Note: This page contains sample records for the topic emulsion experiment nucleus-nucleus from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: August 15, 2014.
1

Analysis of relativistic nucleus-nucleus interactions in emulsion chambers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of a computer-assisted method is reported for the determination of the angular distribution data for secondary particles produced in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions in emulsions. The method is applied to emulsion detectors that were placed in a constant, uniform magnetic field and exposed to beams of 60 and 200 GeV/nucleon O-16 ions at the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) of the European Center for Nuclear Research (CERN). Linear regression analysis is used to determine the azimuthal and polar emission angles from measured track coordinate data. The software, written in BASIC, is designed to be machine independent, and adaptable to an automated system for acquiring the track coordinates. The fitting algorithm is deterministic, and takes into account the experimental uncertainty in the measured points. Further, a procedure for using the track data to estimate the linear momenta of the charged particles observed in the detectors is included.

Mcguire, Stephen C.

1987-01-01

2

Results on ultra-relativistic nucleus-nucleus interactions from balloon-borne emulsion chambers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of balloon-borne emulsion-chamber measurements on high-energy cosmic-ray nuclei (Burnett et al., 1983) are summarized in tables and graphs and briefly characterized. Special consideration is given to seven nucleus-nucleus interaction events at energy in excess of 1 TeV/A with multiplicity greater than 400, and to Fe interactions (53 with CHO, 10 with emulsion, and 14 with Pb) at 20-60 GeV/A.

Burnett, T. H.; Dake, S.; Derrickson, J. H.; Fountain, W.; Meegan, C. A.; Takahashi, Y.; Watts, J. W.; Fuki, M.; Gregory, J. C.; Hayashi, T.

1985-01-01

3

Fluctuation analysis of relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions in emulsion chambers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analytical technique was developed for identifying enhanced fluctuations in the angular distributions of secondary particles produced from relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions. The method is applied under the assumption that the masses of the produced particles are small compared to their linear momenta. The importance of particles rests in the fact that enhanced fluctuations in the rapidity distributions is considered to be an experimental signal for the creation of the quark-gluon-plasma (QGP), a state of nuclear matter predicted from the quantum chromodynamics theory (QCD). In the approach, Monte Carlo simulations are employed that make use of a portable random member generator that allow the calculations to be performed on a desk-top computer. The method is illustrated with data taken from high altitude emulsion exposures and is immediately applicable to similar data from accelerator-based emulsion exposures.

Mcguire, Stephen C.

1988-01-01

4

Particle Production in High Energy Nucleus--Nucleus Experiments at Berkeley.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A review of high energy nucleus-nucleus experiments performed at the Berkeley Bevalac is presented. Earlier results on projectile and target fragmentation and pion production are briefly summarized. More recent results on Coulomb effects in projectile fra...

L. S. Schroeder

1976-01-01

5

Nucleus-nucleus potentials  

SciTech Connect

The significance of a nucleus-nucleus potential is discussed. Information about such potentials obtained from scattering experiments is reviewed, including recent examples of so-called rainbow scattering that probe the potential at smaller distances. The evidence for interactions involving the nuclear spins is summarized, and their possible origin in couplings to non-elastic channels. Various models of the potentials are discussed.

Satchler, G.R.

1983-01-01

6

Large area emulsion chamber experiments for the Space Shuttle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Emulsion-chamber experiments employing nuclear-track emulsions, etchable plastic detectors, metal plates, and X-ray films continue to demonstrate high productivity and potential in the study of cosmic-ray primaries and their interactions. Emulsions, with unsurpassed track-recording capability, provide an appropriate medium for the study of nucleus-nucleus interactions at high energy, which will likely produce observations of a phase change in nuclear matter. The many advantages of emulsion chambers (excellent multitrack recording capability, large geometry factor, low apparatus cost, simplicity of design and construction) are complemented by the major advantages of the Space Shuttle as an experiment carrier. A Shuttle experiment which could make a significant advance in both cosmic-ray primary and nucleus-nucleus interaction studies is described. Such an experiment would serve as a guide for use of emulsions during the Space Station era. Some practical factors that must be considered in planning a Shuttle exposure of emulsion chambers are discussed.

Parnell, T. A.

1985-01-01

7

Reaktsii sliyaniya i ehffektivnyj yadro-yadernyj potentsial. (Fusion reactions and effective nucleus-nucleus potential).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An effective energy-dependent nucleus-nucleus potential is proposed. In quasi-classical approximation fusion cross-sections are calculated at different energies for different pairs of nuclei. The agreement of calculation and experiment for a selected nucl...

A. T. D'yachenko

1990-01-01

8

Analytic optical potentials for nucleon-nucleus nucleus-nucleus collisions involving light and medium nuclei  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Utilizing an optical model potential approximation to the exact nucleus-nucleus multiple-scattering series, optical potentials for nucleon-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions are analytically derived. These expressions are applicable to light and medium cosmic ray nuclei as their single-particle density distributions are analytically determined, without approximation, from their actual harmonic well charge density distributions. Pauli correlation effects are included through the use of a simple Gaussian function to replace the usual expression obtained in the infinite nuclear matter approximation.

Bidasaria, H. B.; Townsend, L. W.

1982-01-01

9

Nucleus-nucleus interactions between 20 and 65 GeV per nucleon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A hybrid electronic-counter/emulsion-chamber instrument was exposed to high-energy cosmic rays on a balloon. The data on 105 nucleus-nucleus collisions in the energy range 20-65 GeV/nucleon and for incident nuclear charges Zp in the range of 22 to 28 are presented. Inclusive characteristics of particle production on different targets (plastic, emulsion, and lead) are shown and compared with models based on the superposition of nucleon-nucleus interactions. Features of a subset of the more central collisions with a plastic target and some characteristics of individual events with the highest multiplicity of produced particles are described.

Burnett, T. H.; Derrickson, J. H.; Fountain, W. F.; Meegan, C. A.; Parnell, T. A.; Roberts, F. E.; Watts, J. W.; Oda, H.; Takahashi, Y.; Jones, W. V.

1987-01-01

10

Transverse Energy in nucleus-nucleus collisions: A review  

SciTech Connect

The status of Transverse Energy (E/sub T/) in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions at the Brookhaven AGS and the CERN SPS is reviewed. The definition of E/sub T/ and its physical significance are discussed. The basic techniques and limitations of the experimental measurements are presented. The acceptances of the major experiments to be discussed are shown, along with remarks about their idiosyncrasies. The data demonstrate that the nuclear geometry of colliding spheres primarily determines the shapes of the observed spectra. Careful account of the acceptances is crucial to comparing and interpreting results. It is concluded that nuclear stopping power is high, and that the amount of energy deposited into the interaction volume is increasing with beam energy even at SPS energies. The energy densities believed to be obtained at the SPS are close to the critical values predicted for the onset of a quark-gluon plasma. 25 refs., 8 figs.

Tincknell, M.

1988-11-15

11

Higgs-Boson Production in Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Cross section calculations are presented for the production of intermediate-mass Higgs bosons produced in ultrarelativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions via two photon fusion. The calculations are performed in position space using Baur's method for folding ...

J. W. Norbury

1992-01-01

12

Emulsion Chamber Technology Experiment (ECT)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The experimental objective of Emulsion Chamber Technology (ECT) was to develop space-borne emulsion chamber technology so that cosmic rays and nuclear interactions may subsequently be studied at extremely high energies with long exposures in space. A small emulsion chamber was built and flown on flight STS-62 of the Columbia in March 1994. Analysis of the several hundred layers of radiation-sensitive material has shown excellent post-flight condition and suitability for cosmic ray physics analysis at much longer exposures. Temperature control of the stack was 20 +/-1 C throughout the active control period and no significant deviations of temperature or pressure in the chamber were observed over the entire mission operations period. The unfortunate flight attitude of the orbiter (almost 90% Earth viewing) prevented any significant number of heavy particles (Z greater than or equal to 10) reaching the stack and the inverted flow of shower particles in the calorimeter has not allowed evaluation of absolute primary cosmic ray-detection efficiency nor of the practical time limits of useful exposure of these calorimeters in space to the level of detail originally planned. Nevertheless, analysis of the observed backgrounds and quality of the processed photographic and plastic materials after the flight show that productive exposures of emulsion chambers are feasible in low orbit for periods of up to one year or longer. The engineering approaches taken in the ECT program were proven effective and no major environmental obstacles to prolonged flight are evident.

Gregory, John C.; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki

1996-01-01

13

Higgs-boson production in nucleus-nucleus collisions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cross-section calculations are presented for the production of intermediate-mass Higgs bosons produced in ultrarelativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions via two-photon fusion. The calculations are performed in position space using Baur's method for folding together the Weizsacker-Williams virtual-photon spectra of the two colliding nuclei. It is found that two-photon fusion in nucleus-nucleus collisions is a plausible way of finding intermediate-mass Higgs bosons at the Superconducting Super Collider or the CERN Large Hadron Collider.

Norbury, J. W.; Townsend, L. W. (Principal Investigator)

1990-01-01

14

Higgs-Boson Production in Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cross section calculations are presented for the production of intermediate-mass Higgs bosons produced in ultrarelativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions via two photon fusion. The calculations are performed in position space using Baur's method for folding together the Weizsacker-Williams virtual-photon spectra of the two colliding nuclei. It is found that two photon fusion in nucleus-nucleus collisions is a plausible way of finding intermediate-mass Higgs bosons at the Superconducting Super Collider or the CERN Large Hadron Collider.

Norbury, John W.

1992-01-01

15

Higgs-boson production in nucleus-nucleus collisions.  

PubMed

Cross-section calculations are presented for the production of intermediate-mass Higgs bosons produced in ultrarelativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions via two-photon fusion. The calculations are performed in position space using Baur's method for folding together the Weizsacker-Williams virtual-photon spectra of the two colliding nuclei. It is found that two-photon fusion in nucleus-nucleus collisions is a plausible way of finding intermediate-mass Higgs bosons at the Superconducting Super Collider or the CERN Large Hadron Collider. PMID:10012777

Norbury, J W

1990-12-01

16

Nuclear Emulsion - Skylab Experiment S009  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This photograph shows Skylab's Nuclear Emulsion experiment, a Skylab science facility that was mounted inside the Multiple Docking Adapter used to record the relative abundance of primary, high-energy heavy nuclei outside the Earth's atmosphere. The Marshall Space Flight Center had program management responsibility for the development of Skylab hardware and experiments.

1970-01-01

17

Erraticity analysis of multiparticle production in nucleus-nucleus interactions at relativistic energies  

SciTech Connect

Nonstatistical fluctuation in the angular distribution of charged particles produced in high-energy nucleus-nucleus interactions is investigated by using the technique of erraticity moments. Nuclear photographic emulsion data on secondary shower track emissions collected from {sup 16}O-Ag/Br and {sup 32}S-Ag/Br interactions, each at an incident momentum of 200 A GeV/c, are analyzed. A generalized scaling law between the erraticity moments and the phase-space partition number is established for both sets of data. Experimental values of erraticity parameters are compared with those obtained from event samples generated by the Lund Monte Carlo model FRITIOF and by simple random numbers. In each case simulated results substantially underestimate the extent of experimentally observed nonstatistical fluctuation.

Chanda, Dipesh; Ghosh, Malay Kumar; Mukhopadhyay, Amitabha [Physics Department, University of North Bengal, Siliguri-734430, Darjeeling, West Bengal (India); Singh, Gurmukh [Department of Physics, Canisius College, 2001 Main Street, Buffalo, New York 14208 (United States)

2005-03-01

18

OPERA experiment and its releted emulsion techniques  

SciTech Connect

The OPERA experiment is designed to clarify neutrino oscillation by detecting appearance of {nu}{sub {tau}} in pure {nu}{sub {mu}} beam through a long baseline method (CNGS beam from cern to the Gran Sasso laboratory). The key technique is the use of emulsion films and their scanning. We developed a new high speed scanning system with speed of 50 cm{sup 2}/h and it was successfully demonstrated in 2006 CNGS commissioning. The new scanning system is not only meant for the OPERA experiment, but it has large potential of applications. For example, measurement of {nu}{sub e} with strong separation power against {pi}{sup 0}. Or a compact emulsion spectrometer for future neutrino experiments.

Ariga, Akitaka [Nagoya University (Japan)

2008-02-21

19

TWO-PHOTON PHYSICS IN NUCLEUS-NUCLEUS COLLISIONS AT RHIC.  

SciTech Connect

Ultra-relativistic heavy-ions carry strong electromagnetic and nuclear fields. Interactions between these fields in peripheral nucleus-nucleus collisions can probe many interesting physics topics. This presentation will focus on coherent two-photon and photonuclear processes at RHIC. The rates for these interactions will be high. The coherent coupling of all the protons in the nucleus enhances the equivalent photon flux by a factor Z{sup 2} up to an energy of {approx} 3 GeV. The plans for studying coherent interactions with the STAR experiment will be discussed. Experimental techniques for separating signal from background will be presented.

NYSTRAND,J.

1998-09-10

20

Development of silicon pixels for strangeness detection in nucleus-nucleus collisions  

SciTech Connect

Silicon microdetectors and in particular the novel silicon pixel detectors open up the way for a comprehensive study of strangeness detection in nucleus-nucleus collisions. We outline the philosophy behind this approach, describe an application in the pixel-based heavy-ion experiment WA97, and give some preliminary results on the performance of four silicon pixels planes in the 1994 Pb beam run of WA97. We conclude with an outlook on some possible future applications of silicon pixels. {copyright} 1995 {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

Antinori, F. [CERN, European Organization for Nuclear Research, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)]|[Dipartimento di Fisica dell`Universita and Sezione INFN, I-16146 Genoa (Italy); Barberis, D. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell`Universita and Sezione INFN, I-16146 Genoa (Italy); Beker, H. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell`Universita ``La Sapienza`` and Sezione INFN, I-00185 Rome (Italy); Beusch, W.; Campbell, M.; Cantatore, E. [CERN, European Organization for Nuclear Research, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Catanesi, M.G. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell`Universita and Sezione INFN, I-70124 Bari (Italy); Chesi, E. [CERN, European Organization for Nuclear Research, CH-1211 Genova 23 (Switzerland); Darbo, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell`Universita and Sezione INFN, I-70124 Bari (Italy); Di Bari, D. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell`Universita and Sezione INFN, I-70124 Bari (Italy); Di Liberto, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell`Universita ``La Sapienza`` and Sezione INFN, I-00185 Rome (Italy); Elia, D. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell-Universita and Sezione INFN, I-70124 Bari (Italy); Heijne, E.H.M.; Helstrup, H.; Jacholkowski, A.; Klempt, W.; Knudson, K. [CERN, European Organization for Nuclear Research, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Kralik, I. [Institute of Experimental Physics, SK-04353 Kosice (Slovakia); Lassalle, J.C. [CERN, European Organization for Nuclear Research, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Lenti, V. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell`Universita and Sezione INFN, I-70124 Bari (Italy); Lopez, L. [CERN, European Organization for Nuclear Research, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Luptak, M. [Institute of Experimental Physics, SK-04353 Kosice (Slovakia); Martinengo, P. [CERN, European Organization for Nuclear Research, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Meddi, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell`Universita ``La Sapienza`` and Sezione INFN, I-00185 Rome (Italy); Middelkamp, P. [CERN, European Organization for Nuclear Research, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Presented by...

1995-07-20

21

Dynamics of high-energy nucleus-nucleus collisions  

SciTech Connect

The authors use a Glauber multiple-collision model to examine the dynamics of nucleus-nucleus collisions. The model introduces a stopping law, which describes how a baryon loses energy in a baryon-baryon collision, and a particle production law, which is based on the baryon energy loss. The model gives results on the longitudinal energy loss which compare well with the recent WA80 experimental data for /sup 16/O on various targets at 60 and 200 GeV per nucleon. The stopping law that is needed to fit the experimental zero-degree spectra reveals that the degree of stopping in these high-energy nuclear collisions is high.

Wong, C.Y.; Lu, Z.D.

1988-01-01

22

Fluctuations of the K/{pi} ratio in nucleus-nucleus collisions: Statistical and transport models  

SciTech Connect

Event-by-event fluctuations of the kaon to pion number ratio in nucleus-nucleus collisions are studied within the statistical hadron-resonance gas model (SM) for different statistical ensembles and in the hadron-string-dynamics (HSD) transport approach. We find that the HSD model can qualitatively reproduce the measured excitation function for the K/{pi} ratio fluctuations in central Au+Au (or Pb+Pb) collisions from low Super Proton Synchrotron up to top Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider energies. Substantial differences in the HSD and SM results are found for the fluctuations and correlations of the kaon and pion numbers. These predictions impose a challenge for future experiments.

Gorenstein, M. I. [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Frankfurt (Germany); Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kiev (Ukraine); Hauer, M. [Helmholtz Research School, University of Frankfurt, Frankfurt (Germany); Konchakovski, V. P. [Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kiev (Ukraine); Helmholtz Research School, University of Frankfurt, Frankfurt (Germany); Bratkovskaya, E. L. [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Frankfurt (Germany)

2009-02-15

23

Linear extrapolation of ultrarelativistic nucleon-nucleon scattering to nucleus-nucleus collisions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use a Glauber-like approach to describe very energetic nucleus-nucleus collisions as a sequence of binary nucleon-nucleon collisions. No free parameters are needed: All the information comes from simple parametrizations of nucleon-nucleon collision data. Produced mesons are assumed not to interact with each other or with the original baryons. Comparisons are made to published experimental measurements of baryon rapidity and transverse momentum distributions, negative hadron rapidity and transverse momentum distributions, average multiplicities of pions, kaons, hyperons, and antihyperons, and zero degree energy distributions for sulfur-sulfur collisions at 200 GeV/c per nucleon and for lead-lead collisions at 158 GeV/c per nucleon. Good agreement is found except that the number of strange particles produced, especially antihyperons, is too small compared with experiment. We call this model LEXUS: It is a base-line linear extrapolation of ultrarelativistic nucleon-nucleon scattering to heavy ion collisions.

Jeon, Sangyong; Kapusta, Joseph

1997-07-01

24

Linear momentum transfer in nonrelativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The systematic behavior of linear momentum transfer from projectile to target in nonrelativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions has been studied using the results of fission-fragment angular-correlation measurements on uranium target nuclei. Data for 4He, 12C, 16O, and 20Ne projectiles have been analyzed over an energy range which extends well above the interaction barrier. The data illustrate the division of the total reaction cross section into two primary components: one associated with ~ 90 percent or greater linear momentum transfer and the other involving much smaller amounts of linear momentum transfer. The former is attributed to fusionlike collisions and the latter to peripheral collisions. The minimum between these two components corresponds to a linear momentum transfer of about 50 percent. It is observed that the ratio of fusionlike collisions to the total reaction cross section decreases regularly as a function of both increasing bombarding energy and projectile mass. From comparison of the experimental fission-fragment angular correlation functions with the predictions of complete fusion kinematics, it is shown that above 10 MeV/nucleon, the experimental definition of complete fusion is complicated by the increasing probability for large, but incomplete, linear momentum transfer collisions. Estimates of critical angular momenta derived from these data do not show any major disagreement with rotating-liquid-drop predictions. NUCLEAR REACTIONS, FISSION Studied systematics of fission-fragment angular correlation measurements from uranium target nuclei. Deduced linear momentum transfer distributions, fusionlike collision and complete fusion probabilities, and critical angular momenta.

Viola, V. E., Jr.; Back, B. B.; Wolf, K. L.; Awes, T. C.; Gelbke, C. K.; Breuer, H.

1982-07-01

25

Rheology and microstructure of magmatic emulsions - Theory and experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The rheological properties of a dilute mixture of melt plus vapor bubbles, referred to as emulsion, are investigated theoretically and in rheometric experiments on dilute viscous germanium dioxide emulsions at temperatures between 1100 and 1175 C and at 100 kPa pressure in a rotating rod rheometer at shear rates between 0.05/s and 7/s. The results indicate that the emulsions may be described by a power-law constitutive relation when observations cover a sufficient range of shear rates to resolve nonlinear flow.

Stein, Daniel J.; Spera, Frank J.

1992-01-01

26

Japanese-American Cooperative Emulsion Experiment /JACEE/. [high energy cosmic ray studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The instrumentation and results of long duration balloon flights carried out jointly by U.S. and Japan researchers to examine high energy cosmic rays are reported. Basic detector geometries are 2.5 sq m sr with operation at altitudes with 3-4 g/sq cm pressure, with observations thus far of over 100 hr. Energies from 2-100 TeV are recorded for nucleus-nucleus and hadron-nucleus interactions, and searches are made for new particle or interactions. The detector is an emulsion chamber which comprises doubly-coated nuclear emulsions on 800 micron thick methacryl substrates, X-ray films, etchable detectors, low density spacers, and lead sheets. Segmentation of the instrument into a primary charge module, a target section, a spacer section, and a lead-emulsion calorimeter allows accurate charge measurement for primary nuclei, reliable energy resolution, and a large geometrical factor for collecting high energy events. A primary Ca nucleus of 300 TeV has been observed.

Huggett, R. W.; Hunter, S. D.; Jones, W. V.; Takahashi, Y.; Ogata, T.; Saito, T.; Holynski, R.; Jurak, A.; Wolter, W.; Parnell, T. A.

1981-01-01

27

Emulsion sheet doublets as interface trackers for the OPERA experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

New methods for efficient and unambiguous interconnection between electronic position sensitive detectors and target units based on nuclear photographic emulsion films have been developed. The application to the OPERA experiment, that aims at detecting numurightleftharpoonsnutau oscillations in the CNGS neutrino beam, is reported in this paper. In order to reduce background due to latent tracks collected before installation in the

A. Anokhina; S. Aoki; A. Ariga; L. Arrabito; D. Autiero; A. Badertscher; F. Bay; F. Bersani Greggio; A. Bertolin; M. Besnier; D. Bick; C. Bozza; T. Brugiere; R. Brugnera; G. Brunetti; S. Buontempo; E. Carrara; A. Cazes; L. Chaussard; M. Chernyavsky; V. Chiarella; N. Chon-Sen; A. Chukanov; L. Consiglio; M. Cozzi; V. Cuha; F. Dal Corso; G. D'Amato; N. D'Ambrosio; G. DeLellis; Y. Déclais; M. DeSerio; F. Di Capua; D. Di Ferdinando; A. Di Giovanni; N. Di Marco; C. Di Troia; S. Dmitrievski; A. Dominjon; M. Dracos; D. Duchesneau; S. Dusini; J. Ebert; O. Egorov; R. Enikeev; A. Ereditato; L. S. Esposito; J. Favier; G. Felici; T. Ferber; R. Fini; D. Frekers; T. Fukuda; V. I. Galkin; V. A. Galkin; A. Garfagnini; G. Giacomelli; M. Giorgini; C. Goellnitz; J. Goldberg; D. Golubkov; Y. Gornushkin; G. Grella; F. Grianti; M. Guler; G. Gusev; C. Gustavino; C. Hagner; T. Hara; M. Hierholzer; S. Hiramatsu; K. Hoshino; M. Ieva; K. Jakovcic; J. Janicsko Csathy; B. Janutta; C. Jollet; F. Juget; T. Kawai; M. Kazuyama; S. H. Kim; J. Knuesel; K. Kodama; M. Komatsu; U. Kose; I. Kreslo; I. Laktineh; C. Lazzaro; J. Lenkeit; A. Ljubicic; A. Longhin; G. Lutter; K. Manai; G. Mandrioli; A. Marotta; J. Marteau; T. Matsuo; H. Matsuoka; N. Mauri; F. Meisel; A. Meregaglia; M. Messina; P. Migliozzi; S. Mikado; S. Miyamoto; P. Monacelli; K. Morishima; U. Moser; M. T. Muciaccia; N. Naganawa; T. Nakano; M. Nakamura; T. Nakamura; V. Nikitina; K. Niwa; Y. Nonoyama; S. Ogawa; V. Osedlo; D. Ossetski; A. Paoloni; B. D. Park; I. G. Park; A. Pastore; L. Patrizii; E. Pennacchio; H. Pessard; V. Pilipenko; C. Pistillo; N. Polukhina; M. Pozzato; K. Pretzl; P. Publichenko; F. Pupilli; T. Roganova; G. Rosa; I. Rostovtseva; A. Rubbia; A. Russo; O. Ryazhskaya; D. Ryzhikov; O. Sato; Y. Sato; V. Saveliev; G. Sazhina; A. Schembri; L. Scotto Lavina; H. Shibuya; S. Simone; M. Sioli; C. Sirignano; G. Sirri; J. S. Song; M. Spinetti; L. Stanco; N. Starkov; M. Stipcevic; T. Strauss; P. Strolin; V. Sugonyaev; Y. Taira; S. Takahashi; M. Tenti; F. Terranova; I. Tezuka; V. Tioukov; P. Tolun; V. Tsarev; S. Tufanli; N. Ushida; P. Vilain; M. Vladimirov; L. Votano; J. L. Vuilleumier; G. Wilquet; B. Wonsak; C. S. Yoon; J. Yoshida; Y. Zaitsev; S. Zemskova; A. Zghiche; R. Zimmermann

2008-01-01

28

Determination of scanning efficiencies in experiments using nuclear emulsion sheets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During their exposure, nuclear emulsion sheets detect both tracks from experiment-related particles, as well as a considerable amount of background tracks, mainly due to cosmic rays. Unless the exposure has been fairly short, it is therefore fairly likely that a fraction of the tracks that have been identified as belonging to the particles the experiment is interested in, are really due to background. A method, which allows measurement of this fraction reliably directly from the data, is described.

Brooijmans, G.

2000-08-01

29

Interacting gluon model for hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions in the central rapidity region  

SciTech Connect

The interacting gluon model developed to describe the inelasticity distribution in hadron-nucleon collisions has been generalized and applied to hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus interactions. Leading particle spectra and energy distributions in hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions are calculated.

Fowler, G.N. (Department of Physics, University of Exeter, Exeter, United Kingdom (GB)); Navarra, F.S. (Department of Physics, University of Marburg, Marburg, Federal Republic of Germany); Plumer, M. (Department of Physics, University of Marburg, Marburg, Federal Republic of Germany Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Nuclear Science Division, Berkeley, California 94720); Vourdas, A. (Department of Electrical Engineering and Electronics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom); Weiner, R.M.

1989-09-01

30

Effective number of inelastically interacting nucleons in rare nucleus-nucleus production processes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A model of nucleus-nucleus interaction using one inelastic NN-interaction is suggested for the exclusive production processes with small cross-section. A-dependence nuclear coherent and incoherent production cross-section are predicted. 20 refs.; 4 figs. ...

V. L. Korotkikh I. P. Lokhtin

1992-01-01

31

Computer program for parameterization of nucleus-nucleus electromagnetic dissociation cross sections  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computer subroutine parameterization of electromagnetic dissociation cross sections for nucleus-nucleus collisions is presented that is suitable for implementation in a heavy ion transport code. The only inputs required are the projectile kinetic energy and the projectile and target charge and mass numbers.

Norbury, John W.; Townsend, Lawrence W.; Badavi, Forooz F.

1988-01-01

32

Nucleus-nucleus collisions and the nuclear equation of state  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An analysis was made of existing experimental data from the Bevalac streamer chamber and from the Kent state neutron flow experiment 848H; transport model were compared with these data and with published results from other experiments. Future Bevelac experiment were developed, with particular emphasis on the EOS Time Projection Chamber (TPC). The PI is spokesperson for one of three beam-time proposals for the first round of experiments at the EOS TPC, to be considered by the Bevalac PAC in June 1990. Planned activities for the coming budget period include a continuation of strong emphasis on the TPC, and the initiation of participation in a planned RHIC experiment.

Keane, Declan

33

PREFACE: 11th International Conference on Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions (NN2012)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 11th International Conference on Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions (NN2012) was held from 27 May to 1 June 2012, in San Antonio, Texas, USA. It was jointly organized and hosted by The Cyclotron Institute at Texas A&M University, College Station and The Department of Physics and Astronomy at Texas A&M University-Commerce. Among the approximately 300 participants were a large number of graduate students and post-doctoral fellows. The Keynote Talk of the conference, 'The State of Affairs of Present and Future Nucleus-Nucleus Collision Science', was given by Dr Robert Tribble, University Distinguished Professor and Director of the TAMU Cyclotron Institute. During the conference a very well-received public lecture on neutrino astronomy, 'The ICEcube project', was given by Dr Francis Halzen, Hilldale and Gregory Breit Distinguished Professor at the University of Wisconsin, Madison. The Scientific program continued in the general spirit and intention of this conference series. As is typical of this conference a broad range of topics including fundamental areas of nuclear dynamics, structure, and applications were addressed in 42 plenary session talks, 150 parallel session talks, and 21 posters. The high quality of the work presented emphasized the vitality and relevance of the subject matter of this conference. Following the tradition, the NN2012 International Advisory Committee selected the host and site of the next conference in this series. The 12th International Conference on Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions (NN2015) will be held 21-26 June 2015 in Catania, Italy. It will be hosted by The INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, INFN, Catania and the Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia of the University of Catania. The NN2012 Proceedings contains the conference program and 165 articles organized into the following 10 sections 1. Heavy and Superheavy Elements 2. QCD and Hadron Physics 3. Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collisions 4. Nuclear Structure 5. Nuclear Energy and Applications of Nuclear Science and Technologies 6. Nuclear Reactions and Structure of Unstable Nuclei 7. Equation of State of Neutron-Rich Nuclear Matter, Clusters in Nuclei and Nuclear Reactions 8. Fusion and Fission 9. Nuclear Astrophysics 10. New Facilities and Detectors We would like to thank Texas A&M University and Texas A&M University-Commerce for their organizational support and for providing financial support for many students and postdocs and those who had special need. This support helped assure the success of NN2012. Special thanks also go to all members of the International Advisory Committee and the Local Organizing Committee (listed below) for their great work in advising upon, preparing and executing the NN2012 scientific program as well as the social events that all together made the NN2012 an enjoyable experience for both the participants and their companions. NN2012 International Advisory Committee N Auerbach (Israel) J Aysto (Finland) C Beck (France) S Cherubini (Italy) L Ferreira (Portugal) C Gagliardi (USA) S Gales (France) C Gale (Canada) W Gelletly (Great Britain) Paulo R S Gomes (Brazil) W Greiner (Germany) W Henning (USA) D Hinde (Australia) S Hofmann (Germany) M Hussein (Brazil) B Jacak (USA) S Kailas (India) W G Lynch (USA) Z Majka (Poland) L McLerran (USA) V Metag (Germany) K Morita (Japan) B Mueller (USA) D G Mueller (France) T Motobayashi (Japan) W Nazarewicz (USA) Y Oganessian (Russia) J Nolen (USA) E K Rehm (USA) N Rowley (France) B Sherrill (USA) J Schukraft (Switzerland) W Q Shen (China) A Stefanini (Italy) H Stoecker (Germany) A Szanto de Toledo (Brazil) U van Kolck (USA) W von Oertzen (Germany) M Wiescher (USA) N Xu (USA) N V Zamfir (Romania) W L Zhan (China) H Q Zhang (China) NN2012 Local Organizing Committee Marina Barbui Carlos Bertulani Robert Burch Jr Cheri Davis Cody Folden Kris Hagel John Hardy Bao-An Li (Co-Chair and Scientific Secretary) Joseph Natowitz (Co-Chair) Ralf Rapp Livius Trache Sherry Yennello Editors of NN2012 Proceedings Bao-An Li (Texas A&M University-Commerce) and Joseph Natowitz (Texas A&M Unive

Li, Bao-An; Natowitz, Joseph B.

2013-03-01

34

Calorimetry applied to nucleus-nucleus collisions at ultrarelativistic energies  

SciTech Connect

A general introduction to high-energy calorimetry is presented, together with brief descriptions of the two types of cascades relevant to calorimetric measurements. This is followed by a discussion of ''compensation'' and of the ''e/h'' ratio. A detailed description of two calorimeters designed and constructed for the CERN WA80 experiment are also given. 16 refs., 17 figs., 5 tabs.

Plasil, F.

1988-01-01

35

Momentum loss in proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An optical model description, based on multiple scattering theory, of longitudinal momentum loss in proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions is presented. The crucial role of the imaginary component of the nucleon-nucleon transition matrix in accounting for longitudinal momentum transfer is demonstrated. Results obtained with this model are compared with Intranuclear Cascade (INC) calculations, as well as with predictions from Vlasov-Uehling-Uhlenbeck (VUU) and quantum molecular dynamics (QMD) simulations. Comparisons are also made with experimental data where available. These indicate that the present model is adequate to account for longitudinal momentum transfer in both proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions over a wide range of energies.

Khan, Ferdous; Townsend, Lawrence W.

1993-01-01

36

Sensitivity of cross sections for elastic nucleus-nucleus scattering to halo nucleus density distributions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to clear up the sensitivity of the nucleus-nucleus scattering to the nuclear matter distributions in exotic halo nuclei, we have calculated differential cross sections for elastic scattering of the 6He and 11Li nuclei on several nuclear targets at the energy of 0.8 GeV/nucleon with different assumed nuclear density distributions in 6He and 11Li.

Alkhazov, G. D.; Sarantsev, V. V.

2012-12-01

37

Skylab experiment performance evaluation manual. Appendix K: Experiment S009 nuclear emulsion (MSFC)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A series of analyses are presented for Experiment S009, nuclear emulsion (MSFC), to be used for evaluating the performance of the Skylab corollary experiments under preflight, inflight, and postflight conditions. Experiment contingency plan workaround procedure and malfunction analyses are included in order to assist in making the experiment operationally successful.

Meyers, J. E.

1972-01-01

38

Nucleus-Nucleus Chou-Yang Correlations with Generalized Multiplicity Distribution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Chou-Yang model has been successful in describing the forward-backward multiplicity distributions for Hadron-Hadron collisions. The model is extended to the case of Nucleus-Nucleus collisions where geometry is incorporated into the Generalized Multiplicity Distribution component. This contribution is investigated for forward-backward multiplicity measured at 130 GeV Au-Au collisions by calculating the correlation coefficient obtained with the model. Results are also produced for various oxygen-nucleus collisions. Finally the model is applied to the case of Pb-Pb collisions which can be extended to predict correlation coefficients in the TeV range.

Jasvantlal, J. K.; Dewanto, A.; Chan, A. H.; Oh, C. H.

2011-11-01

39

The effect of the relative nuclear size on the nucleus-nucleus interactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The experimental data on the interactions of light nuclei (d, He(4), C(12)) at the momentum 4.2 GeV/cA with the carbon nuclei were taken in the 2-m propane bubble chamber. The distributions in the number of interacting nucleons, the spectra of protons, the mean energies of secondary pions and protons, the mean fractions of energy transferred to the pion and nucleon components are presented. The results of the investigation of the mechanism of nucleus-nucleus interactions can be used to calculate the nuclear cascades in the atmosphere.

Erofeeva, I. N.; Murzin, V. S.; Sivoklokov, S. Y.; Smirnova, L. N.

1985-08-01

40

ASPECTS OF COULOMB DISSOCIATION AND INTERFERENCE IN PERIPHERAL NUCLEUS - NUCLEUS COLLISIONS.  

SciTech Connect

Coherent vector meson production in peripheral nucleus-nucleus collisions is discussed. These interactions may occur for impact parameters much larger than the sum of the nuclear radii. Since the vector meson production is always localized to one of the nuclei, the system acts as a two-source interferometer in the transverse plane. By tagging the outgoing nuclei for Coulomb dissociation it is possible to obtain a measure of the impact parameter and thus the source separation in the interferometer. This is of particular interest since the life-time of the vector mesons are generally much shorter than the impact parameters of the collisions.

NYSTRAND,J.; BALTZ,A.J.; KLEIN,S.R.

2002-10-16

41

Production of neutron-rich nuclei in the nucleus-nucleus collisions around the Fermi energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An overview of the recent progress in production of neutron-rich nuclei in the nucleus-nucleus collisions around the Fermi energy is presented and the possibilities to produce the very neutron-rich nuclei in the region of mid-heavy to heavy nuclei is examined. Possible scenarios for the new generation of rare nuclear beam facilities such as Eurisol are discussed. Isoscaling is investigated as a possible tool to predict the production rates of exotic species in reactions induced by both stable and radioactive beams.

Veselsky, M.

2008-11-01

42

Analysis of nucleus-nucleus collisions at high energies and random matrix theory  

SciTech Connect

We propose a novel statistical approach to the analysis of experimental data obtained in nucleus-nucleus collisions at high energies which borrows from methods developed within the context of random matrix theory. It is applied to the detection of correlations in a system of secondary particles. We find good agreement between the results obtained in this way and a standard analysis based on the method of effective mass spectra and two-pair correlation function often used in high energy physics. The method introduced here is free from unwanted background contributions.

Nazmitdinov, R. G. [Departament de Fisica, Universitat de les Illes Balears, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, RU-141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Shahaliev, E. I. [High Energy Physics Laboratory, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, RU-141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Institute of Radiation Problems, 370143 Baku (Azerbaijan); Suleymanov, M. K. [High Energy Physics Laboratory, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, RU-141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Tomsovic, S. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik komplexer Systeme, Noethnitzer Strasse 38, D-01187 Dresden (Germany)

2009-05-15

43

Electromagnetic processes in nucleus-nucleus collisions relating to space radiation research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Most of the papers within this report deal with electromagnetic processes in nucleus-nucleus collisions which are of concern in the space radiation program. In particular, the removal of one and two nucleons via both electromagnetic and strong interaction processes has been extensively investigated. The theory of relativistic Coulomb fission has also been developed. Several papers on quark models also appear. Finally, note that the theoretical methods developed in this work have been directly applied to the task of radiation protection of astronauts. This has been done by parameterizing the theoretical formalism in such a fashion that it can be used in cosmic ray transport codes.

Norbury, John W.

1992-01-01

44

Jet tomography of high-energy nucleus-nucleus collisions at next-to-leading order  

SciTech Connect

We demonstrate that jet observables are highly sensitive to the characteristics of the vacuum and the in-medium QCD parton showers and propose techniques that exploit this sensitivity to constrain the mechanism of quark and gluon energy loss in strongly-interacting plasmas. As a first example, we calculate the inclusive jet cross section in high-energy nucleus-nucleus collisions to {Omicron}({alpha}{sub s}{sup 3}). Theoretical predictions for the medium-induced jet broadening and the suppression of the jet production rate due to cold and hot nuclear matter effects in Au+Au and Cu+Cu reactions at RHIC are presented.

Vitev, Ivan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Zhang, Ben - Wei [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01

45

Pion and Kaon Lab Frame Differential Cross Sections for Intermediate Energy Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space radiation transport codes require accurate models for hadron production in intermediate energy nucleus-nucleus collisions. Codes require cross sections to be written in terms of lab frame variables and it is important to be able to verify models against experimental data in the lab frame. Several models are compared to lab frame data. It is found that models based on algebraic parameterizations are unable to describe intermediate energy differential cross section data. However, simple thermal model parameterizations, when appropriately transformed from the center of momentum to the lab frame, are able to account for the data.

Norbury, John W.; Blattnig, Steve R.

2008-01-01

46

Nuclear emulsions in a large, hybrid experiment (CHORUS) to search for ? ??? ? oscillations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe the (2×800 kg) emulsion target in the CHORUS hybrid detector set-up for the search of ? ??? ? oscillations, together with the CERN pouring and processing facilities (upgraded for this purpose), and the techniques employed to treat the emulsions used as the active target in the experiment.

Aoki, S.; Barbuto, E.; Bozza, C.; Fabre, J. P.; Flegal, W.; Grella, G.; Guler, M.; Hara, T.; Hoshino, K.; Ishii, Y.; Kawamura, T.; Kim, D. C.; Kobayashi, M.; Kotaka, Y.; Kozaki, T.; Meddi, F.; Muciaccia, M. T.; Nakamura, K.; Niu, E.; Obayashi, Y.; Ogawa, S.; Romano, G.; Rosa, G.; Sato, O.; Shamanov, V.; Shibuya, H.; Simone, S.; Smirnitsky, V.; Song, J. S.; Tolun, P.; Vivolo, L.; Yoon, C. S.

2000-06-01

47

Analysis of Nucleus-Nucleus Fusion Cross-Section at Extreme Sub-Barrier Energies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nucleus-nucleus potential is expressed phenomenologically by a new radial form as an alternative to the conventional Woods-Saxon form. By virtue of novel representation of the surface diffuseness, the potential added with the electrostatic part generates a unique barrier potential which provides simultaneous explanations of two important mechanisms namely elastic scattering and fusion in a heavy-ion reaction within the framework of optical potential model of scattering and region-wise absorption in analytical form. The drastic falloff of experimental results of fusion cross-section (?fus) at extreme sub-barrier energy (E) and its manifestation depicting maximum in S( = E?fuse2??) factor and steep rise in L( = dln(E?fus)/dE) factor are explained with remarkable success.

Sahu, Basudeb; Sahu, Bidhubhusan

2012-07-01

48

Fat emulsion for intravenous administration: clinical experience with intralipid 10%.  

PubMed Central

A 10% soybean oil emulsion (Intralipid 10%), used extensively in Europe for intravenous alimentation, has now been clinically evaluated in the United States. Controlled studies have shown that the soybean oil emulsion can be substituted for glucose to supply one-third to two-thirds of the total calories, and can be administered peripherally without significant vein irritation. Essential fatty acid deficiencies, frequently encountered in patients dependent on parenteral alimentation with fat-free solutions, are prevented and corrected by use of this preparation. Data on long-term tolerance to Intralipid 10% infusions are presented for 292 patients treated for more than 6,000 patient days. The soybean oil emulsion was usually well tolerated. Side effects were reported in two of 133 adults and 12 of 159 pediatric patients.

Hansen, L M; Hardie, B S; Hidalgo, J

1976-01-01

49

Important role of three-body forces effect on nucleus-nucleus elastic scattering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An analysis of nucleus-nucleus (AA) elastic scattering is made by the double-folding model (DFM) with a new complex G-matrix interactions called CEG07. The CEG07 interactions are derived from the free-space nucleon-nucleon interaction the Extended Soft Core model, including the three-body forces (TBF) contributions composed of the two parts of three-body repulsive and attractive forces. We have tested the present microscopic DFM optical potential with CEG07 in the ^16O + ^16O system at E/A = 70 MeV. The TBF effect is clearly seen in the cross section and the folding model potential (FMP) calculated with TBF well reproduces the experimental data up to the backward angles. The role of each part of TBR and TBA are also demonstrated in the same system. The effect of TBF is very important not only for nuclear saturation properties but also proper understanding of AA elastic scattering. Furthermore, the FMP with CEG07 was compared with one with CDM3Y6 that is one of the realiable and successful effective density-dependent NN interaction to be used in the DFM.

Furumoto, Takenori; Sakuragi, Yukinori; Yamamoto, Yasuo

2009-10-01

50

Total inclusive neutron cross sections and multiplicities in nucleus-nucleus collisions at intermediate energies  

SciTech Connect

The total integrated inclusive cross section, sigma(T>T/sub 0/), for the emission of neutrons above an energy T/sub 0/ by neon ions with an average energy of 337 MeV per nucleon reacting in targets of uranium, copper, aluminum, and carbon is described by sigma-bar/sub NN/(R-bar/sub G//r/sub o/)/sup( alphaT/o). Here sigma-bar/sub NN/ is the isospin-averaged nucleon-nucleon cross section evaluated at an energy equal to the bombarding energy per nucleon, and R-bar/sub G/ is the arithmetic mean value of the radii of the projectile and the target measured in units of the radius parameter r/sub 0/ ( = 1.2 fm). In the limit T/sub 0/ = 0, the exponent ..cap alpha..(T/sub 0/) = 5. A useful formula is derived for calculating mean neutron multiplicities in nucleus-nucleus collisions.

Madey, R.; Anderson, B.D.; Cecil, R.A.; Tandy, P.C.; Schimmerling, W.

1983-08-01

51

Statistical analysis of secondary particle distributions in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use is described of several statistical techniques to characterize structure in the angular distributions of secondary particles from nucleus-nucleus collisions in the energy range 24 to 61 GeV/nucleon. The objective of this work was to determine whether there are correlations between emitted particle intensity and angle that may be used to support the existence of the quark gluon plasma. The techniques include chi-square null hypothesis tests, the method of discrete Fourier transform analysis, and fluctuation analysis. We have also used the method of composite unit vectors to test for azimuthal asymmetry in a data set of 63 JACEE-3 events. Each method is presented in a manner that provides the reader with some practical detail regarding its application. Of those events with relatively high statistics, Fe approaches 0 at 55 GeV/nucleon was found to possess an azimuthal distribution with a highly non-random structure. No evidence of non-statistical fluctuations was found in the pseudo-rapidity distributions of the events studied. It is seen that the most effective application of these methods relies upon the availability of many events or single events that possess very high multiplicities.

Mcguire, Stephen C.

1987-01-01

52

Explosives and blasting: Experiences with Handibulk'' emulsion delivery systems  

SciTech Connect

There have been no radically new commercial bulk explosives since Atlas Powder Company's introduction of emulsions onto the market in 1968. But the effectiveness, safety and management of these familiar explosives is continuously being improved by the development of blast design techniques, explosives delivery and initiation systems, and monitoring methods. In the first feature J.A. Hackett looks at developments in blasting technology which can help you get a better bang for your bucks.

Not Available

1994-02-01

53

Formation of dense partonic matter in relativistic nucleus–nucleus collisions at RHIC: Experimental evaluation by the PHENIX Collaboration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extensive experimental data from high-energy nucleus-nucleus collisions were recorded using the PHENIX detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The comprehensive set of measurements from the first three years of RHIC operation includes charged particle multiplicities, transverse energy, yield ratios and spectra of identified hadrons in a wide range of transverse momenta (pT), elliptic flow, two-particle correlations, nonstatistical fluctuations,

K. Adcox; S. S. Adler; S. Afanasiev; C. Aidala; N. N. Ajitanand; Y. Akiba; A. Al-Jamel; J. Alexander; R. Amirikas; K. Aoki; L. Aphecetche; Y. Arai; R. Armendariz; S. H. Aronson; R. Averbeck; T. C. Awes; R. Azmoun; V. Babintsev; A. Baldisseri; K. N. Barish; P. D. Barnes; J. Barrette; B. Bassalleck; S. Bathe; S. Batsouli; V. Baublis; F. Bauer; A. Bazilevsky; S. Belikov; F. G. Bellaiche; S. T. Belyaev; M. J. Bennett; Y. Berdnikov; S. Bhagavatula; M. T. Bjorndal; J. G. Boissevain; H. Borel; S. Borenstein; M. L. Brooks; D. S. Brown; N. Bruner; D. Bucher; H. Buesching; V. Bumazhnov; G. Bunce; J. M. Burward-Hoy; S. Butsyk; X. Camard; T. A. Carey; J.-S. Chai; P. Chand; J. Chang; W. C. Chang; L. L. Chavez; S. Chernichenko; C. Y. Chi; J. Chiba; M. Chiu; I. J. Choi; R. K. Choudhury; T. Christ; M. S. Chung; P. Chung; V. Cianciolo; C. R. Cleven; Y. Cobigo; B. A. Cole; M. P. Comets; P. Constantin; M. Csanád; T. Csörg?; J. P. Cussonneau; D. d'Enterria; T. Dahms; K. Das; G. David; F. Deák; H. Delagrange; A. Denisov; A. Deshpande; E. J. Desmond; A. Devismes; O. Dietzsch; B. V. Dinesh; J. L. Drachenberg; O. Drapier; A. Drees; A. K. Dubey; R. du Rietz; A. Durum; D. Dutta; V. Dzhordzhadze; K. Ebisu; Y. V. Efremenko; J. Egdemir; K. El Chenawi; A. Enokizono; H. En'yo; B. Espagnon; S. Esumi; L. Ewell; T. Ferdousi; D. E. Fields; C. Finck; F. Fleuret; S. L. Fokin; B. Forestier; Z. Fraenkel; J. E. Frantz; A. Franz; A. D. Frawley; Y. Fukao; S.-Y. Fung; S. Gadrat; S. Garpman; F. Gastineau; M. Germain; T. K. Ghosh; A. Glenn; A. L. Godoi; G. Gogiberidze; M. Gonin; J. Gosset; Y. Goto; R. Granier de Cassagnac; N. Grau; S. V. Greene; M. Grosse Perdekamp; T. Gunji; S. K. Gupta; W. Guryn; H.-Å. Gustafsson; T. Hachiya; A. Hadjhenni; J. S. Haggerty; M. N. Hagiwara; H. Hamagaki; A. G. Hansen; H. Hara; H. Harada; E. P. Hartouni; K. Haruna; M. Harvey; E. Haslum; K. Hasuko; R. Hayano; N. Hayashi; X. He; M. Heffner; T. K. Hemmick; J. M. Heuser; P. Hidas; H. Hiejima; J. C. Hill; D. S. Ho; R. Hobbs; M. Holmes; W. Holzmann; K. Homma; B. Hong; A. Hoover; T. Horaguchi; H. M. Hur; T. Ichihara; V. V. Ikonnikov; K. Imai; M. Inaba; M. Inuzuka; M. S. Ippolitov; D. Isenhower; L. Isenhower; M. Ishihara; T. Isobe; M. Issah; A. Isupov; B. V. Jacak; W. Y. Jang; J. Jia; O. Jinnouchi; B. M. Johnson; S. C. Johnson; K. S. Joo; D. Jouan; F. Kajihara; S. Kametani; N. Kamihara; M. Kaneta; J. H. Kang; M. Kann; S. S. Kapoor; K. Katou; T. Kawabata; T. Kawagishi; A. V. Kazantsev; S. Kelly; B. Khachaturov; A. Khanzadeev; J. Kikuchi; D. H. Kim; D. J. Kim; D. W. Kim; E. Kim; G.-B. Kim; H. J. Kim; S. Y. Kim; Y. G. Kim; E. Kinney; W. W. Kinnison; A. Kiss; E. Kistenev; A. Kiyomichi; K. Kiyoyama; C. Klein-Boesing; S. Klinksiek; H. Kobayashi; L. Kochenda; V. Kochetkov; D. Koehler; T. Kohama; R. Kohara; B. Komkov; M. Konno; M. Kopytine; D. Kotchetkov; A. Kozlov; P. J. Kroon; C. H. Kuberg; G. J. Kunde; N. Kurihara; K. Kurita; Y. Kuroki; M. J. Kweon; Y. Kwon; G. S. Kyle; R. Lacey; V. Ladygin; J. G. Lajoie; J. Lauret; Y. Le Bornec; A. Lebedev; S. Leckey; D. M. Lee; S. Lee; M. J. Leitch; M. A. L. Leite; X. H. Li; Z. Li; D. J. Lim; H. Lim; A. Litvinenko; M. X. Liu; X. Liu; X. Liu; Z. Liu; C. F. Maguire; J. Mahon; Y. I. Makdisi; A. Malakhov; M. D. Malik; V. I. Manko; Y. Mao; S. K. Mark; S. Markacs; G. Martinez; M. D. Marx; A. Masaike; H. Masui; F. Matathias; T. Matsumoto; M. C. McCain; P. L. McGaughey; E. Melnikov; M. Merschmeyer; F. Messer; M. Messer; Y. Miake; J. Milan; T. E. Miller; A. Milov; S. Mioduszewski; R. E. Mischke; G. C. Mishra; J. T. Mitchell; A. K. Mohanty; D. P. Morrison; J. M. Moss; T. V. Moukhanova; F. Mühlbacher; D. Mukhopadhyay; M. Muniruzzaman; J. Murata; S. Nagamiya; Y. Nagasaka; J. L. Nagle; M. Naglis; Y. Nakada; T. Nakamura; B. K. Nandi; M. Nara; J. Newby; M. Nguyen; L. Nikkinen; P. Nilsson; S. Nishimura; B. Norman; A. S. Nyanin; J. Nystrand; E. O'Brien; C. A. Ogilvie; H. Ohnishi; I. D. Ojha; H. Okada; K. Okada; O. O. Omiwade; M. Ono; V. Onuchin; A. Oskarsson; L. Österman; I. Otterlund; K. Oyama; L. Paffrath; D. Pal; A. P. T. Palounek; V. Pantuev; V. Papavassiliou; W. J. Park; A. Parmar; S. F. Pate; H. Pei; T. Peitzmann; V. Penev; J.-C. Peng; H. Pereira; V. Peresedov; D. Yu. Peressounko; A. N. Petridis; A. Pierson; C. Pinkenburg; R. P. Pisani; F. Plasil; M. Pollack; K. Pope; M. L. Purschke; A. K. Purwar; H. Qu; J. M. Qualls; J. Rak; I. Ravinovich; K. F. Read; M. Reuter; K. Reygers; V. Riabov; G. Roche; A. Romana; M. Rosati; A. A. Rose; S. S. E. Rosendahl; P. Rosnet; P. Rukoyatkin; V. L. Rykov; S. S. Ryu; M. E. Sadler; B. Sahlmueller; N. Saito; A. Sakaguchi; T. Sakaguchi; M. Sakai; S. Sakai; H. Sako; T. Sakuma; V. Samsonov; L. Sanfratello; T. C. Sangster; R. Santo; H. D. Sato; S. Sato; S. Sawada; B. R. Schlei; Y. Schutz; V. Semenov; R. Seto; D. Sharma; M. R. Shaw; T. K. Shea; I. Shein; T.-A. Shibata; K. Shigaki; T. Shiina

2005-01-01

54

Stopping powers and cross sections due to two-photon processes in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of electromagnetic-production processes due to two-photon exchange in nucleus-nucleus collisions are discussed. Feynman diagrams for two-photon exchange are evaluated using quantum electrodynamics. The total cross section and stopping power for projectile and target nuclei of identical charge are found to be significant for heavy nuclei above a few GeV per nucleon-incident energy.

Cheung, Wang K.; Norbury, John W.

1994-01-01

55

Dvojnye differentsial'nye poperechnye secheniya obrazovaniya nejtronov i protonov v yadro-yadernykh vzimodejstviyakh. (Double differential neutron and proton productions cross sections in nucleus-nucleus collisions).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Experimental double differential neutron and proton production cross sections in nucleus-nucleus collisions (DDPCS) are analyzed. On the basis of ascertained regularities ADPCS are described in analytical form for the aim of radiation environment and shie...

M. M. Komochkov

1991-01-01

56

Neutrino oscillation appearance experiment using nuclear emulsion and magnetized iron  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report describes an apparatus that could be used to measure both the identity and charge of an outgoing lepton in a charged current neutrino interaction. This capability in a massive detector would allow the most comprehensive set of neutrino oscillation physics measurements. By measuring the six observable transitions between initial and final state neutrinos, one would be able to measure all elements of the neutrino mixing matrix, as well as search for CP violation, and matter effects. If the measured matrix is not unitary, then one would also have an unambiguous determination of sterile neutrinos. Emulsion is considered as the tracking medium, and different techniques are discussed for the application of a magnetic field.

Harris, D. A.; Para, A.

2000-08-01

57

JACEE long duration balloon flights. [Japanese-American Cooperative Emulsion Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

JACEE balloon-borne emulsion chamber detectors are used to observe the spectra and interactions of cosmic ray protons and nuclei in the energy range 1 to 100A TeV. Experiments with long duration mid-latitude balloon flights and characteristics of the detector system that make it ideal for planned Antarctic balloon flights are discussed.

Burnett, T.; Iwai, J.; Dake, S.; Derrickson, J.; Fountain, W.; Fuki, M.; Gregory, J.; Hayashi, T.; Holynski, R.; Jones, W. V.

1989-01-01

58

Compression phenomena and Mach shock waves in fast nucleus-nucleus collisions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Central collisions between He, C and O projectiles in the energy range 0.2 GeV\\/nucleon to 4.2 GeV\\/nucleon and Ag and Br targets in 4 mu nuclear track detectors (AgCl crystals and nuclear emulsion) have been investigated. The measurements were directed towards effects at the target site where Mach shock phenomena were expected to be seen. Angular and energy spectra of

H. G. Baumgardt; E. Schopper

1979-01-01

59

Considerations on ??<-->?? appearance experiments using the emulsion technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The performance of an experiment "à la OPERA" with a neutrino beam from a ?-factory is presented. In particular the expected background, the sensitivity and the discovery potential of such an experiment are discussed.

Migliozzi, Pasquale; Strolin, Paolo

2000-08-01

60

Development of nuclear emulsions with 1?m spatial resolution for the AEgIS experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main goal of the AEgIS experiment at CERN is to test the weak equivalence principle for antimatter. We will measure the Earth's gravitational acceleration g¯ with antihydrogen atoms being launched in a horizontal vacuum tube and traversing a moiré deflectometer. We intend to use a position sensitive device made of nuclear emulsions (combined with a time-of-flight detector such as silicon ?-strips) to measure precisely their annihilation points at the end of the tube. The goal is to determine g¯ with a 1% relative accuracy. In 2012 we tested emulsion films in vacuum and at room temperature with low energy antiprotons from the CERN antiproton decelerator. First results on the expected performance for AEgIS are presented.

Kimura, M.; Aghion, S.; Ahlén, O.; Amsler, C.; Ariga, A.; Ariga, T.; Belov, A. S.; Bonomi, G.; Bräunig, P.; Bremer, J.; Brusa, R. S.; Burghart, G.; Cabaret, L.; Canali, C.; Caravita, R.; Castelli, F.; Cerchiari, G.; Cialdi, S.; Comparat, D.; Consolati, G.; Di Domizio, S.; Di Noto, L.; Doser, M.; Dudarev, A.; Ereditato, A.; Ferragut, R.; Fontana, A.; Genova, P.; Giammarchi, M.; Gligorova, A.; Gninenko, S. N.; Haider, S.; Hogan, S. D.; Huse, T.; Jordan, E.; Jørgensen, L. V.; Kaltenbacher, T.; Kawada, J.; Kellerbauer, A.; Knecht, A.; Krasnický, D.; Lagomarsino, V.; Mariazzi, S.; Matveev, V. A.; Merkt, F.; Moia, F.; Nebbia, G.; Nédélec, P.; Oberthaler, M. K.; Pacifico, N.; Petrá?ek, V.; Pistillo, C.; Prelz, F.; Prevedelli, M.; Regenfus, C.; Riccardi, C.; Røhne, O.; Rotondi, A.; Sandaker, H.; Scampoli, P.; Storey, J.; Subieta Vasquez, M. A.; Špa?ek, M.; Testera, G.; Trezzi, D.; Vaccarone, R.; Zavatarelli, S.

2013-12-01

61

{Psi}{sup {prime}}/{Psi} Ratio in Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions: A Measure for the Chiral Symmetry Restoration Temperature?  

SciTech Connect

We argue that a decrease of the chiral scalar meson mass is responsible for recreation of {Psi}{sup {prime}} from J/{Psi} in ultrarelativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions. This causes the charmonium yields to freeze out at temperatures close to the chiral symmetry restoration temperature T{sub c} . As a result the ratio {Psi}{sup {prime}}/{Psi} may serve as a thermometer for T{sub c} itself. Results in a detailed reaction model support the conjecture. They show good agreement with recent data of NA38 and NA50 for J/{Psi} and {Psi}{sup {prime}} production in S on U and Pb on Pb collisions. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

Sorge, H.; Shuryak, E.; Zahed, I. [Physics Department, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, New York 11794-3800 (United States)] [Physics Department, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, New York 11794-3800 (United States)

1997-10-01

62

Recent Emulsion Technologies  

SciTech Connect

Emulsion technologies are very much developed in the last decade and still developing in both the emulsion gel and the data taking. Emulsion detectors are suitable for the neutrino experiments because they can distinguish all 3 flavors of neutrino. The OPERA experiment, a recent pillar in the emulsion experiments aiming at the first observation of the neutrino oscillation in CNGS beam in appearance mode, is running, showing the good capability to separate 3 flavor neutrino interactions. In this poster, the recent developments and prospects of the emulsions for the next generation experiments are reported.

Ariga, A. [A. Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, LHEP, University of Bern, Sidlerstrasse 5, 3012 Bern (Switzerland)

2011-10-06

63

The Spectator-Induced Electromagnetic Effect on Meson Production in Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions at SPS Energies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electromagnetic interaction between the spectator system and the charged mesons produced in the course of the high energy heavy ion collision was studied experimentally and theoretically in earlier works [1,2]. This effect was found to result in very large distortions of the final state spectra of the produced mesons [3] and to bring new information on the space-time evolution of the non-perturbative meson production process [4]. In this paper a more extended analysis of this effect will be presented, including a comparative study between charged meson spectra produced in Pb+Pb collisions as well as collisions of Pb ions with smaller nuclei. The experimental results will be compared with Monte Carlo simulations, giving a fair overall understanding of the interplay between the strong and the electromagnetic interaction in the heavy ion collision. A universal behaviour of charged meson spectra emerges from the above comparative study. This gives a unique chance of using the spectator charge as a tool to study the space-time evolution of the high energy nucleus-nucleus reaction.

Sputowska, Iwona; Rybicki, Andrzej

2012-12-01

64

Three-hadron angular correlations in high-energy proton-proton and nucleus-nucleus collisions from perturbative QCD  

SciTech Connect

We study three-hadron azimuthal angular correlations in high-energy proton-proton and central nucleus-nucleus collisions at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and the CERN Large Hadron Collider at midrapidity. We use the leading-order parton matrix elements for 2{yields}3 processes and include the effect of parton energy loss in the quark-gluon plasma using the modified fragmentation function approach. For the case when the produced hadrons have either the same or not too different momenta, we observe two away-side peaks at 2{pi}/3 and 4{pi}/3. We consider the dependence of the angular correlations on energy loss parameters that have been used in studies of single inclusive hadron production at RHIC. Our results on the angular dependence of the cross section agree well with preliminary data by the PHENIX Collaboration. We comment on the possible contribution of 2{yields}3 processes to dihadron angular correlations and how a comparison of the two processes may help characterize the plasma further.

Ayala, Alejandro; Ortiz, Antonio; Paic, Guy [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 70-543, Mexico Distrito Federal 04510 (Mexico); Jalilian-Marian, Jamal [Department of Natural Sciences, Baruch College, New York, New York 10010, USA and CUNY Graduate Center, 365 Fifth Avenue, New York, New York 10016 (United States); Magnin, J. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, CBPF, Rua Dr. Xavier Sigaud 150, 22290-180 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Tejeda-Yeomans, Maria Elena [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Sonora, Boulevard Luis Encinas J. y Rosales, Colonia Centro, Hermosillo, Sonora 83000 (Mexico)

2011-08-15

65

Study of Relativistic Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions at the CERN SPS.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this experiment the physics at high energy densities will be explored. High energy densities are expected in collisions of sup 16 O (provided from the GSI-LBL light ion source) with large target nuclei. One expectation is a phase transition into the qu...

R. Albrecht R. Bock G. Claesson H. H. Gutbrod B. Kolb

1985-01-01

66

Shock waves and mach cones in fast nucleus-nucleus collisions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mach shock waves and head shock waves occur during the interpenetration of a light high energetic nucleus with a heavy one. Collisions of16O,12C and4He ions at energies between 0.25 and 2.1 GeV\\/N with Ag and Cl nuclei have been investigated. The theoretical concepts and the experiment are presented and interpreted. From that a velocity of first sound in nuclear mattercs˜0.19c,

H. G. Baumgardt; J. U. Schott; Y. Sakamoto; E. Schopper; H. Stöcker; J. Hofmann; W. Scheid; W. Greiner

1975-01-01

67

Collective flow and azimuthal correlations in nucleus-nucleus collisions at the Bevalac  

SciTech Connect

The EOS experiment at the Bevalac has recently carried out exclusive event-by-event measurements of relativistic heavy ion collisions with a variety of projectile, target and beam energy combinations. The data was obtained using the EOS Time Projection Chamber. We present preliminary results on inclusive spectra, collective flow and azimuthal correlations obtained from a study of Au + Au reactions with beam energies covering 0.6 {minus} 1.2 A GeV.

Rai, G.; EOS Collaboration

1993-09-01

68

Nucleus-nucleus cold fusion reactions analyzed with the l-dependent ``fusion by diffusion'' model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a modified version of the Fusion by Diffusion (FBD) model aimed at describing the synthesis of superheavy nuclei in cold fusion reactions, in which a low excited compound nucleus emits only one neutron. The modified FBD model accounts for the angular momentum dependence of three basic factors determining the evaporation residue cross section: the capture cross section ?cap(l), the fusion probability Pfus(l), and the survival probability Psurv(l). The fusion hindrance factor, the inverse of Pfus(l), is treated in terms of thermal fluctuations in the shape degrees of freedom and is expressed as a solution of the Smoluchowski diffusion equation. The l dependence of Pfus(l) results from the l-dependent potential energy surface of the colliding system. A new parametrization of the distance of starting point of the diffusion process is introduced. An analysis of a complete set of 27 excitation functions for production of superheavy nuclei in cold fusion reactions, studied in experiments at GSI Darmstadt, RIKEN Tokyo, and LBNL Berkeley, is presented. The FBD model satisfactorily reproduces shapes and absolute cross sections of all the cold fusion excitation functions. It is shown that the peak position of the excitation function for a given 1n reaction is determined by the Q value of the reaction and the height of the fission barrier of the final nucleus. This fact could possibly be used in future experiments (with well-defined beam energy) for experimental determination of the fission barrier heights.

Cap, T.; Siwek-Wilczy?ska, K.; Wilczy?ski, J.

2011-05-01

69

Hydrodynamical analysis of symmetric nucleus-nucleus collisions near 200{ital A} GeV  

SciTech Connect

We present a coherent theoretical study of ultrarelativistic heavy-ion data obtained at the CERN/SPS by the NA35/NA49 Collaborations using (3+1)-dimensional relativistic hydrodynamics. We find excellent agreement with the rapidity spectra of negative hadrons and protons and with the correlation measurements in two experiments: S+S at 200{ital A} GeV and Pb+Pb at 160{ital A} GeV (preliminary results). Within our model this implies that for Pb+Pb (S+S) a quark-gluon plasma of initial volume 174 fm{sup 3} (24 fm{sup 3}) with a lifetime 3.4 fm/{ital c} (1.5 fm/{ital c}) was formed. It is found that the Bose-Einstein correlation measurements do not determine the maximal effective radii of the hadron sources because of the large contributions from resonance decay at small momenta. Also within this study we present an NA49 acceptance-corrected two-pion Bose-Einstein correlation function in the invariant variable {ital Q}{sub inv}. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

Ornik, U.; Pluemer, M.; Schlei, B.; Strottman, D.; Weiner, R. [SoulTek Internet Services, Software Center 5, Marburg (Germany)] [SoulTek Internet Services, Software Center 5, Marburg (Germany); [Physics Department, University of Marburg, Marburg (Germany); [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

1996-09-01

70

Momentum-integrated Elliptic Flow and Transverse Collision Geometry in Ultrarelativistic Nucleus--Nucleus Collisions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultrareletivistic nuclear collisions at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider have produced a high temperature, high energy density medium consisting of a strongly interacting plasma of quarks and gluons. This extreme state of matter provides a testing ground for quantum chromodynamics. Previous studies of gold--gold collisions over a wide range of beam energies revealed many properties of the produced medium. However, these studies were restricted to relatively large colliding systems which resulted in large collision volumes; it is therefore important to investigate what role the size of the collision volume plays in the evolution of the source, particularly as the source volume becomes vanishingly small. This can be achieved with symmetric copper--copper collisions, which offer access to a range of system sizes from ˜10 participating nucleons up through volumes comparable to those created in gold--gold collisions. Collective behaviors of the produced particles in heavy-ion collisions can provide useful probes into the state of the medium produced, including its degree of thermalization and its properties. The elliptic flow, an anisotropy in the azimuthal distribution of the produced particles that is strongly correlated to the initial transverse geometry of the colliding nuclei, is one such collective motion that has proven to be a very useful observable for studying heavy-ion collisions. This is because it exhibits fairly large magnitudes in the systems being studied and is sensitive to the strength of the partonic interactions in-medium. The PHOBOS experiment, which can measure the positions of produced charged particles with high precision over nearly the full solid angle, is well-suited to study the elliptic flow and its evolution over an extended range along the beam direction. The elliptic flow from copper--copper collisions at center-of-mass energies of 22.4, 62.4, and 200GeV per nucleon pair are presented as a function of pseudorapidity and system size. The appearance of unexpected behaviors in the smaller system prompted a re-examination of the role of the collision geometry on the production of elliptic flow. Studies using Monte-Carlo Glauber simulations found that the fluctuating spatial configurations of the component nucleons in the colliding nuclei could result in significant variation of the shape of the nuclear overlap on an event-by-event basis, and that these fluctuations become important for small systems. The eccentricity, a quantity that characterizes the ellipticity of the nuclear overlap in the transverse plane, is redefined to account for these fluctuations as the participant eccentricity. It is found that the event-by-event fluctuations of the participant eccentricity are able to fully account for the observed elliptic flow in the smaller system. The participant eccentricity is used to normalize the measured elliptic flow across different colliding systems to a common initial geometry so that a direct comparison of the properties of the produced medium can be made. It is found that the produced medium evolves smoothly from systems of ˜10 participant nucleons to systems involving more than 350 nucleons and for collision energies from 19.6 to 200GeV per nucleon pair. This smooth evolution of the elliptic flow is also observed as a function of pseudorapidity in all the systems studied. After accounting for the initial geometry, no indication of the identity of the original colliding system is observed.

Walters, Peter Kirk

71

Analysis of variances of quasirapidities in collisions of gold nuclei with track-emulsion nuclei  

SciTech Connect

A new method of an analysis of variances was developed for studying n-particle correlations of quasirapidities in nucleus-nucleus collisions for a large constant number n of particles. Formulas that generalize the results of the respective analysis to various values of n were derived. Calculations on the basis of simple models indicate that the method is applicable, at least for n {>=} 100. Quasirapidity correlations statistically significant at a level of 36 standard deviations were discovered in collisions between gold nuclei and track-emulsion nuclei at an energy of 10.6 GeV per nucleon. The experimental data obtained in our present study are contrasted against the theory of nucleus-nucleus collisions.

Gulamov, K. G.; Zhokhova, S. I.; Lugovoi, V. V., E-mail: lugovoi@uzsci.net; Navotny, V. S., E-mail: navotny@uzsci.net; Saidkhanov, N. S.; Chudakov, V. M. [Uzbek Academy of Sciences, Physical-Technical Institute, Fizika-Solntse Research and Production Association (Uzbekistan)

2012-08-15

72

System-size dependence of strangeness production in nucleus-nucleus collisions at squareroot[sNN]=17.3 GeV.  

PubMed

Emission of pi+/-, K+/-, phi, and Lambda was measured in near-central C+C and Si+Si collisions at 158 AGeV beam energy. Together with earlier data for p+p, S+S, and Pb+Pb, the system-size dependence of relative strangeness production in nucleus-nucleus collisions is obtained. Its fast rise and the saturation observed at about 60 participating nucleons can be understood as the onset of the formation of coherent systems of increasing size. PMID:15783629

Alt, C; Anticic, T; Baatar, B; Barna, D; Bartke, J; Betev, L; Bia?kowska, H; Billmeier, A; Blume, C; Boimska, B; Botje, M; Bracinik, J; Bramm, R; Brun, R; Bunci?, P; Cerny, V; Christakoglou, P; Chvala, O; Cramer, J G; Csató, P; Darmenov, N; Dimitrov, A; Dinkelaker, P; Eckardt, V; Farantatos, G; Flierl, D; Fodor, Z; Foka, P; Freund, P; Friese, V; Gál, J; Ga?dzicki, M; Georgopoulos, G; G?adysz, E; Grebieszkow, K; Hegyi, S; Höhne, C; Kadija, K; Karev, A; Kliemant, M; Kniege, S; Kolesnikov, V I; Kollegger, T; Kornas, E; Korus, R; Kowalski, M; Kraus, I; Kreps, M; van Leeuwen, M; Lévai, P; Litov, L; Lungwitz, B; Makariev, M; Malakhov, A I; Markert, C; Mateev, M; Mayes, B W; Melkumov, G L; Meurer, C; Mischke, A; Mitrovski, M; Molnár, J; Mrówczy?ski, St; Pálla, G; Panagiotou, A D; Panayotov, D; Petridis, A; Pikna, M; Pinsky, L; Pühlhofer, F; Reid, J G; Renfordt, R; Richard, A; Roland, C; Roland, G; Rybczy?ski, M; Rybicki, A; Sandoval, A; Sann, H; Schmitz, N; Seyboth, P; Siklér, F; Sitar, B; Skrzypczak, E; Stefanek, G; Stock, R; Ströbele, H; Susa, T; Szentpétery, I; Sziklai, J; Trainor, T A; Trubnikov, V; Varga, D; Vassiliou, M; Veres, G I; Vesztergombi, G; Vrani?, D; Wetzler, A; W?odarczyk, Z; Yoo, I K; Zaranek, J; Zimányi, J

2005-02-11

73

Unusual interactions above 100 TeV: A review of cosmic ray experiments with emulsion chambers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method is given for analyzing the space correlated collection of jets (gamma ray families) with energies greater than 100 TeV in Pb or Fe absorber sampled by photosensitive layers in an emulsion chamber. Events analyzed indicate large multiplicities of particles in the primary hadron-air interaction, and a marked absence of neutral pions.

Yodh, D. B.

1977-01-01

74

Droplet freezing experiments in stearic acid-water emulsions, role of the droplet-medium interface  

SciTech Connect

Droplets of stearic acid emulsions in water, stabilized with cationic or anionic emulsifiers, undergoing freezing-melting cycles with constant temperature scanning rate, freeze as monocrystals and independently from one another, even when visible clustering takes place. The study of the nucleation kinetics by differential scanning calorimetry shows that nucleation threshold (critical undercooling) depends on the nature of the emulsifier, adsorbed at the droplet-medium interface. 30 references.

Cordiez, J.P.; Grange, G.; Mutaftschiev, B.

1982-02-01

75

Pseudorapidity configurations in collisions between gold nuclei and track-emulsion nuclei  

SciTech Connect

A method of parametrically invariant quantities is developed for studying pseudorapidity configurations in nucleus-nucleus collisions involving a large number of secondary particles. In simple models where the spectrum of pseudorapidities depends on three parameters, the shape of the spectrum may differ strongly from the shape of pseudorapidity configurations in individual events. Pseudorapidity configurations in collisions between gold nuclei of energy 10.6 GeV per nucleon and track-emulsion nuclei are contrasted against those in random stars calculated theoretically. An investigation of pseudorapidity configurations in individual events is an efficient method for verifying theoretical models.

Gulamov, K. G.; Zhokhova, S. I.; Lugovoi, V. V., E-mail: lugovoi@uzsci.net; Navotny, V. S., E-mail: navotny@uzsci.net; Chudakov, V. M. [Uzbek Academy of Sciences, Institute for Physics and Technology, Fizika-Solntse Research and Production Association (Uzbekistan)

2010-07-15

76

Emulsion Polymers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The symposium "Emulsion Polymers" was held at the 217th American Chemical Society (ACS) Meeting in Anaheim, CA in March 1999. Topic areas presented included novel concepts in emulsion and miniemulsion homo- and copolymerization, the role of polymeric stabilizers in emulsion polymerization, particle morphology and film formation, and applications of latex systems. The papers in this volume of Macromolecular Symposia cover a broad range of topics characteristic of the symposium.

El-Aasser, Mohamed S.; Smith, Carrington D.; Meisel, I.; Spiegel, S.; Kniep, C. S.

2000-08-01

77

Forward–backward multiplicity correlation in high-energy nucleus–nucleus interactions at a few AGeV/c  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have presented a systematic study of two-particle rapidity correlations in terms of investigating the dynamical fluctuation observable \\sigma _c^2 in the forward–backward pseudo-rapidity windows by analyzing the experimental data of {}_{}^{16} O{--}AgBr interactions at 4.5 AGeV/c, {}_{}^{22} Ne{--}AgBr interactions at 4.1 AGeV/c, {}_{}^{28} Si{--}AgBr and {}_{}^{32} S{--}AgBr interactions at 4.5 AGeV/c. The experimental results have been compared with the results obtained from the analysis of event sample simulated (MC-RAND) by generating random numbers and also with the analysis of events generated by the UrQMD and AMPT model. Our study confirms the presence of strong short-range correlations among the produced particles in the forward and the backward pseudo-rapidity region. The analysis of the simple Monte Carlo-simulated (MC-RAND) events signifies that the observed correlations are not due to mere statistics only; explanation of such correlations can be attributed to the presence of dynamical fluctuations during the production of charged pions. Comparisons of the experimental results with the results obtained from analyzing the UrQMD data sample indicate that the UrQMD model cannot reproduce the experimental findings. The AMPT model also cannot explain the experimental results satisfactorily. Comparisons of our experimental results with the results obtained from the analysis of higher energy emulsion data and with the results of the RHIC data have also been presented.

Bhattacharyya, Swarnapratim; Haiduc, Maria; Neagu, Alina Tania; Firu, Elena

2014-07-01

78

Investigation of gamma-ray families originating from nucleus-nucleus interactions at ultrahigh energies E 0 in excess of 1016 eV  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Various spatial and energy features of gamma-ray families originating from the interactions of primary nuclei of galactic cosmic rays with nuclei of atmospheric atoms ( AA interactions) are studied. The mass composition of galactic cosmic rays is analyzed on the basis of data from x-ray emulsion chambers of the Pamir experiment with the aid of a criterion for selecting gamma-ray families originating from AA interactions ( A families) at energies E 0 of primary galactic cosmic rays in excess of 1016 eV. According to the results obtained in this way only the experimental spatial parameters R 1 E and ? differ from their counterparts in the MC0 model.

Yuldashbaev, T. S.; Nuritdinov, Kh.

2013-12-01

79

Workshop on Cosmic Ray and High Energy Gamma Ray Experiments for the Space Station Era, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, October 17-20, 1984, Proceedings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The potential of the Space Station as a platform for cosmic-ray and high-energy gamma-ray astronomy is discussed in reviews, reports, and specific proposals. Topics examined include antiparticles and electrons, science facilities and new technology, high-energy nuclear interactions, nuclear composition and energy spectra, Space Shuttle experiments, Space Station facilities and detectors, high-energy gamma rays, and gamma-ray facilities and techniques. Consideration is given to universal-baryon-symmetry testing on the scale of galactic clusters, particle studies in a high-inclination orbit, balloon-borne emulsion-chamber results on ultrarelativistic nucleus-nucleus interactions, ionization states of low-energy cosmic rays, a large gamma-ray telescope for point-source studies above 1 GeV, and the possible existence of stable quark matter.

Jones, W. V. (editor); Wefel, J. P. (editor)

1985-01-01

80

On the halo events observed by Mount Fuji and Mount Kanbala Emulsion Chamber Experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intensity of big gamma-ray families associated by halo is obtained from Mt. Fuji experiment (650 g\\/sq.cm. atmospheric depth) and Mt. Kanbala experiment (515 g\\/sq.cm.). The results are compared with Monte Carlo calculation based on several assumptions on interaction mechanisms and the primary cosmic ray composition. The results suggest more than 3 times lower proton abundance among primaries than that

J. R. Ren; H. H. Kuang; A. X. Huo; S. L. Lu; S. Su; Y. X. Wang; Y. G. Xue; C. R. Wang; M. He; N. J. Zhang

1985-01-01

81

Fish oil-based lipid emulsions in the treatment of parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease: an ongoing positive experience.  

PubMed

We previously reported the beneficial effect of fish oil-based lipid emulsions (FOLEs) as monotherapy in the treatment of parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease (PNALD). In this report, we share our ongoing experience at Texas Children's Hospital, Houston, Texas in the use of FOLE in treatment of PNALD as presented at the 2013 Experimental Biology meeting. We describe the findings of a single center, prospective, observational study of infants <6 mo of age with PNALD who received parenteral FOLE as monotherapy. A total of 97 infants received FOLE under the compassionate-use protocol for the treatment of PNALD. Eighty-three (86%) survived with resolution of cholestasis and 14 (14%) died. The median conjugated bilirubin (CB) concentration at the initiation of FOLE therapy was 4.8 mg/dL (range 2.1-26). The median time to resolution of cholestasis was 40 d (range 3-158). Compared with infants with mild cholestasis (CB of 2.1-5 mg/dL at the initiation of FOLE), nonsurvivors were significantly more premature and took longer to resolve their cholestasis. Gestational age at birth correlated inversely with CB at the beginning of FOLE and peak CB. Infants with an initial CB >10 mg/dL had a higher mortality rate than infants with an initial CB <5 mg/dL (35% vs. 6%; P < 0.05). Our experience with the use of FOLE in PNALD continues to be encouraging. Prematurity continues to be a major determinant in mortality and severity of cholestasis. This calls for further controlled studies designed to optimize dose and timing of intervention in the use of FOLE in neonates. PMID:24425724

Premkumar, Muralidhar H; Carter, Beth A; Hawthorne, Keli M; King, Kristi; Abrams, Steven A

2014-01-01

82

On the halo events observed by Mount Fuji and Mount Kanbala Emulsion Chamber Experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The intensity of big gamma-ray families associated by halo is obtained from Mt. Fuji experiment (650 g/sq.cm. atmospheric depth) and Mt. Kanbala experiment (515 g/sq.cm.). The results are compared with Monte Carlo calculation based on several assumptions on interaction mechanisms and the primary cosmic ray composition. The results suggest more than 3 times lower proton abundance among primaries than that of 10 to the 12th to 10 to the 13th eV region within the framework of quasi-scaling model of multiple production.

Ren, J. R.; Kuang, H. H.; Huo, A. X.; Lu, S. L.; Su, S.; Wang, Y. X.; Xue, Y. G.; Wang, C. R.; He, M.; Zhang, N. J.

1985-08-01

83

Non-ideal detonation of emulsion explosives  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to obtain a better understanding of the underwater explosion phenomena related to emulsion explosives, optical measurements using the water tank technique and cylinder expansion test were carried out. Streak photographs were taken using an image converter camera with a usual shadow graph system. Four kinds of emulsion explosives differing in aluminium contents were used in the experiments. These

K Takahashi; K Murata; Y Kato; M Fujita; S Itoh

1999-01-01

84

Detector developing for directional dark matter search with nuclear emulsion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are planing the directional dark matter search experiment with nuclear emulsion. Recoiled atoms inside of the emulsion fly several hundred nm, and it is too short to detect with usual emulsion. Fine crystal emulsion was needed to detect such tracks. We developed new method to produce them and succeeded to make crystals small as 20 nm at the minimum size. We also study several methods to improve sensitivity and reduce background noise to survey very interesting cross section region.

Asada, T.; Naka, T.; Kuwabara, K.; Katsuragawa, T.; Yoshimoto, M.; Hakamata, K.; Ishikawa, M.; Nakamura, M.; Sato, O.; Nakano, T.

2013-12-01

85

Search for the production of direct leptons in nucleon-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions. Progress report, April 1, 1988-March 31, 1991.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report discusses the following topics: subthreshold production experiment; testing and selection of PCOS amplifiers; transverse energy detector; development of a sensitive new amplifiers; single-lepton experiment. (LSP)

P. N. Kirk

1990-01-01

86

Study of the diffusion of an emulsion in the human skin by pulsed photoacoustic spectroscopy: experiment and numerical simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We previously used the Pulsed Photoacoustic Spectroscopy to quantify sunscreen chromophore diffusion into human skin, and suggested a methodology to evaluate the time and the depth diffusion profile into human skin. In the present study we present the results obtained for the diffusion of an emulsion in human skin, which is used in the sunscreen compositions. This study shows, for the first time, a particular behaviour due to a chemical reaction inside the skin during the diffusion process. This result brings a particularly interesting technique through the PPAS spectroscopy, to evaluate in situ, the eventual chemical reactions that can occur during drug diffusion into human skin. Numerical simulation allows us to understand the impact of thermal, optical and geometrical parameters on the photoacoustic signal and thus the physics of the diffusion phenomenon. The present simulation shows clearly that the tmax values corresponding to the maximum of the photoacoustic signal magnitude, ? P max, decrease when the thickness, ell , of the sample decrease. Conclusions about possibilities and limitations of the considered model are discussed.

Benamar, N.; Lahjomri, F.; Chatri, E.; Leblanc, R. M.

2004-12-01

87

Emulsion Droplet Combustion in Microgravity: Water/Heptane Emulsions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This presentation reviews a series of experiments to further examine parametric effects on sooting processes of droplet flames in microgravity. The particular focus is on a fuel droplet emulsified with water, specifically emulsions of n-heptane as the fuel-phase and water as the dispersed phase. Water was selected as the additive because of its anticipated effect on soot formation, and the heptane fuel phase was chosen to theoretically reduce the likelihood of microexplosions because its boiling point is nearly the same as that of water: 100 C for water and 98 C for heptane. The water content was varied while the initial droplet diameter was kept within a small range. The experiments were carried out in microgravity to reduce the effects of buoyancy and to promote spherical symmetry in the burning process. Spherically symmetric droplet burning is a convenient starting point for analysis, but experimental data are difficult to obtain for this situation as evidenced by the fact that no quantitative data have been reported on unsupported emulsion droplet combustion in a convection-free environment. The present study improves upon past work carried out on emulsion droplet combustion in microgravity which employed emulsion droplets suspended from a fiber. The fiber can be instrusive to the emulsion droplet burning process as it can promote coalescence of the dispersed water phase and heterogeneous nucleation on the fiber. Prior work has shown that the presence of water in liquid hydrocarbons can have both beneficial and detrimental effects on the combustion process. Water is known to reduce soot formation and radiation heat transfer to combustor walls Gollahalli (1979) reduce flame temperatures and thereby NOx emissions, and encourage secondary droplet atomization or microexplosion. Water also tends to retard ignition and and promote early extinction. The former effect restricted the range of water volume fractions as discussed below.

Avedisian, C. Thomas

1997-01-01

88

An instrument employing electronic counters and an emulsion chamber for studying heavy cosmic ray interactions (JACEE-3)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A JACEE-3 instrument was flown on a balloon in June 1982 for 6.1 sq m sr hr exposure at an average atmospheric depth of 5 gm/sq cm in order to study the cosmic ray spectra, composition, and interactions above 1 TeV. The nucleus-nucleus interactions were studied above 20 GeV/amu from z = 6 to z = 26. The electronic counters contained gas Cerenkov structures with a 1.0-cm thick lead glass and a 1.27-cm thick Teflon radiator. A comparison to the instrument prototype is made. Based on the electronic counter event data, the finding efficiency of the hodoscope is noted to be near 100 percent for z greater than or equal to 22. A comparison is made between the hodoscope-predicted position and track found at P3 in an emulsion chamber.

Austin, R. W.; Meegan, C. A.; Parnell, T. A.; Selig, W. J.; Watts, J. W.; Burnett, T. H.; Iwai, J.; Lord, J. J.; Strauscz, S.; Wilkes, R. J.; Jones, W. V.

1983-01-01

89

Forward backward studies of Ne-22(Si-28)-emulsion interactions at (4.1-4.5) AGeV/c  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The characteristics of nucleus-nucleus collisions at high energies are investigated for the interaction of Ne-22 and Si-28 with emulsion nuclei . The multiplicity and correlations of the forward (theta < 90 degrees) and backward (theta >= 90 degrees) secondary particles emitted are calculated according to the modified cascade and modified Fritiof models. The predictions of the two models are compared with experimental data at an incident momentum of (4.1-4.5) GeV/c per nucleon. Both models depend on the Monte Carlo techniques where the modified cascade model implies the superposition of nucleon-nucleon interactions, and the modified Fritiof model utilizes the Regge theory for the description of the cascading process. Comparison with data shows no clear preference of one model over the other. However, the modified Fritiof model seems to be nearer to the experimental data than the modified cascade model.

Abdel-Aziz, S. S.

2006-10-01

90

Flow of Super-Concentrated Emulsions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Super concentrated emulsions, e.g., emulsion explosives, are two-phase systems consisting of aqueous droplets dispersed in an oil phase. The concentration of the disperse phase is 92-96 w.%, liquid droplets, containing a supersaturated aqueous solution of inorganic oxidizer salts. The flow of such emulsions is determined by their Theological properties as well as the time-dependent processes of ``aging'' which take place due to the thermodynamic instability of these emulsions. This work presents the results of experimental studies of the main effects that accompany the flow of such materials: non-Newtonian flow behavior, rheopexy which manifests as a slow increase of viscosity in the low shear rate domain, linear viscoelastic behavior, and the transition of elastic modulus to non-linearity at high amplitudes of deformation. The emulsions under study are non-Newtonian liquids. Experiments with the shear rate sweep demonstrate that the upward and downward branches of the flow curves coincide above some specific shear rate value. The upward experiments show the existence of a Newtonian section of the flow curve in the low-shear-rate domain, while the effect of yielding is observed on the downward curve. The wall slip in the flow of the emulsions under study is negligible. The elastic modulus is constant over a wide frequency range. Hence, viscoelastic relaxation processes might be expected at characteristic times of either >>100s or <0.01s. Strong non-linear behavior was observed in high amplitude experiments. The elastic modules (measured in oscillating testing and in elastic recovery) as well as the yield stress are proportional to D-2, while the Newtonian viscosity is proportional to D-1. Concentration dependence of rheological parameters is also discussed. The possible mechanism of emulsion flow is proposed. Aging leads to enhancement of the solid-like properties of emulsions, which can be treated as an ``emulsion-to-suspension transition''. However, this transition is incomplete because dispersions retain an ability to flow at stresses exceeding the yield stress value. It is shown that the aging of emulsions is caused by the slow crystallization of a supercooled salt solution without any noticeable coalescence effect. The evolution of mechanical properties of emulsions is correlated with the kinetics of structural changes during aging. The problem of transport characteristics of such emulsions is also discussed. It is shown that the choice of the flow curve fitting equation is not crucial for pipe flow design. The result can be used for practical applications in designing pipe transportation systems.

Masalova, Irina; Malkin, Alexander Ya.

2006-05-01

91

Solubilization in monodisperse emulsions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The kinetics of oil solubilization into micelles from nearly monodisperse alkane-in-water emulsion droplets was investigated. Emulsions containing either hexadecane or tetradecane oils were fractionated to be narrowly distributed, using a method developed by Bibette [J. Bibette, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 147 (1991) 474]. These monodisperse emulsions were mixed with SDS or Tween 20 aqueous micellar solutions of various concentrations. Time-dependent

Suwimon Ariyaprakai; Stephanie R. Dungan

2007-01-01

92

Resonant ultrasonic attenuation in emulsions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the achievement of scattering resonant emulsions devoted to the frequency-control of acoustic attenuation in the megahertz range. By means of robotics, we produced highly monodisperse, in both size and shape, fluorinated-oil droplet suspensions, providing experimental evidence of several Mie scattering resonances. Ultrasonic experiments performed in such complex media are compared, with an excellent quantitative agreement, to theoretical predictions derived within the framework of the independent scattering approximation.

Brunet, Thomas; Mascaro, Benoit; Poncelet, Olivier; Aristégui, Christophe; Raffy, Simon; Mondain-Monval, Olivier; Leng, Jacques

2013-08-01

93

Method of breaking and emulsion and an emulsion-emulsion breaker composition  

SciTech Connect

This invention relates to a composition of matter and to a method for producing a controllable, residue-free break of an emulsion or a dispersion of a water-in-oil emulsion. An emulsion breaker is incorporated into the emulsion. It is temporarily-protected (deactivated) so that breaking of the emulsion is initially avoided. By removing the protection, the breaker becomes active, and it acts to break the emulsion into its separate phases.

Salathiel, W. M.

1985-05-14

94

Multidimensional analysis of data obtained in experiments with X-ray emulsion chambers and extensive air showers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nonparametric statistical methods are used to carry out the quantitative comparison of the model and the experimental data. The same methods enable one to select the events initiated by the heavy nuclei and to calculate the portion of the corresponding events. For this purpose it is necessary to have the data on artificial events describing the experiment sufficiently well established. At present, the model with the small scaling violation in the fragmentation region is the closest to the experiments. Therefore, the treatment of gamma families obtained in the Pamir' experiment is being carried out at present with the application of these models.

Chilingaryan, A. A.; Galfayan, S. K.; Zazyan, M. Z.; Dunaevsky, A. M.

1985-08-01

95

The ALICE experiment at the CERN LHC  

Microsoft Academic Search

ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) is a general-purpose, heavy-ion detector at the CERN LHC which focuses on QCD, the strong-interaction sector of the Standard Model. It is designed to address the physics of strongly interacting matter and the quark-gluon plasma at extreme values of energy density and temperature in nucleus-nucleus collisions. Besides running with Pb ions, the physics programme

K. Aamodt; A. Abrahantes Quintana; R. Achenbach; S. Acounis; D. Adamová; C. Adler; M. Aggarwal; F. Agnese; G. Aglieri Rinella; Z. Ahammed; A. Ahmad; N. Ahmad; S. Ahmad; A. Akindinov; P. Akishin; D. Aleksandrov; B. Alessandro; R. Alfaro; G. Alfarone; A. Alici; J. Alme; T. Alt; S. Altinpinar; W. Amend; C. Andrei; Y. Andres; A. Andronic; G. Anelli; M. Anfreville; V. Angelov; A. Anzo; C. Anson; T. Anticic; V. Antonenko; D. Antonczyk; F. Antinori; S. Antinori; P. Antonioli; L. Aphecetche; H. Appelshäuser; V. Aprodu; M. Arba; S. Arcelli; A. Argentieri; N. Armesto; R. Arnaldi; A. Arefiev; I. Arsene; A. Asryan; A. Augustinus; T. C. Awes; J. Äysto; M. Danish Azmi; S. Bablock; A. Badalà; S. K. Badyal; J. Baechler; S. Bagnasco; R. Bailhache; R. Bala; A. Baldisseri; A. Baldit; J. Bán; R. Barbera; P.-L. Barberis; J. M. Barbet; G. Barnäfoldi; V. Barret; J. Bartke; D. Bartos; M. Basile; V. Basmanov; N. Bastid; G. Batigne; B. Batyunya; J. Baudot; C. Baumann; I. Bearden; B. Becker; J. Belikov; R. Bellwied; E. Belmont-Moreno; A. Belogianni; S. Belyaev; A. Benato; J. L. Beney; L. Benhabib; F. Benotto; S. Beolé; I. Berceanu; A. Bercuci; E. Berdermann; Y. Berdnikov; C. Bernard; R. Berny; J. D. Berst; H. Bertelsen; L. Betev; A. Bhasin; P. Baskar; A. Bhati; N. Bianchi; J. Bielcik; J. Bielciková; L. Bimbot; G. Blanchard; F. Blanco; D. Blau; C. Blume; S. Blyth; M. Boccioli; A. Bogdanov; H. Bøggild; M. Bogolyubsky; L. Boldizsár; M. Bombara; C. Bombonati; M. Bondila; D. Bonnet; V. Bonvicini; H. Borel; F. Borotto; V. Borshchov; Y. Bortoli; O. Borysov; S. Bose; L. Bosisio; M. Botje; S. Böttger; G. Bourdaud; O. Bourrion; S. Bouvier; A. Braem; M. Braun; P. Braun-Munzinger; L. Bravina; M. Bregant; G. Bruckner; R. Brun; E. Bruna; O. Brunasso; G. E. Bruno; D. Bucher; V. Budilov; D. Budnikov; H. Buesching; P. Buncic; M. Burns; S. Burachas; O. Busch; J. Bushop; X. Cai; H. Caines; F. Calaon; M. Caldogno; I. Cali; P. Camerini; R. Campagnolo; M. Campbell; X. Cao; G. P. Capitani; G. Cara Romeo; M. Cardenas-Montes; H. Carduner; F. Carena; W. Carena; P. Cariola; F. Carminati; J. Casado; A. Casanova Diaz; M. Caselle; J. Castillo Castellanos; J. Castor; V. Catanescu; E. Cattaruzza; D. Cavazza; P. Cerello; S. Ceresa; V. Cerný; V. Chambert; S. Chapeland; A. Charpy; D. Charrier; M. Chartoire; J. L. Charvet; S. Chattopadhyay; V. Chepurnov; S. Chernenko; M. Cherney; C. Cheshkov; B. Cheynis; P. Chochula; E. Chiavassa; V. Chibante Barroso; J. Choi; P. Christakoglou; P. Christiansen; C. Christensen; O. A. Chykalov; C. Cicalo; L. Cifarelli-Strolin; M. Ciobanu; F. Cindolo; C. Cirstoiu; O. Clausse; J. Cleymans; O. Cobanoglu; J.-P. Coffin; S. Coli; A. Colla; C. Colledani; C. Combaret; M. Combet; M. Comets; G. Conesa Balbastre; Z. Conesa del Valle; G. Contin; J. Contreras; T. Cormier; F. Corsi; P. Cortese; F. Costa; E. Crescio; P. Crochet; E. Cuautle; J. Cussonneau; M. Dahlinger; A. Dainese; H. H. Dalsgaard; L. Daniel; I. Das; T. Das; A. Dash; R. Da Silva; M. Davenport; H. Daues; A. DeCaro; G. de Cataldo; J. DeCuveland; A. DeFalco; M. de Gaspari; P. de Girolamo; J. de Groot; D. DeGruttola; A. DeHaas; N. DeMarco; S. DePasquale; P. DeRemigis; D. de Vaux; G. Decock; H. Delagrange; M. DelFranco; G. Dellacasa; A. Deloff; V. Demanov; E. Dénes; G. D'Erasmo; D. Derkach; A. Devaux; D. Di Bari; A. Di Bartelomen; C. Di Giglio; S. Di Liberto; A. Di Mauro; P. Di Nezza; M. Dialinas; L. Diaz; R. Díaz Valdes; T. Dietel; R. Dima; H. Ding; C. Dinca; R. Divià; V. Dobretsov; A. Dobrin; B. Doenigus; T. Dobrowolski; I. Domínguez; M. Dorn; S. Drouet; A. E. Dubey; L. Ducroux; F. Dumitrache; E. Dumonteil; P. Dupieux; V. Duta; A. Dutta Majumdar; M. Dutta Majumdar; Th Dyhre; L. Efimov; A. Efremov; D. Elia; D. Emschermann; C. Engster; A. Enokizono; B. Espagnon; M. Estienne; A. Evangelista; D. Evans; S. Evrard; C. W. Fabjan; D. Fabris; J. Faivre; D. Falchieri; A. Fantoni; R. Farano; R. Fearick; O. Fedorov; V. Fekete; D. Felea; G. Feofilov; A. Férnandez Téllez; A. Ferretti; F. Fichera; S. Filchagin; E. Filoni; C. Finck; R. Fini; E. M. Fiore; D. Flierl; M. Floris; Z. Fodor; Y. Foka; S. Fokin; P. Force; F. Formenti; E. Fragiacomo; M. Fragkiadakis; D. Fraissard; A. Franco; M. Franco; U. Frankenfeld; U. Fratino; S. Fresneau; A. Frolov; U. Fuchs; J. Fujita; C. Furget; M. Furini; M. Fusco Girard; J.-J. Gaardhøje; S. Gadrat; M. Gagliardi; A. Gago; L. Gaido; A. Gallas Torreira; M. Gallio; E. Gandolfi; P. Ganoti; M. Ganti; J. Garabatos; A. Garcia Lopez; L. Garizzo; L. Gaudichet; R. Gemme; M. Germain; A. Gheata; M. Gheata; B. Ghidini; P. Ghosh; G. Giolu; G. Giraudo; P. Giubellino; R. Glasow; P. Glässel; E. G. Ferreiro; C. Gonzalez Gutierrez; L. H. Gonzales-Trueba; S. Gorbunov; Y. Gorbunov; H. Gos; J. Gosset; S. Gotovac; H. Gottschlag; D. Gottschalk; V. Grabski; T. Grassi; H. Gray; O. Grebenyuk; K. Grebieszkow; C. Gregory; C. Grigoras; N. Grion

2008-01-01

96

Influence of interfacial rheology on foam and emulsion properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Foams and emulsions are stabilized by surfactant monolayers that adsorb at the air–water and oil–water interfaces, respectively. As a result of monolayer adsorption, the interfaces become viscoelastic. We will describe experiments showing that foaming, emulsification, foam and emulsion stability, are strongly dependent upon the value of compression elasticity and viscosity. This will include excited surface wave devices for the measurement

D Langevin

2000-01-01

97

Nucleus-nucleus bremsstrahlung from ultrarelativistic collisions  

SciTech Connect

The bremsstrahlung produced when heavy nuclei collide is estimated for central collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. Soft photons can be used to infer the rapidity distribution of the outgoing charge. An experimental design is outlined. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

Jeon, S.; Kapusta, J. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States)] [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States); Chikanian, A.; Sandweiss, J. [Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States)] [Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States)

1998-09-01

98

Statistical Analysis For Nucleus/Nucleus Collisions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report describes use of several statistical techniques to charactertize angular distributions of secondary particles emitted in collisions of atomic nuclei in energy range of 24 to 61 GeV per nucleon. Purpose of statistical analysis to determine correlations between intensities of emitted particles and angles comfirming existence of quark/gluon plasma.

Mcguire, Stephen C.

1989-01-01

99

Electrochemically driven emulsion inversion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is shown that emulsions stabilized by ionic surfactants can be inverted by controlling the electrical potential across the oil-water interface. The potential dependent partitioning of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was studied by cyclic voltammetry at the 1,2-dichlorobenzene|water interface. In the emulsion the potential control was achieved by using a potential-determining salt. The inversion of a 1,2-dichlorobenzene-in-water (O/W) emulsion stabilized by SDS was followed by conductometry as a function of added tetrapropylammonium chloride. A sudden drop in conductivity was observed, indicating the change of the continuous phase from water to 1,2-dichlorobenzene, i.e. a water-in-1,2-dichlorobenzene emulsion was formed. The inversion potential is well in accordance with that predicted by the hydrophilic-lipophilic deviation if the interfacial potential is appropriately accounted for.

Johans, Christoffer; Kontturi, Kyösti

2007-09-01

100

Magnetoresistive emulsion analyzer.  

PubMed

We realize a magnetoresistive emulsion analyzer capable of detection, multiparametric analysis and sorting of ferrofluid-containing nanoliter-droplets. The operation of the device in a cytometric mode provides high throughput and quantitative information about the dimensions and magnetic content of the emulsion. Our method offers important complementarity to conventional optical approaches involving ferrofluids, and paves the way to the development of novel compact tools for diagnostics and nanomedicine including drug design and screening. PMID:23989504

Lin, Gungun; Baraban, Larysa; Han, Luyang; Karnaushenko, Daniil; Makarov, Denys; Cuniberti, Gianaurelio; Schmidt, Oliver G

2013-01-01

101

Microfluidics with Gel Emulsions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microfluidic processing is usually achieved using single phase liquids. Instead, we use monodisperse emulsions to compartment liquids within microchannel geometries. At low continuous phase volume fractions, droplets self-organize to form well-defined arrangements, analogous to foam. While it is well-known that confined geometries can induce rearrangement of foam compartments at the millimeter-scale, similar dynamics are also expected for gel emulsions. We

Craig Priest; Enkhtuul Surenjav; Stephan Herminghaus; Ralf Seemann

2006-01-01

102

Magnetoresistive Emulsion Analyzer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We realize a magnetoresistive emulsion analyzer capable of detection, multiparametric analysis and sorting of ferrofluid-containing nanoliter-droplets. The operation of the device in a cytometric mode provides high throughput and quantitative information about the dimensions and magnetic content of the emulsion. Our method offers important complementarity to conventional optical approaches involving ferrofluids, and paves the way to the development of novel compact tools for diagnostics and nanomedicine including drug design and screening.

Lin, Gungun; Baraban, Larysa; Han, Luyang; Karnaushenko, Daniil; Makarov, Denys; Cuniberti, Gianaurelio; Schmidt, Oliver G.

2013-08-01

103

Magnetoresistive Emulsion Analyzer  

PubMed Central

We realize a magnetoresistive emulsion analyzer capable of detection, multiparametric analysis and sorting of ferrofluid-containing nanoliter-droplets. The operation of the device in a cytometric mode provides high throughput and quantitative information about the dimensions and magnetic content of the emulsion. Our method offers important complementarity to conventional optical approaches involving ferrofluids, and paves the way to the development of novel compact tools for diagnostics and nanomedicine including drug design and screening.

Lin, Gungun; Baraban, Larysa; Han, Luyang; Karnaushenko, Daniil; Makarov, Denys; Cuniberti, Gianaurelio; Schmidt, Oliver G.

2013-01-01

104

Hadronic Interactions at Energies around 10 exp 3 TeV Inferred from the Large-Scale Emulsion Chamber Experiment at Mt. Fuji.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Details of experimental results, obtained with the large-scale emulsion chambers at Mt. Fuji (3776 m above sea level), are presented to investigate the hadronic interactions at energies around 10 exp 3 TeV, comparing with the Monte Carlo simulation based ...

M. Akashi M. Amenomori E. Konishi

1981-01-01

105

Isotachophoresis with emulsions  

PubMed Central

An experimental study on isotachophoresis (ITP) in which an emulsion is used as leading electrolyte (LE) is reported. The study aims at giving an overview about the transport and flow phenomena occurring in that context. Generally, it is observed that the oil droplets initially dispersed in the LE are collected at the ITP transition zone and advected along with it. The detailed behavior at the transition zone depends on whether or not surfactants (polyvinylpyrrolidon, PVP) are added to the electrolytes. In a system without surfactants, coalescence is observed between the droplets collected at the ITP transition zone. After having achieved a certain size, the droplets merge with the channel walls, leaving an oil film behind. In systems with PVP, coalescence is largely suppressed and no merging of droplets with the channel walls is observed. Instead, at the ITP transition zone, a droplet agglomerate of increasing size is formed. In the initial stages of the ITP experiments, two counter rotating vortices are formed inside the terminating electrolyte. The vortex formation is qualitatively explained based on a hydrodynamic instability triggered by fluctuations of the number density of oil droplets.

Goet, G.; Baier, T.; Hardt, S.; Sen, A. K.

2013-01-01

106

How does oil type determine emulsion characteristics in concentrated Na-caseinate emulsions?  

PubMed

Macroscopic properties and ensemble average diffusion of concentrated (dispersed phase 50-60 wt%) Na-caseinate-stabilised emulsions for three different oils (soybean oil, palm olein and tetradecane) were explored. On a volume fraction basis, pulsed gradient stimulated echo (PGSTE)-NMR data show that droplet dynamics for all three systems are similar within a region of the emulsion morphology diagram. The exact limits of the emulsion space depend however on which oil is considered. The reduced solubility of tetradecane in water, and Na-caseinate in tetradecane, result in the stabilisation of flocs during formulation. Floc formation is not observed when soybean oil or palm olein is used under identical emulsion formulation conditions. Linear rheology experiments provide indirect evidence that the local structure and the properties of the thin film interfacial domain of tetradecane emulsions vary from those of soybean oil and palm olein emulsions. Collectively these data indicate that protein/oil interactions within a system dominate over specific oil droplet structure and size distribution, which are similar in the three systems. PMID:23683496

Tan, Hui Lin; McGrath, Kathryn M

2013-08-01

107

Solubilization in monodisperse emulsions.  

PubMed

The kinetics of oil solubilization into micelles from nearly monodisperse alkane-in-water emulsion droplets was investigated. Emulsions containing either hexadecane or tetradecane oils were fractionated to be narrowly distributed, using a method developed by Bibette [J. Bibette, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 147 (1991) 474]. These monodisperse emulsions were mixed with SDS or Tween 20 aqueous micellar solutions of various concentrations. Time-dependent solubilization was monitored using light scattering and a decrease in average droplet size over time was observed, in contrast to what has been observed previously with polydisperse emulsions. The rate at which the droplet size decreased was found to be independent of the initial droplet size. Turbidity measurements were also used to track the solubilization kinetics, and a population balance analysis used on both types of measurements to extract effective mass transfer coefficients. The dependence of these transfer coefficients on droplet size, alkane type, surfactant type and concentration provide insights into plausible mechanisms of emulsion droplet solubilization within micellar solutions. PMID:17603068

Ariyaprakai, Suwimon; Dungan, Stephanie R

2007-10-15

108

Emulsions for interfacial filtration.  

SciTech Connect

We have investigated a novel emulsion interfacial filter that is applicable for a wide range of materials, from nano-particles to cells and bacteria. This technology uses the interface between the two immiscible phases as the active surface area for adsorption of targeted materials. We showed that emulsion interfaces can effectively collect and trap materials from aqueous solution. We tested two aqueous systems, a bovine serum albumin (BSA) solution and coal bed methane produced water (CBMPW). Using a pendant drop technique to monitor the interfacial tension, we demonstrated that materials in both samples were adsorbed to the liquid-liquid interface, and did not readily desorb. A prototype system was built to test the emulsion interfacial filter concept. For the BSA system, a protein assay showed a progressive decrease in the residual BSA concentration as the sample was processed. Based on the initial prototype operation, we propose an improved system design.

Grillet, Anne Mary; Bourdon, Christopher Jay; Souza, Caroline Ann; Welk, Margaret Ellen; Hartenberger, Joel David; Brooks, Carlton, F.

2006-11-01

109

Effects of silicone emulsifiers on in vitro skin permeation of sunscreens from cosmetic emulsions.  

PubMed

The effects of different silicone emulsifiers on the in vitro permeation through human skin of two sunscreens (octylmethoxycinnamate, OMC, and butylmethoxydibenzoylmethane, BMBM) were investigated from cosmetic emulsions. The formulations being tested were prepared using the same oil and aqueous phase ingredients and the following silicone emulsifiers: dimethicone copolyol and cyclomethicone (emulsion 1), cetyldimethicone copolyol (emulsion 2), polyglyceryl-4-isostearate and cetyldimethicone copolyol and hexyllaurate (emulsion 3), lauryldimethicone copolyol (emulsion 4), and cyclomethicone and dimethicone copolyol (emulsion 5). The cumulative amount of OMC that permeated in vitro through human skin after 22 h from emulsions 1-5 decreased in the order 2 approximate, equals 1 > 5 > 4 approximate, equals 3 and was about twofold higher from emulsion 2 compared to emulsion 4. As for BMBM, no significant difference was observed in regard to its skin permeation from the emulsions being tested. In vitro release experiments of OMC and BMBM from emulsions 1-5 were performed through cellulose acetate membranes using Franz diffusion cells. Emulsions 1-3 showed an initial slow release of BMBM followed by a fast release phase, while the release of OMC showed a different pattern since the sunscreen was released very rapidly at the beginning of the experiment and then a plateau was observed followed by a second step of fast release. A pseudo-first-order release rate was observed only for BMBM from emulsion 4, while emulsion 5 released very small amounts of both sunscreens during 22 h. These findings could be attributed both to changes in sunscreen thermodynamic activity in the vehicle and to modified interactions between the active ingredient and the formulation components. The results of this study suggest that the type of silicone emulsifier used to prepare sunscreen emulsions should be carefully chosen in order to prevent the percutaneous absorption of sunscreens from these cosmetic formulations. PMID:15645107

Montenegro, Lucia; Paolino, Donatella; Puglisi, Giovanni

2004-01-01

110

Performance of Emulsion Explosives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some performance of a number of emulsion explosives containing glass micro-baloons were studied experimentally and theoretically. For each of the explosives, detonation velocity was measured and calculated and ballistic mortar tests and cylinder expansion tests were carried out. The results obtained enables a comparison of the usefulness of both testing methods. The influence of some metal nitrates contained in the

S. Cudzilo; P. Kohlicek; V. A. Trzcinski; S. Zeman

2002-01-01

111

Kinetics of Emulsion Polymerization  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a basis for understanding emulsion polymerization, the kinetics of free radical reactions in isolated loci is discussed subject to the condition that the free radicals are supplied to the loci from an external source. Three cases of interest are considered: that in which the average number of free radicals per locus is small compared with unity, that in which

Wendell V. Smith; Roswell H. Ewart

1948-01-01

112

Crude Oil Emulsions. Abstracts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

On the occasion of this colloquium six lectures were held on the above-mentioned topic. These lectures dealt with composition, structure and transport behaviour of oil/water and water/oil emulsions, especially with the influence and effect of demulsifiers...

1988-01-01

113

Combustion characteristics of heavy oil-water emulsions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combustion of heavy oil and its emulsions with water was investigated in experiments on a semi-industrial scale. Two comparisons between heavy oil and oil-water emulsion flames are presented that, due to the different initial conditions of the spray, provide complementary information. Reported results include spatial distributions in the flame of temperature and species concentrations (O2, CO, UHC, NOx) as

Javier M. Ballester; Norberto Fueyo; César Dopazo

1996-01-01

114

Experimental feature in the primary-proton flux at energies above 10 TeV according to the results of searches for primary particles in nuclear emulsions exposed in the stratosphere (RUNJOB Experiment)  

SciTech Connect

In the RUNJOB experiment, a long-term exposure of x-ray emulsion chambers in the stratosphere from 1995 to 1999 with the aim of studying the composition and spectra of primary cosmic particles in the energy range 10-1000 TeV per nucleon revealed about 50% proton tracks. The remaining events of the proton group did not feature any candidate for a track of a singly charged particle within the search region determined from measurements of the coordinates of background nuclei going close to the sought track. Methodological factors that could explain this experimental observation are considered. A possible physical reason associated with the presence of a neutral component in the flux of primary protons in the energy region above 10 TeV is also analyzed.

Zayarnaya, I. S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Institute of Physics (Russian Federation)

2008-02-15

115

Coalescence stability of emulsions containing globular milk proteins.  

PubMed

This review summarizes a large set of related experimental results about protein adsorption and drop coalescence in emulsions, stabilized by globular milk proteins, beta-lactoglobulin (BLG) or whey protein concentrate (WPC). First, we consider the effect of drop coalescence on the mean drop size, d32, during emulsification. Two regimes of emulsification, surfactant-rich (negligible drop coalescence) and surfactant-poor (significant drop coalescence) are observed in all systems studied. In the surfactant-rich regime, d32 does not depend on emulsifier concentration and is determined mainly by the interfacial tension and the power dissipation density in the emulsification chamber, epsilon. In the surfactant-poor regime and suppressed electrostatic repulsion, d32 is a linear function of the inverse initial emulsifier concentration, 1/C(INI), which allows one to determine the threshold emulsifier adsorption needed to stabilize the oil drops during emulsification, Gamma* (the latter depends neither on oil volume fraction nor on epsilon). Second, we study how the BLG adsorption on drop surface changes while varying the protein and electrolyte concentrations, and pH of the aqueous phase. At low electrolyte concentrations, the protein adsorbs in a monolayer. If the pH is away from the isoelectric point (IEP), the electrostatic repulsion keeps the adsorbed BLG molecules separated from each other, which precludes the formation of strong intermolecular bonds during shelf-storage as well as after heating of the emulsion. At higher electrolyte concentration, the adsorption Gamma increases, as a result of suppressed electrostatic repulsion between the protein molecules; monolayer or multilayer is formed, depending on protein concentration and pH. The adsorption passes through a maximum (around the protein IEP) as a function of pH. Third, the effect of various factors on the coalescence stability of "fresh" emulsions (up to several hours after preparation) was studied. Important conclusion from this part of the study is the establishment of three different cases of emulsion stabilization: (1) electrostatically-stabilized emulsions with monolayer adsorption, whose stability is described by the DLVO theory; (2) emulsions stabilized by steric repulsion, created by protein adsorption multilayers - a simple model was adapted to describe the stability of these emulsions; and (3) emulsions stabilized by steric repulsion, created by adsorption monolayers. Fourth, we studied how the emulsion stability changes with storage time and after heating. At high electrolyte concentrations, we find a significant decrease of the coalescence stability of BLG-emulsions after one day of shelf-storage (aging effect). The results suggest that aging is related to conformational changes in the protein adsorption layer, which lead to formation of extensive lateral non-covalent bonds (H-bonds and hydrophobic interactions) between the adsorbed molecules. The heating of BLG emulsions at high electrolyte concentration leads to strong increase of emulsion stability and to disappearance of the aging effect, which is explained by the formation of disulfide bonds between the adsorbed molecules. The emulsion heating at low electrolyte concentration does not affect emulsion stability - this result is explained with the electrostatic repulsion between the adsorbed molecules, which keeps them separated so that no intermolecular disulfide bonds are formed. Parallel experiments with WPC-stabilized emulsions show that these emulsions are less sensitive to variations of pH and thermal treatment; no aging effect is detected up to 30 days of storage. The observed differences between BLG and WPC are explained with the different procedures of preparation of these protein samples (freeze-drying and thermally enhanced spray-drying, respectively). Our data for emulsion coalescence stability are compared with literature results about the flocculation stability of BLG emulsions, and the observed similarities/differences are explained by considering the structure of the protein a

Tcholakova, Slavka; Denkov, Nikolai D; Ivanov, Ivan B; Campbell, Bruce

2006-11-16

116

Biocompatible surfactants for water-in-fluorocarbon emulsions.  

PubMed

Drops of water-in-fluorocarbon emulsions have great potential for compartmentalizing both in vitro and in vivo biological systems; however, surfactants to stabilize such emulsions are scarce. Here we present a novel class of fluorosurfactants that we synthesize by coupling oligomeric perfluorinated polyethers (PFPE) with polyethyleneglycol (PEG). We demonstrate that these block copolymer surfactants stabilize water-in-fluorocarbon oil emulsions during all necessary steps of a drop-based experiment including drop formation, incubation, and reinjection into a second microfluidic device. Furthermore, we show that aqueous drops stabilized with these surfactants can be used for in vitro translation (IVT), as well as encapsulation and incubation of single cells. The compatability of this emulsion system with both biological systems and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic devices makes these surfactants ideal for a broad range of high-throughput, drop-based applications. PMID:18813384

Holtze, C; Rowat, A C; Agresti, J J; Hutchison, J B; Angilè, F E; Schmitz, C H J; Köster, S; Duan, H; Humphry, K J; Scanga, R A; Johnson, J S; Pisignano, D; Weitz, D A

2008-10-01

117

Emulsion stabilizing properties of pectin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Citrus pectin and beet pectin are able to reduce the interfacial tension between an oil phase and a water phase and can be efficient for the preparation of emulsions. Investigations were made to evaluate the effect of various parameters of pectin on its emulsifying capacity. Orange and rapeseed oils emulsions were prepared with pectin as an emulsifier. They were then

J. Leroux; V. Langendorff; G. Schick; V. Vaishnav; J. Mazoyer

2003-01-01

118

A quality by design approach to optimization of emulsions for electrospinning using factorial and D-optimal designs.  

PubMed

Emulsion electrospinning is a multifactorial process used to generate nanofibers loaded with hydrophilic drugs or macromolecules for diverse biomedical applications. Emulsion electrospinnability is greatly impacted by the emulsion pharmaceutical attributes. The aim of this study was to apply a quality by design (QbD) approach based on design of experiments as a risk-based proactive approach to achieve predictable critical quality attributes (CQAs) in w/o emulsions for electrospinning. Polycaprolactone (PCL)-thickened w/o emulsions containing doxycycline HCl were formulated using a Span 60/sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) emulsifier blend. The identified emulsion CQAs (stability, viscosity and conductivity) were linked with electrospinnability using a 3(3) factorial design to optimize emulsion composition for phase stability and a D-optimal design to optimize stable emulsions for viscosity and conductivity after shifting the design space. The three independent variables, emulsifier blend composition, organic:aqueous phase ratio and polymer concentration, had a significant effect (p<0.05) on emulsion CQAs, the emulsifier blend composition exerting prominent main and interaction effects. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of emulsion-electrospun NFs and desirability functions allowed modeling of emulsion CQAs to predict electrospinnable formulations. A QbD approach successfully built quality in electrospinnable emulsions, allowing development of hydrophilic drug-loaded nanofibers with desired morphological characteristics. PMID:24704153

Badawi, Mariam A; El-Khordagui, Labiba K

2014-07-16

119

Direct Current Electrorheological Stability Determination of Water-in-Crude Oil Emulsions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emulsion stability is a fundamental determination for separation technologies. We use the critical electric field (CEF) and viscosity changes in DC eletrorheological (ER) experiments in dynamic mode to determine the stability of water-in-crude oil emulsions, previously studied through bottle tests. The CEF value corresponds to the value of electric field at which the current reaches 95% or larger of the plateau value. The results show that CEF can be consistently obtained through current measurements, resulting from emulsion structure breakdown. Viscosity changes are not good proxies of stability unless a robust emulsion structure is found. Emulsion structure breakdown is explored through rheological characterization before and after voltage sweeps have been performed. When the electric field applied is below the CEF value, the storage and loss moduli responses as well as viscosity as functions of frequency are recovered. However, when the electric field is greater than the CEF value, the emulsion structure breaks down irreversibly.

Alvarado, Vladimir; Wang, Xiuyu

2009-11-01

120

Study of Double-Strangeness Nuclei with Hybrid-Emulsion Method Kek-Ps E373)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experiment to search for double-strangeness nuclei in nuclear emulsion is now being carried on as KEK-PS E373. Preliminary results of the data analysis for the K+ spectrometer and the scintillating fiber detectors are presented. Status of the automatic track finding method for the emulsion is reported.

Ichikawa, A.; Ahn, J. K.; Akikawa, H.; Imai, K.; Kanda, H.; Kondo, Y.; Takahashi, H.; Tojo, J.; Torii, H.; Yamamoto, K.; Yosoi, Y.; Iwata, Y.; Kaneko, M.; Nakazawa, K.; Park, H. M.; Ra, Y. S.; Torikai, S.; Akaishi, Y.; Fukuda, T.; Ieiri, M.; Noumi, H.; Sekimoto, M.; Aoki, S.; Bahk, S. Y.; Baik, K. M.; Chung, M. S.; Kim, C. O.; Sim, K. S.; Yang, J. T.; Hoshino, K.; Kawai, T.; Kim, J. Y.; Kim, S. J.; Motoba, T.; Nagoshi, C.; Ogawa, S.; Oyama, K.; Shibuya, H.; Okabe, H.; Park, I. G.; Song, J. S.; Yoon, C. J.; Rhee, J. T.; Takahashi, T.; Takeutchi, F.; Tanaka, H.; Ushida, N.; Yamamoto, Y.; Yasuda, N.; Yoshida, T.

2000-09-01

121

The Preparation and Testing of a Common Emulsion and Personal Care Product: Lotion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A chemical analysis of lotions, which comprises of categorizations of moisturizers and emulsions, with the preparation and testing of three lotions, is done. The experiment piques students' interest in preparing lotions and emulsions, and proves the value of chemistry in satisfying the needs of everyday life.

Mabrouk, Suzanne T.

2004-01-01

122

Hardware performance of a scanning system for high speed analysis of nuclear emulsions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of nuclear emulsions in very large physics experiments is now possible thanks to the recent improvements in the industrial production of emulsions and to the development of fast automated microscopes. In this paper the hardware performances of the European Scanning System (ESS) are described. The ESS is a very fast automatic system developed for the mass scanning of

L. Arrabito; E. Barbuto; C. Bozza; S. Buontempo; L. Consiglio; D. Coppola; M. Cozzi; J. Damet; N. D’Ambrosio; G. De Lellis; M. De Serio; F. Di Capua; D. Di Ferdinando; D. Di Marco; L. S. Esposito; G. Giacomelli; G. Grella; M. Hauger; F. Juget; I. Kreslo; M. Giorgini; M. Ieva; I. Laktineh; K. Manai; G. Mandrioli; A. Marotta; S. Manzoor; P. Migliozzi; P. Monacelli; M. T. Muciaccia; A. Pastore; L. Patrizii; C. Pistillo; M. Pozzato; P. Royole-Degieux; G. Romano; G. Rosa; N. Savvinov; A. Schembri; L. Scotto Lavina; S. Simone; M. Sioli; C. Sirignano; G. Sirri; G. Sorrentino; P. Strolin; V. Tioukov; T. Waelchli

2006-01-01

123

In vitro skin permeation of sunscreen agents from O/W emulsions.  

PubMed

The effects of different emulsifiers on the in vitro permeation through human skin of two sunscreen agents [octylmethoxycinnamate (OMC) and butylmethoxydibenzoylmethane (BMBM)] were investigated from O/W emulsions. The test formulations were prepared using the same oil and aqueous phase ingredients and the following emulsifier and coemulsifier systems: Emulgade SE((R)) (ceteareth-12 and ceteareth-20 and cetearyl alcohol and cetyl palmitate) and glycerylmonostearate (emulsion 1); Brij 72((R)) (steareth-2), Brij 721((R)) (steareth-21) and cetearyl alcohol (emulsion 2); Phytocream((R)) (potassium palmitoyl-hydrolysed wheat protein and glyceryl stearate and cetearyl alcohol) and glycerylmonostearate (emulsion 3); Montanov 68((R)) (cetearyl glucoside and cetearyl alcohol) (emulsion 4); Xalifin-15((R)) (C(15-20) acid PEG-8 ester) and cetearyl alcohol (emulsion 5). The cumulative amount of OMC that permeated in vitro through human skin after 22 h from the formulations being tested decreased in the order 3 > 1 congruent with 4 > 5 > 2 and was about nine-fold higher from emulsion 3 compared with that from emulsion 2. As regards BMBM, no significant difference was observed as regards its skin permeation from emulsions 1, 3, 4 and 5, whereas formulation 2 allowed significantly lower amounts of BMBM to permeate the skin. In vitro release experiments of OMC and BMBM from emulsions 1-6 through cellulose acetate membranes showed that only emulsions 4 and 5 provided pseudo-first-order release rates only for OMC. The results of this study suggest that the type of emulsifying systems used to prepare an O/W emulsion may strongly affect sunscreen skin permeation from these formulations. Therefore, the vehicle effects should be carefully considered in the formulation of sunscreen products. PMID:18377631

Montenegro, L; Carbone, C; Paolino, D; Drago, R; Stancampiano, A H; Puglisi, G

2008-02-01

124

Produced Fluid Emulsions. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Emulsion production and stabilization may be due to one or more of several phenomenon including water-oil ratio, oil and brine chemistry, and surfactant and polymer type and concentration. They may influence emulsification either independently or with dep...

C. F. Hurley A. Himmelblau L. Trom

1984-01-01

125

Supralinearity in nuclear research emulsions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear emulsions processed in discriminating developers, intended to suppress small latent image sites, exhibit supralinear sensitometric blackness-exposure curves, whose character varies according to developing time, concentration, and composition, yielding hittedness ranging from 1 to 8, singly and in combination. These emulsion-processing combinations display the phenomena called ion-kill (sensitization by the transit of a single charged particle) and gamma- kill (sensitization

Leif Larsson; F. E. Pinkerton; Robert Katz

1977-01-01

126

Thermocapillary Motion in an Emulsion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The phenomenological model for the motion of an emulsion or a gas-liquid mixture exposed to thermocapillary forces and micro-acceleration is formulated. The analytical and numerical investigation of one-dimensional flows for these media is fulfilled, the structure of discontinuous motion is studied. The stability conditions of a space-uniform state and of the interface between an emulsion and a pure liquid are obtained.

Pukhnachov, Vladislav V.; Voinov, Oleg V.

1996-01-01

127

Characterization of Surfactant Free Emulsions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a pharmacological interest in providing a delivery mechanism for highly hydrophobic drugs through the bloodstream. A typical methodology would be to introduce a surfactant which would serve to bind the hydrophobic molecule to the aqueous environment. Because of the need for the surfactant to be non-toxic this avenue proves problematic and many highly hydrophobic drugs which could prove effective are not useable. We have demonstrated the formation of a stable emulsion of Silicone Oil in degassed water alone. The emulsion droplets were on the order of 50 nm in diameter and stable over a period of 8 hours. Previous studies have shown that the surfactant free emulsions do not lose their stability when the previously removed gasses are reintroduced. The formation of a stable emulsion in the complete absence of a surfactant could provide an alternative approach to a physiologically safe drug carrier. The present work involves the formation of stabilized surfactant free emulsions in a homologous series from pentane through decane. The emulsion's structure and thermodynamic stability were then characterized using small angle x-ray scattering.

Brar, Ramaninder; Urquidi, Jacob

2012-10-01

128

Subsurface Transport of Reactive Iron Particles Encapsulated within Oil-in-Water Emulsions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reactive iron particles hold promise for use in the destruction of contaminants in the subsurface environment. Application of these nano- to submicron-scale particles, however, may be limited by poor subsurface transport and non-uniform distribution of the reactive material. Delivery issues are particularly important when evaluating the efficacy of iron-based technologies for treatment of dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) source zones. Current approaches for the delivery of reactive iron particles within DNAPL source zones are hindered by particle agglomeration, flow bypassing, and presence of non-target reactions. Encapsulation of the reactive particles within an oil-in-water emulsion is a novel approach that may overcome these limitations. For successful application, emulsion droplets must be sufficiently small to prevent pore clogging, the emulsion must remain stable (i.e., both the encapsulated iron within oil droplets and the oil droplets within the continuous aqueous- phase) during introduction to the contaminated porous media, and the emulsion must be designed so as to limit any unintended DNAPL mobilization. Kinetically-stable iron-containing oil-in-water emulsions with droplet sizes less than two micrometers were developed and column experiments conducted to assess the transport of these emulsions through sandy media of differing mean pore diameters. Results from column experiments indicate little evidence of retention of emulsion droplets. Effluent recoveries suggest that both the oil and iron components of the oil-in-water emulsion can be transported through sandy porous media without long-term permeability reduction. Emulsion transport was modeled using a modified filtration model that includes a Langmuir adsorption term to simulate monolayer adsorption. The model simulations capture the rise, plateau and tailing of the emulsion breakthrough curves. Predicted mobility distances indicate encapsulation of particles within an oil- in-water emulsion can promote iron transport within porous media.

Berge, N. D.; Li, Y.; Abriola, L. M.; Ramsburg, C. A.

2008-05-01

129

Coordinate measurement system supported by image processor for emulsion plates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Central collisions of 32S and 16O with Pb at 200 {GeV}/{amu} have been studied by the emulsion spectrometer in the CERN-EMU05 experiment. The emission angles, momenta and charge signs of the secondary particles are measured. The position of a track in an emulsion plate should be measured by using a microscope to determine the momenta of more than 500 charged secondaries in an event. A new coordinate measurement system has been developed by using a video image processor connected to the microscope. In this system, the position, direction and length of a track in a coated emulsion are expressed as a vector which is linked with the motion of micro X- Y stage and is superimposed on an emulsion image on a TV monitor. By using this system, the data acquisition rate has become about ten times faster than that by using only an emulsion image and the momentum resolution has become higher than that. Moreover, this system is effective for identifying tracks emitted in more than 45°.

Iyono, Atsushi; Yamamoto, Isao; Tomiyama, Tsuyoshi; Imaeda, Kuni; Wada, Tomonori; Kanada, Mikio

1990-11-01

130

First results on proton radiography with nuclear emulsion detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose an innovative method for proton radiography based on nuclear emulsion film detectors, a technique in which images are obtained by measuring the position and the residual range of protons passing through the patient's body. For this purpose, nuclear emulsion films interleaved with tissue equivalent absorbers can be used to reconstruct proton tracks with very high accuracy. This is performed through a fully automated scanning procedure employing optical microscopy, routinely used in neutrino physics experiments. Proton radiography can be used in proton therapy to obtain direct information on the average tissue density for treatment planning optimization and to perform imaging with very low dose to the patient. The first prototype of a nuclear emulsion based detector has been conceived, constructed and tested with a therapeutic proton beam. The first promising experimental results have been obtained by imaging simple phantoms.

Braccini, S.; Ereditato, A.; Kreslo, I.; Moser, U.; Pistillo, C.; Studer, S.; Scampoli, P.; Coray, A.; Pedroni, E.

2010-09-01

131

Real time study of development process in holographic emulsions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we present the theoretical and experimental study using a real time technique for the measurement of the optical density when the emulsion is developing. Good agreement was observed between theory and experiment. We exposed an Agfa Gevaert 8E56HD emulsion with an Argon laser tuned at 514 nm and we measured the variation in optical density when the emulsion was put into the developer bath at 20°C. This method allows us to study the dynamics of different developers at different energy of storage. It also provides a way to optimize the composition of developers as a function of the chemical composition, temperature and other secondary factors as superadditivity and non-linear processes.

Fimia, A.; Blaya, S.; Carretero, L.; Madrigal, R. F.; Mallavia, R.

2000-01-01

132

Hadrons registration in emulsion chamber with carbon block  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nuclear-electro-magnetic cascade (NEC) in X-ray emulsion chambers with carbon block, which are usually used in the Pamir experiment, was Monte-Carlo simulated. Going over from optical density to Summary Egamma is discussed. The hole of NEC in the interpretation of energy spectra is analyzed.

Tomaszewski, A.; Wlodarczyk, Z.

1985-08-01

133

Extending Temporary Storage Capacity Offshore with Emulsion Breakers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective this study was to develop a more complete understanding of the use of emulsion breakers injected into an oil spill recovery system at both lab-scale (in Ottawa at SL Ross) and mid-scale (in New Jersey at Ohmsett). The experiments were design...

2002-01-01

134

Emulsion properties of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) proteins.  

PubMed

Emulsions were made with sunflower protein isolate (SI), helianthinin, and sunflower albumins (SFAs). Emulsion formation and stabilization were studied as a function of pH and ionic strength and after heat treatment of the proteins. The emulsions were characterized with respect to average droplet size, surface excess, and the occurrence of coalescence and/or droplet aggregation. Sunflower proteins were shown to form stable emulsions, with the exception of SFAs at neutral and alkaline pH values. Droplet aggregation occurred in emulsions made with SI, helianthinin, and SFAs. Droplet aggregation and subsequent coalescence of emulsions made with SFAs could be prevented at pH 3. Calcium was found to cause droplet aggregation of emulsions made with helianthinin, at neutral and alkaline pH values. Treatments that increase conformational flexibility of the protein molecule improved the emulsion properties of sunflower proteins. PMID:15769166

González-Pérez, Sergio; van Konigsveld, Gerrit A; Vereijken, Johan M; Merck, Karin B; Gruppen, Harry; Voragen, Alphons G J

2005-03-23

135

Can Pickering emulsion formation aid the removal of creosote DNAPL from porous media?  

PubMed

The purpose of this investigation was to examine the proposition that creosote, emplaced in an initially water saturated porous system, can be removed from the system through Pickering emulsion formation. Pickering emulsions are dispersions of two immiscible fluids in which coalescence of the dispersed phase droplets is hindered by the presence of colloidal particles adsorbed at the interface between the two immiscible fluid phases. Particle trapping is strongly favoured when the wetting properties of the particles are intermediate between strong water wetting and strong oil wetting. In this investigation the necessary chemical conditions for the formation of physically stable creosote-in-water emulsions protected against coalescence by bentonite particles were examined. It was established that physically stable emulsions could be formed through the judicious addition of small amounts of sodium chloride and the surfactant cetyl-trimethylammonium bromide. The stability of the emulsions was initially established by visual inspection. However, experimental determinations of emulsion stability were also undertaken by use of oscillatory rheology. Measurements of the elastic and viscous responses to shear indicated that physically stable emulsions were obtained when the viscoelastic systems showed a predominantly elastic response to shearing. Once the conditions were established for the formation of physically stable emulsions a "proof-of-concept" chromatographic experiment was carried out which showed that creosote could be successfully removed from a saturated model porous system. PMID:17988711

Torres, Luis; Iturbe, Rosario; Snowden, M J; Chowdhry, Babur; Leharne, Stephen

2008-03-01

136

Transfer of Oil between Emulsion Droplets  

Microsoft Academic Search

A contrast matching technique was used to determine the exchange of oils between emulsion droplets having different refractive indexes. Emulsions of tetradecane and 1-bromo tetradecane in water were made separately in a high-pressure homogenizer, then mixed and equilibrated at rest. It was found that droplets exchanged oil molecules through the continuous phase, in a process similar to Ostwald ripening. Emulsions

Laurent Taisne; Pieter Walstra; Bernard Cabane

1996-01-01

137

Nuclear Interactions of Super High Energy Cosmic-Rays Observed by Mountain Emulsion Chambers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Here is presented a summary of joint discussions on the results of three mountain experiments with large-scale emulsion chambers, at Pamir, Mt. Fuji and Chacaltaya. The observation covers gamma-quanta, hadrons and their clusters (called ''families''). Fol...

1981-01-01

138

Advances in Intravenous Lipid Emulsions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past decade, our views have\\u000a considerably evolved with respect to the metabolism of intravenous\\u000a lipid emulsions and their composition. Substantial progress has been\\u000a made in understanding the metabolic pathways of emulsion particles and\\u000a the delivery of their various components (fatty acids and vitamins) to\\u000a specific tissues or cells. Although soybean long-chain triglycerides\\u000a represent a valuable source of energy,

2000-01-01

139

Modeling of the centering force in a compound emulsion to make uniform plastic shells for laser fusion targets  

SciTech Connect

In laser fusion experiment, fuel capsules with high sphericity and high wall-thickness uniformity are often fabricated by the emulsion method. To understand the process of forming the uniform wall by the emulsion method and to further improve the thickness uniformity, the formulated a model to simulate the centering process of a water globule in a compound emulsion. The authors newly added a thermodynamic force to the centering force in addition to previous hydrodynamic forces. The results indicate that nonuniform emulsion turns to be uniform by repeating instantaneous deformations followed with continuous rotation around the horizontal axis.

Norimatsu, T.; Izawa, Y.; Mima, K. [Osaka Univ., Yamada, Suita (Japan); Gresho, P.M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

1999-03-01

140

Lipid oxidation in food emulsions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lipid oxidation is a major cause of quality deterioration in food emulsions. The design of foods with improved quality depends on a better understanding of the physicochemical mechanisms of lipid oxidation in these systems. The oxidation of emulsified lipids differs from that of bulk lipids, because of the presence of the droplet membrane, the interactions between the ingredients, and the

John N. Coupland; D. Julian McClements

1996-01-01

141

Electrochromism in switchable nematic emulsions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Switchable nematic emulsions are composite systems formed by liquid-crystal droplets dispersed in a fluid, homogeneous, monomer matrix, which can be turned from an opaque to an optically transparent state by application of a suitable ac electric field. An electrochromic device provides a reversible and visible change in its transmittance and\\/or reflectance as the result of either oxidation or reduction electrochemical

F. P. Nicoletta; D. Cupelli; G. de Filpo; G. Chidichimo

2004-01-01

142

The Compressed Baryonic Matter experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment is a next-generation fixed target detector which will operate at the future Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) in Darmstadt. The goal of this experiment is to explore the QCD phase diagram in the region of high net baryon densities using high-energy nucleus-nucleus collisions. Its research program includes the study of the equation-of-state of nuclear matter at high baryon densities, the search for the deconfinement and chiral phase transitions and the search for the QCD critical point. The CBM detector is designed to measure both bulk observables with a large acceptance and rare diagnostic probes such as charm particles, multi-strange hyperons, and low mass vector mesons in their di-leptonic decay. The physics program of CBM will be summarized, followed by an overview of the detector concept, a selection of the expected physics performance, and the status of preparation of the experiment.

Seddiki, Sélim; Cbm Collaboration

2014-04-01

143

Polymer Blend Emulsions Stabilized by Janus Particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kinetic trapping of bicontinuous polymer morphologies through the interfacial segregation of nanoparticles is of interest due to the unique combination of the properties of each component provided by such structures, and their potential for use as membranes and composite materials. However, this strategy is challenging to realize in polymeric systems, due to the difficulties in preparing particles that are neutrally wetted by the two polymer phases. Janus particles afford a route to circumvent the necessity of neutral wettability. In addition, both theory and experiment have shown enhanced interfacial adsorption energies for Janus particles, as well as greater flexibility in controlling particle orientation at the interface, in comparison to homogeneous particles. Dumbbell-shaped gold-silica Janus particles were synthesized using several sizes of gold seeds. These particles were made amphiphilic by functionalization with both polymeric and small molecule silanes and thiols. Their interfacial activity was measured using pendant drop tensiometry, and their ability to stabilize bicontinuous emulsions of polymers was examined by TEM. The results elucidate the role of particle wettability on interfacial behavior and the structure of stabilized emulsions.

Bryson, Kyle; Russell, Thomas; Hayward, Ryan

2013-03-01

144

Random close packing of polydisperse jammed emulsions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Packing problems are everywhere, ranging from oil extraction through porous rocks to grain storage in silos and the compaction of pharmaceutical powders into tablets. At a given density, particulate systems pack into a mechanically stable and amorphous jammed state. Theoretical frameworks have proposed a connection between this jammed state and the glass transition, a thermodynamics of jamming, as well as geometric modeling of random packings. Nevertheless, a simple underlying mechanism for the random assembly of athermal particles, analogous to crystalline ordering, remains unknown. Here we use 3D measurements of polydisperse packings of emulsion droplets to build a simple statistical model in which the complexity of the global packing is distilled into a local stochastic process. From the perspective of a single particle the packing problem is reduced to the random formation of nearest neighbors, followed by a choice of contacts among them. The two key parameters in the model, the available space around a particle and the ratio of contacts to neighbors, are directly obtained from experiments. Remarkably, we demonstrate that this ``granocentric'' view captures the properties of the polydisperse emulsion packing, ranging from the microscopic distributions of nearest neighbors and contacts to local density fluctuations and all the way to the global packing density. Further applications to monodisperse and bidisperse systems quantitatively agree with previously measured trends in global density. This model therefore reveals a general principle of organization for random packing and lays the foundations for a theory of jammed matter.

Brujic, Jasna

2010-03-01

145

Adelphi-Goddard emulsified fuel project. [using water/oil emulsions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermal efficiency and particle emissions were studied using water/oil emulsions. These studies were done using number 2 and number 6 fuel oil. The number 6 oil had a sulfur content greater than one percent and experiments were conducted to remove the sulfur dioxide from the stack gases. Test findings include: (1) emulsion effected a reduction in soot at a low excess air levels; (2) a steam atomizing system will produce a water/oil emulsion. The fuel in the study was emulsified in the steam atomization process, hence, pre-emulsification did not yield a dramatic reduction in soot or an increase in thermal efficiency.

1977-01-01

146

Polymerization in emulsion microdroplet reactors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of this research project is to utilize emulsion droplets as chemical reactors for execution of complex polymerization chemistries to develop unique and functional particle materials. Emulsions are dispersions of immiscible fluids where one fluid usually exists in the form of drops. Not surprisingly, if a liquid-to-solid chemical reaction proceeds to completion within these drops, the resultant solid particles will possess the shape and relative size distribution of the drops. The two immiscible liquid phases required for emulsion polymerization provide unique and complex chemical and physical environments suitable for the engineering of novel materials. The development of novel non-ionic fluorosurfactants allows fluorocarbon oils to be used as the continuous phase in a water-free emulsion. Such emulsions enable the encapsulation of almost any hydrocarbon compound in droplets that may be used as separate compartments for water-sensitive syntheses. Here, we exemplify the promise of this approach by suspension polymerization of polyurethanes (PU), in which the liquid precursor is emulsified into droplets that are then converted 1:1 into polymer particles. The stability of the droplets against coalescence upon removal of the continuous phase by evaporation confirms the formation of solid PU particles. These results prove that the water-free environment of fluorocarbon based emulsions enables high conversion. We produce monodisperse, cross-linked, and fluorescently labeled PU-latexes with controllable mesh size through microfluidic emulsification in a simple one-step process. A novel method for the fabrication of monodisperse mesoporous silica particles is presented. It is based on the formation of well-defined equally sized emulsion droplets using a microfluidic approach. The droplets contain the silica precursor/surfactant solution and are suspended in hexadecane as the continuous oil phase. The solvent is then expelled from the droplets, leading to concentration and micellization of the surfactant. At the same time, the silica solidifies around the surfactant structures, forming equally sized mesoporous particles. The procedure can be tuned to produce well-separated particles or alternatively particles that are linked together. The latter allows us to create 2D or 3D structures with hierarchical porosity. Oil, water, and surfactant liquid mixtures exhibit very complex phase behavior. Depending on the conditions, such mixtures give rise to highly organized structures. A proper selection of the type and concentration of surfactants determines the structuring at the nanoscale level. In this work, we show that hierarchically bimodal nanoporous structures can be obtained by templating silica microparticles with a specially designed surfactant micelle/microemulsion mixture. Tuning the phase state by adjusting the surfactant composition and concentration allows for the controlled design of a system where microemulsion droplets coexist with smaller surfactant micellar structures. The microemulsion droplet and micellar dimensions determine the two types of pore sizes (single nanometers and tens of nanometers). We also demonstrate the fabrication of carbon and carbon/platinum replicas of the silica microspheres using a "lost-wax" approach. Such particles have great potential for the design of electrocatalysts for fuel cells, chromatography separations, and other applications. It was determined that slight variations in microemulsion mixture components (electrolyte concentration, wt% of surfactants, oil to sol ratio, etc.) produces strikingly different pore morphologies and particle surface areas. Control over the size and structure of the smaller micelle-templated pores was made possible by varying the length of the hydrocarbon block within the trimethyl ammonium bromide surfactant and characterized using X-ray diffraction. The effect of emulsion aging was studied by synthesizing particles at progressive time levels from a sample emulsion. It was discovered surface pore size increases after just a few hours, with

Carroll, Nick J.

147

Removal of pesticides from aqueous solutions using liquid membrane emulsions  

SciTech Connect

Extractive liquid membrane technology is based on a water-in-oil emulsion as the vehicle to effect separation. An aqueous internal reagent phase is emulsified into an organic phase containing a surfactant and optional complexing agents. The emulsion, presenting a large membrane surface area, is then dispersed in an aqueous continuous phase containing the species to be removed. The desired species is transferred from the continuous, phase through the organic liquid membrane and concentrated in the internal reagent phase. Extraction and stripping occur simultaneously rather than sequentially as in conventional solvent extraction. Experiments were conducted to assess the feasibility of using liquid membranes to extract pesticides from rinsewaters typical of those generated by fertilizer/agrichemical dealers. A liquid membrane emulsion containing 10% NaOH as the internal reagent phase was used to extract herbicides from aqueous solution at a continuous phase:emulsion ratio of 5:1. Removals of 2,4-D, MCPA, Carbaryl, Diazinon, and Atrazine were investigated.

Norwood, V.M. III.

1991-01-01

148

Removal of pesticides from aqueous solutions using liquid membrane emulsions  

SciTech Connect

Extractive liquid membrane technology is based on a water-in-oil emulsion as the vehicle to effect separation. An aqueous internal reagent phase is emulsified into an organic phase containing a surfactant and optional complexing agents. The emulsion, presenting a large membrane surface area, is then dispersed in an aqueous continuous phase containing the species to be removed. The desired species is transferred from the continuous, phase through the organic liquid membrane and concentrated in the internal reagent phase. Extraction and stripping occur simultaneously rather than sequentially as in conventional solvent extraction. Experiments were conducted to assess the feasibility of using liquid membranes to extract pesticides from rinsewaters typical of those generated by fertilizer/agrichemical dealers. A liquid membrane emulsion containing 10% NaOH as the internal reagent phase was used to extract herbicides from aqueous solution at a continuous phase:emulsion ratio of 5:1. Removals of 2,4-D, MCPA, Carbaryl, Diazinon, and Atrazine were investigated.

Norwood, V.M. III

1991-12-31

149

Use of micro-emulsion technology for the directed evolution of antibodies.  

PubMed

Affinity reagents, such as antibodies, are needed to study protein expression patterns, sub-cellular localization, and post-translational modifications in complex mixtures and tissues. Phage Emulsion, Secretion, and Capture (ESCape) is a novel micro-emulsion technology that utilizes water-in-oil (W/O) emulsions for the identification and isolation of cells secreting phage particles that display desirable antibodies. Using this method, a large library of antibody-displaying phage will bind to beads in individual compartments. Rather than using biopanning on a large mixed population, phage micro-emulsion technology allows us to individually query clonal populations of amplified phage against the antigen. The use of emulsions to generate microdroplets has the promise of accelerating phage selection experiments by permitting fine discrimination of kinetic parameters for binding to targets. In this study, we demonstrate the ability of phage micro-emulsion technology to distinguish two scFvs with a 300-fold difference in binding affinities (100nM and 300pM, respectively). In addition, we describe the application of phage micro-emulsion technology for the selection of scFvs that are resistant to elevated temperatures. PMID:22819852

Buhr, Diane L; Acca, Felicity E; Holland, Erika G; Johnson, Katie; Maksymiuk, Gail M; Vaill, Ada; Kay, Brian K; Weitz, David A; Weiner, Michael P; Kiss, Margaret M

2012-09-01

150

The effect of additives on the treatment of oil-in-water emulsions by vacuum evaporation.  

PubMed

A simple batch vacuum evaporation process for the treatment of several oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions is reported. The experiments were carried out with waste emulsions from an industrial copper rolling process and with model emulsions prepared in the laboratory. No detailed information on the formulation of the industrial waste O/W emulsions was available. Several model emulsions were formulated using the same base oil (an 85-15% (w/w) mixture of a synthetic poly-alpha-olefin and a trimethylol propane trioleate ester, respectively) and one of the three following surfactants: Brij-76 (polyethylene glycol octadecyl ether, non-ionic), CTAB (hexadecyltrimethyl ammonium bromide, cationic), and Oleth-10 (glycolic acid ethoxylate oleyl ether, anionic). Experimental results show a strong influence of operating conditions, such as pressure or bath temperature, on the evaporation performance. As a general trend, the higher the values of these parameters, the higher the pollutant content in the obtained aqueous effluent. The presence of surfactants increase the evaporation rate, especially at low operating vacuum pressures, the solubility of oil molecules in water and the evaporation temperature of model O/W emulsions. Furthermore, COD reductions higher than 99.5% for the treated waste O/W emulsions were achieved. PMID:17321675

Gutiérrez, Gemma; Cambiella, Angel; Benito, José M; Pazos, Carmen; Coca, José

2007-06-18

151

Deflagration products from emulsion explosive unconventional nano-powders from ion reaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present situation of detonation synthesis and emulsion explosives is summarized. To solve the problems in research for lithium ion batteries, we suggested that zinc and lithium oxides should be used as cathode materials for lithium ion batteries. So, we design unconventional emulsion explosives, and synthesize zinc and lithium oxides by means of deflagration firstly. Also, microstructures and morphology of nanometer thin sheets in the deflagration soot of emulsion explosives are measured in our experiments; namely, we surveyed and analyzed products with the implement of XRD, TEM and FTIR. It is concluded that nanoparticles of lithium and zinc oxides can be synthesized through deflagration of the unconventional emulsion explosive. Main contents and research results are as follows: First, unconventional emulsion explosives for synthesis of zinc and lithium oxides are designed firstly, and we also discuss mechanics of deflagration. In the final analysis, we succeeded in synthesizing nano-sheets of zinc and lithium oxides by deflagrating at the fist time. Second, we tested microstructures of nanometer thin sheets of lithium and zinc composite oxides. Third, by contrast to industrial emulsion explosives, we analyzed the deflagration mechanics of the unconventional emulsion explosives. Last, zinc and lithium nanooxides are successfully collected and validated by XRD, TEM and FTIR exactly.

Xie, Xinghua; Zhu, Jing; Zhou, Huisheng

2009-09-01

152

Transport of Oil-in-Water Emulsions Designed to Deliver Reactive Iron Particles in Porous Media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Treatment of subsurface regions contaminated with DNAPL is a significant challenge to environmental restoration. The focus of remediation has recently shifted from technologies that recover the contamination to technologies that destroy the contamination in situ. One method of in situ contaminant destruction employs nano- or submicron-size particles of reactive iron metal. Application of iron-based destruction technologies is currently limited by poor delivery of the reactive particles (i.e., lack of contact between the iron particles and the DNAPL). Encapsulation of the reactive particles within an oil-in-water emulsion is a novel approach that may facilitate delivery. The goal of this project was to investigate the transport behavior of emulsions (Tallow oil, Tween 80, and Span 80) within porous media. One-dimensional column experiments were conducted to evaluate pore-clogging when emulsions containing encapsulated reactive particles were passed through two homogeneous sands with an order of magnitude difference in intrinsic permeability. In these experiments, passing an emulsion through the sand column (4.8 cm i.d.) at a constant flow rate (0.86 mL/min) increased the hydraulic gradient by a factor of approximately three. The hydraulic gradient in each experiment was observed to stabilize after one pore volume of emulsion. Subsequent flushing with water recovered the initial hydraulic gradient. Together, these observations indicate that conductivity reductions during emulsion flushing were the result of viscosity and not the result of extensive pore-clogging. Analysis of effluent samples confirmed that there was minimal retention of the emulsion within the sand column. Results from these experiments suggest that emulsion encapsulation may be an effective means for transporting reactive iron particles within the subsurface environment.

Crocker, J. J.; Berge, N. D.; Ramsburg, C. A.

2007-05-01

153

Oil-in-water emulsions for encapsulated delivery of reactive iron particles.  

PubMed

Treatment of dense nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) source zones using suspensions of reactive iron particles relies upon effective transport of the nano- to submicrometer scale iron particles within the subsurface. Recognition that poor subsurface transport of iron particles results from particle-particle and particle-soil interactions permits development of strategies which increase transport. In this work, experiments were conducted to assess a novel approach for encapsulated delivery of iron particles within porous media using oil-in-water emulsions. Objectives of this study included feasibility demonstration of producing kinetically stable, iron-containing, oil-in-water emulsions and evaluating the transport of these iron-containing, oil-in-water emulsions within water-saturated porous media. Emulsions developed in this study have mean droplet diameters between 1 and 2 microm, remain kinetically stable for > 1.5 h, and possess densities (0.996-1.00 g/mL at 22 degrees C) and dynamic viscosities (2.4-9.3 mPa x s at 22 degrees C and 20 s(-1)) that are favorable to transport within DNAPL source zones. Breakthrough curves and post-experiment extractions from column experiments conducted with medium and fine sands suggest little emulsion retention (< 0.20% wt) at a Darcy velocity of 0.4 m/day. These findings demonstrate that emulsion encapsulation is a promising method for delivery of iron particles and warrants further investigation. PMID:19673307

Berge, Nicole D; Ramsburg, C Andrew

2009-07-01

154

Toxicity Testing of Fat Emulsions for Intravenous Administration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Clinical and histopathologic toxicity studies were conducted on fourteen fat emulsions including Lipomul, Intralipid, Lipofundin and cottonseed or soybean oil emulsions prepared commercially or experimentally for intravenous use. These emulsions were admi...

L. D. Jones M. W. Castleberry J. E. Canham N. W. King

1965-01-01

155

Forward baryons in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions  

SciTech Connect

We present the rapidity and transverse momentum distributions of protons and neutrons from collisions between 14.6 GeV/nucleon beams of {sup 28}Si and targets of Al, Cu, and Pb. The data were measured in the forward spectrometer/target calorimeter detectors of the E814 apparatus. The results indicate the existence of two distinct domains, one of beam rapidity projectilelike nucleons, and the second of participant nucleons. From the former, the in-medium inelastic nucleon-nucleon cross section is deduced. It is found to agree, within 10%, with the free'' value of 30 mb although under present conditions one of the two colliding nucleons has been struck before with a high probability. We compare with the present data the predictions of a fragmentation model as well as of models dealing explicitly with the heavy-ion collision and particle creation and emission.

Barrette, J.; Bellwied, R.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Cleland, W.E.; David, G.; Dee, J.; Fatyga, M.; Fox, D.; Greene, S.V.; Hall, J.; Hemmick, T.K.; Heifetz, R.; Herrmann, N.; Hogue, R.W.; Ingold, G.; Jayananda, K.; Kraus, D.; Shiva Kumar, B.; Lisa, M.; Lissauer, D.; Llope, W.J.; Ludlam, T.; Majka, R.; Makowiecki, D.; Mark, S.K.; Mitchell, J.T.; Muthuswamy, M.; O'Brien, E.; Polychronakos, V.; Pruneau, C.; Rotondo, F.; Sandweiss, J.; Simon, J.; Sonnadara, U.; Stachel, J.; Takai, H.; Throwe, T.; Waters, L.; Winter, C.; Woody, C.; Wolf, K.; Wolfe, D.; Zhang, Y. (McGill University, Montreal, H3A2T8 (Canada) State University of New York, Stony Brook, New York 11794 (United States) University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15260 (United States) Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States) Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States) Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06511 (United States) University of New Mexico, Albuquerque; (E814 Collaboration)

1992-02-01

156

Semi-Classical Methods for Nucleus-Nucleus Scattering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preface; 1. Introduction; 2. Elastic scattering and the optical model; 3. The semi-classical phase shift; 4. The semi-classical scattering amplitude; 5. Frahn's diffraction theory; 6. Surface transparent potentials; 7. Feynmann's path integral in one dimension; 8. Elastic scattering by the path integral method; 9. Inelastic scattering; 10. Non-local potentials; 11. Fusion reactions; Appendices A-F; References; Index.

Brink, D. M.

2009-06-01

157

Controlled Generation of Double Emulsions in Air  

PubMed Central

This communication describes the controlled generation of double emulsions in the gas phase, which was carried out using an integrated emitter in a PDMS (poly(dimethylsiloxane)) microfluidic chip. The integrated emitter was formed using a molding approach, in which metal wires with desirable diameters were used as emitter molds. The generation of double emulsions in air was achieved with electrohydrodynamics actuation, which offers controllable force exerting on the double emulsions. We developed this capability for future integration of droplet microfluidics with mass spectrometry (MS), where each aqueous droplet in the microchannel is introduced into the gas phase as a double emulsion for subsequent ionization and MS analysis.

liu, Dingsheng; Hakimi, Bejan; Volny, Michael; Rolfs, Joelle; Chen, Xudong; Turecek, Frantisek; Chiu, Daniel T.

2013-01-01

158

Nano-Emulsions:. Overview and Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nano-emulsions, also called sub-micrometer emulsions, are one of the most important nanocarriers in nanomedicine. More than 40% active susbtances are hydrophobic and therefore they are difficult to be formulated using conventional approaches. Nano-emulsion systems are considered as new vehicles for hydrophobic drug administration because they can enhance the penetration and absorption of these hydrophobic active compounds and provide safer and more patient-compliant dosage forms. This chapter describes the conception and methods of preparation of nano-emulsions, their characterization methods and their applications in pharmacetical areas.

Li, Xiang; Anton, Nicolas; Vandamme, Thierry

2013-09-01

159

Flow of Oil-Water Emulsion Through Constricted Capillary Tubes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The flow of oil-in-water emulsions through a constricted capillary tube was analyzed by experiments and theory. The experiments consisted of flow visualization and pressure drop measurements of the flow. A number of different emulsions were prepared using synthetic oils and deionized water. The average drop size varied from smaller to larger than the neck radius. Fluid mobility, defined as flow rate over pressure drop, was used to quantify the magnitude of the pore-blocking caused by drops larger than the constriction radius. The effect of the interfacial tension and viscosity ratio between the two phases on the changes of the local mobility was determined by solving the free surface flow of an infinite oil drop immersed in water flowing through a constricted capillary tube by Finite Element Method.

Cobos, S.; Carvalho, M. S.; Alvarado, V.

2008-07-01

160

Observations of vaporizing water-in-fuel emulsion droplets  

SciTech Connect

These observations in a Leidenfrost-type experiment allowed one to distinguish between different mechanisms in the emulsion combustion process. Three events were observed: disruptions, heterogeneously nucleated vapor explosions, and homogeneously nucleated vapor explosions. The last event greatly enhances combustion. The cenospheres, carbospheres or oil-coke particles formed will be reduced or eliminated by the vapor explosions, and any small solid fragments are likely to be consumed in the enhanced combustion processes. (DLC)

Sheffield, S.A.; Baer, M.R.; Denison, G.J.

1980-01-01

161

Multiple holographic transmission gratings in silver halide emulsion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Holograms, recorded in silver halide emulsion by a plane reference wave andN cylindrical object waves, are measured as a function of the replay beam angle both for sequential and simultaneous recording. A theoretical model, based on coupled-wave differential equations, is presented. Numerical results for theN=3 case are compared with experiments and good agreement is found. Cross-modulation effects caused by simultaneous

C. W. Slinger; R. R. A. Syms; L. Solymar

1987-01-01

162

Flows of Wet Foamsand Concentrated Emulsions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The aim of this project was is to advance a microstructural understanding of foam and emulsion flows. The dynamics of individual surfactant-covered drops and well as the collective behavior of dilute and concentrated was explored using numerical simulations. The long-range goal of this work is the formulation of reliable microphysically-based statistical models of emulsion flows.

Nemer, Martin B.

2005-01-01

163

Treatment of oil-in-water emulsions  

SciTech Connect

Petroleum is separated from an ''oil-in-water'' emulsion containing water-soluble polymer prior to refining by adding amphoteric metal cations to the emulsion to form a flocculate and then treating the resulting flocculate with a strong base to recover the oil and metal.

Harrison, R.J.; Presley, C.T.

1980-01-08

164

Treatment of oil-in-water emulsions  

SciTech Connect

Petroleum is separated from an oil-in-water emulsion containing water-soluble polymer such as polyacrylamide prior to refining by adding amphoteric metal cations (Zn, Al, Sn, and Co) to the emulsion to form a flocculate and then treating the resulting flocculate with a strong base to recover the oil and metal. 11 claims.

Presley, C.T.; Harrison, R.J.

1980-01-08

165

Perfluorochemical emulsions can increase tumor radiosensitivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

An oxygen-carrying perfluorochemical emulsion enhanced the effectiveness of radiation therapy in two transplantable solid tumors in mice. The perfluorochemical emulsion had no effect on tumor growth after x-irradiation, but delayed tumor growth significantly when administered to oxygen-breathing mice before or during irradiation.

B. A. Teicher; C. M. Rose

1984-01-01

166

Emulsions as materials with adjustable dielectric properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emulsions are examined as materials with adjustable electrical properties (relative permittivity and conductivity). The emulsions are simple mixtures of oil, saline solution, and a stabilizing agent (emulsifier). The relative permittivity of oil is around two, while that of water is around 80. Thus, a wide range of relative permittivity can be obtained by mixing these components. The conductivity of the

G. S. Smith

1988-01-01

167

Evaluating factors affecting the permeability of emulsions used to stabilize radioactive contamination from a radiological dispersal device.  

PubMed

Present strategies for alleviating radioactive contamination from a radiological dispersal device (RDD) or dirty bomb involve either demolishing and removing radioactive surfaces or abandoning portions of the area near the release point. In both cases, it is imperative to eliminate or reduce migration of the radioisotopes until the cleanup is complete or until the radiation has decayed back to acceptable levels. This research investigated an alternative strategy of using emulsions to stabilize radioactive particulate contamination. Emergency response personnel would coat surfaces with emulsions consisting of asphalt or tall oil pitch to prevent migration of contamination. The site can then be evaluated and cleaned up as needed. In order for this approach to be effective, the treatment must eliminate migration of the radioactive agents in the terror device. Water application is an environmental condition that could promote migration into the external environment. This research investigated the potential for water, and correspondingly contaminant, migration through two emulsions consisting of Topein, a resinous byproduct during paper manufacture. Topein C is an asphaltic-based emulsion and Topein S is a tall oil pitch, nonionic emulsion. Experiments included water adsorption/ mobilization studies, filtration tests, and image analysis of photomicrographs from an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) and a stereomicroscope. Both emulsions were effective at reducing water migration. Conductivity estimates were on the order of 10(-80) cm s(-1) for Topein C and 10(-7) cm s(-1) for Topein S. Water mobility depended on emulsion flocculation and coalescence time. Photomicrographs indicate that Topein S consisted of greater and more interconnected porosity. Dilute foams of isolated spherical gas cells formed when emulsions were applied to basic surfaces. Gas cells rose to the surface and ruptured, leaving void spaces that penetrated throughout the emulsion. These experiments indicate that emulsions may be a viable means for containing RDD residuals; however, improvements are needed for optimal performance. PMID:15952383

Fox, Garey A; Medina, Victor F

2005-05-15

168

Emulsion-based encapsulation and delivery of nanoparticles for the controlled release of alkalinity within the subsurface environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many current approaches to managing groundwater contamination rely on further advances in amendment delivery in order to initiate and sustain contaminant degradation or immobilization. In fact, limited or ineffective delivery is often cited when treatment objectives are not attained. Emulsions, specifically oil-in-water emulsions, have demonstrated potential to aid delivery of remediation amendments. Emulsions also afford opportunities to control the release of active ingredients encapsulated within the droplets. Our research is currently focused on the controlled release of nanoparticle-based buffering agents using oil-in-water emulsions. This interest is motivated by the fact that chemical and biological processes employed for the remediation and stewardship of contaminated sites often necessitate control of pH during treatment and, in some cases, long thereafter. Alkalinity-release nanoparticles (e.g., CaCO3, MgO) were suspended within soybean oil and subsequently encapsulated by through the creation of oil-in-water emulsions. These oil-in-water emulsions are designed to have physical properties which are favorable for subsurface delivery (nominal properties: 1 g/mL density; 10 cP viscosity; and 1.5 ?m droplet diameter). Buffer capacity titrations suggest that MgO particles are moderately more accessible within the oil phase and nearly twice as effective (on a per mass basis) at releasing alkalinity (as compared to the CaCO3 particles). Results from experiments designed to assess the release kinetics suggest that a linear driving force model is capable of describing the release process and mass transfer coefficients are constant through the reactive life of the emulsion. The release kinetics in emulsions containing MgO particles were found to be three orders of magnitude faster than those quantified for emulsions containing CaCO3. The slower release kinetics of the emulsions containing CaCO3 particles may prove beneficial when considering pH control at sites where acid fluxes are lower. The ability of emulsions to sustain alkalinity release within porous media was preliminarily examined using a series of 1-D column experiments. Emulsions were introduced for 2 pore volumes in a medium sand at Darcy velocities of approximately 0.8 cm/hr. Following the emulsion pulse, a pH 4 solution (adjusted with HCl) was introduced into the column and the effluent was monitored for pH, oil content, and droplet size distributions. All un-retained emulsion (~20% wt. was retained) was flushed from the column within approximately 2 pore volumes of terminating the emulsion pulse. The effluent pH at quasi-steady state and the reactive life of the emulsion depended on the retention characteristics, as well as the type and loading of nanoparticles employed within the emulsion. For the scenarios considered here, quasi-steady effluent pHs were observed to be between 6.5 and 10, and reactive lifetimes (i.e., the number of pore volumes for which the retained emulsion resulted in the effluent pH exceeding that of the influent) were between 15 and 100 pore volumes. These results demonstrate the ability of the emulsion to offer longer-term release and highlight the ability to tune the alkalinity release rate to match site characteristics by adjusting the emulsion content. Current research is directed toward evaluation release properties in heterogeneous aquifer cell experiments.

Ramsburg, C. A.; Muller, K.; Gill, J.

2012-12-01

169

Destabilization of emulsions by natural minerals.  

PubMed

This study developed a novel method to destabilize emulsions and recycle oils, particularly for emulsified wastewater treatment. Natural minerals were used as demulsifying agents, two kinds of emulsions collected from medical and steel industry were treated. The addition of natural minerals, including artificial zeolite, natural zeolite, diatomite, bentonite and natural soil, could effectively destabilize both emulsions at pH 1 and 60 °C. Over 90% of chemical oxygen demand (COD) can be removed after treatment. Medical emulsion can be even destabilized by artificial zeolite at ambient temperature. The mechanism for emulsion destabilization by minerals was suggested as the decreased electrostatic repulsion at low pH, the enhanced gathering of oil microdroplets at elevated temperature, and the further decreased surface potential by the addition of minerals. Both flocculation and coalescence were enhanced by the addition of minerals at low pH and elevated temperature. PMID:21784583

Yuan, Songhu; Tong, Man; Wu, Gaoming

2011-09-15

170

Coalescence in concentrated Pickering emulsions under shear.  

PubMed

We have investigated the rheology of concentrated oil-in-water emulsions stabilised by silanised silica nanoparticles. The emulsions behave like highly elastic solids in response to small, uniform strains. They become unstable and begin to break down, however, on yielding. We show that the emulsion elasticity is correlated with the salt concentration in the water and hence the particle aggregation in emulsions at a given drop volume fraction. A supporting observation is that destabilisation is favoured by minimising the attractive interactions between the particles. Microscopic observations revealed that coalesced drops have anisotropic shapes and wrinkled surfaces, direct evidence of the interfacial particle layer acting like a mechanical barrier to bulk emulsion destabilisation. PMID:24862445

Whitby, Catherine P; Krebsz, Melinda

2014-07-21

171

Emulsion based cast booster - a priming system  

SciTech Connect

This paper explores the potential of emulsion based cast booster to be used as primer to initiate bulk delivered emulsion explosives used in mines. An attempt has been made for comparative study between conventional cast booster and emulsion based cast booster in terms of the initiation process developed and their capability to develop and maintain the stable detonation process in the column explosives. The study has been conducted using a continuous velocity of detonation (VOD) measuring instrument. During this study three blasts have been monitored. In each blast two holes have been selected for study, the first hole being initiated with conventional cast booster while the other one with emulsion based cast booster. The findings of the study advocates that emulsion based cast booster is capable of efficient priming of bulk delivered column explosive with stable detonation process in the column. Further, the booster had advantages over the conventional PETN/TNT based cast booster. 5 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab., 1 photo.

Gupta, R.N.; Mishra, A.K. [National Institute of Rock Mechanics, KGF (India)

2005-07-01

172

Oleophilic separation of inverse emulsions  

SciTech Connect

The oleophilic sieve is a patented device for separating mixtures of oil phase and aqueous phase wherein the aqueous phase passes through the sieve apertures and the oil phase is captured by the sieve surfaces upon contact. This method achieves very efficient separations and is not adversely affected by solids in the aqueous phase or by the density of the oil phase. Normally the mixture is agglomerated during the separation process to increase the oil phase particle size and to permit it to be more readily captured by the sieve. The oleophilic sieve may be used to separate a large variety of mixtures and has been tested with mined tar sand slurries, middlings, tailings, tailings pond sludge and inverse emulsions produced from in-situ steam drive facilities. For emulsions, a demulsifier is normally required but no diluent is used to recover the bitumen or heavy oil from the aqueous phase. This results in high bitumen recovery, clean water effluents and minimizes overall separation costs.

Kruyer, J.

1984-02-01

173

Monodisperse Double Emulsions Generated from a Microcapillary Device  

Microsoft Academic Search

Double emulsions are highly structured fluids consisting of emulsion drops that contain smaller droplets inside. Although double emulsions are potentially of commercial value, traditional fabrication by means of two emulsification steps leads to very ill-controlled structuring. Using a microcapillary device, we fabricated double emulsions that contained a single internal droplet in a core- shell geometry. We show that the droplet

A. S. Utada; E. Lorenceau; P. D. Kaplan; H. A. Stone; D. A. Weitz

2005-01-01

174

Emulsion package and method of mixing the emulsion  

SciTech Connect

A coal tar emulsion driveway sealer is packaged in a sealed bag. The volume of sealer is less than half the capacity of the bag and the bag is substantially completely evacuated but for the sealer. The separated sealer is mixed by compressing the sides of the bag to induce turbulent flow of the paste and liquid for hydraulic mixing thereof. The sealer may be dispensed at a controlled rate without spattering by cutting a corner from the bag to provide a pour spout. The bag with the sealer may be contained in a carton. The bag membrane comprises an aluminum layer vapor deposited on polyester. Those two layers are sandwiched between layers of EVA copolymer.

Snyder, R.G.; Brenneman, S.; Clancy, J.J.

1984-08-28

175

Effects of Nanoparticles on Film Properties of Waterborne Acrylic Emulsions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waterborne acrylic emulsion was obtained by using methyl methacrylate, ethyl and butyl acrylate monomers. Emulsions containing nanoparticles were prepared by blending the stable dispersions containing SiO2 or MMT nanoparticles. The films were prepared from emulsions and coating tests were applied. The physical properties of prepared emulsions are better than the commercial emulsions. The addition of the nanoparticles especially SiO2 have

Ayça Bal; Gamze Güçlü; Tülin Banu ?yim; Saadet Özgümü?

2011-01-01

176

Multiple emulsions controlled by stimuli-responsive polymers.  

PubMed

The phase inversion of water-toluene emulsions stabilized with a single thermo- and pH-sensitive copolymer occurs through the formation of multiple emulsions. At low pH and ambient temperature, oil in water emulsions are formed which transform into highly stable multiple emulsions at pHs immediately lower than the inversion border. At higher pHs, the emulsion turns into a water in oil one. PMID:23483699

Besnard, Lucie; Marchal, Frédéric; Paredes, Jose F; Daillant, Jean; Pantoustier, Nadège; Perrin, Patrick; Guenoun, Patrick

2013-05-28

177

Performance properties of the emulsion explosive QM-100  

SciTech Connect

QM-100 was evaluated in cylinder expansion configuration to determine the detonation production equation of state. Two experiments were run. No differences in scaled cylinder wall expansions could be determined; hence, despite a diameter effect on detonation velocity, metal acceleration was the same for both experiments. Max expansion volumes were limited, {approximately} 4 V/V{sub o}. This was interpreted to be result of significant inhomogeneities in the emulsion explosive fills which in turn produced a nonuniform detonation and ruptured the cylinders. 7 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

Garza, R.; Helm, F.; Souers, P.C.; Simpson, R.L.

1992-12-01

178

Performance properties of the emulsion explosive QM-100  

SciTech Connect

QM-100 was evaluated in cylinder expansion configuration to determine the detonation production equation of state. Two experiments were run. No differences in scaled cylinder wall expansions could be determined; hence, despite a diameter effect on detonation velocity, metal acceleration was the same for both experiments. Max expansion volumes were limited, [approximately] 4 V/V[sub o]. This was interpreted to be result of significant inhomogeneities in the emulsion explosive fills which in turn produced a nonuniform detonation and ruptured the cylinders. 7 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

Garza, R.; Helm, F.; Souers, P.C.; Simpson, R.L.

1992-12-01

179

The absorption of sound in emulsions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The absorption of sound in homogeneous dilute emulsions due to the viscosity of the components of the medium is theoretically investigated. Deformation (capillary) oscillations of the emulsion droplets are taken into account. The viscous wavelength is assumed to be small compared to the droplet size, and the latter is assumed to be small compared to the wavelength of sound. Resonance phenomena related to capillary oscillations are considered. The resonance contribution to the attenuation coefficient of a plane sound wave propagating in the emulsion is analyzed.

Murga, V. A.

2010-09-01

180

Effects of Emulsion Variability on Seal Coats.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The project was conducted because of concern that variabilities in the viscosity of asphalt emulsions as delivered to the job site may be contributing to problems with seal coat performance. The study included a literature survey; an analysis of differenc...

J. F. Shook W. L. Shook T. Y. Yapp

1990-01-01

181

Aging properties of Kodak type 101 emulsions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aging tests for several batches of Kodak type 101 emulsion show that storage conditions significantly influence how well the film will maintain its sensitometric properties, with sensitivity and density increasing to a maximum during this period. Any further aging may result in higher fog levels and sensitivity loss. It is noted that storage in an environment free of photographically active compounds allows film property optimization, and that film batches with different sensitivities age differently. Emulsions with maximum 1700-A sensitivity are 2.5 times faster than those at the low end of the sensitivity scale. These sensitive emulsions exhibit significantly accelerated changes in aging properties. Their use in space applications requires careful consideration of time and temperature profiles, encouraging the use of less sensitive emulsions when the controllability of these factors is limited.

Dohne, B.; Feldman, U.; Neupert, W.

1984-01-01

182

Method of Obtaining Antifrothing Aqueous Polyorganosiloxane Emulsions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method is described of obtaining antifrothing, aqueous polyorganosiloxane emulsions by means of mixing polyorgraosiloxane with 'Aerosil' under heating, followed by cooling and the addition of an aqueous solution of an emulsifier under mixing. In order t...

L. A. Maii L. Y. Pevzner M. Z. Kristapsons R. A. Ziemele Y. Y. Laukevitis

1971-01-01

183

Bond Graph Modeling and Validation of an Energy Regenerative System for Emulsion Pump Tests  

PubMed Central

The test system for emulsion pump is facing serious challenges due to its huge energy consumption and waste nowadays. To settle this energy issue, a novel energy regenerative system (ERS) for emulsion pump tests is briefly introduced at first. Modeling such an ERS of multienergy domains needs a unified and systematic approach. Bond graph modeling is well suited for this task. The bond graph model of this ERS is developed by first considering the separate components before assembling them together and so is the state-space equation. Both numerical simulation and experiments are carried out to validate the bond graph model of this ERS. Moreover the simulation and experiments results show that this ERS not only satisfies the test requirements, but also could save at least 25% of energy consumption as compared to the original test system, demonstrating that it is a promising method of energy regeneration for emulsion pump tests.

Li, Yilei; Zhu, Zhencai; Chen, Guoan

2014-01-01

184

Preparation of fat emulsions for intravenous alimentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Descriptions are given of the high pressure homogenization equipment used and of the actual procedure followed in the preparation\\u000a of fat emulsions suitable for intravenous nutrition. Such emulsions contain 10–15% oil (w\\/v) dispersed in particles less than\\u000a one micron in diameter. They are made under nitrogen and subsequently autoclaved to ensure sterility.\\u000a \\u000a Procedures are also given for screening each batch

Robert P. Geyer; F. Russell Olsen; Stephen B. Andrus; William R. Waddell; Fredrick J. Stare

1955-01-01

185

Structural Relaxation of Water-in-Oil Emulsion under Direct Current Electric Field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, electrorheology of water-in-oil emulsion is explored in the presence of direct current (DC) electric fields. DC electrorheological (ER) experiments in dynamic mode are performed to study the structural evolution of emulsions from a random configuration to organized microstructures. Critical electric field (CEF), i.e. value of field at which the emulsion structure breakdown occurs, is measured. In this work, all the ER experiments are completed at electric field strength below CEF. Since ER emulsion behavior is controlled by electrical and hydrodynamic forces, structural relaxation of emulsions as a function of electric field strength, dynamic frequency and continuous phase viscosity is investigated. Time evolution of viscosity and electrical current are measured to reflect characteristics of the system microstructure. Also, hysteresis is measured at low electric fields to study the rheological properties restoration after the field has been turned off. The results on the relaxation process show that the electric field induces increase in viscosity as well as electrical current.

Moradi, Mehrnoosh; Alvarado, Vladimir

2010-11-01

186

Hexagonal phase based gel-emulsion (O/H1 gel-emulsion): formation and rheology.  

PubMed

The formation, stability, and rheological behavior of a hexagonal phase based gel-emulsion (O/H1 gel-emulsion) have been studied in water/C12EO8/hydrocarbon oil systems. A partial phase behavior study indicates that the oil nature has no effect on the phase sequences in the ternary phase diagram of water/C12EO8/oil systems but the domain size of the phases or the oil solubilization capacity considerably changes with oil nature. Excess oil is in equilibrium with the hexagonal phase (H1) in the ternary phase diagram in the H1+O region. The O/H1 gel-emulsion was prepared (formation) and kept at 25 degrees C to check stability. It has been found that the formation and stability of the O/H1 gel-emulsion depends on the oil nature. After 2 min observation (formation), the results show that short chain linear hydrocarbon oils (heptane, octane) are more apt to form a O/H1 gel-emulsion compared to long chain linear hydrocarbon oils (tetradecane, hexadecane), though the stability is not good enough in either system, that is, oil separates within 24 h. Nevertheless, the formation and stability of the O/H1 gel-emulsion is appreciably increased in squalane and liquid paraffin. It is surmised that the high transition temperature of the H1+O phase and the presence of a bicontinuous cubic phase (V1) might hamper the formation of a gel-emulsion. It has been pointed out that the solubilization of oil in the H1 phase could be related to emulsion stability. On the other hand, the oil nature has little or no effect on the formation and stability of a cubic phase based gel-emulsion (O/I1 gel-emulsion). From rheological measurements, it has found that the rheogram of the O/H1 gel-emulsion indicates gel-type structure and shows shear thinning behavior similar to the case of the O/I1 gel-emulsion. Rheological data infer that the O/I1 gel-emulsion is more viscous than the O/H1 gel-emulsion at room temperature but the O/H1 gel-emulsion shows consistency at elevated temperature. PMID:18847293

Alam, Mohammad Mydul; Aramaki, Kenji

2008-11-01

187

The Use of Fish Oil Lipid Emulsion in the Treatment of Intestinal Failure Associated Liver Disease (IFALD)  

PubMed Central

Since 2004, fish oil based lipid emulsions have been used in the treatment of intestinal failure associated liver disease, with a noticeable impact on decreasing the incidence of morbidity and mortality of this often fatal condition. With this new therapy, however, different approaches have emerged as well as concerns about potential risks with using fish oil as a monotherapy. This review will discuss the experience to date with this lipid emulsion along with the rational for its use, controversies and concerns.

Chang, Melissa I.; Puder, Mark; Gura, Kathleen M.

2012-01-01

188

Method for treating tar sands emulsion and apparatus therefor  

SciTech Connect

A method is described for resolving a hot bitumen emulsion comprised primarily of bitumen, water and chemical diluents. The method consists of: providing separate but communicated emulsion mixing, and emulsion settling chamber, passing the hot bitumen emulsion through a first elongated mixing passage in the mixing chamber wherein a rapidly flowing stream of recycled emulsion is combined with a minor portion of unrecycled bitumen emulsion, to form a combined bitumen emulsion stream, thereafter passing the combined bitumen emulsion stream into an elongated discontinuous mixing passage comprised of vertically arranged and interconnected mixing passages within the emulsion mixer, where in the combined bitumen emulsion stream passes at a slower rate than in the first elongated mixing passage, passing the combined bitumen emulsion stream into an overflow passage communicated with the second elongated mixing passage, introducing a part of the combined emulsion stream from the overflow passage into the emulsion settling chamber, recycling the remainder of the combined emulsion stream from the overflow passage into the first elongated mixing passage, and removing separated flows of bitumen and water from the settling chamber.

Bialek, R.F.

1986-04-15

189

Emulsion and Accumulation at Aqueous/Organic Interface of Mixer-Settlers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The emulsion which results from Di-n-butylphosphoric acid (HDBP) and zirconium (HDBP-Zr emulsion) was studied on the formation ratio to the emulsion of nonsoluble fission product residues (nonsoluble residues emulsion) in the codecontamination cycle witho...

K. Gonda S. Yasu K. Oka

1984-01-01

190

The Compressed Baryonic Matter experiment at FAIR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment will be one of the major scientific pillars of the future Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) in Darmstadt. The goal of the CBM research program is to explore the QCD phase diagram in the region of high baryon densities using high-energy nucleus-nucleus collisions. This includes the study of the equation-of-state of nuclear matter at high densities, and the search for the deconfinement and chiral phase transitions. The CBM detector is designed to measure both bulk observables with large acceptance and rare diagnostic probes such as charmed particles and vector mesons decaying into lepton pairs. The layout and the physics performance of the proposed CBM experimental facility will be discussed.

Senger, P.

2011-07-01

191

S-190 exposure verification flight test. [photographic emulsions and film  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A flight test was conducted to determine the optimum exposures for the Skylab S-190A experiment. An aircraft multispectral photographic system (AMPS) which is installed in the NASA Earth Resources aircraft NP3A was used to simulate the S-190A system. The same film emulsions to be used for S-190A were used in the flight test. These rolls were on factory-loaded spools for use in the AMPS camera system. It was found that some variation is to be expected between these rolls and the S-190A flight loads.

Perry, L.

1973-01-01

192

Simple and Double Emulsions via Coaxial Jet Electrosprays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report for the first time the generation of electrified coaxial jets of micrometric diameter in liquid media. Scaling laws to predict the inner and outer diameter of the coaxial jet are given. We show some experiments illustrating the formation process of the coaxial jet, and demonstrate how this process can be used to yield either o/w (oil in water) or o/w/o (oil/water/oil) emulsions of micrometric size. Some interesting analogies with other hydrodynamic focusing processes are also pointed out.

Marín, Álvaro G.; Loscertales, Ignacio G.; Márquez, M.; Barrero, A.

2007-01-01

193

The atomization of water-oil emulsions  

SciTech Connect

The paper presents the results of experimental studies on atomization of the emulsions flowing through twin-fluid atomizers obtained by the use of the digital microphotography method. The main elements of the test installation were: nozzle, reservoir, pump and measurement units of liquid flow. The photographs were taken by a digital camera with automatic flash at exposure time of 1/8000 s and subsequently analyzed using Image Pro-Plus. The oils used were mineral oils 20-90, 20-70, 20-50 and 20-30. The studies were performed at flow rates of liquid phase changed from 0.0014 to 0.011 (dm{sup 3}/s) and gas phase changed from 0.28 to 1.4 (dm{sup 3}/s), respectively. The analysis of photos shows that the droplets being formed during the liquid atomization have very different sizes. The smallest droplets have diameters of the order of 10 {mu}m. The experimental results showed that the changes in physical properties of a liquid phase lead to the significant changes in the spray characteristics. The analysis of the photos of water and emulsions atomization process showed that the droplet sizes are dependent on gas and liquid flow rates, construction of nozzle and properties of liquid. The differences between characteristics of atomization for water and emulsions have been observed. Analysis of photos on forming the droplets in air-water and air-emulsions systems showed that droplets are bigger in air-emulsion system (at the same value of gas to liquid mass ratio). The values of Sauter mean diameter (SMD) increased with increase of volume fraction of oil in emulsion. The droplet size increased with emulsion viscosity. (author)

Broniarz-Press, L.; Ochowiak, M.; Rozanski, J.; Woziwodzki, S. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Equipment, Faculty of Chemical Technology, Poznan University of Technology, Pl. M. Sklodowskiej-Curie 2, PL 60-965 Poznan (Poland)

2009-09-15

194

Factors affecting the emulsifying and rheological properties of gum acacia in beverage emulsions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gum acacia, a natural hydrocolloid, is extensively used as an emulsifier\\/stabilizer in beverage emulsions. Factors that may affect emulsion formation, emulsion stability and viscosity of the emulsion concentrate were studied to assess their significance, including proximal composition of the gum (protein content and mineral content), gum processing prior to emulsion preparation (pasteurization and demineralization), and pH of the dilute emulsion.

R. A Buffo; G. A Reineccius; G. W Oehlert

2001-01-01

195

Measurement of emulsion flow in porous media: Improvements in heavy oil recovery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many heavy oil and bitumen reservoirs in the world are too small or thin for thermal enhanced oil recovery methods to be economic. In these fields, novel methods of less energy intensive, non-thermal technologies are required. Previous experience has shown that the injection of low concentrations of aqueous alkali-surfactant solutions into the reservoir can significantly improve the oil recovery, beyond that of waterflooding. This is due to the in-situ formation of emulsions, which plug off the water channels and lead to improved sweep efficiency in the reservoir. The proper control of these floods requires methods for monitoring the formation and effect of these emulsions. In this paper, the results of laboratory core floods are interpreted to demonstrate how the pressure and flow response can be related to the formation of these emulsions. A new technique (low field NMR) is also used to directly measure W/O emulsions in porous media. Finally, a numerical study is performed in order to demonstrate how the in-situ formation of emulsions can be simply represented in simulation software.

Bryan, J.; Wang, J.; Kantzas, A.

2009-02-01

196

Experimental study of source of background noise in muon radiography using emulsion film detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study is to ascertain and confirm the source of background noise in cosmic-ray muon radiography (muography) using emulsion film detectors. For this, we build two types of emulsion detectors with different momentum thresholds and perform test measurements of an actual geoscientific target. This experiment reveals that contamination of nonsignal particles with momenta of less than 2 GeV c-1 cause significant systematic errors for the density estimation of muography. Utilizing the results of precedent studies, we conclude that the origin of these low-momentum particles is either electromagnetic components of air showers or cosmic-ray muons scattered in topographic material. In this paper, we analyze the emulsion data in detail, including the film-inefficiency compensation and momentum selection by applying an upper bound to the chi-square distribution for the data.

Nishiyama, R.; Miyamoto, S.; Naganawa, N.

2014-04-01

197

Gustation as a factor in the ingestion of sweet and fat emulsions by the rat.  

PubMed

This paper was written to pay honor to Professor Gerard P. Smith because of his strong influence on me to study the ingestion of sweet and fat mixtures. Three experiments are reported here, in which the laboratory rat was given an emulsion of a glucose+saccharin mixture with corn oil. In the first experiment, a two-bottle, 24-h test was given comparing the emulsion with water. Over 6 weeks, the concentration of the corn oil was gradually increased. When given only food and water, or the glucose/saccharin solution, the rats regulated their caloric intake and grew at a normal rate. In contrast, when the corn oil was present, the rats significantly increased their caloric intake, resulting in a marked increase in body weight. In the second experiment, a detailed analysis of the ingestion revealed that the rate of licking the emulsion during drinking bouts increased in a linear manner as the concentration of the corn oil was increased. In the third experiment, a conditioned taste aversion to the sweet/fat emulsion generalized to the fat more than to the sweet solutions. The implications for a gustatory input are discussed. PMID:15234610

Smith, James C

2004-08-01

198

Rapid viscosity determination of waterborne automotive paint emulsion system by FT-Raman spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility of physical property assessment of waterborne automotive paint emulsion system using Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy (FT-Raman spectroscopy) was examined for viscosity as an example trait. The experiment was performed under the same temperature both in conventional and Raman spectroscopic methods aiming the online control. Raman spectroscopic data and the partial least squares (PLS) regression revealed highly significant correlation

Kazuhiro Ito; Tadaya Kato; Toshihiro Ona

2004-01-01

199

Kinetics of Semibatch Emulsion Polymerization of Butyl Acrylate Stabilized by a Reactive Surfactant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The monomer feed rate (Ra) is the predominant parameter for controlling the rate of polymerization (Rp) in the semibatch emulsion polymerization of butyl acrylate (BA) stabilized by a reactive surfactant, sodium dodecyl allyl sulfosuccinate (SDAS). An induction period or even a complete inhibition of the polymer reaction observed for the experiments with relatively high SDAS concentration ([SDAS]) or low initiator

C.-S. CHERN; Y.-C. CHEN

1998-01-01

200

Annatto Polymeric Microparticles: Natural Product Encapsulation by the Emulsion-Solvent Evaporation Method  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this experiment, the extract from annatto seeds was encapsulated in poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) particles by the emulsion-solvent evaporation method. The particles were washed and centrifuged to remove excess stabilizer and then freeze-dried. The main compound of annatto seeds, bixin, has antioxidant properties as well…

Teixeira, Zaine; Duran, Nelson; Guterres, Silvia S.

2008-01-01

201

Liposomes in Double-Emulsion Globules  

PubMed Central

Tubular liposomes containing a hydrophilic model compound (fluorescein sodium salt, FSS) were entrapped inside the internal aqueous phase (W1) of water-in-oil-in-water (W1/O/W2) double-emulsion globules. Our hypothesis was that the oil membrane of double emulsions can function as a layer of protection to liposomes and their contents and thus better control their release. Liposomes were prepared in bulk, and their release was observed microscopically from individual double-emulsion globules. The liposomes containing FSS were released through external coalescence, and the behavior of this system was monitored visually by capillary video microscopy. Double-emulsion globules were stabilized with Tween 80 as the water-soluble surfactant, with Span 80 as the oil-soluble surfactant, while the oil phase (O) was n-hexadecane. The lipids in the tubular liposomes consist of l-?-phosphatidylcholine and Ceramide-VI. Variations of Tween 80 concentration in the external aqueous phase (W2) and Span 80 concentration in the O phase controlled the release of liposomes from the W1 phase to the W2 phase. The major finding of this work is that the sheer presence of liposomes in the W1 phase is by itself a stabilizing factor for double-emulsion globules.

Wang, Qing; Tan, Grace; Lawson, Louise B.; John, Vijay T.; Papadopoulos, Kyriakos D.

2010-01-01

202

Transfer of Oil between Emulsion Droplets  

PubMed

A contrast matching technique was used to determine the exchange of oils between emulsion droplets having different refractive indexes. Emulsions of tetradecane and 1-bromo tetradecane in water were made separately in a high-pressure homogenizer, then mixed and equilibrated at rest. It was found that droplets exchanged oil molecules through the continuous phase, in a process similar to Ostwald ripening. Emulsions of hexadecane and 1-bromo hexadecane were also mixed; at rest, no exchange of oil took place. These mixtures were subsequently recirculated in the high-pressure homogenizer. Exchange of oil occurred as a result of droplet coalescence in the homogenizer. Two regimes were found, "surfactant-poor" and "surfactant-rich." In the "surfactant-poor" regime, recoalescence took place at all values of the pressure used in the homogenizer. In the "surfactant-rich" regime, recoalescence took place only if the pressure was at least equal to that used originally to make the emulsion. These results demonstrate that the size of the emulsion droplets made in a high-pressure homogenizer results from a succession of fragmentation and recoalescence processes. Possible mechanisms preventing recoalescence are discussed. PMID:8978540

Taisne; Walstra; Cabane

1996-12-25

203

Liposomes in double-emulsion globules.  

PubMed

Tubular liposomes containing a hydrophilic model compound (fluorescein sodium salt, FSS) were entrapped inside the internal aqueous phase (W(1)) of water-in-oil-in-water (W(1)/O/W(2)) double-emulsion globules. Our hypothesis was that the oil membrane of double emulsions can function as a layer of protection to liposomes and their contents and thus better control their release. Liposomes were prepared in bulk, and their release was observed microscopically from individual double-emulsion globules. The liposomes containing FSS were released through external coalescence, and the behavior of this system was monitored visually by capillary video microscopy. Double-emulsion globules were stabilized with Tween 80 as the water-soluble surfactant, with Span 80 as the oil-soluble surfactant, while the oil phase (O) was n-hexadecane. The lipids in the tubular liposomes consist of L-alpha-phosphatidylcholine and Ceramide-VI. Variations of Tween 80 concentration in the external aqueous phase (W(2)) and Span 80 concentration in the O phase controlled the release of liposomes from the W(1) phase to the W(2) phase. The major finding of this work is that the sheer presence of liposomes in the W(1) phase is by itself a stabilizing factor for double-emulsion globules. PMID:19958007

Wang, Qing; Tan, Grace; Lawson, Louise B; John, Vijay T; Papadopoulos, Kyriakos D

2010-03-01

204

Interfacial properties in solid-stabilized emulsions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We prepared concentrated monodisperse oil-in-water emulsions stabilized by solid particles. The osmotic resistance, ?, of the emulsions was measured for different oil volume fractions above the random close packing (? ^*? 64{%}). The dimensionless osmotic resistance, ?/(?/R) (? being the interfacial tension and R being the undeformed drop radius), was always substantially higher than the corresponding values obtained for surfactant-stabilized emulsions. It can be concluded that droplet deformation in solid-stabilized emulsions is not controlled by the capillary pressure, ?/R, of the non-deformed droplets but rather by ?0/R, ?0 being a parameter characterizing the rigidity of the droplets surfaces. The data can be interpreted considering that the interfacial layers are elastic at small deformations and exhibit plasticity at intermediate deformations. ?0 corresponds to the surface yield stress, i.e. the transition between elastic and plastic regimes. We discuss the origin of the surface behavior considering the strong lateral interactions that exist between the adsorbed solid particles. We propose an independent measurement of ?0 based on the critical bulk stress that produces droplet fragmentation in dilute emulsions submitted to shear. Finally, the bulk shear elastic modulus was measured as a function of ? and confirms many of the features revealed by the osmotic resistance.

Arditty, S.; Schmitt, V.; Lequeux, F.; Leal-Calderon, F.

2005-04-01

205

21 CFR 524.802 - Enrofloxacin, silver sulfadiazine emulsion.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enrofloxacin, silver sulfadiazine emulsion. ...FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.802 Enrofloxacin, silver sulfadiazine emulsion. ...milliliter contains 5 milligrams (mg) enrofloxacin and 10 mg silver sulfadiazine....

2010-04-01

206

21 CFR 524.802 - Enrofloxacin, silver sulfadiazine emulsion.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Enrofloxacin, silver sulfadiazine emulsion. ...FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.802 Enrofloxacin, silver sulfadiazine emulsion. ...milliliter contains 5 milligrams (mg) enrofloxacin and 10 mg silver sulfadiazine....

2009-04-01

207

Model Prediction, Experimental Determination, and Control of Emulsion Copolymer Microstructure.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An investigation of typical aspects of emulsion copolymerization aiming at a better and more quantitative understanding of the effects of the process parameters on the chemical microstructure of the copolymer is presented. An emulsion copolymerization mod...

G. H. J. Vandoremaele

1990-01-01

208

Particle control of emulsion by membrane emulsification and its applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Particle-size control of emulsion is very important for maintaining stability and giving emulsions new functional roles. Porous glass membrane, prepared by phase separation of a glass composition, is available as an emulsifying element, from which, one can obtain monodispersed emulsion with different particle sizes, and useful water\\/oil\\/water (W\\/O\\/W) emulsion in very high yield. The authors have called this new technology

Tadao Nakashima; Masataka Shimizu; Masato Kukizaki

2000-01-01

209

Apparatus and process for electrically resolving emulsions  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus is provided for electrically resolving emulsions having immiscible aqueous and organic liquid phases, the aqueous phase being internal. The apparatus comprising a metallic vessel having an emulsion inlet, an aqueous material outlet and an organic material outlet, the aqueous material outlet being in the bottom portion of the vessel. A distributor means is positioned in the lower portion of the vessel above the aqueous material outlet and connected by conduit means to the emulsion inlet. A planar, permeable electrode is positioned horizontally in the vessel, apart from the vessel walls and intermediate to the distributor and the collector. The level of aqueous material which collects in the bottom portion of the vessel is controlled at a position intermediate to the distributor and the electrode. 15 claims.

Mayse, W.D.; Watson, F.D.

1980-10-07

210

Analysis and Physicochemical Studies of Intravenous Fat Emulsions and Components.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report gives further data on chemical composition, particle size and pH variation in intravenous fat emulsions in current and recent use. Some retests were made on old emulsions of the previous reports. All of the new emulsions that have been received...

A. Rose N. Pelick J. H. Tinker T. L. Wilson G. A. Porter

1965-01-01

211

An application of nuclear emulsions with automatic scanning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It will be shown that emulsions can be mass produced and automatically scanned in large quantities. CHORUS demonstrated the first large-scale application. Emulsions can be used to search for rare events in a high track density environment like DONUT. Heavy target masses as in OPERA are possible. The use of emulsions is getting more and more easier.

Stiegler, Ulrich

2000-11-01

212

A FAST METHOD OF SCANNING OF NUCLEAR PHOTO-EMULSIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A flying spot'' method of scanning photo-emulsions is described. The ; instrument is whown schematically. A micro-oscillograph of suitable dimensions ; and low persistence is placed above a photo-emulsion to be g regime is ; established. An image of the flying spot'' is produced within the emulsion by ; means of a lens system. This image is recorded by a

Petukhov

1957-01-01

213

Stabilization of Oil-Water Emulsions by Hydrophobic Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Formation of oil-water emulsions during bacterial growth on hydrocarbons is often attributed to biosurfactants. Here we report the ability of certain intact bacterial cells to stabilize oil-in-water and water-in-oil emulsions without changing the interfacial tension, by inhibition of droplet coalescence as observed in emulsion stabilization by solid particles like silica.

Dorobantu, Loredana S.; Yeung, Anthony K. C.; Foght, Julia M.; Gray, Murray R.

2004-01-01

214

W\\/O\\/W multiple emulsions with diclofenac sodium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The disperse oil droplets of W\\/O\\/W multiple emulsions contain small water droplets, in which drugs could be incorporated, but the structure of these emulsions is also the reason for possible instability. Due to the middle oil phase which acts as a ‘semipermeable’ membrane the passage of water across the oil phase can take place. However, the emulsions have been produced

Kai Lindenstruth; Bernd W. Müller

2004-01-01

215

Mixed O/W emulsions stabilized by solid particles: a model system for controlled mass transfer triggered by surfactant addition.  

PubMed

This article deals with a model mixed oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion system developed to study the effect of surfactants on mass transfer between dispersed oil droplets of different composition. In this purpose, our goal was to formulate O/W emulsions without any surface active agents as stabilizer, which was achieved by replacing surfactants by a mixture of hydrophilic/hydrophobic silica particles. Then, to study the specific role of surfactants in the oil transfer process, different types and concentrations of surfactants were added to the mixed emulsion after its preparation. In such a way, the same original emulsion can be used for all experiments and the influence of various surface active molecules on the oil transfer mechanism can be directly studied. The model mixed emulsion used consists of a mixture of hexadecane-in-water and tetradecane-in-water emulsions. The transfer between tetradecane and hexadecane droplets was monitored by using differential scanning calorimetry, which allows the detection of freezing and melting signals characteristic of the composition of the dispersed oil droplets. The results obtained showed that it is possible to trigger the transfer of tetradecane towards hexadecane droplets by adding surfactants at concentrations above their critical micellar concentration, measured in presence of solid particles, through micellar transport mechanism. PMID:22909967

Drelich, Audrey; Grossiord, Jean-Louis; Gomez, François; Clausse, Danièle; Pezron, Isabelle

2012-11-15

216

Development of an ab initio emulsion atom transfer radical polymerization: from microemulsion to emulsion.  

PubMed

Atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) has been successfully extended to an ab initio emulsion system using a "two-step" procedure, in which the final emulsion polymerization system was formed by adding monomer to an ongoing microemulsion ATRP. The newly developed AGET (activators generated by electron transfer) initiation technique was employed in the first stage of this ab initio ATRP. It allows using oxidatively stable Cu(II) species that is reduced in situ by ascorbic acid. The surfactant concentration in the final emulsion system was efficiently decreased to approximately 2 wt % (approximately 10 wt % vs monomer) by decreasing the catalyst concentration and changing the ratio of the monomer added at the microemulsion stage to the monomer added during the second stage. This two-step procedure avoids the necessity of transporting catalysts through the aqueous media during polymerization, resulting in a controlled emulsion polymerization, as evidenced by a linear first-order kinetic plot and formation of a polymer with a relatively narrow molecular weight distribution (Mw/Mn = 1.2-1.4). The polymerization typically reached 70-90% monomer conversion in 5-6 h. The resulting polymer had high chain-end functionality and was successfully chain extended to form in situ block copolymers by adding the second monomer to an ongoing emulsion polymerization. The stable latex from the ab initio emulsion ATRP had a particle size approximately 120 +/- 10 nm. PMID:16895419

Min, Ke; Gao, Haifeng; Matyjaszewski, Krzysztof

2006-08-16

217

Lipid Injectable Emulsions: Pharmacopeial and Safety Issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract  Lipid injectable emulsions have been routinely used in patients worldwide for over 40 years as a nutritional supplement in patients requiring parenteral nutrition. They can be given as a separate infusion or added into total parenteral nutrition admixtures. Despite such broad use, no pharmacopeial standards exist with respect to the optimal pharmaceutical characteristics of the formulation. Several attempts to establish

David F. Driscoll

2006-01-01

218

Autoxidation of Unsaturated Lipids in Food Emulsion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unsaturated lipids having various physiological roles are of significance in biochemistry, nutrition, medicine, and food. However, the susceptibility of lipids to oxidation is a major cause of quality deterioration in food emulsions. The reaction mechanism and factors that influence oxidation are appreciably different for emulsified lipids and bulk lipids. This article gives a brief overview of the current knowledge on

Yue-E Sun; Wei-Dong Wang; Hong-Wei Chen; Chao Li

2011-01-01

219

Immune modulation by parenteral lipid emulsions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Total parenteral nutrition is the final option for nutritional support of patients with severe intestinal failure. Lipid emulsions constitute the main source of fuel calories and fatty acids (FAs) in parenteral nutrition formulations. However, adverse effects on patient outcomes have been attributed to the use of lipids, mostly in relation to impaired immune defenses and altered inflammatory responses. Over the

G. J. A. Wanten; P. C. Calder

2007-01-01

220

Evaporation from an ionic liquid emulsion.  

PubMed

The conditions during evaporation in a liquid crystal-in-ionic liquid microemulsion (LC/microEm) were estimated using the phase diagram of the system. The equations for selected tie lines were established and the coordinates calculated for the sites, at which the evaporation lines crossed the tie lines. These values combined with the coordinates for the phases connecting the tie lines were used to calculate the amounts and the composition of the fractions of the two phases present in the emulsion during the evaporation. One of the emulsion phases was a lamellar liquid crystal and high energy emulsification would lead to the liquid crystal being disrupted to form vesicles. Such a system tenders a unique opportunity to study the interaction between vesicles and normal micelles, which gradually change to inverse micelles over bi-continuous structures. The amount of vesicles in the liquid phase versus the fraction liquid crystal was calculated for two extreme cases of vesicle core size and shell thickness. The limit of evaporation while retaining the vesicle structure was calculated for emulsions of different original compositions assuming the minimum continuous liquid phase to be 50% of the emulsion. PMID:17207810

Friberg, Stig E

2007-03-15

221

Effects of preparation variables of enzyme-encapsulating water-in-oil emulsion on enzymatic reaction conversion and emulsion stability in an enzyme–emulsion–liquid–membrane reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of various water-in-oil (W\\/O) emulsion preparation variables, such as water-to-oil volume ratio of W\\/O emulsion, emulsification speed and time, and emulsifying agent concentration, on the permeation rates of l-phenylalanine methyl ester (l-PME, substrate) and l-phenylalanine (l-Phe, product) were investigated in an enzyme–emulsion–liquid–membrane (EELM) system accompanying the hydrolysis of the substrate into the product. The permeation rate of the

Jae Hwa Chang; Sang Cheol Lee; Won Kook Lee

1999-01-01

222

Status and analysis system of directional dark matter search with nuclear emulsion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have been doing research and development for direct dark matter search by nuclear emulsion which is a solid state detector. This experiment enable directional detection of dark matter with the large mass target and model independent. Until now, we constructed a base of fully automatic analysis system and nuclear emulsion which can detect sub-micron tracks. We have demonstrated that it is possible to detect recoiled tracks of 100 nm or more by neutron irradiation. This track length is correspond to 37 keV in C(N,O) target. Additionally, we evaluated the angular resolution of the energy basis by using an ion implant system, and obtained 25 degrees or better resolution in 80 keV carbon ions. The fully automatic analysis system which can analyze very short tracks lead the experiment to next phase, we will do a quantitative study of the background toward gram scale test experiment at the Gran Sasso underground laboratory.

Katsuragawa, T.; Naka, T.; Asada, T.; Yoshimoto, M.; Hakamata, K.; Ishikawa, M.

2013-12-01

223

Thermodynamically stable emulsions using Janus dumbbells as colloid surfactants.  

PubMed

One of the most important properties of emulsions is their stability. Most emulsions stabilized with molecular surfactants tend to lose their stability over time via different mechanisms. Although the stability of emulsions stabilized with homogeneous particles have been shown to be superior to that of surfactant-stabilized emulsions, these Pickering emulsions nevertheless are only kinetically stable and thus can undergo destabilization. Janus particles that have two opposite wetting surfaces have shown promise in imparting emulsions with long-term stability because of their strong attachment to the oil-water interface. In this theoretical study, we consider thermodynamics of emulsion stabilization using amphiphilic Janus dumbbells, which are nonspherical particles made of two partially fused spherical particles of opposite wettability. These amphiphilic dumbbells are attractive candidates as colloid surfactants for emulsion stabilization because highly uniform Janus dumbbells can be synthesized in large quantities; thus, their application in emulsion stabilization can become practical. Our theoretical calculation demonstrates that Janus dumbbells can indeed generate thermodynamically stable Pickering emulsions. In addition, we also find that there exists a total oil-water interfacial area that results in the lowest energy state in the system, which occurs when Janus dumbbells available in the system are completely consumed to fully cover the droplet interfaces. We show that the geometry of dumbbells as well as the composition of the emulsion mixtures has significant influences on the average size of dumbbell-stabilized emulsions. We also investigate the effect of asymmetry of Janus dumbbells on the average droplet radius. Our results clearly show that amphiphilic Janus dumbbells provide unique opportunities in stabilizing emulsions for various applications. PMID:24044808

Tu, Fuquan; Park, Bum Jun; Lee, Daeyeon

2013-10-15

224

The Rheology of a Three Component System: COAL/WATER/#4 Oil Emulsions.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this investigation was to study the rheology of a three component system, coal/water/#4 oil emulsions (COW), in which the third component, water, was present in a significant concentration, and to determine the applicability of existing theories from suspension rheology to the three component system studied. In a coal/water/oil emulsion, free coal particles adhere to the surface of the water droplets, preventing their coagulation, while the larger coal particles reside in the matrix of stabilized water droplets. The use of liquid fuels containing coal is a means of utilizing our nation's coal reserves while conserving oil. These fuels can be burned in conventional oil-fired furnaces. In this investigation, a high sulfur, high ash, bituminous coal was used, along with a heavy #4 oil to prepare the emulsions. The coal was ground to a log-normal distribution with an average particle size of 62 microns. A Haake RV3 concentric cylinder viscometer, with a ribbed measuring system, was used to determine the viscosity of the emulsions. A physical pendulum settling device measured the shift in center of mass of the COW as a function of time. The flow behavior of the fuel in pipes was also tested. In interpreting the data from the viscometer and the pipe flow experiments, a power law analysis was used in the region from 30 s('-1) to 200 s('-1). Extrapolation methods were used to obtain the low and high shear behavior of the emulsions. In the shear rate region found in boiler feed systems, COW are shear thinning with a flow behavior index of 0.7. The temperature dependent characteristic of the emulsions studied were similar and followed an Arrhenius type relationship. The viscosity of the COW decreases with increasing coal average particle size and is also a function of the width of the size distribution used. The type of coal used strongly influences the rheology of the fuel. The volatile content and the atomic oxygen to nitrogen ratio of the coal are the most predictive factors in terms of the variation in viscosity of the emulsion with coal type. The viscosity of the oil used is linearly related to the viscosity of the COW. The relative viscosity - concentration relationship for the emulsions was evaluated by an equation developed by Quemada for use in blood rheology: (eta)(,r) = (1 - (phi)/(phi)(,max))('-2). The best fit of the data to the equation was found when the coal plus water concentration was used for (phi). The maximum packing fraction increased with increasing shear rate, reflecting a breaking up of the agglomerates in the system. By using the relative packing fraction of the coal plus oil concentration, the relative viscosity of the emulsions tested at the three shear rates evaluted can be fit to the Quemada relative viscosity equation. In the pipe flow tests, the emulsions showed little time-dependent behavior, however they did exhibit a well effect. A fair correlation was obtained between pipe flow behavior and the results obtained in the viscometer. Coal/water/#4 oil emulsions behave as coal and water in oil systems and can be successfully modeled using theories from suspension rheology.

Gilmartin, Barbara Jean

225

A comparative study of the physicochemical properties of a virgin coconut oil emulsion and commercial food supplement emulsions.  

PubMed

Food manufacturers are interested in developing emulsion-based products into nutritional foods by using beneficial oils, such as fish oil and virgin coconut oil (VCO). In this study, the physicochemical properties of a VCO oil-in-water emulsion was investigated and compared to other commercial oil-in-water emulsion products (C1, C2, C3, and C4). C3 exhibited the smallest droplet size of 3.25 µm. The pH for the emulsion samples ranged from 2.52 to 4.38 and thus were categorised as acidic. In a texture analysis, C2 was described as the most firm, very adhesive and cohesive, as well as having high compressibility properties. From a rheological viewpoint, all the emulsion samples exhibited non-Newtonian behaviour, which manifested as a shear-thinning property. The G'G'' crossover illustrated by the VCO emulsion in the amplitude sweep graph but not the other commercial samples illustrated that the VCO emulsion had a better mouthfeel. In this context, the VCO emulsion yielded the highest zeta potential (64.86 mV), which was attributed to its strong repulsive forces, leading to a good dispersion system. C2 comprised the highest percentage of fat among all emulsion samples, followed by the VCO emulsion, with 18.44% and 6.59%, respectively. PMID:24988188

Khor, Yih Phing; Koh, Soo Peng; Long, Kamariah; Long, Shariah; Ahmad, Sharifah Zarah Syed; Tan, Chin Ping

2014-01-01

226

Continuous phases in emulsions of three liquids  

SciTech Connect

For three-phase (macro)emulsions formed by the top (T), middle (M), and bottom (B) phases of amphiphile/oil/water systems, it has been variously stated in the literature either (1) that the continuous phase is always M or (2) that the continuous phase is B below the phase inversion temperature (PIT) and T above the PIT. We show by means of isothermal electrical conductivity measurements at various temperatures on emulsions of known phase volume fractions that neither hypothesis is generally correct. For our experimental conditions the [open quotes]choice[close quotes] of continuous phase depends on the phase volume fractions, and at all temperatures - by appropriate choice of phase volume fractions - any of T, M, or B may be made the continuous phase. 21 refs., 6 figs.

Smith, D.H. (Morgantown Energy Technology Center, WV (United States) Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman (United States)); Johnson, G.K. (Morgantown Energy Technology Center, WV (United States)); Dadyburjor, D.B. (West Virginia Univ., Morgantown (United States))

1993-08-01

227

On the transport of emulsions in porous media.  

PubMed

Emulsions appear in many subsurface applications including bioremediation, surfactant-enhanced remediation, and enhanced oil-recovery. Modeling emulsion transport in porous media is particularly challenging because the rheological and physical properties of emulsions are different from averages of the components. Current modeling approaches are based on filtration theories, which are not suited to adequately address the pore-scale permeability fluctuations and reduction of absolute permeability that are often encountered during emulsion transport. In this communication, we introduce a continuous time random walk based alternative approach that captures these unique features of emulsion transport. Calculations based on the proposed approach resulted in excellent match with experimental observations of emulsion breakthrough from the literature. Specifically, the new approach explains the slow late-time tailing behavior that could not be fitted using the standard approach. The theory presented in this paper also provides an important stepping stone toward a generalized self-consistent modeling of multiphase flow. PMID:17493630

Cortis, Andrea; Ghezzehei, Teamrat A

2007-09-01

228

Rheology of oil in water emulsions with added kaolinite clay  

SciTech Connect

This paper deals with the rhelogical measurements of oil in water emulsions with added kaolinite clay. The percent oil concentration, solids-free basis, was varied up to 70% by volume. The volume fraction of clay was varied up to 0.2 based on the total volume. The clay/emulsion mixtures displayed shear thinning behavior. Yield stress was observed, and its value increased with clay volume fraction and with oil concentration. The shear stress versus shear rate data could be fitted by the Casson model for low oil concentrations (below 40%) and by the Herschel-Bulkley model for higher oil concentrations. On the basis of the experimental data, a correlation was developed to evaluate the relative viscosity of the clay/emulsion mixtures, where the relative viscosity was defined as the ratio of the viscosity of clay/emulsion mixtures to that of emulsions alone. A viscosity equation was also developed for calculating the viscosity of clay/emulsion mixtures.

Yan, Y.; Pal, R.; Masliyah, J. (Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

1991-08-01

229

Imaging techniques applied to characterize bitumen and bituminous emulsions.  

PubMed

The purpose of this article is to present some important advances in the imaging techniques currently used in the characterization of bitumen and bituminous emulsions. Bitumen exhibits some properties, such as a black colour and a reflecting surface at rest, which permit the use of optical techniques to study the macroscopic behaviour of asphalt mixes in the cold mix technology based on emulsion use. Imaging techniques allow monitoring in situ the bitumen thermal sensitivity as well as the complex phenomenon of emulsion breaking. Evaporation-driven breaking was evaluated from the shape of evaporating emulsion drops deposited onto non-porous and hydrophobic substrates. To describe the breaking kinetics, top-view images of a drying emulsion drop placed on an aggregate sheet were acquired and processed properly. We can conclude that computer-aided image analysis in road pavement engineering can elucidate the mechanism of breaking and curing of bituminous emulsion. PMID:17825782

Rodríguez-Valverde, M A; Ramón-Torregrosa, P; Páez-Dueñas, A; Cabrerizo-Vílchez, M A; Hidalgo-Alvarez, R

2008-01-15

230

Cationic acrylamide emulsion polymer brine thickeners  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a thickened, solids free, aqueous drilling and servicing brine having a density of at least 14.4 ppg. comprising (a) an aqueous solution of at least one water-soluble salt of a multivalent metal, and (b) a cationic water-in-oil emulsion polymer of acrylamide or methacrylamide and a cationic monomer selected from the group consisting of a dialkylaminoalkyl acrylamide or

P. A. Gleason; M. A. Piccoline

1986-01-01

231

Emulsions Containing Perfluorocarbon Support Cell Cultures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Addition of emulsion containing perfluorocarbon liquid to aqueous cell-culture medium increases capacity of medium to support mammalian cells. FC-40 Fluorinert (or equivalent) - increases average density of medium so approximately equal to that of cells. Cells stay suspended in medium without mechanical stirring, which damages them. Increases density enough to prevent cells from setting, and increases viscosity of medium so oxygen bubbled through it and nutrients stirred in with less damage to delicate cells.

Ju, Lu-Kwang; Lee, Jaw Fang; Armiger, William B.

1990-01-01

232

An interactive system for emulsion data acquisition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe an interactive system, based on a micro-processor, for the acquisition and elaboration of nuclear emulsion measurements. The device consists of a Koritska R 4 microscope coupled with a telecamera and with a motor driven stage for automatic displacement in the three directions. Both the pair of internal coordinates and the three external coordinates are digitized. The interactive management of the system is carried out with a PDP11/34.

Baroni, Giustina; Di Liberto, Sergio; Ginobbi, Paolo; Meddi, Franco; Petrera, Sergio; Romano, Giorgio; Sgarbi, Claudio

1983-09-01

233

Drops and emulsions with complex interfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the behavior of emulsion drops in external flow fields, focusing on recent experimental work involving liquid interfaces covered with surface-active species, in particular adsorbed proteins and particles. Three different length scales are considered: (i) the rheology of complex interfaces is discussed for adsorbed polyelectrolyte surfactants with different molecular structure (compact and globular vs. random coil); (ii) the flow of single drops with macromolecular adsorption layers is studied in optical flow cells; (iii) dilute emulsions of drops are investigated using rheo-small angle light scattering (rheo-SALS). We discuss the results in the context of emulsion and drop models accounting for interfacial viscoelasticity, as well as with capsule suspension models for the case of rigid interfacial layers. Drops stabilized by adsorbed particles or globular proteins can be understood as capsules surrounded by a soft shell; their behavior on the single drop level is in many ways reminiscent of phenomena observed with red blood cells or vesicles, including non-linear drop shape fluctuations under creeping flow conditions. References: [1] Fischer P, Erni P. Curr Opin Colloid Interface Sci (2007, accepted) [2] Erni P et al., Appl Phys Lett 87, 244104 (2007)

Erni, Philipp; Windhab, Erich J.; Fischer, Peter

2007-11-01

234

Simple and double emulsions via electrospray  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Generation of nanoemulsions is of great interest in medical and pharmaceutical applications; drug delivery or antiviral emulsions are typical examples. The use of electrosprays for dispersing liquids inside liquid insulator baths have been recently reported, (Barrero et al. J. Colloid Interf. Sci. 272, 104, 2004). Capsules, nanotubes and coaxial nanofibers have been obtained from electrified coaxial jets (Loscertales et al. Science 295, n. 5560, 1695, 2002; J. American Chem. Soc. 126, 5376, 2004). Here we present a method for making double emulsions (both water-oil-water and o/w/o) based on the generation of compound electrosprays inside insulator liquid baths. Basically, a conducting liquid injected throughout a capillary needle is electroatomized in cone-jet mode inside a dielectric liquid bath. A third insulating liquid is injected inside the Taylor cone to form a second meniscus. Then, a steady coaxial jet, in which the insulating liquid is coated by the conducting one, develops. A double emulsion forms as a result of the jet breaking up into compound droplets electrically charged. Experimental results carried out with glycerine and different oils in a bath of heptane are reported.

Barrero, Antonio; Loscertales, Ignacio G.

2005-11-01

235

Surfactant-assisted spreading of an emulsion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We studied experimentally the spreading dynamics of a drop of a surfactant-stabilized oil-in-water emulsion over the free surface of a layer of a solution of the same surfactant. The dynamics display three regimes. After the deposition of the emulsion drop, oil droplets are advected by a Marangoni flow, due to the difference in surfactant concentration between the emulsion and the liquid surface, and spread at the air/liquid interface. The oil droplets eventually stop, forming a dense ring, whose diameter is constant as long as oil droplets are transported by Marangoni flow. During this stage, oil droplets are moving rapidly on a surface with a low droplet concentration. Once the initial drop is empty, the ring collapses on itself, a phenomenon not yet reported experimentally to our knowledge. Spreading and retraction occur on a few hundred milliseconds while the ring stage lasts a few seconds. Using a laser sheet reflected by the surface of the liquid layer, we measured the shape of the surface and identified a jump of a few hundred microns in the layer thickness at the location of the ring. The existence of this jump points to hydrostatic pressure as the driving stress for retraction. We also show that this system shares many features with other jumps.

Li, Zhenzhen; Roche, Matthieu; Saint-Jalmes, Arnaud; Stone, Howard A.

2010-11-01

236

Semiphysical development of holograms recorded in silver halide emulsions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the course of experiments on measurement of the effects of processing on nonlinear characteristics of silver halide holograms recorded in Agfa-gevaert 8E75HD emulsions we found that, under certain circumstances, the AAC developer acted as a semi-physical developer instead of the normal chemical developing action. The developed and fixed holograms were of low optical density (<0.5) and of high diffraction efficiency (up to 15%). Phase contrast microscopy revealed that very clean phase gratings were obtained. This effect of the AAC developer was due to the replacement of one of its components, sodium carbonate of purest grade with that of for analysis grade of the same company.

Banyasz, Istvan; Belendez, Augusto; Pascual, Inmaculada V.; Gil, Antonio F.

2000-10-01

237

Destabilization of cutting oil emulsions using inorganic salts as coagulants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oily wastewater generated by steel and metal-finishing industries form emulsions which typically contain 100 to 30?000ppm of emulsified oil. Data on the breaking of O\\/W emulsions of commercial soluble oils using CaCl2 and AlCl3 as coagulants are reported. Demulsification rates were studied in a temperature range of 20 to 80°C and electrolyte concentrations of 5 to 40gl?1. The emulsion breaking

G R??os; C Pazos; J Coca

1998-01-01

238

Generation of monodisperse gel emulsions in a microfluidic device  

Microsoft Academic Search

We demonstrate that high dispersed phase volume fraction emulsions (i.e., gel emulsions) can be prepared in situ for microfluidic applications. Previously, the production of gel-like emulsions in microfluidic devices, where the droplet size is less than the length-scale of the channel, required multistep splitting of larger droplets in a branched microchannel network. Instead, we employ an abrupt change in the

Craig Priest; Stephan Herminghaus; Ralf Seemann

2006-01-01

239

High precision measurements with nuclear emulsions using fast automated microscopes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on the development of an automated scanning system for nuclear emulsions aiming at very precise spatial and angular measurements. An accuracy of 0.06?m in position was achieved with the emulsion films used for the measurement. An accuracy of 0.4mrad was achieved for tracks penetrating orthogonally the emulsion films while an accuracy of 1mrad was obtained for tracks inclined

M. De Serio; M. Ieva; M. T. Muciaccia; S. Simone; M. Cozzi; G. Giacomelli; L. Patrizii; G. Sirri; S. Blokhin; S. Buontempo; D. Coppola; N. D’Ambrosio; G. De Lellis; P. Migliozzi; C. Pistillo; P. Strolin; V. Tioukov; E. Barbuto; C. Bozza; G. Grella; C. Sirignano

2005-01-01

240

Pipeline flow of unstable and surfactant-stabilized emulsions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The literature available on pipeline flow behavior of emulsions is reviewed critically. New results concerning the laminar and turbulent flow behaviors of unstable (without any added surfactant) and surfactant-stabilized water-in-oil emulsions are presented. The unstable emulsions exhibit drag reduction behavior in turbulent flow; the measured friction factors fall well below the values expected on the basis of the laminar flow

Rajinder Pal

1993-01-01

241

Water mass transfer in W\\/O emulsions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water transportation through the oil phase in W\\/O emulsions and in W1\\/O\\/W2 systems (W\\/O emulsion in contact with water) was examined. Substance diffusion through interfaces led to interface instability and spontaneous emulsification which caused nanodispersion formation. The photomicrographs of Pt\\/C replicas of emulsions showed the presence in the continuous oil phase a lot of nanodispersion droplets with a diameter in

Marina Yu. Koroleva; Evgeny V. Yurtov

2006-01-01

242

Mechanical Entrainment in W\\/O\\/W Emulsion Liquid Membrane  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental study of mechanical entrainment in W\\/O\\/W emulsions is conducted. W\\/O\\/W emulsions are stirred for various stirring times under the conditions that mechanical entrainment solely occurs, and changes in volume of the W\\/O emulsions and size distribution of the internal water droplets are measured. The rate of change in number of the water droplets entrained is found to be

Junjiro Kawasaki; Hitoshi Kosuge; Ryuichi Egashira; Tomotake Asawa

2009-01-01

243

DEMULSIFICATION OF W\\/O EMULSIONS BY MICROWAVE RADIATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Demulsification is an indispensable step in the application of emulsion liquid membrane (ELM) separation process. In this work, a novel microwave demulsification method is first applied in the ELM system to study the phenomenon of breaking water-in-oil (W\\/O) emulsion. The mechanism of microwave heating is essentially that of dielectric heating. After exposing the emulsion to the microwave electromagnetic (EM) field,

Chih-Chieh Chan; Yeong-Ching Chen

2002-01-01

244

Studies of Water-in-Oil Emulsions: Stability Classes and Measurement.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper summarizes studies to determine the stability of water-in-oil emulsions and the measurement of emulsion stability. The most important question related to emulsion analysis is whether they are stable. In the strict thermodynamic sense, all emulsi...

2011-01-01

245

40 CFR 467.60 - Applicability; description of the drawing with emulsions or soaps subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Applicability; description of the drawing with emulsions or soaps subcategory. 467.60 Section...POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Drawing With Emulsions or Soaps Subcategory § 467.60 ...Applicability; description of the drawing with emulsions or soaps subcategory. This...

2010-07-01

246

40 CFR 467.20 - Applicability; description of the rolling with emulsions subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...description of the rolling with emulsions subcategory. 467.20 Section...POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Rolling With Emulsions Subcategory § 467.20 Applicability...description of the rolling with emulsions subcategory. This...

2010-07-01

247

40 CFR 467.60 - Applicability; description of the drawing with emulsions or soaps subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Applicability; description of the drawing with emulsions or soaps subcategory. 467.60 Section...POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Drawing With Emulsions or Soaps Subcategory § 467.60 ...Applicability; description of the drawing with emulsions or soaps subcategory. This...

2009-01-01

248

40 CFR 467.20 - Applicability; description of the rolling with emulsions subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...description of the rolling with emulsions subcategory. 467.20 Section...POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Rolling With Emulsions Subcategory § 467.20 Applicability...description of the rolling with emulsions subcategory. This...

2009-01-01

249

40 CFR 467.60 - Applicability; description of the drawing with emulsions or soaps subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...description of the drawing with emulsions or soaps subcategory. 467.60 Section 467...SOURCE CATEGORY Drawing With Emulsions or Soaps Subcategory § 467.60 Applicability...description of the drawing with emulsions or soaps subcategory. This subpart...

2013-07-01

250

FAT EMULSION COMPOSITION ALTERS INTAKE AND THE EFFECTS OF BACLOFEN  

PubMed Central

Thickened oil-in-water emulsions are useful model foods in rat studies due to their high acceptance and similarity to foods consumed by humans. Previous work from this laboratory used oil-in-water emulsions thickened with a biopolymer blend containing starch. Intake and effects of baclofen, a GABA-B agonist that decreases fat intake and drug self-administration, were reported, but the contribution of starch was not assessed. In the present study, intake and effects of baclofen were assessed in rats using emulsions prepared with two fat types (32% vegetable shortening, 32% corn oil) and thickened with three biopolymer blends. One biopolymer blend contained starch and the other two did not. Daily 1-h intake of the vegetable shortening emulsion containing starch was significantly greater than the other emulsions. When starch was added to the emulsions originally containing no starch, intake significantly increased. Baclofen generally reduced intake of all emulsions regardless of starch content and stimulated intake of chow. However, effects were more often significant for vegetable shortening emulsions. This report: 1) demonstrates that products used to prepare thickened oil-in-water emulsions have significant effects on rat ingestive behavior, and 2) confirms the ability of baclofen to reduce consumption of fatty foods, while simultaneously stimulating intake of chow.

Wang, Y; Wilt, DC; Wojnicki, FHE; Babbs, RK; Coupland, JN; Corwin, RLC

2011-01-01

251

Studies with a safflower oil emulsion in total parenteral nutrition.  

PubMed Central

The prevention of essential fatty acid deficiency and the provision of adequate amounts of energy are two major concerns in total parenteral nutrition. Since earlier preparations of fat emulsion used to supplement the usual regimen of hypertonic glucose and amino acids have widely varying clinical acceptability, a new product, a safflower oil emulsion available in two concentrations (Liposyn), was evaluated. In four clinical trials the emulsion was used as a supplement to total parenteral nutrition. In five surgical patients 500 ml of the 10% emulsion infused every third day prevented or corrected essential fatty acid deficiency; however, in some cases in infusion every other day may be necessary. In 40 patients in severe catabolic states the emulsion provided 30% to 50% of the energy required daily: 10 patients received the 10% emulsion for 14 to 42 days, 9 patients received each emulsion in turn for 7 days, and 21 patient received the 20% emulsion for 14 to 28 days. All the patients survived and tolerated the lipid well; no adverse clinical effects were attributable to the lipid infusions. Transient mild, apparently clinically insignificant abnormalities in the results of one or more liver function tests and eosinophilia were observed in some patients. Thus, the safflower oil emulsion, at both concentrations, was safe and effective as a source of 30% to 50% of the energy required daily by seriously ill patients.

Wong, K. H.; Deitel, M.

1981-01-01

252

Field testing of asphalt-emulsion radon-barrier system  

SciTech Connect

Three years of laboratory and field testing have demonstrated that asphalt emulsion seals are effective radon diffusion barriers. Both laboratory and field tests in 1979, 1980 and 1981 have shown that an asphalt emulsion seal can reduce radon fluxes by greater than 99.9%. The effective diffusion coefficient for the various asphalt emulsion admix seals averages about 10/sup -6/ cm/sup 2//s. The 1981 joint field test is a culmination of all the technology developed to date for asphalt emulsion radon barrier systems. Preliminary results of this field test and the results of the 1980 field test are presented. 18 figures, 6 tables.

Hartley, J.N.; Freeman, H.D.; Baker, E.G.; Elmore, M.R.; Nelson, D.A.; Voss, C.F.; Koehmstedt, P.L.

1981-09-01

253

Cold heat-release characteristics of phase-change emulsion by air-emulsion direct-contact heat exchange method  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with cold heat-release characteristics of the oil (tetradecane, C14H30, latent heat 229 kJ\\/kg, melting point 278.9 K)\\/water emulsion as a latent heat-storage material having a low melting point. An air-emulsion direct-contact heat exchange method was selected for the cold heat-release from the emulsion layer including solidified tetradecane. The temperature effectiveness, the sensible heat release time and the

Shin-Ichi Morita

1996-01-01

254

A multivariate screening analysis of W/O emulsions in high external electric fields as studied by means of dielectric time domain spectroscopy. 2: Model emulsions stabilized by interfacially active fractions from crude oils  

SciTech Connect

The electrically induced coalescence of water-in-oil emulsions stabilized by interfacially active fractions from crude oils has been studied by means of time domain dielectric spectroscopy at high electric fields. The experiments were designed with a 2{sup 7-3} reduced factorial design. Regression analysis clearly shows that the choice of organic solvent and the amount of asphaltenes, as well as the interplay between these variables, are the most significant parameters for determining the stability of these emulsions. It should be pointed out that the asphaltenes were the only surface active fraction tested. No interplay between, for instance, asphaltenes and resins was investigated. The nonlinearity found in the regression analysis is explained by different aggregation states of asphaltenes in aliphatic and aromatic solvents. The influence of the variables upon the emulsion stability is discussed.

Foerdedal, H.; Midttun, O.; Sjoeblom, J.; Kvalheim, O.M. [Univ. of Bergen (Norway). Dept. of Chemistry] [Univ. of Bergen (Norway). Dept. of Chemistry; Schildberg, Y.; Volle, J.L. [Elf Aquitaine Production, Pau (France)] [Elf Aquitaine Production, Pau (France)

1996-09-01

255

An electro-coalescence chip for effective emulsion breaking in droplet microfluidics.  

PubMed

Droplet-based microfluidics is increasingly used for biological applications, where the recovery of cells or particles after an experiment or assay is desirable. Here, we present an electro-demulsification chip which circumvents the use of harsh chemicals and multiple washing/centrifugation steps and offers a mild way for extracting cells and polymer particles into an aqueous phase from microfluidic water-in-oil emulsions. PMID:24889537

Chokkalingam, Venkatachalam; Ma, Yujie; Thiele, Julian; Schalk, Werner; Tel, Jurjen; Huck, Wilhelm T S

2014-06-17

256

High-speed particle tracking in nuclear emulsion by last-generation automatic microscopes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The technique of nuclear emulsions for high-energy physics experiments is being revived, thanks to the remarkable progress in measurement automation achieved in the past years. The present paper describes the features and performances of the European Scanning System, a last-generation automatic microscope working at a scanning speed of 20cm2\\/h. The system has been developed in the framework of the OPERA

N. Armenise; M. De Serio; M. Ieva; M. T. Muciaccia; A. Pastore; S. Simone; J. Damet; I. Kreslo; N. Savvinov; T. Waelchli; L. Consiglio; M. Cozzi; D. Di Ferdinando; L. S. Esposito; G. Giacomelli; M. Giorgini; G. Mandrioli; L. Patrizii; M. Sioli; G. Sirri; L. Arrabito; I. Laktineh; P. Royole-Degieux; S. Buontempo; N. D’Ambrosio; G. De Lellis; G. Rosa; F. Di Capua; D. Coppola; F. Formisano; A. Marotta; P. Migliozzi; C. Pistillo; L. Scotto Lavina; G. Sorrentino; P. Strolin; V. Tioukov; F. Juget; M. Hauger; E. Barbuto; C. Bozza; G. Grella; G. Romano; C. Sirignano

2005-01-01

257

Oral administration of insulin included in fine W\\/O\\/W emulsions to rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fine W\\/O\\/W emulsions having controlled median diameters between 0.7 and 30?m were prepared using octanoic acid triacylglycerol (C8:0TG) and soybean oil as the oil phases. Transport enhancement of a model hydrophilic compound by the soybean-oil hydrolysates was investigated using Caco-2 model intestinal epithelial cells. The results were compared with those from in vivo experiments; in which rats were administered various

Motohiro Shima; Miyono Tanaka; Takao Fujii; Kahori Egawa; Yukitaka Kimura; Shuji Adachi; Ryuichi Matsuno

2006-01-01

258

Crude oil emulsions containing a compatible fluorochemical surfactant  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a crude oil in water emulsion, which is stable to both breakdown and phase inversion up to at least about 50{degrees} C., the emulsion containing an effective, compatible, emulsion stabilizing amount of a fluorochemical surfactant of the formula (R{sub {ital f}}){sub {ital n}}A{sub {ital m}}Q wherein R{sub {ital f}} is an inert, stable, oleophobic and hydrophobic fluoroaliphatic group having up to about 20 carbon atoms; n is an integer from 1 to 3; A is a direct bond or an organic linking group and is covalently bonded to both R{sub {ital f}} and Q; Q is an anionic, nonionic or amphoteric group; and m is an integer from 1 to 3; wherein the amount of weight of the fluorochemical surfactant present in the emulsion being between about 0.001 and 1% by weight of the emulsion, in the presence of absence of up to about 2% by weight of a crude oil emulsion promoting hydrocarbon surfactant, with the proviso that at least about 0.005% by weight total fluorochemical and hydrocarbon surfactant is present, based upon the weight of emulsion, and wherein the emulsion contains bout 15 to about 90 percent by weight water, based upon the weight of emulsion, such that the viscosity of the emulsion is less than about 50% of the viscosity of the crude oil, and wherein the emulsion spontaneously breaks down into an aqueous and crude oil phase at a temperature between about 55{degrees} and 75{degrees} C.

Karydas, A.; Rodgers, J.

1991-02-19

259

Synthesis of metallic nanoshells on porphyrin-stabilized emulsions  

DOEpatents

Metal nanostructures formed by photocatalytic interfacial synthesis using a porphyrin-stabilized emulsion template and the method for making the nanostructures. Catalyst-seeded emulsion droplets are employed as templates for hollow-nanoshell growth. The hollow metal nanospheres may be formed with or without inclusions of other materials.

Wang, Haorong (Albuquerque, NM); Song, Yujiang (Albuquerque, NM); Shelnutt, John A. (Tijeras, NM); Medforth, Craig J. (Winters, CA)

2011-12-13

260

Oilfield solids and water-in-oil emulsion stability.  

PubMed

Model water-in-hydrocarbon emulsions consisting of toluene, heptane, water, asphaltenes, and native solids were used to investigate the role of native solids in the stability of oilfield emulsions. The solids were recovered from an oil-sands bitumen, a wellhead emulsion, and a refinery slop oil. The solids were clay platelets and fell into two size categories: (1) fine solids 50 to 500 nm in diameter and (2) coarse solids 1 to 10 microm in diameter. Emulsions stabilized by fine solids and asphaltenes were most stable at a 2:1 fractional area ratio of asphaltenes to solids. It appears that when the asphaltene surface coverage is high, insufficient solids remain to make an effective barrier. When the solids coverage is high, insufficient asphaltenes remain on the interface to immobilize the solids. Treatments that weaken the interface, such as toluene dilution, are recommended for emulsions stabilized by fine solids. Emulsions stabilized by coarse solids were unstable at low solids concentrations but became very stable at solids concentrations greater than 10 kg/m(3). At low concentrations, these solids may act as bridges between water droplets and promote coalescence. At high concentrations, layers of coarse solids may become trapped between water droplets and prevent coalescence. Treatments that flocculate the solids, such as heptane dilution, are recommended for emulsions stabilized by high concentrations of coarse solids. It is possible that emulsions containing both types of solids may require more than one treatment, or even process step, for effective water resolution. PMID:15837502

Sztukowski, Danuta M; Yarranton, Harvey W

2005-05-15

261

Instability and Partial Coalescence in Whippable Dairy Emulsions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dairy emulsions must be stabilized by an adsorbed layer to prevent flocculation or phase separation dur- ing quiescent storage. In the production of products such as whipped cream and ice cream, however, a controlled destabilization or partial coalescence of the emulsion is needed during further processing to de- velop an internal structure of agglomerated fat, which favorably alters the texture

H. D. Goff

1997-01-01

262

Laboratory Oil-Recovery Tests with Ultrasonically Formed Emulsions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Oil-displacement tests were conducted in the laboratory with three water-in-oil and five oil-in-water emulsions that were created with ultrasonic energy at a frequency of 20 kHz and an acoustic intensity of approximately 100 watts per sq cm. Emulsions of ...

C. A. Komar H. A. W. Moore

1969-01-01

263

Inversion of heavy crude oil-in-brine emulsions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inversion of heavy crude oil in brine emulsions stabilized with nonionic surfactants has been studied experimentally. Most of the tests were carried out in beakers and in a cone and plate viscometer with the cone displaced at some distance from the plate. The effects of shear rate, surfactant species and concentration, temperature and oil fraction on emulsion inversion were

R. Sun; C. A. Shook

1996-01-01

264

Microexplosion of an emulsion droplet during Leidenfrost burning  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental study has been made of the microexplosion of an emulsion droplet on a hot surface during Leidenfrost burning. Photographic observation is used to study how the emulsion droplet behaves and what happens inside the droplet and to measure the waiting time for the onset of microexplosion. Weibull analysis was used to obtain the distribution function of the waiting

Toshikazu Kadota; Hajime Tanaka; Daisuke Segawa; Shinji Nakaya; Hiroshi Yamasaki

2007-01-01

265

Microwave modules for watering monitoring of wateroil emulsions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discussed in this paper are the existing methods regarding obtaining of information on the quantitive content of oil and water parts in wateroil emulsions. Development of microwave monitoring modules for straight (frequency of 2459 MHz) and opposite (frequency of 915 MHz) emulsions is described.

N. G. Vorobiev; M. R. Galimov; N. V. Dorogov; G. A. Morozov; O. G. Morozov; R. S. Muratov; I. I. Nureev; D. S. Roomyantsev; A. M. Salikhov; R. R. Samigullin

2003-01-01

266

Water-in-diesel emulsions and related systems.  

PubMed

Water-in-diesel emulsions are fuels for regular diesel engines. The advantages of an emulsion fuel are reductions in the emissions of nitrogen oxides and particulate matters, which are both health hazardous, and reduction in fuel consumption due to better burning efficiency. An important aspect is that diesel emulsions can be used without engine modifications. This review presents the influence of water on the emissions and on the combustion efficiency. Whereas there is a decrease in emissions of nitrogen oxides and particulate matters, there is an increase in the emissions of hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide with increasing water content of the emulsion. The combustion efficiency is improved when water is emulsified with diesel. This is a consequence of the microexplosions, which facilitate atomization of the fuel. The review also covers related fuels, such as diesel-in-water-in-diesel emulsions, i.e., double emulsions, water-in-diesel microemulsions, and water-in-vegetable oil emulsions, i.e., biodiesel emulsions. A brief overview of other types of alternative fuels is also included. PMID:16806033

Lif, Anna; Holmberg, Krister

2006-11-16

267

Studies on the temperature performance of SBR modified asphalt emulsion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) modified asphalt emulsions were prepared by means of SBR latex adding to aqueous solution, and it is an energy-saving, ecologically safe material because it does not need any heating processes creating gas emission and fire hazard during its use. The objective of this work was to analyze the temperature performance of SBR modified asphalt emulsions for

Qinqin Zhang; Weiyu Fan; Tiezhu Wang; Guozhi Nan

2011-01-01

268

Preparation of food emulsions using a membrane emulsification system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In emulsions prepared using a membrane emulsification system, dispersion droplet diameter depends basically upon membrane pore diameter. For practical applications, it is necessary to select the appropriate type and concentration of emulsifiers, U and Je.For practical applications in the food industry, where large volume production is conducted, it is especially important to increase Je. When preparing an O\\/W emulsion, this

Ryoh Katoh; Yuzoh Asano; Atusi Furuya; Kazuyoshi Sotoyama; Mamoru Tomita

1996-01-01

269

Absorption of slow K- mesons in nuclear emulsion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The absorption of slow K- mesons in nuclear emulsion through the mesonic and nonmesonic channels has been measured. It has been shown that K- mesons are absorbed in the surface (diffuse) layer of a nucleus. The results are in qualitative agreement with theoretical calculations involving the mesonic and nonmesonic potentials of the absorption of kaons by light and heavy nuclei of nuclear emulsion.

Dubinina, V. V.; Egorenkova, N. P.; Pozharova, E. A.; Smirnitsky, V. A.

2014-02-01

270

Top ten considerations in the development of parenteral emulsions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of parenteral emulsions continues to play an important role in the formulation and delivery of many drugs. In addition to solubilization and stabilization applications, appropriately designed parenteral emulsions are effective delivery systems for sustained release and targeting of drugs. Control of the strict requirements of globule size and surface charge is important in the design and ultimate stability

Alison G Floyd

1999-01-01

271

INTRAVENOUS ADMINISTRATION OF FAT EMULSIONS--Metabolic and Clinical Studies  

PubMed Central

Fat emulsions alone or in alternation with amino acid mixtures were administered by continuous intravenous infusion to human subjects. Adequate nutrition was maintained thereby, without untoward effects. Upon too rapid administration of such emulsions, toxic manifestations occurred, apparently referable to an “overload” of the enzyme systems concerned with fat catabolism and storage.

Kinsell, Laurance W.; Cochrane, Gilbert C.; Coelho, Marjorie A.; Fukayama, George M.

1954-01-01

272

Field-Induced Structures in Ferrofluid Emulsions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The field-induced structure in a monodisperse ferrofluid emulsion is studied. An applied magnetic field induces a magnetic dipole moment in each droplet. When the dipole-dipole interaction energy exceeds the thermal energy, a phase transition occurs as the fluid of randomly dispersed droplets changes to a solid of nearly equally sized and spaced columns. Our results show that the column spacing follows a relation d = 1.33L0.37 for cell thickness 3<=L<=800 ?m. A new theory, which treats the column shape more realistically, is developed to account for the results.

Liu, Jing; Lawrence, E. M.; Wu, A.; Ivey, M. L.; Flores, G. A.; Javier, K.; Bibette, J.; Richard, J.

1995-04-01

273

Particle control of emulsion by membrane emulsification and its applications.  

PubMed

Particle-size control of emulsion is very important for maintaining stability and giving emulsions new functional roles. Porous glass membrane, prepared by phase separation of a glass composition, is available as an emulsifying element, from which, one can obtain monodispersed emulsion with different particle sizes, and useful water/oil/water (W/O/W) emulsion in very high yield. The authors have called this new technology 'membrane emulsification'. Applications of membrane emulsification technology to drug delivery systems were carried out under cooperative research with Miyazaki Medical College. It was found that the clinical administration of a W/O/W drug emulsion that encapsulated an anticancer drug in its inner droplets was surprisingly effective for both terminal and multiple nodules of hepatocellular carcinoma when the drug was injected to damaged liver through a catheter inserted in the hepatic artery. Other applications have been tried and developed elsewhere. PMID:11104896

Nakashima, T; Shimizu, M; Kukizaki, M

2000-12-01

274

Temperature dependence of emulsion morphologies and the dispersion morphology diagram  

SciTech Connect

The recently constructed dispersion morphology diagram predicts that for amphiphile/oil/water systems there exists a range of concentrations within which only OL/AQ (oil-in-water) emulsions form and another range of concentrations for which the emulsion morphology is always AQ/OL (water-in-soil), regardless of whether the temperature is below the lower critical end-point temperature, above the upper critical end point, or between these two temperatures. These predictions contradict the PIT (phase inversion temperature) idea, that below the PIT amphiphile/oil/water systems for only oil-in-water emulsions and above the PIT they form only water-in-oil emulsions. By using electrical conductivity measurements to determine the emulsion morphologies at different temperatures for systems of constant composition, the authors show for the system studied that the previous predictions of the dispersion morphology diagram are correct.

Smith, D.H. (Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman (USA)); Covatch, G.C.; Lim, Kyunghee (Dept. of Energy, Morgantown, WV (USA))

1991-02-07

275

A novel microfluidic technology for the preparation of gas-in-oil-in-water emulsions.  

PubMed

This paper presents a novel microfluidic method for the controllable generation of uniform gas-in-oil-in-water double emulsions with ultra-thin liquid films (2-12 ?m) covering microbubbles (116-180 ?m). This method combines one dispersion stage and a mass transfer-induced phase separation process in a simple co-flowing microchannel, instead of a complicated microfluidic device fabrication and a multistage dispersion process. In our experiments, CO2-alkane gas mixtures (dispersed phase) and NaOH aqueous solutions (continuous phase) were utilized as working systems. The main factors affecting the diameter of the inner bubble and the volume of the oil film are discussed. Through our method, the monodispersed gas-in-oil-in-water emulsions can be prepared in a simple and precise way. PMID:23824066

Yang, Lu; Wang, Kai; Mak, Sy; Li, Yankai; Luo, Guangsheng

2013-09-01

276

Mechanistic study on demulsification of water-in-diluted bitumen emulsions by ethylcellulose.  

PubMed

In our previous study, ethylcellulose (EC), an effective, nontoxic, and biodegradable natural polymer, was found effective in dewatering water-in-diluted bitumen emulsions. In this study, the demulsification mechanism of water-in-diluted bitumen emulsions by EC is investigated. In situ experiments using a micropipet apparatus provided direct evidence on both flocculation and coalescence of water droplets in diluted bitumen by EC. The addition of EC was found to decrease naphtha-diluted bitumen-water interfacial tension significantly. At the molecular level, AFM imaging revealed disruption of the continuous interfacial films formed from surface-active components of bitumen by EC. Our study clearly indicates that the demulsification by EC is through both flocculation and coalescence of water droplets, attained by competitive adsorption of EC at the oil-water interface and disruption of the original protective interfacial films formed from the surface-active components of bitumen. PMID:20175568

Feng, Xianhua; Mussone, Paolo; Gao, Song; Wang, Shengqun; Wu, Shiau-Yin; Masliyah, Jacob H; Xu, Zhenghe

2010-03-01

277

Combustion of drops and sprays of No. 2 diesel oil and its emulsions with water  

SciTech Connect

Experimental results on the combustion of unsupported single drops and pressure-atomized sprays of No. 2D oil and its emulsions with water are presented. The experiments covered the following range of variables: volume fraction of water 0-0.3; surfactant concentration 0-0.05; injection temperature 298-380/sup 0/K; chamber temperature 400-950/sup 0/K; chamber pressure 0.44 to 3.92 MPa; chamber inlet oxygen concentration 0.16-0.75; and spray injector nozzles multihole and pintle. The results show that unsupported droplets of No. 2D diesel oil-water emulsions undergo disruption during combustion, and the fragmentation increases with water content, surfactant content, injection temperature, chamber oxygen concentration, and chamber temperature, but is not significantly dependent on chamber pressure. 18 refs.

Gollahalli, S.R.; Rasmussen, M.L.; Moussavi, S.J.

1981-01-01

278

Phase transition pathways for the production of 100 nm oil-in-water emulsions.  

PubMed

Oil/water emulsions can be produced through phase inversion, by adding water to a reverse water/oil microemulsion. According to small angle neutron scattering experiments and visual observations performed during phase inversion, the stages of this process are as follows: (i) upon water addition, the microemulsion gives way to a highly swollen lamellar phase; (ii) the transient lamellar phase breaks up to yield an array of droplets; (iii) the droplets loses the correlations of the lamellar phase. This emulsion is already present less than one minute after the initial addition of water, and it reaches the final size distribution in one hour. The final population of oil droplets is homogenous with a mean diameter below 100 nm. PMID:19081913

Sonneville-Aubrun, O; Babayan, D; Bordeaux, D; Lindner, P; Rata, Gabriel; Cabane, B

2009-01-01

279

Breakup of bubbles and drops in steadily sheared foams and concentrated emulsions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This experimental study is focused on the process of bubble breakup in steadily sheared foams, at constant shear rate or constant shear stress. Two different types of surfactants were used and glycerol was added to the aqueous phase, to check how the bubble breakup depends on the surface modulus and on bulk viscosity of the foaming solutions. The experiments show that bubble breakup in foams occurs above a well defined critical dimensionless stress, ?˜CR?(?CRR/?)?0.40 , which is independent of surfactant used, solution viscosity, and bubble volume fraction (varied between 92 and 98 %). Here ?CR is the dimensional shear stress, above which a bubble with radius R and surface tension ? would break in sheared foam. The value of the critical stress experimentally found by us ?˜CR?0.40 , is about two orders of magnitude lower than the critical stress for breakup of single bubbles in sheared Newtonian liquids, ?˜CR?25 . This large difference in the critical stress is explained by the strong interaction between neighboring bubbles in densely populated foams, which facilitates bubble subdivision into smaller bubbles. A strong effect of bubble polydispersity on the kinetics of bubble breakup (at similar mean bubble size) was observed and explained. Experiments were also performed with hexadecane-in-water emulsions of drop volume fraction 83% ???95% to study drop breakup in concentrated emulsions. Qualitatively similar behavior was observed to that of foams, with the critical dimensionless stress for drop breakup being lower, ?˜CR?0.15 , and practically independent of the drop volume fraction and viscosity ratio (varied between 0.01 and 1). This critical stress is by several times lower than the critical stress for breakage of single drops in sheared Newtonian fluids at comparable viscosity ratio, which evidences for facilitated drop subdivision in concentrated emulsions. To explain the measured low values of the critical stress, a different type of capillary instability of the breaking bubbles and drops in concentrated foams and emulsions is proposed and discussed.

Golemanov, K.; Tcholakova, S.; Denkov, N. D.; Ananthapadmanabhan, K. P.; Lips, A.

2008-11-01

280

Emulsion droplet formation in coflowing liquid streams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate emulsion droplet formation in coflowing liquid streams based on a computational fluid dynamics simulation using the volume-of-fluid method to track the interface motion with a focus on the dynamics of the dripping and jetting regimes. The simulations reproduce dripping, widening jetting and narrowing jetting simultaneously in a coflowing microchannel in agreement with the experimental observations in this work. The result indicates that the dripping regime, rather than the jetting regime, is a favorable way to producing monodisperse emulsions. We find that, in dripping and widening jetting regimes, the breakup of a drop is induced by higher pressure in the neck which squeezes liquid into the lower-pressure region in subsequent and primary droplets, while the breakup in the narrowing jetting regime is due to slow velocity at the back end of the trough with respect to the leading end of the trough. In addition, the capillary number of the outer fluid and the Weber number of the inner fluid not only determine the drop diameter and generation rate but also the regime of emulsification.

Chen, Yongping; Wu, Liangyu; Zhang, Chengbin

2013-01-01

281

Crude Oil Emulsion Properties and Their Application to Heavy Oil Transportation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crude Oil Emulsion Properties and their Application to Heavy Oil Transportation — Many advances have been made in the field of emulsions in recent years. Emulsion behavior is largely controlled by the properties of the adsorbed layers that stabilize the oil-water surfaces. The knowledge of surface tension alone is not sufficient to understand emulsion properties, and surface rheology plays an

D. Langevin; S. Poteau; I. Hénaut; J. F. Argillier

2004-01-01

282

The Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research and the Compressed Baryonic Matter Experiment  

SciTech Connect

The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment will be one of the major scientific activities at the future Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) in Darmstadt. The goal of the CBM research program is to explore the QCD phase diagram in the region of high baryon densities using high-energy nucleus-nucleus collisions. This includes the study of the equation-of-state of nuclear matter at high densities, and the search for the deconfinement and chiral phase transitions. The CBM detector is designed to measure both bulk observables with large acceptance and rare diagnostic probes such as charmed particles and vector mesons decaying into lepton pairs. The layout and the physics performance of the proposed CBM experimental facility will be discussed.

Senger, P. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany)

2010-08-04

283

New apparatus for liquid-liquid extraction, "emulsion flow" extractor.  

PubMed

A simple and low-cost apparatus for continuous and efficient liquid-liquid extraction, which does not need continual mechanical forces (stirring, shaking, etc.) other than solution sending, has newly been developed. This apparatus, named "emulsion flow" extractor, is composed of a column part where an emulsified state fluid flow (emulsion flow) is generated by spraying micrometer-sized droplets of an aqueous phase into an organic phase and a phase-separating part where the emulsion flow is destabilized by means of a sudden decrease in its vertical liner velocity due to a drastic increase in cross-section area of the emulsion flow passing through. In the present study, the performance of a desktop emulsion flow extractor in the extraction of Yb(III) and U(VI) from aqueous HNO(3) solutions into isooctane containing bis(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) was evaluated. The mixing efficiency of the emulsion flow extractor was found to be comparable with that of a popular liquid-liquid extractor, mixer-settler. Moreover, the emulsion flow extractor proved to have an overwhelming advantage in terms of phase-separating ability. PMID:21321440

Yanase, Nobuyuki; Naganawa, Hirochika; Nagano, Tetsushi; Noro, Junji

2011-01-01

284

Surfactant-Free Switchable Emulsions Using CO2-Responsive Particles.  

PubMed

Surfactant-free emulsions are prepared using bi-wetting particles which occupy the oil-water interface to effectively reduce the oil-water interfacial area. The equilibrium position of the particle at the interface is determined by its wettability. CO2-reponsive chemical functional groups are grafted onto the surface of silica particles. Particles with only CO2-switchable functional groups are capable of stabilizing oil-in-water emulsions. Particles prepared with both CO2-responsive and hydrophobic chemical functional groups on its surface are capable of stabilizing water-in-oil emulsions. Emulsion stability is disturbed when the wettability of the stabilizing particle is altered by introducing CO2 gas to the biphasic mixture, leading to phase separation of emulsions prepared using the functionalized particles. The emulsion stability can be re-established by the removal of CO2 through air sparging. The presence of CO2 imposes positive surface charge to the responsive particles, increasing wettability and, consequently, the ability of the particles to destabilize emulsions. PMID:24679949

Liang, Chen; Liu, Qingxia; Xu, Zhenghe

2014-05-14

285

Texture optimization of water-in-oil emulsions.  

PubMed

The aim of this research is to demonstrate the effect of variations in certain parameters of the oily phase (OP) in water-in-oil (W/O) emulsions on rheological and texture properties of finished products. The formulated emulsions were selected according to an optimal experimental procedure. The applied variations were nature of the OP, its volume fraction, the hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) value, and the surfactant proportion. Results are presented for the followed tests carried out on the emulsions: texture analysis, rheology, and particle size analysis. The oils used in the study were sweet almond oil, liquid paraffin, maize oil, cyclomethicone, dimethicone, and wheat germ oil. The resulting data demonstrate a notable influence of the volume fraction oil on hardness, viscosity, adhesiveness, and cohesiveness of W/O emulsions. Emulsion hardness and viscosity increased as the OP percentage increased; this effect being even more pronounced for the vegetable oils. In contrast, emulsion adhesiveness and cohesiveness decreased as the volume fraction oil increased. The HLB value of the surfactant mixture of the emulsion also influenced hardness, adhesiveness, and elasticity, increasing or decreasing as HLB value did. PMID:15202571

Lemaitre-Aghazarian, V; Piccerelle, P; Reynier, J P; Joachim, J; Phan-Tan-Luu, R; Sergent, M

2004-01-01

286

Seismic properties of a Venezuelan heavy oil in water emulsion  

SciTech Connect

Several procedures for the production of low-viscosity, surfactant-stabilized, easy-transportable dispersions of heavy crude oil in water-briefly, oil in water (or o/w) emulsions - have been recently patented. Some of them propose to form the o/w emulsion in the reservoir, after the injection of a mixture of water and surfactants, increasing significantly the per well daily production. Progression of the o/w emulsion front, through the reservoir to the production wells, can be monitored in seismic planar slices with successive 3D seismic surveys (413 seismic), if enough contrast exists between the seismic velocity value of the o/w emulsion and the one of the oil in place. To facilitate the analysis of the contrast, this study presents high frequency acoustic velocity measurements performed in the laboratory. The experimental setup includes two reflectors and an ultrasonic transducer with double burst train emission. The estimated velocity precision is 0.02%. The measured samples are: a Venezuelan heavy o/w emulsion, a mixture of the same heavy oil and gasoil and a saturated sandstone core containing the o/w emulsion. Additionally, seismic velocities of the actual pore fluids - live oil and five o/w emulsion - and saturated sandstone are calculated using the above laboratory measurements, Wood`s equation, and Gassman`s and Biot`s models.

Maldonado, F.; Liu, Y.; Mavko, G.; Mukerji, T. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

1996-08-01

287

Factors that affect Pickering emulsions stabilized by graphene oxide.  

PubMed

Stable Pickering emulsions were prepared using only graphene oxide (GO) as a stabilizer, and the effects of the type of oil, the sonication time, the GO concentration, the oil/water ratio, and the pH value on the stability, type, and morphology of these emulsions were investigated. In addition, the effects of salt and the extent of GO reduction on emulsion formation and stability were studied and discussed. The average droplet size decreased with sonication time and with GO concentration, and the emulsions tended to achieve good stability at intermediate oil/water ratios and at low pH values. In all solvents, the emulsions were of the oil-in-water type, but interestingly, some water-in-oil-in-water (w/o/w) multiple emulsion droplets were also observed with low GO concentrations, low pH values, high oil/water ratios, high salt concentrations, or moderately reduced GO in the benzyl chloride-water system. A Pickering emulsion stabilized by Ag/GO was also prepared, and its catalytic performance for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol was investigated. This research paves the way for the fabrication of graphene-based functional materials with novel nanostructures and microstructures. PMID:23647467

He, Yongqiang; Wu, Fei; Sun, Xiying; Li, Ruqiang; Guo, Yongqin; Li, Chuanbao; Zhang, Lu; Xing, Fubao; Wang, Wei; Gao, Jianping

2013-06-12

288

Release rate profiles of theophylline and insulin from stable multiple w\\/o\\/w emulsions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stable multiple w\\/o\\/w emulsions have been prepared using various Pluronic F127:PAA complexes in the internal aqueous phases of these emulsions. Theophylline and 125I-insulin were incorporated into the internal aqueous phases of these stable multiple emulsions and their release rates studied.The release rates of theophylline from these emulsions were found to be related to the droplet sizes of the emulsions which

Mohammed Leadi Cole; Tony L. Whateley

1997-01-01

289

Temperature dependence of emulsion morphologies and the dispersion morphology diagram. 2. Three-phase emulsions  

SciTech Connect

Using several different compositions of the (pseudo)ternary amphiphile/oil/`water` system C{sub 6}H{sub 13}(OC{sub 2}H{sub 4}){sub 2}-OH/n-tetradecane/aqueous 10 mM NaCl, we show by means of electrical conductivity measurements that the temperature dependencies of the emulsion morphologies were consistent with predictions from isothermal dispersion morphology diagrams, thus contradicting phase inversion temperature ideas. 26 refs., 8 figs.

Smith, D.H.; Johnson, G.K. [Morgantown Energy Technology Center, WV (United States)

1995-07-06

290

Mechanical characterization of diblock copolymer ``armored'' emulsion droplets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There has been an increased interest in block copolymer vesicles due to a plethora of possible application ranging from targeted drug delivery to cosmetically active agents. In this regard, understanding the physics of the block copolymer vesicle and its morphology is critical to the rational development of these technologies. As a step towards more complex vesicle structures, we describe experiments in which we carefully examine the interface and morphology of polystyrene-b-polyethyleneoxide (PS-PEO) emulsion drops. In our study, PS-PEO acts as a surfactant and at the toluene-water interface creates a monolayer, inhibiting drop recombination and minimizing interfacial energies. Our experiments are conducted in a water cell where the buoyant force is exploited to push drops against a thin sheet of mica. The shape of the drops is measured using an upright confocal microscope and compared with a Bashforth-Adams model in order to examine the mechanical response to the buoyant force. We observe unique dynamics as the drops buckle at short timescales trapping a small pocket of fluid which slowly drains away. Furthermore, the influence of polymer concentration, changes in pH and block copolymer architecture on the morphology and dynamics of the droplets is examined.

Rozairo, Damith P.; Croll, Andrew B.

2013-03-01

291

Heavy-oil-emulsion pipeline tests meet targets  

SciTech Connect

Field trials with the Transoil emulsion technology to produce bitumen-in-water emulsions for pipeline transportation met all objectives set by the Transoil group for parameters of time, flow, and emulsion quality. The Transoil group consists of BP Canada Inc., AEC Pipelines (division of Alberta Energy Co. Ltd.), and BP Canadian Holdings Ltd. Presented here are the details of the field trials conducted at the BP Canada-operated Wolf Lake project, 55 km north of Bonnyville, Alta., during the summer and fall 1987 and winter 1988.

Hardy, W.A.; Sit, S.P.; Stockwell, A.

1989-03-06

292

Superhydrophobic cellulose-based bionanocomposite films from Pickering emulsions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inherently superhydrophobic and flexible cellulose-based bionanocomposites were fabricated from solid stabilized (Pickering) emulsions. Emulsions were formed by dispersing cyclosiloxanes in water stabilized by layered silicate particles and were subsequently modified by blending into a zinc oxide nanofluid. The polymer matrix was a blend of cellulose nitrate and fluoroacrylic polymer (Zonyl 8740) precompatibilized in solution. Coatings were spray cast onto aluminum substrates from polymer blends dispersed in modified Pickering emulsions. No postsurface treatment was required to induce superhydrophobicity. Effect of antiseptic additives on bionanocomposite superhydrophobicity is also discussed. Replacing cellulose nitrate with commercial liquid bandage solutions produced identical superhydrophobic coatings.

Bayer, Ilker S.; Steele, Adam; Martorana, Philip J.; Loth, Eric; Miller, Lance

2009-04-01

293

A theoretical model for transdermal drug delivery from emulsions and its dependence upon formulation.  

PubMed

This article presents a theoretical model of transdermal drug delivery from an emulsion-type vehicle that addresses the vehicle heterogeneity and incorporates the prediction of drug transport parameters as function of the vehicle composition. The basic mass transfer model considers interfacial and diffusion resistances within the emulsion and partition/diffusion phenomena across two skin compartments in series. Drug transport parameters are predicted as follows: partition coefficients are derived from regular solutions theory, drug diffusivity in the continuous phase is computed from a free volume theory with segmental motion, and permeability of the surfactant layer around droplets is estimated based on a free surface area model. These relationships are incorporated within the basic mass transfer model, so that the overall model is able to predict temporal profiles of drug release from the vehicle and of drug concentration in plasma, as a function of vehicle composition. In this way, the proposed model provides a sound physicochemical basis to support the development of new formulations and the planning of experiments. A simulated case study regarding a nitroglycerin ointment is presented in detail, illustrating how thermodynamic and kinetic factors inherent to the emulsion vehicle can modulate drug release and subsequent systemic absorption. PMID:18186500

Bernardo, Fernando P; Saraiva, Pedro M

2008-09-01

294

Further progress for a fast scanning of nuclear emulsions with Large Angle Scanning System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The LASSO (Large Angle Scanning System for OPERA) is a scanning system designed in the framework of the OPERA experiment as a result of several R&Ds aimed to improve the performance of the European Scanning System (ESS) by increasing the scanning speed, the angular acceptance and the efficiency in microtrack reconstruction. The novel Continuous Motion (CM) scanning approach allows to double the ESS nominal speed without any changes in the hardware set-up. The LASSO modular design makes the system easily adaptable to new hardware. The novel microtrack reconstruction algorithm has been developed to be efficient in both standard Stop&Go (SG) and CM modes, performing a number of corrections during the processing like corrections for vibrations, optical distortions, field of view curvature. As an intermediate step it reconstructs silver grains positions inside emulsion layer to make a transition from 2D images to real 3D traces of a charged particle. This allows the algorithm to have no internal limits on the slope of microtracks being equally efficient on all angles. The LASSO has been used for about one year for mass production scanning of emulsion films of OPERA, Muon Radiography and also of films employed to study nuclear fragmentation of ion beams used in medical physics. More than 50000 cm2 of the emulsion surface have been analyzed during this period.

Alexandrov, A.; Tioukov, V.; Vladymyrov, M.

2014-02-01

295

New insights on the mechanisms of drug release from highly concentrated emulsions.  

PubMed

High kinetic stability water-in-oil high internal phase ratio emulsions (W/O-HIPREs) have been obtained in a 0.5% Theophylline (TP) aqueous solution/Cremophor WO7/liquid paraffin system at 25 °C. The release of TP has been studied from HIPREs with pH values of the dispersed phase ranging between 2 and 12. Although the release from aqueous solutions was not influenced by pH, the release from HIPREs depended strongly on the pH of the dispersed phase. Increasing the solubility of TP in the dispersed phase, its apparent diffusion coefficient decreased over two orders of magnitude. Two different physico-chemical models have been applied to describe the diffusion of TP, showing an excellent agreement with experiments and confirming the role of the structure of the emulsions and the solubility of the drug. It has been shown that only non-ionized species are able to cross the interfacial film. Therefore, at pH>pKa diffusion is limited by the concentration of non-ionized species inside the emulsion droplets, while at pH

Llinàs, Meritxell; Calderó, Gabriela; García-Celma, M José; Patti, Alessandro; Solans, Conxita

2013-03-15

296

Nuclear Emulsion Film Detectors for Proton Radiography:. Design and Test of the First Prototype  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Proton therapy is nowadays becoming a wide spread clinical practice in cancer therapy and sophisticated treatment planning systems are routinely used to exploit at best the ballistic properties of charged particles. The information on the quality of the beams and the range of the protons is a key issue for the optimization of the treatment. For this purpose, proton radiography can be used in proton therapy to obtain direct information on the range of the protons, on the average density of the tissues for treatment planning optimization and to perform imaging with negligible dose to the patient. We propose an innovative method based on nuclear emulsion film detectors for proton radiography, a technique in which images are obtained by measuring the position and the residual range of protons passing through the patient's body. Nuclear emulsion films interleaved with tissue equivalent absorbers can be fruitfully used to reconstruct proton tracks with very high precision. The first prototype of a nuclear emulsion based detector has been conceived, constructed and tested with a therapeutic proton beam at PSI. The scanning of the emulsions has been performed at LHEP in Bern, where a fully automated microscopic scanning technology has been developed for the OPERA experiment on neutrino oscillations. After track reconstruction, the first promising experimental results have been obtained by imaging a simple phantom made of PMMA with a step of 1 cm. A second phantom with five 5 × 5 mm2 section aluminum rods located at different distances and embedded in a PMMA structure has been also imaged. Further investigations are in progress to improve the resolution and to image more sophisticated phantoms.

Braccini, S.; Ereditato, A.; Kreslo, I.; Moser, U.; Pistillo, C.; Studer, S.; Scampoli, P.

2010-04-01

297

Biofilm Formation in Microscopic Double Emulsion Droplets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In natural, medical, and industrial settings, there exist surface-associated communities of bacteria known as biofilms. These highly structured films are composed of bacterial cells embedded within self-produced extracellular matrix, usually composed of exopolysaccharides, proteins, and nucleic acids; this matrix serves to protect the bacterial community from antibiotics and environmental stressors. Here, we form biofilms encapsulated within monodisperse, microscopically-sized double emulsion droplets using microfluidics. The bacteria self-organize at the inner liquid-liquid droplet interfaces, multiply, and differentiate into extracellular matrix-producing cells, forming manifold three-dimensional shell-within-a-shell structures of biofilms, templated upon the inner core of spherical liquid droplets. By using microfluidics to encapsulate bacterial cells, we have the ability to view individual cells multiplying in microscopically-sized droplets, which allows for high-throughput analysis in studying the genetic program leading to biofilm development, or cell signaling that induces differentiation.

Chang, Connie; Weitz, David

2012-02-01

298

Cationic acrylamide emulsion polymer brine thickeners  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a thickened, solids free, aqueous drilling and servicing brine having a density of at least 14.4 ppg. comprising (a) an aqueous solution of at least one water-soluble salt of a multivalent metal, and (b) a cationic water-in-oil emulsion polymer of acrylamide or methacrylamide and a cationic monomer selected from the group consisting of a dialkylaminoalkyl acrylamide or methacrylamide, a trialkylaminoalkyl acrylamide or methacrylamide, a trialkylaminoalkyl acrylate or methacrylate, and a dialkyldialkyl ammonium halide. The acrylamide or methacrylamide to cationic monomer molar ratio of the polymer is about 70:30 to 95:5, the polymer having an I.V. in 1.0N KCl of about 1.0 to 7.0 dl/g and being present in a compatible and viscosifying amount; the thickened brine characterized by being substantially non-dilatent.

Gleason, P.A.; Piccoline, M.A.

1986-12-02

299

Electrophoretic manipulation of multiple-emulsion droplets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrophoretic manipulation of multiple-emulsion oil-in-water-in-oil (O/W)/O and water-in-oil-in-water-in-oil (W/O/W)/O core-shell droplets is shown. It was found that the electrophoretic mobility of the droplets is determined solely by the outer water shell, regardless of size or composition of the inner droplets. It was observed that the surface charge of the outer water shell can be changed and the polarity can be reversed through contact with a biased electrode in a similar way as with simple W/O droplets. Furthermore, addition of the anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate to the outer water shell reverses the initial polarity and hence, electrophoretic mobility of the core-shell droplets before contact with an electrode. The results have practical implications for the manipulation of oil droplets in a continuous oil phase.

Schoeler, Andreas M.; Josephides, Dimitris N.; Chaurasia, Ankur S.; Sajjadi, Shahriar; Mesquida, Patrick

2014-02-01

300

Stability of cellulose lyotropic liquid crystal emulsions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We studied a new kind of W/O emulsions based on a lyotropic liquid crystal as the aqueous droplet phase. The cholesteric phase, a solution hydroxypropyl cellulose in water was dispersed in the continuous oil matrix, paraffin oil or heptane. We made a specific choice of surfactant in order to impose director anchoring conditions at the oil-water interface and orient the liquid crystal inside the droplet. The strong anchoring conditions resulted in a topological defect inside the droplets of size above the critical value R^*. The defect elastic energy creates a barrier against droplet coalescence, the effect of topological size selection. We have studied the orientation of the director inside the droplets and their size distribution.

Tixier, T.; Heppenstall-Butler, M.; Terentjev, E. M.

2005-12-01

301

The FASES instrument development and experiment preparation for the ISS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The FASES experiments target the investigation of the stability of emulsions. The main objec-tives are the study of the surfactant adsorption at the liquid \\/ liquid interfaces, the interaction of the droplets as well as the behaviour of the liquid film between nearby drops. Particular focus is given to the dynamic droplet evolution during emulsion destabilisation. The results of the

Gerold Picker; Klaus Gollinger; Ralf Greger; Jan Dettmann; Josef Winter; Thierry Dewandre; Luigi Castiglione; Sebastien Vincent-Bonnieu; Libero Liggieri; Daniele Clausse; Mickael Antoni

2010-01-01

302

On mini-cluster observed by Chacaltaya emulsion chamber experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bundles of electromagnetic showers with very small tranverse momenta (approx. 10 MeV) accompanied by decay products of Chiron-type fireballs, have been observed. These bundles are called Miniclusters. This phenomenon supports the picture of fireballs made up of hadronic matter and based on the theory of the finite degree of freedom.

Tati, T.

1985-08-01

303

Active Emulsions: Synchronization of Chemical Oscillators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We explore the dynamical behavior of emulsions consisting of nanoliter volume droplets of the oscillatory Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) reaction separated by a continuous oil phase. Some of the aqueous BZ reactants partition into the oil leading to chemical coupling of the drops. We use microfluidics to vary the size, composition and topology of the drops in 1D and 2D. Addition of a light sensitive catalyst to the drops and illumination with a computer projector allows each drop to be individually perturbed. A variety of synchronous regimes are found that systematically vary with the coupling strength and whether coupling is dominated by activatory or inhibitory species. In 1D we observe in- and anti-phase oscillations, stationary Turing patterns in which drops stop oscillating, but form spatially periodic patterns of drops in the oxidized and reduced states, and more complex combinations of stationary and oscillatory drops. In 2D, the attractors are more complex and vary with network topology and coupling strength. For hexagonal lattices as a function of increasing coupling strength we observe right and left handed rotating oscillations, mixed oscillatory and Turing states and finally full Turing states. Reaction -- diffusion models based on a simplified description of the BZ chemistry and diffusion of messenger species reproduce a number of the experimental results. For a range of parameters, a simplified phase oscillator model provides an intuitive understanding of the complex synchronization patterns. [4pt] ``Coupled oscillations in a 1D emulsion of Belousov--Zhabotinsky droplets,'' Jorge Delgado, Ning Li, Marcin Leda, Hector O. Gonzalez-Ochoa, Seth Fraden and Irving R. Epstein, Soft Matter, 7, 3155 (2011).

Fraden, Seth

2012-02-01

304

Preparation and Characterization of Organic Nano-Titanium Dioxide\\/Acrylate Composite Emulsions by in-situ Emulsion Polymerization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic nano-titanium dioxides (TiO2) were prepared with tetrabutyl titanate as precursor, hydrochloric acid as catalyst and ?-methacryloxpropyltrimethoxysilane (KH-570) as modifier, and the organic nano-TiO2\\/acrylate composite emulsions were synthesized by in-situ emulsion polymerization. The structure and properties of organic nano-TiO2 and organic nano-TiO2\\/acrylate composite emulsions were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), dynamic light scattering (DLS), thermogravimetry

Chaoxian Ye; Hongqiang Li; Aman Cai; Qiongzhi Gao; XINGRONG ZENG

2011-01-01

305

Current status of the CHORUS experiment at CERN  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current status of the CHORUS experiment at CERN is presented with an emphasis on technical aspects. This experiment is aimed to search for ??-->?? oscillation with a designed sensitivity of sin2(2?)~2×10-4 at large ?m2. Accumulation of neutrino interactions in the emulsion target with a data taking of electronic counters were performed from 1994 to 1997 at the CERN neutrino beam. Reading out track informations recorded in the emulsion target is then started using the Track Selector (a dedicated system which automatically reads out tracks recorded in emulsion). Successful development of the Track Selector enabled this experiment and opened a possibility for future experiments. .

CHORUS Collaboration

2000-10-01

306

Double emulsion templated monodisperse phospholipid liposomes incorporating Doxorubicin hydrochloride  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a novel approach for fabricating monodisperse phospholipid liposomes incorporating water soluble anticancer drug Doxorubicin hydrochloride using controlled w/o/w double emulsions as templates. Glass-capillary microfluidics is used to generate monodisperse w/o/w double emulsion templates and double emulsion droplet size is from 20 to 100 um according to different flow rates. We show that the high uniformity in size and shape of the templates are maintained in the final phospholipid liposomes after a solvent removal step by Nikon eclipse microscopy. The lipid bilayers encapsulating anticancer drug inside is retained after the emulsion drops are converted to vesicles. The liposomes vesicles are promising water soluble anticancer drug delivery vehicles.

Hai, Mingtan; Weitz, David

2012-02-01

307

Rejuvenation of Spent Media via Supported Emulsion Liquid Membranes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The overall goal of this project is to maximize the reuseability of spent fermentation media. Supported emulsion liquid membrane separation, a highly efficient extraction technique, is used to remove inhibitory byproducts during fermentation; thus, improv...

J. M. Wiencek

2002-01-01

308

Feasibility of Surfactant-Free Supported Emulsion Liquid Membrane Extraction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Supported emulsion liquid membrane (SELM) is an effective means to conduct liquid-liquid extraction. SELM extraction is particularly attractive for separation tasks in the microgravity environment where density difference between the solvent and the inter...

S. Y. B. Hu J. Li J. M. Wiencek

2001-01-01

309

Water-in-carbon dioxide emulsions: Formation and stability  

SciTech Connect

Stable water-in-carbon dioxide (W/C) emulsions, for either liquid or supercritical CO{sub 2} containing up to 70 vol % water, are formed with various molecular weight perfluoropolyether ammonium caroxylate surfactants. Water droplet sizes ranging from 3 to 10 {micro}m were determined by optical microscopy. From conductivity measurements, an inversion to C/W emulsions results from a decrease in CO{sub 2} density or salinity at constant pressure, a decrease in surfactant molecular weight, or an increase in temperature. Emulsions become more stable with a change in any of these formulation variables away from the balanced state, which increases interfacial tensions and interfacial tension gradient enhancing Marangoni-Gibbs stabilization. This type of stability is enhanced with an increase in the molecular weight of the surfactant tails, which increases the thickness of the stabilizing films between droplets. W/C emulsions formed with the 7,500 molecular weight surfactant were stable for several days.

Lee, C.T. Jr.; Psathas, P.A.; Johnston, K.P.; Grazia, J. de; Randolph, T.W.

1999-09-28

310

Characterization and Demulsification of Water-in-crude Oil Emulsions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many advances have been made in the field of emulsions in recent years. Emulsion behavior is largely controlled by the properties of the adsorbed layers that stabilized the oil-water surfaces. The effect of chemical demulsifiers in demulsification of water-in-crude oil emulsions were assessed experimentally. The relative rates of water separation were characterized via graduated beakers. Four groups of demulsifier with different functional groups were used in this work namely amines, polyhydric alcohol, sulphonate and polymer. The effect of alcohol addition on demulsification performance also studied. The results obtained in this study have exposed the capability of chemical demulsifiers in destabilization of water-in-crude oil emulsions. Further works are nevertheless required to provide deeper understanding of the mechanisms involved to facilitate the development of an optimum system applicable to the industry.

Nour, Abdurahman H.; Abu Hassan, Mohd A.; Mohd Yunus, Rosli

311

Viscosity-Concentration Equation for Emulsions of Nearly Spherical Droplets.  

PubMed

A new modified form of the equation of N. Phan-Thien and D. C. Pham (J. Non-Newtonian Fluid Mech. 72, 305 (1997)) is proposed to describe the viscosity-concentration behavior of emulsions of nearly spherical droplets. The proposed equation, as well as other existing theoretical equations, is evaluated in light of a large body of experimental data on concentrated emulsions, covering a broad range of dispersed-phase to continuous-phase viscosity ratios (4.15x10(-3) to 1.17x10(3)). In general, the experimental data exhibit large deviations from the existing theoretical equations; for example, the theoretical equation of Phan-Thien and Pham underpredicts the relative viscosity of concentrated emulsions by a large amount. The equation proposed in this work describes the experimental viscosity data of different emulsion systems remarkably well. Copyright 2000 Academic Press. PMID:11082261

Pal

2000-11-01

312

Stability study of W/O/W viscosified multiple emulsions.  

PubMed

Stable multiple emulsions with a small proportion of primary emulsion containing different viscosifying agents in the outer aqueous phase were formulated. The multiple systems were assessed by evaluating several parameters, such as the macroscopic aspect, droplet size, release rate, and accelerated stability under elevated temperatures. The effect of different viscosifying agents at different concentrations on the stability and the multiplicity of the multiple emulsions was examined. The viscosity increased by increasing the concentration of the viscosifying agents. It also appeared that the viscosifying agents increased the temperature stability of the multiple emulsions. As a result, the formulation viscosified with Klucel was more stable, while the one prepared with carbomer viscosified the outer phase at much lower concentrations with much better skin feel. PMID:11068692

Ozer, O; Muguet, V; Roy, E; Grossiord, J L; Seiller, M

2000-11-01

313

Emulsion Polymerization of Butyl Acrylate: Spin Trapping and EPR Study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The propagating radical in the emulsion polymerization reaction of butyl acrylate was detected by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance spectroscopy using two spin trapping agents, 2-methyl-2nitrosopropane and alpha -N-tert-butylnitrone.

Kim, S.; Westmoreland, D.

1994-01-01

314

Chitosan macroporous foams obtained in highly concentrated emulsions as templates.  

PubMed

Emulsion templating is an effective route for the preparation of macroporous polymer foams, with well-defined pore structures. This kind of material is usually obtained by polymerization or crosslinking in the external phase of highly concentrated emulsions. The present article describes the synthesis of macroporous foams based on a cationic polymer, chitosan, crosslinked with genipin, a natural crosslinker. The phase behavior was used to study the influence of chitosan on surfactant self-aggregation. Hexagonal and lamellar liquid crystalline structures could be obtained in the presence of chitosan, and polymer did not greatly influence the geometric lattice parameters of these self-aggregates. O/W highly concentrated emulsions were obtained in the presence of chitosan in the continuous phase, which allowed reducing both droplet size and polydispersity. The emulsions were stable during the time required for crosslinking, obtaining macroporous foams with high pore volume and degree of crosslinking. PMID:24011788

Miras, Jonathan; Vílchez, Susana; Solans, Conxita; Esquena, Jordi

2013-11-15

315

Fluorescent-magnetic Janus particles prepared via seed emulsion polymerization.  

PubMed

Anisotropic polymeric colloidal or Janus particles possessing simultaneous magnetic and fluorescent properties were successfully prepared via the swelling-diffusion or the in situ emulsion polymerization method. In the swelling-diffusion process, magnetic emulsions (an organic ferrofluid dispersed in aqueous medium) were synthesized and used for seeds of submicron magnetic Janus particles. After swelling the anisotropic particles obtained by 1-pyrene-carboxaldehyde fluorescent dye dissolved in tetrahydrofuran, well-defined fluorescent-magnetic Janus particles were produced. In the in situ emulsion polymerization, styrene monomer mixed with fluorescent dye monomers, i.e., 1-pyrenylmethyl methacrylate (PyMMA) or fluorescein dimethacrylate (FDMA), and an oil-soluble initiator (2,2'-azobis(2-isobutyronitrile)) were emulsified in the presence of magnetic seed emulsions. The confocal microscopic images showed the fluorescent-magnetic Janus particles with high fluorescent intensity when a fluorescent crosslinker monomer FDMA was employed. PMID:24767504

Kaewsaneha, Chariya; Bitar, Ahmad; Tangboriboonrat, Pramuan; Polpanich, Duangporn; Elaissari, Abdelhamid

2014-06-15

316

Liquid surfactant membrane emulsions. A new technique for enzyme immobilization.  

PubMed

Liquid membrane reactors are well known for metal extraction. This technology may also be applied to the immobilization of enzymes in enzyme emulsions. The use of liquid membrane reactors for enzymatic bioconversions has several advantages in comparison to solid membrane reactors and conventional immobilization techniques: there is no membrane fouling, enzyme emulsions can be used in cell-free fermentation broths, in complex mixtures the membrane can preselect the desired substrate for enzymatic reaction, and substances that might decrease the enzyme activity can be excluded. The separation effect is not based on differences in molecular weight but on the chemical behavior of the substances to be separated. Thus, it is not necessary to use cofactors with increased molecular weight for enzymatic reactions, since the coenzyme cannot permeate the liquid membrane. The three systems presented here indicate that enzyme systems can be easily immobilized in liquid surfactant membrane emulsions and there is a broad field of application for enzyme emulsions. PMID:3475010

Scheper, T; Makryaleas, K; Nowottny, C; Likidis, Z; Tsikas, D; Schügerl, K

1987-01-01

317

Electrokinetic properties of n-tetradecane\\/lecithin solution emulsions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Properties of surface of hydrophobic liquid (e.g. n-alkane) in aqueous solutions are very important for stability of dispersed systems, i.e. emulsions and suspensions, as well as in many biochemical processes including living organisms. Application of natural stabilizers it is a key aspect of wide-ranging investigations of emulsion. One of such systems is oil\\/lecithin solution. The adsorbed lecithin layer at the

Agnieszka Ewa Wi?cek

2007-01-01

318

Studies on emulsion liquid membrane extraction of cephalexin  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental study on batch extraction of cephalexin using an emulsion liquid membrane system has been reported. The effects of surfactant, carrier and solute concentrations, phase volume ratio, stirring speed, and counterion concentration on the extraction rate were examined. Surfactant, carrier and diluent used were Span-80, Aliquat-336 and n-heptane–kerosene (1:1), respectively. Under the optimised experimental conditions, emulsion swelling was found

G. C Sahoo; N. N Dutta

1998-01-01

319

Generation of colloidal granules and capsules from double emulsion drops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Assemblies of colloidal particles are extensively used in ceramic processing, pharmaceuticals, inks and coatings. In this project, the aim was to develop a new technique to fabricate monodispersed colloidal assemblies. The use of microfluidic devices and emulsion processing allows for the fabrication of complex materials that can be used in a variety of applications. A microfluidic device is used to create monodispersed water/oil/water (w/o/w) double emulsions with interior droplets of colloidal silica suspension ranging in size from tens to hundreds of microns. By tailoring the osmotic pressure using glycerol as a solute in the continuous and inner phases of the emulsion, we can control the final volume size of the monodispersed silica colloidal crystals that form in the inner droplets of the double emulsion. Modifying the ionic strength in the colloidal dispersion can be used to affect the particle-particle interactions and crystal formation of the final colloidal particle. This w/o/w technique has been used with other systems of metal oxide colloids and cellulose nanocrystals. Encapsulation of the colloidal suspension in a polymer shell for the generation of ceramic-polymer core-shell particles has also been developed. These core-shell particles have spawned new research in the field of locally resonant acoustic metamaterials. Systems and chemistries for creating cellulose hydrogels within the double emulsions have also been researched. Water in oil single emulsions and double emulsions have been used to create cellulose hydrogel spheres in the sub-100 micron diameter range. Oil/water/oil double emulsions allow us to create stable cellulose capsules. The addition of a second hydrogel polymer, such as acrylate or alginate, further strengthens the cellulose gel network and can also be processed into capsules and particles using the microfluidic device. This work could have promising applications in acoustic metamaterials, personal care products, pharmaceuticals, and agricultural applications, among others.

Hess, Kathryn S.

320

Experimental study of the thermophoretic mobility of a colloidal emulsion  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have studied the thermophoretic migration of a pharmaceutical oil-in-water emulsion flowing in a Hele-Shaw cell, under the effect of a thermal gradient applied perpendicularly to the flow. Under this strong thermal gradient (several thousands =B0c\\/cm), a small volume (20 microlitters) of emulsion, migrates toward one wall; simultaneously, a diffusive flow is created in opposite direction to drops migration, leading

Mauricio Hoyos; Charles van Batten; Samuel Amato; Michel Martin

1997-01-01

321

Rheology of oil in water emulsions with added kaolinite clay  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the rhelogical measurements of oil in water emulsions with added kaolinite clay. The percent oil concentration, solids-free basis, was varied up to 70% by volume. The volume fraction of clay was varied up to 0.2 based on the total volume. The clay\\/emulsion mixtures displayed shear thinning behavior. Yield stress was observed, and its value increased with

Yuhua Yan; Rajinder Pal; Jacob Masliyah

1991-01-01

322

Droplet-based microfluidics and the dynamics of emulsions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emulsions are complex fluids already involved for a long time in a wide-range of industrial processes, such as, for example, food, cosmetics or materials synthesis [1]. More recently, applications of emulsions have been extended to new fields like biotechnology or biochemistry where the compartmentalization of compounds in emulsion droplets is used to parallelise (bio-) chemical reactions [2]. Interestingly, these applications pinpoint to fundamental questions dealing with surfactant dynamics, dynamic surface tension, hydrodynamic interactions and electrohydrodynamics. Droplet-based microfluidics is a very powerful tool to quantitatively study the dynamics of emulsions at the single droplet level or even at the single interface level: well-controlled emulsions are produced and manipulated using hydrodynamics, electrical forces, optical actuation and combination of these effects. We will describe here how droplet-based microfluidics is used to extract quantitative informations on the physical-chemistry of emulsions for a better understanding and control of the dynamics of these systems [3].[4pt] [1] J. Bibette et al. Rep. Prog. Phys., 62, 969-1033 (1999)[0pt] [2] A. Theberge et al., Angewandte Chemie Int. Ed. 49, 5846 (2010)[0pt] [3] J.-C. Baret et al., Langmuir, 25, 6088 (2009)

Baret, Jean-Christophe; Brosseau, Quentin; Semin, Benoit; Qu, Xiaopeng

2012-02-01

323

Timescales of emulsion formation caused by anisotropic particles.  

PubMed

Particle stabilized emulsions have received much interest in the recent past, but our understanding of the dynamics of emulsion formation is still limited. For simple spherical particles, the time dependent growth of fluid domains is dominated by the formation of droplets, particle adsorption and coalescence of droplets (Ostwald ripening), which eventually can be almost fully blocked due to the presence of the particles. Ellipsoidal particles are known to be more efficient stabilizers of fluid interfaces than spherical particles and their anisotropic shape and the related additional rotational degrees of freedom have an impact on the dynamics of emulsion formation. In this paper, we investigate this point by means of simple model systems consisting of a single ellipsoidal particle or a particle ensemble at a flat interface as well as a particle ensemble at a spherical interface. By applying combined multicomponent lattice Boltzmann and molecular dynamics simulations we demonstrate that the anisotropic shape of ellipsoidal particles causes two additional timescales to be of relevance in the dynamics of emulsion formation: a relatively short timescale can be attributed to the adsorption of single particles and the involved rotation of particles towards the interface. As soon as the interface is jammed, however, capillary interactions between the particles cause a local reordering on very long timescales leading to a continuous change in the interface configuration and increase of the interfacial area. This effect can be utilized to counteract the thermodynamic instability of particle stabilized emulsions and thus offers the possibility to produce emulsions with exceptional stability. PMID:24888563

Günther, Florian; Frijters, Stefan; Harting, Jens

2014-07-21

324

Photocurable pickering emulsion for colloidal particles with structural complexity.  

PubMed

We prepared polymeric microparticles with coordinated patches using oil-in-water emulsion droplets which were stabilized by adsorbed colloidal polystyrene (PS) latex particles. The oil phase was photocurable ethoxylated trimethylolpropane triacrylate (ETPTA), and the particle-armored oil droplets were solidified by UV irradiation within a few seconds to produce ETPTA-PS composite microparticles without disturbing the structures. Large armored emulsion drops became raspberry-like particles, while small emulsion drops with a few anchored particles were transformed into colloidal clusters with well-coordinated patches. For high-molecular-weight PS particles with low chemical affinity to the ETPTA monomer, the morphology of the patchy particle was determined by the volume of the emulsion drop and the contact angle of the emulsion interface on the PS particle surface. Meanwhile, for low-molecular-weight PS particles with high affinity, the ETPTA monomers were likely to swell the adsorbed PS particles, and distinctive morphologies were induced during the shrinkage of emulsion drops and the phase separation of ETPTA from the swollen PS particles. In addition, colloidal particles with large open windows were produced by dissolving the PS particles from the patchy particles. We observed photoluminescent emission from the patchy particles in which dye molecules were dispersed in the ETPTA phase. Finally, we used Surface Evolver simulation to predict equilibrium structures of patchy particles and estimate surface energies which are essential to understand the underlying physics. PMID:18237213

Kim, Shin-Hyun; Yi, Gi-Ra; Kim, Kyu Han; Yang, Seung-Man

2008-03-18

325

Paclitaxel-loaded composite fibers: microstructure and emulsion stability.  

PubMed

New core/shell fiber structures loaded with paclitaxel were developed and studied. These composite fibers are ideal for forming thin, delicate, biomedically important structures for various applications. Possible applications include fiber-based endovascular stents that mechanically support blood vessels while delivering drugs for preventing restenosis directly to the blood vessel wall, or drug delivery systems for cancer treatment. The core/shell fiber structures were formed by "coating" nylon fibers with porous paclitaxel-containing poly(DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid) structures. Shell preparation ("coating") was performed by freeze-drying water in oil emulsions. The present study focused on the effects of the emulsion's formulation (composition) and processing conditions on the porous shell structure, which actually reflects the emulsion's stability and also the drug release profile from the fibers. In general, extremely porous "shell" structures were obtained with good adhesion to the core fiber. An increase in the emulsion's drug content and copolymer composition demonstrated a significant effect on pore size and distribution, because of enhanced emulsion instability, whereas the homogenization rate and duration had only a slight effect on the pores' microstructure. The thermodynamic parameters in the studied system are thus more important than the kinetic parameters in determining the emulsion's stability and the shell's porous structure. PMID:17117472

Kraitzer, Amir; Zilberman, Meital

2007-05-01

326

Development of Large Area Emulsion Chamber Methods with a Super Conducting Magnet for Observation of Cosmic Ray Nuclei from 1 GeV to 1,000 TeV (Emulsion Techniques)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The research developed the fundamental techniques of the emulsion chamber methods that permit measurements of the composition and energy spectra of cosmic rays at energies ranging from 1 GeV/n to over 1,000 TeV/n. The research program consisted of exploring new principles and techniques in measuring very high energy cosmic nuclei with large-area emulsion chambers for high statistics experiments. These tasks have been accomplished and their use was essential in successful analysis of the balloon-borne emulsion chamber experiments up to 10(exp 14) eV. It also provided the fundamental technologies for designing large-area detectors that are aimed at measuring the composition at above 1015 eV region. The latter is now partially succeeded by a NASA Mission Concept, Advanced Cosmic Composition Experiments on the Space Station (ACCESS). The cosmic ray group at the University of Alabama in Huntsville has performed technological R & D as well as contributing to the Japanese-American-Emulsion-Chamber-Experiments (JACEE) Collaboration with the regular data analysis. While primary research support for other institutions' efforts in the JACEE experiments came from NSF and DOE, primary support for the University of Alabama in Huntsville was this contract. Supplemental tasks to standardize the data base and hardware upgrades (automatized microscope) had this institutions cooperation. Investigation of new techniques in this program consisted of development of a fast calorimetry, magnetic/scattering selection of high momentum tracks for a pairmeter, and high statistics momentum measurements for low energy nuclei (E < 1 TeV/n). The highest energy calorimetry and a pairmeter have been considered as strawman instruments by the GOAL (Galactic Origin and Acceleration Limit) proposal of the NASA Cosmic Ray Working Group for long- duration balloon flights. We accomplished the objectives of the GOAL program with three circumpolar, Antarctic JACEE balloon flights during 1992 - 1994.

Takahashi, Yoshiyuki; Gregory, John C.; Tominaga, Taka; Dong, Bei Lei

1997-01-01

327

Emulsion templated open porous membranes for protein purification.  

PubMed

Approximately 25 cm×25 cm large sheets of crosslinked highly porous poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate-co-ethylhexyl methacrylate) membranes with an average thicknesses between 285 and 565 ?m were prepared by casting a high internal phase emulsion (HIPE) containing monomers onto glass substrates and subsequent polymerisation. Open cellular porous polyHIPE type membranes were obtained with large pores (cavity) sizes between 3 and 10 ?m while interconnecting pores were between 1 and 3 ?m. The percentage of ethylhexyl acrylate and ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate influenced the flexibility and morphology of the resulting membranes. Porous membranes were chemically modified with diethylamine to yield functionalised supports for ion exchange chromatography. Cylindrical housings were used for positioning of the membranes and allowing flow of the mobile phase. Pulse experiments were used to study the flow characteristics and a homogeneous flow through the entire area of the membrane was found. Bovine serum albumin was purified by a 8 ml column containing functional membrane in modular shape; dynamic binding capacity was measured to be as high as 45 mg/ml. PMID:21168141

Pulko, Irena; Smrekar, Vida; Podgornik, Aleš; Krajnc, Peter

2011-04-29

328

Superparamagnetic polymer emulsion particles from a soap-free seeded emulsion polymerization and their application for lipase immobilization.  

PubMed

Using emulsion copolymer of styrene (St), glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) as seed latexes, the superparamagnetic polymer emulsion particles were prepared by seeded emulsion copolymerization of butyl methacrylate (BMA), vinyl acetate (VAc) and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate in the presence of the seed latexes and superparamagnetic Fe3O4/SiOx nanoparticles (or Fe3O4-APTS nanoparticles) through a two-step process, without addition of any emulsifier. The magnetic emulsion particles named P(St-GMA-HEMA)/P(BMA-VAc) were characterized by transmission electron microscope and vibrating sample magnetometry. The results showed that the magnetic emulsion particles held a structure with a thinner shell (around 100 nm) and a bigger cavity (around 200 nm), and possessed a certain level of magnetic response. The resulting magnetic emulsion particles were employed in the immobilization of lipase by two strategies to immobilized lipase onto the resulting magnetic composites directly (S-1) or using glutaraldehyde as a coupling agent (S-2), thus, experimental data showed that the thermal stability and reusability of immobilized lipase based on S-2 were higher than that of S-1. PMID:24114322

Cui, Yanjun; Chen, Xia; Li, Yanfeng; Liu, Xiao; Lei, Lin; Zhang, Yakui; Qian, Jiayu

2014-01-01

329

40 CFR 63.500 - Back-end process provisions-carbon disulfide limitations for styrene butadiene rubber by emulsion...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...limitations for styrene butadiene rubber by emulsion processes. 63.500 Section 63...limitations for styrene butadiene rubber by emulsion processes. (a) Owners or operators...producing styrene butadiene rubber using an emulsion process shall operate the process...

2010-07-01

330

40 CFR 63.500 - Back-end process provisions-carbon disulfide limitations for styrene butadiene rubber by emulsion...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...limitations for styrene butadiene rubber by emulsion processes. 63.500 Section 63...limitations for styrene butadiene rubber by emulsion processes. (a) Owners or operators...producing styrene butadiene rubber using an emulsion process shall operate the process...

2009-07-01

331

Are Water-in-Oil-Emulsions Suitable Model Systems for Cloud Glaciation?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The technique of studying aqueous solutions emulsified in oil matrices is widely used in the scientific community as a model system for aqueous droplets in the atmosphere, e.g., in the context of ice nucleation and cloud glaciation. These studies are based on the assumption that the interaction between aqueous and oil phase is negligible. In this study we critically test the validity of this assumption by systematically varying the parameters of the emulsification procedure for the study of the freezing behaviour of dilute and concentrated solutions of organic acids, e.g., citric acid, and inorganic salts, e.g., ammonium sulphate. In particular we vary the type of oil, the type of surfactant, the water to oil ratio, the mixing time and the temperature, at which the emulsion is prepared. These emulsions are studied in the context of cloud glaciation by cooling to < 150 K and reheating to ambient temperature. We specifically check for the droplets sizes and distribution as well as imperfectly emulsified regions from optical microscopy observations, first and second freezing events, cold-crystallization upon heating, melting events and possible glass-transitions from differential scanning calorimetry experiments as well as for the phase mixtures and types of ice (cubic vs. hexagonal) formed by powder X-ray diffraction as a function of temperature. The results clearly show that not all emulsions behave alike in these experiments and that it is important to be aware about the possibility of the oil matrix interfering with the experiment, e.g., for oils that vitrify at atmospherically relevant temperatures.

Handle, Karl; Loerting, Thomas; Bogdan, Anatoli; Weiss, Fabian; Pummer, Bernhard; Grothe, Hinrich

2013-04-01

332

Linear and nonlinear rheology of dense emulsions across the glass and the jamming regimes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss the linear and nonlinear rheology of concentrated microscale emulsions, amorphous disordered solids composed of repulsive and deformable soft colloidal spheres. Based on recent results from simulation and theory, we derive quantitative predictions for the dependences of the elastic shear modulus and the yield stress on the droplet volume fraction. The remarkable agreement with experiments we observe supports the scenario that the repulsive glass and the jammed state can be clearly identified in the rheology of soft spheres at finite temperature while crossing continuously from a liquid to a highly compressed yet disordered solid.

Scheffold, F.; Cardinaux, F.; Mason, T. G.

2013-12-01

333

Combustion of drops and sprays of No. 2 diesel oil and its emulsions with water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental results on the combustion of unsupported single drops and pressure-atomized sprays of No. 2D oil and its emulsions with water are presented. The experiments covered the following range of variables: volume fraction of water 0-0.3; surfactant concentration 0-0.05; injection temperature 298-380°K; chamber temperature 400-950°K; chamber pressure 0.44 to 3.92 MPa; chamber inlet oxygen concentration 0.16-0.75; and spray injector nozzles

S. R. Gollahalli; M. L. Rasmussen; S. J. Moussavi

1981-01-01

334

Development of novel zein-sodium caseinate nanoparticle (ZP)-stabilized emulsion films for improved water barrier properties via emulsion/solvent evaporation.  

PubMed

This work attempted to develop novel high barrier zein/SC nanoparticle (ZP)-stabilized emulsion films through microfluidic emulsification (ZPE films) or in combination with solvent (ethyl acetate) evaporation techniques (ZPE-EA films). Some physical properties, including tensile and optical properties, water vapor permeability (WVP), and surface hydrophobicity, as well as the microstructure of ZP-stabilized emulsion films were evaluated and compared with SC emulsion (SCE) films. The emulsion/solvent evaporation approach reduced lipid droplets of ZP-stabilized emulsions, and lipid droplets of ZP-stabilized emulsions were similar to or slightly lower than that of SC emulsions. However, ZP- and SC-stabilized emulsion films exhibited a completely different microstructure, nanoscalar lipid droplets were homogeneously distributed in the ZPE film matrix and interpenetrating protein-oil complex networks occurred within ZPE-EA films, whereas SCE films presented a heterogeneous microstructure. The different stabilization mechanisms against creaming or coalescence during film formation accounted for the preceding discrepancy of the microstructures between ZP-and SC-stabilized emulsion films. Interestingly, ZP-stabilized emulsion films exhibited a better water barrier efficiency, and the WVP values were only 40-50% of SCE films. A schematic representation for the formation of ZP-stabilized emulsion films was proposed to relate the physical performance of the films with their microstructure and to elucidate the possible forming mechanism of the films. PMID:24175664

Wang, Li-Juan; Yin, Ye-Chong; Yin, Shou-Wei; Yang, Xiao-Quan; Shi, Wei-Jian; Tang, Chuan-He; Wang, Jin-Mei

2013-11-20

335

Phytosterol colloidal particles as pickering stabilizers for emulsions.  

PubMed

Water-insoluble phytosterols were developed into a kind of colloidal particle as Pickering stabilizers for emulsions by a classic anti-solvent method using 100% ethanol as the organic phase to solubilize the phytosterols and whey protein concentrate (WPC) as the emulsifier. The colloidal particles in the dispersion, with morphology of stacked platelet-like sheets, had a mean diameter of 44.7 and 24.7 ?m for the volume- and surface-averaged sizes, respectively. The properties and stability of the emulsions stabilized by these colloidal particles were highly dependent upon the applied total solid concentration (c; in the dispersion) and oil fraction (ø). The results indicated that (1) at a low c value (<1.0%, w/v) the emulsions were susceptible to phase separation, even at a low ø of 0.2, (2) at low ø values (e.g., 0.2 or 0.3) and a relatively high c value (1.0%, w/v, or above), a severe droplet flocculation occurred for the emulsions, and (3) when both c and ø were appropriately high, a kind of self-supporting gel-like emulsions could be formed. More interestingly, a phase inversion of the emulsions from the oil-in-water to water-in-oil type was observed, upon the ø increasing from 0.2 to 0.6 (especially at high c values, e.g., 3.0%, w/v). The elaborated Pickering emulsions stabilized by the phytosterol colloidal particles with a gel-like behavior would provide a candidate to act as a novel delivery system for active ingredients. PMID:24848560

Liu, Fu; Tang, Chuan-He

2014-06-01

336

Lipid transfer in oil-in-water isasome emulsions: influence of arrested dynamics of the emulsion droplets entrapped in a hydrogel.  

PubMed

The transfer kinetics of lipids between internally self-assembled droplets of O/W emulsions is studied. The droplets (isasomes) consist of various liquid-crystalline phases or W/O microemulsions stabilized by a polymeric stabilizer F127. The various internal phases were identified by the relative peak positions in the small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) curves. An arrested system composed of isasomes embedded in a gel matrix actually provides an additional possibility to control these systems in terms of the release of various host molecules. These experiments have been applied to examine the kinetics of the internal phase reorganization imposed by the lipids' release and uptake by the droplets embedded in a ?-carrageenan (KC) hydrogel network. Increasing the concentration of the gelling agent slows down the transfer from one droplet to the other through the aqueous phase. We examined the region where the free diffusion is stopped. i.e., the point where the system changes from the ergodic to the nonergodic state and the kinetics is essentially slowed down. This effect can be balanced by the addition of small amounts of free polymeric stabilizer, which speeds up the kinetics. This is even possible in the case of highly arrested dynamics of the emulsion droplets, as found for the highest KC hydrogel concentrations forming nonergodic systems. PMID:24274164

Iglesias, Guillermo Ramón; Pirolt, Franz; Sadeghpour, Amin; Tomši?, Matija; Glatter, Otto

2013-12-17

337

Development and Evaluation of Emulsions from Carapa guianensis (Andiroba) Oil  

PubMed Central

Carapa guianensis, a popular medicinal plant known as “Andiroba” in Brazil, has been used in traditional medicine as an insect repellent and anti-inflammatory product. Additionally, this seed oil has been reported in the literature as a repellent against Aedes aegypti. The aim of this work is to report on the emulsification of vegetable oils such as “Andiroba” oil by using a blend of nonionic surfactants (Span 80® and Tween 20®), using the critical hydrophilic–lipophilic balance (HLB) and pseudo-ternary diagram as tools to evaluate the system’s stability. The emulsions were prepared by the inverse phase method. Several formulations were made according to a HLB spreadsheet design (from 4.3 to 16.7), and the products were stored at 25°C and 4°C. The emulsion stabilities were tested both long- and short-term, and the more stable one was used for the pseudo-ternary diagram study. The emulsions were successfully obtained by a couple of surfactants, and the HLB analysis showed that the required HLB of the oil was 16.7. To conclude, the pseudo-ternary diagram identified several characteristic regions such as emulsion, micro-emulsion, and separation of phases.

Ferreira, Magda R. A.; Santiago, Rosilene R.; de Souza, Tatiane P.; Egito, Eryvaldo S. T.; Oliveira, Elquio E.

2010-01-01

338

Injectable Lipid Emulsions--Advancements, Opportunities and Challenges  

PubMed Central

Injectable lipid emulsions, for decades, have been clinically used as an energy source for hospitalized patients by providing essential fatty acids and vitamins. Recent interest in utilizing lipid emulsions for delivering lipid soluble therapeutic agents, intravenously, has been continuously growing due to the biocompatible nature of the lipid-based delivery systems. Advancements in the area of novel lipids (olive oil and fish oil) have opened a new area for future clinical application of lipid-based injectable delivery systems that may provide a better safety profile over traditionally used long- and medium-chain triglycerides to critically ill patients. Formulation components and process parameters play critical role in the success of lipid injectable emulsions as drug delivery vehicles and hence need to be well integrated in the formulation development strategies. Physico-chemical properties of active therapeutic agents significantly impact pharmacokinetics and tissue disposition following intravenous administration of drug-containing lipid emulsion and hence need special attention while selecting such delivery vehicles. In summary, this review provides a broad overview of recent advancements in the field of novel lipids, opportunities for intravenous drug delivery, and challenges associated with injectable lipid emulsions.

Hippalgaonkar, Ketan; Majumdar, Soumyajit

2010-01-01

339

Treatment methods for breaking certain oil and water emulsions  

DOEpatents

Disclosed are treatment methods for breaking emulsions of petroleum oil and salt water, fatty oil and water, and those resulting from liquefication of organic material. The emulsions are broken by heating to a predetermined temperature at or above about 200.degree. C. and pressurizing to a predetermined pressure above the vapor pressure of water at the predetermined temperature to produce a heated and pressurized fluid. The heated and pressurized fluid is contained in a single vessel at the predetermined temperature and pressure for a predetermined period of time to effectively separate the emulsion into substantially distinct first and second phases, the first phase comprising primarily the petroleum oil, the second phase comprising primarily the water. The first and second phases are separately withdrawn from the vessel at a withdraw temperature between about 200.degree. C. and 374.degree. C. and a withdraw pressure above the vapor pressure of water at the withdraw temperature. Where solids are present in the certain emulsions, the above described treatment may also effectively separate the certain emulsion into a substantially distinct third phase comprising primarily the solids.

Sealock, Jr., L. John (W. Richland, WA); Baker, Eddie G. (Richland, WA); Elliott, Douglas C. (Richland, WA)

1992-01-01

340

Thermodynamically Stable Pickering Emulsions Stabilized by Janus Dumbbells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Janus particles have two sides with different, often opposite, surface properties. Janus dumbbell is one type of Janus particles that consists of two partially fused spherical lobes. It is possible to independently control the geometry and surface wettability of Janus dumbbells. Janus dumbbells can also be produced in a large quantity, making them useful for practical applications such as emulsion stabilization. In this work, we calculate the free energy of emulsion formation using amphiphilic Janus dumbbells as solid surfactants. In contrast to kinetically stable emulsions stabilized by homogeneous particles, emulsion stabilized by Janus dumbbells can be thermodynamically stable. There also exists an optimal radius of droplets that can be stabilized by infinite or limited number of amphiphilic dumbbells in the continuous phase. We demonstrate that the optimal radius of dumbbell-stabilized droplets can be predicted based on the volume of the dispersed phase and the volume fraction of dumbbells in the continuous phase. We believe our calculation will provide guidelines for using Janus dumbbells as colloid surfactants to generate stable emulsions.

Tu, Fuquan; Park, Bum Jun; Lee, Daeyeon

2013-03-01

341

Emulsion chamber with big radiation length for detecting neutrino oscillations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A conceptual scheme of a hybrid-emulsion spectrometer for investigating various channels of neutrino oscillations is proposed. The design emphasizes detection of ? leptons by detached vertices, reliable identification of electrons, and good spectrometry for all charged particles and photons. A distributed target is formed by layers of low- Z material, emulsion-plastic-emulsion sheets, and air gaps in which ? decays are detected. The tracks of charged secondaries, including electrons, are momentum-analyzed by curvature in magnetic field using hits in successive thin layers of emulsion. The ? leptons are efficiently detected in all major decay channels, including ?-? e-??¯. The performance of a model spectrometer, that contains 3 t of nuclear emulsion and 20 t of passive material, is estimated for different experimental environments. When irradiated by the ? ? beam of a proton accelerator over a medium baseline of ˜1 km/ GeV, the spectrometer will efficiently detect either the ? ??? ? or the ? ??? e transitions in the mass-difference region of ?m 2˜1 eV2, as suggested by the results of LSND. When exposed to the neutrino beam of a muon storage ring over a long baseline of < L/ E?>˜10- 20 km/ GeV, the model detector will efficiently probe the entire pattern of neutrino oscillations in the region ? m2˜10 -2- 10 -3 eV2, as suggested by the data on atmospheric neutrinos.

Asratyan, A. E.; Davidenko, G. V.; Dolgolenko, A. G.; Kaftanov, V. S.; Kubantsev, M. A.; Verebryusov, V. S.

2000-08-01

342

Application of pork fat diacylglycerols in meat emulsions.  

PubMed

The properties of fat are of major importance when meat products are produced. By enzymatic modification triacylglycerols (TAGs) can be converted to diacylglycerols (DAGs) resulting in changes of the physical and chemical properties of the fat. In this study the texture as well as the hydration and binding properties were investigated in meat emulsions prepared with lard substituted with different amounts of DAGs derived from the lard. In emulsions prepared with DAGs the percentage of total expressible fluid decreased from 28.2% in products prepared with lard to 11.8% in emulsions prepared with 100% DAGs. The fat separation decreased from 10.9% to 7.8% when 10% of DAGs were applied and no fat separation was observed for emulsions prepared with 50% and 100% DAGs. Emulsions containing DAGs were more elastic and solid reflected in a significant increase in Young's modulus and the maximum hardness. The results suggest future opportunities for the application of DAGs to improve the quality of meat products. PMID:21074949

Miklos, Rikke; Xu, Xuebing; Lametsch, René

2011-03-01

343

Ultrasound-assisted Micro-emulsion Synthesis of a Highly Active Nano- particle Catalyst.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Several wet chemical methods were examined for synthesis of platinum (Pt) and Pt-cobalt (Co) nano-particles, including normal chemical synthesis, micro-emulsion synthesis, and ultrasound-assisted micro-emulsion synthesis. High resolution transmission elec...

C. Rong R. Jiang

2010-01-01

344

Toxicological Evaluation of Polyvinyl Acetate (PVA) Emulsion Dust Control Material, May 1973-March 1974.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The relative toxicity of polyvinyl acetate (PVA) emulsion dust control material was investigated using laboratory animals. PVA emulsion is a mixture composed of a base latex plasticized with cresyl diphenyl phosphate (Santicizer 140) and tetraethylene gly...

M. H. Weeks C. R. Pope

1974-01-01

345

40 CFR 428.20 - Applicability; description of the emulsion crumb rubber subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Applicability; description of the emulsion crumb rubber subcategory. 428.20 Section 428...GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Emulsion Crumb Rubber Subcategory § 428.20...

2013-07-01

346

40 CFR 428.20 - Applicability; description of the emulsion crumb rubber subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Applicability; description of the emulsion crumb rubber subcategory. 428.20 Section 428... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Emulsion Crumb Rubber Subcategory § 428.20...

2009-01-01

347

40 CFR 428.20 - Applicability; description of the emulsion crumb rubber subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Applicability; description of the emulsion crumb rubber subcategory. 428.20 Section 428... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Emulsion Crumb Rubber Subcategory § 428.20...

2010-07-01

348

Highlights from the OPERA experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The OPERA neutrino experiment is designed to detect ?? ? ?? oscillations in direct appearance mode. The hybrid apparatus consists of an emulsion/lead target complemented by electronic detectors. It is placed in the long-baseline CERN to Gran Sasso neutrino beam (CNGS) 730 km away from the source. The running of the experiment and the extraction of data recorded in the emulsion will be described, together with the special procedures used to locate interaction vertices and detect short decay topologies. New oscillation search results with increased statistics will be presented. Up-to-date results of the neutrino velocity measurements will also be reported.

Mauri, N.

2014-04-01

349

Demulsification of Gas Oil\\/Water Emulsion via High Intensity Ultrasonic Standing Wave  

Microsoft Academic Search

High intensity ultrasonic standing wave field was established in a horizontal direction and its effect on “gas oil” in “water” emulsion separation rate was studied. Also, effects of four parameters on emulsion instability behavior were investigated: ultrasound irradiation time(5-30 min), emulsion position in ultrasound field(17-37 cm), ultrasound input intensity(20,45 and 75%) and dispersed phase concentration(0.5,2 and 10%). Emulsion light absorbance, droplet diameter

H. Ghafourian Nasiri; M. T. Hamed Mosavian; R. Kadkhodaee

2012-01-01

350

Serum separation and structure of depletion- and bridging-flocculated emulsions: a comparison  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stability against demixing, rheology and microstructure of emulsions that were flocculated by depletion or bridging were compared. Flocculation by depletion and bridging was induced by addition of the polysaccharide carboxy-methylcellulose (CMC) to emulsions that were stabilised by ß-lactoglobulin (ß-lg) at pH 6.7 and 3.0, respectively. Depletion-flocculated emulsions generally have a lower initial demixing rates than bridging-flocculated emulsions, but after long

T. B. J. Blijdenstein; Winden van A. J. M; Vliet van T; Aken van G. A

2004-01-01

351

Serum separation and structure of depletion- and bridging-flocculated emulsions: a comparison  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stability against demixing, rheology and microstructure of emulsions that were flocculated by depletion or bridging were compared. Flocculation by depletion and bridging was induced by addition of the polysaccharide carboxy-methylcellulose (CMC) to emulsions that were stabilised by ?-lactoglobulin (?-lg) at pH 6.7 and 3.0, respectively. Depletion-flocculated emulsions generally have a lower initial demixing rates than bridging-flocculated emulsions, but after long

T. B. J. Blijdenstein; A. J. M. van Winden; T. van Vliet; E. van der Linden; G. A. van Aken

2004-01-01

352

Influence of molecular structure of hydrocarbon emulsion droplets on their solubilization in nonionic surfactant micelles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Light scattering was used to study the mass transport of hydrocarbon molecules from emulsion droplets to nonionic surfactant micelles. The hydrocarbons used as the dispersed phase of the emulsions were: 1-tetradecene, n-tetradecane, 1-hexadecene, n-hexadecane, 1-octadecene and n-octadecane. Oil-in-water emulsions were prepared which had the same initial droplet diameter (0.3 ?m), but different droplet concentrations (0 to 0.05 wt.%). The emulsion

Jochen Weiss; John N. Coupland; Dason Brathwaite; D. Julian McClements

1997-01-01

353

An alternative renewable source of squalene for use in emulsion adjuvants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emulsions have been used to boost immunogenicity of antigens since the discovery of complete Freunds adjuvant. Optimization to reduce reactogenicity of emulsion adjuvants lead to the development of oil in water emulsions based on squalene. MF59 is an oil-in-water emulsion that is a component of an approved influenza product in Europe. Currently MF59 is manufactured from squalene derived from an

Luis A. Brito; Michelle Chan; Barbara Baudner; Simona Gallorini; George Santos; Derek T. O’Hagan; Manmohan Singh

2011-01-01

354

Emulsion copolymerization of fluorinated acrylate in the presence of a polymerizable emulsifier  

Microsoft Academic Search

An emulsifier-free fluorinated polyarcylate emulsion was synthesized by a seed emulsion polymerization method from methyl methacrylate (MMA), butyl acrylate (BA) and hexafluorobutyl methacrylate (HFMA) in the presence of a polymerizable emulsifier—ammonium allyloxtmethylate nonylphenol ethoxylates sulfate (DNS-86). Influences of the DNS-86 level on electrolyte stability of the emulsifier-free emulsion were discussed. In addition, the emulsion and the films were characterized by

Xinyan Xiao; Ye Wang

2009-01-01

355

Emulsion-liquid-membrane extraction of copper using a hollow-fiber contactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel extraction technique using an emulsion liquid membrane within a hollow-fiber contactor was developed and utilized to extract copper using LIX 84 extractant. Emulsion liquid membranes are capable of extracting metals from dilute waste streams to levels much below those possible by equilibrium-limited solvent extraction. Utilizing an emulsion liquid membrane within a hollow-fiber contactor retains the advantages of emulsion-liquid-membrane

Shih-Yao B. Hu; John M. Wiencek

1998-01-01

356

Phase and emulsion morphology diagrams of nonionic- amphiphile/oil/water systems and their interrelationships  

SciTech Connect

For two-phase, non-multiple emulsions, the emulsion morphology diagram shows, as a function of temperature and phase or component concentration, which phase is dispersed and which is the continuous one, as well as the temperatures and compositions at which inversions occur. The emulsion morphology diagram plays for emulsions a role that is similar to the role played by phase diagrams for phases.

Smith, D.H. [USDOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center, WV (United States); Kyunghee Lim [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1992-09-01

357

Phase and emulsion morphology diagrams of nonionic- amphiphile/oil/water systems and their interrelationships  

SciTech Connect

For two-phase, non-multiple emulsions, the emulsion morphology diagram shows, as a function of temperature and phase or component concentration, which phase is dispersed and which is the continuous one, as well as the temperatures and compositions at which inversions occur. The emulsion morphology diagram plays for emulsions a role that is similar to the role played by phase diagrams for phases.

Smith, D.H. (USDOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center, WV (United States)); Kyunghee Lim (West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

1992-01-01

358

Influence of clay addition on the properties of olive oil in water emulsions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The behaviour of olive oil-in-water emulsions (O\\/W) was studied in the presence of smectite particles. The distribution of these particles in the emulsions and the effect of their interaction with the surfactant on the stability of the emulsions were investigated. Whereas the variation of surfactant and\\/or clay content did not seem to affect the nature of the emulsion, it had

H. Nciri; M. Benna-Zayani; M. Stambouli; N. Kbir-Ariguib; M. Trabelsi-Ayadi; V. Rosilio; J.-L. Grossiord

2009-01-01

359

Fabrication of superhydrophobic polyurethane\\/organoclay nano-structured composites from cyclomethicone-in-water emulsions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nano-structured polyurethane\\/organoclay composite films were fabricated by dispersing moisture-curable polyurethanes and fatty amine\\/amino-silane surface modified montmorillonite clay (organoclay) in cyclomethicone-in-water emulsions. Cyclomethicone Pickering emulsions were made by emulsifying decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5), dodecamethylcyclohexasiloxane (D6) and aminofunctional siloxane polymers with water using montmorillonite particles as emulsion stabilizers. Polyurethane and organoclay dispersed emulsions were spray coated on aluminum surfaces. Upon thermosetting, water repellent self-cleaning

I. S. Bayer; A. Steele; P. J. Martorana; E. Loth

2010-01-01

360

Liposome-stabilized oil-in-water emulsions as adjuvants: increased emulsion stability promotes induction of cytotoxic T lymphocytes against an HIV envelope antigen.  

PubMed

Protective or therapeutic immunity against HIV infection is currently believed to require both antibody and CTL responses against the envelope protein. In the present study, the adjuvant activity of a unique oil-in-water emulsion, in which liposomes containing lipid A (LA) and encapsulated antigen served as the emulsifying agent, was examined in mice using oligomeric gp140 (ogp140) derived from the HIV-1 envelope as the antigen. Emulsions rendered either highly stable or unstable by altering the ratio of liposomes to oil were used to examine the effect of stability of the emulsion on adjuvant activity. Stable and unstable emulsions had similar potencies for inducing both IgG antibodies to ogp140 and antigen-specific T-lymphocyte proliferation. Stable emulsions, but not unstable emulsions, induced antigen-specific CTL responses, possibly because of the depot effect of the stable emulsions. Furthermore, stable emulsions induced lower IgG2a/IgG1 ratios than the unstable emulsions. We conclude that stable liposomal oil-in-water emulsions provide an effective means of obtaining both antibody and CTL responses against an HIV envelope antigen. PMID:15479439

Richards, Roberta L; Rao, Mangala; Vancott, Thomas C; Matyas, Gary R; Birx, Deborah L; Alving, Carl R

2004-10-01

361

Rapid enumeration of phage in monodisperse emulsions.  

PubMed

Phage-based detection assays have been developed for the detection of viable bacteria for applications in clinical diagnosis, monitoring of water quality, and food safety. The majority of these assays deliver a positive readout in the form of newly generated progeny phages by the bacterial host of interest. Progeny phages are often visualized as plaques, or holes, in a lawn of bacteria on an agar-filled Petri dish; however, this rate-limiting step requires up to 12 h of incubation time. We have previously described an amplification of bacteriophages M13 inside droplets of media suspended in perfluorinated oil; a single phage M13 in a droplet yields 10(7) copies in 3-4 h. Here, we describe that encapsulation of reporter phages, both lytic T4-LacZ and nonlytic M13, in monodisperse droplets can also be used for rapid enumeration of phage. Compartmentalization in droplets accelerated the development of the signal from the reporter enzyme; counting of "positive" droplets yields accurate enumeration of phage particles ranging from 10(2) to 10(6) pfu/mL. For enumeration of T4-LacZ phage, the fluorescent signal appeared in as little as 90 min. Unlike bulk assays, quantification in emulsion is robust and insensitive to fluctuations in environmental conditions (e.g., temperature). Power-free emulsification using gravity-driven flow in the absence of syringe pumps and portable fluorescence imaging solutions makes this technology promising for use at the point of care in low-resource environments. This droplet-based phage enumeration method could accelerate and simplify point-of-care detection of the pathogens for which reporter bacteriophages have been developed. PMID:24892245

Tjhung, Katrina F; Burnham, Sean; Anany, Hany; Griffiths, Mansel W; Derda, Ratmir

2014-06-17

362

Perflubron emulsion reduces inflammation during extracorporeal circulation.  

PubMed

The recovery from cardiac surgery and cardiopulmonary bypass can be complicated by an acute inflammatory response. Circulating blood through an extracorporeal circuit (ECC) contributes to this complication. Perfluorocarbon-based blood substitutes (PFCs) are under investigation for use as a component of the ECC "prime" solution, because PFCs increase the oxygen-carrying capacity of the diluted blood. Some PFCs may provide the additional benefit of attenuating the ECC-induced inflammatory response. Earlier, we reported that perflubron emulsion (PFE, Alliance Pharmaceutical Corp.) reduced neutrophil (PMN) activation in vivo. However, the potential of PFE to reduce ECC-induced PMN activation has not been investigated. In this study, we used a small-scale ECC model to quantify the extent of PMN activation during circulation and to examine if PFE treatment attenuated PMN activation. ECC circuits were filled with a mixture of blood and Plasmalyte. Two groups were studied: an untreated group containing blood plus PlasmaLyte and a treated group in which some of the Plasmalyte was substituted with PFE (4.5 g/100 ml). Hematology and measures of whole blood PMN activation were made from blood samples taken periodically throughout the 120-min ECC circulation period. We found, for the untreated group, a significant decrease in the number of circulating PMNs and an increase in PMN activation with time. PMN activation was demonstrated as a significant increase in the expression of the PMN adhesion protein CD11b (P < 0.05) and an increase in PMN oxygen free radical production (reactive oxygen species (ROS)). After 120 min of circulation, the PMNs remained capable of a significant response to a second inflammatory stimulus, but PFE treatment significantly attenuated the fMLP-induced increase in PMN ROS at t = 120 min (P < 0.05). These results suggest that PFE may have dual utility in cardiac surgery, to increase oxygen delivery and to serve as an antiinflammatory agent. PMID:11421598

McDonagh, P; Cerney, K; Hokama, J; Lai, G; Gonzales, R; Davis-Gorman, G; Copeland, J

2001-07-01

363

Synthesis of fluorosurfactants for emulsion-based biological applications.  

PubMed

Microemulsion represents an attractive platform for fundamental and applied biomedical research because the emulsified droplets can serve as millions of compartmentalized micrometer-sized reactors amenable to high-throughput screening or online monitoring. However, establishing stable emulsions with surfactants that are compatible with biological applications remains a significant challenge. Motivated by the lack of commercially available surfactants suitable for microemulsion-based biological assays, this study describes the facile synthesis of a biocompatible fluorosurfactant with nonionic tris(hydroxymethyl)methyl (Tris) polar head groups. We have further demonstrated compatibility of the developed surfactant with diverse emulsion-based applications, including DNA polymeric nanoparticle synthesis, enzymatic activity assay, and bacterial or mammalian cell culture, in the setup of both double- and multiphases of emulsions. PMID:24646088

Chiu, Ya-Ling; Chan, Hon Fai; Phua, Kyle K L; Zhang, Ying; Juul, Sissel; Knudsen, Birgitta R; Ho, Yi-Ping; Leong, Kam W

2014-04-22

364

Water-in-trichloroethylene emulsions stabilized by uniform carbon microspheres.  

PubMed

Uniform hard carbon spheres (HCS), synthesized by the hydrothermal decomposition of sucrose followed by pyrolysis, are effective at stabilizing water-in-trichloroethylene (TCE) emulsions. The irreversible adsorption of carbon particles at the TCE-water interface resulting in the formation of a monolayer around the water droplet in the emulsion phase is identified as the key reason for emulsion stability. Cryogenic scanning electron microscopy was used to image the assembly of carbon particles clearly at the TCE-water interface and the formation of bilayers in regions of droplet-droplet contact. The results of this study have potential implications to the subsurface injection of carbon submicrometer particles containing zero-valent iron nanoparticles to treat pools of chlorinated hydrocarbons that are sequestered in fractured bedrock. PMID:22181984

Venkataraman, Pradeep; Sunkara, Bhanukiran; St Dennis, J E; He, Jibao; John, Vijay T; Bose, Arijit

2012-01-17

365

Automated Track Recognition and Event Reconstruction in Nuclear Emulsion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The major advantages of nuclear emulsion for detecting charged particles are its submicron position resolution and sensitivity to minimum ionizing particles. These must be balanced, however, against the difficult manual microscope measurement by skilled observers required for the analysis. We have developed an automated system to acquire and analyze the microscope images from emulsion chambers. Each emulsion plate is analyzed independently, allowing coincidence techniques to be used in order to reject back- ground and estimate error rates. The system has been used to analyze a sample of high-multiplicity Pb-Pb interactions (charged particle multiplicities approx. 1100) produced by the 158 GeV/c per nucleon Pb-208 beam at CERN. Automatically reconstructed track lists agree with our best manual measurements to 3%. We describe the image analysis and track reconstruction techniques, and discuss the measurement and reconstruction uncertainties.

Deines-Jones, P.; Cherry, M. L.; Dabrowska, A.; Holynski, R.; Jones, W. V.; Kolganova, E. D.; Kudzia, D.; Nilsen, B. S.; Olszewski, A.; Pozharova, E. A.; Sengupta, K.; Szarska, M.; Trzupek, A.; Waddington, C, J.; Wefel, J. P.; Wilczynska, B.; Wilczynski, H.; Wolter, W.; Wosiek, B.; Wozniak, K.

1998-01-01

366

Fish oil-containing lipid emulsions in patients with sepsis.  

PubMed

Lipid emulsions based on soybean oil have been an integral part of parenteral nutrition supplying n-6 fatty acids, with possible negative effects in critically ill patients. Newer lipid emulsions supply less n-6 fatty acids. In addition, fish oil-based lipids may be included in the lipid component of parenteral nutrition. While clinical benefits of lipid emulsions with a reduced fraction in n-6 lipids and the addition of fish oil have been described in postoperative patients, data are less clear in critically ill or septic patients. Recent data suggest that beneficial effects may be achieved when used early but clearly more data are needed to come to a definitive conclusion. The present commentary will highlight current data in critically ill and septic patients and the use of fish oil as a part of parenteral nutrition. PMID:20236465

Mayer, Konstantin; Seeger, Werner

2010-01-01

367

The jamming elasticity of emulsions stabilized by ionic surfactants.  

PubMed

Oil-in-water emulsions composed of colloidal-scale droplets are often stabilized using ionic surfactants that provide a repulsive interaction between neighboring droplet interfaces, thereby inhibiting coalescence. If the droplet volume fraction is raised rapidly by applying an osmotic pressure, the droplets remain disordered, undergo an ergodic-nonergodic transition, and jam. If the applied osmotic pressure approaches the Laplace pressure of the droplets, then the jammed droplets also deform. Because solid friction and entanglements cannot play a role, as they might with solid particulate or microgel dispersions, the shear mechanical response of monodisperse emulsions can provide critical insight into the interplay of entropic, electrostatic, and interfacial forces. Here, we introduce a model that can be used to predict the plateau storage modulus and yield stress of a uniform charge-stabilized emulsion accurately if the droplet radius, interfacial tension, surface potential, Debye screening length, and droplet volume fraction are known. PMID:24913542

Scheffold, Frank; Wilking, James N; Haberko, Jakub; Cardinaux, Frédéric; Mason, Thomas G

2014-06-25

368

Controlled release of dual drugs from emulsion electrospun nanofibrous mats.  

PubMed

The purpose of this work is to develop a novel type of tissue engineering scaffold or drugs delivery carrier with the capability of encapsulation and controlled release drugs. In this study, Rhodamine B and Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) were successfully incorporated into nanofibers by means of emulsion electrospinning. The morphology of composite nanofibers was studied by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The composite nanofibrous mats made from emulsion electrospinning were characterized by water contact angle measurement and X-ray diffraction. In vitro dual drugs release behaviors from composite nanofibrous mats were investigated. The results indicated that the incorporated drug and/or proteins in composite fibrous mats made from electrospinning could be control released by adjusting the processes of emulsions preparation. PMID:19586756

Yan, Su; Xiaoqiang, Li; Shuiping, Liu; Xiumei, Mo; Ramakrishna, Seeram

2009-10-15

369

Manipulation of gel emulsions by variable microchannel geometry.  

PubMed

In this article we investigate the morphology and manipulation of monodisperse emulsions at high dispersed phase volume fractions (gel emulsions) in a microfluidic environment. Confined monodisperse gel emulsions self-organize into well-ordered droplet arrangements, which may be stable or metastable, depending on the geometry of the confining microchannel. Three arrangements are considered, in which the droplets are aligned in a single file, a two row, or a three row arrangement. We explore the potential for induced transitions between these distinct droplet arrangements as a tool for droplet-based microfluidic processing. Transitions are readily achieved by means of localized (geometrical) features in channel geometry, however the onset of the transition is strongly dependent on the subtleties of the microfluidic system, e.g. volume fraction, droplet size, and feature dimensions. The transitions can be achieved via fixed channel features or, when the continuous phase is a ferrofluid, by a virtual channel constriction created using a magnetic field. PMID:19107292

Surenjav, Enkhtuul; Priest, Craig; Herminghaus, Stephan; Seemann, Ralf

2009-01-21

370

Breakup of double emulsions in wedge-shaped microfluidic channels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Double emulsion droplets can serve as drug delivery vehicles and individual compartments for chemical reactions, and such materials are relevant to new kinds of microfluidic applications. We study experimentally the dynamics and breakup of double emulsion droplets flowing through poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) channels. As water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) double emulsion droplets flow through such wedge-shaped channels, the breakup of the droplets is controlled by the capillary number and the droplet-to-orifice size ratio. We obtain a phase diagram of droplet breakup morphology from the experimental results, and explain the results via a combination of the capillary instability and thin film dynamics. The phase diagram is useful for predicting and controlling the breakup of the droplet. Finally, differences between results obtained in PDMS channels and capillary channels are discussed.

Li, Jiang; Chen, Haosheng; Stone, Howard A.

2010-11-01

371

Stabilization/solidification of galvanic sludges by asphalt emulsions.  

PubMed

A combination of two-aqueous asphalt emulsions was proposed for stabilization/solidification treatment of galvanic sludges prior to landfilling. The presented procedure comprises mixing the galvanic sludge with a slow setting nonionic asphalt emulsion and subsequently forming a secondary asphalt barrier by means of a rapid setting anionic asphalt emulsion. The method was tested on four samples of galvanic sludge from various galvanizing plants, with various water and pollutant contents. Stabilization efficiency was assessed by water-leaching test, TCLP test and by determining ecotoxicity of leachates. Leachate parameters exhibited very low values and favorable results of ecotoxicological tests indicate high efficiency of the developed procedure for galvanic sludge disposal. PMID:15943936

Bednarik, Vratislav; Vondruska, Milan; Koutny, Marek

2005-06-30

372

Impact of Weighting Agents and Sucrose on Gravitational Separation of Beverage Emulsions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of weighting agents and sucrose on gravitational separation in 1 wt % oil-in-water emulsions was studied by measuring changes in the intensity of backscattered light from the emulsions with height. Emulsions with different droplet densities were prepared by mixing weighting agents (brominated vegetable oil (BVO), ester gum (EG), damar gum (DG), or sucrose acetate isobutyrate (SAIB)) with soybean

Ratjika Chanamai; D. Julian McClements

2000-01-01

373

Release of a model molecule from highly concentrated fluorinated reverse emulsions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Highly concentrated reverse emulsions have been used to study the diffusion of a model molecule entrapped in these gel-emulsions. The influence of several parameters on the release of coumarin from fluorinated gel-emulsions has been investigated, and a computational method has been elaborated to determine the numerical value of the diffusion coefficients. The amount of probe molecule released depends on the

S. Rocca; S. Muller; M. J. Stébé

1999-01-01

374

Role of nanoadditive blended biodiesel emulsion fuel on the working characteristics of a diesel engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biodiesel emulsions are considered as the propitious alternative fuels for diesel engines. The need of biodiesel emulsion fuels for the diesel engines is to curtail the dependency on the fossil fuels in context to the world energy oil crisis. Henceforth, the present study provides a tangible pathway to prepare and to ameliorate the biodiesel emulsion fuel on incorporating potential alumina

J. Sadhik Basha; R. B. Anand

2011-01-01

375

Critical Review of Techniques and Methodologies for Characterization of Emulsion Stability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficient development and production of high quality emulsion-based products depends on knowledge of their physicochemical properties and stability. A wide variety of different analytical techniques and methodologies have been developed to characterize the properties of food emulsions. The purpose of this review article is to provide a critical overview of the most important properties of emulsions that are of

David Julian Mcclements

2007-01-01

376

A stable, radioactive substrate emulsion for assay of I i poprotein I ipase  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is described for the assay of lipoprotein lipase, using a stable, radioactive substrate emulsion. Fatty acid-labeled trioleoylglycerol was emulsified by homoge- nization in glycerol with lecithin as detergent. This anhy- drous emulsion was stable for at least six weeks. Substrate solutions for enzyme assay were prepared by diluting the emulsion with buffer containing serum and albumin. The fatty

Peter Nilsson-Ehle; Michael C. Schotz

377

The Stability of Aerated Milk Protein Emulsions in the Presence of Small Molecule Surfactants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of milk proteins and small molecular surfactants on oil droplet surface coverage and emul- sion stability were studied in model emulsions, and the results were related to the microstructure and physical properties of ice creams. Emulsions became increasingly more stable during partial coalescence at increased surface coverage as the protein concentra- tion was increased. Model emulsions of 20%

B. M. C. Pelan; K. M. Watts; I. J. Campbell; A. Lips

1997-01-01

378

Multiple W\\/O\\/W emulsions—Using the required HLB for emulsifier evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stable emulsions are best formulated with emulsifiers or combinations of emulsifiers, which possess HLB values close to the required HLB of the oil phase. In this work, we have investigated the application of this established method to the development of multiple emulsions. This is of particular interest, since multiple emulsions are highly sensitive in terms of variations of the individual

T. Schmidts; D. Dobler; A.-C. Guldan; N. Paulus; F. Runkel

2010-01-01

379

Oxidation of parenteral lipid emulsion by ambient and phototherapy lights: Potential toxicity of routine parenteral feeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vitamin E can be a prooxidant in isolated lipoprotein suspensions. Because lipid emulsions used in parenteral nutrition are lipoprotein-like suspensions rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin E, we hypothesized that vitamin E may act as a prooxidant in lipid emulsions, as it is in lipoprotein suspensions. We therefore exposed an intravenously administered lipid emulsion (Intralipid) to a single spotlight

Jirí Neuzil; Brian A. Darlow; Terrie E. Inder; Karl B. Sluis; Christine C. Winterbourn; Roland Stocker

1995-01-01

380

Pionic freeze-out hypersurfaces in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The space-time structure of the multipion system created in central relativistic heavy-ion collisions is investigated. Using the microscopic transport model UrQMD we determine the freeze-out hypersurface from the equation on pion density n(t,r)=nc. It turns out that for proper value of the critical energy density ?c equation ?(t,r)=?c gives the same freeze-out hypersurface. It is shown that for big enough collision energies Ekin?40A GeV (s?8A GeV) the multipion system at a time moment ? ceases to be one connected unit but splits up into two separate spatial parts (drops), which move in opposite directions from one another with velocities which approach the speed of light with an increase of collision energy. This time ? is approximately invariant of the collision energy, and the corresponding ?= const. hypersurface can serve as a benchmark for the freeze-out time or the transition time from the hydrostage in hybrid models. The properties of this hypersurface are discussed.

Anchishkin, D.; Vovchenko, V.; Csernai, L. P.

2013-01-01

381

Multiparticle azimuthal correlations of negative pions in nucleus-nucleus collisions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multiparticle azimuthal correlations of ? - mesons have been studied in dC, HeC, CC, CNe, MgMg, ( d, He)Ta, CCu, CTa, and OPb collisions at momentum of 4.2, 4.5 GeV/ c per nucleon within the standard transverse momentum analysis method of P. Danielewicz and G. Odyniec. The data were obtained by SKM-200-GIBS and Propane Bubble Chamber Collaborations of JINR. The axis has been selected in the phase space and with respect to this axis ? - meson correlations were observed. The values of the coefficient of the correlations linearly depend on the mass numbers of projectile ( A P ) and target ( A T ) nuclei. The Quark-Gluon String Model satisfactorily describes the experimental results.

Chkhaidze, L. V.; Djobava, T. D.; Kharkhelauri, L. L.; Kladnitskaya, E. N.

2012-07-01

382

Realistic estimate of incomplete fusion excitation function in nucleus-nucleus collisions  

SciTech Connect

Incomplete-fusion excitation functions are calculated for the systems {sup 40}Ca+{sup 40}Ca and {sup 48}Ca+{sup 200}Hg taking into account the temperature dependence of the free interaction energy and a realistic dynamical treatment of preequilibrium emission of nucleons before the fusion process. The inhibition to fusion of the hot rotating composite due to opening of fission channels is also investigated.

Samaddar, S.K. (Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF, Bidhan Nagar, Calcutta 700 064 (India)); De, J.N. (Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, 1/AF, Bidhan Nagar, Calcutta 700 064 (India)); Sperber, D. (Physics Department, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12181 (United States))

1992-12-01

383

Photoproduction of quarkonium in proton-proton and nucleus-nucleus collisions.  

PubMed

We discuss the photoproduction of Upsilon and J/psi at high energy pp, pp, and heavy ion colliders. We predict large rates in pp interactions at the Fermilab Tevatron and in pp and heavy ion interactions at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. The J/psi is also produced copiously at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. These reactions can be used to study the gluon distribution in protons and heavy nuclei. We also show that the different CP symmetries of the initial states lead to large differences in the transverse momentum spectra of mesons produced in pp vs pp collisions. PMID:15089531

Klein, Spencer R; Nystrand, Joakim

2004-04-01

384

Mean Free Path of a Nucleon in Nucleus-Nucleus Collision  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mean free path of a nucleon for two colliding nuclei has been calculated in terms of the imaginary part of the optical potential and the k effective mass. The energy range 10-30 MeV\\/nucleon appears to be optimum for mean free paths in the range 3-4 fm.

Bikash Sinha

1983-01-01

385

Neutral pion production in nucleus-nucleus collisions at 158 and 200 GeV/nucleon  

SciTech Connect

Two years ago, at the 12th Winter Workshop on Nuclear Dynamics held here in Snowbird, the authors presented WA80 limits on direct photon production in 200-GeV {sup 32}S + Au collisions. It was found that the results were consistent (within 1{sigma}) with the absence of an excess of photons over those that can be accounted for by the two-photon decay branches of {pi}{sup 0} and {eta} mesons and by the small photon contributions from other radiative decays. They are in the process of finalizing the direct-photon production results from collisions of lead nuclei at 158 GeV/nucleon. The author briefly discusses the status of the analysis and gives some preliminary results at the end of this talk. However, most of this presentation is concerned with a very different aspect of the photon measurements: distributions of neutral pions. In contrast to direct photons which probe initial collision conditions, hadrons, such as neutral pions, interact strongly and decouple late in the reaction evolution and, thus, provide information concerning the system at freeze out. Transverse momentum spectra at low and intermediate p{sub T} relate to thermodynamic and hydrodynamic descriptions of the hot, dense systems. In addition, the high-p{sub T} region reflects the hard-scattering regime and may help one understand initial-state particle production by forming a bridge to proton-proton and proton-nucleus results. It follows that it is essential that the {pi}{sup 0} measurements cover a large p{sub T} range.

Plasil, F.; WA80 Collaboration; WA98 Collaboration

1998-02-01

386

Subthreshold Production of Kaons and Antikaons in Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions at Equivalent Beam Energies  

SciTech Connect

Kaon production has been studied in Ni+Ni collisions at beam energies of 0.8{endash}1.8GeV/nucleon with the kaon spectrometer at GSI. The K{sup +} production cross section increases as E{sup 5.3{plus_minus}0.2}{sub beam} . Both K{sup +} and K{sup -} mesons are predominantly produced in central collisions. The K{sup -}/K{sup +} ratio measured at equivalent beam energies below the respective particle production threshold is considerably larger for Ni+Ni collisions than for nucleon-nucleon collisions near threshold. This is evidence for an enhanced K{sup -} production in the nuclear medium. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

Barth, R.; Senger, P.; Ahner, W.; Debowski, M.; Grosse, E.; Koczon, P.; Miskowiec, D.; Schwab, E.; Schicker, R. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung, D-64220 Darmstadt (Germany)] [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung, D-64220 Darmstadt (Germany); Muentz, C.; Oeschler, H.; Sturm, C.; Wagner, A. [Technische Hochschule Darmstadt, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany)] [Technische Hochschule Darmstadt, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Beckerle, P.; Bormann, C.; Brill, D.; Schwab, E.; Shin, Y.; Stroebele, H. [Johann Wolfgang Goethe Universitaet, D-60325 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)] [Johann Wolfgang Goethe Universitaet, D-60325 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Kohlmeyer, B.; Puehlhofer, F.; Speer, J.; Voelkel, K. [Phillips Universitaet, D-35037 Marburg (Germany)] [Phillips Universitaet, D-35037 Marburg (Germany); Cieslak, M.; Walus, W. [Jagiellonian University, PL-30-059 Krakow (Poland)] [Jagiellonian University, PL-30-059 Krakow (Poland)

1997-05-01

387

Dirac structure of the nucleus-nucleus potential in heavy ion collisions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate nuclear matter properties in the relativistic Brueckner approach. The in-medium on-shell T-matrix is represented covariantly by five Lorentz invariant amplitudes from which we deduce directly the nucleon self-energy. To enforce correct Hartree-Fock results we develop a subtraction scheme which treats the bare nucleon-nucleon potential exactly in accordance to the different types of meson exchanges. For the higher order correlations we employ two different covariant representations in order to study the uncertainty inherent in the approach. The nuclear matter bulk properties are only slightly sensitive on the explicit representation used. However, we obtain new Coester lines for the various Bonn potentials which are shifted towards the empirical region of saturation.

Gross-Boelting, T.; Fuchs, C.; Faessler, A.

1999-04-01

388

Strange particle production in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions at RHIC and LHC energy regions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PACIAE, a parton and hadron cascade model, is utilized to systematically investigate strange particle production and strangeness enhancement in Au+Au collisions and in Pb+Pb collisions with the ?sNN = 200 GeV at the RHIC and 2.76 TeV at the LHC, respectively. The experimental results at different centralities, using data from the STAR collaboration and the ALICE collaboration, are well described by the PACIAE model. This may represent the importance of the parton and hadron rescatterings, as well as the reduction mechanism for strange quark suppression, that are implemented in the PACIAE model.

Ren, Xiao-Wen; Feng, Sheng-Qin; Yuan, Xian-Bao

2014-05-01

389

Photoinduced demulsification of emulsions using a photoresponsive gemini surfactant.  

PubMed

This Article reports on the influence of light irradiation on the stability of emulsions prepared using a photoresponsive gemini surfactant (C7-azo-C7) having an azobenzene skeleton as a spacer. When mixtures of trans C7-azo-C7 aqueous solution and n-octane are homogenized, stable emulsions are obtained in a specific region of weight fraction and surfactant concentration. Fluorescence microscopy observations using a small amount of fluorescent probes show that the stable emulsions are oil-in-water (O/W)-type. UV irradiation of stable O/W emulsions promotes the cis isomerization of trans C7-azo-C7 and leads to the coalescence of the oil (octane) droplets in the emulsions, that is, demulsification. While the equilibrated interfacial tension (IFT) between aqueous trans C7-azo-C7 solution and octane is almost the same as that between aqueous cis C7-azo-C7 and octane, the occupied area per molecule for C7-azo-C7 at octane/water interface decreases with the cis photoisomerization of trans isomer. Dynamic IFT measurement shows that UV irradiation to the interface between aqueous trans C7-azo-C7 solution and octane brings about an increase in the interfacial tension, indicating that the Gibbs free energy at the interface increases. From these results, the cis isomerization of trans C7-azo-C7 molecules at the O/W interface due to UV irradiation leads to direct contact between the water and octane phases, because of the reduction of molecular area at the interface, and subsequently makes the emulsions demulsified. PMID:24354334

Takahashi, Yutaka; Fukuyasu, Kengo; Horiuchi, Tatsuya; Kondo, Yukishige; Stroeve, Pieter

2014-01-14

390

An Experiment to Study S = -2 Nuclear System PS-E373 (kek) -- for Fully Automated Scanning of ?-TRACKS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experiment to study S = -2 nuclear sytems by emulsion-scintillating fiber hybrid method is presented. To search for ten times or more ?? hypernuclei events than that of the previous experiments, we developed and improved several detectors which will be reported. We will discuss the background tracks for the fully automated scanning system for nuclear emulsion beased on the preliminary analysis.

Tanaka, H.; Ushida, N.; Kim, J. Y.; Kim, S. J.; Iwata, Y.; Kaneko, M.; Nakazawa, K.; Park, H. M.; Ra, Y. S.; Torikai, S.; Park, I. G.; Song, J. S.; Yoon, C. J.; Nagoshi, C.; Akaishi, Y.; Fukuda, T.; Ieiri, M.; Noumi, H.; Sekimoto, M.; Aoki, S.; Rhee, J. T.; Baik, K. M.; Chung, M. S.; Kim, C. O.; Sim, K. S.; Yang, J. T.; Ahn, J. K.; Akikawa, H.; Ichikawa, A.; Imai, K.-I.; Kanda, H.; Kondo, Y.; Takahashi, H.; Tojo, J.; Torii, H.; Yamamoto, K.; Yosoi, M.; Takeutchi, F.; Hoshino, K.; Kawai, T.; Yasuda, N.; Yoshida, T.; Motoba, T.; Okabe, H.; Ohyama, K.; Ogawa, S.; Shibuya, H.; Takahashi, T.; Yamamoto, Y.; Davis, D. H.; Tovee, D. N.; Bahk, S. Y.

2000-09-01

391

Tribology of steel/steel interaction in oil-in-water emulsion; a rationale for lubricity.  

PubMed

Oil droplets are dispersed in water by an anionic surfactant to form an emulsion. The lubricity of this emulsion in steel/steel interaction is explored in a ball on flat nanotribometer. The droplet size and charge are measured using dynamic light scattering, while the substrate charge density is estimated using the pH titration method. These data are combined to calculate the DLVO forces for the droplets generated for a range of surfactant concentration and two oil to water volume ratios. The droplets have a clear bi-modal size distribution. The study shows that the smaller droplets which experience weak repulsion are situated (at the highest DLVO barrier) much closer to the substrate than the bigger droplets, which experience the same DLVO force, are. We suggest that the smaller droplets thus play a more important role in lubricity than what the bigger droplets do. The largest volume of such small droplets occurs in the 0.5 mM-1 mM range of surfactant concentration and 1% oil to water volume ratio, where the coefficient of friction is also observed to be the least. PMID:20171646

Kumar, Deepak; Daniel, Jency; Biswas, S K

2010-05-15

392

Dual primer emulsion PCR for next-generation DNA sequencing  

PubMed Central

We have developed a highly sensitive single-molecule clonal amplification method called dual primer emulsion PCR (DPePCR) for next-generation DNA sequencing. The approach is similar in concept to standard emulsion PCR; however, in DPePCR both primers are attached to the beads, therefore following PCR amplification, both strands of the PCR products are attached to the beads. The ends of each strand can be freed for analysis by restriction digestion of the bridged PCR fragments, which allows efficient paired-end sequencing of fragment libraries.

Xu, Ming Yan; Aragon, Anthony D.; Mascarenas, Monica R.; Torrez-Martinez, Norah; Edwards, Jeremy S.

2014-01-01

393

Rapid and medium setting high float bituminous emulsions  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a rapid set high float aqueous bituminous emulsion-comprising bitumen, water, and from about 0.4% to about 0.6%, based on the weight of the emulsion, of an anionic emulsifier comprised of an alkaline solution of a combination of (1) 20% to 80% fatty acids selected from the group consisting of tall oil fatty acids, tallow fatty acids, and mixtures. (2) 20% to 80% of a product of the reaction of the fatty acids with a member of the group consists of acrylic acid, methacrylic acid, fumaric acid, and maleic anhydride.

Schilling, P.; Schreuders, H.G.

1987-06-30

394

Surface electric properties of emulsions of apolar reagents  

SciTech Connect

This article presents the results of studies of surface electric properties of kerosene and AAR-2 (apolar aromatized reagent) emulsons in water, which can be used in coal slime flotation, in presence of various salts and high-molecular flocculants. The data obtained were compared with the effect of electrolytes on the surface electric properties of a model emulsion of heptane in water stabilized by sodium hapthenate. The studies indicate that similarity of changes in the electrokinetic properties of various emulsions in presence of electrolytes and flocculants.

Baichenko, A.A.; Baran, A.A.

1986-09-01

395

A Simple Experiment Illustrating the Structure of Association Colloids.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The experiment described is intended to illustrate the intermolecular phenomena involved in association colloids. These are normal and inverse micelles and lyotropic liquid crystals. Solubilization, microemulsion and emulsion are discussed. (Author/SA)

Friberg, Stig. E.; Bendiksen, Beverly

1979-01-01

396

An experimental test of catastrophe and critical-scaling theories of emulsion inversion  

SciTech Connect

Electrical conductivities of the conjugate phases and emulsions of the binary system 2-butoxyethanol/water were measured over the temperature range T-T{sub c} = 4-21 K (T{sub c} is the lower consolute solution temperature). From these data, T{sub c}, the emulsion morphologies, and the emulsion inversion and its hysteresis were determined. Equations from critical-scaling theory were fit to the phase conductivities, and the emulsion data were used to test catastrophe and critical-scaling theory equations for emulsion inversion.

Smith, D.H.; Lim, Kyung-Hee (Morgantown Energy Technology Center, WV (USA))

1990-06-01

397

Disposition characteristics of emulsions and incorporated drugs after systemic or local injection.  

PubMed

Lipid emulsions are useful tools for controlling the in vivo disposition of drugs and plasmid DNA. The dispositions of lipid emulsions are determined by their tissue interaction depending on the anatomical and physiological characteristics of each tissue and the physicochemical and biological properties of lipid emulsions. In addition, the retention of drugs is another issue, as too rapid a release of the drug would lead to failure of exerting its therapeutic potency. This review presents an overview about the disposition profiles and various physicochemical properties of lipid emulsions and incorporated drugs after systemic or local injection. Controlled biodistribution of lipid emulsions and incorporated drugs are also discussed. PMID:11104899

Kawakami, S; Yamashita, F; Hashida, M

2000-12-01

398

Albedo in the ATIC Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

ATIC(Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter) is a balloon borne experiment designed to measure the cosmic ray composition for elements from hydrogen to iron and their energy spectra from approx.50 GeV to near 100 TeV. It consists of a Si-matrix detector to determine the charge of a CR particle, a scintillator hodoscope for tracking, carbon interaction targets and a fully active BGO calorimeter. ATIC had its first 16-day flight from McMurdo, Antarctica from 28/12/2000 to 13/01/2000. The ATIC flight collected approximately 25 million events. To measure charge of primary particle in presence of radiation scattered back from the interaction and subsequent shower development in the calorimeter a charge detector must be a mosaic of small detector pads so that the pad containing the signal from the incident particle has no additional signal from albedo particles. Therefore the silicon matrix was built of 4480 individual silicon pads each 2 cm x 1.5 cm. The matrix consists of four planes of detectors and the active detector area, in these planes are partially overlapped to completely cover the aperture. The lateral and amplitude distributions of albedo signals in Si-matrix are analyzed for different primary nuclei and different energy deposits in BGO calorimeter. The greater part of albedo signals has Q near 1, where Q = square root of Amplitude(MIP). The albedo distribution exponentially decreases up to Q near 8. These high values are produced by slow protons and plans. There are also a small number of signals of Q > 8, mainly for heavy nucleus primaries. These signals are apparently generated by neutrons. The comparison of the experimental data and simulations with GEANT 3-21 code using QGSM generator for nucleus-nucleus interactions is presented.

Sokolskaya, N. V.; Adams, J. H., Jr.; Ahn, H. S.; Bashindzhagyan, G. L.; Batkov, K. E.; Case, G.; Christl, M.; Chang, J.; Fazely, A. R.; Ganel, O.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

399

Oral absorption of a valsartan-loaded spray-dried emulsion based on hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to develop a novel valsartan-loaded spray-dried emulsion based on hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC) with enhanced oral absorption. The valsartan-loaded redispersible dry emulsion was prepared by using a high-pressure homogenization and spray-drying process with water, Capryol 90, HPMC, and different surfactants, based on the results of the solubility study. The spray-dried emulsions formed small and homogeneous emulsions with a mean droplet emulsion size ranging from 133.5 to 152.5nm at the dispersion state in water. The valsartan-loaded redispersible dry emulsion with HPMC/poloxamer 407 showed enhanced pH-independent valsartan release, resulting in a dramatically enhanced oral bioavailability of valsartan compared to the raw material and commercial product. Therefore, a formulation strategy using the redispersible dry emulsion with HPMC/poloxamer 407 is very effective for the development of a new dosage form containing valsartan. PMID:24879921

Baek, In-Hwan; Kim, Jung-Soo; Ha, Eun-Sol; Choo, Gwang-Ho; Cho, Wonkyung; Hwang, Sung-Joo; Kim, Min-Soo

2014-08-01

400

Non-coalescence of oppositely charged droplets in pH-sensitive emulsions  

PubMed Central

Like charges stabilize emulsions, whereas opposite charges break emulsions. This is the fundamental principle for many industrial and practical processes. Using micrometer-sized pH-sensitive polymeric hydrogel particles as emulsion stabilizers, we prepare emulsions that consist of oppositely charged droplets, which do not coalesce. We observe noncoalescence of oppositely charged droplets in bulk emulsification as well as in microfluidic devices, where oppositely charged droplets are forced to collide within channel junctions. The results demonstrate that electrostatic interactions between droplets do not determine their stability and reveal the unique pH-dependent properties of emulsions stabilized by soft microgel particles. The noncoalescence can be switched to coalescence by neutralizing the microgels, and the emulsion can be broken on demand. This unusual feature of the microgel-stabilized emulsions offers fascinating opportunities for future applications of these systems.

Liu, Tingting; Seiffert, Sebastian; Thiele, Julian; Abate, Adam R.; Weitz, David A.; Richtering, Walter

2012-01-01

401

On water-in-oil emulsions stabilized by fine solids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stability of water-in-oil emulsions stabilized by fine solids with different hydrophobicities were studied with model organic solvents, such as light mineral oil (Bayol-35), decane and toluene. The fine solids used in this study include kaolinite clay particles treated with asphaltenes, hydrophilic and hydrophobic colloidal silica, hydrophobic polystyrene latex microspheres, as well as fumed silica dry powders treated with silanization.

Nianxi Yan; Murray R Gray; Jacob H Masliyah

2001-01-01

402

A method and device for automatic scanning of nuclear emulsions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proposed method of automatic scanning of emulsions exposed to a beam ; of charged particles allows rapid automatic location of events. The emuision is ; scanned by an optical-mechanical scanning unit. The information from several ; consecutive layers is accumulated in an analog memory device, and the accumulated ; information is processed by a logical anaiysis system. When the

Yu. A. Bychkov; von Chun Vi; A. M. Frolov; E. Katz; T. Pacuraru; V. A. Petukhov; O. M. Tsislyak; V. Ya. Volkov

1963-01-01

403

Ammonia sensitivity of polyaniline films via emulsion polymerization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sensitivity of polyaniline (PANI) films to ammonia has been investigated. The PANI, soluble in several organic solvents, was prepared by emulsion polymerization. These PANI films display high sensitivity, wide range of measured concentrations and high stability. The concentration, response and temperature characteristics of the samples were also studied. It is found that the resistance of the sample increases with

Shuizhu Wu; Fang Zeng; Fengxian Li; Yinlan Zhu

2000-01-01

404

Double emulsions with controlled morphology by microgel scaffolding.  

PubMed

Double emulsions are valuable structures that consist of drops nested inside bigger drops; they can be formed with exquisite control through the use of droplet-based microfluidics, allowing their size, composition, and monodispersity to be tailored. However, only little control can be exerted on the morphology of double emulsions in their equilibrium state, because they are deformable and subject to thermal fluctuations. To introduce such control, we use droplet-based microfluidics to form oil-in-water-in-oil double emulsion drops and arrest their shape by loading them with monodisperse microgel particles. These particles push the inner oil drop to the edge of the aqueous shell drop such that the double emulsions adopt a uniform arrested, anisotropic shape. This approach circumvents the need for ultrafast polymerization or geometric confinement to lock such non-spherical and anisotropic droplet morphologies. To demonstrate the utility of this technique, we apply it to synthesize anisotropic and non-spherical polyacrylate-polyacrylamide microparticles with controlled size and shape. PMID:21796282

Thiele, Julian; Seiffert, Sebastian

2011-09-21

405

Interaction of lipoprotein lipase with homogeneous lipid emulsions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The central function of lipoprotein lipase (LpL) is to hydrolyze triacylglycerols in chylomicrons and very low den- sity lipoproteins. We have examined the binding of purified milk lipoprotein lipase to homogeneous synthetic lipid emul- sions, Emulsions composed of either naturally occurring ester- linked lipids or the non-hydrolyzable ether analogues were prepared by sonication and pressure extrusion, and fraction- ated by

Gait E. MacPhee; Robert Y. S. Chan; William H. Sawyer; Walter F. Stafford; Geoffrey J. Howlett

406

Hydrophobin coated boehmite nanoparticles stabilizing oil in water emulsions.  

PubMed

Hydrophobin coated boehmite nanoparticles have been used to establish tooth-paste like, homogenous emulsions. The surface-modified nanoparticles were simply obtained by mixing aqueous solutions of cationic boehmite particles with the anionic hydrophobin H Star Protein B® (HPB). Surface tension measurements clearly show that 1 wt.% boehmite binds up to 1 wt.% HPB. The strong interaction and aggregation of hydrophobin coated boehmite nanoparticles was proven by Cryo-TEM measurements, too. Interestingly, the combined use of 0.5 wt.% HPB and 0.5 wt.% boehmite as emulsifying agents resulted in very stable, homogenous, high internal phase emulsions (65 wt.% oil) that are stable over months. The established emulsions have also been characterized by rheological measurements. Storage moduli of more than 1000 Pa are characteristic for their high gel-like properties. Furthermore, light microscopy showed an average droplet size close to 1 ?m with low polydispersity. Cryo-SEM confirmed that the hydrophobin coated nanoparticles are located at the interface of the oil droplets and therefore stabilize the emulsion systems. PMID:22129628

Reger, Martin; Hoffmann, Heinz

2012-02-15

407

Studies of stability of petroleum emulsions by confocal microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Developments of techniques such as confocal microscopy are been of great interest for the petroleum industry. Confocal images permits through of direct observation, obtain the acquisition and interpretation of in situ information of the petroleum emulsions systems, without requirement of sample pretreatments and can be applied to samples of high optical density as crude oils. This property of the confocal technique is of great utility for studies of the colloidal structural evolution in dark samples as asphaltenes, and water in crude oils emulsions. In this work, the applicability of a homemade confocal microscope is shown. Studies of stability of colloidal suspensions (asphaltenes and emulsions) such as aggregation kinetic, flocculation dynamic, and characterization of colloidal system are showed by confocal images. The aggregation process of flocculated asphaltenes for Furrial crude oils was showed through of high-resolution micrographics image, and their colloidal structural evolution are described by an analysis of size distribution of flocculated asphaltenes particles. Additional, the images of the dynamics in the drop size and drop size distributions during the initial stage of the separation of water drops from Furrial crude oils were also reported. This technique directly permitted for example, visualization of the coalescence of small droplets to form large ones from water-in-crude oil emulsions and visualize the morphology of flocculated asphaltenes.

Hung, J.; Castillo, J.

2006-11-01

408

Intravenous lipid emulsion for treating permethrin toxicosis in a cat  

PubMed Central

A 2-year-old cat was presented with acute onset seizures, tremors, and hypersalivation. Permethrin toxicity was diagnosed based on a history of recent flea treatment. Measures were taken to minimize further absorption of permethrin, and methocarbamol and intravenous lipid emulsion were used to control tremors. The cat recovered and was discharged within 42 h.

DeGroot, Whitney D.

2014-01-01

409

Modification of Natural Leather by Grafting Emulsion Copolymerization Technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grafting emulsion copolymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) with butyl acrylate (BuA) of different molar ratios onto natural leather was carried out using redox initiation system of potassium persulfate (PPS) developed as an oxidizing agent and some sodium bisulphite adducts as reducing agents. Sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) was used as an anionic emulsifier.The grafted leather was characterized via FTIR, SEM and

A. S. Badran; H. E. Nasr; N. R. El-Halawany; W. S. Mohamed

2007-01-01

410

Electron-beam cured emulsion pressure-sensitive adhesives  

SciTech Connect

A cured pressure-sensitive adhesive is described which comprises a branched chain emulsion polymer having a glass transition temperature of at least 20 C below the use temperature, and formed by emulsion polymerization of at least one first monomer which, when homo polymerized, has a glass transition temperature less than [minus]25 C and at least one second monomer which, when homo polymerized, has a glass transition temperature greater than [minus]25 C., and said emulsion polymer being cured in the presence of from about 0.2 to about 10% by weight based on the weight of the emulsion-polymer of a multifunctional additive and exposure to electron beam radiation at a dosage of up to 100 kGy and sufficient to provide a 70 C shear of at least 10 kiloseconds and a 180 C peel of at least about 250 N/m, and a loop tack of at least about 200 N/m at a coat weight of from about 40 to 60 g/m[sup 2].

Mallya, P.; Plamthottam, S.S.; Ozari, Y.

1993-08-03

411

Wettability of Freon hydrates in crude oil/brine emulsions.  

PubMed

The surface energy of petroleum hydrates is believed to be a key parameter with regard to hydrate morphology and plugging tendency in petroleum production. As of today, the surface energy of natural gas hydrates is unknown, but will depend on the fluids in which they grow. In this work, the wettability of Freon hydrates is evaluated from their behavior in crude oil emulsions. For emulsions stabilized by colloidal particles, the particle wettability is a governing parameter for the emulsion behavior. The transition between continuous and dispersed phases as a function of brine volume in crude oil-brine emulsions containing Freon hydrates has been determined for 12 crude oils. Silica particles are used for comparison. The results show that phase inversion is highly dependent on crude oil properties. Based on the measured points of phase inversion, the wettability of the Freon hydrates generated in each system is evaluated as being oil-wet, intermediate-wet, or water-wet. Generation of oil-wet hydrates correlates with low hydrate plugging tendency. The formation of oil-wet hydrates will prevent agglomeration into large hydrate aggregates and plugs. Hence, it is believed that the method is applicable for differentiating oils with regard to hydrate morphology. PMID:15914170

Høiland, S; Askvik, K M; Fotland, P; Alagic, E; Barth, T; Fadnes, F

2005-07-01

412

Linear rheology of viscoelastic emulsions with interfacial tension  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emulsions of incompressible viscoelastic materials are considered, in which the addition of an interfacial agent causes the interfacial tension to depend on shear deformation and variation of area. The average complex shear modulus of the medium accounts for the mechanical interactions between inclusions by a self consistent treatment similar to the Lorentz sphere method in electricity. The resulting expression of

J. F. Palierne

1990-01-01

413

Texture-structure relationships in foamed dairy emulsions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Favorable textural qualities of foamed dairy emulsions result from the successful incorporation of air bubbles surrounded by partially coalesced fat globules into a stable product. Stabilizers, usually hydrocolloids, are often added to improve texture by controlling such factors as, in ice cream, the agglomeration of ice crystals and, in whipped cream, protection of the product against excessive drainage during storage.

D. W. Stanley; H. D. Goff; A. K. Smith

1996-01-01

414

Hydrocolloids in emulsions: particle size distribution and interfacial activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emulsification properties of 14 hydrocolloid gums (propylene glycol alginate, gellan, carrageenan, pectin, methylcellulose, microcrystalline cellulose, gum arabic, locust bean gum, guar, xanthan, mustard, flaxseed, fenugreek, oat) were investigated. Gum dispersions were prepared in water (0.5%) and emulsified with 40% oil using a Polytron homogenizer. Emulsion stability was determined by centrifugation and storage time, surface and interfacial tension by Du

X Huang; Y Kakuda; W Cui

2001-01-01

415

Wide band gap photonic structures in dichromate gelatin emulsions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors report the fabrication of wide band gap photonic crystals with planar structures in dichromate gelatin emulsions using a two-beam holographic method. By exploiting the differential swelling of the gelatin, planar structures with gradient spacing are fabricated. The crystals exhibit high efficiencies and wide band gaps in the visible range. The authors model the planar gelatin system by an

Rui Ma; Jun Xu; Wing Yim Tam

2006-01-01

416

Water-In-Oil Emulsion Lubricant and Hydraulic Fluid.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A readily emulsified hydraulic fluid yields a product which is stable, non-toxic, fire-resistant to deterioration, inhibits corrosion and does not cause wear. Oil concentrates are emulsified with 20 to 45 percent water to form a water-in-oil emulsion part...

C. E. Francis

1965-01-01

417

Emulsification, drying and film formation of alkyd emulsions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method was developed and optimised for the emulsification of a conventional short oil alkyd resin which was solid at room temperature. The method was based on the emulsion inversion point (EIP) method whereby hot water (90°C) was added to molten alkyd resin (90°C) containing the emulsifier. Under slow mixing and addition of water, a point was reached where the

P. K. Weissenborn; A. Motiejauskaite

2000-01-01

418

Recent advances in the combustion of water fuel emulsion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in the combustion of water fuel emulsion which consists of base fuel and water doped with or without a trace content of surfactant are reviewed. The focus is on the fundamental mechanism relevant to the micro-explosion phenomena leading to the secondary atomization which is not common to the combustion of pure fuel. Described at first are the kinetic

T. Kadota; H. Yamasaki

2002-01-01

419

A Study of Cement Modified Bitumen Emulsion Mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earlier studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of adding Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) to bitumen emulsion mixtures. These effects were confirmed for some dense graded mixtures based on recipes currently used for hot mix in the UK and being considered for use in cold mix. Laboratory tests included stiffness modulus, resistance to permanent deformation and resistance to fatigue cracking. In

S F Brown; D Needham

420

Asphalt-Emulsion Sealing of Uranium-Mill Tailings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The use of asphalt emulsion to contain radon and radium in uranium tailings is being investigated at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Results of these studies indicate that a radon flux reduction of greater than 99% can be obtained using either a poured-...

J. N. Hartley P. L. Koehmstedt D. J. Esterl

1979-01-01

421

Rheological Characterisation of Dairy Emulsions For Cold Foam Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dairy foams are complex aerated materials where the liquid matrix is an emulsion made by oil droplets dispersed in a water system. An innovative application of these systems leads to an interesting product derived from instant whipped creams that are stored and consumed at low temperatures (typically between??4 and??18°C) like an ice cream. This novel product requires a specific texture

Domenico Gabriele; Massimo Migliori; Noemi Baldino; Rosa Di Sanzo; Bruno de Cindio; Daniela Vuozzo

2011-01-01

422

Oil components modulate physical characteristics and function of the natural oil emulsions as drug or gene delivery system.  

PubMed

Oil-in-water (o/w) type lipid emulsions were formulated by using 18 different natural oils and egg phosphatidylcholine (egg PC) to investigate how emulsion particle size and stability change with different oils. Cottonseed, linseed and evening primrose oils formed emulsions with very large and unstable particles. Squalene, light mineral oil and jojoba bean oil formed stable emulsions with small particles. The remaining natural oils formed moderately stable emulsions. Emulsions with smaller initial particle size were more stable than those with larger particles. The correlation between emulsion size made with different oils and two physical properties of the oils was also investigated. The o/w interfacial tension and particle size of the emulsion were inversely proportional. The effect of viscosity was less pronounced. To study how the oil component in the emulsion modulates the in vitro release characteristics of lipophilic drugs, three different emulsions loaded with two different drugs were prepared. Squalene, soybean oil and linseed oil emulsions represented the most, medium and the least stable systems, respectively. For the lipophilic drugs, release was the slowest from the most stable squalene emulsion, followed by soybean oil and then by linseed oil emulsions. Cationic emulsions were also prepared with the above three different oils as gene carriers. In vitro transfection activity was the highest for the most stable squalene emulsion followed by soybean oil and then by linseed oil emulsions. Even though the in vitro transfection activity of emulsions were lower than the liposome in the absence of serum, the activity of squalene emulsion, for instance, was ca. 30 times higher than that of liposome in the presence of 80% (v/v) serum. In conclusion, the choice of oil component in o/w emulsion is important in formulating emulsion-based drug or gene delivery systems. PMID:11295226

Chung, H; Kim, T W; Kwon, M; Kwon, I C; Jeong, S Y

2001-04-28

423

Control of the volumetric and viscosity ratios of iron-silicate emulsion on the core formation process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a vigorously convecting magma ocean, shearing motion would cause an iron-silicate emulsion to form. Iron or silicate droplets would eventually settle or rise to form the core and the mantle. Volumetric and viscosity ratios of the droplet to continuous phase can vary but how these control the phase separation process is not understood. Here we report on a series of experiments using an oil droplet in water or hydroxyethylcellulose solution (all Newtonian) to study how these ratios govern the gravitational phase separation process. First, we changed the volumetric fraction of oil. From tracking the boundary between the layer of solution and emulsion, we find that the initial phase separation rate depends strongly on oil fraction, and can be modelled by a buoyancy driven permeable flow using the Blake-Kozeny-Carman permeability formula. Next, we changed the droplet to continuous phase viscosity ratio (?) and find that there are two distinct regimes with different styles of phase separation. Cases with ? < 100 are characterized by a sharp lower boundary and a vertically homogeneous mixture layer. On the other hand, cases with ? > 100 are characterized by a diffuse lower boundary and a large vertical gradient of composition resulting from efficient droplet coalescence. As a result, polyhedral foam structure develops at the top of the mixture layer which is slow to rupture and to transform into a uniform oil layer. We interpret these differences to arise from a faster coalescence rate relative to the separation rate at large ?, where the droplet deformation which inhibits coalescence becomes very small. We simultaneously measured electrical resistivity in order to monitor the temporal change of the mean composition in the mixture layer and found that the measurements were consistent with the visual observation. To summarize, we find that the separation rate is controlled by the permeable flow velocity, whereas the vertical compositional structure within the emulsion layer is controlled by the viscosity ratio. If the above viscosity ratio criterion can be applied to silicate-iron emulsion, the case where iron percolates through silicate droplets (? >> 1) would yield a strongly stratified mantle, compared to the case where iron droplets sink (? << 1). Future separation experiment using iron-silicate emulsion is needed to confirm this. Sato, M. and Sumita, I., Experiments on gravitational phase separation of binary immiscible fluids, J. Fluid Mech., (in press)

Sato, M.; Sumita, I.

2007-12-01

424

Latex-particle-stabilized emulsions of anti-Bancroft type.  

PubMed

Here, we investigate water-in-oil (W/O) emulsions that are stabilized by polystyrene latex particles with sulfate surface groups. The particles, which play the role of emulsifier, are initially contained in the disperse (water) phase. The existence of such emulsions formally contradicts the empirical Bancroft rule. Theoretical considerations predict that the drop diameter has to be inversely proportional to the particle concentration, but should be independent of the volume fraction of water. In addition, there should be a second emulsification regime, in which the drop diameter is determined by the input mechanical energy during the homogenization. The existence of these two regimes has been experimentally confirmed, and the obtained data agree well with the theoretical model. Stable W/O emulsions have been produced with hexadecane and tetradecane, while, in the case of more viscous and polar oils (soybean and silicone oil), the particles enter into the oily phase, and Pickering emulsions cannot be obtained. The formation of stable emulsions demands the presence of a relatively high concentration of electrolyte that lowers the electrostatic barrier to particle adsorption at the oil-water interface. Because the attachment of particles at the drop surfaces represents a kind of coagulation, it turns out that the Schulze-Hardy rule for the critical concentration of coagulation is applicable also to emulsification, which has been confirmed with suspensions containing Na(+), Mg(2+), and Al(3+) counterions. The increase of the particle and electrolyte concentrations and the decrease of the volume fraction of water are other factors that facilitate emulsification in the investigated system. To quantify the combined action of these factors, an experimental stability-instability diagram has been obtained. PMID:16700582

Golemanov, K; Tcholakova, S; Kralchevsky, P A; Ananthapadmanabhan, K P; Lips, A

2006-05-23

425

Stabilization of emulsions using polymeric surfactants based on inulin.  

PubMed

The use of polymeric surfactants for stabilization of emulsions is described. A brief account of general classification and description of polymeric surfactants is given. This is followed by a description of the adsorption and conformation of polymeric surfactants at interfaces. The theoretical approaches for studying polymer adsorption are briefly described. This is followed by a section on the experimental techniques that can be applied to study adsorption and conformation of polymers at the interface. Examples are given to illustrate the experimental techniques. A section is devoted to the interaction between droplets containing adsorbed polymer layers (steric stabilization). The last section gives results on oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions stabilised with a novel graft copolymeric surfactant based on inulin that has been modified by introducing alkyl groups. Two oils were used, namely Isopar M (isoparaffinic oil) and cyclomethicone. Emulsions prepared using the inulin-based surfactant have large droplets, but this could be significantly reduced by addition of a cosurfactant in the oil phase, namely Span 20. The stability of the emulsions was investigated in water, in 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2 mol dm(-3) NaCl and in 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2 mol dm(-3) MgSO(4). These emulsions were stable for more than 1 year up to 50 degrees C in NaCl concentrations up to 2 mol dm(-3) and 1 mol dm(-3) MgSO(4). This high stability in high electrolyte concentrations could be attributed to the nature of the hydrophilic (stabilizing) polyfructose chain. This was confirmed using cloud point measurements, which showed high hydration of the polyfructose chain in such high electrolyte concentrations. This ensured the long-term physical stability resulting from the strong steric repulsion between the polyfructose chains. PMID:15072943

Tadros, Th F; Vandamme, A; Levecke, B; Booten, K; Stevens, C V

2004-05-20

426

Accurate in situ measurement of complex refractive index and particle size in intralipid emulsions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A first accurate measurement of the complex refractive index in an intralipid emulsion is demonstrated, and thereby the average scatterer particle size using standard Mie scattering calculations is extracted. Our method is based on measurement and modeling of the reflectance of a divergent laser beam from the sample surface. In the absence of any definitive reference data for the complex refractive index or particle size in highly turbid intralipid emulsions, we base our claim of accuracy on the fact that our work offers several critically important advantages over previously reported attempts. First, our measurements are in situ in the sense that they do not require any sample dilution, thus eliminating dilution errors. Second, our theoretical model does not employ any fitting parameters other than the two quantities we seek to determine, i.e., the real and imaginary parts of the refractive index, thus eliminating ambiguities arising from multiple extraneous fitting parameters. Third, we fit the entire reflectance-versus-incident-angle data curve instead of focusing on only the critical angle region, which is just a small subset of the data. Finally, despite our use of highly scattering opaque samples, our experiment uniquely satisfies a key assumption behind the Mie scattering formalism, namely, no multiple scattering occurs. Further proof of our method's validity is given by the fact that our measured particle size finds good agreement with the value obtained by dynamic light scattering.

Dong, Miao L.; Goyal, Kashika G.; Worth, Bradley W.; Makkar, Sorab S.; Calhoun, William R.; Bali, Lalit M.; Bali, Samir

2013-08-01

427

Ethyl ferulate, a component with anti-inflammatory properties for emulsion-based creams.  

PubMed

Ethyl ferulate (FAEE) has been widely studied due to its beneficial heath properties and, when incorporated in creams, shows a high sun protection capacity. Here we aimed to compare FAEE and its precursor, ferulic acid (FA), as free radical scavengers, inhibitors of oxidants produced by leukocytes and the alterations in rheological properties when incorporated in emulsion based creams. The cell-free antiradical capacity of FAEE was decreased compared to FA. However, FAEE was more effective regarding the scavenging of reactive oxygen species produced by activated leukocytes. Stress and frequency sweep tests showed that the formulations are more elastic than viscous. The viscoelastic features of the formulations were confirmed in the creep and recovery assay and showed that the FAEE formulation was less susceptive to deformation. Liberation experiments showed that the rate of FAEE release from the emulsion was slower compared to FA. In conclusion, FAEE is more effective than FA as a potential inhibitor of oxidative damage produced by oxidants generated by leukocytes. The rheological alterations caused by the addition of FAEE are indicative of lower spreadability, which could be useful for formulations used in restricted areas of the skin. PMID:24941338

Nazaré, Ana C; de Faria, Carolina M Q G; Chiari, Bruna G; Petrônio, Maicon S; Regasini, Luis O; Silva, Dulce H S; Corrêa, Marcos A; Isaac, Vera L B; da Fonseca, Luiz M; Ximenes, Valdecir F

2014-01-01

428

The emulsion flocculation stability of protein-carbohydrate diblock copolymers.  

PubMed

The effect of the steric layer thickness on the flocculation stability of beta-lactoglobulin-carbohydrate diblock copolymers was assessed. The diblock copolymers were created by conjugating beta-lactoglobulin to maltose or a series of different M(n) maltodextrins using the Maillard reaction. The thickness and spatial arrangement of the interfacial layers were assessed via latex adsorption and selective enzymatic digestion studies. An increase in the molecular weight of the maltodextrin (900, 1900 and 3800 Da) increased the interfacial thickness (1.1, 2.5 and 7.3 nm, respectively). No detectable change to interfacial thickness was observed upon the attachment of maltose. The increase in the interfacial layer thickness scaled with the hydrodynamic size of the carbohydrate. The beta-lactoglobulin-maltodextrin conjugates were found to have a diblock architecture, with the protein anchored at the surface and the carbohydrate protruding into the aqueous continuous phase. The stability of oil-in-water emulsions formed using the conjugates was assessed by exposing them to salt (150 mM NaCl or 0-20 mM CaCl(2)), heat alone or heat in the presence of 150 mM NaCl. Conjugation of a 900 Da maltodextrin provided sufficient steric stabilization to prevent flocculation in high salt environments. The effect of the (number) density of the steric layer was also assessed by controlling the average number of maltodextrins attached per beta-lactoglobulin molecule. The steric layer density at which emulsions became unstable was a function of carbohydrate M(n). Emulsions made from the 900 Da maltodextrin conjugate became unstable below a steric layer density of one tail per 7.5 nm(2), whilst emulsions made from the 1900 Da maltodextrin were unstable below a steric layer density of one tail per 9.5 nm(2). This trend was expected and can be explained by the stronger van der Waals attraction that arises from the closer interdroplet separations that are permissible with the shorter maltodextrins. The excellent flocculation stability of Maillard conjugate emulsions is thought to arise from the combined effects of weak electrostatic repulsion from the screened protein surface charge and steric repulsion from the attached carbohydrate layer. This means that attachment of a relatively thin steric layer is enough to stabilize the emulsions against flocculation. These findings have important implications for the development of commercial processes to manufacture protein-carbohydrate Maillard conjugate emulsifiers. Furthermore the work provides a greater empirical understanding of the relationship between interfacial architecture and colloidal stability, and may provide the means for greater theoretical understanding of biopolymer stabilization of interfaces. PMID:17540395

Wooster, Tim J; Augustin, Mary Ann

2007-09-15

429

Multiple emulsion-based systems carrying insulin: development and characterization.  

PubMed

An insulin delivery system based on liquid surfactant membranes has been developed. The formulation was based on a w/o/w emulsion where an organic membrane separated two aqueous phases and the internal aqueous phase contained insulin. Sesame and cotton seed oils were used as organic membranes. In order to facilitate the transportation of glucose across the organic membrane various additives such as calcium stearate, lecithin, cholesterol, hexamine, stearic acid and glyceryl tristearate were used. The additives were found to be successful carriers for the transportation of glucose to the internal aqueous phase. Similarly, viscosity enhancers, e.g. cetostearyl alcohol, in the organic phase enhanced the immobilization of insulin. Various parameters affecting the stability of the emulsions were established. The developed system was characterized for insulin activity and insulin efflux profile. PMID:8558383

Singh, S; Singh, R; Vyas, S P

1995-01-01

430

On the transport of emulsions in porous media  

SciTech Connect

Emulsions appear in many subsurface applications includingbioremediation, surfactant-enhanced remediation, and enhancedoil-recovery. Modeling emulsion transport in porous media is particularlychallenging because the rheological and physical properties of emulsionsare different from averages of the components. Current modelingapproaches are based on filtration theories, which are not suited toadequately address the pore-scale permeability fluctuations and reductionof absolute permeability that are often encountered during emulsiontransport. In this communication, we introduce a continuous time randomwalk based alternative approach that captures these unique features ofemulsion transport. Calculations based on the proposed approach resultedin excellent match with experimental observations of emulsionbreakthrough from the literature. Specifically, the new approach explainsthe slow late-time tailing behavior that could not be fitted using thestandard approach. The theory presented in this paper also provides animportant stepping stone toward a generalizedself-consistent modeling ofmultiphase flow.

Cortis, Andrea; Ghezzehei, Teamrat A.

2007-06-27

431

[Effects of parenteral lipid emulsions on immune system response].  

PubMed

Lipid solutions used in parenteral nutrition (PN) are generally well tolerated. Recent studies reporting their effects on the immune system indicate that various compositions can modulate the immune response, thus affecting the response to pathogens and autoaggressive diseases. In this review, we discuss the compositions of various commercially available lipid solutions and their effects on the immune response to various pathologies. We conclude that: 1. Soybean oil-based emulsions are immunosuppressive and should be used with caution in inflammatory conditions, and are contraindicated in sepsis. 2. Mixtures of medium chain triglycerides and soybean oil are better tolerated. 3. Olive oil-based mixtures are neutral and are especially recommended for burned patients, premature infants and for long term PN. 4. Fish oil-based emulsions are beneficial in inflammatory conditions and in patients after major abdominal surgery. PMID:22343444

J?drzejczak-Czechowicz, Monika; Kowalski, Marek L

2011-01-01

432

High energy primary electron spectrum observed by the emulsion chamber  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A detector of the emulsion chamber type is used to measure the energy spectrum of cosmic-ray electrons. Two large emulsion chambers, each having an area of 40 by 50 sq cm, are exposed for about 25.5 hr at an average pressure altitude of 3.9 mbar. About 500 high-energy cascades (no less than about 600 GeV) are detected by searching for dark spots on the X-ray films. A power-law energy dependence formula is derived for the spectrum of primary cosmic-ray electrons in the energy region over 100 GeV. The results are in good agreement with the transition curves obtained previously by theoretical and Monte Carlo calculations.

Nishimura, J.; Fujii, M.; Aizu, H.; Hiraiwa, N.; Taira, T.; Kobayashi, T.; Niu, K.; Koss, T. A.; Lord, J. J.; Golden, R. L.

1978-01-01

433

Lateral distortions of electromagnetic cascades in emulsion chambers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electromagnetic cascades in a lead-emulsion chamber have been studied to determine the effect of air gaps on the upstream sides of the emulsions. Such air gaps cause a change in the form of the radial distribution of electron tracks, making cascades appear older and giving incorrect energy estimates. The number of tracks remaining within a radius r was found to vary as exp(-g/G), where g is the gap thickness. The characteristic gap thickness in mm is G = 3.04 + 1.30 ln (Err per GeV per sq mm) where E is the energy of the initiating gamma ray. Use of this relation provides a significant correction to cascade-energy estimates and allows one to calculate the effect of different gap thicknesses on the energy threshold for visual detection of cascades.

Porter, L. G.; Levit, L. B.; Jones, W. V.; Huggett, R. W.; Barrowes, S. C.

1975-01-01

434

Asphalt emulsion sealing of uranium mill tailings. 1979 annual report  

SciTech Connect

Uranium mill tailings are a source of low-level radiation and radioactive materials that may be released into the environment. Stabilization or disposal of these tailings in a safe and environmentally sound way is necessary to minimize radon exhalation and other radioactive releases. One of the most promising concepts for stabilizing uranium tailings is being investigated at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory: the use of asphalt emulsion to contain radon and other potentially hazardous materials in uranium tailings. Results of these studies indicate that radon flux from uranium tailings can be reduced by greater than 99% by covering the tailings with an asphalt emulsion that is poured on or sprayed on (3.0 to 7.0 mm thick), or mixed with some of the tailings and compacted to form an admixture seal (2.5 to 15.2 cm) containing 18 wt % residual asphalt.

Hartley, J.N.; Koehmstedt, P.L.; Esterl, D.J.; Freeman, H.D.

1980-06-01

435

Amphoteric water-in-oil self-inverting polymer emulsion  

SciTech Connect

An amphoteric water-in-oil self-inverting polymer emulsion is prepared which contains a copolymer of a nonionic vinyl monomer and an amphoteric vinyl monomer or a terpolymer of a nonionic vinyl monomer, an anionic vinyl monomer and a cationic vinyl monomer in the aqueous phase, a hydrocarbon oil for the oil phase, a water-in-oil emulsifying agent and an inverting surfactant. An example of a copolymer is a copolymer of a nonionic vinyl monomer such as acrylamide or methacrylamide and an amphoteric vinyl monomer such as a reaction product of dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate and monochloracetic acid. An example of a terpolymer is a terpolymer of a nonionic vinyl monomer such as acrylamide or methacrylamide, an anionic vinyl monomer such as sodium acrylate and a cationic vinyl monomer such as triethyl ammonium ethyl methacrylate methosulfate salt. The emulsion is useful in papermaking, treatment of sewage and industrial wastes, drilling muds and secondary and tertiary recovery of petroleum by water flooding.

Lipowski, S. A.

1985-11-12

436

Field-induced structure of confined ferrofluid emulsion  

SciTech Connect

Field-induced phase behavior of a confined monodisperse ferrofluid emulsion was studied using optical microscopy, light transmission, and static light scattering techniques. Upon application of magnetic field, randomly-dispersed magnetic emulsion droplets form solid structures at [lambda] = 1.5, where [lambda] is defines as the ratio of the dipole-dipole interaction energy to the thermal energy at room temperature. The new solid phase consists of either single droplet chains, columns, or worm-like clusters, depending on the volume fraction, cell thickness and rate of field application. For the column phase, an equilibrium structure of equally-sized and spaced columns was observed. The measurements taken for cell thickness 5[mu]m [<=] L [<=] 500 [mu]m and volume fraction 0.04 show the column spacing to be reasonably described by d = 1.49 L[sup 0.34].

Lawrence, E.M.; Ivey, M.L.; Flores, G.A.; Liu, J. (California State Univ., Long Beach, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy); Bibette, J. (Centre de Recherche Paul Pascal, Pessac (France)); Richard, J. (Rhone-Poulenc Recherches, Aubervilliers (France))

1994-09-01

437

Shape Transformation of Fluctuating Vesicles Filled with a Ferrofluid Emulsion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By transferring inverse double emulsion (O/W/O) droplets from an oil phase into a water phase we have assembled asymmetric vesicles containing monodisperse submicron-sized emulsion droplets, which are made of an oil-based ferrofluid. Under a magnetic field the submicron-sized ferrofluid droplets trapped inside flexible vesicles form chain structures, which depend on the size and the shape of vesicles. The formation of chains of trapped ferrofluid droplets can also induce shape changes in fluctuating vesicles. We examine the metastable shapes of lipid vesicles manipulated by an external magnetic field. The responsive vesicles provide a model system to study the topological and rheological properties of biological membranes. The equilibrium shapes and stability of the vesicles under various ionic strengths are also studied.

Tao, Zhang; Yafei, Wang; Gang, Hu

2005-03-01

438

Interfacial Molecular Imprinting in Nanoparticle-Stabilized Emulsions  

PubMed Central

A new interfacial nano and molecular imprinting approach is developed to prepare spherical molecularly imprinted polymers with well-controlled hierarchical structures. This method is based on Pickering emulsion polymerization using template-modified colloidal particles. The interfacial imprinting is carried out in particle-stabilized oil-in-water emulsions, where the molecular template is presented on the surface of silica nanoparticles during the polymerization of the monomer phase. After polymerization, the template-modified silica nanoparticles are removed from the new spherical particles to leave tiny indentations decorated with molecularly imprinted sites. The imprinted microspheres prepared using the new interfacial nano and molecular imprinting have very interesting features: a well-controlled hierarchical structure composed of large pores decorated with easily accessible molecular binding sites, group selectivity toward a series of chemicals having a common structural moiety (epitopes), and a hydrophilic surface that enables the MIPs to be used under aqueous conditions.

2011-01-01

439

Development of a Magnetic Resonance Imaging Technique for Measuring Emulsion Coalescence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The kinetics of emulsion coalescence determine emulsion stability and rheology. In an opaque, concentrated emulsion, conventional optical methods for monitoring the droplet size distribution are often impractical, and cannot distinguish between flocculation and coalescence. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is uniquely suited to measuring droplet size distributions by observing restricted diffusion, which is unaffected by flocculation. We aim to quantify the effect of shear flow on coalescence of a concentrated emulsion. We have constructed a combined annular Couette flow cell and magnetic resonance imaging probe. We have extracted the droplet size distribution in a quiescent emulsion from restricted diffusion curves and shown that the NMR method produces nearly quantitative agreement with light scattering measurements. Data from monitoring the droplet size distribution, droplet concentration and velocity profiles over time in the flowing emulsion system will be presented.

Powell, Robert; D"Avila, Marcos; Shapley, Nina; Walton, Jeffrey; Phillips, Ronald; Dungan, Stephanie

2000-11-01

440

Impact of pNIPAM microgel size on its ability to stabilize Pickering emulsions.  

PubMed

We study the influence of the particle size on the ability of poly(N-isoprolylacrylamide) microgels to stabilize direct oil-in-water Pickering emulsions. The microgel size is varied from 250 to 760 nm, the cross-linking density being kept constant. The emulsion properties strongly depend on the stabilizer size: increasing the particle size induces an evolution from dispersed drops and fluid emulsions toward strongly adhesive drops and flocculated emulsions. In order to get insight into this dependency, we study how particles adsorb at the interface and we determine the extent of their deformation. We propose a correlation between microgel ability to deform and emulsion macroscopic behavior. Indeed, as the microgels size increases, their internal structure becomes more heterogeneous and so does the polymeric interfacial layer they form. The loss of a uniform dense layer favors bridging between neighboring drops, leading to flocculated and therefore less handleable emulsions. PMID:24450736

Destribats, Mathieu; Eyharts, Mayalen; Lapeyre, Véronique; Sellier, Elisabeth; Varga, Imre; Ravaine, Valérie; Schmitt, Véronique

2014-02-25

441

Disjoining Pressure Isotherms of Water-in-Bitumen Emulsion Films  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the oil sands industry, undesirable water-in-oil emulsions are often formed during the bitumen recovery process where water is used to liberate bitumen from sand grains. Nearly all of the water is removed except for a small percentage (?1 to 2%), which remains in the solvent-diluted bitumen as micrometer-sized droplets. Knowledge of the colloidal forces that stabilized these water droplets

Shawn D. Taylor; Jan Czarnecki; Jacob Masliyah

2002-01-01

442

Emulsion atom transfer radical polymerization of 2-ethylhexyl methacrylate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emulsion atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of 2-ethylhexyl methacrylate (EHMA) was carried out with ethyl 2-bromoisobutyrate (EBiB) as an initiator and copper bromide (CuBr)\\/4,4?-dinonyl-2,2?-bipyridyl (dNbpy) as a catalyst system. The effects of surfactant type and concentration, temperature, monomer\\/initiator ratio, and CuBr2 addition on the system livingness, polymer molecular weight control, and latex stability were examined in detail. It was

Hormoz Eslami; Shiping Zhu

2005-01-01

443

Emulsion templated open porous membranes for protein purification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approximately 25cm×25cm large sheets of crosslinked highly porous poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate-co-ethylhexyl methacrylate) membranes with an average thicknesses between 285 and 565?m were prepared by casting a high internal phase emulsion (HIPE) containing monomers onto glass substrates and subsequent polymerisation. Open cellular porous polyHIPE type membranes were obtained with large pores (cavity) sizes between 3 and 10?m while interconnecting pores were

Irena Pulko; Vida Smrekar; Aleš Podgornik; Peter Krajnc

2011-01-01

444

Structure Formation in Micro-Confined Polymeric Emulsions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the present work, we present results of concentrated solutions under shear, with particular emphasis on the case that the emulsion is microconfined. When the size of a typical droplet is comparable to the gap width between the shearing plates, we observe interesting non-equilibrium pattern formation of the collective behavior. We present three results in which spontaneous structures emerge in the system; string formation, the pearl necklace structure and droplet layering.

Pathak, J. A.; Hudson, S. D.; Migler, K. B.

2002-01-01

445

An epoxy novolac emulsion system for ambient cure protective coatings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusions  Water-borne two-pack coatings based on a novel low particle size epoxy novolac emulsion, crosslinked with polycycloaliphatic\\u000a polyamine provide a good balance of several properties. Because the films cured possess a high crosslink density of cross\\u000a linkage, expectations such as rapid through film drying time, high hardness development at an early stage during cure, very\\u000a good film formation at 10°C and

DH Klein; K. C. Jörg

1998-01-01

446

Autoxidation of oil emulsions during the Artemia enrichment process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autoxidation in three Artemia enrichment emulsions (cod liver oil, tuna orbital oil, and Super Selco (Artemia Systems N.V., Belgium)) were monitored over a 23-h period. Percentage concentrations of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n ? 3), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3), total polyun-saturated, monounsaturated and saturated fatty acids, as well as DHA:EPA ratios were measured in (a) the enriched Artemia nauplii (b) control

L. A. McEvoy; J. C. Navarro; J. G. Bell; J. R. Sargent

1995-01-01

447

Numerical simulation of a concentrated emulsion in shear flow  

Microsoft Academic Search

A three-dimensional computer simulation of a concentrated emulsion in shear flow has been developed for low-Reynolds-number finite-capillary-number conditions. Nu- merical results have been obtained using an efficient boundary integral formulation with periodic boundary conditions and up to twelve drops in each periodically repli- cated unit cell. Calculations have been performed over a range of capillary numbers where drop deformation is

M. Loewenberg; E. J. Hinch

1996-01-01

448

Ultrafine medicated fibers electrospun from W\\/O emulsions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultrafine fibers containing water-soluble drugs were successfully electrospun from water-in-oil (W\\/O) emulsions, in which the aqueous phase contained the water-soluble drugs and the oily phase was a chloroform solution of amphiphilic poly (ethylene glycol)-poly (l-lactic acid) (PEG-PLLA) diblock copolymer. The diameter of the electrospun fibers was in the range of 300 nm–1 ?m. A water-soluble anticancer agent, doxorubicin hydrochloride (Dox),

Xiuling Xu; Lixin Yang; Xiaoyi Xu; Xin Wang; Xuesi Chen; Qizhi Liang; Jing Zeng; Xiabin Jing

2005-01-01

449

FREEZING OP WATER IN W\\/O EMULSIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A short review is given on the freezing of water in w\\/o emulsions. First the state of supercooled water is discussed. The quantitative treatment of the liquid-solid phase transition in supercooled water is given by the homogeneous nucleation theory. From the experimental methods, which are used to study supercooled water, only few are applicable to the liquid-solid phase transition. From

Peter Brüggeller

1982-01-01

450