulsion followed by complex coacervation.  


The objective of this study was to produce and characterise xylitol microcapsules for use in foods, in order to prolong the sweetness and cooling effect provided by this ingredient. Complex coacervation was employed as the microencapsulation method. A preliminary double emulsion step was performed due to the hydrophilicity of xylitol. The microcapsules obtained were characterised in terms of particle size and morphology (optical, confocal and scanning electron microscopy), solubility, sorption isotherms, FTIR, encapsulation efficiency and release study. The microcapsules of xylitol showed desirable characteristics for use in foods, such as a particle size below 109?m, low solubility and complete encapsulation of the core by the wall material. The encapsulation efficiency ranged from 31% to 71%, being higher in treatments with higher concentrations of polymers. Release of over 70% of the microencapsulated xylitol in artificial saliva occurred within 20min. PMID:25308639

Santos, Milla G; Bozza, Fernanda T; Thomazini, Marcelo; Favaro-Trindade, Carmen S



Preparation of an adhesive in emulsion for maxillofacial prosthetic.  


Maxillofacial prostheses is a dental medicine specialty aimed at restoring anatomical facial defects caused by cancer, trauma or congenital malformations through an artificial device, which is commonly attached to the skin with the help of an adhesive. The purpose of our research was to develop a pressure-sensitive adhesive (PSA) based on acrylic monomers, characterizing and determining its drying kinetics, that is to say the time it takes to lose 50 to 90% of its moisture. The adhesive synthesis was realized by means of emulsion polymerization; the composition of formulations was: (AA-MMA-EA) and (AA-MMA-2EHA) with different molar ratios. The formulation based on (AA-MMA-2EHA) with 50 w% of solids, presented good adhesive properties such as tack, bond strength, and short drying time. We propose this formulation as a PSA, because it offers an alternative for systemically compromised patients, by less irritation compared to organic solvent-based adhesives. PMID:21152308

Sánchez-García, Judith A; Ortega, Alejandra; Barceló-Santana, Federico H; Palacios-Alquisira, Joaquín



Marietta Blau: Pioneer of Photographic Nuclear Emulsions and Particle Physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the 1920s and 1930s, Viennese physicist Marietta Blau (1894-1970) pioneered the use of photographic methods for imaging high-energy nuclear particles and events. In 1937 she and Hertha Wambacher discovered "disintegration stars" - the tracks of massive nuclear disintegrations - in emulsions exposed to cosmic radiation. This discovery launched the field of particle physics, but Blau's contributions were underrecognized and she herself was nearly forgotten. I trace Blau's career at the Institut für Radiumforschung in Vienna and the causes of this "forgetting," including her forced emigration from Austria in 1938, the behavior of her colleagues in Vienna during and after the National Socialist period, and the flawed Nobel decision process that excluded her from a Nobel Prize.

Sime, Ruth Lewin



Preparation of an Adhesive in Emulsion for Maxillofacial Prosthetic  

PubMed Central

Maxillofacial prostheses is a dental medicine specialty aimed at restoring anatomical facial defects caused by cancer, trauma or congenital malformations through an artificial device, which is commonly attached to the skin with the help of an adhesive. The purpose of our research was to develop a pressure-sensitive adhesive (PSA) based on acrylic monomers, characterizing and determining its drying kinetics, that is to say the time it takes to lose 50 to 90% of its moisture. The adhesive synthesis was realized by means of emulsion polymerization; the composition of formulations was: (AA-MMA-EA) and (AA-MMA-2EHA) with different molar ratios. The formulation based on (AA-MMA-2EHA) with 50 w% of solids, presented good adhesive properties such as tack, bond strength, and short drying time. We propose this formulation as a PSA, because it offers an alternative for systemically compromised patients, by less irritation compared to organic solvent-based adhesives. PMID:21152308

Sanchez-Garcia, Judith A.; Ortega, Alejandra; Barcelo-Santana, Federico H.; Palacios-Alquisira, Joaquin



Measurement of Charge Multiplicity Asymmetry Correlations in High Energy Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions at 200 GeV  

E-print Network

A study is reported of the same- and opposite-sign charge-dependent azimuthal correlations with respect to the event plane in Au+Au collisions at 200 GeV. The charge multiplicity asymmetries between the up/down and left/right hemispheres relative to the event plane are utilized. The contributions from statistical fluctuations and detector effects were subtracted from the (co-)variance of the observed charge multiplicity asymmetries. In the mid- to most-central collisions, the same- (opposite-) sign pairs are preferentially emitted in back-to-back (aligned on the same-side) directions. The charge separation across the event plane, measured by the difference, $\\Delta$, between the like- and unlike-sign up/down $-$ left/right correlations, is largest near the event plane. The difference is found to be proportional to the event-by-event final-state particle ellipticity (via the observed second-order harmonic $v^{\\rm obs}_{2}$), where $\\Delta=(1.3\\pm1.4({\\rm stat})^{+4.0}_{-1.0}({\\rm syst}))\\times10^{-5}+(3.2\\pm0.2({\\rm stat})^{+0.4}_{-0.3}({\\rm syst}))\\times10^{-3}v^{\\rm obs}_{2}$ for 20-40% Au+Au collisions. The implications for the proposed chiral magnetic effect are discussed.

STAR Collaboration; L. Adamczyk; J. K. Adkins; G. Agakishiev; M. M. Aggarwal; Z. Ahammed; A. V. Alakhverdyants; I. Alekseev; J. Alford; C. D. Anson; D. Arkhipkin; E. Aschenauer; G. S. Averichev; J. Balewski; A. Banerjee; Z. Barnovska; D. R. Beavis; R. Bellwied; M. J. Betancourt; R. R. Betts; A. Bhasin; A. K. Bhati; H. Bichsel; J. Bielcik; J. Bielcikova; L. C. Bland; I. G. Bordyuzhin; W. Borowski; J. Bouchet; A. V. Brandin; S. G. Brovko; E. Bruna; S. Bültmann; I. Bunzarov; T. P. Burton; J. Butterworth; X. Z. Cai; H. Caines; M. Calderón de la Barca Sánchez; D. Cebra; R. Cendejas; M. C. Cervantes; P. Chaloupka; Z. Chang; S. Chattopadhyay; H. F. Chen; J. H. Chen; J. Y. Chen; L. Chen; J. Cheng; M. Cherney; A. Chikanian; W. Christie; P. Chung; J. Chwastowski; M. J. M. Codrington; R. Corliss; J. G. Cramer; H. J. Crawford; X. Cui; S. Das; A. Davila Leyva; L. C. De Silva; R. R. Debbe; T. G. Dedovich; J. Deng; R. Derradi de Souza; S. Dhamija; L. Didenko; F. Ding; A. Dion; P. Djawotho; X. Dong; J. L. Drachenberg; J. E. Draper; C. M. Du; L. E. Dunkelberger; J. C. Dunlop; L. G. Efimov; M. Elnimr; J. Engelage; G. Eppley; L. Eun; O. Evdokimov; R. Fatemi; S. Fazio; J. Fedorisin; R. G. Fersch; P. Filip; E. Finch; Y. Fisyak; E. Flores; C. A. Gagliardi; D. R. Gangadharan; D. Garand; F. Geurts; A. Gibson; S. Gliske; Y. N. Gorbunov; O. G. Grebenyuk; D. Grosnick; A. Gupta; S. Gupta; W. Guryn; B. Haag; O. Hajkova; A. Hamed; L-X. Han; J. W. Harris; J. P. Hays-Wehle; S. Heppelmann; A. Hirsch; G. W. Hoffmann; D. J. Hofman; S. Horvat; B. Huang; H. Z. Huang; P. Huck; T. J. Humanic; G. Igo; W. W. Jacobs; C. Jena; E. G. Judd; S. Kabana; K. Kang; J. Kapitan; K. Kauder; H. W. Ke; D. Keane; A. Kechechyan; A. Kesich; D. P. Kikola; J. Kiryluk; I. Kisel; A. Kisiel; V. Kizka; D. D. Koetke; T. Kollegger; J. Konzer; I. Koralt; L. Koroleva; W. Korsch; L. Kotchenda; P. Kravtsov; K. Krueger; I. Kulakov; L. Kumar; M. A. C. Lamont; J. M. Landgraf; K. D. Landry; S. LaPointe; J. Lauret; A. Lebedev; R. Lednicky; J. H. Lee; W. Leight; M. J. LeVine; C. Li; W. Li; X. Li; X. Li; Y. Li; Z. M. Li; L. M. Lima; M. A. Lisa; F. Liu; T. Ljubicic; W. J. Llope; R. S. Longacre; Y. Lu; X. Luo; A. Luszczak; G. L. Ma; Y. G. Ma; D. M. M. D. Madagodagettige Don; D. P. Mahapatra; R. Majka; S. Margetis; C. Markert; H. Masui; H. S. Matis; D. McDonald; T. S. McShane; S. Mioduszewski; M. K. Mitrovski; Y. Mohammed; B. Mohanty; M. M. Mondal; B. Morozov; M. G. Munhoz; M. K. Mustafa; M. Naglis; B. K. Nandi; Md. Nasim; T. K. Nayak; J. M. Nelson; L. V. Nogach; J. Novak; G. Odyniec; A. Ogawa; K. Oh; A. Ohlson; V. Okorokov; E. W. Oldag; R. A. N. Oliveira; D. Olson; P. Ostrowski; M. Pachr; B. S. Page; S. K. Pal; Y. X. Pan; Y. Pandit; Y. Panebratsev; T. Pawlak; B. Pawlik; H. Pei; C. Perkins; W. Peryt; P. Pile; M. Planinic; J. Pluta; N. Poljak; J. Porter; C. B. Powell; N. K. Pruthi; M. Przybycien; P. R. Pujahari; J. Putschke; H. Qiu; S. Ramachandran; R. Raniwala; S. Raniwala; R. L. Ray; R. Redwine; C. K. Riley; H. G. Ritter; J. B. Roberts; O. V. Rogachevskiy; J. L. Romero; J. F. Ross; L. Ruan; J. Rusnak; N. R. Sahoo; P. K. Sahu; I. Sakrejda; S. Salur; A. Sandacz; J. Sandweiss; E. Sangaline; A. Sarkar; J. Schambach; R. P. Scharenberg; A. M. Schmah; B. Schmidke; N. Schmitz; T. R. Schuster; J. Seele; J. Seger; I. Selyuzhenkov; P. Seyboth; N. Shah; E. Shahaliev; M. Shao; B. Sharma; M. Sharma; S. S. Shi; Q. Y. Shou; E. P. Sichtermann; R. N. Singaraju; M. J. Skoby; D. Smirnov; N. Smirnov; D. Solanki; P. Sorensen; U. G. deSouza; H. M. Spinka; B. Srivastava; T. D. S. Stanislaus; S. G. Steadman; J. R. Stevens; R. Stock; M. Strikhanov; B. Stringfellow; A. A. P. Suaide; M. C. Suarez; M. Sumbera; X. M. Sun; Y. Sun; Z. Sun; B. Surrow; D. N. Svirida; T. J. M. Symons; A. Szanto de Toledo; J. Takahashi; A. H. Tang; Z. Tang; L. H. Tarini; T. Tarnowsky; J. H. Thomas; J. Tian; A. R. Timmins; D. Tlusty; M. Tokarev; S. Trentalange; R. E. Tribble; P. Tribedy; B. A. Trzeciak; O. D. Tsai; J. Turnau; T. Ullrich; D. G. Underwood; G. Van Buren; G. van Nieuwenhuizen; J. A. Vanfossen, Jr.; R. Varma; G. M. S. Vasconcelos; F. Videbæk; Y. P. Viyogi; S. Vokal; A. Vossen; M. Wada; F. Wang; H. Wang; J. S. Wang; Q. Wang; X. L. Wang; Y. Wang; G. Webb; J. C. Webb; G. D. Westfall; C. Whitten Jr.; H. Wieman; S. W. Wissink; R. Witt; Y. F. Wu; Z. Xiao; W. Xie; K. Xin; H. Xu; N. Xu; Q. H. Xu; W. Xu; Y. Xu; Z. Xu; L. Xue; Y. Yang; Y. Yang; P. Yepes; L. Yi; K. Yip; I-K. Yoo; M. Zawisza; H. Zbroszczyk; J. B. Zhang; S. Zhang; X. P. Zhang; Y. Zhang; Z. P. Zhang; F. Zhao; J. Zhao; C. Zhong; X. Zhu; Y. H. Zhu; Y. Zoulkarneeva; M. Zyzak



Three-Particle Coincidence of the Long Range Pseudorapidity Correlation in High Energy Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions  

E-print Network

We report the first three-particle coincidence measurement in pseudorapidity (delta eta) between a high transverse momentum (p?) trigger particle and two lower p? associated particles within azimuth |deltaphi|<0.7 in ...

Balewski, Jan T.


Three-particle coincidence of the long range pseudorapidity correlation in high energy nucleus-nucleus collisions.  


We report the first three-particle coincidence measurement in pseudorapidity (??) between a high transverse momentum (p?) trigger particle and two lower p? associated particles within azimuth |??|<0.7 in square root of s(NN)=200 GeV d+Au and Au+Au collisions. Charge ordering properties are exploited to separate the jetlike component and the ridge (long range ?? correlation). The results indicate that the correlation of ridge particles are uniform not only with respect to the trigger particle but also between themselves event by event in our measured ??. In addition, the production of the ridge appears to be uncorrelated to the presence of the narrow jetlike component. PMID:20867701

Abelev, B I; Aggarwal, M M; Ahammed, Z; Alakhverdyants, A V; Anderson, B D; Arkhipkin, D; Averichev, G S; Balewski, J; Barannikova, O; Barnby, L S; Baumgart, S; Beavis, D R; Bellwied, R; Betancourt, M J; Betts, R R; Bhasin, A; Bhati, A K; Bichsel, H; Bielcik, J; Bielcikova, J; Biritz, B; Bland, L C; Bnzarov, I; Bonner, B E; Bouchet, J; Braidot, E; Brandin, A V; Bridgeman, A; Bruna, E; Bueltmann, S; Burton, T P; Cai, X Z; Caines, H; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M; Catu, O; Cebra, D; Cendejas, R; Cervantes, M C; Chajecki, Z; Chaloupka, P; Chattopadhyay, S; Chen, H F; Chen, J H; Chen, J Y; Cheng, J; Cherney, M; Chikanian, A; Choi, K E; Christie, W; Chung, P; Clarke, R F; Codrington, M J M; Corliss, R; Cramer, J G; Crawford, H J; Das, D; Dash, S; Davila Leyva, A; De Silva, L C; Debbe, R R; Dedovich, T G; DePhillips, M; Derevschikov, A A; Derradi de Souza, R; Didenko, L; Djawotho, P; Dogra, S M; Dong, X; Drachenberg, J L; Draper, J E; Dunlop, J C; Dutta Mazumdar, M R; Efimov, L G; Elhalhuli, E; Elnimr, M; Engelage, J; Eppley, G; Erazmus, B; Estienne, M; Eun, L; Fachini, P; Fatemi, R; Fedorisin, J; Fersch, R G; Filip, P; Finch, E; Fine, V; Fisyak, Y; Gagliardi, C A; Gangadharan, D R; Ganti, M S; Garcia-Solis, E J; Geromitsos, A; Geurts, F; Ghazikhanian, V; Ghosh, P; Gorbunov, Y N; Gordon, A; Grebenyuk, O; Grosnick, D; Grube, B; Guertin, S M; Gupta, A; Gupta, N; Guryn, W; Haag, B; Hallman, T J; Hamed, A; Han, L-X; Harris, J W; Hays-Wehle, J P; Heinz, M; Heppelmann, S; Hirsch, A; Hjort, E; Hoffman, A M; Hoffmann, G W; Hofman, D J; Hollis, R S; Huang, H Z; Humanic, T J; Huo, L; Igo, G; Iordanova, A; Jacobs, P; Jacobs, W W; Jakl, P; Jena, C; Jin, F; Jones, C L; Jones, P G; Joseph, J; Judd, E G; Kabana, S; Kajimoto, K; Kang, K; Kapitan, J; Kauder, K; Keane, D; Kechechyan, A; Kettler, D; Khodyrev, V Yu; Kikola, D P; Kiryluk, J; Kisiel, A; Knospe, A G; Kocoloski, A; Koetke, D D; Kollegger, T; Konzer, J; Kopytine, M; Koralt, I; Korsch, W; Kotchenda, L; Kouchpil, V; Kravtsov, P; Kravtsov, V I; Krueger, K; Krus, M; Kumar, L; Kurnadi, P; Lamont, M A C; Landgraf, J M; LaPointe, S; Lauret, J; Lebedev, A; Lednicky, R; Lee, C-H; Lee, J H; Leight, W; LeVine, M J; Li, C; Li, L; Li, N; Li, W; Li, X; Li, X; Li, Y; Li, Z; Lin, G; Lindenbaum, S J; Lisa, M A; Liu, F; Liu, H; Liu, J; Ljubicic, T; Llope, W J; Longacre, R S; Love, W A; Lu, Y; Ludlam, T; Ma, G L; Ma, Y G; Mahapatra, D P; Majka, R; Mall, O I; Mangotra, L K; Manweiler, R; Margetis, S; Markert, C; Masui, H; Matis, H S; Matulenko, Yu A; McDonald, D; McShane, T S; Meschanin, A; Milner, R; Minaev, N G; Mioduszewski, S; Mischke, A; Mitrovski, M K; Mohanty, B; Morozov, D A; Munhoz, M G; Nandi, B K; Nattrass, C; Nayak, T K; Nelson, J M; Netrakanti, P K; Ng, M J; Nogach, L V; Nurushev, S B; Odyniec, G; Ogawa, A; Okada, H; Okorokov, V; Olson, D; Pachr, M; Page, B S; Pal, S K; Pandit, Y; Panebratsev, Y; Pawlak, T; Peitzmann, T; Perevoztchikov, V; Perkins, C; Peryt, W; Phatak, S C; Pile, P; Planinic, M; Ploskon, M A; Pluta, J; Plyku, D; Poljak, N; Poskanzer, A M; Potukuchi, B V K S; Powell, C B; Prindle, D; Pruneau, C; Pruthi, N K; Pujahari, P R; Putschke, J; Raniwala, R; Raniwala, S; Ray, R L; Redwine, R; Reed, R; Rehberg, J M; Ritter, H G; Roberts, J B; Rogachevskiy, O V; Romero, J L; Rose, A; Roy, C; Ruan, L; Sahoo, R; Sakai, S; Sakrejda, I; Sakuma, T; Salur, S; Sandweiss, J; Sangaline, E; Schambach, J; Scharenberg, R P; Schmitz, N; Schuster, T R; Seele, J; Seger, J; Selyuzhenkov, I; Seyboth, P; Shahaliev, E; Shao, M; Sharma, M; Shi, S S; Sichtermann, E P; Simon, F; Singaraju, R N; Skoby, M J; Smirnov, N; Sorensen, P; Sowinski, J; Spinka, H M; Srivastava, B; Stanislaus, T D S; Staszak, D; Stevens, J R; Stock, R; Strikhanov, M; Stringfellow, B; Suaide, A A P; Suarez, M C; Subba, N L; Sumbera, M; Sun, X M; Sun, Y; Sun, Z; Surrow, B; Symons, T J M; Szanto de Toledo, A; Takahashi, J; Tang, A H; Tang, Z; Tarini, L H; Tarnowsky, T; Thein, D; Thomas, J H; Tian, J; Timmins, A R; Timoshenko, S; Tlusty, D; Tokarev, M; Tram, V N; Trentalange, S; Tribble, R E; Tsai, O D; Ulery, J; Ullrich, T; Underwood, D G; Van Buren, G; van Nieuwenhuizen, G; van Leeuwen, M; Vanfossen, J A; Varma, R; Vasconcelos, G M S; Vasiliev, A N; Videbæk, F; Viyogi, Y P; Vokal, S; Wada, M; Walker, M; Wang, F; Wang, G; Wang, H; Wang, J S; Wang, Q; Wang, X; Wang, X L; Wang, Y; Webb, G; Webb, J C; Westfall, G D; Whitten, C; Wieman, H; Wingfield, E; Wissink, S W; Witt, R; Wu, Y; Xie, W; Xu, N; Xu, Q H; Xu, W; Xu, Y; Xu, Z; Xue, L; Yang, Y; Yepes, P; Yip, K; Yoo, I-K; Yue, Q; Zawisza, M; Zbroszczyk, H; Zhan, W; Zhang, S; Zhang, W M; Zhang, X P; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, J; Zhong, C; Zhou, J; Zhou, W; Zhu, X; Zhu, Y-H; Zoulkarneev, R; Zoulkarneeva, Y



Three-Particle Coincidence of the Long Range Pseudorapidity Correlation in High Energy Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the first three-particle coincidence measurement in pseudorapidity (??) between a high transverse momentum (p?) trigger particle and two lower p? associated particles within azimuth |??|<0.7 in sNN=200GeV d+Au and Au+Au collisions. Charge ordering properties are exploited to separate the jetlike component and the ridge (long range ?? correlation). The results indicate that the correlation of ridge particles are uniform not only with respect to the trigger particle but also between themselves event by event in our measured ??. In addition, the production of the ridge appears to be uncorrelated to the presence of the narrow jetlike component.

Abelev, B. I.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Ahammed, Z.; Alakhverdyants, A. V.; Anderson, B. D.; Arkhipkin, D.; Averichev, G. S.; Balewski, J.; Barannikova, O.; Barnby, L. S.; Baumgart, S.; Beavis, D. R.; Bellwied, R.; Betancourt, M. J.; Betts, R. R.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A. K.; Bichsel, H.; Bielcik, J.; Bielcikova, J.; Biritz, B.; Bland, L. C.; Bnzarov, I.; Bonner, B. E.; Bouchet, J.; Braidot, E.; Brandin, A. V.; Bridgeman, A.; Bruna, E.; Bueltmann, S.; Burton, T. P.; Cai, X. Z.; Caines, H.; Calderón de La Barca Sánchez, M.; Catu, O.; Cebra, D.; Cendejas, R.; Cervantes, M. C.; Chajecki, Z.; Chaloupka, P.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen, H. F.; Chen, J. H.; Chen, J. Y.; Cheng, J.; Cherney, M.; Chikanian, A.; Choi, K. E.; Christie, W.; Chung, P.; Clarke, R. F.; Codrington, M. J. M.; Corliss, R.; Cramer, J. G.; Crawford, H. J.; Das, D.; Dash, S.; Davila Leyva, A.; de Silva, L. C.; Debbe, R. R.; Dedovich, T. G.; Dephillips, M.; Derevschikov, A. A.; Derradi de Souza, R.; Didenko, L.; Djawotho, P.; Dogra, S. M.; Dong, X.; Drachenberg, J. L.; Draper, J. E.; Dunlop, J. C.; Dutta Mazumdar, M. R.; Efimov, L. G.; Elhalhuli, E.; Elnimr, M.; Engelage, J.; Eppley, G.; Erazmus, B.; Estienne, M.; Eun, L.; Fachini, P.; Fatemi, R.; Fedorisin, J.; Fersch, R. G.; Filip, P.; Finch, E.; Fine, V.; Fisyak, Y.; Gagliardi, C. A.; Gangadharan, D. R.; Ganti, M. S.; Garcia-Solis, E. J.; Geromitsos, A.; Geurts, F.; Ghazikhanian, V.; Ghosh, P.; Gorbunov, Y. N.; Gordon, A.; Grebenyuk, O.; Grosnick, D.; Grube, B.; Guertin, S. M.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, N.; Guryn, W.; Haag, B.; Hallman, T. J.; Hamed, A.; Han, L.-X.; Harris, J. W.; Hays-Wehle, J. P.; Heinz, M.; Heppelmann, S.; Hirsch, A.; Hjort, E.; Hoffman, A. M.; Hoffmann, G. W.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Huang, H. Z.; Humanic, T. J.; Huo, L.; Igo, G.; Iordanova, A.; Jacobs, P.; Jacobs, W. W.; Jakl, P.; Jena, C.; Jin, F.; Jones, C. L.; Jones, P. G.; Joseph, J.; Judd, E. G.; Kabana, S.; Kajimoto, K.; Kang, K.; Kapitan, J.; Kauder, K.; Keane, D.; Kechechyan, A.; Kettler, D.; Khodyrev, V. Yu.; Kikola, D. P.; Kiryluk, J.; Kisiel, A.; Knospe, A. G.; Kocoloski, A.; Koetke, D. D.; Kollegger, T.; Konzer, J.; Kopytine, M.; Koralt, I.; Korsch, W.; Kotchenda, L.; Kouchpil, V.; Kravtsov, P.; Kravtsov, V. I.; Krueger, K.; Krus, M.; Kumar, L.; Kurnadi, P.; Lamont, M. A. C.; Landgraf, J. M.; Lapointe, S.; Lauret, J.; Lebedev, A.; Lednicky, R.; Lee, C.-H.; Lee, J. H.; Leight, W.; Levine, M. J.; Li, C.; Li, L.; Li, N.; Li, W.; Li, X.; Li, X.; Li, Y.; Li, Z.; Lin, G.; Lindenbaum, S. J.; Lisa, M. A.; Liu, F.; Liu, H.; Liu, J.; Ljubicic, T.; Llope, W. J.; Longacre, R. S.; Love, W. A.; Lu, Y.; Ludlam, T.; Ma, G. L.; Ma, Y. G.; Mahapatra, D. P.; Majka, R.; Mall, O. I.; Mangotra, L. K.; Manweiler, R.; Margetis, S.; Markert, C.; Masui, H.; Matis, H. S.; Matulenko, Yu. A.; McDonald, D.; McShane, T. S.; Meschanin, A.; Milner, R.; Minaev, N. G.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mischke, A.; Mitrovski, M. K.; Mohanty, B.; Morozov, D. A.; Munhoz, M. G.; Nandi, B. K.; Nattrass, C.; Nayak, T. K.; Nelson, J. M.; Netrakanti, P. K.; Ng, M. J.; Nogach, L. V.; Nurushev, S. B.; Odyniec, G.; Ogawa, A.; Okada, H.; Okorokov, V.; Olson, D.; Pachr, M.; Page, B. S.; Pal, S. K.; Pandit, Y.; Panebratsev, Y.; Pawlak, T.; Peitzmann, T.; Perevoztchikov, V.; Perkins, C.; Peryt, W.; Phatak, S. C.; Pile, P.; Planinic, M.; Ploskon, M. A.; Pluta, J.; Plyku, D.; Poljak, N.; Poskanzer, A. M.; Potukuchi, B. V. K. S.; Powell, C. B.; Prindle, D.; Pruneau, C.; Pruthi, N. K.; Pujahari, P. R.; Putschke, J.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Ray, R. L.; Redwine, R.; Reed, R.; Rehberg, J. M.; Ritter, H. G.; Roberts, J. B.; Rogachevskiy, O. V.; Romero, J. L.; Rose, A.; Roy, C.; Ruan, L.; Sahoo, R.; Sakai, S.; Sakrejda, I.; Sakuma, T.; Salur, S.; Sandweiss, J.; Sangaline, E.; Schambach, J.; Scharenberg, R. P.; Schmitz, N.; Schuster, T. R.; Seele, J.; Seger, J.; Selyuzhenkov, I.; Seyboth, P.; Shahaliev, E.; Shao, M.; Sharma, M.; Shi, S. S.; Sichtermann, E. P.; Simon, F.; Singaraju, R. N.; Skoby, M. J.; Smirnov, N.; Sorensen, P.; Sowinski, J.; Spinka, H. M.; Srivastava, B.; Stanislaus, T. D. S.; Staszak, D.; Stevens, J. R.; Stock, R.; Strikhanov, M.; Stringfellow, B.; Suaide, A. A. P.; Suarez, M. C.; Subba, N. L.; Sumbera, M.; Sun, X. M.; Sun, Y.; Sun, Z.; Surrow, B.; Symons, T. J. M.; Szanto de Toledo, A.; Takahashi, J.; Tang, A. H.; Tang, Z.; Tarini, L. H.; Tarnowsky, T.; Thein, D.; Thomas, J. H.; Tian, J.; Timmins, A. R.; Timoshenko, S.; Tlusty, D.; Tokarev, M.; Tram, V. N.; Trentalange, S.; Tribble, R. E.; Tsai, O. D.; Ulery, J.; Ullrich, T.; Underwood, D. G.; van Buren, G.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G.; van Leeuwen, M.; Vanfossen, J. A., Jr.; Varma, R.; Vasconcelos, G. M. S.; Vasiliev, A. N.; Videbæk, F.; Viyogi, Y. P.; Vokal, S.; Wada, M.; Walker, M.; Wang, F.; Wang, G.



Stopping powers and cross sections due to two-photon processes in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collision  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The radiation dose received from high energy galactic cosmic rays (GCR) is a limiting factor in the design of long duration space flights and the building of lunar and martian habitats. It is of vital importance to have an accurate understanding of the interactions of GCR in order to assess the radiation environment that the astronauts will be exposed to. Although previous studies have concentrated on the strong interaction process in GCR, there are also very large effects due to electromagnetic (EM) interactions. In this report we describe our first efforts at understanding these EM production processes due to two-photon collisions. More specifically, we shall consider particle production processes in relativistic heavy ion collisions (RHICs) through two-photon exchange.

Cheung, Wang K.; Norbury, John W.



Physical Properties and Biological Activity of Poly(butyl acrylate–styrene) Nanoparticle Emulsions Prepared with Conventional and Polymerizable Surfactants  

PubMed Central

Recent efforts in our laboratory have explored the use of polyacrylate nanoparticles in aqueous media as stable emulsions for potential applications in treating drug-resistant bacterial infections. These emulsions are made by emulsion polymerization of acrylated antibiotic compounds in a mixture of butyl acrylate and styrene (7:3 w:w) using sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as a surfactant. Prior work in our group established that the emulsions required purification to remove toxicity associated with extraneous surfactant present in the media. This paper summarizes our investigations of poly(butyl acrylate-styrene) emulsions made using anionic, cationic, zwitterionic, and non-charged (amphiphilic) surfactants, as well as attachable surfactant monomers (surfmers), comparing the cytotoxicity and microbiological activity levels of the emulsion both before and after purification. Our results show that the attachment of a polymerizable surfmer onto the matrix of the nanoparticle neither improves nor diminishes cytotoxic or antibacterial effects of the emulsion, regardless of whether the emulsions are purified or not, and that the optimal properties are associated with the use of the non-ionic surfactants versus those carrying anionic, cationic, or zwitterionic charge. Incorporation of an N-thiolated ?-lactam antibacterial agent onto the nanoparticle matrix via covalent attachment endows the emulsion with antibiotic properties against pathogenic bacteria such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), without changing the physical properties of the nanoparticles or their emulsions. PMID:19523413

Garay-Jimenez, Julio C.; Gergeres, Danielle; Young, Ashley; Dickey, Sonja; Lim, Daniel V.; Turos, Edward



Optimization of perfluoro nano-scale emulsions: the importance of particle size for enhanced oxygen transfer in biomedical applications.  


Nano-scale emulsification has long been utilized by the food and cosmetics industry to maximize material delivery through increased surface area to volume ratios. More recently, these methods have been employed in the area of biomedical research to enhance and control the delivery of desired agents, as in perfluorocarbon emulsions for oxygen delivery. In this work, we evaluate critical factors for the optimization of PFC emulsions for use in cell-based applications. Cytotoxicity screening revealed minimal cytotoxicity of components, with the exception of one perfluorocarbon utilized for emulsion manufacture, perfluorooctylbromide (PFOB), and specific w% limitations of PEG-based surfactants utilized. We optimized the manufacture of stable nano-scale emulsions via evaluation of: component materials, emulsification time and pressure, and resulting particle size and temporal stability. The initial emulsion size was greatly dependent upon the emulsion surfactant tested, with pluronics providing the smallest size. Temporal stability of the nano-scale emulsions was directly related to the perfluorocarbon utilized, with perfluorotributylamine, FC-43, providing a highly stable emulsion, while perfluorodecalin, PFD, coalesced over time. The oxygen mass transfer, or diffusive permeability, of the resulting emulsions was also characterized. Our studies found particle size to be the critical factor affecting oxygen mass transfer, as increased micelle size resulted in reduced oxygen diffusion. Overall, this work demonstrates the importance of accurate characterization of emulsification parameters in order to generate stable, reproducible emulsions with the desired bio-delivery properties. PMID:22652356

Fraker, Christopher A; Mendez, Armando J; Inverardi, Luca; Ricordi, Camillo; Stabler, Cherie L