Science.gov

Sample records for enantioselective synthesis application

  1. Enantioselective Synthesis of (-)-Dysiherbaine.

    PubMed

    Do, Ha; Kang, Chang Won; Cho, Joon Hyung; Gilbertson, Scott R

    2015-08-21

    Dysiherbaine, a natural product isolated from the Marine sponge Dysidea herbacea, has been shown to be a selective agonist of non-NMDA type glutamate receptors, kainate receptors. An enantioselective synthesis of dysiherbaine is reported. Metathesis of the diene followed by conversion of the resulting alkene to the amino alcohol and addition of the amino acid provides the natural product. This synthesis differs from previous approaches to the molecule in that the functionality on the tetrahydropyran ring is installed late in the route. PMID:26258884

  2. Enantioselective cyclization of enamide-ynes and application to the synthesis of the kopsifoline core

    PubMed Central

    Corkey, Britton K.; Heller, Stephen T.; Wang, Yi-Ming

    2013-01-01

    We report the palladium-catalyzed enantioselective cyclization of 1,6-enamidynes to form spirocyclic ring systems. We applied this methodology to the concise synthesis of the skeletal core of the kopsifoline alkaloids. PMID:23772095

  3. Catalytic SN 2'- and Enantioselective Allylic Substitution with a Diborylmethane Reagent and Application in Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Shi, Ying; Hoveyda, Amir H

    2016-03-01

    A catalytic method for the site- and enantioselective addition of commercially available di-B(pin)-methane to allylic phosphates is introduced (pin=pinacolato). Transformations may be facilitated by an NHC-Cu complex (NHC=N-heterocyclic carbene) and products obtained in 63-95?% yield, 88:12 to >98:2 SN 2'/SN 2 selectivity, and 85:15-99:1 enantiomeric ratio. The utility of the approach, entailing the involvement of different catalytic cross-coupling processes, is highlighted by its application to the formal synthesis of the cytotoxic natural product rhopaloic acid?A. PMID:26845488

  4. Enantioselective total synthesis of (+)-amabiline.

    PubMed

    Senter, Timothy J; Fadeyi, Olugbeminiyi O; Lindsley, Craig W

    2012-04-01

    The first total synthesis of (+)-amabiline, an unsaturated pyrrolizidine alkaloid from Cynoglossum amabile, is reported. This convergent, enantioselective synthesis proceeds in 15 steps (10-step longest linear sequence) in 6.2% overall yield and features novel methodology to construct the unsaturated pyrrolizidine or (-)-supinidine core. PMID:22432912

  5. Enantioselective total synthesis of (+)-lithospermic acid.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Arun K; Cheng, Xu; Zhou, Bing

    2012-10-01

    An enantioselective synthesis of (+)-lithospermic acid, a potent anti-HIV agent, has been accomplished in a convergent manner in nine steps. The synthesis features an enantioselective intramolecular oxa-Michael addition catalyzed by a quinidine derivative, a hypervalent iodine-mediated rearrangement of chromanone to dihydrobenzofuran, an enantioselective ?-oxyamination, and an intermolecular C-H olefination. PMID:22978790

  6. Enantioselective Total Synthesis of (+)-Lithospermic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Xu; Zhou, Bing

    2012-01-01

    An enantioselective synthesis of (+)-lithospermic acid, a potent anti-HIV agent, has been accomplished in a convergent manner in 9 steps. The synthesis features an enantioselective intramolecular oxa-Michael addition catalyzed by a quinidine derivative, a hypervalent iodine-mediated rearrangement of chromanone to dihydrobenzofuran, an enantioselective ?-oxyamination, and an intermolecular C-H olefination. PMID:22978790

  7. Enantioselective synthesis of helical polydiacetylene by application of linearly polarized light and magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yangyang; Yang, Guang; Xia, Hongyan; Zou, Gang; Zhang, Qijin; Gao, Jiangang

    2014-09-01

    Magnetic optical activity, which can occur in all media and is induced by longitudinal magnetic field, causes the difference in absorption coefficients of left and right circularly polarized light and has the potential for magnetically induced enantioselectivity in chemical reactions. Compared with the well-established technique with circularly polarized light, there are few reports on the production of helical conjugated polymers in a photochemical reaction based on above magnetochiral anisotropy mechanism. Herein, we demonstrate experimentally that the enantioselective polymerization of diacetylene derivative can be achieved in the liquid crystal phase by application of linearly polarized light under a parallel or antiparallel magnetic field. The screw direction of predominant helical polydiacetylene chain can be rigorously controlled with the relative orientation of linearly polarized light and the magnetic field. Moreover, the prepared helical polydiacetylene assemblies can serve as a direct visual probe for the enantioselective recognition of D- or L-lysine.

  8. Enantioselective Total Synthesis of Aplyviolene

    PubMed Central

    Overman, Larry E.; Schnermann, Martin J.

    2011-01-01

    The enantioselective total synthesis of the rearranged spongian diterpene aplyviolene has been completed in 14 steps from the known hydroazulenone 8. The key junction of the hydrocarbon and oxygenated fragments to form the critical C8 quaternary carbon stereocenter and set the stage for elaborating the delicate bicyclic lactone functionality was accomplished in high yield and exquisite stereoselectivity by Michael addition of an enantioenriched hydroazulenone enolate to an enantiopure α-bromocyclopentenone. PMID:21936525

  9. Chiral Holmium Complex-Catalyzed Synthesis of Hydrocarbazole from Siloxyvinylindole and Its Application to the Enantioselective Total Synthesis of (-)-Minovincine.

    PubMed

    Morikawa, Takahiro; Harada, Shinji; Nishida, Atsushi

    2015-09-01

    The catalytic and enantioselective total synthesis of (-)-minovincine has been accomplished. The key highly substituted hydrocarbazole derivative was obtained by an asymmetric Diels-Alder reaction of siloxyvinylindole catalyzed by 0.5 mol % of a chiral holmium complex. The Diels-Alder adduct was converted to a tetracyclic intermediate in a one-pot procedure. No waste stereoisomers were produced throughout the entire total synthesis. PMID:26247095

  10. Enantioselective Total Synthesis of (?)-Acylfulvene and (?)-Irofulven

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, Dustin S.; Piizzi, Grazia; Piersanti, Giovanni; Movassaghi, Mohammad

    2009-01-01

    We report our full account of the enantioselective total synthesis of (?)-acylfulvene (1) and (?)-irofulven (2), which features metathesis reactions for the rapid assembly of the molecular framework of these antitumor agents. We discuss (1) the application of an Evans Cu-catalyzed aldol addition reaction using a strained cyclopropyl ketenethioacetal, (2) an efficient enyne ring-closing metathesis (EYRCM) cascade reaction in a challenging setting, (3) the reagent IPNBSH for a late stage reductive allylic transposition reaction, and (4) the final RCM/dehydrogenation sequence for the formation of (?)-acylfulvene (1) and (?)-irofulven (2). PMID:19938810

  11. Enantioselective Total Synthesis of Secalonic Acid E.

    PubMed

    Ganapathy, Dhandapani; Reiner, Johannes R; Lffler, Lorenz E; Ma, Ling; Gnanaprakasam, Boopathy; Nieptter, Benedikt; Koehne, Ingo; Tietze, Lutz F

    2015-11-16

    The first enantioselective synthesis of a secalonic acid containing a dimeric tetrahydroxanthenone skeleton is described, using a Wacker-type cyclization of a methoxyphenolic compound to form a chiral chroman with a quaternary carbon stereogenic center with >99% ee. Further steps are a Sharpless dihydroxylation and a Dieckmann condensation to give a tetrahydroxanthenone. A late-stage one-pot palladium-catalyzed Suzuki-dimerization reaction leads to the 2,2'-biphenol linkage to complete the enantioselective total synthesis of secalonic acid E in 18?steps with 8% overall yield. PMID:26447631

  12. Enantioselective Synthesis of ?-Oxy Amides via Umpolung Amide Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Leighty, Matthew W.; Shen, Bo

    2012-01-01

    ?-Oxy amides are prepared through enantioselective synthesis using a sequence beginning with a Henry addition of bromonitromethane to aldehydes, and finishing with Umpolung Amide Synthesis (UmAS). Key to high enantioselection is the finding that ortho-iodo benzoic acid salts of the chiral copper(II) bis(oxazoline) catalyst deliver both diastereomers of the Henry adduct with high enantiomeric excess, homochiral at the oxygen-bearing carbon. Overall, this approach to ?-oxy amides provides an innovative complement to alternatives that focus almost entirely on the enantioselective synthesis of ?-oxy carboxylic acids. PMID:22967461

  13. Enantioselective synthesis of (+)-royleanone from sulfinyl quinones.

    PubMed

    Carreo, M C; Garca Ruano, J L; Toledo, M A

    2000-01-01

    A convergent enantioselective synthesis of (+)-royleanone (1) is described starting from enantiomerically pure (S)-3-hydroxy-2-isopropyl-5-tert-butylsulfinyl-p-benzoquinone, which is readily available from 3-isopropyl-1,2,4-trimethoxybenzene and 1,3,3-trimethyl-2-vinylcyclohexene. The key step is a tandem asymmetric Diels-Alder reaction/pyrolytic sulfoxide elimination process. PMID:11931108

  14. Enantioselective synthesis of 4-heterosubstituted cyclopentenones.

    PubMed

    Ulbrich, Kathrin; Kreitmeier, Peter; Vilaivan, Tirayut; Reiser, Oliver

    2013-04-19

    Racemic 4-hydroxycyclopentenone, readily derived from furfuryl alcohol, can be transformed via its O-Boc derivative to 4-acyloxy, 4-aryloxy-, 4-amino-, or 4-thio-substituted cyclopentenones with high enantioselectivity by palladium-catalyzed kinetic resolution via nucleophilic allylic substitutions. Applying this methodology, a short formal synthesis of ent-noraristeromycin was readily accomplished. PMID:23544701

  15. Pd-Catalyzed Enantioselective Aerobic Oxidation of Secondary Alcohols: Applications to the Total Synthesis of Alkaloids

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Shyam; Bagdanoff, Jeffrey T.; Ebner, David C.; Ramtohul, Yeeman K.; Tambar, Uttam K.; Stoltz, Brian M.

    2008-01-01

    Enantioselective syntheses of the alkaloids (?)-aurantioclavine, (+)-amurensinine, (?)-lobeline, and (?)- and (+)-sedamine are described. The syntheses demonstrate the effectiveness of the Pd-catalyzed asymmetric oxidation of secondary alcohols in diverse contexts and the ability of this methodology to set the absolute configuration of multiple stereocenters in a single operation. The utility of an aryne CC insertion reaction in accessing complex polycyclic frameworks is also described. PMID:18798630

  16. Enantioselective Formal Total Synthesis of (+)-Aspergillide C

    PubMed Central

    Panarese, Joseph D.; Waters, Stephen P.

    2009-01-01

    An enantioselective formal total synthesis of the cytotoxic macrolide (+)-aspergillide C has been accomplished from (S)-(?)-glyceraldehyde acetonide and the DanishefskyKitahara diene. Strategic transformations include a hetero DielsAlder reaction, Ferrier-type addition, and palladium-catalyzed oxidative lactonization to set key stereocenters within the dihydropyran core, followed by fragment coupling via (E)-selective JuliaKocienski olefination. PMID:19817392

  17. Enantioselective formal total synthesis of (+)-aspergillide C.

    PubMed

    Panarese, Joseph D; Waters, Stephen P

    2009-11-01

    An enantioselective formal total synthesis of the cytotoxic macrolide (+)-aspergillide C has been accomplished from (S)-(-)-glyceraldehyde acetonide and the Danishefsky-Kitahara diene. Strategic transformations include a hetero Diels-Alder reaction, Ferrier-type addition, and palladium-catalyzed oxidative lactonization to set key stereocenters within the dihydropyran core, followed by fragment coupling via (E)-selective Julia-Kocienski olefination. PMID:19817392

  18. Enantioselective Total Synthesis of (-)-Alstoscholarisine A.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xiao; Jiang, Shi-Zhi; Wei, Kun; Yang, Yu-Rong

    2016-03-01

    We report a concise and highly enantioselective total synthesis of (-)-alstoscholarisine A (1), a recently isolated monoterpenoid indole alkaloid that has significant bioactivity in promoting adult neuronal stem cells proliferation. A highly enantioselective (99% ee), intramolecular Ir-catalyzed Friedel-Crafts alkylation of indole 9 with a secondary allylic alcohol was utilized to establish the first stereogenic center upon which the other three contiguous chiral centers were readily set by a highly stereoselective tandem 1,4-addition and aldol reaction. The key tetrahydropyran was constructed through a hemiacetal reduction, and the final aminal bridge was forged by a one-pot reductive amination/cyclization. The conciseness of this approach was highlighted by building core bonds in each step with a minimalist protecting group strategy. PMID:26882407

  19. Application of 3-Methyl-2-vinylindoles in Catalytic Asymmetric Povarov Reaction: Diastereo- and Enantioselective Synthesis of Indole-Derived Tetrahydroquinolines.

    PubMed

    Dai, Wei; Jiang, Xiao-Li; Tao, Ji-Yu; Shi, Feng

    2016-01-01

    The first application of 3-methyl-2-vinylindoles in catalytic asymmetric Povarov reactions has been established via the three-component reactions of 3-methyl-2-vinylindoles, aldehydes, and anilines in the presence of chiral phosphoric acid, providing easy access to chiral indole-derived tetrahydroquinolines with three contiguous stereogenic centers at high yields (up to 99%) and with excellent diastereo- and enantioselectivities (all >95:5 dr, up to 96% ee). This mode of catalytic asymmetric three-component reaction offers a step-economic and atom-economic strategy for accessing enantioenriched indole-derived tetrahydroquinolines with structural diversity and complexity. PMID:26652222

  20. An Enantioselective Total Synthesis of (-)-Isoschizogamine.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhengren; Bao, Xu; Wang, Qian; Zhu, Jieping

    2015-12-01

    A concise enantioselective total synthesis of (-)-isoschizogamine, a complex bridged polycyclic monoterpene indole alkaloid, was accomplished. N-Alkylation of an enantio-enriched imine with an alkyl iodide afforded an iminium salt, which, upon heating by microwave irradiation in the presence of pivalic acid, was converted into the hexacyclic structure of natural product by a complex but ordered domino sequence. The one-pot process leading to the formation of one C?C bond and three C?N bonds created three rings and three contiguous stereogenic centers with complete control of both the relative and absolute stereochemistry. PMID:26473745

  1. Palladium-Catalyzed Enantioselective Domino Heck/Intermolecular C-H Bond Functionalization: Development and Application to the Synthesis of (+)-Esermethole.

    PubMed

    Kong, Wangqing; Wang, Qian; Zhu, Jieping

    2015-12-30

    Intramolecular asymmetric carbopalladation of N-aryl acrylamides followed by intermolecular trapping of the resulting ?-C(sp(3))-Pd complex by azoles afforded 3,3-disubstituted oxindoles in good yields with excellent enantioselectivities. Two C-C bonds were created with concurrent formation of an all-carbon quaternary stereocenter. Oxadiazole substituted oxindoles were subsequently converted to pyrroloindolines by an unprecedented reductive cyclization protocol. The utility of this chemistry was illustrated by an enantioselective synthesis of (+)-esermethole. PMID:26681502

  2. Enantioselective Synthesis of Pactamycin, a Complex Antitumor Antibiotic

    PubMed Central

    Malinowski, Justin T.; Sharpe, Robert J.; Johnson, Jeffrey S.

    2014-01-01

    Medicinal application of many complex natural products is precluded by the impracticality of their chemical synthesis. Pactamycin, the most structurally-intricate aminocyclopentitol antibiotic, displays potent anti-prolific properties across multiple phylogenetic domains, but is highly cytotoxic. A limited number of analogs produced by genetic engineering technologies show reduced cytotoxicity against mammalian cells, renewing promise for therapeutic applications. For decades, an efficient synthesis of pactamycin amenable to analog derivatizations has eluded researchers. Herein, we present a short asymmetric total synthesis of pactamycin. An enantioselective Mannich reaction/symmetry-breaking reduction sequence was designed to enable assembly of the entire carbon core skeleton in under five steps and control critical three-dimensional (stereochemical) functional group relationships. This modular route totals fifteen steps and is immediately amenable for structural analog synthesis. PMID:23580525

  3. Catalytic asymmetric assembly of C3-monosubstituted chiral carbazolones and concise formal synthesis of (-)-aspidofractinine: application of enantioselective Pd-catalyzed decarboxylative protonation of carbazolones.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ruirui; Sun, Zhongwen; Mo, Mingjie; Peng, Fangzhi; Shao, Zhihui

    2014-08-15

    The first method for the asymmetric synthesis of C3-monosubstituted chiral carbazolones, structural motifs common in medicinal chemistry, has been achieved using Pd-catalyzed decarboxylative protonation of carbazolones. This methodology has been applied to the first catalytic enantioselective formal synthesis of (-)-aspidofractinine with step economy and simplicity. PMID:25060656

  4. Enantioselective total synthesis of (-)-acutumine.

    PubMed

    Li, Fang; Tartakoff, Samuel S; Castle, Steven L

    2009-12-01

    An account of the total synthesis of the tetracyclic alkaloid (-)-acutumine is presented. A first-generation approach to the spirocyclic subunit was unsuccessful as a result of incorrect regioselectivity in a radical cyclization. However, this work spawned a second-generation strategy in which the spirocycle was fashioned via a radical-polar crossover reaction. This process merged an intramolecular radical conjugate addition with an enolate hydroxylation and created two stereocenters with excellent diastereoselectivity. The reaction was promoted by irradiation with a sunlamp, and a ditin reagent was required for aryl radical formation. These facts suggest that the substrate may function as a sensitizer, thereby facilitating homolytic cleavage of the ditin reagent. The propellane motif of the target was then installed via annulation of a pyrrolidine ring onto the spirocycle. The sequence of reactions used included a phenolic oxidation, an asymmetric ketone allylation mediated by Nakamura's chiral allylzinc reagent, an anionic oxy-Cope rearrangement, a one-pot ozonolysis-reductive amination, and a Lewis acid promoted cyclization of an amine onto an alpha,beta-unsaturated dimethyl ketal. Further studies of the asymmetric ketone allylation demonstrated the ability of the Nakamura reagent to function well in a mismatched situation. A TiCl(4)-catalyzed regioselective methyl enol etherification of a 1,3-diketone completed the synthesis. PMID:19904909

  5. Design and Stereoselective Preparation of a New Class of Chiral Olefin Metathesis Catalysts and Application to Enantioselective Synthesis of Quebrachamine: Catalyst Development Inspired by Natural Product Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Sattely, Elizabeth S.; Meek, Simon J.; Malcolmson, Steven J.; Schrock, Richard R.; Hoveyda, Amir H.

    2010-01-01

    A total synthesis of the Aspidosperma alkaloid quebrachamine in racemic form is first described. A key catalytic ring-closing metathesis of an achiral triene is used to establish the all-carbon quaternary stereogenic center and the tetracyclic structure of the natural product; the catalytic transformation proceeds with reasonable efficiency through the use of existing achiral Ru or Mo catalysts. Ru- or Mo-based chiral olefin metathesis catalysts have proven to be inefficient and entirely nonselective in cases where the desired product is observed. In the present study, the synthesis route thus serves as a platform for the discovery of new olefin metathesis catalysts that allow for efficient completion of an enantioselective synthesis of quebrachamine. Accordingly, on the basis of mechanistic principles, stereogenic-at-Mo complexes bearing only monodentate ligands have been designed. The new catalysts provide significantly higher levels of activity than observed with the previously reported Ru- or Mo-based complexes. Enantiomerically enriched chiral alkylidenes are generated through diastereoselective reactions involving achiral Mo-based bispyrrolides and enantiomerically pure silyl-protected binaphthols. Such chiral catalysts initiate the key enantioselective ring-closing metathesis step in the total synthesis of quebrachamine efficiently (1 mol % loading, 22 C, 1 h, >98% conversion, 84% yield) and with high selectivity (98:2 er, 96% ee). PMID:19113867

  6. Quaternary Stereogenic Centers through Enantioselective Heck Arylation of Acyclic Olefins with Aryldiazonium Salts: Application in a Concise Synthesis of (R)-Verapamil.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Caio C; Pfaltz, Andreas; Correia, Carlos Roque Duarte

    2015-11-16

    We describe herein a highly regio- and enantioselective Pd-catalyzed Heck arylation of unactivated trisubstituted acyclic olefins to provide all-carbon quaternary stereogenic centers. Chiral N,N?ligands of the pyrimidine- and pyrazino-oxazoline class were developed for that purpose, providing the desired products in good to high yields with enantiomeric ratios up to >99:1. Both linear and branched substituents on the olefins were well-tolerated. The potential of this new method is demonstrated by the straightforward synthesis of several O-methyl lactols and lactones containing quaternary stereocenters, together with a concise enantioselective total synthesis of the calcium channel blocker verapamil. PMID:26404102

  7. A Novel One-Step Diastereo- and Enantioselective Formation of trans-Azetidinones and Its Application to the Total Synthesis of Cholesterol Absorption Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Wu, Guangzhong; Wong, YeeShing; Chen, Xing; Ding, Zhixian

    1999-05-14

    An efficient and practical asymmetric process was developed for the synthesis of azetidinone-based cholesterol absorption inhibitors. Key to this synthesis was the discovery of a novel one-step diastereo- and enantioselective formation of trans beta-lactams starting from commercially available 3(S)-hydroxy-gamma-lactone. Various trans beta-lactams can be prepared in good yields and with better than 95:5 enantio- and diastereoselctivity. A Lewis acid-catalyzed aldol condensation and a highly enantioselective oxazaborolidine-catalyzed chiral reduction completes the side chain. PMID:11674502

  8. An Alkylidene Carbene C-H Activation Approach toward the Enantioselective Syntheses of Spirolactams: Application to the Synthesis of (-)-Adalinine.

    PubMed

    Annadi, Krishna; Wee, Andrew G H

    2016-02-01

    A method based on in situ alkylidene carbene generation-C-H insertion reaction of 5-(3-oxobutyl)pyrrolidin-2-ones and 6-(3-oxobutyl)piperidin-2-ones is developed for the enantioselective synthesis of 1-azaspiro[4,4]non-6-ene-2-ones and 6-azaspiro[4,5]dec-1-ene-7-ones. The required 5-(3-oxobutyl)pyrrolidin-2-ones and 6-(3-oxobutyl)piperidin-2-ones are prepared from the Wacker oxidation of internal alkenes typified by 5-(but-2-enyl)pyrrolidin-2-ones and 6-(but-2-enyl)piperidin-2-ones, respectively. Excellent regioselectivity (?92:8) is realized for the Wacker oxidation, and high yields (78-89%) of the desired lactam ketones are obtained. The results from further investigations into the Wacker oxidation suggested that the high regioselectivity of the oxidation in these lactam alkenes might be due to the participation of the lactam nitrogen via intramolecular coordination to Pd(II) during the reaction. Studies on alkylidene carbene generation-C-H insertion reaction of the lactam ketones revealed that the reaction efficiency is sensitive to the reaction temperature and the amount of lithio(trimethylsilyl)diazomethane employed, which led to the development of optimal reaction conditions for effecting alkylidene carbene generation-C-H insertion. Using the optimal reaction conditions, good to high yields (53-76%) of both ?- and ?-lactam spirocycles were obtained. The synthetic utility of the spirolactams was demonstrated by the synthesis of (-)-adalinine. PMID:26730565

  9. Enantioselective Total Synthesis of Pladienolide B: A Potent Spliceosome Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, David D.

    2012-01-01

    An enantioselective and convergent total synthesis of pladienolide B (1) is described. Pladienolide B binds to the SF3b complex of a spliceosome and inhibits mRNA splicing activity. The synthesis features an epoxide opening reaction, an asymmetric reduction of a ?-keto ester, and a cross metathesis strategy for the side chain synthesis. PMID:22954141

  10. Enantioselective total synthesis of (-)-limaspermidine and formal synthesis of (-)-1-acetylaspidoalbidine.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shao-Xiong; Shen, Xiao-Lei; Li, Ze-Qian; Zou, Li-Wei; Wang, Feng-Qun; Zhang, Hong-Bin; Shao, Zhi-Hui

    2013-11-15

    Evolution of the synthetic strategy that culminated in the first asymmetric total synthesis of the Aspidosperma alkaloid limaspermidine is described. The successful enantioselective route to (-)-limaspermidine proceeds in 10 steps and with the isolation of only six intermediates using a Pd-catalyzed enantioselective decarboxylative allylation we have recently developed. This first enantioselective synthesis of (-)-limaspermidine establishes unambiguously its absolute configuration and allows the first asymmetric formal total synthesis of the Aspidoalbine alkaloid (-)-1-acetylaspidoalbidine. PMID:24131444

  11. Development of an Enantioselective Route towards the Lycopodium Alkaloids: Total Synthesis of Lycopodine

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hua; Carter, Rich G.

    2010-01-01

    Synthesis of a C15-desmethyl tricycle core of lycopodine has been accomplished. Key steps in the synthetic sequence include organocatalytic, intramolecular Michael addition of a keto sulfone and a tandem 1,3-sulfonyl shift / Mannich cyclization to construct the tricyclic core ring system. Synthetic work towards this natural product family led to the development of N-(p-dodecylphenylsulfonyl)-2-pyrrolidinecarboxamide an organocatalyst which facilitiates enantioselective, intramolecular Michael additions. A detailed mechanistic discussion is provided for both the intramolecular Michael addition and the sulfone rearrangement. Finally, the application of these discoveries to the enantioselective total synthesis of alkaloid lycopodine is described. PMID:20586477

  12. A Catalytic, Enantioselective Formal Synthesis of (+)-Dichroanone and (+)-Taiwaniaquinone H

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A catalytic, enantioselective formal synthesis of (+)-dichroanone and (+)-taiwaniaquinone H is reported. The all-carbon quaternary stereocenter was constructed by asymmetric conjugate addition catalyzed by a palladium(II) (S)-tert-butylpyridinooxazoline complex. The unexpected formation of a [3.2.1] bicyclic intermediate required the identification of a new route. Analysis of the Hammett constants for para-substituted arenes enabled the rational design of a highly enantioselective conjugate addition substrate that led to the completion of the formal synthesis. PMID:25489925

  13. Enantioselective synthesis of cis-decalins using organocatalysis and sulfonyl Nazarov reagents.

    PubMed

    Pea, Javier; Silveira-Dorta, Gastn; Moro, Rosalina F; Garrido, Narciso M; Marcos, Isidro S; Sanz, Francisca; Dez, David

    2015-01-01

    The first organocatalytic synthesis of cis-decalins using sulfonyl Nazarov reagents is reported. The Jrgensen's catalyst directs this highly enantioselective synthesis using different cyclohexenal derivatives. PMID:25867826

  14. Chiral Sulfinamide Bisphosphine Catalysts: Design, Synthesis, and Application in Highly Enantioselective Intermolecular Cross-Rauhut-Currier Reactions.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wei; Su, Xiao; Tao, Mengna; Zhu, Chaoze; Zhao, Qingjie; Zhang, Junliang

    2015-12-01

    A novel type of highly efficient chiral sulfinamide bisphosphine catalysts (Wei-Phos) were developed. These could be easily prepared from commercially available starting materials. Wei-Phos has shown good performance in the very challenging intermolecular cross-Rauhut-Currier reactions of vinyl ketones and 3-acyl acrylates or 2-ene-1,4-diones, leading to the R-C products in high yields with up to 99?% ee under 2.5-5?mol% catalyst loading. The highly regio- and enantio-selective cross-Rauhut-Currier reactions of 2-ene-1,4-diones and vinyl ketone have yet reported so far. PMID:26527108

  15. Structure Elucidation of Nigricanoside A Through Enantioselective Total Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jie; Koswatta, Panduka; DeBergh, J. Robb; Fu, Peng; Pan, Ende; MacMillan, John B.; Ready, Joseph M.

    2016-01-01

    Nigricanoside A was isolated from green alga, and its dimethyl ester was found to display potent cytotoxicity. Its scarcity prevented a full structure elucidation, leaving total synthesis as the only means to determine its relative and absolute stereochemistry and to explore its biological activity. Here we assign the stereochemistry of the natural product through enantioselective total synthesis and provide initial studies of its cytotoxicity. PMID:26877863

  16. Diastereo- and enantioselective synthesis of nitroso Diels-Alder-type bicycloketones using dienamine: mechanistic insight into sequential nitroso Aldol/Michael reaction and application for optically pure 1-amino-3,4-diol synthesis.

    PubMed

    Momiyama, Norie; Yamamoto, Yuhei; Yamamoto, Hisashi

    2007-02-01

    This article presents complete diastereo- and highly enantioselective synthesis of nitroso Diels-Alder-type bicycloketones using dienamine. With the hydrogen bonding of two hydroxyls in the bulky binaphthol 1c, high enantioselectivities and complete diastereoselectivity are realized in 2-oxa-3-aza-bicycloketone synthesis. On the other hand, alpha,beta-unsaturated ketone can be employed as diene precursor, utilizing readily available tetrazole catalyst 3b, to provide the 3-oxa-2-aza-bicycloketones in moderate yields with complete enantioselectivities. Investigation into the reaction utilizing 2-morpholino-4,4-diphenylcyclohexadiene 2d clearly indicated that cyclization with the bulky binaphthol 1c is involved in the sequential process, the N-nitroso aldol reaction, followed by Michael addition. In addition, optically pure 1-amino-3,4-diol is synthesized from 2-oxa-3-aza-bicycloketones. Use of p-phenoxynitrosobenzene allows access to protected amino diol via cleavage of the N-Ph bond. PMID:17263400

  17. Catalytic Enantioselective 1,3-Dipolar Cycloadditions of Azomethine Ylides for Biology-Oriented Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Conspectus Cycloaddition reactions are among the most powerful methods for the synthesis of complex compounds. In particular, the development and application of the 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition, an important member of this reaction class, has grown immensely due to its powerful ability to efficiently build various five-membered heterocycles. Azomethine ylides are commonly used as dipoles for the synthesis of the pyrrolidine scaffold, which is an important motif in natural products, pharmaceuticals, and biological probes. The reaction between azomethine ylides and cyclic dipolarophiles allows access to polycyclic products with considerable complexity. The extensive application of the 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition is based on the fact that the desired products can be obtained with high yield in a regio- and stereocontrolled manner. The most attractive feature of the 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of azomethine ylides is the possibility to generate pyrrolidines with multiple stereocenters in a single step. The development of enantioselective cycloadditions became a subject of intensive and impressive studies in recent years. Among many modes of stereoinduction, the application of chiral metal–ligand complexes has emerged as the most viable option for control of enantioselectivity. In chemical biology research based on the principle of biology-oriented synthesis (BIOS), compound collections are prepared inspired by natural product scaffolds. In BIOS, biological relevance is employed as the key criterion to generate hypotheses for the design and synthesis of focused compound libraries. In particular, the underlying scaffolds of natural product classes provide inspiration for BIOS because they define the areas of chemical space explored by nature, and therefore, they can be regarded as “privileged”. The scaffolds of natural products are frequently complex and rich in stereocenters, which necessitates the development of efficient enantioselective methodologies. This Account highlights examples, mostly from our work, of the application of 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reactions of azomethine ylides for the catalytic enantioselective synthesis of complex products. We successfully applied the 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition in the synthesis of spiro-compounds such as spirooxindoles, for kinetic resolution of racemic compounds in the synthesis of an iridoid inspired compound collection and in the synthesis of a nitrogen-bridged bicyclic tropane scaffold by application of 1,3-fused azomethine ylides. Furthermore, we performed the synthesis of complex molecules with eight stereocenters using tandem cycloadditions. In a programmable sequential double cycloaddition, we demonstrated the synthesis of both enantiomers of complex products by simple changes in the order of addition of chemicals. Complex products were obtained using enantioselective higher order [6 + 3] cycloaddition of azomethine ylides with fulvenes followed by Diels–Alder reaction. The bioactivity of these compound collections is also discussed. PMID:24730692

  18. Enantioselective Synthesis and Application to the Allylic Imidate Rearrangement of Amine-Coordinated Palladacycle Catalysts of Cobalt Sandwich Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Cassar, Doyle J; Ilyashenko, Gennadiy; Ismail, Muhammad; Woods, James; Hughes, David L; Richards, Christopher J

    2013-01-01

    The reaction of (?5-(N,N-dimethylaminomethyl)cyclopentadien-yl)(?4-tetraphenylcyclobutadiene)cobalt with sodium tetrachloropalladate and (R)-N-acetylphenylalanine gave planar chiral palladacycle di-?-chloridebis[(?5-(Sp)-2-(N,N-dimethylaminomethyl)cyclopentadienyl,1-C,3?-N)(?4-tetraphenylcyclobutadiene)cobalt]dipalladium [(Sp)-Me2-CAP-Cl] in 92 % ee and 64 % yield. Enantiopurity (>98 % ee) was achieved by purification of the monomeric (R)-proline adducts and conversion back to the chloride dimer. Treatment with AgOAc gave (Sp)-Me2-CAP-OAc which was applied to asymmetric transcyclopalladation (up to 78 % ee). The (R)-N-acetylphenylalanine mediated palladation methodology was applicable also to the corresponding N,N-diethyl (82 % ee, 39 % yield) and pyrrolidinyl (>98 % ee, 43 % yield) cobalt sandwich complexes. A combination of 5 mol % of the latter [(Sp)-Pyrr-CAP-Cl] and AgNO3 (3.8 equiv) is a catalyst for the allylic imidate rearrangement of an (E)-N-aryltrifluoroacetimidate (up to 83 % ee), and this catalyst system is also applicable to the rearrangement of a range of (E)-trichloroacetimidates (up to 99 % ee). This asymmetric efficiency combined with the simplicity of catalyst synthesis provides accessible solutions to the generation of non-racemic allylic amine derivatives. PMID:24264943

  19. Catalytic Enantioselective Synthesis of Quaternary Carbon Stereocenters

    PubMed Central

    Quasdorf, Kyle W.; Overman, Larry E.

    2015-01-01

    Preface Quaternary carbon stereocenterscarbon atoms to which four distinct carbon substituents are attachedare common features of molecules found in nature. However, prior to recent advances in chemical catalysis, there were few methods available for constructing single stereoisomers of this important structural motif. Here we discuss the many catalytic enantioselective reactions developed during the past decade for synthesizing organic molecules containing such carbon atoms. This progress now makes it possible to selectively incorporate quaternary stereocenters in many high-value organic molecules for use in medicine, agriculture, and other areas. PMID:25503231

  20. Perylenequinone Natural Products: Enantioselective Synthesis of the Oxidized Pentacyclic Core

    PubMed Central

    Mulrooney, Carol A.; Morgan, Barbara J.; Li, Xiaolin; Kozlowski, Marisa C.

    2009-01-01

    An enantioselective approach to the perylenequinone core found in the mold perylenequinone natural products is outlined. Specifically, the first asymmetric syntheses of helical chiral perylenequinones absent any additional stereogenic centers are described. Key elements of the synthetic venture include a catalytic enantioselective biaryl coupling, a PIFA-induced naphthalene hydroxylation, and a palladium-mediated aromatic decarboxylation. Transfer of the binaphthalene axial stereochemistry to the perylenequinone helical stereochemistry proceeded with good fidelity. Furthermore, the resultant perylenequinones were shown to possess sufficient atropisomeric stability to be viable intermediates in the biogenesis of the perylenequinone natural products. This stability supports the use of the helical axis as a stereochemical relay in synthesis of the natural products containing additional stereochemical centers. PMID:19894746

  1. Scalable enantioselective total synthesis of taxanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, Abraham; Ishihara, Yoshihiro; Baran, Phil S.

    2012-01-01

    Taxanes form a large family of terpenes comprising over 350 members, the most famous of which is Taxol (paclitaxel), a billion-dollar anticancer drug. Here, we describe the first practical and scalable synthetic entry to these natural products via a concise preparation of (+)-taxa-4(5),11(12)-dien-2-one, which has a suitable functional handle with which to access more oxidized members of its family. This route enables a gram-scale preparation of the ‘parent’ taxane—taxadiene—which is the largest quantity of this naturally occurring terpene ever isolated or prepared in pure form. The characteristic 6-8-6 tricyclic system of the taxane family, containing a bridgehead alkene, is forged via a vicinal difunctionalization/Diels-Alder strategy. Asymmetry is introduced by means of an enantioselective conjugate addition that forms an all-carbon quaternary centre, from which all other stereocentres are fixed through substrate control. This study lays a critical foundation for a planned access to minimally oxidized taxane analogues and a scalable laboratory preparation of Taxol itself.

  2. Enantioselective total synthesis of callipeltoside A: two approaches to the macrolactone fragment

    PubMed Central

    Evans, David A.; Burch, Jason D.; Hu, Essa; Jaeschke, Georg

    2012-01-01

    The enantioselective total synthesis of callipeltoside A is described. Two syntheses of the macrolactone subunit are included: the first relies upon an Ireland–Claisen rearrangement to generate the trisubstituted olefin geometry and the second utilizes an enantioselective vinylogous aldol reaction for this purpose. Enantioselective syntheses of the sugar and chlorocyclopropane side chain fragments are also disclosed. The relative and absolute stereochemistry of this natural product was determined by fragment coupling with the two enantiomers of the side chain fragment. PMID:22859865

  3. Enantioselective synthesis of spliceostatin E and evaluation of biological activity.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Arun K; Veitschegger, Anne M; Sheri, Venkata Reddy; Effenberger, Kerstin A; Prichard, Beth E; Jurica, Melissa S

    2014-12-01

    An enantioselective total synthesis of spliceostatin E has been accomplished. The ?-lactone unit A was constructed from readily available (R)-glycidyl alcohol using a ring-closing olefin metathesis as the key reaction. A cross-metathesis of ring A containing ?-lactone and the functionalized tetrahydropyran B-ring provided spliceostatin E. Our biological evaluation of synthetic spliceostatin E revealed that it does not inhibit splicing in vitro and does not impact speckle morphology in cells. Spliceostatin E was reported to possess potent antitumor activity. PMID:25423085

  4. Enantioselective Synthesis of Spliceostatin E and Evaluation of Biological Activity

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    An enantioselective total synthesis of spliceostatin E has been accomplished. The ?-lactone unit A was constructed from readily available (R)-glycidyl alcohol using a ring-closing olefin metathesis as the key reaction. A cross-metathesis of ring A containing ?-lactone and the functionalized tetrahydropyran B-ring provided spliceostatin E. Our biological evaluation of synthetic spliceostatin E revealed that it does not inhibit splicing in vitro and does not impact speckle morphology in cells. Spliceostatin E was reported to possess potent antitumor activity. PMID:25423085

  5. Total Synthesis of (S)-(+)-Tylophorine Via Enantioselective Intramolecular Alkene Carboamination

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Wei; Chemler, Sherry R.

    2009-01-01

    The enantioselective synthesis of (S)-(+)-tylophorine, a potent cancer cell growth inhibitor, has been accomplished in eight steps from commercially available 3,4-dimethoxybenzyl alcohol. A copper (II)-catalyzed enantioselective intramolecular alkene carboamination was employed as the key step to construct the chiral indolizidine ring. PMID:18588345

  6. Enantioselective synthesis of arylglycine derivatives by direct C-H oxidative cross-coupling.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiao-Hong; Wang, Gang-Wei; Yang, Shang-Dong

    2015-01-18

    A new method for the synthesis of chiral ?-amino acid derivatives by enantioselective C-H arylation of N-aryl glycine esters with aryl boric acids in the presence of a chiral Pd(II)-catalyst has been developed. This work successfully integrates the direct C-H oxidation with asymmetric arylation and exhibits excellent enantioselectivity. PMID:25348347

  7. Asymmetric synthesis of trifluoromethylated amines via catalytic enantioselective isomerization of imines.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yongwei; Deng, Li

    2012-09-01

    A new approach toward the asymmetric synthesis of optically active trifluoromethylated amines was enabled by an unprecedented, highly enantioselective catalytic isomerization of trifluoromethyl imines with a new chiral organic catalyst. Not only aryl but also alkyl trifluoromethylated amines could be obtained in high enantioselectivities. PMID:22906148

  8. Enantioselective Total Synthesis of (-)-Hosieine?A.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Jie; Yan, Rui; Mi, Xianwei; Hong, Ran

    2015-09-01

    The first total synthesis of (-)-hosieine?A was accomplished and features an unprecedented nitroso-ene cyclization to construct the 2-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octane ring system. Phosphine-enabled stereoselective bromohydrination provided interesting mechanistic insights into the anti-Markovnikov process. Also noteworthy is the retention of stereochemistry at C9 in the facile radical debromination initiated by Et3 B/air. PMID:26212928

  9. Enantioselective Total Synthesis of (+)-Lyngbyabellin M

    PubMed Central

    Pirovani, Rodrigo V.; Brito, Gilmar A.; Barcelos, Rosimeire C.; Pilli, Ronaldo A.

    2015-01-01

    Lyngbyabellin M is a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase/polyketide synthase derived metabolite isolated from the cyanobacterium M. bouillonii displaying thiazole rings and a distinct chlorinated octanoic acid chain. Its absolute configuration was proposed based on the comparison of its spectroscopic data with those of other representatives of this family of marine natural products, as well as degradation and derivatization studies. Here the first total synthesis of (+)-lyngbyabellin M is described based on the coupling of three key intermediates: two chiral thiazole moieties and an anti hydroxycarboxylic acid prepared stereoselectively via a boron enolate mediated aldol reaction directed by Masamune’s chiral auxiliary. PMID:26023838

  10. Enantioselective synthesis of a chiral nitrogen-doped buckybowl.

    PubMed

    Tan, Qitao; Higashibayashi, Shuhei; Karanjit, Sangita; Sakurai, Hidehiro

    2012-01-01

    Bowl-shaped aromatic compounds, namely buckybowls constitute a family of curved polycyclic aromatic carbons along with fullerenes and carbon nanotubes. Doping of heteroatoms to the carbon frameworks of such aromatic compounds drastically modulates their physical and chemical properties. In contrast to nitrogen-doped azafullerenes or carbon nanotubes, synthesis of azabuckybowls, nitrogen-doped buckybowls, remains an unsolved challenging task. Here we report the first enantioselective synthesis of a chiral azabuckybowl, triazasumanene. X-ray crystallographic analysis confirmed that the doping of nitrogen induces a more curved and deeper bowl structure than in all-carbon buckybowls. As a result of the deeper bowl structure, the activation energy for the bowl inversion (thermal flipping of the bowl structure) reaches an extraordinarily high value (42.2?kcal per mol). As the bowl inversion corresponds to the racemization process for chiral buckybowls, this high bowl inversion energy leads to very stable chirality of triazasumanene. PMID:22692534

  11. Enantioselective Total Synthesis of (−)-Acutumine

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fang; Tartakoff, Samuel S.; Castle, Steven L.

    2009-01-01

    An account of the total synthesis of the tetracyclic alkaloid (−)-acutumine is presented. A first-generation approach to the spirocyclic subunit was unsuccessful due to incorrect regioselectivity in a radical cyclization. However, this work spawned a second-generation strategy in which the spirocycle was fashioned via a radical–polar crossover reaction. This process merged an intramolecular radical conjugate addition with an enolate hydroxylation, and created two stereocenters with excellent diastereoselectivity. The reaction was promoted by irradiation with a sunlamp, and a ditin reagent was required for aryl radical formation. These facts suggest that the substrate may function as a sensitizer, thereby facilitating homolytic cleavage of the ditin reagent. The propellane motif of the target was then installed via annulation of a pyrrolidine ring onto the spirocycle. The sequence of reactions used included a phenolic oxidation, an asymmetric ketone allylation mediated by Nakamura’s chiral allylzinc reagent, an anionic oxy-Cope rearrangement, a one-pot ozonolysis–reductive amination, and a Lewis acid promoted cyclization of an amine onto an α,β-unsaturated dimethyl ketal. Further studies of the asymmetric ketone allylation demonstrated the ability of the Nakamura reagent to function well in a mismatched situation. A TiCl4-catalyzed regioselective methyl enol etherification of a 1,3-diketone completed the synthesis. PMID:19904909

  12. Tuning of the structures of chiral phosphane-phosphites: application to the highly enantioselective synthesis of alpha-acyloxy phosphonates by catalytic hydrogenation.

    PubMed

    Rubio, Miguel; Vargas, Sergio; Surez, Andrs; Alvarez, Eleuterio; Pizzano, Antonio

    2007-01-01

    A family of new chiral phosphane-phosphites 5 has been prepared and employed in the synthesis of rhodium complexes of formulation [Rh(cod)(5)]BF4 (7). The use of bulky phosphane or phosphite groups in the preparation of 7 avoids the formation of undesired disubstituted complexes, one of which (9 a) has been isolated and characterized. Ligands 5 display important differences from the bulkier phosphane-phosphites 1: complexes 7-unlike their rigid [Rh(cod)(1)]BF4 counterparts-show fluxional behaviour in solution, consistent with backbone oscillation around the coordination plane. A detailed screening of ligands 1 and 5 in catalytic asymmetric hydrogenations of enol phosphonates 12 demonstrated a critical influence of the steric characteristics of the phosphane-phosphite in the course of the reaction, and optimization of the two phosphorus functionalities resulted in the production of versatile and efficient catalysts for this class of hydrogenations: enantioselectivities of up to 98% ee were thus obtained with substrates bearing an alkyl substituent in the beta-position, while for their challenging aryl counterparts values of up to 92% ee were achieved. The coordination mode of phosphonate 12 a towards a Rh phosphane-phosphite fragment has also been investigated and a preference of the olefin fragment to occupy the position cis to the phosphite group has been observed. From this observation an interpretation of the configurations of the hydrogenated phosphonates has also been made. PMID:17133637

  13. Organocatalytic Michael and Friedel-Crafts reactions in enantioselective synthesis of biologically active compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maltsev, O. V.; Beletskaya, Irina P.; Zlotin, Sergei G.

    2011-11-01

    Recent applications of organocatalytic Michael and Friedel-Crafts reactions in enantioselective synthesis of biologically active compounds: natural products, pharmaceutical agents and plant protection agents are reviewed. The key mechanisms of stereoinduction, types of organocatalysts and reagents used in these reactions are considered. The material is classified according to the type of newly formed bonds incorporating the asymmetric carbon atom, and the information for the most numerous C-C coupling reactions is systematized according to the natures of the electrophile and the nucleophile. The bibliography includes 433 references. Dedicated to Academician O M Nefedov on the occasion of his 80th birthday.

  14. Mo-catalyzed asymmetric olefin metathesis in target-oriented synthesis: Enantioselective synthesis of (+)-africanol

    PubMed Central

    Weatherhead, Gabriel S.; Cortez, G. A.; Schrock, Richard R.; Hoveyda, Amir H.

    2004-01-01

    Catalytic asymmetric ring-opening metathesis (AROM) provides an efficient method for the synthesis of a variety of optically enriched small organic molecules that cannot be easily prepared by alternative methods. The development of Mo-catalyzed AROM transformations that occur in tandem with ring-closing metathesis are described. The utility of the Mo-catalyzed AROM/ring-closing metathesis is demonstrated through an enantioselective approach to the synthesis of (+)-africanol. PMID:15056762

  15. Enantioselective synthesis of (-)-dihydrocodeine and formal synthesis of (-)-thebaine, (-)-codeine, and (-)-morphine from a deprotonated ?-aminonitrile.

    PubMed

    Geffe, Mario; Opatz, Till

    2014-10-17

    The ?-benzylation of a deprotonated bicyclic ?-aminonitrile, followed by Noyori's asymmetric transfer hydrogenation combined with the Grewe cyclization onto a symmetrical A-ring precursor, are the key steps of a short and high-yielding enantioselective synthesis of the morphinan (-)-dihydrocodeine. This compound can be converted to (-)-thebaine in high yield by known transformations, while (-)-codeine and (-)-morphine are available from an advanced intermediate. PMID:25271381

  16. A broadly applicable and practical oligomeric (salen) Co catalyst for enantioselective epoxide ring-opening reactions

    PubMed Central

    White, David E.; Tadross, Pamela M.; Lu, Zhe

    2014-01-01

    The (salen) Co catalyst (4a) can be prepared as a mixture of cyclic oligomers in a short, chromatography-free synthesis from inexpensive, commercially available precursors. This catalyst displays remarkable enhancements in reactivity and enantioselectivity relative to monomeric and other multimeric (salen) Co catalysts in a wide variety of enantioselective epoxide ring-opening reactions. The application of catalyst 4a is illustrated in the kinetic resolution of terminal epoxides by nucleophilic ring-opening with water, phenols, and primary alcohols; the desymmetrization of meso epoxides by addition of water and carbamates; and the desymmetrization of oxetanes by intramolecular ring opening with alcohols and phenols. The favorable solubility properties of complex 4a under the catalytic conditions facilitated mechanistic studies, allowing elucidation of the basis for the beneficial effect of oligomerization. Finally, a catalyst selection guide is provided to delineate the specific advantages of oligomeric catalyst 4a relative to (salen) Co monomer 1 for each reaction class. PMID:25045188

  17. A broadly applicable and practical oligomeric (salen) Co catalyst for enantioselective epoxide ring-opening reactions.

    PubMed

    White, David E; Tadross, Pamela M; Lu, Zhe; Jacobsen, Eric N

    2014-07-01

    The (salen) Co catalyst (4a) can be prepared as a mixture of cyclic oligomers in a short, chromatography-free synthesis from inexpensive, commercially available precursors. This catalyst displays remarkable enhancements in reactivity and enantioselectivity relative to monomeric and other multimeric (salen) Co catalysts in a wide variety of enantioselective epoxide ring-opening reactions. The application of catalyst 4a is illustrated in the kinetic resolution of terminal epoxides by nucleophilic ring-opening with water, phenols, and primary alcohols; the desymmetrization of meso epoxides by addition of water and carbamates; and the desymmetrization of oxetanes by intramolecular ring opening with alcohols and phenols. The favorable solubility properties of complex 4a under the catalytic conditions facilitated mechanistic studies, allowing elucidation of the basis for the beneficial effect of oligomerization. Finally, a catalyst selection guide is provided to delineate the specific advantages of oligomeric catalyst 4a relative to (salen) Co monomer 1 for each reaction class. PMID:25045188

  18. An Enantioselective Synthesis of a MEM-Protected Aetheramide A Derivative

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Arun K.; Rao, Kalapala Venkateswara; Akasapu, Siddhartha

    2014-01-01

    Aetheramides A and B are very potent anti-HIV agents. An enantioselective synthesis of a MEM-protected aetheramide A derivative is described. The synthesis was accomplished in a convergent and stereoselective manner. The key reactions involved asymmetric dihydroxylation, asymmetric allylation, asymmetric syn-aldol reactions and asymmetric hydrogenation. PMID:25197148

  19. An Enantioselective Synthesis of a MEM-Protected Aetheramide A Derivative.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Arun K; Rao, Kalapala Venkateswara; Akasapu, Siddhartha

    2014-09-10

    Aetheramides A and B are very potent anti-HIV agents. An enantioselective synthesis of a MEM-protected aetheramide A derivative is described. The synthesis was accomplished in a convergent and stereoselective manner. The key reactions involved asymmetric dihydroxylation, asymmetric allylation, asymmetric syn-aldol reactions and asymmetric hydrogenation. PMID:25197148

  20. Enantioselective synthesis of pladienolide B and truncated analogues as new anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vemula Praveen; Chandrasekhar, Srivari

    2013-07-19

    An enantioselective synthesis of natural anticancer macrolide pladienolide B is described. The synthetic highlights include Sharpless asymmetric epoxidation, ring closing metathesis (RCM), Ireland-Claisen rearrangement, Shi epoxidation, and Pd-catalyzed Stille coupling as key steps. The synthetic route also allowed the synthesis of the truncated analogues (41a-d) of pladienolide B. PMID:23822896

  1. Enantioselective Total Synthesis of (?)-Nardoaristolone B via a Gold(I)-Catalyzed Oxidative Cyclization

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The first enantioselective total synthesis of (?)-nardoaristolone B is accomplished by the implementation of an enantio- and diastereoselective copper(I)-catalyzed conjugate addition/enolate trapping sequence and a gold(I)-catalyzed oxidative cyclization (intermolecular oxidant), employed for the first time in total synthesis. PMID:25563976

  2. Enantioselective N-heterocyclic carbene-catalyzed synthesis of indenopyrones.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kun-Quan; Zhang, Han-Ming; Wang, Dong-Ling; Sun, De-Qun; Ye, Song

    2015-06-28

    The chiral N-heterocyclic carbene-catalyzed [4 + 2] cyclization of α-chloroaldehydes and arylidene indanediones was developed, giving the corresponding indenopyrones in good yields with high diastereoselectivities and enantioselectivities. PMID:26006112

  3. Highly regio- and enantioselective synthesis of ?,?-unsaturated amido esters by catalytic hydrogenation of conjugated enamides.

    PubMed

    Gao, Min; Meng, Jing-jing; Lv, Hui; Zhang, Xumu

    2015-02-01

    An efficient and highly regio- and enantioselective catalytic asymmetric hydrogenation of ?,?-dienamido esters to ?,?-unsaturated amido esters has been achieved using Rh/TangPhos as the catalyst. A series of ?,?-unsaturated amido acids were furnished in excellent yields with up to 99% ee. This effective methodology was applied in the asymmetric synthesis of key intermediate of Ramipril, an ACE inhibitor. PMID:25511130

  4. A Green, Enantioselective Synthesis of Warfarin for the Undergraduate Organic Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Terence C.; Sultana, Camille M.; Vosburg, David A.

    2010-01-01

    The enantioselective synthesis of drugs is of fundamental importance in the pharmaceutical industry. In this experiment, students synthesize either enantiomer of warfarin, a widely used anticoagulant, in a single step from inexpensive starting materials. Stereoselectivity is induced by a commercial organocatalyst, ("R","R")- or…

  5. Asymmetric epoxidation of cis-alkenes mediated by iminium salts: highly enantioselective synthesis of levcromakalim.

    PubMed

    Page, Philip C Bulman; Buckley, Benjamin R; Heaney, Harry; Blacker, A John

    2005-02-01

    [reaction: see text] A range of cis-substituted olefins has been epoxidized with a new dihydroisoquinolinium salt catalyst, using tetraphenylphosphonium monoperoxysulfate as the stoichiometric oxidant, giving ee's of up to 97%. The reaction has been used as the key step in an enantioselective synthesis of the antihypertensive agent levcromakalim. PMID:15673243

  6. N-Heterocyclic carbene-catalyzed enantioselective synthesis of functionalized cyclopentenes via ?,?-unsaturated acyl azoliums.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Santigopal; Yetra, Santhivardhana Reddy; Patra, Atanu; Kunte, Sunita S; Gonnade, Rajesh G; Biju, Akkattu T

    2014-12-01

    Highly enantioselective NHC-organocatalyzed synthesis of functionalized cyclopentenes proceeding via ?,?-unsaturated acyl azolium intermediates is reported. The organocascade reaction of modified enals with malonic ester derivatives having a ?-benzoyl group involves the Michael-intramolecular aldol-?-lactonization-decarboxylation sequence to deliver cyclopentenes in good yields and excellent ee values. PMID:25307503

  7. A Green, Enantioselective Synthesis of Warfarin for the Undergraduate Organic Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Terence C.; Sultana, Camille M.; Vosburg, David A.

    2010-01-01

    The enantioselective synthesis of drugs is of fundamental importance in the pharmaceutical industry. In this experiment, students synthesize either enantiomer of warfarin, a widely used anticoagulant, in a single step from inexpensive starting materials. Stereoselectivity is induced by a commercial organocatalyst, ("R","R")- or

  8. Diastereo- and enantioselective intramolecular C(sp3)-H arylation for the synthesis of fused cyclopentanes.

    PubMed

    Martin, Nicolas; Pierre, Cathleen; Davi, Michal; Jazzar, Rodolphe; Baudoin, Olivier

    2012-04-10

    All C-H bonds are not equal: The intramolecular arylation of unactivated C(sp(3))-H bonds in the presence of a chiral Pd/binepine catalyst allows the synthesis of fused cyclopentanes efficiently and in an diastereo- and enantioselective manner (see scheme). PMID:22407525

  9. Stereospecific nickel-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions of alkyl ethers: enantioselective synthesis of diarylethanes.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Buck L H; Swift, Elizabeth C; Waetzig, Joshua D; Jarvo, Elizabeth R

    2011-01-26

    Secondary benzylic ethers undergo stereospecific substitution reactions with Grignard reagents in the presence of nickel catalysts. Reactions proceed with inversion of configuration and high stereochemical fidelity. This reaction allows for facile enantioselective synthesis of biologically active diarylethanes from readily available optically enriched carbinols. PMID:21155567

  10. A practical enantioselective total synthesis of the bengamides B, E, and Z.

    PubMed

    Boeckman, Robert K; Clark, Tammy J; Shook, Brian C

    2002-06-13

    [reaction: see text] A practical total synthesis of Bengamides B, E, and Z from a common polyol intermediate is described. Consecutive aldol condensations afford a protected polyol thioester side chain suitable for coupling to the Bengamides. A novel chiral phase transfer catalyzed enantioselective alkylation affords the more highly functionalized amino caprolactams required for Bengamides B and Z. Use of the 2-naphthylmethyl ether protecting group, compatible with the boron Lewis acids required for enantioselective aldol condensation, allows direct access to Bengamide B. PMID:12049530

  11. Asymmetric synthesis of N-allylic indoles via regio- and enantioselective allylation of aryl hydrazines

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Kun; Gilles, Thomas; Breit, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    The asymmetric synthesis of N-allylic indoles is important for natural product synthesis and pharmaceutical research. The regio- and enantioselective N-allylation of indoles is a true challenge due to the favourable C3-allylation. We develop here a new strategy to the asymmetric synthesis of N-allylic indoles via rhodium-catalysed N-selective coupling of aryl hydrazines with allenes followed by Fischer indolization. The exclusive N-selectivities and good to excellent enantioselectivities are achieved applying a rhodium(I)/DTBM-Segphos or rhodium(I)/DTBM-Binap catalyst. This method permits the practical synthesis of valuable chiral N-allylated indoles, and avoids the N- or C-selectivity issue. PMID:26137886

  12. Enantioselective Synthesis of the Proposed Structure of Cytotoxic Macrolides Iriomoteolide-1a and 1b

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Arun K.; Yuan, Hao

    2010-01-01

    Enantioselective total syntheses of the proposed structures of macrolide cytotoxic agents iriomoteolide-1a and 1b have been accomplished. The synthesis was carried out in a convergent and stereoselective manner. However, the present work suggests that the reported structures have been assigned incorrectly. The synthesis features Julia-Kocienski olefination, Sharpless asymmetric epoxidation, Brown asymmetric crotylboration, a Sakurai reaction, an aldol reaction, and enzymatic resolution as the key steps. PMID:20560539

  13. Catalytic enantioselective synthesis of planar-chiral cyclic amides based on a Pd-catalyzed asymmetric allylic substitution reaction.

    PubMed

    Igawa, Kazunobu; Ichikawa, Nobumasa; Ano, Yusuke; Katanoda, Keisuke; Ito, Masato; Akiyama, Toshiyuki; Tomooka, Katsuhiko

    2015-06-17

    The highly enantioselective synthesis of planar-chiral nine-membered cyclic amides was achieved by the Pd-catalyzed asymmetric allylic cyclization of achiral linear precursors in the presence of a catalytic amount of chiral ligand. PMID:26053786

  14. An Enantioselective Synthesis of the ABD Tricycle for (-)-Phomactin A Featuring Rawal's Asymmetric Diels-Alder Cycloaddition.

    PubMed

    You, Ling-Feng; Hsung, Richard P; Bedermann, Aaron A; Kurdyumov, Aleksey V; Tang, Yu; Buchanan, Grant S; Cole, Kevin P

    2008-12-18

    An enantioselective synthesis of the ABD-ring of (-)-phomactin A is described here. The sequence features Rawal's asymmetric Diels-Alder cycloaddition. The overall length is significantly reduced from our previous attempt. PMID:20351791

  15. Engineering an enantioselective amine oxidase for the synthesis of pharmaceutical building blocks and alkaloid natural products.

    PubMed

    Ghislieri, Diego; Green, Anthony P; Pontini, Marta; Willies, Simon C; Rowles, Ian; Frank, Annika; Grogan, Gideon; Turner, Nicholas J

    2013-07-24

    The development of cost-effective and sustainable catalytic methods for the production of enantiomerically pure chiral amines is a key challenge facing the pharmaceutical and fine chemical industries. This challenge is highlighted by the estimate that 40-45% of drug candidates contain a chiral amine, fueling a demand for broadly applicable synthetic methods that deliver target structures in high yield and enantiomeric excess. Herein we describe the development and application of a "toolbox" of monoamine oxidase variants from Aspergillus niger (MAO-N) which display remarkable substrate scope and tolerance for sterically demanding motifs, including a new variant, which exhibits high activity and enantioselectivity toward substrates containing the aminodiphenylmethane (benzhydrylamine) template. By combining rational structure-guided engineering with high-throughput screening, it has been possible to expand the substrate scope of MAO-N to accommodate amine substrates containing bulky aryl substituents. These engineered MAO-N biocatalysts have been applied in deracemization reactions for the efficient asymmetric synthesis of the generic active pharmaceutical ingredients Solifenacin and Levocetirizine as well as the natural products (R)-coniine, (R)-eleagnine, and (R)-leptaflorine. We also report a novel MAO-N mediated asymmetric oxidative Pictet-Spengler approach to the synthesis of (R)-harmicine. PMID:23808566

  16. Catalytic, Enantioselective Synthesis of 1,2-anti Diols via Asymmetric Ring Opening/Cross Metathesis

    PubMed Central

    Hartung, John

    2014-01-01

    An enantioselective method for the synthesis of 1,2-anti diols has been developed. A cyclometallated chiral-at-Ru complex catalyzes the asymmetric ring opening/cross metathesis of dioxygenated cyclobutenes, resulting in functionally rich synthetic building blocks. Syntheses of the insect pheromone (+)-endo brevicomin and monosaccharide ribose demonstrate the synthetic utility of the 1,2-anti diol fragments generated in the title reaction. PMID:24554613

  17. Ru-catalyzed asymmetric hydrogenation of δ-keto Weinreb amides: enantioselective synthesis of (+)-Centrolobine.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Mengmeng; Lu, Bin; Ding, Guangni; Ren, Kai; Xie, Xiaomin; Zhang, Zhaoguo

    2016-02-24

    An efficient asymmetric hydrogenation of δ-keto Weinreb amides catalyzed by a Ru-Xyl-SunPhos-Daipen bifunctional catalyst has been achieved. This method afforded a series of enantio-enriched δ-hydroxy Weinreb amides in good yields (up to 93%) and enantioselectivities (up to 99%). This protocol was successfully applied to the synthesis of the key intermediate of (+)-Centrolobine. PMID:26837278

  18. Enantioselective synthesis of C-linked spiroacetal-triazoles as privileged natural product-like scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Kueh, Jui Thiang Brian; Choi, Ka Wai; Brimble, Margaret A

    2012-08-14

    The enantioselective synthesis of novel C-linked spiroacetal-triazoles 10 is reported. The key step involves reaction of acetylenic spiroacetal 11 with several azides by the Copper-Catalysed Azide-Alkyne Cycloaddition (CuAAC). The biologically privileged spiroacetal scaffold 11 was prepared from silyl-protected Weinreb amide 19 using several reliable Grignard additions and a highly diastereoselective enzymatic kinetic resolution. PMID:22237938

  19. Enantioselective hydrogenation of ?-aminomethylacrylates containing a free NH group for the synthesis of ?-amino acid derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Liqin; Prashad, Mahavir; Hu, Bin; Prasad, Kapa; Repi?, Oljan; Blacklock, Thomas J.; Kwong, Fuk Yee; Kok, Stanton H. L.; Lee, Hang Wai; Chan, Albert S. C.

    2007-01-01

    We describe highly enantioselective synthesis of ?-amino acid derivatives (1a-c) using asymmetric hydrogenation of ?-aminomethylacrylates (2a-c), which contain a free basic NH group, as the key step. The ?-aminomethylacrylates (2a-c) were prepared using the BaylisHillman reaction of an appropriate aldehyde with methyl acrylate followed by acetylation of the resulting allylic alcohols (4a-b) and SN2?-type amination of the allylic acetates (3a-b). PMID:17942689

  20. Enantioselective Total Synthesis of (+)-Steenkrotin?A and Determination of Its Absolute Configuration.

    PubMed

    Pan, Saiyong; Gao, Beiling; Hu, Jialei; Xuan, Jun; Xie, Hujun; Ding, Hanfeng

    2016-01-01

    The first enantioselective total synthesis of (+)-steenkrotin?A has been achieved in 18?steps and 4.2?% overall yield. The key features of the strategy entail a Rh-catalyzed O-H bond insertion followed by an intramolecular carbonyl-ene reaction, two sequential SmI2 -mediated Ueno-Stork and ketyl-olefin cyclizations, and a cascade intramolecular aldol condensation/vinylogous retro-aldol/aldol process with inversion of the relative configuration at the C7 position. The absolute configuration of (+)-steenkrotin A was determined based on the stepwise construction of the stereocenters during the total synthesis. PMID:26660855

  1. Enzymatic Kinetic Resolution of 2-Piperidineethanol for the Enantioselective Targeted and Diversity Oriented Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Perdicchia, Dario; Christodoulou, Michael S; Fumagalli, Gaia; Calogero, Francesco; Marucci, Cristina; Passarella, Daniele

    2015-01-01

    2-Piperidineethanol (1) and its corresponding N-protected aldehyde (2) were used for the synthesis of several natural and synthetic compounds. The existence of a stereocenter at position 2 of the piperidine skeleton and the presence of an easily-functionalized group, such as the alcohol, set 1 as a valuable starting material for enantioselective synthesis. Herein, are presented both synthetic and enzymatic methods for the resolution of the racemic 1, as well as an overview of synthesized natural products starting from the enantiopure 1. PMID:26712740

  2. Enzymatic Kinetic Resolution of 2-Piperidineethanol for the Enantioselective Targeted and Diversity Oriented Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Perdicchia, Dario; Christodoulou, Michael S.; Fumagalli, Gaia; Calogero, Francesco; Marucci, Cristina; Passarella, Daniele

    2015-01-01

    2-Piperidineethanol (1) and its corresponding N-protected aldehyde (2) were used for the synthesis of several natural and synthetic compounds. The existence of a stereocenter at position 2 of the piperidine skeleton and the presence of an easily-functionalized group, such as the alcohol, set 1 as a valuable starting material for enantioselective synthesis. Herein, are presented both synthetic and enzymatic methods for the resolution of the racemic 1, as well as an overview of synthesized natural products starting from the enantiopure 1. PMID:26712740

  3. Enantioselective Total Synthesis of Brevetoxin A: Convergent Coupling Strategy and Completion

    PubMed Central

    Zuccarello, J. Lucas; McDougall, Patrick J.; Ellis, J. Michael

    2010-01-01

    A highly convergent, enantioselective total synthesis of brevetoxin A is reported. The development of a [X + 2 + X] HornerWadsworthEmmons/cyclodehydration/reductive etherification convergent coupling strategy allowed for a unified approach to the synthesis of two advanced tetracyclic fragments from four cyclic ether subunits. The HornerWittig coupling of the two tetracyclic fragments provided substrates that were explored for reductive etherification, the success of which delivered a late-stage tetraol intermediate. The tetraol was converted to the natural product through an expeditious selective oxidative process, followed by methylenation. PMID:19655349

  4. Gram-scale enantioselective formal synthesis of morphine through an ortho-para oxidative phenolic coupling strategy.

    PubMed

    Tissot, Matthieu; Phipps, Robert J; Lucas, Catherine; Leon, Rafael M; Pace, Robert D M; Ngouansavanh, Tifelle; Gaunt, Matthew J

    2014-12-01

    A gram-scale catalytic enantioselective formal synthesis of morphine is described. The key steps of the synthesis involve an ortho-para oxidative phenolic coupling and a highly diastereoselective "desymmetrization" of the resulting cyclohexadienone that generates three of the four morphinan ring junction stereocenters in one step. The stereochemistry is controlled from a single carbinol center installed through catalytic enantioselective hydrogenation. These transformations enabled the preparation of large quantities of key intermediates and could support a practical and scalable synthesis of morphine and related derivatives. PMID:25288124

  5. Enantioselective total synthesis of isoedunol and beta-araneosene featuring unconventional strategy and methodology.

    PubMed

    Kingsbury, Jason S; Corey, E J

    2005-10-12

    A new synthetic strategy for the enantioselective synthesis of members of the dolabellane family of marine natural products has been demonstrated for the specific examples beta-araneosene and isoedunol (1 and 2, respectively) by the pathway outlined in Scheme 1. Key steps include (1) diastereoselective alkylation of Seebach's chiral lactate acetal (6) by the iodide derived from 5; (2) Kulinkovich ethylenation of ester 9 to form the cyclopropanol 10; (3) ring expansion of 10 to form 11; (4) pinacol cyclization of keto aldehyde 12 to form 13a; (5) rearrangement of 13b to 14; (6) propenylation of 14 to 2; and (7) reductive pi-transposition to form 1. PMID:16201801

  6. Enantioselective Synthesis of Homoallylic Azides and Nitriles via Palladium-Catalyzed Decarboxylative Allylation.

    PubMed

    Vita, Maria Victoria; Caramenti, Paola; Waser, Jerome

    2015-12-01

    Azides and nitriles are important building blocks for the synthesis of nitrogen-containing bioactive compounds. The first example of enantioselective palladium-catalyzed decarboxylative allylation of ?-azido and cyano ?-ketoesters is reported. Indanone derivatives were obtained in 50-88% yield/77-97% ee and 46-98% yield/78-93% ee for azide and nitrile substituents, respectively. The required starting materials were synthesized in one step from ketoesters via electrophilic azidation and cyanation using benziodoxole hypervalent iodine reagents. The products could be easily converted into useful nitrogen-containing building blocks, such as triazoles, amides, or ?- and ?- amino ketones. PMID:26580714

  7. Enantioselective total synthesis and absolute configuration of apiosporic acid.

    PubMed

    Grtner, Martin; Kossler, David; Pflsterer, Daniel; Helmchen, Gnter

    2012-05-01

    The first total synthesis of the polyketide apiosporic acid is presented. Key steps are a Julia-Kocienski olefination, a Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling, and an intramolecular Diels-Alder reaction. The absolute configuration of the natural product was determined. PMID:22510063

  8. Bicyclic Guanidine Catalyzed Asymmetric Tandem Isomerization Intramolecular-Diels-Alder Reaction: The First Catalytic Enantioselective Total Synthesis of (+)-alpha-Yohimbine.

    PubMed

    Feng, Wei; Jiang, Danfeng; Kee, Choon-Wee; Liu, Hongjun; Tan, Choon-Hong

    2016-02-01

    Hydroisoquinoline derivatives were prepared in moderate to good enantioselectivities via a bicyclic guanidine-catalyzed tandem isomerization intramolecular-Diels-Alder (IMDA) reaction of alkynes. With this synthetic method, the first enantioselective synthesis of (+)-alpha-yohimbine was completed in 9 steps from the IMDA products. PMID:25932622

  9. A general procedure for the enantioselective synthesis of the minor tobacco alkaloids nornicotine, anabasine, and anatabine.

    PubMed

    Ayers, Joshua T; Xu, Rui; Dwoskin, Linda P; Crooks, Peter A

    2005-01-01

    The minor tobacco alkaloids nornicotine, anabasine, and anatabine from Nicotiana tobacum are known to possess nicotinic receptor agonist activity, although they are relatively less potent than S-(-)-nicotine, the principal tobacco alkaloid. Previous pharmacological investigations and structure-activity studies have been limited owing to the lack of availability of the optically pure forms of these minor alkaloids. We now report a 2-step synthetic procedure for the enantioselective synthesis of the optical isomers of nornicotine and anabasine, and a modified procedure for the synthesis of anatabine enantiomers. These procedures involve initial formation of the chiral ketimine resulting from the condensation of either 1R, 2R, 5R-(+)- or 1S, 2S, 5S-(-)-2-hydroxy-3-pinanone with 3-(aminomethyl)pyridine followed by enantioselective C-alkylation with an appropriate halogenoalkane or halogenoalkene species, N-deprotection, and base-catalyzed intramolecular ring closure, to form the appropriate, chirally pure minor tobacco alkaloid. Using this approach, the R-(+)- and S-(-)-enantiomers of the above minor tobacco alkaloids were obtained in good overall chemical yield and excellent enantomeric excess. PMID:16353951

  10. Effect of high pressure on the organocatalytic asymmetric Michael reaction: highly enantioselective synthesis of ?-nitroketones with quaternary stereogenic centers.

    PubMed

    Kwiatkowski, Piotr; Dudzi?ski, Krzysztof; ?y?wa, Dawid

    2011-07-15

    The significant effect of hydrostatic pressure on the difficult organocatalytic 1,4-conjugate addition of nitroalkanes to prochiral sterically congested ?,?-disubstituted enones is demonstrated. This approach allows for the synthesis of ?-nitroketones containing quaternary stereogenic centers with good yields, excellent enantioselectivity, and low loading (1-5 mol %) of simple chiral primary amine catalysts. PMID:21671564

  11. Enantioselective total synthesis of otteliones A and B, novel and powerful antitumor agents from the freshwater plant Ottelia alismoides.

    PubMed

    Katoh, Tadashi

    2013-07-01

    Otteliones A and B, isolated from the freshwater plant Ottelia alismoides, have attracted significant attention because of their potential as novel anticancer agents. In this review, four independent enantioselective total syntheses and one formal synthesis of these natural products are presented with particular focus on their methodology and strategy. PMID:23980432

  12. An Enantioselective Synthesis of Spirobilactams through Copper-Catalyzed Intramolecular Double N-Arylation and Phase Separation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianguang; Tian, Yingying; Shi, Jialing; Zhang, Shasha; Cai, Qian

    2015-09-01

    Spirobicyclic structures are versatile building blocks for functional chiral molecules. An enantioselective synthesis of chiral spirobilactams via a copper-catalyzed double N-arylation was developed. Amplification of solution ee by in?situ precipitation of the racemate was observed with this method and enantioenriched spirobilactams were obtained with excellent ee values through simple solid-solution phase separation. PMID:26228798

  13. Enantioselective Synthesis of 3-Methyleneindan-1-ols via a One-Pot Allylboration-Heck Reaction of 2-Bromobenzaldehydes.

    PubMed

    Calder, Ewen D D; Sutherland, Andrew

    2015-05-15

    A novel, one-pot allylboration-Heck reaction of 2-bromobenzaldehydes has been developed for the general and efficient synthesis of 3-methyleneindan-1-ols. Modification of the one-pot procedure to include chiral Brnsted acid catalyzed allylation has allowed the preparation of these building blocks in high enantioselectivity and excellent yields. PMID:25933177

  14. Enantioselective Total Synthesis of Terreumols A and C from the Mushroom Tricholoma terreum.

    PubMed

    Frichert, Alex; Jones, Peter G; Lindel, Thomas

    2016-02-01

    The cytotoxic meroterpenoids terreumol A and C from the grey knight mushroom Tricholoma terreum were synthesized for the first time. The key step of the enantioselective total synthesis of terreumol C is a ring-closing metathesis to form a trisubstituted Z double bond embedded in the 10-membered ring of the [8.4.0] bicycle. Interestingly, the presence of a free hydroxy group in the metathesis precursor prevents cyclization and favors cross metathesis. (-)-Terreumol C was converted into (-)-terreumol A by diastereoselective epoxidation. Starting from 2-bromo-3,5-dimethoxybenzaldehyde, 14 steps with an overall yield of 23 % are needed for the synthesis of (-)-terreumol A. X-ray analysis of the benzoquinone analogue of terreumol A provides independent proof of the absolute configuration. PMID:26765739

  15. Enantioselective Synthesis of (?)-Maoecrystal V by Enantiodetermining CH Functionalization

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of a program directed at the enantioselective total synthesis of maoecrystal V, a highly modified ent-kauranoid, is described. An early stage chiral auxiliary-directed asymmetric CH functionalization for the construction of a key benzofuran intermediate enabled the first asymmetric synthesis of the natural enantiomer of maoecrystal V, confirming the assigned stereochemistry. A divergent course of the central intramolecular DielsAlder reaction, which is dependent on the nature of the dienophile, initially led to the development of an unanticipated and previously unknown isomer of maoecrystal V, which we named maoecrystal ZG. In light of the reported selective and potent cytotoxic activity of maoecrystal V, the cytotoxic properties of maoecrystal ZG were also investigated. PMID:25409033

  16. Asymmetric Total Synthesis of (-)-Englerin A through Catalytic Diastereo- and Enantioselective Carbonyl Ylide Cycloaddition.

    PubMed

    Hanari, Taiki; Shimada, Naoyuki; Kurosaki, Yasunobu; Thrimurtulu, Neetipalli; Nambu, Hisanori; Anada, Masahiro; Hashimoto, Shunichi

    2015-08-10

    An asymmetric total synthesis of the guaiane sesquiterpene (-)-englerin A, a potent and selective inhibitor of the growth of renal cancer cell lines, was accomplished. The basis of the approach is a highly diastereo- and enantioselective carbonyl ylide cycloaddition with an ethyl vinyl ether dipolarophile under catalysis by dirhodium(II) tetrakis[N-tetrachlorophthaloyl-(S)-tert-leucinate], [Rh2 (S-TCPTTL)4 ], to construct the oxabicyclo[3.2.1]octane framework with concomitant introduction of the oxygen substituent at C9 on the exo-face. Another notable feature of the synthesis is ruthenium tetraoxide-catalyzed chemoselective oxidative conversion of C9 ethyl ether to C9 acetate. PMID:26179743

  17. Phormidolides B and C, cytotoxic agents from the sea: enantioselective synthesis of the macrocyclic core.

    PubMed

    Lorente, Adriana; Gil, Alejandro; Fernndez, Rogelio; Cuevas, Carmen; Albericio, Fernando; lvarez, Mercedes

    2015-01-01

    New cytotoxic polyketide macrolides named phormidolides?B and C were isolated from a marine sponge of the Petrosiidae family collected off the coast of Pemba (Tanzania). The isolation, structure elucidation, and enantioselective synthesis of three diastereomers of the macrocyclic core is described herein. The described synthetic methodology started from 2-deoxy-D-ribose or 2-deoxy-L-ribose and afforded the desired macrocycles with high enantiomeric purity. The key step of the synthesis is the formation of the Z-trisubstituted double bond using a Julia-Kocienski olefination. The versatility of the synthetic methodology may provide access to other enantiopure macrocycles by making changes in the starting materials or chiral inductors. PMID:25359690

  18. Synthesis of Chiral Tertiary Alcohols by Cu(I) -Catalyzed Enantioselective Addition of Organomagnesium Reagents to Ketones.

    PubMed

    Rong, Jiawei; Pellegrini, Tilde; Harutyunyan, Syuzanna R

    2016-03-01

    Catalytic enantioselective addition of organometallic nucleophiles to ketones is among the most straightforward approaches to the synthesis of chiral tertiary alcohols. The first such catalytic methodologies using the highly reactive organomagnesium reagents, which are the preferred organometallic reagents in terms of cost, availability, atom efficiency, and structural diversity, were developed only during the last five years. This Concept article highlights the fundamental breakthrough that made the development of methodologies for highly enantioselective Cu(I) -catalyzed alkylation of ketones using organomagnesium reagents possible. PMID:26511715

  19. Enantioselective Synthesis of N-PMP-1,2-dihydropyridines via Formal [4 + 2] Cycloaddition between Aqueous Glutaraldehyde and Imines.

    PubMed

    Ramaraju, Panduga; Mir, Nisar A; Singh, Deepika; Gupta, Vivek K; Kant, Rajni; Kumar, Indresh

    2015-11-20

    A simple and highly practical one-pot formal [4 + 2] cycloaddition approach for the enantioselective synthesis of N-PMP-1,2-dihydropyridines (DHPs) is described. This chemistry involves an amino-catalytic direct Mannich reaction/cyclization followed by IBX-mediated chemo- and regioselective oxidation sequence between readily available aqueous glutaraldehyde and imines under very mild conditions. A series of N-PMP-1,2-DHPs have been prepared in high yields and excellent enantioselectivity. This method also gives access to both enantiomers of 1,2-DHPs in surplus amount by shifting the catalyst configuration. PMID:26516787

  20. Enantioselective Synthesis of (+)-Chamaecypanone C, a Novel Microtubule Inhibitor**

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Suwei; Hamel, Ernest; Bai, Ruoli; Covell, David G.; Beutler, John A.; Porco, John A.

    2009-01-01

    A number of bicyclo[2.2.2]octenone-containing natural products have been isolated from the heartwood of Chamaecyparis obtusa var. formosana (Figure 1) including the Diels-Alder adducts[1] obtunone (1),[2] chamaecypanone C (2),[3] and the [4+2] dimer (+)-3.[2],[4] Compound (+)-2 was shown to exhibit potent cytotoxicity against several human cancer cells including human oral epidermoid carcinoma (KB) (IC50 = 190 nM).[3] The biosynthesis of 2 was proposed[3] to occur via endo [4+2] cycloaddition between 1-hydroxymentha-3,5-dien-2-one 4 (Figure 2) and 1,3-bis-arylcyclopenta-1,3-diene 5, followed by oxidation to an enone in accord with literature reports of cyclopentadienes as biosynthetic precursors to natural products.[1b] An alternative possibility involving the corresponding cyclopentadienone 6 as dienophile may also be considered in light of known biosyntheses involving reactive cyclopentadienones.[5] Herein, we report a concise synthesis of both enantiomers of chamaecypanone C involving a retro-DA/DA cascade of dimer 3, obtained utilizing copper-mediated asymmetric oxidative dearomatization,[6] as well as biological studies documenting that the cytotoxic action of (+)-2 involves mitotic arrest as a consequence of its binding in the colchicine site of tubulin. PMID:19140149

  1. Highly enantioselective synthesis and cellular evaluation of spirooxindoles inspired by natural products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonchick, Andrey P.; Gerding-Reimers, Claas; Catarinella, Mario; Schürmann, Markus; Preut, Hans; Ziegler, Slava; Rauh, Daniel; Waldmann, Herbert

    2010-09-01

    In biology-oriented synthesis the underlying scaffold classes of natural products selected in evolution are used to define biologically relevant starting points in chemical structure space for the synthesis of compound collections with focused structural diversity. Here we describe a highly enantioselective synthesis of natural-product-inspired 3,3'-pyrrolidinyl spirooxindoles-which contain an all-carbon quaternary centre and three tertiary stereocentres. This synthesis takes place by means of an asymmetric Lewis acid-catalysed 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of an azomethine ylide to a substituted 3-methylene-2-oxindole using 1-3 mol% of a chiral catalyst formed from a N,P-ferrocenyl ligand and CuPF6(CH3CN)4. Cellular evaluation has identified a molecule that arrests mitosis, induces multiple microtubule organizing centres and multipolar spindles, causes chromosome congression defects during mitosis and inhibits tubulin regrowth in cells. Our findings support the concept that compound collections based on natural-product-inspired scaffolds constructed with complex stereochemistry will be a rich source of compounds with diverse bioactivity.

  2. Enantioselective iridium-catalyzed allylic arylation.

    PubMed

    Polet, Damien; Rathgeb, Xavier; Falciola, Caroline A; Langlois, Jean-Baptiste; El Hajjaji, Samir; Alexakis, Alexandre

    2009-01-01

    We describe herein the development of the first iridium-catalyzed allylic substitution using arylzinc nucleophiles. High enantioselectivities were obtained from the reactions, which used commercially available Grignard reagents as the starting materials. This methodology was also shown to be compatible with halogen/metal exchange reactions. Its synthetic potential is demonstrated by its application towards the formal synthesis of (+)-sertraline. PMID:19072966

  3. Enantioselective Synthesis of Various Cyanohydrins Using Covalently Immobilized Preparations of Hydroxynitrile Lyase from Prunus dulcis.

    PubMed

    Alagöz, Dilek; Tükel, S Seyhan; Yildirim, Deniz

    2015-11-01

    The carrier-based and carrier-free (cross-linked enzyme aggregate) covalent immobilizations of Prunus dulcis hydroxynitrile lyase were investigated. The immobilized preparations were tested for enantioselective carbon-carbon bond formation activity in the biphasic medium. Of the tested preparations, only cross-linked enzyme aggregate of P. dulcis hydroxynitrile lyase (PdHNL-CLEA) achieved the synthesis of (R)-mandelonitrile with 93% yield and 99% enantiopurity. PdHNL-CLEA was also used in the synthesis of various (R)-cyanohydrins from corresponding aldehydes/ketones and hydrocyanic acid. When 4-methoxybenzaldehyde, 4-methyl benzaldehyde, and 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde were used as substrates, the yield-enantiomeric excess of corresponding (R)-cyanohydrins were obtained as 95-95, 85-79, and 2-25%, respectively, after 96 h at pH 4.0 and 5 °C. For acetophenone, 4-fluoroacetophenone, 4-chloroacetophenone, 4-bromoacetophenone, and 4-iodoacetophenone, the yield-enantiomeric excess of corresponding (R)-cyanohydrins were 1-99, 20-84, 11-95, 5-99, and 3-24%, respectively at the same conditions. The results demonstrate PdHNL-CLEA can be effectively used in the synthesis of (R)-mandelonitrile. PMID:26310798

  4. Catalytic Enantioselective Olefin Metathesis in Natural Product Synthesis. Chiral Metal-Based Complexes that Deliver High Enantioselectivity and More

    PubMed Central

    Malcolmson, Steven J.; Meek, Simon J.; Zhugralin, Adil R.

    2012-01-01

    Chiral olefin metathesis catalysts enable chemists to access enantiomerically enriched small molecules with high efficiency; synthesis schemes involving such complexes can be substantially more concise than those that would involve enantiomerically pure substrates and achiral Mo alkylidenes or Ru-based carbenes. The scope of research towards design and development of chiral catalysts is not limited to discovery of complexes that are merely the chiral versions of the related achiral variants. A chiral olefin metathesis catalyst, in addition to furnishing products of high enantiomeric purity, can offer levels of efficiency, product selectivity and/or olefin stereoselectivity that are unavailable through the achiral variants. Such positive attributes of chiral catalysts (whether utilized in racemic or enantiomerically enriched form) should be considered as general, applicable to other classes of transformations. PMID:19967680

  5. Enantioselective synthesis of tatanans AC and reinvestigation of their glucokinase-activating properties

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Qing; Jackson, Jeffrey J.; Basak, Ashok; Bowler, Joseph M.; Miller, Brian G.; Zakarian, Armen

    2014-01-01

    The tatanans are members of a novel class of complex sesquilignan natural products recently isolated from the rhizomes of Acorus tatarinowii Schott plants. Tatanans A, B and C have previously been reported to have potent glucokinase-activating properties that exceed the in vitro activity of known synthetic antidiabetic agents. Here, using a series of sequential [3,3]-sigmatropic rearrangements, we report the total synthesis of tatanan A in 13 steps and 13% overall yield. We also complete a concise enantioselective total synthesis of more complex, atropisomeric tatanans B and C via a distinct convergent strategy based on a palladium-catalysed diastereotopic aromatic group differentiation (12 steps, 4% and 8% overall yield, respectively). A plausible biosynthetic relationship between acyclic tatanan A and spirocyclic tatanans B and C is proposed and probed experimentally. With sufficient quantities of the natural products in hand, we undertake a detailed functional characterization of the biological activities of tatanans AC. Contrary to previous reports, our assays utilizing pure recombinant human enzyme demonstrate that tatanans do not function as allosteric activators of glucokinase. PMID:23609092

  6. Enantioselective Synthesis of Angularly Substituted 1-Azabicylic Rings: Coupled Dynamic Kinetic Epimerization and Chirality Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Aron, Zachary D.; Ito, Tatsuya; May, Tricia L.; Overman, Larry E.; Wang, Jocelyn

    2013-01-01

    A new strategy for enantioselective synthesis of azacyclic molecules in which dynamic kinetic equilibration of diastereomeric iminium ions precedes a stereochemistry-determining sigmatropic rearrangement is reported. The method is illustrated by the synthesis in high enantiomeric purity (generally 9599% ee) of a variety of 1-azabicyclic molecules containing angular allyl or 3-substituted 2-propenyl side chains adjacent to nitrogen and up to three stereogenic centers. In these products, the size of the carbocyclic ring is varied widely (512 membered), however useful yields are obtained in forming 1-azabicyclic products containing only fused pyrrolidine and piperidine rings. Chi-rality transfer from substituents at carbons 1 and 2 of the 3-butenylamine fragment of the starting material is investigated, with methyl and phenyl substituents at the allylic position shown to provide exquisite stereocontrol (generally 9899% chirality transfer). An attractive feature of the method is the ability to carry out the key transformation in the absence of solvent. Illustrated also is the high yielding conversion of four such products to a new family of bicyclic ?-amino acids of high enantiomeric purity. PMID:24090405

  7. Enantioselective synthesis of tatanans A-C and reinvestigation of their glucokinase-activating properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Qing; Jackson, Jeffrey J.; Basak, Ashok; Bowler, Joseph M.; Miller, Brian G.; Zakarian, Armen

    2013-05-01

    The tatanans are members of a novel class of complex sesquilignan natural products recently isolated from the rhizomes of Acorus tatarinowii Schott plants. Tatanans A, B and C have previously been reported to have potent glucokinase-activating properties that exceed the in vitro activity of known synthetic antidiabetic agents. Here, using a series of sequential [3,3]-sigmatropic rearrangements, we report the total synthesis of tatanan A in 13 steps and 13% overall yield. We also complete a concise enantioselective total synthesis of more complex, atropisomeric tatanans B and C via a distinct convergent strategy based on a palladium-catalysed diastereotopic aromatic group differentiation (12 steps, 4% and 8% overall yield, respectively). A plausible biosynthetic relationship between acyclic tatanan A and spirocyclic tatanans B and C is proposed and probed experimentally. With sufficient quantities of the natural products in hand, we undertake a detailed functional characterization of the biological activities of tatanans A-C. Contrary to previous reports, our assays utilizing pure recombinant human enzyme demonstrate that tatanans do not function as allosteric activators of glucokinase.

  8. Enantioselective Synthesis of Tryptophan Derivatives by a Tandem Friedel Crafts Conjugate Addition/Asymmetric Protonation Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Kieffer, Madeleine E.; Repka, Lindsay M.; Reisman, Sarah E.

    2012-01-01

    The tandem FriedelCrafts conjugate addition/asymmetric protonation reaction between 2-substituted indoles and methyl 2-acetamidoacrylate is reported. The reaction is catalyzed by (R)-3,3?-dibromo-BINOL in the presence of stoichiometric SnCl4, and is the first example of a tandem conjugate addition/asymmetric protonation reaction using a BINOLSnCl4 complex as the catalyst. A range of indoles furnished synthetic tryptophan derivatives in good yields and high levels of enantioselectivity, even on preparative scale. The convergent nature of this transformation should lend itself to the preparation of unnatural tryptophan derivatives for use in a broad array of synthetic and biological applications. PMID:22390403

  9. Synthesis and studies of polypeptide materials: Enantioselective polymerization of gamma-benzyl glutamate-N-carboxyanhydride and synthesis of optically active poly(beta-peptides)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Jianjun

    A class of zero-valent transition metal complexes have been developed by Deming et al for the controlled polymerization of alpha-aminoacid-N-carboxyanhydrides (alpha-NCAs). This discovery provided a superior starting point for the development of enantioselective polymerizations of racemic alpha-NCAs. Bidentate chiral ligands were synthesized and tested for their abilities to induce enantioselective polymerization of gamma-benzyl-glutamate NCA (Glu NCA) when they were coordinated to zero-valent nickel complexes. When optically active 2-pyridinyl oxazoline ligands were mixed with bis(1,5-cyclooctadiene)nickel in THF, chiral nickel complexes were formed that selectively polymerized one enantiomer of Glu NCA over the other. The highest selectivity was observed with the nickel complex of (S)-4-tert-butyl-2-pyridinyl oxazoline, which gave a ratio of enantiomeric polymerization rate constants (kD/kL) of 5.2. It was found that subtle modification of this ligand by incorporation of additional substituents had a substantial impact on initiator enantioselectivities. In separate efforts, methodology was developed for the general synthesis of optically active beta-aminoacid-N-carboxyanhydrides (beta-NCAs) via cyclization of Nbeta-Boc- or Nbeta-Cbz-beta-amino acids using phosphorus tribromide. The beta-NCA molecules could be polymerized in good yields using strong bases or transition metal complexes to give optically active poly(beta-peptides) bearing proteinogenic side chains. The resulting poly(beta-peptides), which have moderate molecular weights, adopt stable helical conformations in solution. Poly(beta-homoglutamate and poly(beta-homolysine), the side-chain deprotected polymers, were found to display pH dependent helix-coil conformation transitions in aqueous solution, similar to their alpha-analogs. A novel method for poly(beta-aspartate) synthesis was developed via the polymerization of L-aspartate alkyl ester beta lactams using metal-amido complexes. Poly(beta-aspartates) bearing short ethylene glycol side chains were obtained with controlled molecular weights and narrow molecular weight distributions when Sc(N(TMS)2)3 was used as initiator for the beta-lactam polymerizations. Polymer chain lengths could be controlled by both stoichiometry and monomer conversion, characteristic of a living polymerization system. Di- and tri-block copoly(beta-peptides) with desired chain lengths were also synthesized using this method. It was found that these techniques were generally applicable for the synthesis of poly(beta-peptides), bearing other proteinogetic side chains. Synthesis and studies of polypeptide materials were extended to unexplored areas by incorporation of both alpha- and beta-amino acid residues into single polymer chains. Two sequence specific polypeptides bearing alternating beta-alpha, or beta-alpha-alpha amino acid residues were synthesized. Both polymers were found to adopt unprecedented stable conformations in solution.

  10. Enantioselective TADMAP-Catalyzed Carboxyl Migration Reactions for the Synthesis of Stereogenic Quaternary Carbon

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Scott A.; Aleman, Pedro; Christy, Justin; Kampf, Jeff W.; Va, Porino

    2008-01-01

    The chiral, nucleophilic catalyst TADMAP (1) has been prepared from 3-lithio-4-dimethylamino-pyridine (5) and triphenylacetaldehyde (3), followed by acylation and resolution. TADMAP catalyzes the carboxyl migration of oxazolyl, furanyl, and benzofuranyl enol carbonates with good to excellent levels of enantioselection. The oxazole reactions are especially efficient, and are used to prepare chiral lactams (23) and lactones (30) containing a quaternary asymmetric carbon. TADMAP-catalyzed carboxyl migrations in the indole series are relatively slow and proceed with inconsistent enantioselectivity. Modeling studies (B3LYP/6-31G*) have been used in qualitative correlations of catalyst conformation, reactivity, and enantioselectivity. PMID:16417383

  11. Enantioselective Synthesis of α-Amino Phosphonates via Pd-Catalyzed Asymmetric Hydrogenation.

    PubMed

    Yan, Zhong; Wu, Bo; Gao, Xiang; Chen, Mu-Wang; Zhou, Yong-Gui

    2016-02-19

    A highly enantioselective palladium-catalyzed hydrogenation of a series of linear and cyclic α-iminophosphonates has been achieved, providing efficient access to optically active α-aminophosphonates with up to 99% ee. PMID:26827611

  12. The enantioselective synthesis of (S)-(+)-mianserin and (S)-(+)-epinastine.

    PubMed

    Roszkowski, Piotr; Maurin, Jan K; Czarnocki, Zbigniew

    2015-01-01

    A simple enantioselective synthetic procedure for the preparation of mianserin and epinastine in optically pure form is described. The key step in the synthetic pathway is the asymmetric reduction of the cyclic imine using asymmetric transfer hydrogenation conditions. PMID:26425208

  13. Enantioselective synthesis of 4H-pyranonaphthoquinones via sequential squaramide and silver catalysis.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Uğur; Chauhan, Pankaj; Hack, Daniel; Deckers, Kristina; Puttreddy, Rakesh; Rissanen, Kari; Enders, Dieter

    2016-01-28

    An enantioselective one-pot Michael addition/hydroalkoxylation reaction between 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinones and alkyne-tethered nitroalkenes catalyzed by a cinchona-derived squaramide and a silver(i) salt has been developed. The sequential protocol provides a direct access to 4H-pyranonaphthoquinones in moderate to very good yields and good to excellent enantioselectivities at a very low catalyst loading (0.5 mol%) of the squaramide. PMID:26660230

  14. Core-structure-inspired asymmetric addition reactions: enantioselective synthesis of dihydrobenzoxazinone- and dihydroquinazolinone-based anti-HIV agents.

    PubMed

    Li, Shen; Ma, Jun-An

    2015-11-01

    Dihydrobenzoxazinones and dihydroquinazolinones are the core units present in many anti-HIV agents, such as Efavirenz, DPC 961, DPC 963, and DPC 083. All these molecules contain a trifluoromethyl moiety at the quaternary stereogenic carbon center with S configuration. The enantioselective addition of carbon nucleophiles to ketones or cyclic ketimines could serve as a key step to access these molecules. This tutorial review provides an overview of significant advances in the synthesis of dihydrobenzoxazinone- and dihydroquinazolinone-based anti-HIV agents and relative analogues, with an emphasis on asymmetric addition reactions for the establishment of the CF3-containing quaternary carbon centers. PMID:26177889

  15. 3D chiral nanoplasmonics: fabrication, chiroptic engineering, mechanism, and application in enantioselection (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhifeng

    2015-09-01

    Chirality does naturally exist, and the building blocks of life (e.g. DNA, proteins, peptides and sugars) are usually chiral. Chirality inherently imposes chemical/biological selectivity on functional molecules; hence the discrimination in molecular chirality from an enantiomer to the other mirror image (i.e. enantioselection) has fundamental and application significance. Enantiomers interact with left and right handed circularly polarized light in a different manner with respect to optical extinction; hence, electronic circular dichroism (ECD) has been widely used for enantioselection. However, enantiomers usually have remarkably low ECD intensity, mainly owing to the small electric transition dipole moment induced by molecular sizes compared to the ECD-active wavelength in the UV-visible-near IR region. To enhance ECD magnitude, recently it has being developed 3D chiral nanoplasmonic structures having a helical path, and the dimensions are comparable to the ECD wavelength. However, it is still ambiguous the origin of 3D chiroplasmonics, and there is a lack of studying the interaction of 3D chiroplasmoncs with enantiomers for the application of enantioselection. Herein, we will present a one-step fabrication of 3D silver nanospirals (AgNSs) via low-substrate-temperature glancing angle deposition. AgNSs can be deposited on a wide range of substrates (including transparent and flexible substrates), in an area on the order of cm2. A set of spiral dimensions (such as spiral pitches, number of turns and handedness) have been easily engineered to tune the chiroptic properties, leading to studying the chiroplasmonic principles together with finite element simulation and the LC model. At the end, it will be demonstrated that 3D chiroplasmonics can differentiate molecular chirality of enantiomers with dramatic enhancement in the anisotropy g factor. This study opens a door to sensitively discriminate enantiomer chirality.

  16. Utilizing an o-Quinone Methide in Asymmetric Transfer Hydrogenation: Enantioselective Synthesis of Brosimine?A, Brosimine?B, and Brosimacutin?L.

    PubMed

    Keberg, Anton; Metz, Peter

    2016-01-01

    A concise and highly enantioselective synthesis of the flavonoids brosimine?A, brosimine?B, and brosimacutin?L is reported for the first time. The key transformation is a single-step conversion of a flavanone into a flavan by means of an asymmetric transfer hydrogenation/deoxygenation cascade. PMID:26634801

  17. Chiral Brnsted Base-Promoted Nitroalkane Alkylation: Enantioselective Synthesis of sec-Alkyl-3-Substituted Indoles

    PubMed Central

    Dobish, Mark C.; Johnston, Jeffrey N.

    2010-01-01

    A Brnsted base-catalyzed reaction of nitroalkanes with alkyl electrophiles provides indole heterocycles substituted at C3 bearing a sec-alkyl group with good enantioselectivity (up to 90% ee). Denitration by hydrogenolysis provides a product with equally high ee. An indolenine intermediate is implicated in the addition step, and surprisingly, water cosolvent was found to have a beneficial effect in this step, leading to a one-pot protocol for elimination/enantioselective addition using PBAM, a bis(amidine) chiral nonracemic base. PMID:21090654

  18. Chiral Brnsted base-promoted nitroalkane alkylation: enantioselective synthesis of sec-alkyl-3-substituted indoles.

    PubMed

    Dobish, Mark C; Johnston, Jeffrey N

    2010-12-17

    A Brnsted base-catalyzed reaction of nitroalkanes with alkyl electrophiles provides indole heterocycles substituted at C3 bearing a sec-alkyl group with good enantioselectivity (up to 90% ee). Denitration by hydrogenolysis provides a product with equally high ee. An indolenine intermediate is implicated in the addition step, and surprisingly, water cosolvent was found to have a beneficial effect in this step, leading to a one-pot protocol for elimination/enantioselective addition using PBAM, a bis(amidine) chiral nonracemic base. PMID:21090654

  19. Catalytic, Enantioselective Synthesis of Stilbene cis-Diamines: A Concise Preparation of ()-Nutlin-3, a Potent p53/MDM2 Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Tyler A.

    2012-01-01

    The first highly diastereo- and enantioselective additions of aryl nitromethane pronucleophiles to aryl aldimines are described. Identification of an electron rich chiral Bis(Amidine) catalyst for this aza-Henry variant was key to this development, leading ultimately to differentially protected cis-stilbene diamines in two steps. This method then became the lynchpin for an enantioselective synthesis of ()-Nutlin-3 (Hoffmann-LaRoche), a potent cis-imidazoline small molecule inhibitor of p53-MDM2 used extensively as a probe of cell biology and currently in drug development. PMID:22708054

  20. Organocatalytic enantioselective Michael-Michael-Michael-aldol condensation reactions: control of five stereocenters in a quadruple-cascade asymmetric synthesis of highly functionalized hexahydrophenanthrenes.

    PubMed

    Raja, Arun; Hong, Bor-Cherng; Lee, Gene-Hsiang

    2014-11-01

    A cascade organocatalysis has been developed for the enantioselective synthesis of a highly functionalized hexahydrophenanthrene-2-carbaldehyde containing five contiguous stereogenic centers with high diastereoselectivity and high enantioselectivity (>99% ee). The one-pot method comprises a cascade of organocatalytic Michael-Michael-Michael-aldol reactions of 2-methyl-1,5-dinitro-3-((E)-2-nitrovinyl)benzene and ?,?-unsaturated aldehydes (e.g., cinnamaldehyde). The structure and absolute configuration of a product were confirmed by X-ray analysis of an appropriate derivative. PMID:25337635

  1. Organocatalytic enantioselective 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions between Seyferth-Gilbert reagent and isatylidene malononitriles: synthesis of chiral spiro-phosphonylpyrazoline-oxindoles.

    PubMed

    Du, Taiping; Du, Fei; Ning, Yanqiang; Peng, Yungui

    2015-03-01

    A new method has been developed for the catalytic enantioselective 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of the Seyferth-Gilbert reagent (SGR) to isatylidene malononitriles using a cinchona alkaloid derivative as a catalyst. This method allowed for the synthesis of a series of chiral spiro-phosphonylpyrazoline-oxindoles in good yields with excellent enantioselectivities. The synthetic utility of this method was further demonstrated by its use in a three-component domino reaction involving isatin, malononitrile, and SGR based on sequential Knoevenagel condensation and 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reactions. PMID:25710384

  2. Catalytic enantioselective hydrogenation of N-alkoxycarbonyl hydrazones: a practical synthesis of chiral hydrazines.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Naoki; Tan, Lushi; McWilliams, J Christopher; Ramasamy, Deepa; Sheppard, Ruth

    2010-01-15

    An enantioselective hydrogenation of hydrazones catalyzed by Rh complexes (Rh-Josiphos or Rh-Taniaphos) has been developed. The protocol can be applied to hydrazones with three different protective groups (Boc, Cbz, and methoxycarbonyl), allowing for selective deprotection and further elaboration of the hydrazine products in the presence of other functional groups. PMID:20017501

  3. The enantioselective synthesis of (S)-(+)-mianserin and (S)-(+)-epinastine

    PubMed Central

    Maurin, Jan K; Czarnocki, Zbigniew

    2015-01-01

    Summary A simple enantioselective synthetic procedure for the preparation of mianserin and epinastine in optically pure form is described. The key step in the synthetic pathway is the asymmetric reduction of the cyclic imine using asymmetric transfer hydrogenation conditions. PMID:26425208

  4. Recent applications of molecular imprinted polymers for enantio-selective recognition.

    PubMed

    Cheong, Won Jo; Ali, Faiz; Choi, Ji Ho; Lee, Jin OoK; Yune Sung, Kim

    2013-03-15

    Molecular imprinted polymer (MIP) techniques have been increasingly used in a variety of fields including chromatography, sample pretreatment, purification, sensors, drug delivery, and catalysts, etc. MIP is a specific artificial receptor that shows favored affinity to the template molecule. The cavities of the template are produced by carrying out polymerization of a reaction mixture followed by eliminating the template molecules by washing. Various forms of MIP materials have been prepared for diverse applications including irregularly ground particles, regular spherical particles, nanoparticles, monoliths in a stainless steel or capillary column, open tubular layers in capillaries, membranes, surface attached thin layers, and composites, etc. When an enantiomer is used as the template, then the resulting MIP can show capability of enantiomeric recognition between the pair of enantiomers. In this review, progresses in applications of enantio-selective recognition by MIPs will be critically reviewed for the recent period since 2007. PMID:23598094

  5. Enantioselective microbial synthesis of the indigenous natural product (-)-α-bisabolol by a sesquiterpene synthase from chamomile (Matricaria recutita).

    PubMed

    Son, Young-Jin; Kwon, Moonhyuk; Ro, Dae-Kyun; Kim, Soo-Un

    2014-10-15

    (-)-α-Bisabolol, a sesquiterpene alcohol, is a major ingredient in the essential oil of chamomile (Matricaria recutita) and is used in many health products. The current supply of (-)-α-bisabolol is mainly dependent on the Brazilian candeia tree (Eremanthus erythropappus) by distillation or by chemical synthesis. However, the distillation method using the candeia tree is not sustainable, and chemical synthesis suffers from impurities arising from undesirable α-bisabolol isomers. Therefore enzymatic synthesis of (-)-α-bisabolol is a viable alternative. In the present study, a cDNA encoding (-)-α-bisabolol synthase (MrBBS) was identified from chamomile and used for enantioselective (-)-α-bisabolol synthesis in yeast. Chamomile MrBBS was identified by Illumina and 454 sequencing, followed by activity screening in yeast. When MrBBS was expressed in yeast, 8 mg of α-bisabolol was synthesized de novo per litre of culture. The structure of purified α-bisabolol was elucidated as (S,S)-α-bisabolol [or (-)-α-bisabolol]. Although MrBBS possesses a putative chloroplast-targeting peptide, it was localized in the cytosol, and a deletion of its N-terminal 23 amino acids significantly reduced its stability and activity. Recombinant MrBBS showed kinetic properties comparable with those of other sesquiterpene synthases. These data provide compelling evidence that chamomile MrBBS synthesizes enantiopure (-)-α-bisabolol as a single sesquiterpene product, opening a biotechnological opportunity to produce (-)-α-bisabolol. PMID:25048207

  6. Chiral gold(I) vs chiral silver complexes as catalysts for the enantioselective synthesis of the second generation GSK-hepatitis C virus inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Martn-Rodrguez, Mara; de Czar, Abel

    2011-01-01

    Summary The synthesis of a GSK 2nd generation inhibitor of the hepatitis C virus, by enantioselective 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition between a leucine derived iminoester and tert-butyl acrylate, was studied. The comparison between silver(I) and gold(I) catalysts in this reaction was established by working with chiral phosphoramidites or with chiral BINAP. The best reaction conditions were used for the total synthesis of the hepatitis C virus inhibitor by a four step procedure affording this product in 99% ee and in 63% overall yield. The origin of the enantioselectivity of the chiral gold(I) catalyst was justified according to DFT calculations, the stabilizing coulombic interaction between the nitrogen atom of the thiazole moiety and one of the gold atoms being crucial. PMID:21915198

  7. Ethylene in Organic Synthesis. Repetitive Hydrovinylation of Alkenes for Highly Enantioselective Syntheses of Pseudopterosins

    PubMed Central

    Mans, Daniel J.; Cox, G. Adam; RajanBabu, T. V.

    2011-01-01

    In this report we highlight the significant potential of ethylene as a reagent for the introduction of a vinyl group with excellent stereoselectivity at three different stages in the synthesis of a broad class of natural products, best exemplified by syntheses of pseudopterosins. The late-stage applications of the asymmetric hydrovinylation reaction further illustrate the compatibility of the catalyst with complex functional groups. We also show that depending on the choice of the catalyst, it is possible to either enhance or even completely reverse the inherent diastereoselectivity in the reactions of advanced chiral intermediates. This should enable the synthesis of diastereomeric analogs of several classes of medicinally relevant compounds that are not readily accessible by the existing methods, which depend on substrate-control for the installation of many of the chiral centers, especially in molecules of this class. PMID:21449569

  8. Unprecedented 8,9'-neolignans: enantioselective synthesis of possible stereoisomers for structural determination.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Masato; Suzuki, Noriyuki; Ishikawa, Tsutomu; Huang, Hung-Yi; Chang, Hsun-Shuo; Chen, Ih-Sheng

    2014-12-26

    (+)-Wutaienin (3) and its C-7 methyl ether (4), isolated from Zanthoxylum wutaiense, were found to be unprecedented 8,9'-neolignans containing an (S)-2-(1,1-dimethyl-1-hydroxymethyl)-7-methoxydihydrobenzofuran skeleton. Wutaienin (3) was present in the plant as an inseparable 1:1 mixture of the (7,8)-syn-diastereoisomers. The diastereoisomeric mixture was characterized by comparison with four possible diastereoisomers, which were enantioselectively synthesized from (S)-5-bromo-(1,1-dimethyl-1-hydroxymethyl)-7-methoxydihydrobenzofuran using Evans' oxazolidinone-assisted asymmetric aldol condensation to install the chiral centers at the C-7 and C-8 positions. PMID:25427159

  9. Enantioselective Synthesis of 3,5,6-Substituted Dihydropyranones and Dihydropyridinones using Isothiourea-Mediated Catalysis.

    PubMed

    Stark, Daniel G; Morrill, Louis C; Cordes, David B; Slawin, Alexandra M Z; O'Riordan, Timothy J C; Smith, Andrew D

    2016-02-01

    The scope of dihydropyranone and dihydropyridinone products accessible by isothiourea-catalyzed processes has been expanded and explored through the use of 2-N-tosyliminoacrylates and 2-aroylacrylates in a Michael addition-lactonization/lactamization cascade reaction. Notably, to ensure reproducibility it is essential to use homoanhydrides as ammonium enolate precursors with 2-aroyl acrylates, while carboxylic acids can be used with 2-N-tosyliminoacrylates, delivering a range of 3,5,6-substituted dihydropyranones and dihydropyridinones with high enantioselectivity (typically >90?% ee). The derivatization of the heterocyclic core of a 3,5,6-substituted dihydropyranone through hydrogenation is also reported. PMID:26471245

  10. Enantioselective Synthesis of 3,4-Chromanediones via Asymmetric Rearrangement of 3-Allyloxyflavones

    PubMed Central

    Mari, Jean-Charles; Xiong, Yuan; Min, Geanna K.; Yeager, Adam R.; Taniguchi, Tohru; Berova, Nina; Schaus, Scott E.; Porco, John A.

    2010-01-01

    Asymmetric scandium (III)-catalyzed rearrangement of 3-allyloxyflavones was utilized to prepare chiral, non-racemic 3,4-chromanediones in high yields and enantioselectivities. These synthetic intermediates have been further elaborated to novel heterocyclic frameworks including angular pyrazines and dihydropyrazines. The absolute configuration of rearrangement products was initially determined by a nonempirical analysis of circular dichroism (CD) using time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) calculations and verified by x-ray crystallography of a hydrazone derivative. Initial studies of the mechanism support an intramolecular rearrangement pathway that may proceed through a benzopyrylium intermediate. PMID:20527786

  11. C-H Oxidation/Michael Addition/Cyclization Cascade for Enantioselective Synthesis of Functionalized 2-Amino-4H-chromenes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Bo; Gao, Xiang; Yan, Zhong; Chen, Mu-Wang; Zhou, Yong-Gui

    2015-12-18

    A streamlined method for the enantioselective synthesis of 2-amino-4H-chromenes from readily available 2-alkyl-substituted phenols and active methylene compounds bearing a cyano group with up to 97% ee is presented. This reaction is a cascade procedure including manganese dioxide mediated C-H oxidation for the generation of o-quinone methides and bifunctional squaramide-catalyzed Michael addition/cyclization. PMID:26651517

  12. Catalytic Aldol-Cyclization Cascade of 3-Isothiocyanato Oxindoles with α-Ketophosphonates for the Enantioselective Synthesis of β-Amino-α-hydroxyphosphonates.

    PubMed

    Kayal, Satavisha; Mukherjee, Santanu

    2015-11-01

    A cascade aldol-cyclization reaction between 3-isothiocyanato oxindoles and α-ketophosphonates has been developed for the synthesis of β-amino-α-hydroxyphosphonate derivatives. Catalyzed by a quinine-based tertiary amino-thiourea derivative, this reaction delivers 2-thioxooxazolidinyl phosphonates based on a spirooxindole scaffold bearing two contiguous quaternary stereogenic centers in high yields with excellent diastereo- (up to >20:1 dr) and enantioselectivities (up to >99:1 er). PMID:26512732

  13. Enantioselective Protonation

    PubMed Central

    Mohr, Justin T.; Hong, Allen Y.; Stoltz, Brian M.

    2010-01-01

    Enantioselective protonation is a common process in biosynthetic sequences. The decarboxylase and esterase enzymes that effect this valuable transformation are able to control both the steric environment around the proton acceptor (typically an enolate) and the proton donor (typically a thiol). Recently, several chemical methods to achieve enantioselective protonation have been developed by exploiting various means of enantiocontrol in different mechanisms. These laboratory transformations have proven useful for the preparation of a number of valuable organic compounds. PMID:20428461

  14. Catalytic enantioselective construction of quaternary stereocenters: assembly of key building blocks for the synthesis of biologically active molecules.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yiyang; Han, Seo-Jung; Liu, Wen-Bo; Stoltz, Brian M

    2015-03-17

    The ever-present demand for drugs with better efficacy and fewer side effects continually motivates scientists to explore the vast chemical space. Traditionally, medicinal chemists have focused much attention on achiral or so-called "flat" molecules. More recently, attention has shifted toward molecules with stereogenic centers since their three-dimensional structures represent a much larger fraction of the chemical space and have a number of superior properties compared with flat aromatic compounds. Quaternary stereocenters, in particular, add greatly to the three-dimensionality and novelty of the molecule. Nevertheless, synthetic challenges in building quaternary stereocenters have largely prevented their implementation in drug discovery. The lack of effective and broadly general methods for enantioselective formation of quaternary stereocenters in simple molecular scaffolds has prompted us to investigate new chemistry and develop innovative tools and solutions. In this Account, we describe three approaches to constructing quaternary stereocenters: nucleophilic substitution of 3-halooxindoles, conjugate addition of boronic acids to cyclic enones, and allylic alkylation of enolates. In the first approach, malonic ester nucleophiles attack electrophilic 3-halooxindoles, mediated by a copper(II)-bisoxazoline catalyst. A variety of oxindoles containing a benzylic quaternary stereocenter can be accessed through this method. However, it is only applicable to the specialized 3,3-disubstituted oxindole system. To access benzylic quaternary stereocenters in a more general context, we turned our attention to the enantioselective conjugate addition of carbon nucleophiles to ?,?-unsaturated carbonyl acceptors. We discovered that in the presence of catalytic palladium-pyridinooxazoline complex, arylboronic acids add smoothly to ?-substituted cyclic enones to furnish ketones with a ?-benzylic quaternary stereocenter in high yields and enantioselectivities. The reaction is compatible with a wide range of arylboronic acids, ?-substituents, and ring sizes. Aside from benzylic quaternary stereocenters, a more challenging motif is a quaternary stereocenter not adjacent to an aromatic group. Such centers represent more general structures in chemical space but are more difficult to form by asymmetric catalysis. To address this greater challenge, and motivated by the greater reward, we entered the field of palladium-catalyzed asymmetric allylic alkylation of prochiral enolate nucleophiles about a decade ago. On the basis of Tsuji's work, which solved the issue of positional selectivity for unsymmetrical ketones, we discovered that the phosphinooxazoline ligand effectively rendered this reaction enantioselective. Extensive investigations since then have revealed that the reaction exhibits broad scope and accepts a range of substrate classes, each with its unique advantage in synthetic applications. A diverse array of carbonyl compounds bearing ?-quaternary stereocenters are obtained in excellent yields and enantioselectivities, and more possibilities have yet to be explored. As an alternative to palladium catalysis, we also studied iridium-catalyzed asymmetric allylic alkylations that generate vicinal quaternary and tertiary stereocenters in a single transformation. Overall, these methods provide access to small molecule building blocks with a single quaternary stereocenter, can be applied to various molecular scaffolds, and tolerate a wide range of functional groups. We envision that the chemistry reported in this Account will be increasingly useful in drug discovery and design. PMID:25715056

  15. Anionic cyclodextrins as versatile hosts for pharmaceutical nanotechnology: Synthesis, drug delivery, enantioselectivity, contrast agents for MRI.

    PubMed

    Mavridis, Irene M; Yannakopoulou, Konstantina

    2015-08-15

    The review presents a full library of single-isomer primary rim per-carboxylate- and per-sulfate-α-, -β- and -γ-cyclodextrin (CD) derivatives and their potential for pharmaceutical nanotechnology. Recent advances in cyclodextrin chemistry have enabled robust methods for the synthesis of single-isomer anionic CDs. Numerous nanobio-applications have been already reported for these negatively charged derivatives, which alone or in combination with other biodegradable molecular platforms can become important carriers for targeted drug delivery and release. Specialized applications are also discussed, such as chiral separations, as well as the ability of per-6-carboxylated-cyclodextrins to coordinate with metal cations and especially with lanthanide cations that makes them candidates as contrast agents for Magnetic Resonance Imaging. PMID:26168706

  16. Palladium(II)-Catalyzed Enantioselective Synthesis of 2-Vinyl Oxygen Heterocycles

    PubMed Central

    Cannon, Jeffrey S.; Olson, Angela C.; Overman, Larry E.; Solomon, Nicole S.

    2012-01-01

    2-Vinylchromanes (1), 2-vinyl-1,4-benzodioxanes (2), and 2,3-dihydro-2-vinyl-2H-1,4-benzoxazines (3) can be prepared in high yields (9098%) and excellent enantiomeric purities (8798% ee) by [COP-OAc]2-catalyzed cyclization of phenolic (E)-allylic trichloroacetimidate precursors. Deuterium-labeling and computational experiments are consistent with these cyclization reactions taking place by an anti-oxypalladation/syn-deoxypalladation mechanism. 2-Vinylchromanes can be prepared also in good yields and high enantiomeric purities from analogous (E)-allylic acetate precursors, which constitutes the first report that acetate is a competent leaving group in COP-catalyzed enantioselective SN2? substitution reactions. PMID:22316285

  17. A Direct, Concise, and Enantioselective Synthesis of 2-Substituted 4,4,4-Trifluorobutane-1,3-diols Based on the Organocatalytic In Situ Generation of Unstable Trifluoroacetaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Funabiki, Kazumasa; Furuno, Yudai; Yano, Yosuke; Sakaida, Yuta; Kubota, Yasuhiro; Matsui, Masaki

    2015-12-01

    A direct, concise, and enantioselective synthesis of 2-substituted 4,4,4-trifluorobutane-1,3-diols based on the organocatalytic asymmetric direct aldol reaction of an ethyl hemiacetal of trifluoroacetaldehyde with various aldehydes was examined. A catalytic amount (30 mol %) of commercially available and inexpensive l-prolinamide is quite effective as an organocatalyst for the catalytic in situ generation of gaseous and unstable trifluoroacetaldehyde from its hemiacetal, and a successive asymmetric direct aldol reaction with various aldehydes in dichloromethane at 0 °C, followed by reduction with sodium borohydride, gives 2-substituted 4,4,4-trifluorobutane-1,3-diols in moderate to good yields (31-84 %) with low diastereoselectivities and good to excellent enantioselectivities (64-97 % ee). PMID:26206587

  18. Intermolecular Noncovalent Hydroxy-Directed Enantioselective Heck Desymmetrization of Cyclopentenol: Computationally Driven Synthesis of Highly Functionalized cis-4-Arylcyclopentenol Scaffolds.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Silva, Juliana; Angnes, Ricardo A; Menezes da Silva, Vitor H; Servilha, Bruno M; Adeel, Muhammad; Braga, Ataualpa A C; Aponick, Aaron; Correia, Carlos Roque D

    2016-03-01

    New computationally driven protocols for the Heck desymmetrization of 3-cyclopenten-1-ol with aryldiazonium tetrafluoroborates were developed. These new conditions furnished remarkable product selectivity originating from a resident hydroxyl group and the critical choice of the reaction solvent. Mechanistic insights gleaned from theoretical calculations of the putative transition states predicted toluene as an adequate solvent choice to attain high enantioselectivity by strengthening the noncovalent interaction of the substrate hydroxyl group and the chiral cationic palladium catalyst. Laboratory experiments validated the theoretical predictions, and by employing 2% MeOH/toluene as solvent, the Heck-Matsuda reaction provided exclusively the cis-4-arylcyclopentenols 3a-l in good to excellent yields in enantiomeric excesses up to 99%. The performance of the new PyOx ligand (S)-4-tert-butyl-2-(3,5-dichloropyridin-2-yl)-4,5-dihydrooxazole was also successfully evaluated in the Heck-Matsuda desymmetrization of 3-cyclopenten-1-ol. The synthetic potential of these highly functionalized cis-4-arylcyclopentenols is illustrated by a gold-catalyzed synthesis of cyclopenta[b]benzofuran skeletons. PMID:26836260

  19. Simple Organic Molecules as Catalysts for Enantioselective Synthesis of Amines and Alcohols

    PubMed Central

    Silverio, Daniel L.; Torker, Sebastian; Pilyugina, Tatiana; Vieira, Erika M.; Snapper, Marc L.; Haeffner, Fredrik; Hoveyda, Amir H.

    2012-01-01

    The discovery of new catalysts that can generate complex organic compounds via enantioselective transformations is central to advances in the life sciences;i for this reason, many chemists try to discover catalysts that can be used to produce chiral molecules with a strong preference for one mirror image isomer.ii The ideal catalyst should be devoid of precious elementsiii and should bring reactions to completion in a few hours using operationally simple procedures. In this manuscript, we introduce a set of small organic molecules that can catalyze reactions of unsaturated organoboron reagents with imines and carbonyls; the products of the reactions are enantiomerically pure amines and alcohols, which can be used to synthesize more complex, biologically active molecules. A distinguishing feature of this new catalyst class is the presence of a 'key' proton embedded within their structure. The catalyst is derived from the abundant amino acid valine and was prepared in large quantities in four steps using inexpensive reagents. Reactions are scalable, do not demand stringent conditions, and can be performed with as little as 0.25 mol % catalyst in less than six hours at room temperature to generate products in >85% yield and ?97:3 enantiomeric ratio. The efficiency, selectivity and operational simplicity of the transformations and the range of boron-based reagents render this advance vital to future progress in chemistry, biology and medicine. PMID:23407537

  20. Highly enantioselective hydrogenation of ?,?-disubstituted nitroalkenes.

    PubMed

    Li, Shengkun; Huang, Kexuan; Cao, Bonan; Zhang, Jiwen; Wu, Wenjun; Zhang, Xumu

    2012-08-20

    Building the building blocks: A highly enantioselective hydrogenation of ?-aryl-?-alkyl disubstituted nitroalkenes 1 has been developed. This method results in enantiomerically pure nitroalkanes 2, which are versatile precursors for chemical synthesis. PMID:22807193

  1. Catalytic enantioselective synthesis of naturally occurring butenolides via hetero-allylic alkylation and ring closing metathesis.

    PubMed

    Mao, Bin; Geurts, Koen; Faans-Mastral, Martn; van Zijl, Anthoni W; Fletcher, Stephen P; Minnaard, Adriaan J; Feringa, Ben L

    2011-03-01

    An efficient catalytic asymmetric synthesis of chiral ?-butenolides was developed based on the hetero-allylic asymmetric alkylation (h-AAA) in combination with ring closing metathesis (RCM). The synthetic potential of the h-AAA-RCM protocol was illustrated with the facile synthesis of (-)-whiskey lactone, (-)-cognac lactone, (-)-nephrosteranic acid, and (-)-roccellaric acid. PMID:21268603

  2. Enantioselective and regioselective pyrone Diels-Alder reactions of vinyl sulfones: total synthesis of (+)-cavicularin.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Peng; Beaudry, Christopher M

    2014-09-22

    The total synthesis of (+)-cavicularin is described. The synthesis features an enantio- and regioselective pyrone Diels-Alder reaction of a vinyl sulfone to construct the cyclophane architecture of the natural product. The Diels-Alder substrate was prepared by a regioselective one-pot three-component Suzuki reaction of a non-symmetric dibromoarene. PMID:25082270

  3. Enantioselective synthesis of benzoindolizidine derivatives using chiral phase-transfer catalytic intramolecular domino aza-Michael addition/alkylation.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jiajia; Yu, Shouyun

    2015-01-28

    An efficient and enantioselective strategy to synthesize benzoindolizidines from ?,?-unsaturated amino ketones via domino intramolecular aza-Michael addition/alkylation was developed. These reactions were enabled by cinchona alkaloid-derived quaternary ammonium salts as the phase-transfer catalyst. A variety of benzoindolizidines were prepared in good yields (up to 93%) and enantioselectivities (up to 92.8:7.2 er). PMID:25428596

  4. Verdazyls: synthesis, properties, application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipunova, G. N.; Fedorchenko, T. G.; Chupakhin, O. N.

    2013-08-01

    Synthesis, structure, properties and reactivity of stable heterocyclic radicals, verdazyls, are considered. Special attention is focused on metal verdazyl complexes. Major areas of application of such radicals are discussed. The bibliography includes 164 references.

  5. Concise and Enantioselective Total Synthesis of (?)-Mehranine, (?)-Methylenebismehranine, and Related Aspidosperma Alkaloids**

    PubMed Central

    Mewald, Marius; Medley, Jonathan William; Movassaghi, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    We report an efficient and highly stereoselective synthetic strategy for the synthesis of aspidosperma alkaloids based on the transannular cyclization of a chiral lactam precursor. Three new stereocenters are formed in this key step with excellent level of diastereoselection due to the conformational bias of the cyclization precursor, leading to a versatile pentacyclic intermediate. A subsequent stereoselective epoxidation followed by a mild formamide reduction enabled the first total synthesis of the aspidosperma alkaloids (?)-mehranine and (+)-(6S,7S)-dihydroxy-N-methylaspidospermidine. A late-stage scandium trifluoromethanesulfonate-mediated dimerization of (?)-mehranine enabled the first total synthesis of (?)-methylenebismehranine. PMID:25196158

  6. A highly enantioselective Biginelli reaction using self-assembled methanoproline-thiourea organocatalysts: asymmetric synthesis of 6-isopropyl-3,4-dihydropyrimidines.

    PubMed

    Hang, Zhijun; Zhu, Jun; Lian, Xiang; Xu, Peng; Yu, Han; Han, Sheng

    2015-12-15

    An efficient self-assembled methanoproline-thiourea organocatalyst for the synthesis of optically active 6-isopropyl-3,4-dihydro-pyrimidines via an asymmetric Biginelli reaction was developed, which is superior to the individual precatalyst. A wide range of optically active 6-isopropyl-3,4-dihydropyrimidines with remarkable pharmacological interest was obtained in high yields with excellent enantioselectivities (up to 99% ee). A plausible transition state has been proposed to explain the origin of the activation and the asymmetric induction. PMID:26498376

  7. Organocatalytic enantioselective synthesis of 2,3-allenoates by intermolecular addition of nitroalkanes to activated enynes.

    PubMed

    Qian, Hui; Yu, Xiuzhao; Zhang, Junliang; Sun, Jianwei

    2013-12-01

    The first efficient intermolecular addition of nitroalkanes to activated enynes for asymmetric synthesis of 2,3-allenoates is described. It is a new addition to the limited available strategies for catalytic asymmetric synthesis of allenoates. Enabled by a new bifunctional catalyst, a range of trisubstituted allenoates can be obtained in excellent chemical and optical purity. These allenoate products with a pendant 2-nitroethyl ?-substituent are useful chiral building blocks. PMID:24224493

  8. Chiral fluorinated ?-sulfonyl carbanions: enantioselective synthesis and electrophilic capture, racemization dynamics, and structure.

    PubMed

    Hellmann, Gunther; Hack, Achim; Thiemermann, Eric; Luche, Olaf; Raabe, Gerhard; Gais, Hans-Joachim

    2013-03-18

    Enantiomerically pure triflones R(1) CH(R(2) )SO2 CF3 have been synthesized starting from the corresponding chiral alcohols via thiols and trifluoromethylsulfanes. Key steps of the syntheses of the sulfanes are the photochemical trifluoromethylation of the thiols with CF3 Hal (Hal=halide) or substitution of alkoxyphosphinediamines with CF3 SSCF3 . The deprotonation of RCH(Me)SO2 CF3 (R=CH2 Ph, iHex) with nBuLi with the formation of salts [RC(Me)?SO2 CF3 ]Li and their electrophilic capture both occurred with high enantioselectivities. Displacement of the SO2 CF3 group of (S)-MeOCH2 C(Me)(CH2 Ph)SO2 CF3 (95?%?ee) by an ethyl group through the reaction with AlEt3 gave alkane MeOCH2 C(Me)(CH2 Ph)Et of 96?%?ee. Racemization of salts [R(1) C(R(2) )SO2 CF3 ]Li follows first-order kinetics and is mainly an enthalpic process with small negative activation entropy as revealed by polarimetry and dynamic NMR (DNMR) spectroscopy. This is in accordance with a C? ?S bond rotation as the rate-determining step. Lithium ?-(S)-trifluoromethyl- and ?-(S)-nonafluorobutylsulfonyl carbanion salts have a much higher racemization barrier than the corresponding ?-(S)-tert-butylsulfonyl carbanion salts. Whereas [PhCH2 C(Me)SO2 tBu]Li/DMPU (DMPU = dimethylpropylurea) has a half-life of racemization at -105?C of 2.4?h, that of [PhCH2 C(Me)SO2 CF3 ]Li at -78?C is 30?d. DNMR spectroscopy of amides (PhCH2 )2 NSO2 CF3 and (PhCH2 )N(Ph)SO2 CF3 gave N?S rotational barriers that seem to be distinctly higher than those of nonfluorinated sulfonamides. NMR spectroscopy of [PhCH2 C(Ph)SO2 R]M (M=Li, K, NBu4 ; R=CF3 , tBu) shows for both salts a confinement of the negative charge mainly to the C? atom and a significant benzylic stabilization that is weaker in the trifluoromethylsulfonyl carbanion. According to crystal structure analyses, the carbanions of salts {[PhCH2 C(Ph)SO2 CF3 ]Li?L}2 (L=2?THF, tetramethylethylenediamine (TMEDA)) and [PhCH2 C(Ph)SO2 CF3 ]NBu4 have the typical chiral C? ?S conformation of ?-sulfonyl carbanions, planar C? atoms, and short C? ?S bonds. Ab initio calculations of [MeC(Ph)SO2 tBu](-) and [MeC(Ph)SO2 CF3 ](-) showed for the fluorinated carbanion stronger nC ??*?S?CF?3 and nO ??*?S?CF?3 interactions and a weaker benzylic stabilization. According to natural bond orbital (NBO) calculations of [R(1) C(R(2) )SO2 R](-) (R=tBu, CF3 ) the nC ??*S?R interaction is much stronger for R=CF3 . Ab initio calculations gave for [MeC(Ph)SO2 tBu]Li?2?Me2 O an O,Li,C? contact ion pair (CIP) and for [MeC(Ph)SO2 CF3 ]Li?2?Me2 O an O,Li,O CIP. According to cryoscopy, [PhCH2 C(Ph)SO2 CF3 ]Li, [iHexC(Me)SO2 CF3 ]Li, and [PhCH2 C(Ph)SO2 CF3 ]NBu4 predominantly form monomers in tetrahydrofuran (THF) at -108?C. The NMR spectroscopic data of salts [R(1) (R(2) )SO2 R(3) ]Li (R(3) =tBu, CF3 ) indicate that the dominating monomeric CIPs are devoid of C? ?Li bonds. PMID:23401229

  9. Oxazolines as Dual-Function Traceless Chromophores and Chiral Auxiliaries: Enantioselective Photoassisted Synthesis of Polyheterocyclic Ketones.

    PubMed

    Mukhina, Olga A; Kutateladze, Andrei G

    2016-02-24

    2-(o-Amidophenyl)oxa- and -thiazolines undergo excited-state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT), generating aza-o-xylylenes capable of intramolecular [4+2] and [4+4] cycloadditions with tethered unsaturated pendants. Facile hydrolysis of the primary photoproducts, spiro-oxazolidines and thiazolidines, under mild conditions unmasks a phenone functionality. Variations in linkers allow for access to diverse core scaffolds in the primary photoproducts, rendering the approach compatible with the philosophy of diversity-oriented synthesis. Chiral oxazolines, readily available from the corresponding amino alcohols, yield enantioenriched keto-polyheterocycles of complex topologies with enantiomeric excess values up to 90%. PMID:26866604

  10. Enantioselective synthesis of an all-syn four vicinal fluorine motif.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Luke; O'Hagan, David; Slawin, Alexandra M Z

    2006-12-27

    Alkanes bearing multiple vicinal fluorine atoms at adjacent stereocenters may be considered intermediate between alkanes and perfluoroalkanes, and as a class, their chemistry and behavior remain to be explored. We report here a stereoselective synthesis of an all-syn four vicinal fluorine motif as a single enantiomer. The four vicinal fluorine compound was amenable to single-crystal X-ray analysis, and the resulting structure displays gauche relationships between all four fluorines, consistent with the fluorine gauche effect, and CF...HC hydrogen bonding between adjacent fluoroalkyl chains. PMID:17177350

  11. Formal Synthesis of Solanoeclepin A: Enantioselective Allene Diboration and Intramolecular [2+2] Photocycloaddition for the Construction of the Tricyclic Core.

    PubMed

    Kleinnijenhuis, Roel A; Timmer, Brian J J; Lutteke, Ginger; Smits, Jan M M; de Gelder, Ren; van Maarseveen, Jan H; Hiemstra, Henk

    2016-01-01

    An enantioselective synthesis of an intermediate in the Tanino total synthesis of solanoeclepin A has been developed. The key step was an intramolecular [2+2] photocycloaddition, which led to the tricyclo[5.2.1.0(1,?6) ]decane core in six steps. The first photosubstrate, prepared through an indium-mediated Barbier-type reaction, gave an excellent [2+2] cycloaddition, but it could not be obtained in sufficient enantiopurity. The second photosubstrate, prepared through an asymmetric allene diborylation in high enantiomeric excess, gave the [2+2] cycloaddition product in high yield on irradiation at 365?nm on 20?g scale in a flow system. Other important steps were the replacement of a boronate group at the quaternary carbon by a vinyl group and diastereoselective cyclopropanation of an allylic alcohol. PMID:26646583

  12. Synthesis of highly functionalized chiral 3,3'-disubstituted oxindoles via an organocatalytic enantioselective Michael addition of nitroalkanes to indolylidenecyanoacetates.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lu; Wu, Deyan; Zheng, Shu; Li, Tengfei; Li, Xiangmin; Wang, Sinan; Li, Jian; Li, Hao; Wang, Wei

    2012-01-01

    An efficient bifunctional cinchona alkaloid derived thiourea-promoted enantioselective conjugate addition of nitroalkanes to indolylidenecyanoacetates has been developed under neat conditions. The process leads to synthetically interesting densely functionalized 3,3'-disubstituted oxindoles with creation of up to three stereogenic centers. PMID:22149210

  13. Highly enantioselective synthesis of α-azido-β-hydroxy methyl ketones catalyzed by a cooperative proline-guanidinium salt system.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Castañeda, Ángel; Kędziora, Kinga; Lavandera, Iván; Rodríguez-Solla, Humberto; Concellón, Carmen; del Amo, Vicente

    2014-03-11

    The combined activity of (S)-proline and an achiral tetraphenylborate TBD-derived guanidinium salt permits the aldol reaction between azidoacetone and aromatic, or heteroaromatic aldehydes. The α-azido-β-hydroxy methyl ketones obtained as products can be isolated in good yield, with high diastereo- and enantioselectivity. PMID:24468918

  14. Enantioselective synthesis of benzofurans and benzoxazines via an olefin cross-metathesis-intramolecular oxo-Michael reaction.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun-Wei; Cai, Quan; Gu, Qing; Shi, Xiao-Xin; You, Shu-Li

    2013-09-11

    Chiral phosphoric acid and Hoveyda-Grubbs II were found to catalyze an olefin cross-metathesis-intramolecular oxo-Michael cascade reaction of the ortho-allylphenols and enones to provide a variety of benzofuran and benzoxazine derivatives in moderate to good yields and enantioselectivity. PMID:23884172

  15. Application of 7-azaisatins in enantioselective Morita–Baylis–Hillman reaction

    PubMed Central

    He, Qing; Zhan, Gu; Du, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Summary 7-Azaisatin and 7-azaoxindole skeletons are valuable building blocks in diverse biologically active substances. Here 7-azaisatins turned out to be more efficient electrophiles than the analogous isatins in the enantioselective Morita–Baylis–Hillman (MBH) reactions with maleimides using a bifunctional tertiary amine, β-isocupreidine (β-ICD), as the catalyst. This route allows a convenient approach to access multifunctional 3-hydroxy-7-aza-2-oxindoles with high enantiopurity (up to 94% ee). Other types of activated alkenes, such as acrylates and acrolein, could also be efficiently utilized. PMID:26977190

  16. The first enantioselective synthesis of the amavadin ligand and its complexation to vanadium.

    PubMed

    Hubregtse, Ton; Neeleman, Ernst; Maschmeyer, Thomas; Sheldon, Roger A; Hanefeld, Ulf; Arends, Isabel W C E

    2005-05-01

    The ligand of the naturally occurring vanadium compound amavadin found in Amanita muscaria, (2S, 2'S)-N-hydroxyimino-2,2'-dipropionic acid (1), was synthesized stereoselectively in two steps with 43% overall yield. After complexation of this ligand to vanadyl acetate, amavadin was isolated in quantitative yield. Due to the chirality at vanadium amavadin consists of a mixture of delta and lambda diastereoisomers. Directly after its synthesis, the delta to lambda ratio of amavadin is 2.27 and it decreases to 0.80 after equilibrium has been reached. During this epimerization the optical rotation for V[(2S,2'S)-N-hydroxyimino-(2,2')-dipropionate]2 (=amavadin) changes from [alpha](D)25 = +36 degrees to +114.0 degrees (c = 0.5, H2O). For V[(2R,2'R)-N-hydroxyimino-(2,2')-dipropionate] the optical rotation changes from [alpha](D)25 = -36 degrees to -113.2 degrees (c = 0.5, H2O). PMID:15833352

  17. Enantioselective synthesis of chiral sulfones by Ir-catalyzed asymmetric hydrogenation: a facile approach to the preparation of chiral allylic and homoallylic compounds.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Taigang; Peters, Byron; Maldonado, Matas F; Govender, Thavendran; Andersson, Pher G

    2012-08-22

    A highly efficient and enantioselective Ir-catalyzed hydrogenation of unsaturated sulfones was developed. Chiral cyclic and acyclic sulfones were produced in excellent enantioselectivities (up to 98% ee). Coupled with the Ramberg-Bcklund rearrangement, this reaction offers a novel route to chiral allylic and homoallylic compounds in excellent enantioselectivities (up to 97% ee) and high yields (up to 94%). PMID:22835144

  18. N-Heterocyclic Carbene-Copper-Catalyzed Group-, Site-, and Enantioselective Allylic Substitution with a Readily Accessible Propargyl(pinacolato)boron Reagent: Utility in Stereoselective Synthesis and Mechanistic Attributes.

    PubMed

    Shi, Ying; Jung, Byunghyuck; Torker, Sebastian; Hoveyda, Amir H

    2015-07-22

    The first instances of catalytic allylic substitution reactions involving a propargylic nucleophilic component are presented; reactions are facilitated by 5.0 mol % of a catalyst derived from a chiral N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) and a copper chloride salt. A silyl-containing propargylic organoboron compound, easily prepared in multigram quantities, serves as the reagent. Aryl- and heteroaryl-substituted disubstituted alkenes within allylic phosphates and those with an alkyl or a silyl group can be used. Functional groups typically sensitive to hard nucleophilic reagents are tolerated, particularly in the additions to disubstituted alkenes. Reactions may be performed on the corresponding trisubstituted alkenes, affording quaternary carbon stereogenic centers. Incorporation of the propargylic group is generally favored (vs allenyl addition; 89:11 to >98:2 selectivity); 1,5-enynes can be isolated in 75-90% yield, 87:13 to >98:2 SN2'/SN2 (branched/linear) selectivity and 83:17-99:1 enantiomeric ratio. Utility is showcased by conversion of the alkynyl group to other useful functional units (e.g., homoallenyl and Z-homoalkenyl iodide), direct access to which by other enantioselective protocols would otherwise entail longer routes. Application to stereoselective synthesis of the acyclic portion of antifungal agent plakinic acid A, containing two remotely positioned stereogenic centers, by sequential use of two different NHC-Cu-catalyzed enantioselective allylic substitution (EAS) reactions further highlights utility. Mechanistic investigations (density functional theory calculations and deuterium labeling) point to a bridging function for an alkali metal cation connecting the sulfonate anion and a substrate's phosphate group to form the branched propargyl addition products as the dominant isomers via Cu(III) ?-allyl intermediate complexes. PMID:26172476

  19. Enantioselective Synthesis of Spiroindenes by Enol-Directed Rhodium(III)-Catalyzed C?H Functionalization and Spiroannulation.

    PubMed

    Reddy Chidipudi, Suresh; Burns, David J; Khan, Imtiaz; Lam, Hon Wai

    2015-11-16

    Chiral cyclopentadienyl rhodium complexes promote highly enantioselective enol-directed C(sp(2) )-H functionalization and oxidative annulation with alkynes to give spiroindenes containing all-carbon quaternary stereocenters. High selectivity between two possible directing groups, as well as control of the direction of rotation in the isomerization of an O-bound rhodium enolate into the C-bound isomer, appear to be critical for high enantiomeric excesses. PMID:26404643

  20. Enantioselective Synthesis of Spiroindenes by Enol-Directed Rhodium(III)-Catalyzed CH Functionalization and Spiroannulation

    PubMed Central

    Reddy Chidipudi, Suresh; Burns, David J; Khan, Imtiaz; Lam, Hon Wai

    2015-01-01

    Chiral cyclopentadienyl rhodium complexes promote highly enantioselective enol-directed C(sp2)-H functionalization and oxidative annulation with alkynes to give spiroindenes containing all-carbon quaternary stereocenters. High selectivity between two possible directing groups, as well as control of the direction of rotation in the isomerization of an O-bound rhodium enolate into the C-bound isomer, appear to be critical for high enantiomeric excesses. PMID:26404643

  1. Low-Mode Conformational Search Method with Semiempirical Quantum Mechanical Calculations: Application to Enantioselective Organocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Kamachi, Takashi; Yoshizawa, Kazunari

    2016-02-22

    A conformational search program for finding low-energy conformations of large noncovalent complexes has been developed. A quantitatively reliable semiempirical quantum mechanical PM6-DH+ method, which is able to accurately describe noncovalent interactions at a low computational cost, was employed in contrast to conventional conformational search programs in which molecular mechanical methods are usually adopted. Our approach is based on the low-mode method whereby an initial structure is perturbed along one of its low-mode eigenvectors to generate new conformations. This method was applied to determine the most stable conformation of transition state for enantioselective alkylation by the Maruoka and cinchona alkaloid catalysts and Hantzsch ester hydrogenation of imines by chiral phosphoric acid. Besides successfully reproducing the previously reported most stable DFT conformations, the conformational search with the semiempirical quantum mechanical calculations newly discovered a more stable conformation at a low computational cost. PMID:26815336

  2. Enantioselective analysis of 4-hydroxycyclophosphamide in human plasma with application to a clinical pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    de Castro, Francine Atti; Scatena, Gabriel Dos Santos; Rocha, Otvio Pelegrino; Marques, Maria Paula; Cass, Quzia Bezerra; Simes, Belinda Pinto; Lanchote, Vera Lucia

    2016-02-01

    Cyclophosphamide (CY) is one of the most common immunosuppressive agents used in autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. CY is a prodrug and is metabolized to active 4-hydroxycyclophosphamide (HCY). Many authors have suggested an association between enantioselectivity in CY metabolism and treatment efficacy and/or complications. This study describes the development and validation of an analytical method of HCY enantiomers in human plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) that can be applied to pharmacokinetic studies, filling this gap in the literature. HCY enantiomers previously derivatized with phenylhydrazine were extracted from 200-?L plasma aliquots spiked with antipyrine as internal standard and a mixture of hexane and dichloromethane (80:20, v/v) was used as the extraction solvent. The derivatized HCY enantiomers were resolved on a Chiracel() OD-R column using water:acetonitrile:formic acid (55:45:0.2, v/v) as the mobile phase. No matrix effect was observed and the analysis of HCY enantiomers was linear for plasma concentrations of 5-5000ng of each enantiomer/mL plasma. The coefficients of variation and inaccuracy calculated in precision and accuracy assessments were less than 15%. HCY was stable in human plasma after three successive freeze/thaw cycles, during 3h at room temperature, and in the autosampler at 4C for 24h after processing, with deviation values less than 15%. The method was applied to evaluate the kinetic disposition of HCY in a patient with multiple sclerosis who was pretreated with intravenous racemic CY for stem cell transplantation. The clinical study showed enantioselectivity in the pharmacokinetics of HCY. PMID:26760223

  3. Phosphine-Catalyzed Doubly Stereoconvergent ?-Additions of Racemic Heterocycles to Racemic Allenoates: The Catalytic Enantioselective Synthesis of Protected ?,?-Disubstituted ?-Amino Acid Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Kalek, Marcin; Fu, Gregory C

    2015-07-29

    Methods have recently been developed for the phosphine-catalyzed asymmetric ?-addition of nucleophiles to readily available allenoates and alkynoates to generate useful ?,?-unsaturated carbonyl compounds that bear a stereogenic center in either the ? or the ? position (but not both) with high stereoselectivity. The utility of this approach would be enhanced considerably if the stereochemistry at both termini of the new bond could be controlled effectively. In this report, we describe the achievement of this objective, specifically, that a chiral phosphepine can catalyze the stereoconvergent ?-addition of a racemic nucleophile to a racemic electrophile; through the choice of an appropriate heterocycle as the nucleophilic partner, this new method enables the synthesis of protected ?,?-disubstituted ?-amino acid derivatives in good yield, diastereoselectivity, and enantioselectivity. PMID:26192217

  4. Phosphine-Catalyzed Doubly Stereoconvergent ?-Additions of Racemic Heterocycles to Racemic Allenoates: The Catalytic Enantioselective Synthesis of Protected ?,?-Disubstituted ?-Amino Acid Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Methods have recently been developed for the phosphine-catalyzed asymmetric ?-addition of nucleophiles to readily available allenoates and alkynoates to generate useful ?,?-unsaturated carbonyl compounds that bear a stereogenic center in either the ? or the ? position (but not both) with high stereoselectivity. The utility of this approach would be enhanced considerably if the stereochemistry at both termini of the new bond could be controlled effectively. In this report, we describe the achievement of this objective, specifically, that a chiral phosphepine can catalyze the stereoconvergent ?-addition of a racemic nucleophile to a racemic electrophile; through the choice of an appropriate heterocycle as the nucleophilic partner, this new method enables the synthesis of protected ?,?-disubstituted ?-amino acid derivatives in good yield, diastereoselectivity, and enantioselectivity. PMID:26192217

  5. Cloning and Characterization of a Novel Esterase from Rhodococcus sp. for Highly Enantioselective Synthesis of a Chiral Cilastatin Precursor

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan; Pan, Jiang; Luan, Zheng-Jiao; Park, Sunghoon

    2014-01-01

    A novel nonheme chloroperoxidase (RhEst1), with promiscuous esterase activity for enantioselective hydrolysis of ethyl (S)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylate, was identified from a shotgun library of Rhodococcus sp. strain ECU1013. RhEst1 was overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3), purified to homogeneity, and functionally characterized. Fingerprinting analysis revealed that RhEst1 prefers para-nitrophenyl (pNP) esters of short-chain acyl groups. pNP esters with a cyclic acyl moiety, especially that with a cyclobutanyl group, were also substrates for RhEst1. The Km values for methyl 2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylate (DmCpCm) and ethyl 2,2-dimethylcyclopropane carboxylate (DmCpCe) were 0.25 and 0.43 mM, respectively. RhEst1 could serve as an efficient hydrolase for the bioproduction of optically pure (S)-2,2-dimethyl cyclopropane carboxylic acid (DmCpCa), which is an important chiral building block for cilastatin. As much as 0.5 M DmCpCe was enantioselectively hydrolyzed into (S)-DmCpCa, with a molar yield of 47.8% and an enantiomeric excess (ee) of 97.5%, indicating an extremely high enantioselectivity (E = 240) of this novel and unique biocatalyst for green manufacturing of highly valuable chiral chemicals. PMID:25239898

  6. Molecular Bases of Enantioselectivity of Haloalkane Dehalogenase DbjA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Yukari; Natsume, Ryo; Prokop, Zbynek; Brezovsky, Jan; Chaloupkova, Radka; Damborsky, Jiri; Nagata, Yuji; Senda, Toshiya

    Enzymes are widely used for the synthesis of pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, and food additives because they can catalyze high enantioselective transformations. In order to construct selective enzymes by protein engineering, it is important to understand the molecular basis of enzyme-substrate interactions that contribute to enantioselectivity. The haloalkane dehalogenase DbjA showed high enantioselectivity for two racemic mixtures: ?-bromoesters and ?-bromoalkanes. Thermodynamic analysis, protein crystallography, and computer simulations indicated that DbjA carries two bases for the enantiodiscrimination of each racemic mixture. This study helps us understand the molecular basis of the enantioselectivity and opens up new possibilities for constructing enantiospecific biocatalysts through protein engineering.

  7. Organocatalytic, Diastereo- and Enantioselective Synthesis of Nonsymmetric cis-Stilbene Diamines: A Platform for the Preparation of Single-Enantiomer cis-Imidazolines for ProteinProtein Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The finding by scientists at Hoffmann-La Roche that cis-imidazolines could disrupt the proteinprotein interaction between p53 and MDM2, thereby inducing apoptosis in cancer cells, raised considerable interest in this scaffold over the past decade. Initial routes to these small molecules (i.e., Nutlin-3) provided only the racemic form, with enantiomers being enriched by chromatographic separation using high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and a chiral stationary phase. Reported here is the first application of an enantioselective aza-Henry approach to nonsymmetric cis-stilbene diamines and cis-imidazolines. Two novel mono(amidine) organocatalysts (MAM) were discovered to provide high levels of enantioselection (>95% ee) across a broad range of substrate combinations. Furthermore, the versatility of the aza-Henry strategy for preparing nonsymmetric cis-imidazolines is illustrated by a comparison of the roles of aryl nitromethane and aryl aldimine in the key step, which revealed unique substrate electronic effects providing direction for aza-Henry substratecatalyst matching. This method was used to prepare highly substituted cis-4,5-diaryl imidazolines that project unique aromatic rings, and these were evaluated for MDM2-p53 inhibition in a fluorescence polarization assay. The diversification of access to cis-stilbene diamine-derived imidazolines provided by this platform should streamline their further development as chemical tools for disrupting proteinprotein interactions. PMID:25017623

  8. Organocatalytic, diastereo- and enantioselective synthesis of nonsymmetric cis-stilbene diamines: a platform for the preparation of single-enantiomer cis-imidazolines for protein-protein inhibition.

    PubMed

    Vara, Brandon A; Mayasundari, Anand; Tellis, John C; Danneman, Michael W; Arredondo, Vanessa; Davis, Tyler A; Min, Jaeki; Finch, Kristin; Guy, R Kiplin; Johnston, Jeffrey N

    2014-08-01

    The finding by scientists at Hoffmann-La Roche that cis-imidazolines could disrupt the protein-protein interaction between p53 and MDM2, thereby inducing apoptosis in cancer cells, raised considerable interest in this scaffold over the past decade. Initial routes to these small molecules (i.e., Nutlin-3) provided only the racemic form, with enantiomers being enriched by chromatographic separation using high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and a chiral stationary phase. Reported here is the first application of an enantioselective aza-Henry approach to nonsymmetric cis-stilbene diamines and cis-imidazolines. Two novel mono(amidine) organocatalysts (MAM) were discovered to provide high levels of enantioselection (>95% ee) across a broad range of substrate combinations. Furthermore, the versatility of the aza-Henry strategy for preparing nonsymmetric cis-imidazolines is illustrated by a comparison of the roles of aryl nitromethane and aryl aldimine in the key step, which revealed unique substrate electronic effects providing direction for aza-Henry substrate-catalyst matching. This method was used to prepare highly substituted cis-4,5-diaryl imidazolines that project unique aromatic rings, and these were evaluated for MDM2-p53 inhibition in a fluorescence polarization assay. The diversification of access to cis-stilbene diamine-derived imidazolines provided by this platform should streamline their further development as chemical tools for disrupting protein-protein interactions. PMID:25017623

  9. Enantioselective synthesis of 1,2-dihydronaphthalene-1-carbaldehydes by addition of boronates to isochromene acetals catalyzed by tartaric acid.

    PubMed

    Luan, Yi; Barbato, Keith S; Moquist, Philip N; Kodama, Tomohiro; Schaus, Scott E

    2015-03-11

    Tartaric acid is an ideal asymmetric catalyst as it is abundant, cheap, and environmentally friendly. (+)-Tartaric acid was found to catalyze a novel enantioselective [4 + 2] cycloaddition of isochromene acetals and vinylboronates. A variety of substituted isochromene acetals were tolerated, furnishing the desired dihydronaphthalenes and dihydrobenzofluorene products in good yields. High enantiomeric ratios (up to 98.5:1.5) and excellent diastereoselectivities (all >99:1) were observed employing 10 mol % of (+)-tartaric acid as the catalyst, in combination with 5 mol % of Ho(OTf)3. PMID:25715172

  10. Enantioselective HPLC determination of oxiracetam enantiomers and application to a pharmacokinetic study in beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiuyang; Yang, Wei; Zhang, Qing; Yang, Yue; Li, Junxiu; Lu, Yang; Zheng, Yi; He, Jiake; Zhao, Di; Chen, Xijing

    2015-07-01

    An enantioselective high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed and validated for the determination of oxiracetam enantiomers, a cognition and memory enhancer, in beagle dog plasma. The plasma samples were prepared by methanol extraction from 200?L plasma, and then the baseline resolution was achieved on a Chiralpak ID column (250mm4.6mm, 5?m) with mobile phase of hexane-ethanol-trifluoroacetic acid (78:22:0.1, v/v/v) at flow rate of 1.0mL/min. The column elute was monitored using ultraviolet detection at 214nm. The method was linear over concentration range 0.50-100?g/mL for both enantiomers. The relative standard deviation values for intra- and inter-day precision were 0.78-13.61 and 0.74-8.92% for (R)- and (S)-oxiracetam, respectively. The relative error values of accuracy ranged from -4.74 to 10.48% for (R)-oxiracetam and from -0.19 to 11.48% for (S)-oxiracetam. The method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of individual enantiomer and racemic oxiracetam in beagle dogs after oral administration. The disposition of the two enantiomers was not stereoselective and chiral inversion was not observed in beagle dogs. The pharmacokinetic profiles of (S)-oxiracetam were similar with racemic oxiracetam in beagle dogs. PMID:25978861

  11. Synthesis of copper(I) complexes containing enantiopure pybox ligands. First assays on enantioselective synthesis of propargylamines catalyzed by isolated copper(I) complexes.

    PubMed

    Panera, María; Díez, Josefina; Merino, Isabel; Rubio, Eduardo; Gamasa, M Pilar

    2009-12-01

    Dinuclear [Cu(2)(R-pybox)(2)][X](2) [X = PF(6), R-pybox = 2,6-bis[4'-(S)-isopropyloxazolin-2'-yl]pyridine (S,S)-(i)Pr-pybox (1), 2,6-bis[4'-(R)-phenyloxazolin-2'-yl]pyridine) (R,R)-Ph-pybox (2), 2,6-bis[4'-(S)-isopropyl-5',5'-difeniloxazolin-2'-yl]pyridine (S,S)-(i)Pr-pybox-diPh (3); X = OTf, (R,R)-Ph-pybox (4)] and mononuclear complexes [Cu(R-pybox)(2)][PF(6)] [R-pybox = (S,S)-(i)Pr-pybox (5), (R,R)-Ph-pybox (6)] have been diastereoselectively prepared by reaction of [Cu(MeCN)(4)][PF(6)] or CuOTf.0.5C(6)H(6) and the corresponding pybox ligand. The reaction of CuX (X = I, Br, Cl) with substituted pybox in a 2:1 molar ratio allows us to synthesize tetranuclear complexes [Cu(4)X(4)(R-pybox}(2)] [R-pybox = (S,S)-(i)Pr-pybox, X = I (7), Br (8); (R,R)-Ph-pybox, X = I (9), Br (10), Cl (11); (S,S)-(i)Pr-pybox-diPh, X = I (12), Cl (13)]. Dinuclear complexes [Cu(2)(mu-Cl)(R-pybox)(2)][CuCl(2)] [R-pybox = (S,S)-(i)Pr-pybox (15), (R,R)-Ph-pybox (16)] have been prepared by reaction of CuCl with (i)Pr-pybox or Ph-pybox in 3:2 molar ratio. The structures of the complexes 1, 2, 7, 15, 16 and that of the polymeric species [Cu(4)(mu(3)-Br)(3)(mu-Br)((i)Pr-pybox)](n) (14) have been determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Diffusion studies using (1)H and (19)F-DOSY experiments provide evidence that the different nuclearity of compounds 1 and 5 is maintained in the solution state and confirm that these ionic compounds exist in solution as stable, discrete, cationic complexes. The complexes 1-4, 6, 9, 10, and 16 as well as the previously reported [Cu(2){(S,S)-(i)Pr-pybox}(2)][OTf](2) have been assayed as catalysts in the enantioselective synthesis of propargylamines. The dinuclear complexes [Cu(2){(R,R)-Ph-pybox}(2)][X](2) (2, 4) were found to be the most efficient catalysts (up to 89% e.e.). PMID:19883049

  12. Catalytic Enantioselective Nitroso Diels-Alder Reaction.

    PubMed

    Maji, Biplab; Yamamoto, Hisashi

    2015-12-23

    The nitroso Diels-Alder (NDA) reaction is an attractive strategy for the synthesis of 3,6-dihydro-1,2-oxazines and 1-amino-4-hydroxy-2-ene derivatives. Herein we report the Cu(I)-DTBM-Segphos catalyzed asymmetric intermolecular NDA reaction of variously substituted cyclic 1,3-dienes using highly reactive nitroso compounds derived from pyrimidine and pyridazine derivatives. In most of the cases studied, the cycloadducts were obtained in high yields (up to 99%) with very high regio-, diastereo-, and enantioselectivities (up to regioselectivity > 99:1, d.r. > 99:1, and >99% ee). As an application of this methodology, formal syntheses of conduramine A-1 and narciclasine were accomplished. PMID:26609961

  13. Concise Enantioselective Synthesis of Oxygenated Steroids via Sequential Copper(II)-Catalyzed Michael Addition/Intramolecular Aldol Cyclization Reactions

    PubMed Central

    Cichowicz, Nathan R.; Kaplan, Will; Khomutnyk, Yaroslav; Bhattarai, Bijay; Sun, Zhankui; Nagorny, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    A new scalable enantioselective approach to functionalized oxygenated steroids is described. This strategy is based on chiral bis(oxazoline) copper(II) complex-catalyzed enantioselective and diastereoselective Michael reactions of cyclic ketoesters and enones to install vicinal quaternary and tertiary stereocenters. In addition, the utility of copper(II) salts as highly active catalysts for the Michael reactions of traditionally unreactive ???-enones and substituted ???-ketoesters that results in unprecedented Michael adducts containing vicinal all-carbon quaternary centers is also demonstrated. The Michael adducts subsequently undergo base-promoted diastereoselective aldol cascade reactions resulting in the natural or unnatural steroid skeletons. The experimental and computational studies suggest that the torsional strain effects arising from the presence of the ?5-unsaturation are key controling elements for the formation of the natural cardenolide scaffold. The described method enables expedient generation of polycyclic molecules including modified steroidal scaffolds as well as challenging-to-synthesize Hajos-Parrish and Wieland-Miescher ketones. PMID:26491886

  14. Palladacyclic Imidazoline-Naphthalene Complexes: Synthesis and Catalytic Performance in Pd(II)-Catalyzed Enantioselective Reactions of Allylic Trichloroacetimidates

    PubMed Central

    Cannon, Jeffrey S.; Frederich, James H.; Overman, Larry E.

    2012-01-01

    A new family of air- and moisture-stable enantiopure C,N-palladacycles (PIN-acac complexes) were prepared in good overall yield in three steps from 2-iodo-1-naphthoic acid and enantiopure ?-amino alcohols. Three of these PIN complexes were characterized by single-crystal X-ray analysis. As anticipated, the naphthalene and imidazoline rings of PIN-acac complexes 18a and 18b were canted significantly from planarity and projected the imidazoline substituents R1 and R2 on opposite faces of the palladium square plane. Fifteen PIN complexes were evaluated as catalysts for the rearrangement of prochiral (E)-allylic trichloroacetimidate 19 (eq 2) and the SN2? allylic substitution of acetic acid with prochiral (Z)-allylic trichloroacetimidate 23. Although these complexes were kinetically poor catalysts for the Overman rearrangement, they were good catalysts for the allylic substitution reaction, providing branched allylic esters in high yield. However, enantioselectivities were low to moderate and significantly less than that realized with palladacyclic complexes of the COP family. Computational studies support an anti-acetoxypalladation/syn-deoxypalladation mechanism analogous to that observed with COP catalysts. The computational study further suggests that optimizing steric influence in the vicinity of the carbon ligand of a chiral C,N-palladacycle, rather than near the nitrogen heterocycle, is the direction to pursue in future development of improved enantioselective catalysts of this motif. PMID:22288535

  15. Catalytic enantioselective diversity-oriented synthesis of a small library of polyhydroxylated pyrans inspired from thiomarinol antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Al-Zoubi, Raed M; Hall, Dennis G

    2014-11-01

    A small library of 30 thiomarinol analogues was successfully synthesised using as a key step-a catalytic enantioselective tandem oxa[4+2] cycloaddition/aldehyde allylboration methodology. With this method, highly substituted ?-hydroxyalkyl dihydropyrans were assembled in a single three-component reaction utilizing three different enol ethers and a wide variety of aldehydes, such as aromatic, heteroaromatic, unsaturated and aliphatic aldehydes. In a second operation, a mild and direct method for reducing an acetal unit in the ?-hydroxyalkyl dihydropyrans was optimised without the need for protecting a nearby hydroxyl group. This procedure facilitated the synthetic sequence, which was completed by a dihydroxylation of the residual olefin of ?-hydroxyalkyl 2H-pyrans to provide the desired library of dihydroxylated pyran analogues reminiscent of the thiomarinol antibiotics. The relative stereochemistry of the resulting library compounds was demonstrated by X-ray crystallography on one of the analogues. PMID:25151273

  16. Pd-catalyzed desymmetric intramolecular O-arylation reaction: enantioselective synthesis of (3,4-dihydro-2H-chromen-3-yl)methanols.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wenqiang; Yan, Jiajie; Long, Yan; Zhang, Shasha; Liu, Jianguang; Zeng, Youlin; Cai, Qian

    2013-12-01

    An enantioselective intramolecular O-arylation was achieved through desymmetrization with Pd-catalyzed coupling reactions. The intramolecular asymmetric aryl C-O coupling reactions of 2-(2-haloaryl)propane-1,3-diols led to the enantioselective formation of chiral (3,4-dihydro-2H-chromen-3-yl)methanols in good yields and high enantiomeric selectivity. PMID:24261632

  17. Enantioselective synthesis of d-?-amino amides from aliphatic aldehydes Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5sc00064e Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Schwieter, Kenneth E.

    2015-01-01

    Peptides consisting of d-amino amides are highly represented among both biologically active natural products and non-natural small molecules used in therapeutic development. Chemical synthesis of d-amino amides most often involves approaches based on enzymatic resolution or fractional recrystallization of their diastereomeric amino acid salt precursors, techniques that produce an equal amount of the l-amino acid. Enantioselective synthesis, however, promises selective and general access to a specific ?-amino amide, and may enable efficient peptide synthesis regardless of the availability of the corresponding ?-amino acid. This report describes the use of a cinchona alkaloid-catalyzed aza-Henry reaction using bromonitromethane, and the integration of its product with umpolung amide synthesis. The result is a straightforward 3-step protocol beginning from aliphatic aldehydes that provides homologated peptides bearing an aliphatic side chain at the resulting d-?-amino amide. PMID:25838883

  18. Enantioselective catalytic desymmetrization of maleimides by temporary removal of an internal mirror plane and stereoablative over-reduction: synthesis of (R)-pyrrolam A.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Barrie J; Adams, Harry; Barker, Mike D; Kutama, Ibrahim U; Jones, Simon

    2014-07-18

    A highly enantioselective (>95% ee) strategy to affect the desymmetrization of a maleimide has been performed by temporary attachment to an anthracene template followed by asymmetric reduction with an oxazaborolidine catalyst. A stereoablative over-reduction process was partially responsible for the high levels of enantioselectivity. Exemplification of the strategy by stereoselective functionalization and retro-Diels-Alder reaction provided the natural product pyrrolam A. PMID:24972082

  19. Chiral Lithiated Allylic ?-Sulfonyl Carbanions: Experimental and Computational Study of Their Structure, Configurational Stability, and Enantioselective Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Gerhards, Frank; Griebel, Nicole; Runsink, Jan; Raabe, Gerhard; Gais, Hans-Joachim

    2015-12-01

    X-ray crystal structure analysis of the lithiated allylic ?-sulfonyl carbanions [CH2 ?CHC(Me)SO2 Ph]Li?diglyme, [cC6 H8 SO2 tBu]Li?PMDETA and [cC7 H10 SO2 tBu]Li?PMDETA showed dimeric and monomeric CIPs, having nearly planar anionic C atoms, only O?Li bonds, almost planar allylic units with strong C?C bond length alternation and the s-trans conformation around C1?C2. They adopt a C1?S conformation, which is similar to the one generally found for alkyl and aryl substituted ?-sulfonyl carbanions. Cryoscopy of [EtCH?CHC(Et)SO2 tBu]Li in THF at 164?K revealed an equilibrium between monomers and dimers in a ratio of 83:17, which is similar to the one found by low temperature NMR spectroscopy. According to NMR spectroscopy the lone-pair orbital at C1 strongly interacts with the C?C double bond. Low temperature (6) Li,(1) H NOE experiments of [EtCH?CHC(Et)SO2 tBu]Li in THF point to an equilibrium between monomeric CIPs having only O?Li bonds and CIPs having both O?Li and C1?Li bonds. Ab initio calculation of [MeCH?CHC(Me)SO2 Me]Li?(Me2 O)2 gave three isomeric CIPs having the s-trans conformation and three isomeric CIPs having the s-cis conformation around the C1?C2 bond. All s-trans isomers are more stable than the s-cis isomers. At all levels of theory the s-trans isomer having O?Li and C1?Li bonds is the most stable one followed by the isomer which has two O?Li bonds. The allylic unit of the C,O,Li isomer shows strong bond length alternation and the C1 atom is in contrast to the O,Li isomer significantly pyramidalized. According to NBO analysis of the s-trans and s-cis isomers, the interaction of the lone pair at C1 with the ?* orbital of the CC double bond is energetically much more favorable than that with the "empty" orbitals at the Li atom. The C1?S and C1?C2 conformations are determined by the stereoelectronic effects nC -?SR * interaction and allylic conjugation. (1) H DNMR spectroscopy of racemic [EtCH?CHC(Et)SO2 tBu]Li, [iPrCH?CHC(iPr)SO2 tBu]Li and [EtCH?C(Me)C(Et)SO2 tBu]Li in [D8 ]THF gave estimated barriers of enantiomerization of ?G(?) =13.2?kcal?mol(-1) (270?K), 14.2?kcal?mol(-1) (291?K) and 14.2?kcal?mol(-1) (295?K), respectively. Deprotonation of sulfone (R)-EtCH?CHCH(Et)SO2 tBu (94?% ee) with nBuLi in THF at -105?C occurred with a calculated enantioselectivity of 93?% ee and gave carbanion (M)-[EtCH?CHC(Et)SO2 tBu]Li, the deuteration and alkylation of which with CF3 CO2 D and MeOCH2 I, respectively, proceeded with high enantioselectivities. Time-dependent deuteration of the enantioenriched carbanion (M)-[EtCH?CHC(Et)SO2 tBu]Li in THF gave a racemization barrier of ?G(?) =12.5?kcal?mol(-1) (168?K), which translates to a calculated half-time of racemization of t1/2 =12?min at -105?C. PMID:26494207

  20. Enantioselective, Divergent Syntheses of Several Polyhalogenated Plocamium Monoterpenes and Evaluation of their Selectivity for Solid Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Vogel, Carl V.; Pietraszkiewicz, Halina; Sabry, Omar M.; Gerwick, William H.; Valeriote, Frederick A.; Vanderwal, Christopher D.

    2014-01-01

    The family of polyhalogenated monoterpenes from Plocamium counts over a hundred known members. Using glyceraldehyde acetonide as a chiral pool precursor, an enantioselective and divergent strategy was developed that provides a blueprint for the synthesis of many of the small yet complex acyclic members of this family. The broad applicability of this approach is demonstrated with the short (eight-step) synthesis of four natural products and three analogues. These syntheses are the first of any members of the acyclic polyhalogenated Plocamium monoterpenes, and permitted the evaluation of their selectivity against a range of tumor cell lines. PMID:25220828

  1. Enantioselective Synthesis of α-Secondary and α-Tertiary Piperazin-2-ones and Piperazines by Catalytic Asymmetric Allylic Alkylation

    PubMed Central

    Korch, Katerina M.; Eidamshaus, Christian; Behenna, Douglas C.; Nam, Sangkil; Horne, David

    2014-01-01

    The asymmetric Pd-catalyzed decarboxylative allylic alkylation of differentially N-protected piperazin-2-ones allows for the synthesis of a variety of highly enantioenriched tertiary piperazine-2-ones. Deprotection and reduction affords the corresponding tertiary piperazines, which can be employed for the synthesis of medicinally important analogs. The introduction of these chiral tertiary piperazines resulted in imatinib analogs that exhibited comparable antiproliferative activity to that of their corresponding imatinib counterparts. PMID:25382664

  2. Carbon nanofibers: synthesis and applications.

    PubMed

    Song, Hongyan; Shen, Wenzhong

    2014-02-01

    As a novel functional material, carbon nanofiber has many interesting applications in the chemical industry, material science, and energy storage fields. Chemical vapor dispersion and carbonization polymer nanofibers are the two important routes to synthesize carbon nanofibers. In this mini-review, the synthesis mechanisms of carbon nanofibers are illustrated and some novel applications of carbon nanofiber were also summarized. PMID:24749457

  3. Enantioselective Total Synthesis of Mandelalide A and Isomandelalide A: Discovery of a Cytotoxic Ring-Expanded Isomer.

    PubMed

    Veerasamy, Nagarathanam; Ghosh, Ankan; Li, Jinming; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Serrill, Jeffrey D; Ishmael, Jane E; McPhail, Kerry L; Carter, Rich G

    2016-01-27

    The total synthesis of mandelalide A and its ring-expanded macrolide isomer isomandelalide A has been achieved. Unexpected high levels of cytotoxicity were observed with the ring-expanded isomandelalide A with a rank order of potency: mandelalide A > isomandelalide A > mandelalide B. Key aspects of the synthesis include Ag-catalyzed cyclizations (AgCC's) to construct both the THF and THP rings present in the macrocycle, diastereoselective Sharpless dihydroylation of a cis-enyne, and lithium acetylide coupling with a chiral epoxide. PMID:26759923

  4. Synthesis and applications of novel, highly efficient HPLC chiral stationary phases: a chiral dimension in drug research analysis.

    PubMed

    Cancelliere; D'Acquarica; Gasparrini; Misiti; Villani

    1999-12-01

    This review provides an overview of the synthesis and application of stable and versatile HPLC chiral stationary phases (CSPs), with emphasis placed on the binding strategies developed to anchor several structurally different chiral selectors to silica-gel microparticles. In addition, selected applications relating to the use of these CSPs for the direct resolution of racemates of biological and pharmaceutical relevance will be described. This review discusses enantioselective molecular recognition and dynamic stereochemistry of stereolabile compounds with reference to receptor-based chiral stationary phases (CSPs) and dynamic HPLC on CSPs, respectively. PMID:10603466

  5. Enantioselective Catalysts for the Synthesis of ?-Substituted Allylboronates-An Accelerated Approach towards Isomerically Pure Homoallylic Alcohols.

    PubMed

    Brauns, Marcus; Muller, Frdric; Glden, Daniel; Bse, Dietrich; Frey, Wolfgang; Breugst, Martin; Pietruszka, Jrg

    2016-01-01

    The use of a convenient protecting group for boronates allows a selective, catalyzed SN 2' reaction to generate allylboronates which are applied for the synthesis of enantiomerically pure homoallylic alcohols. Depending on the configuration of both catalyst and the protecting group any of the four possible stereoisomers can be formed. The rationale behind the selective addition is supported by density functional theory calculations. PMID:26663002

  6. Rhodium-catalyzed enantioselective hydrogenation of ?-acylamino nitroolefins: a new approach to chiral ?-amino nitroalkanes.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ming; Dong, Dejun; Zhu, Baolin; Geng, Huiling; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Xumu

    2013-11-01

    An efficient and highly enantioselective catalytic asymmetric hydrogenation of ?-acylamino nitroolefins has been realized by using Rh-TangPhos as the catalyst. A series of ?-amino nitroalkane products, which are versatile intermediates in organic synthesis, were obtained with high yield and good enantioselectivity. PMID:24152114

  7. Enantioselective Robinson-type annulation reaction catalyzed by chiral phosphoric acids.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Takahiko; Katoh, Takuya; Mori, Keiji

    2009-01-01

    Let's resolve our differences: Implementation of an enantioselective Michael addition followed by an intramolecular aldol reaction catalyzed by two phosphoric acids has enabled the synthesis of cyclohexenone derivatives with excellent enantioselectivities. Prominent kinetic resolution was observed in the latter reaction. Ar = aromatic group, X = H, halogen, Y = H, Me, halogen. PMID:19405071

  8. Enantioselective separation of mirtazapine and its metabolites by capillary electrophoresis with acetonitrile field-amplified sample stacking and its application.

    PubMed

    Wen, Jun; Zhang, Wen-Ting; Cao, Wei-Qun; Li, Ji; Gao, Fang-Yuan; Yang, Nan; Fan, Guo-Rong

    2014-01-01

    A simple, rapid and sensitive chiral capillary zone electrophoresis coupled with acetonitrile-field-amplified sample stacking method was developed that allows the simultaneous enantioselective separation of the mirtazapine, N-demethylmirtazapine, 8-hydroxymirtazapine and mirtazapine-N-oxide. The separation was achieved on an uncoated 40.2 cm75 ?M fused silica capillary with an applied voltage of 16 kV. The electrophoretic analyses were carried out in 6.25 mM borate-25 mM phosphate solution at pH 2.8 containing 5.5 mg/mL carboxymethyl-?-cyclodextrin. The detection wavelength was 200 nm. Under these optimized conditions, satisfactory chiral separations of four pair enantiomers were achieved in less than 7 min in vitro. After one step clean-up liquid-liquid extraction using 96-well format, sample was introduced capillary zone electrophoresis with acetonitrile-field-amplified sample stacking to enhance the sensitivity of enantiomers. The method was validated with respect to specificity, linearity, lower limit of quantitation, accuracy, precision, extraction recovery and stability. The lower limit of quantification was 0.5 ng/mL with linear response over the 0.5-50 ng/mL concentration range for each mirtazapine, N-demethylmirtazapine and 8-hydroxymirtazapine enantiomer. The developed and validated method has been successfully applied to the enantioselective pharmacokinetic studies in 12 healthy volunteers after oral administration of rac- mirtazapine. PMID:24747648

  9. Enantioselective synthesis of decalin structures with all-carbon quaternary centers via one-pot sequential Cope/Rauhut-Currier reaction.

    PubMed

    Ross, Tina Morgan; Burke, Sarah; Malachowski, Wlliam P

    2014-08-13

    The first example of one-pot sequential Cope/Rauhut-Currier reactions are reported and used to make functionalized decalin structures with all-carbon quaternary stereocenters. The substrates for the new sequential reaction are generated through a six-step sequence including an enantioselective Birch reduction-allylation reaction which makes the overall process asymmetric. PMID:25125710

  10. N-Heterocyclic carbene-catalyzed [4 + 2] cyclization of ?,?-unsaturated carboxylic acids bearing ?-H with isatins: an enantioselective synthesis of spirocyclic oxindole-dihydropyranones.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ling; Yu, Chenxia; Li, Tuanjie; Wang, Yuhong; Lu, Yinan; Wang, Wenjing; Yao, Changsheng

    2016-01-28

    An NHC-catalyzed asymmetric [4 + 2] annulation of isatins and ?,?-unsaturated carboxylic acids bearing ?-H gave spirocyclic oxindole-dihydropyranones successfully via an in situ activation strategy. This protocol featured easy availability of raw materials, good yields and excellent enantioselectivities (up to 99% ee). PMID:26690686

  11. Enantioselective Approach to Quinolizidines: Total Synthesis of Cermizine D and Formal Syntheses of Senepodine G & Cermizine C

    PubMed Central

    Veerasamy, Nagarathanam; Carlson, Erik C.; Collett, Nathan D.; Saha, Mrinmoy

    2013-01-01

    The formal total syntheses of C5-epi-senepodine G and C5-epi-cermizine C have been accomplished through a novel diastereoselecetive, intramolecular amide Michael addition process. The total synthesis of cermizine D has been achieved through use of an organocatalyzed, heteroatom Michael addition to access a common intermediate. Additional key steps of this sequence include a matched, diastereoselective alkylation with an iodomethylphenyl sulfide and sulfone-aldehyde coupling/reductive desulfurization sequence to combine the major subunits. The utility of a Hartwig-style C-N coupling has been explored on functionally dense coupling partners. Diastereoselective conjugate additions to ?,?-unsaturated sulfones has been investigated which provided the key sulfone intermediate in just six steps from commercially available starting materials. The formal syntheses of senepodine G and cermizine C have been accomplished through an intramolecular cyclization process of a N-Boc protected piperidine sulfone. PMID:23627426

  12. Catalytic Enantioselective Functionalization of Unactivated Terminal Alkenes.

    PubMed

    Coombs, John R; Morken, James P

    2016-02-01

    Terminal alkenes are readily available functional groups which appear in α-olefins produced by the chemical industry, and they appear in the products of many contemporary synthetic reactions. While the organic transformations that apply to alkenes are amongst the most studied reactions in all of chemical synthesis, the number of reactions that apply to nonactivated terminal alkenes in a catalytic enantioselective fashion is small in number. This Minireview highlights the cases where stereocontrol in catalytic reactions of 1-alkenes is high enough to be useful for asymmetric synthesis. PMID:26764019

  13. Enantioselective aldol reactions with masked fluoroacetates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saadi, Jakub; Wennemers, Helma

    2016-03-01

    Despite the growing importance of organofluorines as pharmaceuticals and agrochemicals, the stereoselective introduction of fluorine into many prominent classes of natural products and chemotherapeutic agents is difficult. One long-standing unsolved challenge is the enantioselective aldol reaction of fluoroacetate to enable access to fluorinated analogues of medicinally relevant acetate-derived compounds, such as polyketides and statins. Herein we present fluoromalonic acid halfthioesters as biomimetic surrogates of fluoroacetate and demonstrate their use in highly stereoselective aldol reactions that proceed under mild organocatalytic conditions. We also show that the methodology can be extended to formal aldol reactions with fluoroacetaldehyde and consecutive aldol reactions. The synthetic utility of the fluorinated aldol products is illustrated by the synthesis of a fluorinated derivative of the top-selling drug atorvastatin. The results show the prospects of the method for the enantioselective introduction of fluoroacetate to access a wide variety of highly functionalized fluorinated compounds.

  14. Enantioselective aldol reactions with masked fluoroacetates.

    PubMed

    Saadi, Jakub; Wennemers, Helma

    2016-03-01

    Despite the growing importance of organofluorines as pharmaceuticals and agrochemicals, the stereoselective introduction of fluorine into many prominent classes of natural products and chemotherapeutic agents is difficult. One long-standing unsolved challenge is the enantioselective aldol reaction of fluoroacetate to enable access to fluorinated analogues of medicinally relevant acetate-derived compounds, such as polyketides and statins. Herein we present fluoromalonic acid halfthioesters as biomimetic surrogates of fluoroacetate and demonstrate their use in highly stereoselective aldol reactions that proceed under mild organocatalytic conditions. We also show that the methodology can be extended to formal aldol reactions with fluoroacetaldehyde and consecutive aldol reactions. The synthetic utility of the fluorinated aldol products is illustrated by the synthesis of a fluorinated derivative of the top-selling drug atorvastatin. The results show the prospects of the method for the enantioselective introduction of fluoroacetate to access a wide variety of highly functionalized fluorinated compounds. PMID:26892561

  15. Enantioselective synthesis of cis-1,2-disubstituted cyclopentanes and cyclohexanes by Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling and iridium-catalyzed asymmetric hydrogenation.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, Andreas; Schrems, Marcus G; Pfaltz, Andreas

    2011-11-25

    A series of 1,2-disubstituted cyclohexene derivatives was prepared through Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling of 2-bromo-1-cyclohexenecarbaldehyde or 2-carbomethoxy-1-cyclohexen-1-yl triflate with arylboronates. These tetra-substituted cyclic alkenes were subjected to Ir-catalyzed asymmetric hydrogenation. In this way cis-1-methoxymethyl-2-arylcyclohexanes were obtained in high yield with excellent enantio- and diastereoselectivities (up to >99% ee, >99% cis) by using phosphinomethyloxazolines as ligands. Asymmetric hydrogenation of analogous cyclopentene derivatives, prepared by Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling, proved to be more difficult and proceeded with lower enantioselectivities of up to 88% ee. The synthetic potential of this cross-coupling/asymmetric-hydrogenation strategy was demonstrated by an enantioselective route to chiral hexahydrofluorenones. PMID:22052572

  16. Highly enantioselective synthesis of 3,4-dihydropyrans through a phosphine-catalyzed [4+2] annulation of allenones and β,γ-unsaturated α-keto esters.

    PubMed

    Yao, Weijun; Dou, Xiaowei; Lu, Yixin

    2015-01-14

    A phosphine-catalyzed novel [4+2] annulation process was devised employing allene ketones as C2 synthons and β,γ-unsaturated α-keto esters as C4 synthons. In the presence of an L-threonine-derived bifunctional phosphine, 3,4-dihydropyrans were obtained in high yields and with virtually perfect enantioselectivities. The synthetic value of the dihydropyran motif was demonstrated by a concise preparation of an anti-hypercholesterolemic agent. PMID:25401753

  17. Enantioselective Michael Addition of Water

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bi-Shuang; Resch, Verena; Otten, Linda G; Hanefeld, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    The enantioselective Michael addition using water as both nucleophile and solvent has to date proved beyond the ability of synthetic chemists. Herein, the direct, enantioselective Michael addition of water in water to prepare important β-hydroxy carbonyl compounds using whole cells of Rhodococcus strains is described. Good yields and excellent enantioselectivities were achieved with this method. Deuterium labeling studies demonstrate that a Michael hydratase catalyzes the water addition exclusively with anti-stereochemistry. PMID:25529526

  18. A Green Enantioselective Aldol Condensation for the Undergraduate Organic Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, George D.

    2006-01-01

    A number of laboratory exercises for the organic chemistry curriculum that emphasize enantioselective synthesis of the aldol condensation which involves the proline-catalyzed condensation between acetone and isobutyraldehyde are explored. The experiment illustrates some of the trade-offs involved in green chemistry like the use of acetone in large

  19. A Green Enantioselective Aldol Condensation for the Undergraduate Organic Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, George D.

    2006-01-01

    A number of laboratory exercises for the organic chemistry curriculum that emphasize enantioselective synthesis of the aldol condensation which involves the proline-catalyzed condensation between acetone and isobutyraldehyde are explored. The experiment illustrates some of the trade-offs involved in green chemistry like the use of acetone in large…

  20. Enantioselective Synthesis of 5,7-Bicyclic Ring Systems from Axially Chiral Allenes Using a Rh(I)-Catalyzed Cyclocarbonylation Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Grillet, Francois; Brummond, Kay M.

    2013-01-01

    A transfer of chirality in an intramolecular Rh(I)-catalyzed allenic Pauson-Khand reaction (APKR) to access tetrahydroazulenones, tetrahydrocyclopenta[c]azepinones and dihydrocyclopenta[c]oxepinones enantioselectively (22 99% ee) is described. The substitution pattern of the allene affected the transfer of chiral information. Complete transfer of chirality was obtained for all trisubstituted allenes, but loss of chiral information was observed for disubstituted allenes. This work constitutes the first demonstration of a transfer of chiral information from an allene to the 5-position of a cyclopentenone using a cyclocarbonylation reaction. The absolute configuration of the corresponding cyclocarbonylation product was also established, something that is rarely done. PMID:23485149

  1. Enantioselective hydrogenation of ?,?-disubstituted nitroalkenes.

    PubMed

    Li, Shengkun; Huang, Kexuan; Zhang, Xumu

    2014-08-18

    The first highly chemo- and enantioselective hydrogenation of ?,?-disubstituted nitroalkenes was accomplished with rhodium/JosiPhos-J2 as a catalyst, with the yield and enantioselectivity of up to 95% and 94%, respectively. The ?-chiral nitroalkanes will provide an entry to valuable chiral amphetamines which are otherwise not so easily accessed. PMID:24970566

  2. Enantioselective Total Syntheses of (?)-Palauamine, (?)- Axinellamines, and (?)-Massadines

    PubMed Central

    Seiple, Ian B.; Su, Shun; Young, Ian S.; Nakamura, Akifumi; Yamaguchi, Junichiro; Jrgensen, Lars; Rodriguez, Rodrigo A.; OMalley, Daniel P.; Gaich, Tanja; Kck, Matthias; Baran, Phil S.

    2011-01-01

    Dimeric pyrrole-imidazole alkaloids represent a rich and topologically unique class of marine natural products. This full account will follow the progression of efforts that culminated in the enantioselective total syntheses of the most structurally ornate members of this family: the axinellamines, the massadines, and palauamine. A bio-inspired approach capitalizing on the pseudo-symmetry of the members of this class is recounted, delivering a deschloro derivative of the natural product core. Next, the enantioselective synthesis of the chlorocyclopentane core featuring a scalable, catalytic, enantioselective DielsAlder reaction of a 1-siloxydiene is outlined in detail. Finally, the successful divergent conversion of this core to each of the aforementioned natural products, and the ensuing methodological developments are described. PMID:21861522

  3. Lithiation-borylation methodology and its application in synthesis.

    PubMed

    Leonori, Daniele; Aggarwal, Varinder K

    2014-10-21

    Developing new methods that enable the synthesis of new and complex molecules with complete control of their 3-D shape is central to the advancement of synthetic chemistry with applications spanning from medicine to materials. Our approach consists of the iterative combination of small building blocks through the use of boron chemistry to essentially "grow" molecules. This approach, which we term assembly-line synthesis (ALS), resembles the way that nature assembles natural products (e.g., the polyketide synthase machinery) and has the advantage that many structural variations can be easily introduced and the products can be evaluated in structural or biological contexts. Chiral boronic esters have been recognized as valuable building blocks due to their unique chemical properties. They are both chemically and configurationally stable, and they can be prepared with very high levels of enantioselectivity. Additionally they undergo a broad array of transformations that lead to the stereocontrolled formation of C-C and C-X (X = heteroatom) bonds. This versatility makes boronic acids ideal building blocks for iterative molecular assembly. A powerful reaction platform for chemical diversification using chiral boronic esters is their homologation using lithium carbenoids via 1,2-metalate rearrangement. In the 1980s, Matteson described the use of boronic esters bearing a chiral diol in a two-step homologation process with dichloromethyl lithium and Grignard reagents (substrate-controlled approach). We have focused on reagent control and have found that Hoppe's chiral lithiated carbamates can be used as carbenoid equivalents in conjunction with achiral boronic esters. This reagent-controlled process offers many advantages due to the easy access of both the chiral lithiated carbamates and stable boronic esters. The carbamates can be derived from primary or secondary alcohols, and a broad range of functionalized boronic esters and boranes can be employed. Multiple homologations can be carried out in a one-pot sequence thereby streamlining the process to a single operation. This methodology has enabled the synthesis of many molecules containing multiple contiguous stereogenic centers with exquisite 3-D control. In this Account, we trace our own studies to establish the lithiation-borylation methodology and describe selected synthetic applications. PMID:25262745

  4. Catalytic Enantioselective ?,?,?-Trioxygenation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jason S; Abeykoon, Gayan A

    2015-12-18

    Applying a catalytic enantioselective aldehyde ?-oxygenation condition to an enal substrate led to the discovery of the first ?,?,?-trifunctionalization cascade of enals. Under optimal conditions, a tryptophan-derived imidazolidinone catalyst in fluorinated aromatic solvents provided ?,?,?-trioxyaldehydes in up to 51% isolated yield (average of 80% yield per oxygenation step) and 85:15 er. Substitution at the ? position was tolerated, but not at the ?, ?, or ? positions. The reaction proceeded through initial TEMPO incorporation at the ? position, and rapid racemization of this intermediate, reversible conjugate addition of water, followed by TEMPO incorporation at the ? position to set all three stereocenters with double dynamic kinetic resolution. PMID:26651079

  5. Catalytic Enantioselective Carboannulation with Allylsilanes

    PubMed Central

    Ball-Jones, Nicolas R.; Badillo, Joseph J.; Tran, Ngon T.; Franz, Annaliese K.

    2015-01-01

    The first catalytic asymmetric carboannulation with allylsilanes is presented. The enantioselective [3+2] annulation is catalyzed using a Sc(III)-indapybox complex with tetrakis-[3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-borate (BArF) to enhance catalytic activity and control stereoselectivity. Functionalized cyclopentanes containing a quaternary carbon are derived from alkylidene oxindole, coumarin, and malonate substrates with high stereoselectivity. The enantioselective 1,4-conjugate addition and enantioselective lactone formation (via trapping of the β-silyl carbocation) is also described. PMID:25045133

  6. Direct Enantioselective Conjugate Addition of Carboxylic Acids with Chiral Lithium Amides as Traceless Auxiliaries

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Michael addition is a premier synthetic method for carbon–carbon and carbon–heteroatom bond formation. Using chiral dilithium amides as traceless auxiliaries, we report the direct enantioselective Michael addition of carboxylic acids. A free carboxyl group in the product provides versatility for further functionalization, and the chiral reagent can be readily recovered by extraction with aqueous acid. The method has been applied in the enantioselective total synthesis of the purported structure of pulveraven B. PMID:25562717

  7. Enantioselective Hydrogenation of β,β-Disubstituted Unsaturated Carboxylic Acids under Base-Free Conditions.

    PubMed

    Yan, Qiaozhi; Kong, Duanyang; Zhao, Wei; Zi, Guofu; Hou, Guohua

    2016-03-01

    An additive-free enantioselective hydrogenation of β,β-disubstituted unsaturated carboxylic acids catalyzed by the Rh-(R,R)-f-spiroPhos complex has been developed. Under mild conditions, a wide scope of β,β-disubstituted unsaturated carboxylic acids were hydrogenated to the corresponding chiral carboxylic acids with excellent enantioselectivities (up to 99.3% ee). This methodology was also successfully applied to the synthesis of the pharmaceutical molecule indatraline. PMID:26847998

  8. Enantioselective Rh(I)-Catalyzed Addition of Arylboronic Acids to Cyclic Ketimines.

    PubMed

    Kong, Jongrock; McLaughlin, Mark; Belyk, Kevin; Mondschein, Ryan

    2015-11-20

    A method for the enantioselective synthesis of chiral ?-tertiary amines via Rh-catalyzed 1,2-addition of arylboronic acids to cyclic ketimines is described. The products are efficiently accessed in good yields and excellent enantioselectivities using a commercially available chiral ligand. The reaction scope includes vinyl, aryl, and heteroarylboronic acids with yields ranging from 40% to 99% and enantiomeric excesses from 88% to 99%. Conversion of an addition product into an ?,?-diaryl-substituted amino acid is also demonstrated. PMID:26542775

  9. Formal total syntheses of classic natural product target molecules via palladium-catalyzed enantioselective alkylation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yiyang; Liniger, Marc; McFadden, Ryan M; Roizen, Jenny L; Malette, Jacquie; Reeves, Corey M; Behenna, Douglas C; Seto, Masaki; Kim, Jimin; Mohr, Justin T; Virgil, Scott C

    2014-01-01

    Summary Pd-catalyzed enantioselective alkylation in conjunction with further synthetic elaboration enables the formal total syntheses of a number of classic natural product target molecules. This publication highlights recent methods for setting quaternary and tetrasubstituted tertiary carbon stereocenters to address the synthetic hurdles encountered over many decades across multiple compound classes spanning carbohydrate derivatives, terpenes, and alkaloids. These enantioselective methods will impact both academic and industrial settings, where the synthesis of stereogenic quaternary carbons is a continuing challenge. PMID:25383121

  10. Direct enantioselective conjugate addition of carboxylic acids with chiral lithium amides as traceless auxiliaries.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ping; Jackson, Jeffrey J; Eickhoff, John A; Zakarian, Armen

    2015-01-21

    Michael addition is a premier synthetic method for carbon-carbon and carbon-heteroatom bond formation. Using chiral dilithium amides as traceless auxiliaries, we report the direct enantioselective Michael addition of carboxylic acids. A free carboxyl group in the product provides versatility for further functionalization, and the chiral reagent can be readily recovered by extraction with aqueous acid. The method has been applied in the enantioselective total synthesis of the purported structure of pulveraven B. PMID:25562717

  11. Enantioselective (Formal) Aza-Diels-Alder Reactions with Non-Danishefsky-Type Dienes

    PubMed Central

    Tambar, Uttam K.; Lee, Sharon K.; Leighton, James L.

    2010-01-01

    Enantioselective (formal) aza-Diels-Alder reactions between acylhydrazones and non-Danishefsky-type dienes have been developed. The reactions are promoted by a simple and economical chiral silicon Lewis acid, and are typically conducted at ambient temperature. Both glyoxylate and aliphatic aldehyde-derived hydrazones may be employed, as may variously substituted dienes, leading to the synthesis of a diverse array of tetrahydropyridines with good to excellent levels of enantioselectivity. PMID:20662502

  12. Enantioselective Cycloaddition Reactions Catalyzed by BINOL-Derived Phosphoric Acids and N-Triflyl Phosphoramides: Recent Advances.

    PubMed

    Held, Felix E; Grau, Dominik; Tsogoeva, Svetlana B

    2015-01-01

    Over the last several years there has been a huge increase in the development and applications of new efficient organocatalysts for enantioselective pericyclic reactions, which represent one of the most powerful types of organic transformations. Among these processes are cycloaddition reactions (e.g., [3+2]; formal [3+3]; [4+2]; vinylogous [4+2] and 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions), which belong to the most utilized reactions in organic synthesis of complex nitrogen- and oxygen-containing heterocyclic molecules. This review presents the breakthrough realized in this field using chiral BINOL-derived phosphoric acids and N-triflyl phosphoramide organocatalysts. PMID:26404222

  13. Enantioselective Dichlorination of Allylic Alcohols

    PubMed Central

    Nicolaou, K. C.; Simmons, Nicholas L.; Ying, Yongcheng; Heretsch, Philipp M.; Chen, Jason S.

    2011-01-01

    The development of an enantioselective allylic alcohol dichlorination catalyzed by dimeric cinchona alkaloid derivatives and employing aryl iododichlorides as chlorine sources is reported. Reaction optimization, exploration of the substrate scope, and a model for stereoinduction are presented. PMID:21542622

  14. A Preparation of (?)-Nutlin-3 Using Enantioselective Organocatalysis at Decagram Scale

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Tyler A.; Vilgelm, Anna E.; Richmond, Ann; Johnston, Jeffrey N.

    2013-01-01

    Chiral nonracemic cis-4,5-bis(aryl) imidazolines have emerged as a powerful platform for the development of cancer chemotherapeutics, stimulated by the Hoffmann-La Roche discovery that Nutlin-3 can restore apoptosis in cells with wild-type p53. The lack of efficient methods for the enantioselective synthesis of cis-imidazolines, however, has limited their more general use. Our disclosure of the first enantioselective synthesis of (?)-Nutlin-3 provided a basis to prepare larger amounts of this tool used widely in cancer biology. Key to the decagram-scale synthesis described here was the discovery of a novel bis(amidine) organocatalyst that provides high enantioselectivity at warmer reaction temperature (?20 C) and low catalyst loadings. Further refinements to the procedure led to the synthesis of (?)-Nutlin-3 in a 17 gram batch, and elimination of all but three chromatographic purifications. PMID:24127627

  15. Dynamic control of chirality in phosphine ligands for enantioselective catalysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Depeng; Neubauer, Thomas M.; Feringa, Ben L.

    2015-01-01

    Chirality plays a fundamental role in biology and chemistry and the precise control of chirality in a catalytic conversion is a key to modern synthesis most prominently seen in the production of pharmaceuticals. In enantioselective metal-based catalysis, access to each product enantiomer is commonly achieved through ligand design with chiral bisphosphines being widely applied as privileged ligands. Switchable phosphine ligands, in which chirality is modulated through an external trigger signal, might offer attractive possibilities to change enantioselectivity in a catalytic process in a non-invasive manner avoiding renewed ligand synthesis. Here we demonstrate that a photoswitchable chiral bisphosphine based on a unidirectional light-driven molecular motor, can be used to invert the stereoselectivity of a palladium-catalysed asymmetric transformation. It is shown that light-induced changes in geometry and helicity of the switchable ligand enable excellent selectivity towards the racemic or individual enantiomers of the product in a Pd-catalysed desymmetrization reaction. PMID:25806856

  16. APPLICATIONS OF CAPILLARY ELECTROPHORESIS TO THE STUDY OF CHIRAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS: ENANTIOMER SEPARATION AND MEASUREMENTS OF ENANTIOSELECTIVITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    CE is rarely used for routine environmental analysis of organic pollutants -- certainly not to the extent of gas chromatography or high pressure liquid chromatography. There are advantages to CE, however, that belie this lack of application. For example, CE is preferred over GC f...

  17. Enantioselective Total Synthesis of (+)-Gliocladine C. A Convergent Construction of Cyclotryptamine-Fused Polyoxopiperazines and a General Approach for Preparing Epidithiodioxopiperazines from Trioxopiperazine Precursors

    PubMed Central

    DeLorbe, John E.; Jabri, Salman Y.; Mennen, Steven M.; Overman, Larry E.; Zhang, Fang-Li

    2011-01-01

    A concise second-generation total synthesis of the fungal-derived alkaloid (+)-gliocladin C (11), in ten steps and 11% overall yield from isatin, is reported. In addition, the ETP natural product (+)-gliocladine C (6) is prepared in six steps and 29% yield from the di-(tert-butoxycarbonyl) precursor of 11. The total synthesis of (+)-gliocladine C (6) constitutes the first total synthesis of an ETP natural product containing a hydroxyl substituent adjacent to a quaternary carbon stereocenter in the pyrrolidine ring. PMID:21473649

  18. Inventing and understanding catalytic, enantioselective reactions.

    PubMed

    Shibasaki, Masakatsu; Kumagai, Naoya; Mashiko, Tomoyuki

    2009-11-01

    This review summarizes recent advances in the development of efficient routes based on enantioselective catalysis for the synthesis of optically active therapeutic agents. Particular emphasis is placed on research that has streamlined the large-scale production of therapeutics for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Progress in the catalytic asymmetric hydrogenation and amination of unprotected substrates has enabled the establishment of concise synthetic routes for the production of the potent dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitor sitagliptin, and the aldose reductase inhibitor ranirestat (Dainippon Sumimoto Pharma Co Ltd/Eisai Co Ltd/ Kyorin Pharmaceutical Co Ltd), both of which have attracted particular attention for their potential to treat T2DM and diabetic complications, respectively. PMID:19894195

  19. Enantioselective synthesis of (+)-petromyroxol, enabled by rhodium-catalyzed denitrogenation and rearrangement of a 1-sulfonyl-1,2,3-triazole.

    PubMed

    Boyer, Alistair

    2015-05-01

    Petromyroxol is a nonracemic mixture of enantiomeric oxylipids isolated from water conditioned with larval sea lamprey. The (+)-antipode exhibits interesting biological properties, but only 1 mg was isolated from >100?000 L of water. Recently, transition-metal-catalyzed denitrogenation of 1-sulfonyl-1,2,3-triazoles has emerged as a powerful strategy for the synthesis of value-added products, including efficient diastereocontrolled construction of tetrahydrofurans. This methodology enabled the rapid development of the first synthesis of (+)-petromyroxol in 9 steps and 20% overall yield from a readily accessible starting material. PMID:25891197

  20. Cationic Chiral Fluorinated Oxazaborolidines. More Potent, Second-Generation Catalysts for Highly Enantioselective Cycloaddition Reactions.

    PubMed

    Mahender Reddy, Karla; Bhimireddy, Eswar; Thirupathi, Barla; Breitler, Simon; Yu, Shunming; Corey, E J

    2016-02-24

    The coordination of chiral ligands to Lewis acid metal derivatives, a useful strategy for enantioselective, electrophilic catalysis, generally leads to a lower level of catalytic activity than that of the original uncomplexed compound. Activation by further attachment of a proton or strong Lewis acid to the complex provides a way to overcome the deactivating effect of a chiral ligand. The research described herein has demonstrated that further enhancement of catalytic activity is possible by the judicious placement of fluorine substituents in the chiral ligand. This approach has led to a new, second-generation family of chiral oxazaborolidinium cationic species which can be used to effect many Diels-Alder reactions in >95% yield and >95% ee using catalyst loadings at the 1-2 mol % level. The easy recovery of the chiral ligand makes the application of these new catalysts especially attractive for large-scale synthesis. PMID:26812167

  1. Cyclopalladated complexes in enantioselective catalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunina, Valeria V.; Gorunova, Olga N.; Zykov, P. A.; Kochetkov, Konstantin A.

    2011-01-01

    The results of the use of optically active palladacycles in enantioselective catalysis of [3,3]-sigmatropic rearrangements, aldol condensation, the Michael reaction and cross-coupling are analyzed. Reactions with allylic substrates or reagents and some other transformations are considered.

  2. Catalytic Enantioselective Synthesis of N,C(?),C(?)-Trisubstituted ?-Amino Acid Derivatives Using 1H-Imidazol-4(5H)-ones as Key Templates.

    PubMed

    Etxabe, Julen; Izquierdo, Joseba; Landa, Aitor; Oiarbide, Mikel; Palomo, Claudio

    2015-06-01

    1H-Imidazol-4(5H)-ones are introduced as novel nucleophilic ?-amino acid equivalents in asymmetric synthesis. These compounds not only allow highly efficient construction of tetrasubstituted stereogenic centers, but unlike hitherto known templates, provide direct access to N-substituted (alkyl, allyl, aryl) ?-amino acid derivatives. PMID:25907987

  3. MICROWAVE TECHNOLOGY CHEMICAL SYNTHESIS APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microwave-accelerated chemical syntheses in various solvents as well as under solvent-free conditions have witnessed an explosive growth. The technique has found widespread application predominantly exploiting the inexpensive unmodified household microwave (MW) ovens although th...

  4. Chiral Boron Complex-Promoted Asymmetric Diels-Alder Cycloaddition and Its Application in Natural Product Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Li, Xia; Han, Jianguang; Jones, Alexander X; Lei, Xiaoguang

    2016-01-15

    An efficient method for the asymmetric Diels-Alder cycloaddition of 2'-hydroxychalcones with acyclic or cyclic dienes has been successfully developed. The Diels-Alder cycloaddition is mediated by a chiral boron complex with VANOL, affording the corresponding products in high yields and with excellent diastereo- and enantioselectivities. This reaction enabled the enantioselective construction of cyclohexene skeletons crucial for the total synthesis of a number of Diels-Alder-type natural products (-)-nicolaioidesin C, (-)-panduratine A, (-)-kuwanon I, (+)-kuwanon J, and (-)-brosimones A and B. PMID:26693852

  5. Applicability of the Rayleigh equation for enantioselective metabolism of chiral xenobiotics by microsomes, hepatocytes and in-vivo retention in rabbit tissues.

    PubMed

    Jammer, Shifra; Gelman, Faina; Lev, Ovadia

    2016-01-01

    In this study we propose a new approach for analyzing the enantioselective biodegradation of some antidepressant drugs mediated by human and rat liver microsomes by using the Rayleigh equation to describe the enantiomeric enrichment-conversion dependencies. Analysis of reported degradation data of additional six pesticides, an alpha blocker and a flame retardant by microsomes or hepatocytes in vitro reaffirmed the universality of the approach. In all the in vitro studied cases that involved enantioselective degradation, a Rayleigh dependence of the enantiomeric enrichment was observed. Published data regarding in vivo retention of myclobutanil in liver, kidney, muscle and brain tissues of rabbits following injection of the racemate were remodeled showing prevalence of the Rayleigh law for the chiral enrichment of the fungicide in the various tissues. This approach will revolutionize data organization in metabolic pathway research of target xenobiotics by either liver microsomes, hepatocytes or their organ-specific in vivo retention. The fact that the enantiomeric enrichment as a function of the conversion can be described by a single quantifier, will pave the road for the use of structure activity predictors of the enantiomeric enrichment and for mechanistic discrimination based on parametric dependence of the quantifier. PMID:27021918

  6. Enantioselective Total Syntheses of (?)-Taiwaniaquinone H and (?)-Taiwaniaquinol B by Iridium-Catalyzed Borylation and Palladium-Catalyzed Asymmetric ?-Arylation

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Xuebin; Stanley, Levi M.; Hartwig, John F.

    2011-01-01

    We report a concise, enantioselective total synthesis of (?)-taiwaniaquinone H and the first enantioselective total synthesis of (?)-taiwaniaquinol B by a route that includes enantioselective, palladium-catalyzed ?-arylation of a ketone with an aryl bromide that was generated by sterically controlled halogenation via iridium-catalyzed CH borylation. This asymmetric ?-arylation creates the benzylic, quaternary stereogenic center present in the taiwaniaquinoids. The synthesis was completed efficiently by developing a Lewis acid-promoted cascade to construct the [6,5,6] tricyclic core of an intermediate common to the synthesis of a number of taiwaniaquinoids. Through the preparation of these compounds, we demonstrate the utility of constructing benzylic, quaternary, stereogenic centers, even those lacking a carbonyl group in the ?-position, by asymmetric ?-arylation. PMID:21268578

  7. Ethylene glycol: properties, synthesis, and applications.

    PubMed

    Yue, Hairong; Zhao, Yujun; Ma, Xinbin; Gong, Jinlong

    2012-06-01

    Ethylene glycol (EG) is an important organic compound and chemical intermediate used in a large number of industrial processes (e.g. energy, plastics, automobiles, and chemicals). Indeed, owing to its unique properties and versatile commercial applications, a variety of chemical systems (e.g., catalytic and non-catalytic) have been explored for the synthesis of EG, particularly via reaction processes derived from fossil fuels (e.g., petroleum, natural gas, and coal) and biomass-based resources. This critical review describes a broad spectrum of properties of EG and significant advances in the prevalent synthesis and applications of EG, with emphases on the catalytic reactivity and reaction mechanisms of the main synthetic methodologies and applied strategies. We also provide an overview regarding the challenges and opportunities for future research associated with EG. PMID:22488259

  8. Application of Catalytic Dynamic Resolution of N-Boc-2-lithiopiperidine to the Asymmetric Synthesis of 2-Aryl and 2-Vinyl Piperidines

    PubMed Central

    Beng, Timothy K.; Gawley, Robert E.

    2011-01-01

    The highly enantioselective synthesis of 2-aryl- and 2-vinyl-piperidines has been accomplished through a catalytic dynamic resolution (CDR) of N-Boc-2-lithiopiperidine. The method has been applied to the synthesis of both enantiomers of the tobacco alkaloid anabasine. PMID:21174392

  9. Tetrabenzotriazaporphyrins: synthesis, properties and application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalashnikov, V. V.; Pushkarev, V. E.; Tomilova, L. G.

    2014-07-01

    Synthetic approaches to tetrabenzotriazaporphyrins and their complexes with metals and semimetals (P, Si) are considered. Methods for complexation of free-base tetrabenzotriazaporphyrin ligands and the preparation of water-soluble derivatives via the introduction of a sulfo group are analyzed. Particular attention is given to investigations of this class of compounds by electronic absorption spectroscopy and possibilities of their practical application. The bibliography includes 80 references.

  10. Synthesis, Properties, and Applications Of Boron Nitride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pouch, John J.; Alterovitz, Samuel A.

    1993-01-01

    Report describes synthesis, properties, and applications of boron nitride. Especially in thin-film form. Boron nitride films useful as masks in x-ray lithography; as layers for passivation of high-speed microelectronic circuits; insulating films; hard, wear-resistant, protective films for optical components; lubricants; and radiation detectors. Present status of single-crystal growth of boron nitride indicates promising candidate for use in high-temperature semiconductor electronics.

  11. Regioselective and stereoselective nucleophilic ring opening reactions of a phenyl-substituted aziridine: enantioselective synthesis of beta-substituted tryptophan, cysteine, and serine derivatives.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Chiyi; Wang, Wei; Cai, Chaozhong; Hruby, Victor J

    2002-02-22

    The asymmetric synthesis of beta-phenyl-substituted cysteine, tryptophan, and serine derivatives was successfully developed. In this approach, the key intermediate, enantiomerically pure 3-phenylaziridine-2-carboxylic ester 7, was prepared from alpha,beta-unsaturated ester 1 by employing the Sharpless asymmetric dihydroxylation. The aziridine 7 was treated with 4-methoxybenzylthiol, indole, and acetic acid to give beta-phenyl-substituted cysteine, tryptophan, and serine, respectively, in a clean S(N)2 type ring opening at the C3 position. This general approach can be used to synthesize a variety of beta-substituted novel amino acids. PMID:11846696

  12. Nanofiber: Synthesis and biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Eatemadi, Ali; Daraee, Hadis; Zarghami, Nosratolah; Melat Yar, Hassan; Akbarzadeh, Abolfazl

    2016-02-01

    Electrospinning uses an electrical charge to draw very fine (typically on the micro or nano scale) fibers from a liquid. Electrospinning or electrostatic spinning shares characteristics of both electrospraying and conventional solution dry spinning of fibers. The method does not need the use of coagulation chemistry or high temperatures to produce solid threads from solution. This makes the process particularly suited for the production of fibers using large and complex molecules. Because the full potential of biomaterials being used in various applications, field of nanofibers have involved considerable interest in biotechnology and medicine and there has been fast development in this area in recent years. PMID:24905339

  13. Dendrimers: synthesis, applications, and properties.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, Elham; Aval, Sedigheh Fekri; Akbarzadeh, Abolfazl; Milani, Morteza; Nasrabadi, Hamid Tayefi; Joo, Sang Woo; Hanifehpour, Younes; Nejati-Koshki, Kazem; Pashaei-Asl, Roghiyeh

    2014-01-01

    Dendrimers are nano-sized, radially symmetric molecules with well-defined, homogeneous, and monodisperse structure that has a typically symmetric core, an inner shell, and an outer shell. Their three traditional macromolecular architectural classes are broadly recognized to generate rather polydisperse products of different molecular weights. A variety of dendrimers exist, and each has biological properties such as polyvalency, self-assembling, electrostatic interactions, chemical stability, low cytotoxicity, and solubility. These varied characteristics make dendrimers a good choice in the medical field, and this review covers their diverse applications. PMID:24994950

  14. Dendrimers: synthesis, applications, and properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbasi, Elham; Aval, Sedigheh Fekri; Akbarzadeh, Abolfazl; Milani, Morteza; Nasrabadi, Hamid Tayefi; Joo, Sang Woo; Hanifehpour, Younes; Nejati-Koshki, Kazem; Pashaei-Asl, Roghiyeh

    2014-05-01

    Dendrimers are nano-sized, radially symmetric molecules with well-defined, homogeneous, and monodisperse structure that has a typically symmetric core, an inner shell, and an outer shell. Their three traditional macromolecular architectural classes are broadly recognized to generate rather polydisperse products of different molecular weights. A variety of dendrimers exist, and each has biological properties such as polyvalency, self-assembling, electrostatic interactions, chemical stability, low cytotoxicity, and solubility. These varied characteristics make dendrimers a good choice in the medical field, and this review covers their diverse applications.

  15. Dendrimers: synthesis, applications, and properties

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Dendrimers are nano-sized, radially symmetric molecules with well-defined, homogeneous, and monodisperse structure that has a typically symmetric core, an inner shell, and an outer shell. Their three traditional macromolecular architectural classes are broadly recognized to generate rather polydisperse products of different molecular weights. A variety of dendrimers exist, and each has biological properties such as polyvalency, self-assembling, electrostatic interactions, chemical stability, low cytotoxicity, and solubility. These varied characteristics make dendrimers a good choice in the medical field, and this review covers their diverse applications. PMID:24994950

  16. Palladium-catalyzed regio-, diastereo-, and enantioselective allylation of nitroalkanes with monosubstituted allylic substrates.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiao-Fei; Yu, Wei-Hua; Ding, Chang-Hua; Ding, Qiu-Ping; Wan, Shi-Li; Hou, Xue-Long; Dai, Li-Xin; Wang, Pin-Jie

    2013-07-01

    Pd-catalyzed asymmetric allylic alkylation of nitroalkanes and monosubstituted allylic substrates was performed to afford products with two adjacent chiral centers and with excellent regio-, diastereo-, and enantioselectivities. The usefulness of the protocol in organic synthesis was demonstrated by transformation of the product to an optically active homoallylamine, a 2,3-disubstituted tetrahydropyridine, and an ?,?-disubstituted amino acid derivative. PMID:23741970

  17. A highly enantioselective Mannich reaction of aldehydes with cyclic N-acyliminium ions by synergistic catalysis.

    PubMed

    Berti, Francesco; Malossi, Federico; Marchetti, Fabio; Pineschi, Mauro

    2015-09-14

    Matched combinations of Brnsted or Lewis acids with suitable pro-electrophiles and secondary amine organocatalysts enable the novel enantioselective syntheses of carbamoyl dihydroquinoline and tetrahydropyridine derivatives with concomitant formation of two stereocenters. A short formal asymmetric synthesis of (2R,2'R)-threo-methylphenidate (Ritalin) is also described. PMID:26229994

  18. Enantioselective Formal Total Syntheses of Didehydrostemofoline and Isodidehydrostemofoline via a Novel Catalytic Dipolar Cycloaddition Cascade**

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Chao; Shanahan, Charles S.; Paull, Daniel H.; Martin, Stephen F.

    2012-01-01

    Sweet to the Core Enantioselective formal total syntheses of the Stemona alkaloids didehydrostemofoline and isodidehydrostemofoline were accomplished in 24 steps from commercially available 2-deoxy-d-ribose. The synthesis features a novel cascade of reactions culminating in an intramolecular dipolar cycloaddition to form the cage-like, tricyclic core of the stemofoline alkaloids from an acyclic diazo imine intermediate. PMID:22987285

  19. Bacteriagenic silver nanoparticles: synthesis, mechanism, and applications.

    PubMed

    Singh, Richa; Shedbalkar, Utkarsha U; Wadhwani, Sweety A; Chopade, Balu A

    2015-06-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have received tremendous attention due to their significant antimicrobial properties. Large numbers of reports are available on the physical, chemical, and biological syntheses of colloidal AgNPs. Since there is a great need to develop ecofriendly and sustainable methods, biological systems like bacteria, fungi, and plants are being employed to synthesize these nanoparticles. The present review focuses specifically on bacteria-mediated synthesis of AgNPs, its mechanism, and applications. Bacterial synthesis of extra- and intracellular AgNPs has been reported using biomass, supernatant, cell-free extract, and derived components. The extracellular mode of synthesis is preferred over the intracellular mode owing to easy recovery of nanoparticles. Silver-resistant genes, c-type cytochromes, peptides, cellular enzymes like nitrate reductase, and reducing cofactors play significant roles in AgNP synthesis in bacteria. Organic materials released by bacteria act as natural capping and stabilizing agents for AgNPs, thereby preventing their aggregation and providing stability for a longer time. Regulation over reaction conditions has been suggested to control the morphology, dispersion, and yield of nanoparticles. Bacterial AgNPs have anticancer and antioxidant properties. Moreover, the antimicrobial activity of AgNPs in combination with antibiotics signifies their importance in combating the multidrug-resistant pathogenic microorganisms. Multiple microbicidal mechanisms exhibited by AgNPs, depending upon their size and shape, make them very promising as novel nanoantibiotics. PMID:25952110

  20. Graphene: Synthesis, bio-applications, and properties.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, Elham; Akbarzadeh, Abolfazl; Kouhi, Mohammad; Milani, Morteza

    2016-02-01

    The properties of graphene, carbon sheets that are only one atom wide, have led researchers and companies to consider its synthesis, properties, and the applications in numerous fields. High-quality graphene is physically powerful, light, nearly transparent, and an exceptional conductor of heat and electricity. Its interactions with other materials and with light and its naturally two-dimensional nature produce unique properties, such as the bipolar transistor effect, ballistic transport of charges, and large quantum oscillations. The following review introduces the many potential applications of graphene. PMID:24978443

  1. Studies toward the total synthesis of dumsin. 2. A second generation approach resulting in enantioselective construction of a functionalized ABC subunit of the tetranortriterpenoid insect antifeedant.

    PubMed

    Paquette, Leo A; Hu, Yang; Luxenburger, Andreas; Bishop, Raynauld L

    2007-01-01

    A synthesis of the ABC framework of dumsin is described. The optically active intermediate 9b, which is expeditiously assembled from 5-oxobornyl pivalate by the sequential implementation of an oxy-Cope rearrangement and an intramolecular ene reaction, proved to be suitably functionalized for ultimate conversion to 5. The synthesis plan relies on two approaches to this targeted intermediate. In the first, the exocyclic double bond introduced during EtAlCl2-promoted closure of aldehyde 10b is cleaved to leave a carbonyl group that is amenable to hydride reduction and elimination of water. Cleavage of the resulting double bond with ruthenium tetroxide provided the seco ketoacid. The same advanced intermediate was obtained by initially positioning the double bond internal to the five-membered ring in advance of transient ring expansion via diketone formation and intramolecular aldolization. Both of these approaches bypass the complications arising from the substantial steric congestion prevailing in these structural networks. The task of covalently positioning an oxygen atom adjacent to the gem-dimethyl-substituted carbon in 5 was properly realized by oxidative decarboxylation. The stereochemical assignments to many of the intermediates were confirmed by an X-ray crystallographic analysis of 43. PMID:17194102

  2. Synthesis and device applications of graphitic nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umair, Ahmad

    This thesis is focused on two topics: (i) synthesis and characterization of bilayer graphene and pyrolytic carbon by atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition, and (ii) application of graphene in the fabrication of a buckyball memory device. Monolayer and bilayer graphene are semi-metal with zero bandgap. One can induce a bandgap in bilayer graphene by applying a gate voltage in the stacking direction. Thus, bandgap and Fermi level in bilayer graphene can be controlled simultaneously with a double-gate device, making it a useful material for future semiconducting applications. Controlled synthesis of bilayer graphene would be the first step to fabricate bilayer graphene based devices. In this context, we report a uniform and low-defect synthesis of bilayer graphene on evaporated nickel films. Ultra-fast cooling is employed to control the number of layers and sample uniformity. The process is self-limiting, which leads to bilayer graphene synthesis over a wide range of growth-time and precursor flow-rate. Pryolytic carbon is another important carbon nanomaterial, due to its diverse applications in electronic and biomedicalengineering. We employ chemical vapor deposition with ultra-fast cooling technique to synthesize pyrolytic carbon. Furthermore, we elucidate a method to calculate the in-plane crystal size by using Raman spectroscopy. Finally, the use of bilayer graphene in a write-once read-many memory device has been demonstrated. The device showed irreversible switching from low-resistance to high-resistance state, with hysteresis in the transport characteristics. The control sample showed random switching and hysteresis due to electromigration of metal atoms into the active material of the device. We attribute the reliability and performance of the reported device to the ultra-smooth graphene contacts, which additionally inhibits electromigration from the underlying metallic film. Moreover, the memory device showed excellent endurance and retention characteristics.

  3. Germanium nanocrystals: Synthesis, characterization, and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerung, Henry

    The aim of this work was to demonstrate a simple synthesis route of Ge nanostructures (nanoparticles and nanowires), to characterize the physical and optical properties of Ge nanocrystal, and to demonstrate their biological and optoelectronics applications. The appropriate organometallic Ge 2+ precursors for the synthesis of Ge nanocrystals were identified. These precursors were used to develop a simple route that produced high quality Ge nanocrystals in high yield under mild conditions without using potentially contaminating catalysts and forming byproducts. The particle size was varied from 1 to 10 nm, depending on the reaction parameters. The relatively low-temperature, low-pressure nanocrystal synthesis condition allowed the use of organic solvents and surfactants. We also demonstrated morphological control over Ge nanocrystals via Ge2+ precursor reactivity modification. During synthesis, the surfactants passivate the nanocrystal surface and minimize surface oxidation. This synthesis method allowed optical characterization of Ge nanocrystals decoupled from contamination and oxidation. When excited with photons, Ge nanoparticles exhibit quantum confinement effect in both infrared and ultraviolet regions, as well as optical nonlinearity by the presence of two-photon absorption. These free-standing Ge nanocrystals could be further become integral elements in various optoelectronic devices. Herein, the production of water-soluble Ge nanoparticles was demonstrated as a proof of the effectiveness of our synthesis method. Addition of secondary layer surfactants such as cationic cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) or functionalized polyethylene glycol (PEG), transforms the Ge nanoparticles to become water-soluble. The biocompatible, functionalized, water-soluble Ge nanoparticles were bound to extracellular receptors and also incorporated into the cells as a proof-of-concept demonstration for potential biomarker applications. In expectation of forming a 3-D superlattice of Ge nanocrystals within a SiO2 matrix, the real-time monitoring of ordered mesoporous SiO 2 structure formation via evaporation induced self assembly was also conducted to understand the structural ordering inside the silica matrix. The mesoporous film was then used for in situ and real-time study of profile evolution during plasma etching using attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. We envision that the patterned 3-D superlattice of Ge nanocrystals will lead to advanced materials applications, such as coherent phonon generator and high-sensitivity biosensor.

  4. Organocatalytically Generated Donor-Acceptor Cyclopropanes in Domino Reactions. One-Step Enantioselective Synthesis of Pyrrolo[1,2-a]quinolines.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Diez, Eduardo; Vesga, Diana L; Reyes, Efraim; Uria, Uxue; Carrillo, Luisa; Vicario, Jose L

    2016-03-18

    An easy and straightforward procedure has been developed for the synthesis of highly enantioenriched pyrrolo[1,2-a]quinolines through a one-pot process that comprises a domino cyclopropane ring opening/aza-Michael/aldol reaction followed by acid-promoted lactamization. The key feature of the synthetic approach relies on the ability of conveniently functionalized cyclopropaneacetaldehydes to undergo organocatalytic activation by a chiral secondary amine that enables the catalytic generation of a donor-acceptor cyclopropane. This intermediate has the potential to undergo a ring opening that generates an electrophilic α,β-unsaturated iminium ion that subsequently reacts through the already mentioned domino sequence and in which stereochemical information is very efficiently transferred from the amine catalyst to the final products. Moreover, one of the alkoxycarbonyl moieties can be easily removed by standard hydrolysis/decarboxylation, providing access to the target adducts as single stereoisomers. PMID:26916408

  5. A Concise and Highly Enantioselective Total Synthesis of (+)-anti- and (-)-syn-Mefloquine Hydrochloride: Definitive Absolute Stereochemical Assignment of the Mefloquines.

    PubMed

    Rastelli, Ettore J; Coltart, Don M

    2015-11-16

    A concise asymmetric (>99:1 e.r.) total synthesis of (+)-anti- and (-)-syn-mefloquine hydrochloride from a common intermediate is described. The key asymmetric transformation is a Sharpless dihydroxylation of an olefin that is accessed in three steps from commercially available materials. The Sharpless-derived diol is converted into either a trans or cis epoxide, and these are subsequently converted into (+)-anti- and (-)-syn-mefloquine, respectively. The synthetic (+)-anti- and (-)-syn-mefloquine samples were derivatized with (S)-(+)-mandelic acid tert-butyldimethylsilyl ether, and a crystal structure of each derivative was obtained. These are the first X-ray structures for mefloquine derivatives that were obtained by coupling to a known chiral, nonracemic compound, and provide definitive confirmation of the absolute stereochemistry of (+)-anti- as well as (-)-syn-mefloquine. PMID:26422780

  6. Palladium-catalyzed enantioselective decarboxylative cycloaddition of vinylethylene carbonates with isocyanates.

    PubMed

    Khan, Ajmal; Xing, Juxiang; Zhao, Jingming; Kan, Yuhe; Zhang, Wanbin; Zhang, Yong Jian

    2015-01-01

    An efficient method for the enantioselective construction of ?-substituted ?-vinylglycinol derivatives through palladium-catalyzed decarboxylative cycloaddition of vinylethylene carbonates with isocyanates was developed. By using a palladium complex generated in situ from [Pd2 (dba)3]?CHCl3 (dba=dibenzylideneacetone) and (S)-Segphos as a catalyst under mild reaction conditions, the process provided 4-substituted-4-vinyloxazolidin-2-ones in high yields with a high level of enantioselectivity. The stereochemical outcome of the reaction was explained by DFT calculations and the synthetic utility of the process was demonstrated by the gram-scale transformation and formal synthesis of MK-0731 as a kinesin spindle protein inhibitor. PMID:25400207

  7. Enantioselective recognition at mesoporous chiral metal surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wattanakit, Chularat; Cme, Ymima Bon Saint; Lapeyre, Veronique; Bopp, Philippe A.; Heim, Matthias; Yadnum, Sudarat; Nokbin, Somkiat; Warakulwit, Chompunuch; Limtrakul, Jumras; Kuhn, Alexander

    2014-02-01

    Chirality is widespread in natural systems, and artificial reproduction of chiral recognition is a major scientific challenge, especially owing to various potential applications ranging from catalysis to sensing and separation science. In this context, molecular imprinting is a well-known approach for generating materials with enantioselective properties, and it has been successfully employed using polymers. However, it is particularly difficult to synthesize chiral metal matrices by this method. Here we report the fabrication of a chirally imprinted mesoporous metal, obtained by the electrochemical reduction of platinum salts in the presence of a liquid crystal phase and chiral template molecules. The porous platinum retains a chiral character after removal of the template molecules. A matrix obtained in this way exhibits a large active surface area due to its mesoporosity, and also shows a significant discrimination between two enantiomers, when they are probed using such materials as electrodes.

  8. Enantioselective construction of quaternary N-heterocycles by palladium-catalysed decarboxylative allylic alkylation of lactams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behenna, Douglas C.; Liu, Yiyang; Yurino, Taiga; Kim, Jimin; White, David E.; Virgil, Scott C.; Stoltz, Brian M.

    2012-02-01

    The enantioselective synthesis of nitrogen-containing heterocycles (N-heterocycles) represents a substantial chemical research effort and resonates across numerous disciplines, including the total synthesis of natural products and medicinal chemistry. In this Article, we describe the highly enantioselective palladium-catalysed decarboxylative allylic alkylation of readily available lactams to form 3,3-disubstituted pyrrolidinones, piperidinones, caprolactams and structurally related lactams. Given the prevalence of quaternary N-heterocycles in biologically active alkaloids and pharmaceutical agents, we envisage that our method will provide a synthetic entry into the de novo asymmetric synthesis of such structures. As an entry for these investigations we demonstrate how the described catalysis affords enantiopure quaternary lactams that intercept synthetic intermediates previously used in the synthesis of the Aspidosperma alkaloids quebrachamine and rhazinilam, but that were previously only available by chiral auxiliary approaches or as racemic mixtures.

  9. Synthesis and Application of [3.3.0]Furofuranone in Total Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Peng, Xiao-Shui; Ylagan, Ridge Michael P; Siu, Yuk Ming; Wong, Henry N C

    2015-10-01

    The synthesis and application of [3.3.0]furofuranone species has received considerable attention from the scientific community. During the last twenty years, there has been a remarkable increase in publications focusing on their relevant method development as well as applications to natural product synthesis. This tutorial review discusses instructive examples to give a special emphasis on the development of new synthetic approaches and important applications to the total synthesis of natural products. PMID:26083458

  10. Molecular diversity of spirooxindoles. Synthesis and biological activity.

    PubMed

    Pavlovska, Tetyana L; Redkin, Ruslan Gr; Lipson, Victoria V; Atamanuk, Dmytro V

    2016-02-01

    Spirooxindoles are important synthetic targets possessing extended biological activity and drug discovery applications. This review focuses on the various strategies for the enantioselective synthesis of spirocyclic oxindoles relying on reports over the past decade and from earlier work. The spirooxindoles in this review are separated into three structural classes, and then further categorized into the method type from which the spirocycle is generated. PMID:26419598

  11. Enantioselective Transesterification Catalysis by Nanosized Serine Protease Subtilisin Carlsberg Particles in Tetrahydrofuran

    PubMed Central

    Castillo, Betzaida; Delgado, Yamixa; Barletta, Gabriel; Griebenow, Kai

    2010-01-01

    Enzyme catalysis in organic solvents is a powerful tool for stereo-selective synthesis but the enantioselectivity is still hard to predict. To overcome this obstacle, we employed a nanoparticulate formulation of subtilisin Carlsberg (SC) and designed a series of 14 structurally related racemic alcohols. They were employed in the model transesterification reaction with vinyl butyrate and the enantioselectivities were determined. In general, short alcohol side chains led to low enantioselectivties, while larger and bulky side chains caused better discrimination of the enantiomers by the enzyme. With several bulky substrates high enantioselectivities with E>100 were obtained. Computational modeling highlighted that key to high enantioselectivity is the discrimination of the R and S substrates by the sole hydrophobic binding pocket based on their size and bulkiness. While bulky S enantiomer side chains could be accommodated within the binding pocket, bulky R enantiomer side chains could not. However, when also the S enantiomer side chain becomes too large and does not fit into the binding pocket anymore, enantioselectivity accordingly drops. PMID:20661313

  12. Enantioselective syntheses of the proposed structures of cytotoxic macrolides iriomoteolide-1a and -1b.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Arun K; Yuan, Hao

    2010-07-16

    Enantioselective total syntheses of the proposed structures of macrolide cytotoxic agents iriomoteolide-1a and -1b have been accomplished. The synthesis was carried out in a convergent and stereoselective manner. However, the present work suggests that the reported structures have been assigned incorrectly. The synthesis features Julia-Kocienski olefination, Sharpless asymmetric epoxidation, Brown asymmetric crotylboration, a Sakurai reaction, an aldol reaction, and enzymatic resolution as the key steps. PMID:20560539

  13. Synthesis, characterization and applications of different nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, Whitney Elaine

    There has been a growing interest in the field of nanoscience for the last several decades including the use in optical, electrical, biological and medicinal applications. This thesis focuses on the synthesis of different nanoparticles for their potential uses in drug delivery and antimicrobial agents as well as porous alumina membranes as surface enhanced Raman scattering or SERS substrates. The synthesis of nanocomposites (NCs) composed of silica and poly(4-vinyl pyridine) (P4VP) in a basic ethanol solution is presented in chapter 2. The composition of the NCs appears to be homogenous after synthesis and is greatly affected by heat and pH changes. When the NCs are heated, a core-shell nanostructure is produced with silica forming a shell around a P4VP core. At lower pHs, the NCs form a silica core with a P4VP shell while at higher pHs the silica is etched away causing the NC to decompose. A novel synthesis method of growing stable copper oxide nanoparticles with poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) is presented in chapter 3. Insoluble copper (I) oxide is dissolved with ammonium hydroxide and reduced using sodium borohydride to form metallic copper nanoparticles that oxidize overtime to form copper oxide nanoparticles stable in an aqueous environment. In addition to copper oxide nanoparticles, copper (I) iodide and copper (II) sulfide particles were also synthesized in the presence of PAA. In chapter 4, alumina membranes with 100nm and 200nm pores were coated with silver and used as SERS substrates to detect small molecules. The alumina membranes are coated with silver by reducing silver (I) oxide with ethanol. The thickness of the silver layer depends primarily on the length of time the substrate comes into contact with the Ag2O in solution with longer exposure times producing thicker films. Raman scattering of 10-100nM adenine concentrations were collected.

  14. Enantioselective changes in oxidative stress and toxin release in Microcystis aeruginosa exposed to chiral herbicide diclofop acid.

    PubMed

    Ye, Jing; Zhang, Ying; Chen, Shengwen; Liu, Chaonan; Zhu, Yongqiang; Liu, Weiping

    2014-01-01

    Enantioselective oxidative stress and toxin release from Microcystis aeruginosa after exposure to the chiral herbicide diclofop acid were investigated. Racemic diclofop acid, R-diclofop acid and S-diclofop acid induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, increased the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA), enhanced the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and triggered toxin release in M. aeruginosa to varying degrees. The increase in MDA concentration and SOD activity in M. aeruginosa occurred sooner after exposure to diclofop acid than when the cyanobacteria was exposed to either the R- and the S-enantiomer. In addition, enantioselective toxicity of the enantiomers was observed. The R-enantiomer trigged more ROS generation, more SOD activity and more toxin synthesis and release in M. aeruginosa cells than the S-enantiomer. Diclofop acid and its R-enantiomer may collapse the transmembrane proton gradient and destroy the cell membrane through lipid peroxidation and free radical oxidation, whereas the S-enantiomer did not demonstrate such action. R-diclofop acid inhibits the growth of M. aeruginosa in the early stage, but ultimately induced greater toxin release, which has a deleterious effect on the water column. These results indicate that more comprehensive study is needed to determine the environmental safety of the enantiomers, and application of chiral pesticides requires more direct supervision and training. Additionally, lifecycle analysis of chiral pollutants in aquatic system needs more attention to aide in the environmental assessment of chiral pesticides. PMID:24240105

  15. Synthesis of complex fluorides for optical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepleton, Seth Eugene

    Large single crystals of alkali metal fluorides are desirable for many reasons. Fluoride laser crystals have a wide transmission range and on account of their low phonon energies, many efficient laser emissions have been obtained from 285 nm to 4.34 microm.1,2 Inorganic fluoride single crystals feature large bandgaps, very wide optical transmittance ranges from vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) to mid-IR wavelength regions, lower refractive indices than those of oxides, and typically lower phonon energies (which drastically reduce multiphonon relaxation rates of rare earth ions).3 The main goal of this work was to investigate the hydrothermal synthesis of alkali metal fluorides. Melt techniques have been used thoroughly to research a variety of fluoride systems and showed many phases that were inaccessible due to incongruent melting or phase stability. The existence of these phases was shown but never characterized or grown as a crystalline material. Solution growth in supercritical water was an ideal way to attempt the synthesis of novel compounds and phases. New synthetic routes to known phases and compounds also arose as a part of this work. Optically clear colorless crystals of K2BeF4 were synthesized up to 2 mm in size, and showed no phase transitions up to 1029 K, which suggests paraelectricitys at room temperature, contradicting previous reports.4 Attempts to incorporate a rare earth ion into the fluoroberyllate lattice proved unsuccessful however reactions between beryllium fluoride and lanthanide fluorides could be exploited as a synthetic route to single crystal rare earth fluorides. Hydrothermal reactions with KF produced crystals of three different phases: hexagonal KY2F7, trigonal KYF4 and orthorhombic K2YF5. All were optically clear, colorless crystals, with the K2YF5 crystals growing the largest. This compound is beneficial due to its application as a radiation dosimeter and laser host. 5,6 Optical quality colorless crystals of RbY2F7 and CsY2F7 up to 4 mm in size were produced, and many spectroscopically active rare earth elements were doped into both hosts. A novel synthetic pathway to the hexagonal beta-RbGd3F 10, was discovered which led to the novel compound, beta-RbHo 3F10. The hydrothermal synthesis of hexafluoroelpasolites and lanthanide sesquioxides is also investigated. The hydrothermal synthesis described in this work has furthered the study of complex fluorides for optical applications. Novel synthetic pathways were discovered to known optical materials. Novel materials were also discovered. 1Takashima, M. In Advanced Inorganic Fluorides: Synthesis, Characterization and Applications, Nakajima, T.; Zemva, B.; Tressaud, A.; Elsevier: Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2000, 176. 2Fouassier, C. In Advanced Inorganic Fluorides: Synthesis, Characterization and Applications, Nakajima, T.; Zemva, B.; Tressaud, A.; Elsevier: Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2000, 316. 3Capper, P. In Bulk Crystal Growth of Electronic, Optical and Optoelectronic Materials, John Wiley and Sons: Great Britain, 2005. 4Solans, X.; Gonzalez-Silgo, C.; Calvet, T.; Ruiz-Perez, C.; Martinez-Sarrion, M. L.; Mestres, L. Phys. Rev. B 1998, 57(9), 5122-5125. 5Azorin-Nieto, J.; Khaidukov, N.M.; Sanchez-Rodriguez, A.; Azorin-Vega, J.C. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, 2007, B263, 36-40. 6Wang, D.; Min, Y.; Xia, S.; Makhov, V.N.; Khaidukov, N.M.; J.C. Krupa, J.C. Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 2003, 361, 294-298.

  16. C2-Symmetric diamines and their derivatives as promising organocatalysts for asymmetric synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zlotin, S. G.; Kochetkov, S. V.

    2015-11-01

    The review is devoted to the application of C2-symmetric diamines and their derivatives as organocatalysts for asymmetric reactions (aldol, Michael, Mannich, Diels–Alder reactions, desymmetrization, allylation, etc.). Amino acid derivatives, di- and polyamides (sulfamides), bisureas, bisthioureas, bisamidines and bisguanidines are considered. Significant attention is given to the effect of the catalyst structure on the mechanism of catalytic action. Successful applications of such catalysts in enantioselective synthesis of chiral biologically active compounds are summarized. The bibliography includes 181 references.

  17. Synthesis, Characterization and Application of Water-soluble Gold and Silver Nanoclusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Santosh

    The term `nanotechnology' has emerged as a buzzword since the last few decades. It has found widespread applications across disciplines, from medicine to energy. The synthesis of gold and silver nanoclusters has found much excitement, due to their novel material properties. Seminal work by various groups, including ours, has shown that the size of these clusters can be controlled with atomic precision. This control gives access to tuning the optical and electronic properties. The majority of nanoclusters reported thus far are not water soluble, which limit their applications in biology that requires water-solubility. Going from organic to aqueous phase is by no means a simple task, as it is associated with many challenges. Their stability in the presence of oxygen, difficulty in characterization, and separation of pure nanoclusters are some of the major bottlenecks associated with the synthesis of water-soluble gold nanoclusters. Water-soluble gold nanoclusters hold great potential in biological labeling, bio-catalysis and nano-bioconjugates. To overcome this problem, a new ligand with structural rigidity is needed. After considering various possibilities, we chose Captopril as a candidate ligand. In my thesis research, the synthesis of Au25 nanocluster capped with captopril has been reported. Captopril-protected Au25 nanocluster showed significantly higher thermal stability and enhanced chiroptical properties than the Glutathione-capped cluster, which confirms our initial rationale, that the ligand is critical in protecting the nanocluster. The optical absorption properties of these Au25 nanoclusters are studied and compared to the plasmonic nanoparticles. The high thermal stability and solubility of Au25 cluster capped with Captopril motivated us to explore this ligand for the synthesis of other gold clusters. Captopril is a chiral molecule with two chiral centers. The chiral ligand can induce chirality to the overall cluster, even if the core is achiral. Therefore, to obtain Au38 clusters as an enantiomer, the ligand employed should be chiral. The enantioselective synthesis of Au 38 capped with different chiral ligands has been reported and their chiroptical properties have been compared. The synthesis of a series of water-soluble Au nanoclusters has motivated us to study the effect of capping ligands and the core-size on their steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence properties, since the photoluminescence properties are particularly important for bioimaging and biomedical applications of nanoclusters. To gain fundamental insights into the origin of luminescence in nanoclusters, the effect of temperature on the fluorescence properties of these clusters has also been studied. The different sized nanoclusters ranging from a few dozen atoms to hundreds of atoms form a bridge between discrete atoms and the plasmonic nanocrystals; the latter involves essentially collective electron excitation-a phenomenon well explained by classical physics as opposed to quantum physics. The central question is: at what size does this transition from quantum behavior to classical behavior occur? To unravel this, we have successfully synthesized a series of silver nanoclusters. The precise formula assignment and their structural determination are still ongoing. We have successfully demonstrated the application of these water-soluble Au nanoclusters in photodynamic therapy for the treatment of cancer. We have successfully demonstrated that Au nanocluster system can produce singlet oxygen without the presence of any organic photosensitizers. In a collaborative project with Dr. Peteanu's group, the quenching efficiency of organic dyes by these water soluble nanoclusters is studied in different systems. Overall, this thesis outlines the successful synthesis of a family of water-soluble nanoclusters, their optical, chiroptical and fluorescence properties, as well as some applications of these nanoclusters.

  18. Nanocrystalline Zeolites: Synthesis, Mechanism, and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Severance, Michael Andrew

    Nanocrystalline zeolite particles are becoming an important material in many technical applications (e.g. zeolite membranes). Synthetic methods that minimize the zeolite crystal diameter, while providing a narrow particle size distribution, are of primary importance in these technical applications. However, there are several limitations to currently existing synthetic routes aimed at producing nanozeolites and zeolite membrane devices. For example, zeolite growth in these contexts typically requires days to weeks at high temperature to crystallize. Despite excellent performance of zeolite membranes in several separation applications, the long synthesis times required undermine any practical application of these technologies. This work focuses on chemical manipulation of zeolite nucleation processes in sol gel systems in effort to address such limitations. The primary findings indicate that careful control of the nucleation stage of a clear zeolite synthesis (optically transparent sol gel) allow the formation of zeolite Y nanocrystals less than 50 nm in diameter with a polydispersity index less than 0.2. Furthermore, chemical perturbations made during the nucleation stage of zeolite Y hydrogel synthesis is shown to accelerate crystal growth by a factor of 3-4, depending on the specific sol gel chemistry. These findings are applied to the nanocrystal seeding and rapid hydrothermal growth of zeolite Y membranes on inexpensive polymeric supports. A novel synthetic method is developed to this end. Also, the chemical and physical properties of monodisperse nanocrystalline zeolite Y synthesized herein are explored by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. It is found that the particle interface plays an important role in the ionic conductivity of nanocrystalline zeolites in contrast to their larger zeolite counterparts in analogy to other ceramic and metal oxide ion conductors. Finally, the possibility to produce novel organic and inorganic composite systems through zeolite host-guest chemistry is explored. A nanozeolite-silver nanoparticle host-guest system is synthesized and a mechanism describing its evolution is developed. Also, the photochemistry of a colloidal nanozeolite-organic dye host-guest system is explored with ultrafast transient UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy. This allows some of the fastest chemical events to be probed within the host-guest system.

  19. Synthesis, characterization and application of electrode materials

    SciTech Connect

    He, L.

    1995-07-07

    It has been known that significant advances in electrochemistry really depend on improvements in the sensitivity, selectivity, convenience, and/or economy of working electrodes, especially through the development of new working electrode materials. The advancement of solid state chemistry and materials science makes it possible to provide the materials which may be required as satisfactory electrode materials. The combination of solid state techniques with electrochemistry expands the applications of solid state materials and leads to the improvement of electrocatalysis. The study of Ru-Ti{sub 4}O{sub 7} and Pt-Ti{sub 4}O{sub 7} microelectrode arrays as introduced in paper 1 and paper 4, respectively, focuses on their synthesis and characterization. The synthesis is described by high temperature techniques for Ru or Pt microelectrode arrays within a conductive Ti{sub 4}O{sub 7} ceramic matrix. The characterization is based on the data obtained by x-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy, voltammetry and amperometry. These microelectrode arrays show significant enhancement in current densities in comparison to solid Ru and Pt electrodes. Electrocatalysis at pyrochlore oxide Bi{sub 2}Ru{sub 2}O{sub 7.3} and Bi{sub 2}Ir{sub 2}O{sub 7} electrodes are described in paper 2 and paper 3, respectively. Details are reported for the synthesis and characterization of composite Bi{sub 2}Ru{sub 2}O{sub 7.3} electrodes. Voltammetric data are examined for evidence that oxidation can occur with transfer of oxygen to the oxidation products in the potential region corresponding to anodic discharge of H{sub 2}O with simultaneous evolution of O{sub 2}. Paper 3 includes electrocatalytic activities of composite Bi{sub 2}Ir{sub 2}O{sub 7} disk electrodes for the oxidation of I{sup -} and the reduction of IO{sub 3}{sup -}.

  20. Synthesis, characterization and applications of graphene architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Abhay Varghese

    Graphene, a two--dimensional sheet of sp2 hybridized carbon atoms arranged in a honeycomb lattice structure, has garnered tremendous interest from the scientific community for its unique combination of properties. It has interesting electrical, thermal, optical and mechanical properties that scientists and engineers are trying to understand and harness to improve current products as well as focus on disruptive technologies that can be made possible by this next generation material. In this thesis the synthesis, characterization and applications of various graphene architectures were explored from the context of a bottom--up and top--down synthesis approach. The work is divided into three main chapters and each one deals with a unique architecture of graphene as well as its properties and an application to a real world problem. In Chapter 2, we focus on bottom--up synthesis of graphene sheets by chemical vapor deposition. We then studied the wetting properties of graphene coated surfaces. More specifically the wetting properties of single and multilayer graphene films on flat and nanoscale rough surfaces are explored and the insights gained are used in improving heat transfer performance of copper surfaces. Single layer graphene, on certain flat surfaces, was shown to exhibit `wetting transparency' as a result of its sheer thinness and this property is of interest in various wetting related applications. Surface protection from corrosion and/or oxidation without change in wetting properties is tremendously useful in multiple fields and we looked to apply this property to dehumidification of copper surfaces. The short time scales results demonstrated that graphene indeed served to prevent oxidation of the surface which in turn promoted increased heat transfer co--efficients with respect to the oxidized copper surfaces. Closer inspection of the surface over long time scales however revealed that the oxide layer changed the wetting properties and this was detrimental to the heat transfer process. In Chapter 3, we explore the assembly of graphene papers by top down methods (i.e. exfoliation of bulk graphite). We then explore the use of such graphene papers as an anode material in Lithium--ion batteries. The morphologically novel electrode fabrication and its exceptional performance as a lithium ion battery anode were explored and an in--depth investigation was carried out to determine the precise reason for the enhanced anode performance. A modified thermal reduction technique of a stable graphene oxide paper was developed to create a novel, free standing, binder free, reduced graphene oxide architecture using the top--down synthesis approach. The process was optimized to maximize the capacity by varying temperature and time as the critical parameters for reduction. An in--depth study was undertaken using raman spectroscopy, computational modelling, scanning electron microscopy, x--ray diffraction and x--ray photoelectron spectroscopy to show that lithium metal was plated into the nano--pores of the anode and the defective nature of the graphene sheets acted as seed points for this plating. In Chapter 4 we focus on graphene oxide papers produced by top--down exfoliation methods. More specifically, controlled instabilities or wrinkles created on graphene oxide thin films were developed as a tunable optical transmission layer for use in dynamic glazing systems. Graphene oxide thin films, prepared using the top--down synthesis, were subjected to compressive strains in the uni--axial and bi--axial direction to create uniform wrinkling of the films. Scanning electron, optical and atomic force microscopy was used to image the wrinkling morphology to qualitatively understand the behavior of the films and delaminated buckling of the graphene oxide films was determined to be the cause of the wrinkling. UV--VIS--NIR transmission measurements were carried out to determine the average transmission of the films with uni-axial and bi-axial wrinkling. Maximization of the dynamic range of optical transmission in the visible wavelength region

  1. Enantioselective phytotoxicity of the herbicide imazethapyr and its effect on rice physiology and gene transcription.

    PubMed

    Qian, Haifeng; Wang, Ruiqin; Hu, Haijia; Lu, Tao; Chen, Xinliang; Ye, Hanqi; Liu, Weiping; Fu, Zhengwei

    2011-08-15

    Imazethapyr (IM) is a chiral herbicide and a widely used racemic mixture. This report investigated the enantioselectivity between R- and S-IM in rice and explored its causative mechanism at the physiological and molecular levels. The results suggested that R-IM inhibited acetolactate synthase (ALS) activity to a greater extent than S-IM, which reduced the synthesis of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs). Additionally, most other amino acids showed enantioselectivity. On the cellular level, R-IM showed stronger toxicity against protoplasts than S-IM. A gene transcription profile analysis showed that gene transcripts in many metabolic pathways, including amino acid metabolism, photosynthesis, starch and sugar metabolism, and the tricarboxylic acid cycle displayed enantioselectivity between the IM enantiomers. R-IM regulated more genes more strongly than S-IM. This study suggested that R-IM has stronger toxicity against plants than S-IM; this toxicity is caused not only by changing targeted enzyme activity and amino acid synthesis, but also by affecting gene transcription in other metabolic pathways directly or indirectly in an enantioselective manner. PMID:21749058

  2. A direct approach to amines with remote stereocentres by enantioselective CuH-catalysed reductive relay hydroamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Shaolin; Niljianskul, Nootaree; Buchwald, Stephen L.

    2016-02-01

    Amines with remote stereocentres (stereocentres that are three or more bonds away from the C–N bond) are important structural elements in many pharmaceutical agents and natural products. However, previously reported methods to prepare these compounds in an enantioselective manner are indirect and require multistep synthesis. Here, we report a copper-hydride-catalysed, enantioselective synthesis of γ- or δ-chiral amines from readily available allylic alcohols, esters and ethers using a reductive relay hydroamination strategy (a net reductive process in which an amino group is installed at a site remote from the original carbon–carbon double bond). The protocol was suitable for substrates containing a wide range of functional groups and provided remote chiral amine products with high levels of regio- and enantioselectivity. Sequential amination of substrates containing several carbon–carbon double bonds could be achieved, demonstrating the high chemoselectivity of this process.

  3. Total Synthesis of Epicoccin G

    PubMed Central

    Nicolaou, K. C.; Totokotsopoulos, Sotirios; Giguère, Denis; Sun, Ya-Ping; Sarlah, David

    2011-01-01

    An expedient enantioselective total synthesis of epicoccin G and related dithiodiketopiperazines through a strategy featuring direct two-directional sulfenylation, photooxygenation and Kornblum–DeLaMare rearrangement is described. PMID:21548595

  4. Nanostructured metal foams: synthesis and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Luther, Erik P; Tappan, Bryce; Mueller, Alex; Mihaila, Bogdan; Volz, Heather; Cardenas, Andreas; Papin, Pallas; Veauthier, Jackie; Stan, Marius

    2009-01-01

    Fabrication of monolithic metallic nanoporous materials is difficult using conventional methodology. Here they report a relatively simple method of synthesizing monolithic, ultralow density, nanostructured metal foams utilizing self-propagating combustion synthesis of novel metal complexes containing high nitrogen energetic ligands. Nanostructured metal foams are formed in a post flame-front dynamic assembly with densities as low as 0.011 g/cc and surface areas as high as 270 m{sup 2}/g. They have produced metal foams via this method of titanium, iron, cobalt, nickel, zirconium, copper, palladium, silver, hafnium, platinum and gold. Microstructural features vary as a function of composition and process parameters. Applications for the metal foams are discussed including hydrogen absorption in palladium foams. A model for the sorption kinetics of hydrogen in the foams is presented.

  5. Optical nanoparticles: synthesis and biomedical application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nhung Tran, Hong; Nghiem, Thi Ha Lien; Thuy Duong Vu, Thi; Chu, Viet Ha; Huan Le, Quang; Nhung Hoang, Thi My; Thanh Nguyen, Lai; Pham, Duc Minh; Thuan Tong, Kim; Hoa Do, Quang; Vu, Duong; Nghia Nguyen, Trong; Tan Pham, Minh; Nguyen Duong, Cao; Thuy Tran, Thanh; Son Vu, Van; Thuy Nguyen, Thi; Nguyen, Thi Bich Ngoc; Tran, Anh Duc; Thuong Trinh, Thi; Nguyen, Thi Thai An

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of our results on studies of synthesis and biomedical application of optical nanoparticles. Gold, dye-doped silica based and core-shell multifunctional multilayer (SiO2/Au, Fe3O4/SiO2, Fe3O4/SiO2/Au) water-monodispersed nanoparticles were synthesized by chemical route and surface modified with proteins and biocompatible chemical reagents. The particles were conjugated with antibody or aptamer for specific detecting and imaging bacteria and cancer cells. The photothermal effects of gold nanoshells (SiO2/Au and Fe3O4/SiO2/Au) on cells and tissues were investigated. The nano silver substrates were developed for surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy to detect melamine.

  6. Tetracalcium phosphate: Synthesis, properties and biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Moseke, C; Gbureck, U

    2010-10-01

    Monoclinic tetracalcium phosphate (TTCP, Ca(4)(PO(4))(2)O), also known by the mineral name hilgenstockite, is formed in the (CaO-P(2)O(5)) system at temperatures>1300 degrees C. TTCP is the only calcium phosphate with a Ca/P ratio greater than hydroxyapatite (HA). It appears as a by-product in plasma-sprayed HA coatings and shows moderate reactivity and concurrent solubility when combined with acidic calcium phosphates such as dicalcium phosphate anhydrous (DCPA, monetite) or dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD, brushite). Therefore it is widely used in self-setting calcium phosphate bone cements, which form HA under physiological conditions. This paper aims to review the synthesis and properties of TTCP in biomaterials applications such as cements, sintered ceramics and coatings on implant metals. PMID:20438869

  7. Polyelectrolyte brushes: theory, modelling, synthesis and applications.

    PubMed

    Das, Siddhartha; Banik, Meneka; Chen, Guang; Sinha, Shayandev; Mukherjee, Rabibrata

    2015-11-01

    Polyelectrolyte (PE) brushes are a special class of polymer brushes (PBs) containing charges. Polymer chains attain "brush"-like configuration when they are grafted or get localized at an interface (solid-fluid or liquid-fluid) with sufficiently close proximity between two-adjacent grafted polymer chains - such a proximity triggers a particular nature of interaction between the adjacent polymer molecules forcing them to stretch orthogonally to the grafting interface, instead of random-coil arrangement. In this review, we discuss the theory, synthesis, and applications of PE brushes. The theoretical discussion starts with the standard scaling concepts for polymer and PE brushes; following that, we shed light on the state of the art in continuum modelling approaches for polymer and PE brushes directed towards analysis beyond the scaling calculations. A special emphasis is laid in pinpointing the cases for which the PE electrostatic effects can be de-coupled from the PE entropic and excluded volume effects; such de-coupling is necessary to appropriately probe the complicated electrostatic effects arising from pH-dependent charging of the PE brushes and the use of these effects for driving liquid and ion transport at the interfaces covered with PE brushes. We also discuss the atomistic simulation approaches for polymer and PE brushes. Next we provide a detailed review of the existing approaches for the synthesis of polymer and PE brushes on interfaces, nanoparticles, and nanochannels, including mixed brushes and patterned brushes. Finally, we discuss some of the possible applications and future developments of polymer and PE brushes grafted on a variety of interfaces. PMID:26399305

  8. Enantioselective environmental toxicology of chiral pesticides.

    PubMed

    Ye, Jing; Zhao, Meirong; Niu, Lili; Liu, Weiping

    2015-03-16

    The enantioselective environmental toxic effect of chiral pesticides is becoming more important. As the industry develops, increasing numbers of chiral insecticides and herbicides will be introduced into use, potentially posing toxic effects on nontarget living beings. Chiral pesticides, including herbicides such as acylanilides, phenoxypropanoic acids, and imidazolinones, and insecticides such as synthetic pyrethroids, organophosphates, and DDT often behave enantioselectively during agricultural use. These compounds also pose unpredictable enantioselective ecological threats to nontarget living beings and/or humans, affecting the food chain and entire ecosystems. Thus, to investigate the enantioselective toxic effects of chiral insecticides and herbicides is necessary during environmental protection. The environmental toxicology of chiral pesticides, especially the findings obtained from studies conducted in our laboratory during the past 10 years, is reviewed. PMID:25643169

  9. Enantioselective ?-Benzylation of Aldehydes via Photoredox Organocatalysis

    PubMed Central

    Shih, Hui-Wen; Vander Wal, Mark N.; Grange, Rebecca L.; MacMillan, David W. C.

    2011-01-01

    The first enantioselective aldehyde ?-benzylation using electron-deficient aryl and heteroaryl substrates has been accomplished. The productive merger of a chiral imidazolidinone organocatalyst and a commercially available iridium photoredox catalyst in the presence of household fluorescent light directly affords the desired homobenzylic stereogenicity in good to excellent yield and enantioselectivity. The utility of this methodology has been demonstrated via rapid access to an enantioen-riched drug target for angiogenesis suppression. PMID:20831195

  10. Block Copolymers: Synthesis and Applications in Nanotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lou, Qin

    This study is focused on the synthesis and study of (block) copolymers using reversible deactivation radical polymerizations (RDRPs), including atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) and reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization. In particular, two primary areas of study are undertaken: (1) a proof-of-concept application of lithographic block copolymers, and (2) the mechanistic study of the deposition of titania into block copolymer templates for the production of well-ordered titania nanostructures. Block copolymers have the ability to undergo microphase separation, with an average size of each microphase ranging from tens to hundreds of nanometers. As such, block copolymers have been widely considered for nanotechnological applications over the past two decades. The development of materials for various nanotechnologies has become an increasingly studied area as improvements in many applications, such as those found in the semiconductor and photovoltaic industries are constantly being sought. Significant growth in developments of new synthetic methods ( i.e. RDRPs) has allowed the production of block copolymers with molecular (and sometimes atomic) definition. In turn, this has greatly expanded the use of block copolymers in nanotechnology. Herein, we describe the synthesis of statistical and block copolymers of 193 nm photolithography methacrylate and acrylate resist monomers with norbornyl and adamantyl moieties using RAFT polymerization.. For these resist (block) copolymers, the phase separation behaviors were examined by atomic force microscopy (AFM). End groups were removed from the polymers to avoid complications during the photolithography since RAFT end groups absorb visible light. Poly(glycidyl methacrylate-block-polystyrene) (PGMA-b-PS) was synthesize by ATRP and demonstrated that this block copolymer acts as both a lithographic UV (365 nm) photoresist and a self-assembly material. The PGMA segments can undergo cationic ring-opening crosslinking and can act as a negative-tone photoresist. The PGMA-b-PS thin films were also studied for phase separation with 25 nm patterns using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Poly(styrene-block-4-vinyl pyridine) (PS-b-P4VP) block copolymer thin films are shown to form perpendicular cylinder phase separated structures, and these may be used to template the formation of ordered titania nanostructures with sub-50 nm diameters on either silicon or indium tin oxide (ITO) substrates. A study of the mechanism of TiO2 formation within the P4VP cylinder phase was developed and tested. It was found that the titania nanostructure morphology is affected by pH and deposition temperatures, and successful deposition required the cross-linking of the P4VP phase in order to obtain individual nanostructures.

  11. Hyperbranched polyphosphates: synthesis, functionalization and biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinyao; Huang, Wei; Pang, Yan; Yan, Deyue

    2015-06-21

    Hyperbranched polyphosphates (HBPPs) are newly emerged polymeric biomaterials with repeating phosphate bonds in a highly branched framework over the past 5 years. Due to the integration of the advantages of both hyperbranched polymers and polyphosphates, HBPPs are versatile in chemical structure, flexible in physicochemical properties, water soluble, biocompatible and biodegradable in biological features. On the basis of their excellent water solubility, biocompatibility, biodegradability and potential functionalization as well as their simple preparation in one-pot synthesis, HBPPs have fascinating biomedical applications, especially for drug delivery. In this tutorial review, the recent advances of HBPPs are summarized. HBPPs with different topological structures and various functionalities were synthesized via adjusting the side group of cyclic phosphate monomers, which have shown promising biomedical applications, for example, using as a macromolecular anticancer agent and constructing advanced drug delivery systems, including site-specific delivery systems, self-delivery systems, and stimuli-responsive delivery systems. Such progress may promote the further development of interdisciplinary research between polymer chemistry, material science and biomedicine. PMID:26008957

  12. An Enantioselective Assembly of Dihydropyranones through an NHC/LiCl-Mediated in situ Activation of ?,?-Unsaturated Carboxylic Acids.

    PubMed

    Que, Yonglei; Lu, Yinan; Wang, Wenjing; Wang, Yuhong; Wang, Haotian; Yu, Chenxia; Li, Tuanjie; Wang, Xiang-Shan; Shen, Shide; Yao, Changsheng

    2016-03-01

    A straightforward N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC)/LiCl-mediated synthesis of dihydropyranones from ?,?-unsaturated carboxylic acids and 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds was realized through the in situ activation strategy. The key advantages of this protocol include ready availability and high stability of starting materials, good yields, and excellent enantioselectivity. PMID:26864639

  13. (+)-Fluorenylethylchloroformate (FLEC)--improved synthesis for application in chiral analysis and peptidomimetic synthesis.

    PubMed

    Camerino, Michelle A; Chalmers, David K; Thompson, Philip E

    2013-04-28

    An efficient synthesis of the enantiomers of fluorenylethylchloroformate (FLEC) has been achieved that allows the routine application of the reagent for the resolution of chiral amines including unusual amino acids. The utility of the fluorenylethoxycarbonyl (Feoc) group as a chiral Fmoc equivalent, for combined resolution and protection of amino acids, in solid phase peptide synthesis is also shown. PMID:23483118

  14. Synthesis, characterization and optical applications of nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Fen

    Nanomaterials have been studied extensively due to their potential application in electronics, photonics and nanodevices. There are a wide variety of methods developed to create the nano-scale materials. Chemical colloidal synthesis is the way most used since it is reproducible and high efficiency. Nanoparticles lie at the heart of nanoscience for their novel electronic, magnetic and optical properties. In this dissertation, there are two parts where researches have been performed based on the synthesis of metal and semiconductor nanoparticles. In part I, Semiconductor type-II core-shell quantum dots (QDs) ZnO-CdS have been synthesized by chemical colloidal method which was carried out in a two-step process. We initially synthesized ZnO core nanoparticles and overcoat them with CdS shell. UV-Visible spectra, photoluminescence spectra (PL), high resolution TEM images and X-ray microanalysis for composition studies of the core-shell nanoparticles were characterized. PL lifetime measurements showed this type-II ZnO-CdS core-shell QDs presented extended exciton lifetime due to the spatial separation of electrons and holes between the core and the shell, which opens various useful applications in biosensors and photovoltaic devices. In part II, normal Raman (NR) and surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectra of 3-hydroxyflavone (3-HF) have been measured. The SERS spectra were obtained both on a Ag electrode surface and on Ag colloidal nanoparticles. The experimental results support the DFT geometry calculations, which show that an adatom site at the vertex of Ag20 cluster binding with the 3-HF molecular plane tilted at an angle of about 53 to the surface is a low-energy structure. This is consistent with the enhancement of in-plane vibrational modes. Furthermore, the effect of fluence level on the discoloration of marble surfaces after the removal of the encrustation by 355 nm laser pulses was comparatively studied. Considering the thermochemical reaction possibly occurring in the encrustation during laser irradiation, the mechanism responsible for the discoloration of the cleaned marble surface was analyzed. The reduction of iron oxides by graphite plays a key role in determining the final color of the cleaned marble surface. The marble surfaces before and after laser irradiation were characterized in terms of the chemical components through surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy on Ag colloidal nanoparticles. To analyze the working mechanism of the liquid layer covering the marble encrustation, distilled water, ethanol and acetone were used in marble cleaning to compare the cleaning efficiency at different fluence levels. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) on silver colloidal nanoparticles was also used to identify the chemical constituents of the cleaned marble with these three different liquids.

  15. Synthesis of γ-Valerolactone from Carbohydrates and its Applications.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zehui

    2016-01-01

    γ-Valerolactone (GVL) is a valuable chemical intermediate that can be obtained by catalytic reduction of levulinic acid (LA) or alkyl levulinates (AL). There are many reports on the synthesis of GVL from LA or AL. However, the demand for the large-scale synthesis of GVL requires more environmentally friendly and cost-effective production processes. This article focuses on the recent advance in the synthesis of GVL from carbohydrates or lignocellulosic biomass. In addition, application of GVL as the reaction solvents, fuel additives, and as precursor for the synthesis of jet fuel and polymer monomers is also discussed. PMID:26733161

  16. Synthesis and applications of heterostructured semiconductor nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khon, Elena

    Semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) have been of great interest to researchers for several decades due to their unique optoelectronic properties. These nanoparticles are widely used for a variety of different applications. However, there are many unresolved issues that lower the efficiency and/or stability of devices which incorporate these NCs. Our research is dedicated to addressing these issues by identifying potential problems and resolving them, improving existing systems, generating new synthetic strategies, and/or building new devices. The general strategies for the synthesis of different nanocrystals were established in this work, one of which is the colloidal growth of gold domains onto CdS semiconductor nanocrystals. Control of shape and size was achieved simply by adjusting the temperature and the time of the reaction. Depending on the exact morphology of Au and CdS domains, fabricated nano-composites can undergo evaporation-induced self-assembly onto a substrate, which is very useful for building devices. CdS/Au heterostructures can assemble in two different ways: through end-to-end coupling of Au domains, resulting in the formation of one-dimensional chains; and via side-by-side packing of CdS nanorods, leading to the onset of two-dimensional superlattices. We investigated the nature of exciton-plasmon interactions in Au-tipped CdS nanorods using femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy. The study demonstrated that the key optoelectronic properties of electrically coupled metal and semiconductor domains are significantly different from those observed in systems with weak inter-domain coupling. In particular, strongly-coupled nanocomposites promote mixing of electronic states at semiconductor-metal domain interfaces, which causes a significant suppression of both plasmon and exciton carrier excitations. Colloidal QDs are starting to replace organic molecules in many different applications, such as organic light emmiting diods (OLEDs), due to their light emmision tunability. We reported a general strategy for the assembly of all-inorganic light-emitting nanocrystal films with an emission quantum yield in the 30-52% range. Our methodology relies on solution-processing of CdSe nanocrystals into a crystalline matrix of a wide band gap semiconductor (CdS, ZnS). As a result, we replace original organic ligands on nanocrystal surfaces with an inorganic medium which efficiently preserves the quantum confinement of electrical charges in CdSe NCs. In addition to strong emission, fabricated films demonstrated excellent thermal and chemical stability, and a large refractive index, which avails their integration into emerging solid-state nanocrystal devices. The ability to control size and shape of NCs is essential as it automatically affects the optoelectronic properties of the crystals. Colloidal chemistry offers an assortment of synthetic tools for tuning the shape of NCs, but some nanoparticle morphologies require alternative processing strategies. We have shown that chemical etching of colloidal nanoparticles can facilitate the realization of desirable nanocrystal geometries. This methodology allows both CdSe and CdS composed semiconductor domains be exposed to the external environment, while maintaining a structural design that is highly desirable for catalytic applications. Hydrogen production tests confirmed the improved catalytic activity of CdSe/CdS dimers. We expect that the demonstrated application will become a common methodology in the synthesis of charge-separating nanocrystals, leading to advanced nanoparticle architectures for applications in the areas of photocatalysis, photovoltaics, and light detection.

  17. Highly enantioselective adsorption of small prochiral molecules on a chiral intermetallic compound.

    PubMed

    Prinz, Jan; Grning, Oliver; Brune, Harald; Widmer, Roland

    2015-03-23

    Intrinsically chiral surfaces of intermetallic compounds are shown to be novel materials for enantioselective processes. Their advantage is the significantly higher thermal and chemical stability, and therefore their extended application range for catalyzed chiral reactions compared to surfaces templated with chiral molecular modifiers or auxiliaries. On the Pd1 -terminated PdGa(111) surface, room-temperature adsorption of a small prochiral molecule (9-ethynylphenanthrene) leads to exceptionally high enantiomeric excess ratios of up to 98?%. Our findings highlight the great potential of intrinsically chiral intermetallic compounds for the development of novel, enantioselective catalysts that can be operated at high temperatures and potentially also in harsh chemical environments. PMID:25655521

  18. Chiral metallohelical complexes enantioselectively target amyloid ? for treating Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Li, Meng; Howson, Suzanne E; Dong, Kai; Gao, Nan; Ren, Jinsong; Scott, Peter; Qu, Xiaogang

    2014-08-20

    Stereochemistry is a very important issue for the pharmaceutical industry and can determine drug efficacy. The design and synthesis of small molecules, especially chiral molecules, which selectively target and inhibit amyloid-? (A?) aggregation, represent valid therapeutic strategies for treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Herein we report that two triple-helical dinuclear metallosupramolecular complexes can act as a novel class of chiral amyloid-? inhibitors. Through targeting ?/?-discordant stretches at the early steps of aggregation, these metal complexes can enantioselectively inhibit A? aggregation, which is demonstrated using fluorescent living cell-based screening and multiple biophysical and biochemical approaches. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of enantioselective inhibition of A? aggregation. Intriguingly, as a promising candidate for AD treatment, the chiral metal complex can cross the blood-brain barrier and have superoxide dismutase activity. It is well-known that chiral discrimination is important for understanding chiral drug action. Generally, one enantiomer is pharmaceutically active while the other is inactive or exerts severe side effects. Chiral discrimination should be important for AD treatment. Our work provides new insights into chiral inhibition of A? aggregation and opens a new avenue for design and screening of chiral agents as A? inhibitors against AD. PMID:25062433

  19. Direct and Highly Regioselective and Enantioselective Allylation of ?-Diketones

    PubMed Central

    Chalifoux, Wesley A.; Reznik, Samuel K.; Leighton, James L.

    2012-01-01

    The enantioselective allylation of ketones represents both a problem of fundamental importance in asymmetric reaction design and one of only a very small number of available methods to access valuable tertiary carbinols. Despite the vast amount of attention from chemists that this problem has elicited,1-8 however, success has generally been limited to just a few simple ketone types thus limiting the utility of these methods. A method for the selective allylation of functionally complex ketones would be expected to increase the utility of ketone allylation methods in the chemical synthesis of important targets. Here we describe the operationally simple, direct, regioselective, and enantioselective allylation of ?-diketones. The strong tendency of ?-diketones to act as nucleophilic species was overcome by the co-optation of their enol form to provide the necessary Brnsted acid activation. This unprecedented reaction thus not only significantly expands the pool of enantiomerically enriched and functionally complex tertiary carbinols that may be easily accessed, but also overturns more than a century of received wisdom regarding the reactivity of ?-diketones. PMID:22763452

  20. Enantioselective Cycloaddition of Mnchnones onto [60]Fullerene: Organocatalysis versus Metal Catalysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Novel chiral catalytic systems based on both organic compounds and metal salts have been developed for the enantioselective [3 + 2] cycloaddition of mnchnones onto fullerenes and olefins. These two different approaches proved to be efficient and complementary in the synthesis of optically active pyrrolino[3,4:1,2][60]fullerenes with high levels of enantiomeric excess and moderate to good conversions. Further functionalization of the pyrrolinofullerene carboxylic acid derivatives has been carried out by esterification and amidation reactions. PMID:24483247

  1. A Cu/Pd Cooperative Catalysis for Enantioselective Allylboration of Alkenes.

    PubMed

    Jia, Tao; Cao, Peng; Wang, Bing; Lou, Yazhou; Yin, Xuemei; Wang, Min; Liao, Jian

    2015-11-01

    A cooperative Cu/Pd-catalyzed asymmetric three-component reaction of styrenes, B2(pin)2, and allyl carbonates was reported. This reaction, in the presence of chiral CuOAc/SOP and achiral Pd(dppf)Cl2 catalysts, occurs smoothly with high enantioselectivities (up to 97% ee) . The allylboration products, which contain alkene (or diene) unite and alkylboron group, are easily functionalized. The utility of this protocol was demonstrated through the synthesis of an antipsychotic drug, (-)-preclamol. PMID:26458555

  2. Enantioselective Total Syntheses of Akuammiline Alkaloids (+)-Strictamine, (-)-2(S)-Cathafoline, and (-)-Aspidophylline A.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Jesus; Picazo, Elias; Morrill, Lucas A; Smith, Joel M; Garg, Neil K

    2016-02-01

    The akuammiline alkaloids are a family of natural products that have been widely studied for decades. Although notable synthetic achievements have been made recently, akuammilines that possess a methanoquinolizidine core have evaded synthetic efforts. We report an asymmetric approach to these alkaloids, which has culminated in the first total syntheses of (-)-2(S)-cathafoline and the long-standing target (+)-strictamine. Moreover, the first enantioselective total synthesis of aspidophylline A is described. PMID:26783944

  3. H-Bond-Directing Organocatalyst for Enantioselective [4 + 2] Cycloadditions via Dienamine Catalysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shoulei; Rodriguez-Escrich, Carles; Perics, Miquel A

    2016-02-01

    An efficient, highly regio- and stereoselective [4 + 2] cycloaddition reaction to generate tetrahydropyranopyrazole frameworks has been developed. To this end, a dienamine-based catalytic strategy that relies on the H-bond-directing effect of the hydroxy group of a dinaphthylprolinol-type aminocatalyst has been used. This enables the synthesis of multifunctionalized heterocyclic derivatives with three contiguous stereocenters in good yields and excellent enantioselectivities. PMID:26794848

  4. Kinetic Resolution of β-Sulfonyl Ketones through Enantioselective β-Elimination using a Cation-Binding Polyether Catalyst.

    PubMed

    Li, Liang; Liu, Yidong; Peng, Yang; Yu, Lei; Wu, Xiaoyan; Yan, Hailong

    2016-01-01

    Reported herein is the first enantioselective β-elimination reaction catalyzed by a chiral cation-binding polyether. By using this catalytic protocol, a wide range of β-sulfonyl ketones could be effectively resolved with high stereoselectivity (S up to >300). Key to the success of this process is the favorable secondary interactions of the catalyst with the Lewis basic groups on the sulfone substrate. The enone product of this process can be easily converted into the racemic starting material, and allows an effective recycling and overall synthesis of chiral β-sulfonyl ketones in high yield and excellent enantioselectivity. PMID:26577251

  5. Silver nanoparticles: Synthesis methods, bio-applications and properties.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, Elham; Milani, Morteza; Fekri Aval, Sedigheh; Kouhi, Mohammad; Akbarzadeh, Abolfazl; Tayefi Nasrabadi, Hamid; Nikasa, Parisa; Joo, San Woo; Hanifehpour, Younes; Nejati-Koshki, Kazem; Samiei, Mohammad

    2016-03-01

    Silver nanoparticles size makes wide range of new applications in various fields of industry. Synthesis of noble metal nanoparticles for applications such as catalysis, electronics, optics, environmental and biotechnology is an area of constant interest. Two main methods for Silver nanoparticles are the physical and chemical methods. The problem with these methods is absorption of toxic substances onto them. Green synthesis approaches overcome this limitation. Silver nanoparticles size makes wide range of new applications in various fields of industry. This article summarizes exclusively scalable techniques and focuses on strengths, respectively, limitations with respect to the biomedical applicability and regulatory requirements concerning silver nanoparticles. PMID:24937409

  6. Enantioselective Olefin Metathesis with Cyclometalated Ruthenium Complexes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The success of enantioselective olefin metathesis relies on the design of enantioenriched alkylidene complexes capable of transferring stereochemical information from the catalyst structure to the reactants. Cyclometalation of the NHC ligand has proven to be a successful strategy to incorporate stereogenic atoms into the catalyst structure. Enantioenriched complexes incorporating this design element catalyze highly Z- and enantioselective asymmetric ring opening/cross metathesis (AROCM) of norbornenes and cyclobutenes, and the difference in ring strain between these two substrates leads to different propagating species in the catalytic cycle. Asymmetric ring closing metathesis (ARCM) of a challenging class of prochiral trienes has also been achieved. The extent of reversibility and effect of reaction setup was also explored. Finally, promising levels of enantioselectivity in an unprecedented Z-selective asymmetric cross metathesis (ACM) of a prochiral 1,4-diene was demonstrated. PMID:25137310

  7. Enantioselective olefin metathesis with cyclometalated ruthenium complexes.

    PubMed

    Hartung, John; Dornan, Peter K; Grubbs, Robert H

    2014-09-17

    The success of enantioselective olefin metathesis relies on the design of enantioenriched alkylidene complexes capable of transferring stereochemical information from the catalyst structure to the reactants. Cyclometalation of the NHC ligand has proven to be a successful strategy to incorporate stereogenic atoms into the catalyst structure. Enantioenriched complexes incorporating this design element catalyze highly Z- and enantioselective asymmetric ring opening/cross metathesis (AROCM) of norbornenes and cyclobutenes, and the difference in ring strain between these two substrates leads to different propagating species in the catalytic cycle. Asymmetric ring closing metathesis (ARCM) of a challenging class of prochiral trienes has also been achieved. The extent of reversibility and effect of reaction setup was also explored. Finally, promising levels of enantioselectivity in an unprecedented Z-selective asymmetric cross metathesis (ACM) of a prochiral 1,4-diene was demonstrated. PMID:25137310

  8. Enantioselective disposition of albuterol in humans.

    PubMed

    Boulton, D W; Fawcett, J P

    1996-01-01

    The study of enantioselective disposition of chiral drugs is important to provide a rationale of plasma concentration-effect relationships, which are often misleading when based on total drug concentration. It is also important when considering new dosage routes or formulations in order to optimize therapeutic plasma concentrations of the active enantiomer. Improvements in the sensitivity and selectivity of biological assays coupled with the developments in chiral analysis have made it possible to study the enantioselective disposition of drugs. Although valuable pharmacokinetic data were obtained for the beta 2-agonists by nonenantioselective methodology, more recent chiral studies have revealed the existence of extensive enantioselectivity in the disposition of these agents. The most significant features of the enantioselective disposition of albuterol are the relatively rapid plasma clearance and low bioavailability of the eutomer. Although this in itself does not necessarily justify the development of a single enantiomer formulation, the implications of the high levels of distomer after i.v. and oral dosing await clarification. Similarly, more work is required to elucidate the consequences of the major difference in disposition between albuterol and terbutaline in humans through both in vivo and in vitro studies of the mechanisms giving rise to this phenomenon. The enantioselective disposition of the other clinically used beta 2-agonists, such as fenoterol, formoterol, and salmeterol also needs to be characterized. The metabolism of the majority of beta 2-agonists is generally by conjugation to give one major metabolite. The situation is therefore uncomplicated by multiple metabolic pathways, which may differ in the extent and direction of their enantioselectivity. Many beta 2-agonists are excreted largely unchanged in the urine making studies of urinary excretion accessible without the requirement for very sensitive assays. The realization that the enantiomers of beta 2-agonists previously thought of as "inactive" may be associated with toxic effects is a further compelling reason to study the enantioselective pharmacokinetics of this class of drugs. In addition, the role of enantiomers in producing side effects, such as tremor and reduction in renal function, needs to be reassessed. The beta 2-agonists can be looked on as textbook examples of the inherent danger of ignoring chirality in the study of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. The growing body of information on the enantioselective disposition of beta 2-agonists in humans will enhance the rational use of these drugs in the future management of patients. PMID:8866176

  9. Cell-Free Protein Synthesis: Applications Come of Age

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Erik D.; Gan, Rui; Hodgman, C. Eric; Jewett, Michael C.

    2014-01-01

    Cell-free protein synthesis has emerged as a powerful technology platform to help satisfy the growing demand for simple and efficient protein production. While used for decades as a foundational research tool for understanding transcription and translation, recent advances have made possible cost-effective microscale to manufacturing scale synthesis of complex proteins. Protein yields exceed grams protein produced per liter reaction volume, batch reactions last for multiple hours, costs have been reduced orders of magnitude, and reaction scale has reached the 100-liter milestone. These advances have inspired new applications in the synthesis of protein libraries for functional genomics and structural biology, the production of personalized medicines, and the expression of virus-like particles, among others. In the coming years, cell-free protein synthesis promises new industrial processes where short protein production timelines are crucial as well as innovative approaches to a wide range of applications. PMID:22008973

  10. Organic co-solvents affect activity, stability and enantioselectivity of haloalkane dehalogenases.

    PubMed

    Stepankova, Veronika; Damborsky, Jiri; Chaloupkova, Radka

    2013-06-01

    Haloalkane dehalogenases are microbial enzymes with a wide range of biotechnological applications, including biocatalysis. The use of organic co-solvents to solubilize their hydrophobic substrates is often necessary. In order to choose the most compatible co-solvent, the effects of 14 co-solvents on activity, stability and enantioselectivity of three model enzymes, DbjA, DhaA, and LinB, were evaluated. All co-solvents caused at high concentration loss of activity and conformational changes. The highest inactivation was induced by tetrahydrofuran, while more hydrophilic co-solvents, such as ethylene glycol and dimethyl sulfoxide, were better tolerated. The effects of co-solvents at low concentration were different for each enzyme-solvent pair. An increase in DbjA activity was induced by the majority of organic co-solvents tested, while activities of DhaA and LinB decreased at comparable concentrations of the same co-solvent. Moreover, a high increase of DbjA enantioselectivity was observed. Ethylene glycol and 1,4-dioxane were shown to have the most positive impact on the enantioselectivity. The favorable influence of these co-solvents on both activity and enantioselectivity makes DbjA suitable for biocatalytic applications. This study represents the first investigation of the effects of organic co-solvents on the biocatalytic performance of haloalkane dehalogenases and will pave the way for their broader use in industrial processes. PMID:23420811

  11. Enantioselective Rhodium-Catalyzed Dearomative Arylation or Alkenylation of Quinolinium Salts.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Liu, Yunlong; Zhang, Dongdong; Wei, Hao; Shi, Min; Wang, Feijun

    2016-03-01

    A highly enantioselective rhodium(I)-catalyzed dearomative arylation or alkenylation of easily available N-alkylquinolinium salts is reported, thus providing an effective and practical approach to the synthesis of dihydroquinolines in up to 99?%?ee. This reaction tolerates a wide range of functional groups with respect to both the organic boronic acids and the quinoline starting materials. Moreover, the synthetic utility of this protocol is demonstrated in the formal asymmetric synthesis of bioactive tetrahydroquinoline and the total syntheses of (-)-angustureine and (+)-cuspareine. PMID:26879692

  12. Enantioselective Addition of Bromonitromethane to Aliphatic N-Boc Aldimines Using a Homogeneous Bifunctional Chiral Organocatalyst

    PubMed Central

    Schwieter, Kenneth E.; Johnston, Jeffrey N.

    2016-01-01

    This report details the enantioselective synthesis of β-amino-α-bromo nitroalkanes with β-alkyl substituents, using homogeneous catalysis to prepare either antipode. Use of a bifunctional Brønsted base/acid catalyst allows equal access to either enantiomer of the products, enabling the use of Umpolung Amide Synthesis (UmAS) to prepare the corresponding L- or D-α-amino amide bearing alkyl side chains – overall, in only 4 steps from aldehyde. The approach also addresses an underlying incompatibility between bromonitromethane and solid hydroxide bases.

  13. Carbohydrate-Based Lactones: Synthesis and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xavier, Nuno M.; Rauter, Amlia P.; Queneau, Yves

    The synthesis and uses of different kinds of carbohydrate-based lactones are described. This group of compounds includes aldonolactones, other related monocyclic lactones and bicyclic systems. The latter can arise from uronic acids, carboxymethyl ethers or glycosides, or from C-branched sugars.

  14. Organocatalysis by Networks of Cooperative Hydrogen Bonds: Enantioselective Direct Mannich Addition to Preformed Arylideneureas.

    PubMed

    Lillo, Victor J; Mansilla, Javier; Saá, José M

    2016-03-18

    The concept of noncovalent organocatalysis by means of networks of cooperative hydrogen bonds (NCHB organocatalysis) has been explored. Arylideneureas were chosen as ideal substrates because of their powerful donor-acceptor properties. We have examined their uncatalyzed, direct Mannich reaction with acetoacetates in comparison with that catalyzed by a number of salan derivatives capable of providing a network of cooperative hydrogen bonds. Catalyst D [(R,R)-N,N'-bis(salicyl)cyclohexane-1,2-diamine] was found to drive the above direct Mannich reaction in an enantioselective manner, thereby allowing the synthesis of several Biginelli dihydropyrimidinones with high enantioselectivity. DFT calculations (B3LYP-D-PCM/6-31+G*//B3LYP/6-31+G*) revealed that the NCHB organocatalyst lowers the energy barrier of the reaction. The NCHB organocatalysts appear to function as biomimetic catalysts. PMID:26918408

  15. Enantioselective Desymmetrization of Prochiral Cyclohexanones by Organocatalytic Intramolecular Michael Additions to ?,?-Unsaturated Esters**

    PubMed Central

    Gammack Yamagata, Adam D; Datta, Swarup; Jackson, Kelvin E; Stegbauer, Linus; Paton, Robert S; Dixon, Darren J

    2015-01-01

    A new catalytic asymmetric desymmetrization reaction for the synthesis of enantioenriched derivatives of 2-azabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane, a key motif common to many alkaloids, has been developed. Employing a cyclohexanediamine-derived primary amine organocatalyst, a range of prochiral cyclohexanone derivatives possessing an ?,?-unsaturated ester moiety linked to the 4-position afforded the bicyclic products, which possess three stereogenic centers, as single diastereoisomers in high enantioselectivity (8399?% ee) and in good yields (6090?%). Calculations revealed that stepwise CC bond formation and proton transfer via a chair-shaped transition state dictate the exclusive endo selectivity and enabled the development of a highly enantioselective primary amine catalyst. PMID:25727215

  16. Enantioselective desymmetrization of prochiral cyclohexanones by organocatalytic intramolecular Michael additions to α,β-unsaturated esters.

    PubMed

    Gammack Yamagata, Adam D; Datta, Swarup; Jackson, Kelvin E; Stegbauer, Linus; Paton, Robert S; Dixon, Darren J

    2015-04-13

    A new catalytic asymmetric desymmetrization reaction for the synthesis of enantioenriched derivatives of 2-azabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane, a key motif common to many alkaloids, has been developed. Employing a cyclohexanediamine-derived primary amine organocatalyst, a range of prochiral cyclohexanone derivatives possessing an α,β-unsaturated ester moiety linked to the 4-position afforded the bicyclic products, which possess three stereogenic centers, as single diastereoisomers in high enantioselectivity (83-99% ee) and in good yields (60-90%). Calculations revealed that stepwise C-C bond formation and proton transfer via a chair-shaped transition state dictate the exclusive endo selectivity and enabled the development of a highly enantioselective primary amine catalyst. PMID:25727215

  17. Iridium-catalyzed enantioselective polyene cyclization.

    PubMed

    Schafroth, Michael A; Sarlah, David; Krautwald, Simon; Carreira, Erick M

    2012-12-19

    A highly enantioselective polycyclization method has been developed using the combination of Lewis acid activation with iridium-catalyzed allylic substitution. This strategy relies on direct use of branched, racemic allylic alcohols and furnishes a diverse and unique set of carbo- and heteropolycyclic ring systems in good yields and ?99% ee. PMID:23193947

  18. Design and synthesis of mixed oxides nanoparticles for biofuel applications

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Senniang

    2010-05-15

    The work in this dissertation presents the synthesis of two mixed metal oxides for biofuel applications and NMR characterization of silica materials. In the chapter 2, high catalytic efficiency of calcium silicate is synthesized for transesterfication of soybean oil to biodisels. Chapter 3 describes the synthesis of a new Rh based catalyst on mesoporous manganese oxides. The new catalyst is found to have higher activity and selectivity towards ethanol. Chapter 4 demonstrates the applications of solid-state Si NMR in the silica materials.

  19. Application of variable metric methods to structural synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanderplaats, G. N.; Sugimoto, H.

    1985-01-01

    Powell (1977, 1978), Biggs (1972, 1975), and Han (1976, 1977) have developed a class of variable metric methods which create an explicit, quadratic, subproblem which is to be solved for finding a search direction for design improvement. A one-dimensional search is then performed. The present paper has the objective to present this variable metric approach in the context of structural synthesis. The variable metric algorithm is modified for application to the structural synthesis problem. The application of the new procedure is illustrated with the aid of examples, taking into account a 10-bar planar truss, a 17-bar planar tower, and a cantilever beam.

  20. Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles for Revolutionizing Agriculture: Synthesis and Applications

    PubMed Central

    Sabir, Sidra; Arshad, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    Nanotechnology is the most innovative field of 21st century. Extensive research is going on for commercializing nanoproducts throughout the world. Due to their unique properties, nanoparticles have gained considerable importance compared to bulk counterparts. Among other metal nanoparticles, zinc oxide nanoparticles are very much important due to their utilization in gas sensors, biosensors, cosmetics, drug-delivery systems, and so forth. Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) also have remarkable optical, physical, and antimicrobial properties and therefore have great potential to enhance agriculture. As far as method of formation is concerned, ZnO NPs can be synthesized by several chemical methods such as precipitation method, vapor transport method, and hydrothermal process. The biogenic synthesis of ZnO NPs by using different plant extracts is also common nowadays. This green synthesis is quite safe and ecofriendly compared to chemical synthesis. This paper elaborates the synthesis, properties, and applications of zinc oxide nanoparticles. PMID:25436235

  1. Zinc oxide nanoparticles for revolutionizing agriculture: synthesis and applications.

    PubMed

    Sabir, Sidra; Arshad, Muhammad; Chaudhari, Sunbal Khalil

    2014-01-01

    Nanotechnology is the most innovative field of 21st century. Extensive research is going on for commercializing nanoproducts throughout the world. Due to their unique properties, nanoparticles have gained considerable importance compared to bulk counterparts. Among other metal nanoparticles, zinc oxide nanoparticles are very much important due to their utilization in gas sensors, biosensors, cosmetics, drug-delivery systems, and so forth. Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) also have remarkable optical, physical, and antimicrobial properties and therefore have great potential to enhance agriculture. As far as method of formation is concerned, ZnO NPs can be synthesized by several chemical methods such as precipitation method, vapor transport method, and hydrothermal process. The biogenic synthesis of ZnO NPs by using different plant extracts is also common nowadays. This green synthesis is quite safe and ecofriendly compared to chemical synthesis. This paper elaborates the synthesis, properties, and applications of zinc oxide nanoparticles. PMID:25436235

  2. The productive merger of iodonium salts and organocatalysis: a non-photolytic approach to the enantioselective alpha-trifluoromethylation of aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Allen, Anna E; Macmillan, David W C

    2010-04-14

    An enantioselective organocatalytic alpha-trifluoromethylation of aldehydes has been accomplished using a commercially available, electrophilic trifluoromethyl source. The merging of Lewis acid and organocatalysis provides a new strategy for the enantioselective construction of trifluoromethyl stereogenicity, an important chiral synthon for pharmaceutical, materials, and agrochemical applications. This mild and operationally simple protocol allows rapid access to enantioenriched alpha-trifluoromethylated aldehydes through a nonphotolytic pathway. PMID:20297822

  3. Synthesis of silver nanoparticle and its application.

    PubMed

    Pandian, A Muthu Kumara; Karthikeyan, C; Rajasimman, M; Dinesh, M G

    2015-11-01

    In this work, silver nanoparticles have been synthesized by wet chemical technique, green synthesis and microbial methods. Silver nitrate (10(-3)M) was used with aqueous extract to produce silver nanoparticles. From the results it was observed that the yield of nanoparticles was high in green synthesis. The size of the silver nanoparticles was determined from Scanning Electron Microscope analysis (SEM). Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was carried out to determine the presence of biomolecules in them. Its cytotoxic effect was studied in cancerous cell line and normal cell line. MTT assay was done to test its optimal concentration and efficacy which gives valuable information for the use of silver nanoparticles for future cancer therapy. PMID:25866204

  4. Enantioselective Henry (nitroaldol) reaction catalyzed by axially chiral guanidines.

    PubMed

    Ube, Hitoshi; Terada, Masahiro

    2009-07-15

    The enantioselective activation of nitroalkanes was attempted on the basis of the complexation between chiral guanidinium and nitronate through two hydrogen bonds. The proposed enantioselective activation was applied to the diastereo- and enantioselective Henry (nitroaldol) reaction of nitroalkanes with aldehydes using axially chiral guanidine bases as the catalyst. Optically active nitroaldol products were obtained in acceptable yields with fairly good enantio- and diastereoselectivities at low temperature. PMID:19375310

  5. Semiconductor nanowhiskers: Synthesis, properties, and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Dubrovskii, V. G. Cirlin, G. E. Ustinov, V. M.

    2009-12-15

    Recent results of studying the semiconductor's whisker nanocrystals are reviewed. Physical grounds of growing whisker nanocrystals using the mechanism vapor-liquid-crystal are given and the main epitaxial technologies of synthesis of whisker nanocrystals are described. Thermodynamic and kinetic factors controlling the morphological properties, composition, and crystal structure of whisker nanocrystals are considered in detail. The main theoretical models of the growth and structure of whisker nanocrystals are described. The data on physical properties of whisker nanocrystals and possibilities of their use in nanophotonics, nanoelectronics, and nanobiotechnology are presented.

  6. Synthesis and photovoltaic application of coper (I) sulfide nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Yue; Wadia, Cyrus; Ma, Wanli; Sadtler, Bryce; Alivisatos, A.Paul

    2008-06-24

    We present the rational synthesis of colloidal copper(I) sulfide nanocrystals and demonstrate their application as an active light absorbing component in combination with CdS nanorods to make a solution-processed solar cell with 1.6percent power conversion efficiency on both conventional glass substrates and flexible plastic substrates with stability over a 4 month testing period.

  7. Synthesis and applications of 2-aminopyrimidine derivatives as key intermediates in chemical synthesis of biomolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koroleva, Elena V.; Gusak, K. N.; Ignatovich, Zh V.

    2010-10-01

    Published data on the main approaches to the formation of the heterocyclic 2-aminopyrimidine system, which is one of important pharmacophores responsible for the biological properties of its derivatives, are described systematically. Main chemical transformations of functionalized 2-aminopyrimidines and their application in the synthesis of modern pharmaceuticals are considered.

  8. A general enantioselective route to the chamigrene natural product family

    PubMed Central

    White, David E.; Stewart, Ian C.; Seashore-Ludlow, Brinton A.; Grubbs, Robert H.; Stoltz, Brian M.

    2010-01-01

    Described in this report is an enantioselective route toward the chamigrene natural product family. The key disconnections in our synthetic approach include sequential enantioselective decarboxylative allylation and ring-closing olefin metathesis to form the all-carbon quaternary stereocenter and spirocyclic core present in all members of this class of compounds. The generality of this strategy is demonstrated by the first total syntheses of elatol and the proposed structure of laurencenone B, as well as the first enantioselective total syntheses of laurencenone C and ?-chamigrene. A brief exploration of the substrate scope of the enantioselective decarboxylative allylation/ring-closing metathesis sequence with fully substituted vinyl chlorides is also presented. PMID:20798895

  9. Enantioselective toxicities of chiral ionic liquids 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium lactate to aquatic algae.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui; Zou, Yuqin; Zhang, Lijuan; Wen, Yuezhong; Liu, Weiping

    2014-09-01

    With the wide application of chiral ionic liquids (CILs) as green solvents, their threats to the aquatic environment cannot be ignored. Thus, risk assessment and the prospective design of inherently safe CILs have become more urgent. However, whether enantioselectivity is a feature of the aquatic toxicity of CILs is poorly understood. Herein, we describe the first investigation into the ecotoxicities of CILs toward green algae Scenedesmus obliquus and Euglena gracilis. A series of methylimidazolium lactic ionic liquids, which cation parts with different alkyl chains and anion part is enantiomers of lactate, are used as representative CILs. The results of S. obliquus showed that the EC50 value of L-(+)-1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium lactate (L-(+)-EMIM L) was more than 5000 μM, while the EC50 value of D-(-)-1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium lactate (D-(-)-EMIM L) was 2255.21 μM. Such a distinct difference indicates the enantioselective toxicity of CILs to algae. This enantioselectivity initially persisted with increasing carbon chain length, but no longer exhibited when with greater carbon chain lengths, due to changes in the toxicity weightings of the cation parts. Further research showed that the enantioselective effects of CILs resulted from the differences in the production of reactive oxygen species, the damage to cell membrane integrity and cell wall after exposure to CILs. Results from this study showed that monitoring for the racemate CILs will give an inadequate or misleading environmental risk assessment. Thus, we should improve our ability to predict their effects in natural environments. In the meantime, non-selective use of CILs will do harm to aquatic organisms. Therefore, to minimize their potential for environmental impact, the enantioselective toxicities of CILs with short alkyl chains should be taken into consideration. PMID:24880783

  10. Enantioselective Analysis in instruments onboard ROSETTA/PHILAE and ExoMars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendrik Bredehft, Jan; Thiemann, Wolfram; Meierhenrich, Uwe; Goesmann, Fred

    It has been suggested a number of times in the past, to look for chirality as a biomarker. So far, for lack of appropriate instrumentation, space missions have never included enantioselective analysis. The distinction between enantiomers is of crucial importance to the question of the origin of the very first (pre)biotic molecules. If molecules detected in situ on another celestial body were found to exhibit a chiral bias, this would mean that at least partial asymmetric synthesis could take place abiotically. If this chiral bias should be found to be near 100For the currently flying ESA mission ROSETTA an enantioselective instrument was built, to try for the first time to detect and separate chiral molecules in situ. This instrument is COSAC, the Cometary Sampling and Acquisition Experiment, an enantioselective GCMS device[1,2], which is included in the lander PHLIAE that will eventually in 2014 land on the nucleus of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. A similar but even more powerful type of enantioselective GC-MS is in preparation for ESA's ExoMars mission. This instrument is part of MOMA, the Mars Organic Molecules Analyser. It has the objective of identifying and quantifying chiral organic molecules in surface and subsurface samples of Mars. Currently ExoMars is scheduled for 2018. The newly developed enantioselective technique utilized by both COSAC and MOMA will be described, including sample acquisition, derivatization, and separation in space-resistant chiral stationary capillary columns with time-of-flight mass spectrometric detection. Results of enantioselective analyses of representative test samples with special emphasis on amino acids[3], the building blocks of protein polymers, will be presented and we will discuss potential results of space missions Rosetta and ExoMars. [1] Thiemann W.H.-P., Meierhenrich U.: ESA Mission ROSETTA Will Probe for Chirality of Cometary Amino Acids. Origins of Life and Evolution of Biospheres 31 (2001), 199-210. [2] Goesmann F., Rosenbauer H., Roll R., Szopa C., Raulin F., Sternberg R., Israel G., Meier-henrich U., Thiemann W., Muoz Caro G.M.: COSAC, The cometary sampling and composi-n tion experiment on Philae. Space Science Reviews 128 (2007), 257-280. [3] Meierhenrich U.J.: Amino Acids and the Asymmetry of Life -Caught in the Act of Forma-tion. Springer, Heidelberg Berlin New York (2008).

  11. The Application of MP-FTS to Aperture Synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hattori, M.; Ohta, I. S.; Matsuo, H.; Shibata, Y.

    2000-12-01

    The application of the Martin-Puplett type Fourier transform spectrometer to aperture synthesis is considered. The configuration of the mirrors and beam splitters and the fundamental mathematical elements of the system are summarized. We show that the system can measure spectrally resolved spatial distribution of the Stokes parameters of sources as interfered signals. An original Martin-Puplett type Fourier transform spectrometer that can be applied to aperture synthesis in mm and sub-mm wave bands has been constructed. The preliminary results of our laboratory experiments are reported.

  12. The Chemistry of Nanomaterials: Synthesis, Properties and Applications, 2 Volumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, C. N. R.; Mller, Achim; Cheetham, Anthony K.

    2004-03-01

    With this handbook the distinguished team of editors has combined the expertise of leading nanomaterials scientists to provide the latest overview of this field. The authors cover the whole spectrum of nanomaterials, ranging from theory, synthesis, properties, characterization to application, including such new developments as: quantum dots, nanoparticles, nanoporous materials, as well as nanowires, nanotubes and nanostructural polymers nanocatalysis, nanolithography, nanomanipulation methods for the synthesis of nanoparticles. The book can thus be recommended for everybody working in nanoscience: Beginners can acquaint themselves with the exciting subject, while specialists will find answers to all their questions plus helpful suggestions for further research.

  13. Synthesis and Characterization of Polymers for Fuel Cells Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tytko, Stephen F.

    2003-01-01

    The goal of this summer research is to prepare Polymer Exchange Membranes (PEM s) for fuel cell application. Several high temperature polymers such as polybenzimidazoles and polyether ketones were known to possess good high temperature stability and had been investigated by post-sulfonation to yield sulfonated polymers. The research project will involve two approaches: 1. Synthesis of polybenzimidazoles and then react with alkyl sultonse to attach an aliphatic sulfonic groups. 2. Synthesis of monomers containing sulfonic acid units either on a aromatic ring or on an aliphatic chain and then polymerize the monomers to form high molecular weight sulfonate polymers.

  14. Aerosol synthesis and application of folded graphene-based materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yantao; Wang, Zhongying; Qiu, Yang

    2015-12-01

    Graphene oxide colloid has been widely used in the synthesis of various graphene-based materials. Graphene oxide sheets, with a low bending rigidity, can be folded when assembled in aqueous phase. A simple but industrial scalable way, aerosol processing, can be used to fabricate folded graphene-based materials. These folded materials can carry various cargo materials and be used in different applications such as time-controlled drug release, medical imaging enhancement, catalyst support and energy related areas. The aerosol synthesis of folded graphene-based materials can also be easily extended to fabricate hybrid nanomaterials without any complicated chemistries.

  15. Infrared colloidal lead chalcogenide nanocrystals: synthesis, properties, and photovoltaic applications.

    PubMed

    Fu, Huiying; Tsang, Sai-Wing

    2012-04-01

    Simple solution phase, catalyst-free synthetic approaches that offer monodispersed, well passivated, and non-aggregated colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals have presented many research opportunities not only for fundamental science but also for technological applications. The ability to tune the electrical and optical properties of semiconductor nanocrystals by manipulating the size and shape of the crystals during the colloidal synthesis provides potential benefits to a variety of applications including photovoltaic devices, light-emitting diodes, field effect transistors, biological imaging/labeling, and more. Recent advances in the synthesis and characterization of colloidal lead chalcogenide nanocrystals and the achievements in colloidal PbS or PbSe nanocrystals solar cells have demonstrated the promising application of infrared-emitting colloidal lead chalcogenide nanocrystals in photovoltaic devices. Here, we review recent progress in the synthesis and optical properties of colloidal lead chalcogenide nanocrystals. We focus in particular upon the size- and shape-controlled synthesis of PbS, PbSe, and PbTe nanocrystals by using different precursors and various stabilizing surfactants for the growth of the colloidal nanocrystals. We also summarize recent advancements in the field of colloidal nanocrystals solar cells based on colloidal PbS and PbSe nanocrystals. PMID:22382898

  16. Biologically Relevant Glycopeptides: Synthesis and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Clay S.; Payne, Richard J.; Koeller, Kathryn M.; Wong, Chi-Huey

    Over the past two decades interest in glycopeptides and glycoproteins has intensified, due in part to the development of new and efficient methods for the synthesis of these compounds. This includes a number of chemical and enzymatic techniques for incorporating glycosylation onto the peptide backbone as well as the introduction of powerful peptide ligation methods for the construction of glycoproteins. This review discusses these methods with a special emphasis on biologically relevant glycopeptides and glycoproteins. This includes the development of a number of antigens which hold promise as potential vaccines for HIV, cancer, or a host of other clinically important diseases. In addition the development of new antibiotics aimed at overcoming the problem of resistance will be discussed. Finally, chemical and enzymatic methods for the construction of glycopeptide mimetics will be described.

  17. Application of optimality criteria in structural synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Terai, K.

    1974-01-01

    The rational use of optimality criteria was investigated for a class of structural synthesis problems where materials, configuration and applied load conditions are specified, and the minimum weight design is to be determined. The potential of hybrid methods of structural optimization for dealing with relatively large design problems involving practical complexity was explored. The reduced basis concept in design space was used to decrease the number of generalized design variables dealt with by the mathematical programming algorithm. Optimality criteria methods for obtaining design vectors associated with displacement, system buckling and natural frequency constraints are presented. A stress ratio method was used to generate a basis design vector representing the stress constraints. The finite element displacement method was used as the basic structural analysis tool. Results for several examples of truss systems subject to stress, displacement and minimum size constraints are presented. An assessment of these results indicates the effectiveness of the hybrid method developed.

  18. Enantioselective Construction of Remote Quaternary Stereocenters

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Tian-Sheng; Patel, Harshkumar H.; Sigman, Matthew S.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Molecules containing all-carbon quaternary stereocenters carbon atoms bonded to four distinct carbon substituents are prevalent in Nature. However, the construction of such compounds in an enantioselective fashion remains a long-standing challenge to synthetic organic chemists. In particular, methods for forging quaternary stereocenters that are remote from other functional groups are underdeveloped. Herein we report a catalytic and enantioselective intermolecular Heck-type reaction of trisubstituted-alkenyl alcohols with aryl boronic acids. The reported method allows direct access to quaternary all-carbon-substituted ?-, ?-, ?-, ?- or ? aryl carbonyl compounds, as the unsaturation of the alkene is relayed to the alcohol resulting in the formation of a carbonyl group. The scope of the process also includes incorporation of pre-existing stereocenters along the alkyl chain, which links the alkene and the alcohol, wherein the stereocenter is preserved. The described method is flexible, allowing access to diverse building blocks containing an enantiomerically enriched, quaternary center. PMID:24717439

  19. Enzymatic enantioselective decarboxylative protonation of heteroaryl malonates.

    PubMed

    Lewin, Ross; Goodall, Mark; Thompson, Mark L; Leigh, James; Breuer, Michael; Baldenius, Kai; Micklefield, Jason

    2015-04-20

    The enzyme aryl/alkenyl malonate decarboxylase (AMDase) catalyses the enantioselective decarboxylative protonation (EDP) of a range of disubstituted malonic acids to give homochiral carboxylic acids that are valuable synthetic intermediates. AMDase exhibits a number of advantages over the non-enzymatic EDP methods developed to date including higher enantioselectivity and more environmentally benign reaction conditions. In this report, AMDase and engineered variants have been used to produce a range of enantioenriched heteroaromatic ?-hydroxycarboxylic acids, including pharmaceutical precursors, from readily accessible ?-hydroxymalonates. The enzymatic method described here represents an improvement upon existing synthetic chemistry methods that have been used to produce similar compounds. The relationship between the structural features of these new substrates and the kinetics associated with their enzymatic decarboxylation is explored, which offers further insight into the mechanism of AMDase. PMID:25766433

  20. Enzymatic Enantioselective Decarboxylative Protonation of Heteroaryl Malonates

    PubMed Central

    Lewin, Ross; Goodall, Mark; Thompson, Mark L; Leigh, James; Breuer, Michael; Baldenius, Kai; Micklefield, Jason

    2015-01-01

    The enzyme aryl/alkenyl malonate decarboxylase (AMDase) catalyses the enantioselective decarboxylative protonation (EDP) of a range of disubstituted malonic acids to give homochiral carboxylic acids that are valuable synthetic intermediates. AMDase exhibits a number of advantages over the non-enzymatic EDP methods developed to date including higher enantioselectivity and more environmentally benign reaction conditions. In this report, AMDase and engineered variants have been used to produce a range of enantioenriched heteroaromatic α-hydroxycarboxylic acids, including pharmaceutical precursors, from readily accessible α-hydroxymalonates. The enzymatic method described here represents an improvement upon existing synthetic chemistry methods that have been used to produce similar compounds. The relationship between the structural features of these new substrates and the kinetics associated with their enzymatic decarboxylation is explored, which offers further insight into the mechanism of AMDase. PMID:25766433

  1. Vancomycin Molecular Interactions: Antibiotic and Enantioselective Mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Timothy J.; Gilmore, Aprile; Ward, Karen; Vowell, Courtney

    Medical studies established that vancomycin and other related macrocyclic antibiotics have an enhanced antimicrobial activity when they are associated as dimers. The carbohydrate units attached to the vancomycin basket have an essential role in the dimerization reaction. Covalently synthesized dimers were found active against vancomycin-resistant bacterial strains. A great similarity between antibiotic potential and enantioselectivity was established. A covalent vancomycin dimer was studied in capillary electrophoresis producing excellent chiral separation of dansyl amino acids. Balhimycin is a macrocyclic glycopeptide structurally similar to vancomycin. The small differences are, however, responsible for drastic differences in enantioselectivity in the same experimental conditions. Contributions from studies examining vancomycin's mechanism for antimicrobial activity have substantially aided our understanding of its mechanism in chiral recognition.

  2. Merging Chiral Brnsted Acid/Base Catalysis: An Enantioselective [4+ 2] Cycloaddition of o-Hydroxystyrenes with Azlactones.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu-Chen; Zhu, Qiu-Ning; Yang, Xue; Zhou, Lu-Jia; Shi, Feng

    2016-02-19

    An enantioselective [4 + 2] cycloaddition of o-hydroxylstyrenes with azlactones has been established by merging chiral Brnsted acid (chiral phosphoric acid) and base (chiral guanidine) catalysis, which constructed a biologically important dihydrocoumarin scaffold in an efficient and enantioselective style (up to 99% yield, 96:4 er). This approach has not only realized the successful application of o-hydroxylstyrenes as oxa-diene precursors in catalytic asymmetric cycloadditions but also established a new cooperative catalytic system of chiral phosphoric acid and chiral guanidine. PMID:26800116

  3. Enantioselective Total Syntheses of Plectosphaeroic Acids B and C

    PubMed Central

    Jabri, Salman Y.

    2013-01-01

    Evolution of the synthetic strategy that culminated in the first total syntheses of the structurally unique plectosphaeroic acids B (2) and C (3) is described. The successful enantioselective route to (+)-2 and (+)-3 proceeds in 6 and 11 steps from the known hexahydro-2H-pyrazinopyrrolo[2,3-b]indole-1,4-dione 39, which in turn are available in enantiomerically pure form by chemical synthesis. The central challenge in this synthesis endeavor was uniting the hexahydro-2H-pyrazinopyrrolo[2,3-b]indole-1,4-dione and cinnabarinic acid fragments of these marine alkaloids. Critical for achieving this successful CN bond formation was the use of an iodocinnabarinic acid diester in which the amino group was masked with two Boc substituents, a Cu(I) carboxylate complex, and the weak base KOAc. The highly congested CN bond generated in this coupling, in conjunction with the delicate nature of the densely functionalized coupling partners, provide striking testament to the power of modern copper-mediated amination methods. Two approaches, one stereoselective, for introducing the methylthio substituents of (+)-plectosphaeroic acid B were developed. The epitrisulfide ring of (+)-plectosphaeroic acid C was formed by ring expansion of an epidisulfide precursor. PMID:24007470

  4. Nanosilver particles in medical applications: synthesis, performance, and toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Liangpeng; Li, Qingtao; Wang, Meng; Ouyang, Jun; Li, Xiaojian; Xing, Malcolm MQ

    2014-01-01

    Nanosilver particles (NSPs), are among the most attractive nanomaterials, and have been widely used in a range of biomedical applications, including diagnosis, treatment, drug delivery, medical device coating, and for personal health care. With the increasing application of NSPs in medical contexts, it is becoming necessary for a better understanding of the mechanisms of NSPs’ biological interactions and their potential toxicity. In this review, we first introduce the synthesis routes of NSPs, including physical, chemical, and biological or green synthesis. Then the unique physiochemical properties of NSPs, such as antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, and anti-inflammatory activity, are discussed in detail. Further, some recent applications of NSPs in prevention, diagnosis, and treatment in medical fields are described. Finally, potential toxicology considerations of NSPs, both in vitro and in vivo, are also addressed. PMID:24876773

  5. Nanoparticles: synthesis and applications in life science and environmental technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luong Nguyen, Hoang; Nguyen, Hoang Nam; Hai Nguyen, Hoang; Quynh Luu, Manh; Hieu Nguyen, Minh

    2015-03-01

    This work focuses on the synthesis, functionalization, and application of gold and silver nanoparticles, magnetic nanoparticles Fe3O4, combination of 4-ATP-coated silver nanoparticles and Fe3O4 nanoparticles. The synthesis methods such as chemical reduction, seeding, coprecipitation,and inverse microemulsion will be outlined. Silica- and amino-coated nanoparticles are suitable for several applications in biomedicine and the environment. The applications of the prepared nanoparticles for early detection of breast cancer cells, basal cell carcinoma, antibacterial test, arsenic removal from water, Herpes DNA separation, CD4+ cell separation and isolation of DNA of Hepatitis virus type B (HBV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) are discussed. Finally, some promising perspectives will be pointed out. Invited talk at the 7th International Workshop on Advanced Materials Science and Nanotechnology IWAMSN2014, 2-6 November, 2014, Ha Long, Vietnam.

  6. Upconversion Nanomaterials: Synthesis, Mechanism, and Applications in Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jiao; Zhao, Julia Xiaojun

    2012-01-01

    Upconversion is an optical process that involves the conversion of lower-energy photons into higher-energy photons. It has been extensively studied since mid-1960s and widely applied in optical devices. Over the past decade, high-quality rare earth-doped upconversion nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized with the rapid development of nanotechnology and are becoming more prominent in biological sciences. The synthesis methods are usually phase-based processes, such as thermal decomposition, hydrothermal reaction, and ionic liquids-based synthesis. The main difference between upconversion nanoparticles and other nanomaterials is that they can emit visible light under near infrared irradiation. The near infrared irradiation leads to low autofluorescence, less scattering and absorption, and deep penetration in biological samples. In this review, the synthesis of upconversion nanoparticles and the mechanisms of upconversion process will be discussed, followed by their applications in different areas, especially in the biological field for biosensing. PMID:22736958

  7. Enantioselective Bromo-oxycyclization of Silanol.

    PubMed

    Xia, Zilei; Hu, Jiadong; Shen, Zhigao; Wan, Xiaolong; Yao, Qizheng; Lai, Yisheng; Gao, Jin-Ming; Xie, Weiqing

    2016-01-01

    Relying on the nucleophilicity of silanol for building up silicon-incorporated scaffold with an enantiopure tetrasubstituted carbon center remains elusive. In this report, asymmetric bromo-oxycyclization of olefinic silanol by using chiral anionic phase-transfer catalyst is described. This protocol provided a facile entry to a wide arrangement of enantiopure benzoxasilole in moderate to excellent enantioselectivities depending on the unique reactivity of bromine/N-benzyl-DABCO complex. PMID:26654658

  8. Enantioselective ?-Protonation by a Cooperative Catalysis Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Michael H.; Cohen, Daniel T.; Schwamb, C. Benjamin; Mishra, Rama K.; Scheidt, Karl A.

    2015-01-01

    An enantioselective N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC)-catalyzed ?-protonation through the orchestration of three distinct organocatalysts has been developed. This cooperative catalyst system enhances both yield and selectivity, compared to only the NHC-catalyzed process. This new method allows for the efficient conversion of a large scope of aryl-oxobutenoates to highly enantioenriched succinate derivatives and demonstrates the benefits of combining different activation modes in organocatalysis. PMID:25929160

  9. Gold(I)-catalyzed enantioselective cycloaddition reactions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Summary In recent years there have been extraordinary developments of gold(I)-catalyzed enantioselective processes. This includes progress in the area of cycloaddition reactions, which are of particular interest due to their potential for the rapid construction of optically active cyclic products. In this article we will summarize some of the most remarkable examples, emphasizing reaction mechanisms and key intermediates involved in the processes. PMID:24204438

  10. Enantioselective ?-Protonation by a Cooperative Catalysis Strategy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Michael H; Cohen, Daniel T; Schwamb, C Benjamin; Mishra, Rama K; Scheidt, Karl A

    2015-05-13

    An enantioselective N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC)-catalyzed ?-protonation through the orchestration of three distinct organocatalysts has been developed. This cooperative catalyst system enhances both yield and selectivity, compared to only the NHC-catalyzed process. This new method allows for the efficient conversion of a large scope of aryl-oxobutenoates to highly enantioenriched succinate derivatives and demonstrates the benefits of combining different activation modes in organocatalysis. PMID:25929160

  11. Enantioselective Phytotoxicity of Imazamox Against Maize Seedlings.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jing; Zhang, Xiaoxiao; Li, Xuesheng; Zeng, Dongqiang; Tan, Huihua

    2016-02-01

    There is increasing concern about the enantioselective effects of chiral herbicides. To study the enantioselective toxicity of the chiral herbicide imazamox on maize, maize seedlings (Zhengda 619, Zea mays L.) were exposed to imazamox racemate and enantiomers in hydroponic experiments. The results showed that imazamox enantiomers selectively affected maize. The effective concentration of Rac-, S- and R-imazamox that caused 50 % inhibition after 5 days treatments (EC50,5d) were 0.4212, 1.2142 and 0.2460 mg L(-1), respectively, for maize root length; 0.0002, 0.1005, 0.0032 mg L(-1), respectively, for maize root fresh weight; 0.7114, 1.4056 and 0.4530 mg L(-1), respectively, for maize shoot height; 0.6220, 1.5418, 0.2286 mg L(-1), respectively, for maize shoot fresh weight; and 0.1100, 0.3306, 0.0307 mg L(-1), respectively, for the total chlorophyll content of leaves. The root morphological parameters and root activity reflected the toxicity effects in the order R-imazamox > Rac-imazamox > S-imazamox. Maize roots were more sensitive to imazamox than maize shoots. The chiral herbicide imazamox poses enantioselective phytotoxicity on maize seedlings: the order of toxicity is R-imazamox > Rac-imazamox > S-imazamox. PMID:26508428

  12. Highly enantioselective hydrogenation of alpha-arylmethylene cycloalkanones catalyzed by iridium complexes of chiral spiro aminophosphine ligands.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jian-Bo; Xie, Jian-Hua; Liu, Xiao-Yan; Kong, Wei-Ling; Li, Shen; Zhou, Qi-Lin

    2010-04-01

    The highly efficient asymmetric hydrogenation of alpha-arylmethylene cycloalkanones catalyzed by Ir-complexes of chiral spiro aminophosphine ligands was developed, providing chiral exo-cyclic allylic alcohols at high yields with excellent enantioselectivities (up to 97% ee) and high turnover numbers (S/C up to 10,000). This new reaction provided an efficient method for the synthesis of the key intermediate of the active form of the anti-inflammatory loxoprofen. PMID:20232874

  13. Organocatalytic Enantioselective Formal [4 + 2] Cycloaddition of Enones with Cyclic N-Sulfonylimines and Methylene Chromene for Chiral Spirocyclic Compounds.

    PubMed

    Fei, Jie; Qian, Qingqing; Sun, Xiaohua; Gu, Xiaodong; Zou, Chuncheng; Ye, Jinxing

    2015-11-01

    A highly enantioselective synthesis of spirocycles and bridged rings has been developed through a formal [4 + 2] cycloaddition reaction between enones and N-sulfonylimines. The unprecedented strategy has been realized utilizing N-sulfonylimine as a novel dienophile through enamine-iminium tautomerism of N-sulfonylimine. In addition, a γ,ε-regioselective cycloaddition reaction proceeded by employing methylene chromene species as dienophiles. PMID:26468610

  14. Enantioselective Cyanosilylation of Ketones with Lithium(I) Dicyanotrimethylsilicate(IV) Catalyzed by a Chiral Lithium(I) Phosphoryl Phenoxide.

    PubMed

    Hatano, Manabu; Yamakawa, Katsuya; Kawai, Tomoaki; Horibe, Takahiro; Ishihara, Kazuaki

    2016-03-14

    A highly enantioselective cyanosilylation of ketones was developed by using a chiral lithium(I) phosphoryl phenoxide aqua complex as an acid/base cooperative catalyst. The pentacoordinate silicate generated in situ from Me3 SiCN/LiCN acts as an extremely reactive cyano reagent. Described is a 30 gram scale reaction and the synthesis of the key precursor to (+)-13-hydroxyisocyclocelabenzine. PMID:26834083

  15. High-Yield Synthesis and Applications of Anisotropic Gold Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vigderman, Leonid

    This work will describe research directed towards the synthesis of anisotropic gold nanoparticles as well as their functionalization and biological applications. The thesis will begin by describing a new technique for the high-yield synthesis of gold nanorods using hydroquinone as a reducing agent. This addresses important limitations of the traditional nanorod synthesis including low yield of gold ions conversion to metallic form and inability to produce rods with longitudinal surface plasmon peak above 850 nm. The use of hydroquinone was also found to improve the synthesis of gold nanowires via the nanorod-seed mediated procedure developed in our lab. The thesis will next present the synthesis of novel starfruitshaped nanorods, mesorods, and nanowires using a modified nanorod-seed mediated procedure. The starfruit particles displayed increased activity as surfaceenhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) substrates as compared to smooth structures. Next, a method for the functionalization of gold nanorods using a cationic thiol, 16-mercaptohexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (MTAB), will be described. By using this thiol, we were able to demonstrate the complete removal of toxic surfactant from the nanorods and were also able to precisely quantify the grafting density of thiol molecules on the nanorod surface through a combination of several analytical techniques. Finally, this thesis will show that MTABfunctionalized nanorods are nontoxic and can be taken up in extremely high numbers into cancer cells. The thesis will conclude by describing the surprising uptake of larger mesorods and nanowires functionalized with MTAB into cells in high quantities.

  16. Synthesis of boron nitride nanotubes and their applications

    PubMed Central

    Kalay, Saban; Yilmaz, Zehra; Sen, Ozlem; Emanet, Melis; Kazanc, Emine

    2015-01-01

    Summary Boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) have been increasingly investigated for use in a wide range of applications due to their unique physicochemical properties including high hydrophobicity, heat and electrical insulation, resistance to oxidation, and hydrogen storage capacity. They are also valued for their possible medical and biomedical applications including drug delivery, use in biomaterials, and neutron capture therapy. In this review, BNNT synthesis methods and the surface modification strategies are first discussed, and then their toxicity and application studies are summarized. Finally, a perspective for the future use of these novel materials is discussed. PMID:25671154

  17. Novel magnetic vortex nanorings/nanodiscs: Synthesis and theranostic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiao-Li; Yang, Yong; Wu, Jian-Peng; Zhang, Yi-Fan; Fan, Hai-Ming; Ding, Jun

    2015-12-01

    Recent discoveries in the synthesis and applications of magnetic vortex nanorings/nanodiscs in theranostic applications are reviewed. First, the principles of nanomagnetism and magnetic vortex are introduced. Second, methods for producing magnetic vortex nanorings/nanodiscs are presented. Finally, theranostic applications of magnetic vortex nanorings/nanodiscs are addressed. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 21376192 and 81571809), the Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20126101110017), and MOE AcRF Tier 2-MOE2011-T2-1-043 and A-Star SERC 1321202068.

  18. Synthesis of boron nitride nanotubes and their applications.

    PubMed

    Kalay, Saban; Yilmaz, Zehra; Sen, Ozlem; Emanet, Melis; Kazanc, Emine; ulha, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) have been increasingly investigated for use in a wide range of applications due to their unique physicochemical properties including high hydrophobicity, heat and electrical insulation, resistance to oxidation, and hydrogen storage capacity. They are also valued for their possible medical and biomedical applications including drug delivery, use in biomaterials, and neutron capture therapy. In this review, BNNT synthesis methods and the surface modification strategies are first discussed, and then their toxicity and application studies are summarized. Finally, a perspective for the future use of these novel materials is discussed. PMID:25671154

  19. Total synthesis of (+)-mupirocin H from D-glucose.

    PubMed

    Udawant, Sandip P; Chakraborty, Tushar Kanti

    2011-08-01

    Enantioselective total synthesis of mupirocin H is accomplished starting from D-glucose featuring strategic application of D-glucose derived chirality, diastereoselective Still-Barrish hydroboration, and further elaboration of carbon chain to furnish a phenyltetrazolyl sulfone intermediate, which on coupling with (2S,3S)-2-methyl-3-(triisopropylsilyloxy)butanal under Julia-Kocienski olefination conditions gave an advanced E-olefinic intermediate selectively. The E-olefin was transformed to the 4-hydroxynitrile, a prefinal substrate, which on acid-catalyzed oxidative lactonization furnished the target molecule mupirocin H in 19 steps from known compound 6 (longest linear sequence) with an overall yield of 4.96%. PMID:21707103

  20. Waveform synthesis for imaging and ranging applications

    DOEpatents

    Doerry, Armin W.; Dudley, Peter A.; Dubert, Dale F.; Tise, Bertice L.

    2004-12-07

    Frequency dependent corrections are provided for quadrature imbalance and Local Oscillator (LO) feed-through. An operational procedure filters imbalance and LO feed-through effects without prior calibration or equalization. Waveform generation can be adjusted/corrected in a synthetic aperture radar system (SAR), where a rolling phase shift is applied to the SAR's QDWS signal where it is demodulated in a receiver; unwanted energies, such as LO feed-through and/or imbalance energy, are separated from a desired signal in Doppler; the separated energy is filtered from the receiver leaving the desired signal; and the separated energy in the receiver is measured to determine the degree of imbalance that is represented by it. Calibration methods can also be implemented into synthesis. The degree of LO feed-through and imbalance can be used to determine calibration values that can then be provided as compensation for frequency dependent errors in components, such as the QDWS and SSB mixer, affecting quadrature signal quality.

  1. ?-Tricalcium phosphate: synthesis, properties and biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Carrodeguas, R G; De Aza, S

    2011-10-01

    Nowadays, ?-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP, ?-Ca(3)(PO(4))(2)) is receiving growing attention as a raw material for several injectable hydraulic bone cements, biodegradable bioceramics and composites for bone repair. In the phase equilibrium diagram of the CaO-P(2)O(5) system, three polymorphs corresponding to the composition Ca(3)(PO(4))(2) are recognized: ?-TCP, ?-TCP and ?'-TCP. ?-TCP is formed by heating the low-temperature polymorph ?-TCP or by thermal crystallization of amorphous precursors with the proper composition above the transformation temperature. The ?-TCP phase may be retained at room temperature in a metastable state, and its range of stability is strongly influenced by ionic substitutions. It is as biocompatible as ?-TCP, but more soluble, and hydrolyses rapidly to calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite, which makes ?-TCP a useful component for preparing self-setting osteotransductive bone cements and biodegradable bioceramics and composites for bone repairing. The literature published on the synthesis and properties of ?-TCP is sometimes contradictory, and therefore this article focuses on reviewing and critically discussing the synthetic methods and physicochemical and biological properties of ?-TCP-based biomaterials (excluding ?-TCP-based bone cements). PMID:21712105

  2. Controlling enantioselectivity in chiral capillary electrophoresis with inclusion-complexation.

    PubMed

    Fanali, S

    1997-12-19

    The separation of chiral compounds is of key importance in different fields of application, e.g., pharmaceutical, industrial, forensic, biological, clinical etc. Capillary electrophoresis (CE) is a powerful analytical method applied in chiral analysis and inclusion-complexation is one of the most frequently used mechanism to improve the selectivity of the enantiomeric separation. Cyclodextrins and their derivatives or modified crown-ethers have been successfully applied in CE for the enantiomeric separation of a wide number of analytes. This review surveys the separation of enantiomers by CE when chiral selectors, forming inclusion-complexation, are used. The control of enantioselectivity can be done carefully by considering several experimental parameters such as chiral selector type and concentration, pH, ionic strength and concentration of the background electrolyte, electroosmotic flow, organic modifier etc. The review presents a list of the latest separation of enantiomers by CE where inclusion-complexation plays a key role in the stereoselective separation mechanism. PMID:9463908

  3. Green synthesis of nanoparticles and its potential application.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Imtiyaz; Singh, N B; Singh, Ajey; Singh, Himani; Singh, S C

    2016-04-01

    Nanotechnology is a new and emerging technology with wealth of applications. It involves the synthesis and application of materials having one of the dimensions in the range of 1-100 nm. A wide variety of physico-chemical approaches are being used these days for the synthesis of nanoparticles (NPs). However, biogenic reduction of metal precursors to produce corresponding NPs is eco-friendly, less expensive, free of chemical contaminants for medical and biological applications where purity of NPs is of major concern. Biogenic reduction is a "Bottom Up" approach similar to chemical reduction where a reducing agent is replaced by extract of a natural products with inherent stabilizing, growth terminating and capping properties. Furthermore, the nature of biological entities in different concentrations in combination with reducing organic agents influence the size and shape of NPs. Present review focuses on microbes or plants based green synthesis of Ag, Au, Cu, Fe, Pd, Ru, PbS, CdS, CuO, CeO2, Fe3O4, TiO2, and ZnO NPs and their potential applications. PMID:26721237

  4. Palladium-catalyzed enantioselective 1,1-fluoroarylation of aminoalkenes.

    PubMed

    He, Ying; Yang, Zhenyu; Thornbury, Richard T; Toste, F Dean

    2015-09-30

    The development of an enantioselective palladium-catalyzed 1,1-fluoroarylation of unactivated aminoalkenes is described. The reaction uses arylboronic acids as the arene source and Selectfluor as the fluorine source to generate benzylic fluorides in good yields with excellent enantioselectivities. This transformation, likely proceeding through an oxidative Heck mechanism, affords 1,1-difunctionalized alkene products. PMID:26378886

  5. Enantioselective Biotransformation of Chiral PCBs in Whole Poplar Plants

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Guangshu; Hu, Dingfei; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; Schnoor, Jerald L.

    2011-01-01

    Chiral PCBs have been used as molecular probes of biological metabolic processes due to their special physical, chemical and biological properties. Many animal studies showed the enantioselective biotransformation of chiral PCBs, but it is unclear whether plants can enantioselectively biotransform chiral PCBs. In order to explore the enantioselectivity of chiral PCBs in whole plants, poplars (Populus deltoides nigra, DN34), a model plant with complete genomic sequence, were hydroponically exposed to 2,2?,3,5?,6-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB95) and 2,2?,3,3?,6,6?-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB136) for 20 days. PCB95 and PCB136 were shown to be absorbed, taken-up and translocated in whole poplars, and they were detected in various tissues of whole poplars. However, the enantioselectivity of poplar for PCB95 and PCB136 proved to be quite different. The first eluting enantiomer of PCB95 was enantioselectively removed in whole poplar, especially in the middle and bottom xylem. It was likely enantioselectively metabolized inside poplar tissues, in contrast to racemic mixtures of PCB95 remaining in hydroponic solutions in contact with plant roots of whole and dead poplars. Unlike PCB95, PCB136 remained nearly racemic in most parts of whole poplars after 20 days exposure. These results suggest that PCB136 is more difficult to be enantioslectively biotransformed than PCB95 in whole poplars. This is the first evidence of enantioselectivity of chiral PCBs in whole plants, and suggests that poplars can enantioselectively biotransform at least one chiral PCB. PMID:21329345

  6. Chiral Brnsted acid catalyzed enantioselective intermolecular allylic aminations.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Minyang; Du, Haifeng

    2014-07-14

    This paper describes an enantioselective intermolecular allylic amination catalyzed by a chiral Brnsted acid via a possible chiral contact ion pair intermediate. A variety of symmetrical or unsymmetrical allylic alcohols can be smoothly aminated to afford the desired products in moderate to high yields with good enantioselectivities and/or regioselectivities. PMID:24872122

  7. Lewis Base Catalyzed, Enantioselective, Intramolecular Sulfenoamination of Olefins

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A method for the enantioselective, intramolecular sulfenoamination of various olefins has been developed using a chiral BINAM-based selenophosphoramide, Lewis base catalyst. Terminal and trans disubstituted alkenes afforded pyrrolidines, piperidines, and azepanes in high yields and high enantiomeric ratios via enantioselective formation and subsequent stereospecific capture of the thiiranium intermediate with the pendant tosyl-protected amine. PMID:24926794

  8. THE ENANTIOSELECTIVITY OF CHIRAL PESTICIDES PRESENTS A GREEN CHEMISTRY OPPORTUNITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will include a summary of the use and environmental occurrence of modern chiral pesticides with data on their enantioselective fate and effects. Information on enantioselectivity will facilitate a science-based approach toward fostering the production and use o...

  9. Asymmetric hydrogenation of ethyl pyruvate: Diffusion effects on enantioselectivity

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Yongkui; Wang, Jian; LeBlond, C.

    1996-07-01

    Enantioselectivity in the hydrogenation of ethyl pyruvate over cinchona-alkaloid-modified Pt has been studied. Kinetic studies indicated different mechanisms in different reaction regimes. Solution hydrogen concentration strongly corrrelated with reaction rates and enantioselectivity. 28 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Nanoceria as Antioxidant: Synthesis and Biomedical Applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The therapeutic application of nanomaterials has been a focus of numerous studies in the past decade. Due to its unique redox properties, cerium oxide (ceria) is finding widespread use in the treatment of medical disorders caused by the reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI). The radical-scavenging rol...

  11. Late-Stage Diversification of Chiral N-Heterocyclic-Carbene Precatalysts for Enantioselective Homoenolate Additions

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Pinguan; Gondo, Chenaimwoyo A.

    2011-01-01

    A library of chiral triazolium salts has been prepared by late-state diversification of a triazolium amine salt. By utilizing a primary amine as a functional handle, a single triazolium salt can be transformed into a variety of chiral N-heterocyclic carbene precatalysts. This approach makes the preparation of chiral N-heterocyclic carbenes possible by a single-step modification of a triazolium salt, rather than the usual need for multistep organic synthesis and challenging heterocycle formation for each member of a catalyst library. We have screened these catalysts for control of diastereo- and enantioselectivity in a ?-lactam-forming reaction between ?,?-unsaturated aldehydes and cyclic ketimines. PMID:21254434

  12. Diastereoselective and enantioselective conjugate addition reactions utilizing α,β-unsaturated amides and lactams

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Summary The conjugate addition reaction has been a useful tool in the formation of carbon–carbon bonds. The utility of this reaction has been demonstrated in the synthesis of many natural products, materials, and pharmacological agents. In the last three decades, there has been a significant increase in the development of asymmetric variants of this reaction. Unfortunately, conjugate addition reactions using α,β-unsaturated amides and lactams remain underdeveloped due to their inherently low reactivity. This review highlights the work that has been done on both diastereoselective and enantioselective conjugate addition reactions utilizing α,β-unsaturated amides and lactams. PMID:25977728

  13. Conducting Polymer Nanostructures: Template Synthesis and Applications in Energy Storage

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Lijia; Qiu, Hao; Dou, Chunmeng; Li, Yun; Pu, Lin; Xu, Jianbin; Shi, Yi

    2010-01-01

    Conducting polymer nanostructures have received increasing attention in both fundamental research and various application fields in recent decades. Compared with bulk conducting polymers, conducting polymer nanostructures are expected to display improved performance in energy storage because of the unique properties arising from their nanoscaled size: high electrical conductivity, large surface area, short path lengths for the transport of ions, and high electrochemical activity. Template methods are emerging for a sort of facile, efficient, and highly controllable synthesis of conducting polymer nanostructures. This paper reviews template synthesis routes for conducting polymer nanostructures, including soft and hard template methods, as well as its mechanisms. The application of conducting polymer mesostructures in energy storage devices, such as supercapacitors and rechargeable batteries, are discussed. PMID:20717527

  14. Synthesis of Fluorosurfactants for Emulsion-Based Biological Applications

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Microemulsion represents an attractive platform for fundamental and applied biomedical research because the emulsified droplets can serve as millions of compartmentalized micrometer-sized reactors amenable to high-throughput screening or online monitoring. However, establishing stable emulsions with surfactants that are compatible with biological applications remains a significant challenge. Motivated by the lack of commercially available surfactants suitable for microemulsion-based biological assays, this study describes the facile synthesis of a biocompatible fluorosurfactant with nonionic tris(hydroxymethyl)methyl (Tris) polar head groups. We have further demonstrated compatibility of the developed surfactant with diverse emulsion-based applications, including DNA polymeric nanoparticle synthesis, enzymatic activity assay, and bacterial or mammalian cell culture, in the setup of both double- and multiphases of emulsions. PMID:24646088

  15. Chiral separation by enantioselective liquid-liquid extraction.

    PubMed

    Schuur, Boelo; Verkuijl, Bastiaan J V; Minnaard, Adriaan J; de Vries, Johannes G; Heeres, Hero J; Feringa, Ben L

    2011-01-01

    The literature on enantioselective liquid-liquid extraction (ELLE) spans more than half a century of research. Nonetheless, a comprehensive overview has not appeared during the past few decades. Enantioselective liquid-liquid extraction is a technology of interest for a wide range of chemists and chemical engineers in the fields of fine chemicals, pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, fragrances and foods. In this review the principles and advances of resolution through enantioselective liquid-liquid extraction are discussed, starting with an introduction on the principles of enantioselective liquid-liquid extraction including host-guest chemistry, extraction and phase transfer mechanisms, and multistage liquid-liquid extraction processing. Then the literature on enantioselective liquid-liquid extraction systems is reviewed, structured on extractant classes. The following extractant classes are considered: crown ether based extractants, metal complexes and metalloids, extractants based on tartrates, and a final section with all other types of chiral extractants. PMID:21107491

  16. Norbornene based polybetaines: Synthesis and biological applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colak, Semra

    Polymeric betaines gain considerable attention for their interesting solution properties, but even more so, for their favorable bio- and haemocompatible properties. When incorporated into materials or used as surface coatings, some of these zwitterionic polymers strongly resist protein absorption due to their hygroscopic nature, making betaines promising candidates for medical diagnostics, drug delivery, and tissue engineering applications. This dissertation introduces novel norbornene-based polybetaines as foundational materials for biological applications, including non-fouling coatings and antimicrobial macromolecules. Sulfo- and carboxybetaines, composed of backbones that do not contain hydrolyzable units under physiological conditions, as well as new polymers that carry a dual functionality at the repeat unit level, coupling a zwitterionic functionality with an alkyl moiety varied to adjust the amphiphilicity of the overall system, are introduced. How structural changes, backbone chemistry, hydrophilicity/amphiphilicity, and coating surface roughness impact their non-fouling properties is investigated.

  17. Cellulose nanocrystals: synthesis, functional properties, and applications

    PubMed Central

    George, Johnsy; Sabapathi, SN

    2015-01-01

    Cellulose nanocrystals are unique nanomaterials derived from the most abundant and almost inexhaustible natural polymer, cellulose. These nanomaterials have received significant interest due to their mechanical, optical, chemical, and rheological properties. Cellulose nanocrystals primarily obtained from naturally occurring cellulose fibers are biodegradable and renewable in nature and hence they serve as a sustainable and environmentally friendly material for most applications. These nanocrystals are basically hydrophilic in nature; however, they can be surface functionalized to meet various challenging requirements, such as the development of high-performance nanocomposites, using hydrophobic polymer matrices. Considering the ever-increasing interdisciplinary research being carried out on cellulose nanocrystals, this review aims to collate the knowledge available about the sources, chemical structure, and physical and chemical isolation procedures, as well as describes the mechanical, optical, and rheological properties, of cellulose nanocrystals. Innovative applications in diverse fields such as biomedical engineering, material sciences, electronics, catalysis, etc, wherein these cellulose nanocrystals can be used, are highlighted. PMID:26604715

  18. Electrospun metallic nanowires: Synthesis, characterization, and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalil, Abdullah; Singh Lalia, Boor; Hashaikeh, Raed; Khraisheh, Marwan

    2013-11-01

    Metals are known to have unique thermal, mechanical, electrical, and catalytic properties. On the other hand, metallic nanowires are promising materials for variety of applications such as transparent conductive film for photovoltaic devices, electrodes for batteries, as well as nano-reinforcement for composite materials. Whereas varieties of methods have been explored to synthesize metal nanowires with different characteristics, electrospinning has also been found to be successful for that purpose. Even though electrospinning of polymeric nanofibers is a well-established field, there are several challenges that need to be overcome to use the electrospinning technique for the fabrication of metallic nanowires. These challenges are mainly related to the multi-steps fabrication process and its relation to the structure evolution of the nanowires. In addition to reviewing the literature, this article identifies promising avenues for further research in this area with particular emphasis on the applications that nonwoven metal wires confined in a nano-scale can open.

  19. Nitroderivatives of catechol: from synthesis to application.

    PubMed

    Gavazov, Kiril B

    2012-03-01

    Nitroderivatives of catechol (NDCs) are reviewed with special emphasis on their complexes and applications. Binary, ternary and quaternary NDC complexes with more than 40 elements (aluminum, arsenic, boron, beryllium, calcium, cobalt, copper, iron, gallium, germanium, magnesium, manganese, molybdenum, niobium, rare earth elements, silicon, tin, strontium, technetium, thallium, titanium, uranium, vanadium, tungsten, zinc and zirconium) are discussed and the key characteristics of the developed analytical procedures - tabulated. The bibliography includes 206 references. PMID:24061167

  20. Plasma Synthesis of Nanoparticles for Nanocomposite Energy Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Peter C. Kong; Alex W. Kawczak

    2008-09-01

    The nanocomposite energy applications for plasma reactor produced nanoparticles are reviewed. Nanoparticles are commonly defined as particles less than 100 nm in diameter. Due to this small size, nanoparticles have a high surface-to-volume ratio. This increases the surface energy compared to the bulk material. The high surface-to-volume ratio and size effects (quantum effects) give nanoparticles distinctive chemical, electronic, optical, magnetic and mechanical properties from those of the bulk material. Nanoparticles synthesis can be grouped into 3 broad approaches. The first one is wet phase synthesis (sol-gel processing), the second is mechanical attrition, and the third is gas-phase synthesis (aerosol). The properties of the final product may differ significantly depending on the fabrication route. Currently, there are no economical large-scale production processes for nanoparticles. This hinders the widespread applications of nanomaterials in products. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is engaging in research and development of advanced modular hybrid plasma reactors for low cost production of nanoparticles that is predicted to accelerate application research and enable the formation of technology innovation alliances that will result in the commercial production of nanocomposites for alternative energy production devices such as fuel cells, photovoltaics and electrochemical double layer capacitors.

  1. Silver nanoparticles: synthesis, properties, and therapeutic applications.

    PubMed

    Wei, Liuya; Lu, Jingran; Xu, Huizhong; Patel, Atish; Chen, Zhe-Sheng; Chen, Guofang

    2015-05-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been widely used in biomedical fields because of their intrinsic therapeutic properties. Here, we introduce methods of synthesizing AgNPs and discuss their physicochemical, localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) and toxicity properties. We also review the impact of AgNPs on human health and the environment along with the underlying mechanisms. More importantly, we highlight the newly emerging applications of AgNPs as antiviral agents, photosensitizers and/or radiosensitizers, and anticancer therapeutic agents in the treatment of leukemia, breast cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, lung cancer, and skin and/or oral carcinoma. PMID:25543008

  2. Synthesis and applications of silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balantrapu, Krishna Chaitanya

    Due to their unique properties, silver nanoparticles are used in a wide range of applications, like electronics, optics, catalysis, biology, etc. The preferred route for their preparation has been, and still is, the reduction of silver salts in solutions. While dedicated reducing agents, solvents, and dispersants are typically used in this approach, in some cases, the same additive (ex: polyols) may play multiple roles. Such dual-function additives are particularly interesting alternatives as they offer the possibility of replacing the undesirable reductants often used in conventional precipitation methods. In the current research, an environmentally friendly route to prepare stable concentrated aqueous dispersions of silver nanoparticles is investigated experimentally. It was found that Arabic gum, a well known stabilizing agent, can also rapidly and completely reduce Ag 2O to metallic silver in alkaline solutions (pH >12.0) and elevated temperature (65 C). The average size of the silver nanoparticles could be tailored from 13 to 30 nm by varying the experimental conditions. To prepare stable metal colloids by chemical precipitation methods requires in most cases a high concentration of polymeric dispersants. Consequently, the particles are embedded in the organic matrix, which can not be removed without affecting the properties of the particles and/or the dispersion stability. This can have a negative effect in many applications. In this work, an enzymatic hydrolysis method for isolating the silver particles from dispersions containing high concentrations of polymer was identified. In addition, a chemical hydrolysis method yielding dispersed silver nanoparticles with low content of residual polymer for printable electronics applications is investigated. The low sintering temperature of silver nanoparticles and high electrical conductivity make them very attractive for the fabrication of conductive patterns especially for flexible electronic applications. In the final section of this thesis, the silver nanoparticles are deposited using inkjet printing technology with a Dimatix printer DMP -2831. Silver nanoparticles of 13 nm, 80 nm, and mixtures of the two sizes were used to evaluate the effect of particle size and size distribution on the electrical properties of sintered films. The silver layers deposited with a 'drop-on-demand' inkjet printer were heated at temperatures ranging from 125C to 200C. The small particles formed less resistive films at 125C, while the larger ones provided better electrical conductivity above 150C. The inks containing mixed small and large particles yielded the most conductive silver films over the entire investigated temperature range. A mechanism explaining these results is proposed based on the evolution of film microstructure with temperature.

  3. [Progress in synthesis technologies and application of aviation biofuels].

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaoying; Liu, Xiang; Zhao, Xuebing; Yang, Ming; Liu, Dehua

    2013-03-01

    Development of aviation biofuels has attracted great attention worldwide because that the shortage of fossil resources has become more and more serious. In the present paper, the development background, synthesis technologies, current application status and existing problems of aviation biofuels were reviewed. Several preparation routes of aviation biofuels were described, including Fischer-Tropsch process, catalytic hydrogenation and catalytic cracking of bio-oil. The status of flight tests and commercial operation were also introduced. Finally the problems for development and application of aviation biofuels were stated, and some accommodation were proposed. PMID:23789270

  4. Enantioselective continuous-flow production of 3-indolylmethanamines mediated by an immobilized phosphoric acid catalyst.

    PubMed

    Osorio-Planes, Laura; Rodrguez-Escrich, Carles; Perics, Miquel A

    2014-02-17

    A polystyrene-supported 1,1'-bi-2-naphthol derived phosphoric acid has been synthesized and applied in the enantioselective Friedel-Crafts reaction of indoles and sulfonylimines. The immobilized catalyst was highly active and selective, and gave rise to a broad range of 3-indolylmethanamines (19 examples) in high yields and excellent enantioselectivities (up to 98?% enantiomeric excess) after short reaction times under very convenient reaction conditions (RT in dichloromethane). Moreover, repeated recycling (14 cycles) was possible with no substantial loss in catalytic performance and the system could be adapted to a continuous-flow operation (6?h). Finally, the applicability of the system was further confirmed by rapid access to a library of compounds with three points of diversity in a single continuous-flow experiment that involved sequential pumping of different substrate combinations. PMID:24459112

  5. Boron Nitride Nanotube: Synthesis and Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiano, Amanda L.; Park, Cheol; Lee, Joseph W.; Luong, Hoa H.; Gibbons, Luke J.; Chu, Sang-Hyon; Applin, Samantha I.; Gnoffo, Peter; Lowther, Sharon; Kim, Hyun Jung; Danehy, Paul M.; Inman, Jennifer A.; Jones, Stephen B.; Kang, Jin Ho; Sauti, Godfrey; Thibeault, Sheila A.; Yamakov, Vesselin; Wise, Kristopher E.; Su, Ji; Fay, Catharine C.

    2014-01-01

    Scientists have predicted that carbon's immediate neighbors on the periodic chart, boron and nitrogen, may also form perfect nanotubes, since the advent of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in 1991. First proposed then synthesized by researchers at UC Berkeley in the mid 1990's, the boron nitride nanotube (BNNT) has proven very difficult to make until now. Herein we provide an update on a catalyst-free method for synthesizing highly crystalline, small diameter BNNTs with a high aspect ratio using a high power laser under a high pressure and high temperature environment first discovered jointly by NASA/NIA JSA. Progress in purification methods, dispersion studies, BNNT mat and composite formation, and modeling and diagnostics will also be presented. The white BNNTs offer extraordinary properties including neutron radiation shielding, piezoelectricity, thermal oxidative stability (> 800 C in air), mechanical strength, and toughness. The characteristics of the novel BNNTs and BNNT polymer composites and their potential applications are discussed.

  6. Conjugated microporous polymers: design, synthesis and application.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yanhong; Jin, Shangbin; Xu, Hong; Nagai, Atsushi; Jiang, Donglin

    2013-10-21

    Conjugated microporous polymers (CMPs) are a class of organic porous polymers that combine ?-conjugated skeletons with permanent nanopores, in sharp contrast to other porous materials that are not ?-conjugated and with conventional conjugated polymers that are nonporous. As an emerging material platform, CMPs offer a high flexibility for the molecular design of conjugated skeletons and nanopores. Various chemical reactions, building blocks and synthetic methods have been developed and a broad variety of CMPs with different structures and specific properties have been synthesized, driving the rapid growth of the field. CMPs are unique in that they allow the complementary utilization of ?-conjugated skeletons and nanopores for functional exploration; they have shown great potential for challenging energy and environmental issues, as exemplified by their excellent performance in gas adsorption, heterogeneous catalysis, light emitting, light harvesting and electrical energy storage. This review describes the molecular design principles of CMPs, advancements in synthetic and structural studies and the frontiers of functional exploration and potential applications. PMID:23846024

  7. Boron nitride nanotube: synthesis and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiano, Amanda L.; Park, Cheol; Lee, Joseph W.; Luong, Hoa H.; Gibbons, Luke J.; Chu, Sang-Hyon; Applin, Samantha; Gnoffo, Peter; Lowther, Sharon; Kim, Hyun Jung; Danehy, Paul M.; Inman, Jennifer A.; Jones, Stephen B.; Kang, Jin Ho; Sauti, Godfrey; Thibeault, Sheila A.; Yamakov, Vesselin; Wise, Kristopher E.; Su, Ji; Fay, Catharine C.

    2014-04-01

    Scientists have predicted that carbon's immediate neighbors on the periodic chart, boron and nitrogen, may also form perfect nanotubes, since the advent of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in 1991. First proposed then synthesized by researchers at UC Berkeley in the mid 1990's, the boron nitride nanotube (BNNT) has proven very difficult to make until now. Herein we provide an update on a catalyst-free method for synthesizing highly crystalline, small diameter BNNTs with a high aspect ratio using a high power laser under a high pressure and high temperature environment first discovered jointly by NASA/NIA/JSA. Progress in purification methods, dispersion studies, BNNT mat and composite formation, and modeling and diagnostics will also be presented. The white BNNTs offer extraordinary properties including neutron radiation shielding, piezoelectricity, thermal oxidative stability (> 800C in air), mechanical strength, and toughness. The characteristics of the novel BNNTs and BNNT polymer composites and their potential applications are discussed.

  8. Enantioselective Diels-Alder reactions of unsaturated beta-ketoesters catalyzed by chiral ruthenium PNNP complexes.

    PubMed

    Schotes, Christoph; Mezzetti, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    We report here dicationic ruthenium PNNP complexes that promote the enantioselective Diels-Alder reaction of alpha-methylene beta-ketoesters with various dienes. Complex [Ru(OEt2)2(PNNP)](PF6)2, formed in situ from [RuCl2,(PNNP)] and (Et3O)PF6 (2 equiv.), catalyzes the Diels-Alder reaction of such unsaturated beta-ketoesters to give novel alkoxycarbonyltetrahydro-1-indanone derivatives (nine examples) with up to 93% ee. The crystal structure of the substrate-catalyst adduct shows that the lower face of the substrate is shielded by a phenyl ring of the PNNP ligand, which accounts for the high enantioselectivity. The attack of the diene from the open re enantioface of the unsaturated beta-ketoester is consistent with the absolute configuration of the product. A useful application of this method is the reaction with Dane's diene to give estrone derivatives with up to 99% ee and an ester-exo:endo ratio of up to 145:1 (after recrystallization). Besides the enantioselective formation of all-carbon quaternary centers, this methodology is notable because unsaturated beta-ketoesters have been rarely used in Diels-Alder reactions. Furthermore, enantiomerically pure estrone derivatives are interesting in view of their potential applications, including the treatment of breast cancer. PMID:21678768

  9. Synthesis, characterization, and applications of nanocomposite membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kizilel, Riza

    In the present work polymer nanocomposites (PCN) derived from synthetic lithium hectorite clay (SLH) and polyethylene oxide (PEO) have been prepared and characterized for use as polymer electrolytes in lithium ion secondary batteries and as catalytic membranes for fuel cell applications. PCNs are prepared by intercalating polyethylene oxide in the clay layers of SLH. The resulting films are physically and electrochemically evaluated. In situ small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) studies have been conducted to monitor the structural changes of polymer nanocomposites upon heating. These nanocomposites are made of different mass ratios of PEO and SLH. On the basis of the in situ SAXS results, it was found that the polymer matrix losses its crystallinity at about 60C and the composite is stable up to 150C. Conductivity values, activation energies, and lithium transference numbers indicate that the PCNs are single ion conductors with transference numbers close to unity. The activation energies are in the range of 0.02 eV, two orders of magnitude higher than the conventional polymer electrolytes. A synthetic hectorite was also ion-exchanged with Pt(II) and suspended in a solution containing PEO for the fuel cell applications. The resulting membrane was subsequently reduced under H2 at 200C for 2--3 hr. The final membrane contains Pt(0) at 2.4 wt% loading levels. XRD shows development of Pt(0) by the appearance of crystalline peaks upon reduction. A lineshape analysis using the Scherrer equation of the (220) peak shows Pt(0) particles of 3.8 nm or 7.5 nm depending upon processing conditions. These values are confirmed by TEM, and a high dispersion of the metal is evident. XRD and TGA confirm that PEO is stable to the processing conditions. In situ SAXS measurements of the reduction process were also performed. Under a reducing atmosphere, the shape of the scattering curves visually changes between 100--120C. Analysis of the scattering curves using the general unified fit equation yields particles with diameters of 4.8--5.1 nm, and is assumed to arise from the reduced Pt(0) nanoparticles. Later, the membranes were used in an actual setup for the oxidation and separation of CO from the H2-rich gas. The spacing of the membrane helps to reduce the CO concentration level by preventing CO gas to penetrate. Poor CO stream, which goes through the membrane, reacts with O2 and then is converted to CO2 catalytically.

  10. Engineering and Applications of fungal laccases for organic synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Kunamneni, Adinarayana; Camarero, Susana; García-Burgos, Carlos; Plou, Francisco J; Ballesteros, Antonio; Alcalde, Miguel

    2008-01-01

    Laccases are multi-copper containing oxidases (EC 1.10.3.2), widely distributed in fungi, higher plants and bacteria. Laccase catalyses the oxidation of phenols, polyphenols and anilines by one-electron abstraction, with the concomitant reduction of oxygen to water in a four-electron transfer process. In the presence of small redox mediators, laccase offers a broader repertory of oxidations including non-phenolic substrates. Hence, fungal laccases are considered as ideal green catalysts of great biotechnological impact due to their few requirements (they only require air, and they produce water as the only by-product) and their broad substrate specificity, including direct bioelectrocatalysis. Thus, laccases and/or laccase-mediator systems find potential applications in bioremediation, paper pulp bleaching, finishing of textiles, bio-fuel cells and more. Significantly, laccases can be used in organic synthesis, as they can perform exquisite transformations ranging from the oxidation of functional groups to the heteromolecular coupling for production of new antibiotics derivatives, or the catalysis of key steps in the synthesis of complex natural products. In this review, the application of fungal laccases and their engineering by rational design and directed evolution for organic synthesis purposes are discussed. PMID:19019256

  11. Synthesis and applications of several curved polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, Matthew

    2008-07-01

    This thesis describes the synthesis and applications of two curved polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, hexabenzocoronene (HBC) and pentabenzocoronene (PBC). In Chapter 2, a monolayer of a carboxylic acid functionalized HBC is incorporated into an ultra small nanotube junction ( 2 to 6 nm). The junction is formed by cutting a single carbon nanotube using both electron beam lithography and oxygen plasma. These HBC-filled junctions are effective organic field effect transistor devices when the two ends of the nanotube are used as electrodes. As the molecules are exposed, they are sensitive to the environment and are capable of detecting electron deficient aromatic compounds such as TCNQ. In Chapter 3, the synthesis of PBC and several of its derivatives is described. The application of alkoxylated derivatives of PBC as discotic liquid crystals and as n-type organic field effect transistors is discussed. In Chapter 4, possible methods for incorporating HBC and PBC into the templated growth of carbon nanotubes are described. If successful, this would allow for the synthesis of carbon nanotubes samples with a single chiral index. For accurate spectroscopic characterization of single carbon nanotubes, unbundled carbon nanotubes are desired. Nanoparticle size has a strong correlation to carbon nanotube diameter. As such, for this project, well separated and uniformly sized nanoparticles are necessary. Arrays of catalyst nanoparticles have been synthesized using diblock copolymer templates, which allow the size and separation to be tuned. The stability and carbon nanotube growth activity of copper, ruthenium and cobalt nanoparticle arrays are presented.

  12. One-dimensional zinc oxide nanomaterials synthesis and photovoltaic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weintraub, Benjamin A.

    As humanly engineered materials systems approach the atomic scale, top-down manufacturing approaches breakdown and following nature's example, bottom-up or self-assembly methods have the potential to emerge as the dominant paradigm. Synthesis of one-dimensional nanomaterials takes advantage of such self-assembly manufacturing techniques, but until now most efforts have relied on high temperature vapor phase schemes which are limited in scalability and compatibility with organic materials. The solution-phase approach is an attractive low temperature alternative to overcome these shortcomings. To this end, this thesis is a study of the rationale solution-phase synthesis of ZnO nanowires and applications in photovoltaics. The following thesis goals have been achieved: rationale synthesis of a single ZnO nanowire on a polymer substrate without seeding, design of a wafer-scale technique to control ZnO nanowire array density using layer-by-layer polymers, determination of optimal nanowire field emitter density to maximize the field enhancement factor, design of bridged nanowires across metal electrodes to order to circumvent post-synthesis manipulation steps, electrical characterization of bridged nanowires, rationale solution-phase synthesis of long ZnO nanowires on optical fibers, fabrication of ZnO nanowire dye-sensitized solar cells on optical fibers, electrical and optical characterization of solar cell devices, comparison studies of 2-D versus 3-D nanowire dye-sensitized solar cell devices, and achievement of 6-fold solar cell power conversion efficiency enhancement using a 3-D approach. The thesis results have implications in nanomanufacturing scale-up and next generation photovoltaics.

  13. Electrochemically mediated enantioselective reduction of chiral sulfoxides.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kuan-I; Challinor, Victoria L; Kielmann, Linda; Sharpe, Philip C; De Voss, James J; Kappler, Ulrike; McEwan, Alastair G; Bernhardt, Paul V

    2015-03-01

    The respiratory DMSO reductase from Rhodobacter capsulatus catalyzes the reduction of dimethyl sulfoxide to dimethyl sulfide. Herein, we have utilized this Mo enzyme as an enantioselective catalyst to generate optically pure sulfoxides (methyl p-tolyl sulfoxide, methyl phenyl sulfoxide and phenyl vinyl sulfoxide) from racemic starting materials. A hexaaminecobalt coordination compound in its divalent oxidation state was employed as the mediator of electron transfer between the working electrode and DMSO reductase to continually reactivate the enzyme after turnover. In all cases, chiral HPLC analysis of the reaction mixture revealed that the S-sulfoxide was reduced more rapidly leading to enrichment or isolation of the R isomer. PMID:25410832

  14. Ir-Catalyzed enantioselective group transfer reactions.

    PubMed

    Schafer, Andrew G; Blakey, Simon B

    2015-10-01

    Recently, several novel iridium complexes have been shown to catalyse group transfer reactions in a highly selective fashion. Rhodium complexes, and in particular dirhodium tetracarboxylate salts, have proven to be a remarkably useful class of catalysts for these reactions through several decades of development. Recent results suggest that iridium may offer opportunities to address challenges in this chemistry and provide complementary reactivity patterns. This tutorial review outlines the recent developments in Ir-catalyzed enantioselective group transfer chemistry with highlights on examples which display this unique reactivity. PMID:26051004

  15. Enantioselective cellular uptake of chiral semiconductor nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Martynenko, I V; Kuznetsova, V A; Litvinov, I K; Orlova, A O; Maslov, V G; Fedorov, A V; Dubavik, A; Purcell-Milton, F; Gun'ko, Yu K; Baranov, A V

    2016-02-19

    The influence of the chirality of semiconductor nanocrystals, CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) capped with L- and D-cysteine, on the efficiency of their uptake by living Ehrlich Ascite carcinoma cells is studied by spectral- and time-resolved fluorescence microspectroscopy. We report an evident enantioselective process where cellular uptake of the L-Cys QDs is almost twice as effective as that of the D-Cys QDs. This finding paves the way for the creation of novel approaches to control the biological properties and behavior of nanomaterials in living cells. PMID:26782947

  16. Enantioselective cellular uptake of chiral semiconductor nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martynenko, I. V.; Kuznetsova, V. A.; Litvinov, I. K.; Orlova, A. O.; Maslov, V. G.; Fedorov, A. V.; Dubavik, A.; Purcell-Milton, F.; Gun’ko, Yu K.; Baranov, A. V.

    2016-02-01

    The influence of the chirality of semiconductor nanocrystals, CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) capped with L- and D-cysteine, on the efficiency of their uptake by living Ehrlich Ascite carcinoma cells is studied by spectral- and time-resolved fluorescence microspectroscopy. We report an evident enantioselective process where cellular uptake of the L-Cys QDs is almost twice as effective as that of the D-Cys QDs. This finding paves the way for the creation of novel approaches to control the biological properties and behavior of nanomaterials in living cells.

  17. High enantioselective Novozym 435-catalyzed esterification of (R,S)-flurbiprofen monitored with a chiral stationary phase.

    PubMed

    Siódmiak, Tomasz; Mangelings, Debby; Vander Heyden, Yvan; Ziegler-Borowska, Marta; Marszałł, Michał Piotr

    2015-03-01

    Lipases form Candida rugosa and Candida antarctica were tested for their application in the enzymatic kinetic resolution of (R,S)-flurbiprofen by enantioselective esterification. Successful chromatographic separation with well-resolved peaks of (R)- and (S)-flurbiprofen and their esters was achieved in one run on chiral stationary phases by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In this study screening of enzymes was performed, and Novozym 435 was selected as an optimal catalyst for obtaining products with high enantiopurity. Additionally, the influence of organic solvents (dichloromethane, dichloroethane, dichloropropane, and methyl tert-butyl ether), primary alcohols (methanol, ethanol, n-propanol, and n-butanol), reaction time, and temperature on the enantiomeric ratio and conversion was tested. The high values of enantiomeric ratio (E in the range of 51.3-90.5) of the esterification of (R,S)-flurbiprofen were obtained for all tested alcohols using Novozym 435, which have a great significance in the field of biotechnological synthesis of drugs. The optimal temperature range for the performed reactions was from 37 to 45 °C. As a result of the optimization, (R)-flurbiprofen methyl ester was obtained with a high optical purity, eep = 96.3 %, after 96 h of incubation. The enantiomeric ratio of the reaction was E = 90.5 and conversion was C = 35.7 %. PMID:25561056

  18. Six-Membered Aromatic Polyazides: Synthesis and Application.

    PubMed

    Chapyshev, Sergei V

    2015-01-01

    Aromatic polyazides are widely used as starting materials in organic synthesis and photochemical studies, as well as photoresists in microelectronics and as cross-linking agents in polymer chemistry. Some aromatic polyazides possess high antitumor activity, while many others are of considerable interest as high-energy materials and precursors of high-spin nitrenes and C?N? carbon nitride nanomaterials. The use of aromatic polyazides in click-reactions may be a new promising direction in the design of various supramolecular systems possessing interesting chemical, physical and biological properties. This review is devoted to the synthesis, properties and applications of six-membered aromatic compounds containing three and more azido groups in the ring. PMID:26506330

  19. Synthesis and catalytic applications of combined zeolitic/mesoporous materials

    PubMed Central

    Vernimmen, Jarian; Cool, Pegie

    2011-01-01

    Summary In the last decade, research concerning nanoporous siliceous materials has been focused on mesoporous materials with intrinsic zeolitic features. These materials are thought to be superior, because they are able to combine (i) the enhanced diffusion and accessibility for larger molecules and viscous fluids typical of mesoporous materials with (ii) the remarkable stability, catalytic activity and selectivity of zeolites. This review gives an overview of the state of the art concerning combined zeolitic/mesoporous materials. Focus is put on the synthesis and the applications of the combined zeolitic/mesoporous materials. The different synthesis approaches and formation mechanisms leading to these materials are comprehensively discussed and compared. Moreover, Ti-containing nanoporous materials as redox catalysts are discussed to illustrate a potential implementation of combined zeolitic/mesoporous materials. PMID:22259762

  20. Recent advances in dialkyl carbonates synthesis and applications.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shouying; Yan, Bing; Wang, Shengping; Ma, Xinbin

    2015-05-21

    Dialkyl carbonates are important organic compounds and chemical intermediates with the label of "green chemicals" due to their moderate toxicity, biodegradability for human health and environment. Indeed, owing to their unique physicochemical properties and versatility as reagents, a variety of phosgene-free processes derived from CO or CO2 have been explored for the synthesis of dialkyl carbonates. In this critical review, we highlight the recent achievements (since 1997) in the synthesis of dialkyl carbonates based on CO and CO2 utilization, particularly focusing on the catalyst design and fabrication, structure-function relationship, catalytic mechanisms and process intensification. We also provide an overview regarding the applications of dialkyl carbonates as fuel additives, solvents and reaction intermediates (i.e. alkylating and carbonylating agents). Additionally, this review puts forward the substantial challenges and opportunities for future research associated with dialkyl carbonates. PMID:25793366

  1. Enantioselective, continuous (R)- and (S)-2-butanol synthesis: achieving high space-time yields with recombinant E. coli cells in a micro-aqueous, solvent-free reaction system.

    PubMed

    Erdmann, Vanessa; Mackfeld, Ursula; Rother, Drte; Jakoblinnert, Andre

    2014-12-10

    The stereoselective production of (R)- or (S)-2-butanol is highly challenging. A potent synthesis strategy is the biocatalytic asymmetric reduction of 2-butanone applying alcohol dehydrogenases. However, due to a time-dependent racemisation process, high stereoselectivity is only obtained at incomplete conversion after short reaction times. Here, we present a solution to this problem: by using a continuous process, high biocatalytic selectivity can be achieved while racemisation is suppressed successfully. Furthermore, high conversion was achieved by applying recombinant, lyophilised E. coli cells hosting Lactobacillus brevis alcohol dehydrogenase in a micro-aqueous solvent-free continuous reaction system. The optimisation of residence time (?) and 2-butanone concentration boosted both conversion (>99%) and enantiomeric excess (ee) of (R)-2-butanol (>96%). When a residence time of only ?=3.1 min was applied, productivity was extraordinary with a space-time yield of 227829g/(Ld), thus exceeding the highest values reported to date by a factor of more than eight. The use of E. coli cells overexpressing an ADH of complementary stereoselectivity yielded a synthesis strategy for (S)-2-butanol with an excellent ee (>98%). Although conversion was only moderate (up to 46%), excellent space-time yields of up to 461g/(Ld) were achieved. The investigated concept represents a synthesis strategy that can also be applied to other biocatalytic processes where racemisation poses a challenge. PMID:25036751

  2. A century of thioxanthones: through synthesis and biological applications.

    PubMed

    Paiva, A M; Pinto, M M; Sousa, E

    2013-01-01

    The interest in the synthesis and applications of thioxanthones, dibenzo-gamma-thiopyrones, started in the beginning of the 20th century. Thioxanthones are traditionally synthesized via benzophenone, diarylthioether or diarylthioester intermediates. In recent years, more efficient and cleaner synthetic methodologies are being applied to obtain thioxanthone derivatives, especially for photochemical applications. Considering biological activities, the first thioxanthone introduced in therapy in 1945 was Miracil D, as an antischistosomal agent. Since then, the variety of studies of biological/ pharmacological activities of thioxanthones led to the discovery of new agents and to the disclosure of their mechanisms of action. Moreover, the ability to sensitize cancer cells suggested new and promising applications in chemotherapy. New antitumor derivatives are being developed by molecular modifications such as isosterism (aza-thioxanthones and aminoethylthioxanthones) or hybridation (psorospermine and acronycin analogues). The last generation of antitumor thioxanthones rendered a derivative, SR271425, with an excellent preclinical antitumor efficacy. The last decade has been excited in the research of thioxanthones with important achievements in both synthesis and biochemical applications, especially in order to dissociate the antitumor activity from the toxicity of drug candidates. Recently, thioxanthones emerged as dual inhibitors of P-glycoprotein and tumor cell growth. It is expected that in the following years new analogues with the thioxanthone scaffold emerge in the field of anticancer therapy, with enhanced antitumor activity and without serious side effects. PMID:23521678

  3. The Significance of Degenerate Processes to Enantioselective Olefin Metathesis Reactions Promoted by Stereogenic-at-Mo Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Meek, Simon J.; Malcolmson, Steven J.; Li, Bo; Schrock, Richard R.; Hoveyda, Amir H.

    2009-01-01

    The present study provides spectroscopic and experimental evidence demonstrating that degenerate metathesis is critical to the effectiveness of this emerging class of chiral catalysts. Isolation and characterization (X-ray) of both diastereomeric complexes, as well as examination of the reactivity and enantioselectivity patterns exhibited by such initiating neophylidenes in promoting RCM processes, are disclosed. Only when sufficient amounts of ethylene are generated and inversion at Mo through degenerate processes occurs at a sufficiently rapid rate, is high enantioselectivity achieved, irrespective of the stereochemical identity of the initiating alkylidene (Curtin-Hammett kinetics). With diastereomeric metal complexes that undergo rapid interconversion, stereomutation at the metal center becomes inconsequential and stereoselective synthesis of a chiral catalyst is not required. PMID:19842640

  4. Enantioselective analysis of melagatran via an LSPR biosensor integrated with a microfluidic chip.

    PubMed

    Guo, Longhua; Yin, Yuechun; Huang, Rong; Qiu, Bin; Lin, Zhenyu; Yang, Huang-Hao; Li, Jianrong; Chen, Guonan

    2012-10-21

    The impact of chiral compounds on pharmacological and biological processes is well known. With the increasing need for enantiomerically pure compounds, effective strategies for enantioseparation and chiral discrimination are in great demand. Herein we report a simple but efficient approach for the enantioselective determination of chiral compounds based on a localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) biosensor integrated with a microfluidic chip. A glass microfluidic chip with an effective volume of ~0.75 μL was fabricated for this application. Gold nanorods (AuNRs) with an aspect ratio of ~2.6 were self-assembled onto the surface of the inner wall of the chip to serve as LSPR transducers, which would translate the analyte binding events into quantitative concentration information. Human α-thrombin was immobilized onto the AuNR surface for enantioselective sensing of the enantiomers of melagatran. The proposed sensor was found to be highly selective for RS-melagatran, while the binding of its enantiomer, SR-melagatran, to the sensor was inactive. Under optimal conditions, the limit of detection of this sensor for RS-melagatran was found to be 0.9 nM, whereas the presence of 10,000-fold amounts of SR-melagatran did not interfere with the detection. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of an LSPR-based enantioselective biosensor. PMID:22836379

  5. Synthesis, Characterization and Application Of PbS Quantum Dots

    SciTech Connect

    Sarma, Sweety; Datta, Pranayee; Barua, Kishore Kr.; Karmakar, Sanjib

    2009-06-29

    Lead Chalcogenides (PbS, PbSe, PbTe) quantum dots (QDs) are ideal for fundamental studies of strongly quantum confined systems with possible technological applications. Tunable electronic transitions at near--infrared wavelengths can be obtained with these QDs. Applications of lead chalcogenides encompass quite a good number of important field viz. the fields of telecommunications, medical electronics, optoelectronics etc. Very recently, it has been proposed that 'memristor'(Memory resistor) can be realized in nanoscale systems with coupled ionic and electronic transports. The hystersis characteristics of 'memristor' are observed in many nanoscale electronic devices including semiconductor quantum dot devices. This paper reports synthesis of PbS QDs by chemical route. The fabricated samples are characterized by UV-Vis, XRD, SEM, TEM, EDS, etc. Observed characteristics confirm nano formation. I-V characteristics of the sample are studied for investigating their applications as 'memristor'.

  6. Enantioselective construction of remote quaternary stereocentres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Tian-Sheng; Patel, Harshkumar H.; Sigman, Matthew S.

    2014-04-01

    Small molecules that contain all-carbon quaternary stereocentres--carbon atoms bonded to four distinct carbon substituents--are found in many secondary metabolites and some pharmaceutical agents. The construction of such compounds in an enantioselective fashion remains a long-standing challenge to synthetic organic chemists. In particular, methods for synthesizing quaternary stereocentres that are remote from other functional groups are underdeveloped. Here we report a catalytic and enantioselective intermolecular Heck-type reaction of trisubstituted-alkenyl alcohols with aryl boronic acids. This method provides direct access to quaternary all-carbon-substituted β-, γ-, δ-, ɛ- or ζ-aryl carbonyl compounds, because the unsaturation of the alkene is relayed to the alcohol, resulting in the formation of a carbonyl group. The scope of the process also includes incorporation of pre-existing stereocentres along the alkyl chain, which links the alkene and the alcohol, in which the stereocentre is preserved. The method described allows access to diverse molecular building blocks containing an enantiomerically enriched quaternary centre.

  7. Applications of CH Functionalization Logic to Cyclobutane Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The application of CH functionalization logic to target-oriented synthesis provides an exciting new venue for the development of new and useful strategies in organic chemistry. In this article, CH functionalization reactions are explored as an alternative approach to access pseudodimeric cyclobutane natural products, such as the dictazole and the piperarborenine families. The use of these strategies in a variety of complex settings highlights the subtle geometric, steric, and electronic effects at play in the auxiliary guided CH functionalization of cyclobutanes. PMID:24548142

  8. S-perindopril assay using a potentiometric, enantioselective membrane electrode.

    PubMed

    Stefan, R I; Van Staden, J K; Aboul-Enein, H Y

    1999-01-01

    A potentiometric, enantioselective membrane electrode based on graphite paste (graphite powder and paraffin oil) has been constructed. The graphite paste is impregnated with a 10(-3) mol/L 2-hydroxy-3-trimethylammoniopropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (as chloride salt) solution. The potentiometric, enantioselective membrane electrode can be used reliably for enantiopurity tests of S-perindopril using a chronopotentiometric (zero current) technique, in the 10(-5)-10(-2) mol/L concentration range (detection limit 5 x 10(-6) mol/L), with an average recovery of 99.58% (RSD = 0.33%). The enantioselectivity was determined over R-perindopril and D-proline. The response characteristics of the enantioselective, potentiometric membrane electrode were also determined for R-perindopril. It was shown that L-proline is the main interfering compound. The surface of the electrode can be regenerated simply by polishing, obtaining a fresh surface ready to be used in a new assay. PMID:10467314

  9. Enantioselective control of lattice and shape chirality in inorganic nanostructures using chiral biomolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Moshe, Assaf; Wolf, Sharon Grayer; Sadan, Maya Bar; Houben, Lothar; Fan, Zhiyuan; Govorov, Alexander O.; Markovich, Gil

    2014-07-01

    A large number of inorganic materials form crystals with chiral symmetry groups. Enantioselectively synthesizing nanostructures of such materials should lead to interesting optical activity effects. Here we report the synthesis of colloidal tellurium and selenium nanostructures using thiolated chiral biomolecules. The synthesis conditions are tuned to obtain tellurium nanostructures with chiral shapes and large optical activity. These nanostructures exhibit visible optical and chiroptical responses that shift with size and are successfully simulated by an electromagnetic model. The model shows that they behave as chiral optical resonators. The chiral tellurium nanostructures are transformed into chiral gold and silver telluride nanostructures with very large chiroptical activity, demonstrating a simple colloidal chemistry path to chiral plasmonic and semiconductor metamaterials. These materials are natural candidates for studies related to interactions of chiral (bio)molecules with chiral inorganic surfaces, with relevance to asymmetric catalysis, chiral crystallization and the evolution of homochirality in biomolecules.

  10. Enantioselective control of lattice and shape chirality in inorganic nanostructures using chiral biomolecules.

    PubMed

    Ben-Moshe, Assaf; Wolf, Sharon Grayer; Bar Sadan, Maya; Houben, Lothar; Fan, Zhiyuan; Govorov, Alexander O; Markovich, Gil

    2014-01-01

    A large number of inorganic materials form crystals with chiral symmetry groups. Enantioselectively synthesizing nanostructures of such materials should lead to interesting optical activity effects. Here we report the synthesis of colloidal tellurium and selenium nanostructures using thiolated chiral biomolecules. The synthesis conditions are tuned to obtain tellurium nanostructures with chiral shapes and large optical activity. These nanostructures exhibit visible optical and chiroptical responses that shift with size and are successfully simulated by an electromagnetic model. The model shows that they behave as chiral optical resonators. The chiral tellurium nanostructures are transformed into chiral gold and silver telluride nanostructures with very large chiroptical activity, demonstrating a simple colloidal chemistry path to chiral plasmonic and semiconductor metamaterials. These materials are natural candidates for studies related to interactions of chiral (bio)molecules with chiral inorganic surfaces, with relevance to asymmetric catalysis, chiral crystallization and the evolution of homochirality in biomolecules. PMID:25001884

  11. Enantioselective organocatalytic oxidation of functionalized sterically hindered disulfides.

    PubMed

    Khiar, Noureddine; Mallouk, Siham; Valdivia, Victoria; Bougrin, Khalid; Soufiaoui, Mohammed; Fernndez, Inmaculada

    2007-03-29

    [structure: see text]. The first study on enantioselective oxidation of functionalized sterically hindered disulfides is reported. This study shows that the Shi organocatalytic system using carbohydrate-derived ketone with oxone is superior to the Ellman-Bolm vanadium catalyst in terms of chemical yield and enantioselectivity. Whereas the latter system afforded mostly racemic thiosulfinates in low to moderate yields, the former one afforded thiosulfinates with up to 96% ee. PMID:17341090

  12. Enantioselective alpha-trifluoromethylation of aldehydes via photoredox organocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Nagib, David A; Scott, Mark E; MacMillan, David W C

    2009-08-12

    The first enantioselective, organocatalytic alpha-trifluoromethylation and alpha-perfluoroalkylation of aldehydes have been accomplished using a readily available iridium photocatalyst and a chiral imidazolidinone catalyst. A range of alpha-trifluoromethyl and alpha-perfluoroalkyl aldehydes were obtained from commercially available perfluoroalkyl halides with high efficiency and enantioselectivity. The resulting alpha-trifluoromethyl aldehydes were subsequently shown to be versatile precursors for the construction of a variety of enantioenriched trifluoromethylated building blocks. PMID:19722670

  13. Enantioselective hydrogenation of ethyl acetoacetate on asymmetric Raney Ni catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Zubareva, N.D.; Chernysheva, V.V.; Grigor'ev, Yu.A.; Klabunovskii, E.I.

    1987-09-10

    The properties of Raney nickel catalysts modified by (+)-tartaric acid and active in enantioselective hydrogenation of ethyl acetoacetate depend on the chemical and phase compositions of the starting Ni-Al alloys. A decrease of the Ni content in the Ni-Al alloy specimens which corresponds to an increase of the fraction of the NiAl/sub 3/ intermetallic compound in them contributes to an increase of the catalytic activity and enantioselectivity of the action of the obtained catalysts.

  14. Nanocrystals-Related Synthesis, Assembly, and Energy Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Zou, Bo; Yu, Williams; Seo, Jaetae; Zhu, Ting; Hu, Michael Z.

    2012-01-01

    During the past decades, nanocrystals have attracted broad attention due to their unique shape- and size-dependent physical and chemical properties that differ drastically from their bulk counterparts. Hitherto, much effort has been dedicated to achieving rational controlling over the morphology, assembly, and related energy applications of the nanomaterials. Therefore, the ability to manipulate the morphology, size, and size distribution of inorganic nanomaterials is still an important goal in modern materials physics and chemistry. Especially, the world s demand for energy supply is causing a dramatic escalation of social and political unrest. Likewise, the environmental impact of the global climate change due to the combustion of fossil fuel is becoming increasingly alarming. These problems compel us to search for effective routes to build devices that can supply sustainable energy, with not only high efficiency but also environmental friendship. One of ways to relieve the energy crisis is to exploit devices based on renewable energy sources, such as solar energy and water power. Aiming at this exploration, the primary stage requires the design of appropriate strategies for the synthesis of high-quality nanocrystals with respect to size uniformity and superior electrochemical performances. As a consequence, we organize the current special issue for Journal of Nanomaterials to provide the authors with a platform and readers with the latest achievements of nanocrystals-related synthesis, assembly, and energy applications.

  15. Upconversion Nanoparticles: Synthesis, Surface Modification, and Biological Applications

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Meng; Abbineni, Gopal; Clevenger, April; Mao, Chuanbin; Xu, Shukun

    2011-01-01

    New generation fluorophores, also termed upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs), have the ability to convert near infrared radiations with lower energy into visible radiations with higher energy via a non-linear optical process. Recently, these UCNPs have evolved as alternative fluorescent labels to traditional fluorophores, showing great potential for imaging and biodetection assays in both in vitro and in vivo applications. UCNPs exhibit unique luminescent properties, including high penetration depth into tissues, low background signals, large Stokes shifts, sharp emission bands, and high resistance to photo-bleaching, making UCNPs an attractive alternative source for overcoming current limitations in traditional fluorescent probes. In this review, we discuss the recent progress in the synthesis and surface modification of rare earth doped UCNPs with a specific focus on their biological applications. PMID:21419877

  16. Semiconducting black phosphorus: synthesis, transport properties and electronic applications.

    PubMed

    Liu, Han; Du, Yuchen; Deng, Yexin; Ye, Peide D

    2015-05-01

    Phosphorus is one of the most abundant elements preserved in earth, and it comprises a fraction of ?0.1% of the earth crust. In general, phosphorus has several allotropes, and the two most commonly seen allotropes, i.e. white and red phosphorus, are widely used in explosives and safety matches. In addition, black phosphorus, though rarely mentioned, is a layered semiconductor and has great potential in optical and electronic applications. Remarkably, this layered material can be reduced to one single atomic layer in the vertical direction owing to the van der Waals structure, and is known as phosphorene, in which the physical properties can be tremendously different from its bulk counterpart. In this review article, we trace back to the research history on black phosphorus of over 100 years from the synthesis to material properties, and extend the topic from black phosphorus to phosphorene. The physical and transport properties are highlighted for further applications in electronic and optoelectronics devices. PMID:25307017

  17. Synthesis, properties and applications of nanoscale nitrides, borides and carbides.

    PubMed

    Xu, Liqiang; Li, Shouli; Zhang, Yuxu; Zhai, Yanjun

    2012-08-21

    Nanoscale nitrides, borides and carbides are a fascinating type of materials, which have aroused tremendous and continuous research interest for decades owing to their special mechanical, electrical, optical, photoelectronic, catalytic properties and widespread uses. In this feature article, recent developments and breakthroughs in the synthesis, properties and applications of nanometre scale nitrides (BN, Si(3)N(4), GaN, noble nitrides), borides (LnB(6), LnB(2), Fe(3)BO(5), LiMBO(3)) and carbides (carbon, SiC, TiC, NbC, WC) were briefly reviewed in sequence of their different dimensions (1D, 2D and 3D). In particular, our latest advances in the "autoclave route" fabrication of nanoscale nitrides, borides, and carbides were highlighted. The challenges, issues and perspectives of the synthetic methodologies and potential applications concerning the above-mentioned materials were also briefly discussed. PMID:22782140

  18. A carbohydrate approach for the formal total synthesis of (-)-aspergillide C.

    PubMed

    Srihari, Pabbaraja; Hari Krishna, Namballa; Sridhar, Ydhyam; Kamal, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    An enantioselective formal total synthesis of aspergillide C is accomplished using commercially available tri-O-acetyl-D-galactal employing a Ferrier-type C-glycosylation, utilizing a Trost hydrosilylation and protodesilylation as key reactions. PMID:25670981

  19. Stereocontrolled Synthesis of Spirooxindoles Through Lewis Acid Promoted [5+2]-Annulation of Chiral Silylalcohols

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yun; Panek, James S.

    2009-01-01

    The enantioselective synthesis of stereochemically and structurally diverse spirocyclic oxindoles by [5+2]-annulation of chiral crotylsilanes bearing a primary alcohol is described. The annulation products were further elaborated to polycyclic oxindoles by Pd (0) catalysis. PMID:19719185

  20. Aerosol Route Synthesis and Applications of Doped Nanostructured Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahu, Manoranjan

    Nanotechnology presents an attractive opportunity to address various challenges in air and water purification, energy, and other environment issues. Thus, the development of new nanoscale materials in low-cost scalable synthesis processes is important. Furthermore, the ability to independently manipulate the material properties as well as characterize the material at different steps along the synthesis route will aide in product optimization. In addition, to ensure safe and sustainable development of nanotechnology applications, potential impacts need to be evaluated. In this study, nanomaterial synthesis in a single-step gas phase reactor to continuously produce doped metal oxides was demonstrated. Copper-doped TiO2 nanomaterial properties (composition, size, and crystal phase) were independently controlled based on nanoparticle formation and growth mechanisms dictated by process control parameters. Copper dopant found to significantly affect TiO2 properties such as particle size, crystal phase, stability in the suspension, and absorption spectrum (shift from UV to visible light absorption). The in-situ charge distribution characterization of the synthesized nanomaterials was carried out by integrating a tandem differential mobility analyzer (TDMA) set up with the flame reactor synthesis system. Both singly- and doubly- charged nanoparticles were measured, with the charged fractions dependent on particle mobility and dopant concentration. A theoretical calculation was conducted to evaluate the relative importance of the two charging mechanisms, diffusion and thermo-ionization, in the flame. Nanoparticle exposure characterization was conducted during synthesis as a function of operating condition, product recovery and handling technique, and during maintenance of the reactors. Strategies were then indentified to minimize the exposure risk. The nanoparticle exposure potential varied depending on the operating conditions such as precursor feed rate, working conditions of the fume hood, ventilation system, and distance from the reactors. Nanoparticle exposure varied during product recovery and handling depending on the quantity of nanomaterial handled. Most nanomaterial applications require nanomaterials to be in solution. Thus, the role of nanomaterial physio-chemical properties (size, crystal phase, dopant types and concentrations) on dispersion properties was investigated based on hydrodynamic size and surface charge. Dopant type and concentration were found to significantly affect iso-electric point (IEP)-shifting the IEP to a high or lower pH value compared to pristine TiO2 based on the oxidation state of the dopant. The microbial inactivation effectiveness of as-synthesized nanomaterials was investigated under different light irradiation conditions. Microbial inactivation was found to strongly depend on the light irradiation condition as well as on material properties such chemical composition, crystal phase, and particle size. The potential interaction mechanisms of copper-doped TiO2 nanomaterial with microbes were also explored. The studies conducted as part of this dissertation addressed issues in nanomaterial synthesis, characterization and their potential environmental applications.

  1. Homochiral porous metal-organic coordination polymers: synthesis, structure and functional properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yutkin, M. P.; Dybtsev, D. N.; Fedin, Vladimir P.

    2011-11-01

    The review concerns the state of the art in and prospects for the development of chemistry of a new class of porous compounds, homochiral metal-organic coordination polymers. Main approaches to the synthesis and structure determination of such systems by X-ray diffraction analysis, as well as stability of metal-organic frameworks and supramolecular chemistry of host-guest inclusion compounds are considered. Prospects for practical application of these compounds first of all for enantioselective resolution and catalysis are discussed. The bibliography includes 175 references. Dedicated to Academician O M Nefedov on the occasion of his 80th birthday.

  2. Carbon nanotubes from synthesis to in vivo biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Sajid, Muhammad Imran; Jamshaid, Usama; Jamshaid, Talha; Zafar, Nadiah; Fessi, H; Elaissari, Abdelhamid

    2016-03-30

    Owing to their unique and interesting properties, extensive research round the globe has been carried out on carbon nanotubes and carbon nanotubes based systems to investigate their practical usefulness in biomedical applications. The results from these studies demonstrate a great promise in their use in targeted drug delivery systems, diagnostic techniques and in bio-analytical applications. Although, carbon nanotubes possess quite interesting properties, which make them potential candidates in the biomedical science, but they also have some inherent properties which arise great concern regarding their biosafety. In this comprehensive review, we have discussed different aspects of carbon nanotubes and carbon nanotube based systems related to biomedical applications. In the beginning, a short historical account of these tiny yet powerful particles is given followed by discussion regarding their types, properties, methods of synthesis, large scale production method, purification techniques and characterization aspects of carbon nanotubes. In the second part of the review, the functionalization of carbon nanotubes is reviewed in detail, which is not only important to make them biocompatible and stable in biological systems but also render them a great property of loading various biomolecules, diagnostic and therapeutic moieties resulting in diversified applications. In the final part of the review, emphasis is given on the pharmacokinetic aspects of carbon nanotubes including administration routes, absorption mechanisms, distribution and elimination of carbon nanotubes based systems. Lastly, a comprehensive account about the potential biomedical applications has been given followed by insights into the future. PMID:26827920

  3. Applications of ultrasound to the synthesis of nanostructured materials.

    PubMed

    Bang, Jin Ho; Suslick, Kenneth S

    2010-03-12

    Recent advances in nanostructured materials have been led by the development of new synthetic methods that provide control over size, morphology, and nano/microstructure. The utilization of high intensity ultrasound offers a facile, versatile synthetic tool for nanostructured materials that are often unavailable by conventional methods. The primary physical phenomena associated with ultrasound that are relevant to materials synthesis are cavitation and nebulization. Acoustic cavitation (the formation, growth, and implosive collapse of bubbles in a liquid) creates extreme conditions inside the collapsing bubble and serves as the origin of most sonochemical phenomena in liquids or liquid-solid slurries. Nebulization (the creation of mist from ultrasound passing through a liquid and impinging on a liquid-gas interface) is the basis for ultrasonic spray pyrolysis (USP) with subsequent reactions occurring in the heated droplets of the mist. In both cases, we have examples of phase-separated attoliter microreactors: for sonochemistry, it is a hot gas inside bubbles isolated from one another in a liquid, while for USP it is hot droplets isolated from one another in a gas. Cavitation-induced sonochemistry provides a unique interaction between energy and matter, with hot spots inside the bubbles of approximately 5000 K, pressures of approximately 1000 bar, heating and cooling rates of >10(10) K s(-1); these extraordinary conditions permit access to a range of chemical reaction space normally not accessible, which allows for the synthesis of a wide variety of unusual nanostructured materials. Complementary to cavitational chemistry, the microdroplet reactors created by USP facilitate the formation of a wide range of nanocomposites. In this review, we summarize the fundamental principles of both synthetic methods and recent development in the applications of ultrasound in nanostructured materials synthesis. PMID:20401929

  4. Expanding the scope of Metal-Free enantioselective allylic substitutions: Anthrones

    PubMed Central

    Ceban, Victor; Tauchman, Jiří; Meazza, Marta; Gallagher, Greg; Light, Mark E.; Gergelitsová, Ivana; Veselý, Jan; Rios, Ramon

    2015-01-01

    The highly enantioselective asymmetric allylic alkylation of Morita–Baylis–Hillman carbonates with anthrones is presented. The reaction is simply catalyzed by cinchona alkaloid derivatives affording the final alkylated products in good yields and excellent enantioselectivities. PMID:26592555

  5. Catalytic, Enantioselective 1,3-Dipolar Cycloadditions of Nitrile Imines with Methyleneindolinones

    PubMed Central

    Gerten, Anthony L.; Slade, Michael C.; Pugh, Kelsie M.

    2013-01-01

    Catalytic, enantioselective 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions of nitrile imines with methyleneindolinones are reported. The spiro[pyrazolin[3,3?-oxindole] products are formed in good yields (up to 98%) and high enantioselectivity (up to 99% ee). PMID:24132663

  6. Synthesis of ribo-hexopyranoside- and altrose-based azacrown ethers and their application in an asymmetric Michael addition.

    PubMed

    Rapi, Zsolt; Bak, Pter; Keglevich, Gyrgy; Szll?sy, ron; Drahos, Lszl; Heged?s, Lszl

    2013-01-10

    The synthesis of four new ribo-hexopyranoside-based chiral lariat ethers of monoaza-15-crown-5 type and two altropyranoside-based crown ethers were elaborated. Our syntheses utilized the regioselective ring opening of the oxiran moiety of the 2,3-anhydro sugars by nucleophilic reagents to afford the key intermediates. The reaction of methyl-2,3-anhydro-4,6-O-benzylidene-?-D-mannopyranoside with ethanolamine is especially of interest to afford a 3-substituted altropyranoside. One of the ribo-hexopyranoside-based lariat ethers with a 4-methoxyphenyl substituent induced an enantioselectivity of 80% when used as catalyst in the Michael addition of diethyl acetamidomalonate to trans-?-nitrostyrene under phase transfer catalytic conditions. PMID:23220061

  7. Modular solid-phase synthesis, catalytic application and efficient recycling of supported phosphine-phosphite ligand libraries.

    PubMed

    Heutz, Frank J L; Kamer, Paul C J

    2016-02-01

    In spite of decades of research in the field of homogeneous asymmetric catalysis the discovery of new high performance catalysts still relies heavily on trial-and-error. There is still a lack of efficient combinatorial methods which enable the synthesis and screening of vast ligand libraries, especially for bidentate phosphorus ligands. Here we present a highly modular solid-phase synthetic approach which provides facile access to libraries of phosphine-phosphite ligands in quantitative yield requiring only minimal work-up. The obtained library of supported phosphine-phosphites was successfully applied in rhodium catalyzed asymmetric hydrogenation obtaining high enantioselectivities up to 98%. Also, these polymer supported ligands could be successfully recycled under batch conditions exhibiting only a small decline of activity and no loss of selectivity. PMID:26486695

  8. Application of response surface methodology in enzymatic synthesis: a review.

    PubMed

    Ghaffari-Moghaddam, Mansour; Yekke-Ghasemi, Zahra; Khajeh, Mostafa; Rakhshanipour, Mansoureh; Yasin, Yamin

    2014-01-01

    There are very chemical reactions with very slow rates which can be catalyzed by enzymes. These biocatalysts need to moderate conditions for their catalytic activity and are stable in low temperature (between 15-50C), average pH (5-10) and aqueous media. One of important things in enzymatic synthesis which has been recently noticed is the yield of reactions. Nowadays wide application of response surface methodology (RSM) was observed in organic chemistry. In one-variable-at-a-time technique only one parameter is changed and other parameters are kept at a constant level. It does not study the interactive effects among the variables, and does not illustrate the complete effects of the parameters on the process. Increasing the yield of product without increase in casts is carried out by modeling and optimization of reaction variables through statistical techniques such as RSM. In this paper, we reviewed some articles that used the RSM for optimization in the enzymatic synthesis. PMID:25898733

  9. Enantioselective Dehydrogenative Heck Arylations of Trisubstituted Alkenes with Indoles to Construct Quaternary Stereocenters.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chun; Santiago, Celine B; Crawford, Jennifer M; Sigman, Matthew S

    2015-12-23

    An enantioselective, intermolecular dehydrogenative Heck arylation of trisubstituted alkenes to construct remote quaternary stereocenters has been developed. Using a new chiral pyridine oxazoline ligand, good to high enantioselectivity is achieved for various combinations of indole derivatives and trisubstituted alkenes. However, some combinations of substrates led to lower enantioselectivity, which provided the impetus to use structure enantioselectivity correlations to design a better performing ligand. PMID:26624236

  10. New highly asymmetric Henry reaction catalyzed by Cu(II) and a C(1)-symmetric aminopyridine ligand, and its application to the synthesis of miconazole.

    PubMed

    Blay, Gonzalo; Domingo, Luis R; Hernndez-Olmos, Victor; Pedro, Jos R

    2008-01-01

    A new catalytic asymmetric Henry reaction has been developed that uses a C(1)-symmetric chiral aminopyridine ligand derived from camphor and picolylamine. A variety of aromatic, heteroaromatic, aliphatic, and unsaturated aldehydes react with nitromethane and other nitroalkanes in the presence of DIPEA (1.0 equiv), Cu(OAc)(2)*H(2)O (5 mol %), and an aminopyridine ligand (5 mol %) to give the expected products in high yields (up to 99 %), moderate-to-good diastereoselectivites (up to 82:18), and excellent enantioselectivities (up to 98 %). The reaction is air-tolerant and has been used in the synthesis of the antifungal agent miconazole. PMID:18384026

  11. Nanoparticles for hyperthermic therapy: synthesis strategies and applications in glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Verma, Jyoti; Lal, Sumit; Van Noorden, Cornelis J F

    2014-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and most aggressive malignant primary brain tumor in humans. Current GBM treatment includes surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy, sometimes supplemented with novel therapies. Despite recent advances, survival of GBM patients remains poor. Major challenges in GBM treatment are drug delivery across the blood-brain barrier, restriction of damage to healthy brain tissues, and limitation of resistance to therapies. This article reviews recent advances in the application of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), gold nanorods (GNRs), and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) for hyperthermia ablation of GBM. First, the article introduces GBM, its current treatment, and hyperthermia as a potential modality for the management of GBM. Second, it introduces MNPs, GNRs, and CNTs as inorganic agents to induce hyperthermia in GBM. Third, it discusses different methodologies for synthesis of each inorganic agent. Finally, it reviews in vitro and in vivo studies in which MNPs, GNRs, and CNTs have been applied for hyperthermia ablation and drug delivery in GBM. PMID:24959075

  12. Synthesis of gold nanoparticles for application as biosensors in engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prado, Adilson R.; Oliveira, Jairo P.; Milaneze, Brbara A.; Nogueira, Breno V.; Guimares, Marco C. C.; Almeida, Luiz C. P.; Neto, Anselmo Frizera; Pontes, Maria J.; Ribeiro, Moiss. R. N.

    2014-08-01

    This paper presents the synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) suitable to the construction of engineering biosensors. The phenomenon of Localized Surface Plasmons Resonance (LSPR) and Surface Plasmon Polarization are explored in these sensors. AuNPs allow developing nanoscale devices that interacts with chemical and biological systems. The LSPR is the main operation principle explored in these nanosystems that promote electromagnetic wave oscillation on such small metallic structures. Our results have shown that the resonance is directly linked to the size of the nanoparticles, the nature of the dielectric material and support environment where the device is being studied, previously reported for Zhao et al. [1]. Nanoparticles with size of 56 to 88 nm was obtained this work. The Turkevich method was to used to make AuNP's with spherical morphology, this system is it possible to application in biosensor because your strong interation with light and environment.

  13. Framed carbon nanostructures: synthesis and applications in functional SPM tips.

    PubMed

    Mukhin, I S; Fadeev, I V; Zhukov, M V; Dubrovskii, V G; Golubok, A O

    2015-01-01

    We present a synthesis method to fabricate framed carbon-based nanostructures having highly anisotropic shapes, in particular, the nanofork and nanoscalpel structures which are obtained systematically under optimized growth conditions. A theoretical model is developed to explain the formation of such nanostructures on Si cantilevers and W etched wires exposed to a focused electron beam. We then demonstrate the potentials of these nanostructures as functional tips for scanning probe microscopy. Owing to their anisotropic shapes, such tips can be very useful for nanolithography, nanosurgery of biological objects, and precise manipulation with surface particles. Overall, our method provides a simple and robust way to produce functional scanning probe microscopy tips with variable shapes and enhanced capabilities for different applications compared to standard cantilevers. PMID:25461592

  14. Nanoparticles for hyperthermic therapy: synthesis strategies and applications in glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Jyoti; Lal, Sumit; Van Noorden, Cornelis JF

    2014-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and most aggressive malignant primary brain tumor in humans. Current GBM treatment includes surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy, sometimes supplemented with novel therapies. Despite recent advances, survival of GBM patients remains poor. Major challenges in GBM treatment are drug delivery across the blood–brain barrier, restriction of damage to healthy brain tissues, and limitation of resistance to therapies. This article reviews recent advances in the application of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), gold nanorods (GNRs), and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) for hyperthermia ablation of GBM. First, the article introduces GBM, its current treatment, and hyperthermia as a potential modality for the management of GBM. Second, it introduces MNPs, GNRs, and CNTs as inorganic agents to induce hyperthermia in GBM. Third, it discusses different methodologies for synthesis of each inorganic agent. Finally, it reviews in vitro and in vivo studies in which MNPs, GNRs, and CNTs have been applied for hyperthermia ablation and drug delivery in GBM. PMID:24959075

  15. Oligothiophene semiconductors: synthesis, characterization, and applications for organic devices.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Colella, Nicholas S; Cherniawski, Benjamin P; Mannsfeld, Stefan C B; Briseno, Alejandro L

    2014-04-23

    Oligothiophenes provide a highly controlled and adaptable platform to explore various synthetic, morphologic, and electronic relationships in organic semiconductor systems. These short-chain systems serve as models for establishing valuable structure-property relationships to their polymer analogs. In contrast to their polymer counterparts, oligothiophenes afford high-purity and well-defined materials that can be easily modified with a variety of functional groups. Recent work by a number of research groups has revealed functionalized oligothiophenes to be the up-and-coming generation of advanced materials for organic electronic devices. In this review, we discuss the synthesis and characterization of linear oligothiophenes with a focus on applications in organic field effect transistors and organic photovoltaics. We will highlight key structural parameters, such as crystal packing, intermolecular interactions, polymorphism, and energy levels, which in turn define the device performance. PMID:24641239

  16. Enzymatic routes for the synthesis of ursodeoxycholic acid.

    PubMed

    Eggert, Thorsten; Bakonyi, Daniel; Hummel, Werner

    2014-12-10

    Ursodeoxycholic acid, a secondary bile acid, is used as a drug for the treatment of various liver diseases, the optimal dose comprises the range of 8-10mg/kg/day. For industrial syntheses, the structural complexity of this bile acid requires the use of an appropriate starting material as well as the application of regio- and enantio-selective enzymes for its derivatization. Most strategies for the synthesis start from cholic acid or chenodeoxycholic acid. The latter requires the conversion of the hydroxyl group at C-7 from α- into β-position in order to obtain ursodeoxycholic acid. Cholic acid on the other hand does not only require the same epimerization reaction at C-7 but the removal of the hydroxyl group at C-12 as well. There are several bacterial regio- and enantio-selective hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (HSDHs) to carry out the desired reactions, for example 7α-HSDHs from strains of Clostridium, Bacteroides or Xanthomonas, 7β-HSDHs from Clostridium, Collinsella, or Ruminococcus, or 12α-HSDH from Clostridium or from Eggerthella. However, all these bioconversion reactions need additional steps for the regeneration of the coenzymes. Selected multi-step reaction systems for the synthesis of ursodeoxycholic acid are presented in this review. PMID:25131646

  17. An NHC-catalyzed in situ activation strategy to ?-functionalize saturated carboxylic acid: an enantioselective formal [3+2] annulation for spirocyclic oxindolo-?-butyrolactones.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yuanwei; Yu, Chenxia; Li, Tuanjie; Tu, Shujiang; Yao, Changsheng

    2015-03-27

    An in situ NHC-catalyzed activation strategy to ?-functionalize saturated carboxylic acid was developed. This asymmetric formal [3+2] annulation could deliver spirocyclic oxindolo-?-butyrolactones from saturated carboxylic acid and isatin in good yields with high to excellent enantioselectivities. The easy availability of the starting materials, direct installation of functional units at unreactive carbon atom and the convergent assembly make this protocol attractive in the field of organic synthesis. PMID:25689040

  18. Enantioselective assembly of spirocyclic oxindole-dihydropyranones through NHC-catalyzed cascade reaction of isatins with N-hydroxybenzotriazole esters of ?,?-unsaturated carboxylic acid.

    PubMed

    Que, Yonglei; Li, Tuanjie; Yu, Chenxia; Wang, Xiang-Shan; Yao, Changsheng

    2015-03-20

    An NHC-catalyzed formal [4 + 2] reaction of isatins with N-hydroxybenzotriazole ester of ?,?-unsaturated carboxylic acids bearing ?-H to construct spirocyclic oxindole-dihydropyranones featuring a chiral tetrasubstituted carbon stereogenic center was developed. The high enantioselectivity, the ready availability of the raw materials, the facile assembly, and the potential biological significance of the final products make this protocol an attractive alternative for the synthesis of spirocyclic heterocycles. PMID:25692461

  19. Epi-cinchona based thiourea organocatalyst family as an efficient asymmetric Michael addition promoter: enantioselective conjugate addition of nitroalkanes to chalcones and alpha,beta-unsaturated N-acylpyrroles.

    PubMed

    Vakulya, Benedek; Varga, Szilrd; Sos, Tibor

    2008-05-01

    A small set of easily available epi-cinchona based thiourea organocatalysts have been synthesized and tested in enantioselective Michael addition of nitroalkanes to chalcones. These bifunctional catalyst systems promoted the conjugate additions with high enantioselectivities and chemical yields. The extension of this methodology was further explored to encompass alpha,beta-unsaturated N-acylpyrroles, as a chalcone mimic. Functionally, the N-acylpyrrole moiety in the adduct acts as an ester surrogate; therefore, it can easily be transformed to various valuable and biologically relevant compounds. This approach allowed the concise stereoselective synthesis of (R)-rolipram. PMID:18376862

  20. Co(III)(salen)-catalyzed phenolic kinetic resolution of two stereocentered benzyloxy and azido epoxides: its application in the synthesis of ICI-118,551, an anti-hypertensive agent.

    PubMed

    Karabal, Pratibha U; Kamble, Dayanand A; Sudalai, Arumugam

    2014-04-21

    The salen Co(III)-catalyzed phenolic kinetic resolution of racemic anti- or syn-azido and benzyloxy epoxides provides a practical route to a range of enantioenriched anti- or syn-1-aryloxy-3-azido or benzyloxy-2-alcohols in excellent yields and ees. The synthetic potential of this protocol is illustrated with an enantioselective synthesis of ICI-118,551, a ?-blocker, in a highly optically pure form (99% ee). PMID:24599150

  1. Catalytic Enantioselective Reaction of ?-Aminoacetonitriles Using Chiral Bis(imidazoline) Palladium Catalysts.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Masaru; Nishi, Tomoki; Hatanaka, Tsubasa; Funahashi, Yasuhiro; Nakamura, Shuichi

    2015-07-01

    The catalytic enantioselective reaction of diphenylmethylidene-protected ?-aminoacetonitriles with imines has been developed. Good yields and diastereo- and enantioselectivities were observed for the reaction of various imines using chiral bis(imidazoline)/Pd catalysts. The reaction of ?-aminonitriles with di-tert-butyl azodicarboxylate afforded chiral ?,?-diaminonitriles in high yields with high enantioselectivities. PMID:26014509

  2. Synthesis and characterization of aqueous quantum dots for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hui

    Quantum Dots (QDs) are semiconductor nanocrystals (120 nm) exhibiting distinctive photoluminescence (PL) properties due to the quantum confinement effect. Having many advantages over organic dyes, such as broad excitation and resistance to photobleaching, QDs are widely used in bioapplications as one of most exciting nanobiotechnologies. To date, most commercial QDs are synthesized through the traditional organometallic method and contain toxic elements, such as cadmium, lead, mercury, arsenic, etc. The overall goal of this thesis study is to develop an aqueous synthesis method to produce nontoxic quantum dots with strong emission and good stability, suitable for biomedical imaging applications. Firstly, an aqueous, simple, environmentally friendly synthesis method was developed. With cadmium sulfide (CdS) QDs as an example system, various processing parameters and capping molecules were examined to improve the synthesis and optimize the PL properties. The obtained water soluble QDs exhibited ultra small size (5 nm), strong PL and good stability. Thereafter, using the aqueous method, the zinc sulfide (ZnS) QDs were synthesized with different capping molecules, i.e., 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) and 3-(mercaptopropyl)trimethoxysilane (MPS). Especially, via a newly developed capping molecule replacement method, the present ZnS QDs exhibited bright blue emission with a quantum yield of 75% and more than 60 days lifetime in the ambient conditions. Two cytotoxicity tests with human endothelial cells verified the nontoxicity of the ZnS QDs by cell counting with Trypan blue staining and fluorescence assay with Alamar Blue. Taking advantage of the versatile surface chemistry, several strategies were explored to conjugate the water soluble QDs with biomolecules, i.e., antibody and streptavidin. Accordingly, the imaging of Salmonella t. cells and biotinylated microbeads has been successfully demonstrated. In addition, polyethylenimine (PEI)-QDs complex was formed and delivered into PC12 neuronal cells for intracellular imaging with uniform distribution. The water soluble QDs were also embedded in electrospun polymer fibers as fluorescent nanocomposite. In summary, the ease of aqueous processing and the excellent PL properties of the nontoxic water soluble ZnS QDs provide great potential for various in vivo applications.

  3. Anisotropic gold nanoparticles: synthesis, properties, applications, and toxicity.

    PubMed

    Li, Na; Zhao, Pengxiang; Astruc, Didier

    2014-02-10

    Anisotropic gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have attracted the interest of scientists for over a century, but research in this field has considerably accelerated since 2000 with the synthesis of numerous 1D, 2D, and 3D shapes as well as hollow AuNP structures. The anisotropy of these nonspherical, hollow, and nanoshell AuNP structures is the source of the plasmon absorption in the visible region as well as in the near-infrared (NIR) region. This NIR absorption is especially sensitive to the AuNP shape and medium and can be shifted towards the part of the NIR region in which living tissue shows minimum absorption. This has led to crucial applications in medical diagnostics and therapy ("theranostics"), especially with Au nanoshells, nanorods, hollow nanospheres, and nanocubes. In addition, Au nanowires (AuNWs) can be synthesized with longitudinal dimensions of several tens of micrometers and can serve as plasmon waveguides for sophisticated optical devices. The application of anisotropic AuNPs has rapidly spread to optical, biomedical, and catalytic areas. In this Review, a brief historical survey is given, followed by a summary of the synthetic modes, variety of shapes, applications, and toxicity issues of this fast-growing class of nanomaterials. PMID:24421264

  4. Structure, synthesis, and applications of TiO2 nanobelts.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhenhuan; Tian, Jian; Sang, Yuanhua; Cabot, Andreu; Liu, Hong

    2015-04-24

    TiO2 semiconductor nanobelts have unique structural and functional properties, which lead to great potential in many fields, including photovoltaics, photocatalysis, energy storage, gas sensors, biosensors, and even biomaterials. A review of synthetic methods, properties, surface modification, and applications of TiO2 nanobelts is presented here. The structural features and basic properties of TiO2 nanobelts are systematically discussed, with the many applications of TiO2 nanobelts in the fields of photocatalysis, solar cells, gas sensors, biosensors, and lithium-ion batteries then introduced. Research efforts that aim to overcome the intrinsic drawbacks of TiO2 nanobelts are also highlighted. These efforts are focused on the rational design and modification of TiO2 nanobelts by doping with heteroatoms and/or forming surface heterostructures, to improve their desirable properties. Subsequently, the various types of surface heterostructures obtained by coupling TiO2 nanobelts with metal and metal oxide nanoparticles, chalcogenides, and conducting polymers are described. Further, the charge separation and electron transfer at the interfaces of these heterostructures are also discussed. These properties are related to improved sensitivity and selectivity for specific gases and biomolecules, as well as enhanced UV and visible light photocatalytic properties. The progress in developments of near-infrared-active photocatalysts based on TiO2 nanobelts is also highlighted. Finally, an outline of important directions of future research into the synthesis, modification, and applications of this unique material is given. PMID:25800706

  5. Enantioselective Recognition in Solution: The Case of Countercurrent Chromatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubio, Nria; Minguilln, Cristina

    Countercurrent chromatography (CCC) is a preparative separation technique that works with a liquid stationary phase. Biphasic liquid systems are needed to perform a separation. Since a chiral selector is required to perform enantiomer separations, special requirements are imposed in CCC. The chiral selector (CS) must be located in the stationary phase since partitioning with the mobile phase would cause losses of the valuable chiral selector in the mobile phase. Sulfated cyclodextrins and proteins were used as polar CS located in the polar stationary phase (reversed phase mode). Apolar CSs such as N-dodecyl-L-proline 3,5-dimethylanilide or Whelk-O selectors, quinine and quinidine derivatives, cellulose or amylose apolar derivatives were used located in the apolar stationary phase (normal phase mode). The special CCC displacement method called pH-zone refining was found useful in the increase of the loading capacity for cellulose, quinine, quinidine, and proline-derived selectors. Dual and multidual mode uses of CCC could produce an increase in peak separation thereby broadening the applicability of moderately enantioselective CSs.

  6. Development of an enantioselective assay for simultaneous separation of venlafaxine and O-desmethylvenlafaxine by micellar electrokinetic chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry: Application to the analysis of drug-drug interaction.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yijin; Jann, Michael; Vandenberg, Chad; Eap, Chin B; Shamsi, Shahab A

    2015-11-13

    To-date, there has been no effective chiral capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry (CE-MS) method reported for the simultaneous enantioseparation of the antidepressant drug, venlafaxine (VX) and its structurally-similar major metabolite, O-desmethylvenlafaxine (O-DVX). This is mainly due to the difficulty of identifying MS compatible chiral selector, which could provide both high enantioselectivity and sensitive MS detection. In this work, poly-sodium N-undecenoyl-L,L-leucylalaninate (poly-L,L-SULA) was employed as a chiral selector after screening several dipeptide polymeric chiral surfactants. Baseline separation of both O-DVX and VX enantiomers was achieved in 15min after optimizing the buffer pH, poly-L,L-SULA concentration, nebulizer pressure and separation voltage. Calibration curves in spiked plasma (recoveries higher than 80%) were linear over the concentration range 150-5000ng/mL for both VX and O-DVX. The limit of detection (LOD) was found to be as low as 30ng/mL and 21ng/mL for O-DVX and VX, respectively. This method was successfully applied to measure the plasma concentrations of human volunteers receiving VX or O-DVX orally when co-administered without and with indinivar therapy. The results suggest that micellar electrokinetic chromatography electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (MEKC-ESI-MS/MS) is an effective low cost alternative technique for the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics studies of both O-DVX and VX enantiomers. The technique has potential to identify drug-drug interaction involving VX and O-DVX enantiomers while administering indinivar therapy. PMID:26460073

  7. Altering the Enantioselectivity of Tyrosyl-tRNA Synthetase by Insertion of a Stereospecific Editing Domain.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Charles J; First, Eric A

    2016-03-15

    Translation of mRNAs by the ribosome is stereospecific, with only l-amino acids being incorporated into the nascent polypeptide chain. This stereospecificity results from the exclusion of d-amino acids at three steps during protein synthesis: (1) the aminoacylation of tRNA by aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, (2) binding of aminoacyl-tRNAs to EF-Tu, and (3) recognition of aminoacyl-tRNAs by the ribosome. As a first step toward incorporating d-amino acids during protein synthesis, we have altered the enantioselectivity of tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase. This enzyme is unusual among aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, as it can aminoacylate tRNA with d-tyrosine (albeit at a reduced rate compared to l-tyrosine). To change the enantioselectivity of tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase, we introduced the post-transfer editing domain from Pyrococcus horikoshii phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase into the connective polypeptide 1 (CP1) domain of Geobacillus stearothermophilus tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase (henceforth designated TyrRS-FRSed). We show that the phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase editing domain is stereospecific, hydrolyzing l-Tyr-tRNA(Tyr), but not d-Tyr-tRNA(Tyr). We further show that inserting the phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase editing domain into the CP1 domain of tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase decreases the activity of the synthetic site in tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase. This decrease in activity is critical, as it prevents the rate of synthesis from overwhelming the ability of the editing domain to hydrolyze the l-Tyr-tRNA(Tyr) product. Overall, inserting the phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase editing domain results in a 2-fold shift in the enantioselectivity of tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase toward the d-Tyr-tRNA(Tyr) product. When a 4-fold excess of d-tyrosine is used, approximately 40% of the tRNA(Tyr) is aminoacylated with d-tyrosine. PMID:26890980

  8. Solution synthesis, optical properties, and bioimaging applications of silicon nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    McVey, Benjamin F P; Tilley, Richard D

    2014-10-21

    Understanding and unlocking the potential of semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) is important for future applications ranging from biomedical imaging contrast agents to the next generation of solar cells and LEDs. Silicon NCs (Si NCs) have key advantages compared with other semiconductor NCs due to silicon's high natural abundance, low toxicity and strong biocompatibility, and unique size, and surface dependent optical properties. In this Account, we review and discuss the synthesis, surface modification, purification, optical properties, and applications of Si NCs. The synthetic methods used to make Si NCs have improved considerably in the last 5-10 years; highly monodisperse Si NCs can now be produced on the near gram scale. Scaled-up syntheses have allowed scientists to drive further toward the commercial utilization of Si NCs. The synthesis of doped Si NCs, through addition of a simple elemental precursor to a reaction mixture or by the production of a single source precursor, has shown great promise. Doped Si NCs have demonstrated unique or enhanced properties compared with pure Si NCs, for example, magnetism due to the presence of magnetic metals like Fe and Mn. Surface reactions have reached a new level of sophistication where organic (epoxidation and diol formation) and click (thiol based) chemical reactions can be carried out on attached surface molecules. This has led to a wide range of biocompatible functional groups as well as a degree of emission tuneability. The purification of Si NCs has been improved through the use of size separation columns and size selective precipitation. These purification approaches have yielded highly monodisperse and pure Si NCs previously unachieved. This has allowed scientists to study the size and surface dependent properties and toxicity and enabled the use of Si NCs in biomedical applications. The optical properties of Si NCs are complex. Using a combination of characterization techniques, researchers have explored the relation between the optical properties and the size, surface functionalization, and preparation method. This work has led to a greater fundamental understanding of the unique optical properties of Si NCs. Si NCs are being studied for a wide range of important applications, including LEDS with tunable electroluminescence ranging from NIR to yellow, the encapsulation of Si NCs within micelles terminated with proteins to allow targeted in vivo imaging of cells, Si NC-polymer hybrid solar cells, and the use of Si NCs in battery anodes with high theoretical capacity and good charge retention. PMID:25252604

  9. Development of Catalysts and Ligands for Enantioselective Gold Catalysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yi-Ming; Lackner, Aaron D.; Toste, F. Dean

    2014-01-01

    CONSPECTUS The use of Au(I) complexes for the catalytic activation of C-C ?-bonds has been the subject of intense investigation in the last decade or so. The facile formation of carbon-carbon and carbon-heteroatom bonds facilitated by gold naturally led to efforts to render these transformations enantioselective. Early examples of enantioselective gold-catalyzed transformations have focused on bis(phosphinegold) complexes derived from axially chiral scaffolds. Although these complexes were highly successful in some reactions like cyclopropanation, careful choice of the weakly coordinating ligand (or counterion) was needed to obtain high levels of enantioselectivity for the case of allene hydroamination. These counterion effects led us to use the anion itself as a source of chirality, which was successful in the case of allene hydroalkoxylation. In order to expand the scope of reactions amenable to enantioselective gold catalysis to cycloadditions and other carbocyclization processes, a new class of mononuclear phosphite and phosphoramidite ligands was developed to supplement the previously widely utilized phosphines. Finally carbene ligands, in particular, the acyclic diaminocarbenes, have also been successfully applied to enantioselective transformations. PMID:24228794

  10. A New Strategy for Enantioselective Construction of Multisubstituted Five-Membered Oxygen Heterocycles via a Domino Michael/Hemiketalization Reaction.

    PubMed

    Hua, Yuan-Zhao; Liu, Meng-Meng; Huang, Pei-Jin; Song, Xixi; Wang, Min-Can; Chang, Jun-Biao

    2015-08-17

    A new highly enantioselective domino Michael/hemiketalization reaction of ?-hydroxyacetophenone with ?,?-unsaturated ?-keto esters for the synthesis of 2,2,4,5-tetrasubstituted chiral tetrahydrofurans is reported. With 2?mol?% intramolecular dinuclear zinc-AzePhenol complex prepared in situ from the reaction of multidentate semi-azacrown ether ligand with ZnEt2 , the corresponding anti-multisubstituted tetrahydrofuran products were obtained in up to 90?% yields, and 98?% enantiomeric excess (ee) at 0?C for 45?min. Moreover, the products were easily converted to 2,3,5-trisubstituted 2,3-dihydrofurans without any loss in optical activity. PMID:26177976

  11. Triply Hydrogen-Bond-Directed Enantioselective Assembly of Pyrrolobenzo-1,4-diazine Skeletons with Quaternary Stereocenters.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xiaoming; Wang, Yongtao; Wu, Tiandi; Mao, Zhenjun; Lin, Xufeng

    2015-06-15

    Highly efficient synthesis of optically enriched pyrrolobenzo-1,4-diazines bearing quaternary stereocenters has been realized through the chiral Brnsted acid-catalyzed Pictet-Spengler reaction of 2-(1H-pyrrol-1-yl)anilines and ?-ketoamides in good to excellent yields and enantioselectivities. Computational studies suggest an unprecedented phenomenon whereby the chiral phosphoric acid catalyst employs attractive arene C-H???N hydrogen bonding to activate the substrate and induce chirality through a triple hydrogen-bonding interaction. PMID:25965054

  12. Synthesis of internally functionalized silica nanoparticles for theranostic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walton, Nathan Isaac

    This thesis addresses the synthesis and characterization of novel inorganic silica nanoparticle hybrids. It focuses in large part on their potential applications in the medical field. Silica acts as a useful carrier for a variety of compounds and this thesis silica will demonstrate its use as a carrier for boron or gadolinium. Boron-10 and gadolinium-157 have been suggested for the radiological treatment of tumor cells through the process called neutron capture therapy (NCT). Gadolinium is also commonly used as a Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) contrast agent. Particles that carry it have potential theranostic applications of both imaging and treating tumors. Chapter 1 presents a background on synthetic strategies and usages of silica nanoparticles, and NCT theory. Chapter 2 describes a procedure to create mesoporous metal chelating silica nanoparticles, mDTTA. This is achieved via a co-condensation of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and 3-trimethoxysilyl-propyl diethylenetriamine (SiDETA) followed by a post-synthesis modification step with bromoacetic acid (BrAA). These particles have a large surface area and well-defined pores of ~2 nm. The mDTTA nanoparticles were used to chelate the copper(II), cobalt(II) and gadolinium(III). The chelating of gadolinium is the most interesting since it can be used as a MRI contrast agent and a neutron capture therapeutic. The synthetic procedure developed also allows for the attachment of a fluorophore that gives the gadolinium chelating mDTTA nanoparticles a dual imaging modality. Chapter 3 presents the synthetic method used to produce two classes of large surface area organically modified silica (ORMOSIL) nanoparticles. Condensating the organosilane vinyltrimethoxysilane in a micellar solution results in nanoparticles that are either surface rough (raspberry-like) or mesoporous nanoparticles, which prior to this thesis has not been demonstrated in ORMOSIL chemistry. Furthermore, the vinyl functionalities are modified, using hydroboration, to make the nanoparticles into water-dispersible boron carriers that also have potential boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) applications. Lastly, Chapter 4 provides a general description of NCT, specifically that involving boron-10 and gadolinium-157. It further describes the synthetic methodology used in producing fatty acid coated boron nanoparticles (BNPs). The BNPs are encapsulated with silica to add a hydrophilic shell so that they can potentially be used in biological systems as BNCT agents. The silica shell is also modified with a fluorophore, dansyl chloride, so that the particle hybrid could be imaged during cell studies.

  13. Green synthesis and applications of Au-Ag bimetallic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Meena Kumari, M; Jacob, John; Philip, Daizy

    2015-02-25

    This paper reports for the first time the synthesis of bimetallic nanoparticles at room temperature using the fruit juice of pomegranate. Simultaneous reduction of gold and silver ions in different molar ratios leads to the formation of alloy as well as core-shell nanostructures. The nanoparticles have been characterized using UV-vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The synthesized alloy particles are used as catalysts in the reduction of 2-, 3-, 4-nitrophenols to the corresponding amines and in the degradation of methyl orange. The reduction kinetics for all the reactions follows pseudo-first order. The rate constants follow the order k4-nitrophenolapplication. The nitric oxide and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity shown by the nanoparticles promise the potential application in biomedical field. PMID:25218228

  14. Nanostructured organic electronic materials: Synthesis and sensor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dua, Vineet

    2009-12-01

    This study is an investigation into (a) the process by which one obtains bulk quantities of nanofibers of parent polythiophene, (b) in-situ deposition of nanofibers of polythiophene on flexible substrate and its application in vapor sensing, and (c) inkjet printing of graphene on flexible substrate and its application as a detector. (a) The 2 nd chapter of the thesis is an extension of "seeding" method from aqueous to organic solvents to synthesize parent polythiophene nanofibers. Bulk quantities of parent polythiophene nanofibers were synthesized in one step using catalytic amounts of freeze dried V2O5. This work is published in Chemistry Letters 2008 37(5), 526--527. (b) The 3rd chapter deals with in-situ films of polythiophene nanofibers on plastic substrates. In this a one step method to directly deposit nanofibers of parent polythiophene on flexible substrate is discussed. These films show a reversible detection of highly oxidizing vapors such as NO2, Cl2 and SO 2 at ppb levels under ambient conditions. This work is published in Macromolecules 2009, 42, 5414--5415. (c) The 4 th chapter describes the synthesis of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) using a mild reducing agent ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) rather than traditionally used harsh reducing agents (N2H4). Dispersions of RGO were inkjet printed on flexible substrate and has been shown to detect aggressive vapors NO2 and Cl2 at ambient conditions. This work is accepted for publication in Angewandte Chemie (Nov 2009).

  15. Yolk/shell nanoparticles: classifications, synthesis, properties, and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purbia, Rahul; Paria, Santanu

    2015-11-01

    Core/shell nanoparticles were first reported in the early 1990s with a simple spherical core and shell structure, but the area is gradually diversifying in multiple directions such as different shapes, multishells, yolk/shell etc., because of the development of different new properties of the materials, which are useful for several advanced applications. Among different sub-areas of core/shell nanoparticles, yolk/shell nanoparticles (YS NPs) have drawn significant attention in recent years because of their unique properties such as low density, large surface area, ease of interior core functionalization, a good molecular loading capacity in the void space, tunable interstitial void space, and a hollow outer shell. The YS NPs have better properties over simple core/shell or hollow NPs in various fields including biomedical, catalysis, sensors, lithium batteries, adsorbents, DSSCs, microwave absorbers etc., mainly because of the presence of free void space, porous hollow shell, and free core surface. This review presents an extensive classification of YS NPs based on their structures and types of materials, along with synthesis strategies, properties, and applications with which one would be able to draw a complete picture of this area.

  16. Yolk/shell nanoparticles: classifications, synthesis, properties, and applications.

    PubMed

    Purbia, Rahul; Paria, Santanu

    2015-12-21

    Core/shell nanoparticles were first reported in the early 1990s with a simple spherical core and shell structure, but the area is gradually diversifying in multiple directions such as different shapes, multishells, yolk/shell etc., because of the development of different new properties of the materials, which are useful for several advanced applications. Among different sub-areas of core/shell nanoparticles, yolk/shell nanoparticles (YS NPs) have drawn significant attention in recent years because of their unique properties such as low density, large surface area, ease of interior core functionalization, a good molecular loading capacity in the void space, tunable interstitial void space, and a hollow outer shell. The YS NPs have better properties over simple core/shell or hollow NPs in various fields including biomedical, catalysis, sensors, lithium batteries, adsorbents, DSSCs, microwave absorbers etc., mainly because of the presence of free void space, porous hollow shell, and free core surface. This review presents an extensive classification of YS NPs based on their structures and types of materials, along with synthesis strategies, properties, and applications with which one would be able to draw a complete picture of this area. PMID:26567966

  17. Green synthesis and applications of Au-Ag bimetallic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meena Kumari, M.; Jacob, John; Philip, Daizy

    2015-02-01

    This paper reports for the first time the synthesis of bimetallic nanoparticles at room temperature using the fruit juice of pomegranate. Simultaneous reduction of gold and silver ions in different molar ratios leads to the formation of alloy as well as core-shell nanostructures. The nanoparticles have been characterized using UV-vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The synthesized alloy particles are used as catalysts in the reduction of 2-, 3-, 4-nitrophenols to the corresponding amines and in the degradation of methyl orange. The reduction kinetics for all the reactions follows pseudo-first order. The rate constants follow the order k4-nitrophenol < k2-nitrophenol < k3-nitrophenol. Thermal conductivity is measured as a function of volume fraction and it is observed that the incorporation of the alloy nanoparticles enhances the thermal conductivity of the base fluid (water) showing nanofluid application. The nitric oxide and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity shown by the nanoparticles promise the potential application in biomedical field.

  18. Synthesis of Uniform, Monodisperse, Sophorolipid Twisted Ribbons.

    PubMed

    Cuvier, Anne-Sophie; Babonneau, Florence; Berton, Jan; Stevens, Christian V; Fadda, Giulia C; Genois, Isabelle; Le Griel, Patrick; Phau-Arnaudet, Grard; Baccile, Niki

    2015-11-01

    Control over size monodispersity in chiral self-assembled systems is important for potential applications like templating, tissue engineering or enantioselective chromatography, just to cite a few examples. In this context, it was reported that the saturated form of sophorolipids (SL), a bioderived glycolipid, are able to form self-assembled twisted ribbons in water at neutral pH. Here, we show the possibility to control their size dispersion, generally between 10 and 40?nm after synthesis to a value of 13.51.5?nm, by a simple dialysis step eliminating the excess of NaCl. We use transmission electron microscopy under cryogenic conditions (cryo-TEM) combined with small angle neutron scattering (SANS) to characterize the ribbon dispersion both visually and statistically. Two negative controls show the importance of salt in the aggregation process of the ribbons. PMID:26317317

  19. Enantioselective Pharmacokinetics of ?-Lipoic Acid in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Uchida, Ryota; Okamoto, Hinako; Ikuta, Naoko; Terao, Keiji; Hirota, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    ?-Lipoic acid (LA) is widely used for nutritional supplements as a racemic mixture, even though the R enantiomer is biologically active. After oral administration of the racemic mixture (R-?-lipoic acid (RLA) and S-?-lipoic acid (SLA) mixed at the ratio of 50:50) to rats, RLA showed higher plasma concentration than SLA, and its area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero to the last (AUC) was significantly about 1.26 times higher than that of SLA. However, after intravenous administration of the racemic mixture, the pharmacokinetic profiles, initial concentration (C0), AUC, and half-life (T1/2) of the enantiomers were not significantly different. After oral and intraduodenal administration of the racemic mixture to pyrolus-ligated rats, the AUCs of RLA were significantly about 1.24 and 1.32 times higher than that of SLA, respectively. In addition, after intraportal administration the AUC of RLA was significantly 1.16 times higher than that of SLA. In conclusion, the enantioselective pharmacokinetics of LA in rats arose from the fraction absorbed multiplied by gastrointestinal availability (FaFg) and hepatic availability (Fh), and not from the total clearance. PMID:26402669

  20. Enantioselective Pharmacokinetics of ?-Lipoic Acid in Rats.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Ryota; Okamoto, Hinako; Ikuta, Naoko; Terao, Keiji; Hirota, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    ?-Lipoic acid (LA) is widely used for nutritional supplements as a racemic mixture, even though the R enantiomer is biologically active. After oral administration of the racemic mixture (R-?-lipoic acid (RLA) and S-?-lipoic acid (SLA) mixed at the ratio of 50:50) to rats, RLA showed higher plasma concentration than SLA, and its area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero to the last (AUC) was significantly about 1.26 times higher than that of SLA. However, after intravenous administration of the racemic mixture, the pharmacokinetic profiles, initial concentration (C?), AUC, and half-life (T1/2) of the enantiomers were not significantly different. After oral and intraduodenal administration of the racemic mixture to pyrolus-ligated rats, the AUCs of RLA were significantly about 1.24 and 1.32 times higher than that of SLA, respectively. In addition, after intraportal administration the AUC of RLA was significantly 1.16 times higher than that of SLA. In conclusion, the enantioselective pharmacokinetics of LA in rats arose from the fraction absorbed multiplied by gastrointestinal availability (FaFg) and hepatic availability (Fh), and not from the total clearance. PMID:26402669

  1. Sustainable synthesis, characterization, and applications of metal oxide nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiano, Amanda Lyn

    Nanomaterials have attracted significant research focus due to their advantageous and unique properties (i.e. electronic, magnetic, optical, and mechanical) as compared with the bulk. Metal oxide nanostructures are of particular interest, as they are very robust and display high chemical and thermal stability, while offering a diverse array of fascinating properties. By reliably controlling the size, morphology, composition, and crystallinity of these nanostructures, their properties can be tuned for a specific purpose. These advantageous tailorable properties render them as ideal candidates for many applications such as catalysis, sensing, electronics, optoelectronics, energy storage, and even medicine. Driven by their increased popularity and potential applications, efforts to synthesize nanomaterials have moved toward environmentally-friendly methodologies, such as wet-chemical, molten-salt, hydrothermal, and sol-gel methods. We will discuss the green synthesis of strontium ruthenate (SrRuO 3), the yttrium manganese oxides (YMnO3 and YMn2O 5), and the magnetic spinel ferrites (MFe2O4 where 'M' is Mg, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn) and our ability to reliably tune their properties for various applications. The effects of the molten salt parameters on the resulting particle size and morphology were explored for SrRuO 3 and the yttrium manganese oxides. For example, rapid cooling rates and the use of surfactants allowed us to produced faceted octahedra of SrRuO 3, which resulted in a 4-fold enhancement of their activity towards methanol oxidation with respect to smooth rounded particles. Similarly, using the hydrothermal method, we generated ferrite nanoparticles of different compositions and sizes. We investigated their potential as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and as photocatalysts, and observed significant differences as a function of both size and composition. Similarly, we will also examine surface and structural effects upon the electronic properties of V2O 3 nanowires.

  2. Synthesis, characterization and biosensing application of photon upconverting nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Manoj; Zhang, Peng

    2009-02-01

    Phosphor/fluorescent molecules/particles have been widely used in various applications for quite some time. Typically, light with longer wavelength(s) is emitted when excited by shorter wavelength light. The opposite effect also exists, where a phosphor particle is excited with an infrared or red light and emits color(s) of shorter wavelengths, a process called up-conversion. Materials with upconverting properties have narrower absorption and line emission spectra than their down-converting counterparts. Because most non-target materials in a complex mixture do not possess such photon up-conversion properties, a dramatically improved S/N ratio is expected in sensing and luminescence reporting applications. This makes photon upconverting materials ideal for identification of trace amounts of target molecules. Here we report the synthesis, characterization and DNA detection application based on NaYF4:Yb3+, Er3+ photon upconverting nanoparticles. The design of a nucleotide sensor for the detection of point mutation associated with sickle cell disease is described. The underlying principle for the detection is luminescence resonance energy transfer (LRET), with the photon upconverting nanoparticle as the donor and a dye, N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-6-carboxyrhodamine (TAMRA), as the acceptor. The detection scheme is based on a sandwich-type hybridization format. The presence of the target DNA is indicated by the increase of the normalized acceptor's emission. Based on photon upconverting nanoparticles, which display high S/N ratio and no photobleaching, the DNA sensor demonstrates high sensitivity and specificity. The results demonstrate great potential of such nanomaterials as oligonucleotide sensors.

  3. Enantio-selective occurrence of (S)-tetrahydropapaveroline in human brain.

    PubMed

    Sango, K; Maruyama, W; Matsubara, K; Dostert, P; Minami, C; Kawai, M; Naoi, M

    2000-04-14

    Tetrahydropapaveroline is an endogenous complex alkaloid derived from dopamine through the oxidation by monoamine oxidase. This alkaloid is considered to be involved in the pathogenesis of alcoholism and to act as a false neurotransmitter. Recently the (S) enantiomer was proposed to be a precursor of morphine biosynthesis in the opium poppy. In this paper stereo-chemical characteristic of tetrahydropapaveroline in human brains was examined. In all four control human brains examined, only the (S)-tetrahydropapaveroline was detected. The concentrations were 0.12-0.22 pmol/g wet weight of brain tissue, and the presence of alcohol in blood did not affect the concentration. The results suggest that (S)-tetrahydropapaveroline may be enantio-selectively synthesized in human brain and it may be an intermediate of the de novo synthesis of morphine analogues. PMID:10754228

  4. Highly efficient, enantioselective syntheses of (S)-(+)- and (R)-(-)-dapoxetine starting with 3-phenyl-1-propanol.

    PubMed

    Kang, Soyeong; Lee, Hyeon-Kyu

    2010-01-01

    A highly efficient, enantioselective sequence has been developed for the synthesis of (S)- and (R)-dapoxetine. The pathways involve the intermediacy of the 6-membered-ring sulfamate esters 4, which were generated by Du Bois asymmetric C-H amination reactions of the prochiral sulfamate 3, catalyzed by the chiral dirhodium(II) complexes. During the course of our research, the absolute configuration of the enantiomer of 4-pheny[1,2,3]oxathiazinane 2,2-dioxide (4r), prepared by the Du Bois asymmetric C-H amination reaction of 3 and the Rh(2)(S-nap)(4) catalyst, is determined to be R and not S as was originally reported. PMID:19957926

  5. Enantioselective syntheses and sensory properties of 2-methyl-tetrahydrofuran-3-thiol acetates.

    PubMed

    Dai, Yifeng; Shao, Junqiang; Yang, Shaoxiang; Sun, Baoguo; Liu, Yongguo; Ning, Ting; Tian, Hongyu

    2015-01-21

    The enantioselective synthesis of four stereoisomers of 2-methyl-tetrahydrofuran-3-thiol acetate was achieved. The two enantiomers of the important intermediate cis-2-methyl-3-hydroxy-tetrahydrofuran were obtained by Sharpless asymmetric dihydroxylation (AD), whereas the two enantiomers of trans-2-methyl-3-hydroxy-tetrahydrofuran were derived from the corresponding optically active cis-isomers by Mitsunobu reaction. Each stereoisomer of 2-methyl-3-hydroxy-tetrahydrofuran went through mesylation and nucleophilic substitution to afford the corresponding product with specific configuration. (2R,3S)- and (2R,3R)-2-methyl-tetrahydrofuran-3-thiol acetate were obtained in 80% ee, whereas the (2S,3R)- and (2S,3S)-isomers were in 62% ee. The odor properties of the synthesized four stereoisomers were evaluated by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O), which revealed perceptible differences among stereoisomers both in odor features and in intensities. PMID:25560460

  6. An aromatic ion platform for enantioselective Brønsted acid catalysis.

    PubMed

    Gheewala, Chirag D; Collins, Bridget E; Lambert, Tristan H

    2016-02-26

    Chiral acid catalysts are useful for the synthesis of enantioenriched small molecules, but the standard catalysts require laborious and expensive preparations. Here, we describe a chiral Brønsted acid prepared in one step from naturally occurring (-)-menthol and readily available 1,2,3,4,5-pentacarbomethoxycyclopentadiene. Aromatic stabilization serves as a key contributing factor to the potent acidity of the resulting compound, which is shown to catalyze both Mukaiyama-Mannich and oxocarbenium aldol reactions with high efficiency and enantioselectivity. Catalyst loadings as low as 0.01 mole percent and preparative scalability (25 grams) are demonstrated. Alternative amide catalysts are also shown to be promising platforms. In addition to proton catalysis, a chiral anion pathway is demonstrated to be viable with this catalyst system. PMID:26917768

  7. Immobilization and Characterization of a New Regioselective and Enantioselective Lipase Obtained from a Metagenomic Library

    PubMed Central

    Alnoch, Robson Carlos; Martini, Viviane Paula; Glogauer, Arnaldo; Costa, Allen Carolina dos Santos; Piovan, Leandro; Muller-Santos, Marcelo; de Souza, Emanuel Maltempi; de Oliveira Pedrosa, Fbio; Mitchell, David Alexander; Krieger, Nadia

    2015-01-01

    In previous work, a new lipase and its cognate foldase were identified and isolated from a metagenomic library constructed from soil samples contaminated with fat. This new lipase, called LipG9, is a true lipase that shows specific activities that are comparable to those of well-known industrially-used lipases with high activity against long-chain triglycerides. In the present work, LipG9 was co-expressed and co-immobilized with its foldase, on an inert hydrophobic support (Accurel MP1000). We studied the performance of this immobilized LipG9 (Im-LipG9) in organic media, in order to evaluate its potential for use in biocatalysis. Im-LipG9 showed good stability, maintaining a residual activity of more than 70% at 50C after incubation in n-heptane (log P 4.0) for 8 h. It was also stable in polar organic solvents such as ethanol (log P -0.23) and acetone (log P -0.31), maintaining more than 80% of its original activity after 8 h incubation at 30C. The synthesis of ethyl esters was tested with fatty acids of different chain lengths in n-heptane at 30 C. The best conversions (90% in 3 h) were obtained for medium and long chain saturated fatty acids (C8, C14 and C16), with the maximum specific activity, 29 U per gram of immobilized preparation, being obtained with palmitic acid (C16). Im-LipG9 was sn-1,3-specific. In the transesterification of the alcohol (R,S)-1-phenylethanol with vinyl acetate and the hydrolysis of the analogous ester, (R,S)-1-phenylethyl acetate, Im-LipG9 showed excellent enantioselectivity for the R-isomer of both substrates (E> 200), giving an enantiomeric excess (ee) of higher than 95% for the products at 49% conversion. The results obtained in this work provide the basis for the development of applications of LipG9 in biocatalysis. PMID:25706996

  8. Immobilization and characterization of a new regioselective and enantioselective lipase obtained from a metagenomic library.

    PubMed

    Alnoch, Robson Carlos; Martini, Viviane Paula; Glogauer, Arnaldo; Costa, Allen Carolina dos Santos; Piovan, Leandro; Muller-Santos, Marcelo; de Souza, Emanuel Maltempi; de Oliveira Pedrosa, Fábio; Mitchell, David Alexander; Krieger, Nadia

    2015-01-01

    In previous work, a new lipase and its cognate foldase were identified and isolated from a metagenomic library constructed from soil samples contaminated with fat. This new lipase, called LipG9, is a true lipase that shows specific activities that are comparable to those of well-known industrially-used lipases with high activity against long-chain triglycerides. In the present work, LipG9 was co-expressed and co-immobilized with its foldase, on an inert hydrophobic support (Accurel MP1000). We studied the performance of this immobilized LipG9 (Im-LipG9) in organic media, in order to evaluate its potential for use in biocatalysis. Im-LipG9 showed good stability, maintaining a residual activity of more than 70% at 50 °C after incubation in n-heptane (log P 4.0) for 8 h. It was also stable in polar organic solvents such as ethanol (log P -0.23) and acetone (log P -0.31), maintaining more than 80% of its original activity after 8 h incubation at 30 °C. The synthesis of ethyl esters was tested with fatty acids of different chain lengths in n-heptane at 30 °C. The best conversions (90% in 3 h) were obtained for medium and long chain saturated fatty acids (C8, C14 and C16), with the maximum specific activity, 29 U per gram of immobilized preparation, being obtained with palmitic acid (C16). Im-LipG9 was sn-1,3-specific. In the transesterification of the alcohol (R,S)-1-phenylethanol with vinyl acetate and the hydrolysis of the analogous ester, (R,S)-1-phenylethyl acetate, Im-LipG9 showed excellent enantioselectivity for the R-isomer of both substrates (E> 200), giving an enantiomeric excess (ee) of higher than 95% for the products at 49% conversion. The results obtained in this work provide the basis for the development of applications of LipG9 in biocatalysis. PMID:25706996

  9. Reinvestigation of a Catalytic, Enantioselective Alkene Dibromination and Chlorohydroxylation.

    PubMed

    Denmark, Scott E; Carson, Nessa

    2015-12-01

    Attempts to reproduce eight, putative, enantioselective dibromination and chlorohydroxylation reactions from oft-cited literature studies are described. The reactions were performed with full fidelity to the original report wherever possible. Analysis of the enantiomeric composition was performed by chiral stationary phase HPLC or SFC (CSP-HPLC or CSP-SFC), as opposed to the original report, which used chiral shift reagent NMR spectroscopy. After careful study, the reported levels of enantioselectivity were found to be incorrect. Possible explanations for the false positive results are discussed. PMID:26566099

  10. Reinvestigation of a Catalytic, Enantioselective Alkene Dibromination and Chlorohydroxylation

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Attempts to reproduce eight, putative, enantioselective dibromination and chlorohydroxylation reactions from oft-cited literature studies are described. The reactions were performed with full fidelity to the original report wherever possible. Analysis of the enantiomeric composition was performed by chiral stationary phase HPLC or SFC (CSP-HPLC or CSP-SFC), as opposed to the original report, which used chiral shift reagent NMR spectroscopy. After careful study, the reported levels of enantioselectivity were found to be incorrect. Possible explanations for the false positive results are discussed. PMID:26566099

  11. Synthesis of nanostructured materials for biosensor and fuel cell applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil, Maria Paula

    Nanotechnology has attracted the attention of many different fields due to the new and exiting possibilities it entails. However, the future of nanotechnology depends on (i) the successful understanding and discovery of material properties at the nanoscale, (ii) efficient manufacture of nanoscale materials, and (iii) most importantly, incorporation of nanomaterials into real world applications and devices. The purpose of this research is to synthesize macroscale materials for applications such as fuel cell membranes or biosensors by assembly or modification at the nanoscale. This research is concentrated in two main projects. The first project focuses on the direct synthesis of a PEEK fuel cell membrane from sulfonated monomers with nanoscale features. S-PEEK membranes were evaluated for possible fuel cell applications by determining the degree of sulfonation, water swelling, proton conductivity, methanol diffusivity and thermal stability. As synthesized S-PEEK membranes exhibit conductivities (25C) from 0.02--0.07 S/cm, water swelling from 13--54%, ion-exchange capacities (IEC) from 0.7--1.5 mmol/g and methanol diffusion coefficients from 3 x 10-7 --5 x 10-8 cm2/s at 25C. These diffusion coefficients are much lower than that of NafionRTM (2 x 10-6 cm2/s), making S-PEEK membranes a good alternative to reduce problems associated with high methanol crossover in direct methanol fuel cells. The second project consists of synthesizing (2D) or (3D) nanowire thin film Pt electrodes for applications as glucose sensors. Although platinum nanowires have shown to have unique properties, it is still challenging to fabricate nanowire devices such as sensors. This research reports the fabrication of platinum nanowires into continuous thin film electrodes and the application as biosensors. The electrodes were synthesized by the following steps: (1) construction of a nanostructured mesoporous thin film template by self-assembly of surfactant and silicate species, (2) electrodeposition of platinum within the pores of the silica template, (3) removal of the silica template, and (4) immobilization of the enzyme on the platinum electrodes. SEM, TEM, chronoamperometry and cyclic voltammetry were used to characterize the electrodes. The sensor sensitivity was determined amperometrically. The sensors show improved sensitivities and stabilities, providing a promising approach to integrate nanowires into useful devices.

  12. Enantioselectivity of racemic metolachlor and S-metolachlor in maize seedlings.

    PubMed

    Xie, Fei; Liu, Hui J; Cai, Wei D

    2010-11-01

    Chiral herbicides may have enantioselective effects on plants. In this study, we assessed and compared the enantioselectivity of the chiral herbicides rac-metolachlor and S-metolachlor to maize seedlings. The superoxide dismutase activity (SOD) activity of roots and stem leaves treated by rac-metolachlor was 1.38 and 1.99 times that of roots and stem leaves treated by S-metolachlor. The peroxidase activity (POD) activity of roots and stem leaves was 1.48 and 2.79 times that of roots and stem leaves treated by S-metolachlor, respectively, while the catalase activity (CAT) activity was 4.77 and 8.37 times greater, respectively. The Hill reaction activity of leaves treated by rac-metolachlor were 1.45, 1.33, and 1.14 times those treated by S-metolachlor with treatments of 18.6, 37.2, and 74.4 ?M. The differences observed between treatments of rac- and S-metolachlor were significant. Significant differences in maize seedling morphology were also observed between rac- and S-metolachlor treatments. The degradation rate of S-metolachlor in roots was greater than that of rac-metolachlor. The half-lives of rac- and S-metolachlor were 80.6 and 60.3 h at 18.6 ?M; 119.5 and 90 h at 37.2 ?M; and 169 and 164.8 h at 74.4 ?M, respectively. Using the liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method, hydroxymetolachlor, deschlorometolachlor and deschlorometolachlor propanol were considered to be possible metabolites. We determined the enantioselective toxicity of rac- and S-metolachlor to maize and speculated on the proposed metabolic pathway of metolachlor in maize roots. These results will help to develop an understanding of the proper application of rac- and S-metolachlor in crops, and give some information for environmental safety evaluation of rac- and S-metolachlor. PMID:20954044

  13. Iridium-catalyzed enantioselective hydrogenation of imines in supercritical carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Kainz, S.; Brinkmann, A.; Leitner, W.; Pfaltz, A.

    1999-07-14

    Supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO{sub 2}) was shown to be a reaction medium with unique properties for highly efficient iridium-catalyzed enantioselective hydrogenation of prochiral imines. Cationic iridium(I) complexes with chiral phosphinodihydrooxazoles, modified with perfluoroalkyl groups in the ligand or in the anion, were synthesized and tested in the hydrogenation of N-(1-phenylethylidene)aniline. Both the side chains and the lipophilic anions increased the solubility, but the choice of the anion also had a dramatic effect on the enantioselectivity with tetrakis-3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenylborate (BARF) leading to the highest asymmetric induction. (R)-N-phenyl-1-phenylethylamine was formed quantitatively within 1 h in scCO{sub 2}[d(CO{sub 2}) = 0.75 g mL{sup {minus}1}] at 40 C and a H{sub 2} pressure of 30 bar with enantiomeric excesses of up to 81% using 0.078 mol % catalyst. The use of scCO{sub 2} instead of conventional solvents such as CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} allowed the catalyst loading to be lowered significantly owing to a change in the rate profile of the reaction. the homogeneous nature of the catalytically active species under the reaction conditions was demonstrated and was found to depend strongly on the composition of the reaction mixture and especially on the presence of the substrate. Utilizing the selective extractive properties of scCO{sub 2}, the product could be readily separated from the catalyst, which could be recycled several times without significant loss of activity and enantioselectivity. High-pressure FT-IR and NMR investigations revealed that the reactivity of the products to form the corresponding carbamic acids plays an important role for the application of this new methodology.

  14. Molecular mechanism of enantioselective proton transfer to carbon in catalytic antibody 14D9.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Lei; Baumann, Ulrich; Reymond, Jean-Louis

    2004-03-01

    Catalytic antibody 14D9 catalyzes the enantioselective protonation of prochiral enol ethers with high enantioselectivity (>99% ee) and a practical turnover (k(cat) = 0.4 s(-1)), allowing for preparative scale applications. This antibody represents one of the rare examples of catalytic antibodies promoting acid-catalyzed processes. Antibody 14D9 was cloned and expressed as a chimeric Fab fragment in Escherichia coli. Crystal structures of Fab 14D9 as apo form and of its close analog 19C9 in complex with the transition state analog were determined at 2.8-A resolution. A series of site-directed mutagenesis experiments was carried out to probe the role of individual active-site amino acids. Proton transfer to carbon is catalyzed by a hydrogen bond network formed by the side chains of Asp(H101) and Tyr(L36) with a water molecule serving as a relay. The intermediate oxocarbonium ion formed during the protonation step is trapped by the same water molecule, resulting in an overall syn-addition of water to the enol ether's double bond. The enantioselectivity is caused by steric crowding at the active site, mainly because of the side chain of Phe(H84). The 20-fold lower activity of 19C9 compared with 14D9 was traced down to residue Thr(L46), which forms a nonproductive hydrogen bond with the catalytic residue Asp(H101), which competes with the critical Asp(H101)-Tyr(L36) hydrogen bond and therefore reduces catalytic efficiency. The catalytic activity of 19C9 was restored to that of 14D9 by using either site-directed mutagenesis (Thr(L46)Ala) or chain shuffling. PMID:14988504

  15. Sonochemical synthesis of manganese (II) hydroxide for supercapacitor applications

    SciTech Connect

    Anandan, Sambandam; Gnana Sundara Raj, Balasubramaniam; Lee, Gang-Juan; Wu, Jerry J.

    2013-09-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: Octahedral Mn(OH){sub 2} nanoparticles were prepared by sonochemical process. TEM images indicates the formation of octahedral Mn(OH){sub 2} nanoparticles. Octahedral Mn(OH){sub 2} nanoparticles are evaluated as a supercapacitor material. - Abstract: In this research, a rapid and controllable synthesis of octahedral Mn(OH){sub 2} nanoparticles with a size range from 140 to 200 nm has been done by a sonochemial irradiation method for the energy storage applications. Transmission electron microscopic images, energy disperse X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray photo electron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analyses clearly indicate the formation of octahedral Mn(OH){sub 2} nanoparticles. Octahedral Mn(OH){sub 2} nanoparticles were evaluated as a supercapacitor material that exhibits specific capacitance 127 F g{sup ?1} at a current density of 0.5 mA cm{sup ?2} in the potential range from ?0.1 to 0.8 V in 1 M Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution.

  16. Synthesis of Boron Nitride Nanotubes for Engineering Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurst, Janet; Hull, David; Gorican, Dan

    2005-01-01

    Boron Nitride nanotubes (BNNT) are of interest to the scientific and technical communities for many of the same reasons that carbon nanotubes (CNT) have attracted large amounts of attention. Both materials have potentially unique and significant properties which may have important structural and electronic applications in the future. However of even more interest than their similarities may be the differences between carbon and boron nanotubes. Whilt boron nitride nanotubes possess a very high modulus similaar to CNT, they are also more chemically and thermally inert. Additionally BNNT possess more uniform electronic properties, having a uniform band gap of approximately 5.5 eV while CNT vary from semi-conductin to conductor behavior. Boron Nitride nanotubes have been synthesized by a variety of methods such as chemical vapor deposition, arc discharge and reactive milling. Consistently producing a reliable product has proven difficult. Progress in synthesis of 1-2 gram sized batches of Boron Nitride nanotubes will be discussed as well as potential uses for this unique material.

  17. Silver nanoparticles: synthesis, properties, toxicology, applications and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Quang Huy; Quy Nguyen, Van; Le, Anh-Tuan

    2013-09-01

    In recent years the outbreak of re-emerging and emerging infectious diseases has been a significant burden on global economies and public health. The growth of population and urbanization along with poor water supply and environmental hygiene are the main reasons for the increase in outbreak of infectious pathogens. Transmission of infectious pathogens to the community has caused outbreaks of diseases such as influenza (A/H5N1), diarrhea (Escherichia coli), cholera (Vibrio cholera), etc throughout the world. The comprehensive treatments of environments containing infectious pathogens using advanced disinfectant nanomaterials have been proposed for prevention of the outbreaks. Among these nanomaterials, silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) with unique properties of high antimicrobial activity have attracted much interest from scientists and technologists to develop nanosilver-based disinfectant products. This article aims to review the synthesis routes and antimicrobial effects of Ag-NPs against various pathogens including bacteria, fungi and virus. Toxicology considerations of Ag-NPs to humans and ecology are discussed in detail. Some current applications of Ag-NPs in water-, air- and surface- disinfection are described. Finally, future prospects of Ag-NPs for treatment and prevention of currently emerging infections are discussed.

  18. Direct Hydrothermal Synthesis of Carbonaceous Silver Nanocables for Electrocatalytic Applications.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chuyang; Suryanto, Bryan Harry Rahmat; Zhao, Chuan; Jiang, Xuchuan; Yu, Aibing

    2015-08-01

    This study demonstrates a facile but efficient hydrothermal method for the direct synthesis of both carbonaceous silver (Ag@C core-shell) nanocables and carbonaceous nanotubes under mild conditions (<180 °C). The carbonaceous tubes can be formed by removal of the silver cores via an etching process under temperature control (60-140 °C). The structure and composition are characterized using various advanced microscopic and spectroscopic techniques. The pertinent variables such as temperature, reaction time, and surfactants that can affect the formation and growth of the nanocables and nanotubes are investigated and optimized. It is found that cetyltrimethylammonium bromide plays multiple roles in the formation of Ag@C nanocables and carbonaceous nanotubes including: a shape controller for metallic Ag wires and Ag@C cables, a source of Br(-) ions to form insoluble AgBr and then Ag crystals, an etching agent of silver cores to form carbonaceous tubes, and an inducer to refill silver particles into the carbonaceous tubes to form core-shell structures. The formation mechanism of carbonaceous silver nanostructures depending upon temperature is also discussed. Finally, the electrocatalytic performance of the as-prepared Ag@C nanocables is assessed for the oxidation reduction reaction and found to be very active but much less costly than the commonly used platinum catalysts. The findings should be useful for designing and constructing carbonaceous-metal nanostructures with potential applications in conductive materials, catalysts, and biosensors. PMID:25808560

  19. Enantioselective synthesis of L-(-)-4- boronophenylalanine (L-BPA)

    DOEpatents

    Samsel, E.G.

    1992-10-20

    A method of making substantially pure L-BPA is disclosed. The method includes the steps of reacting 4-bromobenzaldehyde with ethylene glycol to form 4-bromobenzaldehyde ethylene glycol acetal, sequentially reacting 4-bromobenzaldehyde ethyleneglycol acetal with Mg to produce the Grignard reagent and thereafter reacting with tributyl borate and then converting to an acid environment to form 4-boronobenzaldehyde, reacting 4-boronobenzaldehyde with diethanol amine to form 4-boronobenzaldehyde diethanolamine ester, condensing the 4-boronobenzaldehyde diethanolamine ester with 2-phenyl-2-oxazolin-5-one to form an azlactone, reacting the azlactone with an alkali metal hydroxide to form z-[alpha]-benzoylamino-4boronocinnamic acid, asymmetrically hydrogenating the z-[alpha]-benzoylamino-4-boronocinnamic acid in the presence of a catalyst of a cheltate complex of rhodium (I) with chiral bisphosphines to form L-(+)-N-benzoyl-4-boronophenylalanine, and thereafter acidifying the L-(+)-N-benzoyl-4-boronophenylalanine in an organic medium to produce L-BPA. 3 figs.

  20. Enantioselective synthesis of L-(-)-4- boronophenylalanine (L-BPA)

    DOEpatents

    Samsel, Edward G. (Baton Rouge, LA)

    1992-01-01

    A method of making substantially pure L-BPA is disclosed. The method includes the steps of reacting 4-bromobenzaldehyde with ethylene glycol to form 4-bromobenzaldehyde ethylene glycol acetal, sequentially reacting 4-bromobenzaldehyde ethyleneglycol acetal with Mg to produce the Grignard reagent and thereafter reacting with tributyl borate and then converting to an acid environment to form 4-boronobenzaldehyde, reacting 4-boronobenzaldehyde with diethanol amine to form 4-boronobenzaldehyde diethanolamine ester, condensing the 4-boronobenzaldehyde diethanolamine ester with 2-phenyl-2-oxazolin-5-one to form an azlactone, reacting the azlactone with an alkali metal hydroxide to form z-.alpha.-benzoylamino-4-boronocinnamic acid, asymmetrically hydrogenating the z-.alpha.-benzoylamino-4-boronocinnamic acid in the presence of a catalyst of a cheltate complex of rhodium (I) with chiral bisphosphines to form L-(+)-N-benzoyl-4-boronophenylalanine, and thereafter acidifying the L-(+)-N-benzoyl-4-boronophenylalanine in an organic medium to produce L-BPA.

  1. Enantioselective Synthesis of α-Methyl-β-cyclopropyldihydrocinnamates.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Melodie; Nolting, Andrew; Shevlin, Michael; Weisel, Mark; Maligres, Peter E; Lee, Joshua; Orr, Robert K; Plummer, Christopher W; Tudge, Matthew T; Campeau, Louis-Charles; Ruck, Rebecca T

    2016-02-01

    α- and β-substitution of dihydrocinnamates has been shown to increase the biological activity of various drug candidates. Recently, we identified enantio- and diastereopure α-methyl-β-cyclopropyldihydrocinnamates to be important pharmacophores in one of our drug discovery programs and endeavored to devise an asymmetric hydrogenation strategy to improve access to this valuable framework. We used high throughput experimentation to define stereoconvergent Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling conditions affording (Z)-α-methyl-β-cyclopropylcinnamates and subsequent ruthenium-catalyzed asymmetric hydrogenation conditions affording the desired products in excellent enantio- and diastereoselectivities. These conditions were executed on multigram to kilogram scale to provide three key enantiopure α-methyl-β-cyclopropyldihydrocinnamates with high selectivity. PMID:26743694

  2. Synthesis and characterization of advanced nanomaterials for energy applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Ming

    Energy is essential for life. It is thus important to continue understanding how to reduce energy consumption, and increase energy generation. The use of nanoscale materials (nanomaterials) are expected to reduce resources and energy needed in fabricating electrical and electronic devices and help in reducing energy consumption. For example, boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) which have uniform band structures, are expected to find application in nanoscale electronic and optoelectronic devices. These devices will have smaller dimension, cost fewer resources and less energy to fabricate, and consume less energy due to minimum electron scattering in their ideally defect-free tubular structures. On the other hand, nanomaterials are also expected to improve the performance of thermoelectric devices that can convert heat into energy. In this thesis, we first investigated low-temperature synthesis of BNNTs (Chapter 1). Effects of substrate temperatures, bias voltages, and catalysts are discussed and a selective-phase growth model is proposed. During the course of this investigation, we discovered Si nanotubes (SiNTs) by catalytic plasma treatment (Chapter 2). The detailed growth parameters and characterizations are presented and a modified growth model is discussed. In addition, electronic properties are measured by AFM. Since Si has exceptional thermoelectric properties, the newly discovered SiNTs are prospects for related applications. We have thus evaluated the potential conversion efficiency and production cost of various nanostructured thermoelectric materials (Chapter 3 and 4). Based on state-of-the-art dish-stirling systems, we evaluate the feasibility of replacing stirling engines by thermoelectric modules. Finally, we have decided to investigate the properties of boron-nanocarbon ensembles (Chapter 5 and 6) as prospective thermoelectric materials. Detailed characterizations includes SEM, HRTEM, Raman, XRD are presented. Seebeck coefficient and electrical conductivity are both measured with various temperatures. Induction quenching confirms that boron-doping help improve power factor of nanocarbon ensembles.

  3. DNA Synthesis, Assembly and Applications in Synthetic Biology

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Siying; Tang, Nicholas; Tian, Jingdong

    2012-01-01

    The past couple of years saw exciting new developments in microchip-based gene synthesis technologies. Such technologies hold the potential for significantly increasing the throughput and decreasing the cost of gene synthesis. Together with more efficient enzymatic error correction and genome assembly methods, these new technologies are pushing the field of synthetic biology to a higher level. PMID:22633067

  4. Synthesis and properties of unagglomerated nanocomposite particles for nanomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouse, Sarah M.

    2005-11-01

    Methods have been developed to prepare stable, unagglomerated active-medical-agent nanoparticles in a range of sizes, based on reverse-micelle microemulsion techniques. The process used to prepare monodisperse, spherical nanocomposite particles is based on methods originally outlined in detail by Adair et al. and Li et al. The "Molecular Dot" (MD) nanoparticles incorporate a variety of medically-active substances, such as organic fluorophores and therapeutic drugs, internally distributed in silica, titania, calcium phosphate, or calcium phospho-silicate matrices. The synthesis techniques have also been modified to produce nanoparticles containing combinations of fluorophores and medicinal agents, in order to monitor drug release and location. The specific biomedical application for the nanocomposite particles dictates the selection of core and shell-matrix materials. For example, the protective shell-matrices of the silica and titania MDs shield the active-medical agents from damage due to changes in pH, temperature, and other environmental effects. Conversely, the calcium phosphate and calcium phospho-silicate shell-matrix nanoparticles can potentially be engineered to dissolve in physiological environments. The method used to remove residual precursor materials while maintaining a well-dispersed assembly of nanoparticles is critical to the use of nanocolloids in medical applications. The dispersion approach is based on protection-dispersion theory tailored to accommodate the high surface areas and reactivity of sub-50 nm particles in aqueous or water/ethanol mixtures. Dispersion of the nanocomposite particles is further enhanced with the use of size-exclusion high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to simultaneously wash and disperse the nanocomposite particle suspensions. The state of dispersion of the nanosuspensions is evaluated using the average agglomeration number (AAN) approach in conjunction with other characterization techniques. The formulation of a non-aggregating colloid to deliver active-medical agents has the potential to revolutionize controlled, targeted, systemic delivery for a variety of drug and genetic therapies. The active-medical agent nanoparticles may be applied to a range of biomedical applications, including bioimaging, drug delivery, gene therapy, and combinations thereof. The fluorescent Molecular Dot nanoparticles have been utilized in applications such as in vitro cell labeling, as well as chemical and biological targeting. In addition, the Molecular Dots are a promising alternative to current bioimaging technologies, as the fluorescent emissions from the nanoparticulates do not exhibit blinking/intermittent qualities. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  5. Synthesis and applications of electrically conducting polymer nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ku, Bon-Cheol

    This research focuses on the synthesis and applications of electrically conducting polymer nanocomposites through molecular self-assembly. Two different classes of polymers, polyaniline (PANI) and polyacetylenes have been synthesized by biomimetic catalysis and spontaneous polymerization method. For gas barrier materials, commercially available polymers, poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) and poly (acrylic acid) (PAA), have also been used and thermally cross-linked. The morphological, optical and electrical properties of amphiphilic polyacetylenes have been studied. Furthermore, barrier properties, permselectivity, pervaporation properties of polyacetylenes/aluminosilicate nanocomposites have been investigated. For processability and electrical properties of carbon nanotube and conducting polymers, substituted ionic polyacetylenes (SIPA) have been covalently incorporated onto single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) using the "grafting-from" technique. In the first study, a nanocomposite film catalyst has been prepared by electrostatic layer-by-layer (ELBL) self-assembly of a polyelectrolyte and a biomimetic catalyst for synthesis of polyaniline. Poly(dimethyl diallylammonium chloride) (PDAC) and hematin have been used as polycation and counter anions, respectively. The absorption spectra by UV-vis-NIR spectroscopy showed that conductive form polyaniline was formed not only as a coating on the surface of the ELBL composites but was also formed in solution. Furthermore, it was found that the reaction rate was affected by pH and concentration of hematin in the multilayers. The feasibility of controlled desorption of hematin molecules from the LBL assembly was explored and demonstrated by changing the pH and hematin concentration. The polymerization rate of aniline in solution was enhanced with decreasing pH of the solutions due to increased desorption of hematin nanoparticles from the multilayers. These ELBL hematin assemblies demonstrated both a way to functionalize surfaces with conductive polyaniline and a potential method of reusability of the catalyst for improved cost effectiveness. For fabrication of multifunctional nanocomposite membranes, (P2EPy-R/Saponite) n on NafionRTM substrate was demonstrated by electrostatic layer-by layer assembly technique. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  6. Highly Selective Synthesis of Halomon, Plocamenone, and Isoplocamenone

    PubMed Central

    Bucher, Cyril; Deans, Richard M.; Burns, Noah Z.

    2015-01-01

    Over 160 chiral vicinal bromochlorinated natural products have been identified, however a lack of synthetic methods for the selective incorporation of halogens into organic molecules has hindered their synthesis. Here we disclose the first total synthesis and structural confirmation of isoplocamenone and plocamenone, as well as the first selective and scaleable synthesis of the preclinical anticancer natural product halomon. The synthesis of these interhalogenated compounds has been enabled by our recently developed chemo-, regio-, and enantioselective dihalogenation reaction. PMID:26394844

  7. Highly Selective Synthesis of Halomon, Plocamenone, and Isoplocamenone.

    PubMed

    Bucher, Cyril; Deans, Richard M; Burns, Noah Z

    2015-10-14

    Over 160 chiral vicinal bromochlorinated natural products have been identified; however, a lack of synthetic methods for the selective incorporation of halogens into organic molecules has hindered their synthesis. Here we disclose the first total synthesis and structural confirmation of isoplocamenone and plocamenone, as well as the first selective and scalable synthesis of the preclinical anticancer natural product halomon. The synthesis of these inter-halogenated compounds has been enabled by our recently developed chemo-, regio-, and enantioselective dihalogenation reaction. PMID:26394844

  8. Stereoselective and Regiodivergent Allylic Suzuki-Miyaura Cross-Coupling of 2-Ethoxydihydropyranyl Boronates: Synthesis and Confirmation of Absolute Stereochemistry of Diospongin B.

    PubMed

    Rybak, Taras; Hall, Dennis G

    2015-09-01

    Oxygen-containing heterocycles such as pyrans are a common substructure present in a variety of natural products and pharmaceutical drugs. Highly functionalized 4- and 6-aryl/heteroaryl dihydropyran derivatives are assembled by a highly stereoselective, ligand-controlled regiodivergent sp(3)-sp(2) Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling of a 2-ethoxy dihydropyranyl boronate derived from a catalytic enantioselective inverse-electron-demand oxa[4 + 2] cycloaddition. The scope and selectivity of this method were assessed along with an application to a concise total synthesis of the diarylheptanoid natural product diospongin B. PMID:26291472

  9. Synthesis, assembly, and applications of single-walled carbon nanotube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Koungmin

    This dissertation presents the synthesis and assembly of aligned carbon nanotubes, and their applications in both nano-electronics such as transistor and integrated circuits and macro-electronics in energy conversion devices as transparent conducting electrodes. Also, the high performance chemical sensor using metal oxide nanowire has been demonstrated. Chapter 1 presents a brief introduction of carbon nanotube, followed by discussion of a new synthesis technique using nanosphere lithography to grow highly aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes atop quartz and sapphire substrates. This method offers great potential to produce carbon nanotube arrays with simultaneous control over the nanotube orientation, position, density, diameter and even chirality. Chapter 3 introduces the wafer-scale integration and assembly of aligned carbon nanotubes, including full-wafer scale synthesis and transfer of massively aligned carbon nanotube arrays, and nanotube device fabrication on 4 inch Si/SiO2 wafer to yield submicron channel transistors with high on-current density ˜ 20 muA/mum and good on/off ratio and CMOS integrated circuits. In addition, various chemical doping methods for n-type nanotube transistors are studied to fabricate CMOS integrated nanotube circuits such as inverter, NAND and NOR logic devices. Furthermore, defect-tolerant circuit design for NAND and NOR is proposed and demonstrated to guarantee the correct operation of logic circuit, regardless of the presence of mis-aligned or mis-positioned nanotubes. Carbon nanotube flexible electronics and smart textiles for ubiquitous computing and sensing are demonstrated in chapter 4. A facile transfer printing technique has been introduced to transfer massively aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes from the original sapphire/quartz substrates to virtually any other substrates, including glass, silicon, polymer sheets, and even fabrics. The characterization of transferred nanotubes reveals that the transferred nanotubes are highly conductive, transparent, and flexible as well. Based on transferred nanotube arrays on fabric, we have successfully demonstrated nanotube transistors with on/off ratios ˜ 105, and chemical sensors for low-concentration NO2 and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT). In Chapter 5, I present the study of transparent conductive thin films made with two kinds of commercial carbon nanotubes: HiPCO and arc-discharge nanotubes. These films have been further exploited as hole-injection electrodes for organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) on both rigid glass and flexible substrates. Our experiments reveal that films based on arc discharge nanotubes are overwhelmingly better than HiPCO-nanotube-based films in all the critical aspects, including the surface roughness, sheet resistance, and transparency. The optimized films show a typical sheet resistance of ˜160O/□ at 87% transparency and have been successfully used to make OLEDs with high stability and long lifetime. Lastly, I present the fast and scalable integration of nanowire chemical sensors with micromachined hotplates built on SiN membranes. These hotplates allowed nanowire chemical sensors to operate at elevated temperatures in order to enhance the sensitivity of chemical sensors to target gases. By applying different current through the platinum heating filament, we can easily vary the device temperature from room temperature to 350°C. These nanosensors with integrated hot plates have been exploited for the detection of ethanol, CO and hydrogen down to concentrations of 1 ppm, 10 ppm and 50 ppm, respectively.

  10. A General Approach for Preparing Epidithiodioxopiperazines from Trioxopiperazine Precursors. Enantioselective Total Syntheses of (+)- and (?)- Gliocladine C, (+)-Leptosin D, (+)-T988C, Bionectin A and (+)-Gliocladin A

    PubMed Central

    DeLorbe, John E.; Horne, David; Jove, Richard; Mennen, Steven M.; Nam, Sangkil; Zhang, Fang-Li; Overman, Larry E.

    2013-01-01

    A common strategy for preparing tryptophan-derived epidithiodioxopiperazine (ETP) natural product containing a hydroxyl substituent adjacent to a quaternary carbon stereocenter is reported. This strategy is exemplified by enantioselective total syntheses of four heptacyclic ETP natural products gliocladine C (6), leptosin D (7), T988C (8), and bionectin A (9)starting with the di-(tertbutoxycarbonyl) derivative 17 of the trioxopiperazine natural product gliocladin C, which is readily available by enantioselective chemical synthesis. In addition, total syntheses of the enantiomer of gliocladine C (ent-6) and gliocladin A (11), the di(methylthio) congener of bionectin A, are reported. These syntheses illustrate a synthetic strategy wherein diversity in the dioxopiperazine unit of ETP natural products is introduced at a late stage in a synthetic sequence. In vitro cytotoxicity of compounds in this series against invasive human prostrate (DU145) and melanoma (A2058) cancer cell lines is described and compared to that of chaetocin A (4). PMID:23452236

  11. Nanomanufacturing of silica nanowires: Synthesis, characterization and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekhar, Praveen Kumar

    In this research, selective and bottom-up manufacturing of silica nanowires on silicon (Si) and its applications has been investigated. Localized synthesis of these nanowires on Si was achieved by metal thin film catalysis and metal ion implantation based seeding approach. The growth mechanism of the nanowires followed a vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism. Mass manufacturing aspects such as growth rate, re-usability of the substrate and experimental growth model were also investigated. Further, silica nanowires were explored as surface enhanced Raman (SER) substrate and immunoassay templates towards optical and electrochemical detection of cancer biomarkers respectively. Investigating their use in photonic applications, optically active silica nanowires were synthesized by erbium implantation after nanowire growth and implantation of erbium as a metal catalyst in Si to seed the nanowires. Ion implantation of Pd in Si and subsequent annealing in Ar at 1100 0 C for 60 mins in an open tube furnace resulted in silica nanowires of diameters ranging from 15 to 90 nm. Similarly, Pt was sputtered on to Si and further annealed to obtain silica nanowires of diameters ranging from 50 to 500 nm. Transmission electron microscopy studies revealed the amorphous nature of the wires. In addition, nano-sized Pd catalyst was found along the body of the nanowires seeded by Pd implantation into Si. After functionalization of the wires with 3 - AminoPropylTriMethoxySilane (APTMS), the Pd decorated silica nanowires served as an SER substrate exhibiting a sensitivity of 10 7 towards the detection of interleukin-10 (IL-10, a cancer biomarker) with higher spatial resolution. Voltammetric detection of IL-10 involved silica nanowires synthesized by Pd thin film catalysis on Si as an immunoassay template. Using the electrochemical scheme, the presence of IL-10 was detected down to 1fg/mL in ideal pure solution and 1 pg/mL in clinically relevant samples. Time resolved photoluminescence (PL) results from the Er doped silica nanowires indicate a sharp emission around 1.54 microm representative of the I13/2 to I15/2 transition in Erbium. Also, a five-fold increase in the PL intensity and 30% augment in luminescence life time have been observed in nanowires when compared to fused silica sample prepared under similar conditions. The experimental results indicate the potential of silica nanowires in a wide variety of applications such as the development of orthogonal biosensors, fabrication of metallic nanowires, and environmental sensing probes.

  12. Enantioselective sorption of the chiral fungicide metalaxyl on soil from non-racemic aqueous solutions: Environmental implications.

    PubMed

    Celis, Rafael; Gmiz, Beatriz; Facenda, Gracia; Hermosn, Mara C

    2015-12-30

    Mechanisms governing the enantioselectivity of the processes that determine the behavior of chiral pollutants in the environment need to be better understood. Understanding these mechanisms should help improve predictions of the hazards and risks chiral compounds can pose to people and the environment. We report the results of batch sorption experiments indicating that the sorption of the chiral fungicide metalaxyl on soil from non-racemic initial solutions was enantioselective. While from a racemic initial solution the two enantiomers of metalaxyl were sorbed on the soil to the same extent, increasing the fraction of R-enantiomer in the initial solution led to enhanced sorption of this enantiomer and to reduced sorption of the S-enantiomer. Considering the shape of the sorption isotherms (S-type) and the sorption behavior of model sorbents, we attributed this effect to molecular interactions between metalaxyl enantiomer species at the sorbed state, where R-R metalaxyl interactions appeared to be more favorable than R-S metalaxyl interactions. We discuss important environmental implications of the proposed mechanism, such as those related to the fact that the biological degradation of metalaxyl is known to be an enantioselective process that can yield non-racemic residues in soils shortly after application of the fungicide as a racemic mixture. PMID:26259163

  13. Dinuclear zinc-catalyzed enantioselective Aza-Henry reaction.

    PubMed

    Trost, Barry M; Lupton, David W

    2007-05-10

    The dinuclear zinc catalyst 1a was found to catalyze the addition of nitroalkanes to carbamate-protected imines. This aza-Henry reaction proceeds with high enantioselectivity when various carbamate-protected imines are used. alpha,beta-Unsaturated imines proved to be a particularly useful class of substrate routinely giving the alpha-nitro amine products in high enantiomeric excess. PMID:17439228

  14. Catalytic, Enantioselective, Intramolecular Carbosulfenylation of Olefins. Preparative and Stereochemical Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Denmark, Scott E.; Jaunet, Alex

    2014-01-01

    The first catalytic, enantioselective, intramolecular carbosulfenylation of isolated alkenes with aromatic nucleophiles is described. The combination of N-phenylsulfenylphthalimide, a chiral selenophosphoramide derived from BINAM, and ethanesulfonic acid as a co-catalytic Brnsted acid induced an efficient and selective cyclofunctionalization of various alkenes (aliphatic and aromatic) tethered to a 3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl ring. Under these conditions, 6-phenylthio-5,6,7,8-tetrahydronaphthalenes are formed diastereospecifically in good yields (5092%) and high enantioselectivities (71:29 97:3 er). E-Alkenes reacted much more rapidly and with much higher selectivity than Z-alkenes, whereas electron rich alkenes reacted more rapidly but with comparable selectivity to electron-neutral alkenes and electron deficient alkenes. The Brnsted acid played a critical role in effecting reproducible enantioselectivity. A model for the origin of enantioselectivity and the dependence of rate and selectivity on alkene structure is proposed along with a rationale for the site selectivity in reactions with mono-activated arene nucleophiles. PMID:24328051

  15. Whole cells in enantioselective reduction of benzyl acetoacetate

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Joyce Benzaquem; Ramos, Aline de Souza; Lopes, Raquel de Oliveira; da Silva, Gabriela Veloso Vieira; de Souza, Rodrigo Octavio Mendona Alves

    2014-01-01

    The ?-ketoester benzyl acetoacetate was enantioselectively reduced to benzyl (S)-3-hydroxybutanoate by seven microorganism species. The best result using free cells was obtained with the yeast Hansenula sp., which furnished 97% ee and 85% of conversion within 24 h. After immobilization in calcium alginate spheres, K.marxianus showed to be more stable after 2 cycles of reaction. PMID:25477927

  16. Enantioselective toxic effects and biodegradation of benalaxyl in Scenedesmus obliquus.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ledan; Lu, Dahai; Diao, Jinling; Zhou, Zhiqiang

    2012-03-01

    Enantioselectivity in ecotoxicity and biodegradation of chiral pesticide benalaxyl to freshwater algae Scenedesmus obliquus was studied. The 96 h-EC(50) values of rac-, R-(-)-, S-(+)-benalaxyl were 2.893, 3.867, and 8.441 mg L(-1), respectively. Therefore, the acute toxicities of benalaxyl enantiomers were enantioselective. In addition, the pigments chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b, antioxidant enzyme activities catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) as well as lipid peroxide malondialdehyde (MDA) were determined to evaluate the different toxic effects. Chlorophyll a was induced by S-(+)-benalaxyl but inhibited by R-(-)-benalaxyl at 1 mg L(-1). Chlorophyll b were both induced at 1 mg L(-1), but S-(+)-form was fourfold higher than R-(-)-form. S-(+)-benalaxyl inhibited more CAT activities at 3 mg L(-1) and 5 mg L(-1), induced less SOD activity and MDA content at 5 mg L(-1) than R-(-)-benalaxyl. Based on these data, enantioselectivity occurred in anti-oxidative stress when S. obliquus response to benalaxyl. In the biodegradation experiment, the half-lives of S-(+)-benalaxyl and R-(-)-benalaxyl were 4.07 d and 5.04 d, respectively, resulting in relative enrichment of the R-(-)-form. These results showed that toxic effects and biodegradation of benalaxyl in S. obliquus were enantioselective, and such enantiomeric differences must be taken into consideration in pesticide risk. PMID:22169712

  17. PDMS based microfluidic chips and their application in material synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Xiuqing

    Microfluidics is a highly interdisciplinary science which is to deal with the behavior, control and manipulation of fluids that are constrained to sub-milimeter scale. It incorporates the knowledge and technique intersecting physics, chemistry, mechanics, nanoscience and biotechnology, with practical applications to the design of systems in which small volumes of fluids will be used. In this thesis, we started our research from GER fluid synthesis which then is applied to designing different functions of microfluidic devices, valve, pump, and mixer. We built a way to correlate mechanical signal with electric signal by soft matter. The mechanical devices based GER fluid had good operating stability and mechanical performance. We studied how to improve the performance of GER fluid by increasing the yield stress while avoiding the sendimentation of nanoparticles in GER suspension. The meaning of this work is to enhance the stability and mechanical strength of GER fluid when it is applyed to the microfluidc channels. We tried different oils and studied the particle size for the GER effect. The largest yield stress which amounts to 300 kPa is achievable compared to previous GER fluid with 100 kPa. Microfluidic reactor, directing the flow of microliter volumes along microscale channels, offers the advantages of precise control of reagent loading, fast mixing and an enhanced reaction rate, cessation of the reaction at specific stages, and more. Basically, there are two microfluidic flow regimes, continuous flow and segmented flow (suspended droplets, channel-spanning slug, and wall-wetting films). Both flow regimes offer chemical reaction applications, e.g., continuous flow formation of polymer nanospheres and inorganic nanoparticles, size- and shape-control synthesis by segmented flow, and precipitate-forming reactions in droplets, wherein the segmented flow has gained more popularity in that area. The compartmentalization of segmented flow offers advantages to chemical reactions. Here, we report the microfluidic fabrication of magnetically responsive microsphere, macroporous polymer microspheres and hollow titania microspheres. To prepare magnetically responsive microsphere, we introduced magnetic particles into liquid shell and drug into liquid core. After cross-linking reaction of the shell, we studied the magnetic contraction and extention behavior which induced the drug release efficiency. To prepare porous polymer, the H 2O2 solution was encapsulated in polymer precursor, after which we investigated its decomposition under UV irradiation, which simultaneously induces the polymerization of the encapsulating shell. Because the H 2O2 decomposition leads to the release of oxygen, porous microspheres were obtained from a combined H2O2-decomposition/polymer precursor polymerization reaction. To prepare hollow titanium gel microspheres, water droplets were first formed by the flow focusing geometry in microfluidic chip and used as a soft template. Then hydrolysis and gelation of titanium alkoxide on the droplet's surface were induced in following serpentine channels, controlled by interface water diffusion. The water diffusion process can be controlled by the amount of the "dewetting" reagent butanol, by which the surface morphology of the titania microspheres can be tuned.

  18. Synthesis, characterization and applications of a perdeuterated amphipol.

    PubMed

    Giusti, Fabrice; Rieger, Jutta; Catoire, Laurent J; Qian, Shuo; Calabrese, Antonio N; Watkinson, Thomas G; Casiraghi, Marina; Radford, Sheena E; Ashcroft, Alison E; Popot, Jean-Luc

    2014-10-01

    Amphipols are short amphipathic polymers that can substitute for detergents at the hydrophobic surface of membrane proteins (MPs), keeping them soluble in the absence of detergents while stabilizing them. The most widely used amphipol, known as A8-35, is comprised of a polyacrylic acid (PAA) main chain grafted with octylamine and isopropylamine. Among its many applications, A8-35 has proven particularly useful for solution-state NMR studies of MPs, for which it can be desirable to eliminate signals originating from the protons of the surfactant. In the present work, we describe the synthesis and properties of perdeuterated A8-35 (perDAPol). Perdeuterated PAA was obtained by radical polymerization of deuterated acrylic acid. It was subsequently grafted with deuterated amines, yielding perDAPol. The number-average molar mass of hydrogenated and perDAPol, ~4 and ~5 kDa, respectively, was deduced from that of their PAA precursors, determined by size exclusion chromatography in tetrahydrofuran following permethylation. Electrospray ionization-ion mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry measurements show the molar mass and distribution of the two APols to be very similar. Upon neutron scattering, the contrast match point of perDAPol is found to be ~120% D2O. In (1)H-(1)H nuclear overhauser effect NMR spectra, its contribution is reduced to ~6% of that of hydrogenated A8-35, making it suitable for extended uses in NMR spectroscopy. PerDAPol ought to also be of use for inelastic neutron scattering studies of the dynamics of APol-trapped MPs, as well as small-angle neutron scattering and analytical ultracentrifugation. PMID:24652511

  19. New synthesis of maleic anhydride modified polyolefins and their applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Bing

    Maleic anhydride (MA) modified polyolefins are the most useful commercial functional polyolefins. The current technology of producing MA modified polyolefins, mainly free radical modification, usually results in low MA graft contents, extensive side reactions, and poor control of graft structures. In this thesis, we show a new synthetic route for preparing MA modified polyolefins with excellent control of polymer structures and MA concentrations. The synthesis is based on the "reactive" polyolefin copolymers, i.e. polyolefins containing p-methylstyrene or alkylborane groups. The p-methylstyrene copolymers lead to selectively grafting reactions on the p-methyl groups, greatly reducing the side reactions on the polyolefin backbone. The MA graft content was proportional to the concentration of p-methylstyrene. In the borane approach, under controlled selective oxidation, the alkylborane containing PP polymers formed the "stable" polymeric radical in situ which initiated the graft-from reaction. By varying the monomer concentrations of MA and styrene, reaction time and temperature, a broad range of MA modified PP polymers were prepared from a single MA terminated or grafted PP to a very long SMA segment blocked or grafted PP, and there is no detectable side reaction on the PP backbone. MA modified polyolefins were investigated in the applications of glass fiber reinforced PP, elastomer toughened Nylon, and polyolefin/Nylon blends. The MA modified polyolefin compatibilizers showed the significant improved mechanical properties and morphology of the blends. The effectiveness of compatibilization depends on the MA concentration, molecular weight of the polyolefin segments, the structure of the compatibilizers, and the composition of the blend. By amidation or imidation reaction of MA modified PP with amine terminated PP, long chain branched PP polymers were also prepared. The results of IR, GPC, intrinsic viscosity and DSC studies clearly indicate the formation of long chain branched PP.

  20. Synthetic studies on the icetexones: enantioselective formal syntheses of icetexone and epi-icetexone

    PubMed Central

    de Jesus Cortez, Felipe; Lapointe, David; Hamlin, Amy M.; Simmons, Eric M.; Sarpong, Richmond

    2013-01-01

    Two strategies for the synthesis of the icetexane diterpenoids icetexone and epi-icetexone that rely on Ga(III)-catalyzed cycloisomerization of alkynyl indene substrates to yield fused [6-7-6] tricycles have been explored. In the first approach, access to a tricycle bearing a gem-dimethyl group paved the way for explorations of CH functionalization of one of the methyl groups in close proximity to a hydroxyl-directing group. This approach was ultimately unsuccessful and led only to ring cleaved products. In the second approach, an alkynyl indene substrate bearing a cyano substituent was utilized, which was effective in providing a functional handle to access the icetexone subclass of diterpenoids. A key epoxide opening/diazene rearrangement sequence was utilized to complete a formal synthesis of icetexone and epi-icetexone, which is discussed in detail. Furthermore, the cyano-containing substrate has been prepared in enantioenriched form using a Rh-catalyzed conjugate addition reaction, which now provides a route to the enantioselective synthesis of these natural products. PMID:24249921

  1. Crystal structures of two Bacillus carboxylesterases with different enantioselectivities.

    PubMed

    Rozeboom, Henritte J; Godinho, Luis F; Nardini, Marco; Quax, Wim J; Dijkstra, Bauke W

    2014-03-01

    Naproxen esterase (NP) from Bacillus subtilis Thai I-8 is a carboxylesterase that catalyzes the enantioselective hydrolysis of naproxenmethylester to produce S-naproxen (E>200). It is a homolog of CesA (98% sequence identity) and CesB (64% identity), both produced by B. subtilis strain 168. CesB can be used for the enantioselective hydrolysis of 1,2-O-isopropylideneglycerol (solketal) esters (E>200 for IPG-caprylate). Crystal structures of NP and CesB, determined to a resolution of 1.75 and 2.04, respectively, showed that both proteins have a canonical ?/? hydrolase fold with an extra N-terminal helix stabilizing the cap subdomain. The active site in both enzymes is located in a deep hydrophobic groove and includes the catalytic triad residues Ser130, His274, and Glu245. A product analog, presumably 2-(2-hydroxyethoxy)acetic acid, was bound in the NP active site. The enzymes have different enantioselectivities, which previously were shown to result from only a few amino acid substitutions in the cap domain. Modeling of a substrate in the active site of NP allowed explaining the different enantioselectivities. In addition, Ala156 may be a determinant of enantioselectivity as well, since its side chain appears to interfere with the binding of certain R-enantiomers in the active site of NP. However, the exchange route for substrate and product between the active site and the solvent is not obvious from the structures. Flexibility of the cap domain might facilitate such exchange. Interestingly, both carboxylesterases show higher structural similarity to meta-cleavage compound (MCP) hydrolases than to other ?/? hydrolase fold esterases. PMID:24418394

  2. Phytotoxicity of chiral herbicide bromacil: Enantioselectivity of photosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zunwei; Zou, Yuqin; Wang, Jia; Li, Meichao; Wen, Yuezhong

    2016-04-01

    With the wide application of chiral herbicides and the frequent detection of photosystem II (PSII) herbicides, it is of great importance to assess the direct effects of PSII herbicides on photosynthesis in an enantiomeric level. In the present study, the enantioselective phytotoxicity of bromacil (BRO), typical photosynthesis inhibition herbicide, on Arabidopsis thaliana was investigated. The results showed that S-BRO exhibited a greater inhibition of electron transmission in photosystem I (PSI) of A. thaliana than R-BRO by inhibiting the transcription of fnr 1. S-BRO also changed the chlorophyll fluorescence parameters Y (II), Y (NO), and Y (NPQ) to a greater extent than R-Bro. Transcription of genes psbO2, Lhcb3 and Lhcb6 was down-regulated in an enantioselective rhythm and S-BRO caused more serious influence, indicating that S-BRO did worse damage to the photosystem II (PSII) of A. thaliana than R-BRO. This study suggested that S-BRO disturbed the photosynthesis of plants to a larger extent than R-BRO and provided a new sight to evaluate the phytotoxicity of chiral herbicides. PMID:26802342

  3. Enantioselective stable isotope analysis (ESIA) of polar Herbicides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maier, Michael; Qiu, Shiran; Elsner, Martin

    2013-04-01

    The complexity of aquatic systems makes it challenging to assess the environmental fate of chiral micropolutants. As an example, chiral herbicides are frequently detected in the environment (Buser and Muller, 1998); however, hydrological data is needed to determine their degradability from concentration measurements. Otherwise declining concentrations cannot unequivocally be attributed to degradation, but could also be caused by dilution effects. In contrast, isotope ratios or enantiomeric ratios are elegant alternatives that are independent of dilution and can even deliver insights into reaction mechanisms. To combine the advantages of both approaches we developed an enatioselective stable isotope analysis (ESIA) method to investigate the fate of the chiral herbicides 4-CPP ((RS)-2-(4-chlorophenoxy)-propionic acid), mecoprop (2-(4-Chloro-2-methylphenoxy)-propionic acid) and dichlorprop (2-(2,4-Dichlorophenoxy)-propionic acid). After testing the applicable concentration range of the method, enantioselective isotope fractionation was investigated by microbial degradation using dichlorprop as a model compound. The method uses enantioselective gas-chromatography (GC) to separate enantiomers. Subsequently samples are combusted online to CO2 and carbon isotope ratios are determined for each enantiomer by isotope-ratio-mass-spectrometry (IRMS). Because the analytes contain a polar carboxyl-group, samples were derivatised prior to GC-IRMS analysis with methanolic BF3 solution. Precise carbon isotope analysis (2σ ≤0.5‰) was achieved with a high sensitivity of ≥ 7 ng C that is needed on column for one analysis. Microbial degradation of the model compound dichlorprop was conducted with Delftia acidovorans MC1 and pronounced enantiomer fractionation, but no isotope fractionation was detected. The absence of isotope fractionation can be explained by two scenarios: either the degrading enzyme has no isotopic preference, or another step in the reaction without an isotopic preference was rate determining. Our findings are in contrast to previously reported results for the degradation of α-hexachlorocyclohexane (Badea et al., 2012), where isotope fractionation, but no enantiomeric fractionation was observed. Hence the two lines of evidence seem to be independent of each other. Enhanced insight maybe provided when both effects appear simultaneously, as shown downstream of a landfill site under anaerobic conditions for the chiral herbicide 4-CPP (Milosevic et al., 2013). Buser HR, Muller MD (1998): Occurrence and transformation reactions of chiral and achiral phenoxyalkanoic acid herbicides in lakes and rivers in Switzerland. Environmental Science & Technology 32 (5):626-633. Badea S-L, Vogt C, Gehre M, Fischer A, Danet A-F, Richnow H-H (2011): Development of an enantiomer-specific stable carbon isotope analysis (ESIA) method for assessing the fate of alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane in the environment. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry 25 (10):1363-1372. Milosevic N, Qiu S, Elsner M, Einsiedl F, Maier MP, Bensch HKV, Albrechtsen HJ, Bjerg PL (2013): Combined isotope and enantiomer analysis to assess the fate of phenoxy acids in a eterogeneous geologic setting at an old landfill. Water Research 47 (2): 637-649.

  4. An N-Heterocyclic Carbene/Lewis Acid Strategy for the Stereoselective Synthesis of Spirooxindole Lactones

    PubMed Central

    Dugal-Tessier, Julien; OBryan, Elizabeth A.; Schroeder, Thomas B. H.; Cohen, Daniel T.

    2012-01-01

    A cooperative catalysis approach for the enantioselective formal [3+2] addition of ?,?-unsaturated aldehydes to isatins has been developed. The N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC)-catalyzed homoenolate annulations of ?-aryl enals require the addition of lithium chloride for high levels of enantioselectivity. This NHC-catalyzed annulation provides efficient access to the 3-hydroxy indole skeleton and has been applied to the first eantioselective total synthesis of maremycin B. PMID:22489096

  5. Metal-Catalyzed Directed Regio- and Enantioselective Ring-Opening of Epoxides.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chuan; Luo, Lan; Yamamoto, Hisashi

    2016-02-16

    Control of regio- and stereoselectivity of chemical reactions is the central theme in synthetic chemistry. Regioselective and enantiospecific ring opening of readily available enantioenriched epoxides precursors provides a straightforward access to diverse highly functionalized molecules which can serve as chiral building blocks for synthesis of biologically active compounds. However, prior to our research work, the scope of catalytic highly regioselective ring opening of epoxides is limited to structurally or electronically biased epoxides, such as terminal and aromatic epoxides. Regioselective ring-opening of epoxides with substituents on both sides demonstrating similar steric and electronic effects is still a formidable challenge for organic chemists. To address this challenge, our approach is to use the readily available functional moiety incorporated in an epoxide as a directing group to realize the regioselective nucleophilic attack on the oxirane ring. Alternatively, asymmetric ring-opening of epoxides can also provide the ring-opening products in highly enantioenriched form. However, excellent results are usually obtained in the case of the kinetic resolution of terminal epoxides or the desymmetrization of meso-epoxides. In these cases, the issue of regiocontrol of the ring-opening is circumvented or minimized. Based on our successful results of regioselective ring-opening of functionalized epoxides by implementing the directed ring-opening strategy, we also investigated the enantioselective ring-opening of internal epoxides bearing a functional moiety as directing group. This Account summarizes our research on metal-catalyzed directed ring-opening reactions of epoxides, which encompasses the following breakthroughs: (1) highly regioselective ring-opening of various substrates including epoxy allylic alcohols, epoxy homoallylic alcohols and epoxy allylic sulfonamides with a variety of N-, O-, and halide-nucleophiles catalyzed by W-, Mo-, or Ni-salt; (2) first kinetic resolutions of epoxy allylic alcohols, epoxy homoallylic alcohols, and epoxy allylic sulfonamides with various amines as nucleophiles, which were catalyzed by W-bishydroxamic acid (W-BHA), nickel-BINAM, and Gd-N,N'-dioxide catalytic system, respectively; (3) successful implementation of the strategy of combined asymmetric syntheses by the combination of the enantioselective epoxidation and the enantioselective ring-opening of 2,3-epoxy alcohols establishing a new entry to prepare amino alcohols in regio-, diastereo-, and enantiomerically pure form. PMID:26789498

  6. Synthesis and characterization of iron based nanoparticles for novel applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khurshid, Hafsa

    The work in this thesis has been focused on the fabrication and characterization of iron based nanoparticles with controlled size and morphology with the aim: (i) to investigate their properties for potential applications in MICR toners and biomedical field and (ii) to study finite size effects on the magnetic properties of the nanoparticles. For the biomedical applications, core/shell structured iron/iron-oxide and hollow shell nanoparticles were synthesized by thermal decomposition of iron organometallic compounds [Fe(CO)5] at high temperature. Core/shell structured iron/iron-oxide nanoparticles have been prepared in the presence of oleic acid and oleylamine. Particle size and composition was controlled by varying the reaction parameters during synthesis. The as-made particles are hydrophobic and not dispersible in water. Water dispersibility was achieved by ligand exchange a with double hydrophilic diblock copolymer. Relaxometery measurements of the transverse relaxation time T2 of the nanoparticles solution at 3 Tesla confirm that the core/shell nanoparticles are an excellent MRI contrast agent using T2 weighted imaging sequences. In comparison to conventionally used iron oxide nanoparticles, iron/iron-oxide core/shell nanoparticles offer four times stronger T2 shortening effect at comparable core size due to their higher magnetization. The magnetic properties were studied as a function of particle size, composition and morphology. Hollow nanostructures are composed of randomly oriented grains arranged together to make a shell layer and make an interesting class of materials. The hollow morphology can be used as an extra degree of freedom to control the magnetic properties. Owing to their hollow morphology, they can be used for the targeted drug delivery applications by filling the drug inside their cavity. For the magnetic toners applications, particles were synthesized by chemically reducing iron salt using sodium borohydride and then coated with polyethylene glycol. Parameters such as the reactant concentrations and their flow rate were varied to study the effect of particle size, structure and crystallinity on the magnetic nanoparticles. Many different hydrophilic surfactants and polymers electrolytes were investigated for the particles' stability in water. PSSNa was found to be the best coating agent among all the other investigated polymer and surfactants for particles stability in water. Particles have an average size of 50 nm and magnetization above 150 emu/g. It is anticipated that owing to their high saturation magnetization and magneto crystalline anisotropy, the incorporations of PSSNa coated nanoparticles into the MICR toner can reduce the pigment loading and hence optimize the toner quality. The magnetic properties were studied as a function of particle size, composition and morphology. The saturation magnetization and coercivity was found to be strongly dependent on the particle size and morphology. The estimated effective anisotropy of the particles was found to be much higher than their bulk values because of their morphology and finite size effects. Core/shell particles below an average size of 12 nm display superparamagnetism and exchange bias phenomenon. The hollow morphology can be used as an extra degree of freedom to control magnetic properties. The enormously large number of pinned spins at the inner and outer surface and at the interface between the grain boundaries in hollow nanoparticles, gives rise to a very large value of effective anisotropy in these nanoparticles and measured hyteresis loops are minor loops. The surface spin disorder contribution to magnetic behavior is strongly influenced by the cooling field magnitude.

  7. Catalytic Asymmetric Synthesis of Chiral Allylic Esters

    PubMed Central

    Cannon, Jeffrey S.; Kirsch, Stefan F.; Overman, Larry E.

    2010-01-01

    A broadly useful catalytic enantioselective synthesis of branched allylic esters from prochiral (Z)-2-alkene-1-ols has been developed. The starting allylic alcohol is converted to its trichloroacetimidate intermediate by reaction with trichloroacetonitrile, either in situ or in a separate step, and this intermediate undergoes clean enantioselective SN2? substitution with a variety of carboxylic acids in the presence of the palladium(II) catalyst (Rp,S)-di-? -acetatobis[(?5-2-(2'-(4'-methylethyl)oxazolinyl)cyclopentadienyl,1-C,3'-N)(?4-tetraphenylcyclobutadiene)cobalt]dipalladium, (Rp,S)-[COP-OAc]2 or its enantiomer. The scope and limitations of this useful catalytic asymmetric allylic esterification are defined. PMID:15740118

  8. Temperature measurements in arc-discharge synthesis of nanomaterials dedicated for medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raniszewski, Grzegorz

    2013-02-01

    The article presents the plasma synthesis method of carbon nanotubes using an electric arc discharge. In this method different carbon nanotubes are produced as a cathode deposit growth or are deposed on various substrates such as silicon, metals and other materials. The examples of applications of carbon nanotubes in medical applications were presented. Conditions required for the synthesis of carbon nanotubes and process parameters were mentioned. Applications of carbon nanotubes for cancer treatment were discussed. The method of temperature measurement of the arc was described. Contribution to the Topical Issue "13th International Symposium on High Pressure Low Temperature Plasma Chemistry (Hakone XIII)", Edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Henryca Danuta Stryczewska and Yvan Sgui.

  9. 77 FR 8324 - Applications for the Environment: Real-Time Information Synthesis (AERIS) User Needs Workshop...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-14

    ... Applications for the Environment: Real-Time Information Synthesis (AERIS) User Needs Workshop; Notice of Public... Program Office (ITS JPO) will host a free public workshop to discuss the Applications for the Environment... potential environmental benefits in a connected vehicle environment. For more information on the...

  10. Chiral-at-metal iridium complex for efficient enantioselective transfer hydrogenation of ketones.

    PubMed

    Tian, Cheng; Gong, Lei; Meggers, Eric

    2016-03-01

    A bis-cyclometalated iridium(iii) complex with metal-centered chirality catalyzes the enantioselective transfer hydrogenation of ketones with high enantioselectivities at low catalyst loadings down to 0.002 mol%. Importantly, the rate of catalysis and enantioselectivity are markedly improved in the presence of a pyrazole co-ligand. The reaction is proposed to proceed via an iridium-hydride intermediate exploiting metal-ligand cooperativity (bifunctional catalysis). PMID:26911401

  11. Mechanistic Investigations into the Application of Sulfoxides in Carbohydrate Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Fascione, Martin A; Brabham, Robin; Turnbull, W Bruce

    2016-03-14

    The utility of sulfoxides in a diverse range of transformations in the field of carbohydrate chemistry has seen rapid growth since the first introduction of a sulfoxide as a glycosyl donor in 1989. Sulfoxides have since developed into more than just anomeric leaving groups, and today have multiple roles in glycosylation reactions. These include as activators for thioglycosides, hemiacetals, and glycals, and as precursors to glycosyl triflates, which are essential for stereoselective ?-mannoside synthesis, and bicyclic sulfonium ions that facilitate the stereoselective synthesis of ?-glycosides. In this review we highlight the mechanistic investigations undertaken in this area, often outlining strategies employed to differentiate between multiple proposed reaction pathways, and how the conclusions of these investigations have and continue to inform upon the development of more efficient transformations in sulfoxide-based carbohydrate synthesis. PMID:26744250

  12. Mechanistic Investigations into the Application of Sulfoxides in Carbohydrate Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Brabham, Robin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The utility of sulfoxides in a diverse range of transformations in the field of carbohydrate chemistry has seen rapid growth since the first introduction of a sulfoxide as a glycosyl donor in 1989. Sulfoxides have since developed into more than just anomeric leaving groups, and today have multiple roles in glycosylation reactions. These include as activators for thioglycosides, hemiacetals, and glycals, and as precursors to glycosyl triflates, which are essential for stereoselective β‐mannoside synthesis, and bicyclic sulfonium ions that facilitate the stereoselective synthesis of α‐glycosides. In this review we highlight the mechanistic investigations undertaken in this area, often outlining strategies employed to differentiate between multiple proposed reaction pathways, and how the conclusions of these investigations have and continue to inform upon the development of more efficient transformations in sulfoxide‐based carbohydrate synthesis. PMID:26744250

  13. Chemically functionalized gold nanoparticles: Synthesis, characterization, and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniel, Weston Lewis

    This thesis focuses on the development and application of gold nanoparticle based detection systems and biomimetic structures. Each class of modified nanoparticle has properties that are defined by its chemical moieties that interface with solution and the gold nanoparticle core. In Chapter 2, a comparison of the biomolecular composition and binding properties of various preparations of antibody oligonucleotide gold nanoparticle conjugates is presented. These constructs differed significantly in terms of their structure and binding properties. Chapter 3 reports the use of electroless gold deposition as a light scattering signal enhancer in a multiplexed, microarray-based scanometric immunoassay using the gold nanoparticle probes evaluated in Chapter 2. The use of gold development results in greater signal enhancement than the typical silver development, and multiple rounds of metal development were found to increase the resulting signal compared to one development. Chapter 4 describes an amplified scanometric detection method for human telomerase activity. Gold nanoparticles functionalized with specific oligonucleotide sequences can efficiently capture telomerase enzymes and subsequently be elongated. Both the elongated and unmodified oligonucleotide sequences are simultaneously measured. At low telomerase concentrations, elongated strands cannot be detected, but the unmodified sequences, which come from the same probe particles, can be detected because their concentration is higher, providing a novel form of amplification. Chapter 5 reports the development of a novel colorimetric nitrite and nitrate ion assay based upon gold nanoparticle probes functionalized with Griess reaction reagents. This assay takes advantage of the distance-dependent plasmonic properties of the gold nanoparticles and the ability of nitrite ion to facilitate the cross coupling of novel nanoparticle probes. The assay works on the concept of a kinetic end point and can be triggered at the EPA limit for this ion in drinking water. Finally, Chapter 6 describes the synthesis of high density lipoprotein biomimetic nanoparticles capable of binding cholesterol. These structures use a gold nanoparticle core to template the assembly of a mixed phospholipid layer and the adsorption of apolipoprotein A-I. These synthesized structures have the general size and surface composition of natural HDL and bind free cholesterol with a Kd of 4 nM.

  14. Synthesis, characterization and application of functional carbon nano materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Jin

    The synthesis, characterizations and applications of carbon nanomaterials, including carbon nanorods, carbon nanosheets, carbon nanohoneycombs and carbon nanotubes were demonstrated. Different growth techniques such as pulsed laser deposition, DC/RF sputtering, hot filament physical vapour deposition, evaporative casting and vacuum filtration methods were introduced or applied for synthesizing carbon nanomaterials. The morphology, chemical compositions, bond structures, electronic, mechanical and sensing properties of the obtained samples were investigated. Tilted well-aligned carbon micro- and nano- hybrid rods were fabricated on Si at different substrate temperatures and incident angles of carbon source beam using the hot filament physical vapour deposition technique. The morphologic surfaces and bond structures of the oblique carbon rod-like structures were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron diffraction and Raman scattering spectroscopy. The field emission behaviour of the fabricated samples was also tested. Carbon nanosheets and nanohoneycombs were also synthesized on Si substrates using a hot filament physical vapor deposition technique under methane ambient and vacuum, respectively. The four-point Au electrodes are then sputtered on the surface of the nanostructured carbon films to form prototypical humidity sensors. The sensing properties of prototypical sensors at different temperature, humidity, direct current, and alternative current voltage were characterized. Linear sensing response of sensors to relative humidity ranging from 11% to 95% is observed at room temperature. Experimental data indicate that the carbon nanosheets based sensors exhibit an excellent reversible behavior and long-term stability. It also has higher response than that of the humidity sensor with carbon nanohoneycombs materials. Conducting composite films containing carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were prepared in two different ways of evaporative casting and vacuum filtration methods using the biopolymer kappa-carrageenan (KC) as a dispersant. Evaporative casting and vacuum filtration film-formation processes were compared by testing electrical properties. Results showed that films produced using vacuum filtration had higher electrical properties than those prepared using the evaporative casting method. The evaporative casted multi walled carbon nanotubes composite films also performed as the best humidity sensor over all other films measured.

  15. Synthesis and applications of bioinspired inorganic nanostructured materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassett, David C.

    2011-12-01

    Although the study of biominerals may be traced back many centuries, it is only recently that biological principles have been applied to synthetic systems in processes termed "biomimetic" and "bioinspired" to yield materials syntheses that are otherwise not possible and may also reduce the expenditure of energy and/or eliminate toxic byproducts. Many investigators have taken inspiration from interesting and unusual minerals formed by organisms, in a process termed biomineralisation, to tailor the nanostructure of inorganic materials not necessarily found biogenically. However, the fields of nanoparticle synthesis and biomineralisation remain largely separate, and this thesis is an attempt to apply new studies on biomineralisation to nanomaterials science. Principally among the proteins that influence biomineralisation is a group comprised largely of negatively charged aspartic acid residues present in serum. This study is an investigation determining the ability of these serum proteins and other anolagous biomolecules to stabilise biologically relevant amorphous minerals and influence the formation of a variety of materials at the nanoscale. Three different materials were chosen to demonstrate this effect; gold was templated into nanosized single crystals by the action of bioorganic molecules, and the utility of these nanoparticles as a biosensor was explored. The influence of bioorganic molecules on the phase selection and crystal size restriction of titanium dioxide, an important semiconductor with many applications, was explored. The use of bioorganically derived nanoparticles of titanium dioxide was then demonstrated as a highly efficient photocatalyst. Finally, calcium carbonate, a prevalent biomineral was shown to form highly ordered structures over a variety of length scales and different crystalline polymorphs under the influence of a templating protein. In addition, an alternative route to producing calcium phosphate nanoparticle dispersions by mechanical filtration was explored and use as a transfection vector was optimised in two cell lines. Several significant achievements are presented: (i) the assessment of the relative ability of serum, serum derived proteins and their analogues to stabilize the amorphous state, (ii) the formation of single crystalline gold templated by an antibody, (iii) the formation of highly photocatalytically active nanoparticulate anatase by a phosphorylated cyclic esther, (iv) the formation of conical structures at the air liquid interface by the templating ability of a protein and (v) the optimisation of calcium phosphate nanoparticle mediated transfection in two cell lines by mechanical filtration.

  16. Synthesis, electronic properties and applications of oxide nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chao

    Two types of oxide nanowires were synthesized and systematically studied. Single-crystalline Indium oxide nanowires were synthesized using a laser ablation method and characterized using various techniques to confirm their composition and single crystalline structures. Precise control over the nanowire diameter down to 10 nm was achieved by using mono-dispersed gold clusters as the catalytic nanoparticles. These nanowires were further exploited to work as field effect transistors with on/off ratios as high as 2 x 104. Photodetectors were also demonstrated based on these nanowire transistors for ultraviolet light. We have further demonstrated multilevel molecular memories based on nanowires functionalized with a self-assembled monolayer of redox active molecular wires, where the bit was represented by the charge stored in the redox molecules and the nanowire conductance was used as the readout. In addition, the ultra high surface-to-volume ratios of nanowires enabled us to explore using In 2O3 nanowires as chemical and bio sensors. Upon exposure to a small amount of NO2 or NH3, the nanowire transistors showed a decrease in conductance up to six or five orders of magnitude, in addition to substantial shifts in the threshold gate voltage. Our devices exhibited significantly improved chemical sensing performance compared to existing solid-state sensors in many aspects, including the sensitivity, the selectivity, the response time and the lowest detectable concentrations. We also applied In2O3 nanowires as protein and DNA sensors and demonstrated great promise for the selective detection of desired biomolecules for health care and biomedical research. We have carried out extensive studies on the synthesis and electronic properties of transition metal oxide nanowires based on La0.67Ca 0.33MnO3 (LCMO) and La0.67Sr0.33MnO 3 (LSMO). Key to our success is the growth of vertically aligned single-crystalline MgO nanowires, which worked as excellent templates for epitaxial deposition of the desired transition metal oxides and led to high-quality core-shell nanowires. Transport studies on LCMO and LSMO nanowires have revealed the remarkable persistence of metal-insulator transition and magnetoresistance down to nanometer scale. Our work paves the way for novel applications based on these fascinating materials.

  17. Development of catalysts and ligands for enantioselective gold catalysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi-Ming; Lackner, Aaron D; Toste, F Dean

    2014-03-18

    During the past decade, the use of Au(I) complexes for the catalytic activation of C-C ?-bonds has been investigated intensely. Over this time period, the development of homogeneous gold catalysis has been extraordinarily rapid and has yielded a host of mild and selective methods for the formation of carbon-carbon and carbon-heteroatom bonds. The facile formation of new bonds facilitated by gold naturally led to efforts toward rendering these transformations enantioselective. In this Account, we survey the development of catalysts and ligands for enantioselective gold catalysis by our research group as well as related work by others. We also discuss some of our strategies to address the challenges of enantioselective gold(I) catalysis. Early on, our work with enantioselective gold-catalyzed transformations focused on bis(phosphinegold) complexes derived from axially chiral scaffolds. Although these complexes were highly successful in some reactions like cyclopropanation, the careful choice of the weakly coordinating ligand (or counterion) was necessary to obtain high levels of enantioselectivity for the case of allene hydroamination. These counterion effects led us to use the anion itself as a source of chirality, which was successful in the case of allene hydroalkoxylation. In general, these tactics enhance the steric influence around the reactive gold center beyond the two-coordinate ligand environment. The use of binuclear complexes allowed us to use the second gold center and its associated ligand (or counterion) to exert a further steric influence. In a similar vein, we employed a chiral anion (in place of or in addition to a chiral ligand) to move the chiral information closer to the reactive center. In order to expand the scope of reactions amenable to enantioselective gold catalysis to cycloadditions and other carbocyclization processes, we also developed a new class of mononuclear phosphite and phosphoramidite ligands to supplement the previously widely utilized phosphines. However, we needed to judiciously design the steric environment to create "walls" that enclose the gold center. We also successfully applied these same considerations to the development of binuclear carbene ligands for gold. Finally, we describe the design of bifunctional urea-monophosphine ligands used in a gold-catalyzed three-component coupling. PMID:24228794

  18. Synthesis of C1-symmetric chiral secondary diamines and their applications in the asymmetric copper(II)-catalyzed Henry (nitroaldol) reactions.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yirong; Dong, Junfang; Zhang, Fanglin; Gong, Yuefa

    2011-01-21

    A small library of C(1)-symmetric chiral diamines (L1-L9) was constructed via condensing exo-(-)-bornylamine or (+)-(1S,2S,5R)-menthylamine with various Cbz-protected amino acids. Among them, ligand L1/CuCl(2)2H(2)O complex (2.5 mol %) shows outstanding catalytic efficiency for Henry reaction between a variety of aldehydes and nitroalkanes to afford the expected products in high yields (up to 98%) with excellent enantioselectivities (up to 99%) and moderate to good diastereoselectivities (up to 90:10). This process is air- and moisture tolerant and has been applied to the synthesis of (S)-2-amino-1-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)ethanol (9), a key intermediate for (S)-epinephrine and (S)-norepinephrine. On the basis of HRMS and X-ray diffraction analysis of the L1/CuCl(2) complex, a transition-state model was proposed to explain the origin of asymmetric induction. The low catalyst loading, excellent yields and enantioselectivities, inexpensive copper salt, and mild reaction conditions make our catalytic system to be practically useful. PMID:21190323

  19. Size-Dependent Enantioselective Adsorption of Racemic Molecules through Homochiral Metal-Organic Frameworks Embedding Helicity.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhong-Xuan; Fu, Hong-Ru; Wu, Xin; Kang, Yao; Zhang, Jian

    2015-07-01

    Homochiral metal-organic frameworks (HMOFs) are efficient materials for enantioselective adsorption. However, the combination of size selectivity and enantioselectivity is still a major challenge in the field of HMOFs. Herein, two enantiomorphic HMOFs built from predesigned proline-derived ligands are presented. Both of them show multiple homochiral features: they contain four different helical chains and three types of helical channels. Due to the size effect of the helical channels, each HMOF can enantioselectively adsorb methyl lactate with high ee. The results reveal a new approach toward size-dependent enantioselective separation of racemic compounds by using HMOFs built from inexpensive proline derivatives. PMID:26041141

  20. Expanding the Scope of Primary Amine Catalysis: Stereoselective Synthesis of Indanedione-Fused 2,6-Disubstituted trans-Spirocyclohexanones.

    PubMed

    Madhusudhan Reddy, G; Ko, Chi-Ting; Hsieh, Kai-Hong; Lee, Chia-Jui; Das, Utpal; Lin, Wenwei

    2016-03-18

    A cinchona-alkaloid-derived chiral primary-amine-catalyzed enantioselective method for the synthesis of the thermodynamically less stable indanedione-fused 2,6-trans-disubstituted spirocyclohexanones is demonstrated. Both the enantiomeric forms of the trans isomer are obtained in excellent yields and enantioselectivities. Furthermore, one of the enantiopure trans-spiranes bearing an additional α-substitution on the cyclohexanone ring was then epimerized into its thermodynamically stable cis counterpart, with little loss of enantioselectivity to demonstrate the feasibility of such a transformation. Mechanistic investigations revealed two competing pathways, a concerted Diels-Alder reaction and a stepwise Michael addition, for the formation of corresponding products. PMID:26907160