Sample records for emulsion experiment nucleus-nucleus

  1. Large area emulsion chamber experiments for the Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parnell, T. A.

    1985-01-01

    Emulsion-chamber experiments employing nuclear-track emulsions, etchable plastic detectors, metal plates, and X-ray films continue to demonstrate high productivity and potential in the study of cosmic-ray primaries and their interactions. Emulsions, with unsurpassed track-recording capability, provide an appropriate medium for the study of nucleus-nucleus interactions at high energy, which will likely produce observations of a phase change in nuclear matter. The many advantages of emulsion chambers (excellent multitrack recording capability, large geometry factor, low apparatus cost, simplicity of design and construction) are complemented by the major advantages of the Space Shuttle as an experiment carrier. A Shuttle experiment which could make a significant advance in both cosmic-ray primary and nucleus-nucleus interaction studies is described. Such an experiment would serve as a guide for use of emulsions during the Space Station era. Some practical factors that must be considered in planning a Shuttle exposure of emulsion chambers are discussed.

  2. Nucleus-nucleus collisions at relativistic energies: The CERN WA80 experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Plasil, F.; Albrecht, R.; Awes, T.C.; Baktash, C.; Beckmann, P.; Berger, F.; Bock, R.; Claesson, G.; Dragon, L.; Ferguson, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    QCD lattice calculations predict that, at sufficiently high energy densities, hadronic matter undergoes a transition to a new phase of matter, the quark-gluon plasma, in which quarks and gluons are deconfined over a relatively large volume. It has been suggested that collisions between heavy nuclei at ultrarelativistic energies may produce the energy densities, estimated to be greater than 2 to 3 GeV/fm/sup 3/, necessary for this phase transition to occur. An important goal of the first experiments with ultrarelativistic heavy-ion beams at the SPS accelerator at CERN is to investigate the extent to which this suggestion is correct. The primary experimental quantity used for estimating the energy density is the transverse energy, E/sub T/. We present here energies measured at zero degrees, together with transverse energy measurements. Estimates of attained energy densities and preliminary transverse momentum distributions of neutral products are also presented. 24 refs., 7 figs.

  3. Strangeness production in nucleus-nucleus collisions: Experimental summary

    SciTech Connect

    Odyniec, G.

    1989-02-01

    Rather than attempt to give a complete review of strangeness production in all kinds of experiments, I will dwell on the most interesting and promising aspects of the experimental results from nucleus-nucleus (A + A) experiments, using p + p//bar p/ + p and p + A//bar p/ + A data only as reference when needed. In this paper I will try: to identify the important features of the reaction mechanism; to understand the mechanisms; to learn about quark-gluon plasma formation by comparing nucleus-nucleus collisions with p-nucleus, /bar p/-nucleus, p + p and /bar p/ + p collisions; to see if there is any definite evidence yet supporting quark-gluon plasma formation; and to suggest further needs for experimental and theoretical study. 32 refs., 8 figs.

  4. BFKL Pomeron calculus: nucleus-nucleus scattering

    E-print Network

    Carlos Contreras; Eugene Levin; Jeremy S. Miller

    2011-12-19

    In this paper the action of the BFKL Pomeron calculus is re-written in momentum representation, and the equations of motion for nucleus-nucleus collisions are derived, in this representation. We found the semi-classical solutions to these equations, outside of the saturation domain. Inside this domain these equations reduce to the set of delay differential equations, and their asymptotic solutions are derived.

  5. Transverse Energy in nucleus-nucleus collisions: A review

    SciTech Connect

    Tincknell, M.

    1988-11-15

    The status of Transverse Energy (E/sub T/) in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions at the Brookhaven AGS and the CERN SPS is reviewed. The definition of E/sub T/ and its physical significance are discussed. The basic techniques and limitations of the experimental measurements are presented. The acceptances of the major experiments to be discussed are shown, along with remarks about their idiosyncrasies. The data demonstrate that the nuclear geometry of colliding spheres primarily determines the shapes of the observed spectra. Careful account of the acceptances is crucial to comparing and interpreting results. It is concluded that nuclear stopping power is high, and that the amount of energy deposited into the interaction volume is increasing with beam energy even at SPS energies. The energy densities believed to be obtained at the SPS are close to the critical values predicted for the onset of a quark-gluon plasma. 25 refs., 8 figs.

  6. The emulsion chamber technology experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, John C.

    1992-01-01

    Photographic emulsion has the unique property of recording tracks of ionizing particles with a spatial precision of 1 micron, while also being capable of deployment over detector areas of square meters or 10's of square meters. Detectors are passive, their cost to fly in Space is a fraction of that of instruments of similar collecting. A major problem in their continued use has been the labor intensiveness of data retrieval by traditional microscope methods. Two factors changing the acceptability of emulsion technology in space are the astronomical costs of flying large electronic instruments such as ionization calorimeters in Space, and the power and low cost of computers, a small revolution in the laboratory microscope data-taking. Our group at UAH made measurements of the high energy composition and spectra of cosmic rays. The Marshall group has also specialized in space radiation dosimetry. Ionization calorimeters, using alternating layers of lead and photographic emulsion, to measure particle energies up to 10(exp 15) eV were developed. Ten balloon flights were performed with them. No such calorimeters have ever flown in orbit. In the ECT program, a small emulsion chamber was developed and will be flown on the Shuttle mission OAST-2 to resolve the principal technological questions concerning space exposures. These include assessments of: (1) pre-flight and orbital exposure to background radiation, including both self-shielding and secondary particle generation; the practical limit to exposure time in space can then be determined; (2) dynamics of stack to optimize design for launch and weightlessness; and (3) thermal and vacuum constraints on emulsion performance. All these effects are cumulative and affect our ability to perform scientific measurements but cannot be adequately predicted by available methods.

  7. Nuclear rainbow scattering and nucleus-nucleus potential

    E-print Network

    Dao T. Khoa; W. von Oertzen; H. G. Bohlen; S. Ohkubo

    2006-12-21

    Elastic scattering of alpha-particle and some tightly-bound light nuclei has shown the pattern of rainbow scattering at medium energies, which is due to the refraction of the incident wave by a strongly attractive nucleus-nucleus potential. This review gives an introduction to the physics of the nuclear rainbow based essentially on the optical model description of the elastic scattering. Since the realistic nucleus-nucleus optical potential (OP) is the key to explore this interesting process, an overview of the main methods used to determine the nucleus-nucleus OP is presented. The refractive rainbow-like structures observed in other quasi-elastic scattering reactions have also been discussed. Some evidences for the refractive effect in the elastic scattering of unstable nuclei are presented and perspectives for the future studies are discussed.

  8. Nucleus-nucleus potential with shell-correction contribution

    E-print Network

    Denisov, V Yu

    2015-01-01

    The full relaxed-density potential between spherical nuclei is considered as a sum of the macroscopic and shell-correction contributions. The macroscopic part of the potential is related to a nucleus-nucleus potential obtained in the framework of the extended Thomas-Fermi approach with the Skyrme and Coulomb forces and the relaxed-density ansatz for evaluation of proton and neutron densities of interacting nuclei. A simple prescription for the shell-correction part of the total potential is discussed. The parameters of the shell-correction and macroscopic parts of the relaxed-density potential are found by fitting the empirical barrier heights of the 89 nucleus-nucleus systems as well as macroscopic potentials evaluated for 1485 nucleus-nucleus systems at 12 distances around touching points.

  9. Nucleus-nucleus potential with shell-correction contribution

    E-print Network

    V. Yu. Denisov

    2015-02-04

    The full relaxed-density potential between spherical nuclei is considered as a sum of the macroscopic and shell-correction contributions. The macroscopic part of the potential is related to a nucleus-nucleus potential obtained in the framework of the extended Thomas-Fermi approach with the Skyrme and Coulomb forces and the relaxed-density ansatz for evaluation of proton and neutron densities of interacting nuclei. A simple prescription for the shell-correction part of the total potential is discussed. The parameters of the shell-correction and macroscopic parts of the relaxed-density potential are found by fitting the empirical barrier heights of the 89 nucleus-nucleus systems as well as macroscopic potentials evaluated for 1485 nucleus-nucleus systems at 12 distances around touching points.

  10. Nonlocal Description of the Nucleus-Nucleus Interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Chamon, L.C.; Pereira, D.; Hussein, M.S. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, C.P.66318, 05315-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)] [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, C.P.66318, 05315-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Candido Ribeiro, M.A. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, 1150 University Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)] [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, 1150 University Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Galetti, D. [Instituto de Fisica Teorica, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Rua Pamplona 145, 01405-900 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)] [Instituto de Fisica Teorica, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Rua Pamplona 145, 01405-900 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1997-12-01

    A parameter-free nonlocal double-folding-inspired interaction is proposed for the nucleus-nucleus systems. Excellent reproductions of elastic scattering differential cross section data were obtained for several systems over a wide range of bombarding energies. Our results should be of value in the description of the scattering of other many-body systems. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  11. Nonlocal effects in the nucleus-nucleus fusion cross section

    SciTech Connect

    Galetti, D.; Candido Ribeiro, M.A. (Instituto de Fisica Teorica, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Rua Pamplona 145, CEP 01405, Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil))

    1994-10-01

    Effects of the nonlocality of factorizable potentials are taken into account in the calculation of nucleus-nucleus fusion cross section through an effective mass approach. This cross section makes use of the tunneling factor calculated for the nonlocal barrier, without the explicit introduction of any result coming from coupled channel calculation, besides the approximations of Hill-Wheeler and Wong. Its new expression embodies the nonlocal effects in a factor which redefines the local potential barrier curvature. Applications to different systems, namely, [sup 16]O+[sup 59]Co, [sup 16,18]O+[sup 58,60,64]Ni, and [sup 16,18]O+[sup 63,65]Cu are presented, where the nonlocal range is treated as a free parameter.

  12. Study of multiplicity correlations in nucleus-nucleus interactions at high energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohery, M.; Sultan, E. M.; Baz, Shadiah S.

    2015-06-01

    In the present paper, some results on the correlations of the nucleus-nucleus interactions, at high energy, between different particle multiplicities are reported. The correlations between the multiplicities of the different charged particles emitted in the interactions of 22Ne and 28Si nuclei with emulsion at (4.1-4.5)A GeV/c have been studied. The correlations of the compound multiplicity nc, defined as the sum of both numbers of the shower particles ns and grey particles ng, have been investigated. The experimental data have been compared with the corresponding theoretical ones, calculated according to the modified cascade evaporation model (MCEM). An agreement has already been fairly obtained between the experimental values and the calculated ones. The dependence of the average compound multiplicity, on the numbers of shower, grey, black and heavy particles is obvious and the values of the slope have been found to be independent of the projectile nucleus. On the other hand, the variation of the average shower, grey, black and heavy particles is found to increase linearly with the compound particles. A strong correlation has been observed between the number of produced shower particles and the number of compound particles. Moreover, the value of the average compound multiplicity is found to increase with the increase of the projectile mass. Finally, an attempt has also been made to study the scaling of the compound multiplicity distribution showing that the compound multiplicity distribution is nearly consistent with the KNO scaling behavior.

  13. CASTOR: The ALICE forward detector for identification of Centauros and Strangelets in Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions at the LHC

    E-print Network

    A. L. S. Angelis; J. Bartke; M. Yu. Bogolyubsky; S. N. Filippov; E. Gladysz-Dziadus; Yu. V. Kharlov; A. B. Kurepin; A. I. Maevskaya; G. Mavromanolakis; A. D. Panagiotou; S. A. Sadovsky; P. Stefanski; Z. Wlodarczyk

    1999-01-28

    The physics motivation for a very forward detector for the ALICE heavy ion experiment at the CERN LHC is discussed. A phenomenological model describing the formation and decay of a Centauro fireball in nucleus-nucleus collisions is presented. The CASTOR detector which is aimed to measure the hadronic and photonic content of an interaction and to identify deeply penetrating objects in the very forward, baryon-rich phase space 5.6 < eta < 7.2 in an event-by-event mode is described. Results of simulations of the expected response of the calorimeter, and in particular to the passage of strangelets, are presented.

  14. Japanese-American Cooperative Emulsion Experiment /JACEE/. [high energy cosmic ray studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huggett, R. W.; Hunter, S. D.; Jones, W. V.; Takahashi, Y.; Ogata, T.; Saito, T.; Holynski, R.; Jurak, A.; Wolter, W.; Parnell, T. A.

    1981-01-01

    The instrumentation and results of long duration balloon flights carried out jointly by U.S. and Japan researchers to examine high energy cosmic rays are reported. Basic detector geometries are 2.5 sq m sr with operation at altitudes with 3-4 g/sq cm pressure, with observations thus far of over 100 hr. Energies from 2-100 TeV are recorded for nucleus-nucleus and hadron-nucleus interactions, and searches are made for new particle or interactions. The detector is an emulsion chamber which comprises doubly-coated nuclear emulsions on 800 micron thick methacryl substrates, X-ray films, etchable detectors, low density spacers, and lead sheets. Segmentation of the instrument into a primary charge module, a target section, a spacer section, and a lead-emulsion calorimeter allows accurate charge measurement for primary nuclei, reliable energy resolution, and a large geometrical factor for collecting high energy events. A primary Ca nucleus of 300 TeV has been observed.

  15. Emulsion sheet doublets as interface trackers for the OPERA experiment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Anokhina; S. Aoki; A. Ariga; L. Arrabito; D. Autiero; A. Badertscher; F. Bay; F. Bersani Greggio; A. Bertolin; M. Besnier; D. Bick; C. Bozza; T. Brugiere; R. Brugnera; G. Brunetti; S. Buontempo; E. Carrara; A. Cazes; L. Chaussard; M. Chernyavsky; V. Chiarella; N. Chon-Sen; A. Chukanov; L. Consiglio; M. Cozzi; V. Cuha; F. Dal Corso; G. D'Amato; N. D'Ambrosio; G. DeLellis; Y. Déclais; M. DeSerio; F. Di Capua; D. Di Ferdinando; A. Di Giovanni; N. Di Marco; C. Di Troia; S. Dmitrievski; A. Dominjon; M. Dracos; D. Duchesneau; S. Dusini; J. Ebert; O. Egorov; R. Enikeev; A. Ereditato; L. S. Esposito; J. Favier; G. Felici; T. Ferber; R. Fini; D. Frekers; T. Fukuda; V. I. Galkin; V. A. Galkin; A. Garfagnini; G. Giacomelli; M. Giorgini; C. Goellnitz; J. Goldberg; D. Golubkov; Y. Gornushkin; G. Grella; F. Grianti; M. Guler; G. Gusev; C. Gustavino; C. Hagner; T. Hara; M. Hierholzer; S. Hiramatsu; K. Hoshino; M. Ieva; K. Jakovcic; J. Janicsko Csathy; B. Janutta; C. Jollet; F. Juget; T. Kawai; M. Kazuyama; S. H. Kim; J. Knuesel; K. Kodama; M. Komatsu; U. Kose; I. Kreslo; I. Laktineh; C. Lazzaro; J. Lenkeit; A. Ljubicic; A. Longhin; G. Lutter; K. Manai; G. Mandrioli; A. Marotta; J. Marteau; T. Matsuo; H. Matsuoka; N. Mauri; F. Meisel; A. Meregaglia; M. Messina; P. Migliozzi; S. Mikado; S. Miyamoto; P. Monacelli; K. Morishima; U. Moser; M. T. Muciaccia; N. Naganawa; T. Nakano; M. Nakamura; T. Nakamura; V. Nikitina; K. Niwa; Y. Nonoyama; S. Ogawa; V. Osedlo; D. Ossetski; A. Paoloni; B. D. Park; I. G. Park; A. Pastore; L. Patrizii; E. Pennacchio; H. Pessard; V. Pilipenko; C. Pistillo; N. Polukhina; M. Pozzato; K. Pretzl; P. Publichenko; F. Pupilli; T. Roganova; G. Rosa; I. Rostovtseva; A. Rubbia; A. Russo; O. Ryazhskaya; D. Ryzhikov; O. Sato; Y. Sato; V. Saveliev; G. Sazhina; A. Schembri; L. Scotto Lavina; H. Shibuya; S. Simone; M. Sioli; C. Sirignano; G. Sirri; J. S. Song; M. Spinetti; L. Stanco; N. Starkov; M. Stipcevic; T. Strauss; P. Strolin; V. Sugonyaev; Y. Taira; S. Takahashi; M. Tenti; F. Terranova; I. Tezuka; V. Tioukov; P. Tolun; V. Tsarev; S. Tufanli; N. Ushida; P. Vilain; M. Vladimirov; L. Votano; J. L. Vuilleumier; G. Wilquet; B. Wonsak; C. S. Yoon; J. Yoshida; Y. Zaitsev; S. Zemskova; A. Zghiche; R. Zimmermann

    2008-01-01

    New methods for efficient and unambiguous interconnection between electronic position sensitive detectors and target units based on nuclear photographic emulsion films have been developed. The application to the OPERA experiment, that aims at detecting numurightleftharpoonsnutau oscillations in the CNGS neutrino beam, is reported in this paper. In order to reduce background due to latent tracks collected before installation in the

  16. Collision dynamics and particle production in relativistic nucleus- nucleus collisions at CERN

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, J.W.

    1990-03-01

    The possibility of forming a quark-gluon plasma is the primary motivation for studying nucleus-nucleus collisions at very high energies. Various signatures'' for the existence of a quark-gluon plasma in these collisions have been proposed. These include an enhancement in the production of strange particles, suppression of J/{Psi} production, observation of direct photons from the plasma, event-by-event fluctuations in the rapidity distributions of produced particles, and various other observables. However, the system will evolve dynamically from a pure plasma or mixed phase through expansion, cooling, hadronization and freezeout into the final state particles. Therefore, to be able to determine that a new, transient state of matter has been formed it will be necessary to understand the space-time evolution of the collision process and the microscopic structure of hadronic interactions, at the level of quarks and gluons, at high temperatures and densities. In this talk I will review briefly the present state of our understanding of the dynamics of these collisions and, in addition, present a few recent results on particle production from the NA35 experiment at CERN. 21 refs., 5 figs.

  17. BFKL Pomeron calculus: solution to equations for nucleus-nucleus scattering in the saturation domain

    E-print Network

    Carlos Contreras; Eugene Levin; Rodrigo Meneses

    2013-02-01

    In this paper we solve the equation for nucleus-nucleus scattering in the BFKL Pomeron calculus, suggested by Braun. We find these solutions analytically at high energies as well as numerically in the entire region of energies inside the saturation region. The semi-classical approximation is used to select out the infinite set of the parasite solutions. The nucleus-nucleus cross sections at high energy are estimated and compared with the Glauber-Gribov approach. It turns out that the exact formula gives the estimates that are very close to the ones based on Glauber-Gribov formula which is important for the practical applications

  18. Nucleus-nucleus cross-sections and long-range correlations with a local supercritical pomeron

    E-print Network

    M. A. Braun

    2007-11-21

    Nucleus-nucleus scattering is studied in the local Reggeon Field Theory in the quasi-classical approximation with non-eikonal boundary conditions corresponding to the Glauber picture at low energies. Comparison with the commonly used eikonal boundary conditions shows that the new conditions make both the action and nucleus-nucleus total cross-sections lower by $3\\div 5$ %. They also substantially change the behaviour of the solutions of the equations of motion at low energies. Using expressions for the double inclusive cross-sections derived earlier in the Reggeon Field Theory \\cite{CM} long-range rapidity correlations are calculated for the RHIC and LHC energies.

  19. Emulsion sheet doublets as interface trackers for the OPERA experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anokhina, A.; Aoki, S.; Ariga, A.; Arrabito, L.; Autiero, D.; Badertscher, A.; Bay, F.; Bersani Greggio, F.; Bertolin, A.; Besnier, M.; Bick, D.; Bozza, C.; Brugiere, T.; Brugnera, R.; Brunetti, G.; Buontempo, S.; Carrara, E.; Cazes, A.; Chaussard, L.; Chernyavsky, M.; Chiarella, V.; Chon-Sen, N.; Chukanov, A.; Consiglio, L.; Cozzi, M.; Cuha, V.; Dal Corso, F.; D'Amato, G.; D'Ambrosio, N.; DeLellis, G.; Déclais, Y.; DeSerio, M.; Di Capua, F.; Di Ferdinando, D.; Di Giovanni, A.; Di Marco, N.; Di Troia, C.; Dmitrievski, S.; Dominjon, A.; Dracos, M.; Duchesneau, D.; Dusini, S.; Ebert, J.; Egorov, O.; Enikeev, R.; Ereditato, A.; Esposito, L. S.; Favier, J.; Felici, G.; Ferber, T.; Fini, R.; Frekers, D.; Fukuda, T.; Galkin, V. I.; Galkin, V. A.; Garfagnini, A.; Giacomelli, G.; Giorgini, M.; Goellnitz, C.; Goldberg, J.; Golubkov, D.; Gornushkin, Y.; Grella, G.; Grianti, F.; Guler, M.; Gusev, G.; Gustavino, C.; Hagner, C.; Hara, T.; Hierholzer, M.; Hiramatsu, S.; Hoshino, K.; Ieva, M.; Jakovcic, K.; Janicsko Csathy, J.; Janutta, B.; Jollet, C.; Juget, F.; Kawai, T.; Kazuyama, M.; Kim, S. H.; Knuesel, J.; Kodama, K.; Komatsu, M.; Kose, U.; Kreslo, I.; Laktineh, I.; Lazzaro, C.; Lenkeit, J.; Ljubicic, A.; Longhin, A.; Lutter, G.; Manai, K.; Mandrioli, G.; Marotta, A.; Marteau, J.; Matsuo, T.; Matsuoka, H.; Mauri, N.; Meisel, F.; Meregaglia, A.; Messina, M.; Migliozzi, P.; Mikado, S.; Miyamoto, S.; Monacelli, P.; Morishima, K.; Moser, U.; Muciaccia, M. T.; Naganawa, N.; Naka, T.; Nakamura, M.; Nakamura, T.; Nakano, T.; Nikitina, V.; Niwa, K.; Nonoyama, Y.; Ogawa, S.; Osedlo, V.; Ossetski, D.; Paoloni, A.; Park, B. D.; Park, I. G.; Pastore, A.; Patrizii, L.; Pennacchio, E.; Pessard, H.; Pilipenko, V.; Pistillo, C.; Polukhina, N.; Pozzato, M.; Pretzl, K.; Publichenko, P.; Pupilli, F.; Roganova, T.; Rosa, G.; Rostovtseva, I.; Rubbia, A.; Russo, A.; Ryazhskaya, O.; Ryzhikov, D.; Sato, O.; Sato, Y.; Saveliev, V.; Sazhina, G.; Schembri, A.; Scotto Lavina, L.; Shibuya, H.; Simone, S.; Sioli, M.; Sirignano, C.; Sirri, G.; Song, J. S.; Spinetti, M.; Stanco, L.; Starkov, N.; Stipcevic, M.; Strauss, T.; Strolin, P.; Sugonyaev, V.; Taira, Y.; Takahashi, S.; Tenti, M.; Terranova, F.; Tezuka, I.; Tioukov, V.; Tolun, P.; Tsarev, V.; Tufanli, S.; Ushida, N.; Vilain, P.; Vladimirov, M.; Votano, L.; Vuilleumier, J. L.; Wilquet, G.; Wonsak, B.; Yoon, C. S.; Yoshida, J.; Zaitsev, Y.; Zemskova, S.; Zghiche, A.; Zimmermann, R.

    2008-07-01

    New methods for efficient and unambiguous interconnection between electronic position sensitive detectors and target units based on nuclear photographic emulsion films have been developed. The application to the OPERA experiment, that aims at detecting ??rightleftharpoons?? oscillations in the CNGS neutrino beam, is reported in this paper. In order to reduce background due to latent tracks collected before installation in the detector, on-site large-scale treatments of the emulsions (''refreshing'') have been applied. Changeable Sheet (CSd) packages, each made of a doublet of emulsion films, have been designed, assembled and coupled to the OPERA target units (''ECC bricks''). A device has been built to print X-ray spots for accurate interconnection both within the CSd and between the CSd and the related ECC brick. Sample emulsion films have been extensively scanned with state-of-the-art automated optical microscopes. Efficient track-matching and powerful background rejection have been achieved in tests with electronically tagged penetrating muons. Further improvement of in-doublet film alignment was obtained by matching the pattern of low-energy electron tracks. The commissioning of the overall OPERA alignment procedure is in progress.

  20. Dissipation and fluctuation of the relative momentum in nucleus-nucleus collisions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Feldmeier; H. Spangenberger

    1985-01-01

    The dissipation of the relative momentum in nucleus-nucleus collisions is treated in terms of a Langevin equation with a fluctuating force. Equations of motion for first and second moments of the macroscopic variables are derived directly from the Langevin equation. The properties of the fluctuating force which results from random particle exchange are investigated in detail. Drift and diffusion coefficients

  1. Skylab experiment performance evaluation manual. Appendix K: Experiment S009 nuclear emulsion (MSFC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyers, J. E.

    1972-01-01

    A series of analyses are presented for Experiment S009, nuclear emulsion (MSFC), to be used for evaluating the performance of the Skylab corollary experiments under preflight, inflight, and postflight conditions. Experiment contingency plan workaround procedure and malfunction analyses are included in order to assist in making the experiment operationally successful.

  2. Nonequilibrium distribution functions of nucleons in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions

    E-print Network

    Anchishkin, D; Cleymans, J; 10.5488/CMP.16.13201

    2013-01-01

    The collision smearing of the nucleon momenta about their initial values during relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions is investigated. To a certain degree, our model belongs to the transport type, and we investigate the evolution of the nucleon system created at a nucleus-nucleus collision. However, we parameterize this development by the number of collisions of every particle during evolution rather than by the time variable. It is assumed that the group of nucleons which leave the system after the same number of collisions can be joined in a particular statistical ensemble. The nucleon nonequilibrium distribution functions, which depend on a certain number of collisions of a nucleon before freeze-out, are derived.

  3. Nonequilibrium distribution functions of nucleons in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions

    E-print Network

    D. Anchishkin; V. Naboka; J. Cleymans

    2013-03-25

    The collision smearing of the nucleon momenta about their initial values during relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions is investigated. To a certain degree, our model belongs to the transport type, and we investigate the evolution of the nucleon system created at a nucleus-nucleus collision. However, we parameterize this development by the number of collisions of every particle during evolution rather than by the time variable. It is assumed that the group of nucleons which leave the system after the same number of collisions can be joined in a particular statistical ensemble. The nucleon nonequilibrium distribution functions, which depend on a certain number of collisions of a nucleon before freeze-out, are derived.

  4. Systematic investigation of scaled factorial cumulant moments for nucleus-nucleus interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Adamovich, M.I.; Aggarwal, M.M.; Alexandrov, Y.A.; Andreeva, N.P.; Anson, Z.V.; Arora, R.; Avetyan, F.A.; Badyal, S.K.; Basova, E.; Bazarov, I.K.; Bhalla, K.B.; Bhasin, A.; Bhatia, V.S.; Bogdanov, V.G.; Bubnov, V.I.; Burnett, T.H.; Cai, X.; Carshiev, D.A.; Chasnicov, I.Y.; Chernova, L.P.; Chernyavski, M.M.; Eligbaeva, G.Z.; Eremenko, L.E.; Gaitinov, A.S.; Ganssauge, E.R.; Garpman, S.; Gerassimov, S.G.; Grote, J.G.; Gulamov, K.G.; Gupta, S.K.; Gupta, V.K.; Heckman, H.H.; Huang, H.; Jacobsson, B.; Judek, B.; Kachroo, S.; Kalyachkina, G.S.; Kanygina, E.K.; Karabova, M.; Kharlamov, S.P.; Kitroo, S.; Koss, T.; Krasnov, S.A.; Kumar, V.; Lal, P.; Larionova, V.G.; Lepetan, V.N.; Liu, L.S.; Lokanathan, S.; Lord, J.J.; Lukicheva, N.S.; Luo, S.B.; Mangotra, L.K.; Marutyan, N.A.; Maslennikova, N.V.; Mittra, I.S.; Mookerjee, S.; Nasyrov, S.Z.; Navotny, V.S.; Nystrand, J.; Orlova, G.I.; Otterlund, I.; Palsania, H.; Peresadko, N.G.; Petrov, N.V.; Plyuschev, V.A.; Qian, W.Y.; Qin, Y.M.; Raniwala, R.; (The EMU01 Collaboration)

    1993-05-01

    We use scaled factorial cumulant moments to analyze pseudorapidity fluctuations in nucleus-nucleus collisions. This approach is similar to the method of scaled factorial moments except that it removes the effects of lower-order correlations upon a given moment. Significant second-order cumulants and cumulant indices (slopes with respect to bin size) are found for all of the interactions studied. These indices are found to have an inverse dependence upon average pseudorapidity particle density.

  5. Systematic investigation of scaled factorial cumulant moments for nucleus-nucleus interactions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. I. Adamovich; M. M. Aggarwal; Y. A. Alexandrov; N. P. Andreeva; Z. V. Anson; R. Arora; F. A. Avetyan; S. K. Badyal; E. Basova; I. K. Bazarov; K. B. Bhalla; A. Bhasin; V. S. Bhatia; V. G. Bogdanov; V. I. Bubnov; T. H. Burnett; X. Cai; D. A. Carshiev; I. Y. Chasnicov; L. P. Chernova; M. M. Chernyavski; G. Z. Eligbaeva; L. E. Eremenko; A. S. Gaitinov; E. R. Ganssauge; S. Garpman; S. G. Gerassimov; J. G. Grote; K. G. Gulamov; S. K. Gupta; V. K. Gupta; H. H. Heckman; H. Huang; B. Jacobsson; B. Judek; S. Kachroo; G. S. Kalyachkina; E. K. Kanygina; M. Karabova; S. P. Kharlamov; S. Kitroo; T. Koss; S. A. Krasnov; V. Kumar; P. Lal; V. G. Larionova; V. N. Lepetan; L. S. Liu; S. Lokanathan; J. J. Lord; N. S. Lukicheva; S. B. Luo; L. K. Mangotra; N. A. Marutyan; N. V. Maslennikova; I. S. Mittra; S. Mookerjee; S. Z. Nasyrov; V. S. Navotny; J. Nystrand; G. I. Orlova; I. Otterlund; H. Palsania; N. G. Peresadko; N. V. Petrov; V. A. Plyuschev; W. Y. Qian; Y. M. Qin; R. Raniwala; S. Raniwala; N. K. Rao; V. M. Rappoport; J. T. Rhee; N. Saidkhanov; N. A. Salmanova; L. G. Sarkisova; V. R. Sarkisyan; G. S. Shabratova; T. I. Shakhova; S. N. Shpilev; D. Skelding; K. Soderstrom; Z. I. Solovieva; E. Stenlund; E. L. Surin; L. N. Svechnikova; K. D. Tolstov; M. I. Tretyakova; T. P. Trofimova; U. Tuleeva; B. P. Tursunov; S. Vokal; H. Q. Wang; Z. O. Weng; J. Wilkes; G. F. Xu; D. H. Zhang; P. Y. Zheng; S. I. Zhochova; J. C. Zhou; D. C. Zhou

    1993-01-01

    We use scaled factorial cumulant moments to analyze pseudorapidity fluctuations in nucleus-nucleus collisions. This approach is similar to the method of scaled factorial moments except that it removes the effects of lower-order correlations upon a given moment. Significant second-order cumulants and cumulant indices (slopes with respect to bin size) are found for all of the interactions studied. These indices are

  6. Subthreshold Antiproton Production in Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions

    E-print Network

    Ko, Che Ming; Xia, L. H.

    1989-01-01

    . In an expanding fireball model, we determine the p abundance from the fusion of pions and find that for collisions at 2. 1 GeV/nucleon the antiproton to negative pion ra- tio is = 5.5&10 and has a similar magnitude to that of the data. Recently, experiments... on this model can be found in Ref. 6 where it is used to study kaon production in heavy-ion collisions. In particular, p mesons are produced from the fireball via the fusion of two pions with the pro- duction rate calculated from the p meson width I ~ (153...

  7. Analysis of nucleus-nucleus collisions at high energies and random matrix theory

    SciTech Connect

    Nazmitdinov, R. G. [Departament de Fisica, Universitat de les Illes Balears, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, RU-141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Shahaliev, E. I. [High Energy Physics Laboratory, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, RU-141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Institute of Radiation Problems, 370143 Baku (Azerbaijan); Suleymanov, M. K. [High Energy Physics Laboratory, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, RU-141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Tomsovic, S. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik komplexer Systeme, Noethnitzer Strasse 38, D-01187 Dresden (Germany)

    2009-05-15

    We propose a novel statistical approach to the analysis of experimental data obtained in nucleus-nucleus collisions at high energies which borrows from methods developed within the context of random matrix theory. It is applied to the detection of correlations in a system of secondary particles. We find good agreement between the results obtained in this way and a standard analysis based on the method of effective mass spectra and two-pair correlation function often used in high energy physics. The method introduced here is free from unwanted background contributions.

  8. Superheavy element production, nucleus-nucleus potential and mu-catalysis

    E-print Network

    V. Yu. Denisov

    2003-10-06

    The semi-microscopic potential between heavy nuclei is evaluated for various colliding ions in the approach of frozen densities in the framework of the extended Thomas-Fermi approximation with hbar^2 correction terms in the kinetic energy density functional. The proton and neutron densities of each nucleus are obtained in the Hartree-Fock-BCS approximation with SkM* parameter set of the Skyrme force. A simple expression for the nuclear interaction potential between spherical nuclei is presented. It is shown that muon bound with light projectile induces the superheavy elements production in nucleus-nucleus collisions.

  9. Study on chemical equilibrium in nucleus-nucleus collisions at relativistic energies

    E-print Network

    Jaakko Manninen; Francesco Becattini; Antti Keranen; Marek Gazdzicki; Reinhard Stock

    2004-05-06

    We present a detailed study of chemical freeze-out in nucleus-nucleus collisions at beam energies of 11.6, 30, 40, 80 and 158A GeV. By analyzing hadronic multiplicities within the statistical hadronization approach, we have studied the chemical equilibration of the system as a function of center of mass energy and of the parameters of the source. Additionally, we have tested and compared different versions of the statistical model, with special emphasis on possible explanations of the observed strangeness hadronic phase space under-saturation.

  10. Jet Tomography of High-Energy Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions at Next-to-Leading Order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitev, Ivan; Zhang, Ben-Wei

    2010-04-01

    We demonstrate that jet observables are highly sensitive to the characteristics of the vacuum and the in-medium QCD parton showers and propose techniques that exploit this sensitivity to constrain the mechanism of quark and gluon energy loss in strongly interacting plasmas. As a first example, we calculate the inclusive jet cross section in high-energy nucleus-nucleus collisions to O(?s3). Theoretical predictions for the medium-induced jet broadening and the suppression of the jet production rate due to cold and hot nuclear matter effects in Au+Au and Cu+Cu reactions at RHIC are presented.

  11. Pion and Kaon Lab Frame Differential Cross Sections for Intermediate Energy Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, John W.; Blattnig, Steve R.

    2008-01-01

    Space radiation transport codes require accurate models for hadron production in intermediate energy nucleus-nucleus collisions. Codes require cross sections to be written in terms of lab frame variables and it is important to be able to verify models against experimental data in the lab frame. Several models are compared to lab frame data. It is found that models based on algebraic parameterizations are unable to describe intermediate energy differential cross section data. However, simple thermal model parameterizations, when appropriately transformed from the center of momentum to the lab frame, are able to account for the data.

  12. Subthreshold pion production from nucleus-nucleus collisions around 100 MeV/nucleon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badalá, A.; Barbera, R.; Palmeri, A.; Pappalardo, G. S.; Riggi, F.; Russo, A. C.

    1993-12-01

    Several global variables were tested with the aim to determine the impact parameter in nucleus-nucleus collisions producing pions at incident energies around 100 MeV/nucleon. The experimental set-up includes the MEDEA multidetector, part of which is used as a ? 0 spectrometer, and an additional hodoscope of plastic scintillators to cover very forward angles. A statistical model was used to generate both inclusive and pion-triggered events. Selection of well measured events was made through the measured total parallel momentum. Among the different global variables which were tested, the average parallel velocity was seen to give the best correlation with the impact parameter.

  13. Heavy flavors in nucleus-nucleus collisions at RHIC and LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nardi, Marzia; Alberico, W. M.; Molinari, A.; Beraudo, A.; De Pace, A.; Monteno, M.; Prino, F.; Sitta, M.

    2014-04-01

    A multi-step setup for heavy-flavor studies in high-energy nucleus-nucleus (AA) collisions — addressing within a comprehensive framework the initial Qoverline Q production, the propagation in the hot medium until decoupling and the final hadronization and decays — is presented. The propagation of the heavy quarks in the medium is described in a framework provided by the relativistic Langevin equation and the corresponding numerical results are compared to experimental data from RHIC and the LHC. In particular, outcomes for the nuclear modification factor RAA and for the elliptic flow ?2 of D/B mesons, heavy-flavor electrons and non-prompt J/?'s are displayed.

  14. Pion-nucleon scattering and pion production in nucleon-nucleon and nucleus-nucleus collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Dover, C.B.

    1982-01-01

    Lecture notes are presented on the following: (1) basic aspects of ..pi..N interactions (properties of pions and nucleons, SU(3) and SU(6) classification phenomenology of ..pi..N scattering ((3.3) resonance; phase shift analysis, and bag model approach to ..pi..N); (2) pion production and absorption in the two nucleon system (NN ..-->.. NN..pi.. (isobar model) and ..pi..d reversible NN (existence of dibaryon resonances)); (3) pion absorption in complex nuclei (multiparticle aspects and cascade calculations); and (4) pion production with nuclear targets including (a) nucleon-nucleus, (b) nucleus-nucleus (Fermi-averaged 2-body vs thermodynamic models), and (c) ..pi pi.. interoferometry.

  15. Aspects of Coulomb Dissociation and Interference in Peripheral Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions

    E-print Network

    Joakim Nystrand; Anthony J. Baltz; Spencer R. Klein

    2002-03-22

    Coherent vector meson production in peripheral nucleus-nucleus collisions is discussed. These interactions may occur for impact parameters much larger than the sum of the nuclear radii. Since the vector meson production is always localized to one of the nuclei, the system acts as a two-source interferometer in the transverse plane. By tagging the outgoing nuclei for Coulomb dissociation it is possible to obtain a measure of the impact parameter and thus the source separation in the interferometer. This is of particular interest since the life-time of the vector mesons are generally much shorter than the impact parameters of the collisions.

  16. Jet tomography of high-energy nucleus-nucleus collisions at next-to-leading order

    E-print Network

    Vitev, Ivan

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate that jet observables are highly sensitive to the characteristics of the vacuum and the in-medium QCD parton showers and propose techniques that exploit this sensitivity to constrain the mechanism of quark and gluon energy loss in strongly-interacting plasmas. As a first example, we calculate the inclusive jet cross section in high-energy nucleus-nucleus collisions to ${\\cal O}(\\alpha_s^3)$. Theoretical predictions for the medium-induced jet broadening and the suppression of the jet production rate due to cold and hot nuclear matter effects in Au+Au and Cu+Cu reactions at RHIC are presented.

  17. Study of the effects induced by lead on the emulsion films of the OPERA experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anokhina, A.; Aoki, S.; Ariga, A.; Arrabito, L.; Autiero, D.; Badertscher, A.; Bay, F.; Bergnoli, A.; Bersani Greggio, F.; Besnier, M.; Bick, D.; Bozza, C.; Brugiere, T.; Brugnera, R.; Brunetti, G.; Buontempo, S.; Carrara, E.; Cazes, A.; Chaussard, L.; Chernyavsky, M.; Chiarella, V.; Chon-Sen, N.; Chukanov, A.; Consiglio, L.; Cozzi, M.; Dal Corso, F.; D'Amato, G.; D'Ambrosio, N.; DeLellis, G.; Déclais, Y.; DeSerio, M.; Di Capua, F.; Di Ferdinando, D.; Di Giovanni, A.; Di Marco, N.; Di Troia, C.; Dmitrievski, S.; Dominjon, A.; Dracos, M.; Duchesneau, D.; Dulach, B.; Dusini, S.; Ebert, J.; Egorov, O.; Enikeev, R.; Ereditato, A.; Esposito, L. S.; Favier, J.; Felici, G.; Ferber, T.; Fini, R.; Franceschi, A.; Fukuda, T.; Fukushima, C.; Galkin, V. I.; Galkin, V. A.; Garfagnini, A.; Giacomelli, G.; Giorgini, M.; Goellnitz, C.; Golubkov, D.; Gornoushkin, Y.; Grella, G.; Grianti, F.; Guler, M.; Gusev, G.; Gustavino, C.; Hagner, C.; Hara, T.; Hierholzer, M.; Hiramatsu, S.; Hoshino, K.; Ieva, M.; Jakovcic, K.; Janicsko Csathy, J.; Janutta, B.; Jollet, C.; Juget, F.; Kawai, T.; Kazuyama, M.; Kim, S. H.; Kimura, M.; Knuesel, J.; Kodama, K.; Komatsu, M.; Kose, U.; Kreslo, I.; Laktineh, I.; Lazzaro, C.; Lenkeit, J.; Ljubicic, A.; Longhin, A.; Lutter, G.; Manai, K.; Mandrioli, G.; Manzoor, S.; Marotta, A.; Marteau, J.; Matsuoka, H.; Mauri, N.; Meisel, F.; Meregaglia, A.; Messina, M.; Migliozzi, P.; Miyamoto, S.; Monacelli, P.; Morishima, K.; Moser, U.; Muciaccia, M. T.; Naganawa, N.; Naka, T.; Nakamura, M.; Nakamura, T.; Nakano, T.; Nikitina, V.; Niwa, K.; Nonoyama, Y.; Ogawa, S.; Osedlo, V.; Ossetski, D.; Paoloni, A.; Park, B. D.; Park, I. G.; Pastore, A.; Patrizii, L.; Pennacchio, E.; Pessard, H.; Pistillo, C.; Polukhina, N.; Pozzato, M.; Pretzl, K.; Publichenko, P.; Pupilli, F.; Roganova, T.; Rosa, G.; Rostovtseva, I.; Rubbia, A.; Russo, A.; Ryazhskaya, O.; Ryzhikov, D.; Sato, Y.; Sato, O.; Saveliev, V.; Sazhina, G.; Schembri, A.; Scotto Lavina, L.; Shibuya, H.; Simone, S.; Sioli, M.; Sirignano, C.; Sirri, G.; Song, J. S.; Spinetti, M.; Stanco, L.; Starkov, N.; Stipcevic, M.; Strauss, T.; Strolin, P.; Sugonyaev, V.; Taira, Y.; Takahashi, S.; Tenti, M.; Terranova, F.; Tioukov, V.; Togo, V.; Tolun, P.; Tsarev, V.; Tufanli, S.; Ushida, N.; Valieri, C.; Vilain, P.; Vladimirov, M.; Votano, L.; Vuilleumier, J. L.; Wilquet, G.; Wonsak, B.; Wurtz, J.; Yoon, C. S.; Yoshida, J.; Zaitsev, Y.; Zemskova, S.; Zghiche, A.; Zimmermann, R.

    2008-07-01

    The OPERA neutrino oscillation experiment is based on the use of the Emulsion Cloud Chamber (ECC). In the OPERA ECC, nuclear emulsion films acting as very high precision tracking detectors are interleaved with lead plates providing a massive target for neutrino interactions. We report on studies related to the effects occurring from the contact between emulsion and lead. A low radioactivity lead is required in order to minimize the number of background tracks in emulsions and to achieve the required performance in the reconstruction of neutrino events. It was observed that adding other chemical elements to the lead, in order to improve the mechanical properties, may significantly increase the level of radioactivity on the emulsions. A detailed study was made in order to choose a lead alloy with good mechanical properties and an appropriate packing technique so as to have a low enough effective radioactivity.

  18. A scaling relation between proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions

    E-print Network

    Gokce Basar; Derek Teaney

    2014-08-14

    It is recently discovered that at high multiplicy, the proton-nucleus ($pA$) collisions give rise to two particle correlations that are strikingly similar to those of nucleus-nucleus ($AA$) collisions at the same multiplicity, although the system size is smaller in $pA$. Using an independent cluster model and a simple conformal scaling argument, where the ratio of the mean free path to the system size stays constant at fixed multiplicity, we argue that flow in $pA$ emerges as a collective response to the fluctuations in the position of clusters, just like in $AA$ collisions. With several physically motivated and parameter free rescalings of the recent LHC data, we show that this simple model captures the essential physics of elliptic and triangular flow in $pA$ collisions.

  19. A scaling relation between proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ba?ar, Gökçe; Teaney, Derek

    2014-11-01

    It is recently discovered that at high multiplicity, the proton-nucleus (pA) collisions give rise to two particle correlations that are strikingly similar to those of nucleus-nucleus (AA) collisions at the same multiplicity, although the system size is smaller in pA. Using an independent cluster model and a simple conformal scaling argument, where the ratio of the mean free path to the system size stays constant at fixed multiplicity, we argue that flow in pA emerges as a collective response to the fluctuations in the position of clusters, just like in AA collisions. With several physically motivated and parameter free rescalings of the recent LHC data, we show that this simple model captures the essential physics of elliptic and triangular flow in pA collisions.

  20. CASTOR: Centauro and Strange Object Research in nucleus-nucleus collisions at LHC

    E-print Network

    A. L. S. Angelis; X. Aslanoglou; J. Bartke; K. Chileev; E. Gladysz-Dziadus; M. Golubeva; F. Guber; T. Karavitcheva; Y. V. Kharlov; A. B. Kurepin; G. Mavromanolakis; A. D. Panagiotou; S. A. Sadovsky; V. V. Tiflov; Z. Wlodarczyk

    2002-09-06

    We describe the CASTOR detector designed to probe the very forward, baryon-rich rapidity region in nucleus-nucleus collisions at the LHC. We present a phenomenological model describing the formation of a QGP fireball in a high baryochemical potential environment, and its subsequent decay into baryons and strangelets. The model explains Centauros and the long-penetrating component and makes predictions for the LHC. Simulations of Centauro-type events were done. To study the response of the apparatus to new effects different exotic species (DCC, Centauros, strangelets etc.) were passed through the deep calorimeter. The energy deposition pattern in the calorimeter appears to be a new clear signature of the QGP.

  1. Fat emulsion for intravenous administration: clinical experience with intralipid 10%.

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, L M; Hardie, B S; Hidalgo, J

    1976-01-01

    A 10% soybean oil emulsion (Intralipid 10%), used extensively in Europe for intravenous alimentation, has now been clinically evaluated in the United States. Controlled studies have shown that the soybean oil emulsion can be substituted for glucose to supply one-third to two-thirds of the total calories, and can be administered peripherally without significant vein irritation. Essential fatty acid deficiencies, frequently encountered in patients dependent on parenteral alimentation with fat-free solutions, are prevented and corrected by use of this preparation. Data on long-term tolerance to Intralipid 10% infusions are presented for 292 patients treated for more than 6,000 patient days. The soybean oil emulsion was usually well tolerated. Side effects were reported in two of 133 adults and 12 of 159 pediatric patients. PMID:820291

  2. Double hypernuclei experiment with hybrid emulsion method (J-PARC E07)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekawa, Hiroyuki; J-APRC E07 Collaboration

    2014-09-01

    Double hypernuclei are important probes to study the system with strangeness -2. In order to search for double hypernuclei, an upgrade experiment is planned at J-PARC K1.8 beam line. In the experiment, the KURAMA spectrometer system will detect ?- production in the (K- ,K+) reaction on a diamond target. SSDs located the upstream and the downstream of emulsion plates will record ?- tracks which flight toward emulsion plates precisely. Tracks in SSDs and emulsion will be automatically connected by a hybrid method. Discoveries of more than 10 new double hypernuclear species are expected, which enable us to discuss binding energy in terms of mass number dependence. On the other hand, we will also observe X rays from ?- atoms with a Germanium detector array installed close to the emulsion by tagging ?-stopped events. This will be the first measurement in the world and give information on the ?-potential shape at the nuclear surface region. Emulsion production has been completely done and a test experiment for some detectors of KURAMA spectrometer was carried out. In this talk, physics motivation and current status of the J-PARC E07 experiment will be reported.

  3. Heavy lepton pair production in nucleus-nucleus collisions at LHC energy - a case study

    E-print Network

    Jan-e Alam; Bedangadas Mohanty; Sanjay K Ghosh; Sarbani Majumder; Rajarshi Ray

    2011-02-09

    We present a study of $\\tau^{+}\\tau^{-}$ lepton pair production in Pb+Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 5.5 TeV. The larger $\\tau^{\\pm}$ mass ($\\sim$ 1.77 GeV) compared to $e^{\\pm}$ and $\\mu^{\\pm}$ leads to considerably small hadronic contribution to the $\\tau^{+}\\tau^{-}$ pair invariant mass ($M$) distribution relative to the production from thermal partonic sources. The quark-anti-quark annihilation processes via intermediary virtual photon, Z and Higgs bosons have been considered for the production of $ \\tau^{+}\\tau^{-}$. We observe that the contribution from Drell-Yan process dominates over thermal yield for $\\tau^{+}\\tau^{-}$ pair mass from 4 to 20 GeV at the LHC energy. We also present the ratio of $\\tau$ lepton pair yields for nucleus-nucleus collisions relative to yields from p+p collisions scaled by number of binary collisions at LHC energies as a function $\\tau$ pair mass. The ratio is found to be significantly above unity for the mass range 4 to 6 GeV. This indicates the possibility of detecting $\\tau^{+}\\tau^{-}$ pair from quark gluon plasma (QGP) in the mass window $4\\leq M$(GeV)$\\leq 6$.

  4. Energy dependence of nucleus-nucleus potential close to the Coulomb barrier

    E-print Network

    Kouhei Washiyama; Denis Lacroix

    2008-08-12

    The nucleus-nucleus interaction potentials in heavy-ion fusion reactions are extracted from the microscopic time-dependent Hartree-Fock theory for mass symmetric reactions $^{16}$O${}+^{16}$O, $^{40}$Ca${}+^{40}$Ca, $^{48}$Ca${}+^{48}$Ca and mass asymmetric reactions $^{16}$O$ +^{40,48}$Ca, $^{40}$Ca${}+^{48}$Ca, $^{16}$O+$^{208}$Pb, $^{40}$Ca+$^{90}$Zr. When the center-of-mass energy is much higher than the Coulomb barrier energy, potentials deduced with the microscopic theory identify with the frozen density approximation. As the center-of-mass energy decreases and approaches the Coulomb barrier, potentials become energy dependent. This dependence signs dynamical reorganization of internal degrees of freedom and leads to a reduction of the "apparent" barrier felt by the two nuclei during fusion of the order of $2-3 %$ compared to the frozen density case. Several examples illustrate that the potential landscape changes rapidly when the center-of-mass energy is in the vicinity of the Coulomb barrier energy. The energy dependence is expected to have a significant role on fusion around the Coulomb barrier.

  5. Energy dependence of the nucleus-nucleus potential and the friction parameter in fusion reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Kai; Sakata, Fumihiko; Li, Zhu-Xia; Wu, Xi-Zhen; Zhang, Ying-Xun; Zhou, Shan-Gui

    2014-11-01

    Applying a macroscopic reduction procedure to the improved quantum molecular dynamics (ImQMD) model, the energy dependences of the nucleus-nucleus potential, the friction parameter, and the random force characterizing a one-dimensional Langevin-type description of the heavy-ion fusion process are investigated. Systematic calculations with the ImQMD model show that the fluctuation-dissipation relation found in symmetric head-on fusion reactions at energies just above the Coulomb barrier fades out when the incident energy increases. It turns out that this dynamical change with increasing incident energy is caused by a specific behavior of the friction parameter which directly depends on the microscopic dynamical process, i.e., on how the collective energy of the relative motion is transferred into the intrinsic excitation energy. It is shown microscopically that the energy dissipation in the fusion process is governed by two mechanisms: One is caused by the nucleon exchanges between two fusing nuclei, and the other is due to a rearrangement of nucleons in the intrinsic system. The former mechanism monotonically increases the dissipative energy and shows a weak dependence on the incident energy, while the latter depends on both the relative distance between two fusing nuclei and the incident energy. It is shown that the latter mechanism is responsible for the energy dependence of the fusion potential and explains the fading out of the fluctuation-dissipation relation.

  6. Statistical analysis of secondary particle distributions in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcguire, Stephen C.

    1987-01-01

    The use is described of several statistical techniques to characterize structure in the angular distributions of secondary particles from nucleus-nucleus collisions in the energy range 24 to 61 GeV/nucleon. The objective of this work was to determine whether there are correlations between emitted particle intensity and angle that may be used to support the existence of the quark gluon plasma. The techniques include chi-square null hypothesis tests, the method of discrete Fourier transform analysis, and fluctuation analysis. We have also used the method of composite unit vectors to test for azimuthal asymmetry in a data set of 63 JACEE-3 events. Each method is presented in a manner that provides the reader with some practical detail regarding its application. Of those events with relatively high statistics, Fe approaches 0 at 55 GeV/nucleon was found to possess an azimuthal distribution with a highly non-random structure. No evidence of non-statistical fluctuations was found in the pseudo-rapidity distributions of the events studied. It is seen that the most effective application of these methods relies upon the availability of many events or single events that possess very high multiplicities.

  7. Stopping powers and cross sections due to two-photon processes in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheung, Wang K.; Norbury, John W.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of electromagnetic-production processes due to two-photon exchange in nucleus-nucleus collisions are discussed. Feynman diagrams for two-photon exchange are evaluated using quantum electrodynamics. The total cross section and stopping power for projectile and target nuclei of identical charge are found to be significant for heavy nuclei above a few GeV per nucleon-incident energy.

  8. JACEE long duration balloon flights. [Japanese-American Cooperative Emulsion Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burnett, T.; Iwai, J.; Dake, S.; Derrickson, J.; Fountain, W.; Fuki, M.; Gregory, J.; Hayashi, T.; Holynski, R.; Jones, W. V.

    1989-01-01

    JACEE balloon-borne emulsion chamber detectors are used to observe the spectra and interactions of cosmic ray protons and nuclei in the energy range 1 to 100A TeV. Experiments with long duration mid-latitude balloon flights and characteristics of the detector system that make it ideal for planned Antarctic balloon flights are discussed.

  9. The analysis of interface emulsion detector for the OPERA experiment in JAPAN Scanning facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuda, T.; Kodama, K.; Komatsu, M.; Miyamoto, S.; Morishima, K.; Nakano, T.; Omura, T.; Sakatani, Y.; Sato, O.

    2010-04-01

    The OPERA experiment, designed to search for neutrino oscillations, started its physics run in July 2008. It is the most recent emulsion-counter hybrid experiment. In this experiment two different types of emulsion detectors are used. One is called Emulsion Cloud Chamber (ECC), and is used as a target. The other is called Changeable Sheet (CS), which is attached to the downstream side of each ECC to identify the ECC in which a tagged neutrino interaction occurred. The CS interfaces rough tracking information obtained in the electronic detectors to the ECC and therefore is a key element of the emulsion-counter hybrid experiment. As a first step, a CS selected by electronic detectors is scanned and analyzed to decide if the ECC is to be developed and analyzed in detail; a few CS are usually to be analyzed to identify an ECC for each tagged event due to the inaccuracy of the electronic detectors. The CS has a large scanning area and therefore Japan and Europe (Gran Sasso) are sharing in the CS analysis load to handle the scanning job. In this paper, the CS analysis method developed for the Japan scanning facility is described in detail. 100 million tracks are read out on each CS by an automatic emulsion read-out system ( S-UTS ), most of them are so-called fake tracks mainly due to low momentum Compton electrons or random noise and a few real tracks from a tagged neutrino interaction have to be picked up among a huge background. A dedicated method to reject this background without losing real tracks has been developed on the basis of analyzing track data obtained by S-UTS and combining these data with a final selection using additional information on multiple Coulomb scattering of candidate tracks obtained by human eye check to eliminate a remaining background. Performance of this method is shown to be sufficient for the OPERA experiment.

  10. Helium production in 10.7 A GeV Au induced nucleus-nucleus collisions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. I. Adamovich; M. M. Aggarwal; Y. A. Alexandrov; R. Amirikas; N. P. Andreeva; Z. V. Anzon; R. Arora; F. A. Avetyan; S. K. Badyal; A. M. Bakich; E. S. Basova; I. K. Bazarov; K. B. Bhalla; A. Bhasin; V. S. Bhatia; V. G. Bogdanov; V. Bradnova; V. I. Bubnov; T. H. Burnett; X. Cai; D. A. Carshiev; I. Y. Chasnikov; L. P. Chernova; M. M. Chernyavski; S. Dhamija; G. Z. Eligbaeva; L. E. Eremenko; A. S. Gaitinov; E. R. Ganssauge; S. Garpman; S. G. Gerassimov; C. Graf; J. Grote; K. G. Gulamov; S. K. Gupta; V. K. Gupta; B. Jakobsson; L. Just; S. Kachroo; G. S. Kalyachkina; E. K. Kanygina; M. Karabova; S. Kitroo; S. P. Kharlamov; A. D. Kovalenko; S. A. Krasnov; V. Kumar; V. G. Larionova; Y. D. Li; L. S. Liu; S. Lokanatan; J. J. Lord; N. S. Lukicheva; S. B. Luo; L. K. Mangotra; N. A. Marutyan; A. Y. Mashkov; N. V. Maslennikova; I. S. Mittra; S. Mokerjee; S. Z. Nasyrov; V. S. Navotny; J. Nystrand; M. Ochs; G. I. Orlova; I. Otterlund; L. S. Peak; N. G. Peresadko; N. V. Petrov; V. A. Plyushchev; V. V. Rusakova; W. Y. Qian; Y. M. Qin; R. Raniwala; S. Raniwala; N. K. Rao; M. Roeper; N. Saidkhanov; N. A. Salmanova; L. G. Sarkisova; V. R. Sarkisyan; G. S. Shabratova; A. M. Seitimbetov; C. I. Shakhova; S. N. Shpilev; D. Skelding; K. Söderström; Z. I. Solovjeva; E. Stenlund; L. N. Svechnikova; M. Tothova; M. I. Tretyakova; T. P. Trofimova; U. I. Tuleeva; B. P. Tursunov; S. Vokal; J. Vrlakova; H. Q. Wang; Z. Q. Weng; R. J. Wilkes; Y. L. Xia; C. B. Yang; D. H. Zhang; P. Y. Zheng; S. I. Zhokhova; D. C. Zhou

    1994-01-01

    Angular distributions of projectile-associated He fragments from Au induced reactions in nuclear emulsions at 10.7 A GeV have been measured with a precision of +\\/-0.1 mrad. Two emission components are indubitably appearing, one representing fragmentation of a fermionic system while the other one exhibits large transverse momentum transfer. Possible explanations for the latter component are discussed.

  11. Doubly strange nuclei by a hybrid-emulsion experiment E373 at KEK

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. K. Ahn; Y. Akaishi; H. Akikawa; S. Aoki; K. Arai; S. Y. Bahk; K. M. Baik; B. Bassalleck; J. H. Chung; M. S. Chung; D. H. Davis; G. B. Franklin; T. Fukuda; K. Hoshino; A. Ichikawa; M. Ieiri; K. Imai; Y. H. Iwata; Y. S. Iwata; H. Kanda; M. Kaneko; T. Kawai; C. O. Kim; J. Y. Kim; S. J. Kim; S. H. Kim; Y. Kondo; T. Kouketsu; Y. L. Lee; J. W. C. McNabb; M. Mitsuhara; T. Motoba; Y. Nagase; C. Nagoshi; K. Nakazawa; H. Noumi; S. Ogawa; H. Okabe; K. Oyama; H. M. Park; I. G. Park; J. Parker; Y. S. Ra; J. T. Rhee; A. Rusek; H. Shibuya; K. S. Sim; P. K. Saha; D. Seki; M. Sekimoto; J. S. Song; H. Takahashi; T. Takahashi; F. Takeutchi; H. Tanaka; K. Tanida; J. Tojo; H. Torii; S. Torikai; D. N. Tovee; N. Ushida; K. Yamamoto; Y. Yamamoto; N. Yasuda; J. T. Yang; C. J. Yoon; C. S. Yoon; M. Yosoi; T. Yoshida; L. Zhu

    2001-01-01

    A hybrid emulsion experiment E373 at KEK has been carried out to study doubly strange nuclear system. By the 8% data analysis of all, one twin single-Lambda hypernuclei event and two events of double-Lambda hypernucleus have been successfully detected. The twin single-Lambda event is uniquely interpreted as Xi-+14N-->Lambda5He+Lambda5He+4He+n for the first time. In the first double-Lambda hypernucleus event, ``Demachi-Yanagi,'' it

  12. Production of Kaon and $?$ in nucleus-nucleus collisions at ultra-relativistic energy from a blast wave model

    E-print Network

    Song Zhang; Yu-Gang Ma; Jin-Hui Chen; Chen Zhong

    2014-11-06

    The particle production of Kaon and $\\Lambda$ are studied in nucleus-nucleus collisions at relativistic energy based on a chemical equilibrium blast-wave model. The transverse momentum spectra of Kaon and $\\Lambda$ at the kinetic freeze-out stage from our model are in good agreement with the experimental results. The kinetic freeze-out parameters of temperature ($T_{kin}$) and radial flow parameter $\\rho_{0}$ are presented for the FOPI, RHIC and LHC energies. And the resonance decay effect is also discussed. The systematic study for beam energy dependence of the strangeness particle production will help us to better understand the properties of the matter created in heavy-ion collisions at the kinetic freeze-out stage.

  13. Dielectron Cross Section Measurements in Nucleus-Nucleus Reactions at 1.0{ital A} GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, R.J.; Bossingham, R.; Gong, W.G.; Heilbronn, L.; Huang, H.Z.; Krebs, G.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Matis, H.S.; Miller, J.; Naudet, C.; Roche, G.; Schroeder, L.S.; Seidl, P.; Wilson, W.K.; Yegneswaran, A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)] [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Beedoe, S.; Carroll, J.; Huang, H.Z.; Igo, G. [University of California at Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)] [University of California at Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Bougteb, M.; Manso, F.; Prunet, M.; Roche, G. [Universite Blaise Pascal/IN2P3, 63177 Aubiere Cedex (France)] [Universite Blaise Pascal/IN2P3, 63177 Aubiere Cedex (France); Christie, W.B.; Hallman, T.; Madansky, L.; Welsh, R.C. [The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States)] [The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States); Kirk, P.; Wang, Z.F. [Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803 (United States)] [Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803 (United States); Wilson, W.K. [Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan 48201 (United States)] [Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan 48201 (United States)

    1997-08-01

    We present measured dielectron production cross sections for Ca+Ca, C+C, He+Ca, and d+Ca reactions at 1.0 A GeV . Statistical uncertainties and systematic effects are smaller than in previous dilepton spectrometer (DLS) nucleus-nucleus data. For pair mass M{le}0.35 GeV/c{sup 2} we obtain (1) the Ca+Ca cross section is larger than the previous DLS measurement and current model results, (2) the mass spectra suggest large contributions from {pi}{sup 0} and {eta} Dalitz decays, and (3) d{sigma}/dM{proportional_to}A{sub P}A{sub T}. For M{gt}0.5 GeV/c{sup 2} the Ca+Ca to C+C cross section ratio is significantly larger than the ratio of A{sub P}A{sub T} values. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  14. Wavelet analysis of angular distributions of secondary particles in high energy nucleus-nucleus interactions. Irregularity of particle pseudorapidity distributions

    E-print Network

    V. V. Uzhinskii; V. Sh. Navotny; G. A. Ososkov; A. Polanski; M. M. Chernyavski

    2002-06-01

    Experimental data on sulphur and oxygen nuclei interactions with photoemulsion nuclei at the energies of 200 and 60 GeV/nucleon are analyzed with the help of a continuous wavelet transform. Irregularities in pseudorapidity distributions of narrow groups of the secondary shower particles in the mentioned interactions are observed at application of the second order derivative of Gaussian as a wavelet. The irregularities can be interpreted as an existence of the preference emission angles of groups of particles. Such an effect is expected at emission of Cherenkov gluons in nucleus-nucleus collisions. Some of the positions of the observed peculiarities on the pseudorapidity axis coincide with those found by I.M.Dremin et al. (I.M.Dremin et al. Phys. Lett., 2001, v. B499, p. 97).)

  15. Longitudinal boost-invariance of charge balance function in hadron-hadron and nucleus-nucleus collisions

    E-print Network

    Na LI Zhiming LI Yuanfang WU

    2009-10-10

    Using Monte Carlo generators of the PYTHIA model for hadron-hadron collisions and a multi-phase transport (AMPT) model for nucleus-nucleus collisions, the longitudinal boost-invariance of charge balance function and its transverse momentum dependence are carefully studied. It shows that the charge balance function is boost-invariant in both {\\it p}+{\\it p} and Au+Au collisions in these two models, consistent with experimental data. The balance function properly scaled by the width of the pseudorapidity window is independent of the position or the size of the window and is corresponding to the balance function of the whole pseudorapidity range. This longitudinal property of balance function also holds for particles in small transverse momentum ranges in the PYTHIA and the AMPT default models, but is violated in the AMPT with string melting. The physical origin of the results are discussed.

  16. Development of the Hamiltonian molecular dynamics (HMD) model: A first-principles, relativistic description of nucleus-nucleus interactions at medium energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zapp, Edward Neal

    Simulation of energetic, colliding nuclear systems at energies between 100 AMeV and 5 AGeV has utility in fields as diverse as the design and construction of fundamental particle physics experiments, patient treatment by radiation exposure, and in the protection of astronaut crews from the risks of exposure to natural radiation sources during spaceflight. Descriptions of these colliding systems which are derived from theoretical principles are necessary in order to provide confidence in describing systems outside the scope of existing data, which is sparse. The system size and velocity dictate descriptions which include both special relativistic and quantum effects, and the currently incomplete state of understanding with respect to the basic processes at work within nuclear matter dictate that any description will exist at some level of approximation. Models commonly found in the literature employ approximations to theory which lead to simulation results which demonstrate departure from fundamental physical principles, most notably conservation of system energy. The HMD (Hamiltonian Molecular Dynamics) mode is developed as a phase-space description of colliding nuclear system on the level of hadrons, inclusive of the necessary quantum and relativistic elements. Evaluation of model simulations shows that the HMD model shows the necessary conservations throughout system simulation. HMD model predictions are compared to both the RQMD (Relativistic Quantum Molecular Dynamics) and JQMD (Jaeri-Quantum Molecular Dynamics) codes, both commonly employed for the purpose of simulating nucleus-nucleus collisions. Comparison is also provided between all three codes and measurement. The HMD model is shown to perform well in light of both measurement and model calculation, while providing for a physically self-consistent description of the system throughout.

  17. Fast helium production in interactions of 3.7 A GeV 24Mg with emulsion nuclei

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Jilanya

    We have studied the properties of the relativistic helium fragments emitted from the projectile in the interactions of 24Mg ions accelerated at an energy of 3.7 A GeV with emulsion nuclei. The total, partial nuclear cross-sections and production rates of helium fragmentation channels in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions and their dependence on the mass and energy of the incident projectile nucleus

  18. Fast helium production in interactions of 3.7 A GeV 24 Mg with emulsion nuclei

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Jilany

    2004-01-01

    We have studied the properties of the relativistic helium fragments emitted from the projectile in the interactions of 24Mg ions accelerated at an energy of 3.7 A GeV with emulsion nuclei. The total, partial nuclear cross-sections and production rates of helium fragmentation channels in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions and their dependence on the mass and energy of the incident projectile nucleus

  19. Particle Production in Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions at the SPS and the QCD Phase Diagram

    SciTech Connect

    Blume, Christoph [Institut fuer Kernphysik, J.W. Goethe-Universitaet, Max-von-Laue-Str. 1, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2011-05-23

    Results of the NA49 experiment on particle production in the energy regime of the CERN-SPS are reviewed. In order to collect information on the properties of the QCD phase diagram systematic studies of the energy dependence of particle production in heavy ion collisions have been performed. Net-baryon distributions and results on strangeness production are discussed. Recent attempts to search for a critical point, such as multiplicity fluctuations and the transverse mass dependence of anti-baryon/baryon ratios are reviewed.

  20. Using nuclear emulsions and plastics in a long exposure satellite experiment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. S. Ivanova; D. G. Baranov; V. V. Variukhin; Iu. F. Gagarin; V. N. Kulikov; V. E. Myshkin; I. G. Khiliuto; E. A. Iakubovskii

    1977-01-01

    An emulsion chamber (14 liters) combined with plastic detectors has been exposed on the Cosmos 613 satellite to study multicharged primary cosmic rays. The exposure time was 1441 hrs (60 days) at an altitude of 200 to 300 km. Previously, some properties of various emulsions and plastics had been investigated to choose the type of detector suitable for long-time exposition.

  1. Nucleus-nucleus cold fusion reactions analyzed with the l-dependent 'fusion by diffusion' model

    SciTech Connect

    Cap, T.; Siwek-Wilczynska, K.; Wilczynski, J. [Institute of Experimental Physics, Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, Hoza 69, PL-00-681 Warsaw (Poland); Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, PL-05-400 Otwock-Swierk (Poland)

    2011-05-15

    We present a modified version of the Fusion by Diffusion (FBD) model aimed at describing the synthesis of superheavy nuclei in cold fusion reactions, in which a low excited compound nucleus emits only one neutron. The modified FBD model accounts for the angular momentum dependence of three basic factors determining the evaporation residue cross section: the capture cross section {sigma}{sub cap}(l), the fusion probability P{sub fus}(l), and the survival probability P{sub surv}(l). The fusion hindrance factor, the inverse of P{sub fus}(l), is treated in terms of thermal fluctuations in the shape degrees of freedom and is expressed as a solution of the Smoluchowski diffusion equation. The l dependence of P{sub fus}(l) results from the l-dependent potential energy surface of the colliding system. A new parametrization of the distance of starting point of the diffusion process is introduced. An analysis of a complete set of 27 excitation functions for production of superheavy nuclei in cold fusion reactions, studied in experiments at GSI Darmstadt, RIKEN Tokyo, and LBNL Berkeley, is presented. The FBD model satisfactorily reproduces shapes and absolute cross sections of all the cold fusion excitation functions. It is shown that the peak position of the excitation function for a given 1n reaction is determined by the Q value of the reaction and the height of the fission barrier of the final nucleus. This fact could possibly be used in future experiments (with well-defined beam energy) for experimental determination of the fission barrier heights.

  2. Intravenous lipid emulsion as antidote: a summary of published human experience.

    PubMed

    Cave, Grant; Harvey, Martyn; Graudins, Andis

    2011-04-01

    Intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE) has been demonstrated to be effective in amelioration of cardiovascular and central nervous system sequelae of local-anaesthetic and non-local-anaesthetic drug toxicity in animal models. Sequestration of lipophilic toxins to an expanded plasma lipid phase is credited as the predominant beneficial mechanism of action of ILE. Systematic review of published human experience is however lacking. We determined to report a comprehensive literature search of all human reports of ILE application in drug poisoning. Forty-two cases of ILE use (19 local-anaesthetic, 23 non-local-anaesthetic) were identified, with anecdotal reports of successful resuscitation from cardiovascular collapse and central nervous system depression associated with ILE administration in lipophilic toxin overdose. Although significant heterogeneity was observed in both agents of intoxication, and reported outcomes; case report data suggest a possible benefit of ILE in potentially life-threatening cardio-toxicity from bupivacaine, mepivacaine, ropivacaine, haloperidol, tricyclic antidepressants, lipophilic beta blockers and calcium channel blockers. Further controlled study and systematic evaluation of human cases is required to define the clinical role of ILE in acute poisonings. PMID:21489160

  3. PREFACE: Hot Quarks 2014: Workshop for young scientists on the physics of ultrarelativistic nucleus–nucleus collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-05-01

    The 6th edition of the Workshop for Young Scientists on the Physics of Ultrarelativistic Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions (Hot Quarks 2014) was held in Las Negras, Spain from 21-28 September 2014. Following the traditions of the conference, this meeting gathered more than 70 participants in the first years of their scientific careers. The present issue contains the proceedings of this workshop. As in the past, the Hot Quarks workshop offered a unique atmosphere for a lively discussion and interpretation of the current measurements from high energy nuclear collisions. Recent results and upgrades at CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and Brookhaven's Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) were presented. Recent theoretical developments were also extensively discussed as well as the perspectives for future facilities such as the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) at Darmstadt and the Electron-Ion Collider at Brookhaven. The conference's goal to provide a platform for young researchers to learn and foster their interactions was successfully met. We wish to thank the sponsors of the Hot Quarks 2014 Conference, who supported the authors of this volume: Brookhaven National Laboratory (USA), CPAN (Spain), Czech Science Foundation (GACR) under grant 13-20841S (Czech Republic), European Laboratory for Particle Physics CERN (Switzerland), European Research Council under grant 259612 (EU), ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI (Germany), Helmholtz Association and GSI under grant VH-NG-822, Helmholtz International Center for FAIR (Germany), National Science Foundation under grant No.1359622 (USA), Nuclear Physics Institute ASCR (Czech Republic), Patronato de la Alhambra y Generalife (Spain) and the Universidad de Granada (Spain). Javier López Albacete, Universidad de Granada (Spain) Jana Bielcikova, Nuclear Physics Inst. and Academy of Sciences (Czech Republic) Rainer J. Fries, Texas A&M University (USA) Raphaël Granier de Cassagnac, CNRS-IN2P3 and École polytechnique (France) Boris Hippolyte, CNRS-IN2P3 and Université de Strasbourg (France) Jiangyong Jia, Stony Brook University and Brookhaven National Laboratory (USA) André Mischke, Utrecht University and Nikhef Amsterdam (The Netherlands) Ágnes Mócsy, Pratt Institute and Brookhaven National Laboratory (USA) Hannah Petersen, Goethe University, FIAS and GSI (Germany) Lijuan Ruan, Brookhaven National Laboratory (USA) Sevil Salur, Rutgers University, (USA)

  4. Development of High Sensitivity Nuclear Emulsion and Fine Grained Emulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawahara, H.; Asada, T.; Naka, T.; Naganawa, N.; Kuwabara, K.; Nakamura, M.

    2014-08-01

    Nuclear emulsion is a particle detector having high spacial resolution and angular resolution. It became useful for large statistics experiment thanks to the development of automatic scanning system. In 2010, a facility for emulsion production was introduced and R&D of nuclear emulsion began at Nagoya university. In this paper, we present results of development of the high sensitivity emulsion and fine grained emulsion for dark matter search experiment. Improvement of sensitivity is achieved by raising density of silver halide crystals and doping well-adjusted amount of chemicals. Production of fine grained emulsion was difficult because of unexpected crystal condensation. By mixing polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) to gelatin as a binder, we succeeded in making a stable fine grained emulsion.

  5. Intravenous Lipid Emulsion Therapy for Acute Synthetic Cannabinoid Intoxication: Clinical Experience in Four Cases

    PubMed Central

    Aksel, Gökhan; Güneysel, Özlem; Ta?yürek, Tanju; Kozan, Ergül; Çevik, ?ebnem Eren

    2015-01-01

    There is no specific antidote for intoxication with synthetic cannabinoids. In this case series, we considered the efficiency of intravenous lipid emulsion therapy in four cases, who presented to emergency department with synthetic cannabinoid (bonzai) intoxication. The first patient had a GCS of 3 and a left bundle branch block on electrocardiography. The electrocardiography revealed sinus rhythm with normal QRS width after the treatment. The second patient had bradycardia, hypotension, and a GCS of 14. After intravenous lipid emulsion therapy, the bradycardia resolved, and the patient's GCS improved to 15. The third patient presented with a GCS of 8, and had hypotension and bradycardia. After the treatment, not only did the bradycardia resolve, but also the GCS improved to 15. The fourth patient, whose electrocardiography revealed accelerated junctional rhythm, had a GCS of 13. The patient's rhythm was sinus after the treatment. Cardiovascular recovery was seen in all four cases, and neurological recovery was also seen in three of them. Based on the fact that intravenous lipid emulsion is beneficial in patients intoxicated with lipophilic drugs, unstable patients presenting to the emergency department with acute synthetic cannabinoid intoxication may be candidates for intravenous lipid emulsion treatment.

  6. Unusual interactions above 100 TeV: A review of cosmic ray experiments with emulsion chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yodh, D. B.

    1977-01-01

    A method is given for analyzing the space correlated collection of jets (gamma ray families) with energies greater than 100 TeV in Pb or Fe absorber sampled by photosensitive layers in an emulsion chamber. Events analyzed indicate large multiplicities of particles in the primary hadron-air interaction, and a marked absence of neutral pions.

  7. The detection of neutrino interactions in the emulsion/lead target of the OPERA experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agafonova, N.; Anokhina, A.; Aoki, S.; Ariga, A.; Ariga, T.; Arrabito, L.; Autiero, D.; Badertscher, A.; Bagulya, A.; Bersani Greggio, F.; Bertolin, A.; Besnier, M.; Bick, D.; Boyarkin, V.; Bozza, C.; Brugière, T.; Brugnera, R.; Brunetti, G.; Buontempo, S.; Carrara, E.; Cazes, A.; Chaussard, L.; Chernyavsky, M.; Chiarella, V.; Chon-Sen, N.; Chukanov, A.; Cozzi, M.; D'Amato, G.; Dal Corso, F.; D'Ambrosio, N.; DeLellis, G.; Déclais, Y.; DeSerio, M.; Di Capua, F.; Di Ferdinando, D.; Di Giovanni, A.; Di Marco, N.; Di Troia, C.; Dmitrievski, S.; Dominjon, A.; Dracos, M.; Duchesneau, D.; Dusini, S.; Ebert, J.; Egorov, O.; Enikeev, R.; Ereditato, A.; Esposito, L. S.; Favier, J.; Felici, G.; Ferber, T.; Fini, R.; Frekers, D.; Fukuda, T.; Fukushima, C.; Galkin, V. I.; Galkin, V. A.; Garfagnini, A.; Giacomelli, G.; Giorgini, M.; Goellnitz, C.; Goeltzenlichter, T.; Goldberg, J.; Golubkov, D.; Gornushkin, Y.; Grella, G.; Grianti, F.; Guler, M.; Gustavino, C.; Hagner, C.; Hamada, K.; Hara, T.; Hierholzer, M.; Hoshino, K.; Ieva, M.; Jakovcic, K.; Janutta, B.; Jollet, C.; Juget, F.; Kazuyama, M.; Kim, S. H.; Kimura, M.; Kitagawa, N.; Klicek, B.; Knuesel, J.; Kodama, K.; Kolev, D.; Komatsu, M.; Kose, U.; Krasnoperov, A.; Kreslo, I.; Krumstein, Z.; Kubota, H.; Kutsenov, V. V.; Kuznetsov, V. A.; Laktineh, I.; Lazzaro, C.; Lenkeit, J.; Ljubicic, A.; Longhin, A.; Lutter, G.; Malgin, A.; Manai, K.; Mandrioli, G.; Marotta, A.; Marteau, J.; Matsuo, T.; Matveev, V.; Mauri, N.; Medinaceli, E.; Meisel, F.; Meregaglia, A.; Messina, M.; Migliozzi, P.; Miyamoto, S.; Monacelli, P.; Morishima, K.; Moser, U.; Muciaccia, M. T.; Naganawa, N.; Naka, T.; Nakamura, M.; Nakano, T.; Nikitina, V.; Niwa, K.; Nonoyama, Y.; Nozdrin, A.; Ogawa, S.; Olchevski, A.; Orlova, G.; Osedlo, V.; Ossetski, D.; Paniccia, M.; Paoloni, A.; Park, B. D.; Park, I. G.; Pastore, A.; Patrizii, L.; Pennacchio, E.; Pessard, H.; Pilipenko, V.; Pistillo, C.; Polukhina, N.; Pozzato, M.; Pretzl, K.; Publichenko, P.; Pupilli, F.; Rescigno, R.; Rizhikov, D.; Roganova, T.; Romano, G.; Rosa, G.; Rostovtseva, I.; Rubbia, A.; Russo, A.; Ryasny, V.; Ryazhskaya, O.; Sadovski, A.; Sato, O.; Sato, Y.; Saveliev, V.; Schembri, A.; Schmidt Parzefall, W.; Schroeder, H.; Schütz, H. U.; Schuler, J.; Scotto Lavina, L.; Shibuya, H.; Simone, S.; Sioli, M.; Sirignano, C.; Sirri, G.; Song, J. S.; Spinetti, M.; Stanco, L.; Starkov, N.; Stipcevic, M.; Strauss, T.; Strolin, P.; Sugonyaev, V.; Takahashi, S.; Tereschenko, V.; Terranova, F.; Tezuka, I.; Tioukov, V.; Tolun, P.; Tsarev, V.; Tsenov, R.; Tufanli, S.; Ushida, N.; Verguilov, V.; Vilain, P.; Vladimirov, M.; Votano, L.; Vuilleumier, J. L.; Wilquet, G.; Wonsak, B.; Yakushev, V.; Yoon, C. S.; Yoshioka, T.; Yoshida, J.; Zaitsev, Y.; Zghiche, A.; Zimmermann, R.

    2009-06-01

    The OPERA neutrino detector in the underground Gran Sasso Laboratory (LNGS) was designed to perform the first detection of neutrino oscillations in appearance mode through the study of ?? ? ?? oscillations. The apparatus consists of an emulsion/lead target complemented by electronic detectors and it is placed in the high energy long-baseline CERN to LNGS beam (CNGS) 730 km away from the neutrino source. Runs with CNGS neutrinos were successfully carried out in 2007 and 2008 with the detector fully operational with its related facilities for the emulsion handling and analysis. After a brief description of the beam and of the experimental setup we report on the collection, reconstruction and analysis procedures of first samples of neutrino interaction events.

  8. Pseudorapidity configurations in collisions between gold nuclei and track-emulsion nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Gulamov, K. G.; Zhokhova, S. I.; Lugovoi, V. V., E-mail: lugovoi@uzsci.net; Navotny, V. S., E-mail: navotny@uzsci.net; Chudakov, V. M. [Uzbek Academy of Sciences, Institute for Physics and Technology, Fizika-Solntse Research and Production Association (Uzbekistan)

    2010-07-15

    A method of parametrically invariant quantities is developed for studying pseudorapidity configurations in nucleus-nucleus collisions involving a large number of secondary particles. In simple models where the spectrum of pseudorapidities depends on three parameters, the shape of the spectrum may differ strongly from the shape of pseudorapidity configurations in individual events. Pseudorapidity configurations in collisions between gold nuclei of energy 10.6 GeV per nucleon and track-emulsion nuclei are contrasted against those in random stars calculated theoretically. An investigation of pseudorapidity configurations in individual events is an efficient method for verifying theoretical models.

  9. Workshop on Cosmic Ray and High Energy Gamma Ray Experiments for the Space Station Era, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, October 17-20, 1984, Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, W. V. (editor); Wefel, J. P. (editor)

    1985-01-01

    The potential of the Space Station as a platform for cosmic-ray and high-energy gamma-ray astronomy is discussed in reviews, reports, and specific proposals. Topics examined include antiparticles and electrons, science facilities and new technology, high-energy nuclear interactions, nuclear composition and energy spectra, Space Shuttle experiments, Space Station facilities and detectors, high-energy gamma rays, and gamma-ray facilities and techniques. Consideration is given to universal-baryon-symmetry testing on the scale of galactic clusters, particle studies in a high-inclination orbit, balloon-borne emulsion-chamber results on ultrarelativistic nucleus-nucleus interactions, ionization states of low-energy cosmic rays, a large gamma-ray telescope for point-source studies above 1 GeV, and the possible existence of stable quark matter.

  10. A search for the production of direct leptons in nucleon-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Kirk, P.N.

    1990-12-01

    This report discusses the following topics: subthreshold production experiment; testing and selection of PCOS amplifiers; transverse energy detector; development of a sensitive new amplifiers; single-lepton experiment. (LSP)

  11. Attained energy densities and neutral pion spectra in nucleus-nucleus collisions at 200 GeV/nucleon

    SciTech Connect

    Plasil, F.; Albrecht, R.; Awes, T.C.; Baktash, C.; Beckmann, P.; Berger, F.; Bock, R.; Claesson, G.; Clewing, G.; Dragon, L.

    1989-01-01

    The main goal of the CERN heavy-ion experiments is the search for an indication that the predicted state of deconfined quarks and gluons, the quark-gluon plasma (QGP), has been produced. The quantity most crucial to the probability of QGP formation is the thermalized energy density attained during the heavy-ion reaction. The amount of energy radiated transverse to the beam direction is the experimental quantity which is believed to be a measure of the amount of energy deposition in the reaction, and hence to reflect the energy density attained. In this presentation we consider the systematics of transverse energy production at CERN SPS energies, and we use the results to make estimates, under various assumptions, of attained energy densities. 18 refs., 2 figs.

  12. Fish oil-based lipid emulsions in the treatment of parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease: an ongoing positive experience.

    PubMed

    Premkumar, Muralidhar H; Carter, Beth A; Hawthorne, Keli M; King, Kristi; Abrams, Steven A

    2014-01-01

    We previously reported the beneficial effect of fish oil-based lipid emulsions (FOLEs) as monotherapy in the treatment of parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease (PNALD). In this report, we share our ongoing experience at Texas Children's Hospital, Houston, Texas in the use of FOLE in treatment of PNALD as presented at the 2013 Experimental Biology meeting. We describe the findings of a single center, prospective, observational study of infants <6 mo of age with PNALD who received parenteral FOLE as monotherapy. A total of 97 infants received FOLE under the compassionate-use protocol for the treatment of PNALD. Eighty-three (86%) survived with resolution of cholestasis and 14 (14%) died. The median conjugated bilirubin (CB) concentration at the initiation of FOLE therapy was 4.8 mg/dL (range 2.1-26). The median time to resolution of cholestasis was 40 d (range 3-158). Compared with infants with mild cholestasis (CB of 2.1-5 mg/dL at the initiation of FOLE), nonsurvivors were significantly more premature and took longer to resolve their cholestasis. Gestational age at birth correlated inversely with CB at the beginning of FOLE and peak CB. Infants with an initial CB >10 mg/dL had a higher mortality rate than infants with an initial CB <5 mg/dL (35% vs. 6%; P < 0.05). Our experience with the use of FOLE in PNALD continues to be encouraging. Prematurity continues to be a major determinant in mortality and severity of cholestasis. This calls for further controlled studies designed to optimize dose and timing of intervention in the use of FOLE in neonates. PMID:24425724

  13. Spray-dried whey protein\\/lactose\\/soybean oil emulsions. 2. Redispersability, wettability and particle structure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pia Fäldt; Björn Bergenståhl

    1996-01-01

    In the present paper redispersion and wettability experiments of spray-dried whey protein-stabilized emulsions are presented. Emulsion droplet size after redispersion gives information about eventual coalescence between emulsion droplets in the powder matrix during drying or storage, resulting in an increase in emulsion droplet size after redispersion. Results from redispersion experiments are combined with previously presented knowledge about powder surface composition

  14. Experimental Study of Solvent Based Emulsion Injection to Enhance Heavy Oil Recovery

    E-print Network

    Qiu, Fangda

    2011-08-08

    ............................................................................................................ 6 2. ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY-AN OVERVIEW ................................................... 8 2.1 EOR Mechanism .............................................................................................. 10 2.2 Micro-emulsion and Macro... .................................................. 37 4.2.2 Emulsion Rheology Study Experiments ..................................................... 42 4.2.3 Emulsion and Crude Oil Interfacial Tension Measurement ........................ 46 4.2.4 Nanoparticle Thickened Micro-emulsion Experiments...

  15. Results from NA60 experiment at the CERN SPS

    SciTech Connect

    Usai, G.; Cicalo, C.; De Falco, A.; Floris, M.; Masoni, A.; Puddu, G.; Serci, S. [Univ. di Cagliari, Cagliari (Italy); INFN, Cagliari (Italy); Arnaldi, R.; Colla, A.; Cortese, P.; Ferretti, A.; Oppedisano, C. [Univ. di Torino (Italy) and INFN (Italy); Averbeck, R.; Drees, A. [SUNY Stony Brook, New York (United States); Banicz, K. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Univ. Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Castor, J.; Devaux, A.; Force, P.; Manso, F. [LPC, Univ. Blaise Pascal, Clermont-Ferrand (France); CNRS-IN2P3, Clermont-Ferrand (France); Chaurand, B. [LLR, Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau (France); CNRS-IN2P3, Palaiseau (France)] (and others)

    2006-07-11

    The NA60 experiment studies open charm and prompt dimuon production in proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions at the CERN SPS. During 2003 the experiment collected data in Indium-Indium collisions at 158 GeV per nucleon. In this paper the first results on low mass dimuons, intermediate mass dimuons and J/{psi} suppression are presented.

  16. Characteristics and behavior of emulsion at nuclear fuel reprocessing

    SciTech Connect

    Gonda, K.; Nemoto, T.; Oka, K.

    1982-05-01

    The characteristics and behavior of the emulsion formed in mixer-settlers during nuclear fuel reprocessing were studied with the dissolver solution of spent fuel burned up to 28,000 MWd/MTU and a palladium colloidal solution, respectively. The emulsion was observed to be oil in water where nonsoluble residues of spent fuel were condensed as emulsifiers. Emulsion formed at interfaces in the settler showed electric conductivity due to continuity of the aqueous phase of the emulsion and viscosity due to the creamy state of the emulsion. The higher the palladium particle concentration was, the larger the amount of emulsion formed. This result agreed well with experience obtained in the Tokai Reprocessing Plant operation that both nonsoluble residues and emulsion formation increased remarkably on fuels in which burnup exceeded 20 000 MWd/MTU.

  17. Emulsion Droplet Combustion in Microgravity: Water/Heptane Emulsions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Avedisian, C. Thomas

    1997-01-01

    This presentation reviews a series of experiments to further examine parametric effects on sooting processes of droplet flames in microgravity. The particular focus is on a fuel droplet emulsified with water, specifically emulsions of n-heptane as the fuel-phase and water as the dispersed phase. Water was selected as the additive because of its anticipated effect on soot formation, and the heptane fuel phase was chosen to theoretically reduce the likelihood of microexplosions because its boiling point is nearly the same as that of water: 100 C for water and 98 C for heptane. The water content was varied while the initial droplet diameter was kept within a small range. The experiments were carried out in microgravity to reduce the effects of buoyancy and to promote spherical symmetry in the burning process. Spherically symmetric droplet burning is a convenient starting point for analysis, but experimental data are difficult to obtain for this situation as evidenced by the fact that no quantitative data have been reported on unsupported emulsion droplet combustion in a convection-free environment. The present study improves upon past work carried out on emulsion droplet combustion in microgravity which employed emulsion droplets suspended from a fiber. The fiber can be instrusive to the emulsion droplet burning process as it can promote coalescence of the dispersed water phase and heterogeneous nucleation on the fiber. Prior work has shown that the presence of water in liquid hydrocarbons can have both beneficial and detrimental effects on the combustion process. Water is known to reduce soot formation and radiation heat transfer to combustor walls Gollahalli (1979) reduce flame temperatures and thereby NOx emissions, and encourage secondary droplet atomization or microexplosion. Water also tends to retard ignition and and promote early extinction. The former effect restricted the range of water volume fractions as discussed below.

  18. An instrument employing electronic counters and an emulsion chamber for studying heavy cosmic ray interactions (JACEE-3)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Austin, R. W.; Meegan, C. A.; Parnell, T. A.; Selig, W. J.; Watts, J. W.; Burnett, T. H.; Iwai, J.; Lord, J. J.; Strauscz, S.; Wilkes, R. J.; Jones, W. V.

    1983-01-01

    A JACEE-3 instrument was flown on a balloon in June 1982 for 6.1 sq m sr hr exposure at an average atmospheric depth of 5 gm/sq cm in order to study the cosmic ray spectra, composition, and interactions above 1 TeV. The nucleus-nucleus interactions were studied above 20 GeV/amu from z = 6 to z = 26. The electronic counters contained gas Cerenkov structures with a 1.0-cm thick lead glass and a 1.27-cm thick Teflon radiator. A comparison to the instrument prototype is made. Based on the electronic counter event data, the finding efficiency of the hodoscope is noted to be near 100 percent for z greater than or equal to 22. A comparison is made between the hodoscope-predicted position and track found at P3 in an emulsion chamber.

  19. Flow of Super-Concentrated Emulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masalova, Irina; Malkin, Alexander Ya.

    2006-05-01

    Super concentrated emulsions, e.g., emulsion explosives, are two-phase systems consisting of aqueous droplets dispersed in an oil phase. The concentration of the disperse phase is 92-96 w.%, liquid droplets, containing a supersaturated aqueous solution of inorganic oxidizer salts. The flow of such emulsions is determined by their Theological properties as well as the time-dependent processes of "aging" which take place due to the thermodynamic instability of these emulsions. This work presents the results of experimental studies of the main effects that accompany the flow of such materials: non-Newtonian flow behavior, rheopexy which manifests as a slow increase of viscosity in the low shear rate domain, linear viscoelastic behavior, and the transition of elastic modulus to non-linearity at high amplitudes of deformation. The emulsions under study are non-Newtonian liquids. Experiments with the shear rate sweep demonstrate that the upward and downward branches of the flow curves coincide above some specific shear rate value. The upward experiments show the existence of a Newtonian section of the flow curve in the low-shear-rate domain, while the effect of yielding is observed on the downward curve. The wall slip in the flow of the emulsions under study is negligible. The elastic modulus is constant over a wide frequency range. Hence, viscoelastic relaxation processes might be expected at characteristic times of either >>100s or <0.01s. Strong non-linear behavior was observed in high amplitude experiments. The elastic modules (measured in oscillating testing and in elastic recovery) as well as the yield stress are proportional to D-2, while the Newtonian viscosity is proportional to D-1. Concentration dependence of rheological parameters is also discussed. The possible mechanism of emulsion flow is proposed. Aging leads to enhancement of the solid-like properties of emulsions, which can be treated as an "emulsion-to-suspension transition". However, this transition is incomplete because dispersions retain an ability to flow at stresses exceeding the yield stress value. It is shown that the aging of emulsions is caused by the slow crystallization of a supercooled salt solution without any noticeable coalescence effect. The evolution of mechanical properties of emulsions is correlated with the kinetics of structural changes during aging. The problem of transport characteristics of such emulsions is also discussed. It is shown that the choice of the flow curve fitting equation is not crucial for pipe flow design. The result can be used for practical applications in designing pipe transportation systems.

  20. Study of the diffusion of an emulsion in the human skin by pulsed photoacoustic spectroscopy: experiment and numerical simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benamar, N.; Lahjomri, F.; Chatri, E.; Leblanc, R. M.

    2004-12-01

    We previously used the Pulsed Photoacoustic Spectroscopy to quantify sunscreen chromophore diffusion into human skin, and suggested a methodology to evaluate the time and the depth diffusion profile into human skin. In the present study we present the results obtained for the diffusion of an emulsion in human skin, which is used in the sunscreen compositions. This study shows, for the first time, a particular behaviour due to a chemical reaction inside the skin during the diffusion process. This result brings a particularly interesting technique through the PPAS spectroscopy, to evaluate in situ, the eventual chemical reactions that can occur during drug diffusion into human skin. Numerical simulation allows us to understand the impact of thermal, optical and geometrical parameters on the photoacoustic signal and thus the physics of the diffusion phenomenon. The present simulation shows clearly that the tmax values corresponding to the maximum of the photoacoustic signal magnitude, ? P max, decrease when the thickness, ell , of the sample decrease. Conclusions about possibilities and limitations of the considered model are discussed.

  1. Oil emulsions of fluorosilicone fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Keil, J. W.

    1985-08-27

    Emulsions of fluorosilicone fluids in mineral oil are disclosed. These emulsions are stabilized by a polydimethylsiloxane-polybutadiene copolymer or a polydimethylsiloxane-hydrogenated polybutadiene copplymer. The emulsions are an effective foam suppressant for organic liquids, especially crude petroleum.

  2. Demulsification of bitumen emulsions

    SciTech Connect

    McCoy, D.R.; McEntire, E.E.

    1983-09-20

    A process for recovering bitumen from oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions is disclosed wherein water-soluble demulsifiers are used. These demulsifiers are salts of polymers and/or co-polymers of specific cationic monomers. To resolve the bituminous petroleum emulsions, the process is carried out between 25/sup 0/ and 160/sup 0/C. wherein the demulsifier of the invention is contacted with the bituminous emulsion.

  3. Demulsification of bitumen emulsions

    SciTech Connect

    Gipson, R.M.; Laberge, C.L.; Mccoy, D.R.; Young, K.B.

    1982-03-23

    A process for recovering bitumen from oil-in-water (o/w) emulsions is disclosed wherein water soluble demulsifiers are used. These demulsifiers are hydrophilic polyurethanes wherein the ethylene oxide content of the polyol portion of the polyurethane is greater than about 70% by weight. To resolve the bituminous petroleum emulsions, the process is carried out between 25 and 1200 C wherein the demulsifier of the invention is contacted with the bituminous emulsion.

  4. Overview of physics results from the CMS experiment at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shmatov, S. V.

    2015-06-01

    An overview of physics results from the CMS experiment at the LHC is given. The present analysis is based on data obtained for colliding proton beams at the c.m. energies of = 7 and 8 TeV over the period spanning 2011 and 2012. Results from proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus runs are also given.

  5. Prospects for $?$ meson production in pp collisions at the ALICE experiment

    E-print Network

    J. D. Tapia Takaki

    2008-01-08

    The ALICE experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will allow the study of resonance production in nucleus-nucleus and proton-proton collisions. This paper presents results based on physics performance studies to discuss prospects in ALICE for $\\phi$(1020) meson production in pp interactions during the LHC startup.

  6. Morphology characterization of emulsions by differential scanning calorimetry.

    PubMed

    Clausse, D; Gomez, F; Pezron, I; Komunjer, L; Dalmazzone, C

    2005-12-14

    This article is a review of some results obtained by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) for characterizing the morphology of emulsions. In a classical DSC experiment, an emulsion sample is submitted to a regular cooling and heating cycle between temperatures that include freezing and melting of the dispersed droplets. By using the thermograms found in the literature for various emulsions, how to get information about the solidification and melting, the presence of solute, the emulsion type, the transfer of matter, the stability and the droplet size is shown. PMID:16253203

  7. Microfluidics with Gel Emulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priest, Craig; Surenjav, Enkhtuul; Herminghaus, Stephan; Seemann, Ralf

    2006-03-01

    Microfluidic processing is usually achieved using single phase liquids. Instead, we use monodisperse emulsions to compartment liquids within microchannel geometries. At low continuous phase volume fractions, droplets self-organize to form well-defined arrangements, analogous to foam. While it is well-known that confined geometries can induce rearrangement of foam compartments at the millimeter-scale, similar dynamics are also expected for gel emulsions. We have studied online generation, organization and manipulation of gel emulsions using a variety of microchannel geometries. ``Passive'' reorganization, based on fixed channel geometries, can be supplemented by ``active'' manipulation by incorporating a ferrofluid phase. A ferromagnetic phase facilitates reorganization of liquid compartments on demand using an electromagnetic trigger. Moreover, coalescence between adjacent compartments within a gel emulsion can be induced using electrical potential. Microfluidics using gel emulsions will be well-suited for combinatorial chemistry, DNA sequencing, drug screening and protein crystallizations.

  8. Fish Oil–Based Lipid Emulsions in the Treatment of Parenteral Nutrition-Associated Liver Disease: An Ongoing Positive Experience123

    PubMed Central

    Premkumar, Muralidhar H.; Carter, Beth A.; Hawthorne, Keli M.; King, Kristi; Abrams, Steven A.

    2014-01-01

    We previously reported the beneficial effect of fish oil-based lipid emulsions (FOLEs) as monotherapy in the treatment of parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease (PNALD). In this report, we share our ongoing experience at Texas Children’s Hospital, Houston, Texas in the use of FOLE in treatment of PNALD as presented at the 2013 Experimental Biology meeting. We describe the findings of a single center, prospective, observational study of infants <6 mo of age with PNALD who received parenteral FOLE as monotherapy. A total of 97 infants received FOLE under the compassionate-use protocol for the treatment of PNALD. Eighty-three (86%) survived with resolution of cholestasis and 14 (14%) died. The median conjugated bilirubin (CB) concentration at the initiation of FOLE therapy was 4.8 mg/dL (range 2.1–26). The median time to resolution of cholestasis was 40 d (range 3–158). Compared with infants with mild cholestasis (CB of 2.1–5 mg/dL at the initiation of FOLE), nonsurvivors were significantly more premature and took longer to resolve their cholestasis. Gestational age at birth correlated inversely with CB at the beginning of FOLE and peak CB. Infants with an initial CB >10 mg/dL had a higher mortality rate than infants with an initial CB <5 mg/dL (35% vs. 6%; P < 0.05). Our experience with the use of FOLE in PNALD continues to be encouraging. Prematurity continues to be a major determinant in mortality and severity of cholestasis. This calls for further controlled studies designed to optimize dose and timing of intervention in the use of FOLE in neonates. PMID:24425724

  9. Influence of interfacial rheology on foam and emulsion properties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D Langevin

    2000-01-01

    Foams and emulsions are stabilized by surfactant monolayers that adsorb at the air–water and oil–water interfaces, respectively. As a result of monolayer adsorption, the interfaces become viscoelastic. We will describe experiments showing that foaming, emulsification, foam and emulsion stability, are strongly dependent upon the value of compression elasticity and viscosity. This will include excited surface wave devices for the measurement

  10. The foam\\/emulsion analogy in structure and drainage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Hutzler; N. Péron; D. Weaire; W. Drenckhan

    2004-01-01

    The often quoted analogy between foams and emulsions is experimentally tested by studying properties after settling and under forced drainage of oil-in-water emulsions of drop size similar as for bubbles generally used in foam experiments. Observations with regard to structure, water fraction and drainage wave properties confirm the expected similarity in the low flow rate range. However, while for foams

  11. Fluctuations in transverse energy and mulitplicity, energy densities, and neutral pion spectra in nucleus-nucleus collisions at 200 GeV/nucleon

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    The main goal of the CERN heavy-ion experiments is the search for an indication that the predicted state of deconfined quarks and gluons, the quark-gluon plasma (QGP), has been produced. The quantity most crucial to the probability of QGP formation is the thermalized energy density attained during the heavy-ion reaction. The amount of energy radiated transverse to the beam direction is the experimental quantity which is believed to be a measure of the amount of energy deposition in the reaction, and hence to reflect the energy density attained. In this presentation we consider the systematics of transverse energy production at CERN SPS energies, and we use the results to make estimates, under various assumptions, of attained energy densities.

  12. The ALICE experiment at the CERN LHC

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Aamodt; A. Abrahantes Quintana; R. Achenbach; S. Acounis; D. Adamová; C. Adler; M. Aggarwal; F. Agnese; G. Aglieri Rinella; Z. Ahammed; A. Ahmad; N. Ahmad; S. Ahmad; A. Akindinov; P. Akishin; D. Aleksandrov; B. Alessandro; R. Alfaro; G. Alfarone; A. Alici; J. Alme; T. Alt; S. Altinpinar; W. Amend; C. Andrei; Y. Andres; A. Andronic; G. Anelli; M. Anfreville; V. Angelov; A. Anzo; C. Anson; T. Anticic; V. Antonenko; D. Antonczyk; F. Antinori; S. Antinori; P. Antonioli; L. Aphecetche; H. Appelshäuser; V. Aprodu; M. Arba; S. Arcelli; A. Argentieri; N. Armesto; R. Arnaldi; A. Arefiev; I. Arsene; A. Asryan; A. Augustinus; T. C. Awes; J. Äysto; M. Danish Azmi; S. Bablock; A. Badalà; S. K. Badyal; J. Baechler; S. Bagnasco; R. Bailhache; R. Bala; A. Baldisseri; A. Baldit; J. Bán; R. Barbera; P.-L. Barberis; J. M. Barbet; G. Barnäfoldi; V. Barret; J. Bartke; D. Bartos; M. Basile; V. Basmanov; N. Bastid; G. Batigne; B. Batyunya; J. Baudot; C. Baumann; I. Bearden; B. Becker; J. Belikov; R. Bellwied; E. Belmont-Moreno; A. Belogianni; S. Belyaev; A. Benato; J. L. Beney; L. Benhabib; F. Benotto; S. Beolé; I. Berceanu; A. Bercuci; E. Berdermann; Y. Berdnikov; C. Bernard; R. Berny; J. D. Berst; H. Bertelsen; L. Betev; A. Bhasin; P. Baskar; A. Bhati; N. Bianchi; J. Bielcik; J. Bielciková; L. Bimbot; G. Blanchard; F. Blanco; D. Blau; C. Blume; S. Blyth; M. Boccioli; A. Bogdanov; H. Bøggild; M. Bogolyubsky; L. Boldizsár; M. Bombara; C. Bombonati; M. Bondila; D. Bonnet; V. Bonvicini; H. Borel; F. Borotto; V. Borshchov; Y. Bortoli; O. Borysov; S. Bose; L. Bosisio; M. Botje; S. Böttger; G. Bourdaud; O. Bourrion; S. Bouvier; A. Braem; M. Braun; P. Braun-Munzinger; L. Bravina; M. Bregant; G. Bruckner; R. Brun; E. Bruna; O. Brunasso; G. E. Bruno; D. Bucher; V. Budilov; D. Budnikov; H. Buesching; P. Buncic; M. Burns; S. Burachas; O. Busch; J. Bushop; X. Cai; H. Caines; F. Calaon; M. Caldogno; I. Cali; P. Camerini; R. Campagnolo; M. Campbell; X. Cao; G. P. Capitani; G. Cara Romeo; M. Cardenas-Montes; H. Carduner; F. Carena; W. Carena; P. Cariola; F. Carminati; J. Casado; A. Casanova Diaz; M. Caselle; J. Castillo Castellanos; J. Castor; V. Catanescu; E. Cattaruzza; D. Cavazza; P. Cerello; S. Ceresa; V. Cerný; V. Chambert; S. Chapeland; A. Charpy; D. Charrier; M. Chartoire; J. L. Charvet; S. Chattopadhyay; V. Chepurnov; S. Chernenko; M. Cherney; C. Cheshkov; B. Cheynis; P. Chochula; E. Chiavassa; V. Chibante Barroso; J. Choi; P. Christakoglou; P. Christiansen; C. Christensen; O. A. Chykalov; C. Cicalo; L. Cifarelli-Strolin; M. Ciobanu; F. Cindolo; C. Cirstoiu; O. Clausse; J. Cleymans; O. Cobanoglu; J.-P. Coffin; S. Coli; A. Colla; C. Colledani; C. Combaret; M. Combet; M. Comets; G. Conesa Balbastre; Z. Conesa del Valle; G. Contin; J. Contreras; T. Cormier; F. Corsi; P. Cortese; F. Costa; E. Crescio; P. Crochet; E. Cuautle; J. Cussonneau; M. Dahlinger; A. Dainese; H. H. Dalsgaard; L. Daniel; I. Das; T. Das; A. Dash; R. Da Silva; M. Davenport; H. Daues; A. DeCaro; G. de Cataldo; J. DeCuveland; A. DeFalco; M. de Gaspari; P. de Girolamo; J. de Groot; D. DeGruttola; A. DeHaas; N. DeMarco; S. DePasquale; P. DeRemigis; D. de Vaux; G. Decock; H. Delagrange; M. DelFranco; G. Dellacasa; A. Deloff; V. Demanov; E. Dénes; G. D'Erasmo; D. Derkach; A. Devaux; D. Di Bari; A. Di Bartelomen; C. Di Giglio; S. Di Liberto; A. Di Mauro; P. Di Nezza; M. Dialinas; L. Diaz; R. Díaz Valdes; T. Dietel; R. Dima; H. Ding; C. Dinca; R. Divià; V. Dobretsov; A. Dobrin; B. Doenigus; T. Dobrowolski; I. Domínguez; M. Dorn; S. Drouet; A. E. Dubey; L. Ducroux; F. Dumitrache; E. Dumonteil; P. Dupieux; V. Duta; A. Dutta Majumdar; M. Dutta Majumdar; Th Dyhre; L. Efimov; A. Efremov; D. Elia; D. Emschermann; C. Engster; A. Enokizono; B. Espagnon; M. Estienne; A. Evangelista; D. Evans; S. Evrard; C. W. Fabjan; D. Fabris; J. Faivre; D. Falchieri; A. Fantoni; R. Farano; R. Fearick; O. Fedorov; V. Fekete; D. Felea; G. Feofilov; A. Férnandez Téllez; A. Ferretti; F. Fichera; S. Filchagin; E. Filoni; C. Finck; R. Fini; E. M. Fiore; D. Flierl; M. Floris; Z. Fodor; Y. Foka; S. Fokin; P. Force; F. Formenti; E. Fragiacomo; M. Fragkiadakis; D. Fraissard; A. Franco; M. Franco; U. Frankenfeld; U. Fratino; S. Fresneau; A. Frolov; U. Fuchs; J. Fujita; C. Furget; M. Furini; M. Fusco Girard; J.-J. Gaardhøje; S. Gadrat; M. Gagliardi; A. Gago; L. Gaido; A. Gallas Torreira; M. Gallio; E. Gandolfi; P. Ganoti; M. Ganti; J. Garabatos; A. Garcia Lopez; L. Garizzo; L. Gaudichet; R. Gemme; M. Germain; A. Gheata; M. Gheata; B. Ghidini; P. Ghosh; G. Giolu; G. Giraudo; P. Giubellino; R. Glasow; P. Glässel; E. G. Ferreiro; C. Gonzalez Gutierrez; L. H. Gonzales-Trueba; S. Gorbunov; Y. Gorbunov; H. Gos; J. Gosset; S. Gotovac; H. Gottschlag; D. Gottschalk; V. Grabski; T. Grassi; H. Gray; O. Grebenyuk; K. Grebieszkow; C. Gregory; C. Grigoras; N. Grion

    2008-01-01

    ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) is a general-purpose, heavy-ion detector at the CERN LHC which focuses on QCD, the strong-interaction sector of the Standard Model. It is designed to address the physics of strongly interacting matter and the quark-gluon plasma at extreme values of energy density and temperature in nucleus-nucleus collisions. Besides running with Pb ions, the physics programme

  13. Topical delivery of acetyl hexapeptide-8 from different emulsions: influence of emulsion composition and internal structure.

    PubMed

    Hoppel, Magdalena; Reznicek, Gottfried; Kählig, Hanspeter; Kotisch, Harald; Resch, Günter P; Valenta, Claudia

    2015-02-20

    Acetyl hexapeptide-8 (AH-8) is a well-known component of anti-aging products and was recently explored as a promising topical treatment of blepharospasm. Although AH-8 appears in a variety of cosmetic products, its skin penetration is sparsely studied and controversially discussed. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of the vehicle type on the AH-8 delivery to the skin. Besides skin permeation experiments with Franz type diffusion cells, the spatial distribution of AH-8 in the stratum corneum after a real in-use application was investigated by in vitro tape stripping on porcine ear skin. By applying LC-MS/MS for quantification of AH-8, we demonstrated that a multiple water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) emulsion can significantly increase penetration of AH-8 into porcine skin compared to simple O/W and W/O emulsions. The internal structure of the developed multiple emulsion was confirmed by electron microscopic investigations and NMR self diffusion studies. In general, a clear superiority of water-rich W/O/W and O/W emulsions over an oil-rich W/O emulsion in terms of dermal delivery of AH-8 was found. This enhanced delivery of AH-8 could be explained by an increased absorption of the water-rich emulsions into the skin, confirmed by combined ATR-FTIR and tape stripping experiments. PMID:25497319

  14. Semiclassical and microscopic calculations of the spin-orbit density part of the Skyrme nucleus-nucleus interaction potential with temperature effects included

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Raj K.; Singh, Dalip [Department of Physics, Panjab University, Chandigarh-160014 (India); Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies (FIAS), Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universitaet, Max-von-Laue-Str. 1, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Greiner, Walter [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies (FIAS), Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universitaet, Max-von-Laue-Str. 1, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2007-02-15

    The semiclassical formulation of the Skyrme energy density functional for spin-orbit density part of the interaction potential is compared with the microscopic shell model formulation, at both the ground state and finite temperatures. The semiclassical spin-orbit interaction potential is shown to contain exactly the same shell effects as are there in the microscopic shell model, provided a normalization of all semiclassical results to the spin-saturated case (for one or both nuclei as spin-saturated) is made. On the other hand, the {alpha} nucleus structure present in microscopic shell model is found absent in semiclassical approach. The role of temperature is found not to change the behavior of shell or {alpha} nucleus structure effects up to about 3 MeV, and increase or decrease the height of the (normalized) barriers in accordance with the shell structure of nuclei. Calculations are made for three two-nucleon transfer reactions forming the {alpha}-nucleus A=4n,N=Z compound systems {sup 56}Ni{sup *} and {sup 48}Cr{sup *} and the non-{alpha}-nucleus compound system {sup 52}Cr{sup *}, and for Skyrme forces SIII and SLy4. The two parameter Fermi density, with its parameters fitted to experiments and made temperature dependent in a model way, is used for the nuclear density in semiclassical calculations, and the same in microscopic shell model is achieved via the Fermi-Dirac occupation of shell model states and particle number conservation.

  15. Magnetoresistive Emulsion Analyzer

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Gungun; Baraban, Larysa; Han, Luyang; Karnaushenko, Daniil; Makarov, Denys; Cuniberti, Gianaurelio; Schmidt, Oliver G.

    2013-01-01

    We realize a magnetoresistive emulsion analyzer capable of detection, multiparametric analysis and sorting of ferrofluid-containing nanoliter-droplets. The operation of the device in a cytometric mode provides high throughput and quantitative information about the dimensions and magnetic content of the emulsion. Our method offers important complementarity to conventional optical approaches involving ferrofluids, and paves the way to the development of novel compact tools for diagnostics and nanomedicine including drug design and screening. PMID:23989504

  16. Strange Particles and Neutron Stars - Experiments at Gsi

    E-print Network

    P. Senger

    2006-11-09

    Experiments on strangeness production in nucleus-nucleus collisions at SIS energies address fundamental aspects of modern nuclear physics: the determination of the nuclear equation-of-state at high baryon densities and the properties of hadrons in dense nuclear matter. Experimental data and theoretical results will be reviewed. Future experiments at the FAIR accelerator aim at the exploration of the QCD phase diagram at highest baryon densities.

  17. Emulsions for interfacial filtration.

    SciTech Connect

    Grillet, Anne Mary; Bourdon, Christopher Jay; Souza, Caroline Ann; Welk, Margaret Ellen; Hartenberger, Joel David; Brooks, Carlton, F.

    2006-11-01

    We have investigated a novel emulsion interfacial filter that is applicable for a wide range of materials, from nano-particles to cells and bacteria. This technology uses the interface between the two immiscible phases as the active surface area for adsorption of targeted materials. We showed that emulsion interfaces can effectively collect and trap materials from aqueous solution. We tested two aqueous systems, a bovine serum albumin (BSA) solution and coal bed methane produced water (CBMPW). Using a pendant drop technique to monitor the interfacial tension, we demonstrated that materials in both samples were adsorbed to the liquid-liquid interface, and did not readily desorb. A prototype system was built to test the emulsion interfacial filter concept. For the BSA system, a protein assay showed a progressive decrease in the residual BSA concentration as the sample was processed. Based on the initial prototype operation, we propose an improved system design.

  18. Stability criteria for emulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bibette, J.; Morse, D. C.; Witten, T. A.; Weitz, D. A.

    1992-10-01

    The coalescence of monodisperse silicone oil-in-water emulsions stabilized with sodium dodecyl sulfate has been studied. We report the existence of a sharp destabilization threshold, controlled by surfactant chemical potential, osmotic pressure, and droplet diameter, at which the rate of coalescence increases dramatically. We present evidence that the stability of the emulsions can be characterized by two microscopic parameters: a minimum stable value of the surfactant chemical potential and a maximum value of the pressure exerted upon a droplet-droplet interface.

  19. Rapid crystallization and morphological adjustment of zeolite ZSM-5 in nonionic emulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ying; Jin, Chao

    2011-01-01

    Zeolite ZSM-5 was synthesized for the first time in a nonionic emulsion composed of polyoxyethylated alkylphenol, butanol, cyclohexane and tetraethylammonium hydroxide (TEAOH)-containing zeolite synthesis mixture. The crystallization kinetics in the emulsion was investigated and the ZSM-5 product was characterized in detail by XRD, SEM, FT-IR, TG, N 2 adsorption and CHN analysis techniques. Compared with the conventionally hydrothermal synthesis with the same structure directing agent TEAOH, the emulsion system allows rapid crystallization of ZSM-5. The ZSM-5 product exhibits unusual agglomerated structure and possesses larger specific surface area. The FT-IR, TG results plus CHN analysis show the encapsulation of a trace of emulsion components in the emulsion ZSM-5. Control experiments show the emulsion system exerts the crystallization induction and morphological adjustment effects mainly during the aging period. The effects are tentatively attributed to the confined space domains, surfactant-water interaction as well as surfactant-growing crystals interaction existing in the emulsion.

  20. Preparation and stabilization of D-limonene Pickering emulsions by cellulose nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Wen, Chunxia; Yuan, Qipeng; Liang, Hao; Vriesekoop, Frank

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate D-limonene Pickering emulsion stabilized by cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) and factors that may affect its properties. CNCs were prepared by ammonium persulfate hydrolysis of corncob cellulose, and D-limonene Pickering emulsions were generated by ultrasonic homogenizing method. The morphology and size of the prepared emulsions with different CNCs concentrations were studied by optical microscopy and laser light diffraction. In addition, factors that may affect the stability of emulsions such as ionic concentration, pH and temperature were also studied. As indicated by the experiment data, when temperature rose, the stability to of emulsions would be increased, and the stability of emulsions was reduced with low pH or high salt concentration due to electrostatic screening of the negatively charged CNC particles. In conclusion, high stability of D-limonene Pickering emulsions could be obtained by CNCs. PMID:25129799

  1. Transport and Retention of Emulsion Droplets in Sandy Porous Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esahani, S. G.; Muller, K.; Chapra, S. C.; Ramsburg, A.

    2014-12-01

    Emulsions are commonly used as amendments during remediation; yet, the processes controlling the distribution of droplets within the subsurface are not well understood. Given that inadequate spatial and/or temporal delivery of amendments often leads to ineffective treatment, there is a need to better understand emulsion transport. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the transport and retention of emulsion droplets in columns containing Ottawa sands. Breakthrough curves and deposition profiles from these experiments were interrogated using a mathematical model capable of describing attachment, detachment, and straining to begin to elucidate the physical processes controlling delivery. Emulsions were constructed by stabilizing soybean oil droplets within a continuous aqueous phase. Physical properties of the resulting oil-in-water emulsions were favorable for subsurface delivery (nominal properties: 1 g/mL density; 10 cP viscosity; and 1.5 ?m droplet d50). Emulsions were introduced to the columns for approximately two pore volumes and followed by an extended flush of background solution. Effluent droplet size distributions did not vary significantly over the course of the experiment and remained similar to those measured for the influent emulsion. Emulsion breakthrough curves exhibited tailing, and deposition profiles were found to be hyper-exponential and unaffected by extended periods of background flow. Depending on emulsion composition and flow characteristics, 10-30% of the injected emulsion was retained on the sand suggesting a non-negligible influence on accessible porosity over the course of the experiment. Experimental results were further interpreted using a droplet transport model that accounts for temporal and spatial variation in porosity due to the retention of the emulsion droplets. At present the model assumes a uniform size distribution of inelastic emulsion droplets which are transported by advection and dispersion, and exchanged with the solid phase through attachment, detachment, and straining processes. Results examine the relative roles of attachment-detachment and straining in reducing the accessible porosity. Evaluation of how the porosity change influences the flow regime for moderately and slightly clogged media is currently under investigation.

  2. Observation of a high-energy cosmic-ray family caused by a Centauro-type nuclear interaction in the joint emulsion chamber experiment at the Pamirs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. S. Borisov; K. V. Cherdyntseva; Z. M. Guseva; V. G. Denisova; A. M. Dunaevsky; E. A. Kanevskaya; V. M. Maximenko; R. A. Nam; V. S. Puchkov; S. A. Slavatinsky; M. D. Smirnova; Yu. A. Smorodin; A. V. Uryson; N. G. Zelevinskaya; M. V. Zimin; G. B. Zhdanov; I. A. Mikhailova; R. A. Mukhamedshin; O. E. Nedel'Ko; L. P. Nikolaeva; G. T. Zatsepin; T. P. Amineva; L. T. Baradzei; I. P. Ivanenko; N. P. Iljina; T. V. Lazareva; A. K. Managadze; E. A. Murzina; E. I. Pomelova; E. G. Popova; I. V. Rakobolskaya; T. M. Roganova; N. G. Ryabova; L. G. Sveshnikova; S. D. Cananov; L. Kh. Chadranyan; L. A. Khisanishvilli; M. K. Ladarija; G. G. Leptukh; N. N. Roinishvili; M. S. Svanidze; Z. A. Azimov; I. B. Bobodjanov; N. E. Gubar; Yu. A. Gulov; F. Normuradov; Kh. Shoboronov; S. A. Azimov; D. A. Khalilov; Sh. Myrtojieva; E. G. Mullajanov; A. N. Nosov; Kh. Nuritdinov; T. S. Yuldashbaev; S. E. Bakhtigereev; N. A. Dobrotin; Yu. A. Emelyanov; E. G. Zaitseva; H. Bielawska; H. Bialobrzeska; M. Linke; J. Malinowski; J. Maciaszszyk; A. Krys; A. Tomaszewski; J. Nowicka; Z. Wlodarczyk; J. A. Chinellato; C. Dobrigkeit; J. Bellandi Filho; A. C. Fauth; C. M. G. Lattes; M. J. Menon; C. E. Navia O; K. Sawayanagi; E. H. Shibuya; A. Turtelli; N. M. Amato; N. Arata; F. M. Oliveira Castro; R. H. C. Maldonado; H. Aoki; Y. Fujimoto; Y. Funayama; S. Hasegawa; H. Kumano; H. Semba; M. Tamada; S. Yamashita; T. Shibata; K. Yokoi; A. Ohsawa

    1987-01-01

    An exotic cosmic-ray family event is observed in the large emulsion chamber exposed by the joint at the Pamirs (4360 m above sea level). The family is composed of 120gamma-ray-induced showers and 37 hadron-induced showers with individual visible energy exceeding 1 TeV. The decisive feature of the event is the hadron dominance: SigmaEgamma, SigmaE(gamma)h, , and being

  3. Dynamics of Unjammed Emulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerra, Rodrigo; Kodger, Thomas; Weitz, David

    2014-03-01

    Light scattering and NMR densitometry measurements of quiescent emulsions have shown that amorphous packings of soft, repulsive droplets unjam at osmotic pressures 105 times larger than the typical droplet thermal energy density: 3kB/T 4 ?R3. This transition corresponds to the pressure at which the thermal fluctuations of individual droplet positions match the yield strain of the packing and drive the fluidization of the material. We use confocal microscopy to investigate the microscopic dynamics of this fluid-like phase and find them to be fundamentally different from those of conventional glass-forming liquids; cage-breaking dynamics are not evident from droplet mean squared displacements and the effective viscosity of the emulsion, though 105 larger than the background fluid, appears largely insensitive to the confining pressure.

  4. Cyclodextrin stabilised emulsions and cyclodextrinosomes.

    PubMed

    Mathapa, Baghali G; Paunov, Vesselin N

    2013-11-01

    We report the preparation of o/w emulsions stabilised by microcrystals of cyclodextrin-oil inclusion complexes. The inclusion complexes are formed by threading cyclodextrins from the aqueous phase on n-tetradecane or silicone oil molecules from the emulsion drop surface which grow further into microrods and microplatelets depending on the type of cyclodextrin (CD) used. These microcrystals remain attached on the surface of the emulsion drops and form densely packed layers which resemble Pickering emulsions. The novelty of this emulsion stabilisation mechanism is that molecularly dissolved cyclodextrin from the continuous aqueous phase is assembled into colloid particles directly onto the emulsion drop surface, i.e. molecular adsorption leads to effective Pickering stabilisation. The ?-CD stabilised tetradecane-in-water emulsions were so stable that we used this system as a template for preparation of cyclodextrinosomes. These structures were produced solely through formation of cyclodextrin-oil inclusion complexes and their assembly into a crystalline phase on the drop surface retained its stability after the removal of the core oil. The structures of CD-stabilised tetradecane-in-water emulsions were characterised using optical microscopy, fluorescence microscopy, cross-polarised light microscopy and WETSEM while the cyclodextrinosomes were characterised by SEM. We also report the preparation of CD-stabilised emulsions with a range of other oils, including tricaprylin, silicone oil, isopropyl myristate and sunflower oil. We studied the effect of the salt concentration in the aqueous phase, the type of CD and the oil volume fraction on the type of emulsion formed. The CD-stabilised emulsions can be applied in a range of surfactant-free formulations with possible applications in cosmetics, home and personal care. Cyclodextrinosomes could find applications in pharmaceutical formulations as microencapsulation and drug delivery vehicles. PMID:24043288

  5. Formation and stability of polychlorinated biphenyl Pickering emulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy-Perreault, Andréanne; Kueper, Bernard H.; Rawson, Jim

    2005-03-01

    An emulsion stabilized by colloidal suspensions of finely divided solids is known as a Pickering emulsion. The potential for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to form Pickering emulsions ex situ when in contact with powdered solids, such as clays and metal oxides, is investigated here. Bentonite, iron oxide and magnesium oxide dispersions proved to be robust Pickering emulsion stabilizers, whereas manganese oxide dispersions were not. Batch experiments revealed that emulsions can be formed using a moderately low energy input and can be stabilized with solid concentrations as low as 0.5 wt.%. For the base conditions (volumetric oil fraction ( ?oil)=30 vol.%; solid concentration ( ?)=2 wt.%), the formed emulsions were indefinitely stable and the initial average droplet diameters varied from 80 to 258 ?m, depending on the solid used in the colloidal dispersion. The average droplet size varied at early time, but for most conditions stabilized to a steady-state value 1 week after preparation. The effect of Ostwald ripening was limited. At greater than 0.5 wt.% concentration, the efficiency of the solid dispersion as a stabilizer was dependant on the volumetric oil fraction but not on the solid concentration. Generally, systems with volumetric oil fractions outside of the 20-70 vol.% range were unstable. The emulsions' droplet stability, average droplet size and size distribution were observed to vary as a function of the amount of energy provided to the system, the volumetric oil fraction, and the concentration of the solid in the aqueous dispersion. It is hypothesized that drilling through fractured rock in the immediate vicinity of dense, non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) PCBs may provide both the energy and solid material necessary to form Pickering emulsions.

  6. Programmed emulsions for sodium reduction in emulsion based foods.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Natalie; Hewson, Louise; Fisk, Ian; Wolf, Bettina

    2015-05-13

    In this research a microstructure approach to reduce sodium levels in emulsion based foods is presented. If successful, this strategy will enable reduction of sodium without affecting consumer satisfaction with regard to salty taste. The microstructure approach comprised of entrapment of sodium in the internal aqueous phase of water-in-oil-in-water emulsions. These were designed to destabilise during oral processing when in contact with the salivary enzyme amylase in combination with the mechanical manipulation of the emulsion between the tongue and palate. Oral destabilisation was achieved through breakdown of the emulsion that was stabilised with a commercially modified octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA)-starch. Microstructure breakdown and salt release was evaluated utilising in vitro, in vivo and sensory methods. For control emulsions, stabilised with orally inert proteins, no loss of structure and no release of sodium from the internal aqueous phase was found. The OSA-starch microstructure breakdown took the initial form of oil droplet coalescence. It is hypothesised that during this coalescence process sodium from the internalised aqueous phase is partially released and is therefore available for perception. Indeed, programmed emulsions showed an enhancement in saltiness perception; a 23.7% reduction in sodium could be achieved without compromise in salty taste (p < 0.05; 120 consumers). This study shows a promising new approach for sodium reduction in liquid and semi-liquid emulsion based foods. PMID:25865459

  7. The Preparation and Testing of a Common Emulsion and Personal Care Product: Lotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mabrouk, Suzanne T.

    2004-01-01

    A chemical analysis of lotions, which comprises of categorizations of moisturizers and emulsions, with the preparation and testing of three lotions, is done. The experiment piques students' interest in preparing lotions and emulsions, and proves the value of chemistry in satisfying the needs of everyday life.

  8. Experimental investigation on diesel engine with diestrol–water micro emulsions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. R. Kannan; R. Anand

    2011-01-01

    Experiments were conducted on a single cylinder direct injection diesel engine using diesel, biodiesel and biodiesel–diesel–ethanol (diestrol) water micro emulsion fuels to investigate the performance, emission and combustion characteristics of the engine under different load conditions at a constant speed of 1500 rpm. The results indicated that biodiesel and micro emulsion fuels had a higher brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) than

  9. Responsiveness of emulsions stabilized by lactoferrin nano-particles to simulated intestinal conditions.

    PubMed

    Meshulam, Dafna; Lesmes, Uri

    2014-01-01

    There is an upsurge of interest in the use of nano-particles to fabricate emulsions and modulate their functionality, with particular emphasis on modulating emulsion digestive fate. Food grade nano-particles formed through controlled processing and electrostatic biopolymer interactions are yet to be systematically studied for their ability to stabilize emulsions and modulate emulsion digestibility. This study focused on the responsiveness of emulsions stabilized by lactoferrin (LF) nano-particles (NPs) and dietary fibers to key digestive parameters. Compared to native LF, LF-NPs comprised emulsion exhibited elevated creaming rates as evident from accelerated stability tests performed by analytical centrifugation. The electrostatic deposition of alginate or carrageenan onto the LF-NPs significantly improved the stability of the corresponding emulsions. Further, the use of various nano-particles showed to have both beneficial and deleterious effects on emulsion responsiveness to pH (2.0 < pH < 10.0), CaCl2 (0-40 mM) and bile (0-25 mg mL(-1)). Simulated pH-stat lipolysis experiments show that the use of LF or LF-NPs had no marked effect on lipolysis. Intriguingly, the use of LF-NPs and alginate reduced emulsion lipolysis by 14% while the use of LF-NPs and carrageenan increased lipolysis by 10%. Microscopy images as well as droplet characterization in terms of size and charge indicate that the altered emulsion responsiveness may be due to physical differences in emulsion properties (e.g. droplet size) and overall organization during digestion (e.g. aggregation vs. coalescence). Overall, this study's insights could prospectively be used to harness protein nano-particles to tweak emulsion behavior during digestion. PMID:24247725

  10. Thermocapillary Motion in an Emulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pukhnachov, Vladislav V.; Voinov, Oleg V.

    1996-01-01

    The phenomenological model for the motion of an emulsion or a gas-liquid mixture exposed to thermocapillary forces and micro-acceleration is formulated. The analytical and numerical investigation of one-dimensional flows for these media is fulfilled, the structure of discontinuous motion is studied. The stability conditions of a space-uniform state and of the interface between an emulsion and a pure liquid are obtained.

  11. Emulsions of Polymer Blends Stabilized by Janus Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryson, Kyle; Hayward, Ryan; Russell, Thomas

    2012-02-01

    Particle-stabilized emulsions of both immiscible and partially miscible polymer blends have recently received renewed interest. In particular, bicontinuous stabilized emulsions are attractive for their three-dimensional expression of the properties of each component, but a true incarnation of this structure has yet to be demonstrated in polymer systems, due to the difficulties in preparing particles that neutrally wet both polymer phases. Janus particles, which possess different surface chemistries on two halves of the particles, afford a way to bypass the necessity of neutral wettability. Both theory and experiment have shown enhanced interfacial adsorption energies for Janus particles, in comparison to homogeneous particles. To investigate these concepts, silica particles were homogeneously and anisotropically functionalized and dispersed in fluid mixtures; interfaces were created by thermally induced phase separation or mechanical mixing. The resulting structures were characterized by laser-scanning confocal microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The results elucidate the role of particle wettability on the structure of stabilized emulsions.

  12. Oscillatory, creep and steady flow behavior of xanthan-thickened oil-in-water emulsions

    SciTech Connect

    Pal, R. [Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1995-04-01

    In the handling, mixing, storage, and pipeline transportation of emulsions, knowledge of rheological properties is required for the design, selection, and operation of the equipment involved. The rheological behavior of xanthan gum-thickened oil-in-water emulsions is studied with a cone-and-plate system using a constant-stress rheometer. Xanthan gum solutions and xanthan-thickened oil-in-water emulsions are strongly shear-thinning and viscoelastic in nature. The effects of polymer and oil concentrations on the rheological behavior of emulsions are investigated. The relative viscosity for the thickened emulsions, at any given oil concentration, increases with an increase in the shear rate, whereas the unthickened emulsions show the opposite trend. The theoretical models give reasonable predictions for the relative viscosity, storage modulus, and loss modulus of xanthan-thickened emulsions. The ratio of storage to loss moduli increases considerably with the increase in polymer and oil concentrations. The creep/recovery experiments confirm that the xanthan-thickened emulsions are highly viscoelastic in nature and that the degree of elasticity increases with the increase in polymer and oil concentrations.

  13. Hollandaise Sauce: Emulsion at Work

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Exploratorium

    2012-10-03

    In this activity, learners follow a recipe to make hollandaise sauce. Learners discover how cooks use egg yolks to blend oil and water together into a smooth mix. In chemistry, this mixture is known as an emulsion. Substances like egg yolks that assist with emulsification are called emulsifiers.

  14. Experimental Characterization of Canola Oil Emulsion Combustion in a Modified Furnace

    E-print Network

    Bhimani, Shreyas Mahesh

    2012-07-16

    , the surfactant is called an anionic surfactant and if the charge is positive, it is called a cationic surfactant. There are surfactants whose heads have two oppositely charged groups. They are referred to as zwitterionic/amphoteric surfactants. 2. Nonionic... oil emulsion with 2% surfactant (w/w)] and 85-12.5 emulsion [12.5% methanol ? in ? 85% canola oil (w/w) emulsion with 2.5% surfactant]. All the combustion experiments were conducted for a constant heat output of 72,750 kJ/hr. One of the major...

  15. Measurement of dileptons with the CBM experiment at FAIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höhne, C.

    2014-11-01

    The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at the upcoming Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) will explore the phase diagram of nuclear matter at very high net-baryon densities and moderate temperatures in nucleus-nucleus collisions at beam energies up to 45 A GeV. One of the key diagnostic probes is electromagnetic radiation. In order to minimize systematic errors of this challenging measurement, CBM aims at an investigation of dielectron and dimuon pairs in the full mass range from the photon point up to charmonium. The results of performance studies for dilepton measurements and the status of the detector developments are presented.

  16. Formulation and Evaluation of a Vitamin C Multiple Emulsion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Farahmand; H. Tajerzadeh; E. S. Farboud

    2006-01-01

    Multiple phase emulsions are increasingly used as alter- natives to simple emulsions in personal care products. One of the major advantages of these emulsions over simple emul- sions is slow and controlled release of their ingredients. Other favorite cosmetic characteristics of multiple emulsions include occlusivity (in O\\/W\\/O emulsions), esthetics and consumer acceptance. Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) has been widely used

  17. The dynamic influence of cells on the formation of stable emulsions in organic-aqueous biotransformations.

    PubMed

    Collins, Jonathan; Grund, Marcel; Brandenbusch, Christoph; Sadowski, Gabriele; Schmid, Andreas; Bühler, Bruno

    2015-07-01

    Emulsion stability plays a crucial role for mass transfer and downstream processing in organic-aqueous bioprocesses based on whole microbial cells. In this study, emulsion stability dynamics and the factors determining them during two-liquid phase biotransformation were investigated for stereoselective styrene epoxidation catalyzed by recombinant Escherichia coli. Upon organic phase addition, emulsion stability rapidly increased correlating with a loss of solubilized protein from the aqueous cultivation broth and the emergence of a hydrophobic cell fraction associated with the organic-aqueous interface. A novel phase inversion-based method was developed to isolate and analyze cellular material from the interface. In cell-free experiments, a similar loss of aqueous protein did not correlate with high emulsion stability, indicating that the observed particle-based emulsions arise from a convergence of factors related to cell density, protein adsorption, and bioreactor conditions. During styrene epoxidation, emulsion destabilization occurred correlating with product-induced cell toxification. For biphasic whole-cell biotransformations, this study indicates that control of aqueous protein concentrations and selective toxification of cells enables emulsion destabilization and emphasizes that biological factors and related dynamics must be considered in the design and modeling of respective upstream and especially downstream processes. PMID:25916765

  18. Use of micro-emulsion technology for the directed evolution of antibodies.

    PubMed

    Buhr, Diane L; Acca, Felicity E; Holland, Erika G; Johnson, Katie; Maksymiuk, Gail M; Vaill, Ada; Kay, Brian K; Weitz, David A; Weiner, Michael P; Kiss, Margaret M

    2012-09-01

    Affinity reagents, such as antibodies, are needed to study protein expression patterns, sub-cellular localization, and post-translational modifications in complex mixtures and tissues. Phage Emulsion, Secretion, and Capture (ESCape) is a novel micro-emulsion technology that utilizes water-in-oil (W/O) emulsions for the identification and isolation of cells secreting phage particles that display desirable antibodies. Using this method, a large library of antibody-displaying phage will bind to beads in individual compartments. Rather than using biopanning on a large mixed population, phage micro-emulsion technology allows us to individually query clonal populations of amplified phage against the antigen. The use of emulsions to generate microdroplets has the promise of accelerating phage selection experiments by permitting fine discrimination of kinetic parameters for binding to targets. In this study, we demonstrate the ability of phage micro-emulsion technology to distinguish two scFvs with a 300-fold difference in binding affinities (100nM and 300pM, respectively). In addition, we describe the application of phage micro-emulsion technology for the selection of scFvs that are resistant to elevated temperatures. PMID:22819852

  19. Formation of curcumin nanoparticles by flash nanoprecipitation from emulsions.

    PubMed

    Margulis, Katherine; Magdassi, Shlomo; Lee, Han Seung; Macosko, Christopher W

    2014-11-15

    Nanometric particles of a model hydrophobic substance curcumin were prepared by a novel method, namely, flash nanoprecipitation from a coarse oil-in-water emulsion. The method employs turbulent co-mixing of water with curcumin-loaded emulsion using manually-operated confined impingement jets mixer. A clear and stable dispersion of nanoparticles was formed in this process, and could be converted to dry, easily water-dispersible powder by spray drying. The mean size of the particles was about 40 nm by DLS, confirmed by Cryo-TEM. The obtained particles contained 20.4 wt% curcumin, X-ray analysis showed it was amorphous. The significant advantages of the studied process are its feasibility, speed and low cost. It does not require any special high-energy input equipment to reduce the droplet size of the initial emulsion as required by the vast majority of other methods, and relies on rapid turbulent mixing and on flow-induced shear stress formed in the simple, manually-operated mixer. Control experiments clearly indicate that employing emulsion, instead of a plain solution and flash nanoprecipitation instead of a simple antisolvent precipitation are advantageous in terms of particle size and stability. PMID:25168584

  20. Thermally stable emulsion explosive composition

    SciTech Connect

    Sudweeks, W.B.; Lawrence, L.D.

    1982-03-30

    A thermally stable, cap-sensitive, water-in-oil emulsion explosive composition is described which has a discontinuous aqueous oxidizer salt solution phase containing calcium nitrate, a continuous oil or water-immiscible liquid or organic phase, an emulsifier, and a density reducing agent. The salt solution contains calcium nitrate in an amount of at least 20% by weight based on the total composition. 9 claims.

  1. Formation and stability of nano-emulsions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tharwat Tadros; P Izquierdo; J Esquena; C Solans

    2004-01-01

    This review describes the principles of formation and stability of nano-emulsions. It starts with an introduction highlighting the main advantages of nano-emulsions over macroemulsions for personal care and cosmetic formulations. It also describes the main problems with lack of progress on nano-emulsions. The second section deals with the mechanism of emulsification and the dynamic light scattering technique for measurement of

  2. Demulsification of bitumen emulsions using polyureas

    SciTech Connect

    Mccoy, D.R.; Young, K.B.

    1983-05-24

    A process for recovering bitumen from oil-in-water (O/w) emulsions is disclosed wherein water soluble demulsifiers are used. These demulsifiers are polyureas of average molecular weight greater than about 5,000 prepared by the reaction between a polyisocyanate and a polyoxyalkylenediamine. To resolve the bituminous petroleum emulsions, the process is carried out between 25/sup 0/ and 160/sup 0/ C wherein the demulsifier of the invention is contacted with the bituminous emulsion.

  3. Demulsification of bitumen emulsions using cationic polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Mccoy, D.R.; Young, K.B.

    1983-05-10

    A process for recovering bitumen from oil-in-water (O/w) emulsions is disclosed wherein water soluble demulsifiers are used. These demulsifiers are cationic polymers of equal to or greater than about 2,000 molecular weight obtained by the reaction of polyalkoxydiamines with epihalohydrins. To resolve the bituminous petroleum emulsions, the process is carried out between 25/sup 0/ and 160/sup 0/ C wherein the demulsifier of the invention is contacted with the bituminous emulsion.

  4. Demulsification of bitumen emulsions using ionenes

    SciTech Connect

    McCoy, D.R.; McEntire, E.E.

    1983-09-13

    A process for recovering bitumen from oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions is disclosed wherein water-soluble demulsifiers are used. These demulsifiers are ionenes prepared generally by reaction of ditertiary amines and dihalides. To resolve the bituminous petroleum emulsions, the process is carried out between 25/sup 0/ and 160/sup 0/C wherein the demulsifier of the invention is contacted with the bituminous emulsion.

  5. Deactivation efficiency of stabilized bactericidal emulsions.

    PubMed

    Vyhnalkova, Renata; Eisenberg, Adi; van de Ven, Theo G M

    2011-09-20

    Biocide emulsions stabilized with various stabilizing agents were prepared and characterized, and their efficiency in bacteria deactivation was evaluated. A number of stabilizing agents were tested for their stabilizing effect on emulsions of thiocyanomethylthiobenzothiazole (TCMTB) biocide. Two agents, the most successful in stabilizing the biocide, were chosen for further studies: high molecular weight polyethyleneimine (PEI) and an amphiphilic block copolymer of poly(caprolactone)-b-poly(acrylic acid) (PCL(33)-b-PAA(33)). The emulsion droplet sizes varied between 325 and 500 nm. Deactivation of bacteria was studied by exposing E. coli ATCC 11229 bacteria dispersions to emulsions stabilized by positively charged PEI or negatively charged PCL-b-PAA micelles and by measuring their absorbance; E. coli do not grow with time in the presence of biocide emulsions. PEI molecules alone act as biocide and deactivate the bacteria. PCL-b-PAA micelles as stabilizing agent do not affect the growth of the E. coli ; bacteria are deactivated by TCMTB released from the emulsion droplets. The kinetics of emulsion dissolution studies revealed for both stabilizing agents a decrease in droplet size with time while the emulsions were subjected to dialysis. The biocide was released from the emulsions within ?250 min; the droplet shells consist mostly of PEI or PCL-b-PAA insoluble complexes with the biocide, which do not dissolve during dialysis. SEM images confirm the presence of residual crumbled shells with holes after 24 h of dialysis. PMID:21823610

  6. Spreading of Emulsions on Glass Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammad Karim, Alireza; Kavehpour, Pirouz

    2012-11-01

    The wettability of emulsions is an important factor with explicit influence in an extensive variety of industrial applications ranging from the petroleum to food industries. Surprisingly, there is no comprehensive study of emulsion spreading to date; this is due to the complexity of the structure of the emulsions and non-homogeneity of the dispersed phase bubbles in size as well as distribution through the emulsion. The spreading of water/silicone oil emulsions on glass substrates was investigated. The emulsions were prepared with varying volume fractions of water dispersed in silicone oil, with addition of small amounts of surfactant to stabilize the emulsion structure. The time dependent variation of dynamic contact angle, base diameter, and the spreading rate of the droplets of an emulsion are different from a pure substance. The effect of water/silicone oil weight percentage as well as the droplet size and dispersed phase bubble size were also investigated. The weight percentage of water/silicone oil emulsion and droplet size did not have significant influence on the spreading dynamics; however the dispersed phase drop size affected the spreading dynamics substantially.

  7. An attempt to observe directly beauty particles in nuclear emulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albanese, J. P.; Allasia, D.; Armenise, N.; Arnold, R.; Baroni, G.; Barth, M.; Bertrand, D.; Bertrand-Coremans, G.; Bisi, V.; Breslin, A. C.; Calicchio, M.; Coupland, M.; Davis, D. G.; Davis, D. H.; Di Ciaccio, L.; Di Liberto, S.; Downes, J. K.; Duff, B. G.; Erriquez, O.; Esten, M. J.; Gamba, D.; Gjerpe, I.; Hazama, M.; Heymann, F. F.; Hoshino, K.; Imrie, D. C.; Isokane, Y.; Lavopa, P.; Lush, G. J.; Maeda, Y.; Maggi, G.; Manfredini, A.; Marzari-Chiesa, A.; Matteuzzi, C.; Meddi, F.; Miyanishi, M.; Montwill, A.; Muciaccia, M. T.; Musset, P.; Nakamura, M.; Natali, S.; Niu, K.; Niwa, K.; Nuzzo, S.; O'Connor, A.; Ohashi, M.; Petrera, S.; Piuz, F.; Poulard, G.; Price, M. J.; Ramello, L.; Riccati, L.; Roberts, I.; Romano, F.; Romano, G.; Romero, A.; Roosen, R.; Rosa, G.; Ruggieri, F.; Sacton, J.; Santonico, R.; Sato, Y.; Schorochoff, G.; Sebastiani, F.; Shibuya, H.; Sletten, H.; Stannard, F. R.; Tasaka, S.; Tezuka, I.; Tovee, D. N.; Trent, P.; Tsuneoka, Y.; Ushida, N.; Wickens, J.; Yamakawa, O.; Yanagisawa, N.; NA19 Collaboration

    1983-03-01

    An attempt at the direct observation of the cascade decay of beauty particles, produced by ?- of 350 GeV/ c leading to 3 muons or 4 muons in the final state, has been made in an emulsion/counter hybrid experiment at CERN. Under the assumption that the lifetime of beauty particles is of the order of 10 -13s the non-observation of any candidates provides an upper limit for beauty production of ?90 nb at the 90% confidence level.

  8. Perfluorochemical emulsions can increase tumor radiosensitivity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. A. Teicher; C. M. Rose

    1984-01-01

    An oxygen-carrying perfluorochemical emulsion enhanced the effectiveness of radiation therapy in two transplantable solid tumors in mice. The perfluorochemical emulsion had no effect on tumor growth after x-irradiation, but delayed tumor growth significantly when administered to oxygen-breathing mice before or during irradiation.

  9. Treatment of oil-in-water emulsions

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, R.J.; Presley, C.T.

    1980-01-08

    Petroleum is separated from an ''oil-in-water'' emulsion containing water-soluble polymer prior to refining by adding amphoteric metal cations to the emulsion to form a flocculate and then treating the resulting flocculate with a strong base to recover the oil and metal.

  10. Treatment of oil-in-water emulsions

    SciTech Connect

    Presley, C.T.; Harrison, R.J.

    1980-01-08

    Petroleum is separated from an oil-in-water emulsion containing water-soluble polymer such as polyacrylamide prior to refining by adding amphoteric metal cations (Zn, Al, Sn, and Co) to the emulsion to form a flocculate and then treating the resulting flocculate with a strong base to recover the oil and metal. 11 claims.

  11. 8. Particle detectors 8.1 Emulsions

    E-print Network

    Pohl, Martin Karl Wilhelm

    8. Particle detectors 8.1 Emulsions Nuclear emulsions can be used to give 3-dimensional information-altitude balloons. A second way of measuring energetic charged particles involves scintillation detectors. Here of the detectors is low, so they are not ideal at particle energies below about 100 keV, but they are simple

  12. A surfactantless emulsion as a model for the liquid-liquid interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knight, Katherine Mary

    An electrochemically polarised liquid-liquid interface in the form of a surfactantless oil-in-water emulsion has been developed, and its creation, stabilisation and use as a model liquid-liquid system for structural characterisation using Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS) are described. The emulsion, composed of 1,2-dichloroethane (DCE)-in-D20, was created using a condensation method and the two main processes of destabilisation, sedimentation and coalescence, were minimised using density-matching and electrochemistry. The stabilised emulsion interface was then studied with SANS, using the Dll and D22 diffractometers at the ILL and LOQ at ISIS. This was to determine structural information regarding a layer of adsorbed Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) protein at the interface with and without stabilising salts and the only analysable results were obtained using Dll, due to the lower Q-range accessible. The BSA layer thickness was determined to be 40 and 48 A for emulsions with and without salts respectively, and this was comparable with the literature thickness of 40 A. Another use for the surfactantless emulsion would be for electrodeless electrodeposition of metals at the interface, utilising the interfacial potential, and preliminary experiments were carried out using both oil-in-water and water-in-oil emulsions.

  13. Charmonium Productions: Nucleon-Nucleon versus Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions

    E-print Network

    Pradip Roy; Abhee K. Dutt-Mazumder; Jan-e Alam

    2005-05-27

    Charmonium productions in $p-p$ and $A-B$ collisions have been estimated within the ambit of colour evaporation model (CEM). The model parameters have been fixed by fitting the theoretical results with CDF data. The method is then applied to RHIC and LHC energies to obtain the transverse momentum distributions of $J/\\psi$, $\\psi^{\\prime}$ and $\\chi_c$. Suppression due to Debye screening in a quark gluon plasma (QGP) is estimated at various centrality cuts. The final $p_T$ distributions of various resonances are then predicted convoluting with the survival probability.

  14. Subthreshold K/sup -/ production in nucleus-nucleus collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Shor, A.; Carroll, J.; Barasch, E.

    1983-06-01

    We have measured the production cross section and momentum distribution of K/sup -/ produced at 0/sup 0/ in /sup 28/Si + /sup 28/Si collisions at an energy of 2.1 GeV/nucleon. The K/sup -/ spectrum is approximately exponential. The large yield in the subthreshold production of K/sup -/ that we observe corresponds to a production rate of 1K/sup -/ per 50 collisions at impact parameters less than 1f. Productions mechanisms involving collective effects and thermal equilibration are discussed.

  15. Neutron Spectra from Intermediate-Energy Nucleus-Nucleus Reactions

    E-print Network

    Hiroshi Iwase; Yoshiyuki Iwata; Takashi Nakamura; Konstantin Gudima; Stepan Mashnik; Arnold Sierk; Richard Prael

    2005-01-26

    Double-differential cross sections of neutron production at angles from 0 to 110 degrees from many reactions induced by light and medium nuclei on targets from 12-C to 208-Pb, at several incident energies from 95 to 600 MeV/A have been measured recently at the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN) Ring Cyclotron in Japan and at the Heavy-Ion Medical Accelerator of the National Institute of Radiological Science in Chiba, Japan using the time-of-flight technique. We have analyzed all these new measurements using the Quantum Molecular Dynamics (QMD) model, the Oak Ridge intranuclear cascade model HIC, the ISABEL intranuclear cascade model from LAHET, and the Los Alamos version of the Quark-Gluon String Model code LAQGSM03. On the whole, all four models used here describe reasonably well most of the measured neutron spectra, although different models agree differently with data from specific reactions and some serious discrepances are observed for some reactions. We present here some illustrative results from our study, discuss possible reasons for some of the observed discrepancies and try to outline ways to further improve the tested codes in order to address these problems.

  16. Oleophilic separation of inverse emulsions

    SciTech Connect

    Kruyer, J.

    1984-02-01

    The oleophilic sieve is a patented device for separating mixtures of oil phase and aqueous phase wherein the aqueous phase passes through the sieve apertures and the oil phase is captured by the sieve surfaces upon contact. This method achieves very efficient separations and is not adversely affected by solids in the aqueous phase or by the density of the oil phase. Normally the mixture is agglomerated during the separation process to increase the oil phase particle size and to permit it to be more readily captured by the sieve. The oleophilic sieve may be used to separate a large variety of mixtures and has been tested with mined tar sand slurries, middlings, tailings, tailings pond sludge and inverse emulsions produced from in-situ steam drive facilities. For emulsions, a demulsifier is normally required but no diluent is used to recover the bitumen or heavy oil from the aqueous phase. This results in high bitumen recovery, clean water effluents and minimizes overall separation costs.

  17. Effect of Emulsifiers and Their Liquid Crystalline Structures in Emulsions on Dermal and Transdermal Delivery of Hydroquinone, Salicylic Acid and Octadecenedioic Acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Otto; J. W. Wiechers; C. L. Kelly; J. C. Dederen; J. Hadgraft; J. du Plessis

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of emulsifiers and their liquid crystalline structures on the dermal and transdermal delivery of hydroquinone (HQ), salicylic acid (SA) and octadecenedioic acid (DIOIC). Emulsions containing liquid crystalline phases were compared with an emulsion without liquid crystals. Skin permeation experiments were performed using Franz-type diffusion cells and human abdominal skin dermatomed to a thickness of 400

  18. Development and Assessment of Oil-in-Water Emulsions for Encapsulation of Reactive Iron Particles for Subsurface Delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berge, N. D.; Taghavy, A.; Ramsburg, A.

    2007-12-01

    Reactive iron particles hold promise for use in the destruction of contaminants in the subsurface environment. Application of these nano- to submicron-scale particles, however, may be limited by poor subsurface transport and non-uniform distribution of the reactive material. Delivery issues are particularly important when evaluating the efficacy of iron-based technologies for treatment of dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) source zones. Current approaches for the delivery of reactive iron particles within DNAPL source zones are hindered by particle agglomeration, flow bypassing, and presence of non-target reactions. Encapsulation of the reactive particles within an oil-in-water emulsion is a novel approach that may overcome these limitations. Development of kinetically-stable, iron-laden, oil-in-water emulsions commenced by identifying surfactant-based coatings to increase the stability of commercially-available iron particles within non-polar organic phases (e.g., soy oil). A phase inversion technique was employed to disperse approximately 10% wt of the iron-laden, organic phase within a continuous aqueous phase containing nonionic emulsifiers. Emulsions were designed to ensure emulsifier proportions yielded hydrophilic-lipophilic balances affiliated with oil-in-water emulsions. Micrographs of the oil-in-water emulsions suggest that the average diameter of the oil droplets is approximately one micrometer. The presence of iron within oil droplets was confirmed in the micrographs and supported by an absence of iron agglomeration within the continuous phase. Bulk characteristics of each emulsion (density and viscosity) were used in conjunction with interfacial tension measurements in total trapping number analyses to assess the propensity of these emulsions to mobilize an entrapped trichloroethene (TCE)-DNAPL. Results suggest that the emulsions described herein should not cause significant mobilization of entrapped TCE-DNAPL in fine-to-medium grain sandy media. Column experiments are being conducted to evaluate the transport of these emulsions through sandy media. Preliminary results from experiments with iron-free emulsions suggest conductivity reductions occurring during emulsion flushing are not the result of extensive pore-clogging but rather are due to viscosity changes (emulsion viscosities range from 2 to 10 cP). Current efforts are focused on assessing and comparing both transport and reaction of commercially available iron particles and iron-laden emulsions within sandy porous media.

  19. Emulsions on demand using microsturctured devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahe, Christian; Tranchant, Jean Francois; Tromeur, Melanie; Schwesinger, Norbert

    2003-01-01

    Emulsions are very common in the field of cosmetics. Unfortunately, most emulsions contain ineffective substances to increase the stability of the products for a long time. These stabilizers can cause some severe healthy problems in several cases. One possible solution is the production of emulsions on demand to prevent the use of stabilizers. Stable emulsion can be achieved if the diameters of the droplets of one solution surrounded by a second solution are smaller than 1?m. Microstructured devices are suited in principle to generate such droplet distributions. Basic task of the development was a micro emulsifier that can be integrated into cosmetic flacons and that can deliver emulsions on demand by pressing a human fingertip onto a part of the flacon. Standardized cosmetic flacons have been used as basic devices. They consist of two separate glass bottles for two different liquid phases and two mechanical pumps integrated in a multifunctional cap. Regarding the viscosity ranges of the two liquids different microemulsifier structures have been developed. External dimensions and connections of the device have been chosen in a way that allows an integration of the devices into the cap. The second design conists of several streaming paths in parallel that allow a reduction of the pressure drop. Furthermore, it consists of three structured silicon chips bonded together. Emulsions with a stability of about 15-30 min have been achieved without any stabilizers. External forces of less than 10N were sufficient to generate emulsions on demand.

  20. Method for the resolution of enhanced oil recovery emulsions

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, D.L.

    1984-04-24

    An oil-in-water emulsion of crude oil, water and hydrophilic surfactant is resolved by first heating said emulsion until it separates into a surfactant laden water layer and an oil-rich emulsion layer, removing the water layer from the oil-rich emulsion layer, treating the emulsion layer by the addition of from 20 to 40 volume percent of water containing a demulsifier and recovering the crude oil which separates from the water upon standing.

  1. Emulsion package and method of mixing the emulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, R.G.; Brenneman, S.; Clancy, J.J.

    1984-08-28

    A coal tar emulsion driveway sealer is packaged in a sealed bag. The volume of sealer is less than half the capacity of the bag and the bag is substantially completely evacuated but for the sealer. The separated sealer is mixed by compressing the sides of the bag to induce turbulent flow of the paste and liquid for hydraulic mixing thereof. The sealer may be dispensed at a controlled rate without spattering by cutting a corner from the bag to provide a pour spout. The bag with the sealer may be contained in a carton. The bag membrane comprises an aluminum layer vapor deposited on polyester. Those two layers are sandwiched between layers of EVA copolymer.

  2. The morphology of emulsion polymerized latex particles

    SciTech Connect

    Wignall, G.D.; Ramakrishnan, V.R.; Linne, M.A.; Klein, A.; Sperling, L.H.; Wai, M.P.; Gelman, R.A.; Fatica, M.G.; Hoerl, R.H.; Fisher, L.W.

    1987-11-01

    Under monomer starved feed conditions, emulsion polymerization of perdeuterated methyl methacrylate and styrene in the presence of preformed polymethylmethacrylate latexes resulted in particles with a core-shell morphology, as determined by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) analysis for a hollow sphere. The locus of polymerization of the added deuterated monomer is therefore at the particle surface. In similar measurements a statistical copolymer of styrene and methyl methacrylate was used as seed particles for further polymerization of trideuteromethyl methacrylate. The resulting polymer latex was again shown to have a core-shell morphological structre as determined by SANS. SANS experiments were also undertaken on polystyrene latexes polymerized by equilibrium swelling methods, with deuterated polymer forming the first or second step. The experiments covered a molecular weight range of 6 x 10/sup 4/ < M < 6 x 10/sup 6/ g/mol. For M > 10/sup 6/ the molecular weights are consistent with the experimental errors, indicating that the deuterium labeled molecules are randomly distributed in the latex. These results led to the finding that the polymer chains were constrained in the latex particles by factors of 2 to 4 from the relaxed coil dimensions. For M < 10/sup 6/ g/mol SANS gave zero angle scattering intensities much higher than expected on the basis of a random distribution of labeled molecules. Several models were examined, including the possible development of core-shell structures at lower molecular weights. 25 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Method for demulsification of bitumen emulsions

    SciTech Connect

    McCoy, D.R.; Entire, E.E.; Gipson, R.M.

    1984-07-03

    A process for recovering bitumen from oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions is disclosed wherein water soluble demulsifiers are used. These demulsifiers are polymers of specific quaternary ammonium monomers or co-polymers of these quaternary ammonium monomers wth other types of monomers wherein the greater portion of the co-polymer is comprised of the quaternary ammonium monomers. To resolve the bitumonous petroleum emulsions, the process is carried out between 25/sup 0/ and 160/sup 0/ C. wherein the demulsifier of the invention is contacted with the bituminous emulsion.

  4. Bond graph modeling and validation of an energy regenerative system for emulsion pump tests.

    PubMed

    Li, Yilei; Zhu, Zhencai; Chen, Guoan

    2014-01-01

    The test system for emulsion pump is facing serious challenges due to its huge energy consumption and waste nowadays. To settle this energy issue, a novel energy regenerative system (ERS) for emulsion pump tests is briefly introduced at first. Modeling such an ERS of multienergy domains needs a unified and systematic approach. Bond graph modeling is well suited for this task. The bond graph model of this ERS is developed by first considering the separate components before assembling them together and so is the state-space equation. Both numerical simulation and experiments are carried out to validate the bond graph model of this ERS. Moreover the simulation and experiments results show that this ERS not only satisfies the test requirements, but also could save at least 25% of energy consumption as compared to the original test system, demonstrating that it is a promising method of energy regeneration for emulsion pump tests. PMID:24967428

  5. Aging properties of Kodak type 101 emulsions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dohne, B.; Feldman, U.; Neupert, W.

    1984-01-01

    Aging tests for several batches of Kodak type 101 emulsion show that storage conditions significantly influence how well the film will maintain its sensitometric properties, with sensitivity and density increasing to a maximum during this period. Any further aging may result in higher fog levels and sensitivity loss. It is noted that storage in an environment free of photographically active compounds allows film property optimization, and that film batches with different sensitivities age differently. Emulsions with maximum 1700-A sensitivity are 2.5 times faster than those at the low end of the sensitivity scale. These sensitive emulsions exhibit significantly accelerated changes in aging properties. Their use in space applications requires careful consideration of time and temperature profiles, encouraging the use of less sensitive emulsions when the controllability of these factors is limited.

  6. Multi-body coalescence in Pickering emulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Tong; Wang, Haitao; Jing, Benxin; Liu, Fang; Burns, Peter C.; Na, Chongzheng

    2015-01-01

    Particle-stabilized Pickering emulsions have shown unusual behaviours such as the formation of non-spherical droplets and the sudden halt of coalescence between individual droplets. Here we report another unusual behaviour of Pickering emulsions—the simultaneous coalescence of multiple droplets in a single event. Using latex particles, silica particles and carbon nanotubes as model stabilizers, we show that multi-body coalescence can occur in both water-in-oil and oil-in-water emulsions. The number of droplets involved in the nth coalscence event equals four times the corresponding number of the tetrahedral sequence in close packing. Furthermore, coalescence is promoted by repulsive latex and silica particles but inhibited by attractive carbon nanotubes. The revelation of multi-body coalescence is expected to help better understand Pickering emulsions in natural systems and improve their designs in engineering applications.

  7. Surfactant-enhanced cellulose nanocrystal Pickering emulsions.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhen; Ballinger, Sarah; Pelton, Robert; Cranston, Emily D

    2015-02-01

    The effect of surfactants on the properties of Pickering emulsions stabilized by cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) was investigated. Electrophoretic mobility, interfacial tension, confocal microscopy and three-phase contact angle measurements were used to elucidate the interactions between anionic CNCs and cationic alkyl ammonium surfactants didecyldimethylammonium bromide (DMAB) and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). Both surfactants were found to adsorb onto CNCs with concentration-dependent morphology. At low concentrations, individual surfactant molecules adsorbed with alkyl tails pointing outward leading to hydrophobic CNCs. At higher concentrations, above the surfactant's apparent critical micelle concentration, surfactant aggregate morphologies on CNCs were inferred and the hydrophobicity of CNCs decreased. DMAB, which has two alkyl tails, rendered the CNCs more hydrophobic than CTAB which has only a single alkyl tail, at all surfactant concentrations. The change in CNC wettability from surfactant adsorption was directly linked to emulsion properties; adding surfactant increased the emulsion stability, decreased the droplet size, and controlled the internal phase of CNC Pickering emulsions. More specifically, a double transitional phase inversion, from oil-in-water to water-in-oil and back to oil-in-water, was observed for emulsions with CNCs and increasing amounts of DMAB (the more hydrophobic surfactant). With CNCs and CTAB, no phase inversion was induced. This work represents the first report of CNC Pickering emulsions with surfactants as well as the first CNC Pickering emulsions that can be phase inverted. The ability to surface modify CNCs in situ and tailor emulsions by adding surfactants may extend the potential of CNCs to new liquid formulations and extruded/spray-dried materials. PMID:25463186

  8. Applied Statistics: Crude Oil Emulsions and Demulsifiers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael K. Poindexter; Paul M. Lindemuth

    2004-01-01

    Water?in?crude oil emulsions are encountered at many oilfield production facilities. These emulsions are often inherently stable requiring the use of chemical treatment, heat, and residence time to effect resolution. The addition of chemical demulsifiers in small levels can greatly facilitate oil–water separation. Even with numerous demulsifier applications in place throughout the world, there still remains a great deal to understand

  9. Emulsifier for water-in-oil emulsions

    SciTech Connect

    Weete, J.D.; Griffith, G.L.

    1990-07-24

    This patent describes a water-in-oil emulsion. It comprises: a continuous oil phase, a discontinuous aqueous phase, and an emulsion stabilizing amount of a thermally altered lecithin composition which has been prepare by heating lecithin at a temperature in the range of from about 100{degrees}C, to about 250{degrees}C, for a period of time ranging from about 15 to about 480 minutes.

  10. Intravenous lipid emulsion in clinical toxicology

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Intravenous lipid emulsion is an established, effective treatment for local anesthetic-induced cardiovascular collapse. The predominant theory for its mechanism of action is that by creating an expanded, intravascular lipid phase, equilibria are established that drive the offending drug from target tissues into the newly formed 'lipid sink'. Based on this hypothesis, lipid emulsion has been considered a candidate for generic reversal of toxicity caused by overdose of any lipophilic drug. Recent case reports of successful resuscitation suggest the efficacy of lipid emulsion infusion for treating non-local anesthetic overdoses across a wide spectrum of drugs: beta blockers, calcium channel blockers, parasiticides, herbicides and several varieties of psychotropic agents. Lipid emulsion therapy is gaining acceptance in emergency rooms and other critical care settings as a possible treatment for lipophilic drug toxicity. While protocols exist for administration of lipid emulsion in the setting of local anesthetic toxicity, no optimal regimen has been established for treatment of acute non-local anesthetic poisonings. Future studies will shape the evolving recommendations for lipid emulsion in the setting of non-local anesthetic drug overdose. PMID:20923546

  11. Observation of the shock resistance of emulsion explosives in rock blasting

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Q. [CANMET Experimental Mine, Val d`Or, Quebec (Canada); Tidman, P. [ICI Explosives Group Technical Centre, McMasterville, Quebec (Canada); Tunaley, D. [ICI Australia Operations Pty Ltd., Kurri Kurri, New South Wales (Australia); Mullay, J. [ICI Explosives USA Inc., Tamaqua, PA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Laboratory studies have indicated that the crystallization and desensitization of microballoon sensitized emulsion explosives start immediately after shocking or pre-compression. However, the question of whether or not the shocked emulsion could be worsened by the growth of crystallization or recovered by rebounding back to lower densities has been rarely examined under actual rock blasting conditions. This study was primarily intended to investigate the desensitization characteristics of two commonly used emulsion products in terms of blasthole spacing and delay duration. In the experiment, two parallel blastholes, 32 mm in diameter and 1.7 m deep, were drilled downwards in an underground drift. Full coupling was achieved by tamping the explosives in the wet holes. The donor hole was always loaded with the same explosive while changing the explosive in the receptor hole. The receptor hole is initiated with a delay following the donor hole in order to observe the timing effect on the explosives being shocked. High frequency vibration monitoring was used to identify the detonation or failure of the receptor hole. The spacing was varied to modify the shock pressure the receptor charges are subjected to. Dynamic pressures in the receptor hole were also measured at different distances from the donor hole. The shock resistance was measured by the minimum spacing without desensitization. In general, the Superfrac{trademark} exhibited better shock resistance than Magnafrac{trademark}. The shock resistance of both emulsions was not affected by delay times. The delay-independence of tested emulsions indicates that the crystallization of emulsion may happen immediately after the shocking, however, the shocked emulsion is not worsened, nor recovered. The observation results also give the typical spacing values for field consideration to avoid the problems of explosives malfunction with the use of either long or short delay detonators.

  12. A model for the prediction of droplet size in Pickering emulsions stabilized by oppositely charged particles.

    PubMed

    Nallamilli, Trivikram; Mani, Ethayaraja; Basavaraj, Madivala G

    2014-08-12

    Colloidal particles irreversibly adsorb at fluid-fluid interfaces stabilizing what are commonly called "Pickering" emulsions and foams. A simple geometrical model, the limited coalescence model, was earlier proposed to estimate droplet sizes in emulsions. This model assumes that all of the particles are effective in stabilization. The model predicts that the average emulsion drop size scales inversely with the total number of particles, confirmed qualitatively with experimental data on Pickering emulsions. In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in synthesizing emulsions with oppositely charged particles (OCPs). In our experimental study, we observed that the drop size varies nonmonotonically with the number ratio of oppositely charged colloids, even when a fixed total number concentration of colloids is used, showing a minimum. We develop a mathematical model to predict this dependence of drop size on number ratio in such a mixed particle system. The proposed model is based on the hypothesis that oppositely charged colloids form stable clusters due to the strong electrostatic attraction between them and that these clusters are the effective stabilizing agents. The proposed model is a two-parameter model, parameters being the ratio of effective charge of OCPs (denoted as k) and the size of the aggregate containing X particles formed due to aggregation of OCPs. Because the size of aggregates formed during emulsification is not directly measurable, we use suitable values of parameters k and X to best match the experimental observations. The model predictions are in qualitative agreement with experimentally observed nonmonotonic variation of droplet sizes. Using experiments and theory, we present a physical insight into the formation of OCP stabilized Pickering emulsions. Our model upgrades the existing Wiley's limited coalescence model as applied to emulsions containing a binary mixture of oppositely charged particles. PMID:25054284

  13. Kinetic Release of Alkalinity from Particle-Containing Oil-in-Water Emulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, K.; Chapra, S. C.; Ramsburg, A.

    2014-12-01

    Oil-in-water emulsions are typically employed during remediation to promote biotic reduction of contaminants. Emulsions, however, hold promise for encapsulated delivery of many types of active ingredients required for successful site remediation or long-term site stewardship. Our research is currently focused on using alkalinity-containing particles held within oil-in-water emulsions to sustain control of subsurface pH. Here we describe results from laboratory experiments and mathematical modeling conducted to quantify the kinetics associated with the emulsion delivery and alkalinity release process. Kinetically stable oil-in-water emulsions containing (~60 nmCaCO3 or ~100 nm MgO particles) were previously developed using soybean oil and Gum Arabic as a stabilizing agent. Batch and column experiments were employed to assess the accessibility and release of the alkalinity from the emulsion. Successive additions of HCl were used in batch systems to produce several pH responses (pH rebounds) that were subsequently modeled to elucidate release mechanisms and rates for varying emulsion compositions and particle types. Initial results suggest that a linear-driving-force model is generally able to capture the release behavior in the batch system when the temporally-constant, lumped mass-transfer coefficient is scaled by the fraction of particle mass remaining within the droplets. This result suggests that the rate limiting step in the release process may be the interphase transfer of reactive species at the oil-water interface. 1-d column experiments were also completed in order to quantify the extent and rate of alkalinity release from emulsion droplets retained in a sandy medium. Alkalinity release from the retained droplets treated a pH 4 influent water for 25-60 pore volumes (the duration depended on particle type and mass loading), and the cessation in treatment corresponded to exhaustion of the particle mass held within the oil. Column experiments were simulated using a transport code containing the linear-driving-force expression evaluated in the batch experiments. In these simulations the lumped mass transfer coefficient was fit and compared with values predicted using existing correlations for liquid-liquid and solid-liquid interfaces in porous media.

  14. A method for the characterization of emulsions, thermogranulometry: application to water-in-crude oil emulsion.

    PubMed

    Clausse, D; Gomez, F; Dalmazzone, C; Noik, C

    2005-07-15

    Emulsions are used in a wide range of applications and industries. Their size distribution is an important parameter because it influences most of the emulsion properties of emulsions. Several techniques of characterization are used to determine the granulometric distribution of emulsions, but they are generally limited to dilute samples and are based on complex algorithms. We describe a method that allows characterization of the droplet size distribution of emulsions using thermal analysis (thermogranulometry). This method permits the use of very concentrated samples without any dilution or perturbation of the system. We first define our method by a thermodynamic and kinetic approach. We studied a real system, i.e., crude oil emulsions, which form very concentrated, viscous, and opaque emulsions with water. We present a correlation between the size of droplets and their freezing temperature, corresponding to our system. Then we compare the size distributions obtained by our method with those derived by direct microscopy observations. The results obtained show that thermogranulometry may be an interesting method of characterization of emulsions, even for concentrated systems. PMID:15925639

  15. S-190 exposure verification flight test. [photographic emulsions and film

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, L.

    1973-01-01

    A flight test was conducted to determine the optimum exposures for the Skylab S-190A experiment. An aircraft multispectral photographic system (AMPS) which is installed in the NASA Earth Resources aircraft NP3A was used to simulate the S-190A system. The same film emulsions to be used for S-190A were used in the flight test. These rolls were on factory-loaded spools for use in the AMPS camera system. It was found that some variation is to be expected between these rolls and the S-190A flight loads.

  16. Shock Compression and Recovery of Microorganism-Loaded Broths and AN Emulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazell, P. J.; Beveridge, C.; Groves, K.; Stennett, C.

    2009-12-01

    The microorganisms Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis and Zygosaccharomyces bailii and an oil-based emulsion, have been subjected to shock compression using the flyer-plate technique to initial pressures of 0.8 GPa (in the suspension). In each experiment, a stainless steel capsule was used to contain the broths and allow for recovery without contamination. Where cavitation was mostly suppressed by virtue of simultaneous shock and dynamic compression, no kill was observed. By introducing an air gap behind the suspension, limited kill was measured in the yeast. Results also suggest that stable emulsification occurs in coarse oil-based emulsions that are subjected to shock.

  17. Shock compression and recovery of microorganism-loaded broths and an emulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazell, Paul; Beveridge, Cliff; Groves, Kathy

    2009-06-01

    The microorganisms Escherichia coli, Enterococcus feacalis and Zygosaccharomyces bailii and an oil-based emulsion, have been subjected to shock compression using the flyer-plate technique to initial pressures of 0.8 GPa (in the suspension). In each experiment, a stainless steel capsule was used to contain the broths and allow for recovery without contamination. Where cavitation was suppressed by virtue of simultaneous shock and quasi-static compression, no kill was observed. By introducing an air gap behind the suspension, limited kill was measured in the yeast. Results also suggest that emulsification occurs in oil-based emulsions that are subjected to shock.

  18. Systematic characterization of oil-in-water emulsions for formulation design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Roland; G. Piel; L. Delattre; B. Evrard

    2003-01-01

    Oil-in-water emulsions varying in surfactant concentration and manufacturing process were prepared. About 10 experiments were performed to characterize them. The goal of this research was to find out which tests should systematically be carried out to assess efficiently the stability and the properties of an emulsified preparation. Thus, formulation design requires at least the measurement of the droplet size, the

  19. Dynamic film and interfacial tensions in emulsion and foam systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Y.H.; Koczo, K.; Wasan, D.T. [Illinois Inst. of Tech., Chicago, IL (United States). Chemical Engineering Dept.] [Illinois Inst. of Tech., Chicago, IL (United States). Chemical Engineering Dept.

    1997-03-01

    In concentrated fluid dispersions the liquid films are under dynamic conditions during film rupture or drainage. Aqueous foam films stabilized with sodium decylsulfonate and aqueous emulsion films stabilized with the nonionic Brij 58 surfactant were formed at the tip of a capillary and the film tension was measured under static and dynamic conditions. In the stress relaxation experiments the response of the film tension to a sudden film area expansion was studied. These experiments also allowed the direct measurement of the Gibbs film elasticity. In the dynamic film tension experiments, the film area was continuously increased by a constant rate and the dynamic film tension was monitored. The measured film tensions were compared with the interfacial tensions of the respective single air/water and oil/water interfaces, which were measured using the same radius of curvature, relative expansion, and expansion rate as in the film studies. It was found that under dynamic conditions the film tension is higher than twice the single interfacial tension (IFT) and a mechanism was suggested to explain the difference. When the film, initially at equilibrium, is expanded and the interfacial area increases, a substantial surfactant depletion occurs inside the film. As a result, the surfactant can be supplied only from the adjoining meniscus (Plateau border) by surface diffusion, and the film tension is controlled by the diffusion and adsorption of surfactant in the meniscus. The results have important implications for the stability and rheology of foams and emulsions with high dispersed phase ratios (polyhedral structure).

  20. Conductivity factor in the electrostatic coalescence of crude oil emulsions 

    E-print Network

    Nelson, James B

    1998-01-01

    vertically-oriented, cylindrical coalescer. The electrical conductivity of each phase of the water-in-oil emulsion was varied to determine their effects on the rate of coalescence. Both light and intermediate grades of crude oil emulsions were modified...

  1. 21 CFR 524.802 - Enrofloxacin, silver sulfadiazine emulsion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 false Enrofloxacin, silver sulfadiazine emulsion. 524.802 Section 524...524.802 Enrofloxacin, silver sulfadiazine emulsion. (a) Specifications...mg) enrofloxacin and 10 mg silver sulfadiazine. (b) Sponsor . See No....

  2. 21 CFR 524.802 - Enrofloxacin, silver sulfadiazine emulsion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Enrofloxacin, silver sulfadiazine emulsion. 524.802 Section 524...524.802 Enrofloxacin, silver sulfadiazine emulsion. (a) Specifications...mg) enrofloxacin and 10 mg silver sulfadiazine. (b) Sponsor . See No....

  3. 21 CFR 524.802 - Enrofloxacin, silver sulfadiazine emulsion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Enrofloxacin, silver sulfadiazine emulsion. 524.802 Section 524...524.802 Enrofloxacin, silver sulfadiazine emulsion. (a) Specifications...mg) enrofloxacin and 10 mg silver sulfadiazine. (b) Sponsor . See No....

  4. 21 CFR 524.802 - Enrofloxacin, silver sulfadiazine emulsion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Enrofloxacin, silver sulfadiazine emulsion. 524.802 Section 524...524.802 Enrofloxacin, silver sulfadiazine emulsion. (a) Specifications...mg) enrofloxacin and 10 mg silver sulfadiazine. (b) Sponsor . See No....

  5. High pressure-resistant nonincendive emulsion explosive

    DOEpatents

    Ruhe, Thomas C. (Duquesne, PA); Rao, Pilaka P. (Baghlingampalli, IN)

    1994-01-01

    An improved emulsion explosive composition including hollow microspheres/bulking agents having high density and high strength. The hollow microspheres/bulking agents have true particle densities of about 0.2 grams per cubic centimeter or greater and include glass, siliceous, ceramic and synthetic resin microspheres, expanded minerals, and mixtures thereof. The preferred weight percentage of hollow microspheres/bulking agents in the composition ranges from 3.0 to 10.0 A chlorinated paraffin oil, also present in the improved emulsion explosive composition, imparts a higher film strength to the oil phase in the emulsion. The emulsion is rendered nonincendive by the production of sodium chloride in situ via the decomposition of sodium nitrate, a chlorinated paraffin oil, and sodium perchlorate. The air-gap sensitivity is improved by the in situ formation of monomethylamine perchlorate from dissolved monomethylamine nitrate and sodium perchlorate. The emulsion explosive composition can withstand static pressures to 139 bars and dynamic pressure loads on the order of 567 bars.

  6. Interfacial properties in solid-stabilized emulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arditty, S.; Schmitt, V.; Lequeux, F.; Leal-Calderon, F.

    2005-04-01

    We prepared concentrated monodisperse oil-in-water emulsions stabilized by solid particles. The osmotic resistance, ?, of the emulsions was measured for different oil volume fractions above the random close packing (? ^*? 64{%}). The dimensionless osmotic resistance, ?/(?/R) (? being the interfacial tension and R being the undeformed drop radius), was always substantially higher than the corresponding values obtained for surfactant-stabilized emulsions. It can be concluded that droplet deformation in solid-stabilized emulsions is not controlled by the capillary pressure, ?/R, of the non-deformed droplets but rather by ?0/R, ?0 being a parameter characterizing the rigidity of the droplets surfaces. The data can be interpreted considering that the interfacial layers are elastic at small deformations and exhibit plasticity at intermediate deformations. ?0 corresponds to the surface yield stress, i.e. the transition between elastic and plastic regimes. We discuss the origin of the surface behavior considering the strong lateral interactions that exist between the adsorbed solid particles. We propose an independent measurement of ?0 based on the critical bulk stress that produces droplet fragmentation in dilute emulsions submitted to shear. Finally, the bulk shear elastic modulus was measured as a function of ? and confirms many of the features revealed by the osmotic resistance.

  7. Results from CERN experiment WA80

    SciTech Connect

    Gutbrod, H.H.; Plasil, F.; Albrecht, R.; Awes, T.C.; Baktash, C.; Beckmann, P.; Berger, F.; Bock, R.; Claesson, G.; Dragon, L.

    1988-01-01

    As in the case of most of the experiments discussed at this conference, the primary goal of WA80 is a search for evidence that a quark-gluon plasma (QGP) has been formed, or that some similar phase transition has taken place. A number of signatures for QGP formation have been suggested, and most experiments have been designed so as to obtain data that pertain to one or more of these signatures. In the case of WA80, the primary probe for the investigation of the QGP is the measurement of photons that may be emitted from the plasma phase. An understanding of the various QGP signatures, however, requires an understanding of the background created by reaction products that do not relate directly to QGP production and thus requires a thorough understanding of the reaction mechanism governing nucleus-nucleus collisions at these extreme energies. Consequently, another important goal of WA80 is to survey nucleus-nucleus collisions at 60 and 200 GeV/nucleon and to compare the results to those obtained from proton-nucleus interactions. We have pursued this second goal by measuring forward and transverse energies, by studying the multiplicities of produced charged particles over a large range of pseudorapidity, by investigating transverse momentum spectra of neutral products, and by examining target fragmentation products. In this paper we review all of our results obtained with 60- and 200-GeV/nucleon /sup 16/O projectiles, with the exception of charged-particle multiplicity data, which are discussed in a separate presentation at this conference. We also present the first preliminary calorimeter results from /sup 32/S bombardments at 6.4 TeV. 22 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Stabilisation of emulsions using hydrophobically modified inulin (polyfructose)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Th. F. Tadros; A. Vandamme; K. Booten; B. Levecke; C. V. Stevens

    2004-01-01

    Oil-in-water (O\\/W) emulsions were prepared using a hydrophobically modified inulin surfactant, INUTEC®SP1. The quality of the emulsions was evaluated using optical microscopy. Emulsions, prepared using INUTEC®SP1 alone had large droplets, but this could be significantly reduced by addition of a cosurfactant to the oil phase, namely Span 20. The stability of the emulsions was investigated in water, in 0.5, 1.0

  9. Testing of microbial demulsifiers with heavy crude emulsions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Wilkinson; D. G. Cooper

    1985-01-01

    Summary It has already been demonstrated that model water-in-kerosene systems and toluene diluted heavy crude oil emulsions can be broken by microbial agents. In this studyN. amarae andR. rhodochrous are used on undiluted, water-in-heavy crude oil emulsions. The high viscosity of the undiluted emulsions severely limits the demulsifying ability of the bacteria towards these field emulsions.

  10. Combustion Study of Stabilized Water-in-Diesel Fuel Emulsion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Y. E. Selim; M. T. Ghannam

    2009-01-01

    An experimental investigation has been carried out to produce a stable diesel\\/water emulsion fuel and use it in a diesel engine under different operating and design conditions. The emulsion stayed stable for up to 30% water in diesel for up to one week and 20% water in diesel for four weeks. The physical properties of the stable W\\/D emulsions in

  11. Structure and Rheology of Concentrated Emulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jung-Ren; Lai, Yi-Cian; Ou, Che-Hao; Tsai, Jih-Chiang

    2015-03-01

    We construct a shearing apparatus combining light scattering and stress measurement to study the structure and rheology of concentrated monodisperse emulsions. The emulsions are subjected to oscillatory shear of variable amplitude and frequency. The light scattering data reflect droplet deformation as well as shear history-dependent inter-droplet structures. The stress measurements display pseudoplasticity near zero shear rate and shear-thinning behavior at finite shear rates. In addition, the time-resolved, synchronous measurement of light scattering and rheology reveal detailed information about the complex structure-rheology relationship of emulsions. Shear disorders the droplets at low and high shear rates but induces order at medium shear rates. Furthermore, the effective viscosity increases as the degree of inter-droplet order decreases. This work is supported by Taiwan MOST Grant 100-2112-M-003-001-MY3.

  12. The stability of high internal phase emulsions at low surfactant concentration studied by small angle neutron scattering.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Philip A; McGillivray, Duncan J; Mata, Jitendra P; Yaron, Peter N; White, John W

    2010-09-15

    The changes in structure of high internal phase emulsions at low concentrations and at elevated temperature are reported for comparison with the same emulsions under conditions well away from instability. Small angle neutron scattering measurements on aqueous ammonium nitrate droplets dispersed in hexadecane and stabilized by very small quantities of a polyisobutylene-based surfactant (PIBSA) as well as related inverse micellar solutions in hexadecane, have been made as a function of temperature and surfactant concentration. Experimental conditions here favour larger and more deformable droplets than in previous studies. Besides the expected micelles and adsorbed surfactant, planar bilayers of micron lateral extent between touching droplets cover 20% of the droplet surface. Another difference from previous experiments is that the oil phase in the emulsions, and corresponding inverse micellar solutions are different in micellar radii and composition. The differences, and changes with surfactant concentration and temperature, are attributed to fractionation of the polydisperse PIBSA in the emulsions, but not the inverse micellar solutions. At low PIBSA concentration and high temperature the SANS shows emulsion decomposing into separate oil and aqueous phases. This occurs when the micelle concentration reaches a very small but measurable value. The inverse micelles may suppress by steric action long wavelength unstable capillary waves in the bilayers. Depletion repulsion forces here have a minor role in the emulsion stabilization. PMID:20573351

  13. Treatment of cocaine overdose with lipid emulsion.

    PubMed

    Jakkala-Saibaba, R; Morgan, P G; Morton, G L

    2011-12-01

    We describe the management and recovery of a 28-year-old man following a history of overdose by nasal inhalation of cocaine. The patient was presented in a comatose state suffering from seizures and marked cardiovascularly instability. Intravenous lipid emulsion was administered following initial resuscitation and tracheal intubation, as a means of treating persistent cardiac arrhythmias and profound hypotension. Following lipid emulsion therapy, the patient's life-threatening cardiovascular parameters rapidly improved and he recovered well without any side effects, thus being discharged within 2 days. PMID:22074030

  14. Ultrasonic energy input influence ?n the production of sub-micron o/w emulsions containing whey protein and common stabilizers.

    PubMed

    Kaltsa, O; Michon, C; Yanniotis, S; Mandala, I

    2013-05-01

    Ultrasonication may be a cost-effective emulsion formation technique, but its impact on emulsion final structure and droplet size needs to be further investigated. Olive oil emulsions (20wt%) were formulated (pH?7) using whey protein (3wt%), three kinds of hydrocolloids (0.1-0.5wt%) and two different emulsification energy inputs (single- and two-stage, methods A and B, respectively). Formula and energy input effects on emulsion performance are discussed. Emulsions stability was evaluated over a 10-day storage period at 5°C recording the turbidity profiles of the emulsions. Optical micrographs, droplet size and viscosity values were also obtained. A differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) multiple cool-heat cyclic method (40 to -40°C) was performed to examine stability via crystallization phenomena of the dispersed phase. Ultrasonication energy input duplication from 11kJ to 25kJ (method B) resulted in stable emulsions production (reduction of back scattering values, dBS?1% after 10days of storage) at 0.5wt% concentration of any of the stabilizers used. At lower gum amount samples became unstable due to depletion flocculation phenomena, regardless of emulsification energy input used. High energy input during ultrasonic emulsification also resulted in sub-micron oil-droplets emulsions (D(50)=0.615?m compared to D(50)=1.3?m using method A) with narrower particle size distribution and in viscosity reduction. DSC experiments revealed no presence of bulk oil formation, suggesting stability for XG 0.5wt% emulsions prepared by both methods. Reduced enthalpy values found when method B was applied suggesting structural modifications produced by extensive ultrasonication. Change of ultrasonication conditions results in significant changes of oil droplet size and stability of the produced emulsions. PMID:23266492

  15. Rheology of siloxane-stabilized water in silicone emulsions.

    PubMed

    Forster, A H; Herrington, T M

    1997-08-01

    Using silicone copolymers in personal care products can improve the aesthetic performance of formulations. During their manufacture, distribution and topical application they are subject to various mechanical stresses. In this study rheology was used to measure their effects. A number of water in silicone (w/Si) emulsions were prepared in which the oil phase consisted of cyclomethicone. The surfactant used was a branched type silicone copolymer. Both viscoelastic and viscometry measurement were performed on model systems and on commercial products. Experimental data were obtained using a Bohlin rheometer. The measurements were taken applying shear rates in the range of 0.46-58 l s-1 and for the strain sweep frequencies of 0.1 Hz, 1 Hz and 10 Hz were applied. Oscillation tests were performed in the 0.1 Hz to 10 Hz range. All measurements were taken at 35deg;C, representing the approximate temperature encountered during topical application. The effect of surfactant concentration on viscoelastic properties was examined. It was shown that with increasing surfactant concentration the elastic moduli G' and the viscous moduli G" increased. Furthermore, the emulsions showed a transition from a predominantly elastic to a predominantly viscous response as the surfactant concentration increased. The effect of varying the water phase volume fraction on viscometry and viscoelastic measurements was also examined. With increasing water phase volume fraction the viscosity of the emulsions, as well as the yield stress, increased. The Cross and Sisko models were applied. From the Dougherty and Krieger equation phieff was calculated. It was found the the data derived from the Sisko model gave more reliable results. Results obtained from commercial samples showed a high proportion of elasticity; oscillation tests and viscometry experiments suggested that tumbling had the biggest impact on the theological profiles; viscosity, eta, shear stress, sigma, elastic module, G', and dynamic viscosity, eta', dropped to a minimum in these samples. Results from the two commercial samples were compared and it was observed that, although both were w/o emulsions, different rheological behaviour could be observed. PMID:18507635

  16. Emulsions stabilised by whey protein microgel particles: towards food-grade Pickering emulsions.

    PubMed

    Destribats, Mathieu; Rouvet, Martine; Gehin-Delval, Cécile; Schmitt, Christophe; Binks, Bernard P

    2014-09-28

    We have investigated a new class of food-grade particles, whey protein microgels, as stabilisers of triglyceride-water emulsions. The sub-micron particles stabilized oil-in-water emulsions at all pH with and without salt. All emulsions creamed but exhibited exceptional resistance to coalescence. Clear correlations exist between the properties of the microgels in aqueous dispersion and the resulting emulsion characteristics. For conditions in which the particles were uncharged, fluid emulsions with relatively large drops were stabilised, whereas emulsions stabilized by charged particles contained smaller flocculated drops. A combination of optical microscopy of the drops and spectrophotometry of the resolved aqueous phase allowed us to estimate the interfacial adsorption densities of the particles using the phenomenon of limited coalescence. We deduce two classes of particle arrangement. Complete adsorption of the particles was obtained when they were neutral or when their charges were screened by salt resulting in at least one particle monolayer at the interface. By contrast, only around 50% of the particles adsorbed when they were charged with emulsion drops being covered by less than half a monolayer. These findings were supported by direct visualization of drop interfaces using cryo-scanning electron microscopy. Uncharged particles were highly aggregated and formed a continuous 2-D network at the interface. Otherwise particles organized as individual aggregates separated by particle-free regions. In this case, we suggest that some particles spread at the interface leading to the formation of a continuous protein membrane. Charged particles displayed the ability to bridge opposing interfaces of neighbouring drops to form dense particle disks protecting drops against coalescence; this is the main reason for the flocculation and stability of emulsions containing sparsely covered drops. PMID:24675994

  17. Phase inversion of ionomer-stabilized emulsions to form high internal phase emulsions (HIPEs).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Xu, Zhiguang; Cai, Zengxiao; Guo, Qipeng

    2015-06-28

    Herein, we report the phase inversion of ionomer-stabilized emulsions to form high internal phase emulsions (HIPEs) induced by salt concentration and pH changes. The ionomers are sulfonated polystyrenes (SPSs) with different sulfonation degrees. The emulsion types were determined by conductivity measurements, confocal microscopy and optical microscopy, and the formation of HIPE organogels was verified by the tube-inversion method and rheological measurements. SPSs with high sulfonation degrees (water-soluble) and low sulfonation degrees (water-insoluble) can stabilize oil-in-water emulsions; these emulsions were transformed into water-in-oil HIPEs by varying salt concentrations and/or changing the pH. SPS, with a sulfonation degree of 11.6%, is the most efficient, and as low as 0.2 (w/v)% of the organic phase is enough to stabilize the HIPEs. Phase inversion of the oil-in-water emulsions occurred to form water-in-oil HIPEs by increasing the salt concentration in the aqueous phase. Two phase inversion points from oil-in-water emulsions to water-in-oil HIPEs were observed at pH 1 and 13. Moreover, synergetic effects between the salt concentration and pH changes occurred upon the inversion of the emulsion type. The organic phase can be a variety of organic solvents, including toluene, xylene, chloroform, dichloroethane, dichloromethane and anisole, as well as monomers such as styrene, butyl acrylate, methyl methacrylate and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate. Poly(HIPEs) were successfully prepared by the polymerization of monomers as the continuous phase in the ionomer-stabilized HIPEs. PMID:26028420

  18. Sequential statistical optimization of a positively-charged submicron emulsion of miconazole.

    PubMed

    Wehrle, P; Korner, D; Benita, S

    1996-04-01

    A positively charged oil/water (O/W) emulsion containing an antifungal agent was developed for ophthalmic use. An attempt was made using a sequential statistical methodology to optimize the O/W emulsion by varying both formulation and process parameters to obtain the smallest droplet size emulsion that can remain stable for a long period of time. During the first step of the study, not less than 7 parameters were found to be important--drug content, amount of lipophilic phase, poloxamer concentration, quantity of the phospholipids-stearylamine couple, pH adjustment, time of coarse emulsification and time of high pressure homogenization. A screening approach based on Hadamard's matrix was used to select the parameters displaying the most significant effects on response parameters. A first set of 8 experiments proved efficient enough to define the concentration of poloxamer and the quantity of the couple phospholipids-stearylamine, which confer the overall positive charge to the emulsified droplet, as the most significant parameters affecting the final droplet size of the emulsions formed. A 2k-type experimental design was then built with the two main factors in order to evaluate a first-order polynomial model with interaction. Poor analysis of variance results after an additional center experiment was performed revealed the lack of fit of the linear model as well as the importance of the response surface curvature due to a close optimum location. To find the optimal operating conditions the design was sequentially completed with 4 more experiments according to the Box and Wilson method. The response surfaces in 3-dimensional representation and their corresponding contour plots proved helpful in analyzing the validated models and in highlighting the precise optimum location. The optimized positive submicron emulsion is now under in vivo investigation. PMID:9552336

  19. Water-in-oil emulsion explosive composition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Takeuchi; M. Takahashi

    1983-01-01

    A water-in-oil emulsion explosive composition which has enhanced storage stability is described. The explosive composition comprises a disperse phase formed of an aqueous oxidizer solution consisting of (1) ammonium nitrate or a mixture of ammonium nitrate and another oxidizer salt, (2) water and (3) a specifically limited weak acid salt or condensed phosphate, (4) a continuous phase consisting of fuel

  20. FOOD EMULSIONS: PRINCIPLES, PRACTICES, AND TECHNIQUES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The newly published book by David Julian McClements entitled, “Food Emulsions: Principles, Practices, and Techniques”, Second edition, was reviewed. The novice entering this field, as well as the expert food scientist, will find this book valuable as specific details throughout the book are referen...

  1. Fourier Transform Rheology as an innovative morphological characterization technique for the emulsion volume average radius and its distribution.

    PubMed

    Reinheimer, K; Grosso, M; Hetzel, F; Kübel, J; Wilhelm, M

    2012-08-15

    This article extends previous works on emulsion characterization via Fourier Transform Rheology. The interest here is on the effects of (i) polydispersity and (ii) high volume fraction (often associated with commercial samples) on the nonlinear rheological behavior. To analyze the effects of polydispersity on the LAOS measurements, the investigated samples were characterized with respect to their volume average radius, [R](43), and the polydispersity index of the distribution. As the nonlinear mechanical emulsion value E(0) introduced in the literature is a function of both nonlinear rheological parameters, such as I(5/3), as well as emulsion properties including the volume average radius, interfacial tension and viscosities of the matrix and dispersed phase, it is, therefore, a useful tool for emulsion characterization. In addition, the analysis of the higher harmonic ratios, I(7/5), has been demonstrated to provide information about the width of the distribution. With respect to the characterization of the high volume fraction samples, these first experiments on commercial w/o-emulsions were shown to relate nonlinear rheological properties to the droplet size and droplet size distribution of highly filled systems, demonstrating that LAOS experiments can give useful insights on the average droplet size and its distribution. PMID:22633109

  2. A comparative study of the physicochemical properties of a virgin coconut oil emulsion and commercial food supplement emulsions.

    PubMed

    Khor, Yih Phing; Koh, Soo Peng; Long, Kamariah; Long, Shariah; Ahmad, Sharifah Zarah Syed; Tan, Chin Ping

    2014-01-01

    Food manufacturers are interested in developing emulsion-based products into nutritional foods by using beneficial oils, such as fish oil and virgin coconut oil (VCO). In this study, the physicochemical properties of a VCO oil-in-water emulsion was investigated and compared to other commercial oil-in-water emulsion products (C1, C2, C3, and C4). C3 exhibited the smallest droplet size of 3.25 µm. The pH for the emulsion samples ranged from 2.52 to 4.38 and thus were categorised as acidic. In a texture analysis, C2 was described as the most firm, very adhesive and cohesive, as well as having high compressibility properties. From a rheological viewpoint, all the emulsion samples exhibited non-Newtonian behaviour, which manifested as a shear-thinning property. The G'G'' crossover illustrated by the VCO emulsion in the amplitude sweep graph but not the other commercial samples illustrated that the VCO emulsion had a better mouthfeel. In this context, the VCO emulsion yielded the highest zeta potential (64.86 mV), which was attributed to its strong repulsive forces, leading to a good dispersion system. C2 comprised the highest percentage of fat among all emulsion samples, followed by the VCO emulsion, with 18.44% and 6.59%, respectively. PMID:24988188

  3. Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Fibrotic Profile of Fish Oil Emulsions Used in Parenteral Nutrition-Associated Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Pastor-Clerigues, Alfonso; Marti-Bonmati, Ezequiel; Milara, Javier; Almudever, Patricia; Cortijo, Julio

    2014-01-01

    Home parenteral nutrition (PN) is associated with many complications including severe hepatobiliary dysfunction. Commercial ?-6 fatty acid-soybean based-lipid emulsions in PN may mediate long term PN associate liver disease (PNALD) whereas ?-3-fish oil parenteral emulsions have shown to reverse PNALD in children. However, its clinical effectiveness in adults has been scarcely reported. In this work, we study the role of soybean and fish oil lipid commercial emulsions on inflammatory and profibrotic liver markers in adults with long term PNALD and in in vitro cellular models. Inflammatory and profibrotic markers were measured in serum of ten adults with long term PNALD and in culture supernatants of monocytes. Liver epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) was induced by transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF?1) to evaluate in vitro liver fibrosis. Omegaven®, a 100% fish oil commercial emulsion, was infused during four months in two patients with severe long term PNALD reversing, at the first month, the inflammatory, profibrotic and clinical parameters of PNALD. The effect was maintained during the treatment course but impaired when conventional lipid emulsions were reintroduced. The other patients under chronic soybean oil-based PN showed elevated inflammatory and profibrotic parameters. In vitro human monocytes stimulated with lipopolysaccharide induced a strong inflammatory response that was suppressed by Omegaven®, but increased by soybean emulsions. In other experiments, TGF?1 induced EMT that was suppressed by Omegaven® and enhanced by soybean oil lipid emulsions. Omegaven® improves clinical, anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic parameters in adults with long-term home PNALD. PMID:25502575

  4. Ultrasonication-assisted preparation and characterization of emulsions and emulsion gels for topical drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vinay K; Behera, Baikuntha; Pramanik, Krishna; Pal, Kunal

    2015-03-01

    The current study describes the use of ultrasonication for the preparation of biphasic emulsions and emulsion gels for topical drug delivery. Sorbitan monostearate (SMS) was used as the surfactant for stabilizing the interface of sesame oil (apolar phase) and water (polar phase). Emulsions were formed at lower concentrations of SMS, whereas emulsion gels were formed at higher concentrations of SMS. The formulations were characterized by fluorescent microscopy, X-ray diffraction, viscosity, stress relaxation, spreadability, and differential scanning calorimetry studies. Fluorescence microscopy suggested formation of oil-in-water type of formulations. There was an increase in the viscosity, bulk resistance, and firmness of the formulations as the proportions of SMS was increased. The emulsion gels were viscoelastic in nature. Thermal studies suggested higher thermodynamic stability at higher proportions of either SMS or water. Metronidazole, a model antimicrobial drug, was incorporated within the formulations. The release of the drug from the formulations was found to be diffusion mediated. The drug-loaded formulations showed sufficient antimicrobial efficiency to be used as carriers for topical antimicrobial drug delivery. PMID:25470664

  5. Automatic readout for nuclear emulsions in muon radiography of volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksandrov, A.; Bozza, C.; Consiglio, L.; D'Ambrosio, N.; De Lellis, G.; Di Crescenzo, A.; Di Marco, N.; Kose, U.; Lauria, A.; Medinaceli, E.; Miyamoto, S.; Montesi, C.; Pupilli, F.; Rescigno, R.; Russo, A.; Sirignano, C.; Stellacci, S. M.; Strolin, P.; Tioukov, V.

    2012-04-01

    Nuclear emulsions are an effective choice in many scenarios of volcano radiography by cosmic-ray muons. They are cheap and emulsion-based detectors require no on-site power supply. Nuclear emulsion films provide sub-micrometric tracking precision and intrinsic angular accuracy better than 1 mrad. Imaging the inner structure of a volcano requires that the cosmic-ray absorption map be measured on wide angular range. High-absorption directions can be probed by allowing for large statistics, which implies a large overall flux, i.e. wide surface for the detector. A total area of the order of a few m2 is nowadays typical, thanks to the automatic readout tools originally developed for high-energy physics experiments such as CHORUS, PEANUT, OPERA. The European Scanning System is now being used to read out nuclear emulsion films exposed to cosmic rays on the side of volcanoes. The structure of the system is described in detail with respect to both hardware and software. Its present scanning speed of 20 cm2/h/side/microscope is suitable to fulfil the needs of the current exposures of nuclear emulsion films for muon radiograph, but it is worth to notice that applications in volcano imaging are among the driving forces pushing to increase the performances of the system. Preliminary results for the Unzen volcano of a joint effort by research groups in Italy and Japan show that the current system is already able to provide signal/background ratio in the range 100÷10000:1, depending on the quality cuts set in the off-line data analysis. The size of the smallest detectable structures in that experimental setup is constrained by the available statistics in the region of highest absorption to about 50 mrad, or 22 m under the top of the mountain. Another exposure is currently taking data at the Stromboli volcano. Readout of the exposed films is expected to begin in March 2012, and preliminary results will be available soon after. An effort by several universities and INFN has already started to increase the scanning speed, to exceed 100 cm2/h and approach the order of magnitude of 1000 cm2/h. Muon radiography also demands high signal/background ratio to probe high absorption regions in volcanoes. A new camera, a new image acquisition device, an improved motion control board and extensive use of GPU-based processing are the keys to make a new leap in speed while even improving data quality. With most of the new hardware already finalised, software development is quickly progressing, and a stable, user-friendly and cheap prototype is expected to be ready to take data already this summer. The amount of raw data collected is typically of the order of 10 TB/m2. The operation of automatic microscopes is thus complemented with an automatic data management and processing system based on a distributed computing model. The processing power can be scaled up linearly by just increasing the number of available computers. An evolution is underway on this side too, and algorithms designed for GPU-based processing will soon help increase the available power while decreasing the overall cost of typical installations.

  6. Imaging techniques applied to characterize bitumen and bituminous emulsions.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Valverde, M A; Ramón-Torregrosa, P; Páez-Dueñas, A; Cabrerizo-Vílchez, M A; Hidalgo-Alvarez, R

    2008-01-15

    The purpose of this article is to present some important advances in the imaging techniques currently used in the characterization of bitumen and bituminous emulsions. Bitumen exhibits some properties, such as a black colour and a reflecting surface at rest, which permit the use of optical techniques to study the macroscopic behaviour of asphalt mixes in the cold mix technology based on emulsion use. Imaging techniques allow monitoring in situ the bitumen thermal sensitivity as well as the complex phenomenon of emulsion breaking. Evaporation-driven breaking was evaluated from the shape of evaporating emulsion drops deposited onto non-porous and hydrophobic substrates. To describe the breaking kinetics, top-view images of a drying emulsion drop placed on an aggregate sheet were acquired and processed properly. We can conclude that computer-aided image analysis in road pavement engineering can elucidate the mechanism of breaking and curing of bituminous emulsion. PMID:17825782

  7. Entropically Driven Colloidal Assembly in Emulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Keng-Hui; Lai, Liang-Jie; Chen, Hui

    2007-03-01

    Using the techniques developed by Manoharan [1], we encapsulate small numbers of colloidal microspheres and polymers in oil-in-water emulsion droplets, remove the oil and generate colloidal clusters covered with polymers. We observe two types of arrangement in the clusters. The first kind is the same as the type reported in [1] of which the clusters are formed without polymer. The second kind is the same as the structure reported in [2] of which the clusters are formed by binary colloidal microspheres. The polymers we put in the emulsions induce depletion interactions between colloidal particles. We will show that two types of structures are from the interplay between the depletion interactions and surface tension. [1] Manoharan, Elsesser, Pine, Science 301, 483(2003). [2] Cho et al. JACS 127, 15968 (2005).

  8. Continuous phases in emulsions of three liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.H. (Morgantown Energy Technology Center, WV (United States) Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman (United States)); Johnson, G.K. (Morgantown Energy Technology Center, WV (United States)); Dadyburjor, D.B. (West Virginia Univ., Morgantown (United States))

    1993-08-01

    For three-phase (macro)emulsions formed by the top (T), middle (M), and bottom (B) phases of amphiphile/oil/water systems, it has been variously stated in the literature either (1) that the continuous phase is always M or (2) that the continuous phase is B below the phase inversion temperature (PIT) and T above the PIT. We show by means of isothermal electrical conductivity measurements at various temperatures on emulsions of known phase volume fractions that neither hypothesis is generally correct. For our experimental conditions the [open quotes]choice[close quotes] of continuous phase depends on the phase volume fractions, and at all temperatures - by appropriate choice of phase volume fractions - any of T, M, or B may be made the continuous phase. 21 refs., 6 figs.

  9. 40 CFR 443.10 - Applicability; description of the asphalt emulsion subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the asphalt emulsion subcategory. 443.10 Section...POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asphalt Emulsion Subcategory § 443.10 Applicability; description of the asphalt emulsion subcategory. The provisions...

  10. 40 CFR 467.20 - Applicability; description of the rolling with emulsions subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...description of the rolling with emulsions subcategory. 467.20 Section...POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Rolling With Emulsions Subcategory § 467.20 Applicability...description of the rolling with emulsions subcategory. This...

  11. 40 CFR 467.60 - Applicability; description of the drawing with emulsions or soaps subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the drawing with emulsions or soaps subcategory. 467.60 Section...POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Drawing With Emulsions or Soaps Subcategory § 467.60 ...Applicability; description of the drawing with emulsions or soaps subcategory. This...

  12. Biomedical Applications of Emulsion Templated Scaffolds 

    E-print Network

    Moglia, Robert Scott

    2014-03-28

    polymer melt. This changes the solubility of the solvent causing it to separate out of the polymer phase, and form droplets. Freeze-drying the foams removes the solvent, leaving a porous polymeric scaffold. The process can be controlled in such a way....5 Polymerized High Internal Phase Emulsions (PolyHIPEs).............................. 13 1.6 Tailoring Polymer Mechanical Properties........................................................ 16 1.7 Permeability in Porous Scaffolds...

  13. Intravenous fat emulsion: A potential novel antidote

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Danielle E. Turner-Lawrence; William Kerns II

    2008-01-01

    Intravenous fat emulsions (IFE) are traditionally used as a component of parenteral nutrition therapy. Recently, IFE was used\\u000a to resuscitate severe local anesthetic drug toxicity. This review focuses on the potential role of IFE in treatment of toxicity\\u000a due to local anesthetics and other lipid-soluble drugs. The general properties of IFE, metabolic fate, and associated adverse\\u000a events are described. Cases

  14. Emulsions Containing Perfluorocarbon Support Cell Cultures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ju, Lu-Kwang; Lee, Jaw Fang; Armiger, William B.

    1990-01-01

    Addition of emulsion containing perfluorocarbon liquid to aqueous cell-culture medium increases capacity of medium to support mammalian cells. FC-40 Fluorinert (or equivalent) - increases average density of medium so approximately equal to that of cells. Cells stay suspended in medium without mechanical stirring, which damages them. Increases density enough to prevent cells from setting, and increases viscosity of medium so oxygen bubbled through it and nutrients stirred in with less damage to delicate cells.

  15. Demulsification of bitumen emulsions using water soluble salts of polymers

    SciTech Connect

    McCoy, D.R.; Cuscurida, M.; Speranza, G.P.

    1983-08-02

    A process for recovering bitumen from oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions is disclosed wherein water-soluble demulsifiers are used. These demulsifiers are water-soluble salts of polymers prepared by the reaction between certain polyoxyalkylene diamines with diepoxides. To resolve the bituminous petroleum emulsions, the process is carried out between 25/sup 0/ and 160/sup 0/C. wherein the demulsifier of the invention is contacted with the bituminous emulsion.

  16. Method for demulsification of bitumen emulsions using polyalkylene polyamine salts

    SciTech Connect

    McCoy, D.R.

    1984-03-06

    A process for recovering bitumen from oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions is disclosed wherein water soluble demulsifiers are used. These demulsifiers are polyamine salts prepared by contacting poly(ethyleneimines) with organic or inorganic acids. The polyamines have a molecular weight of at least 1,000. To resolve the bituminous petroleum emulsions, the process is carried out between 25/sup 0/ and 160/sup 0/ C. wherein the demulsifier of the invention is contacted with the bituminous emulsion.

  17. Linear and nonlinear rheology of dense emulsions across the glass and the jamming regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheffold, Frank; Zhang, Chi; Mason, Thomas G.

    2015-03-01

    We discuss the linear and nonlinear rheology of concentrated silicone oil-in-water emulsions, amorphous disordered solids composed of repulsive and deformable soft colloidal spheres. Based on recent results from simulation and theory, we derive quantitative predictions for the dependences of the elastic shear modulus and the yield stress on the effective droplet volume fraction. The remarkable agreement with experiments we observe supports the scenario that the repulsive glass and the jammed state can be clearly identified in the rheology of soft spheres at finite temperature while crossing continuously from a liquid to a highly compressed yet disordered solid. We show that the onset of elasticity due to entropic contribution can be described by a quasi-equilibrium analytical model of linear elasticity hat includes energetic contributions from entropy and soft interfacial deformation. In a second set of experiments we use confocal microscopy to monitor the structure and dynamics of emulsion droplets while crossing the glass and the jamming transition..

  18. [Multiple emulsions; bioactive compounds and functional foods].

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Colmenero, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    The continued appearance of scientific evidence about the role of diet and/or its components in health and wellness, has favored the emergence of functional foods which currently constitute one of the chief factors driving the development of new products. The application of multiple emulsions opens new possibilities in the design and development of functional foods. Multiple emulsions can be used as an intermediate product (food ingredient) into technological strategies normally used in the optimization of the presence of bioactive compounds in healthy and functional foods. This paper presents a summary of the types, characteristics and formation of multiple emulsions, possible location of bioactive compounds and their potential application in the design and preparation of healthy and functional foods. Such applications are manifested particularly relevant in relation to quantitative and qualitative aspects of lipid material (reduced fat/calories and optimization of fatty acid profile), encapsulation of bioactive compounds mainly hydrophilic and sodium reduction. This strategy offers interesting possibilities regarding masking flavours and improving sensory characteristics of foods. PMID:24160194

  19. Effect of primary emulsions on microsphere size and protein-loading in the double emulsion process.

    PubMed

    Maa, Y F; Hsu, C C

    1997-01-01

    Incorporation of a protein drug in microspheres made of a hydrophobic polymer is commonly achieved via double liquid-liquid emulsification (w/o/w) or by dispersing a powdered protein in a polymer solution followed by liquid-liquid emulsification (s/o/w). This study focused on the effect of the first operating step in both processes on the size and protein-loading of the microspheres. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) was used as the model protein and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) was used as the model polymer. The w/o emulsion was characterized based on the degree of emulsion fineness which was controlled using rotor/stator homogenization. The s/o emulsion was characterized based on protein powder size and shape. Protein powders of different sizes and shapes were produced using different powder preparation methods. In both emulsification processes, the second operating step which produced the microspheres was conducted in either a continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) or a static mixer. The size of the microspheres thus prepared was found to increase with increasing size of the protein powder in the s/o/w system but increase with decreasing size of the liquid emulsion droplets in the w/o/w system. Empirical correlations can accurately predict the size of the microspheres if the size of w/o emulsion droplets and protein powder is 10 x less than the microsphere size. Protein loading in the microspheres decreased with respect to increases in w/o emulsion droplet size or in protein powder size. We propose that these phenomena are attributed to two mechanisms, fragmentation along the weak routes in the w/o/w system and particle redistribution as the result of terminal velocity in the s/o/w system. The role of protein powder shape was not significant until the protein powder size exceeded 5 microns. Irregular-shaped protein powders resulted in lower encapsulation efficiency than spherical-shaped protein powders. PMID:9132473

  20. Nuclear interactions of super high energy cosmic-rays observed in mountain emulsion chambers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. G. Bayburina; A. S. Borisov; K. V. Cherdyntseva; Z. M. Guseva; V. G. Denisova; A. M. Dunaevskii; E. A. Kanevskaya; V. M. Maximenko; S. V. Pashkov; V. S. Puchkov; S. B. Shaulov; S. A. Slavatinsky; M. D. Smirnova; Yu. A. Smorodin; A. V. Urysson; N. G. Zelevinskaya; G. B. Zhdanov; L. G. Afanasjeva; L. T. Baradzei; E. I. Gorochova; I. P. Ivanenko; N. P. Iljina; G. B. Khristiansen; T. V. Lazareva; A. K. Managadze; E. A. Murzina; I. V. Rakobolskaya; T. M. Roganova; N. G. Ryabova; G. T. Zatsepin; R. A. Mukhamedshin; S. D. Cananov; L. A. Khisanishvili; N. N. Roinishvili; M. S. Svanidge; J. A. Tecliashvili; T. V. Varsimashvili; Z. A. Azimov; I. B. Bodojanov; N. E. Gubar; Yu. A. Gulov; F. Normuradov; Kh. Shobaronov; N. A. Dobrotin; Yu. A. Emeljanov; Yu. T. Lukin; B. F. Shorin; E. G. Zaitseva; S. A. Azimov; A. R. Dzhuraev; E. G. Mulladjanov; Kh. Nutritdinov; D. A. Talipov; I. Shamansurov; T. S. Juldashbaev; Z. Buja; E. Gladysz; J. Mazurkiewicz; S. Mikocki; M. Szarska; L. Zawiejski; H. Bielawska; R. Juskiewicz; J. L. Kacperski; A. Krys; J. Malinowski; K. Milczarek; J. Sroka; A. Tomaszewski; J. A. Wrotniak; K. Maluszynska; Z. Wlodarczyk; M. Akashi; M. Amenomori; E. Konishi; H. Nanjo; Z. Watanabe; K. Mizutani; K. Kasahara; S. Torii; T. Yuda; T. Shirai; N. Tateyama; T. Taira; I. Mito; M. Shibata; H. Sugimoto; K. Taira; N. Hotta; M. Ballester; C. Santos; J. Bellandi Filho; J. A. Chinellato; C. Dobrigkeit; C. M. G. Lattes; A. Marques; M. J. Menon; C. E. Navia O; K. Sawayanagi; E. Silva; E. H. Shibuya; A. Turtelli; N. M. Amato; F. M. Oliveira Castro; R. H. C. Maldonado; H. Aoki; Y. Fuyimoto; S. Hasegawa; H. Kumano; H. Semba; T. Tabuki; M. Tamada; K. Tanaka; S. Yamashita; N. Arata; T. Shibata; K. Yokoi; A. Ohsawa

    1981-01-01

    Here we present a summary of joint discussions on the results of three mountain experiments with large-scale emulsion chambers, at Pamir, Mt. Fuji and Chacaltaya. Observations cover gamma quanta, hadrons and their clusters (called ``families''). The following topics are covered, concerning the characteristics of nuclear interactions the energy region 1014-1016 eV: (i) rapid dissipation seen in atmospheric diffusion of high-energy

  1. An electro-coalescence chip for effective emulsion breaking in droplet microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Chokkalingam, Venkatachalam; Ma, Yujie; Thiele, Julian; Schalk, Werner; Tel, Jurjen; Huck, Wilhelm T S

    2014-07-21

    Droplet-based microfluidics is increasingly used for biological applications, where the recovery of cells or particles after an experiment or assay is desirable. Here, we present an electro-demulsification chip which circumvents the use of harsh chemicals and multiple washing/centrifugation steps and offers a mild way for extracting cells and polymer particles into an aqueous phase from microfluidic water-in-oil emulsions. PMID:24889537

  2. Polyurea Microcapsules from Oil-in-Oil Emulsions via Interfacial Polymerization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Muris Kobaslija; D. Tyler McQuade

    2006-01-01

    Polyurea microcapsules were obtained via interfacial polymerization at the interface of methanol- in-cyclohexane, formamide-in-cyclohexane, and N,N-dimethylformamide-in-cyclohexane emulsions. Coumarin-1 was used as a model encapsulant; both dye leaching and encapsulation efficiency were examined. For the methanol- in-cyclohexane system, design of experiments was used to assess the influence of five different variables on capsule size. A model was obtained that accurately predicts

  3. Interactions of 10.6 GeV\\/nucleon gold nuclei in nuclear emulsion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. L. Cherry; A. Dabrowska; P. Deines-Jones; A. J. Dubinina; R. Holynski; W. V. Jones; A. Jurak; E. D. Kolganova; A. Olszewski; E. A. Pozharova; K. Sengupta; T. Yu. Skorodko; V. A. Smirnitski; M. Szarska; C. J. Waddington; J. P. Wefel; B. Wilczynska; W. Wolter

    1994-01-01

    Stacks of nuclear emulsion were exposed at the Brookhaven AGS to a 10.6 GeV\\/n beam of gold nuclei in the BNL 868 experiment. A preliminary analysis of the main features of the interactions of these nuclei is reported here and compared with those observed previously at lower energies,E<1 GeV\\/n. The multiplicity and pseudo-rapidity distributions of the singly charged particles emitted

  4. Crude oil emulsions containing a compatible fluorochemical surfactant

    SciTech Connect

    Karydas, A.; Rodgers, J.

    1991-02-19

    This patent describes a crude oil in water emulsion, which is stable to both breakdown and phase inversion up to at least about 50{degrees} C., the emulsion containing an effective, compatible, emulsion stabilizing amount of a fluorochemical surfactant of the formula (R{sub {ital f}}){sub {ital n}}A{sub {ital m}}Q wherein R{sub {ital f}} is an inert, stable, oleophobic and hydrophobic fluoroaliphatic group having up to about 20 carbon atoms; n is an integer from 1 to 3; A is a direct bond or an organic linking group and is covalently bonded to both R{sub {ital f}} and Q; Q is an anionic, nonionic or amphoteric group; and m is an integer from 1 to 3; wherein the amount of weight of the fluorochemical surfactant present in the emulsion being between about 0.001 and 1% by weight of the emulsion, in the presence of absence of up to about 2% by weight of a crude oil emulsion promoting hydrocarbon surfactant, with the proviso that at least about 0.005% by weight total fluorochemical and hydrocarbon surfactant is present, based upon the weight of emulsion, and wherein the emulsion contains bout 15 to about 90 percent by weight water, based upon the weight of emulsion, such that the viscosity of the emulsion is less than about 50% of the viscosity of the crude oil, and wherein the emulsion spontaneously breaks down into an aqueous and crude oil phase at a temperature between about 55{degrees} and 75{degrees} C.

  5. Structures and stability of lipid emulsions formulated with sodium caseinate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cristián Huck-Iriart; María Soledad Álvarez-Cerimedo; Roberto Jorge Candal; María Lidia Herrera

    2011-01-01

    The physicochemical properties of emulsions play an important role in food systems as they directly contribute to texture, sensory and nutritional properties of foods. Sodium caseinate (NaCas) is a well-used ingredient because of its good solubility and emulsifying properties and its stability during heating. One of most significant aspects of any food emulsion is its stability. Among the methods used

  6. Zero-Valent Metal Emulsion for Reductive Dehalogenation of DNAPLS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinhart, Debra R. (Inventor); Clausen, Christian (Inventor); Geiger, Cherie L. (Inventor); Quinn, Jacqueline (Inventor); Brooks, Kathleen (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A zero-valent metal emulsion is used to dehalogenate solvents, such as pooled dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs), including trichloroethylene (TCE). The zero-valent metal emulsion contains zero-valent metal particles, a surfactant, oil and water. The preferred zero-valent metal particles are nanoscale and microscale zero-valent iron particles

  7. DEMULSIFICATION OF WATER IN OIL EMULSIONS USING WATER SOLUBLE DEMULSIFIERS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. S. Shetty; A. D. Nikolov; D. T. Wasan; B. R. Bhattacharyya

    1992-01-01

    The possibility of using a water soluble,as opposed to the conventional oil soluble demulsifier, to destabilize a w\\/o emulsion in crude oil has been explored. It was found experimentally that a surfactant soluble in the water (dispersed) phase could destabilize the emulsion. Polymer molecules with varying HLB's and molecular weights and structure were synthesized and these compounds were added to

  8. Instability and Partial Coalescence in Whippable Dairy Emulsions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. D. Goff

    1997-01-01

    Dairy emulsions must be stabilized by an adsorbed layer to prevent flocculation or phase separation dur- ing quiescent storage. In the production of products such as whipped cream and ice cream, however, a controlled destabilization or partial coalescence of the emulsion is needed during further processing to de- velop an internal structure of agglomerated fat, which favorably alters the texture

  9. Molecular weight distribution in non-linear emulsion polymerization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hidetaka Tobita; Mamoru Nomura

    1999-01-01

    A modelistic study is conducted for an emulsion polymerization that involves chain transfer to the polymer, by focusing our attention to the effect of very small reaction volume on the formed molecular weight distribution. In emulsion polymerization, a polymer radical that causes the polymer transfer reaction must choose the partner only within the same particle, which makes the expected size

  10. Zero-Valent Metal Emulsion for Reductive Dehalogenation of DNAPLs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinhart, Debra R. (Inventor); Clausen, Christian (Inventor); Gelger, Cherie L. (Inventor); Quinn, Jacqueline (Inventor); Brooks, Kathleen (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A zero-valent metal emulsion is used to dehalogenate solvents, such as pooled dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs), including trichloroethylene (TCE). The zero-valent metal emulsion contains zero-valent metal particles, a surfactant, oil and water, The preferred zero-valent metal particles are nanoscale and microscale zero-valent iron particles.

  11. Nanoscale and Microscale Iron Emulsions for Treating DNAPL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geiger, Cherie L.

    2002-01-01

    This study demonstrated the feasibility of using emulsified nanoscale and microscale iron particles to enhance dehalogenation of (Dense Non-Aqueous Phase Liquid) DNAPL free-phase. The emulsified system consisted of a surfactant-stabilized, biodegradable oil-in-water emulsion with nanoscale or microscale iron particles contained within the emulsion droplets. It was demonstrated that DNAPLs, such as trichloroethene (TCE), diffuse through the oil membrane of the emulsion particle whereupon they reach an aqueous interior and the surface of an iron particle where dehalogenation takes place. The hydrocarbon reaction by-products of the dehalogenation reaction, primarily ethene (no chlorinated products detected), diffuse out of the emulsion droplet. This study also demonstrated that an iron-emulsion system could be delivered in-situ to the DNAPL pool in a soil matrix by using a simulated push well technique. Iron emulsions degraded pure TCE at a rate comparable to the degradation of dissolved phase TCE by iron particles, while pure iron had a very low degradation rate for free-phase TCE. The iron-emulsion systems can be injected into a sand matrix where they become immobilized and are not moved by flowing water. It has been documented that surfactant micelles possess the ability to pull pooled TCE into emulsion droplets where degradation of TCE takes place.

  12. Studies on the temperature performance of SBR modified asphalt emulsion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qinqin Zhang; Weiyu Fan; Tiezhu Wang; Guozhi Nan

    2011-01-01

    Styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) modified asphalt emulsions were prepared by means of SBR latex adding to aqueous solution, and it is an energy-saving, ecologically safe material because it does not need any heating processes creating gas emission and fire hazard during its use. The objective of this work was to analyze the temperature performance of SBR modified asphalt emulsions for

  13. Perfluorochemical emulsions decrease Kupffer cell phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Bottalico, L A; Betensky, H T; Min, Y B; Weinstock, S B

    1991-07-01

    One drawback to using perfluorochemical emulsions as blood substitutes is that perfluorochemical particles are cleared from the blood by the reticuloendothelial system, primarily liver and spleen. We measured the impact of two perfluorochemical emulsions on clearance of colloidal carbon (less than 1 microns) and 51Cr-sheep red blood cells (about 8 microns) by the reticuloendothelial system in vivo and in the isolated perfused liver. Male rats were injected with 2 ml/100 gm body wt of Fluosol-DA or Oxypherol-ET for 4 consecutive days. Carbon (1 ml/100 gm body wt) or sheep red blood cells (0.05 ml of 5% vol/vol/100 gm body wt) were then injected intravenously (in vivo) or added to perfusate. Samples were taken at several time points for 1 hr. In the isolated perfused liver, carbon clearance was depressed by 25% 1 day after treatment. Rates returned to control levels by 12 days in Fluosol-DA-treated rats but remained depressed by 67% in Oxypherol-ET-treated rats. Sheep red blood cell (8 microns) clearance was two to five times slower than carbon clearance and depressed by 40% in livers from Fluosol-DA rats 1 day and 12 days after treatment. Added serum did not improve phagocytosis. In vivo carbon clearance remained normal in Fluosol-DA-treated rats but decreased by 74% in Oxypherol-ET-treated rats 1 day after treatment, returning to normal by 12 days. Clearance rates were similar in control rats in vivo and in the perfused liver. We conclude that the isolated perfused liver is a good model to measure liver clearance function. Although low doses of perfluorochemical emulsions may depress Kupffer cell phagocytosis, general reticuloendothelial system function is not significantly compromised. PMID:2066065

  14. Glycosylated polyacrylate nanoparticles by emulsion polymerization

    PubMed Central

    Abeylath, Sampath C.; Turos, Edward

    2007-01-01

    A selection of glycosylated polyacrylate nanoparticles has been prepared by radical-initiated emulsion polymerization in aqueous media. Using ethyl acrylate as a co-monomer, carbohydrate acrylates were incorporated into the poly(ethyl acrylate) framework to give stable emulsions of glyconanoparticles with an average particle size of around 40 nm. Using this technique a variety of glyconanoparticles were prepared from 3-O-acryloyl-1,2:5,6-di-O-isopropylidene-?-D-glucofuranose, 1-O-acryloyl-2,3:5,6-di-O-isopropylidene-?-D-mannofuranose, 6-O-acryloyl-1,2:3,4-di-O-isopropylidene-?-D-galactopyranose, 2-N-acryloyl-1,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-?-D-glucosamine, 5-O-acryloyl-2,3-isopropylidene-1-methoxy-?-D-ribofuranose and 4-N-acetyl-5’-O-acryloyl-2’,3’-O-isopropylidene cytidine. Scanning electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering and proton NMR analysis of the emulsions indicated essentially 100% incorporation of the carbohydrate acrylate monomer into the polymer with the exception of O-benzyl- and O-benzoyl-protected carbohydrate acrylates, which gave incomplete incorporation. Formation of larger glyconanoparticles of ~80nm with (unprotected) 3-O-acryloyl-D-glucose and 5-O-acryloyl-1-methoxy-?-D-ribofuranose revealed the influence of free hydroxyl groups in the monomer on the particle size during polymerization, a feature which is also apparently dependent on the amount of carbohydrate in the matrix. This methodology allows for a new, simple route to the synthesis of polymeric glyconanoparticles with potential applications in targeted drug delivery and materials development. PMID:18677404

  15. Systematic characterization of oil-in-water emulsions for formulation design.

    PubMed

    Roland, I; Piel, G; Delattre, L; Evrard, B

    2003-09-16

    Oil-in-water emulsions varying in surfactant concentration and manufacturing process were prepared. About 10 experiments were performed to characterize them. The goal of this research was to find out which tests should systematically be carried out to assess efficiently the stability and the properties of an emulsified preparation. Thus, formulation design requires at least the measurement of the droplet size, the determination of the zeta potential, a TurbiScan analysis, the investigation of the stability under centrifugation and freeze/thaw cycles. If the emulsion contains an active substance, stability under storage at 4 degrees C and microscopic analysis are relevant. Quality control should be improved by measurements of viscosity and pH. PMID:12954183

  16. Pickering emulsions for food applications: background, trends, and challenges.

    PubMed

    Berton-Carabin, Claire C; Schroën, Karin

    2015-01-01

    Particle-stabilized emulsions, also referred to as Pickering emulsions, have garnered exponentially increasing interest in recent years. This has also led to the first food applications, although the number of related publications is still rather low. The involved stabilization mechanisms are fundamentally different as compared to conventional emulsifiers, which can be an asset in terms of emulsion stability. Even though most of the research on Pickering emulsions has been conducted on model systems, with inorganic solid particles, recent progress has been made on the utilization of food-grade or food-compatible organic particles for this purpose. This review reports the latest advances in that respect, including technical challenges, and discusses the potential benefits and drawbacks of using Pickering emulsions for food applications, as an alternative to conventional emulsifier-based systems. PMID:25705932

  17. Emulsion Chamber with Big Radiation Length for Detecting Neutrino Oscillations

    E-print Network

    A. E. Asratyan; G. V. Davidenko; A. G. Dolgolenko; V. S. Kaftanov; M. A. Kubantsev; V. S. Verebryusov

    2000-02-07

    A conceptual scheme of a hybrid-emulsion spectrometer for investigating various channels of neutrino oscillations is proposed. The design emphasizes detection of $\\tau$ leptons by detached vertices, reliable identification of electrons, and good spectrometry for all charged particles and photons. A distributed target is formed by layers of low-Z material, emulsion-plastic-emulsion sheets, and air gaps in which $\\tau$ decays are detected. The tracks of charged secondaries, including electrons, are momentum-analyzed by curvature in magnetic field using hits in successive thin layers of emulsion. The $\\tau$ leptons are efficiently detected in all major decay channels, including \\xedec. Performance of a model spectrometer, that contains 3 tons of nuclear emulsion and 20 tons of passive material, is estimated for different experimental environments. When irradiated by the $\

  18. Rejuvenation of Spent Media via Supported Emulsion Liquid Membranes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiencek, John M.

    2002-01-01

    The overall goal of this project was to maximize the reuseability of spent fermentation media. Supported emulsion liquid membrane separation, a highly efficient extraction technique, was used to remove inhibitory byproducts during fermentation; thus, improve the yield while reducing the need for fresh water. The key objectives of this study were: (1) Develop an emulsion liquid membrane system targeting low molecular weight organic acids which has minimal toxicity on a variety of microbial systems. (2) Conduct mass transfer studies to allow proper modeling and design of a supported emulsion liquid membrane system. (3) Investigate the effect of gravity on emulsion coalescence within the membrane unit. (4) Access the effect of water re-use on fermentation yields in a model microbial system. and (5) Develop a perfusion-type fermentor utilizing a supported emulsion liquid membrane system to control inhibitory fermentation byproducts (not completed due to lack of funds)

  19. Temperature dependence of emulsion morphologies and the dispersion morphology diagram

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.H. (Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman (USA)); Covatch, G.C.; Lim, Kyunghee (Dept. of Energy, Morgantown, WV (USA))

    1991-02-07

    The recently constructed dispersion morphology diagram predicts that for amphiphile/oil/water systems there exists a range of concentrations within which only OL/AQ (oil-in-water) emulsions form and another range of concentrations for which the emulsion morphology is always AQ/OL (water-in-soil), regardless of whether the temperature is below the lower critical end-point temperature, above the upper critical end point, or between these two temperatures. These predictions contradict the PIT (phase inversion temperature) idea, that below the PIT amphiphile/oil/water systems for only oil-in-water emulsions and above the PIT they form only water-in-oil emulsions. By using electrical conductivity measurements to determine the emulsion morphologies at different temperatures for systems of constant composition, the authors show for the system studied that the previous predictions of the dispersion morphology diagram are correct.

  20. Metal Separations Using Emulsion Liquid Membranes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Reed M. Izatt; David V. Dearden; Don. W. McBride Jr; John L. Oscarson; John D. Lamb; James J. Christensen

    1983-01-01

    Emulsion membrane systems consisting of an aqueous metal salt source phase, a toluene membrane containing the macrocyclic ligand dicyclohexano-18-crown-6 (DC18C6) (0.02 M) and the surfactant sorbitan monooleate (3% v\\/v), and an aqueous 0.05 M Li4P2O7 receiving phase were studied with respect to the disappearance of metal from the source phase as a function of time. The salts Pb(NO3)2, Sr(NO3)2, TINO3,

  1. Effects of surfactant structure on the phase inversion of emulsions stabilized by mixtures of silica nanoparticles and cationic surfactant.

    PubMed

    Cui, Z-G; Yang, L-L; Cui, Y-Z; Binks, B P

    2010-04-01

    Silica nanoparticles without any surface modification are not surface active at the toluene-water interface due to their extreme hydrophilicity but can be surface activated in situ by adsorbing cationic surfactant from water. This work investigates the effects of the molecular structure of water-soluble cationic surfactant on the surface activation of the nanoparticles by emulsion characterization, adsorption and zeta potential measurements, dispersion stability experiments, and determination of relevant contact angles. The results show that an adsorbed cationic surfactant monolayer on particle surfaces is responsible for the wettability modification of the particles. In the presence of a trace amount of cationic surfactant, the hydrophobicity of the particles increases, leading to the formation of stable oil-in-water O/W(1) emulsions. At high surfactant concentration (>cmc) the particle surface is retransformed to hydrophilic due to double-layer or hemimicelle formation, and the concentration of the free surfactant in the aqueous phase is high enough to stabilize emulsions alone. O/W(2) emulsions, probably costabilized by free surfactant and particles, are then formed. The monolayer adsorption seems to be charge-site dependent. Thus, using single-chain trimethylammonium bromide surfactants or a double-head gemini cationic surfactant, the hydrophobicity of the particles achieved is not sufficient to stabilize water-in-oil (W/O) emulsions, and no phase inversion is induced. However, using a double-chain cationic surfactant, the chain density on the particle surfaces endows them with a hydrophobicity high enough to stabilize W/O emulsions, and double phase inversion, O/W(1) --> W/O --> O/W(2), can then be achieved by increasing the surfactant concentration. PMID:19950938

  2. TAG CRYSTALLIZATION IN EMULSIONS : DSC\\/XRDT STUDY OF TRIACYLGLYCEROL POLYMORPHISM INFLUENCED BY EMULSIFIER CONCENTRATION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Kalnin; O. Schafer; H. Amenitsch; M. Ollivon

    Characterization of crystallization behavior of fats within emulsion droplets of oil in water emulsions -of pharmaceutical and agronomic interest- is the main focus of this research. Due to the multiplicity of components added - proteins, hydrocolloids and other surfactants - which are all susceptible to influence the emulsions' crystallization behavior - investigation of emulsions can be difficult (1,2,3). Triglycerides (TAGs),

  3. Removal kinetic model of oil droplet from o/w emulsion by adding methylated milk casein in flotation.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Hideo; Seki, Hideshi; Satoh, Yuuki

    2012-06-01

    In this study, o/w emulsion flotation experiments were conducted by adding methylated milk casein (MeSC). Emulsion used in this study was prepared by ultrasonic emulsification of heavy oil (bunker-A) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) solution. A simple kinetic model was proposed to estimate the removal rate of the oil droplets within the column. The model was based on main assumption that adsorption of single droplet adsorbed MeCS or floc onto bubble surface within flotation column. Removal rate constant, K, was defined by k(a)X(s) (S(b)?/V), where k(a) and X(s) are overall adsorption rate and saturated adsorption density of oil droplet or floc, S(b), ? and V are bubble surface production rate, retention time of bubble swarms and emulsion volume within the column, respectively. The experiments were conducted with varying operating conditions; superficial gas velocity, column dimension and emulsion volume. K was evaluated from slope value of obtained straight line by plotting time versus ln (T/T(0)), where T/T(0) is relative turbidity. K was mostly proportional to (S(b)?/V), which corresponds to specific surface area of bubble swarms per unit volume within the column, in the present experimental region. This result suggested that efficiency of this removal process was mainly controlled by the specific surface area of bubble swarms, and proposed model was fundamentally verified. PMID:22483713

  4. Research of inverted emulsions properties on the base of new emulsifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minaev, K.; Epikhin, A.; Novoseltsev, D.; Andropov, M.; Yanovsky, V.; Ulyanova, O.

    2014-08-01

    Emulsifiers on the base of tallol and ethanolamines derived acids have been researched in the paper. Electrical stability of emulsions drilling muds has been investigated. It is proved that synthesized emulsifiers according to emulsion stability can be divided into two groups. The first group is emulsifiers with high initial electrical stability but low emulsion stability under long-term storing, and the second group is emulsifiers with low electrical stability but with high emulsion stability. Emulsions flow characteristics have been researched. It is established that emulsifier on the base of ethanolamine provides better emulsion characteristics for drilling muds emulsions.

  5. Nanoscale double emulsions stabilized by single-component block copolypeptides.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Jarrod A; Chang, Connie B; Graves, Sara M; Li, Zhibo; Mason, Thomas G; Deming, Timothy J

    2008-09-01

    Water-in-oil-in-water emulsions are examples of double emulsions, in which dispersions of small water droplets within larger oil droplets are themselves dispersed in a continuous aqueous phase. Emulsions occur in many forms of processing and are used extensively by the foods, cosmetics and coatings industries. Because of their compartmentalized internal structure, double emulsions can provide advantages over simple oil-in-water emulsions for encapsulation, such as the ability to carry both polar and non-polar cargos, and improved control over release of therapeutic molecules. The preparation of double emulsions typically requires mixtures of surfactants for stability; the formation of double nanoemulsions, where both inner and outer droplets are under 100 nm, has not yet been achieved. Here we show that water-in-oil-in-water double emulsions can be prepared in a simple process and stabilized over many months using single-component, synthetic amphiphilic diblock copolypeptide surfactants. These surfactants even stabilize droplets subjected to extreme flow, leading to direct, mass production of robust double nanoemulsions that are amenable to nanostructured encapsulation applications in foods, cosmetics and drug delivery. PMID:18769436

  6. Treatment of strongflow wool scouring effluent by biological emulsion destabilisation.

    PubMed

    Poole, Andrew J; Cord-Ruwisch, Ralf

    2004-03-01

    The stable oil-in-water emulsion contained in wool scouring effluent was destabilised by aerobic biological treatment as the basis of a potential new effluent treatment process. The de-emulsified wool wax, which is recalcitrant to biodegradation, can then be readily removed by centrifugation. In 12-day batch experiments, 97% of wool wax and 87% of COD were removed after gentle centrifuging at 200 x g, compared to only 6% and 8%, respectively, for sterile controls. Steady-state chemostat experiments under optimum conditions gave essentially complete removal of wool wax and 90% removal of COD at less than 40 h retention time, and demonstrated that the mechanism of pollutant removal was by bioflocculation rather than aerobic degradation. At 100 L pilot scale, 95% of wool wax and 82% of COD were consistently removed over a period of 116 days of continuous operation at 38 h retention time and 30 degrees C, producing a spadable sludge of 5.7 mL/g. Variable influent concentration or filamentous bacteria did not disrupt this process and foaming was readily controlled using a mechanical foam breaker. After a shutdown period of 15 days the process could be restarted easily, achieving normal performance within one retention time. The successful operation of the pilot reactor suggests this process could be developed to full scale and incorporated into an overall treatment package. PMID:15016518

  7. Use of demulsifying mixtures for breaking petroleum emulsions

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffmann, H.; Koerner, G.; Rossmy, G.; Theile, H.; Zaske, P.

    1980-01-15

    This invention relates to an emulsion-breaking composition comprising about 70 to 99.8% by weight of at least one silicon-free demulsifier, and about 0.2 to 30% by weight of a mixed polyoxyalkylene-polysiloxane block polymerizate, the polyoxyalkylene blocks of which have a molecular weight of about 500 to 4000 and are composed of polyoxyethylene polyoxypropylene blocks in a weight ratio of 40 to 60 to 100:0, and the polysiloxane blocks of which contain 3 to 50 silicon atoms per block. The invention also includes a process for breaking emulsions using the novel emulsion-breaking

  8. Demulsification of bitumen emulsions using salts of poly (tertiaryamino) polyurethanes

    SciTech Connect

    McCoy, D.R.

    1983-09-06

    A process for recovering bitumen from oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions is disclosed wherein water-soluble demulsifiers are used. These demulsifiers are salts of poly (tertiary amino) polyurethanes prepared by the reaction of polyisocyanates with diols containing at least one tertiary amino group which reaction product is then reduced in pH until water solubility is attained. To resolve the bituminous petroleum emulsions, the process is carried out between 25/sup 0/ and 160/sup 0/C. wherein the demulsifier of the invention is contacted with the bituminous emulsion.

  9. Temperature dependence of emulsion morphologies and the dispersion morphology diagram. 2. Three-phase emulsions

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.H.; Johnson, G.K. [Morgantown Energy Technology Center, WV (United States)

    1995-07-06

    Using several different compositions of the (pseudo)ternary amphiphile/oil/`water` system C{sub 6}H{sub 13}(OC{sub 2}H{sub 4}){sub 2}-OH/n-tetradecane/aqueous 10 mM NaCl, we show by means of electrical conductivity measurements that the temperature dependencies of the emulsion morphologies were consistent with predictions from isothermal dispersion morphology diagrams, thus contradicting phase inversion temperature ideas. 26 refs., 8 figs.

  10. Low Momentum Particle Detector for the NA61 Experiment at CERN

    E-print Network

    K. Marton; G. Kiss; A. Laszlo; D. Varga

    2014-06-11

    The NA61 Experiment at CERN SPS is a large acceptance hadron spectrometer, aimed to studying of hadron-hadron, hadron-nucleus, and nucleus-nucleus interactions in a fixed target environment. The present paper discusses the construction and performance of the Low Momentum Particle Detector (LMPD), a small time projection chamber unit which has been added to the NA61 setup in 2012. The LMPD considerably extends the detector acceptance towards the backward region, surrounding the target in hadron-nucleus interactions. The LMPD features simultaneous range and ionization measurements, which allows for particle identification and momentum measurement in the 0.1-0.25 GeV/c momentum range for protons. The possibility of Z=1 particle identification in this range is directly demonstrated.

  11. Temperature dependence of emulsion morphologies and the dispersion morphology diagram for three-phase emulsions

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.H.; Johnson, G.K. [Morgantown Energy Technology Center, WV (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Using several different compositions of the (pseudo)ternary amphiphile/oil/{open_quotes}water{close_quotes} system C{sub 6}H{sub 13}(OC{sub 2}H{sub 4}){sub 2}OH/n-tetradecane/aqueous 10 mM NaCl that form oil-rich top phases (J), water-rich bottom phases ({Beta}), and middle-phase microemulsions (m), we showed by means of electrical conductivity measurements that the temperature dependencies of the three-phase emulsion morphologies were consistent with predictions from isothermal dispersion morphology diagrams, thus contradicting ideas derived from the PIT (phase inversion temperature) model for two-phase emulsions. In particular, we formed three-phase emulsions in which either (1) the continuous phase was an oil-rich phase (actually, m) below the PIT and the water-rich phase ({Beta}) above that temperature; (2) the water-rich phase was continuous both below and above the PIT; or (3) oil-rich phase was the continuous phase both below and above the PIT.

  12. Cationic acrylamide emulsion polymer brine thickeners

    SciTech Connect

    Gleason, P.A.; Piccoline, M.A.

    1986-12-02

    This patent describes a thickened, solids free, aqueous drilling and servicing brine having a density of at least 14.4 ppg. comprising (a) an aqueous solution of at least one water-soluble salt of a multivalent metal, and (b) a cationic water-in-oil emulsion polymer of acrylamide or methacrylamide and a cationic monomer selected from the group consisting of a dialkylaminoalkyl acrylamide or methacrylamide, a trialkylaminoalkyl acrylamide or methacrylamide, a trialkylaminoalkyl acrylate or methacrylate, and a dialkyldialkyl ammonium halide. The acrylamide or methacrylamide to cationic monomer molar ratio of the polymer is about 70:30 to 95:5, the polymer having an I.V. in 1.0N KCl of about 1.0 to 7.0 dl/g and being present in a compatible and viscosifying amount; the thickened brine characterized by being substantially non-dilatent.

  13. Magnetic Susceptibility: Solutions, Emulsions, and Cells

    E-print Network

    Kuchel, P W; Bubb, W A; Hansen, P E; Durrant, C J; Hertzberg, M P

    2009-01-01

    Differences in magnetic susceptibility between various compartments in heterogeneous samples can introduce unanticipated complications to NMR spectra. On the other hand, an understanding of these effects at the level of the underlying physical principles has led to the development of several experimental techniques that provide data on cellular function that are unique to NMR spectroscopy. To illustrate some key features of susceptibility effects we present, among a more general overview, results obtained with red blood cells and a recently described model system involving diethyl phthalate in water. This substance forms a relatively stable emulsion in water and yet it has a significant solubility of 5 mmol/L at room temperature; thus, the NMR spectrum has twice as many resonances as would be expected for a simple solution. What determines the relative intensities of the two families of peaks and can their frequencies be manipulated experimentally in a predictable way? The theory used to interpret the NMR spe...

  14. Bacterial imprinting at Pickering emulsion interfaces.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xiantao; Svensson Bonde, Johan; Kamra, Tripta; Bülow, Leif; Leo, Jack C; Linke, Dirk; Ye, Lei

    2014-09-26

    The tendency of bacteria to assemble at oil-water interfaces can be utilized to create microbial recognition sites on the surface of polymer beads. In this work, two different groups of bacteria were first treated with acryloyl-functionalized chitosan and then used to stabilize an oil-in-water emulsion composed of cross-linking monomers that were dispersed in aqueous buffer. Polymerization of the oil phase followed by removal of the bacterial template resulted in well-defined polymer beads bearing bacterial imprints. Chemical passivation of chitosan and cell displacement assays indicate that the bacterial recognition on the polymer beads was dependent on the nature of the pre-polymer and the target bacteria. The functional materials for microbial recognition show great potential for constructing cell-cell communication networks, biosensors, and new platforms for testing antibiotic drugs. PMID:25111359

  15. High capacity, stable silicon/carbon anodes for lithium-ion batteries prepared using emulsion-templated directed assembly.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yanjing; Nie, Mengyun; Lucht, Brett L; Saha, Amitesh; Guduru, Pradeep R; Bose, Arijit

    2014-04-01

    Silicon (Si) is a promising candidate for lithium ion battery anodes because of its high theoretical capacity. However, the large volume changes during lithiation/delithiation cycles result in pulverization of Si, leading to rapid fading of capacity. Here, we report a simple fabrication technique that is designed to overcome many of the limitations that deter more widespread adoption of Si based anodes. We confine Si nanoparticles in the oil phase of an oil-in-water emulsion stabilized by carbon black (CB). These CB nanoparticles are both oil- and water-wettable. The hydrophilic/hydrophobic balance for the CB nanoparticles also causes them to form a network in the continuous aqueous phase. Upon drying this emulsion on a current collector, the CB particles located at the surfaces of the emulsion droplets form mesoporous cages that loosely encapsulate the Si particles that were in the oil. The CB particles that were in the aqueous phase form a conducting network connected to the CB cages. The space within the cages allows for Si particle expansion without transmitting stresses to the surrounding carbon network. Half-cell experiments using this Si/CB anode architecture show a specific capacity of ?1300 mAh/g Si + C and a Coulombic efficiency of 97.4% after 50 cycles. Emulsion-templating is a simple, inexpensive processing strategy that directs Si and conducts CB particles to desired spatial locations for superior performance of anodes in lithium ion batteries. PMID:24640970

  16. A Scalable Method toward Superhydrophilic and Underwater Superoleophobic PVDF Membranes for Effective Oil/Water Emulsion Separation.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Tao; Meng, Jianqiang; Hao, Tingyu; Wang, Zihong; Zhang, Yufeng

    2015-07-15

    A superhydrophilic and underwater superoleophobic PVDF membrane (PVDFAH) has been prepared by surface-coating of a hydrogel onto the membrane surface, and its superior performance for oil/water emulsion separation has been demonstrated. The coated hydrogel was constructed by an interfacial polymerization based on the thiol-epoxy reaction of pentaerythritol tetrakis (3-mercaptopropionate) (PETMP) with diethylene glycol diglycidyl ether (PEGDGE) and simultaneously tethered on an alkaline-treated commercial PVDF membrane surface via the thio-ene reaction. The PVDFAH membranes can be fabricated in a few minutes under mild conditions and show superhydrophilic and underwater superoleophobic properties for a series of organic solvents. Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis shows that the hydrogel coating was efficient throughout the pore lumen. The membrane shows superior oil/water emulsion separation performance, including high water permeation, quantitative oil rejection, and robust antifouling performance in a series oil/water emulsions, including that prepared from crude oil. In addition, a 24 h Soxhlet-extraction experiment with ethanol/water solution (50:50, v/v) was conducted to test the tethered hydrogel stability. We see that the membrane maintained the water contact angle below 5°, indicating the covalent tethering stability. This technique shows great promise for scalable fabrication of membrane materials for handling practical oil emulsion purification. PMID:26104101

  17. Stabilizing oil-in-water emulsions with regenerated chitin nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Chen, Zhigang; Bian, Wenyang; Feng, Li; Wu, Zongwei; Wang, Peng; Zeng, Xiaoxiong; Wu, Tao

    2015-09-15

    Natural chitin is a highly crystalline biopolymer with poor aqueous solubility. Thus direct application of chitin is rather limited unless chemical modifications are made to improve its solubility in aqueous media. Through a simple dissolution and regeneration process, we have successfully prepared chitin nanofibers with diameters around 50nm, which form a stable suspension at concentrations higher than 0.50% and a self-supporting gel at concentrations higher than 1.00%. Additionally, these nanofibers can stabilize oil-in-water emulsions with oil fraction more than 0.50 at chitin usage level of 0.01g/g oil. The droplet sizes of the resulting emulsions decrease with increasing chitin concentrations and decreasing oil fraction. Confocal laser scanning micrographs demonstrate the adsorption of chitin nanofibers on the emulsion droplet surface, which indicates the emulsion stabilization is through a Pickering mechanism. Our findings allow the direct application of chitin in the food industry without chemical modifications. PMID:25863618

  18. Productivity improvements in longhole stoping with repumpable emulsions

    SciTech Connect

    Thorpe, R.

    1994-12-31

    Bulk emulsion explosives have been used at surface mines and quarries for many years. Recently, this technology has been adapted for underground use in relatively confined work areas and in smaller diameter blastholes. From November 1992 to April 1993, approximately 20 tons of emulsion was successfully pumped and blasted in longhole stopes at Westmin`s HW Mine. This demonstration was undertaken to determine if the use of repumpable emulsions could improve productivity compared to conventional loading. Hole diameters were 54 mm, 76 mm and 89 mm, up to 24 m in length, and oriented from vertically up to vertically down. In each ring of holes, the collars were staggered to maintain a constant powder factor. Compared to gravity or pneumatically loading ANFO or cartridged explosives, repumpable emulsions have been loaded two to four times faster, in stoping operations. Other factors considered in this program were operating costs, physical effort required of the loading crew, efficiency, waste control and safety.

  19. Fluorescent-magnetic Janus particles prepared via seed emulsion polymerization.

    PubMed

    Kaewsaneha, Chariya; Bitar, Ahmad; Tangboriboonrat, Pramuan; Polpanich, Duangporn; Elaissari, Abdelhamid

    2014-06-15

    Anisotropic polymeric colloidal or Janus particles possessing simultaneous magnetic and fluorescent properties were successfully prepared via the swelling-diffusion or the in situ emulsion polymerization method. In the swelling-diffusion process, magnetic emulsions (an organic ferrofluid dispersed in aqueous medium) were synthesized and used for seeds of submicron magnetic Janus particles. After swelling the anisotropic particles obtained by 1-pyrene-carboxaldehyde fluorescent dye dissolved in tetrahydrofuran, well-defined fluorescent-magnetic Janus particles were produced. In the in situ emulsion polymerization, styrene monomer mixed with fluorescent dye monomers, i.e., 1-pyrenylmethyl methacrylate (PyMMA) or fluorescein dimethacrylate (FDMA), and an oil-soluble initiator (2,2'-azobis(2-isobutyronitrile)) were emulsified in the presence of magnetic seed emulsions. The confocal microscopic images showed the fluorescent-magnetic Janus particles with high fluorescent intensity when a fluorescent crosslinker monomer FDMA was employed. PMID:24767504

  20. Microwave Enhanced Separation of Water-In-Oil Emulsions 

    E-print Network

    Fang, C. S.; Lai, P.

    1992-01-01

    The experimental data showed that viscous and stable water-in-oil emulsions can be separated by microwave radiation, providing an opportunity for oil recovery and waste reduction. At optimal condltlons, the separation of water can be accomplished...

  1. Intravenous lipid emulsion for treatment of local anesthetic toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Kosh, M Caroline; Miller, April D; Michels, Jill E

    2010-01-01

    Clinical question Is intravenous lipid emulsion a safe and effective therapy for the reversal and treatment of local anesthetic toxicity? Results Systematic reviews, human case reports, and experimental animal studies have demonstrated the efficacy of intravenous lipid emulsion therapy in successfully reversing cardiac arrhythmias, cardiac arrest, and cardiac collapse seen with severe systemic local anesthetic toxicity. There are fewer data to support treatment of neurologic toxicities associated with local anesthetics. Implementation Intravenous lipid emulsion 20% should be available whenever patients receive large doses of local anesthetics in operating rooms and emergency departments. Various dosing protocols have been published in the medical literature. Although the dosing protocols are based on low-level evidence, a lack of major adverse events makes lipid emulsion an appropriate therapy for treating cardiotoxic symptoms induced by local anesthetics. PMID:20957136

  2. Emulsion Polymerization of Butyl Acrylate: Spin Trapping and EPR Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, S.; Westmoreland, D.

    1994-01-01

    The propagating radical in the emulsion polymerization reaction of butyl acrylate was detected by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance spectroscopy using two spin trapping agents, 2-methyl-2nitrosopropane and alpha -N-tert-butylnitrone.

  3. Relation between viscosity and stability for heavy oil emulsions

    E-print Network

    Ye, Sherry Qianwen

    1998-01-01

    The relation between viscosity and stability has been hics. found by investigating the effect of surfactant concentration on emulsion stability. Based on the Bingham plastic model for viscosity as a function of shear rate, two parameters were found...

  4. Chemical Demulsification of Water-in-Crude Oil Emulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdurahman; Nour, H.; Mohd Yunus, Rosli; Jemaat, Zulkifly

    Demulsification (emulsion breaking) is necessary in many practical applications such as the petroleum industry, painting and waste-water treatment in environmental technology. Chemical demulsification is the most widely applied method of treating water-in-crude oil emulsions and involves the use of chemical additives to accelerate the emulsion breaking process. The effect of chemical demulsification operations on the stability and properties of water-in-crude oil emulsions was assessed experimentally. In this regard, Amine Demulsifier, Polyhydric Alcohol, Acid and Polymeric demulsifiers were used. Using samples of w/o, the data presented for several commercial-type demulsifiers show a strong connection (correlation) between good performance (fast coalescence) and the demulsifiers. The relative rates of water separation were characterized via beaker tests. The amine group demulsifiers promoted best coalescence of droplets. In contrast, polymeric demulsifier group is the least in water separation.

  5. Dehydration of oil waste emulsions by means of flocculants

    SciTech Connect

    Gandurina, L.V.; Butseva, L.N.; Shtondina, V.S.

    1995-05-01

    Oil waste emulsions are formed in the course of pumping petroleum crudes and products and are collected from the surfaces of equipment in recirculating water systems and wastewater disposal facilities (oil separators, sand traps, oil traps, holding pits for accidental spills, settlers, ponds, sludge accumulators, and so on). Emulsions are also obtained in the course of cleaning equipment in crude oil desalting and dehydration units. Such emulsions are stable, structurized systems that are very resistant to dewatering by heating and settling in separator tanks. In order to break stabilized emulsions, i.e., in order to ensure complete coalescence of drops when they collide, it is not sufficient to increase the forces of mutual attraction of drops at the moment of collision; in addition, the protective shell must be either destroyed or weakened. Demulsifying agents, or surfactants, will displace the stabilizers. This report is concerned with demulsifier efficiency.

  6. Characterization and Demulsification of Water-in-crude Oil Emulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nour, Abdurahman H.; Abu Hassan, Mohd A.; Mohd Yunus, Rosli

    Many advances have been made in the field of emulsions in recent years. Emulsion behavior is largely controlled by the properties of the adsorbed layers that stabilized the oil-water surfaces. The effect of chemical demulsifiers in demulsification of water-in-crude oil emulsions were assessed experimentally. The relative rates of water separation were characterized via graduated beakers. Four groups of demulsifier with different functional groups were used in this work namely amines, polyhydric alcohol, sulphonate and polymer. The effect of alcohol addition on demulsification performance also studied. The results obtained in this study have exposed the capability of chemical demulsifiers in destabilization of water-in-crude oil emulsions. Further works are nevertheless required to provide deeper understanding of the mechanisms involved to facilitate the development of an optimum system applicable to the industry.

  7. Stability study of W/O/W viscosified multiple emulsions.

    PubMed

    Ozer, O; Muguet, V; Roy, E; Grossiord, J L; Seiller, M

    2000-11-01

    Stable multiple emulsions with a small proportion of primary emulsion containing different viscosifying agents in the outer aqueous phase were formulated. The multiple systems were assessed by evaluating several parameters, such as the macroscopic aspect, droplet size, release rate, and accelerated stability under elevated temperatures. The effect of different viscosifying agents at different concentrations on the stability and the multiplicity of the multiple emulsions was examined. The viscosity increased by increasing the concentration of the viscosifying agents. It also appeared that the viscosifying agents increased the temperature stability of the multiple emulsions. As a result, the formulation viscosified with Klucel was more stable, while the one prepared with carbomer viscosified the outer phase at much lower concentrations with much better skin feel. PMID:11068692

  8. Development of Large Area Emulsion Chamber Methods with a Super Conducting Magnet for Observation of Cosmic Ray Nuclei from 1 GeV to 1,000 TeV (Emulsion Techniques)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takahashi, Yoshiyuki; Gregory, John C.; Tominaga, Taka; Dong, Bei Lei

    1997-01-01

    The research developed the fundamental techniques of the emulsion chamber methods that permit measurements of the composition and energy spectra of cosmic rays at energies ranging from 1 GeV/n to over 1,000 TeV/n. The research program consisted of exploring new principles and techniques in measuring very high energy cosmic nuclei with large-area emulsion chambers for high statistics experiments. These tasks have been accomplished and their use was essential in successful analysis of the balloon-borne emulsion chamber experiments up to 10(exp 14) eV. It also provided the fundamental technologies for designing large-area detectors that are aimed at measuring the composition at above 1015 eV region. The latter is now partially succeeded by a NASA Mission Concept, Advanced Cosmic Composition Experiments on the Space Station (ACCESS). The cosmic ray group at the University of Alabama in Huntsville has performed technological R & D as well as contributing to the Japanese-American-Emulsion-Chamber-Experiments (JACEE) Collaboration with the regular data analysis. While primary research support for other institutions' efforts in the JACEE experiments came from NSF and DOE, primary support for the University of Alabama in Huntsville was this contract. Supplemental tasks to standardize the data base and hardware upgrades (automatized microscope) had this institutions cooperation. Investigation of new techniques in this program consisted of development of a fast calorimetry, magnetic/scattering selection of high momentum tracks for a pairmeter, and high statistics momentum measurements for low energy nuclei (E < 1 TeV/n). The highest energy calorimetry and a pairmeter have been considered as strawman instruments by the GOAL (Galactic Origin and Acceleration Limit) proposal of the NASA Cosmic Ray Working Group for long- duration balloon flights. We accomplished the objectives of the GOAL program with three circumpolar, Antarctic JACEE balloon flights during 1992 - 1994.

  9. Imaging contrast effects in alginate microbeads containing trapped emulsion droplets.

    PubMed

    Hester-Reilly, Holly J; Shapley, Nina C

    2007-09-01

    This study focuses on spherical microparticles made of cross-linked alginate gel and microcapsules composed of an oil-in-water emulsion where the continuous aqueous phase is cross-linked into an alginate gel matrix. We have investigated the use of these easily manufactured microbeads as contrast agents for the study of the flow properties of fluids using nuclear magnetic resonance imaging. Results demonstrate that combined spin-spin (T(2)) relaxation and diffusion contrast in proton NMR imaging can be used to distinguish among rigid polymer particles, plain alginate beads, and alginate emulsion beads. Multi-echo CPMG spin-echo imaging indicates that the average spin-lattice (T(1)) and spin-spin (T(2)) relaxation times of the plain alginate and alginate emulsion beads are comparable. Meanwhile, diffusion-weighted imaging produces sharp contrast between the two types of alginate beads, due to restricted diffusion inside the embedded oil droplets of the alginate emulsion beads. While the signal obtained from most materials is severely attenuated under applied diffusion gradients, the alginate emulsion beads maintain signal strength. The alginate emulsion beads were added to a suspension and imaged in an abrupt, annular expansion flow. The emulsion beads could be clearly distinguished from the surrounding suspending fluid and rigid polystyrene particles, through either T(2) relaxation or diffusion contrast. Such a capability allows future use of the alginate emulsion beads as tracer particles and as one particle type among many in a multimodal suspension where detailed concentration profiles or particle size separation must be quantified during flow. PMID:17600742

  10. Study of formulation and stability of emulsions with polymeric emulsifiers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marie-France Bobin; Valérie Michel; Marie-Claude Martini

    1999-01-01

    Polymeric emulsifiers have appeared recently and have got emulsifying and thickness properties. These emulsifiers provide exceptional stability to oil-in-water-emulsions. This study shows formulations of new emulsifiers. The polymeric emulsifiers used were acrylate C10–C30 alkyl–acrylate cross polymer (Tr1–Tr2). They provide exceptional stability to oil-in-water emulsions at very low usage levels (0.1,0.3%), they can be used with any oil phase, easily prepared

  11. Chemical demulsification of tanker crude emulsions. Memorandum report

    SciTech Connect

    Little, R.C.

    1980-02-13

    The chemical demulsification of tanker crude emulsions was studied as a function of oil type (light vs. heavy crude), demulsifier concentrations, and temperature. Aerosol OT shows promise as a chemical demulsifier of tanker crude emulsions provided that ambient temperatures are not too cold and that an appropriate concentration range is used for specific oil. The evaporation rates and viscosities of the six crudes studied are also reported in the text.

  12. Chemical demulsification of petroleum emulsions using oil-soluable demulsifiers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark A. Krawczyk; Darsh T. Wasan; Chandrashekar Shetty

    1991-01-01

    This paper investigates the factors affecting the coalescence and interfacial behavior of water- in-crude-oil emulsions in the presence of oil-soluble demulsifiers. The emulsion-breaking characteristics and interfacial properties of East Texas Crude and a model system were compared. The variation of interfacial tension with demulsifier concentration for the model system was ascertained by measuring the interfacial tensions between the oil and

  13. Nitrogen-sparing effect of lipid emulsion in septic dogs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keiji Iriyama; Hiroshi Nishiwaki; Noriko Kusaka; Tadashi Teranishi; Hiroshi Mori; Hiroshi Suzuki

    1985-01-01

    Effects of intavenously administered lipid emulsion on the nitrogen balance in dogs with intraabdominal infection were investigated.\\u000a The nitrogen balance in dogs supported by parenteral nutrition (PN) with glucose alone was superior to that in dogs supported\\u000a by PN with glucose and lipid emulsion, in the absence of intraabdominal infection. On the other hand, the nitrogen balance\\u000a in dogs supported

  14. Stabilization/solidification of munition destruction waste by asphalt emulsion.

    PubMed

    Cervinkova, Marketa; Vondruska, Milan; Bednarik, Vratislav; Pazdera, Antonin

    2007-04-01

    Destruction of discarded military munitions in an explosion chamber produces two fractions of hazardous solid waste. The first one is scrap waste that remains in the chamber after explosion; the second one is fine dust waste, which is trapped on filters of gas products that are exhausted from the chamber after explosion. The technique of stabilization/solidification of the scrap waste by asphalt emulsion is described in this paper. The technique consists of simple mixing of the waste with anionic asphalt emulsion, or two-step mixing of the waste with cationic asphalt emulsion. These techniques are easy to use and the stabilized scrap waste proves low leachability of contained heavy metals assessed by TCLP test. Hence, it is possible to landfill the scrap waste stabilized by asphalt emulsion. If the dust waste, which has large specific surface, is stabilized by asphalt emulsion, it is not fully encapsulated; the results of the leaching tests do not meet the regulatory levels. However, the dust waste solidified by asphalt emulsion can be deposited into an asphalted disposal site of the landfill. The asphalt walls of the disposal site represent an efficient secondary barrier against pollutant release. PMID:16979816

  15. Droplet-based microfluidics and the dynamics of emulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baret, Jean-Christophe; Brosseau, Quentin; Semin, Benoit; Qu, Xiaopeng

    2012-02-01

    Emulsions are complex fluids already involved for a long time in a wide-range of industrial processes, such as, for example, food, cosmetics or materials synthesis [1]. More recently, applications of emulsions have been extended to new fields like biotechnology or biochemistry where the compartmentalization of compounds in emulsion droplets is used to parallelise (bio-) chemical reactions [2]. Interestingly, these applications pinpoint to fundamental questions dealing with surfactant dynamics, dynamic surface tension, hydrodynamic interactions and electrohydrodynamics. Droplet-based microfluidics is a very powerful tool to quantitatively study the dynamics of emulsions at the single droplet level or even at the single interface level: well-controlled emulsions are produced and manipulated using hydrodynamics, electrical forces, optical actuation and combination of these effects. We will describe here how droplet-based microfluidics is used to extract quantitative informations on the physical-chemistry of emulsions for a better understanding and control of the dynamics of these systems [3].[4pt] [1] J. Bibette et al. Rep. Prog. Phys., 62, 969-1033 (1999)[0pt] [2] A. Theberge et al., Angewandte Chemie Int. Ed. 49, 5846 (2010)[0pt] [3] J.-C. Baret et al., Langmuir, 25, 6088 (2009)

  16. Characterization of paraffin oil emulsions stabilized by hydroxypropyl methylcellulose.

    PubMed

    Futamura, Taiki; Kawaguchi, Masami

    2012-02-01

    To study the relationship between emulsion stability and polymer emulsifier concentration, the preparation of paraffin oil emulsions by hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) was carried out with HPMC concentrations below the overlapping concentration (C(*)) of HPMC. The stability of the emulsions incorporating HPMC was investigated by measuring the creaming velocity, volume fraction of emulsified paraffin oil, oil droplet size, and some rheological responses such as the stress-strain sweep curve and strain and frequency dependences of dynamic viscoelastic moduli. The paraffin oil was almost emulsified by HPMC above C(*)/20: the volume fraction of paraffin oil in the emulsion was higher than 0.72. Increasing in the HPMC concentration led to decreases in both the average oil droplet size and creaming velocity and an increase in the yield stress. All emulsions behaved as solid-like viscoelastic matter. Additionally, the measured dynamic storage moduli were compared with those calculated from a relationship based on functions of the volume fraction of oil in the emulsions and Laplace pressure; good agreement between the measured and calculated moduli was obtained. On the other hand, at HPMC concentrations below C(*)/50, the emulsified paraffin oil became unstable and the oil and the HPMC solution eventually separated. PMID:22138268

  17. Characterization of diazepam submicron emulsion interface: role of oleic acid.

    PubMed

    Levy, M Y; Schutze, W; Fuhrer, C; Benita, S

    1994-01-01

    Oleic acid markedly improved the physical stability of a diazepam submicron emulsion. The zeta potential of the emulsion increased with increased oleic acid concentration. This effect suggested that adjustment of the diazepam submicron emulsion pH to 7.8-8.0 led to the ionization of oleic acid molecules at the oil/water (o/w) interface without being excluded from the surface regions of the oil droplets. TEM freeze-fracturing examination revealed that a mixed-emulsifier monolayer film was established at the o/w interface of the submicron emulsion. No liquid crystal or liposome formation was detected. This was confirmed by the results of phosphatidylethanolamine surface labelling at the o/w interface of the emulsion. The improved stability properties conferred to the emulsion by oleic acid should be attributed not only to the zeta potential increase, but also to the strengthening of the molecular interactions occurring between phospholipid and poloxamer emulsifiers in the presence of an ionized form of oleic acid at the o/w interface of the emulsified oily droplets as evidenced in independent monolayer studies. PMID:8138877

  18. Interaction of polyhexamethylene biguanide hydrochloride (PHMB) with phosphatidylcholine containing o/w emulsion and consequences for microbicidal efficacy and cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Müller, Gerald; Koburger, Torsten; Kramer, Axel

    2013-01-25

    Oil-in-water (o/w) emulsions containing egg yolk phosphatidylcholine (EPC) were combined with aqueous polyhexamethylene biguanide hydrochloride (PHMB). The PHMB concentration in the aqueous phase was estimated by filtration centrifugation experiments. In parallel, PHMB concentration was assessed utilizing cytotoxicity assays (neutral red) on cultured murine fibroblasts (L929 cells) and tests of bactericidal efficacy on either Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Staphylococcus aureus. Biological tests were performed in cell culture medium. Filtration centrifugation experiments demonstrated much higher aqueous PHMB concentrations than did the assays for biologically effective PHMB. Therefore, biological test systems should preferably be used to verify effective PHMB concentrations. Tests of microbicidal efficacy in which the same 0.05% PHMB o/w emulsion was re-used 8 times revealed a drug delivery system activated by the presence of test bacteria. PMID:23313712

  19. A streamlined protocol for emulsion polymerase chain reaction and subsequent purification.

    PubMed

    Schütze, Tatjana; Rubelt, Florian; Repkow, Julia; Greiner, Nicole; Erdmann, Volker A; Lehrach, Hans; Konthur, Zoltán; Glökler, Jörn

    2011-03-01

    Compartmentalization of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) reduces artifacts, especially when complex libraries are amplified. It allows clonal amplification of templates from complex mixtures in a bias-free manner. Here we describe a rapid, straightforward, and easy protocol for PCR in a water-in-oil emulsion (ePCR) including sample recovery by DNA purification. Furthermore, no special laboratory equipment is needed and inexpensive components are used. Therefore, our flexible protocol allows ePCR to be readily implemented in daily routine experiments for a broad range of applications. PMID:21111698

  20. Energy determination of the cascade shower by means of a new type of emulsion chamber with diffuser module

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Hareyama; M. Fujii; V. I. Galkin; Y. Goto; M. Ichimura; E. Kamioka; T. Kobayashi; V. Kopenkin; S. Kuramata; A. K. Managadze; H. Matsutani; N. P. Misnikova; R. A. Mukhamedshin; H. Nanjo; S. N. Nazarov; D. S. Oshuev; P. A. Publichenko; I. V. Rakobolskaya; T. M. Roganova; G. P. Sazhina; Yu. N. Shabanova; H. Semba; T. Shibata; H. Sugimoto; L. G. Sveshnikova; K. Takahashi; I. V. Yashin; K. Yokoi; E. A. Zamchalova; G. T. Zatsepin; I. S. Zayarnaya

    2003-01-01

    An account is given of a new type of emulsion chambers which have been in our use since 1997 in our RUNJOB program (RUssia-Nippon JOint Balloon-program). Each chamber is equipped with an additional ``diffuser module'' placed under the usual set of modules. We have made the experiments using 4cm thick diffuser modules composed of several photo-sensitive layers (X-ray films and\\/or

  1. Observation of very high energy cosmic-ray families in emulsion chambers at high mountain altitudes (I)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. T. Baradzei; A. S. Borisov; K. V. Cherdyntseva; Z. M. Guseva; V. G. Denisova; N. A. Dobrotin; A. M. Dunaevsky; E. A. Kanevskaya; S. A. Karpova; V. M. Maximenko; R. A. Nam; V. S. Puchkov; S. A. Slavatinsky; M. D. Smirnova; Yu. A. Smorodin; A. V. Uryson; N. G. Zelevinskaya; M. V. Zimin; G. B. Zhdanov; I. A. Mikhailova; R. A. Mukhamedshin; O. E. Doroshenko; L. P. Nikolaeva; L. V. Sukhov; G. T. Zatsepin; T. P. Amineva; G. F. Fedorova; I. P. Ivanenko; N. P. Iljina; V. V. Kopenkin; A. K. Managadze; E. G. Popova; I. V. Rakobolskaya; T. M. Roganova; O. P. Strogova; L. G. Sveshnikova; L. Kh. Chadranyan; L. A. Khisanishvili; N. N. Roinishvili; M. S. Svanidze; Z. A. Azimov; I. B. Bobodjanov; N. E. Gubar; Yu. A. Gulov; F. Normuradov; D. A. Khalilov; Sh. Myrtojieva; E. G. Mullajanov; A. N. Nosov; Kh. Nuritdinov; T. S. Yuldashbaev; Yu. A. Emelyanov; H. Bielawska; J. Malinowski; J. Maciaszczyk; A. Krys; M. Pluta; A. Tomaszewski; Z. Wlodarczyk; J. A. Chinellato; C. Dobrigkeit; J. Bellandi Filho; A. C. Fauth; C. M. G. Lattes; M. J. Menon; C. E. Navia O; K. Sawayanagi; E. H. Shibuya; A. Turtelli; N. M. Amato; N. Arata; F. M. Oliveira Castro; R. H. C. Maldonado; H. Aoki; Y. Fujimoto; Y. Funayama; S. Hasegawa; H. Kumano; H. Semba; M. Tamada; S. Yamashita; T. Shibata; K. Yokoi; A. Ohsawa

    1992-01-01

    Characteristics of cosmic-ray hadronic interactions in the 1015 - 1017 eV range are studied by observing a total of 429 cosmic-ray families of visible energy greater than 100 TeV found in emulsion chamber experiments at high mountain altitudes, Chacaltaya (5200 m above sea level) and the Pamirs (4300 m above sea level). Extensive comparisons were made with simulated families based

  2. Response surface methodology for optimization of extraction yield, viscosity, hue and emulsion stability of mucilage extracted from Lepidium perfoliatum seeds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arash Koocheki; Ali Reza Taherian; Seyed M. A. Razavi; Aram Bostan

    2009-01-01

    Response surface methodology was used to determine the optimum processing conditions that give maximum extraction yield, viscosity, hue and emulsion stability, as well as, minimum protein content for the gum extracted from Lepidium perfoliatum seed. Temperature (45–75°C), processing time (1.5–3.5h), pH (5–8) and water to seed ratio (30:1–60:1) were the factors investigated. Experiments were designed according to Central Composite Rotatable

  3. Dynamically reconfigurable complex emulsions via tunable interfacial tensions

    PubMed Central

    Zarzar, Lauren D.; Sresht, Vishnu; Sletten, Ellen M.; Kalow, Julia A.; Blankschtein, Daniel; Swager, Timothy M.

    2015-01-01

    Emulsification is a powerful, well-known technique for mixing and dispersing immiscible components within a continuous liquid phase. Consequently, emulsions are central components of medicine, food and performance materials. Complex emulsions, including multiple emulsions and Janus droplets which contain hemispheres of differing material, are of increasing importance1 in pharmaceuticals and medical diagnostics2, in the fabrication of microparticles and capsules3–5 for food6, in chemical separations7, in cosmetics8, and in dynamic optics9. Because complex emulsion properties and functions are related to the droplet geometry and composition, the development of rapid, simple fabrication approaches allowing precise control over the droplets’ physical and chemical characteristics is critical. Significant advances in the fabrication of complex emulsions have been made using a number of procedures, ranging from large-scale, less precise techniques that give compositional heterogeneity using high-shear mixers and membranes10, to small-volume but more precise microfluidic methods11,12. However, such approaches have yet to create droplet morphologies that can be controllably altered after emulsification. Reconfigurable complex liquids potentially have greatly increased utility as dynamically tunable materials. Here we describe an approach to the one-step fabrication of three- and four-phase complex emulsions with highly controllable and reconfigurable morphologies. The fabrication makes use of the temperature-sensitive miscibility of hydrocarbon, silicone and fluorocarbon liquids, and is applied to both the microfluidic and the scalable batch production of complex droplets. We demonstrate that droplet geometries can be alternated between encapsulated and Janus configurations by varying the interfacial tensions using hydrocarbon and fluorinated surfactants including stimuli-responsive and cleavable surfactants. This yields a generalizable strategy for the fabrication of multiphase emulsions with controllably reconfigurable morphologies and the potential to create a wide range of responsive materials. PMID:25719669

  4. Dynamically reconfigurable complex emulsions via tunable interfacial tensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarzar, Lauren D.; Sresht, Vishnu; Sletten, Ellen M.; Kalow, Julia A.; Blankschtein, Daniel; Swager, Timothy M.

    2015-02-01

    Emulsification is a powerful, well-known technique for mixing and dispersing immiscible components within a continuous liquid phase. Consequently, emulsions are central components of medicine, food and performance materials. Complex emulsions, including Janus droplets (that is, droplets with faces of differing chemistries) and multiple emulsions, are of increasing importance in pharmaceuticals and medical diagnostics, in the fabrication of microparticles and capsules for food, in chemical separations, in cosmetics, and in dynamic optics. Because complex emulsion properties and functions are related to the droplet geometry and composition, the development of rapid, simple fabrication approaches allowing precise control over the droplets' physical and chemical characteristics is critical. Significant advances in the fabrication of complex emulsions have been made using a number of procedures, ranging from large-scale, less precise techniques that give compositional heterogeneity using high-shear mixers and membranes, to small-volume but more precise microfluidic methods. However, such approaches have yet to create droplet morphologies that can be controllably altered after emulsification. Reconfigurable complex liquids potentially have great utility as dynamically tunable materials. Here we describe an approach to the one-step fabrication of three- and four-phase complex emulsions with highly controllable and reconfigurable morphologies. The fabrication makes use of the temperature-sensitive miscibility of hydrocarbon, silicone and fluorocarbon liquids, and is applied to both the microfluidic and the scalable batch production of complex droplets. We demonstrate that droplet geometries can be alternated between encapsulated and Janus configurations by varying the interfacial tensions using hydrocarbon and fluorinated surfactants including stimuli-responsive and cleavable surfactants. This yields a generalizable strategy for the fabrication of multiphase emulsions with controllably reconfigurable morphologies and the potential to create a wide range of responsive materials.

  5. Phytosterol colloidal particles as Pickering stabilizers for emulsions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fu; Tang, Chuan-He

    2014-06-01

    Water-insoluble phytosterols were developed into a kind of colloidal particle as Pickering stabilizers for emulsions by a classic anti-solvent method using 100% ethanol as the organic phase to solubilize the phytosterols and whey protein concentrate (WPC) as the emulsifier. The colloidal particles in the dispersion, with morphology of stacked platelet-like sheets, had a mean diameter of 44.7 and 24.7 ?m for the volume- and surface-averaged sizes, respectively. The properties and stability of the emulsions stabilized by these colloidal particles were highly dependent upon the applied total solid concentration (c; in the dispersion) and oil fraction (ø). The results indicated that (1) at a low c value (<1.0%, w/v) the emulsions were susceptible to phase separation, even at a low ø of 0.2, (2) at low ø values (e.g., 0.2 or 0.3) and a relatively high c value (1.0%, w/v, or above), a severe droplet flocculation occurred for the emulsions, and (3) when both c and ø were appropriately high, a kind of self-supporting gel-like emulsions could be formed. More interestingly, a phase inversion of the emulsions from the oil-in-water to water-in-oil type was observed, upon the ø increasing from 0.2 to 0.6 (especially at high c values, e.g., 3.0%, w/v). The elaborated Pickering emulsions stabilized by the phytosterol colloidal particles with a gel-like behavior would provide a candidate to act as a novel delivery system for active ingredients. PMID:24848560

  6. Breaking oil-in-water emulsions stabilized by yeast.

    PubMed

    Furtado, Guilherme F; Picone, Carolina S F; Cuellar, Maria C; Cunha, Rosiane L

    2015-04-01

    Several biotechnological processes can show an undesirable formation of emulsions making difficult phase separation and product recovery. The breakup of oil-in-water emulsions stabilized by yeast was studied using different physical and chemical methods. These emulsions were composed by deionized water, hexadecane and commercial yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). The stability of the emulsions was evaluated varying the yeast concentration from 7.47 to 22.11% (w/w) and the phases obtained after gravity separation were evaluated on chemical composition, droplet size distribution, rheological behavior and optical microscopy. The cream phase showed kinetic stability attributed to mechanisms as electrostatic repulsion between the droplets, a possible Pickering-type stabilization and the viscoelastic properties of the concentrated emulsion. Oil recovery from cream phase was performed using gravity separation, centrifugation, heating and addition of demulsifier agents (alcohols and magnetic nanoparticles). Long centrifugation time and high centrifugal forces (2 h/150,000×g) were necessary to obtain a complete oil recovery. The heat treatment (60°C) was not enough to promote a satisfactory oil separation. Addition of alcohols followed by centrifugation enhanced oil recovery: butanol addition allowed almost complete phase separation of the emulsion while ethanol addition resulted in 84% of oil recovery. Implementation of this method, however, would require additional steps for solvent separation. Addition of charged magnetic nanoparticles was effective by interacting electrostatically with the interface, resulting in emulsion destabilization under a magnetic field. This method reached almost 96% of oil recovery and it was potentially advantageous since no additional steps might be necessary for further purifying the recovered oil. PMID:25791419

  7. Hemp Sesbania (Sesbania exaltata) control in rice (Oryza sativa) with the bioherbicidal fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. aeschynomene formulated in an invert emulsion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In greenhouse and field experiments, an invert emulsion (MSG 8.25) was tested with dried, formulated spores of the bioherbicidal fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. aeschynomene, a highly virulent pathogen of the leguminous weed Aeschynomene virginica (northern jointvetch), but considered “...

  8. Rheology of high internal phase emulsions.

    PubMed

    Welch, Cynthia F; Rose, Gene D; Malotky, David; Eckersley, Sarah T

    2006-02-14

    The mechanical dispersion technology used in this study employs rotor-stator mixers that produce water-continuous high internal phase emulsions (HIPEs) with narrow drop size distributions and small drop sizes, even when the internal phase (oil) viscosity is quite high. Analysis of these HIPEs reveals trends that are consistent with formation by a capillary instability mechanism in which a shear deformation produces highly elongated drops that rupture to form uniform, small droplets. In the search for a predictive tool to aid in the manufacture and use of HIPEs, rheology data for these shear-thinning HIPEs have been compared to data for models in the literature. Existing models do not correctly account for the effect of a high internal phase viscosity on the rheological properties of the HIPE. Another shortcoming is failure to correctly address the shear-thinning exponent. Whereas internal phase viscosity does not seem to affect the shear-thinning exponent, the surfactant apparently plays an important role, possibly through its modification of the interfacial tension and continuous phase rheology. PMID:16460072

  9. Principles of emulsion stabilization with special reference to polymeric surfactants.

    PubMed

    Tadros, Tharwat

    2006-01-01

    This overview summarizes the basic principles of emulsion stabilization with particular reference to polymeric surfactants. The main breakdown processes in emulsions are briefly described. A section is devoted to the structure of polymeric surfactants and their conformation at the interface. Particular attention is given to two polymeric surfactants that are suitable for oil-in-water (O/W) and water-in-oil (W/O) emulsions. For O/W emulsions, a hydrophobically modified inulin (HMI), obtained by grafting several alkyl groups on the backbone of the inulin (polyfructose) chain, is the most suitable. For W/O emulsions, an A-B-A block copolymer of polydroxystearic acid (PHS), the A chains, and polyethylene oxide (PEO), the B chain, is the most suitable. The conformation of both polymeric surfactants at the O/W and W/O interfaces is described. A section is devoted to the interaction between emulsion droplets containing adsorbed polymer surfactant molecules. This interaction is referred to as steric stabilization, and it is a combination of two main effects, namely, unfavorable mixing of the A chains, referred to as the mixing interaction, Gmix, and loss of configurational entropy on significant overlap of the stabilizing chains, referred to as elastic interaction, Gel. The criteria for effective steric stabilization are summarized. O/W emulsions based on HMI are described, and their stability in water and in aqueous electrolyte solutions is investigated using optical microscopy. Very stable emulsions can be produced both at room temperature and at 50 degrees C. The reason for this high stability is described in terms of the multipoint anchoring of the polymeric surfactant (by several alkyl groups), the strong hydration of the inulin (polyfructose) chains, and the high concentration of inulin in the adsorbed layer. W/O emulsions using PHS-PEO-PHS block copolymer can be prepared at a high volume fraction of water, varphi, and these emulsions remain fluid up to high varphi values (> 0.6). These emulsions also remain stable for several months at room temperature and at 50 degrees C. The last two sections are concerned with the problems of creaming or sedimentation and phase inversion. Creaming or sedimentation can be prevented by the use of "thickeners" in the continuous phase. These molecules produce non-Newtonian systems that will have a high residual or zero shear viscosity. The latter, which may exceed 1000 Pas, can also be prevented by control of the bulk (or elastic) modulus of the system. Phase inversion in O/W emulsions can also be prevented using HMI, since this polymeric surfactant is not soluble in the oil phase. As long as coalescence and Ostwald ripening are prevented, the emulsions can remain stable for very long times both at room temperature and at 50 degrees C. PMID:16688378

  10. 21 CFR 524.802 - Enrofloxacin and silver sulfadiazine otic emulsion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false Enrofloxacin and silver sulfadiazine otic emulsion. 524.802 Section...524.802 Enrofloxacin and silver sulfadiazine otic emulsion. (a) Specifications...mg) enrofloxacin and 10 mg silver sulfadiazine. (b) Sponsor. See No....

  11. Study on Formation of High Performance Ice Slurry by Emulsion in Ice Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Koji; Oikawa, Ken; Okada, Masashi; Teraoka, Yoshikazu; Kawagoe, Tetsuo

    This study is focused on an emulsion as a new thermal storage material for ice storage. Two types of emulsions are made of oil-water mixture with a little additive. Oils used are silicone, light and lump oils. Water contents of emulsions are 70,80 and 90 %. The additive is amino group modified silicone oil, and there is no depression of freezing point for the emulsions because of its hydrophobic property. In order to know structures of emulsions, those electric resistances were measured. And components of liquids separating from emulsions were investigated. From above results, it was found that one was W/O type and the other was O/W type. And then, adaptability of two emulsions to the ice storage was discussed, and then, it was found that a high performance ice slurry could be formed by the W/O type emulsion.

  12. Preparation of double Pickering emulsions stabilized by chemically tailored nanocelluloses.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Ana G; Mougel, Jean-Bruno; Cathala, Bernard; Berglund, Lars A; Capron, Isabelle

    2014-08-12

    Nanocelluloses are bio-based nanoparticles of interest as stabilizers for oil-in-water (o/w) Pickering emulsions. In this work, the surface chemistry of nanocelluloses of different length, nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC, long) and cellulose nanocrystals (CNC, short), was successfully tailored by chemical modification with lauroyl chloride (C12). The resulting nanofibers were less hydrophilic than the original and able to stabilize water-in-oil (w/o) emulsions. The combination of the two types of nanocelluloses (C12-modified and native) led to new surfactant-free oil-in-water-in-oil (o/w/o) double emulsions stabilized by nanocellulose at both interfaces. Characterization was performed with respect to droplet size distribution, droplet stability over time, and stability after centrifugation. Nanocellulose-based Pickering emulsions can be designed with a substantial degree of control, as demonstrated by the stability of the chemically tailored NFC double emulsions. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that increased nanofiber length leads to increased stability. PMID:25046221

  13. pH-responsive water-in-water Pickering emulsions.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Bach T; Wang, Wenkai; Saunders, Brian R; Benyahia, Lazhar; Nicolai, Taco

    2015-03-31

    The structure and stability of water-in-water emulsions was investigated in the presence of spherical, pH-sensitive microgels. The emulsions were formed by mixing aqueous solutions of dextran and PEO. The microgels consisted of cross-linked, synthetic polymers with a radius that steeply increased from 60 to 220 nm with increasing pH within a narrow range around 7.0. At all pH values between 5.0 and 7.5, the microgels were preferentially situated at the interface, but only in a narrow range between pH 7.0 and 7.5, the emulsions were stable for at least 1 week. The droplet size was visualized with confocal laser scanning microscopy and was found to be smallest in the stable pH range. Emulsions could be stabilized or destabilized by small changes of the pH. Addition of small amounts of salt led to a shift of the pH range where the emulsions were stable. The effects of varying the microgel concentration and the polymer composition were investigated. PMID:25743065

  14. Application of pork fat diacylglycerols in meat emulsions.

    PubMed

    Miklos, Rikke; Xu, Xuebing; Lametsch, René

    2011-03-01

    The properties of fat are of major importance when meat products are produced. By enzymatic modification triacylglycerols (TAGs) can be converted to diacylglycerols (DAGs) resulting in changes of the physical and chemical properties of the fat. In this study the texture as well as the hydration and binding properties were investigated in meat emulsions prepared with lard substituted with different amounts of DAGs derived from the lard. In emulsions prepared with DAGs the percentage of total expressible fluid decreased from 28.2% in products prepared with lard to 11.8% in emulsions prepared with 100% DAGs. The fat separation decreased from 10.9% to 7.8% when 10% of DAGs were applied and no fat separation was observed for emulsions prepared with 50% and 100% DAGs. Emulsions containing DAGs were more elastic and solid reflected in a significant increase in Young's modulus and the maximum hardness. The results suggest future opportunities for the application of DAGs to improve the quality of meat products. PMID:21074949

  15. Treatment methods for breaking certain oil and water emulsions

    DOEpatents

    Sealock, Jr., L. John (W. Richland, WA); Baker, Eddie G. (Richland, WA); Elliott, Douglas C. (Richland, WA)

    1992-01-01

    Disclosed are treatment methods for breaking emulsions of petroleum oil and salt water, fatty oil and water, and those resulting from liquefication of organic material. The emulsions are broken by heating to a predetermined temperature at or above about 200.degree. C. and pressurizing to a predetermined pressure above the vapor pressure of water at the predetermined temperature to produce a heated and pressurized fluid. The heated and pressurized fluid is contained in a single vessel at the predetermined temperature and pressure for a predetermined period of time to effectively separate the emulsion into substantially distinct first and second phases, the first phase comprising primarily the petroleum oil, the second phase comprising primarily the water. The first and second phases are separately withdrawn from the vessel at a withdraw temperature between about 200.degree. C. and 374.degree. C. and a withdraw pressure above the vapor pressure of water at the withdraw temperature. Where solids are present in the certain emulsions, the above described treatment may also effectively separate the certain emulsion into a substantially distinct third phase comprising primarily the solids.

  16. Influence of processing parameters on morphology of polymethoxyflavone in emulsions.

    PubMed

    Ting, Yuwen; Li, Colin C; Wang, Yin; Ho, Chi-Tang; Huang, Qingrong

    2015-01-21

    Polymethoxyflavones (PMFs) are groups of compounds isolated from citrus peels that have been documented with wide arrays of health-promoting bioactivities. Because of their hydrophobic structure and high melting point, crystallized PMFs usually have poor systemic bioavailability when consumed orally. To improve the oral efficiency of PMFs, a viscoelastic emulsion system was formulated. Because of the crystalline nature, the inclusion of PMFs into the emulsion system faces great challenges in having sufficient loading capacity and stabilities. In this study, the process of optimizing the quality of emulsion-based formulation intended for PMF oral delivery was systematically studied. With alteration of the PMF loading concentration, processing temperature, and pressure, the emulsion with the desired droplet and crystal size can be effectively fabricated. Moreover, storage temperatures significantly influenced the stability of the crystal-containing emulsion system. The results from this study are a good illustration of system optimization and serve as a great reference for future formulation design of other hydrophobic crystalline compounds. PMID:25537008

  17. Investigation of different emulsion systems for dermal delivery of nicotinamide.

    PubMed

    Tuncay, Sakine; Özer, Özgen

    2013-01-01

    Nicotinamide (NA) has been shown to have beneficial effects on several skin diseases such as tumor, acne vulgaris, photodamage, cellulite and atopic dermatitis. The purpose of this study was to develop a multiple emulsion and a microemulsion formulation as delivery systems for NA. A two-step process was used to prepare the W/O/W multiple emulsion. Optimum microemulsion formulation was selected by using construction of pseudo-ternary phase diagram. The physicochemical properties such as droplet size and viscosity measurements, stability studies were also evaluated. Ex-vivo permeation studies were performed with Franz-type diffusion cells and the samples were analysed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The permeation data showed that there was no significant difference between multiple emulsion and microemulsion (p > 0.05). Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) was also measured. As a result of TEWL studies, a slight increase of TEWL values was observed for microemulsion formulation on rat skin when compared with multiple emulsion and commercial formulation. The results suggested that microemulsion and multiple emulsion formulations could be new and alternative dosage forms for topical application of NA. PMID:23742727

  18. Induced phase transitions of nanoparticle-stabilized emulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frijters, Stefan; Günther, Florian; Harting, Jens

    2013-11-01

    Nanoparticles can stabilize fluid-fluid interfaces over long timescales and are nowadays commonly used, e.g. in emulsions. However, their fundamental properties are as of yet poorly understood. Nanoparticle-stabilized emulsions can exhibit different phases, such as Pickering emulsions or bijels, which can be characterized by their different topologies and rheology. We investigate the effect of various initial conditions on random mixtures of two fluids and nanoparticles - in particular, the final state these systems will reach. For this, we use the well-established 3D lattice Boltzmann method, extended to allow for the added nanoparticles. After the evolution of the emulsions has stopped, we induce transitions from one state to another by gradually changing the wettability of the nanoparticles over time. This changes the preferential local curvature of the interfaces, which strongly affects the global state. We observe strong hysteresis effects because of the energy barrier presented by the necessary massive reordering of the particles. Being able to change emulsion states in situ has potential application possibilities in filtering technology, or creating particle scaffolds.

  19. Rejuvenation of Spent Media via Supported Emulsion Liquid Membranes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiencek, John M.

    2002-01-01

    The overall goal of this project is to maximize the reuseability of spent fermentation media. Supported emulsion liquid membrane separation, a highly efficient extraction technique, is used to remove inhibitory byproducts during fermentation; thus, improving the yield while reducing the need for fresh water. The key objectives of this study are: Develop an emulsion liquid membrane system targeting low molecular weight organic acids which has minimal toxicity on a variety of microbial systems; Conduct mass transfer studies to allow proper modeling and design of a supported emulsion liquid membrane system; Investigate the effect of gravity on emulsion coalescence within the membrane unit; Access the effect of water re-use on fermentation yields in a model microbial system; Develop a perfusion-type fermentor utilizing a supported emulsion liquid membrane system to control inhibitory fermentation byproducts; Work for the coming year will focus on the determination of toxicity of various solvents, selection of the emulsifying agents, as well as characterizing the mass transfer of hollow-fiber contactors.

  20. Ca2+ ion responsive pickering emulsions stabilized by PSSMA nanoaggregates.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chunhua; Tan, Junjun; Li, Wei; Tong, Kun; Xu, Jian; Sun, Dejun

    2013-11-26

    A novel Ca(2+) ion responsive particulate emulsifier, which is based on copolymer nanoaggregates, is reported in this work. Results from dynamic light scattering (DLS) and cryo-transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) indicate that the formation of poly (4-styrenesulfonic acid-co-maleic acid) sodium salt (PSSMA) nanoaggregates is strongly dependent on Ca(2+) concentration. The PSSMA copolymer only aggregates above a critical Ca(2+) concentration (0.2 M) with an average diameter of 10-40 nm. After dilution with water, PSSMA nanoaggregates are rapidly redissolved again. On the basis of the properties of PSSMA nanoaggregates, Ca(2+) ion responsive Pickering emulsions were successfully prepared. At high Ca(2+) concentrations, the emulsions with high stability against coalescence can be prepared with the size in the submicrometer range as determined by DLS. Cryo-TEM and dynamic interfacial tension results confirm the adsorption of PSSMA nanoaggregates at the interface, which is the key to the stability of the emulsions. More importantly, rapid demulsification can be achieved by dilution with water on demand. It is because, upon dilution with water, PSSMA nanoaggregates undergo a transition from stable nanoaggregates to individual polymer chains, which leads to interfacial desorption of nanoaggregates and rapid demulsification of emulsions. Thus, this finding presents a new manipulation on emulsion stability and is expected to provide a useful guidance in the fields of oil recovery, food science, environment protection, and so on. PMID:24188032

  1. Phase and emulsion morphology diagrams of nonionic- amphiphile/oil/water systems and their interrelationships

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.H. (USDOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center, WV (United States)); Kyunghee Lim (West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1992-01-01

    For two-phase, non-multiple emulsions, the emulsion morphology diagram shows, as a function of temperature and phase or component concentration, which phase is dispersed and which is the continuous one, as well as the temperatures and compositions at which inversions occur. The emulsion morphology diagram plays for emulsions a role that is similar to the role played by phase diagrams for phases.

  2. Phase and emulsion morphology diagrams of nonionic- amphiphile/oil/water systems and their interrelationships

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.H. [USDOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center, WV (United States); Kyunghee Lim [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1992-09-01

    For two-phase, non-multiple emulsions, the emulsion morphology diagram shows, as a function of temperature and phase or component concentration, which phase is dispersed and which is the continuous one, as well as the temperatures and compositions at which inversions occur. The emulsion morphology diagram plays for emulsions a role that is similar to the role played by phase diagrams for phases.

  3. A Study on the Influence of Emulsion Droplet Size on the Skin Penetration of Tetracaine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Izquierdo; J. W. Wiechers; E. Escribano; M. J. García-Celma; T. F. Tadros; J. Esquena; J. C. Dederen; C. Solans

    2007-01-01

    Objectives\\/Aims: The influence of emulsion droplet size on the skin penetration of a model drug, tetracaine, was studied. For this purpose, in vitro dermal and transdermal delivery of tetracaine from 6 emulsions (3 macro-emulsions with droplet sizes >1 ?m and 3 nano-emulsions with droplet sizes <100 nm) were tested. Methods: Two approaches were used: in the first one, the composition

  4. Study on Demulsification of Water-in-Oil Emulsions Via Microwave Heating Technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abdurahman; H. Nour; Rosli; Mohd Yunus; Zulkifly Jemaat

    2006-01-01

    A batch microwave heating process of 2450 MHz was examined on crude oil emulsions. The mechanism of microwave heating is essentially that of dielectric heating. After exposing the emulsion to the microwave electromagnetic EM field, molecular rotation and ionic conduction due to the penetration of EM into the emulsion are responsible for the internal heating. In this study, microwave demulsification

  5. Exploratory use of Rigden Voids as Design Criteria for the Design of Sand Treated with Emulsion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emile Horak; Estime M. Mukandila

    2008-01-01

    Soil\\/sand treated with emulsion (STE) sections were constructed experimentally by labour intensive and plant intensive means on sections at Marracuene, close to Maputo, Mozambique. No cement or lime was added as is standard practice in South Africa with emulsion treatment of gravels, but only bitumen emulsion. It was determined that the characteristics of the filler sized material (smaller than 75?m)

  6. Development of a frozen yogurt fortified with a nano-emulsion containing purple rice bran oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this study were to develop and evaluate a frozen yogurt (FY) fortified with a nano-emulsion containing purple rice bran oil (NPRBO). A nano-emulsion with a droplet size range of 150-300 nm was produced by sonication followed by ultra-shear homogenization. The nano-emulsion was mi...

  7. Microfluidic fabrication of microparticles with structural complexity using photocurable emulsion droplets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shin-Hyun Kim; Jae Won Shim; Jong-Min Lim; Su Yeon Lee; Seung-Man Yang

    2009-01-01

    Polymeric microparticles with hexagonal surface patterns comprising of colloids or dimples were fabricated using photocurable emulsion droplets. Colloidal silica particles within the interior of the photocurable emulsion droplets formed two-dimensional (2D) crystals at the droplet surface by anchoring on the emulsion interface, and the resulting composite structures were captured by rapid photopolymerization. A microfluidic device composed of two coaxial glass

  8. Role of nanoadditive blended biodiesel emulsion fuel on the working characteristics of a diesel engine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Sadhik Basha; R. B. Anand

    2011-01-01

    Biodiesel emulsions are considered as the propitious alternative fuels for diesel engines. The need of biodiesel emulsion fuels for the diesel engines is to curtail the dependency on the fossil fuels in context to the world energy oil crisis. Henceforth, the present study provides a tangible pathway to prepare and to ameliorate the biodiesel emulsion fuel on incorporating potential alumina

  9. Multiple W\\/O\\/W emulsions—Using the required HLB for emulsifier evaluation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Schmidts; D. Dobler; A.-C. Guldan; N. Paulus; F. Runkel

    2010-01-01

    Stable emulsions are best formulated with emulsifiers or combinations of emulsifiers, which possess HLB values close to the required HLB of the oil phase. In this work, we have investigated the application of this established method to the development of multiple emulsions. This is of particular interest, since multiple emulsions are highly sensitive in terms of variations of the individual

  10. Demulsification of Asphaltene-Stabilized Emulsions—Correlations of Demulsifier Performance with Crude Oil Composition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick J. Breen; Andrew Yen; Joshua Tapp

    2003-01-01

    Model asphaltene-stabilized emulsions are used to study the impact of oil composition on the efficiency of demulsification. Varying ratios of toluene and heptane, mixed with asphaltene extracted from a Gulf of Mexico crude oil, were mixed with water to produce emulsions that exhibited characteristic coalescence (water drop) rates. Commercial demulsifiers of varying types and chemistries were added to these emulsions,

  11. Observing rearrangements in a 2D emulsion flowing through a hopper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Dandan; Desmond, Ken; Weeks, Eric R.

    2010-03-01

    Jamming in granular flow through a hopper has been well studied, and structures such as arches have been found in simulations both with and without friction, and in experiments with friction. To study if jamming can happen in other frictionless systems, we pump dense emulsions (oil in water) through a glass hopper. The oil droplets experience a viscous friction but do not have static friction acting between touching droplets, in contrast to granular particles. For easy imaging, we squeeze the droplets into quasi two-dimensional disks by injecting the emulsion into a thin chamber made from two parallel glass plates. Movies of the flow are taken from the top by a microscope. Due to the narrowing confinement in the hopper, droplets are forced to rearrange, and we observe topological changes such as T1 events. At the same time, the interdroplet forces are measured from the deformation of the droplets. By varying the hopper gap width and angle, we study how the constriction affects the particles' motions, and how this relates to the interdroplet forces.

  12. From bijels to Pickering emulsions: A lattice Boltzmann study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansen, Fabian; Harting, Jens

    2011-04-01

    Particle stabilized emulsions are ubiquitous in the food and cosmetics industry, but our understanding of the influence of microscopic fluid-particle and particle-particle interactions on the macroscopic rheology is still limited. In this paper we present a simulation algorithm based on a multicomponent lattice Boltzmann model to describe the solvents combined with a molecular dynamics solver for the description of the solved particles. It is shown that the model allows a wide variation of fluid properties and arbitrary contact angles on the particle surfaces. We demonstrate its applicability by studying the transition from a “bicontinuous interfacially jammed emulsion gel” (bijel) to a “Pickering emulsion” in dependence on the contact angle, the particle concentration, and the ratio of the solvents.

  13. Behavior of Malondialdehyde in Oil-in-Water Emulsions.

    PubMed

    Vandemoortele, Angelique; De Meulenaer, Bruno

    2015-06-17

    The impact of temperature, emulsifier, and protein type on the reactivity of malondialdehyde in oil-in-water emulsions was elucidated. Malondialdehyde recoveries in aqueous buffer, protein solutions, saturated oil, and fully hydrogenated coconut oil-in-water emulsions stabilized by whey proteins or Tween 20 at 4 or 40 °C were compared. At both temperatures, the reactivity of malondialdehyde in aqueous buffer was the same. In protein solutions, malondialdehyde concentrations were reduced further and its decrease was protein-dependent. Similar trends were found for emulsions. Surprisingly, malondialdehyde was very reactive in saturated oil because only 15% was recovered at 40 °C. However, the degradation in oil proved to be strongly temperature-dependent; at 4 °C, losses amounted to only 8%. This study revealed that malondialdehyde is a very reactive molecule, both in the presence and absence of proteins. Its use as a general oxidation marker should therefore be considered with care. PMID:26016781

  14. Demulsification of a crude oil middle phase emulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Duke, R.B.

    1984-03-27

    The middle phase emulsion of a crude oil emulsion produced by a surfactant flooding of an oil reservoir is demulsified by contacting it with a water-soluble alkali metal hydroxide in an amount and under conditions sufficient to cause the hydrolysis of the middle phase emulsion and its subsequent separation into phases, wherein one of the phases is primarily an oil phase. The oil phase is then separated and, thereafter, can be further demulsified by demetalizing the oil by contacting it with a carboxylic acid or an amine salt of a carboxylic acid. It may be desirable to concurrently or subsequently treat the oil with an organic base, which can also be an amine demulsifier, to obtain a pH of from about 7 to about 9 in the final oil phase recovered from the acid demetalization step.

  15. Rapid enumeration of phage in monodisperse emulsions.

    PubMed

    Tjhung, Katrina F; Burnham, Sean; Anany, Hany; Griffiths, Mansel W; Derda, Ratmir

    2014-06-17

    Phage-based detection assays have been developed for the detection of viable bacteria for applications in clinical diagnosis, monitoring of water quality, and food safety. The majority of these assays deliver a positive readout in the form of newly generated progeny phages by the bacterial host of interest. Progeny phages are often visualized as plaques, or holes, in a lawn of bacteria on an agar-filled Petri dish; however, this rate-limiting step requires up to 12 h of incubation time. We have previously described an amplification of bacteriophages M13 inside droplets of media suspended in perfluorinated oil; a single phage M13 in a droplet yields 10(7) copies in 3-4 h. Here, we describe that encapsulation of reporter phages, both lytic T4-LacZ and nonlytic M13, in monodisperse droplets can also be used for rapid enumeration of phage. Compartmentalization in droplets accelerated the development of the signal from the reporter enzyme; counting of "positive" droplets yields accurate enumeration of phage particles ranging from 10(2) to 10(6) pfu/mL. For enumeration of T4-LacZ phage, the fluorescent signal appeared in as little as 90 min. Unlike bulk assays, quantification in emulsion is robust and insensitive to fluctuations in environmental conditions (e.g., temperature). Power-free emulsification using gravity-driven flow in the absence of syringe pumps and portable fluorescence imaging solutions makes this technology promising for use at the point of care in low-resource environments. This droplet-based phage enumeration method could accelerate and simplify point-of-care detection of the pathogens for which reporter bacteriophages have been developed. PMID:24892245

  16. The complexity of prescribing intravenous lipid emulsions.

    PubMed

    Waitzberg, Dan Linetzky; Torrinhas, Raquel Susana

    2015-01-01

    Intravenous lipid emulsions (LEs) are relevant for patients receiving parenteral nutrition because they prevent the depletion of essential fatty acids (FAs) and, as a highly dense energy source, enable the reduction of glucose provision, thereby decreasing the risks of hyperglycemia and hepatic impairment. The prescription of LEs is complex, due mainly to their distinct FA components, which may alter the immune response in different ways and distinctly influence inflammation, oxidative stress and blood coagulation according to their biochemical properties. In addition, an excess of other LE components, such as phospholipids and phytosterols, may be associated with hepatic steatosis and dysfunction. These associations do not represent direct risks or obstacles to LE use in metabolically stable patients but can render the choice of the best LE for hypermetabolic patients difficult. The infusion of LEs according to the available guidelines provides more benefit than harm and should be part of exclusive parenteral nutrition regimens or complement enteral nutrition when appropriate. The patient's metabolic profile should guide the type of FA and amount of lipids that are provided. For critically ill hypermetabolic patients, growing evidence indicates that standard LEs based solely on soybean oil should be avoided in favor of new LEs containing medium-chain triglycerides, olive oil, or fish oil to decrease the provision of potentially oxidative, inflammatory/immunosuppressive, and prothrombotic n-6 FAs. In addition, as sources of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids, LEs containing fish oil may be important for critically ill patients because they allow better modulation of the immune response and likely reduce the length of intensive care unity stay. However, current evidence precludes the recommendation of a specific LE for clinical use in this patient population. PMID:25471811

  17. A Simple Experiment Illustrating the Structure of Association Colloids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friberg, Stig. E.; Bendiksen, Beverly

    1979-01-01

    The experiment described is intended to illustrate the intermolecular phenomena involved in association colloids. These are normal and inverse micelles and lyotropic liquid crystals. Solubilization, microemulsion and emulsion are discussed. (Author/SA)

  18. Photoinduced demulsification of emulsions using a photoresponsive gemini surfactant.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Yutaka; Fukuyasu, Kengo; Horiuchi, Tatsuya; Kondo, Yukishige; Stroeve, Pieter

    2014-01-14

    This Article reports on the influence of light irradiation on the stability of emulsions prepared using a photoresponsive gemini surfactant (C7-azo-C7) having an azobenzene skeleton as a spacer. When mixtures of trans C7-azo-C7 aqueous solution and n-octane are homogenized, stable emulsions are obtained in a specific region of weight fraction and surfactant concentration. Fluorescence microscopy observations using a small amount of fluorescent probes show that the stable emulsions are oil-in-water (O/W)-type. UV irradiation of stable O/W emulsions promotes the cis isomerization of trans C7-azo-C7 and leads to the coalescence of the oil (octane) droplets in the emulsions, that is, demulsification. While the equilibrated interfacial tension (IFT) between aqueous trans C7-azo-C7 solution and octane is almost the same as that between aqueous cis C7-azo-C7 and octane, the occupied area per molecule for C7-azo-C7 at octane/water interface decreases with the cis photoisomerization of trans isomer. Dynamic IFT measurement shows that UV irradiation to the interface between aqueous trans C7-azo-C7 solution and octane brings about an increase in the interfacial tension, indicating that the Gibbs free energy at the interface increases. From these results, the cis isomerization of trans C7-azo-C7 molecules at the O/W interface due to UV irradiation leads to direct contact between the water and octane phases, because of the reduction of molecular area at the interface, and subsequently makes the emulsions demulsified. PMID:24354334

  19. TURBISCAN MA 2000: multiple light scattering measurement for concentrated emulsion and suspension instability analysis.

    PubMed

    Mengual, O; Meunier, G; Cayré, I; Puech, K; Snabre, P

    1999-09-13

    Emulsion or suspension destabilisation often results from coalescence or particle aggregation (flocculation) leading to particle migration (creaming or sedimentation). Creaming and sedimentation are often considered as reversible, while coalescence and flocculation spell disaster for the formulator. Thus, it is of prime importance to detect coalescence or cluster formation at an early stage to shorten the ageing tests and to improve the formulations. This work mainly concerns the independent and anisotropic scattering of light from an emulsion or suspension in a cylindrical glass measurement cell, in relation with the optical analyser TURBISCAN MA 2000. The propagation of light through a concentrated dispersion can be used to characterise the system physico-chemical stability. Indeed, photons undergo many scattering events in an optically thick dispersion before escaping the medium and entering a receiver aperture. Multiple scattering thus contributes significantly to the transmitted and backscattered flux measured by TURBISCAN MA 2000. We present statistical models and numerical simulations for the radiative transfer in a suspension (plane or cylindrical measurement cells) only involving the photon mean path length, the asymmetry factor and the geometry of the light receivers. We further have developed an imaging method with high grey level resolution for the visualisation and the analysis of the surface flux in the backscattered spot light. We compare the results from physical models and numerical simulations with the experiments performed with the imaging method and the optical analyser TURBISCAN MA 2000 for latex beads suspensions (variable size and particle volume fraction). We then present a few examples of concentrated emulsion and suspension instability analysis with TURBISCAN 2000. It is shown that the instrument is able to characterise particle or aggregate size variation and particle/aggregate migration and to detect these phenomena much more earlier than the operator's naked eye, especially for concentrated and optically thick media. PMID:18967735

  20. Deformation dynamics of double emulsion droplet under shear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yongping; Liu, Xiangdong; Zhao, Yuanjin

    2015-04-01

    We combine experimental observations with numerical simulations to explore the deformation dynamics of double emulsion droplet under shear. Two types of transient deformation topologies are identified via the respective underlying physical mechanisms. Especially, we demonstrate that the inner droplet can enhance the retracting of integral droplet, which leads to more intense transient deformation oscillations of double emulsion droplet than those of single-phase one. We further provide a regime diagram to quantitatively recognize the respective regime of these two transient deformation topologies, depending on the capillary number and radius ratio of inner droplet to the outer one.

  1. Preparation of acrylate IPN copolymer latexes by radiation emulsion polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Minghong; Zhou, Ruimin; Ma, Zue-Teh; Bao, Borong; Lei, Jianqiu

    1997-03-01

    Radiation-induced and chemical initiation are compared in the initiation of acrylate emulsion copolymer latexes. The particle diameter, distribution and microstructure are influenced by emulsifier concentration, radiation dose and temperature. The results show that the emulsion particle diameter of radiation polymerization is smaller and better distributed in comparison to using chemical polymerization. In addition, interlude polymer net (IPN) core-shell copolymer latexes are observed by transmission electron microscope (TEM). The bounding face of core-shell acrylate copolymmer texes of radiation polymerization is clearer. The morphology of acrylate IPN copolymer latexes is further investigated.

  2. Functional polymeric microparticles engineered from controllable microfluidic emulsions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Zhang, Mao-Jie; Chu, Liang-Yin

    2014-02-18

    Functional polymeric microparticles with typical sizes of 1-1000 ?m have received considerable attention for many applications. Especially in biomedical fields, polymeric microparticles with advanced functions such as targeted delivery, controlled encapsulation, or "capture and release" show great importance as delivery systems for active molecules and drugs, as imaging agents for analytics and diagnostics, as microreactors for confined bioreactions, and more. Generally, the functions of these microparticles rely on both their structures and the properties of their component materials. Thus, creating unique structures from functional materials provides an important strategy for developing advanced functional polymeric microparticles. Several methods, such as dispersion polymerization, precipitation polymerization, copolymer self-assembly, and phase-separated polymer precipitation can be used to make functional microparticles, but each has limitations, for example, their limited control over the particle size and structure. Using emulsions as templates, however, allows precise control over the size, shape, composition, and structure of the resulting microparticles by tuning those of the emulsions via specific emulsification techniques. Microfluidic methods offer excellent control of emulsion droplets, thereby providing a powerful platform for continuous, reproducible, scalable production of polymeric microparticles with unprecedented control over their monodispersity, structures, and compositions. This approach provides broad opportunities for producing polymeric microparticles with novel structure-property combinations and elaborately designed functions. In this Account, we highlight recent efforts in microfluidic fabrication of advanced polymeric microparticles with well-designed functions for potential biomedical applications, and we describe the development of microfluidic techniques for producing monodisperse and versatile emulsion templates. We begin by describing microparticles made from single emulsions and then describe those from complex multiple emulsions, showing how the resulting microparticles combine novel structures and material properties to achieve their advanced functions. Monodisperse emulsions enable production of highly uniform microparticles of desired sizes to achieve programmed release rates and passive targeting for drug delivery and diagnostic imaging. Phase-separated multiple emulsions allow combination of a variety of functional materials to generate compartmental microparticles including hollow, core-shell, multicore-shell, and hole-shell structures for controlled encapsulation and release, selective capture, and confined bioreaction. We envision that the versatility of microfluidics for microparticle synthesis could open new frontiers and provide promising and exciting opportunities for fabricating new functional microparticles with broad implications for myriad fields. PMID:24199893

  3. CONVULSIVE SYNDROME IN RABBITS INJECTED WITH FAT EMULSION AND HEPARIN

    PubMed Central

    Van den Bosch, Jozef; Billiau, Alfons

    1963-01-01

    Functionally hepatectomized rabbits showed convulsions and coma within 2 hours after the intravenous injection of fat emulsion and heparin. Intravenous injection of the detergent triton prevented this syndrome, if given before the fat emulsion and heparin, and reversed it if given subsequently. Extremely high plasma non-esterified fatty acid levels were noted in rabbits showing the convulsive syndrome, but not in animals that received the detergent. The mechanism of the convulsions probably includes the toxicity of high amounts of non-esterified fatty acids. PMID:14067903

  4. Spectra, composition, and interactions of nuclei with magnet interaction chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parneil, T. A.; Derrickson, J. H.; Fountain, W. F.; Roberts, F. E.; Tabuki, T.; Watts, J. W.; Burnett, T. H.; Cherry, M. C.; Dake, S.; Fuki, M.

    1990-01-01

    Emulsion chambers will be flown in the Astromag Facility to measure the cosmic ray composition and spectra to 10 exp 15 eV total energy and to definitively study the characteristics of nucleus-nucleus interactions above 10 exp 12 eV/n. Two configurations of emulsion chambers will be flown in the SCIN/MAGIC experiment. One chamber has an emulsion target and a calorimeter similar to those recently flown on balloons for composition and spectra measurements. The other has an identical calorimeter and a low-density target section optimized for performing rigidity measurements on charged particles produced in interactions. The transverse momenta of charged and neutral mesons, direct hadronic pairs from resonance decays and interference effects, and possible charge clustering in high-density states of matter will be studied.

  5. Immunomodulatory and Physical Effects of Oil Composition in Vaccine Adjuvant Emulsions

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Christopher B.; Baldwin, Susan L.; Duthie, Malcolm S.; Reed, Steven G.; Vedvick, Thomas S.

    2011-01-01

    Squalene-based oil-in-water emulsions have been used for years in some seasonal and pandemic influenza vaccines. However, concerns have been expressed regarding squalene source and potential biological activities. Little information is available regarding the immunomodulatory activity of squalene in comparison with other metabolizable oils in the context of oil-in-water emulsions formulated with vaccines. The present work describes the manufacture and physical characterization of emulsions composed of different classes of oils, including squalene, long chain triglycerides, a medium chain triglyceride, and a perfluorocarbon, all emulsified with egg phosphatidylcholine. Some differences were apparent among the non-squalene oils in terms of emulsion stability, including higher size polydispersity in the perfluorocarbon emulsion, more rapid visual instability at 60 °C for the long-chain triglyceride and perfluorocarbon emulsions, and an increased creaming rate in the medium-chain triglyceride emulsion at 60 °C as detected by laser scattering optical profiling. The biological activity of each of these emulsions was compared when formulated with either a recombinant malaria antigen or a split-virus inactivated influenza vaccine. Overall, vaccines containing the squalene emulsion elicited higher antibody titers and more abundant long-lived plasma cells than vaccines containing emulsions based on other oils. Since squalene-based emulsions show higher adjuvant potency compared to the other oils tested, non-squalene oils may be more suitable as carriers of amphiphilic or hydrophobic immunostimulatory molecules (such as TLR agonists) rather than as stand-alone adjuvants. PMID:21906648

  6. The FASES instrument development and experiment preparation for the ISS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picker, Gerold; Gollinger, Klaus; Greger, Ralf; Dettmann, Jan; Winter, Josef; Dewandre, Thierry; Castiglione, Luigi; Vincent-Bonnieu, Sebastien; Liggieri, Libero; Clausse, Daniele; Antoni, Mickael

    The FASES experiments target the investigation of the stability of emulsions. The main objec-tives are the study of the surfactant adsorption at the liquid / liquid interfaces, the interaction of the droplets as well as the behaviour of the liquid film between nearby drops. Particular focus is given to the dynamic droplet evolution during emulsion destabilisation. The results of the experiments shall support development of methods for the modelling of droplet size distri-butions, which are important to many industries using stable emulsions like food production, cosmetics and pharmaceutics or unstable emulsions as required for applications in waste water treatment or crude oil recovery. The development of the experimental instrumentation was initiated in 2002. The flight instru-ment hardware development was started in 2004 and finally the flight unit was completed in 2009. Currently the final flight preparation is proceeding targeting a launch to the International Space Station (ISS) with Progress 39P in September 2010. The experiment setup of the instrument is accommodated in a box type insert called Experiment Container (EC), which will be installed in the Fluid Science Laboratory part of the European Columbus module of the ISS. The EC is composed of two diagnostics instruments for the investigation of transparent and opaque liquid emulsion. The transparent emulsions will be subject to the experiment called "Investigations on drop/drop interactions in Transparent Emulsions" (ITEM). The opaque emulsion samples will be studied in the experiment called "Investigations on concentrated or opaque Emulsions and on Phase Inversions" (EMPI). The thermal conditioning unit (TCU) allows performing homogeneous thermalization, tem-perature sweeps, emulsion preparation by stirrer, and optical diagnostics with a scanning mi-croscope. The objective of the instrument is the 3D reconstruction of the emulsion droplet distribution in the liquid matrix in terms of the droplet sizes, location and their time depen-dent evolution. The TCU will be used for the stability experiment ITEM-S and the droplet freezing experiment ITEM-F. The Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) will give an information about the evolution of the emulsion through the droplet size distribution and the dispersion state of the droplets within the emulsion during a controlled temperature sweep by measuring the latent heat of droplet freezing and melting during the EMPI experiments. For this purpose the calorimeter is equipped with a reference sample filled with a pure liquid matrix and a similar measurement sample filled with the specific emulsion under investigation. The differential heat flux between measurement sample and reference sample is measured with a sensitive heat flux sensor. Each instrument is serviced by a robotic sample stowage system, which accommodates in total 44 different ITEM and EMPI emulsion samples each filled with a specific composition of the emulsion. Currently the flight preparation is ongoing with particular focus on the preparation of the emulsion flight sample set and the instrument's operating parameters. The FASES flight instrument was developed by ASTRIUM Space Transportation Germany with support of RUAG Aerospace Wallisellen under ESA / ESTEC contract. The science team of FASES is supported by ESA/ESTEC (Microgravity Application Programme, AO99-052).

  7. Non-coalescence of oppositely charged droplets in pH-sensitive emulsions

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tingting; Seiffert, Sebastian; Thiele, Julian; Abate, Adam R.; Weitz, David A.; Richtering, Walter

    2012-01-01

    Like charges stabilize emulsions, whereas opposite charges break emulsions. This is the fundamental principle for many industrial and practical processes. Using micrometer-sized pH-sensitive polymeric hydrogel particles as emulsion stabilizers, we prepare emulsions that consist of oppositely charged droplets, which do not coalesce. We observe noncoalescence of oppositely charged droplets in bulk emulsification as well as in microfluidic devices, where oppositely charged droplets are forced to collide within channel junctions. The results demonstrate that electrostatic interactions between droplets do not determine their stability and reveal the unique pH-dependent properties of emulsions stabilized by soft microgel particles. The noncoalescence can be switched to coalescence by neutralizing the microgels, and the emulsion can be broken on demand. This unusual feature of the microgel-stabilized emulsions offers fascinating opportunities for future applications of these systems. PMID:22203968

  8. Preparation and characterization of n-alkane/water emulsion stabilized by cyclodextrin.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Motoki; Hashizaki, Kaname; Taguchi, Hiroyuki; Saito, Yoshihiro

    2009-01-01

    Emulsions consisting of n-alkane/water using alpha, beta, and gamma-cyclodextrin (alpha, beta, and gamma-CD) as an emulsifier were prepared and characterized by means of several physicochemical techniques. A phase diagram of the n-alkane/CD/water system showed that an oil in water (O/W) emulsion can be prepared from a mixture of the appropriate composition. The dissolved n-alkane/CD complexes formed at low CD concentrations showed surface-activity, but emulsions could not be prepared from these complexes. On the other hand, the precipitated complexes formed at high CD concentrations when adsorbed to the oil/water interface, and served as an emulsifier for formation of emulsions. These results showed that the emulsions formed were of the Pickering emulsion. In addition emulsion formation was governed by the wettability and the surface free energy of the precipitated complexes. PMID:19145062

  9. Polypyrrole–montmorillonite nanocomposites synthesized by emulsion polymerization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. H. Hong; B. H. Kim; J. Joo; J. W. Kim; Hyung J. Choi

    2001-01-01

    The structural, electrical, magnetic, and thermal properties were investigated for the nanocomposites of polypyrrole (PPy) and inorganic clay (Na+-montmorillonite) prepared by emulsion polymerization. Dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid (DBSA) was used as emulsifier (surfactant) and dopant. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images showed that the conducting PPy was intercalated into the clay layers in nanoscale (<10 Å). The

  10. Polymersomes Fabrication of Polymersomes using Double-Emulsion

    E-print Network

    Polymersomes Fabrication of Polymersomes using Double-Emulsion Templates in Glass-Coated Stamped¨rster, and David A. Weitz* Polymersomes are vesicular self-assemblies of amphiphilic diblock copolymers;[1 and functionalization of the copoly- mers, polymersomes with controlled biological, chemical

  11. Enhanced oil recovery: foams, emulsions, and immiscible flooding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. D. W

    1985-01-01

    This thesis investigates various aspects of oil recovery processes namely, two phase immiscible flow in porous media, emulsion characterization and foam stability. A new method is presented for the simultaneous determination of relative permeability and capillary pressure. The new technique consists of a saturation measurement controlled by computer and a numerical scheme for the calculation of two parameters from saturation

  12. Intravenous lipid emulsion for treating permethrin toxicosis in a cat

    PubMed Central

    DeGroot, Whitney D.

    2014-01-01

    A 2-year-old cat was presented with acute onset seizures, tremors, and hypersalivation. Permethrin toxicity was diagnosed based on a history of recent flea treatment. Measures were taken to minimize further absorption of permethrin, and methocarbamol and intravenous lipid emulsion were used to control tremors. The cat recovered and was discharged within 42 h. PMID:24381347

  13. Separating oil from oil-water emulsions by electroflotation technique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ashraf Y. Hosny

    1996-01-01

    The separation of finely dispersed oil from oil-water emulsions was carried out in an electroflotation cell which has a set of electrodes, a lead anode and stainless steel screen cathode. The effect of operating parameters on the performance of the batch cell was examined. The parameters investigated are electrical current, oil concentration, flotation time and flocculant agent concentrations. A well-fitted

  14. Modeling of the Microwave Initiated Emulsion Polymerization of Styrene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joaquín Palacios

    2005-01-01

    The emulsion polymerization of styrene, activated by microwave irradiation and conductive heating, was modeled using the Predici simulation package of CiT. Microwave activated initiation was modeled as adding a second conventional free?radical chemical initiator, whose concentration is given by the intensity of microwave irradiation, and its “decomposition” kinetic rate constant is related to the ratio of monomer concentration to the

  15. Portulaca oleracea gum and casein interactions and emulsion stability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N Garti; Y Slavin; A Aserin

    1999-01-01

    It is well documented that weak or strong interactions between macromolecules such as proteins or polysaccharides can synergistically improve the emulsifying capabilities of each of the biopolymers. The present study explores the nature of the adsorbed layer in emulsions formed in the presence of casein and a new anionic hydrocolloid extracted from Portulaca oleracea L. (POG). in several emulsification protocols.Electrophoretic

  16. Recent advances in the combustion of water fuel emulsion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Kadota; H. Yamasaki

    2002-01-01

    Recent advances in the combustion of water fuel emulsion which consists of base fuel and water doped with or without a trace content of surfactant are reviewed. The focus is on the fundamental mechanism relevant to the micro-explosion phenomena leading to the secondary atomization which is not common to the combustion of pure fuel. Described at first are the kinetic

  17. Emulsion Polymerized Polystyrene\\/Montmorillonite Nanocomposite and its Viscoelastic Characteristics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bong Jun Park; Tae Heon Kim; Hyoung Jin Choi; Jae Heung Lee

    2007-01-01

    A novel polystyrene (PS)\\/clay nanocomposite was synthesized using a simple emulsion polymerization method in the presence of sodium ion exchanged montmorillonite (Na?MMT). Prior to the radical polymerization procedure with potassium persulfate (KPS) as an initiator, the hydrophobic styrene monomer was intercalated into hydrophilic clay layers using sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as a surfactant. The FTIR spectra of the products showed

  18. Uptake of a Cholesterol-Rich Emulsion by Breast Cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Silvia R. Graziani; Fernando A. F. Igreja; Roberto Hegg; Claudio Meneghetti; Laura I. Brandizzi; Renato Barboza; Rosângela F. Amâncio; José A. Pinotti; Raul C. Maranhão

    2002-01-01

    Objective. Overexpression of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors occurs in several cancer cell lines and offers a unique strategy for drug targeting by using LDL as vehicle. However, the native lipoprotein is difficult to obtain and handle. Previously, we showed that a lipidic emulsion (LDE) similar to the lipid structure of native LDL may bind to LDL receptors and be taken

  19. Nuclear research emulsion neutron spectrometry at the Little-Boy replica

    SciTech Connect

    Gold, R.; Roberts, J.H.; Preston, C.C.

    1985-10-01

    Nuclear research emulsions (NRE) have been used to characterize the neutron spectrum emitted by the Little-Boy replica. NRE were irradiated at the Little-Boy surface as well as approximately 2 m from the center of the Little-Boy replica using polar angles of 0/sup 0/, 30/sup 0/, 60/sup 0/ and 90/sup 0/. For the NRE exposed at 2 m, neutron background was determined using shadow shields of borated polyethylene. Emulsion scanning to date has concentrated exclusively on the 2-m, 0/sup 0/ and 2-m, 90/sup 0/ locations. Approximately 5000 proton-recoil tracks have been measured in NRE irradiated at each of these locations. Neutron spectra obtained from these NRE proton-recoil spectra are compared with both liquid scintillator neutron spectrometry and Monte Carlo calculations. NRE and liquid scintillator neutron spectra generally agree within experimental uncertainties at the 2-m, 90/sup 0/ location. However, at the 2-m, 0/sup 0/ location, the neutron spectra derived from these two independent experimental methods differ significantly. NRE spectra and Monte Carlo calculations exhibit general agreement with regard to both intensity as well as energy dependence. Better agreement is attained between theory and experiment at the 2-m, 90/sup 0/ location, where the neutron intensity is considerably higher. 14 refs., 18 figs., 11 tabs.

  20. Comparative studies of salinomycin-loaded nanoparticles prepared by nanoprecipitation and single emulsion method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qin; Wu, Puyuan; Ren, Wei; Xin, Kai; Yang, Yang; Xie, Chen; Yang, Chenchen; Liu, Qin; Yu, Lixia; Jiang, Xiqun; Liu, Baorui; Li, Rutain; Wang, Lifeng

    2014-07-01

    To establish a satisfactory delivery system for the delivery of salinomycin (Sal), a novel, selective cancer stem cell inhibitor with prominent toxicity, gelatinase-responsive core-shell nanoparticles (NPs), were prepared by nanoprecipitation method (NR-NPs) and single emulsion method (SE-NPs). The gelatinase-responsive copolymer was prepared by carboxylation and double amination method. We studied the stability of NPs prepared by nanoprecipitation method with different proportions of F68 in aqueous phase to determine the best proportion used in our study. Then, the NPs were prepared by nanoprecipitation method with the best proportion of F68 and single emulsion method, and their physiochemical traits including morphology, particle size, zeta potential, drug loading content, stability, and in vitro release profiles were studied. The SE-NPs showed significant differences in particle size, drug loading content, stability, and in vitro release profiles compared to NR-NPs. The SE-NPs presented higher drug entrapment efficiency and superior stability than the NR-NPs. The drug release rate of SE-NPs was more sustainable than that of the NR-NPs, and in vivo experiment indicated that NPs could prominently reduce the toxicity of Sal. Our study demonstrates that the SE-NPs could be a satisfactory method for the preparation of gelatinase-responsive NPs for intelligent delivery of Sal.

  1. Selective separation of lambdacyhalothrin by porous/magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers prepared by Pickering emulsion polymerization.

    PubMed

    Hang, Hui; Li, Chunxiang; Pan, Jianming; Li, Linzi; Dai, Jiangdong; Dai, Xiaohui; Yu, Ping; Feng, Yonghai

    2013-10-01

    Porous/magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers (PM-MIPs) were prepared by Pickering emulsion polymerization. The reaction was carried out in an oil/water emulsion using magnetic halloysite nanotubes as the stabilizer instead of a toxic surfactant. In the oil phase, the imprinting process was conducted by radical polymerization of functional and cross-linked monomers, and porogen chloroform generated steam under the high reaction temperature, which resulted in some pores decorated with easily accessible molecular binding sites within the as-made PM-MIPs. The characterization demonstrated that the PM-MIPs were porous and magnetic inorganic-polymer composite microparticles with magnetic sensitivity (M(s) = 0.7448 emu/g), thermal stability (below 473 K) and magnetic stability (over the pH range of 2.0-8.0). The PM-MIPs were used as a sorbent for the selective binding of lambdacyhalothrin (LC) and rapidly separated under an external magnetic field. The Freundlich isotherm model gave a good fit to the experimental data. The adsorption kinetics of the PM-MIPs was well described by pseudo-second-order kinetics, indicating that the chemical process could be the rate-limiting step in the adsorption of LC. The selective recognition experiments exhibited the outstanding selective adsorption effect of the PM-MIPs for target LC. Moreover, the PM-MIPs regeneration without significant loss in adsorption capacity was demonstrated by at least four repeated cycles. PMID:23894024

  2. Thiolated alkyl-modified carbomers: Novel excipients for mucoadhesive emulsions.

    PubMed

    Bonengel, Sonja; Hauptstein, Sabine; Leonaviciute, Gintare; Griessinger, Julia; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas

    2015-07-30

    The aim of this study was the design and evaluation of mucoadhesive emulsifying polymeric excipients. Three thiol bearing ligands with increasing pKa values of their sulfhydryl group, namely 4-aminothiophenol (pKa=6.86), l-cysteine (pKa=8.4) and d/l-homocysteine (pKa=10.0) were coupled to the polymeric backbone of alkyl-modified carbomer (PA1030). Resulting conjugates displayed 818.5?mol 4-aminothiophenol, 698.5?mol cysteine and 651.5?mol homocysteine per gram polymer and were evaluated regarding the reactivity of thiol groups, emulsifying and mucoadhesive properties. In general, the synthesized conjugates showed a pH dependent reactivity, whereby the fastest oxidation occurred in PA1030-cysteine, as almost no free thiol groups could be detected after 120min. Emulsification of medium chain triglycerides was feasible with all synthesized conjugates leading to oil-in-water-emulsions. Emulsions with PA1030-cysteine displayed the highest stability and the smallest droplet size among the tested formulations. Oxidation and consequently cross-linking of the thiomers prior to the emulsification process led to an overall decreased emulsion stability. Evaluating mucosal residence time of thiomer emulsions on porcine buccal mucosa, a 9.2-fold higher amount of formulation based on PA1030-cysteine remained on the mucosal tissue within 3h compared to the unmodified polymer. According to these results, the highest reactive ligand l-cysteine seems to be most promising in order to obtain thiolated polymers for the preparation of mucoadhesive o/w-emulsions. PMID:25857707

  3. Heavy-quark Langevin dynamics and single-electron spectra in nucleus-nucleus collision

    E-print Network

    W. M. Alberico; A. Beraudo; A. De Pace; A. Molinari; M. Monteno; M. Nardi; F. Prino

    2010-07-23

    The stochastic dynamics of heavy quarks in the fireball produced in heavy-ion collisions is followed through numerical simulations based on the Langevin equation. The modification of the final p_T spectra (R_AA) of c and b quarks, hadrons and single-electrons with respect to pp collisions is studied. The transport coefficients are evaluated treating separately the contribution of soft and hard collisions. The initial heavy-quark spectra are generated according to NLO-pQCD, accounting for nuclear effects through recent nPDFs. The evolution of the medium is obtained from the output of two hydro-codes (ideal and viscous). The heavy-quark fragmentation into hadrons and their final semileptonic decays are implemented according to up to date experimental data. A comparison with RHIC data for non-photonic electron spectra is given.

  4. Heavy flavour in nucleus-nucleus collisions at RHIC and LHC: a Langevin approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beraudo, A.; De Pace, A.; Monteno, M.; Prino, F.; Alberico, W. M.; Molinari, A.; Nardi, M.

    2014-03-01

    A snapshot of the results for heavy-flavour observables in heavy-ion (AA) collisions at RHIC and LHC obtained with our transport calculations is displayed. The initial charm and beauty production is simulated through pQCD tools (POWHEG+PYTHIA) and is validated through the comparison with data from pp collisions. The propagation of c and b quarks in the medium formed in heavy-ion collisions is studied through a transport setup based on the relativistic Langevin equation. With respect to past works we perform a more systematic study, providing results with different choices of transport coefficients, either from weak-coupling calculations or from lattice-QCD simulations. Our findings are compared to a rich set of experimental data (D-mesons, non-photonic electrons, non-prompt J/?'s) which have meanwhile become accessible.

  5. Heavy flavour in nucleus-nucleus collisions at RHIC and LHC: a Langevin approach

    E-print Network

    A. Beraudo; A. De Pace; M. Monteno; F. Prino; W. M. Alberico; A. Molinari; M. Nardi

    2013-07-29

    A snapshot of the results for heavy-flavour observables in heavy-ion (AA) collisions at RHIC and LHC obtained with our transport calculations is displayed. The initial charm and beauty production is simulated through pQCD tools (POWHEG+PYTHIA) and is validated through the comparison with data from pp collisions. The propagation of c and b quarks in the medium formed in heavy-ion collisions is studied through a transport setup based on the relativistic Langevin equation. With respect to past works we perform a more systematic study, providing results with different choices of transport coefficients, either from weak-coupling calculations or from lattice-QCD simulations. Our findings are compared to a rich set of experimental data (D-mesons, non-photonic electrons, non-prompt J/\\psi's) which have meanwhile become accessible.

  6. Heavy-quark Langevin dynamics and single-electron spectra in nucleus-nucleus collision

    E-print Network

    Alberico, W M; De Pace, A; Molinari, A; Monteno, M; Nardi, M; Prino, F

    2011-01-01

    The stochastic dynamics of heavy quarks in the fireball produced in heavy-ion collisions is followed through numerical simulations based on the Langevin equation. The modification of the final p_T spectra (R_AA) of c and b quarks, hadrons and single-electrons with respect to pp collisions is studied. The transport coefficients are evaluated treating separately the contribution of soft and hard collisions. The initial heavy-quark spectra are generated according to NLO-pQCD, accounting for nuclear effects through recent nPDFs. The evolution of the medium is obtained from the output of two hydro-codes (ideal and viscous). The heavy-quark fragmentation into hadrons and their final semileptonic decays are implemented according to up to date experimental data. A comparison with RHIC data for non-photonic electron spectra is given.

  7. Heavy-quark Langevin dynamics and single-electron spectra in nucleus-nucleus collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beraudo, A.; Alberico, W. M.; De Pace, A.; Molinari, A.; Monteno, M.; Nardi, M.; Prino, F.

    2011-01-01

    The stochastic dynamics of heavy quarks in the fireball produced in heavy-ion collisions is followed through numerical simulations based on the Langevin equation. The modification of the final pT spectra (RAA) of c and b quarks, hadrons and single-electrons with respect to pp collisions is studied. The transport coefficients are evaluated treating separately the contribution of soft and hard collisions. The initial heavy-quark spectra are generated according to NLO-pQCD, accounting for nuclear effects through recent nPDFs. The evolution of the medium is obtained from the output of two hydro-codes (ideal and viscous). The heavy-quark fragmentation into hadrons and their final semileptonic decays are implemented according to up-to-date experimental data. A comparison with RHIC data for non-photonic electron spectra is given.

  8. Heavy flavour in nucleus-nucleus collisions at RHIC and LHC: a Langevin approach

    E-print Network

    Beraudo, A; Monteno, M; Prino, F; Alberico, W M; Molinari, A; Nardi, M

    2014-01-01

    A snapshot of the results for heavy-flavour observables in heavy-ion (AA) collisions at RHIC and LHC obtained with our transport calculations is displayed. The initial charm and beauty production is simulated through pQCD tools (POWHEG+PYTHIA) and is validated through the comparison with data from pp collisions. The propagation of c and b quarks in the medium formed in heavy-ion collisions is studied through a transport setup based on the relativistic Langevin equation. With respect to past works we perform a more systematic study, providing results with different choices of transport coefficients, either from weak-coupling calculations or from lattice-QCD simulations. Our findings are compared to a rich set of experimental data (D-mesons, non-photonic electrons, non-prompt J/\\psi's) which have meanwhile become accessible.

  9. Heavy-quark Langevin dynamics and single-electron spectra in nucleus-nucleus collision

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. M. Alberico; A. Beraudo; A. De Pace; A. Molinari; M. Monteno; M. Nardi; F. Prino

    2010-01-01

    The stochastic dynamics of heavy quarks in the fireball produced in heavy-ion\\u000acollisions is followed through numerical simulations based on the Langevin\\u000aequation. The modification of the final p_T spectra (R_AA) of c and b quarks,\\u000ahadrons and single-electrons with respect to pp collisions is studied. The\\u000atransport coefficients are evaluated treating separately the contribution of\\u000asoft and hard collisions.

  10. Heavy-quark Langevin dynamics and single-electron spectra in nucleus-nucleus collisions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Beraudo; W. M. Alberico; A. De Pace; A. Molinari; M. Monteno; M. Nardi; F. Prino

    2011-01-01

    The stochastic dynamics of heavy quarks in the fireball produced in heavy-ion collisions is followed through numerical simulations based on the Langevin equation. The modification of the final pT spectra (RAA) of c and b quarks, hadrons and single-electrons with respect to pp collisions is studied. The transport coefficients are evaluated treating separately the contribution of soft and hard collisions.

  11. Effect of nuclear deformation on J/Psi suppression in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions

    E-print Network

    Ben-Hao Sa; An Tai

    1999-12-14

    Using a hadron-string cascade model, JPCIAE, we study the effect of nuclear deformation on J/Psi suppression in the collision of uranium nuclei at 200A GeV/c. We find that the J/Psi survival probability is much smaller if the major axes of both deformed nuclei are along the beam direction than if they are perpendicular to the beam direction.

  12. Strange particles production in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions at the RHIC BES energy region

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Cong-Cong; Feng, Sheng-Qin; Yin, Zhong-Bao

    2015-01-01

    The parton and hadron cascade model PACIAE is utilized to investigate strange particle productions in Au + Au collision at $\\sqrt{s}$=62.4 GeV in different centralities and at $\\sqrt{s}$= 39, 11.5 and 7.7 GeV in the most central collision, respectively. It is shown that the transverse momentum distributions of strange particles by the PACIAE model fit well the RHIC BES experimental results.

  13. Search for a Signal on QCD Critical Point in Central Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions

    E-print Network

    M. K. Suleymanov; E. U. Khan; K. Ahmed; Mahnaz Q. Haseeb; Farida Tahir; Y. H. Huseynaliyev; M. Ajaz; K. H. Khan; Z. Wazir

    2008-04-19

    We discuss that the QCD critical point could appear in central collisions in percolation cluster. We suggest using the nuclear transparency effect and the one of the light nuclear production to identify the critical point.

  14. Strange particles production in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions at RHIC and LHC energy regions

    E-print Network

    Xiao-Wen Ren; Sheng-Qin Feng; Xian-Bao Yuan

    2014-11-15

    PACIAE, a parton and hadron cascade model, is utilized to systematically investigate strange particle production and strangeness enhancement in Au+Au collision and in Pb+Pb collision with the 200GeV at RHIC and 2.76TeV at LHC, respectively. The experimental results at different centrality, which come from the STAR collaboration and the ALICE collaboration, are well described by the PACIAE model. This may represent the importance of the parton and hadron rescatterings, as well as the reduction mechanism of strange quark suppression, added in the PACIAE model.

  15. HIJET: a Monte Carlo event generator for P-nucleus-nucleus collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Ludlam, T.; Pfoh, A.; Shor, A.

    1985-01-01

    Comparisons are shown for the HIJET generated data and measured data for average multiplicities, rapidity distributions, and leading proton spectra in proton-nucleus and heavy ion reactions. The algorithm for the generator is one of an incident particle on a target of uniformly distributed nucleons. The dynamics of the interaction limit secondary interactions in that only the leading baryon may re-interact with the nuclear volume. Energy and four momentum are globally conserved in each event. 6 refs., 6 figs. (WRF)

  16. A linearized Uehling-Uhlenbeck equation for high energy nucleus-nucleus collisions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Mies; B. Schuermann

    1986-01-01

    To calculate the nucleon inclusive spectra obtained from high energy heavy ion collisions, we derive a linearized form of the Uehling--Uhlenbeck equation. The solution of this equation is given by a sum of multiple collision contributions each of which in the eikonal approximation factorizes in a geometrical and a dynamical part. To a good approximation the dynamical part turns out,

  17. Schroedinger cats, quantum slings and azimuthal effects in nucleus-nucleus collisions

    E-print Network

    I. M. Dremin; V. I. Man'ko

    1998-07-21

    Confinement of a chromodynamical string can result in specific effects in scattering processes and multiparticle production. In particular, due to its rotation secondary fragments of the splitting apart string can move like stones thrown from a sling. That would be detected as the azimuthal asymmetry of particle distributions in individual events. Thus we propose to explain the elliptic flow observed in AA-collisions as a sling-effect. It can provide information about confinement of quarks inside particles or binding forces in nuclei. Nonclassical states of the created particles like the Schroedinger cats are produced. Some classical and quantum-mechanical estimates of possible effects are given. Experimental facts which can be used for their verification are discussed.

  18. THE SENSITIVITY OF THE REAL PART OF THE NUCLEUS-NUCLEUS POTENTIAL TO NUCLEAR DENSITIES

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    . Besides the Skyrme interaction parameters the calculation required the knowledge of the neutron and proton'une méthode basée sur la fonctionnelle d'énergie de l'interaction nucléon-nucléon de Skyrme. On présente une a method based on the energy functional of the Skyrme nucleon-nucleon interaction and give a detailed

  19. The nucleus-nucleus interaction potential using density-dependent delta interaction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bikash Sinha; Steven A. Moszkowski

    1979-01-01

    The interaction potential between two nuclei has been calculated by using a generalized folding model. The direct and the exchange terms are computed by folding in Skyrme interaction with the nuclear density distributions and the density matrices of the two nuclei, respectively. A new definition of the one-body optical potential is also suggested. The results agree quite well with standard

  20. The OPERA experiment Target Tracker

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Wilquet; J. Wurtz

    The main task of the Target Tracker detector of the long baseline neutrino oscillation OPERA experiment is to locate in which of the target elementary constituents, the lead\\/emulsion bricks, the neutrino interactions have occurred and also to give calorimetric information about each event. The technology used consists in walls of two planes of plastic scintilla- tor strips, one per transverse

  1. The OPERA experiment Target Tracker

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Adam; E. Baussan; K. Borer; J. E. Campagne; N. Chon-Sen; C. de La Taille; N. Dick; M. Dracos; G. Gaudiot; T. Goeltzenlichter; Y. Gornushkin; J. N. Grapton; J. L. Guyonnet; M. Hess; R. Igersheim; J. Janicsko Csathy; C. Jollet; F. Juget; H. Kocher; A. Krasnoperov; Z. Krumstein; G. Martin-Chassard; U. Moser; A. Nozdrin; A. Olchevski; S. Porokhovoi; L. Raux; A. Sadovski; J. Schuler; H. U. Schütz; C. Schwab; A. Smolnikov; G. Van Beek; P. Vilain; T. Wälchli; G. Wilquet; J. Wurtz

    2007-01-01

    The main task of the Target Tracker detector of the long baseline neutrino oscillation OPERA experiment is to locate in which of the target elementary constituents, the lead\\/emulsion bricks, the neutrino interactions have occurred and also to give calorimetric information about each event. The technology used consists in walls of two planes of plastic scintillator strips, one per transverse direction.

  2. Antioxidant activity and emulsion-stabilizing effect of pectic enzyme treated pectin in soy protein isolate-stabilized oil/water emulsion.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ping-Hsiu; Lu, Hao-Te; Wang, Yuh-Tai; Wu, Ming-Chang

    2011-09-14

    The antioxidant activity of pectic enzyme treated pectin (PET-pectin) prepared from citrus pectin by enzymatic hydrolysis and its potential use as a stabilizer and an antioxidant for soy protein isolate (SPI)-stabilized oil in water (O/W) emulsion were investigated. Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) was found to be positively associated with molecular weight (M(w)) of PET-pectin and negatively associated with degree of esterification (DE) of PET-pectin. PET-pectin (1 kDa and 11.6% DE) prepared from citrus pectin after 24 h of hydrolysis by commercial pectic enzyme produced by Aspergillus niger expressed higher ?,?-diphenyl-?-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, TEAC, and reducing power than untreated citrus pectin (353 kDa and 60% DE). The addition of PET-pectin could increase both emulsifying activity (EA) and emulsion stability (ES) of SPI-stabilized O/W emulsion. When the SPI-stabilized lipid droplet was coated with the mixture of PET-pectin and pectin, the EA and ES of the emulsion were improved more than they were when the lipid droplet was coated with either pectin or PET-pectin alone. The amount of secondary oxidation products (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) produced in the emulsion prepared with the mixture of SPI and PET-pectin was less than the amount produced in the emulsion prepared with either SPI or SPI/pectin. These results suggest that PET-pectin has an emulsion-stabilizing effect and lipid oxidation inhibition ability on SPI-stabilized emulsion. Therefore, PET-pectin can be used as a stabilizer as well as an antioxidant in plant origin in SPI-stabilized O/W emulsion and thus prolong the shelf life of food emulsion. PMID:21806056

  3. Various aspects of ultrasound assisted emulsion polymerization process.

    PubMed

    Korkut, Ibrahim; Bayramoglu, Mahmut

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, the effects of ultrasonic (US) power, pulse ratio, probe area and recipe composition were investigated on two process responses namely, monomer (methyl methacrylate, MMA) conversion and electrical energy consumption per mass of product polymer (PMMA). Pulsed mode US is more suitable than continuous mode US for emulsion polymerization. The probe (tip) area has little effect on the yield of polymerization when comparing 19 and 13 mm probes, 13 mm probe performing slightly better for high conversion levels. Meanwhile, large probe area is beneficial for high conversion efficiency of electric energy to US energy as well as for high radical generation yield per energy consumed. The conversion increased slightly and electrical energy consumption decreased substantially by using a recipe with high SDS and monomer concentrations. Conclusions presented in this paper may be useful for scale-up of US assisted emulsion polymerization. PMID:24444489

  4. High energy primary electron spectrum observed by the emulsion chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishimura, J.; Fujii, M.; Aizu, H.; Hiraiwa, N.; Taira, T.; Kobayashi, T.; Niu, K.; Koss, T. A.; Lord, J. J.; Golden, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    A detector of the emulsion chamber type is used to measure the energy spectrum of cosmic-ray electrons. Two large emulsion chambers, each having an area of 40 by 50 sq cm, are exposed for about 25.5 hr at an average pressure altitude of 3.9 mbar. About 500 high-energy cascades (no less than about 600 GeV) are detected by searching for dark spots on the X-ray films. A power-law energy dependence formula is derived for the spectrum of primary cosmic-ray electrons in the energy region over 100 GeV. The results are in good agreement with the transition curves obtained previously by theoretical and Monte Carlo calculations.

  5. The Response of a 2D Emulsion to Local Perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Xia; Orellana, Carlos; Weeks, Eric

    2015-03-01

    We experimentally perturb a quasi-two-dimensional emulsion packing by inflating an oil droplet into the system in a controlled way. Our samples are oil-in-water emulsion confined between two close-spaced parallel plates, so that the droplets are deformed into pancake shapes. In this system, there is only viscous friction and no static friction between droplets. By imaging the droplets with a video microscopy, we observe rearrangement events induced by the local perturbation. Simultaneously, we measure droplet-droplet contact forces by analyzing the outlines of each droplet in our movies. These allow us to study how the packings with varying degrees of spatial order have different responses to the local perturbation.

  6. Emulsions Stabilized by Silica Rods via Arrested Demixing.

    PubMed

    Daware, Santosh Vasant; Basavaraj, Madivala G

    2015-06-23

    A binary liquid-liquid mixture with a lower critical solution temperature (LCST) when heated above a critical temperature undergoes demixing. During the initial phase of demixing process, high-energy liquid-liquid interfaces are created before both liquids eventually phase separate. By incorporating well-characterized colloidal silica rods in a homogeneous one-phase liquid-liquid mixture of lutidine/water (L/W) before inducing phase separation, we show that colloidal rod stabilized Pickering emulsions can be obtained. We show that the droplet size of Pickering emulsions can be tuned by varying particle concentration, and the droplet size distribution follows the prediction of the limited coalescence model. PMID:26035236

  7. Spectrophotometric determination of ethanolamines in lubricating emulsions{copyright}

    SciTech Connect

    Fernando, L.A. [Kaiser Aluminum & Chemical Corporation, Pleasanton, CA (United States)

    1995-08-01

    A method is described for determining ethanolamines in lubricating emulsions. The ethanolamine is partitioned into an aqueous phase, reacted with Cu{sup 11} to form a blue solution and the concentration is determined spectrophotometrically. The wavelengths of maximum absorption ranged from 625-680 nm. Recoveries ranged from 94%-101% and the RSD for the method averaged 4%. The analytical procedures are simple, do not require expensive instrumentation, and are readily adaptable to routine analyses. The absorption spectra of the complexes can be a useful tool in determining the class of amine alcohol present in unknown emulsions. Results of the subject method are also compared with alkalinity measurements via potentiometric titrations. 9 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Fabrication of Rod-Coil Nanocomposites via Emulsion Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Gregory; Beaucage, Gregory; Vaia, Richard; Dang, Thuy

    2001-03-01

    There is increasing technological interest in polymers reinforced by nanoparticles because of their potential to provide enhanced mechanical properties, decreased permeability and flammability, as well as increased conductivity. Emulsion polymerization offers a viable, flexible route for nanocomposite fabrication from nanoscale spheres, rods, and plates. Combining emulsion generated poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) particles that are ionically stabilized in aqueous solution with a dispersion of nanoparticles of opposite sense results in an interfacial exchange reaction and co-precipitation. The rod-coil nanocomposites are composed of fully conjugated sulfonated phenylene benzobisimidazole polymer (sPBI) with pendant PMMA chains. Synthesis and characterization of sPBI-PMMA nanocomposites with increasing nanoparticle content using reactive and non-reactive emulsifiers are discussed, and related according to their inherent physical properties.

  9. Amphoteric water-in-oil self-inverting polymer emulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Lipowski, S. A.

    1985-11-12

    An amphoteric water-in-oil self-inverting polymer emulsion is prepared which contains a copolymer of a nonionic vinyl monomer and an amphoteric vinyl monomer or a terpolymer of a nonionic vinyl monomer, an anionic vinyl monomer and a cationic vinyl monomer in the aqueous phase, a hydrocarbon oil for the oil phase, a water-in-oil emulsifying agent and an inverting surfactant. An example of a copolymer is a copolymer of a nonionic vinyl monomer such as acrylamide or methacrylamide and an amphoteric vinyl monomer such as a reaction product of dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate and monochloracetic acid. An example of a terpolymer is a terpolymer of a nonionic vinyl monomer such as acrylamide or methacrylamide, an anionic vinyl monomer such as sodium acrylate and a cationic vinyl monomer such as triethyl ammonium ethyl methacrylate methosulfate salt. The emulsion is useful in papermaking, treatment of sewage and industrial wastes, drilling muds and secondary and tertiary recovery of petroleum by water flooding.

  10. Coalescence of water-in-shale oil emulsions

    SciTech Connect

    Menon, V.B.; Wasan, D.T.

    1984-01-01

    The coalescence and interfacial behavior of water-in-shale oil emulsions in the presence of chemical additives was studied using photomicrographic analysis. Both the coalescence and flocculation rate constants were determined as a function of the demulsifier concentration. The coalescence rates increased and the interfacial viscosity decreased with an increase in the temperature. These changes are due to the decrease in bulk and interfacial viscosities with increase in temperature, higher temperature facilitating better film drainage and hence better coalescence rates. The overall coalescence rate goes through a maximum as the speed of agitation is increased. This maximum may be explained by the mechanism of flocculation and redispersion. The presence of solids was seen to significantly increase the stability of these emulsions. 17 references, 14 figures, 6 tables.

  11. Chemical demulsification of petroleum emulsions using oil-soluable demulsifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Krawczyk, M.A.; Wasan, D.T.; Shetty, C.S. (Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (US))

    1991-02-01

    This paper investigates the factors affecting the coalescence and interfacial behavior of water- in-crude-oil emulsions in the presence of oil-soluble demulsifiers. The emulsion-breaking characteristics and interfacial properties of East Texas Crude and a model system were compared. The variation of interfacial tension with demulsifier concentration for the model system was ascertained by measuring the interfacial tensions between the oil and water phase. Interfacial activity, adsorption kinetics, and partitioning were shown to be the most important parameters governing demulsifier performance. A conceptual model of drop-drop coalescence process in demulsification was presented which indicates that the interfacial activity of the demulsifier must be high enough to suppress the interfacial tension gradient. This accelerates the rate of film drainage, thus promoting coalescence.

  12. On the transport of emulsions in porous media

    SciTech Connect

    Cortis, Andrea; Ghezzehei, Teamrat A.

    2007-06-27

    Emulsions appear in many subsurface applications includingbioremediation, surfactant-enhanced remediation, and enhancedoil-recovery. Modeling emulsion transport in porous media is particularlychallenging because the rheological and physical properties of emulsionsare different from averages of the components. Current modelingapproaches are based on filtration theories, which are not suited toadequately address the pore-scale permeability fluctuations and reductionof absolute permeability that are often encountered during emulsiontransport. In this communication, we introduce a continuous time randomwalk based alternative approach that captures these unique features ofemulsion transport. Calculations based on the proposed approach resultedin excellent match with experimental observations of emulsionbreakthrough from the literature. Specifically, the new approach explainsthe slow late-time tailing behavior that could not be fitted using thestandard approach. The theory presented in this paper also provides animportant stepping stone toward a generalizedself-consistent modeling ofmultiphase flow.

  13. Asphalt emulsion sealing of uranium mill tailings. 1979 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Hartley, J.N.; Koehmstedt, P.L.; Esterl, D.J.; Freeman, H.D.

    1980-06-01

    Uranium mill tailings are a source of low-level radiation and radioactive materials that may be released into the environment. Stabilization or disposal of these tailings in a safe and environmentally sound way is necessary to minimize radon exhalation and other radioactive releases. One of the most promising concepts for stabilizing uranium tailings is being investigated at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory: the use of asphalt emulsion to contain radon and other potentially hazardous materials in uranium tailings. Results of these studies indicate that radon flux from uranium tailings can be reduced by greater than 99% by covering the tailings with an asphalt emulsion that is poured on or sprayed on (3.0 to 7.0 mm thick), or mixed with some of the tailings and compacted to form an admixture seal (2.5 to 15.2 cm) containing 18 wt % residual asphalt.

  14. Lateral distortions of electromagnetic cascades in emulsion chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porter, L. G.; Levit, L. B.; Jones, W. V.; Huggett, R. W.; Barrowes, S. C.

    1975-01-01

    Electromagnetic cascades in a lead-emulsion chamber have been studied to determine the effect of air gaps on the upstream sides of the emulsions. Such air gaps cause a change in the form of the radial distribution of electron tracks, making cascades appear older and giving incorrect energy estimates. The number of tracks remaining within a radius r was found to vary as exp(-g/G), where g is the gap thickness. The characteristic gap thickness in mm is G = 3.04 + 1.30 ln (Err per GeV per sq mm) where E is the energy of the initiating gamma ray. Use of this relation provides a significant correction to cascade-energy estimates and allows one to calculate the effect of different gap thicknesses on the energy threshold for visual detection of cascades.

  15. Main properties of sands hydrophobized by alkoxysilane emulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojciechowski, Marek; Bary?a, Patrycja; Lefik, Marek

    2014-10-01

    The results of laboratory tests and geotechnical view on sands hydrophobized by alkoxysilane emulsions are presented. For the soils subjected to this process, very low permeability and no capillary elevation was observed. Laboratory tests also indicate that other physical and mechanical properties of hydrophobized sands remain nearly untouched, i.e., the considered hydrophobisation process does not reduce the strength of soils. Properly composed alkoxysilane emulsions can also solidify in pores to produce a stabilizing silicate binder. The filtration barriers in ground and soil stabilization are thus considered as possible applications of the hydrophobized soils. The process of treatment of granular soils with alkoxysilanes is neutral for the environment and the cost of implementation of the method is relatively low.

  16. Electrical conductivities of three-phase emulsions. 1. Strongly wetting middle phase

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.H. (Morgantown Energy Technology Center, WV (United States) Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States)); Johnson, G.K. (Morgantown Energy Technology Center, WV (United States)); Wang, Y.H.C.; Lim, K.H. (WASC, Inc., Morgantown, WV (United States))

    1994-08-01

    Electrical conductivities of steady-state, three-phase (macro)emulsions formed by the top (T), middle (M), and bottom (B) phases of the amphiphile/oil/[open quotes]water[close quotes] (i.e., aqueous 10 mM NaCl) system C[sub 4]H[sub 9]OC[sub 2]H[sub 4]OH/n-decane/water have been measured and compared with the predictions of equations from the literature or that we have proposed. In all cases the continuous phase could be deduced from the combination of experiment and theory, but less information was obtained about dispersed-phase structures. Three new conductivity equations and two new three-phase dispersion morphologies have been proposed. 30 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Hydrophobically Modified Halloysite Nanotubes as Reverse Micelles for Water-in-Oil Emulsion.

    PubMed

    Cavallaro, Giuseppe; Lazzara, Giuseppe; Milioto, Stefana; Parisi, Filippo

    2015-07-14

    An easy strategy to obtain inorganic reverse micelles based on halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) and alkyltrimethylammonium bromides has been developed. The selective modification of the HNTs external surface with cationic surfactants endows to generate tubular nanostructures with a hydrophobic shell and a hydrophilic cavity. The influence of the surfactants alkyl chain on the HNTs functionalization degree has been investigated. The dynamic behavior of the surfactant/HNT hybrids in solvents with variable polarity has been correlated to their affinity toward hydrophobic media explored through partition experiments. The water-in-oil emulsion is able to solubilize copper sulfate, proving the incorporation and the loading of hydrophilic compounds into the HNTs lumen. Here we have fabricated ecocompatible reverse micelles with tunable hydrophobic/hydrophilic interface that might be suitable for industrial and biological applications as well as for selective organic synthesis. PMID:26119491

  18. Copper extraction into emulsion liquid membranes using LIX 984NC®

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bina Sengupta; R. Sengupta; N. Subrahmanyam

    2006-01-01

    The extraction of copper from aqueous sulfate media into ELMs using the extractant LIX 984N-C was studied. Appropriately characterized emulsions on the basis of viscosity and internal drop sizes were used to study the effect of different parameters on extraction. The effects of stirring speed, surfactant concentration, pH of the external continuous phase, carrier concentration, internal phase stripping acid concentration

  19. Relation between viscosity and stability for heavy oil emulsions 

    E-print Network

    Ye, Sherry Qianwen

    1998-01-01

    series 49 TABLE Page 4. 2 Bingham Plastic model parameters for oil volume fraction series . . . . . . 54 4. 3 $' at different shear rates . 61 LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE Page Flocculation and coalescence states in emulsions . . . . . 1. 2 Schematic... efforts have been made to improve surfactants (emulsifiers) and/or process conditions in order to enhance or control stability. The stability is generally determined by real-time measurement of phase separation. Depending on the type of the surfactant...

  20. Calorimetric estimation for a batch-loop emulsion polymerisation reactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shunjie Fan; Esat Alpay

    2004-01-01

    To facilitate the online monitoring and control of a pilot-scale polymerisation reactor, state estimation techniques are investigated. Specifically, a batch-loop reactor is employed for the emulsion polymerisation of methyl methacrylate. The reactor consists of jacketed tubular sections fitted with in-line static mixers, thus providing mixing homogeneity and improved temperature control. A direct estimation of the reaction rate is attained through

  1. Cholesterol improves the utilization of parenteral lipid emulsions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wilfred Druml; Margot Fischer

    2003-01-01

    \\u000a Zusammenfassung  Fettemulsionen sind eine unverzichtbare Komponente der parenteralen Ernährung geworden. Derzeit verfügbare Emulsionen haben\\u000a eine weitgehend identische Zusammensetzung aus Pflanzenölen und Eigelb-Phospholipiden als Emulgator. Frühere Versuche, die\\u000a Zusammensetzung zu optimieren, haben sich weitgehend auf die Triglyzeridzusammensetzung fokussiert. Als erste grundsätzliche\\u000a Änderung ihrer Zusammensetzung seit ihrer Einführung in die klinische Medizin haben wir eine Emulsion untersucht, die als\\u000a Zusatz freies Cholesterin enthält.

  2. Use of demulsifying mixtures for breaking petroleum emulsions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Hoffmann; G. Koerner; G. Rossmy; H. Theile; P. Zaske

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to an emulsion-breaking composition comprising about 70 to 99.8% by weight of at least one silicon-free demulsifier, and about 0.2 to 30% by weight of a mixed polyoxyalkylene-polysiloxane block polymerizate, the polyoxyalkylene blocks of which have a molecular weight of about 500 to 4000 and are composed of polyoxyethylene polyoxypropylene blocks in a weight ratio of 40

  3. Synthesis of zinc borate by inverse emulsion technique for lubrication

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sevdiye Atakul Savr?k; Devrim Balköse; Semra Ülkü

    2011-01-01

    Lubricating oil additives based on boron compounds are promising materials for lubrication due to their tribological advantages\\u000a such as antiwear efficiency, good film strength, and high temperature resistance. This article deals with the preparation\\u000a of zinc borate particles that are well dispersed and colloidally stabilized in mineral oil. This method starts with preparing\\u000a two inverse emulsions (water-in-oil) with sorbitan monostearate

  4. Slippage during the flow of emulsions in rheometers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rajinder Pal

    2000-01-01

    The steady shear and oscillatory data obtained for concentrated oil-in-water (O\\/W) and water-in-oil (W\\/O) emulsions from measuring geometries of different design and size were analyzed and compared. The measuring geometries used were: smooth cone-and-plate geometry with a cone angle of 1°, smooth cone-and-plate geometry with a cone angle of 4°, and serrated parallel plate geometry with a gap width of

  5. Lipid and water crystallization in protein-stabilised oil-in-water emulsions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leonardo Cornacchia; Yrjö H. Roos

    2011-01-01

    Phase and state transitions occurring during freezing and thawing of oil-in-water emulsions with different water phase formulations, interfacial compositions and two lipid types were studied as crucial factors affecting emulsion stability. Emulsions containing 0–40% (w\\/w) sucrose in the water phase at pH 7, and 10, 20, 30, 40% (w\\/w) dispersed lipid phase (sunflower oil, SO or hydrogenated palm kernel oil,

  6. A Continuous Microwave Heating of Water-in-Oil Emulsions: An Experimental Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abdurahman; H. Nour; Rosli. M. Yunus; M. Yunus

    2006-01-01

    In this study, a microwave demulsification method was utilized in a 50-50% and 20-80% of water-in-oil emulsions with varied microwave exposure time. Temperature profiles of water-in-oil emulsions inside a cylindrical container were measured. The temperature rise at a given location was linear. The rate of temperature increase of emulsions decreased at higher temperature due to decreasing dielectric loss of water.

  7. Modulation and Stabilization of Silk Fibroin-Coated Oil-in-Water Emulsions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jia-Jia Rao; Zhong-Min Chen; Bing-Can Chen

    Summary The purpose of this study is to prepare and characterize stable oil-in-water emulsions containing droplets coated with silk fibroin. Silk fibroin, a native edible fibrous protein ori- ginating from silkworm cocoons, was used to prepare 10 % (by mass) corn oil-in-water emulsions at ambient temperature (pH=7.0, 10 mM phosphate buffer). Emulsions with relatively small mean particle diameter (d32=0.47 mm)

  8. Absorption enhancement of adefovir dipivoxil by incorporating MCT and ethyl oleate complex oil phase in emulsion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ping Li; Hong-zhen Yu; Xin-xin Zhang; Li Gan; Chun-liu Zhu; Yong Gan

    2010-01-01

    Aim:To improve the oral absorption of adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) by employing MCT and the esterase inhibitor ethyl oleate (EO) as a complex oil phase in emulsion.Methods:EO was used as the esterase inhibitor, and its inhibitory effect on esterase activity was assessed in rat intestinal homogenates. ADV emulsions with or without EO were prepared. The emulsions' protective effect against intestinal metabolism

  9. The temperature stability of single and mixed emulsions stabilized by nonionic surfactants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Phillip J. Dale; Johan Kijlstra; Brian Vincent

    2006-01-01

    Reasonably monodisperse (vegetable) oil-in-water emulsions have been prepared with three different non-ionic surfactants, each of having the same hydrophobic tail group, but with poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) head groups containing 18, 27 or 48 monomer units. A set of three emulsions, containing similar sized oil droplets (?400nm diameter), has been prepared using these three surfactants. In addition, an emulsion with 200nm

  10. Different stability regimes of oil-in-water emulsions in the presence of bile salts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. B. Jódar-Reyes; A. Torcello-Gómez; M. Wulff-Pérez; M. J. Gálvez-Ruiz; A. Martín-Rodríguez

    2010-01-01

    In this work, we study the stability of emulsified olive oil-in-water emulsions at different bile salt (BS) concentrations. The effect of the interfacial properties of the emulsion is analyzed by using different emulsifiers (Epikuron 145V and Pluronic F68). Emulsion characteristics (electrophoretic mobility, average droplet size) are measured under the different conditions, and the stability of these systems is characterized by

  11. Water vapor permeability properties of edible whey protein-lipid emulsion films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tara Habig McHugh; John M. Krochta

    1994-01-01

    The water vapor permeability (WVP) of whey protein emulsion films was investigated. The exponential effect of relative humidity\\u000a on the WVP of whey protein films was reduced through lipid incorporation. Film orientation had a significant effect on WVP\\u000a due to emulsion separation during film formation. Heat denaturation of whey proteins lowered emulsion film WVP. Increasing\\u000a fatty acid and fatty alcohol

  12. Demulsification of bitumen emulsions using water soluble epoxy-containing polyethers

    SciTech Connect

    McCoy, D.R.; Cuscurida, M.; Speranza, G.P.

    1983-10-25

    A process for recovering bitumem from oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions is disclosed wherein water soluble demulsifiers are used. These demulsifiers are water soluble polyethers prepared by the reaction between certain diepoxides and poly(ethyleneoxy) glycols. To resolve the bituminous petroleum emulsions, the process is carried out between 25/sup 0/ and 160/sup 0/ C. wherein the demulsifier of the invention is contacted with the bituminous emulsion.

  13. Development of stable flaxseed oil emulsions as a potential delivery system of ?-3 fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Ankit; Sharma, Vivek; Upadhyay, Neelam; Singh, A K; Arora, Sumit; Lal, Darshan; Sabikhi, Latha

    2015-07-01

    The objective of the present study was to develop a stable flaxseed oil emulsion for the delivery of omega-3 (?-3) fatty acids through food fortification. Oil-in-water emulsions containing 12.5 % flaxseed oil, 10 % lactose and whey protein concentrate (WPC)-80 ranging from 5 to 12.5 % were prepared at 1,500, 3,000 and 4,500 psi homogenization pressure. Flaxseed oil emulsions were studied for its physical stability, oxidative stability (peroxide value), particle size distribution, zeta (?)-potential and rheological properties. Emulsions homogenized at 1,500 and 4,500 psi pressure showed oil separation and curdling of WPC, respectively, during preparation or storage. All the combinations of emulsions (homogenized at 3,000 psi) were physically stable for 28 days at 4-7?ºC temperature and did not show separation of phases. Emulsion with 7.5 % WPC showed the narrowest particle size distribution (190 to 615 nm) and maximum zeta (?)-potential (-33.5 mV). There was a slight increase in peroxide value (~20.98 %) of all the emulsions (except 5 % WPC emulsion), as compared to that of free flaxseed oil (~44.26 %) after 4 weeks of storage. Emulsions showed flow behavior index (n) in the range of 0.206 to 0.591, indicating higher shear thinning behavior, which is a characteristic of food emulsions. Results indicated that the most stable emulsion of flaxseed oil (12.5 %) can be formulated with 7.5 % WPC-80 and 10 % lactose (filler), homogenized at 3,000 psi pressure. The formulated emulsion can be used as potential omega-3 (?-3) fatty acids delivery system in developing functional foods such as pastry, ice-creams, curd, milk, yogurt, cakes, etc. PMID:26139890

  14. Demulsification of bitumen emulsions using branched water soluble quaternary ammonium-containing polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Mccoy, D.R.

    1983-05-24

    A process for recovering bitumen from oil-in-water (O/w) emulsions is disclosed wherein water soluble demulsifiers are used. These demulsifiers are branched water-soluble quaternary ammonium-containing polymers. To resolve the bituminous petroleum emulsions, the process is carried out between 25/sup 0/ and 160/sup 0/ C wherein the demulsifier of the invention is contacted with the bituminous emulsion.

  15. Plasma kinetics of a chylomicron-like emulsion in patients with coronary artery disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raul C. Maranhão; Márcia C. Feres; Márcia T. Martins; Carlos H. Mesquita; Odaly Toffoletto; Carmen G. C. Vinagre; Sergio D. Gianinni; Fulvio Pileggi

    1996-01-01

    Chylomicron catabolism in the bloodstream consists of lipolysis by lipoprotein lipase and uptake of remnants by the liver. In rats, triglyceride-rich emulsions can mimic chylomicron metabolism. To further validate this model in man, the emulsion was injected intravenously into fasting and into subjects previously fed a test fatty meal. The plasma kinetic curves of the emulsion 3H-triglyceride and 14C-cholesteryl ester

  16. An emulsion polymerization process for soluble and electrically conductive polyaniline

    SciTech Connect

    Kinlen, P.J.; Ding, Y.; Graham, C.R.; Liu, J.; Remsen, E.E.

    1998-07-01

    A new emulsion process has been developed for the direct synthesis of the emeraldine salt of polyaniline (PANI) that is soluble in organic solvents. The process entails forming an emulsion composed of water, a water soluble organic solvent (e.g., 2-butoxyethanol), a water insoluble organic acid (e.g., dinonylnaphthalene sulfonic acid) and aniline. Aniline is protonated by the organic acid to form a salt which partitions into the organic phase. As oxidant (ammonium peroxydisulfate) is added, PANI salt forms in the organic phase and remains soluble. As the reaction proceeds, the reaction mixture changes from an emulsion to a two phase system, the soluble PANI remaining in the organic phase. With dinonylnaphthalene sulfonic acid (DNNSA) as the organic acid, the resulting product is truly soluble in organic solvents such as xylene and toluene (not a dispersion), of high molecular weight (M{sub w} > 22,000), film forming and miscible with many polymers such as polyurethanes, epoxies and phenoxy resins. As cast, the polyaniline film is only moderately conductive, (10{sup {minus}5} S/cm), however treatment of the film with surfactants such as benzyltriethylammonium chloride (BTEAC) or low molecular weight alcohols and ketones such as methanol and acetone increases the conductivity 2--3 orders of magnitude.

  17. Perfluorocarbon emulsions: one approach to intravenous artificial respiratory gas transport.

    PubMed

    Spiess, B D

    1995-01-01

    The PFC emulsions have had a developmental history of promise as yet unfulfilled. Today, second-generation PFC emulsions are poised with the right gas-carrying capabilities to be able to make significant contributions to oxygen transport and delivery. The dream of stable, safe, easily transportable intravenous fluid, with universal rapid application is not yet at hand. However, we appear to be a great deal closer than in the mid 1980s. If these 40% volume-to-volume emulsions prove safe, then an entirely new realm of therapeutic options will become available. Not only will the uses for trauma and acute blood loss replacement become a reality, but extremes of euvolemic hemodilution may become possible. The use of these compounds for prevention of stroke, ischemic organ salvage, and prevention of air embolism or decompression sickness are particularly exciting. It is clear from the recent developments in PFC technology that some product will come to market in the not-too-distant future. How such a PFC will be utilized as compared with hemoglobin preparations is yet to be discerned, but the two concepts are quite different. Each will have its own specific indications. PMID:7635552

  18. Assembly of colloidal silica crystals inside double emulsion drops.

    PubMed

    Shirk, Kathryn; Steiner, Colton; Kim, Jin Woong; Marquez, Manuel; Martinez, Carlos J

    2013-09-24

    We investigated the assembly of colloidal silica crystals inside double emulsion drops generated in microcapillary microfluidic devices. The double emulsions are composed of an aqueous suspension of monodisperse silica particles in the inner drop surrounded by a PDMS oil drop that acts as a semipermeable membrane for the diffusion of water into or out of the inner drop in the presence of an osmotic gradient. Imposing a high osmotic pressure in the continuous phase induces water diffusion out of the inner drop, increasing the silica volume fraction (?(silica)) and leading to the formation of a spherical colloidal silica crystal. Silica suspensions with no salt or low salt concentration (<10(-3) M) formed colloidal crystals with ?(silica) up to 0.68. Monodisperse spherical colloidal silica crystals with sizes ranging from 16 to 133 ?m were generated by varying the device geometry, flow-rate ratios, and initial silica fraction. At salt concentrations > 10(-3) M, the electrostatic repulsion is reduced, and crystallization is suppressed. Crystals were preserved in a hydrogel matrix or inside a silicone rubber shell. This study demonstrates a robust path for controlled colloidal assembly inside double emulsion drops. PMID:23957634

  19. Feasibility of Surfactant-Free Supported Emulsion Liquid Membrane Extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hu, Shih-Yao B.; Li, Jin; Wiencek, John M.

    2001-01-01

    Supported emulsion liquid membrane (SELM) is an effective means to conduct liquid-liquid extraction. SELM extraction is particularly attractive for separation tasks in the microgravity environment where density difference between the solvent and the internal phase of the emulsion is inconsequential and a stable dispersion can be maintained without surfactant. In this research, dispersed two-phase flow in SELM extraction is modeled using the Lagrangian method. The results show that SELM extraction process in the microgravity environment can be simulated on earth by matching the density of the solvent and the stripping phase. Feasibility of surfactant-free SELM (SFSELM) extraction is assessed by studying the coalescence behavior of the internal phase in the absence of the surfactant. Although the contacting area between the solvent and the internal phase in SFSELM extraction is significantly less than the area provided by regular emulsion due to drop coalescence, it is comparable to the area provided by a typical hollow-fiber membrane. Thus, the stripping process is highly unlikely to become the rate-limiting step in SFSELM extraction. SFSELM remains an effective way to achieve simultaneous extraction and stripping and is able to eliminate the equilibrium limitation in the typical solvent extraction processes. The SFSELM design is similar to the supported liquid membrane design in some aspects.

  20. Physics of puffing and microexplosion of emulsion fuel droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinjo, J.; Xia, J.; Ganippa, L. C.; Megaritis, A.

    2014-10-01

    The physics of water-in-oil emulsion droplet microexplosion/puffing has been investigated using high-fidelity interface-capturing simulation. Varying the dispersed-phase (water) sub-droplet size/location and the initiation location of explosive boiling (bubble formation), the droplet breakup processes have been well revealed. The bubble growth leads to local and partial breakup of the parent oil droplet, i.e., puffing. The water sub-droplet size and location determine the after-puffing dynamics. The boiling surface of the water sub-droplet is unstable and evolves further. Finally, the sub-droplet is wrapped by boiled water vapor and detaches itself from the parent oil droplet. When the water sub-droplet is small, the detachment is quick, and the oil droplet breakup is limited. When it is large and initially located toward the parent droplet center, the droplet breakup is more extensive. For microexplosion triggered by the simultaneous growth of multiple separate bubbles, each explosion is local and independent initially, but their mutual interactions occur at a later stage. The degree of breakup can be larger due to interactions among multiple explosions. These findings suggest that controlling microexplosion/puffing is possible in a fuel spray, if the emulsion-fuel blend and the ambient flow conditions such as heating are properly designed. The current study also gives us an insight into modeling the puffing and microexplosion of emulsion droplets and sprays.

  1. Separation of aniline from aqueous solutions using emulsion liquid membranes.

    PubMed

    Devulapalli, R; Jones, F

    1999-12-31

    An emulsion liquid membrane process is developed to separate aniline from dilute aqueous solution. Aniline (amino-benzene) is a carcinogenic chemical common in industry and industrial wastewater. Due to aniline's high boiling point (183 degrees C) and low concentration in wastewater, more traditional methods of separation such as distillation are very energy intensive. This emulsion process is offered as a low energy alternative. All separations occur in a Rushton stirred tank. The membrane phase consists of kerosene and the surfactant sorbitan monooleate (span 80). Hydrogen chloride solution is the internal phase. This study also examines the effects of HCl concentration, aniline concentration, and the amount of emulsion on separation. Up to 99.5% of the aniline is removed from solutions containing 5000 ppm in as little as 4 min depending on process conditions. Leakage is minimal and swelling is only about 3% after 5 min of processing. Approximately 98% of the membrane phase (both kerosene and span 80) is successfully recovered and recycled by using heat and/or adding 2-propanol for demulsification. PMID:10631354

  2. Study of hadron interactions in a lead-emulsion target

    E-print Network

    Hirokazu Ishida; Tsutomu Fukuda; Takafumi Kajiwara; Koichi Kodama; Masahiro Komatsu; Tomokazu Matsuo; Shoji Mikado; Mitsuhiro Nakamura; Satoru Ogawa; Andrey Sheshukov; Hiroshi Shibuya; Jun Sudou; Taira Suzuki; Yusuke Tsuchida

    2014-08-02

    Topological and kinematical characteristics of hadron interactions have been studied using a lead-emulsion target exposed to 2, 4 and 10 GeV/c hadron beams. A total length of 60 m $\\pi^-$ tracks was followed using a high speed automated emulsion scanning system. A total of 318 hadron interaction vertices and their secondary charged particle tracks were reconstructed. Measurement results of interaction lengths, charged particle multiplicity, emission angles and momenta of secondary charged particles are compared with a Monte Carlo simulation and appear to be consistent. Nuclear fragments emitted from interaction vertices were also detected by a newly developed emulsion scanning system with wide-angle acceptance. Their emission angle distributions are in good agreement with the simulated distributions. Probabilities of an event being associated with at least one fragment track are found to be greater than 50% for beam momentum $P > 4$ GeV/c and are well reproduced by the simulation. These experimental results validate estimation of the background due to hadron interactions in the sample of $\\tau$ decay candidates in the OPERA $\

  3. Fundamental Study of Emulsions Stabilized by Soft and Rigid Particles.

    PubMed

    Li, Zifu; Harbottle, David; Pensini, Erica; Ngai, To; Richtering, Walter; Xu, Zhenghe

    2015-06-16

    Two distinct uniform hybrid particles, with similar hydrodynamic diameters and comparable zeta potentials, were prepared by copolymerizing N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM) and styrene. These particles differed in their styrene to NIPAM (S/N) mass ratios of 1 and 8 and are referred to as S/N 1 and S/N 8, respectively. Particle S/N 1 exhibited a typical behavior of soft particles; that is, the particles shrank in bulk aqueous solutions when the temperature was increased. As a result, S/N 1 particles were interfacially active. In contrast, particle S/N 8 appeared to be rigid in response to temperature changes. In this case, the particles showed a negligible interfacial activity. Interfacial shear rheology tests revealed the increased rigidity of the particle-stabilized film formed at the heptane-water interface by S/N 1 than S/N 8 particles. As a result, S/N 1 particles were shown to be better emulsion stabilizers and emulsify a larger amount of heptane, as compared with S/N 8 particles. The current investigation confirmed a better performance of emulsion stabilization by soft particles (S/N 1) than by rigid particles (S/N 8), reinforcing the importance of controlling softness or deformability of particles for the purpose of stabilizing emulsions. PMID:25835257

  4. Rheological studies of water-in-oil-in-water double emulsions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. van der Horst; H. C. Langelaan; A. D. Gotsis

    2000-01-01

    In this study the rheological behaviour of water-in-oil-in-water (W1\\/O\\/W2) multiple emulsions was investigated. Different emulsions varying in volumetric ratio of the components were prepared and\\u000a characterised using small-amplitude oscillatory rheological measurements. The microstructure of the multiple emulsions was\\u000a examined using laser diffraction. The results indicate that the microstructure of the multiple emulsions plays a dominant\\u000a role in its rheological behaviour.

  5. Evaluation of Long Term Stability of Model Emulsions by Multisample Analytical Centrifugation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. G. Badolato; F. Aguilar; H. P. Schuchmann; T. Sobisch; D. Lerche

    Emulsion-based products are found within the chemical and agrochemical, cosmetic, pharmaceutical,\\u000a and food industries. As emulsion structures are thermodynamically unstable, shelf-life stability is a main\\u000a aspect in product and process development. The objective of this work was to evaluate multisample analytical\\u000a centrifugation with STEP-technology as an accelerated test for predicting the long-term stability of emulsions.\\u000a Therefore, model emulsions were designed that

  6. A computer system to analyze showers in nuclear emulsions: Center Director's discretionary fund report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meegan, C. A.; Fountain, W. F.; Berry, F. A., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    A system to rapidly digitize data from showers in nuclear emulsions is described. A TV camera views the emulsions though a microscope. The TV output is superimposed on the monitor of a minicomputer. The operator uses the computer's graphics capability to mark the positions of particle tracks. The coordinates of each track are stored on a disk. The computer then predicts the coordinates of each track through successive layers of emulsion. The operator, guided by the predictions, thus tracks and stores the development of the shower. The system provides a significant improvement over purely manual methods of recording shower development in nuclear emulsion stacks.

  7. Stability of vitamin A in oil-in-water-in-oil-type multiple emulsions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katsunori Yoshida; Tomoko Sekine; Fumiaki Matsuzaki; Toshio Yanaki; Michihiro Yamaguchi

    1999-01-01

    The stabilityof vitamin A was studied in thee different emulsions: oil-in-water (O\\/W), water-in-oil (W\\/O), and oil-in-water-in-oil\\u000a (O\\/W\\/O). The stability of retinol (vitamin A alcohol) in the O\\/W\\/O emulsion was the highest among the thee types of emulsions;\\u000a remaining percentages at 50C after 4 wk in the O\\/W\\/O, W\\/O, and O\\/W emulsions were 56.9, 45.7, and 32.3, respectively. With\\u000a increasing peroxide

  8. Fabrication and characterization of antioxidant pickering emulsions stabilized by zein/chitosan complex particles (ZCPs).

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Juan; Hu, Ya-Qiong; Yin, Shou-Wei; Yang, Xiao-Quan; Lai, Fu-Rao; Wang, Si-Qi

    2015-03-11

    Lipid peroxidation in oil-in-water (o/w) emulsions leads to rancidity and carcinogen formation. This work attempted to protect lipid droplets of emulsions from peroxidation via manipulation of the emulsions' interface framework using dual-function zein/CH complex particles (ZCPs). ZCP with intermediate wettability was fabricated via a simple antisolvent approach. Pickering emulsions were produced via a simple and inexpensive shear-induced emulsification technique. ZCP was irreversibly anchored at the oil-water interface to form particle-based network architecture therein, producing ultrastable o/w Pickering emulsions (ZCPEs). ZCPE was not labile to lipid oxidation, evidenced by low lipid hydroperoxides and malondialdehyde levels in the emulsions after thermally accelerated storage. The targeted accumulation of curcumin, a model antioxidant, at the interface was achieved using the ZCP as interfacial vehicle, forming antioxidant shells around dispersed droplets. The oxidative stability of ZCPEs was further improved. Interestingly, no detectable hexanal peak appeared in headspace gas chromatography of the Pickering emulsions. The novel interfacial architecture via the combination of steric hindrance from ZCP-based membrane and interfacial cargo of curcumin endowed the emulsions with favorable oxidative stability. This study opens a promising pathway for producing antioxidant emulsions via the combination of Pickering stabilization mechanism and interfacial delivery of antioxidant. PMID:25636210

  9. Ultrafine-grain silver-halide emulsions and their properties in reflection holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ce; Wu, Jianhong; Xu, Ying; Tang, Minxue

    1998-08-01

    A method of preparing ultra-fine-grain silver halide emulsions is briefly described. It uses a computer controlled double-jet emulsifier to produce ultra-fine-grain emulsions. The average grain size is around 20 nm, which is measured by an automatic x-ray diffractometer and from TEM photographs. The emulsions have been used for recording reflection holograms, which are processed with an optimized solution physical developer. Reflection holograms of very low noise and diffraction efficiencies of over 40 percent are obtained in these emulsions without any pretreatment.

  10. Cross-flow and dead-end microfiltration of oily-water emulsion. Part I: Experimental study and analysis of flux decline

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. B. Koltuniewicz; R. W. Field; T. C. Arnot

    1995-01-01

    Microfiltration for the separation of oil-in-water emulsions has been investigated and a method of identifying fouling mechanisms applicable to microfiltration in general has been developed. For a variety of membranes, simultaneous experiments in both dead-end and cross-flow modes have been performed at various pressures, and in the latter case at different cross-flow velocities. The oil phase comprised dodecane at 1000

  11. CHARACTERIZATION OF PHASE AND EMULSION BEHAVIOR, SURFACTANT RETENTION, AND OIL RECOVERY FOR NOVEL ALCOHOL ETHOXYCARBOXYLATE SURFACTANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Lebone T. Moeti; Ramanathan Sampath

    2001-09-28

    This final technical report describes work performed under DOE Grant No. DE-FG26-97FT97278 during the period October 01, 1997 to August 31, 2001 which covers the total performance period of the project. During this period, detailed information on optimal salinity, temperature, emulsion morphologies, effectiveness for surfactant retention and oil recovery was obtained for an Alcohol Ethoxycarboxylate (AEC) surfactant to evaluate its performance in flooding processes. Tests were conducted on several AEC surfactants and NEODOX (23-4) was identified as the most suitable hybrid surfactant that yielded the best proportion in volume for top, middle, and bottom phases when mixed with oil and water. Following the selection of this surfactant, temperature and salinity scans were performed to identify the optimal salinity and temperature, and the temperature and salinity intervals in which all three phases coexisted. NEODOX 23-4 formed three phases between 4 and 52.5 C. It formed an aqueous rich microemulsion phase at high temperatures and an oleic rich microemulsion phase at low temperatures--a characteristic of the ionic part of the surfactant. The morphology measurement system was set-up successfully at CAU. The best oil/water/surfactant system defined by the above phase work was then studied for emulsion morphologies. Electrical conductivities were measured for middle and bottom phases of the NEODOX 23-4/dodecane/10mM water system and by mixing measured volumes of the middle phase into a fixed volume of the bottom phase and vice versa at room temperature. Electrical conductivity of the mixture decreased as the fraction of volume of the middle phase was increased and vice versa. Also inversion phenomena was observed. These experiments were then repeated for bottom/middle (B/M) and middle/bottom (M/B) conjugate pair phases at 10, 15, 25, 30, 35, 40, and 45 C. Electrical conductivity measurements were then compared with the predictions of the conductivity model developed in this project. The M/B and B/M morphologies and their inversion hysteresis lines conformed to the previously postulated dispersion morphology diagram; that is, within experimental uncertainties, the two emulsion inversion lines in phase volume-temperature space met at a critical point that coincided with the upper critical end point for the phases. Coreflooding measurements were performed by our industrial partner in this project, Surtek, Golden, CO which showed poor hydrocarbon recovery (38.1%) for NEODOX 23-4. It was also found that NEODOX 23-4 surfactant adsorbed too much to the rock (97.1% surfactant loss to the core), a characteristic of the non-ionic part of the surfactant.

  12. Gadolinium incorporated reconstituted chylomicron emulsion for potential application in tumor neutron capture therapy.

    PubMed

    Dierling, Annie M; Sloat, Brian R; Cui, Zhengrong

    2006-04-01

    Gadolinium (Gd) neutron capture therapy (NCT) is currently under development as a potential approach for tumor therapy. Nanoparticles have been suggested as a potential delivery system to carry or target Gd to tumors for thermal or epithermal neutron irradiation. The reconstituted chylomicron emulsion is an artificial chylomicron remnant prepared using commercially available natural and biocompatible lipids. We proposed to use this nanometer-scale emulsion to deliver Gd to solid tumors by modifying the surface of the emulsion. A lipophilic Gd compound, gadolinium acetylacetonate (GdAcAc), was incorporated into the emulsion, resulting in a final pure Gd concentration of more than 1 mg/mL. The apparent solubility of GdAcAc was enhanced by about 6000-fold by this incorporation. The emulsion particles were shown to be stable in a two-week short-term stability study when stored at 4 degrees C. In addition, no extensive particle aggregation was observed when the emulsion particles were incubated in simulated biological media such as serum. Also, GdAcAc does not significantly 'leak' out from the emulsion particles. Only approximately 5% was released in 20 h in a SDS (0.5% w/v) in phosphate buffered saline (pH 7.4, 10 mM) medium. Finally, the emulsion particles were coated with polyethylene glycol (PEG), and injected into Balb/C mice via the tail vein. A significant proportion (71.6 +/- 18.4%) of the PEG-coated, GdAcAc-incorporated emulsion remained circulating in the blood 5 h after the injection, while the PEG-free emulsion was mainly accumulated inside the liver. This chylomicron emulsion may be used to deliver Gd into solid tumors for NCT. PMID:16274979

  13. Influence of adsorbed milk protein type and surface concentration on the quiescent and shear stability of butteroil emulsions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. I. Segall; H. D. Goff

    1999-01-01

    Understanding of the relationship between adsorbed milk protein layer characteristics and stability of butteroil emulsions may be applied to create emulsions with specific properties such as ice cream emulsions (quiescently stable, destabilizing under shear) formulated without chemical surfactant. Emulsions created from butteroil (25%) with skim milk powder (SMP) (0.2–0.7%), whey protein hydrolysate (WPH) (1.6–2.1%), whey protein isolate (WPI) (0.2–0.7%) and

  14. Performance and Engine Roughness of a Diesel Engine Running on Stabilized Water Diesel Emulsion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohamed Y. E. Selim; Mamdouh T. Ghannam

    An experimental investigation has been carried out to produce a stable diesel \\/ water emulsion fuel and use it in a diesel engine under different operating and design conditions. The use of advanced mixing technique and emulsifying agent enabled the production of stable emulsion of up to 30% water in diesel for up to one week. In some of the

  15. SODIUM LIGNIN SULFONATE TO STABILIZE HEAVY CRUDE OIL-IN-WATER EMULSIONS FOR PIPELINE TRANSPORTATION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    NAEL N. ZAKI; NEHAL S. AHMED; AMAL M. NASSAR

    2000-01-01

    The efficiency of sodium lignin sulfonate (SLS) as an anionic surfactant derived from waste wood pulping industry in stabilizing an Egyptian heavy crude oil (Geisum)-in-water emulsions for pipeline transportation has been investigated. The stability and rheology of the emulsions stabilized by SLS or with a nonionic surfactant nonyl phenol diethylenetriamine formaldehyde ethoxylate (NDFE) individually or in a mixture have been

  16. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION ON DIESEL ENGINE FUELED BY BIODIESEL AND ITS EMULSIONS WITH WOOD PYROLYSIS OIL

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Prakash; R. K. Singh; S. Murugan

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the possible utilization of three emulsions obtained from karanja methyl ester (KME) and wood pyrolysis oil (WPO) as fuels in a direct injection diesel engine. For this study, the three emulsions namely WPO5, WPO10 and WPO15 were prepared by taking WPO at 5%, 10% and 15% with KME at 95%, 90% and 85% respectively using a suitable

  17. Characterization, biodistribution and targeting evaluation of breviscapine lipid emulsions following intravenous injection in mice.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Fei; Wang, Hao; Chen, Yue-Jian; Geng, Kun-Kun; Gu, Ning; Zhu, Jia-Bi

    2011-02-01

    Breviscapine lipid emulsions were prepared by a high speed dispersion-homogenization method with optimal formulation and technological method. The proportion of liposomes in breviscapine lipid emulsions, an important character for determining the behavior of drug in vivo belongs to which carriers, was less than 5%. Loading breviscapine into lipid emulsions did increase the breviscapine concentrations in plasma, retarded the clearance, and exhibited the properties of sustained-release concluded by pharmacokinetic parameters: after bolus administration, the elimination phase (t(1/2(?))?=?99.535) of lipid emulsions was 5.4-times longer than that of Injectio Breviscapine. The AUC(0??) (14.453-times), k(10) (0.047-times), Cl(s) (0.147-times), and MRT(0??) (17.766-times) values also confirmed this trend. The amount of drug in every tissue increased at different levels after intravenous administration of breviscapine lipid emulsions compared with Injectio Breviscapine. The relative exposure value of breviscapine lipid emulsions for plasma and lungs were 29.59 and 5.81, respectively, indicating that the exposure of breviscapine to plasma and lungs was significantly increased by entrapment in lipid emulsions. Other targeting evaluation indexes also proved the superiority of lipid emulsions carrier to deliver drug to the targeting region of vascular and lung diseases therapy. PMID:21028951

  18. Reduction of lipid oxidation by formation of caseinate-oil-oat gum emulsions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The concentration of oat gum, though important for formation of stable emulsion, has no effect on oxidation of Omega 3 oil; this is most prominent in fish-oil based Omega 3 oil. The optimal concentration of oat gum is about 0.2% wt for emulsion stability and visual appearance. We found that concentr...

  19. Formulating Neem Oil Emulsion as Potent Agrochemicals Using a Binary Emulsifier System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shrinivas C. Kothekar; Shamim A. Momin

    2008-01-01

    Neem oil is a natural pesticide and has excellent insecticidal properties. Hence, in this study the efforts have been made to formulate the Neem oil emulsions which would be used as agrochemicals. In order to formulate stable Neem oil emulsions, a binary emulsifier system of Hydol-6 (Polyoxyethylene Alkyl Ether-6 moles of ethylene oxids) and Hydol-10 (Polyoxyethylene Alkyl Ether-10 moles of

  20. Direct observation of adhesion and spreading of emulsion droplets at solid surfaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. M. Dresselhuis; Aken van G. A; Hoog de E. H. A; M. A. Cohen Stuart

    2008-01-01

    Sensory perception of fat is related to orally perceived in-mouth friction. From this perspective, we investigate adhesion and spreading of emulsion droplets on solid surfaces and connect it to the ability of food emulsions to lower friction. Furthermore, we study what the contribution is of the separate colloidal forces on droplet adhesion. The effect of saliva on adhesion and spreading

  1. Stable emulsion copolymers of acrylamide and ammonium acrylate for use in enhanced oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, S.; Coscia, A.T.; Schmitt, J.M.

    1984-03-27

    There is provided a process for recovering oil from oil bearing formations employing the use of a water treating medium, which medium comprises the inclusion of a novel stable emulsion copolymer of acrylamide and ammonium acrylate as well as the emulsion copolymer per se.

  2. FOULING-RESISTANT CERAMIC MEMBRANES FOR TREATMENT OF METASTABLE OIL/WATER EMULSIONS - PHASE II

    EPA Science Inventory

    Billions of gallons of oily wastewaters are generated daily by a variety of industrial sources. A large fraction of these are oil/water emulsions for which current treatment technologies are often costly and ineffective. Although such emulsions can be separated using crossf...

  3. Microencapsulation using an oil-in-water-in-air 'dry water emulsion'.

    PubMed

    Carter, Benjamin O; Weaver, Jonathan V M; Wang, Weixing; Spiller, David G; Adams, Dave J; Cooper, Andrew I

    2011-08-01

    We describe the first example of a tri-phasic oil-in-water-in-air 'dry water emulsion'. The method combines highly stable oil-in-water emulsions prepared using branched copolymer surfactants, with aqueous droplet encapsulation using 'dry water' technology. PMID:21709910

  4. Influence of three synthetic membranes on the release of caffeine from concentrated W\\/O emulsions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pascale Clément; Cécile Laugel; Jean-Paul Marty

    2000-01-01

    We measured the release rate characteristics of caffeine from concentrated emulsions using three different sources of synthetic membranes. The formulations tested included, on the one hand, two stable cosmetic concentrated W\\/O emulsions (90% w\\/w) — one with a non ionic surfactant and one with a silicone surfactant — and on the other hand, a commercially available hydroalcoholic gel. All formulations

  5. Effects of surface-active demulsifiers on electrical conductivity of emulsions of water in crude oil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A. Yunusov; G. M. Akhmadiev; G. A. Babalyan

    1984-01-01

    This article examines the effects of various emulsifiers on the electrical conductivity (EC) of emulsions of water in crude oil under conditions approaching the conditions prevailing in crude oil demulsification in electrocoalescing vessels. It is assumed that the EC of inverse hydrocarbon emulsions depends on the strength of the electric field. Beginning at a field strength of some hundreds of

  6. A Microscopic View of Oil Slick Break-up and Emulsion Formation in Breaking Waves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John M. Shaw

    2003-01-01

    The maximum stable drop size for dispersions arising from oil slicks and water in oil emulsions are shown to be controlled by Raleigh–Taylor instability or the prevalent local shear stress in breaking waves, which ever is more restrictive. Data from five experimental studies, including oils and oil in water emulsions with densities less than that of water and viscosities ranging

  7. Premature detonation of an NH?NO? emulsion in reactive ground.

    PubMed

    Priyananda, Pramith; Djerdjev, Alex M; Gore, Jeff; Neto, Chiara; Beattie, James K; Hawkett, Brian S

    2015-02-11

    When NH4NO3 emulsions are used in blast holes containing pyrite, they can exothermally react with pyrite, causing the emulsion to intensively heat and detonate prematurely. Such premature detonations can inflict fatal and very costly damages. The mechanism of heating of the emulsions is not well understood though such an understanding is essential for designing safe blasting. In this study the heating of an emulsion in model blast holes was simulated by solving the heat equation. The physical factors contributing to the heating phenomenon were studied using microscopic and calorimetric methods. Microscopic studies revealed the continuous formation of a large number of gas bubbles as the reaction progressed at the emulsion-pyrite interface, which made the reacting emulsion porous. Calculations show that the increase in porosity causes the thermal conductivity of a reacting region of an emulsion column in a blast hole to decrease exponentially. This large reduction in the thermal conductivity retards heat dissipation from the reacting region causing its temperature to rise. The rise in temperature accelerates the exothermic reaction producing more heat. Simulations predict a migration of the hottest spot of the emulsion column, which could dangerously heat the primers and boosters located in the blast hole. PMID:25305361

  8. Emulsification by high frequency ultrasound using piezoelectric transducer: formation and stability of emulsifier free emulsion.

    PubMed

    Kaci, Messaouda; Meziani, Smail; Arab-Tehrany, Elmira; Gillet, Guillaume; Desjardins-Lavisse, Isabelle; Desobry, Stephane

    2014-05-01

    Emulsifier free emulsion was developed with a new patented technique for food and cosmetic applications. This emulsification process dispersed oil droplets in water without any emulsifier. Emulsions were prepared with different vegetable oil ratios 5%, 10% and 15% (v/v) using high frequency ultrasounds generated by piezoelectric ceramic transducer vibrating at 1.7 MHz. The emulsion was prepared with various emulsification times between 0 and 10h. Oil droplets size was measured by laser granulometry. The pH variation was monitored; electrophoretic mobility and conductivity variation were measured using Zêtasizer equipment during emulsification process. The results revealed that oil droplets average size decreased significantly (p<0.05) during the first 6h of emulsification process and that from 160 to 1 ?m for emulsions with 5%, 10% and from 400 to 29 ?m for emulsion with 15% of initial oil ratio. For all tested oil ratios, pH measurement showed significant decrease and negative electrophoretic mobility showed the accumulation of OH(-) at oil/water interface leading to droplets stability in the emulsion. The conductivity of emulsions showed a decrease of the ions quantity in solution, which indicated formation of positive charge layer around OH(-) structure. They constitute a double ionic layer around oil particles providing emulsion stability. This study showed a strong correlation between turbidity measurement and proportion of emulsified oil. PMID:24315670

  9. Preparation and impact of multiple (water-in-oil-in-water) emulsions in meat systems.

    PubMed

    Cofrades, S; Antoniou, I; Solas, M T; Herrero, A M; Jiménez-Colmenero, F

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this paper was to prepare and characterise multiple emulsions and assess their utility as pork backfat replacers in meat gel/emulsion model systems. In order to improve the fat content (in quantitative and qualitative terms) pork backfat was replaced by a water-in-oil-in-water emulsion (W1/O/W2) prepared with olive oil (as lipid phase), polyglycerol ester of polyricinoleic acid (PGPR) as a lipophilic emulsifier, and sodium caseinate (SC) and whey protein concentrate (WP) as hydrophilic emulsifiers. The emulsion properties (particle size and distribution, stability, microstructure) and meat model system characteristics (composition, texture, fat and water binding properties, and colour) of the W1/O/W2, as affected by reformulation, were evaluated. Multiple emulsions showed a well-defined monomodal distribution. Freshly prepared multiple emulsions showed good thermal stability (better using SC) with no creaming. The meat systems had good water and fat binding properties irrespective of formulation. The effect on texture by replacement of pork backfat by W1/O/W2 emulsions generally depends on the type of double emulsion (associated with the hydrophilic emulsifier used in its formulation) and the fat level in the meat system. PMID:23768366

  10. Membrane-Integrated Glass Capillary Device for Preparing Small-Sized Water-in-Oil-in-Water Emulsion Droplets.

    PubMed

    Akamatsu, Kazuki; Kanasugi, Shosuke; Nakao, Shin-Ichi; Weitz, David A

    2015-06-30

    In this study, a membrane-integrated glass capillary device for preparing small-sized water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) emulsion droplets is demonstrated. The concept of integrating microfluidics to prepare precise structure-controlled double emulsion droplets with the membrane emulsification technique provides a simple method for preparing small-sized and structure-controlled double emulsion droplets. The most important feature of the integrated device is the ability to decrease droplet size when the emulsion droplets generated at the capillary pass through the membrane. At the same time, most of the oil shell layer is stripped away and the resultant double emulsion droplets have thin shells. It is also demonstrated that the sizes of the resultant double emulsion droplets are greatly affected by both the double emulsion droplet flux through membranes and membrane pore size; when the flux is increased and membrane pore size is decreased, the generated W/O/W emulsion droplets are smaller than the original. In situ observation of the permeation behavior of the W/O/W emulsion droplets through membranes using a high-speed camera demonstrates (1) the stripping of the middle oil phase, (2) the division of the double emulsion droplets to generate two or more droplets with smaller size, and (3) the collapse of the double emulsion droplets. The first phenomenon results in a thinner oil shell, and the second division phenomenon produces double emulsion droplets that are smaller than the original. PMID:26057203

  11. High temperature structural, polymeric foams from high internal emulsion polymerization

    SciTech Connect

    Hoisington, M.A.; Duke, J.R.; Apen, P.G.

    1996-02-01

    In 1982, a high internal phase emulsion (HIPE) polymerization process to manufacture microcellular, polymeric foam systems was patented by Unilever. This patent discloses a polymerization process that occurs in a water-in-oil emulsion in which the water represents at least 76% of the emulsion by volume. The oil phase consists of vinyl monomers such as styrene and acrylates that are crosslinked by divinyl monomers during polymerization. After polymerization and drying to remove the water phase, the result is a crosslinked polymer foam with an open cell microstructure that is homogeneous throughout in terms of morphology, density, and mechanical properties. Since 1982, numerous patents have examined various HIPE polymerized foam processing techniques and applications that include absorbents for body fluids, cleaning materials, and ion exchange systems. All the published HIPE polymerized foams have concentrated on materials for low temperature applications. Copolymerization of styrene with maleic anhydride and N-substituted maleimides to produce heat resistant thermoplastics has been studied extensively. These investigations have shown that styrene will free radically copolymerize with N-substituted maleimides to create an alternating thermoplastic copolymer with a Tg of approximately 200{degrees}C. However, there are many difficulties in attempting the maleimide styrene copolymerization in a HIPE such as lower polymerization temperatures, maleimide solubility difficulties in both styrene and water, and difficulty obtaining a stable HIPE with a styrene/maleimide oil phase. This work describes the preparation of copolymer foams from N-ethylmaleimide and Bis(3-ethyl-5-methyl-4-maleimide-phenyl)methane with styrene based monomers and crosslinking agents.

  12. Depletion and biodegradation of hydrocarbons in dispersions and emulsions of the Macondo 252 oil generated in an oil-on-seawater mesocosm flume basin.

    PubMed

    Brakstad, Odd G; Daling, Per S; Faksness, Liv-G; Almås, Inger K; Vang, Siv-H; Syslak, Line; Leirvik, Frode

    2014-07-15

    Physically and chemically (Corexit 9500) generated Macondo 252 oil dispersions, or emulsions (no Corexit), were prepared in an oil-on-seawater mesocosm flume basin at 30-32 °C, and studies of oil compound depletion performed for up to 15 days. The use of Corexit 9500 resulted in smaller median droplet size than in a physically generated dispersion. Rapid evaporation of low boiling point oil compounds (C?15) appeared in all the experiments. Biodegradation appeared to be an important depletion process for compounds with higher boiling points in the dispersions, but was negligible in the surface emulsions. While n-alkane biodegradation was faster in chemically than in physically dispersed oil no such differences were determined for 3- and 4-ring PAH compounds. In the oil dispersions prepared by Corexit 9500, increased cell concentrations, reduction in bacterial diversity, and a temporary abundance of bacteria containing an alkB gene were associated with oil biodegradation. PMID:24928454

  13. Influence of extraction parameters on dispersity of hydrocarbon emulsions from tar sands

    SciTech Connect

    Nadirov, N.K.; Bishimbaev, V.K.; Burkitbaev, S.M.; Kenzhebaev, A.B.; Khodzhanazarov, A.T.

    1988-05-01

    The dependence of hydrocarbon emulsion particle size distribution on the extraction parameters of temperature, surfactant concentration, and mixing intensity was investigated. The water-bitumen solution, with an organic matter content of 14-17% by weight, was obtained from tar sands of the Iman-Kara deposit and emulsified by vigorous mixing in an aqueous surfactant to promote effective precipitation of the washed sand and clay and to suppress flotation. Emulsion particle size distribution was assessed by laser correlation spectroscopy. Correlation and distribution functions were determined. Higher temperatures were found to promote surfactant activity and stabilize the emulsion; at approximately 80 C, with an emulsion concentration of 8-11%, washing efficiency reached 92-95%. Optimal surfactant concentration was determined to be no higher than approximately 3% by weight and mixer speed was found to be optimal at 2000-2500 rpm. The procedure can be used to optimize equipment efficiency and emulsion quality.

  14. Microbial Growth in Neonatal Intravenous Fat Emulsion Administered Over 12 Versus 24 Hours

    PubMed Central

    DeDonato, Bethany M.; Bickford, Lisa I.; Gates, Ryan J.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To determine whether an extended infusion time (24 hours) of intravenous fat emulsion is associated with an increase in microbial growth, versus a shorter infusion time (12 hours). METHODS Samples were collected from intravenous fat emulsions (n=132), from intravenous fat emulsions prepared in the current 24-hour infusion method (n=55), and from intravenous fat emulsions prepared in the twice-daily (12-hour infusion) method (n=55). In addition, samples were collected from pharmacy (n=22) to test for possible contamination. RESULTS No growth was observed in either arm of the study. CONCLUSIONS Current Kern Medical Center policy of preparation and administration of neonatal intensive care unit intravenous fat emulsion is safe and effective in regard to microbial growth. PMID:24719590

  15. The effect of stabilizer on the mechanical response of double-emulsion-templated polymersomes.

    PubMed

    Jang, Woo-Sik; Park, Seung Chul; Kim, Miju; Doh, Junsang; Lee, Daeyeon; Hammer, Daniel A

    2015-02-01

    Recent studies have shown that polymersomes templated by microfluidic double-emulsion possess several advantages such as high monodispersity and encapsulation efficiency compared with those generated based on thin-film rehydration and electroformation. Stabilizers, including bovine serum albumin (BSA) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), have been used to enhance the formation and stability of double emulsions that are used as templates for the generation of polymersomes. In this work, the effect of stabilizers on the mechanical response of double-emulsion-templated polymersomes using micropipette aspiration is investigated. It is demonstrated that the existence of stabilizers results in the inelastic response in poly-mersomes in the early stage of solvent removal. However, aged polymersomes that have little residual solvent show elastic behavior. Polymersomes prepared from PVA-stabilized double emulsions have noticeably lower area expansion moduli than polymersomes prepared from stabilizer-free and BSA-stabilized double emulsions, suggesting that PVA is incorporated in the bilayer membrane of polymersomes. PMID:25515004

  16. Silicone oil emulsions: strategies to improve their stability and applications in hair care products.

    PubMed

    Nazir, H; Zhang, W; Liu, Y; Chen, X; Wang, L; Naseer, M M; Ma, G

    2014-04-01

    Silicone oils have wide range of applications in personal care products due to their unique properties of high lubricity, non-toxicity, excessive spreading and film formation. They are usually employed in the form of emulsions due to their inert nature. Until now, different conventional emulsification techniques have been developed and applied to prepare silicone oil emulsions. The size and uniformity of emulsions showed important influence on stability of droplets, which further affect the application performance. Therefore, various strategies were developed to improve the stability as well as application performance of silicone oil emulsions. In this review, we highlight different factors influencing the stability of silicone oil emulsions and explain various strategies to overcome the stability problems. In addition, the silicone deposition on the surface of hair substrates and different approaches to increase their deposition are also discussed in detail. PMID:24279388

  17. Pickering interfacial catalysis for biphasic systems: from emulsion design to green reactions.

    PubMed

    Pera-Titus, Marc; Leclercq, Loïc; Clacens, Jean-Marc; De Campo, Floryan; Nardello-Rataj, Véronique

    2015-02-01

    Pickering emulsions are surfactant-free dispersions of two immiscible fluids that are kinetically stabilized by colloidal particles. For ecological reasons, these systems have undergone a resurgence of interest to mitigate the use of synthetic surfactants and solvents. Moreover, the use of colloidal particles as stabilizers provides emulsions with original properties compared to surfactant-stabilized emulsions, microemulsions, and micellar systems. Despite these specific advantages, the application of Pickering emulsions to catalysis has been rarely explored. This Minireview describes very recent examples of hybrid and composite amphiphilic materials for the design of interfacial catalysts in Pickering emulsions with special emphasis on their assets and challenges for industrially relevant biphasic reactions in fine chemistry, biofuel upgrading, and depollution. PMID:25644631

  18. Formation and characterization of emulsions using beta-cyclodextrin as an emulsifier.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Motoki; Hashizaki, Kaname; Taguchi, Hiroyuki; Saito, Yoshihiro

    2008-05-01

    The preparation and characterization of n-alkane/water emulsions using beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD) were studied. The prepared n-alkane/water emulsions were of the oil-in-water (O/W) type, and the stability of emulsions was in the order of n-hexadecane > n-dodecane > n-octane. From observations using polarized light microscopy and powder X-ray diffraction measurement, it was suggested that the formation of a dense film at the oil-water interface and the three-dimensional structural network created by precipitated complexes in the continuous phase are associated with the stability of emulsion. Furthermore, it was clarified that O/W-type emulsions were formed because the contact angle (theta ow) which the precipitate makes with the interface was theta ow < 90 degrees in all compounds (oils) used in this study. PMID:18451555

  19. Characterization of the spray drying behaviour of emulsions containing oil droplets with a structured interface.

    PubMed

    Serfert, Y; Schröder, J; Mescher, A; Laackmann, J; Shaikh, M Q; Rätzke, K; Gaukel, V; Schuchmann, H P; Walzel, P; Moritz, H-U; Drusch, S; Schwarz, K

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the process of atomization and drying of layer-by-layer emulsions containing lecithin (single layer emulsion) and lecithin/chitosan (bilayer emulsion) and the oxidative stability of the microcapsules during storage. For this purpose, the analysis of the emulsion spray droplet size during two-fluid nozzle and rotary atomization was carried out to identify suitable process parameters. The drying behaviour of single and bilayer emulsions was investigated by calculation of the volume flow density during single-droplet drying during acoustic levitation. In spray-dried solid particles, the oxidative stability in the single layer microcapsules was higher than in the bilayer microcapsules. This was partly attributed to lower microencapsulation efficiency in the bilayer microcapsules compared to the single layer microcapsules. Furthermore, it could be shown, that excess chitosan in the bulk carrier matrix affects the free volume elements and thus oxygen diffusion. PMID:23088319

  20. Solvent-free formation of hydroxyapatite coated biodegradable particles via nanoparticle-stabilized emulsion route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, Masahiro; Fujii, Syuji; Nishimura, Taiki; Nakamura, Yoshinobu; Takeda, Shoji; Furuzono, Tsutomu

    2012-12-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HAp) nanoparticle-coated biodegradable polymer particles were fabricated from a nanoparticle-stabilized emulsion in the absence of any molecular surfactants or organic solvents. First, a polymer melt-in-water emulsion was prepared by mixing a water phase containing nanosized HAp particles as a particulate emulsifier and an oil phase consisting of poly(?-caprolactone) (PCL) or poly(L-lactide-co-?-caprolactone) (P(LLA-CL)) above its melting point. It was clarified that the interaction between ester/carboxyl groups of the polymers and the HAp nanoparticles at the polymer-water interface played a crucial role to prepare the nanoparticle-stabilized emulsion. The HAp nanoparticle-coated biodegradable polymer particle (a polymer solid-in-water emulsion) was fabricated by cooling the emulsion. The particle morphology and particle size were evaluated using scanning electron microscope.

  1. Emulsion/Surface Interactions from Quiescent Quartz Crystal Microbalance Measurements with an Inverted Sensor.

    PubMed

    Mafi, Roozbeh; Pelton, Robert H

    2015-07-01

    Interactions of three oil-in-water emulsion types with polystyrene-coated quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) sensor surfaces were probed with the QCM cell in both the conventional orientation (i.e., polystyrene surface on the bottom, "looking up") and the inverted orientation (polystyrene on top interior surface of sensor chamber, "looking down"). With the conventionally oriented QCM sensors, the adsorption of soluble and/or dispersed species quickly gave steady-state frequency and dissipation outputs. By contrast, the inverted sensors gave changing responses at long times because of the gravity driven buildup of a viscous consolidation layer next to but not necessarily bound to the sensor surface. Three emulsion types (a simple hexadecane/phosphatidylcholine emulsion, 2% homogenized milk, and a diluted commercial ophthalmic emulsion) displayed a wide range of behaviors. We propose that quiescent QCM measurement made with an inverted sample chamber is a new approach to probing emulsion behaviors near solid surfaces. PMID:26083783

  2. Osmotically driven formation of double emulsions stabilized by amphiphilic block copolymers.

    PubMed

    Bae, Jinhye; Russell, Thomas P; Hayward, Ryan C

    2014-07-28

    Double emulsions are valuable for the formation of multi-compartmental structures. A variety of pathways to prepare double emulsions have been developed, but high-throughput routes to droplets of controlled size and architecture remain scarce. A new single-step process is introduced for preparation of water-in-oil-in-water double emulsions by a previously unexplained process of self-emulsification. We show that the origin of this process is the osmotic stress resulting from the presence of salt impurities within the amphiphilic block copolymers used for emulsion stabilization. Further, we utilize osmotically driven emulsification to tailor the structures of multiple emulsions, which upon solvent evaporation can yield multi-compartmental capsules or hierarchically structured porous films. PMID:24931713

  3. Dynamic filtration of invert-emulsion muds

    SciTech Connect

    Jiao, D.; Sharma, M.M. (Univ. of Texas, Austin (United States))

    1993-09-01

    Dynamic-filtration experiments conducted on oil-based muds show that the dynamic-filtration rate is much higher than API filtration rates. The use of water-wet solids results in very poor-quality external mudcakes and high fluid-loss rates. Better external mudcakes are formed by mixing equal parts organophilic clay and mud. Filtration-loss-control additives (asphalt mineral pitches) do not reduce the equilibrium filtration rate, but do reduce spurt loss and limit solids invasion. In brine-saturated rocks, the invasion rate for oil-based muds is significantly smaller than for water-based muds because capillary pressure prevents the oil phase from entering the core in oil-based muds. Oil-based mudcakes are softer and more shear-sensitive than water-based mudcakes. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) photomicrographs indicate that oil-based mudcakes consist of individual water droplets coated with clay particles. This cake structure gives rise to the low permeability and shear sensitivity of oil-based muds.

  4. Affine and nonaffine motions in sheared polydisperse emulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clara-Rahola, J.; Brzinski, T. A.; Semwogerere, D.; Feitosa, K.; Crocker, J. C.; Sato, J.; Breedveld, V.; Weeks, Eric R.

    2015-01-01

    We study dense and highly polydisperse emulsions at droplet volume fractions ? ?0.65 . We apply oscillatory shear and observe droplet motion using confocal microscopy. The presence of droplets with sizes several times the mean size dramatically changes the motion of smaller droplets. Both affine and nonaffine droplet motions are observed, with the more nonaffine motion exhibited by the smaller droplets which are pushed around by the larger droplets. Droplet motions are correlated over length scales from one to four times the mean droplet diameter, with larger length scales corresponding to higher strain amplitudes (up to strains of about 6%).

  5. Self-Diffusion of Drops in a Dilute Sheared Emulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loewenberg, Michael; Hinch, E. J.

    1996-01-01

    Self-diffusion coefficients that describe cross-flow migration of non-Brownian drops in a dilute sheared emulsion were obtained by trajectory calculations. A boundary integral formulation was used to describe pairwise interactions between deformable drops; interactions between undeformed drops were described with mobility functions for spherical drops. The results indicate that drops have large anisotropic self-diffusivities which depend strongly on the drop viscosity and modestly on the shear-rate. Pairwise interactions between drops in shear-flow do not appreciably promote drop breakup.

  6. Electrohydrodynamic deformation and interaction of a pair of emulsion drops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baygents, James C.

    1994-01-01

    The response of a pair of emulsion drops to the imposition of a uniform electric field is examined. The case studied is that of equal-sized drops whose line of centers is parallel to the axis of the applied field. A new boundary integral solution to the governing equations of the leaky dielectric model is developed; the formulation accounts for the electrostatic and hydrodynamic interactions between the drops, as well as their deformations. Numerical calculations show that, after an initial transient during which the drops primarily deform, the pair drift slowly together due to their electrostatic interactions.

  7. Mechanism of disintegration of emulsion nuclei by relativistic light nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    El-Nagdy, M.S. (Department of Basic Science and Mathematics, Faculty of Petroleum Mining Engineering, Suez Canal University, Suez (Egypt))

    1993-01-01

    The charged secondary multiplicity distributions as a function of emitting various noninteracting projectile fragments of [sup 12]C at 4.5 GeV/[ital c] per nucleon by using nuclear emulsion detectors is presented and discussed. The correlations between various kinds of particles and the angular distributions of multiple production in [sup 12]C ion collisions are studied. Also a systematic comparison using the calculations of the cascade-evaporative model is made. An investigation of energy dependence of grey prongs produced in different interaction beams at energy range [similar to](4--200)[ital A] GeV is reported.

  8. Bituminous emulsions and their characterization by atomic force microscopy

    PubMed

    Loeber; Alexandre; Muller; Triquigneaux; Jolivet; Malot

    2000-04-01

    We present a new method for observing oil-in-water emulsions with a continuous water phase and a dispersed bitumen phase. The fine polydispersed bitumen micelles were adsorbed to an atomically smooth mica substrate and imaged in solution by atomic force microscopy in a liquid cell. The height of the adsorbed bitumen sheet in wet and dry states can be measured and the homogeneity of film formation by coalescence can be determined. Localization of surfactant onto and between bitumen micelles is also visualized. PMID:10781204

  9. Investigation of Phase and Emulsion Behavior, Surfactant Retention and Condensate Recovery for Condensate/Water/Ethanol Mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Ramanathan Sampath

    2004-09-30

    This semi-annual technical progress report describes work performed at Morehouse College under DOE Grant No. DE-FG26-02NT15447 during the period April 01, 2004 to September 30, 2004 which covers the fourth six months of the project. Presently work is in progress to characterize phase and emulsion behavior for ethylbenzene/water/ethanol system. Ethylbenzene that has the equivalent carbon number is used as the model condensate. During this reporting period, work was under way and the electrical conductivity experimental system was set up at the Atlanta University Center. Following the set-up of the emulsion measurement system, the electronic instruments and data acquisition modules involved were tested for proper operation of the system. Then, the conductivity output was normalized with that obtained for 10mM NaCl water. Radial coreflooding experiments with ethanol injection prior to and after water injection were completed to assess the effectiveness of the surfactant flooding in the recovery of condensate by our industrial partner, Surtek, CO, in this reporting period. In Run 1, 10 mM NaCl without ethanol injection recovered 31.5% of the initial ethyl benzene saturation. Injection of ethanol following 10 mM NaCl produced a tertiary ethyl benzene bank with maximum ethyl benzene cuts of 32%. In Run 2, 50 vol% of pure (100%) ethanol was injected and flowed through the Berea sandstone after Ethyl Benzene Saturation. 69% of the initial ethyl benzene was recovered. Results of the radial corefloods are very encouraging. Emulsion conductivity measurements for conjugate pair phases are in progress at Morehouse.

  10. Oil-in-Water Emulsion Exhibits Bitterness-Suppressing Effects in a Sensory Threshold Study.

    PubMed

    Torrico, Damir Dennis; Sae-Eaw, Amporn; Sriwattana, Sujinda; Boeneke, Charles; Prinyawiwatkul, Witoon

    2015-06-01

    Little is known about how emulsion characteristics affect saltiness/bitterness perception. Sensory detection and recognition thresholds of NaCl, caffeine, and KCl in aqueous solution compared with oil-in-water emulsion systems were evaluated. For emulsions, NaCl, KCl, or caffeine were dissolved in water + emulsifier and mixed with canola oil (20% by weight). Two emulsions were prepared: emulsion 1 (viscosity = 257 cP) and emulsion 2 (viscosity = 59 cP). The forced-choice ascending concentration series method of limits (ASTM E-679-04) was used to determine detection and/or recognition thresholds at 25 °C. Group best estimate threshold (GBET) geometric means were expressed as g/100 mL. Comparing NaCl with KCl, there were no significant differences in detection GBET values for all systems (0.0197 - 0.0354). For saltiness recognition thresholds, KCl GBET values were higher compared with NaCl GBET (0.0822 - 0.1070 compared with 0.0471 - 0.0501). For NaCl and KCl, emulsion 1 and/or emulsion 2 did not significantly affect the saltiness recognition threshold compared with that of the aqueous solution. However, the bitterness recognition thresholds of caffeine and KCl in solution were significantly lower than in the emulsions (0.0242 - 0.0586 compared with 0.0754 - 0.1025). Gender generally had a marginal effect on threshold values. This study showed that, compared with the aqueous solutions, emulsions did not significantly affect the saltiness recognition threshold of NaCl and KCl, but exhibited bitterness-suppressing effects on KCl and/or caffeine. PMID:25968872

  11. Preparation of submicrometer-sized quaternary ammonium-based poly(ionic liquid) particles via emulsion polymerization and switchable responsiveness of emulsion film.

    PubMed

    Tokuda, Masayoshi; Sanada, Toshiharu; Shindo, Tatsunori; Suzuki, Toyoko; Minami, Hideto

    2014-04-01

    Emulsion polymerization of ionic liquid monomer [2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl]trimethylammonium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amide ([MTMA][TFSA]) was performed. In the presence of potassium persulfate and sodium dodecyl sulfate as the ionic initiator and emulsifier, respectively, the system was colloidally unstable and coagulated, owing to anion exchange between the ionic liquid monomer and ionic emulsifier. When a nonionic initiator and emulsifier were used (2,2'-azobis 2-methyl-[1,1-bis(hydroxymethyl)-2-hydroxyethylpropionamide]; VA-080, polyoxyethylenesorbitan monooleate; Tween 80, respectively), a stable emulsion was obtained without coagulation, and the zeta potential of the prepared particles exhibited a high positive charge. Utilizing this surface charge, poly([MTMA][TFSA]) (PIL) particles were then successfully prepared via emulsifier-free emulsion polymerization without an ionic initiator. Moreover, the contact angle of water on the PIL emulsion film (emulsifier-free emulsion polymerization) was found to be ?70° (static measurement), indicating that the surface of the PIL film was relatively hydrophobic. The retreating contact angle (?28°) also indicated water wettability. However, when water was dropped on the PIL film just after the water already on the surface had completely retreated, the PIL film was instantaneously hydrophobic again. This result suggests that responsiveness of the PIL emulsion film was switchable between hydrophobic (in air) and hydrophilic (in water). PMID:24655108

  12. Studies on ocular and parenteral application potentials of azithromycin- loaded anionic, cationic and neutral-charged emulsions.

    PubMed

    Tamilvanan, Shunmugaperumal; Khanum, Ramona; Senthilkumar, Sudalimuthu Ramachandran; Muthuraman, Marimuthu; Rajasekharan, Thenrajan

    2013-10-01

    Ocular and parenteral application potentials of azithromycin-containing, non-phospholipid-based cationic nanosized emulsion in comparison to the phospholipid-based anionic and neutral-charged nanosized emulsions were investigated. Various physical, chemical, nonclinical toxicity and antimicrobial activity studies (mean droplet diameter, surface charge, creaming index, entrapment efficiency, accelerated, long-term and freeze-thaw cycling stabilities, TLC study, modified hen's egg chorioallantoic membrane (HET-CAM) test, in vitro hemolysis test, in vitro and in vivo myotoxicity, and in vitro antimicrobial activity) were conducted for assessing the potentials of these three types of emulsions. Following autoclave sterilization, all of these emulsions exhibited a nanometer range mean particle diameter (200 ± 29 to 434 ± 13 nm). While the anionic and cationic emulsions did show high negative (-34.2 ± 1.23 mV) and positive zeta potential (42.6 ± 1.45 mV) values, the neutral-charged emulsion did not. Even with 5 freeze-thaw cycles, the cationic emulsion remained stable whereas other two emulsions underwent phase-separation. The hen's egg chorioallantoic membrane test revealed an irritation score value that was higher for the anionic emulsion than for cationic or neutral-charged emulsion. A significantly higher % hemolysis value was also noticed for the anionic emulsion when compared to the % hemolysis value of cationic emulsion (ANOVA, P ‹ 0.05). However, all of the emulsions showed a lesser intracellular creatine kinase (CK) release/plasma CK level in comparison to the positive control (phenytoin) indicating their lesser myotoxicity at the injection site . When compared to anionic and neutral-charged emulsions, the possible controlled drug release from cationic emulsion delayed the in vitro antimicrobial action against H.influenzae and S.pneumoniae. PMID:23721117

  13. Laboratory Investigations in Support of Carbon Dioxide-in-Water Emulsions Stabilized by Fine Particles for Ocean and Geologic Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Dan Golomb; David Ryan; Eugene Barry

    2007-01-08

    Since the submission of our last Semi-annual Report, dated September 2006, the research objectives of this Co-operative Agreement shifted toward geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide. In the period September 2006-February 2007, experiments were conducted in a High-Pressure Batch Reactor (HPBR) for creating emulsions of liquid carbon dioxide (/CO{sub 2})-in-water stabilized by fine particles for geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. Also, emulsions were created in water of a binary mixture of liquid carbon dioxide and liquid hydrogen sulfide (/H{sub 2}S), called Acid Gas (AG). This leads to the possibility of safe disposal of AG in deep geologic formations, such as saline aquifers. The stabilizing particles included pulverized limestone (CaCO{sub 3}), unprocessed flyash, collected by an electrostatic precipitator at a local coal-fired power plant, and pulverized siderite (FeCO{sub 3}). Particle size ranged from submicron to a few micrometers. The first important finding is that /CO{sub 2} and /H{sub 2}S freely mix as a binary liquid without phase separation. The next finding is that the mixture of /CO{sub 2} and /H{sub 2}S can be emulsified in water using fine particles as emulsifying agents. Such emulsions are stable over prolonged periods, so it should not be a problem to inject an emulsion into subterranean formations. The advantage of injecting an emulsion into subterranean formations is that it is denser than the pure liquid, therefore it is likely to disperse in the bottom of the geologic formation, rather than buoying upward (called fingering). In such a fashion, the risk of the liquids escaping from the formation, and possibly re-emerging into the atmosphere, is minimized. This is especially important for H{sub 2}S, because it is a highly toxic gas. Furthermore, the emulsion may interact with the surrounding minerals, causing mineral trapping. This may lead to longer sequestration periods than injecting the pure liquids alone.

  14. Emulsification of caraway essential oil in water by lecithin and ?-lactoglobulin: emulsion stability and properties of the formed oil–aqueous interface

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Egle Bylaite; Tommy Nylander; Rimantas Venskutonis; Bengt Jönsson

    2001-01-01

    The stability and droplet size of protein and lipid stabilised emulsions of caraway essential oil as well as the amount of protein on the emulsion droplets have been investigated. The amount of added protein (?-lactoglobulin) and lipid (phosphatidylcholine from soybean (sb-PC)) were varied and the results compared with those obtained with emulsions of a purified olive oil. In general, emulsions

  15. The neutrino oscillation OPERA experiment Target Tracker

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Baussan; K. Borer; J.-E. Campagne; N. Chon-Sen; M. Dracos; Y. Gornushkin; J.-L. Guyonnet; J. Janicsko Csathy; C. Jollet; F. Juget; A. Krasnoperov; Z. Krumstein; U. Moser; A. Nozdrin; A. Olchevski; A. Sadovski; P. Vilain; T. Wälchli; G. Wilquet

    2007-01-01

    The main task of the Target Tracker of the long baseline neutrino oscillation OPERA experiment, is to locate in which of the target elementary constituents, the lead\\/emulsion bricks, the neutrino interactions have occurred and also to give calorimetric information about each event.The technology used consists in walls of two planes of long plastic scintillator strips, one per transverse direction. Wavelength

  16. Application of the NMR-MOUSE to food emulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedersen, H. T.; Ablett, S.; Martin, D. R.; Mallett, M. J. D.; Engelsen, S. B.

    2003-11-01

    The application of the NMR-MObile Universal Surface Explorer (NMR-MOUSE) to study food systems is evaluated using oil-in-water emulsions, and the results are compared to those obtained using a conventional low-field NMR (LF-NMR) instrument. The NMR-MOUSE is a small and portable LF-NMR system with a one-sided magnet layout that is used to replace the conventional magnet and probe on a LF-NMR instrument. The high magnetic field gradients associated with the one-sided MOUSE magnet result in NMR signal decays being dominated by molecular diffusion effects, which makes it possible to discriminate between the NMR signals from oil and water. Different data acquisition parameters as well as different approaches to the analysis of the NMR data from a range of oil-in-water emulsions are evaluated, and it is demonstrated how the concentration of oil and water can be determined from the NMR-MOUSE signals. From these model systems it is concluded that the NMR-MOUSE has good potential for the quantitative analysis of intact food products.

  17. Fat emulsions as diffusive reference standards for tissue simulating phantoms?

    PubMed

    Di Ninni, Paola; Bérubé-Lauzière, Yves; Mercatelli, Luca; Sani, Elisa; Martelli, Fabrizio

    2012-10-20

    Intralipid 20% was recently suggested as a diffusive reference standard for tissue simulating phantoms. In this work, we extend previously obtained results to other fat emulsions, specifically Intralipid 10%, Intralipid 30%, Lipovenoes 10%, Lipovenoes 10% PhosphoLipid Reduced, Lipovenoes 20%, Lipofundin S 10%, and Lipofundin S 20%. Of particular importance for practical applications, our measurements carried out at a wavelength of 751 nm show the following features. First, these products show high stability and small batch-to-batch variations in their diffusive optical properties, similar to Intralipid 20%. Second, the absorption coefficient of Intralipid, Lipovenoes, and Lipofundin S are very similar and their measured values are within the experimental errors; moreover the reduced scattering coefficient of Intralipid 20%, Lipovenoes 20%, and Lipofundin S 20% are similar and their measured values are within 5%. Third, the reduced scattering coefficient of Intralipid 10% and Intralipid 30% can be scaled from that of Intralipid 20% with an error of 9% and 2%, respectively. A similar scaling property is valid for Lipovenoes and Lipofundin S. We have verified that this scaling property depends on the composition of the fat emulsions: If the ingredients exactly scale with the concentration then the reduced scattering coefficient almost exactly scale as well. PMID:23089769

  18. Formulation and Characterization of Benzoyl Peroxide Gellified Emulsions

    PubMed Central

    Thakur, Naresh Kumar; Bharti, Pratibha; Mahant, Sheefali; Rao, Rekha

    2012-01-01

    The present investigation was carried out with the objective of formulating a gellified emulsion of benzoyl peroxide, an anti-acne agent. The formulations were prepared using four different vegetable oils, viz. almond oil, jojoba oil, sesame oil, and wheat germ oil, owing to their emollient properties. The idea was to overcome the skin irritation and dryness caused by benzoyl peroxide, making the formulation more tolerable. The gellified emulsions were characterized for their homogeneity, rheology, spreadability, drug content, and stability. In vitro permeation studies were performed to check the drug permeation through rat skin. The formulations were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity, as well as their acute skin irritation potential. The results were compared with those obtained for the marketed formulation. Later, the histopathological examination of the skin treated with various formulations was carried out. Formulation F3 was found to have caused a very mild dysplastic change to the epidermis. On the other hand, the marketed formulation led to the greatest dysplastic change. Hence, it was concluded that formulation F3, containing sesame oil (6%w/w), was the optimized formulation. It exhibited the maximum drug release and anti-microbial activity, in addition to the least skin irritation potential. PMID:23264949

  19. Amphoteric water-in-oil self-inverting polymer emulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Lipowski, S. A.; Miskel Jr., J. J.

    1985-03-19

    An amphoteric water-in-oil self-inverting polymer emulsion is prepared which contains a copolymer of a nonionic vinyl monomer and an amphoteric vinyl monomer or a terpolymer of (1) a nonionic vinyl monomer, an anionic vinyl monomer and a cationic vinyl monomer in the aqueous phase, a hydrocarbon oil for the oil phase, a water-in-oil emulsifying agent and an inverting surfactant. An example of a copolymer is a copolymer of a nonionic vinyl monomer such as acrylamide or methacrylamide and an amphoteric vinyl monomer such as a reaction product of dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate and monochloroacetic acid. An example of a terpolymer is a terpolymer of a nonionic vinyl monomer such as acrylamide or methacrylamide, an anionic vinyl monomer such as sodium acrylate and a cationic vinyl monomer such as a triethyl ammonium ethyl methacrylate methosulfate salt. The emulsion is useful in papermaking, treatment of sewage and industrial wastes, drilling muds and secondary and tertiary recovery of petroleum by water flooding.

  20. Study on the stability of deoxyArbutin in an anhydrous emulsion system.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chih-Chien; Yang, Chao-Hsun; Chang, Nai-Fang; Wu, Pey-Shiuan; Chen, Yi-Shyan; Lee, Shu-Mei; Chen, Chiu-Wen

    2011-01-01

    The skin-whitening agent, deoxyArbutin, is a potent tyrosinase inhibitor that is safer than hydroquinone and arbutin. However, it is thermolabile in aqueous solutions, where it decomposes to hydroquinone. Pharmaceutical and cosmetic emulsions are normally oil-in-water (o/w) or water-in-oil (w/o) systems; however, emulsions can be formulated with no aqueous phase to produce an anhydrous emulsion system. An anhydrous emulsion system could offer a stable vehicle for compounds that are sensitive to hydrolysis or oxidation. Therefore, to enhance the stability of deoxyArbutin in formulations, we chose the polyol-in-silicone, anhydrous emulsion system as the basic formulation for investigation. The quantity of deoxyArbutin and the accumulation of hydroquinone in both hydrous and anhydrous emulsions at various temperatures were analyzed through an established high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method. The results indicated that water increased the decomposition of deoxyArbutin in the formulations and that the polyol-in-silicone, oil-based, anhydrous emulsion system provided a relatively stable surrounding for the deoxyArbutin that delayed its degradation at 25 °C and 45 °C. Moreover, the composition of the inner hydrophilic phase, containing different amounts of glycerin and propylene glycol, affected the stability of deoxyArbutin. Thus, these results will be beneficial when using deoxyArbutin in cosmetics and medicines in the future. PMID:22016637

  1. Physicochemical behaviour of WPI-stabilized emulsions in in vitro gastric and intestinal conditions.

    PubMed

    Li, Jessie; Ye, Aiqian; Lee, Sung Je; Singh, Harjinder

    2013-11-01

    Most studies on the in vitro lipid digestion of protein-stabilized emulsions have been carried out under simulated gastric and intestinal conditions. In this study, the digestion behaviour of whey protein isolate (WPI)-stabilized emulsions was examined under simulated intestinal fluid (SIF) conditions (pH 7.5, 2.5mg bile salts/mL and 0.8 mg pancreatin/mL) after the emulsions had been digested in a model simulated gastric fluid (SGF) containing pepsin (pH 1.6 and 3.2mg pepsin/mL) for different times. The droplet size, ?-potential, microstructure, surface protein and amount of free fatty acids released were examined. The results indicated that WPI emulsions did not undergo pronounced changes in droplet size and microstructure during SGF digestion followed by coalescence during the subsequent SIF digestion. When WPI emulsions were treated with SGF, ?-lactalbumin and a portion of ?-lactoglobulin proteins adsorbed at the interface were hydrolysed by pepsin, resulting in small peptides being produced as characterized by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. In general, digestion in SGF containing pepsin accelerated coalescence of the emulsion droplets during subsequent digestion in SIF containing pancreatic lipase. However, the changes in the size, the microstructure and the proteolysis of the interfacial proteins of the emulsions under gastric conditions did not influence the rate and the extent of lipid digestion in the subsequent intestinal environment. PMID:23792544

  2. Effects of a 100% perfluorooctylbromide emulsion on ischemia/reperfusion injury following cardioplegia.

    PubMed

    Zhao, L; Smith, J R; Eyer, C L

    1995-01-01

    Protective effects of a perfluorooctylbromide emulsion on myocardial ischemia and reperfusion (MI/R) injury were evaluated in a modified Langendorff rat heart preparation. Isolated rat hearts were equilibrated in Krebs-Henseleit solution (KH) for 35 minutes and perfused with either cardioplegic solution (CPS) or a 100% perfluorooctylbromide (PFOB) emulsion in CPS for 3 minutes. Hearts were then bathed in the emulsion or CPS. Both groups were subjected to 30 minutes of ischemia. Following 30 minutes of ischemia and 30 minutes of reperfusion with KH solution, hearts subjected to the 100% PFOB emulsion showed improved recovery of left ventricular function. Tissue activities of the antioxidant enzymes glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase were not affected by the emulsion in this model. Activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in the bathing medium was elevated at the end of the experimental period in both control and PFOB-treated hearts. The PFOB emulsion reduced the decline in ATP and GSH levels produced by cardioplegia and subsequent reperfusion. No differences were noted in oxidized glutathione (GSSG) levels. These data suggest that the PFOB emulsion provides some protection for the myocardium against injury associated with cardioplegia. PMID:7581837

  3. Effect of intravenous lipid emulsion on bupivacaine plasma concentration in humans.

    PubMed

    Litonius, E; Tarkkila, P; Neuvonen, P J; Rosenberg, P H

    2012-06-01

    Intravenous lipid emulsion is the recommended treatment for severe local anaesthetic intoxication. Lipid emulsion may entrap lipid soluble drugs by functioning as a 'lipid sink', but its effect on bupivacaine pharmacokinetics remains unknown. In this randomised, double-blind, crossover study, eight healthy male volunteers were infused bupivacaine 0.5mg.kg(-1) intravenously over 20 min, followed by an infusion of either intravenous lipid emulsion or Hartmann's solution for 30 min. At 20 and 30 min after the start of the infusion, the total plasma bupivacaine concentration was lower while receiving lipid emulsion than Hartmann's solution (mean difference 111 (95% CI 55-167) ?g.l(-1) and 75 (95% CI 26-124 ?g.l(-1) at 20 and 30 min, respectively; p<0.02). However, there were no differences in un-entrapped (non-lipid bound) or free (non-protein bound) bupivacaine plasma concentrations during the infusion. Intravenous lipid emulsion infusion reduced the context-sensitive half-life of total plasma bupivacaine from 45 (95% CI 32-76)min to 25 (95% CI 20-33)min; p=0.01. We observed no significant adverse effects of lipid emulsion. In conclusion, lipid emulsion may slightly increase the rate of bupivacaine tissue distribution. No 'lipid sink' effect was observed with the non-toxic dose of bupivacaine used. PMID:22352703

  4. Synergistic stabilization of emulsions by a mixture of surface-active nanoparticles and surfactant.

    PubMed

    Binks, Bernard P; Desforges, Alexandre; Duff, Daniel G

    2007-01-30

    The stability and rheology of tricaprylin oil-in-water emulsions containing a mixture of surface-active hydrophilic silica nanoparticles and pure nonionic surfactant molecules are reported and compared with those of emulsions stabilized by each emulsifier alone. The importance of the preparation protocol is highlighted. Addition of particles to a surfactant-stabilized emulsion results in the appearance of a small population of large drops due to coalescence, possibly by bridging of adsorbed particles. Addition of surfactant to a particle-stabilized emulsion surprisingly led to increased coalescence too, although the resistance to creaming increased mainly due to an increase in viscosity. Simultaneous emulsification of particles and surfactant led to synergistic stabilization at intermediate concentrations of surfactant; emulsions completely stable to both creaming and coalescence exist at low overall emulsifier concentration. Using the adsorption isotherm of surfactant on particles and the viscosity and optical density of aqueous particle dispersions, we show that the most stable emulsions are formed from dispersions of flocculated, partially hydrophobic particles. From equilibrium contact angle and oil-water interfacial tension measurements, the calculated free energy of adsorption E of a silica particle to the oil-water interface passes through a maximum with respect to surfactant concentration, in line with the emulsion stability optimum. This results from a competition between the influence of particle hydrophobicity and interfacial tension on the magnitude of E. PMID:17241019

  5. Modified montmorillonite clay microparticles for stable oil-in-seawater emulsions.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jiannan; Worthen, Andrew J; Foster, Lynn M; Chen, Yunshen; Cornell, Kevin A; Bryant, Steven L; Truskett, Thomas M; Bielawski, Christopher W; Johnston, Keith P

    2014-07-23

    Environmentally benign clay particles are of great interest for the stabilization of Pickering emulsions. Dodecane-in-synthetic seawater (SSW) emulsions formed with montmorillonite (MMT) clay microparticles modified with bis(2-hydroxyethyl)oleylamine were stable against coalescence, even at clay concentrations down to 0.1% w/v. Remarkably, as little as 0.001% w/v surfactant lowered the hydrophilicity of the clay to a sufficient level for stabilization of oil-in-SSW emulsions. The favorable effect of SSW on droplet size reduction and emulsion stability enhancement is hypothesized to be due to reduced electrostatic repulsion between adsorbed clay particles and a consequent increase in the continuous phase (an aqueous clay suspension) viscosity. Water/oil (W/O) emulsions were inverted to O/W either by decreasing the mass ratio of surfactant-to-clay (transitional inversion) or by increasing the water volume fraction (catastrophic inversion). For both types of emulsions, coalescence was minimal and the sedimentation or creaming was highly correlated with the droplet size. For catastrophic inversions, the droplet size of the emulsions was smaller in the case of the preferred curvature. Suspensions of concentrated clay in oil dispersions in the presence of surfactant were stable against settling. The mass transfer pathways during emulsification of oil containing the clay particles were analyzed on the droplet size/stability phase diagrams to provide insight for the design of dispersant systems for remediating surface and subsurface oceanic oil spills. PMID:24932773

  6. The influence of thermal processing on emulsion properties of defatted hazelnut flour.

    PubMed

    Turan, Deniz; Altay, Filiz; Capano?lu Güven, Esra

    2015-01-15

    In this study, the influences of roasting and the amount of hazelnut flour on the formation and stabilization of emulsions containing different amounts of oil were investigated. After hazelnuts were roasted in an oven at 140°C for 40 min, the oil content was removed. The emulsions with defatted hazelnut flour containing corn oil at 3%, 10% and 50% were prepared. Roasting process significantly decreased the interfacial tension values of samples down to 1.9 mN/m due to protein denaturation. There was no significant difference between the particle sizes of oil droplets in emulsions with roasted and raw hazelnut flour at the same concentration. However, diffusion coefficients of oil droplets increased for emulsions containing roasted defatted flour samples. The zeta (?) potential values of all emulsions increased when roasted hazelnut flour was used, indicating the stabilization of suspensions and the solution resistance against aggregation. Storage modulus (G'), loss modulus (G?) and complex viscosity (?(?)) of emulsions were measured. G' value was found to be greater than the G? value, which fits into weak gel model. The roasting process resulted with lower transition temperatures but with increased transition enthalpies of the flour samples based on differential scanning (DSC) measurements. Lower transition temperatures may be attributed to the partial gelatinization of starch in the flour and partial denaturation of proteins. These results may help to tailor the properties of defatted hazelnut flour when it is used in food products containing emulsions such as sauces, dressings and creams for stabilizing purposes. PMID:25148965

  7. Introducing diffusing wave spectroscopy as a process analytical tool for pharmaceutical emulsion manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Reufer, Mathias; Machado, Alexandra H E; Niederquell, Andreas; Bohnenblust, Katharina; Müller, Beat; Völker, Andreas Charles; Kuentz, Martin

    2014-12-01

    Emulsions are widely used for pharmaceutical, food, and cosmetic applications. To guarantee that their critical quality attributes meet specifications, it is desirable to monitor the emulsion manufacturing process. However, finding of a suitable process analyzer has so far remained challenging. This article introduces diffusing wave spectroscopy (DWS) as an at-line technique to follow the manufacturing process of a model oil-in-water pharmaceutical emulsion containing xanthan gum. The DWS results were complemented with mechanical rheology, microscopy analysis, and stability tests. DWS is an advanced light scattering technique that assesses the microrheology and in general provides information on the dynamics and statics of dispersions. The obtained microrheology results showed good agreement with those obtained with bulk rheology. Although no notable changes in the rheological behavior of the model emulsions were observed during homogenization, the intensity correlation function provided qualitative information on the evolution of the emulsion dynamics. These data together with static measurements of the transport mean free path (l*) correlated very well with the changes in droplet size distribution occurring during the emulsion homogenization. This study shows that DWS is a promising process analytical technology tool for development and manufacturing of pharmaceutical emulsions. PMID:25302803

  8. Characterization of lactoferrin oil-in-water emulsions and their stability in recombined milk.

    PubMed

    Acero-Lopez, A; Schell, P; Corredig, M; Alexander, M

    2010-11-01

    Emulsions were prepared with 20% soy oil and different concentrations of lactoferrin, and tested at pH values from 3 to 7·5. The stability of the emulsions decreased as the pH got closer to the isoelectric point of the protein. A concentration of 1% lactoferrin was determined to be sufficient to provide full coverage of the emulsion droplets. Lactoferrin-stabilized emulsions were then prepared in water at pH 6·6 and their behaviour when added to reconstituted milk was studied. It was observed that lactoferrin emulsions were stable when reconstituted in milk, but they showed aggregation when diluted in milk serum alone. The destabilization was caused by shielding of the charges on the surface of the oil droplets. Stabilization in milk occurred due to interactions at the interface with other soluble proteins. In fact, when ?-lactoglobulin or sodium caseinate were added to the serum, stability of the emulsion droplets was restored, indicating that these proteins were able to adsorb at the interface and aid in the stabilization. Since ?-potential measurements did not show significant overall charge on the emulsion droplets, this suggests that the stabilization forces are not only electrostatic in nature, but that there are other mechanisms at play. PMID:20822568

  9. Effects of surface-active demulsifiers on electrical conductivity of emulsions of water in crude oil

    SciTech Connect

    Yunusov, A.A.; Akhmadiev, G.M.; Babalyan, G.A.

    1984-03-01

    This article examines the effects of various emulsifiers on the electrical conductivity (EC) of emulsions of water in crude oil under conditions approaching the conditions prevailing in crude oil demulsification in electrocoalescing vessels. It is assumed that the EC of inverse hydrocarbon emulsions depends on the strength of the electric field. Beginning at a field strength of some hundreds of V/cm, the character of this relationship is determined mainly by the formation of conducting chains of water drops, which greatly increase the emulsion EC. It is determined that from the values of the EC measured in a low-strength field, it is impossible to judge the mechanism of electrical conduction of an emulsion in high-strength fields that are characteristic for the electrocoalescence process. Measurements were conducted at intermediate field strengths with average values E /SUB av/ of 2 and 6kV/cm, with a 50-Hz ac field, an emulsion flow velocity of 5.1 cm/sec, and an aqueous disperse phase content of 4%, using a coaxial cylindrical cell. The results from the measurements show that the presence of a demulsifier in the W/O emulsion affects its EC, with this effect depending to different degrees on the type of demulsifier, the concentration of demulsifier, and the field strength. It is established that the EC drops off with increasing demulsifier concentration in the emulsion.

  10. Stability and in vitro digestibility of emulsions containing lecithin and whey proteins.

    PubMed

    Mantovani, Raphaela Araujo; Cavallieri, Ângelo Luiz Fazani; Netto, Flavia Maria; Cunha, Rosiane Lopes

    2013-09-01

    The effect of pH and high-pressure homogenization on the properties of oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions stabilized by lecithin and/or whey proteins (WPI) was evaluated. For this purpose, emulsions were characterized by visual analysis, droplet size distribution, zeta potential, electrophoresis, rheological measurements and their response to in vitro digestion. Lecithin emulsions were stable even after 7 days of storage and WPI emulsions were unstable only at pH values close to the isoelectric point (pI) of proteins. Systems containing the mixture of lecithin and WPI showed high kinetic instability at pH 3, which was attributed to the electrostatic interaction between the emulsifiers oppositely charged at this pH value. At pH 5.5 and 7, the mixture led to reduction of the droplet size with enhanced emulsion stability compared to the systems with WPI or lecithin. The stability of WPI emulsions after the addition of lecithin, especially at pH 5.5, was associated with the increase of droplet surface charge density. The in vitro digestion evaluation showed that WPI emulsion was more stable against gastrointestinal conditions. PMID:23799542

  11. Polymerization of styrene in microemulsions and water-in-oil-in-water emulsions

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, P.L.

    1984-01-01

    Two types of emulsion polymerization media were studied in the formation of polystyrene: two O/W microemulsions and a WOW emulsion. The microemulsions and isolated polystyrene were studied using photon correlation spectroscopy and time-averaged light scattering. GPC verified the polymer's size distribution and FTIR determined the polymer's end groups. Photomicroscopy was used to size the WOW emulsion droplets. The effect of an oil-soluble, azoisobisbutyronitrile (AIBN), versus water-soluble, potassium persulfate (KPS), free-radical generator in the polymerization of styrene in microemulsions was investigated. The microemulsions contained styrene, brine, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and pentanol. Under the dilute conditions the microemulsions and lattices were stable and the droplets independent of each other. Both AIBN and KPS produced polystyrene containing two different size fractions; the molecular weight of the two fractions were of the order of magnitude of 10{sup 5} and 10{sup 6}. End group analysis indicated that initiator fragments and alcohol fragments were present in the polystyrene. The WOW emulsions contained styrene, water, Tween 80, and Span 80. The multiple phase emulsion had a polydisperse droplet size distribution with globule diameters ranging from 1 {mu}m to 190 {mu}m. Both single and multiple phase globules were present in the emulsion due to < 100% yield. WOW emulsion polymerization was slower than microemulsion polymerization and the reaction never reached completion. The isolated polymer showed a wide size distribution with an average molecular weight of {approximately} 4.6 {times} 10{sup 5}.

  12. Fabrication and evaluation of magnetic/hollow double-shelled imprinted sorbents formed by Pickering emulsion polymerization.

    PubMed

    Pan, Jianming; Li, Linzi; Hang, Hui; Wu, Runrun; Dai, Xiaohui; Shi, Weidong; Yan, Yongsheng

    2013-06-25

    Magnetic/hollow double-shelled imprinted polymers (MH-MIPs) were synthesized by Pickering emulsion polymerization. In this method, attapulgite (ATP) particles were used as stabilizers to establish a stable oil-in-water emulsion, and a few hydrophilic Fe3O4 nanoparticles were allowed to be magnetic separation carriers. The imprinting system was fabricated by radical polymerization in the presence of the functional and polymeric monomers in the oil phase. The results of characterization indicated that MH-MIPs exhibited magnetic sensitivity (Ms = 4.76 emu g(-1)), thermal stability (especially below 200 °C), and hollow structure and were composed of exterior ATP shells and interior imprinted polymers shells. Then MH-MIPs were evaluated as sorbents for the selective binding of ?-cyhalothrin as a result of their magnetism, enhanced mechanical strength, hydrophilic surface, and recognition ability. The kinetic properties of MH-MIPs were well described by the pseudo-second-order equation, indicating that the chemical process could be the rate-limiting step in the adsorption process for ?-cyhalothrin. The equilibrium adsorption capacity of MH-MIPs was 60.06 ?mol g(-1) at 25 °C, and the Langmuir isotherm model gave a better fit to the experimental data, indicating the monolayer molecular adsorption for ?-cyhalothrin. The selective recognition experiments also demonstrated the high affinity and selectivity of MH-MIIPs toward ?-cyhalothrin over fenvalerate and diethyl phthalate. PMID:23742261

  13. Absorption enhancement of adefovir dipivoxil by incorporating MCT and ethyl oleate complex oil phase in emulsion

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ping; Yu, Hong-zhen; Zhang, Xin-xin; Gan, Li; Zhu, Chun-liu; Gan, Yong

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To improve the oral absorption of adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) by employing MCT and the esterase inhibitor ethyl oleate (EO) as a complex oil phase in emulsion. Methods: EO was used as the esterase inhibitor, and its inhibitory effect on esterase activity was assessed in rat intestinal homogenates. ADV emulsions with or without EO were prepared. The emulsions' protective effect against intestinal metabolism was evaluated in rat luminal contents, ex vivo, as well as in vivo. Results: The IC50 of EO in intestinal mucosal homogenates was 2.2 mg/mL. The emulsions exhibited significant protective effects in rat luminal contents compared to a simple suspension (98.7%, 96.3%, 95.7% vs 74.7%, P<0.01). The permeability calculated from the emulsion containing EO was significantly different (11.4×10?6 vs 7.4/8.0×10?6, P<0.05) from the simple suspension or the emulsion without EO in an ex vivo assay. A bioavailability study in vivo revealed that emulsions containing both EO and MCT as a complex oil phase demonstrated 1.6- and 1.5-fold enhancements in area under the curve (AUC0–12) values (5358 vs 3386/3618, P<0.05), respectively, when compared with emulsions containing EO or MCT as a single oil phase. Conclusion: Heterotic lipid formulations (emulsions) with an esterase inhibitor (ie, EO) may be useful in protecting ester prodrugs from intestinal metabolism and increasing their oral bioavailability. PMID:20562905

  14. Theoretical Prediction and experimental measurement of the mixed flocculation/coalescence rate of ionic Hexadecane-in-water nano-emulsions

    E-print Network

    German Urbina-Villalba; Neyda Garcia-Valera; Kareem Rahn-Chique

    2015-07-07

    Theoretical calculations of the mixed aggregation/coalescence (kFC) rate corresponding to a set of hexadecane-in-water nano-emulsions stabilized with sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) at different NaCl concentrations are presented. The rates were obtained through the change of the total number of aggregates of the dispersions as a function of time, predicted by Emulsion Stability Simulation (ESS). Two different models were implemented in order to mimic the dependence of the surface excess of the surfactant on the salt concentration. Experimental measurements of kFC were also made, based on the change of the turbidity of the emulsions as a function of time. A satisfactory agreement between theory and experiment is only attained if the model of surfactant adsorption accounts for the balance between the salting out of the surfactant solution and the partial screening of the surface charge of the drops induced by the increase of the ionic strength of the continuous phase. The observed behavior cannot be justified on the grounds of the Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory. Instead, the reversible flocculation of the aggregates of any size is proposed as an alternative mechanism to explain the dependence of kFC as a function of the salt concentration.

  15. The Olive Oil-Based Lipid Clinoleic Blocks Leukocyte Recruitment and Improves Survival during Systemic Inflammation: A Comparative In Vivo Study of Different Parenteral Lipid Emulsions

    PubMed Central

    Buschmann, Kirsten; Poeschl, Johannes; Braach, Natascha; Kuss, Navina

    2015-01-01

    Although fish oil-based and olive oil-based lipid emulsions have been shown to exert anti-inflammatory functions, the immunomodulating properties of lipids are still controversial. Therefore, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effect of three different parenterally administered lipid emulsions in vivo: olive oil-based Clinoleic, fish oil-based Smoflipid, and soybean oil-based Lipofundin. We observed leukocyte recruitment in inflamed murine cremaster muscle using intravital microscopy and survival in a murine model of LPS-induced systemic inflammation and analyzed expression of leukocyte and endothelial adhesion molecules. Olive oil-based Clinoleic and fish oil-based Smoflipid profoundly inhibited leukocyte adhesion compared to Lipofundin during LPS-induced inflammation of the murine cremaster muscle. In the trauma model of cremaster muscle inflammation, Lipofundin was the only lipid emulsion that even augmented leukocyte adhesion. In contrast to Smoflipid and Lipofundin, Clinoleic effectively blocked leukocyte recruitment and increased survival during lethal endotoxemia. Flow chamber experiments and analysis of adhesion molecule expression suggest that both endothelial and leukocyte driven mechanisms might contribute to anti-inflammatory effects of Clinoleic. We conclude that the anti-inflammatory properties of Clinoleic are superior to those of Smoflipid and Lipofundin even during systemic inflammation. Thus, these results should stimulate further studies investigating parenteral lipids as an anti-inflammatory strategy in critically ill patients. PMID:25767334

  16. Dispersion morphology diagrams for three-phase, [open quotes]microemulsion[close quotes] emulsions. 2. [open quotes]Disappearance[close quotes] of morphology-transition lines

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, G.K. (Morgantown Energy Technology Center, WV (United States)); Dadyburjor, D.B. (West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)); Smith, D.H. (Morgantown Energy Technology Center, WV (United States) Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States))

    1994-11-17

    The limits over which the oil-rich top phase (T), middle-phase microemulsion (M), or water-rich bottom phase (B) is the continuous phase in steady-state, three-phase macroemulsions have been determined by means of electrical conductivity measurements for the amphiphile/oil/[open quotes]water[close quotes] system C[sub 6]H[sub 13](OC[sub 2]H[sub 4])[sub 2]OH/n-tetradecane/aqueous 10 mM NaCl. Measurements were made at three different temperatures and apparent wettability conditions: (a) 45[degrees]C, wetting middle phase; (b) 25[degrees]C, no wetting phase; and (c) 12[degrees]C, wetting bottom phase. The results at 25[degrees]C were in accord with expectations from previous predictions and experiments; but for both two-phase and three-phase emulsions no abrupt, [open quotes]first-order[close quotes] transitions between M- and T-continuous emulsions at 45[degrees]C or between M- and B-continuous emulsions at 12[degrees]C were found. Instead, these changes of continuous phase appeared to occur smoothly and continuously between their respective single-phase and two-phase limits. It is not yet clear if the [open quotes]disappearance[close quotes] of first-order morphology transitions correlates with phase wettability transitions; the phenomenon suggests the possibility of bicontinuous two-phase and three-phase macroemulsions. 31 refs., 11 figs.

  17. Nano-MnFe2O4 powder synthesis by detonation of emulsion explosive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiao Hong; Li, Xiao Jie; Yan, Hong Hao; Xue, Li; Qu, Yan Dong; Sun, Gui Lei

    2008-03-01

    Nano-MnFe2O4 powders were synthesized by detonation of specially prepared emulsion explosives. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy were carried out to characterize the as-prepared powders. The results indicated that relatively finely dispersed spherical powders were obtained when the content of RDX in the emulsion explosives was 9.18 wt. %. A certain content of internal-phase ammonium nitrate was not only favorable to control the ingredients of the detonation products, but also advantageous to stabilize the detonation structure of the emulsion explosive according to differential thermogravimetry experimental results.

  18. Smart enrichment and facile separation of oil from emulsions and mixtures by superhydrophobic/superoleophilic particles.

    PubMed

    Duan, Chunting; Zhu, Tang; Guo, Jing; Wang, Zhen; Liu, Xiaofang; Wang, Hao; Xu, Xun; Jin, Yan; Zhao, Ning; Xu, Jian

    2015-05-20

    The separation and removal of oil or organic pollutants from water is highly imperative. The oil phases in surfactant-free oil-in-water emulsions or in free oil/water mixtures can be smartly enriched and transported by using superhydrophobic/superoleophilic iron particles (SHIPs) under a magnetic field. For water-in-oil emulsion, SHIPs-based composite membranes selectively allow the oil to pass through. Their convenient and scalable preparation, excellent separation performance, and good reusability are of great advantages for practical applications in wastewater treatment, the cleanup of oil spills, emulsion concentration, and fuel purification. PMID:25918874

  19. Stability determination of soy lecithin-based emulsions by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Whittinghill; J. Norton; A. Proctor

    2000-01-01

    The stability of soy lecithin-stabilized emulsions was determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Oilin-water\\u000a (o\\/w) emulsions were prepared with 6% (vol\\/vol) medium-chain triglycerides (MCT), 94% (vol\\/vol) water, and 4% (wt\\/vol) Lecigran\\u000a and Lecimulthin soy lecithin. There were little or no differences between the 4% Lecigran and 4% Lecimulthin emulsions for\\u000a all vibrational regions studied (OH at 3348 cm?1, C=O at

  20. Fabrication of covalently-bonded polystyrene\\/SiO 2 composites by Pickering emulsion polymerization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dezhong Yin; Qiuyu Zhang; Hepeng Zhang; Changjie Yin

    2010-01-01

    Pickering emulsion polymerization has attracted considerable attention in material fabrication due to its unique surfactant-free\\u000a character and versatile association of oil, water and particles for a large set of materials. In this study, SiO2 modified with Methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (MPTMS) was employed to prepare Pickering emulsion, and subsequently covalently-bonded\\u000a polystyrene\\/SiO2(PS\\/SiO2) composites were synthesized by Oil-in-water Pickering emulsion polymerization. Optical micrograph, contact angle,

  1. Demulsification of bitumen emulsions with a high molecular weight mixed alkylene oxide polyol

    SciTech Connect

    Gipson, R.M.; Mccoy, D.R.; Young, K.B.

    1982-03-23

    A process for recovering bitumen from oil-in-water (O/w) emulsions is disclosed wherein water soluble demulsifiers are used. These demulsifiers are polyols of 2 and greater functionality containing predominantly mixed ethylene oxide and propylene oxide wherein the ethylene oxide content of the polyol (by weight) is greater than about 70% but less than about 95%. The molecular weight of these polyols is greater than about 10, to resolve the bituminous petroleum emulsions, the process is carried out between 25 and 1200 c wherein the demulsifier of the invention is contacted with the bituminous emulsion.

  2. Asphalt emulsion sealing of uranium mill tailings. 1980 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Hartley, J.N.; Koehmstedt, P.L; Esterl, D.J.; Freeman, H.D.; Buelt, J.L.; Nelson, D.A.; Elmore, M.R.

    1981-05-01

    Studies of asphalt emulsion sealants conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory have demonstrated that the sealants are effective in containing radon and other potentially hazardous material within uranium tailings. The laboratory and field studies have further demonstrated that radon exhalation from uranium tailings piles can be reduced by greater than 99% to near background levels. Field tests at the tailings pile in Grand Junction, Colorado, confirmed that an 8-cm admix seal containing 22 wt% asphalt could be effectively applied with a cold-mix paver. Other techniques were successfully tested, including a soil stabilizer and a hot, rubberized asphalt seal that was applied with a distributor truck. After the seals were applied and compacted, overburden was applied over the seal to protect the seal from ultraviolet degradation.

  3. Treatment of pieris ingestion in goats with intravenous lipid emulsion.

    PubMed

    Bischoff, Karyn; Smith, Mary C; Stump, Samuel

    2014-12-01

    Seven goats and one ram presented with clinical signs including regurgitation, obtundation, anorexia, apparent pain, and bloat. The animals had escaped from their barn, and it was discovered that they had ingested leaves of Pieris japonica, Japanese pieris, a grayanotoxin-containing plant. Animals were treated with antibiotics, calcium borogluconate, B vitamins, and activated charcoal within the first 24-h postexposure, which was followed by the recovery of the ram and two goats and the death of two goats. Approximately 36 h after Japanese pieris ingestion, one of the three remaining anorectic goats was dosed with intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE). This goat recovered within a few hours. The remaining two goats were given ILE the next day and appeared to recover, but one died a week later of aspiration pneumonia. PMID:25193885

  4. Avalanches of rearrangements in quasi-2D emulsion hopper flow

    E-print Network

    Xia Hong; Kenneth W. Desmond; Dandan Chen; Eric R. Weeks

    2015-03-25

    We experimentally study the flow of a quasi-two-dimensional emulsion through a constricting hopper shape. Our area fractions range from 0.83 to 0.99, such that the droplets are always in contact with one another and are in many cases highly deformed. At the lowest flow rates, the droplets exit the hopper via intermittent avalanches. At the highest flow rates, the droplets exit continuously. The transition between these two types of behaviors is a fairly smooth function of the mean strain rate. The avalanches are characterized by a power law distribution of the time interval between droplets exiting the hopper, with long intervals between the avalanches. There is little or no dependence of the flow behavior on the area fraction of the system.

  5. The potential role of perfluorocarbon emulsions in decompression illness.

    PubMed

    Spiess, Bruce D

    2010-03-01

    Decompression illness (DCI) is an occasional occurrence in sport, professional, and military diving as well as a potential catastrophe in high-altitude flight, space exploration, mining, and caisson bridge construction. DCI theoretically could be a success-limiting problem in escape from a disabled submarine (DISSUB). Perfluorocarbon emulsions (PFCs) have previously been investigated as 'blood substitutes' with one approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of myocardial ischaemia. PFCs possess enhanced (as compared to plasma) respiratory gas solubility characteristics, including oxygen, nitrogen and carbon dioxide. This review examines approximately 30 years of research regarding the utilization of PFCs in gas embolism as well as experimental DCI. To date, no humans have been treated with PFCs for DCI. PMID:23111836

  6. Quasifree p(K -, K +) ? - reaction in nuclear emulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoki, S.; Asai, S.; Bahk, S. Y.; Chung, S. H.; Funahashi, H.; Hahn, C. H.; Hanabata, M.; Hara, T.; Hoshino, K.; Ieiri, M.; Iida, M.; Iijima, T.; Imai, K.; Itow, Y.; Jin-ya, T.; Kazuno, M.; Kim, C. O.; Kim, D. C.; Kim, J. Y.; Kodama, K.; Kuze, T.; Maeda, Y.; Masaike, A.; Matsuda, Y.; Matsui, A.; Murakami, K.; Nagoshi, C.; Nakamura, M.; Nakanishi, S.; Nakano, T.; Nakazawa, K.; Niwa, K.; Ogawa, S.; Okabe, H.; Ono, S.; Ozaki, R.; Park, I. G.; Park, M. S.; Sakai, K.; Sasaki, T.; Sato, Y.; Shibuya, H.; Shimizu, H. M.; Sim, Y. B.; Song, J. S.; Sugimoto, M.; Tajima, H.; Takashima, R.; Takeutchi, F.; Tanaka, K. H.; Tanaka, R.; Teranaka, M.; Tezuka, I.; Togawa, H.; Ushida, N.; Yasuda, N.; Yokota, J.; Yoon, C. J.; Yoon, C. S.

    1998-12-01

    A study of 1.66 {GeV}/{c} K - beam induced ( K -,K +) reactions in the nuclear emulsion target is presented and 796 ( K -, K +) reaction vertices ( p K + ? 1 GeV/c ) containing 18 single hyperfragments are identified. There is no clear(spatially separated) double hyperfragment nor twin single hyperfragment in the identified 796 ( K -,K +) reactions. These events are classified and their characteristics are described in detail. In the region p K + ? 1 GeV/c where the quasifree K -(p) ? K +? - is the dominant process, the probability of ? - emission from the reaction vertex is determined to be 73.9 -4.6+4.5%. From this value, the mean free path of ? - in a nucleus is estimated to be 4.7 -1.0+1.5 fm for

    ˜ 0.6 GeV/c by assuming a simple model of uniform nuclear matter.

  7. Preparation of an Adhesive in Emulsion for Maxillofacial Prosthetic

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-García, Judith A.; Ortega, Alejandra; Barceló-Santana, Federico H.; Palacios-Alquisira, Joaquín

    2010-01-01

    Maxillofacial prostheses is a dental medicine specialty aimed at restoring anatomical facial defects caused by cancer, trauma or congenital malformations through an artificial device, which is commonly attached to the skin with the help of an adhesive. The purpose of our research was to develop a pressure-sensitive adhesive (PSA) based on acrylic monomers, characterizing and determining its drying kinetics, that is to say the time it takes to lose 50 to 90% of its moisture. The adhesive synthesis was realized by means of emulsion polymerization; the composition of formulations was: (AA-MMA-EA) and (AA-MMA-2EHA) with different molar ratios. The formulation based on (AA-MMA-2EHA) with 50 w% of solids, presented good adhesive properties such as tack, bond strength, and short drying time. We propose this formulation as a PSA, because it offers an alternative for systemically compromised patients, by less irritation compared to organic solvent-based adhesives. PMID:21152308

  8. Breaking crude oil emulsions by the action of surfactants

    SciTech Connect

    Tronov, V.P.

    1983-07-01

    The mechanisms through which interfacial structures become stronger as time passes and are disrupted by the action of a surfactant have been studied by means of a ''falling spheres'' technique. This technique is used in this paper to establish a number of relationships governing the action of water-soluble and oil-soluble demulsifiers on the interfacial films. The fact that different demulsifiers require different lengths of time to break up interfacial films; the breaking time; the film strength that various distances from the point of demulsifier introduction; the susceptibility of carboniferous crudes to demulsifier I; the hypothesis of the need for suppressing the activity of natural emulsifers; and the mechanisms of emulsion destablization--all of these aspects of demulsifier action are studied.

  9. Optical conveyors: Active tractor beams for colloids, emulsions and aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruffner, David; Grier, David

    2013-03-01

    A tractor beam is a travelling wave that transports material back to its source. We experimentally demonstrate such a beam by coherently superposing coaxial Bessel beams. These optical conveyors have periodic intensity variations along their axes that act as highly effective optical traps for micrometer-scale objects. Varying the Bessel beams' relative phase shifts the traps axially and thereby selectively transports trapped objects either downstream or upstream along the length of the beam. The same methods used to project a single optical conveyor can project arrays of independent optical conveyors, allowing bidirectional motion. This opens up new possibilities for three dimensional transport of colloids, emulsion droplets and aerosol particles with sub-micrometer resolution over ranges extending to 50 micrometers and potentially beyond.

  10. Physical Properties and Biological Activity of Poly(butyl acrylate–styrene) Nanoparticle Emulsions Prepared with Conventional and Polymerizable Surfactants

    PubMed Central

    Garay-Jimenez, Julio C.; Gergeres, Danielle; Young, Ashley; Dickey, Sonja; Lim, Daniel V.; Turos, Edward

    2009-01-01

    Recent efforts in our laboratory have explored the use of polyacrylate nanoparticles in aqueous media as stable emulsions for potential applications in treating drug-resistant bacterial infections. These emulsions are made by emulsion polymerization of acrylated antibiotic compounds in a mixture of butyl acrylate and styrene (7:3 w:w) using sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as a surfactant. Prior work in our group established that the emulsions required purification to remove toxicity associated with extraneous surfactant present in the media. This paper summarizes our investigations of poly(butyl acrylate-styrene) emulsions made using anionic, cationic, zwitterionic, and non-charged (amphiphilic) surfactants, as well as attachable surfactant monomers (surfmers), comparing the cytotoxicity and microbiological activity levels of the emulsion both before and after purification. Our results show that the attachment of a polymerizable surfmer onto the matrix of the nanoparticle neither improves nor diminishes cytotoxic or antibacterial effects of the emulsion, regardless of whether the emulsions are purified or not, and that the optimal properties are associated with the use of the non-ionic surfactants versus those carrying anionic, cationic, or zwitterionic charge. Incorporation of an N-thiolated ?-lactam antibacterial agent onto the nanoparticle matrix via covalent attachment endows the emulsion with antibiotic properties against pathogenic bacteria such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), without changing the physical properties of the nanoparticles or their emulsions. PMID:19523413

  11. Enhancing vitamin E bioaccessibility: factors impacting solubilization and hydrolysis of ?-tocopherol acetate encapsulated in emulsion-based delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ying; Decker, Eric Andrew; Xiao, Hang; McClements, David Julian

    2015-01-01

    Oil-soluble vitamins are often encapsulated within emulsion-based delivery systems to facilitate their incorporation into aqueous-based products. We have examined the influence of carrier oil type and simulated small intestinal fluid (SSIF) composition on the bioaccessibility of emulsified vitamin E using a gastrointestinal model. Oil-in-water emulsions containing vitamin E acetate were prepared using bile salts as emulsifier, and either long chain triacylglycerols (glyceryl trioleate, LCT) or medium chain triacylglycerols (glyceryl trioctanoate, MCT) as carrier oils. The addition of calcium (CaCl2) to the SSIF increased the extent of lipid digestion in LCT-emulsions, but had little impact in MCT-emulsions. The bioaccessibility of vitamin E increased in the presence of calcium and phospholipids (DOPC) in LCT-emulsions, but decreased in MCT-emulsions. The highest bioaccessibility (?66%) was achieved for LCT-emulsions when the SSIF contained both calcium and phospholipids. The conversion of ?-tocopherol acetate to ?-tocopherol after in vitro digestion was considerably higher for LCT-emulsions when calcium ions were present in the SSIF, but was not strongly affected by SSIF composition for MCT-emulsions. In general, this research provides important information about the factors influencing the bioaccessibility of emulsified vitamin E, which could be used to design more effective emulsion-based delivery systems for increasing the oral bioavailability of this important bioactive component. PMID:25312787

  12. A hybrid experiment to search for beauty particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoki, S.; Arnold, R.; Baroni, G.; Barth, M.; Bartley, J. H.; Bertrand, D.; Bertrand-Coremans, G.; Bisi, V.; Breslin, A. C.; Carboni, G.; Catanesi, M. G.; Cecchetti, A. M.; Chesi, E.; Chiba, K.; Coupland, M.; Davis, D. H.; Dell'Uomo, S.; De Vincenzi, M.; Di Liberto, S.; Donnelly, W.; Duff, B. G.; Esten, M. J.; Frenkel, A.; Gamba, D.; Gerke, C.; Giubellino, P.; Hazama, M.; Heymann, F. F.; Hoshino, K.; Imrie, D. C.; Isokane, Y.; Kaway, T.; Kazuno, M.; Kobayashi, M.; Kodama, K.; Lush, G. J.; Maeda, Y.; Manfredini, A.; Marini, G.; Martellotti, G.; Marzari-Chiesa, A.; Mazzoni, M. A.; Meddi, F.; Minakawa, F.; Miyanishi, M.; Montwill, A.; Muciaccia, M. T.; Musset, P.; Nakamura, M.; Nakamura, Y.; Nakazawa, K.; Natali, S.; Nigro, A.; Niu, K.; Niwa, K.; Nuzzo, S.; Ohashi, M.; Penso, G.; Pistilli, P.; Piuz, F.; Poulard, G.; Ramello, L.; Riccati, L.; Romano, G.; Roosen, R.; Rosa, G.; Ruggieri, F.; Sasaki, H.; Sato, Y.; Sciubba, A.; Sgarbi, C.; Shibuya, H.; Simone, S.; Sletten, H. I.; Tajima, H.; Tasaka, S.; Tezuka, I.; Tomita, Y.; Tovee, D. N.; Trent, P.; Tsuneoka, Y.; Ushida, N.; Watanabe, S.; Yamakawa, O.; Yanagisawa, Y.

    1989-01-01

    We give here a detailed description of experiment WA75, which was performed at CERN to search for beauty particles. Events containing at least one muon with a high momentum transverse to the beam direction were selected; then the primary interactions and decay vertices, located in stacks of nuclear research emulsions, were examined and analysed. The various parts of the apparatus are described and the off-line analysis and search in emulsion are discussed. An estimate is made of the sensitivity of the experiment to beauty- and charmed-particle production.

  13. The effects of whey proteins and homogenization pressure on the stability of concentrated soft drink emulsions 

    E-print Network

    Wong, Tsui-Yin

    2002-01-01

    were prepared. The emulsions were homogenized and stored at 5?C for analysis of creaming index, homogenization index, particle size index, particle size distribution, and viscosity. Creaming index was affected by type of emulsifier and homogenization...

  14. Emulsion stability measurements by single electrode capacitance probe (SeCaP) technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schüller, R. B.; Løkra, S.; Salas-Bringas, C.; Egelandsdal, B.; Engebretsen, B.

    2008-08-01

    This paper describes a new and novel method for the determination of the stability of emulsions. The method is based on the single electrode capacitance technology (SeCaP). A measuring system consisting of eight individual measuring cells, each with a volume of approximately 10 ml, is described in detail. The system has been tested on an emulsion system based on whey proteins (WPC80), oil and water. Xanthan was added to modify the emulsion stability. The results show that the new measuring system is able to quantify the stability of the emulsion in terms of a differential variable. The whole separation process is observed much faster in the SeCaP system than in a conventional separation column. The complete separation process observed visually over 30 h is seen in less than 1.4 h in the SeCaP system.

  15. Effects of emulsion droplet sizes on the crystallisation of milk fat.

    PubMed

    Truong, Tuyen; Bansal, Nidhi; Sharma, Ranjan; Palmer, Martin; Bhandari, Bhesh

    2014-02-15

    The crystallisation properties of milk fat emulsions containing dairy-based ingredients as functions of emulsion droplet size, cooling rate, and emulsifier type were investigated using a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). Anhydrous milk fat and its fractions (stearin and olein) were emulsified with whey protein concentrate, sodium caseinate, and Tween80 by homogenisation to produce emulsions in various size ranges (0.13-3.10 ?m). Particle size, cooling rate, and types of emulsifier all had an influence on the crystallisation properties of fat in the emulsions. In general, the crystallisation temperature of emulsified fats decreased with decreasing average droplet size and was of an exponent function of size, indicating that the influence of particle size on crystallisation temperature is more pronounced in the sub-micron range. This particle size effect was also verified by electron microscopy. PMID:24128537

  16. Light controlled reversible inversion of nanophosphor-stabilized Pickering emulsions for biphasic enantioselective biocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhaowei; Zhou, Li; Bing, Wei; Zhang, Zhijun; Li, Zhenhua; Ren, Jinsong; Qu, Xiaogang

    2014-05-21

    In this work, by utilizing photochromic spiropyrans conjugated upconversion nanophosphors, we have successfully prepared NIR/visible light tuned interfacially active nanoparticles for the formulation of Pickering emulsions with reversible inversion properties. By loading a model enantioselective biocatalytic active bacteria Alcaligenes faecalis ATCC 8750 in the aqueous phase, we demonstrated for the first time that the multifunctional Pickering emulsion not only highly enhanced its catalytic performance but also relieved the substrate inhibition effect. In addition, product recovery, and biocatalysts and colloid emulsifiers recycling could be easily realized based on the inversion ability of the Pickering emulsion. Most importantly, the utilization of NIR/visible light to perform the reversible inversion without any chemical auxiliaries or temperature variation showed little damage toward the biocatalysts, which was highlighted by the high catalytic efficiency and high enantioselectivity even after 10 cycles. The NIR/visible light controlled Pickering emulsion showed promising potential as a powerful technique for biocatalysis in biphasic systems. PMID:24784766

  17. Momentum measurement by the multiple Coulomb scattering method in the OPERA lead-emulsion target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agafonova, N.; Aleksandrov, A.; Altinok, O.; Anokhina, A.; Aoki, S.; Ariga, A.; Ariga, T.; Autiero, D.; Badertscher, A.; Bagulya, A.; Ben Dhahbi, A.; Bertolin, A.; Besnier, M.; Bozza, C.; Brugière, T.; Brugnera, R.; Brunet, F.; Brunetti, G.; Buontempo, S.; Cazes, A.; Chaussard, L.; Chernyavskiy, M.; Chiarella, V.; Chukanov, A.; D'Ambrosio, N.; Dal Corso, F.; De Lellis, G.; del Amo Sanchez, P.; Déclais, Y.; De Serio, M.; Di Capua, F.; Di Crescenzo, A.; Di Ferdinando, D.; Di Marco, N.; Dmitrievski, S.; Dracos, M.; Duchesneau, D.; Dusini, S.; Dzhatdoev, T.; Ebert, J.; Egorov, O.; Enikeev, R.; Ereditato, A.; Esposito, L. S.; Favier, J.; Ferber, T.; Fini, R. A.; Frekers, D.; Fukuda, T.; Garfagnini, A.; Giacomelli, G.; Giorgini, M.; Göllnitz, C.; Goldberg, J.; Golubkov, D.; Goncharova, L.; Gornushkin, Y.; Grella, G.; Grianti, F.; Guler, A. M.; Gustavino, C.; Hagner, C.; Hamada, K.; Hara, T.; Hierholzer, M.; Hollnagel, A.; Hoshino, K.; Ieva, M.; Ishida, H.; Jakovcic, K.; Jollet, C.; Juget, F.; Kamiscioglu, M.; Kazuyama, K.; Kim, S. H.; Kimura, M.; Kitagawa, N.; Klicek, B.; Knuesel, J.; Kodama, K.; Komatsu, M.; Kose, U.; Kreslo, I.; Kubota, H.; Lazzaro, C.; Lenkeit, J.; Lippi, I.; Ljubicic, A.; Longhin, A.; Loverre, P.; Lutter, G.; Malgin, A.; Mandrioli, G.; Manai, K.; Marteau, J.; Matsuo, T.; Matveev, V.; Mauri, N.; Medinaceli, E.; Meisel, F.; Meregaglia, A.; Migliozzi, P.; Mikado, S.; Miyamoto, S.; Monacelli, P.; Morishima, K.; Moser, U.; Muciaccia, M. T.; Naganawa, N.; Naka, T.; Nakamura, M.; Nakano, T.; Naumov, D.; Nikitina, V.; Niwa, K.; Nonoyama, Y.; Ogawa, S.; Okateva, N.; Olshevskiy, A.; Paniccia, M.; Paoloni, A.; Park, B. D.; Park, I. G.; Pastore, A.; Patrizii, L.; Pennacchio, E.; Pessard, H.; Pretzl, K.; Pilipenko, V.; Pistillo, C.; Polukhina, N.; Pozzato, M.; Pupilli, F.; Rescigno, R.; Roganova, T.; Rokujo, H.; Romano, G.; Rosa, G.; Rostovtseva, I.; Rubbia, A.; Russo, A.; Ryasny, V.; Ryazhskaya, O.; Sato, O.; Sato, Y.; Schembri, A.; Schmidt-Parzefall, W.; Schroeder, H.; Scotto Lavina, L.; Sheshukov, A.; Shibuya, H.; Shoziyoev, G.; Simone, S.; Sioli, M.; Sirignano, C.; Sirri, G.; Song, J. S.; Spinetti, M.; Stanco, L.; Starkov, N.; Stipcevic, M.; Strauss, T.; Strolin, P.; Takahashi, S.; Tenti, M.; Terranova, F.; Tezuka, I.; Tioukov, V.; Tolun, P.; Trabelsi, A.; Tran, T.; Tufanli, S.; Vilain, P.; Vladimirov, M.; Votano, L.; Vuilleumier, J. L.; Wilquet, G.; Wonsak, B.; Yakushev, V.; Yoon, C. S.; Yoshioka, T.; Yoshida, J.; Zaitsev, Y.; Zemskova, S.; Zghiche, A.; Zimmermann, R.

    2012-01-01

    A new method of momentum measurement of charged particles through multiple Coulomb scattering (MCS) in the OPERA lead-emulsion target is presented. It is based on precise measurements of track angular deviations carried out thanks to the very high resolution of nuclear emulsions. The algorithm has been tested with Monte Carlo pions. The results are found to describe within the expected uncertainties the data obtained from test beams. We also present a comparison of muon momenta evaluated through MCS in the OPERA lead-emulsion target with those determined by the electronic detectors for neutrino-charged current interaction events. The two independent measurements agree within the experimental uncertainties, and the results validate the algorithm developed for the emulsion detector of OPERA.

  18. Application of microfluidic emulsion technology to biochemistry, drug delivery and Lab-on-a-Chip programmability

    E-print Network

    Urbanski, John Paul

    2005-01-01

    This research applies microfluidic emulsion technology to three diverse problems; biochemistry, drug delivery and lab-on-a-chip programmability. These subjects represent distinct research programs, but the underlying physics ...

  19. Breaking of the Bancroft rule for multiple emulsions stabilized by a single stimulable polymer.

    PubMed

    Besnard, L; Protat, M; Malloggi, F; Daillant, J; Cousin, F; Pantoustier, N; Guenoun, P; Perrin, P

    2014-09-28

    We investigated emulsions of water and toluene stabilized by (co)polymers consisting of styrene (S) and 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA) monomer units with different compositions and structures such as a PDMAEMA homopolymer, a P(S-co-DMAEMA) random copolymer and various PS-b-PDMAEMA and PS-b-(S-co-DMAEMA) block copolymers. The model system is used to study the fundamental conditions under which the different kinds of polymer-stabilized emulsions (direct oil in water, inverse water in oil and multiple emulsions) are stabilized or destabilized by pH change (at constant temperature). Polymer properties like chain conformation at the toluene-water interface as probed by SANS and neutron reflectivity at the liquid-liquid interface, the oil-water partitioning of the polymer chains (Bancroft's rule of thumb) as determined by UV spectroscopy and interfacial tensions measured by the rising and spinning drop techniques are determined. Overall, results evidence that the curvature sign, as defined by positive and negative values as the chain segments occupy preferentially the water and toluene sides of the interface respectively, reliably predicts the emulsion kind. In contrast, the Bancroft rule failed at foreseeing the emulsion type. In the region of near zero curvature the crossover from direct to inverse emulsions occurs through the formation of either unstable coexisting direct and inverse emulsions (i) or multiple emulsions (ii). The high compact adsorption of the chains at the interface as shown by low interfacial tension values does not allow to discriminate between both cases. However, the toluene-water partitioning of the polymeric emulsifier is still a key factor driving the formation of (i) or (ii) emulsions. Interestingly, the stabilization of the multiple emulsions can be tuned to a large extent as the toluene-water polymer partitioning can be adjusted using quite a large number of physico-chemical parameters linked to polymer architecture like diblock length ratio or polymer total molar mass, for example. Moreover, we show that monitoring the oil-water partitioning aspect of the emulsion system can also be used to lower the interfacial tension at low pH to values slightly higher than 0.01 mN m(-1), irrespective of the curvature sign. PMID:24994035

  20. Antioxidant Effects of Berry Phenolics Incorporated in Oil-in-Water Emulsions with Continuous Phase ?-Lactoglobulin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hanna Salminen; Marina Heinonen; Eric A. Decker

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of berry phenolics, in this case, black currant (Ribes nigrum) anthocyanins and raspberry (Rubus idaeus) ellagitannins, in the presence of continuous phase ?-lactoglobulin (?-Lg), on the oxidative stability of Brij 35-stabilized\\u000a corn oil-in-water emulsions. The extent of lipid oxidation in emulsions was measured by determining the formation of lipid\\u000a hydroperoxides

  1. Influence of emulsions with and without urea on water-binding capacity of the stratum corneum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. GLOOR; W. GEHRING; W. WOLF

    This study was undertaken to delineate the effects of emulsions with and without urea on the water-binding behavior of the stratum corneum at different relative humidities (RH). The heels of 54 human volunteers were treated with water-in-oil (w\\/o), and oil-in-water (o\\/w) emulsions with and without urea (urea content 10%). After treatment the water content was determined by measuring the weight

  2. Extraction of copper from ammoniacal solutions into emulsion liquid membranes using LIX 84 I®

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bina Sengupta; Mathurkumar S. Bhakhar; Ranjan Sengupta

    2007-01-01

    Copper was extracted from ammoniacal-ammonium sulfate solutions using emulsion liquid membranes (ELMs) with ketoxime LIX 84 I as carrier. The extraction process was very fast and almost quantitative extraction was observed in most cases in just two minutes contact between the feed and the emulsion phases. The optimal pH for extraction was found to be pH 8.1, which limited the

  3. Exceptionally Stable Fluorous Emulsions for the Intravenous Delivery of Volatile General Anesthetics

    PubMed Central

    Jee, Jun-Pil; Parlato, Maria C.; Perkins, Mark G.; Mecozzi, Sandro; Pearce, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Intravenous delivery of volatile fluorinated anesthetics has a number of potential advantages when compared to the current inhalation method of administration. We reported previously that the IV delivery of sevoflurane can be achieved through an emulsion composed of a linear fluorinated diblock copolymer, a stabilizer, and the anesthetic. However, this original emulsion was subject to particle size growth that would limit its potential clinical utility. We hypothesized that the use of bulkier fluorous groups and smaller poly(ethylene glycol) moieties in the polymer design would result in improved emulsion stability while maintaining anesthetic functionality. Methods The authors prepared emulsions incorporating sevoflurane, perfluorooctyl bromide as a stabilizing agent, and combinations of linear fluorinated diblock copolymer and a novel dibranched fluorinated diblock copolymer. Emulsion stability was assessed using dynamic light scattering. The ability of the emulsions to induce anesthesia was tested in vivo by administering them intravenously to fifteen male Sprague-Dawley rats and measuring loss of the forepaw righting reflex. Results 20% (volume/volume) sevoflurane emulsions incorporating mixtures of dibranched- and linear diblock copolymers had improved stability, with those containing an excess of the dibranched polymers displaying stability of particle size for over one year. The ED50s for loss of forepaw righting reflex were all similar, and ranged between 0.55 and 0.60 ml/kg body weight. Conclusions Hemifluorinated dibranched polymers can be used to generate exceptionally stable sevoflurane nanoemulsions, as required of formulations intended for clinical use. Intravenous delivery of the emulsion in rats resulted in induction of anesthesia with rapid onset and smooth and rapid recovery. PMID:22354241

  4. Influence of Drop Deformability on the Stability of Decane-in-Water Emulsions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paola Osorio; German Urbina-Villalba

    2011-01-01

    Emulsion stability simulations of nondeformable and deformable droplets are used to justify the change in the number of aggregates\\u000a as a function of time shown by (decane + CCl4)\\/water emulsions stabilized with either sodium di-octyl-sulfosuccinate (DOSS) or sodium oleate (NaOl). It is found that the\\u000a results of the simulations depend sensitively on the value of the bending modulus B\\u000a 0 of the

  5. Synthesis of nanocrystalline CeO{sub 2} particles by different emulsion methods

    SciTech Connect

    Supakanapitak, Sunisa; Boonamnuayvitaya, Virote; Jarudilokkul, Somnuk, E-mail: somnuk.jar@kmutt.ac.th

    2012-05-15

    Cerium oxide nanoparticles were synthesized using three different methods of emulsion: (1) reversed micelle (RM); (2) emulsion liquid membrane (ELM); and (3) colloidal emulsion aphrons (CEAs). Ammonium cerium nitrate and polyoxyethylene-4-lauryl ether (PE4LE) were used as cerium and surfactant sources in this study. The powder was calcined at 500 Degree-Sign C to obtain CeO{sub 2}. The effect of the preparation procedure on the particle size, surface area, and the morphology of the prepared powders were investigated. The obtained powders are highly crystalline, and nearly spherical in shape. The average particle size and the specific surface area of the powders from the three methods were in the range of 4-10 nm and 5.32-145.73 m{sup 2}/g, respectively. The CeO{sub 2} powders synthesized by the CEAs are the smallest average particle size, and the highest surface area. Finally, the CeO{sub 2} prepared by the CEAs using different cerium sources and surfactant types were studied. It was found that the surface tensions of cerium solution and the type of surfactant affect the particle size of CeO{sub 2}. - Graphical Abstract: The emulsion droplet size distribution and the TEM images of CeO{sub 2} prepared by different methods: reversed micelle (RM), emulsion liquid membrane (ELM) and colloidal emulsion aphrons (CEAs). Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nano-sized CeO{sub 2} was successfully prepared by three different emulsion methods. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The colloidal emulsion aphrons method producing CeO{sub 2} with the highest surface area. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The surface tensions of a cerium solution have slightly effect on the particle size. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The size control could be interpreted in terms of the adsorption of the surfactant.

  6. Flow of oil-in-water emulsions through orifice and venturi meters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rajinder Pal

    1993-01-01

    The applicability of conventional orifice and venturi meters to monitor the flow rate of oil\\/water emulsions was investigated. The discharge coefficients were determined for various unstable and surfactant-stabilized oil-in-water emulsions using a single orifice and a single venturi. The oil concentration was varied over a wide range of 0-84.32 vol %. The metering results indicate that orifice and venturi meters

  7. Mechanical Properties and Microstructure of Heat-set Whey Protein Emulsion Gels: Effect of Emulsifiers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jianshe Chen; Eric Dickinson; Maud Langton; Anne-Marie Hermansson

    2000-01-01

    A comparison of the viscoelastic properties of heat-set whey protein-stabilized oil-in-water emulsion gels in the presence and absence of added emulsifier has been complemented by structural information from confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Emulsions (300 mL\\/L triolein oil, pH 7.0) were prepared with pure ? -lactoglobulin (8 g\\/kg) or water-soluble surfactant (20 g\\/kg Tween 20) as emulsifier and commercial whey

  8. HEAT-SET WHEY PROTEIN EMULSION GELS: ROLE OF ACTIVE AND INACTIVE FILLER PARTICLES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric Dickinson; Jianshe Chen

    1999-01-01

    Viscoelastic properties of heat-set whey protein emulsion gels containing active filler (protein-covered droplets) and inactive filler (surfactant-covered droplets) have been investigated at small and large deformations using a controlled stress rheometer. Data are reported as a function of protein concentration, oil volume fraction, and average emulsion droplet size. The active filler enhances the gel strength, whereas the inactive filler reduces

  9. Wax-incorporated Emulsion Gel Beads of Calcium Pectinate for Intragastric Floating Drug Delivery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pornsak Sriamornsak; Panida Asavapichayont; Jurairat Nunthanid; Manee Luangtana-anan; Sontaya Limmatvapirat; Suchada Piriyaprasarth

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to prepare wax-incorporated pectin-based emulsion gel beads using a modified emulsion-gelation\\u000a method. The waxes in pectin–olive oil mixtures containing a model drug, metronidazole, were hot-melted, homogenized and then\\u000a extruded into calcium chloride solution. The beads formed were separated, washed with distilled water and dried for 12 h.\\u000a The influence of various types and amounts of

  10. Ionotropically emulsion gelled polysaccharides beads: Preparation, in vitro and in vivo evaluation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Enas M. Elmowafy; Gehanne A. S. Awad; Samar Mansour; Abd El-Hamid A. El-Shamy

    2009-01-01

    Floating famotidine loaded mineral oil-entrapped emulsion gel (MOEG) beads were prepared by the emulsion–gelation method. Different polysaccharides (sodium alginate and pectin), oil concentrations (10%, 20% and 30% w\\/w) and drug:polymer (D:P) ratios (1:1, 2:1 and 3:1) were used and their influence on beads uniformity, drug entrapment efficiency (DEE) and in vitro drug release, was studied. The results clearly indicated that

  11. Atlas of nuclear emulsion micrographs from personnel dosimeters of manned space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, H. J.; Sullivan, J. J.

    1976-01-01

    A collection of micrographs is presented taken from nuclear emulsions of personnel dosimeter packs carried by the astronauts on near-earth orbital and lunar missions. It is intended as a pictorial record and illustration of the radiation environment in space and as a supplement to earlier reports and publications of the laboratory in which the emulsion findings have been presented in detail for individual missions. A complete list of those earlier accounts precedes the picture sections.

  12. Chlorella vulgaris and Haematococcus pluvialis biomass as colouring and antioxidant in food emulsions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luísa Gouveia; Anabela Raymundo; Ana Paula Batista; Isabel Sousa; José Empis

    2006-01-01

    The use of microalgal biomass, a natural ingredient, to colour oil-in-water pea protein stabilised emulsions was studied.\\u000a Various levels of incorporation of Chlorella vulgaris green, Chlorella vulgaris orange (after carotenogenesis), and Haematococcus pluvialis (red, after carotenogenesis) were used, resulting in a wide range of appealing colours from green to orange and pink. The\\u000a colour stability of the emulsions was evaluated,

  13. A comment on the validity of fragmentation parameters measured in nuclear emulsions. [cosmic ray nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waddington, C. J.

    1978-01-01

    Evidence is reexamined which has been cited as suggesting serious errors in the use of fragmentation parameters appropriate to an airlike medium deduced from measurements made in nuclear emulsions to evaluate corrections for certain effects in balloon-borne observations of cosmic-ray nuclei. Fragmentation parameters for hydrogenlike interactions are calculated and shown to be in overall good agreement with those obtained previously for air. Experimentally measured fragmentation parameters in emulsion are compared with values computed semiempirically, and reasonable agreement is indicated.

  14. Thin liquid film technique — application to water–oil–water bitumen emulsion films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Khr Khristov; S. D Taylor; J Czarnecki; J Masliyah

    2000-01-01

    We describe an adaptation of the thin liquid film-pressure balance technique (TLF-PBT) for a systematic study of water\\/diluted-bitumen\\/water thin films. Recent research into the stability of water-in-oil emulsions, particularly those occurring in the oil industry, has not properly addressed the dependence of the emulsion stability on the thin films that are formed between approaching water droplets. The objective of this

  15. NUCLEAR PHYSICS: Helium production from 84Kr and 197Au-emulsion interactions at high energies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dong-Hai Zhang; Jin-Xia Cheng; Bin Cheng; Fang Wang; Qi Wang; Hai-Qing Zhang; Rong Xu; Hui-Ming Jia; Xue-Qin Li

    2009-01-01

    The properties of the relativistic helium fragments produced in interactions of 84Kr at 1.8 A GeV and 197Au at 10.7 A GeV in emulsion are investigated. The experimental results are compared with those obtained from various projectiles with emulsion collisions at different energies. It is found that the multiplicity distribution of helium projectile fragments (HPFs) is well described by the

  16. The effects of whey proteins and homogenization pressure on the stability of concentrated soft drink emulsions

    E-print Network

    Wong, Tsui-Yin

    2002-01-01

    effect of the polysaccharide. Ibanoglu (2002) also mentioned that gum arabic could be a stability enhancer of emulsions because it had a lower surface activity than proteins and surfactants. In contrast, emulsions prepared using sweet whey or gum... of surfactant, or polysaccharide, and on environmental conditions such as temperature or pressures of homogenization. The mineral content of sweet WPC was less than that of acid WPC (Table III). The higher mineral content might have enhanced the electrostatic...

  17. Effect of demulsifier partitioning on the destabilization of water-in-oil emulsions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Young H. Kim; Darsh T. Wasan

    1996-01-01

    The factors affecting the demulsification and interfacial behavior of water-in-oil emulsions in the presence of oil-soluble demulsifiers were investigated. Using both model water-in-oil and water-in-crude oil emulsion systems with demulsifiers with different chemical structures, the effects of demulsifier partitioning on the interfacial and film rheological properties were studied. The experimental results were compared and related with the demulsifier performance. There

  18. Gemini Surfactant as a New “Green” Demulsifier for Treating Oilfield Emulsions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. Huang; H. Lu; T. Zhang; R. Wang; D. Qing

    2010-01-01

    Surface tension and interfacial tension (IFT) were the key factors asso- ciated with the stability of crude oil emulsion. Investigation of interfacial tension behavior related with the demulsification of crude oil emulsions can have a great impact on the development of crude oil demulsification processes and products. This article presents the surface and interface behaviors of Gemini surfactants (12-2-12, (12)-2-(12),

  19. Effects of surface-active demulsifiers on electrical conductivity of emulsions of water in crude oil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A. Yunusov; G. A. Babalyan; G. M. Akhmadiev

    1983-01-01

    With these considerations in mind, we carried out our measurements at intermediate field strengths with average values Ear of 2 and 6 kV\\/cm, with a 50-Hz ac field, an emulsion flow velocity of 5.1 cm\\/sec, and an aqueous disperse phase content of 4%, using a coaxial cylindrical cell. The average water drop diameter in the emulsion was 5 #m. The

  20. Long-circulating poly(ethylene glycol)-coated emulsions to target solid tumors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joanna Rossi; Suzanne Giasson; Mohamed Nabil Khalid; Pascal Delmas; Christine Allen; Jean-Christophe Leroux

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop oil-in-water emulsions (100–120nm in diameter) and to correlate the surface properties of the emulsions with blood residence time and accumulation into neoplastic tissues by passive targeting. We investigated the effect of phospholipid and sphingolipid emulsifiers, hydrogenated soybean phosphatidylcholine (HSPC) and egg sphingomyelin (ESM), in combination with polysorbate 80 (PS-80) and 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylethanolamine (DSPE)-PEG