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Sample records for enantioselective synthesis application

  1. Enantioselective Synthesis of (-)-Dysiherbaine.

    PubMed

    Do, Ha; Kang, Chang Won; Cho, Joon Hyung; Gilbertson, Scott R

    2015-08-21

    Dysiherbaine, a natural product isolated from the Marine sponge Dysidea herbacea, has been shown to be a selective agonist of non-NMDA type glutamate receptors, kainate receptors. An enantioselective synthesis of dysiherbaine is reported. Metathesis of the diene followed by conversion of the resulting alkene to the amino alcohol and addition of the amino acid provides the natural product. This synthesis differs from previous approaches to the molecule in that the functionality on the tetrahydropyran ring is installed late in the route. PMID:26258884

  2. Enantioselective cyclization of enamide-ynes and application to the synthesis of the kopsifoline core

    PubMed Central

    Corkey, Britton K.; Heller, Stephen T.; Wang, Yi-Ming

    2013-01-01

    We report the palladium-catalyzed enantioselective cyclization of 1,6-enamidynes to form spirocyclic ring systems. We applied this methodology to the concise synthesis of the skeletal core of the kopsifoline alkaloids. PMID:23772095

  3. Catalytic SN 2'- and Enantioselective Allylic Substitution with a Diborylmethane Reagent and Application in Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Shi, Ying; Hoveyda, Amir H

    2016-03-01

    A catalytic method for the site- and enantioselective addition of commercially available di-B(pin)-methane to allylic phosphates is introduced (pin=pinacolato). Transformations may be facilitated by an NHC-Cu complex (NHC=N-heterocyclic carbene) and products obtained in 63-95?% yield, 88:12 to >98:2 SN 2'/SN 2 selectivity, and 85:15-99:1 enantiomeric ratio. The utility of the approach, entailing the involvement of different catalytic cross-coupling processes, is highlighted by its application to the formal synthesis of the cytotoxic natural product rhopaloic acid?A. PMID:26845488

  4. A Catalytic Enantioselective Tandem Allylation Strategy for Rapid Terpene Construction: Application to the Synthesis of Pumilaside Aglycon

    PubMed Central

    Ferris, Grace E.; Hong, Kai; Roundtree, Ian A.; Morken, James P.

    2013-01-01

    Catalytic enantioselective 1,2-diboration of 1,3-dienes followed by cascade allylborations with dicarbonyls provides rapid entry into carbocyclic reaction products. The stereochemical course of this reaction was studied along with its application in the synthesis of pumilaside aglycon. PMID:23390951

  5. Enantioselective total synthesis of (+)-amabiline.

    PubMed

    Senter, Timothy J; Fadeyi, Olugbeminiyi O; Lindsley, Craig W

    2012-04-01

    The first total synthesis of (+)-amabiline, an unsaturated pyrrolizidine alkaloid from Cynoglossum amabile, is reported. This convergent, enantioselective synthesis proceeds in 15 steps (10-step longest linear sequence) in 6.2% overall yield and features novel methodology to construct the unsaturated pyrrolizidine or (-)-supinidine core. PMID:22432912

  6. Enantioselective Total Synthesis of (+)-Amabiline

    PubMed Central

    Senter, Timothy J.; Fadeyi, Olugbeminiyi O.; Lindsley, Craig W.

    2012-01-01

    The first total synthesis of (+)-amabiline, an unsaturated pyrrolizidine alkaloid from Cynoglossum amabile is reported. This convergent, enantioselective synthesis proceeds in 15 steps, 10 steps longest linear sequence, in 6.2% overall yield and features novel methodology to construct the unsaturated pyrrolizidine or (−)-supinidine core. PMID:22432912

  7. Enantioselective Synthesis of Silacyclopentanes.

    PubMed

    Igawa, Kazunobu; Yoshihiro, Daisuke; Abe, Yusuke; Tomooka, Katsuhiko

    2016-05-01

    A variety of functionalized silacyclopentanes were synthesized by highly enantioselective β-eliminations of silacyclopentene oxides followed by stereospecific transformations. The reaction mechanism of the β-elimination was elucidated by DFT calculations. An in vitro biological assay with an oxy-functionalized silacyclopentane showed substantial binding to a serotonin receptor protein. PMID:27037672

  8. Enantioselective synthesis of helical polydiacetylene by application of linearly polarized light and magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yangyang; Yang, Guang; Xia, Hongyan; Zou, Gang; Zhang, Qijin; Gao, Jiangang

    2014-09-01

    Magnetic optical activity, which can occur in all media and is induced by longitudinal magnetic field, causes the difference in absorption coefficients of left and right circularly polarized light and has the potential for magnetically induced enantioselectivity in chemical reactions. Compared with the well-established technique with circularly polarized light, there are few reports on the production of helical conjugated polymers in a photochemical reaction based on above magnetochiral anisotropy mechanism. Herein, we demonstrate experimentally that the enantioselective polymerization of diacetylene derivative can be achieved in the liquid crystal phase by application of linearly polarized light under a parallel or antiparallel magnetic field. The screw direction of predominant helical polydiacetylene chain can be rigorously controlled with the relative orientation of linearly polarized light and the magnetic field. Moreover, the prepared helical polydiacetylene assemblies can serve as a direct visual probe for the enantioselective recognition of D- or L-lysine.

  9. Enantioselective Total Synthesis of Aplyviolene

    PubMed Central

    Overman, Larry E.; Schnermann, Martin J.

    2011-01-01

    The enantioselective total synthesis of the rearranged spongian diterpene aplyviolene has been completed in 14 steps from the known hydroazulenone 8. The key junction of the hydrocarbon and oxygenated fragments to form the critical C8 quaternary carbon stereocenter and set the stage for elaborating the delicate bicyclic lactone functionality was accomplished in high yield and exquisite stereoselectivity by Michael addition of an enantioenriched hydroazulenone enolate to an enantiopure α-bromocyclopentenone. PMID:21936525

  10. Catalytic Enantioselective Synthesis of Halocyclopropanes.

    PubMed

    Pons, Amandine; Ivashkin, Pavel; Poisson, Thomas; Charette, André B; Pannecoucke, Xavier; Jubault, Philippe

    2016-04-25

    A catalytic asymmetric synthesis of halocyclopropanes is described. The developed method is based on a carbenoid cyclopropanation of 2-haloalkenes with tert-butyl α-cyano-α-diazoacetate using a chiral rhodium catalyst that permits access to a broad range of highly functionalized chiral halocyclopropanes (F, Cl, Br, and I) in good yields, moderate diastereoselectivity, and excellent enantiomeric ratios. The reported methodology represents the first general catalytic enantioselective approach to halocyclopropanes. PMID:26945553

  11. Iridium-Catalyzed Enantioselective Indole Cyclization: Application to the Total Synthesis and Absolute Stereochemical Assignment of (-)-Aspidophylline A.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shi-Zhi; Zeng, Xue-Yi; Liang, Xiao; Lei, Ting; Wei, Kun; Yang, Yu-Rong

    2016-03-14

    The first enantioselective total synthesis of (-)-aspidophylline A, including assignment of its absolute configuration has been accomplished. A key element of the synthesis is a highly enantioselective indole allylic alkylation/iminium cyclization cascade which was developed by employing a combination of Lewis acid activation and an iridium/ligand catalyst. This strategy relies on the direct use of 2,3-disubstituted indoles with secondary allylic alcohols appended at C2 and heteronucleophiles appended at C3, indoles which are easily prepared from simple starting materials under C-H activation conditions. PMID:26891145

  12. Enantioselective Total Synthesis of Secalonic Acid E.

    PubMed

    Ganapathy, Dhandapani; Reiner, Johannes R; Lffler, Lorenz E; Ma, Ling; Gnanaprakasam, Boopathy; Nieptter, Benedikt; Koehne, Ingo; Tietze, Lutz F

    2015-11-16

    The first enantioselective synthesis of a secalonic acid containing a dimeric tetrahydroxanthenone skeleton is described, using a Wacker-type cyclization of a methoxyphenolic compound to form a chiral chroman with a quaternary carbon stereogenic center with >99% ee. Further steps are a Sharpless dihydroxylation and a Dieckmann condensation to give a tetrahydroxanthenone. A late-stage one-pot palladium-catalyzed Suzuki-dimerization reaction leads to the 2,2'-biphenol linkage to complete the enantioselective total synthesis of secalonic acid E in 18?steps with 8% overall yield. PMID:26447631

  13. Enantioselective biotransformations of nitriles in organic synthesis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mei-Xiang

    2015-03-17

    The hydration and hydrolysis of nitriles are valuable synthetic methods used to prepare carboxamides and carboxylic acids. However, chemical hydration and hydrolysis of nitriles involve harsh reaction conditions, have low selectivity, and generate large amounts of waste. Therefore, researchers have confined the scope of these reactions to simple nitrile substrates. However, biological transformations of nitriles are highly efficient, chemoselective, and environmentally benign, which has led synthetic organic chemists and biotechologists to study these reactions in detail over the last two decades. In nature, biological systems degrade nitriles via two distinct pathways: nitrilases catalyze the direct hydrolysis of nitriles to afford carboxylic acids with release of ammonia, and nitrile hydratases catalyze the conversion of nitriles into carboxamides, which then furnish carboxylic acids via hydrolysis in the presence of amidases. Researchers have subsequently developed biocatalytic methods into useful industrial processes for the manufacture of commodity chemicals, including acrylamide. Since the late 1990s, research by my group and others has led to enormous progress in the understanding and application of enantioselective biotransformations of nitriles in organic synthesis. In this Account, I summarize the important advances in enantioselective biotransformations of nitriles and amides, with a primary focus on research from my laboratory. I describe microbial whole-cell-catalyzed kinetic resolution of various functionalized nitriles, amino- and hydroxynitriles, and nitriles that contain small rings and the desymmetrization of prochiral and meso dinitriles and diamides. I also demonstrate how we can apply the biocatalytic protocol to synthesize natural products and bioactive compounds. These nitrile biotransformations offer an attractive and unique protocol for the enantioselective synthesis of polyfunctionalized organic compounds that are not readily obtainable by other methods. Nitrile substrates are readily available, and the mild reaction conditions are specific toward cyano and amido functional groups without interfering with other reactive functional groups. I anticipate that further advances in this field will lead to new and engineered nitrile-hydrolyzing enzymes or catalytic systems with improved activity and altered selectivity. These advances will broaden the scope of these transformations and their applications in organic synthesis. PMID:25699471

  14. Enantioselective total synthesis of (-)-erinacine B.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Hideaki; Takano, Masashi; Umino, Akinori; Ito, Toshiya; Ishikawa, Hiroyuki; Nakada, Masahisa

    2007-01-18

    The first enantioselective total synthesis of (-)-erinacine B has been achieved. Our approach features convergent construction of the 5-6-7 tricyclic cyathane core system via chiral building blocks prepared using asymmetric catalysis developed by us and highly stereoselective construction of all stereogenic centers in the aglycon. [reaction: see text]. PMID:17217304

  15. Enantioselective synthesis of 4-heterosubstituted cyclopentenones.

    PubMed

    Ulbrich, Kathrin; Kreitmeier, Peter; Vilaivan, Tirayut; Reiser, Oliver

    2013-04-19

    Racemic 4-hydroxycyclopentenone, readily derived from furfuryl alcohol, can be transformed via its O-Boc derivative to 4-acyloxy, 4-aryloxy-, 4-amino-, or 4-thio-substituted cyclopentenones with high enantioselectivity by palladium-catalyzed kinetic resolution via nucleophilic allylic substitutions. Applying this methodology, a short formal synthesis of ent-noraristeromycin was readily accomplished. PMID:23544701

  16. Enantioselective Total Synthesis of (-)-Terengganensine A.

    PubMed

    Piemontesi, Cyril; Wang, Qian; Zhu, Jieping

    2016-05-23

    A seven-step enantioselective total synthesis of (-)-terengganensine A, a complex heptacyclic monoterpene indole alkaloid, was accomplished. Key steps included: a) Noyori's catalytic enantioselective transfer hydrogenation of the iminium salt to set up the absolute configuration at the C21 position; b) a highly diastereoselective C7 benzoyloxylation with dibenzoyl peroxide under mild conditions; and c) an integrated one-pot oxidative cleavage of cyclopentene/triple cyclization/hydrolysis sequence for the construction of the dioxa azaadamantane motif with complete control of four newly generated stereocenters. PMID:27094030

  17. Enantioselective synthesis of a dual orexin receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Mangion, Ian K; Sherry, Benjamin D; Yin, Jingjun; Fleitz, Fred J

    2012-07-01

    A concise, enantioselective synthesis of the potent dual orexin inhibitor suvorexant (1) is reported. Key features of the synthesis include a mild copper-catalyzed amination, a highly chemoselective conjugate addition, and a tandem enantioselective transamination/seven-membered ring annulation. The synthesis requires inexpensive starting materials and only four linear steps for completion. PMID:22725839

  18. Enantioselective synthesis of 12-amino alkylidenecyclopentenone prostaglandins.

    PubMed

    Roulland, Emmanuel; Monneret, Claude; Florent, Jean-Claude; Bennejean, Caroline; Renard, Pierre; Léonce, Stéphane

    2002-06-28

    An enantioselective synthesis of new 12-amino alkylidenecyclopentenone prostaglandins is reported. The key step of the synthesis involved a [3.3] sigmatropic rearrangement of an asymmetric allylic cyanate to elaborate an asymmetric 5-amino-1,6-diene which was further transformed into cyclopentenone by successive ring-closing metathesis reaction catalyzed by the Grubbs reagent and one-pot oxidation. A palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction on a 5-iodo-1,5-diene allowed the synthesis of prostanoids with variable Rw side chains. These new compounds exhibit high cytotoxic activities. PMID:12076134

  19. Enantioselective Total Synthesis of (-)-Alstoscholarisine A.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xiao; Jiang, Shi-Zhi; Wei, Kun; Yang, Yu-Rong

    2016-03-01

    We report a concise and highly enantioselective total synthesis of (-)-alstoscholarisine A (1), a recently isolated monoterpenoid indole alkaloid that has significant bioactivity in promoting adult neuronal stem cells proliferation. A highly enantioselective (99% ee), intramolecular Ir-catalyzed Friedel-Crafts alkylation of indole 9 with a secondary allylic alcohol was utilized to establish the first stereogenic center upon which the other three contiguous chiral centers were readily set by a highly stereoselective tandem 1,4-addition and aldol reaction. The key tetrahydropyran was constructed through a hemiacetal reduction, and the final aminal bridge was forged by a one-pot reductive amination/cyclization. The conciseness of this approach was highlighted by building core bonds in each step with a minimalist protecting group strategy. PMID:26882407

  20. Scalable, enantioselective taxane total synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Mendoza, Abraham; Ishihara, Yoshihiro; Baran, Phil S.

    2011-01-01

    Taxanes are a large family of terpenes comprising over 350 members, the most famous of which is Taxol (paclitaxel) — a billion-dollar anticancer drug. Here, we describe the first practical and scalable synthetic entry to these natural products via a concise preparation of (+)-taxa-4(5),11(12)-dien-2-one, which possesses a suitable functional handle to access more oxidised members of its family. This route enabled a gram-scale preparation of the ”parent” taxane, taxadiene, representing the largest quantity of this naturally occurring terpene ever isolated or prepared in pure form. The taxane family’s characteristic 6-8-6 tricyclic system containing a bridgehead alkene is forged via a vicinal difunctionalisation/Diels–Alder strategy. Asymmetry is introduced by means of an enantioselective conjugate addition that forms an all-carbon quaternary centre, from which all other stereocentres are fixed via substrate control. This study lays a critical foundation for a planned access to minimally oxidised taxane analogs and a scalable laboratory preparation of Taxol itself. PMID:22169867

  1. Catalytic enantioselective synthesis of quaternary carbon stereocentres.

    PubMed

    Quasdorf, Kyle W; Overman, Larry E

    2014-12-11

    Quaternary carbon stereocentres-carbon atoms to which four distinct carbon substituents are attached-are common features of molecules found in nature. However, before recent advances in chemical catalysis, there were few methods of constructing single stereoisomers of this important structural motif. Here we discuss the many catalytic enantioselective reactions developed during the past decade for the synthesis of single stereoisomers of such organic molecules. This progress now makes it possible to incorporate quaternary stereocentres selectively in many organic molecules that are useful in medicine, agriculture and potentially other areas such as flavouring, fragrances and materials. PMID:25503231

  2. Organocatalytic Enantioselective Synthesis of Pyrazoles Bearing a Quaternary Stereocenter.

    PubMed

    Vila, Carlos; Amr, Fares Ibrahim; Blay, Gonzalo; Muñoz, M Carmen; Pedro, José R

    2016-05-20

    An efficient one-pot asymmetric synthesis of pyrazoles bearing a chiral quaternary stereocenter has been developed. Quinine-derived thiourea catalyzed the enantioselective addition of pyrazolones to isatin-derived ketimines, providing the corresponding acetylated pyrazoles after in situ treatment with Ac2 O/Et3 N. The corresponding pyrazoles were afforded in high yields and excellent enantioselectivities. PMID:27038062

  3. Enantioselective total synthesis of (-)-Salinosporamide A (NPI-0052).

    PubMed

    Ling, Taotao; Macherla, Venkat R; Manam, Rama Rao; McArthur, Katherine A; Potts, Barbara C M

    2007-06-01

    A novel enantioselective total synthesis of 20S proteasome inhibitor Salinosporamide A (NPI-0052; 1) is presented. Key features include intramolecular aldol cyclization of 6 to simultaneously generate the three chiral centers of advanced intermediate 5, cyclohexene ring addition using B-2-cyclohexen-1-yl-9-BBN, and inversion of the C-5 stereocenter by oxidation followed by enantioselective enzymatic reduction. PMID:17497868

  4. Enantioselective Synthesis of Pactamycin, a Complex Antitumor Antibiotic

    PubMed Central

    Malinowski, Justin T.; Sharpe, Robert J.; Johnson, Jeffrey S.

    2014-01-01

    Medicinal application of many complex natural products is precluded by the impracticality of their chemical synthesis. Pactamycin, the most structurally-intricate aminocyclopentitol antibiotic, displays potent anti-prolific properties across multiple phylogenetic domains, but is highly cytotoxic. A limited number of analogs produced by genetic engineering technologies show reduced cytotoxicity against mammalian cells, renewing promise for therapeutic applications. For decades, an efficient synthesis of pactamycin amenable to analog derivatizations has eluded researchers. Herein, we present a short asymmetric total synthesis of pactamycin. An enantioselective Mannich reaction/symmetry-breaking reduction sequence was designed to enable assembly of the entire carbon core skeleton in under five steps and control critical three-dimensional (stereochemical) functional group relationships. This modular route totals fifteen steps and is immediately amenable for structural analog synthesis. PMID:23580525

  5. Enantioselective synthesis of apoptolidin sugars.

    PubMed

    Crimmins, Michael T; Long, Alan

    2005-09-15

    [structure: see text] The de novo synthesis of the C9 and C27 sugar subunits (2) and (3), respectively, of the potent antitumor agent, apoptolidin, has been accomplished. A titanium tetrachloride-mediated asymmetric anti glycolate aldol addition was utilized to establish the 4' and 5' stereogenic centers of each of the three monosaccharides. Elaboration of the aldol adducts efficiently provided the three sugar units. A beta-selective glycosidation completed the construction of the C27 disaccharide. PMID:16146376

  6. Catalytic asymmetric assembly of C3-monosubstituted chiral carbazolones and concise formal synthesis of (-)-aspidofractinine: application of enantioselective Pd-catalyzed decarboxylative protonation of carbazolones.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ruirui; Sun, Zhongwen; Mo, Mingjie; Peng, Fangzhi; Shao, Zhihui

    2014-08-15

    The first method for the asymmetric synthesis of C3-monosubstituted chiral carbazolones, structural motifs common in medicinal chemistry, has been achieved using Pd-catalyzed decarboxylative protonation of carbazolones. This methodology has been applied to the first catalytic enantioselective formal synthesis of (-)-aspidofractinine with step economy and simplicity. PMID:25060656

  7. Enantioselective total synthesis of (-)-acutumine.

    PubMed

    Li, Fang; Tartakoff, Samuel S; Castle, Steven L

    2009-12-01

    An account of the total synthesis of the tetracyclic alkaloid (-)-acutumine is presented. A first-generation approach to the spirocyclic subunit was unsuccessful as a result of incorrect regioselectivity in a radical cyclization. However, this work spawned a second-generation strategy in which the spirocycle was fashioned via a radical-polar crossover reaction. This process merged an intramolecular radical conjugate addition with an enolate hydroxylation and created two stereocenters with excellent diastereoselectivity. The reaction was promoted by irradiation with a sunlamp, and a ditin reagent was required for aryl radical formation. These facts suggest that the substrate may function as a sensitizer, thereby facilitating homolytic cleavage of the ditin reagent. The propellane motif of the target was then installed via annulation of a pyrrolidine ring onto the spirocycle. The sequence of reactions used included a phenolic oxidation, an asymmetric ketone allylation mediated by Nakamura's chiral allylzinc reagent, an anionic oxy-Cope rearrangement, a one-pot ozonolysis-reductive amination, and a Lewis acid promoted cyclization of an amine onto an alpha,beta-unsaturated dimethyl ketal. Further studies of the asymmetric ketone allylation demonstrated the ability of the Nakamura reagent to function well in a mismatched situation. A TiCl(4)-catalyzed regioselective methyl enol etherification of a 1,3-diketone completed the synthesis. PMID:19904909

  8. Design and stereoselective preparation of a new class of chiral olefin metathesis catalysts and application to enantioselective synthesis of quebrachamine: catalyst development inspired by natural product synthesis.

    PubMed

    Sattely, Elizabeth S; Meek, Simon J; Malcolmson, Steven J; Schrock, Richard R; Hoveyda, Amir H

    2009-01-28

    A total synthesis of the Aspidosperma alkaloid quebrachamine in racemic form is first described. A key catalytic ring-closing metathesis of an achiral triene is used to establish the all-carbon quaternary stereogenic center and the tetracyclic structure of the natural product; the catalytic transformation proceeds with reasonable efficiency through the use of existing achiral Ru or Mo catalysts. Ru- or Mo-based chiral olefin metathesis catalysts have proven to be inefficient and entirely nonselective in cases where the desired product is observed. In the present study, the synthesis route thus serves as a platform for the discovery of new olefin metathesis catalysts that allow for efficient completion of an enantioselective synthesis of quebrachamine. Accordingly, on the basis of mechanistic principles, stereogenic-at-Mo complexes bearing only monodentate ligands have been designed. The new catalysts provide significantly higher levels of activity than observed with the previously reported Ru- or Mo-based complexes. Enantiomerically enriched chiral alkylidenes are generated through diastereoselective reactions involving achiral Mo-based bispyrrolides and enantiomerically pure silyl-protected binaphthols. Such chiral catalysts initiate the key enantioselective ring-closing metathesis step in the total synthesis of quebrachamine efficiently (1 mol % loading, 22 degrees C, 1 h, >98% conversion, 84% yield) and with high selectivity (98:2 er, 96% ee). PMID:19113867

  9. On the Traces of Absolute Enantioselective Synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barabás, Béla; Caglioti, Luciano; Faglioni, Francesco; Florini, Nicola; Lazzeretti, Paolo; Maioli, Marco; Micskei, Károly; Rábai, Gyula; Taddei, Ferdinando; Zucchi, Claudia; Pályi, Gyula

    2007-12-01

    The main goal of this communication is to show the utility of empirical approaches combined with mathematical methods in the research regarding the molecular basis of biological chirality. Preparative results (enantiomeric excesses, e.e.) obtained in asymmetric autocatalysis with (AAC) and without (AES) chiral additive were analyzed. Statistical calculations show, that AES (absolute enantioselective synthesis) experiments yield two independent groups of results with prevalence of the R- or S-enantiomer. These are distributed asymmetrically in a second-order beta distribution. Empirical calculations both on AAC and EAS enable to identify the very low (statistical) e.e.-s amplified by AES. These initial e.e.-s show normal distribution. Possible molecular-level reasons of these results were controlled by quantum chemical MO calculations and compatible mechanism(s) are discussed.

  10. Enantioselective total synthesis of (-)-limaspermidine and formal synthesis of (-)-1-acetylaspidoalbidine.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shao-Xiong; Shen, Xiao-Lei; Li, Ze-Qian; Zou, Li-Wei; Wang, Feng-Qun; Zhang, Hong-Bin; Shao, Zhi-Hui

    2013-11-15

    Evolution of the synthetic strategy that culminated in the first asymmetric total synthesis of the Aspidosperma alkaloid limaspermidine is described. The successful enantioselective route to (-)-limaspermidine proceeds in 10 steps and with the isolation of only six intermediates using a Pd-catalyzed enantioselective decarboxylative allylation we have recently developed. This first enantioselective synthesis of (-)-limaspermidine establishes unambiguously its absolute configuration and allows the first asymmetric formal total synthesis of the Aspidoalbine alkaloid (-)-1-acetylaspidoalbidine. PMID:24131444

  11. Synthesis of new optically active propargylic fluorides and application to the enantioselective synthesis of monofluorinated analogues of fatty acid metabolites.

    PubMed

    Prakesch, M; Grée, D; Grée, R

    2001-05-01

    A new approach to obtain optically active unsaturated or polyunsaturated systems with a single fluorine atom in an allylic or propargylic position is reported. Central to this strategy is the high regio- and stereocontrol observed during the fluorination of propargylic alcohols allowing a short and efficient synthesis of 1. Further, simple functional group transformations gave the enals 2 and 3. These three key intermediates were used for the preparation of optically active monofluorinated analogues of fatty acid metabolites. PMID:11325281

  12. Development of an Enantioselective Route towards the Lycopodium Alkaloids: Total Synthesis of Lycopodine

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hua; Carter, Rich G.

    2010-01-01

    Synthesis of a C15-desmethyl tricycle core of lycopodine has been accomplished. Key steps in the synthetic sequence include organocatalytic, intramolecular Michael addition of a keto sulfone and a tandem 1,3-sulfonyl shift / Mannich cyclization to construct the tricyclic core ring system. Synthetic work towards this natural product family led to the development of N-(p-dodecylphenylsulfonyl)-2-pyrrolidinecarboxamide – an organocatalyst which facilitiates enantioselective, intramolecular Michael additions. A detailed mechanistic discussion is provided for both the intramolecular Michael addition and the sulfone rearrangement. Finally, the application of these discoveries to the enantioselective total synthesis of alkaloid lycopodine is described. PMID:20586477

  13. An enantioselective formal synthesis of montelukast sodium.

    PubMed

    Bollikonda, Satyanarayana; Mohanarangam, Saravanan; Jinna, Rajender Reddy; Kandirelli, Venkata Kiran Kumar; Makthala, Laxman; Sen, Saikat; Chaplin, David A; Lloyd, Richard C; Mahoney, Thomas; Dahanukar, Vilas Hareshwar; Oruganti, Srinivas; Fox, Martin E

    2015-04-17

    A formal synthesis of the antiasthma drug montelukast sodium is described, wherein the key chiral diol intermediate was accessed with greater convergence of the C-C bond-forming steps as compared to previous routes. Improved synthetic efficiency was achieved by deploying homogeneous metal-based catalysis in two pivotal steps. In the first, a tandem Mizoroki-Heck reaction and double-bond isomerization between a previously known allyl alcohol intermediate and a hindered 2-(2-halophenyl)propan-2-ol secured direct access to the 3-(2-(2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-1-phenylpropan-1-one moiety in the product. In the second step, asymmetric hydrogenation of the ketone functionality in the Mizoroki-Heck reaction product provided a convenient method to introduce the benzylic alcohol chiral center and obtain the desired chiral diol precursor of montelukast sodium. A detailed catalyst screening led to the identification of ((R)-Xyl-BINAP)((R,R)-DPEN)RuCl2 as a catalyst that afforded an enantioselectivity of 99% ee in the hydrogenation step on a multigram lab scale at a molar substrate:catalyst loading of 5000:1. PMID:25807000

  14. A Catalytic, Enantioselective Formal Synthesis of (+)-Dichroanone and (+)-Taiwaniaquinone H

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A catalytic, enantioselective formal synthesis of (+)-dichroanone and (+)-taiwaniaquinone H is reported. The all-carbon quaternary stereocenter was constructed by asymmetric conjugate addition catalyzed by a palladium(II) (S)-tert-butylpyridinooxazoline complex. The unexpected formation of a [3.2.1] bicyclic intermediate required the identification of a new route. Analysis of the Hammett constants for para-substituted arenes enabled the rational design of a highly enantioselective conjugate addition substrate that led to the completion of the formal synthesis. PMID:25489925

  15. A catalytic, enantioselective formal synthesis of (+)-dichroanone and (+)-taiwaniaquinone H.

    PubMed

    Shockley, Samantha E; Holder, Jeffrey C; Stoltz, Brian M

    2014-12-19

    A catalytic, enantioselective formal synthesis of (+)-dichroanone and (+)-taiwaniaquinone H is reported. The all-carbon quaternary stereocenter was constructed by asymmetric conjugate addition catalyzed by a palladium(II) (S)-tert-butylpyridinooxazoline complex. The unexpected formation of a [3.2.1] bicyclic intermediate required the identification of a new route. Analysis of the Hammett constants for para-substituted arenes enabled the rational design of a highly enantioselective conjugate addition substrate that led to the completion of the formal synthesis. PMID:25489925

  16. Enantioselective Synthesis of L-CCG-I.

    PubMed

    Chavan, Subhash P; Sharma, Pallavi; Sivappa, Rasapalli; Bhadbhade, Mohan M; Gonnade, Rajesh G; Kalkote, Uttam R

    2003-08-22

    Introduction of natural menthol as the chiral auxiliary in a gamma-Br-alpha,beta-unsaturated ester leads to enantioselective generation of three chiral centers in a single step on reaction with a glycine anion equivalent to provide L-CCG-I in 94% ee. PMID:12919057

  17. Structure Elucidation of Nigricanoside A Through Enantioselective Total Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jie; Koswatta, Panduka; DeBergh, J. Robb; Fu, Peng; Pan, Ende; MacMillan, John B.; Ready, Joseph M.

    2016-01-01

    Nigricanoside A was isolated from green alga, and its dimethyl ester was found to display potent cytotoxicity. Its scarcity prevented a full structure elucidation, leaving total synthesis as the only means to determine its relative and absolute stereochemistry and to explore its biological activity. Here we assign the stereochemistry of the natural product through enantioselective total synthesis and provide initial studies of its cytotoxicity. PMID:26877863

  18. Catalytic enantioselective 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions of azomethine ylides for biology-oriented synthesis.

    PubMed

    Narayan, Rishikesh; Potowski, Marco; Jia, Zhi-Jun; Antonchick, Andrey P; Waldmann, Herbert

    2014-04-15

    Cycloaddition reactions are among the most powerful methods for the synthesis of complex compounds. In particular, the development and application of the 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition, an important member of this reaction class, has grown immensely due to its powerful ability to efficiently build various five-membered heterocycles. Azomethine ylides are commonly used as dipoles for the synthesis of the pyrrolidine scaffold, which is an important motif in natural products, pharmaceuticals, and biological probes. The reaction between azomethine ylides and cyclic dipolarophiles allows access to polycyclic products with considerable complexity. The extensive application of the 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition is based on the fact that the desired products can be obtained with high yield in a regio- and stereocontrolled manner. The most attractive feature of the 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of azomethine ylides is the possibility to generate pyrrolidines with multiple stereocenters in a single step. The development of enantioselective cycloadditions became a subject of intensive and impressive studies in recent years. Among many modes of stereoinduction, the application of chiral metal-ligand complexes has emerged as the most viable option for control of enantioselectivity. In chemical biology research based on the principle of biology-oriented synthesis (BIOS), compound collections are prepared inspired by natural product scaffolds. In BIOS, biological relevance is employed as the key criterion to generate hypotheses for the design and synthesis of focused compound libraries. In particular, the underlying scaffolds of natural product classes provide inspiration for BIOS because they define the areas of chemical space explored by nature, and therefore, they can be regarded as "privileged". The scaffolds of natural products are frequently complex and rich in stereocenters, which necessitates the development of efficient enantioselective methodologies. This Account highlights examples, mostly from our work, of the application of 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reactions of azomethine ylides for the catalytic enantioselective synthesis of complex products. We successfully applied the 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition in the synthesis of spiro-compounds such as spirooxindoles, for kinetic resolution of racemic compounds in the synthesis of an iridoid inspired compound collection and in the synthesis of a nitrogen-bridged bicyclic tropane scaffold by application of 1,3-fused azomethine ylides. Furthermore, we performed the synthesis of complex molecules with eight stereocenters using tandem cycloadditions. In a programmable sequential double cycloaddition, we demonstrated the synthesis of both enantiomers of complex products by simple changes in the order of addition of chemicals. Complex products were obtained using enantioselective higher order [6 + 3] cycloaddition of azomethine ylides with fulvenes followed by Diels-Alder reaction. The bioactivity of these compound collections is also discussed. PMID:24730692

  19. Catalytic Enantioselective 1,3-Dipolar Cycloadditions of Azomethine Ylides for Biology-Oriented Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Conspectus Cycloaddition reactions are among the most powerful methods for the synthesis of complex compounds. In particular, the development and application of the 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition, an important member of this reaction class, has grown immensely due to its powerful ability to efficiently build various five-membered heterocycles. Azomethine ylides are commonly used as dipoles for the synthesis of the pyrrolidine scaffold, which is an important motif in natural products, pharmaceuticals, and biological probes. The reaction between azomethine ylides and cyclic dipolarophiles allows access to polycyclic products with considerable complexity. The extensive application of the 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition is based on the fact that the desired products can be obtained with high yield in a regio- and stereocontrolled manner. The most attractive feature of the 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of azomethine ylides is the possibility to generate pyrrolidines with multiple stereocenters in a single step. The development of enantioselective cycloadditions became a subject of intensive and impressive studies in recent years. Among many modes of stereoinduction, the application of chiral metal–ligand complexes has emerged as the most viable option for control of enantioselectivity. In chemical biology research based on the principle of biology-oriented synthesis (BIOS), compound collections are prepared inspired by natural product scaffolds. In BIOS, biological relevance is employed as the key criterion to generate hypotheses for the design and synthesis of focused compound libraries. In particular, the underlying scaffolds of natural product classes provide inspiration for BIOS because they define the areas of chemical space explored by nature, and therefore, they can be regarded as “privileged”. The scaffolds of natural products are frequently complex and rich in stereocenters, which necessitates the development of efficient enantioselective methodologies. This Account highlights examples, mostly from our work, of the application of 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reactions of azomethine ylides for the catalytic enantioselective synthesis of complex products. We successfully applied the 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition in the synthesis of spiro-compounds such as spirooxindoles, for kinetic resolution of racemic compounds in the synthesis of an iridoid inspired compound collection and in the synthesis of a nitrogen-bridged bicyclic tropane scaffold by application of 1,3-fused azomethine ylides. Furthermore, we performed the synthesis of complex molecules with eight stereocenters using tandem cycloadditions. In a programmable sequential double cycloaddition, we demonstrated the synthesis of both enantiomers of complex products by simple changes in the order of addition of chemicals. Complex products were obtained using enantioselective higher order [6 + 3] cycloaddition of azomethine ylides with fulvenes followed by Diels–Alder reaction. The bioactivity of these compound collections is also discussed. PMID:24730692

  20. A broadly applicable NHC-Cu-catalyzed approach for efficient, site-, and enantioselective coupling of readily accessible (pinacolato)alkenylboron compounds to allylic phosphates and applications to natural product synthesis.

    PubMed

    Gao, Fang; Carr, James L; Hoveyda, Amir H

    2014-02-01

    A set of protocols for catalytic enantioselective allylic substitution (EAS) reactions that allow for additions of alkenyl units to readily accessible allylic electrophiles is disclosed. Transformations afford 1,4-dienes that contain a tertiary carbon stereogenic site and are promoted by 1.0-5.0 mol % of a copper complex of an N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC). Aryl- as well as alkyl-substituted electrophiles bearing a di- or trisubstituted alkene may be employed. Reactions can involve a variety of robust alkenyl-(pinacolatoboron) [alkenyl-B(pin)] compounds that can be either purchased or prepared by various efficient, site-, and/or stereoselective catalytic reactions, such as cross-metathesis or proto-boryl additions to terminal alkynes. Vinyl-, E-, or Z-disubstituted alkenyl-, 1,1-disubstituted alkenyl-, acyclic, or heterocyclic trisubstituted alkenyl groups may be added in up to >98% yield, >98:2 SN2':SN2, and 99:1 enantiomeric ratio (er). NHC-Cu-catalyzed EAS with alkenyl-B(pin) reagents containing a conjugated carboxylic ester or aldehyde group proceed to provide the desired 1,4-diene products in good yield and with high enantioselectivity despite the presence of a sensitive stereogenic tertiary carbon center that could be considered prone to epimerization. In most instances, the alternative approach of utilizing an alkenylmetal reagent (e.g., an Al-based species) represents an incompatible option. The utility of the approach is illustrated through applications to enantioselective synthesis of natural products such as santolina alcohol, semburin, nyasol, heliespirone A, and heliannuol E. PMID:24467274

  1. Catalytic Enantioselective Synthesis of Quaternary Carbon Stereocenters

    PubMed Central

    Quasdorf, Kyle W.; Overman, Larry E.

    2015-01-01

    Preface Quaternary carbon stereocenters–carbon atoms to which four distinct carbon substituents are attached–are common features of molecules found in nature. However, prior to recent advances in chemical catalysis, there were few methods available for constructing single stereoisomers of this important structural motif. Here we discuss the many catalytic enantioselective reactions developed during the past decade for synthesizing organic molecules containing such carbon atoms. This progress now makes it possible to selectively incorporate quaternary stereocenters in many high-value organic molecules for use in medicine, agriculture, and other areas. PMID:25503231

  2. Enantioselective Synthesis of Indole-Annulated Medium-Sized Rings.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lin; Dai, Li-Xin; You, Shu-Li

    2016-05-11

    Asymmetric synthesis of indole-annulated medium-sized-ring compounds is developed through an iridium-catalyzed allylic dearomatization/retro-Mannich/hydrolysis cascade reaction. The reaction features mild conditions and a broad substrate scope. Under the optimal conditions, various seven-, eight-, or nine-membered-ring compounds can be afforded in good to excellent yields and excellent enantioselectivity. The proposed mechanism is supported by capturing the dearomatized intermediate through in situ reduction. PMID:27093370

  3. Enantioselective Synthesis of L- and D-Carboranylalanine.

    PubMed

    Radel, Peggy A.; Kahl, Stephen B.

    1996-07-12

    The enantioselective synthesis of L- and D-carboranylalanine is reported. Imides 13 and 14 are treated with titanium tetrachloride, DIEA, and NBS to introduce a bromo functionality in 98:2 ratio at the alpha-center. Azide displacement with TMGA, displacement of the oxazolidinone template with titanium tetrabenzyloxide, and subsequent hydrogenolysis permits L- or D-carboranylalanine to be isolated in high stereoselectivity and 35-40% yields overall. PMID:11667383

  4. The total synthesis of (–)-cyanthiwigin F by means of double catalytic enantioselective alkylation

    PubMed Central

    Enquist, John A.; Stoltz, Brian M.

    2008-01-01

    Double catalytic enantioselective transformations are powerful synthetic methods that can facilitate the construction of stereochemically complex molecules in a single operation1,2. In addition to generating two or more stereocentres in a single reaction, multiple asymmetric reactions also impart increased enantiomeric excess to the final product in comparison with the analogous single transformation3-6. Furthermore, multiple asymmetric operations have the potential to independently construct several stereocentres at remote points within the same molecular scaffold, rather than relying on pre-existing chiral centres that are proximal to the reactive site1. Despite the inherent benefits of multiple catalytic enantioselective reactions, their application to natural product total synthesis remains largely underutilized2. Here we report the use of a double stereoablative7 enantioselective alkylation reaction in a concise synthesis of the marine diterpenoid (–)-cyanthiwigin F (ref. 8). By employing a technique for independent, selective formation of two stereocentres in a single stereoconvergent operation, we demonstrate that a complicated mixture of racemic and meso diastereomers may be smoothly converted to a synthetically useful intermediate with exceptional enantiomeric excess. The stereochemical information generated by means of this catalytic transformation facilitates the easy and rapid completion of the total synthesis of this marine natural product. PMID:18580947

  5. Scalable enantioselective total synthesis of taxanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, Abraham; Ishihara, Yoshihiro; Baran, Phil S.

    2012-01-01

    Taxanes form a large family of terpenes comprising over 350 members, the most famous of which is Taxol (paclitaxel), a billion-dollar anticancer drug. Here, we describe the first practical and scalable synthetic entry to these natural products via a concise preparation of (+)-taxa-4(5),11(12)-dien-2-one, which has a suitable functional handle with which to access more oxidized members of its family. This route enables a gram-scale preparation of the ‘parent’ taxane—taxadiene—which is the largest quantity of this naturally occurring terpene ever isolated or prepared in pure form. The characteristic 6-8-6 tricyclic system of the taxane family, containing a bridgehead alkene, is forged via a vicinal difunctionalization/Diels-Alder strategy. Asymmetry is introduced by means of an enantioselective conjugate addition that forms an all-carbon quaternary centre, from which all other stereocentres are fixed through substrate control. This study lays a critical foundation for a planned access to minimally oxidized taxane analogues and a scalable laboratory preparation of Taxol itself.

  6. Enantioselective synthesis of cis-decalins using organocatalysis and sulfonyl Nazarov reagents.

    PubMed

    Peña, Javier; Silveira-Dorta, Gastón; Moro, Rosalina F; Garrido, Narciso M; Marcos, Isidro S; Sanz, Francisca; Díez, David

    2015-01-01

    The first organocatalytic synthesis of cis-decalins using sulfonyl Nazarov reagents is reported. The Jørgensen's catalyst directs this highly enantioselective synthesis using different cyclohexenal derivatives. PMID:25867826

  7. Enantioselective total synthesis of callipeltoside A: two approaches to the macrolactone fragment

    PubMed Central

    Evans, David A.; Burch, Jason D.; Hu, Essa; Jaeschke, Georg

    2012-01-01

    The enantioselective total synthesis of callipeltoside A is described. Two syntheses of the macrolactone subunit are included: the first relies upon an Ireland–Claisen rearrangement to generate the trisubstituted olefin geometry and the second utilizes an enantioselective vinylogous aldol reaction for this purpose. Enantioselective syntheses of the sugar and chlorocyclopropane side chain fragments are also disclosed. The relative and absolute stereochemistry of this natural product was determined by fragment coupling with the two enantiomers of the side chain fragment. PMID:22859865

  8. Enantioselective synthesis of fused heterocycles with contiguous stereogenic centers by chiral phosphoric acid catalyzed symmetry breaking.

    PubMed

    Mori, Keiji; Miyake, Ayaka; Akiyama, Takahiko

    2015-11-18

    Described herein is a highly enantioselective synthesis of fused piperidine and pyrrolidine derivatives with all-carbon stereogenic centers. The enantioselective reductive amination from C(s)-symmetric 1,3-dione derivatives proceeded in a highly stereoselective manner by taking advantage of the desymmetrization approach to afford fused heterocycles with contiguous stereogenic centers in good to excellent enantioselectivities (up to 98% ee). PMID:26392151

  9. A novel enantioselective synthesis of 6H-dibenzopyran derivatives by combined palladium/norbornene and cinchona alkaloid catalysis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Di; Dai, Li; Catellani, Marta; Motti, Elena; Della Ca', Nicola; Zhou, Zhiming

    2015-02-28

    Organometallic and organo-catalysts are cooperatively at work in the enantioselective synthesis of dibenzopyran derivatives; palladium/norbornene and a cinchona alkaloid base guarantee good yields and satisfactory enantioselectivities in a one-pot reaction. PMID:25584921

  10. Application of a Chiral Scaffolding Ligand in Catalytic Enantioselective Hydroformylation

    PubMed Central

    Worthy, Amanda D.; Joe, Candice L.; Lightburn, Thomas E.; Tan, Kian L.

    2010-01-01

    The synthesis of β-amino-aldehydes has been achieved through enantioselective hydroformylation of PMP-protected allylic amines. The reaction is accomplished by using a scalemic scaffolding ligand that covalently and reversibly binds to the substrate. These ligands behave like chiral auxiliaries because they are covalently attached to the substrate during hydroformylation; however, similar to traditional asymmetric ligands, they can be used in catalytic quantities. The directed hydroformylation of disubstituted olefins occurs under mild conditions (35 °C and 50 psi CO/H2), and Z-olefins afford excellent enantioselectivities (up to 93% ee). PMID:20882977

  11. Total Synthesis of (S)-(+)-Tylophorine Via Enantioselective Intramolecular Alkene Carboamination

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Wei; Chemler, Sherry R.

    2009-01-01

    The enantioselective synthesis of (S)-(+)-tylophorine, a potent cancer cell growth inhibitor, has been accomplished in eight steps from commercially available 3,4-dimethoxybenzyl alcohol. A copper (II)-catalyzed enantioselective intramolecular alkene carboamination was employed as the key step to construct the chiral indolizidine ring. PMID:18588345

  12. Asymmetric synthesis of trifluoromethylated amines via catalytic enantioselective isomerization of imines.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yongwei; Deng, Li

    2012-09-01

    A new approach toward the asymmetric synthesis of optically active trifluoromethylated amines was enabled by an unprecedented, highly enantioselective catalytic isomerization of trifluoromethyl imines with a new chiral organic catalyst. Not only aryl but also alkyl trifluoromethylated amines could be obtained in high enantioselectivities. PMID:22906148

  13. Enantioselective Total Synthesis of Lycoposerramine-Z Using Chiral Phosphoric Acid Catalyzed Intramolecular Michael Addition.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lan-De; Zhong, Lin-Rui; Xi, Jie; Yang, Xiao-Liang; Yao, Zhu-Jun

    2016-03-01

    A new enantioselective total synthesis of phlegmarine-type Lycopodium alkaloid lycoposerramine-Z (1) has been accomplished, using one-pot chemoselective sequential additions of two different Grignard reagents to the bis-Weinreb-amide intermediate and an efficient construction of the fully fuctionalized cyclohexanone intermediate with a chiral phosphoric acid catalyzed enantioselective intramolecular Michael addition. PMID:26871307

  14. Enantioselective Total Synthesis of Fluvirucinin B1.

    PubMed

    Guignard, Guillaume; Llor, Núria; Molins, Elies; Bosch, Joan; Amat, Mercedes

    2016-04-15

    A convergent synthesis of fluvirucinin B1 from acid ent-6a and nitrile ent-9, involving an organocopper coupling, a stereoselective allylation, a ring-closing metathesis reaction, and a stereoselective hydrogenation as the key steps, is reported. The starting building blocks have been prepared in a straightforward manner from a common phenylglycinol-derived lactam 1. An unprecedented regioselective oxidation of phenylglycinol-derived secondary amines 5 to carboxylic acids 6 has been developed. PMID:27046224

  15. Enantioselective Total Synthesis of (+)-Lyngbyabellin M

    PubMed Central

    Pirovani, Rodrigo V.; Brito, Gilmar A.; Barcelos, Rosimeire C.; Pilli, Ronaldo A.

    2015-01-01

    Lyngbyabellin M is a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase/polyketide synthase derived metabolite isolated from the cyanobacterium M. bouillonii displaying thiazole rings and a distinct chlorinated octanoic acid chain. Its absolute configuration was proposed based on the comparison of its spectroscopic data with those of other representatives of this family of marine natural products, as well as degradation and derivatization studies. Here the first total synthesis of (+)-lyngbyabellin M is described based on the coupling of three key intermediates: two chiral thiazole moieties and an anti hydroxycarboxylic acid prepared stereoselectively via a boron enolate mediated aldol reaction directed by Masamune’s chiral auxiliary. PMID:26023838

  16. Enantioselective total synthesis of (+)-lyngbyabellin M.

    PubMed

    Pirovani, Rodrigo V; Brito, Gilmar A; Barcelos, Rosimeire C; Pilli, Ronaldo A

    2015-06-01

    Lyngbyabellin M is a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase/polyketide synthase derived metabolite isolated from the cyanobacterium M. bouillonii displaying thiazole rings and a distinct chlorinated octanoic acid chain. Its absolute configuration was proposed based on the comparison of its spectroscopic data with those of other representatives of this family of marine natural products, as well as degradation and derivatization studies. Here the first total synthesis of (+)-lyngbyabellin M is described based on the coupling of three key intermediates: two chiral thiazole moieties and an anti hydroxycarboxylic acid prepared stereoselectively via a boron enolate mediated aldol reaction directed by Masamune's chiral auxiliary. PMID:26023838

  17. Enantioselective Total Synthesis of (−)-Acutumine

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fang; Tartakoff, Samuel S.; Castle, Steven L.

    2009-01-01

    An account of the total synthesis of the tetracyclic alkaloid (−)-acutumine is presented. A first-generation approach to the spirocyclic subunit was unsuccessful due to incorrect regioselectivity in a radical cyclization. However, this work spawned a second-generation strategy in which the spirocycle was fashioned via a radical–polar crossover reaction. This process merged an intramolecular radical conjugate addition with an enolate hydroxylation, and created two stereocenters with excellent diastereoselectivity. The reaction was promoted by irradiation with a sunlamp, and a ditin reagent was required for aryl radical formation. These facts suggest that the substrate may function as a sensitizer, thereby facilitating homolytic cleavage of the ditin reagent. The propellane motif of the target was then installed via annulation of a pyrrolidine ring onto the spirocycle. The sequence of reactions used included a phenolic oxidation, an asymmetric ketone allylation mediated by Nakamura’s chiral allylzinc reagent, an anionic oxy-Cope rearrangement, a one-pot ozonolysis–reductive amination, and a Lewis acid promoted cyclization of an amine onto an α,β-unsaturated dimethyl ketal. Further studies of the asymmetric ketone allylation demonstrated the ability of the Nakamura reagent to function well in a mismatched situation. A TiCl4-catalyzed regioselective methyl enol etherification of a 1,3-diketone completed the synthesis. PMID:19904909

  18. Organocatalytic Michael and Friedel-Crafts reactions in enantioselective synthesis of biologically active compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maltsev, O. V.; Beletskaya, Irina P.; Zlotin, Sergei G.

    2011-11-01

    Recent applications of organocatalytic Michael and Friedel-Crafts reactions in enantioselective synthesis of biologically active compounds: natural products, pharmaceutical agents and plant protection agents are reviewed. The key mechanisms of stereoinduction, types of organocatalysts and reagents used in these reactions are considered. The material is classified according to the type of newly formed bonds incorporating the asymmetric carbon atom, and the information for the most numerous C-C coupling reactions is systematized according to the natures of the electrophile and the nucleophile. The bibliography includes 433 references. Dedicated to Academician O M Nefedov on the occasion of his 80th birthday.

  19. Enantioselective Tsuji Allylations

    PubMed Central

    Mohr, Justin T.; Stoltz, Brian M.

    2010-01-01

    The family of allylation reactions developed by Tsuji in the 1980's are capable of generating tertiary and quaternary carbon stereocenters from several synthetic precursors. Despite the utility of these transformations, they have seen little use in the synthesis of natural products. Recently, the power of these reactions has been significantly enhanced by the development of enantioselective versions of these transformations. Applications of these methods to the enantioselective syntheses of natural products and pharmaceutical compounds highlight the importance of these developments. PMID:17935094

  20. Catalytic Enantioselective Allylic Amination of Olefins for the Synthesis of ent-Sitagliptin

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Hongli; Bayeh, Liela; Tambar, Uttam K.

    2014-01-01

    The presence of nitrogen atoms in most chiral pharmaceutical drugs has motivated the development of numerous strategies for the synthesis of enantioenriched amines. Current methods are based on the multi-step transformation of pre-functionalized allylic electrophiles into chiral allylic amines. The enantioselective allylic amination of unactivated olefins represents a more direct and attractive strategy. We report the enantioselective synthesis of ent-sitagliptin via an allylic amination of an unactivated terminal olefin. PMID:25378809

  1. Enantioselective Synthesis of α-Methylene-β-hydroxy Carboxylic Acid Derivatives via a Diastereoselective Aldol-β-Elimination Sequence: Application to the C(15)–C(21) Fragment of Tedanolide C

    PubMed Central

    Barth, Roland; Roush, William R.

    2010-01-01

    An enantioselective synthesis of α-methylene-β-hydroxy carboxylic acid derivatives via a highly diastereoselective, one-pot syn-aldol and β-elimination sequence utilizing the chiral β-(phenylselenyl)propionyl imide 15 is described. This new method, which constitutes an alternative to the Baylis-Hillman reaction, has been applied to the synthesis of the C(15)-C(21) fragment of tedanolide C. PMID:20405855

  2. Organocatalytic, enantioselective synthesis of VNI: a robust therapeutic development platform for Chagas, a neglected tropical disease.

    PubMed

    Dobish, Mark C; Villalta, Fernando; Waterman, Michael R; Lepesheva, Galina I; Johnston, Jeffrey N

    2012-12-21

    VNI is a potent inhibitor of CYP51 and was recently shown to achieve a parasitological cure of mice infected with T. cruzi in both acute and chronic stages of infection. T. cruzi is the causative parasite of Chagas disease, a neglected tropical disease. The first enantioselective chemical synthesis of VNI (at a materials cost of less than $0.10/mg) is described. Furthermore, the key enantioselective step is performed at the 10 g scale. PMID:23214987

  3. Enantioselective synthesis of (-)-dihydrocodeine and formal synthesis of (-)-thebaine, (-)-codeine, and (-)-morphine from a deprotonated ?-aminonitrile.

    PubMed

    Geffe, Mario; Opatz, Till

    2014-10-17

    The ?-benzylation of a deprotonated bicyclic ?-aminonitrile, followed by Noyori's asymmetric transfer hydrogenation combined with the Grewe cyclization onto a symmetrical A-ring precursor, are the key steps of a short and high-yielding enantioselective synthesis of the morphinan (-)-dihydrocodeine. This compound can be converted to (-)-thebaine in high yield by known transformations, while (-)-codeine and (-)-morphine are available from an advanced intermediate. PMID:25271381

  4. A broadly applicable and practical oligomeric (salen) Co catalyst for enantioselective epoxide ring-opening reactions

    PubMed Central

    White, David E.; Tadross, Pamela M.; Lu, Zhe

    2014-01-01

    The (salen) Co catalyst (4a) can be prepared as a mixture of cyclic oligomers in a short, chromatography-free synthesis from inexpensive, commercially available precursors. This catalyst displays remarkable enhancements in reactivity and enantioselectivity relative to monomeric and other multimeric (salen) Co catalysts in a wide variety of enantioselective epoxide ring-opening reactions. The application of catalyst 4a is illustrated in the kinetic resolution of terminal epoxides by nucleophilic ring-opening with water, phenols, and primary alcohols; the desymmetrization of meso epoxides by addition of water and carbamates; and the desymmetrization of oxetanes by intramolecular ring opening with alcohols and phenols. The favorable solubility properties of complex 4a under the catalytic conditions facilitated mechanistic studies, allowing elucidation of the basis for the beneficial effect of oligomerization. Finally, a catalyst selection guide is provided to delineate the specific advantages of oligomeric catalyst 4a relative to (salen) Co monomer 1 for each reaction class. PMID:25045188

  5. Enantioselective N-heterocyclic carbene-catalyzed synthesis of trifluoromethyldihydropyridinones.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dong-Ling; Liang, Zhi-Qin; Chen, Kun-Quan; Sun, De-Qun; Ye, Song

    2015-06-01

    The enantioselective N-heterocyclic carbene-catalyzed [4 + 2] cyclocondensation of α-chloroaldehydes and trifluoromethyl N-Boc azadienes was developed, giving the corresponding 3,4-disubstituted-6-trifluoromethyldihydropyridin-2(1H)-ones in good yields with exclusive cis-selectivities and excellent enantioselectivities. PMID:25933360

  6. Catalytic enantioselective and divergent total synthesis of (+)-10-oxocylindrocarpidine, (+)-cylindrocarpidine, (-)-N-acetylcylindrocarpinol, and (+)-aspidospermine.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xiao-Lei; Zhao, Rui-Rui; Mo, Ming-Jie; Peng, Fang-Zhi; Zhang, Hong-Bin; Shao, Zhi-Hui

    2014-03-21

    The catalytic enantioselective and divergent total syntheses of Aspidosperma alkaloids (+)-10-oxocylindrocarpidine 7, (+)-cylindrocarpidine 1, (-)-N-acetylcylindrocarpinol 6, and (+)-aspidospermine 8 have been accomplished in 11 steps from a common precursor (15) on the basis of a highly concise route. The route features three metal-catalyzed reactions, including the key Pd-catalyzed decarboxylative asymmetric allylation of carbazolones developed in our laboratory. Our syntheses, using a combination of C-H activation, enantioselective catalysis, and collective synthesis, represent the first total synthesis of 10-oxocylindrocarpidine and the first asymmetric total synthesis of cylindrocarpidine and N-acetylcylindrocarpinol. PMID:24559389

  7. An Enantioselective Synthesis of a MEM-Protected Aetheramide A Derivative

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Arun K.; Rao, Kalapala Venkateswara; Akasapu, Siddhartha

    2014-01-01

    Aetheramides A and B are very potent anti-HIV agents. An enantioselective synthesis of a MEM-protected aetheramide A derivative is described. The synthesis was accomplished in a convergent and stereoselective manner. The key reactions involved asymmetric dihydroxylation, asymmetric allylation, asymmetric syn-aldol reactions and asymmetric hydrogenation. PMID:25197148

  8. An Enantioselective Synthesis of a MEM-Protected Aetheramide A Derivative.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Arun K; Rao, Kalapala Venkateswara; Akasapu, Siddhartha

    2014-09-10

    Aetheramides A and B are very potent anti-HIV agents. An enantioselective synthesis of a MEM-protected aetheramide A derivative is described. The synthesis was accomplished in a convergent and stereoselective manner. The key reactions involved asymmetric dihydroxylation, asymmetric allylation, asymmetric syn-aldol reactions and asymmetric hydrogenation. PMID:25197148

  9. Enantioselective Total Synthesis of (−)-Nardoaristolone B via a Gold(I)-Catalyzed Oxidative Cyclization

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The first enantioselective total synthesis of (−)-nardoaristolone B is accomplished by the implementation of an enantio- and diastereoselective copper(I)-catalyzed conjugate addition/enolate trapping sequence and a gold(I)-catalyzed oxidative cyclization (intermolecular oxidant), employed for the first time in total synthesis. PMID:25563976

  10. Copper-catalysed enantioselective stereodivergent synthesis of amino alcohols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Shi-Liang; Wong, Zackary L.; Buchwald, Stephen L.

    2016-04-01

    The chirality, or ‘handedness’, of a biologically active molecule can alter its physiological properties. Thus it is routine procedure in the drug discovery and development process to prepare and fully characterize all possible stereoisomers of a drug candidate for biological evaluation. Despite many advances in asymmetric synthesis, developing general and practical strategies for obtaining all possible stereoisomers of an organic compound that has multiple contiguous stereocentres remains a challenge. Here, we report a stereodivergent copper-based approach for the expeditious construction of amino alcohols with high levels of chemo-, regio-, diastereo- and enantioselectivity. Specifically, we synthesized these amino-alcohol products using sequential, copper-hydride-catalysed hydrosilylation and hydroamination of readily available enals and enones. This strategy provides a route to all possible stereoisomers of the amino-alcohol products, which contain up to three contiguous stereocentres. We leveraged catalyst control and stereospecificity simultaneously to attain exceptional control of the product stereochemistry. Beyond the immediate utility of this protocol, our strategy could inspire the development of methods that provide complete sets of stereoisomers for other valuable synthetic targets.

  11. Copper-catalysed enantioselective stereodivergent synthesis of amino alcohols.

    PubMed

    Shi, Shi-Liang; Wong, Zackary L; Buchwald, Stephen L

    2016-04-21

    The chirality, or 'handedness', of a biologically active molecule can alter its physiological properties. Thus it is routine procedure in the drug discovery and development process to prepare and fully characterize all possible stereoisomers of a drug candidate for biological evaluation. Despite many advances in asymmetric synthesis, developing general and practical strategies for obtaining all possible stereoisomers of an organic compound that has multiple contiguous stereocentres remains a challenge. Here, we report a stereodivergent copper-based approach for the expeditious construction of amino alcohols with high levels of chemo-, regio-, diastereo- and enantioselectivity. Specifically, we synthesized these amino-alcohol products using sequential, copper-hydride-catalysed hydrosilylation and hydroamination of readily available enals and enones. This strategy provides a route to all possible stereoisomers of the amino-alcohol products, which contain up to three contiguous stereocentres. We leveraged catalyst control and stereospecificity simultaneously to attain exceptional control of the product stereochemistry. Beyond the immediate utility of this protocol, our strategy could inspire the development of methods that provide complete sets of stereoisomers for other valuable synthetic targets. PMID:27018656

  12. Enantioselective N-heterocyclic carbene-catalyzed synthesis of indenopyrones.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kun-Quan; Zhang, Han-Ming; Wang, Dong-Ling; Sun, De-Qun; Ye, Song

    2015-06-28

    The chiral N-heterocyclic carbene-catalyzed [4 + 2] cyclization of α-chloroaldehydes and arylidene indanediones was developed, giving the corresponding indenopyrones in good yields with high diastereoselectivities and enantioselectivities. PMID:26006112

  13. Rhodium(II)-catalyzed enantioselective synthesis of troponoids.

    PubMed

    Murarka, Sandip; Jia, Zhi-Jun; Merten, Christian; Daniliuc, Constantin-G; Antonchick, Andrey P; Waldmann, Herbert

    2015-06-22

    We report a rhodium(II)-catalyzed highly enantioselective 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction between the carbonyl moiety of tropone and carbonyl ylides to afford troponoids in good to high yields with excellent enantioselectivity. We demonstrate that α-diazoketone-derived carbonyl ylides, in contrast to carbonyl ylides derived from diazodiketoesters, undergo [6+3] cycloaddition reactions with tropone to yield the corresponding bridged heterocycles with excellent stereoselectivity. PMID:25959033

  14. Enantioselective Synthesis of Chiral Piperidines via the Stepwise Dearomatization/Borylation of Pyridines.

    PubMed

    Kubota, Koji; Watanabe, Yuta; Hayama, Keiichi; Ito, Hajime

    2016-04-01

    We have developed a novel approach for the synthesis of enantioenriched 3-boryl-tetrahydropyridines via the Cu(I)-catalyzed regio-, diastereo-, and enantioselective protoborylation of 1,2-dihydropyridines, which were obtained by the partial reduction of the pyridine derivatives. This dearomatization/enantioselective borylation stepwise strategy provides facile access to chiral piperidines together with the stereospecific transformation of a stereogenic C-B bond from readily available starting materials. Furthermore, the utility of this method is demonstrated for the concise synthesis of the antidepressant drug (-)-paroxetine. A theoretical study of the reaction mechanism is also described. PMID:26967578

  15. Enantioselective Synthesis of α-Quaternary Mannich Adducts by Palladium-Catalyzed Allylic Alkylation: Total Synthesis of (+)-Sibirinine

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    A catalytic enantioselective method for the synthesis of α-quaternary Mannich-type products is reported. The two-step sequence of (1) Mannich reaction followed by (2) decarboxylative enantioselective allylic alkylation serves as a novel strategy to in effect access asymmetric Mannich-type products of “thermodynamic” enolates of substrates possessing additional enolizable positions and acidic protons. Palladium-catalyzed decarboxylative allylic alkylation enables the enantioselective synthesis of five-, six-, and seven-membered ketone, lactam, and other heterocyclic systems. The mild reaction conditions are notable given the acidic free N–H groups and high functional group tolerance in each of the substrates. The utility of this method is highlighted in the first total synthesis of (+)-sibirinine. PMID:25578104

  16. Catalytic enantioselective diboration, disilation and silaboration: new opportunities for asymmetric synthesis.

    PubMed

    Burks, Heather E; Morken, James P

    2007-12-01

    This article summarizes recent developments in the area of catalytic enantioselective reactions of unsaturated organic substrates with diboron, silylboron, and disilane reagents. These reactions provide new routes to the functionalization of prochiral substrates and therefore offer new strategies in asymmetric organic synthesis. PMID:18004420

  17. Stereospecific nickel-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions of alkyl ethers: enantioselective synthesis of diarylethanes.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Buck L H; Swift, Elizabeth C; Waetzig, Joshua D; Jarvo, Elizabeth R

    2011-01-26

    Secondary benzylic ethers undergo stereospecific substitution reactions with Grignard reagents in the presence of nickel catalysts. Reactions proceed with inversion of configuration and high stereochemical fidelity. This reaction allows for facile enantioselective synthesis of biologically active diarylethanes from readily available optically enriched carbinols. PMID:21155567

  18. A Green, Enantioselective Synthesis of Warfarin for the Undergraduate Organic Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Terence C.; Sultana, Camille M.; Vosburg, David A.

    2010-01-01

    The enantioselective synthesis of drugs is of fundamental importance in the pharmaceutical industry. In this experiment, students synthesize either enantiomer of warfarin, a widely used anticoagulant, in a single step from inexpensive starting materials. Stereoselectivity is induced by a commercial organocatalyst, ("R","R")- or…

  19. A switchable dual organocatalytic system and the enantioselective total synthesis of the quadrane sesquiterpene suberosanone.

    PubMed

    Ren, Yajun; Presset, Marc; Godemert, Jeremy; Vanthuyne, Nicolas; Naubron, Jean-Valère; Giorgi, Michel; Rodriguez, Jean; Coquerel, Yoann

    2016-05-01

    The combination of aminocatalysis with N-heterocyclic carbene catalysis has been extended to a switchable dual catalytic system, which allowed a direct enantioselective entry to bridged bicyclo[3.n.1] ring systems and the total synthesis of the natural product (1R)-suberosanone. PMID:27109259

  20. A Green, Enantioselective Synthesis of Warfarin for the Undergraduate Organic Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Terence C.; Sultana, Camille M.; Vosburg, David A.

    2010-01-01

    The enantioselective synthesis of drugs is of fundamental importance in the pharmaceutical industry. In this experiment, students synthesize either enantiomer of warfarin, a widely used anticoagulant, in a single step from inexpensive starting materials. Stereoselectivity is induced by a commercial organocatalyst, ("R","R")- or

  1. Asymmetric synthesis of N-allylic indoles via regio- and enantioselective allylation of aryl hydrazines.

    PubMed

    Xu, Kun; Gilles, Thomas; Breit, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    The asymmetric synthesis of N-allylic indoles is important for natural product synthesis and pharmaceutical research. The regio- and enantioselective N-allylation of indoles is a true challenge due to the favourable C3-allylation. We develop here a new strategy to the asymmetric synthesis of N-allylic indoles via rhodium-catalysed N-selective coupling of aryl hydrazines with allenes followed by Fischer indolization. The exclusive N-selectivities and good to excellent enantioselectivities are achieved applying a rhodium(I)/DTBM-Segphos or rhodium(I)/DTBM-Binap catalyst. This method permits the practical synthesis of valuable chiral N-allylated indoles, and avoids the N- or C-selectivity issue. PMID:26137886

  2. Asymmetric synthesis of N-allylic indoles via regio- and enantioselective allylation of aryl hydrazines

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Kun; Gilles, Thomas; Breit, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    The asymmetric synthesis of N-allylic indoles is important for natural product synthesis and pharmaceutical research. The regio- and enantioselective N-allylation of indoles is a true challenge due to the favourable C3-allylation. We develop here a new strategy to the asymmetric synthesis of N-allylic indoles via rhodium-catalysed N-selective coupling of aryl hydrazines with allenes followed by Fischer indolization. The exclusive N-selectivities and good to excellent enantioselectivities are achieved applying a rhodium(I)/DTBM-Segphos or rhodium(I)/DTBM-Binap catalyst. This method permits the practical synthesis of valuable chiral N-allylated indoles, and avoids the N- or C-selectivity issue. PMID:26137886

  3. Enantioselective modular synthesis of cyclohexenones: total syntheses of (+)-crypto- and (+)-infectocaryone.

    PubMed

    Franck, Géraldine; Brödner, Kerstin; Helmchen, Günter

    2010-09-01

    A modular synthesis of cyclohexenones is described and applied to the first enantioselective total syntheses of (+)-crypto- and (+)-infectocaryone. Key steps in the synthesis of cyclohexenones are an iridium-catalyzed allylic alkylation, nucleophilic allylation, and ring-closing metathesis. On the way to (+)-cryptocaryone, a catch and release strategy involving an iodolactonization/elimination and a regioselective C-acylation were used. PMID:20677804

  4. Enantioselective Synthesis of Dihydrospiro[indoline-3,4'-pyrano[2,3-c]pyrazole] Derivatives via Michael/Hemiketalization Reaction.

    PubMed

    Kumarswamyreddy, Nandarapu; Kesavan, Venkitasamy

    2016-03-18

    A new bifunctional squaramide organocatalyst derived from l-proline mediated the first enantioselective synthesis of dihydrospiro[indoline-3,4'-pyrano[2,3-c]pyrazole] derivatives in excellent enantioselectivity by reacting pyrazolones with isatylidine β,γ-unsaturated α-ketoester. This new catalyst outperformed widely used thioureas and squaramides in inducing enantioselectivity. PMID:26942717

  5. An Enantioselective Synthesis of the ABD Tricycle for (-)-Phomactin A Featuring Rawal's Asymmetric Diels-Alder Cycloaddition.

    PubMed

    You, Ling-Feng; Hsung, Richard P; Bedermann, Aaron A; Kurdyumov, Aleksey V; Tang, Yu; Buchanan, Grant S; Cole, Kevin P

    2008-12-18

    An enantioselective synthesis of the ABD-ring of (-)-phomactin A is described here. The sequence features Rawal's asymmetric Diels-Alder cycloaddition. The overall length is significantly reduced from our previous attempt. PMID:20351791

  6. Catalytic enantioselective synthesis of planar-chiral cyclic amides based on a Pd-catalyzed asymmetric allylic substitution reaction.

    PubMed

    Igawa, Kazunobu; Ichikawa, Nobumasa; Ano, Yusuke; Katanoda, Keisuke; Ito, Masato; Akiyama, Toshiyuki; Tomooka, Katsuhiko

    2015-06-17

    The highly enantioselective synthesis of planar-chiral nine-membered cyclic amides was achieved by the Pd-catalyzed asymmetric allylic cyclization of achiral linear precursors in the presence of a catalytic amount of chiral ligand. PMID:26053786

  7. Engineering an enantioselective amine oxidase for the synthesis of pharmaceutical building blocks and alkaloid natural products.

    PubMed

    Ghislieri, Diego; Green, Anthony P; Pontini, Marta; Willies, Simon C; Rowles, Ian; Frank, Annika; Grogan, Gideon; Turner, Nicholas J

    2013-07-24

    The development of cost-effective and sustainable catalytic methods for the production of enantiomerically pure chiral amines is a key challenge facing the pharmaceutical and fine chemical industries. This challenge is highlighted by the estimate that 40-45% of drug candidates contain a chiral amine, fueling a demand for broadly applicable synthetic methods that deliver target structures in high yield and enantiomeric excess. Herein we describe the development and application of a "toolbox" of monoamine oxidase variants from Aspergillus niger (MAO-N) which display remarkable substrate scope and tolerance for sterically demanding motifs, including a new variant, which exhibits high activity and enantioselectivity toward substrates containing the aminodiphenylmethane (benzhydrylamine) template. By combining rational structure-guided engineering with high-throughput screening, it has been possible to expand the substrate scope of MAO-N to accommodate amine substrates containing bulky aryl substituents. These engineered MAO-N biocatalysts have been applied in deracemization reactions for the efficient asymmetric synthesis of the generic active pharmaceutical ingredients Solifenacin and Levocetirizine as well as the natural products (R)-coniine, (R)-eleagnine, and (R)-leptaflorine. We also report a novel MAO-N mediated asymmetric oxidative Pictet-Spengler approach to the synthesis of (R)-harmicine. PMID:23808566

  8. A Nine-Step Enantioselective Total Synthesis of (−)-Vincorine

    PubMed Central

    Horning, Benjamin D.

    2013-01-01

    A concise and highly enantioselective total synthesis of the akuammiline alkaloid (−)-vincorine has been accomplished. A key element of the synthesis is a stereoselective organocatalytic Diels–Alder, iminium cyclization cascade sequence, which serves to construct the tetracyclic alkaloid core architecture in one step from simple achiral precursors. The challenging seven-membered, azepanyl ring system is installed by way of a single electron-mediated cyclization event initiated from an acyl telluride precursor. The total synthesis of (−)-vincorine is achieved in nine steps and 9% overall yield from commercially available starting materials. PMID:23586842

  9. Enantioselective synthesis of C-linked spiroacetal-triazoles as privileged natural product-like scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Kueh, Jui Thiang Brian; Choi, Ka Wai; Brimble, Margaret A

    2012-08-14

    The enantioselective synthesis of novel C-linked spiroacetal-triazoles 10 is reported. The key step involves reaction of acetylenic spiroacetal 11 with several azides by the Copper-Catalysed Azide-Alkyne Cycloaddition (CuAAC). The biologically privileged spiroacetal scaffold 11 was prepared from silyl-protected Weinreb amide 19 using several reliable Grignard additions and a highly diastereoselective enzymatic kinetic resolution. PMID:22237938

  10. Enantioselective Synthesis of Isoquinolines: Merging Chiral-Phosphine and Gold Catalysis.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yu-Ning; Shi, Feng-Chen; Xu, Qin; Shi, Min

    2016-05-10

    The highly enantioselective synthesis of dihydroisoquinoline derivatives from aromatic sulfonated imines tethered with an alkyne moiety, through a one-pot asymmetric relay catalysis of chiral-phosphine and gold catalysts, is reported. Enantiomerically enriched dihydroisoquinoline derivatives were afforded in good yields and good-to-excellent ee values under mild conditions, based on the asymmetric aza-Morita-Baylis-Hillman reaction. Dihydroisoquinoline derivatives containing two chiral centers were also synthesized through further transformations. PMID:26990120

  11. Ru-catalyzed asymmetric hydrogenation of δ-keto Weinreb amides: enantioselective synthesis of (+)-Centrolobine.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Mengmeng; Lu, Bin; Ding, Guangni; Ren, Kai; Xie, Xiaomin; Zhang, Zhaoguo

    2016-02-24

    An efficient asymmetric hydrogenation of δ-keto Weinreb amides catalyzed by a Ru-Xyl-SunPhos-Daipen bifunctional catalyst has been achieved. This method afforded a series of enantio-enriched δ-hydroxy Weinreb amides in good yields (up to 93%) and enantioselectivities (up to 99%). This protocol was successfully applied to the synthesis of the key intermediate of (+)-Centrolobine. PMID:26837278

  12. Catalytic aerobic oxidation and tandem enantioselective cycloaddition in cascade multicomponent synthesis.

    PubMed

    Potowski, Marco; Merten, Christian; Antonchick, Andrey P; Waldmann, Herbert

    2015-03-23

    An efficient multicomponent cascade transformation for the highly diastereo- and enantioselective synthesis of complex natural product inspired polycyclic products from simple starting materials is described. The cascade is initiated by copper-catalyzed aerobic CH oxidation of cyclopentadiene to cyclopentadienone followed by double catalytic asymmetric 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of azomethine ylides. The cascade synthesis efficiently yields structurally complex 5,5,5-tricyclic products with eight stereocenters with good yields and excellent diastereo- and enantiocontrol using one catalyst. PMID:25676025

  13. Enzymatic Kinetic Resolution of 2-Piperidineethanol for the Enantioselective Targeted and Diversity Oriented Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Perdicchia, Dario; Christodoulou, Michael S.; Fumagalli, Gaia; Calogero, Francesco; Marucci, Cristina; Passarella, Daniele

    2015-01-01

    2-Piperidineethanol (1) and its corresponding N-protected aldehyde (2) were used for the synthesis of several natural and synthetic compounds. The existence of a stereocenter at position 2 of the piperidine skeleton and the presence of an easily-functionalized group, such as the alcohol, set 1 as a valuable starting material for enantioselective synthesis. Herein, are presented both synthetic and enzymatic methods for the resolution of the racemic 1, as well as an overview of synthesized natural products starting from the enantiopure 1. PMID:26712740

  14. Enzymatic Kinetic Resolution of 2-Piperidineethanol for the Enantioselective Targeted and Diversity Oriented Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Perdicchia, Dario; Christodoulou, Michael S; Fumagalli, Gaia; Calogero, Francesco; Marucci, Cristina; Passarella, Daniele

    2016-01-01

    2-Piperidineethanol (1) and its corresponding N-protected aldehyde (2) were used for the synthesis of several natural and synthetic compounds. The existence of a stereocenter at position 2 of the piperidine skeleton and the presence of an easily-functionalized group, such as the alcohol, set 1 as a valuable starting material for enantioselective synthesis. Herein, are presented both synthetic and enzymatic methods for the resolution of the racemic 1, as well as an overview of synthesized natural products starting from the enantiopure 1. PMID:26712740

  15. Enantioselective Synthesis and Profiling of Two Novel Diazabicyclooctanone β-Lactamase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The enantioselective synthesis of two novel cyclopropane-fused diazabicyclooctanones is reported here. Starting from butadiene monoxide, the key enone intermediate 7 was prepared in six steps. Subsequent stereoselective introduction of the cyclopropane group and further transformation led to compounds 1a and 1b as their corresponding sodium salt. The great disparity regarding their hydrolytic stability was rationalized by the steric interaction between the cyclopropyl methylene and urea carbonyl. These two novel β-lactamase inhibitors were active against class A, C, and D enzymes. PMID:25313328

  16. Enantioselective total synthesis of (+)-ibophyllidine via an asymmetric phosphine-catalyzed [3 + 2] annulation†

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, Ian P.

    2012-01-01

    In this study we performed the total synthesis of the terpene indole alkaloid (+)-ibophyllidine through a pathway involving asymmetric phosphine catalysis, with our novel l-4-hydroxyproline–derived chiral phosphine mediating the key [3 + 2] annulation. Hydrogenation of the [3 + 2] adduct allowed the rapid formation of the stereochemically dense pyrrolidine ring of (+)-ibophyllidine in excellent yield with exceptionally high levels of both diastereo- and enantioselectivity. We constructed the remainder of the pentacyclic skeleton through an intramolecular alkylation and an intramolecular aza-Morita–Baylis–Hillman reaction. PMID:22798981

  17. General entry to aspidosperma alkaloids: enantioselective total synthesis of (-)-aspidophytine.

    PubMed

    Yang, Rongwen; Qiu, Fayang G

    2013-06-01

    A general approach toward the asymmetric total synthesis of various aspidosperma alkaloids includes the combination of a C-H bond activation with a Heck-type coupling, and the stereo-controlled formation of piperidine and pyrrolidine rings as key steps. The feasibility of this approach was demonstrated with the total synthesis of aspidophytine in 18 steps from 4,4-disubstituted cyclohexanedione and 2,3-dimethoxyaniline. PMID:23610074

  18. Bicyclic Guanidine Catalyzed Asymmetric Tandem Isomerization Intramolecular-Diels-Alder Reaction: The First Catalytic Enantioselective Total Synthesis of (+)-alpha-Yohimbine.

    PubMed

    Feng, Wei; Jiang, Danfeng; Kee, Choon-Wee; Liu, Hongjun; Tan, Choon-Hong

    2016-02-01

    Hydroisoquinoline derivatives were prepared in moderate to good enantioselectivities via a bicyclic guanidine-catalyzed tandem isomerization intramolecular-Diels-Alder (IMDA) reaction of alkynes. With this synthetic method, the first enantioselective synthesis of (+)-alpha-yohimbine was completed in 9 steps from the IMDA products. PMID:25932622

  19. Enantioselective synthesis of isotopically labeled homocitric acid lactone.

    PubMed

    Moore, Jared T; Hanhan, Nadine V; Mahoney, Maximillian E; Cramer, Stephen P; Shaw, Jared T

    2013-11-15

    A concise synthesis of homocitric acid lactone was developed to accommodate systematic placement of carbon isotopes (specifically (13)C) for detailed studies of this cofactor. This new route uses a chiral allylic alcohol, available in multigram quantities from enzymatic resolution, as a starting material, which transposes asymmetry through an Ireland-Claisen rearrangement. PMID:24180620

  20. N-Heterocyclic carbene-catalyzed enantioselective synthesis of functionalized cyclopentenes via α,β-unsaturated acyl azoliums.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Santigopal; Yetra, Santhivardhana Reddy; Patra, Atanu; Kunte, Sunita S; Gonnade, Rajesh G; Biju, Akkattu T

    2014-12-01

    Highly enantioselective NHC-organocatalyzed synthesis of functionalized cyclopentenes proceeding via α,β-unsaturated acyl azolium intermediates is reported. The organocascade reaction of modified enals with malonic ester derivatives having a γ-benzoyl group involves the Michael-intramolecular aldol-β-lactonization-decarboxylation sequence to deliver cyclopentenes in good yields and excellent ee values. PMID:25307503

  1. Correction: A novel enantioselective synthesis of 6H-dibenzopyran derivatives by combined palladium/norbornene and cinchona alkaloid catalysis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Di; Dai, Li; Catellani, Marta; Motti, Elena; Della Ca', Nicola; Zhou, Zhiming

    2015-02-28

    Correction for 'A novel enantioselective synthesis of 6H-dibenzopyran derivatives by combined palladium/norbornene and cinchona alkaloid catalysis' by Di Xu et al., Org. Biomol. Chem., 2015, DOI: 10.1039/c4ob02551b. PMID:25629771

  2. Highly enantioselective one-pot synthesis of spirocyclopentaneoxindoles containing the oxime group by organocatalyzed Michael addition/ISOC/fragmentation sequence.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang; Li, Ying-Mei; Peng, Fang-Zhi; Wu, Shou-Tao; Li, Ze-Qian; Sun, Zhong-Wen; Zhang, Hong-Bin; Shao, Zhi-Hui

    2011-12-01

    A highly diastereo- and enantioselective organocatalytic protocol for the synthesis of biologically important spirocyclopentaneoxindoles containing the oxime functional group from easily accessible 3-allyl-substituted oxindoles and nitroolefins has been developed by a one-pot Michael addition/ISOC/fragmentation sequence. PMID:22050288

  3. Enantioselective Total Synthesis of (−)-Minovincine in Nine Chemical Steps: An Approach to Ketone Activation in Cascade Catalysis

    PubMed Central

    Laforteza, Brian N.; Pickworth, Mark

    2014-01-01

    More cycling–fewer steps The first enantioselective total synthesis of (−)-minovincine has been accomplished in nine chemical steps and 13% overall yield. A novel, one-step Diels–Alder/β-elimination/conjugate addition organocascade sequence allowed rapid access to the central tetracyclic core in an asymmetric manner. PMID:24000234

  4. Enantioselective Synthesis of (−)-Maoecrystal V by Enantiodetermining C–H Functionalization

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of a program directed at the enantioselective total synthesis of maoecrystal V, a highly modified ent-kauranoid, is described. An early stage chiral auxiliary-directed asymmetric C–H functionalization for the construction of a key benzofuran intermediate enabled the first asymmetric synthesis of the natural enantiomer of maoecrystal V, confirming the assigned stereochemistry. A divergent course of the central intramolecular Diels–Alder reaction, which is dependent on the nature of the dienophile, initially led to the development of an unanticipated and previously unknown isomer of maoecrystal V, which we named maoecrystal ZG. In light of the reported selective and potent cytotoxic activity of maoecrystal V, the cytotoxic properties of maoecrystal ZG were also investigated. PMID:25409033

  5. Enantioselective Total Synthesis of Terreumols A and C from the Mushroom Tricholoma terreum.

    PubMed

    Frichert, Alex; Jones, Peter G; Lindel, Thomas

    2016-02-01

    The cytotoxic meroterpenoids terreumol A and C from the grey knight mushroom Tricholoma terreum were synthesized for the first time. The key step of the enantioselective total synthesis of terreumol C is a ring-closing metathesis to form a trisubstituted Z double bond embedded in the 10-membered ring of the [8.4.0] bicycle. Interestingly, the presence of a free hydroxy group in the metathesis precursor prevents cyclization and favors cross metathesis. (-)-Terreumol C was converted into (-)-terreumol A by diastereoselective epoxidation. Starting from 2-bromo-3,5-dimethoxybenzaldehyde, 14 steps with an overall yield of 23 % are needed for the synthesis of (-)-terreumol A. X-ray analysis of the benzoquinone analogue of terreumol A provides independent proof of the absolute configuration. PMID:26765739

  6. Exploiting the Pd- and Ru-Catalyzed Cycloisomerizations: Enantioselective Total Synthesis of (+)-Allocyathin B2

    PubMed Central

    Trost, Barry M.; Dong, Li; Schroeder, Gretchen M.

    2008-01-01

    Pd and Ru catalyzed cycloisomerizations of 1,6-enynes are compared and contrasted. Such considerations led to the enantioselective synthesis of a cyathin terpenoid, (+)-allocyathin B2 (1). The synthesis features a Pd-catalyzed asymmetric allylic alkylation (AAA) to install the initial quaternary center, a Ru-catalyzed diastereoselective cycloisomerization to construct the six-membered ring, and a diastereoselective hydroxylative Knoevenagel reaction to introduce the final hydroxyl group. We demonstrate for the first time a mechanism-based stereochemical divergence in Pd- and Ru-catalyzed cycloisomerization reactions as well as in creation of alkene geometry with alkynes bearing a carboalkoxy group. Mechanistic rationalization is proposed for these observations. PMID:16028937

  7. Synthesis of Chiral Tertiary Alcohols by Cu(I) -Catalyzed Enantioselective Addition of Organomagnesium Reagents to Ketones.

    PubMed

    Rong, Jiawei; Pellegrini, Tilde; Harutyunyan, Syuzanna R

    2016-03-01

    Catalytic enantioselective addition of organometallic nucleophiles to ketones is among the most straightforward approaches to the synthesis of chiral tertiary alcohols. The first such catalytic methodologies using the highly reactive organomagnesium reagents, which are the preferred organometallic reagents in terms of cost, availability, atom efficiency, and structural diversity, were developed only during the last five years. This Concept article highlights the fundamental breakthrough that made the development of methodologies for highly enantioselective Cu(I) -catalyzed alkylation of ketones using organomagnesium reagents possible. PMID:26511715

  8. Enantioselective Synthesis of N-PMP-1,2-dihydropyridines via Formal [4 + 2] Cycloaddition between Aqueous Glutaraldehyde and Imines.

    PubMed

    Ramaraju, Panduga; Mir, Nisar A; Singh, Deepika; Gupta, Vivek K; Kant, Rajni; Kumar, Indresh

    2015-11-20

    A simple and highly practical one-pot formal [4 + 2] cycloaddition approach for the enantioselective synthesis of N-PMP-1,2-dihydropyridines (DHPs) is described. This chemistry involves an amino-catalytic direct Mannich reaction/cyclization followed by IBX-mediated chemo- and regioselective oxidation sequence between readily available aqueous glutaraldehyde and imines under very mild conditions. A series of N-PMP-1,2-DHPs have been prepared in high yields and excellent enantioselectivity. This method also gives access to both enantiomers of 1,2-DHPs in surplus amount by shifting the catalyst configuration. PMID:26516787

  9. The First Enantioselective Organocatalytic Synthesis of 3-Spiro-α-Alkylidene-γ-Butyrolactone Oxindoles.

    PubMed

    Cerisoli, Lucia; Lombardo, Marco; Trombini, Claudio; Quintavalla, Arianna

    2016-03-01

    A new and flexible methodology catalyzed by bifunctional chiral thioureas has been developed to react β-nitro oxindoles 1 with aldehydes. This approach allowed us to achieve the first enantioselective organocatalytic synthesis of 3-spiro-α-alkylidene-γ-butyrolactone oxindoles 3. We examined the scope of the two starting materials and, varying the structure of the β-nitro oxindole 1, intriguing new products, derived from unexpected transformations, have been stereoselectively obtained. The aim of this study was to merge two potentially bioactive structural motifs: the spirooxindole substructure and the α-alkylidene-γ-butyrolactone moiety. A preliminary NMR study on the ability to reversibly trap 2-aminoethanethiol gave us promising results. PMID:26743560

  10. Direct, Enantioselective Synthesis of Pyrroloindolines and Indolines From Simple Indole Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Jane; Wang, Haoxuan; Reisman, Sarah E.

    2013-01-01

    The (R)-BINOL•SnCl4-catalyzed formal (3 + 2) cycloaddition between 3-substituted indoles and benzyl 2-trifluoroacetamidoacrylate is a direct, enantioselective method to prepare pyrroloindolines from simple starting materials. However, under the originally disclosed conditions, the pyrroloindolines are formed as mixtures of diastereomers, typically in the range of 3:1 to 5:1 favoring the exo-product. The poor diastereoselectivity detracts from the synthetic utility of the reaction. We report here that use of methyl 2-trifluoroacetamidoacrylate in conjunction with (R)-3,3'-dichloro-BINOL•SnCl4 provides the corresponding pyrroloindolines with improved diastereoselectivity (typically ≥10:1). Guided by mechanistic studies, a one-flask synthesis of enantioenriched indolines by in situ reduction of a persistent iminium ion is also described. PMID:24039305

  11. Highly enantioselective synthesis and cellular evaluation of spirooxindoles inspired by natural products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonchick, Andrey P.; Gerding-Reimers, Claas; Catarinella, Mario; Schürmann, Markus; Preut, Hans; Ziegler, Slava; Rauh, Daniel; Waldmann, Herbert

    2010-09-01

    In biology-oriented synthesis the underlying scaffold classes of natural products selected in evolution are used to define biologically relevant starting points in chemical structure space for the synthesis of compound collections with focused structural diversity. Here we describe a highly enantioselective synthesis of natural-product-inspired 3,3'-pyrrolidinyl spirooxindoles-which contain an all-carbon quaternary centre and three tertiary stereocentres. This synthesis takes place by means of an asymmetric Lewis acid-catalysed 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of an azomethine ylide to a substituted 3-methylene-2-oxindole using 1-3 mol% of a chiral catalyst formed from a N,P-ferrocenyl ligand and CuPF6(CH3CN)4. Cellular evaluation has identified a molecule that arrests mitosis, induces multiple microtubule organizing centres and multipolar spindles, causes chromosome congression defects during mitosis and inhibits tubulin regrowth in cells. Our findings support the concept that compound collections based on natural-product-inspired scaffolds constructed with complex stereochemistry will be a rich source of compounds with diverse bioactivity.

  12. Enantioselective Synthesis of Various Cyanohydrins Using Covalently Immobilized Preparations of Hydroxynitrile Lyase from Prunus dulcis.

    PubMed

    Alagöz, Dilek; Tükel, S Seyhan; Yildirim, Deniz

    2015-11-01

    The carrier-based and carrier-free (cross-linked enzyme aggregate) covalent immobilizations of Prunus dulcis hydroxynitrile lyase were investigated. The immobilized preparations were tested for enantioselective carbon-carbon bond formation activity in the biphasic medium. Of the tested preparations, only cross-linked enzyme aggregate of P. dulcis hydroxynitrile lyase (PdHNL-CLEA) achieved the synthesis of (R)-mandelonitrile with 93% yield and 99% enantiopurity. PdHNL-CLEA was also used in the synthesis of various (R)-cyanohydrins from corresponding aldehydes/ketones and hydrocyanic acid. When 4-methoxybenzaldehyde, 4-methyl benzaldehyde, and 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde were used as substrates, the yield-enantiomeric excess of corresponding (R)-cyanohydrins were obtained as 95-95, 85-79, and 2-25%, respectively, after 96 h at pH 4.0 and 5 °C. For acetophenone, 4-fluoroacetophenone, 4-chloroacetophenone, 4-bromoacetophenone, and 4-iodoacetophenone, the yield-enantiomeric excess of corresponding (R)-cyanohydrins were 1-99, 20-84, 11-95, 5-99, and 3-24%, respectively at the same conditions. The results demonstrate PdHNL-CLEA can be effectively used in the synthesis of (R)-mandelonitrile. PMID:26310798

  13. Asymmetric phosphorylation through catalytic P(III) phosphoramidite transfer: Enantioselective synthesis of d-myo-inositol-6-phosphate

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, Peter A.; Kayser-Bricker, Katherine J.; Miller, Scott J.

    2010-01-01

    Despite the ubiquitous use of phosphoramidite chemistry in the synthesis of biophosphates, catalytic asymmetric phosphoramidite transfer remains largely unexplored for phosphate ester synthesis. We have discovered that a tetrazole-functionalized peptide, in the presence of 10-Å molecular sieves, functions as an enantioselective catalyst for phosphite transfer. This chemistry in turn has been used as the key step in a streamlined synthesis of myo-inositol-6-phosphate. Mechanistic insights implicate phosphate as a directing group for a highly selective kinetic resolution of a protected inositol monophosphate. This work represents a distinct and efficient method for the selective catalytic phosphorylation of natural products. PMID:20439750

  14. The enantioselective intramolecular aminative functionalization of unactivated alkenes, dienes, allenes and alkynes for the synthesis of chiral nitrogen heterocycles

    PubMed Central

    Chemler, Sherry R.

    2010-01-01

    The enantioselective intramolecular aminative functionalization of unactivated alkenes and related π-systems is a straight-forward and atom economical strategy for the synthesis of chiral nitrogen heterocycles. These reactions can be categorized as oxidatively neutral, such as alkene hydroamination, or as oxidative reactions, such as alkene difunctionalization, e.g. aminooxygenation and carboamination. This perspective reviews the current work in the field and explores mechanistic trends that are common among the different catalysts and reaction types. PMID:20976023

  15. Enantioselective Synthesis of Spirobarbiturate-Cyclohexenes through Phosphine-Catalyzed Asymmetric [4 + 2] Annulation of Barbiturate-Derived Alkenes with Allenoates.

    PubMed

    Liu, Honglei; Liu, Yang; Yuan, Chunhao; Wang, Guo-Peng; Zhu, Shou-Fei; Wu, Yang; Wang, Bo; Sun, Zhanhu; Xiao, Yumei; Zhou, Qi-Lin; Guo, Hongchao

    2016-03-18

    An enantioselective synthesis of pharmaceutically important spirobarbiturates has been achieved via spirocyclic chiral phosphine-catalyzed asymmetric [4 + 2] annulation of barbiturate-derived alkenes with allenoates. With the use of this tool, various spirobarbiturate-cyclohexenes are obtained in good to excellent yields with excellent diastereo- and enantioselectivities. A wide range of α-substituted allenoates and barbiturate-derived alkenes were tolerated. PMID:26937706

  16. Enantioselective Synthesis of Angularly Substituted 1-Azabicylic Rings: Coupled Dynamic Kinetic Epimerization and Chirality Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Aron, Zachary D.; Ito, Tatsuya; May, Tricia L.; Overman, Larry E.; Wang, Jocelyn

    2013-01-01

    A new strategy for enantioselective synthesis of azacyclic molecules in which dynamic kinetic equilibration of diastereomeric iminium ions precedes a stereochemistry-determining sigmatropic rearrangement is reported. The method is illustrated by the synthesis in high enantiomeric purity (generally 95–99% ee) of a variety of 1-azabicyclic molecules containing angular allyl or 3-substituted 2-propenyl side chains adjacent to nitrogen and up to three stereogenic centers. In these products, the size of the carbocyclic ring is varied widely (5–12 membered), however useful yields are obtained in forming 1-azabicyclic products containing only fused pyrrolidine and piperidine rings. Chi-rality transfer from substituents at carbons 1 and 2 of the 3-butenylamine fragment of the starting material is investigated, with methyl and phenyl substituents at the allylic position shown to provide exquisite stereocontrol (generally 98–99% chirality transfer). An attractive feature of the method is the ability to carry out the key transformation in the absence of solvent. Illustrated also is the high yielding conversion of four such products to a new family of bicyclic β-amino acids of high enantiomeric purity. PMID:24090405

  17. Asymmetric Total Synthesis of Propindilactone G, Part 2: Enantioselective Construction of the Fully Functionalized BCDE Ring System.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jia-Jun; You, Lin; Wang, Yue-Fan; Li, Yuan-He; Liang, Xin-Ting; Zhang, Bo; Yang, Shou-Liang; Su, Qi; Chen, Jia-Hua; Yang, Zhen

    2016-05-01

    The enantioselective synthesis of the fully functionalized BCDE tetracyclic ring system of propindilactone G (A) is reported. Several synthetic methods were developed and applied to achieve this goal, including: 1) an asymmetric Diels-Alder reaction in the presence of Hayashi's catalyst for the synthesis of optically pure key intermediate 3; 2) an intramolecular Pauson-Khand reaction (PKR) for the stereoselective synthesis of the BCDE ring with an all-carbon chiral quaternary center at the C13 position by using the TMS-substituted acetylene as the substrate; and 3) Pd-catalyzed reductive hydrogenolysis for the stereoselective synthesis of the fully functionalized BCDE tetracyclic ring system. The chemistry developed herein provided a greater understanding of the total synthesis propindilactone G (A) and its analogues. PMID:26991420

  18. The enantioselective synthesis of (S)-(+)-mianserin and (S)-(+)-epinastine.

    PubMed

    Roszkowski, Piotr; Maurin, Jan K; Czarnocki, Zbigniew

    2015-01-01

    A simple enantioselective synthetic procedure for the preparation of mianserin and epinastine in optically pure form is described. The key step in the synthetic pathway is the asymmetric reduction of the cyclic imine using asymmetric transfer hydrogenation conditions. PMID:26425208

  19. Enantioselective Synthesis of α-Amino Phosphonates via Pd-Catalyzed Asymmetric Hydrogenation.

    PubMed

    Yan, Zhong; Wu, Bo; Gao, Xiang; Chen, Mu-Wang; Zhou, Yong-Gui

    2016-02-19

    A highly enantioselective palladium-catalyzed hydrogenation of a series of linear and cyclic α-iminophosphonates has been achieved, providing efficient access to optically active α-aminophosphonates with up to 99% ee. PMID:26827611

  20. Enantioselective synthesis of 4H-pyranonaphthoquinones via sequential squaramide and silver catalysis.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Uğur; Chauhan, Pankaj; Hack, Daniel; Deckers, Kristina; Puttreddy, Rakesh; Rissanen, Kari; Enders, Dieter

    2016-01-28

    An enantioselective one-pot Michael addition/hydroalkoxylation reaction between 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinones and alkyne-tethered nitroalkenes catalyzed by a cinchona-derived squaramide and a silver(I) salt has been developed. The sequential protocol provides a direct access to 4H-pyranonaphthoquinones in moderate to very good yields and good to excellent enantioselectivities at a very low catalyst loading (0.5 mol%) of the squaramide. PMID:26660230

  1. Core-structure-inspired asymmetric addition reactions: enantioselective synthesis of dihydrobenzoxazinone- and dihydroquinazolinone-based anti-HIV agents.

    PubMed

    Li, Shen; Ma, Jun-An

    2015-11-01

    Dihydrobenzoxazinones and dihydroquinazolinones are the core units present in many anti-HIV agents, such as Efavirenz, DPC 961, DPC 963, and DPC 083. All these molecules contain a trifluoromethyl moiety at the quaternary stereogenic carbon center with S configuration. The enantioselective addition of carbon nucleophiles to ketones or cyclic ketimines could serve as a key step to access these molecules. This tutorial review provides an overview of significant advances in the synthesis of dihydrobenzoxazinone- and dihydroquinazolinone-based anti-HIV agents and relative analogues, with an emphasis on asymmetric addition reactions for the establishment of the CF3-containing quaternary carbon centers. PMID:26177889

  2. A Mixed-Ligand Chiral Rhodium(II) Catalyst Enables the Enantioselective Total Synthesis of Piperarborenine B.

    PubMed

    Panish, Robert A; Chintala, Srinivasa R; Fox, Joseph M

    2016-04-11

    A novel, mixed-ligand chiral rhodium(II) catalyst, Rh2 (S-NTTL)3 (dCPA), has enabled the first enantioselective total synthesis of the natural product piperarborenine B. A crystal structure of Rh2 (S-NTTL)3 (dCPA) reveals a "chiral crown" conformation with a bulky dicyclohexylphenyl acetate ligand and three N-naphthalimido groups oriented on the same face of the catalyst. The natural product was prepared on large scale using rhodium-catalyzed bicyclobutanation/ copper-catalyzed homoconjugate addition chemistry in the key step. The route proceeds in ten steps with an 8 % overall yield and 92 % ee. PMID:26991451

  3. 3D chiral nanoplasmonics: fabrication, chiroptic engineering, mechanism, and application in enantioselection (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhifeng

    2015-09-01

    Chirality does naturally exist, and the building blocks of life (e.g. DNA, proteins, peptides and sugars) are usually chiral. Chirality inherently imposes chemical/biological selectivity on functional molecules; hence the discrimination in molecular chirality from an enantiomer to the other mirror image (i.e. enantioselection) has fundamental and application significance. Enantiomers interact with left and right handed circularly polarized light in a different manner with respect to optical extinction; hence, electronic circular dichroism (ECD) has been widely used for enantioselection. However, enantiomers usually have remarkably low ECD intensity, mainly owing to the small electric transition dipole moment induced by molecular sizes compared to the ECD-active wavelength in the UV-visible-near IR region. To enhance ECD magnitude, recently it has being developed 3D chiral nanoplasmonic structures having a helical path, and the dimensions are comparable to the ECD wavelength. However, it is still ambiguous the origin of 3D chiroplasmonics, and there is a lack of studying the interaction of 3D chiroplasmoncs with enantiomers for the application of enantioselection. Herein, we will present a one-step fabrication of 3D silver nanospirals (AgNSs) via low-substrate-temperature glancing angle deposition. AgNSs can be deposited on a wide range of substrates (including transparent and flexible substrates), in an area on the order of cm2. A set of spiral dimensions (such as spiral pitches, number of turns and handedness) have been easily engineered to tune the chiroptic properties, leading to studying the chiroplasmonic principles together with finite element simulation and the LC model. At the end, it will be demonstrated that 3D chiroplasmonics can differentiate molecular chirality of enantiomers with dramatic enhancement in the anisotropy g factor. This study opens a door to sensitively discriminate enantiomer chirality.

  4. Organocatalytic enantioselective 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions between Seyferth-Gilbert reagent and isatylidene malononitriles: synthesis of chiral spiro-phosphonylpyrazoline-oxindoles.

    PubMed

    Du, Taiping; Du, Fei; Ning, Yanqiang; Peng, Yungui

    2015-03-01

    A new method has been developed for the catalytic enantioselective 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of the Seyferth-Gilbert reagent (SGR) to isatylidene malononitriles using a cinchona alkaloid derivative as a catalyst. This method allowed for the synthesis of a series of chiral spiro-phosphonylpyrazoline-oxindoles in good yields with excellent enantioselectivities. The synthetic utility of this method was further demonstrated by its use in a three-component domino reaction involving isatin, malononitrile, and SGR based on sequential Knoevenagel condensation and 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reactions. PMID:25710384

  5. Copper(II)-catalyzed enantioselective hydrosilylation of halo-substituted alkyl aryl and heteroaryl ketones: asymmetric synthesis of (R)-fluoxetine and (S)-duloxetine.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ji-Ning; Fang, Qiang; Hu, Yi-Hu; Yang, Li-Yao; Wu, Fei-Fei; Xie, Lin-Jie; Wu, Jing; Li, Shijun

    2014-02-14

    A set of reaction conditions has been established to facilitate the non-precious copper-catalyzed enantioselective hydrosilylation of a number of structurally diverse β-, γ- or ε-halo-substituted alkyl aryl ketones and α-, β- or γ-halo-substituted alkyl heteroaryl ketones under air to afford a broad spectrum of halo alcohols in high yields and good to excellent enantioselectivities (up to 99% ee). The developed procedure has been successfully applied to the asymmetric synthesis of antidepressant drugs (R)-fluoxetine and (S)-duloxetine, which highlighted its synthetic utility. PMID:24382650

  6. Cation-Controlled Enantioselective and Diastereoselective Synthesis of Indolines: An Autoinductive Phase-Transfer Initiated 5-endo-trig Process.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Krishna; Wolstenhulme, Jamie R; Painter, Phillip P; Yeo, David; Grande-Carmona, Francisca; Johnston, Craig P; Tantillo, Dean J; Smith, Martin D

    2015-10-21

    A catalytic enantioselective approach to the synthesis of indolines bearing two asymmetric centers, one of which is all-carbon and quaternary, is described. This reaction proceeds with high levels of diastereoselectivity (>20:1) and high levels of enantioselectivity (up to 99.5:0.5 er) in the presence of CsOH·H2O and a quinine-derived ammonium salt. The reaction most likely proceeds via a delocalized 2-aza-pentadienyl anion that cyclizes either by a suprafacial electrocyclic mechanism, or through a kinetically controlled 5-endo-trig Mannich process. Density functional theory calculations are used to probe these two mechanistic pathways and lead to the conclusion that a nonpericyclic mechanism is most probable. The base-catalyzed interconversion of diastereoisomeric indolines in the presence of certain quaternary ammonium catalysts is observed; this may be rationalized as a cycloreversion-cyclization process. Mechanistic investigations have demonstrated that the reaction is initiated via a Mąkosza-like interfacial process, and kinetic analysis has shown that the reaction possesses a significant induction period consistent with autoinduction. A zwitterionic quinine-derived entity generated by deprotonation of an ammonium salt with the anionic reaction product is identified as a key catalytic species and the role that protonation plays in the enantioselective process outlined. We also propose that the reaction subsequently occurs entirely within the organic phase. Consequently, the reaction may be better described as a phase-transfer-initiated rather than a phase-transfer-catalyzed process; this observation may have implications for mechanistic pathways followed by other phase-transfer-mediated reactions. PMID:26397716

  7. Enantioselective Total Synthesis of (−)-Lansai B and (+)- Nocardioazines A and B **

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Haoxuan; Reisman, Sarah E.

    2014-01-01

    The concise total syntheses of the bis(pyrroloindolines) (−)-lansai B and (+)- nocardioazines A and B are reported. The key pyrroloindoline building blocks are rapidly prepared by enantioselective formal (3 + 2) cycloaddition reactions. The macrocycle of (+)-nocardioazine A is constructed by an unusual intramolecular diketopiperazine formation. PMID:24777757

  8. Enantioselective Synthesis of (+)-Estrone Exploiting a Hydrogen Bond-Promoted Diels−Alder Reaction

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Starting from Dane’s diene and methylcyclopentenedione, (+)-estrone is synthesized along the Quinkert−Dane route in 24% total yield. The key step is an enantioselective Diels−Alder reaction promoted by an amidinium catalyst as efficiently as by a traditional Ti-TADDOLate Lewis acid. PMID:20302330

  9. Catalytic enantioselective hydrogenation of N-alkoxycarbonyl hydrazones: a practical synthesis of chiral hydrazines.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Naoki; Tan, Lushi; McWilliams, J Christopher; Ramasamy, Deepa; Sheppard, Ruth

    2010-01-15

    An enantioselective hydrogenation of hydrazones catalyzed by Rh complexes (Rh-Josiphos or Rh-Taniaphos) has been developed. The protocol can be applied to hydrazones with three different protective groups (Boc, Cbz, and methoxycarbonyl), allowing for selective deprotection and further elaboration of the hydrazine products in the presence of other functional groups. PMID:20017501

  10. Total Synthesis of Cryptocaryol A by Enantioselective Iridium-Catalyzed Alcohol C-H Allylation.

    PubMed

    Perez, Felix; Waldeck, Andrew R; Krische, Michael J

    2016-04-11

    The polyketide natural product cryptocaryol A is prepared in 8 steps via iridium catalyzed enantioselective diol double C-H allylation, which directly generates an acetate-based triketide stereodiad. In 4 previously reported total syntheses, 17-28 steps were required. PMID:27079820

  11. The enantioselective synthesis of (S)-(+)-mianserin and (S)-(+)-epinastine

    PubMed Central

    Maurin, Jan K; Czarnocki, Zbigniew

    2015-01-01

    Summary A simple enantioselective synthetic procedure for the preparation of mianserin and epinastine in optically pure form is described. The key step in the synthetic pathway is the asymmetric reduction of the cyclic imine using asymmetric transfer hydrogenation conditions. PMID:26425208

  12. Copper-Catalyzed Borylative Aromatization of p-Quinone Methides: Enantioselective Synthesis of Dibenzylic Boronates

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    In this report, we establish that DM-Segphos copper(I) complexes are efficient catalysts for the enantioselective borylation of para-quinone methides. This method provides straightforward access to chiral monobenzylic and dibenzylic boronic esters, with enantiomeric ratios up to 96:4, using a commercially available chiral phosphine. Standard manipulations of the C–B bond afford a variety of chiral diaryl derivatives. PMID:27088045

  13. Catalytic enantioselective synthesis of atropisomeric biaryls: a cation-directed nucleophilic aromatic substitution reaction.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Roly J; Smith, Martin D

    2014-11-17

    A catalytic enantioselective nucleophilic aromatic substitution reaction which yields axially chiral biaryl derivatives in excellent yields with e.r. values of up to 97:3 has been developed. This process uses a chiral counterion to direct the addition of thiophenolate to a prochiral dichloropyrimidine by a tandem desymmetrization/kinetic resolution mechanism. The products can be derivatized to a range of atropisomeric structures without any reduction in enantioenrichment, thus offering access to unexplored chiral biaryl architectures. PMID:25257677

  14. Divergent synthesis of chiral heterocycles via sequencing of enantioselective three-component reactions and one-pot subsequent cyclization reactions.

    PubMed

    Tang, Min; Xing, Dong; Huang, Haoxi; Hu, Wenhao

    2015-07-01

    A highly efficient sequencing of catalytic asymmetric three-component reactions of alcohols, diazo compounds and aldimines/aldehydes with one-pot subsequent cyclization reactions was reported. The development of a robust and versatile Rh(ii)/Zr(iv)-BINOL co-catalytic system not only gives high diastereo- and enantioselective controls of the three-component reaction, but also shows excellent functionality tolerances that allow a wide range of functionalities to be pre-installed in each component and readily undergo one-pot subsequent cyclization reactions, thus providing rapid and diversity-oriented synthesis (DOS) of different types of chiral nitrogen- and/or oxygen-containing polyfunctional heterocycles. PMID:25864421

  15. Enantioselective microbial synthesis of the indigenous natural product (-)-α-bisabolol by a sesquiterpene synthase from chamomile (Matricaria recutita).

    PubMed

    Son, Young-Jin; Kwon, Moonhyuk; Ro, Dae-Kyun; Kim, Soo-Un

    2014-10-15

    (-)-α-Bisabolol, a sesquiterpene alcohol, is a major ingredient in the essential oil of chamomile (Matricaria recutita) and is used in many health products. The current supply of (-)-α-bisabolol is mainly dependent on the Brazilian candeia tree (Eremanthus erythropappus) by distillation or by chemical synthesis. However, the distillation method using the candeia tree is not sustainable, and chemical synthesis suffers from impurities arising from undesirable α-bisabolol isomers. Therefore enzymatic synthesis of (-)-α-bisabolol is a viable alternative. In the present study, a cDNA encoding (-)-α-bisabolol synthase (MrBBS) was identified from chamomile and used for enantioselective (-)-α-bisabolol synthesis in yeast. Chamomile MrBBS was identified by Illumina and 454 sequencing, followed by activity screening in yeast. When MrBBS was expressed in yeast, 8 mg of α-bisabolol was synthesized de novo per litre of culture. The structure of purified α-bisabolol was elucidated as (S,S)-α-bisabolol [or (-)-α-bisabolol]. Although MrBBS possesses a putative chloroplast-targeting peptide, it was localized in the cytosol, and a deletion of its N-terminal 23 amino acids significantly reduced its stability and activity. Recombinant MrBBS showed kinetic properties comparable with those of other sesquiterpene synthases. These data provide compelling evidence that chamomile MrBBS synthesizes enantiopure (-)-α-bisabolol as a single sesquiterpene product, opening a biotechnological opportunity to produce (-)-α-bisabolol. PMID:25048207

  16. Enantioselective Pictet-Spengler Reactions of Isatins for the Synthesis of Spiroindolones

    PubMed Central

    Badillo, Joseph J.; Silva-García, Abel; Shupe, Benjamin H.; Fettinger, James C.; Franz, Annaliese K.

    2011-01-01

    The condensation cyclization between isatins and 5-methoxy tryptamine catalyzed by chiral phosphoric acids provides spirooxindole tetrahydro-β-carboline products in excellent yields (up to 99%) and enantioselectivity (up to 98:2 er). A comparison of catalysts provides insight for the substrate scope and factors responsible for efficient catalytic activity and selectivity in the spirocyclization. Chiral phosphoric acids with different 3,3′-substitution on the binaphthyl system and opposite axial chirality afford the spiroindolone product with the same absolute configuration. PMID:22442499

  17. Enantioselective Synthesis of 3,5,6-Substituted Dihydropyranones and Dihydropyridinones using Isothiourea-Mediated Catalysis.

    PubMed

    Stark, Daniel G; Morrill, Louis C; Cordes, David B; Slawin, Alexandra M Z; O'Riordan, Timothy J C; Smith, Andrew D

    2016-02-01

    The scope of dihydropyranone and dihydropyridinone products accessible by isothiourea-catalyzed processes has been expanded and explored through the use of 2-N-tosyliminoacrylates and 2-aroylacrylates in a Michael addition-lactonization/lactamization cascade reaction. Notably, to ensure reproducibility it is essential to use homoanhydrides as ammonium enolate precursors with 2-aroyl acrylates, while carboxylic acids can be used with 2-N-tosyliminoacrylates, delivering a range of 3,5,6-substituted dihydropyranones and dihydropyridinones with high enantioselectivity (typically >90 % ee). The derivatization of the heterocyclic core of a 3,5,6-substituted dihydropyranone through hydrogenation is also reported. PMID:26471245

  18. Enantioselective Synthesis of 3,4-Chromanediones via Asymmetric Rearrangement of 3-Allyloxyflavones

    PubMed Central

    Marié, Jean-Charles; Xiong, Yuan; Min, Geanna K.; Yeager, Adam R.; Taniguchi, Tohru; Berova, Nina; Schaus, Scott E.; Porco, John A.

    2010-01-01

    Asymmetric scandium (III)-catalyzed rearrangement of 3-allyloxyflavones was utilized to prepare chiral, non-racemic 3,4-chromanediones in high yields and enantioselectivities. These synthetic intermediates have been further elaborated to novel heterocyclic frameworks including angular pyrazines and dihydropyrazines. The absolute configuration of rearrangement products was initially determined by a nonempirical analysis of circular dichroism (CD) using time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) calculations and verified by x-ray crystallography of a hydrazone derivative. Initial studies of the mechanism support an intramolecular rearrangement pathway that may proceed through a benzopyrylium intermediate. PMID:20527786

  19. Catalytic Aldol-Cyclization Cascade of 3-Isothiocyanato Oxindoles with α-Ketophosphonates for the Enantioselective Synthesis of β-Amino-α-hydroxyphosphonates.

    PubMed

    Kayal, Satavisha; Mukherjee, Santanu

    2015-11-01

    A cascade aldol-cyclization reaction between 3-isothiocyanato oxindoles and α-ketophosphonates has been developed for the synthesis of β-amino-α-hydroxyphosphonate derivatives. Catalyzed by a quinine-based tertiary amino-thiourea derivative, this reaction delivers 2-thioxooxazolidinyl phosphonates based on a spirooxindole scaffold bearing two contiguous quaternary stereogenic centers in high yields with excellent diastereo- (up to >20:1 dr) and enantioselectivities (up to >99:1 er). PMID:26512732

  20. Improved cyclopropanation activity of histidine-ligated cytochrome P450 enables the enantioselective formal synthesis of levomilnacipran.

    PubMed

    Wang, Z Jane; Renata, Hans; Peck, Nicole E; Farwell, Christopher C; Coelho, Pedro S; Arnold, Frances H

    2014-06-23

    Engineering enzymes capable of modes of activation unprecedented in nature will increase the range of industrially important molecules that can be synthesized through biocatalysis. However, low activity for a new function is often a limitation in adopting enzymes for preparative-scale synthesis, reaction with demanding substrates, or when a natural substrate is also present. By mutating the proximal ligand and other key active-site residues of the cytochrome P450 enzyme from Bacillus megaterium (P450-BM3), a highly active His-ligated variant of P450-BM3 that can be employed for the enantioselective synthesis of the levomilnacipran core was engineered. This enzyme, BM3-Hstar, catalyzes the cyclopropanation of N,N-diethyl-2-phenylacrylamide with an estimated initial rate of over 1000 turnovers per minute and can be used under aerobic conditions. Cyclopropanation activity is highly dependent on the electronic properties of the P450 proximal ligand, which can be used to tune this non-natural enzyme activity. PMID:24802161

  1. [Synthesis and its application to the synthesis of biologically active natural products of new and versatile chiral building blocks].

    PubMed

    Toyooka, N

    2001-07-01

    This article describes a design and synthesis of new and versatile chiral building blocks and its application to the biologically active natural product synthesis. The chiral building blocks were prepared using a biocatalysis in an enantiomerically pure state. As an application of the above chiral building blocks to the synthesis of biologically active natural product, we demonstrated the diastereodivergent synthesis of the 3-piperidinol alkaloids cassine, spectaline, prosafrinine, iso-6-cassine, prosophylline, prosopinine, and also established the flexible route to the 5,8-disubstituted indolizidine or 1,4-disubstituted quinolizidine type of Dendrobates alkaloids. As another application to the synthesis of biologically active alkaloids, we accomplished the first enantioselective total synthesis of marine alkaloids clavepictines A, B, and pictamine using a highly stereoselective Michael type quinolizidine ring closure reaction as the crucial step, and the first total synthesis of a marine alkaloid lepadin B was also achieved using aldol cyclization controlled by a A strain. PMID:11494594

  2. Anionic cyclodextrins as versatile hosts for pharmaceutical nanotechnology: Synthesis, drug delivery, enantioselectivity, contrast agents for MRI.

    PubMed

    Mavridis, Irene M; Yannakopoulou, Konstantina

    2015-08-15

    The review presents a full library of single-isomer primary rim per-carboxylate- and per-sulfate-α-, -β- and -γ-cyclodextrin (CD) derivatives and their potential for pharmaceutical nanotechnology. Recent advances in cyclodextrin chemistry have enabled robust methods for the synthesis of single-isomer anionic CDs. Numerous nanobio-applications have been already reported for these negatively charged derivatives, which alone or in combination with other biodegradable molecular platforms can become important carriers for targeted drug delivery and release. Specialized applications are also discussed, such as chiral separations, as well as the ability of per-6-carboxylated-cyclodextrins to coordinate with metal cations and especially with lanthanide cations that makes them candidates as contrast agents for Magnetic Resonance Imaging. PMID:26168706

  3. Enantioselective [4 + 2]-Annulation of Oxadienes and Allenones Catalyzed by an Amino Acid Derived Phosphine: Synthesis of Functionalized Dihydropyrans.

    PubMed

    Ni, Huanzhen; Yao, Weijun; Waheed, Abdul; Ullah, Nisar; Lu, Yixin

    2016-05-01

    An enantioselective [4 + 2]-annulation process between cyano-activated oxadienes and allenones is developed. An l-valine-derived phosphine was efficient in catalyzing the reaction, and a wide range of highly functionalized dihydropyrans were prepared in high yields and with excellent enantioselectivities. PMID:27091405

  4. Palladium(II)-Catalyzed Enantioselective Synthesis of 2-Vinyl Oxygen Heterocycles

    PubMed Central

    Cannon, Jeffrey S.; Olson, Angela C.; Overman, Larry E.; Solomon, Nicole S.

    2012-01-01

    2-Vinylchromanes (1), 2-vinyl-1,4-benzodioxanes (2), and 2,3-dihydro-2-vinyl-2H-1,4-benzoxazines (3) can be prepared in high yields (9098%) and excellent enantiomeric purities (8798% ee) by [COP-OAc]2-catalyzed cyclization of phenolic (E)-allylic trichloroacetimidate precursors. Deuterium-labeling and computational experiments are consistent with these cyclization reactions taking place by an anti-oxypalladation/syn-deoxypalladation mechanism. 2-Vinylchromanes can be prepared also in good yields and high enantiomeric purities from analogous (E)-allylic acetate precursors, which constitutes the first report that acetate is a competent leaving group in COP-catalyzed enantioselective SN2? substitution reactions. PMID:22316285

  5. Catalytic enantioselective synthesis of chiral organic compounds of ultra-high purity of >99% ee

    PubMed Central

    NEGISHI, Ei-ichi; XU, Shiqing

    2015-01-01

    Shortly after the discovery of Zr-catalyzed carboalumination of alkynes in 1978, we sought expansion of the scope of this reaction so as to develop its alkene version for catalytic asymmetric C–C bond formation, namely the ZACA (Zr-catalyzed asymmetric carboalumination of alkenes). However, this seemingly easy task proved to be quite challenging. The ZACA reaction was finally discovered in 1995 by suppressing three competitive side reactions, i.e., (i) cyclic carbometalation, (ii) β-H transfer hydrometalation, and (iii) alkene polymerization. The ZACA reaction has been used to significantly modernize and improve syntheses of various natural products including deoxypolypropionates and isoprenoids. This review focuses on our recent progress on the development of ZACA–lipase-catalyzed acetylation–transition metal-catalyzed cross-coupling processes for highly efficient and enantioselective syntheses of a wide range of chiral organic compounds with ultra-high enantiomeric purities. PMID:26460317

  6. A Direct, Concise, and Enantioselective Synthesis of 2-Substituted 4,4,4-Trifluorobutane-1,3-diols Based on the Organocatalytic In Situ Generation of Unstable Trifluoroacetaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Funabiki, Kazumasa; Furuno, Yudai; Yano, Yosuke; Sakaida, Yuta; Kubota, Yasuhiro; Matsui, Masaki

    2015-12-01

    A direct, concise, and enantioselective synthesis of 2-substituted 4,4,4-trifluorobutane-1,3-diols based on the organocatalytic asymmetric direct aldol reaction of an ethyl hemiacetal of trifluoroacetaldehyde with various aldehydes was examined. A catalytic amount (30 mol %) of commercially available and inexpensive l-prolinamide is quite effective as an organocatalyst for the catalytic in situ generation of gaseous and unstable trifluoroacetaldehyde from its hemiacetal, and a successive asymmetric direct aldol reaction with various aldehydes in dichloromethane at 0 °C, followed by reduction with sodium borohydride, gives 2-substituted 4,4,4-trifluorobutane-1,3-diols in moderate to good yields (31-84 %) with low diastereoselectivities and good to excellent enantioselectivities (64-97 % ee). PMID:26206587

  7. Intermolecular Noncovalent Hydroxy-Directed Enantioselective Heck Desymmetrization of Cyclopentenol: Computationally Driven Synthesis of Highly Functionalized cis-4-Arylcyclopentenol Scaffolds.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Silva, Juliana; Angnes, Ricardo A; Menezes da Silva, Vitor H; Servilha, Bruno M; Adeel, Muhammad; Braga, Ataualpa A C; Aponick, Aaron; Correia, Carlos Roque D

    2016-03-01

    New computationally driven protocols for the Heck desymmetrization of 3-cyclopenten-1-ol with aryldiazonium tetrafluoroborates were developed. These new conditions furnished remarkable product selectivity originating from a resident hydroxyl group and the critical choice of the reaction solvent. Mechanistic insights gleaned from theoretical calculations of the putative transition states predicted toluene as an adequate solvent choice to attain high enantioselectivity by strengthening the noncovalent interaction of the substrate hydroxyl group and the chiral cationic palladium catalyst. Laboratory experiments validated the theoretical predictions, and by employing 2% MeOH/toluene as solvent, the Heck-Matsuda reaction provided exclusively the cis-4-arylcyclopentenols 3a-l in good to excellent yields in enantiomeric excesses up to 99%. The performance of the new PyOx ligand (S)-4-tert-butyl-2-(3,5-dichloropyridin-2-yl)-4,5-dihydrooxazole was also successfully evaluated in the Heck-Matsuda desymmetrization of 3-cyclopenten-1-ol. The synthetic potential of these highly functionalized cis-4-arylcyclopentenols is illustrated by a gold-catalyzed synthesis of cyclopenta[b]benzofuran skeletons. PMID:26836260

  8. Enantioselective synthesis of 2,2-disubstituted terminal epoxides via catalytic asymmetric Corey-Chaykovsky epoxidation of ketones.

    PubMed

    Sone, Toshihiko; Yamaguchi, Akitake; Matsunaga, Shigeki; Shibasaki, Masakatsu

    2012-01-01

    Catalytic asymmetric Corey-Chaykovsky epoxidation of various ketones with dimethyloxosulfonium methylide using a heterobimetallic La-Li(3)-BINOL complex (LLB) is described. The reaction proceeded smoothly at room temperature in the presence of achiral phosphine oxide additives, and 2,2-disubstituted terminal epoxides were obtained in high enantioselectivity (97%-91% ee) and yield ( > 99%-88%) from a broad range of methyl ketones with 1-5 mol% catalyst loading. Enantioselectivity was strongly dependent on the steric hindrance, and other ketones, such as ethyl ketones and propyl ketones resulted in slightly lower enantioselectivity (88%-67% ee). PMID:22314382

  9. Simple Organic Molecules as Catalysts for Enantioselective Synthesis of Amines and Alcohols

    PubMed Central

    Silverio, Daniel L.; Torker, Sebastian; Pilyugina, Tatiana; Vieira, Erika M.; Snapper, Marc L.; Haeffner, Fredrik; Hoveyda, Amir H.

    2012-01-01

    The discovery of new catalysts that can generate complex organic compounds via enantioselective transformations is central to advances in the life sciences;i for this reason, many chemists try to discover catalysts that can be used to produce chiral molecules with a strong preference for one mirror image isomer.ii The ideal catalyst should be devoid of precious elementsiii and should bring reactions to completion in a few hours using operationally simple procedures. In this manuscript, we introduce a set of small organic molecules that can catalyze reactions of unsaturated organoboron reagents with imines and carbonyls; the products of the reactions are enantiomerically pure amines and alcohols, which can be used to synthesize more complex, biologically active molecules. A distinguishing feature of this new catalyst class is the presence of a 'key' proton embedded within their structure. The catalyst is derived from the abundant amino acid valine and was prepared in large quantities in four steps using inexpensive reagents. Reactions are scalable, do not demand stringent conditions, and can be performed with as little as 0.25 mol % catalyst in less than six hours at room temperature to generate products in >85% yield and ≥97:3 enantiomeric ratio. The efficiency, selectivity and operational simplicity of the transformations and the range of boron-based reagents render this advance vital to future progress in chemistry, biology and medicine. PMID:23407537

  10. Enantioselective synthesis of (-)-chloramphenicol via silver-catalysed asymmetric isocyanoacetate aldol reaction.

    PubMed

    Franchino, Allegra; Jakubec, Pavol; Dixon, Darren J

    2016-01-01

    The highly enantio- and diastereoselective aldol reaction of isocyanoacetates catalysed by Ag2O and cinchona-derived amino phosphines applied to the synthesis of (-)- and (+)-chloramphenicol is described. The concise synthesis showcases the utility of this catalytic asymmetric methodology for the preparation of bioactive compounds possessing α-amino-β-hydroxy motifs. PMID:26510469

  11. Enantioselective and regioselective pyrone Diels-Alder reactions of vinyl sulfones: total synthesis of (+)-cavicularin.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Peng; Beaudry, Christopher M

    2014-09-22

    The total synthesis of (+)-cavicularin is described. The synthesis features an enantio- and regioselective pyrone Diels-Alder reaction of a vinyl sulfone to construct the cyclophane architecture of the natural product. The Diels-Alder substrate was prepared by a regioselective one-pot three-component Suzuki reaction of a non-symmetric dibromoarene. PMID:25082270

  12. Copper-catalyzed enantioselective intramolecular alkene amination/intermolecular Heck-type coupling cascade.

    PubMed

    Liwosz, Timothy W; Chemler, Sherry R

    2012-02-01

    Enantioselective copper-catalyzed cyclization of γ-alkenylsulfonamides and a δ-alkenylsulfonamide in the presence of a range of vinyl arenes results in variously functionalized 2-substituted chiral nitrogen heterocycles via a formal alkene C-H functionalization process. Application of this reaction to the concise synthesis of a 5-HT(7) receptor antagonist is demonstrated. PMID:22257169

  13. Concise and enantioselective total synthesis of (-)-mehranine, (-)-methylenebismehranine, and related Aspidosperma alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Mewald, Marius; Medley, Jonathan William; Movassaghi, Mohammad

    2014-10-20

    We report an efficient and highly stereoselective strategy for the synthesis of Aspidosperma alkaloids based on the transannular cyclization of a chiral lactam precursor. Three new stereocenters are formed in this key step with excellent diastereoselectivity due to the conformational bias of the cyclization precursor, leading to a versatile pentacyclic intermediate. A subsequent stereoselective epoxidation followed by a mild formamide reduction enabled the first total synthesis of the Aspidosperma alkaloids (-)-mehranine and (+)-(6S,7S)-dihydroxy-N-methylaspidospermidine. A late-stage dimerization of (-)-mehranine mediated by scandium trifluoromethanesulfonate completed the first total synthesis of (-)-methylenebismehranine. PMID:25196158

  14. Concise and Enantioselective Total Synthesis of (−)-Mehranine, (−)-Methylenebismehranine, and Related Aspidosperma Alkaloids**

    PubMed Central

    Mewald, Marius; Medley, Jonathan William; Movassaghi, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    We report an efficient and highly stereoselective synthetic strategy for the synthesis of aspidosperma alkaloids based on the transannular cyclization of a chiral lactam precursor. Three new stereocenters are formed in this key step with excellent level of diastereoselection due to the conformational bias of the cyclization precursor, leading to a versatile pentacyclic intermediate. A subsequent stereoselective epoxidation followed by a mild formamide reduction enabled the first total synthesis of the aspidosperma alkaloids (−)-mehranine and (+)-(6S,7S)-dihydroxy-N-methylaspidospermidine. A late-stage scandium trifluoromethanesulfonate-mediated dimerization of (−)-mehranine enabled the first total synthesis of (−)-methylenebismehranine. PMID:25196158

  15. Catalytic Asymmetric Synthesis Using Feedstocks. An Enantioselective Route to 2-Arylpropionic Acids and 1-Arylethyl Amines via Hydrovinylation of Vinyl Arenes

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Craig R.; RajanBabu, T. V.

    2009-01-01

    A three-step procedure for the synthesis of 2-arylpropionic acids (profens) from vinyl arenes in nearly enantiomerically pure form has been developed. Excellent yields (>97%), regioselectivities (>99%), and enantioselectivities (>97% ee) for the desired branched products were obtained in the asymmetric hydrovinylation reactions of vinyl arenes, and the products from these reactions were transformed into 2-arylpropionic acids via oxidative degradation. Subsequent Curtius or Schmidt rearrangements of these acids provided highly valued 1-arylethyl amines, including a prototypical primary amine with an α-chiral tertiary N-alkyl group, in very good yields. PMID:19317393

  16. A highly enantioselective Biginelli reaction using self-assembled methanoproline-thiourea organocatalysts: asymmetric synthesis of 6-isopropyl-3,4-dihydropyrimidines.

    PubMed

    Hang, Zhijun; Zhu, Jun; Lian, Xiang; Xu, Peng; Yu, Han; Han, Sheng

    2016-01-01

    An efficient self-assembled methanoproline-thiourea organocatalyst for the synthesis of optically active 6-isopropyl-3,4-dihydro-pyrimidines via an asymmetric Biginelli reaction was developed, which is superior to the individual precatalyst. A wide range of optically active 6-isopropyl-3,4-dihydropyrimidines with remarkable pharmacological interest was obtained in high yields with excellent enantioselectivities (up to 99% ee). A plausible transition state has been proposed to explain the origin of the activation and the asymmetric induction. PMID:26498376

  17. Enantioselective Total Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of (+)-Kibdelone A and a Tetrahydroxanthone Analogue

    PubMed Central

    Winter, Dana K.; Endoma-Arias, Mary Ann; Hudlicky, Tomas; Beutler, John A.; Porco, John A.

    2013-01-01

    The total synthesis of kibdelone A has been accomplished using In(III)-catalyzed arylation of a heterocyclic quinone monoketal and iodine-mediated oxidative photochemical electrocyclization for construction of the ABCD ring moiety. Enzymatic dihydroxylation of methyl 2-halobenzoate substrates was employed for synthesis of activated 2-halo-cyclohexene F-ring fragments. A one pot oxa-Michael-Friedel-Crafts process allowed access to the first simplified analogues of the kibdelones PMID:23834060

  18. Verdazyls: synthesis, properties, application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipunova, G. N.; Fedorchenko, T. G.; Chupakhin, O. N.

    2013-08-01

    Synthesis, structure, properties and reactivity of stable heterocyclic radicals, verdazyls, are considered. Special attention is focused on metal verdazyl complexes. Major areas of application of such radicals are discussed. The bibliography includes 164 references.

  19. Enantioselective synthesis of (10S)- and (10R)-methyl-anandamides

    PubMed Central

    Nikas, Spyros P.; D’Souza, Marsha; Makriyannis, Alexandros

    2013-01-01

    For the development of novel endocannabinoid templates with potential resistance to hydrolytic and oxidative metabolism, we are targeting the bis-allylic carbons of the arachidonoyl skeleton. Toward this end, we recently disclosed the synthesis and preliminary biological data for the (13S)-methyl-anandamide. We report now the total synthesis of the (10S)- and (10R)-methyl-counterparts. Our synthetic approach is stereospecific, efficient, and provides the analogs without the need for resolution. Peptide coupling, P-2 nickel partial hydrogenation, and cis-selective Wittig olefination are the key steps. PMID:24319298

  20. Toward general access to the aspidosperma-type terpenoid indole alkaloids: synthesis of the key 3,3-disubstituted piperidones through enantioselective intramolecular heck-type reaction of chloroformamides.

    PubMed

    Yasui, Yoshizumi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Takemoto, Yoshiji

    2008-11-01

    An enantioselective intramolecular Heck-type reaction of chloroformamides has been developed for the synthesis of 3,3-disubstituted piperidones. The desired piperidone was formed in the presence of a palladium catalyst, an optically active phosphoramidite ligand, K3PO4 and Ag3PO4. The obtained piperidone was converted to epieburnamonine. PMID:18981607

  1. Absolute asymmetric synthesis of enantiopure organozinc reagents, followed by highly enantioselective chlorination.

    PubMed

    Olsson, Susanne; Lennartson, Anders; Håkansson, Mikael

    2013-09-01

    We report the absolute asymmetric synthesis (AAS) of indenylzinc reagents by using total spontaneous resolution followed by enantiospecific conversion into 1-chloroindene. The chiral complex [Zn(dcp)(ind)(tmeda)] (dcp = 2,6-dichlorophenoxy and tmeda = N,N,N',N'-tetramethylethylenediamine) (3) was prepared from the achiral starting materials indene, potassium, zinc chloride, TMEDA, and 2,6-dichlorophenol. The reagent resolved spontaneously on crystallization, and single crystals of 3 react with N-chlorosuccinimide in the presence of benzoquinone in 2-propanol to give 1-chloroindene in >98 % enantiomeric excess. It was found that (R)-3 gave (R)-1-chloroindene upon reaction, indicating an SE 2'-mechanism. Since bulk samples of 3 gave optically active product upon chlorination, total spontaneous resolution must have occurred. This demonstrates that enantiopure products can be obtained through the absolute asymmetric synthesis of organometallic reagents starting from achiral materials. The general absolute asymmetric synthesis (AAS) method offers easy access to both enantiomers and an almost limitless variation in the design of the product. PMID:23881740

  2. Highly efficient molybdenum-based catalysts for enantioselective alkene metathesis.

    PubMed

    Malcolmson, Steven J; Meek, Simon J; Sattely, Elizabeth S; Schrock, Richard R; Hoveyda, Amir H

    2008-12-18

    Discovery of efficient catalysts is one of the most compelling objectives of modern chemistry. Chiral catalysts are in particularly high demand, as they facilitate synthesis of enantiomerically enriched small molecules that are critical to developments in medicine, biology and materials science. Especially noteworthy are catalysts that promote-with otherwise inaccessible efficiency and selectivity levels-reactions demonstrated to be of great utility in chemical synthesis. Here we report a class of chiral catalysts that initiate alkene metathesis with very high efficiency and enantioselectivity. Such attributes arise from structural fluxionality of the chiral catalysts and the central role that enhanced electronic factors have in the catalytic cycle. The new catalysts have a stereogenic metal centre and carry only monodentate ligands; the molybdenum-based complexes are prepared stereoselectively by a ligand exchange process involving an enantiomerically pure aryloxide, a class of ligands scarcely used in enantioselective catalysis. We demonstrate the application of the new catalysts in an enantioselective synthesis of the Aspidosperma alkaloid, quebrachamine, through an alkene metathesis reaction that cannot be promoted by any of the previously reported chiral catalysts. PMID:19011612

  3. Formal Synthesis of Solanoeclepin A: Enantioselective Allene Diboration and Intramolecular [2+2] Photocycloaddition for the Construction of the Tricyclic Core.

    PubMed

    Kleinnijenhuis, Roel A; Timmer, Brian J J; Lutteke, Ginger; Smits, Jan M M; de Gelder, Ren; van Maarseveen, Jan H; Hiemstra, Henk

    2016-01-01

    An enantioselective synthesis of an intermediate in the Tanino total synthesis of solanoeclepin A has been developed. The key step was an intramolecular [2+2] photocycloaddition, which led to the tricyclo[5.2.1.0(1,?6) ]decane core in six steps. The first photosubstrate, prepared through an indium-mediated Barbier-type reaction, gave an excellent [2+2] cycloaddition, but it could not be obtained in sufficient enantiopurity. The second photosubstrate, prepared through an asymmetric allene diborylation in high enantiomeric excess, gave the [2+2] cycloaddition product in high yield on irradiation at 365?nm on 20?g scale in a flow system. Other important steps were the replacement of a boronate group at the quaternary carbon by a vinyl group and diastereoselective cyclopropanation of an allylic alcohol. PMID:26646583

  4. Recent advances on the enantioselective synthesis of C-nucleosides inhibitors of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH).

    PubMed

    Merino, Pedro; Ghirardello, Mattia; Tejero, Tomas; Delso, Ignacio; Matute, Rosa

    2014-01-01

    This review will describe the recent advances in the synthesis of C-nucleosides with inhibitory activity of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH), a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of guanine nucleotides. The review will cover synthetic approaches of structural analogues showing modifications in the furanose ring as well as in the heterocyclic base. Heterocyclic sugar nucleoside analogues in which the furanose ring has been replaced by a different heterocyclic ring including aza analogues, thioanalogues as well as dioxolanyl and isoxazolidinyl analogues are also considered. PMID:24758435

  5. Oxazolines as Dual-Function Traceless Chromophores and Chiral Auxiliaries: Enantioselective Photoassisted Synthesis of Polyheterocyclic Ketones.

    PubMed

    Mukhina, Olga A; Kutateladze, Andrei G

    2016-02-24

    2-(o-Amidophenyl)oxa- and -thiazolines undergo excited-state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT), generating aza-o-xylylenes capable of intramolecular [4+2] and [4+4] cycloadditions with tethered unsaturated pendants. Facile hydrolysis of the primary photoproducts, spiro-oxazolidines and thiazolidines, under mild conditions unmasks a phenone functionality. Variations in linkers allow for access to diverse core scaffolds in the primary photoproducts, rendering the approach compatible with the philosophy of diversity-oriented synthesis. Chiral oxazolines, readily available from the corresponding amino alcohols, yield enantioenriched keto-polyheterocycles of complex topologies with enantiomeric excess values up to 90%. PMID:26866604

  6. Total Synthesis of the Strychnos Alkaloid (+)-Minfiensine: Tandem Enantioselective Intramolecular Heck–Iminium Ion Cyclization

    PubMed Central

    Dounay, Amy B.; Humphreys, Philip G.; Overman, Larry E.; Wrobleski, Aaron D.

    2010-01-01

    A 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-9a,4a-(iminoethano)-9H-carbazole (4) is a central structural feature of the Strychnos alkaloid minfiensine (1) and akuammiline alkaloids such as vincorine (5) and echitamine (6). A cascade catalytic asymmetric Heck-iminium cyclization was developed that rapidly provides 3,4-dihydro-9a,4a-(iminoethano)-9H-carbazoles in high enantiomeric purity. Two sequences were developed for advancing 3,4-dihydro-9a,4a-(iminoethano)-9H-carbazole 27 to (+)-minfiensine. In our first-generation approach, a reductive Heck cyclization was employed to form the fifth ring of (+)-minfiensine. In a second more concise total synthesis, an intramolecular palladium-catalyzed ketone enolate vinyl iodide coupling was employed to construct the final ring of (+)-minfiensine. This second-generation total synthesis of enantiopure (+)-minfiensine was accomplished in 6.5% overall yield and 15 steps from 1,2-cyclohexanedione and anisidine 13. A distinctive feature of this sequence is the use of palladium-catalyzed reactions to form all carbon–carbon bonds in the transformation of these simple precursors to (+)-minfiensine. PMID:18303837

  7. Application of 7-azaisatins in enantioselective Morita-Baylis-Hillman reaction.

    PubMed

    He, Qing; Zhan, Gu; Du, Wei; Chen, Ying-Chun

    2016-01-01

    7-Azaisatin and 7-azaoxindole skeletons are valuable building blocks in diverse biologically active substances. Here 7-azaisatins turned out to be more efficient electrophiles than the analogous isatins in the enantioselective Morita-Baylis-Hillman (MBH) reactions with maleimides using a bifunctional tertiary amine, β-isocupreidine (β-ICD), as the catalyst. This route allows a convenient approach to access multifunctional 3-hydroxy-7-aza-2-oxindoles with high enantiopurity (up to 94% ee). Other types of activated alkenes, such as acrylates and acrolein, could also be efficiently utilized. PMID:26977190

  8. Application of 7-azaisatins in enantioselective Morita–Baylis–Hillman reaction

    PubMed Central

    He, Qing; Zhan, Gu; Du, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Summary 7-Azaisatin and 7-azaoxindole skeletons are valuable building blocks in diverse biologically active substances. Here 7-azaisatins turned out to be more efficient electrophiles than the analogous isatins in the enantioselective Morita–Baylis–Hillman (MBH) reactions with maleimides using a bifunctional tertiary amine, β-isocupreidine (β-ICD), as the catalyst. This route allows a convenient approach to access multifunctional 3-hydroxy-7-aza-2-oxindoles with high enantiopurity (up to 94% ee). Other types of activated alkenes, such as acrylates and acrolein, could also be efficiently utilized. PMID:26977190

  9. Highly enantioselective synthesis of α-azido-β-hydroxy methyl ketones catalyzed by a cooperative proline-guanidinium salt system.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Castañeda, Ángel; Kędziora, Kinga; Lavandera, Iván; Rodríguez-Solla, Humberto; Concellón, Carmen; del Amo, Vicente

    2014-03-11

    The combined activity of (S)-proline and an achiral tetraphenylborate TBD-derived guanidinium salt permits the aldol reaction between azidoacetone and aromatic, or heteroaromatic aldehydes. The α-azido-β-hydroxy methyl ketones obtained as products can be isolated in good yield, with high diastereo- and enantioselectivity. PMID:24468918

  10. Regiodivergent Enantioselective γ-Additions of Oxazolones to 2,3-Butadienoates Catalyzed by Phosphines: Synthesis of α,α-Disubstituted α-Amino Acids and N,O-Acetal Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tianli; Yu, Zhaoyuan; Hoon, Ding Long; Phee, Claire Yan; Lan, Yu; Lu, Yixin

    2016-01-13

    Phosphine-catalyzed regiodivergent enantioselective C-2- and C-4-selective γ-additions of oxazolones to 2,3-butadienoates have been developed. The C-4-selective γ-addition of oxazolones occurred in a highly enantioselective manner when 2-aryl-4-alkyloxazol-5-(4H)-ones were employed as pronucleophiles. With the employment of 2-alkyl-4-aryloxazol-5-(4H)-ones as the donor, C-2-selective γ-addition of oxazolones took place in a highly enantioselective manner. The C-4-selective adducts provided rapid access to optically enriched α,α-disubstituted α-amino acid derivatives, and the C-2-selective products led to facile synthesis of chiral N,O-acetals and γ-lactols. Theoretical studies via DFT calculations suggested that the origin of the observed regioselectivity was due to the distortion energy that resulted from the interaction between the nucleophilic oxazolide and the electrophilic phosphonium intermediate. PMID:26629975

  11. Stereoconvergent Arylations and Alkenylations of Unactivated Alkyl Electrophiles: Catalytic Enantioselective Synthesis of Secondary Sulfonamides and Sulfones

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The development of efficient methods for the generation of enantioenriched sulfonamides and sulfones is an important objective for fields such as organic synthesis and medicinal chemistry; however, there have been relatively few reports of direct catalytic asymmetric approaches to controlling the stereochemistry of the sulfur-bearing carbon of such targets. In this report, we describe nickel-catalyzed stereoconvergent Negishi arylations and alkenylations of racemic α-bromosulfonamides and -sulfones that furnish the desired cross-coupling product in very good ee and yield for an array of reaction partners. Mechanistic studies are consistent with the generation of a radical intermediate that has a sufficient lifetime to diffuse out of the solvent cage and to cyclize onto a pendant olefin. PMID:25127186

  12. The first enantioselective synthesis of the amavadin ligand and its complexation to vanadium.

    PubMed

    Hubregtse, Ton; Neeleman, Ernst; Maschmeyer, Thomas; Sheldon, Roger A; Hanefeld, Ulf; Arends, Isabel W C E

    2005-05-01

    The ligand of the naturally occurring vanadium compound amavadin found in Amanita muscaria, (2S, 2'S)-N-hydroxyimino-2,2'-dipropionic acid (1), was synthesized stereoselectively in two steps with 43% overall yield. After complexation of this ligand to vanadyl acetate, amavadin was isolated in quantitative yield. Due to the chirality at vanadium amavadin consists of a mixture of delta and lambda diastereoisomers. Directly after its synthesis, the delta to lambda ratio of amavadin is 2.27 and it decreases to 0.80 after equilibrium has been reached. During this epimerization the optical rotation for V[(2S,2'S)-N-hydroxyimino-(2,2')-dipropionate]2 (=amavadin) changes from [alpha](D)25 = +36 degrees to +114.0 degrees (c = 0.5, H2O). For V[(2R,2'R)-N-hydroxyimino-(2,2')-dipropionate] the optical rotation changes from [alpha](D)25 = -36 degrees to -113.2 degrees (c = 0.5, H2O). PMID:15833352

  13. Molecular Bases of Enantioselectivity of Haloalkane Dehalogenase DbjA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Yukari; Natsume, Ryo; Prokop, Zbynek; Brezovsky, Jan; Chaloupkova, Radka; Damborsky, Jiri; Nagata, Yuji; Senda, Toshiya

    Enzymes are widely used for the synthesis of pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, and food additives because they can catalyze high enantioselective transformations. In order to construct selective enzymes by protein engineering, it is important to understand the molecular basis of enzyme-substrate interactions that contribute to enantioselectivity. The haloalkane dehalogenase DbjA showed high enantioselectivity for two racemic mixtures: α-bromoesters and β-bromoalkanes. Thermodynamic analysis, protein crystallography, and computer simulations indicated that DbjA carries two bases for the enantiodiscrimination of each racemic mixture. This study helps us understand the molecular basis of the enantioselectivity and opens up new possibilities for constructing enantiospecific biocatalysts through protein engineering.

  14. Low-Mode Conformational Search Method with Semiempirical Quantum Mechanical Calculations: Application to Enantioselective Organocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Kamachi, Takashi; Yoshizawa, Kazunari

    2016-02-22

    A conformational search program for finding low-energy conformations of large noncovalent complexes has been developed. A quantitatively reliable semiempirical quantum mechanical PM6-DH+ method, which is able to accurately describe noncovalent interactions at a low computational cost, was employed in contrast to conventional conformational search programs in which molecular mechanical methods are usually adopted. Our approach is based on the low-mode method whereby an initial structure is perturbed along one of its low-mode eigenvectors to generate new conformations. This method was applied to determine the most stable conformation of transition state for enantioselective alkylation by the Maruoka and cinchona alkaloid catalysts and Hantzsch ester hydrogenation of imines by chiral phosphoric acid. Besides successfully reproducing the previously reported most stable DFT conformations, the conformational search with the semiempirical quantum mechanical calculations newly discovered a more stable conformation at a low computational cost. PMID:26815336

  15. Iridium-catalyzed enantioselective allylic alkylation with functionalized organozinc bromides.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, James Y; Sarlah, David; Carreira, Erick M

    2015-06-22

    Iridium-catalyzed enantioselective allylic alkylation of branched racemic carbonates with functionalized alkylzinc bromide reagents is described. Enabled by a chiral Ir/(P,olefin) complex, the method described allows allylic substitution with various primary and secondary alkyl nucleophiles with excellent regio- and enantioselectivities. The developed reaction was showcased in a concise, asymmetric synthesis of (-)-preclamol. PMID:25969352

  16. Enantioselective Synthesis of 3-Alkynyl-3-hydroxyindolin-2-ones by Copper-Catalyzed Asymmetric Addition of Terminal Alkynes to Isatins.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ning; Gu, Da-Wei; Zi, Jing; Wu, Xin-Yan; Guo, Xun-Xiang

    2016-05-20

    A highly efficient copper-catalyzed asymmetric addition of terminal alkynes to isatins has been developed. In the presence of a catalytic amount of copper iodide and a chiral phosphine ligand, the reaction gave the corresponding chiral 3-alkynyl-3-hydroxyindolin-2-ones in high yields with high enantioselectivity. This methodology has a broad substrate scope, and the synthetic utility of the present protocol was further demonstrated by the transformation of chiral alkynylation products. PMID:27152462

  17. Enantioselective analysis of 4-hydroxycyclophosphamide in human plasma with application to a clinical pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    de Castro, Francine Attié; Scatena, Gabriel Dos Santos; Rocha, Otávio Pelegrino; Marques, Maria Paula; Cass, Quézia Bezerra; Simões, Belinda Pinto; Lanchote, Vera Lucia

    2016-02-01

    Cyclophosphamide (CY) is one of the most common immunosuppressive agents used in autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. CY is a prodrug and is metabolized to active 4-hydroxycyclophosphamide (HCY). Many authors have suggested an association between enantioselectivity in CY metabolism and treatment efficacy and/or complications. This study describes the development and validation of an analytical method of HCY enantiomers in human plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) that can be applied to pharmacokinetic studies, filling this gap in the literature. HCY enantiomers previously derivatized with phenylhydrazine were extracted from 200-μL plasma aliquots spiked with antipyrine as internal standard and a mixture of hexane and dichloromethane (80:20, v/v) was used as the extraction solvent. The derivatized HCY enantiomers were resolved on a Chiracel(®) OD-R column using water:acetonitrile:formic acid (55:45:0.2, v/v) as the mobile phase. No matrix effect was observed and the analysis of HCY enantiomers was linear for plasma concentrations of 5-5000ng of each enantiomer/mL plasma. The coefficients of variation and inaccuracy calculated in precision and accuracy assessments were less than 15%. HCY was stable in human plasma after three successive freeze/thaw cycles, during 3h at room temperature, and in the autosampler at 4°C for 24h after processing, with deviation values less than 15%. The method was applied to evaluate the kinetic disposition of HCY in a patient with multiple sclerosis who was pretreated with intravenous racemic CY for stem cell transplantation. The clinical study showed enantioselectivity in the pharmacokinetics of HCY. PMID:26760223

  18. Phosphine-Catalyzed Doubly Stereoconvergent ?-Additions of Racemic Heterocycles to Racemic Allenoates: The Catalytic Enantioselective Synthesis of Protected ?,?-Disubstituted ?-Amino Acid Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Methods have recently been developed for the phosphine-catalyzed asymmetric ?-addition of nucleophiles to readily available allenoates and alkynoates to generate useful ?,?-unsaturated carbonyl compounds that bear a stereogenic center in either the ? or the ? position (but not both) with high stereoselectivity. The utility of this approach would be enhanced considerably if the stereochemistry at both termini of the new bond could be controlled effectively. In this report, we describe the achievement of this objective, specifically, that a chiral phosphepine can catalyze the stereoconvergent ?-addition of a racemic nucleophile to a racemic electrophile; through the choice of an appropriate heterocycle as the nucleophilic partner, this new method enables the synthesis of protected ?,?-disubstituted ?-amino acid derivatives in good yield, diastereoselectivity, and enantioselectivity. PMID:26192217

  19. Cloning and Characterization of a Novel Esterase from Rhodococcus sp. for Highly Enantioselective Synthesis of a Chiral Cilastatin Precursor

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan; Pan, Jiang; Luan, Zheng-Jiao; Park, Sunghoon

    2014-01-01

    A novel nonheme chloroperoxidase (RhEst1), with promiscuous esterase activity for enantioselective hydrolysis of ethyl (S)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylate, was identified from a shotgun library of Rhodococcus sp. strain ECU1013. RhEst1 was overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3), purified to homogeneity, and functionally characterized. Fingerprinting analysis revealed that RhEst1 prefers para-nitrophenyl (pNP) esters of short-chain acyl groups. pNP esters with a cyclic acyl moiety, especially that with a cyclobutanyl group, were also substrates for RhEst1. The Km values for methyl 2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylate (DmCpCm) and ethyl 2,2-dimethylcyclopropane carboxylate (DmCpCe) were 0.25 and 0.43 mM, respectively. RhEst1 could serve as an efficient hydrolase for the bioproduction of optically pure (S)-2,2-dimethyl cyclopropane carboxylic acid (DmCpCa), which is an important chiral building block for cilastatin. As much as 0.5 M DmCpCe was enantioselectively hydrolyzed into (S)-DmCpCa, with a molar yield of 47.8% and an enantiomeric excess (ee) of 97.5%, indicating an extremely high enantioselectivity (E = 240) of this novel and unique biocatalyst for green manufacturing of highly valuable chiral chemicals. PMID:25239898

  20. Organocatalytic, Diastereo- and Enantioselective Synthesis of Nonsymmetric cis-Stilbene Diamines: A Platform for the Preparation of Single-Enantiomer cis-Imidazolines for Protein–Protein Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The finding by scientists at Hoffmann-La Roche that cis-imidazolines could disrupt the protein–protein interaction between p53 and MDM2, thereby inducing apoptosis in cancer cells, raised considerable interest in this scaffold over the past decade. Initial routes to these small molecules (i.e., Nutlin-3) provided only the racemic form, with enantiomers being enriched by chromatographic separation using high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and a chiral stationary phase. Reported here is the first application of an enantioselective aza-Henry approach to nonsymmetric cis-stilbene diamines and cis-imidazolines. Two novel mono(amidine) organocatalysts (MAM) were discovered to provide high levels of enantioselection (>95% ee) across a broad range of substrate combinations. Furthermore, the versatility of the aza-Henry strategy for preparing nonsymmetric cis-imidazolines is illustrated by a comparison of the roles of aryl nitromethane and aryl aldimine in the key step, which revealed unique substrate electronic effects providing direction for aza-Henry substrate–catalyst matching. This method was used to prepare highly substituted cis-4,5-diaryl imidazolines that project unique aromatic rings, and these were evaluated for MDM2-p53 inhibition in a fluorescence polarization assay. The diversification of access to cis-stilbene diamine-derived imidazolines provided by this platform should streamline their further development as chemical tools for disrupting protein–protein interactions. PMID:25017623

  1. Organocatalytic, diastereo- and enantioselective synthesis of nonsymmetric cis-stilbene diamines: a platform for the preparation of single-enantiomer cis-imidazolines for protein-protein inhibition.

    PubMed

    Vara, Brandon A; Mayasundari, Anand; Tellis, John C; Danneman, Michael W; Arredondo, Vanessa; Davis, Tyler A; Min, Jaeki; Finch, Kristin; Guy, R Kiplin; Johnston, Jeffrey N

    2014-08-01

    The finding by scientists at Hoffmann-La Roche that cis-imidazolines could disrupt the protein-protein interaction between p53 and MDM2, thereby inducing apoptosis in cancer cells, raised considerable interest in this scaffold over the past decade. Initial routes to these small molecules (i.e., Nutlin-3) provided only the racemic form, with enantiomers being enriched by chromatographic separation using high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and a chiral stationary phase. Reported here is the first application of an enantioselective aza-Henry approach to nonsymmetric cis-stilbene diamines and cis-imidazolines. Two novel mono(amidine) organocatalysts (MAM) were discovered to provide high levels of enantioselection (>95% ee) across a broad range of substrate combinations. Furthermore, the versatility of the aza-Henry strategy for preparing nonsymmetric cis-imidazolines is illustrated by a comparison of the roles of aryl nitromethane and aryl aldimine in the key step, which revealed unique substrate electronic effects providing direction for aza-Henry substrate-catalyst matching. This method was used to prepare highly substituted cis-4,5-diaryl imidazolines that project unique aromatic rings, and these were evaluated for MDM2-p53 inhibition in a fluorescence polarization assay. The diversification of access to cis-stilbene diamine-derived imidazolines provided by this platform should streamline their further development as chemical tools for disrupting protein-protein interactions. PMID:25017623

  2. Covalently immobilized lipase on aminoalkyl-, carboxy- and hydroxy-multi-wall carbon nanotubes in the enantioselective synthesis of Solketal esters.

    PubMed

    Zniszczoł, Aurelia; Herman, Artur P; Szymańska, Katarzyna; Mrowiec-Białoń, Julita; Walczak, Krzysztof Z; Jarzębski, Andrzej; Boncel, Sławomir

    2016-06-01

    Aiming at the preparation of efficient, stable on storage and recyclable nanobiocatalysts for enantioselective transesterification, alkaline lipase from Pseudomonas fluorescens was covalently immobilized (up to 8.5wt.%) on functionalized multi-wall carbon nanotubes (f-MWCNTs). f-MWCNTs were synthesized via: (a) (2+1)-cycloaddition of a nitrene to the C-sp(2) nanotube walls (3.2mmolg(-1), a novel synthetic approach) and, (b) oxidative treatments, i.e. Fenton reagent (3.5mmolg(-1)) and nitrating mixture (2.5mmolg(-1)), yielding aminoalkyl-, hydroxyl- and carboxyl-MWCNTs, respectively. Amino- and epoxy- functionalized mesoporous silica (f-SBA-15) were used as the reference supports. Transesterification of vinyl n-butyrate by racemic Solketal with a chromatographically (GC) traced kinetics was selected as the model reaction. The studies revealed that different chemical functionalization of morphologically identical nanotube supports led to various enzyme loadings, catalytic activities and enantioselectivities. MWCNT-NH2-based nanobiocatalyst was found to be the most active composite among all of the tested systems (yield 20%, t=0.5h, 1321Ug(-1)), i.e. 12 times more active than the native enzyme. In turn, lipase immobilized on MWCNT-COOH emerged as the most enantioselective system (ex aequo with SBA-NH2) (eeR=74%, t=0.5h at yield of 3-5%). The activity of the MWCNT-NH2-based nanobiocatalyst after 8 cycles of transesterification dropped to 60% of its initial value, whereas for SBA-NH2-based composite remained unchanged. Importantly, stability on storage was fully maintained for all MWCNT-based nanobiocatalysts or even 'extra-enhanced' for MWCNT-OH. PMID:27178796

  3. Enantioselective synthesis of 1,2-dihydronaphthalene-1-carbaldehydes by addition of boronates to isochromene acetals catalyzed by tartaric acid.

    PubMed

    Luan, Yi; Barbato, Keith S; Moquist, Philip N; Kodama, Tomohiro; Schaus, Scott E

    2015-03-11

    Tartaric acid is an ideal asymmetric catalyst as it is abundant, cheap, and environmentally friendly. (+)-Tartaric acid was found to catalyze a novel enantioselective [4 + 2] cycloaddition of isochromene acetals and vinylboronates. A variety of substituted isochromene acetals were tolerated, furnishing the desired dihydronaphthalenes and dihydrobenzofluorene products in good yields. High enantiomeric ratios (up to 98.5:1.5) and excellent diastereoselectivities (all >99:1) were observed employing 10 mol % of (+)-tartaric acid as the catalyst, in combination with 5 mol % of Ho(OTf)3. PMID:25715172

  4. Isoindolinones as Michael Donors under Phase Transfer Catalysis: Enantioselective Synthesis of Phthalimidines Containing a Tetrasubstituted Carbon Stereocenter.

    PubMed

    Scorzelli, Francesco; Di Mola, Antonia; Palombi, Laura; Massa, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Readily available chiral ammonium salts derived from cinchona alkaloids have proven to be effective phase transfer catalysts in the asymmetric Michael reaction of 3-substituted isoindolinones. This protocol provides a convenient method for the construction of valuable asymmetric 3,3-disubstituted isoindolinones in high yields and  moderate to good enantioselectivity. Diastereoselectivity was also investigated in the construction of contiguous tertiary and quaternary stereocenters. The use of acrolein as Michael acceptor led to an interesting tricyclic derivative, a pyrroloisoindolinone analogue, via a tandem conjugated addition/cyclization reaction. PMID:25985353

  5. Enantioselective Synthesis of 1,2-Dihydronaphthalene-1-carbaldehydes by Addition of Boronates to Isochromene Acetals Catalyzed by Tartaric Acid

    PubMed Central

    Luan, Yi; Barbato, Keith S.; Moquist, Philip N.; Kodama, Tomohiro; Schaus, Scott E.

    2015-01-01

    Tartaric acid is an ideal asymmetric catalyst as it is abundant, cheap, and environmentally friendly. (+)-Tartaric acid was found to catalyze a novel enantioselective [4 + 2] cycloaddition of isochromene acetals and vinylboronates. A variety of substituted isochromene acetals were tolerated, furnishing the desired dihydronaphthalenes and dihydrobenzofluorene products in good yields. High enantiomeric ratios (up to 98.5:1.5) and excellent diastereoselectivities (all >99:1) were observed employing 10 mol % of (+)-tartaric acid as the catalyst, in combination with 5 mol % of Ho(OTf)3. PMID:25715172

  6. Copper-catalyzed regio- and enantioselective aminoboration of alkylidenecyclopropanes: the synthesis of cyclopropane-containing β-aminoalkylboranes.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Han-Chun; Tang, Xiang-Ying; Shi, Min

    2016-04-18

    A Cu-catalyzed regio- and enantioselective aminoboration of alkylidenecyclopropanes (ACPs) with bis(pinacolato)-diboron (B2pin2) and hydroxylamines has been described in this paper, affording the corresponding cyclopropane-containing β-aminoalkylboranes in good yields under mild conditions. Moreover, a catalytic asymmetric variant of this transformation has also been realized by using a copper complex with a (S)-BINAP ligand along with further transformation of the product to give cyclopropane-containing 1,2-aminoalcohols. PMID:27001916

  7. "On Water" Organocatalyzed [4 + 2] Cycloaddition of Enones and Nitro Dienes for the Enantioselective Synthesis of Densely Substituted Cyclohexanones.

    PubMed

    Vamisetti, Ganga B; Chowdhury, Raghunath; Kumar, Mukesh; Ghosh, Sunil K

    2016-05-01

    An "on water" hydroquinine-based primary amine-benzoic acid organocatalyst system was found to be best suited to produce 3,4,5-trisubstituted cyclohexanones with a nitro group in the 4-position from enones and nitro dienes under ambient conditions in good yield, with good diastereoselectivity, and with excellent enantioselectivity. An appreciable rate enhancement by water was observed compared to organic solvents. Mechanistic analysis of the reaction suggests that it followed an endo [4 + 2] cycloaddition with enamine of enone as diene and nitro diene as dienophile. PMID:27120404

  8. Catalytic Enantioselective Nitroso Diels-Alder Reaction.

    PubMed

    Maji, Biplab; Yamamoto, Hisashi

    2015-12-23

    The nitroso Diels-Alder (NDA) reaction is an attractive strategy for the synthesis of 3,6-dihydro-1,2-oxazines and 1-amino-4-hydroxy-2-ene derivatives. Herein we report the Cu(I)-DTBM-Segphos catalyzed asymmetric intermolecular NDA reaction of variously substituted cyclic 1,3-dienes using highly reactive nitroso compounds derived from pyrimidine and pyridazine derivatives. In most of the cases studied, the cycloadducts were obtained in high yields (up to 99%) with very high regio-, diastereo-, and enantioselectivities (up to regioselectivity > 99:1, d.r. > 99:1, and >99% ee). As an application of this methodology, formal syntheses of conduramine A-1 and narciclasine were accomplished. PMID:26609961

  9. Synthesis of copper(I) complexes containing enantiopure pybox ligands. First assays on enantioselective synthesis of propargylamines catalyzed by isolated copper(I) complexes.

    PubMed

    Panera, María; Díez, Josefina; Merino, Isabel; Rubio, Eduardo; Gamasa, M Pilar

    2009-12-01

    Dinuclear [Cu(2)(R-pybox)(2)][X](2) [X = PF(6), R-pybox = 2,6-bis[4'-(S)-isopropyloxazolin-2'-yl]pyridine (S,S)-(i)Pr-pybox (1), 2,6-bis[4'-(R)-phenyloxazolin-2'-yl]pyridine) (R,R)-Ph-pybox (2), 2,6-bis[4'-(S)-isopropyl-5',5'-difeniloxazolin-2'-yl]pyridine (S,S)-(i)Pr-pybox-diPh (3); X = OTf, (R,R)-Ph-pybox (4)] and mononuclear complexes [Cu(R-pybox)(2)][PF(6)] [R-pybox = (S,S)-(i)Pr-pybox (5), (R,R)-Ph-pybox (6)] have been diastereoselectively prepared by reaction of [Cu(MeCN)(4)][PF(6)] or CuOTf.0.5C(6)H(6) and the corresponding pybox ligand. The reaction of CuX (X = I, Br, Cl) with substituted pybox in a 2:1 molar ratio allows us to synthesize tetranuclear complexes [Cu(4)X(4)(R-pybox}(2)] [R-pybox = (S,S)-(i)Pr-pybox, X = I (7), Br (8); (R,R)-Ph-pybox, X = I (9), Br (10), Cl (11); (S,S)-(i)Pr-pybox-diPh, X = I (12), Cl (13)]. Dinuclear complexes [Cu(2)(mu-Cl)(R-pybox)(2)][CuCl(2)] [R-pybox = (S,S)-(i)Pr-pybox (15), (R,R)-Ph-pybox (16)] have been prepared by reaction of CuCl with (i)Pr-pybox or Ph-pybox in 3:2 molar ratio. The structures of the complexes 1, 2, 7, 15, 16 and that of the polymeric species [Cu(4)(mu(3)-Br)(3)(mu-Br)((i)Pr-pybox)](n) (14) have been determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Diffusion studies using (1)H and (19)F-DOSY experiments provide evidence that the different nuclearity of compounds 1 and 5 is maintained in the solution state and confirm that these ionic compounds exist in solution as stable, discrete, cationic complexes. The complexes 1-4, 6, 9, 10, and 16 as well as the previously reported [Cu(2){(S,S)-(i)Pr-pybox}(2)][OTf](2) have been assayed as catalysts in the enantioselective synthesis of propargylamines. The dinuclear complexes [Cu(2){(R,R)-Ph-pybox}(2)][X](2) (2, 4) were found to be the most efficient catalysts (up to 89% e.e.). PMID:19883049

  10. Optimization and multigram scalability of a catalytic enantioselective borylative migration for the synthesis of functionalized chiral piperidines.

    PubMed

    Kim, You-Ri; Hall, Dennis G

    2016-05-18

    The development of new, efficient and economical methods for the preparation of functionalized, optically enriched piperidines is important in the field of drug discovery where this class of heterocycles is often deemed a privileged structure. We have optimized a Pd-catalyzed enantioselective borylative migration of an alkenyl nonaflate derivative of the simple precursor, N-Boc-4-piperidone. This anomalous borylation reaction lends access to a chiral optically enriched piperidinyl allylic boronate that can be employed in carbonyl allylboration and stereoselective cross-coupling to produce substituted dehydropiperidines related to numerous pharmaceutical agents. A systematic fine-tuning of reaction conditions revealed that diethyl ether and the green solvent cyclopentyl methyl ether are suitable reaction solvents providing the highest enantioselectivity (up to 92% ee) under a low catalyst loading of 3 mol%. Optimization of the aldehyde allylboration step led to higher yields with further solvent economy. The multigram-scalability of the entire process was demonstrated under the reaction conditions that provide optimal atom-economy and efficiency. PMID:27143333

  11. Concise Enantioselective Synthesis of Oxygenated Steroids via Sequential Copper(II)-Catalyzed Michael Addition/Intramolecular Aldol Cyclization Reactions

    PubMed Central

    Cichowicz, Nathan R.; Kaplan, Will; Khomutnyk, Yaroslav; Bhattarai, Bijay; Sun, Zhankui; Nagorny, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    A new scalable enantioselective approach to functionalized oxygenated steroids is described. This strategy is based on chiral bis(oxazoline) copper(II) complex-catalyzed enantioselective and diastereoselective Michael reactions of cyclic ketoesters and enones to install vicinal quaternary and tertiary stereocenters. In addition, the utility of copper(II) salts as highly active catalysts for the Michael reactions of traditionally unreactive ββ′-enones and substituted ββ′-ketoesters that results in unprecedented Michael adducts containing vicinal all-carbon quaternary centers is also demonstrated. The Michael adducts subsequently undergo base-promoted diastereoselective aldol cascade reactions resulting in the natural or unnatural steroid skeletons. The experimental and computational studies suggest that the torsional strain effects arising from the presence of the Δ5-unsaturation are key controling elements for the formation of the natural cardenolide scaffold. The described method enables expedient generation of polycyclic molecules including modified steroidal scaffolds as well as challenging-to-synthesize Hajos-Parrish and Wieland-Miescher ketones. PMID:26491886

  12. Enantioselective analysis of triazole fungicide myclobutanil in cucumber and soil under different application modes by chiral liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Dong, Fengshou; Cheng, Li; Liu, Xingang; Xu, Jun; Li, Jing; Li, Yuanbo; Kong, Zhiqiang; Jian, Qiu; Zheng, Yongquan

    2012-02-29

    A sensitive and enantioselective method was developed and validated for the determination of myclobutanil enantiomers by chiral liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. The separation and determination were performed using reversed-phase chromatography on a Chiralcel OD-RH column, with ACN-water (70/30, v/v) as the mobile phase under isocratic conditions at 0.5 mL/min flow rate. The matrix effect, linearity, precision, accuracy, and stability were evaluated. The proposed method then was successfully applied to the study of enantioselective degradation of rac-myclobutanil in cucumber and soil under different application modes. The results showed that the preferential degradation of (+)-myclobutanil resulted in an enrichment of the (-)-myclobutanil residue in plant and soil. Moreover, in cucumber, the stereoselective intensity of myclobutanil under root douche treatment was stronger than that under foliar spraying treatment, whereas in soil, the intensity was exactly opposite. The probable reasons underlying these enantioselective effects were also discussed. This study highlighted the importance of examining the fate of both enantiomers in the greenhouse system for the correct use of chiral pesticides. PMID:22288843

  13. Enantioselective Reduction of Ketones and Imines Catalyzed by (CN-Box)Re(V)-Oxo Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Nolin, Kristine A.; Ahn, Richard W.; Kobayashi, Yusuke; Kennedy-Smith, Joshua J.

    2012-01-01

    The development and application of chiral, non-racemic Re(V)-oxo complexes to the enantioselective reduction of prochiral ketones is described. In addition to the enantioselective reduction of prochiral ketones, we report the application of these complexes to (1) a tandem Meyer-Schuster rearrangement/reduction to access enantioenriched allylic alcohols and (2) the enantioselective reduction of imines. PMID:20623567

  14. Catalytic enantioselective diversity-oriented synthesis of a small library of polyhydroxylated pyrans inspired from thiomarinol antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Al-Zoubi, Raed M; Hall, Dennis G

    2014-11-01

    A small library of 30 thiomarinol analogues was successfully synthesised using as a key step-a catalytic enantioselective tandem oxa[4+2] cycloaddition/aldehyde allylboration methodology. With this method, highly substituted ?-hydroxyalkyl dihydropyrans were assembled in a single three-component reaction utilizing three different enol ethers and a wide variety of aldehydes, such as aromatic, heteroaromatic, unsaturated and aliphatic aldehydes. In a second operation, a mild and direct method for reducing an acetal unit in the ?-hydroxyalkyl dihydropyrans was optimised without the need for protecting a nearby hydroxyl group. This procedure facilitated the synthetic sequence, which was completed by a dihydroxylation of the residual olefin of ?-hydroxyalkyl 2H-pyrans to provide the desired library of dihydroxylated pyran analogues reminiscent of the thiomarinol antibiotics. The relative stereochemistry of the resulting library compounds was demonstrated by X-ray crystallography on one of the analogues. PMID:25151273

  15. Enantioselective Synthesis of 3,5,6‐Substituted Dihydropyranones and Dihydropyridinones using Isothiourea‐Mediated Catalysis

    PubMed Central

    Stark, Daniel G.; Morrill, Louis C.; Cordes, David B.; Slawin, Alexandra M. Z.; O'Riordan, Timothy J. C.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The scope of dihydropyranone and dihydropyridinone products accessible by isothiourea‐catalyzed processes has been expanded and explored through the use of 2‐N‐tosyliminoacrylates and 2‐aroylacrylates in a Michael addition‐lactonization/lactamization cascade reaction. Notably, to ensure reproducibility it is essential to use homoanhydrides as ammonium enolate precursors with 2‐aroyl acrylates, while carboxylic acids can be used with 2‐N‐tosyliminoacrylates, delivering a range of 3,5,6‐substituted dihydropyranones and dihydropyridinones with high enantioselectivity (typically >90 % ee). The derivatization of the heterocyclic core of a 3,5,6‐substituted dihydropyranone through hydrogenation is also reported. PMID:26471245

  16. Magnetite: from synthesis to applications.

    PubMed

    Unsoy, Gozde; Gunduz, Ufuk; Oprea, Ovidiu; Ficai, Denisa; Sonmez, Maria; Radulescu, Marius; Alexie, Mihaela; Ficai, Anton

    2015-01-01

    In this review the synthesis, functionalization and some applications of magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) were highlighted. It is our intention to highlight the correlations between the synthesis routes, related synthesis parameters, functionalization strategies and the properties expected for the materials containing MNPs. The uses of MNPs are strongly influenced by the properties of the materials. Therefore this review is trying to discuss the applications of the magnetite and magnetite based nanomaterials by taking into account all the factors that can influence the properties of the final materials and consequently their potential applications. PMID:25877083

  17. Copper(II)-catalyzed hydrosilylation of ketones using chiral dipyridylphosphane ligands: highly enantioselective synthesis of valuable alcohols.

    PubMed

    Yu, Feng; Zhou, Ji-Ning; Zhang, Xi-Chang; Sui, Yao-Zong; Wu, Fei-Fei; Xie, Lin-Jie; Chan, Albert S C; Wu, Jing

    2011-12-01

    In the presence of PhSiH(3) as the reductant, the combination of enantiomeric dipyridylphosphane ligands and Cu(OAc)(2)·H(2)O, which is an easy-to-handle and inexpensive copper salt, led to a remarkably practical and versatile chiral catalyst system. The stereoselective formation of a selection of synthetically interesting β-, γ- or δ-halo alcohols bearing high degrees of enantiopurity (up to 99.9% enantiomeric excess (ee)) was realized with a substrate-to-ligand molar ratio (S/L) of up to 10,000. The present protocol also allowed the hydrosilylation of a diverse spectrum of alkyl aryl ketones with excellent enantioselectivities (up to 98% ee) and exceedingly high turn-over rates (up to 50,000 S/L molar ratio in 50 min reaction time) in air, under very mild conditions, which offers great opportunities for the preparation of various physiologically active targets. The synthetic utility of the chiral products obtained was highlighted by the efficient conversion of optically enriched β-halo alcohols into the corresponding styrene oxide, β-amino alcohol, and β-azido alcohol, respectively. PMID:22065457

  18. Diastereoselective Synthesis of Tetrasubstituted Propargylamines via Hydroamination and Metalation of 1-Alkynes and Their Enantioselective Conversion to Trisubstituted Chiral Allenes.

    PubMed

    Periasamy, Mariappan; Reddy, Polimera Obula; Satyanarayana, Iddum; Mohan, Lakavathu; Edukondalu, Athukuri

    2016-02-01

    Reaction of cyclic secondary amines with 1-alkynes and copper(I) chloride at 110-120 °C gives the corresponding alkynylcopper complex, which adds to the iminium ion intermediate formed in situ by hydroamination of 1-alkynes to give the corresponding propargylamine derivatives in up to 94% yield and 99% regioselectivity. The diastereomerically pure chiral propargylamines were obtained in 23-89% yield using optically active 2-benzyl morpholine and N-methyl camphanyl piperazine. These chiral propargylamines are readily converted to the corresponding trisubstitued chiral allenes in 71-89% yields with up to 99% ee upon reaction with ZnBr2 at 120 °C. The results are discussed considering mechanisms involving diastereoselective addition of alkynylcopper complex formed in situ to iminium ions formed in situ regioselectively to produce the corresponding propargylamines, which in turn give the chiral allenes with very high enantioselectivity via an intramolecular 1,5-hydrogen shift in the presence of zinc bromide. PMID:26726072

  19. Enantioselective catalytic desymmetrization of maleimides by temporary removal of an internal mirror plane and stereoablative over-reduction: synthesis of (R)-pyrrolam A.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Barrie J; Adams, Harry; Barker, Mike D; Kutama, Ibrahim U; Jones, Simon

    2014-07-18

    A highly enantioselective (>95% ee) strategy to affect the desymmetrization of a maleimide has been performed by temporary attachment to an anthracene template followed by asymmetric reduction with an oxazaborolidine catalyst. A stereoablative over-reduction process was partially responsible for the high levels of enantioselectivity. Exemplification of the strategy by stereoselective functionalization and retro-Diels-Alder reaction provided the natural product pyrrolam A. PMID:24972082

  20. Highly enantioselective Biginelli reaction catalyzed by SPINOL-phosphoric acids.

    PubMed

    Xu, Fangxi; Huang, Dan; Lin, Xufeng; Wang, Yanguang

    2012-06-14

    A highly enantioselective Biginelli reaction promoted by chiral spirocyclic SPINOL-phosphoric acids has been developed. Under the optimized conditions with 5 mol% catalyst loading, a wide range of optically active dihydropyrimidinethiones (DHPMs) were obtained in high yields (up to 98%) with good to excellent enantioselectivities (up to 99% ee). The synthetic utility of this method was demonstrated by the synthesis of chiral precursors of three drugs, including (S)-Monastrol, (S)-L-771688 and (S)-SQ 32926. PMID:22565820

  1. Enantioselective, Divergent Syntheses of Several Polyhalogenated Plocamium Monoterpenes and Evaluation of their Selectivity for Solid Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Vogel, Carl V.; Pietraszkiewicz, Halina; Sabry, Omar M.; Gerwick, William H.; Valeriote, Frederick A.; Vanderwal, Christopher D.

    2014-01-01

    The family of polyhalogenated monoterpenes from Plocamium counts over a hundred known members. Using glyceraldehyde acetonide as a chiral pool precursor, an enantioselective and divergent strategy was developed that provides a blueprint for the synthesis of many of the small yet complex acyclic members of this family. The broad applicability of this approach is demonstrated with the short (eight-step) synthesis of four natural products and three analogues. These syntheses are the first of any members of the acyclic polyhalogenated Plocamium monoterpenes, and permitted the evaluation of their selectivity against a range of tumor cell lines. PMID:25220828

  2. Enantioselective Synthesis of Cyclopentyltetrahydrofuran (Cp-THF), an Important High-Affinity P2-Ligand for HIV-1 Protease Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Arun K.; Takayama, Jun

    2008-01-01

    A convenient optically active synthesis of (3aS,5R,6aR)-5-hydroxy-hexahydrocyclopenta[b]furan, a high-affinity nonpeptidyl ligand for HIV protease inhibitor 2, is described. The synthesis utilizes commercially available (1R,5S)-(+)-2-oxabicyclo[3.3.0]oct-6-en-3-one as the starting material and oxymercuration or bromohydrin reaction as the key step. Enantiopure ligand was converted to protease inhibitor 2. PMID:18548130

  3. Enantioselective Synthesis of α-Secondary and α-Tertiary Piperazin-2-ones and Piperazines by Catalytic Asymmetric Allylic Alkylation

    PubMed Central

    Korch, Katerina M.; Eidamshaus, Christian; Behenna, Douglas C.; Nam, Sangkil; Horne, David

    2014-01-01

    The asymmetric Pd-catalyzed decarboxylative allylic alkylation of differentially N-protected piperazin-2-ones allows for the synthesis of a variety of highly enantioenriched tertiary piperazine-2-ones. Deprotection and reduction affords the corresponding tertiary piperazines, which can be employed for the synthesis of medicinally important analogs. The introduction of these chiral tertiary piperazines resulted in imatinib analogs that exhibited comparable antiproliferative activity to that of their corresponding imatinib counterparts. PMID:25382664

  4. Enantioselective [4 + 1] Annulation Reactions of α-Substituted Ammonium Ylides To Construct Spirocyclic Oxindoles.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Peng-Fei; Ouyang, Qin; Niu, Sheng-Li; Shuai, Li; Yuan, Yi; Jiang, Kun; Liu, Tian-Yu; Chen, Ying-Chun

    2015-07-29

    Ammonium ylides have a long history in organic synthesis, but their application in asymmetric catalysis is still underdeveloped in regard to both substrate scope and reaction pathways compared with phosphorus and sulfur ylides. Here a previously unreported asymmetric [4 + 1] annulation reaction of 3-bromooxindoles and electron-deficient 1-azadienes has been developed through ammonium ylide catalysis of a newly designed 2'-methyl α-isocupreine (α-MeIC), efficiently delivering spirocyclic oxindole compounds incorporating a dihydropyrrole motif in excellent enantioselectivity (up to 99% ee). To the best of our knowledge, this work represents the first example of asymmetric catalysis of ammonium ylides bearing α-substitutions, and the catalytic [4 + 1] annulation pathway of ammonium ylides is also unprecedented. Moreover, (1)H NMR, mass spectroscopy, and computational calculation studies were conducted, and the catalytic cycle and a tentative explanation of the enantioselective mechanism have been successfully elucidated. PMID:26151623

  5. Enantioselective Decarboxylative Alkylation Reactions: Catalyst Development, Substrate Scope, and Mechanistic Studies

    PubMed Central

    Behenna, Douglas C.; Mohr, Justin T.; Sherden, Nathaniel H.; Marinescu, Smaranda C.; Harned, Andrew M.; Tani, Kousuke; Seto, Masaki; Ma, Sandy; Novák, Zoltán; Krout, Michael R.; McFadden, Ryan M.; Roizen, Jennifer L.; Enquist, John A.; White, David E.; Levine, Samantha R.; Petrova, Krastina V.; Iwashita, Akihiko; Virgil, Scott C.; Stoltz, Brian M.

    2012-01-01

    α-Quaternary ketones are accessed through novel enantioselective alkylations of allyl and propargyl electrophiles by unstabilized prochiral enolate nucleophiles in the presence of palladium complexes with various phosphinooxazoline (PHOX) ligands. Excellent yields and high enantiomeric excesses are obtained from three classes of enolate precursors: enol carbonates, enol silanes, and racemic β-ketoesters. Each of these substrate classes functions with nearly identical efficiency in terms of yield and enantioselectivity. Catalyst discovery and development, the optimization of reaction conditions, the exploration of reaction scope, and applications in target-directed synthesis are reported. Experimental observations suggest that these alkylation reactions occur through an unusual inner-sphere mechanism involving binding of the prochiral enolate nucleophile directly to the palladium center. PMID:22083969

  6. Synthesis and applications of novel, highly efficient HPLC chiral stationary phases: a chiral dimension in drug research analysis.

    PubMed

    Cancelliere; D'Acquarica; Gasparrini; Misiti; Villani

    1999-12-01

    This review provides an overview of the synthesis and application of stable and versatile HPLC chiral stationary phases (CSPs), with emphasis placed on the binding strategies developed to anchor several structurally different chiral selectors to silica-gel microparticles. In addition, selected applications relating to the use of these CSPs for the direct resolution of racemates of biological and pharmaceutical relevance will be described. This review discusses enantioselective molecular recognition and dynamic stereochemistry of stereolabile compounds with reference to receptor-based chiral stationary phases (CSPs) and dynamic HPLC on CSPs, respectively. PMID:10603466

  7. Voice synthesis application

    SciTech Connect

    Lightstone, P.C.; Davidson, W.M.

    1982-01-27

    Selection of a speech synthesis system as an augmentation for a perimeter security device is described. Criteria used in selection of a system are discussed. The final system is a speech 1000 speech synthesizer board that has a 2000 word speech lexicon, a first time charge of $75 for a 32 K EPROM of custom words, and extra features such as an alternate command to adjust desired listening level.

  8. Enantioselective Synthesis of the Tricyclic Core of FR901483 Featuring a Rh-Catalyzed [2+2+2] Cycloaddition

    PubMed Central

    Perreault, Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    An efficient approach to the tricyclic framework of FR901483 is described. The sequence features a [3, 3]-sigmatropic rearrangement of a cyanate into an isocyanate, followed by its subsequent asymmetric rhodium-catalyzed [2+2+2] cycloaddition with a terminal alkyne for the synthesis of the indolizidine core. The aza-tricyclic core is completed using an intramolecular benzoin reaction to close the last ring of the natural product. Through a model study of the key cycloaddition, we evaluated the impact of different substituents on the tether of the alkenyl isocyanate. PMID:25506094

  9. Enantioselective separation of mirtazapine and its metabolites by capillary electrophoresis with acetonitrile field-amplified sample stacking and its application.

    PubMed

    Wen, Jun; Zhang, Wen-Ting; Cao, Wei-Qun; Li, Ji; Gao, Fang-Yuan; Yang, Nan; Fan, Guo-Rong

    2014-01-01

    A simple, rapid and sensitive chiral capillary zone electrophoresis coupled with acetonitrile-field-amplified sample stacking method was developed that allows the simultaneous enantioselective separation of the mirtazapine, N-demethylmirtazapine, 8-hydroxymirtazapine and mirtazapine-N-oxide. The separation was achieved on an uncoated 40.2 cm75 ?M fused silica capillary with an applied voltage of 16 kV. The electrophoretic analyses were carried out in 6.25 mM borate-25 mM phosphate solution at pH 2.8 containing 5.5 mg/mL carboxymethyl-?-cyclodextrin. The detection wavelength was 200 nm. Under these optimized conditions, satisfactory chiral separations of four pair enantiomers were achieved in less than 7 min in vitro. After one step clean-up liquid-liquid extraction using 96-well format, sample was introduced capillary zone electrophoresis with acetonitrile-field-amplified sample stacking to enhance the sensitivity of enantiomers. The method was validated with respect to specificity, linearity, lower limit of quantitation, accuracy, precision, extraction recovery and stability. The lower limit of quantification was 0.5 ng/mL with linear response over the 0.5-50 ng/mL concentration range for each mirtazapine, N-demethylmirtazapine and 8-hydroxymirtazapine enantiomer. The developed and validated method has been successfully applied to the enantioselective pharmacokinetic studies in 12 healthy volunteers after oral administration of rac- mirtazapine. PMID:24747648

  10. Design of novel chiral N,N,O-tridentate phenanthroline ligands and their application to enantioselective addition of organozinc reagents to aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Naganawa, Yuki; Namba, Tomoya; Aoyama, Tomotaka; Shoji, Kentaro; Nishiyama, Hisao

    2014-11-11

    The novel N,N,O-tridentate phenanthroline ligand (BinThro) bearing an axially chiral binaphthyl backbone prepared from BINOL was found to be an effective chiral catalyst for enantioselective addition of diethylzinc to aromatic aldehydes with high enantioselectivity (up to 95% ee). PMID:25080306

  11. Enantioselective synthesis of decalin structures with all-carbon quaternary centers via one-pot sequential Cope/Rauhut-Currier reaction.

    PubMed

    Ross, Tina Morgan; Burke, Sarah; Malachowski, Wlliam P

    2014-08-13

    The first example of one-pot sequential Cope/Rauhut-Currier reactions are reported and used to make functionalized decalin structures with all-carbon quaternary stereocenters. The substrates for the new sequential reaction are generated through a six-step sequence including an enantioselective Birch reduction-allylation reaction which makes the overall process asymmetric. PMID:25125710

  12. Enantioselective Approach to Quinolizidines: Total Synthesis of Cermizine D and Formal Syntheses of Senepodine G & Cermizine C

    PubMed Central

    Veerasamy, Nagarathanam; Carlson, Erik C.; Collett, Nathan D.; Saha, Mrinmoy

    2013-01-01

    The formal total syntheses of C5-epi-senepodine G and C5-epi-cermizine C have been accomplished through a novel diastereoselecetive, intramolecular amide Michael addition process. The total synthesis of cermizine D has been achieved through use of an organocatalyzed, heteroatom Michael addition to access a common intermediate. Additional key steps of this sequence include a matched, diastereoselective alkylation with an iodomethylphenyl sulfide and sulfone-aldehyde coupling/reductive desulfurization sequence to combine the major subunits. The utility of a Hartwig-style C-N coupling has been explored on functionally dense coupling partners. Diastereoselective conjugate additions to α,β-unsaturated sulfones has been investigated which provided the key sulfone intermediate in just six steps from commercially available starting materials. The formal syntheses of senepodine G and cermizine C have been accomplished through an intramolecular cyclization process of a N-Boc protected piperidine sulfone. PMID:23627426

  13. Catalytic Enantioselective Functionalization of Unactivated Terminal Alkenes.

    PubMed

    Coombs, John R; Morken, James P

    2016-02-01

    Terminal alkenes are readily available functional groups which appear in α-olefins produced by the chemical industry, and they appear in the products of many contemporary synthetic reactions. While the organic transformations that apply to alkenes are amongst the most studied reactions in all of chemical synthesis, the number of reactions that apply to nonactivated terminal alkenes in a catalytic enantioselective fashion is small in number. This Minireview highlights the cases where stereocontrol in catalytic reactions of 1-alkenes is high enough to be useful for asymmetric synthesis. PMID:26764019

  14. Development of magnetically separable immobilized lipase by using cellulose derivatives and their application in enantioselective esterification of ibuprofen.

    PubMed

    Lee, Gowoun; Joo, Hongil; Kim, Jungbae; Lee, Jung-Heon

    2008-03-01

    Highly active, stable, and magnetically separable immobilized enzymes were developed using carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and diethylaminoethyl cellulose DEAE-C; hereafter designated "DEAE" as supporting materials. Iron oxide nanoparticles penetrated the micropores of the supporting materials, rendering them magnetically separable. Lipase (LP) was immobilized on the surface of the supporting materials by using cross-linked enzyme aggregation (CLEA) by glutaraldehyde. The activity of enzyme aggregates coated on DEAE was approximately 2 times higher than that of enzyme aggregates coated on CMC. This is explained by the fact that enzyme aggregates with amine residues are more efficient than those with carboxyl residues. After a 96-h enantioselective ibuprofen esterification reaction, 6% ibuprofen propyl ester was produced from the racemic mixture of ibuprofen by using DEAE-LP, and 2.8% using CMC-LP. PMID:18388463

  15. Enantioselective Synthesis of 3,4-Dihydro-1,2-oxazepin-5(2H)-ones and 2,3-Dihydropyridin-4(1H)-ones from β-Substituted β-Hydroxyaminoaldehydes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The synthesis of 3,4-dihydro-1,2-oxazepin-5(2H)-ones and 2,3-dihydropyridin-4(1H)-ones from β-substituted β-hydroxyaminoaldehydes is reported. The β-hydroxyaminoaldehydes were prepared by enantioselective organocatalytic 1,4-addition of N-tert-butyl (tert-butyldimethylsilyl)oxycarbamate to α,β-unsaturated aldehydes (MacMillan protocol). Alkyne addition to the aldehydes followed by alcohol oxidation furnished N-Boc O-TBS-protected β-aminoynones. Removal of the TBS protecting group initiated a 7-endo-dig cyclization to yield previously unknown 3,4-dihydro-1,2-oxazepin-5(2H)-ones. Reductive cleavage of the N–O bond of the oxazepinones and Boc-deprotection provided 2-substituted 2,3-dihydropyridin-4(1H)-ones via 6-endo-trig cyclization. 2,3-Dihydropyridin-4(1H)-ones are versatile intermediates that have been used for the synthesis of many alkaloids. The new protocol allows the synthesis of 3-dihydropyridin-4(1H)-ones carrying an array of substituents at C2 that cannot be prepared from commercial β-amino acids or by one-carbon homologation of proteinogenic amino acids. The use of readily available β-hydroxylaminoaldehydes expands the utility of our previously reported method to prepare 2,3-dihydropyridin-4(1H)-ones from β-amino acids as the source of diversity and chirality. A broad substrate scope is possible because β-aminoaldehydes can be prepared from α,β-unsaturated aldehydes by an enantioselective organocatalytic process. PMID:24785413

  16. Enantioselective total syntheses of cyathane diterpenoids.

    PubMed

    Nakada, Masahisa

    2014-08-01

    A Personal Account describing the enantioselective total syntheses of cyathane diterpenoids achieved in the Nakada group. A convergent approach to the cyathane scaffold, the [5-6-7] tricyclic carbon skeleton commonly found in cyathane diterpenoids, has been developed using the catalytic asymmetric intramolecular cyclopropanation (CAIMCP) and baker's yeast reduction. This approach has been successfully applied for the enantioselective total syntheses of (+)-allocyathin B2 , (-)-erinacine B, and (-)-erinacine E. The total synthesis of (-)-erinacine E has been achieved via the acyl group migratory intramolecular aldol reaction, which prevents the retro-aldol reaction and allows the construction of the strained structure. The highly efficient and stereoselective total syntheses of (-)-scabronines G, A, D, and (-)-episcabronine A have been achieved via the oxidative dearomatization/inverse electron demand Diels-Alder reaction cascade. Cascade reactions comprising three and five consecutive reactions were employed for the highly efficient total syntheses of (-)-scabronine A and (-)-episcabronine A, respectively. PMID:25065736

  17. Enantioselective aldol reactions with masked fluoroacetates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saadi, Jakub; Wennemers, Helma

    2016-03-01

    Despite the growing importance of organofluorines as pharmaceuticals and agrochemicals, the stereoselective introduction of fluorine into many prominent classes of natural products and chemotherapeutic agents is difficult. One long-standing unsolved challenge is the enantioselective aldol reaction of fluoroacetate to enable access to fluorinated analogues of medicinally relevant acetate-derived compounds, such as polyketides and statins. Herein we present fluoromalonic acid halfthioesters as biomimetic surrogates of fluoroacetate and demonstrate their use in highly stereoselective aldol reactions that proceed under mild organocatalytic conditions. We also show that the methodology can be extended to formal aldol reactions with fluoroacetaldehyde and consecutive aldol reactions. The synthetic utility of the fluorinated aldol products is illustrated by the synthesis of a fluorinated derivative of the top-selling drug atorvastatin. The results show the prospects of the method for the enantioselective introduction of fluoroacetate to access a wide variety of highly functionalized fluorinated compounds.

  18. Enantioselective aldol reactions with masked fluoroacetates.

    PubMed

    Saadi, Jakub; Wennemers, Helma

    2016-03-01

    Despite the growing importance of organofluorines as pharmaceuticals and agrochemicals, the stereoselective introduction of fluorine into many prominent classes of natural products and chemotherapeutic agents is difficult. One long-standing unsolved challenge is the enantioselective aldol reaction of fluoroacetate to enable access to fluorinated analogues of medicinally relevant acetate-derived compounds, such as polyketides and statins. Herein we present fluoromalonic acid halfthioesters as biomimetic surrogates of fluoroacetate and demonstrate their use in highly stereoselective aldol reactions that proceed under mild organocatalytic conditions. We also show that the methodology can be extended to formal aldol reactions with fluoroacetaldehyde and consecutive aldol reactions. The synthetic utility of the fluorinated aldol products is illustrated by the synthesis of a fluorinated derivative of the top-selling drug atorvastatin. The results show the prospects of the method for the enantioselective introduction of fluoroacetate to access a wide variety of highly functionalized fluorinated compounds. PMID:26892561

  19. Recent Achievements in Enantioselective Borrowing Hydrogen by the Combination of Iron- and Organocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Roudier, Mylène; Constantieux, Thierry; Rodriguez, Jean; Quintard, Adrien

    2016-01-01

    This article summarizes our recent developments in allylic alcohol functionalization by the interconnection of two catalytic cycles. By combining an iron-catalyzed borrowing hydrogen with an organocatalytic enantioselective nucleophilic addition, allylic alcohols can be converted to enantioenriched chiral aliphatic alcohols in up to 92% ee. This eco-compatible one-operation multi-catalytic process allows the classical oxidation-addition-reduction steps usually required for this transformation to be bypassed. Synthetic applications in the synthesis of different fragments of some important natural products have highlighted the great potential of this transformation. PMID:26931224

  20. Highly enantioselective synthesis of 3,4-dihydropyrans through a phosphine-catalyzed [4+2] annulation of allenones and β,γ-unsaturated α-keto esters.

    PubMed

    Yao, Weijun; Dou, Xiaowei; Lu, Yixin

    2015-01-14

    A phosphine-catalyzed novel [4+2] annulation process was devised employing allene ketones as C2 synthons and β,γ-unsaturated α-keto esters as C4 synthons. In the presence of an L-threonine-derived bifunctional phosphine, 3,4-dihydropyrans were obtained in high yields and with virtually perfect enantioselectivities. The synthetic value of the dihydropyran motif was demonstrated by a concise preparation of an anti-hypercholesterolemic agent. PMID:25401753

  1. Enantioselective Synthesis of Homoallylic Amines through Reactions of (Pinacolato)allylborons with Aryl-, Heteroaryl-, Alkyl- or Alkene-Substituted Aldimines Catalyzed by Chiral C1-Symmetric NHC–Cu Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Erika M.; Snapper, Marc L.; Hoveyda, Amir H.

    2011-01-01

    A catalytic method for enantioselective synthesis of homoallylamides through Cu-catalyzed reactions of stable and easily accessible (pinacolato)allylborons with aryl-, heteroaryl-,alkyl- or alkenyl-substituted N-phosphinoylimines is disclosed. Transformations are promoted by 1–5 mol % of readily accessible NHC–Cu complexes, derived from C1-symmetric imidazolinium salts, which can be prepared in multi-gram quantities in four steps from commercially available materials. Allyl additions deliver the desired products in up to quantitative yield and 98.5:1.5 enantiomeric ratio and are amenable to gram-scale operations. A mechanistic model accounting for the observed selectivity levels and trends is proposed. PMID:21341657

  2. Rhodium-catalyzed 1,4-addition of lithium 2-furyltriolborates to unsaturated ketones and esters for enantioselective synthesis of γ-oxo-carboxylic acids by oxidation of the furyl ring with ozone.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiao-Qiang; Shirai, Tomohiko; Yamamoto, Yasunori; Miyaura, Norio

    2011-03-01

    Rhodium-catalyzed 1,4-addition of lithium 5-methyl-2-furyltriolborate ([ArB(OCH(2))(3)CCH(3)]Li, Ar = 5-methyl-2-furyl) to unsaturated ketones to give β-furyl ketones was followed by ozonolysis of the furyl ring for enantioselective synthesis of γ-oxo-carboxylic acids. [Rh(nbd)(2)]BF(4) (nbd = 2,5-norbornadiene) chelated with 2,2'-bis(diphenylphosphino)-1,1'-binaphthyl (binap) or 2,3-bis(diphenylphosphino)butane (chiraphos) gave high yields and high selectivities in a range of 91-99% ee at 30 °C in a basic dioxane/water solution. The corresponding reaction of unsaturated esters, such as methyl crotonate, had strong resistance under analogous conditions, but the 1,4-adduct was obtained in 70% yield and with 94% ee when more electron-deficient phenyl crotonate was used as the substrate. PMID:21344669

  3. Enantioselective Michael Addition of Water

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bi-Shuang; Resch, Verena; Otten, Linda G; Hanefeld, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    The enantioselective Michael addition using water as both nucleophile and solvent has to date proved beyond the ability of synthetic chemists. Herein, the direct, enantioselective Michael addition of water in water to prepare important β-hydroxy carbonyl compounds using whole cells of Rhodococcus strains is described. Good yields and excellent enantioselectivities were achieved with this method. Deuterium labeling studies demonstrate that a Michael hydratase catalyzes the water addition exclusively with anti-stereochemistry. PMID:25529526

  4. A Green Enantioselective Aldol Condensation for the Undergraduate Organic Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, George D.

    2006-01-01

    A number of laboratory exercises for the organic chemistry curriculum that emphasize enantioselective synthesis of the aldol condensation which involves the proline-catalyzed condensation between acetone and isobutyraldehyde are explored. The experiment illustrates some of the trade-offs involved in green chemistry like the use of acetone in large…

  5. A Green Enantioselective Aldol Condensation for the Undergraduate Organic Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, George D.

    2006-01-01

    A number of laboratory exercises for the organic chemistry curriculum that emphasize enantioselective synthesis of the aldol condensation which involves the proline-catalyzed condensation between acetone and isobutyraldehyde are explored. The experiment illustrates some of the trade-offs involved in green chemistry like the use of acetone in large

  6. Enantioselective HPLC determination of E-6087, a new COX-2 inhibitor, in human plasma: Validation and pharmacokinetic application.

    PubMed

    Salgado, Leonardo; Encina, Gregorio; Farran, Ramón; Puig, Santiago; Martínez, Luis

    2004-05-15

    E-6087 is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory compound that selectively inhibits cyclooxygenase-2. Because E-6087 has a chiral center, this compound is a racemic mixture of two stereoisomers, (+)-(R)-E-6087 (E-6231) and (-)-(S)-E-6087 (E-6232). A normal-phase liquid-chromatographic method for the enantioselective determination of E-6087 in human plasma was developed and validated. The samples were extracted using solid-phase extraction cartridges containing C(18) sorbent, and the extracts were redissolved in absolute ethanol and injected into the chromatographic system. The enantiomeric separation was achieved on a chiral stationary-phase column of derivatized amylose, and the enantiomers were quantified by fluorescence detection. The method was validated for drug concentrations ranging from 5 to 400 ng/ml for both enantiomers. No peaks interfering with the quantification of enantiomers were observed. The limit of quantification was 5 ng/ml, with precision expressed as a coefficient of variation lower than 10.6% and accuracy expressed as relative error lower than 12.2%. The utility of this method was demonstrated by analysis of plasma samples from healthy volunteers given an oral dose of rac-E-6087. Peak plasma levels of E-6231 were higher than levels obtained for E-6232. Results were consistent with those obtained with a conventional reversed-phase method used for determination of the racemic compound. PMID:15069660

  7. Enantioselective Synthesis of 3,3-Disubstituted Oxindoles Bearing Two Different Heteroatoms at the C3 Position by Organocatalyzed Sulfenylation and Selenenylation of 3-Pyrrolyl-oxindoles.

    PubMed

    You, Yong; Wu, Zhi-Jun; Wang, Zhen-Hua; Xu, Xiao-Ying; Zhang, Xiao-Mei; Yuan, Wei-Cheng

    2015-08-21

    Catalytic asymmetric sulfenylation and selenenylation of 3-pyrrolyl-oxindoles for the synthesis of 3,3-disubstituted oxindoles bearing two different heteroatoms at the C3 position have been achieved with commercially available cinchonidine as catalyst. A wide range of optically active 3-thio-3-pyrrolyl-oxindoles and 3-seleno-3-pyrrolyl-oxindoles could be smoothly obtained under mild conditions with satisfactory results. The promising applicability of the protocol was also demonstrated by large-scale production. PMID:26252841

  8. Enantioselective Synthesis of 5,7-Bicyclic Ring Systems from Axially Chiral Allenes Using a Rh(I)-Catalyzed Cyclocarbonylation Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Grillet, Francois; Brummond, Kay M.

    2013-01-01

    A transfer of chirality in an intramolecular Rh(I)-catalyzed allenic Pauson-Khand reaction (APKR) to access tetrahydroazulenones, tetrahydrocyclopenta[c]azepinones and dihydrocyclopenta[c]oxepinones enantioselectively (22 – 99% ee) is described. The substitution pattern of the allene affected the transfer of chiral information. Complete transfer of chirality was obtained for all trisubstituted allenes, but loss of chiral information was observed for disubstituted allenes. This work constitutes the first demonstration of a transfer of chiral information from an allene to the 5-position of a cyclopentenone using a cyclocarbonylation reaction. The absolute configuration of the corresponding cyclocarbonylation product was also established, something that is rarely done. PMID:23485149

  9. Enantioselective cascade double Michael addition of 3-nitro-2H-chromenes and acyclic enones: efficient synthesis of functionalized tricyclic chroman derivatives.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun-Hua; Du, Da-Ming

    2015-10-01

    An efficient protocol for the asymmetric construction of enantiomerically enriched tetrahydro-6H-benzo[c]chromenes and their derivatives has been developed. The corresponding products were obtained by the cascade double Michael addition of 3-nitro-2H-chromenes and their derivatives with α,β-unsaturated ketones catalyzed by a combination of a quinine-derived primary amine and benzoic acid. Through this methodology, the desired products could be obtained in moderate to good yields (up to 90%), with excellent diastereoselectivities (up to >25 : 1 dr) and moderate to excellent enantioselectivities (up to 95% ee). PMID:26256235

  10. Enantioselective synthesis of dihydrocoumarin derivatives by chiral scandium(III)-complex catalyzed inverse-electron-demand hetero-Diels-Alder reaction.

    PubMed

    Hu, Haipeng; Liu, Yangbin; Guo, Jing; Lin, Lili; Xu, Yali; Liu, Xiaohua; Feng, Xiaoming

    2015-03-01

    An asymmetric inverse-electron-demand hetero-Diels-Alder reaction between o-quinone methides and azlactones to generate potentially pharmacological active dihydrocoumarins has been achieved efficiently by using a chiral N,N'-dioxide-Sc(III) complex as the catalyst. The desired products were obtained in high yields with excellent enantioselectivities and diastereoselectivities (up to 94% yield, 96% ee and >19 : 1 dr) under mild reaction conditions. A concerted reaction pathway was confirmed by Operando IR and control experiments. PMID:25649623

  11. Diastereo- and Enantioselective Iridium Catalyzed Coupling of Vinyl Aziridines with Alcohols: Site-Selective Modification of Unprotected Diols and Synthesis of Substituted Piperidines.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gang; Franke, Jana; Ngo, Chinh Q; Krische, Michael J

    2015-06-24

    The chiral cyclometalated π-allyliridium ortho-C,O-benzoate complex (R)-Ir-VIb derived from [Ir(cod)Cl]2, allyl acetate, 4-cyano-3-nitro-benzoic acid, and (R)-MeO-BIPHEP catalyzes the coupling of N-(p-nitrophenylsulfonyl) protected vinyl aziridine 3a with primary alcohols 1a-1l to furnish branched products of C-C bond formation 4a-4l with good levels of anti-diastereo- and enantioselectivity. In the presence of 2-propanol, but under otherwise identical conditions, vinyl aziridine 3a and aldehydes 2a-2l engage in reductive coupling to furnish an equivalent set of adducts 4a-4l with roughly equivalent levels of anti-diastereo- and enantioselectivity. Using enantiomeric iridium catalysts, vinyl aziridine 3a reacts with unprotected chiral 1,3-diols 1m-1o in a site-selective manner to deliver the diastereomeric products of C-allylation syn-4m, -4n, -4o and anti-4m, -4n, -4o, respectively, with good isolated yields and excellent levels of catalyst-directed diastereoselectivity. These adducts were directly converted to the diastereomeric 2,4,5-trisubstituted piperidines syn-5m, -5n, -5o and anti-5m, -5n, -5o. PMID:26074091

  12. Formal total syntheses of classic natural product target molecules via palladium-catalyzed enantioselective alkylation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yiyang; Liniger, Marc; McFadden, Ryan M; Roizen, Jenny L; Malette, Jacquie; Reeves, Corey M; Behenna, Douglas C; Seto, Masaki; Kim, Jimin; Mohr, Justin T; Virgil, Scott C

    2014-01-01

    Summary Pd-catalyzed enantioselective alkylation in conjunction with further synthetic elaboration enables the formal total syntheses of a number of “classic” natural product target molecules. This publication highlights recent methods for setting quaternary and tetrasubstituted tertiary carbon stereocenters to address the synthetic hurdles encountered over many decades across multiple compound classes spanning carbohydrate derivatives, terpenes, and alkaloids. These enantioselective methods will impact both academic and industrial settings, where the synthesis of stereogenic quaternary carbons is a continuing challenge. PMID:25383121

  13. Direct enantioselective conjugate addition of carboxylic acids with chiral lithium amides as traceless auxiliaries.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ping; Jackson, Jeffrey J; Eickhoff, John A; Zakarian, Armen

    2015-01-21

    Michael addition is a premier synthetic method for carbon-carbon and carbon-heteroatom bond formation. Using chiral dilithium amides as traceless auxiliaries, we report the direct enantioselective Michael addition of carboxylic acids. A free carboxyl group in the product provides versatility for further functionalization, and the chiral reagent can be readily recovered by extraction with aqueous acid. The method has been applied in the enantioselective total synthesis of the purported structure of pulveraven B. PMID:25562717

  14. Direct Enantioselective Conjugate Addition of Carboxylic Acids with Chiral Lithium Amides as Traceless Auxiliaries

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Michael addition is a premier synthetic method for carbon–carbon and carbon–heteroatom bond formation. Using chiral dilithium amides as traceless auxiliaries, we report the direct enantioselective Michael addition of carboxylic acids. A free carboxyl group in the product provides versatility for further functionalization, and the chiral reagent can be readily recovered by extraction with aqueous acid. The method has been applied in the enantioselective total synthesis of the purported structure of pulveraven B. PMID:25562717

  15. Enantioselective Hydrogenation of β,β-Disubstituted Unsaturated Carboxylic Acids under Base-Free Conditions.

    PubMed

    Yan, Qiaozhi; Kong, Duanyang; Zhao, Wei; Zi, Guofu; Hou, Guohua

    2016-03-01

    An additive-free enantioselective hydrogenation of β,β-disubstituted unsaturated carboxylic acids catalyzed by the Rh-(R,R)-f-spiroPhos complex has been developed. Under mild conditions, a wide scope of β,β-disubstituted unsaturated carboxylic acids were hydrogenated to the corresponding chiral carboxylic acids with excellent enantioselectivities (up to 99.3% ee). This methodology was also successfully applied to the synthesis of the pharmaceutical molecule indatraline. PMID:26847998

  16. Catalytic Enantioselective Carboannulation with Allylsilanes

    PubMed Central

    Ball-Jones, Nicolas R.; Badillo, Joseph J.; Tran, Ngon T.; Franz, Annaliese K.

    2015-01-01

    The first catalytic asymmetric carboannulation with allylsilanes is presented. The enantioselective [3+2] annulation is catalyzed using a Sc(III)-indapybox complex with tetrakis-[3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-borate (BArF) to enhance catalytic activity and control stereoselectivity. Functionalized cyclopentanes containing a quaternary carbon are derived from alkylidene oxindole, coumarin, and malonate substrates with high stereoselectivity. The enantioselective 1,4-conjugate addition and enantioselective lactone formation (via trapping of the β-silyl carbocation) is also described. PMID:25045133

  17. Cobalt(III) Werner Complexes with 1,2-Diphenylethylenediamine Ligands: Readily Available, Inexpensive, and Modular Chiral Hydrogen Bond Donor Catalysts for Enantioselective Organic Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    In the quest for new catalysts that can deliver single enantiomer pharmaceuticals and agricultural chemicals, chemists have extensively mined the “chiral pool”, with little in the way of inexpensive, readily available building blocks now remaining. It is found that Werner complexes based upon the D3 symmetric chiral trication [Co(en)3]3+ (en = 1,2-ethylenediamine), which features an earth abundant metal and cheap ligand type, and was among the first inorganic compounds resolved into enantiomers 103 years ago, catalyze a valuable carbon–carbon bond forming reaction, the Michael addition of malonate esters to nitroalkenes, in high enantioselectivities and without requiring inert atmosphere conditions. The title catalysts, [Co((S,S)-dpen)3]3+ ((S,S)-33+) 3X–, employ a commercially available chiral ligand, (S,S)-1,2-diphenylethylenediamine. The rates and ee values are functions of the configuration of the cobalt center (Λ/Δ) and the counteranions, which must be lipophilic to solubilize the trication in nonaqueous media. The highest enantioselectivities are obtained with Λ and 2Cl–BArf–, 2BF4–BArf–, or 3BF4– salts (BArf– = B(3,5-C6H3(CF3)2)4–). The substrates are not activated by metal coordination, but rather by second coordination sphere hydrogen bonding involving the ligating NH2 groups. Crystal structures and NMR data indicate enthalpically stronger interactions with the NH moieties related by the C3 symmetry axis, as opposed to those related by the C2 symmetry axes; rate trends and other observations suggest this to be the catalytically active site. Both Λ- and Δ-(S,S)-33+ 2Cl–BArf– are effective catalysts for additions of β-ketoesters to RO2CN=NCO2R species (99–86% yields, 81–76% ee), which provide carbon–nitrogen bonds and valuable precursors to α-amino acids.

  18. Enantioselective catalytic double and triple carbonylation of olefins

    SciTech Connect

    Sperrle, M.; Consiglio, G.

    1995-12-31

    The first enantioselective double carbonylation of olefins to succinates was realized using PdX{sub 2}(L-L) complexes (X is a weakly or non-coordinating anion, L-L a chelate phosphorus ligand) as the catalyst precursor. With [Pd(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}((S)-2,2{prime}-dimethoxy-6,6{prime}-bis(diphenyl-phosphino)biphenyl)][CF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}]{sub 2} high enantioselectivity (up to 95% ee) for styrene (R = C{sub 6}H{sub 5}) was achieved. For aliphatic olefins with the same catalytic system enantioselectivity is modest (15-30% ee). Basic ligands such as 2,2{prime}-dimethoxy-6,6{prime}-bis(dicyclohexylphosphino)-biphenyl bring about an improvement of the enantioselectivity (e.g., {approximately}70% for propene). By increasing the carbon monoxide pressure an increasing formation of other products, namely dimethyl 2-oxoglutarates is observed. This is the first observed example of a triple carbonylation of olefins. Even though the chemoselectivity is not high, this reaction allows a one step synthesis of substituted 2-oxoglutarates with fair to excellent enantioselectivity (e.e. up to 95%). The reaction is completely regioselective for styrene giving exclusive formation of dimethyl 2-oxo-3-phenylglutarate (R = C{sub 6}H{sub 5}); with aliphatic olefins two regioisomers are usually formed. For propene various diphosphine ligands have been used. The enantioselectivity is interpreted on the basis of an asymmetric induction that is mostly sterically controlled and that arises from an interplay between regioselectivity and enantioface selection during olefin insertion.

  19. Catalytic Asymmetric Construction of α-Quaternary Cyclopentanones and Its Application to the Syntheses of (-)-1,14-Herbertenediol and (-)-Aphanorphine.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Dao-Yong; Xu, Ming-Hui; Tu, Yong-Qiang; Zhang, Fu-Min; Wang, Shao-Hua

    2015-10-26

    A novel and efficient strategy to build α-benzylic quaternary cyclopentanones with excellent enantioselectivities (up to 96 % ee) and high yields (up to 99 % yield) has been developed, and its application demonstrated by the first catalytic asymmetric total synthesis of (-)-1,14-herbertenediol and the formal synthesis of (-)-aphanorphine. PMID:26387785

  20. Development of new methods in organic synthesis and their applications to the synthesis of biologically interesting natural products.

    PubMed

    Hamada, Yasumasa

    2012-01-01

    2,6-Dimethyl-9-Aryl-9-phosphabicyclo[3.3.1]nonanes (9-PBN and 9-NapBN) and the chiral diaminophosphine oxides (DIAPHOXs) derived from aspartic acid have been introduced as useful ligands and preligands, respectively, for transition metal-catalyzed asymmetric synthesis. anti-Selective asymmetric hydrogenation of α-amino-β-ketoesters using Ru-, Rh-, Ir-, and Ni-catalysts through dynamic kinetic resolution have been developed for the first time, producing efficiently important anti β-hydroxy-α-amino acids. The total synthesis of several biologically active natural products was achieved by use of the transition metal-catalyzed reaction using DIAPHOX, anti-selective asymmetric hydrogenation, and reactions developed by us. Synthesis of tangutorine, an antitumor indole alkaloid, has been enantioselectively achieved for the first time. Enantioselective synthesis of a martinelline chiral core was accomplished using the asymmetric tandem Michael-Aldol reaction as a key step developed by us. This synthesis represents the formal total synthesis of martinelline and martinellic acid. Papuamide B was synthesized through the elucidation of unknown stereostructures by using the anti-selective asymmetric hydrogenation and reactions developed by us. PMID:22223369

  1. APPLICATIONS OF CAPILLARY ELECTROPHORESIS TO THE STUDY OF CHIRAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS: ENANTIOMER SEPARATION AND MEASUREMENTS OF ENANTIOSELECTIVITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    CE is rarely used for routine environmental analysis of organic pollutants -- certainly not to the extent of gas chromatography or high pressure liquid chromatography. There are advantages to CE, however, that belie this lack of application. For example, CE is preferred over GC f...

  2. Inventing and understanding catalytic, enantioselective reactions.

    PubMed

    Shibasaki, Masakatsu; Kumagai, Naoya; Mashiko, Tomoyuki

    2009-11-01

    This review summarizes recent advances in the development of efficient routes based on enantioselective catalysis for the synthesis of optically active therapeutic agents. Particular emphasis is placed on research that has streamlined the large-scale production of therapeutics for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Progress in the catalytic asymmetric hydrogenation and amination of unprotected substrates has enabled the establishment of concise synthetic routes for the production of the potent dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitor sitagliptin, and the aldose reductase inhibitor ranirestat (Dainippon Sumimoto Pharma Co Ltd/Eisai Co Ltd/ Kyorin Pharmaceutical Co Ltd), both of which have attracted particular attention for their potential to treat T2DM and diabetic complications, respectively. PMID:19894195

  3. Synthesis, properties, and applications of nanophase materials

    SciTech Connect

    Siegel, R.W. |

    1995-04-01

    Work on the synthesis, properties, and applications of nanophase materials has developed rapidly during the past decade. A wide variety of methods now exist for their production, including several plasma-based processes. The possibilities for engineering new materials with unique or improved properties for a number of applications is now evident from the extant research results. A brief review is presented here along with some examples of useful application areas and some thoughts for the future of this field.

  4. An Enantioselective Synthesis of an 11-β-HSD-1 Inhibitor via an Asymmetric Methallylation Catalyzed by (S)-3,3'-F2-BINOL.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongda; Wu, Jiang-Ping; Li, Guisheng; Fandrick, Keith R; Gao, Joe; Tan, Zhulin; Johnson, Joe; Li, Wenjie; Sanyal, Sanjit; Wang, Jun; Sun, Xiufeng; Lorenz, Jon C; Rodriguez, Sonia; Reeves, Jonathan T; Grinberg, Nelu; Lee, Heewon; Yee, Nathan; Lu, Bruce Z; Senanayake, Chris H

    2016-03-18

    An efficient asymmetric synthesis of 11-β-HSD inhibitor 1 has been accomplished in five linear steps and 53% overall yield, starting from the readily available 3-chloro-1-phenylpropan-1-one. The key feature of the synthesis includes an asymmetric methallylation of 3-chloro-1-phenylpropan-1-one catalyzed by the highly effective organocatalyst (S)-3,3'-F2-BINOL under solvent-free and metal-free conditions. PMID:26909738

  5. Enantioselective iron-catalysed O-H bond insertions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Shou-Fei; Cai, Yan; Mao, Hong-Xiang; Xie, Jian-Hua; Zhou, Qi-Lin

    2010-07-01

    The ready availability, low price and environmentally benign character of iron mean that it is an ideal alternative to precious metals in catalysis. Recent growth in the number of iron-catalysed reactions reported reflects an increasing demand for sustainable chemistry. Only a limited number of chiral iron catalysts have been reported and these have, in general, proven less enantioselective than other transition-metal catalysts, thus limiting their appeal. Here, we report that iron complexes of spiro-bisoxazoline ligands are highly efficient catalysts for asymmetric O-H bond insertion reactions. These complexes catalyse insertions into the O-H bond of a wide variety of alcohols and even water, with exceptional enantioselectivities under mild reaction conditions. The selectivities surpass those obtained with other transition-metal catalysts. This study should inspire and encourage the use of iron instead of traditional precious metals in the development of greener catalysts for catalytic asymmetric synthesis.

  6. Cationic Chiral Fluorinated Oxazaborolidines. More Potent, Second-Generation Catalysts for Highly Enantioselective Cycloaddition Reactions.

    PubMed

    Mahender Reddy, Karla; Bhimireddy, Eswar; Thirupathi, Barla; Breitler, Simon; Yu, Shunming; Corey, E J

    2016-02-24

    The coordination of chiral ligands to Lewis acid metal derivatives, a useful strategy for enantioselective, electrophilic catalysis, generally leads to a lower level of catalytic activity than that of the original uncomplexed compound. Activation by further attachment of a proton or strong Lewis acid to the complex provides a way to overcome the deactivating effect of a chiral ligand. The research described herein has demonstrated that further enhancement of catalytic activity is possible by the judicious placement of fluorine substituents in the chiral ligand. This approach has led to a new, second-generation family of chiral oxazaborolidinium cationic species which can be used to effect many Diels-Alder reactions in >95% yield and >95% ee using catalyst loadings at the 1-2 mol % level. The easy recovery of the chiral ligand makes the application of these new catalysts especially attractive for large-scale synthesis. PMID:26812167

  7. Enantioselective synthesis of (+)-petromyroxol, enabled by rhodium-catalyzed denitrogenation and rearrangement of a 1-sulfonyl-1,2,3-triazole.

    PubMed

    Boyer, Alistair

    2015-05-01

    Petromyroxol is a nonracemic mixture of enantiomeric oxylipids isolated from water conditioned with larval sea lamprey. The (+)-antipode exhibits interesting biological properties, but only 1 mg was isolated from >100?000 L of water. Recently, transition-metal-catalyzed denitrogenation of 1-sulfonyl-1,2,3-triazoles has emerged as a powerful strategy for the synthesis of value-added products, including efficient diastereocontrolled construction of tetrahydrofurans. This methodology enabled the rapid development of the first synthesis of (+)-petromyroxol in 9 steps and 20% overall yield from a readily accessible starting material. PMID:25891197

  8. Efficient, highly enantioselective synthesis of selina-1,3, 7(11)-trien-8-one, a major component of the essential oil of Eugenia uniflora.

    PubMed

    Kanazawa, A; Patin, A; Greene, A E

    2000-09-01

    The first synthesis of selina-1,3,7(11)-trien-8-one (1), a major constituent of the essential oil from the leaves of Eugenia uniflora, has been accomplished, with excellent stereo- and regiocontrol, in eight steps and in 12% overall yield from the known octalone derivative 2a. PMID:11000042

  9. Chemoselective room temperature E1cB N-N cleavage of oxazolidinone hydrazides from enantioselective aldehyde α-hydrazination: synthesis of (+)-1,4-dideoxyallonojirimycin.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Jasmin; Rees-Jones, Sophie C M; Ramaotsoa, Valerie; Msutu, Ath'enkosi; Hunter, Roger

    2016-01-27

    Room temperature E1cB N-N cleavage of oxazolidinone hydrazides via N-alkylation with diethyl bromomalonate and potassium or caesium carbonate as base in acetonitrile is presented. The new method has a much improved chemoselectivity, which is illustrated by a concise total synthesis of the piperidine iminosugar (+)-1,4-dideoxyallonojirimycin. PMID:26730495

  10. Applicability of the Rayleigh equation for enantioselective metabolism of chiral xenobiotics by microsomes, hepatocytes and in-vivo retention in rabbit tissues.

    PubMed

    Jammer, Shifra; Gelman, Faina; Lev, Ovadia

    2016-01-01

    In this study we propose a new approach for analyzing the enantioselective biodegradation of some antidepressant drugs mediated by human and rat liver microsomes by using the Rayleigh equation to describe the enantiomeric enrichment-conversion dependencies. Analysis of reported degradation data of additional six pesticides, an alpha blocker and a flame retardant by microsomes or hepatocytes in vitro reaffirmed the universality of the approach. In all the in vitro studied cases that involved enantioselective degradation, a Rayleigh dependence of the enantiomeric enrichment was observed. Published data regarding in vivo retention of myclobutanil in liver, kidney, muscle and brain tissues of rabbits following injection of the racemate were remodeled showing prevalence of the Rayleigh law for the chiral enrichment of the fungicide in the various tissues. This approach will revolutionize data organization in metabolic pathway research of target xenobiotics by either liver microsomes, hepatocytes or their organ-specific in vivo retention. The fact that the enantiomeric enrichment as a function of the conversion can be described by a single quantifier, will pave the road for the use of structure activity predictors of the enantiomeric enrichment and for mechanistic discrimination based on parametric dependence of the quantifier. PMID:27021918

  11. Applicability of the Rayleigh equation for enantioselective metabolism of chiral xenobiotics by microsomes, hepatocytes and in-vivo retention in rabbit tissues

    PubMed Central

    Jammer, Shifra; Gelman, Faina; Lev, Ovadia

    2016-01-01

    In this study we propose a new approach for analyzing the enantioselective biodegradation of some antidepressant drugs mediated by human and rat liver microsomes by using the Rayleigh equation to describe the enantiomeric enrichment−conversion dependencies. Analysis of reported degradation data of additional six pesticides, an alpha blocker and a flame retardant by microsomes or hepatocytes in vitro reaffirmed the universality of the approach. In all the in vitro studied cases that involved enantioselective degradation, a Rayleigh dependence of the enantiomeric enrichment was observed. Published data regarding in vivo retention of myclobutanil in liver, kidney, muscle and brain tissues of rabbits following injection of the racemate were remodeled showing prevalence of the Rayleigh law for the chiral enrichment of the fungicide in the various tissues. This approach will revolutionize data organization in metabolic pathway research of target xenobiotics by either liver microsomes, hepatocytes or their organ-specific in vivo retention. The fact that the enantiomeric enrichment as a function of the conversion can be described by a single quantifier, will pave the road for the use of structure activity predictors of the enantiomeric enrichment and for mechanistic discrimination based on parametric dependence of the quantifier. PMID:27021918

  12. Chiral Boron Complex-Promoted Asymmetric Diels-Alder Cycloaddition and Its Application in Natural Product Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Li, Xia; Han, Jianguang; Jones, Alexander X; Lei, Xiaoguang

    2016-01-15

    An efficient method for the asymmetric Diels-Alder cycloaddition of 2'-hydroxychalcones with acyclic or cyclic dienes has been successfully developed. The Diels-Alder cycloaddition is mediated by a chiral boron complex with VANOL, affording the corresponding products in high yields and with excellent diastereo- and enantioselectivities. This reaction enabled the enantioselective construction of cyclohexene skeletons crucial for the total synthesis of a number of Diels-Alder-type natural products (-)-nicolaioidesin C, (-)-panduratine A, (-)-kuwanon I, (+)-kuwanon J, and (-)-brosimones A and B. PMID:26693852

  13. MICROWAVE TECHNOLOGY CHEMICAL SYNTHESIS APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microwave-accelerated chemical syntheses in various solvents as well as under solvent-free conditions have witnessed an explosive growth. The technique has found widespread application predominantly exploiting the inexpensive unmodified household microwave (MW) ovens although th...

  14. Application of Catalytic Dynamic Resolution of N-Boc-2-lithiopiperidine to the Asymmetric Synthesis of 2-Aryl and 2-Vinyl Piperidines

    PubMed Central

    Beng, Timothy K.; Gawley, Robert E.

    2011-01-01

    The highly enantioselective synthesis of 2-aryl- and 2-vinyl-piperidines has been accomplished through a catalytic dynamic resolution (CDR) of N-Boc-2-lithiopiperidine. The method has been applied to the synthesis of both enantiomers of the tobacco alkaloid anabasine. PMID:21174392

  15. Catalytic Enantioselective Allylic Amination of Unactivated Terminal Olefins via an Ene Reaction/[2,3]-Rearrangement

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Hongli; Tambar, Uttam K.

    2012-01-01

    The enantioselective allylic amination of unactivated terminal olefins represents a direct and attractive strategy for the synthesis of enantioenriched amines. We have developed the first use of a nitrogen-containing reagent and a chiral palladium catalyst to convert unfunctionalized olefins into enantioenriched allylic amines via an ene reaction / [2,3]-rearrangement. PMID:23106555

  16. A general enantioselective approach to jasmonoid fragrances: synthesis of (+)-(1R,2S)-methyl dihydrojasmonate and (+)-(1R,2S)-magnolione.

    PubMed

    Porta, Alessio; Vidari, Giovanni; Zanoni, Giuseppe

    2005-06-10

    Methyl dihydrojasmonate 1 and magnolione 3 are of both academic and industrial interest. In this paper, we describe a flexible, high-yielding route to diastereomerically pure (+)-cis-(1R,2S)-methyl dihydrojasmonate 1 and the first synthesis of (+)-cis-(1R,2S)-magnolione 3, both with enantiomeric excesses up to 93%. The two syntheses diverged from the same advanced intermediate 5, readily available from the enantioenriched hydroxymethyl delta-lactone (-)-(3aS,4S,6aR)-6. The olfactory properties of (1R,2S)-1 and (1R,2S)-3 are reported. PMID:15932335

  17. Synthesis, Properties, and Applications Of Boron Nitride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pouch, John J.; Alterovitz, Samuel A.

    1993-01-01

    Report describes synthesis, properties, and applications of boron nitride. Especially in thin-film form. Boron nitride films useful as masks in x-ray lithography; as layers for passivation of high-speed microelectronic circuits; insulating films; hard, wear-resistant, protective films for optical components; lubricants; and radiation detectors. Present status of single-crystal growth of boron nitride indicates promising candidate for use in high-temperature semiconductor electronics.

  18. Tetrabenzotriazaporphyrins: synthesis, properties and application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalashnikov, V. V.; Pushkarev, V. E.; Tomilova, L. G.

    2014-07-01

    Synthetic approaches to tetrabenzotriazaporphyrins and their complexes with metals and semimetals (P, Si) are considered. Methods for complexation of free-base tetrabenzotriazaporphyrin ligands and the preparation of water-soluble derivatives via the introduction of a sulfo group are analyzed. Particular attention is given to investigations of this class of compounds by electronic absorption spectroscopy and possibilities of their practical application. The bibliography includes 80 references.

  19. Enantioselective N-Heterocyclic Carbene Catalyzed Diene Regenerative (4 + 2) Annulation.

    PubMed

    Levens, Alison; Zhang, Changhe; Candish, Lisa; Forsyth, Craig M; Lupton, David W

    2015-11-01

    An enantioselective N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC)-catalyzed diene regenerative (4 + 2) annulation has been achieved through the use of highly nucleophilic morpholinone-derived catalysts. The reaction proceeds with good to excellent yields, high enantioselectivity (most >92% ee), and good diastereoselectivity (most >7:1). The generality of the reaction is high, with 19 examples reported. The utility of the products has been examined with subsequent derivatization in Diels-Alder reactions using electron-poor dienophiles. Furthermore, interception of the proposed β-lactone intermediate has been achieved, allowing the synthesis of compounds bearing four contiguous stereocenters with high levels of enantio- and diastereoselectivity. PMID:26484753

  20. Dendrimers: synthesis, applications, and properties.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, Elham; Aval, Sedigheh Fekri; Akbarzadeh, Abolfazl; Milani, Morteza; Nasrabadi, Hamid Tayefi; Joo, Sang Woo; Hanifehpour, Younes; Nejati-Koshki, Kazem; Pashaei-Asl, Roghiyeh

    2014-01-01

    Dendrimers are nano-sized, radially symmetric molecules with well-defined, homogeneous, and monodisperse structure that has a typically symmetric core, an inner shell, and an outer shell. Their three traditional macromolecular architectural classes are broadly recognized to generate rather polydisperse products of different molecular weights. A variety of dendrimers exist, and each has biological properties such as polyvalency, self-assembling, electrostatic interactions, chemical stability, low cytotoxicity, and solubility. These varied characteristics make dendrimers a good choice in the medical field, and this review covers their diverse applications. PMID:24994950

  1. Dendrimers: synthesis, applications, and properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbasi, Elham; Aval, Sedigheh Fekri; Akbarzadeh, Abolfazl; Milani, Morteza; Nasrabadi, Hamid Tayefi; Joo, Sang Woo; Hanifehpour, Younes; Nejati-Koshki, Kazem; Pashaei-Asl, Roghiyeh

    2014-05-01

    Dendrimers are nano-sized, radially symmetric molecules with well-defined, homogeneous, and monodisperse structure that has a typically symmetric core, an inner shell, and an outer shell. Their three traditional macromolecular architectural classes are broadly recognized to generate rather polydisperse products of different molecular weights. A variety of dendrimers exist, and each has biological properties such as polyvalency, self-assembling, electrostatic interactions, chemical stability, low cytotoxicity, and solubility. These varied characteristics make dendrimers a good choice in the medical field, and this review covers their diverse applications.

  2. Dendrimers: synthesis, applications, and properties

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Dendrimers are nano-sized, radially symmetric molecules with well-defined, homogeneous, and monodisperse structure that has a typically symmetric core, an inner shell, and an outer shell. Their three traditional macromolecular architectural classes are broadly recognized to generate rather polydisperse products of different molecular weights. A variety of dendrimers exist, and each has biological properties such as polyvalency, self-assembling, electrostatic interactions, chemical stability, low cytotoxicity, and solubility. These varied characteristics make dendrimers a good choice in the medical field, and this review covers their diverse applications. PMID:24994950

  3. Bacteriagenic silver nanoparticles: synthesis, mechanism, and applications.

    PubMed

    Singh, Richa; Shedbalkar, Utkarsha U; Wadhwani, Sweety A; Chopade, Balu A

    2015-06-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have received tremendous attention due to their significant antimicrobial properties. Large numbers of reports are available on the physical, chemical, and biological syntheses of colloidal AgNPs. Since there is a great need to develop ecofriendly and sustainable methods, biological systems like bacteria, fungi, and plants are being employed to synthesize these nanoparticles. The present review focuses specifically on bacteria-mediated synthesis of AgNPs, its mechanism, and applications. Bacterial synthesis of extra- and intracellular AgNPs has been reported using biomass, supernatant, cell-free extract, and derived components. The extracellular mode of synthesis is preferred over the intracellular mode owing to easy recovery of nanoparticles. Silver-resistant genes, c-type cytochromes, peptides, cellular enzymes like nitrate reductase, and reducing cofactors play significant roles in AgNP synthesis in bacteria. Organic materials released by bacteria act as natural capping and stabilizing agents for AgNPs, thereby preventing their aggregation and providing stability for a longer time. Regulation over reaction conditions has been suggested to control the morphology, dispersion, and yield of nanoparticles. Bacterial AgNPs have anticancer and antioxidant properties. Moreover, the antimicrobial activity of AgNPs in combination with antibiotics signifies their importance in combating the multidrug-resistant pathogenic microorganisms. Multiple microbicidal mechanisms exhibited by AgNPs, depending upon their size and shape, make them very promising as novel nanoantibiotics. PMID:25952110

  4. Graphene: Synthesis, bio-applications, and properties.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, Elham; Akbarzadeh, Abolfazl; Kouhi, Mohammad; Milani, Morteza

    2016-02-01

    The properties of graphene, carbon sheets that are only one atom wide, have led researchers and companies to consider its synthesis, properties, and the applications in numerous fields. High-quality graphene is physically powerful, light, nearly transparent, and an exceptional conductor of heat and electricity. Its interactions with other materials and with light and its naturally two-dimensional nature produce unique properties, such as the bipolar transistor effect, ballistic transport of charges, and large quantum oscillations. The following review introduces the many potential applications of graphene. PMID:24978443

  5. Synthesis and Applications of Imogolite Nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Masaya; Inukai, Keiichi

    Imogolite is a naturally occurring nanotube aluminum silicate. It is classified as a clay mineral, with tube dimensions of about 2 nm in outside diameter, 1 nm in inside diameter, and lengths ranging from tens of nanometers to several micrometers. Imogolite is remarkable not only for its nanoscale fibrous microstructure and its high surface area but also in its ability to adsorb water. So it can be expected to find a wide range of applications. In this chapter, synthesis method for imogolite and applications for anti-dewing materials and heat exchange material in adsorption-type heat pump systems are described.

  6. Organocatalytically Generated Donor-Acceptor Cyclopropanes in Domino Reactions. One-Step Enantioselective Synthesis of Pyrrolo[1,2-a]quinolines.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Diez, Eduardo; Vesga, Diana L; Reyes, Efraim; Uria, Uxue; Carrillo, Luisa; Vicario, Jose L

    2016-03-18

    An easy and straightforward procedure has been developed for the synthesis of highly enantioenriched pyrrolo[1,2-a]quinolines through a one-pot process that comprises a domino cyclopropane ring opening/aza-Michael/aldol reaction followed by acid-promoted lactamization. The key feature of the synthetic approach relies on the ability of conveniently functionalized cyclopropaneacetaldehydes to undergo organocatalytic activation by a chiral secondary amine that enables the catalytic generation of a donor-acceptor cyclopropane. This intermediate has the potential to undergo a ring opening that generates an electrophilic α,β-unsaturated iminium ion that subsequently reacts through the already mentioned domino sequence and in which stereochemical information is very efficiently transferred from the amine catalyst to the final products. Moreover, one of the alkoxycarbonyl moieties can be easily removed by standard hydrolysis/decarboxylation, providing access to the target adducts as single stereoisomers. PMID:26916408

  7. A Concise and Highly Enantioselective Total Synthesis of (+)-anti- and (-)-syn-Mefloquine Hydrochloride: Definitive Absolute Stereochemical Assignment of the Mefloquines.

    PubMed

    Rastelli, Ettore J; Coltart, Don M

    2015-11-16

    A concise asymmetric (>99:1 e.r.) total synthesis of (+)-anti- and (-)-syn-mefloquine hydrochloride from a common intermediate is described. The key asymmetric transformation is a Sharpless dihydroxylation of an olefin that is accessed in three steps from commercially available materials. The Sharpless-derived diol is converted into either a trans or cis epoxide, and these are subsequently converted into (+)-anti- and (-)-syn-mefloquine, respectively. The synthetic (+)-anti- and (-)-syn-mefloquine samples were derivatized with (S)-(+)-mandelic acid tert-butyldimethylsilyl ether, and a crystal structure of each derivative was obtained. These are the first X-ray structures for mefloquine derivatives that were obtained by coupling to a known chiral, nonracemic compound, and provide definitive confirmation of the absolute stereochemistry of (+)-anti- as well as (-)-syn-mefloquine. PMID:26422780

  8. Synthesis and device applications of graphitic nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umair, Ahmad

    This thesis is focused on two topics: (i) synthesis and characterization of bilayer graphene and pyrolytic carbon by atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition, and (ii) application of graphene in the fabrication of a buckyball memory device. Monolayer and bilayer graphene are semi-metal with zero bandgap. One can induce a bandgap in bilayer graphene by applying a gate voltage in the stacking direction. Thus, bandgap and Fermi level in bilayer graphene can be controlled simultaneously with a double-gate device, making it a useful material for future semiconducting applications. Controlled synthesis of bilayer graphene would be the first step to fabricate bilayer graphene based devices. In this context, we report a uniform and low-defect synthesis of bilayer graphene on evaporated nickel films. Ultra-fast cooling is employed to control the number of layers and sample uniformity. The process is self-limiting, which leads to bilayer graphene synthesis over a wide range of growth-time and precursor flow-rate. Pryolytic carbon is another important carbon nanomaterial, due to its diverse applications in electronic and biomedicalengineering. We employ chemical vapor deposition with ultra-fast cooling technique to synthesize pyrolytic carbon. Furthermore, we elucidate a method to calculate the in-plane crystal size by using Raman spectroscopy. Finally, the use of bilayer graphene in a write-once read-many memory device has been demonstrated. The device showed irreversible switching from low-resistance to high-resistance state, with hysteresis in the transport characteristics. The control sample showed random switching and hysteresis due to electromigration of metal atoms into the active material of the device. We attribute the reliability and performance of the reported device to the ultra-smooth graphene contacts, which additionally inhibits electromigration from the underlying metallic film. Moreover, the memory device showed excellent endurance and retention characteristics.

  9. Enantioselective recognition at mesoporous chiral metal surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Wattanakit, Chularat; Côme, Yémima Bon Saint; Lapeyre, Veronique; Bopp, Philippe A.; Heim, Matthias; Yadnum, Sudarat; Nokbin, Somkiat; Warakulwit, Chompunuch; Limtrakul, Jumras; Kuhn, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Chirality is widespread in natural systems, and artificial reproduction of chiral recognition is a major scientific challenge, especially owing to various potential applications ranging from catalysis to sensing and separation science. In this context, molecular imprinting is a well-known approach for generating materials with enantioselective properties, and it has been successfully employed using polymers. However, it is particularly difficult to synthesize chiral metal matrices by this method. Here we report the fabrication of a chirally imprinted mesoporous metal, obtained by the electrochemical reduction of platinum salts in the presence of a liquid crystal phase and chiral template molecules. The porous platinum retains a chiral character after removal of the template molecules. A matrix obtained in this way exhibits a large active surface area due to its mesoporosity, and also shows a significant discrimination between two enantiomers, when they are probed using such materials as electrodes. PMID:24548992

  10. Organocatalyzed enantioselective desymmetrization of aziridines and epoxides

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Summary Enantioselective desymmetrization of meso-aziridines and meso-epoxides with various nucleophiles by organocatalysis has emerged as a cutting-edge approach in recent years. This review summarizes the origin and recent developments of enantioselective desymmetrization of meso-aziridines and meso-epoxides in the presence of organocatalysts. PMID:24062828

  11. Enantioselective construction of quaternary N-heterocycles by palladium-catalysed decarboxylative allylic alkylation of lactams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behenna, Douglas C.; Liu, Yiyang; Yurino, Taiga; Kim, Jimin; White, David E.; Virgil, Scott C.; Stoltz, Brian M.

    2012-02-01

    The enantioselective synthesis of nitrogen-containing heterocycles (N-heterocycles) represents a substantial chemical research effort and resonates across numerous disciplines, including the total synthesis of natural products and medicinal chemistry. In this Article, we describe the highly enantioselective palladium-catalysed decarboxylative allylic alkylation of readily available lactams to form 3,3-disubstituted pyrrolidinones, piperidinones, caprolactams and structurally related lactams. Given the prevalence of quaternary N-heterocycles in biologically active alkaloids and pharmaceutical agents, we envisage that our method will provide a synthetic entry into the de novo asymmetric synthesis of such structures. As an entry for these investigations we demonstrate how the described catalysis affords enantiopure quaternary lactams that intercept synthetic intermediates previously used in the synthesis of the Aspidosperma alkaloids quebrachamine and rhazinilam, but that were previously only available by chiral auxiliary approaches or as racemic mixtures.

  12. Enantioselective Conjugate Allylation of Cyclic Enones

    PubMed Central

    Taber, Douglass F.; Gerstenhaber, David A.; Berry, James F.

    2011-01-01

    Enantioselective organocatalytic 1,2-allylation of a cyclic enone followed by anionic oxy-Cope rearrangement delivered the ketone as a mixture of diastereomers. This appears to be a general method for the net enantioselective conjugate allylation of cyclic enones. PMID:21830779

  13. Enantioselective construction of quaternary N-heterocycles by palladium-catalysed decarboxylative allylic alkylation of lactams.

    PubMed

    Behenna, Douglas C; Liu, Yiyang; Yurino, Taiga; Kim, Jimin; White, David E; Virgil, Scott C; Stoltz, Brian M

    2012-02-01

    The enantioselective synthesis of nitrogen-containing heterocycles (N-heterocycles) represents a substantial chemical research effort and resonates across numerous disciplines, including the total synthesis of natural products and medicinal chemistry. In this Article, we describe the highly enantioselective palladium-catalysed decarboxylative allylic alkylation of readily available lactams to form 3,3-disubstituted pyrrolidinones, piperidinones, caprolactams and structurally related lactams. Given the prevalence of quaternary N-heterocycles in biologically active alkaloids and pharmaceutical agents, we envisage that our method will provide a synthetic entry into the de novo asymmetric synthesis of such structures. As an entry for these investigations we demonstrate how the described catalysis affords enantiopure quaternary lactams that intercept synthetic intermediates previously used in the synthesis of the Aspidosperma alkaloids quebrachamine and rhazinilam, but that were previously only available by chiral auxiliary approaches or as racemic mixtures. PMID:22270628

  14. Enantioselective Construction of Quaternary N-Heterocycles by Palladium-Catalyzed Decarboxylative Allylic Alkylation of Lactams

    PubMed Central

    Behenna, Douglas C.; Liu, Yiyang; Yurino, Taiga; Kim, Jimin; White, David E.; Virgil, Scott C.; Stoltz, Brian M.

    2011-01-01

    The enantioselective synthesis of Nitrogen-containing heterocycles (N-heterocycles) represents a substantial chemical research effort and resonates across numerous disciplines including the total synthesis of natural products and medicinal chemistry. In this manuscript, we describe the highly enantioselective palladium-catalyzed decarboxylative allylic alkylation of readily available lactams to form 3,3,-disubstituted pyrrolidinones, piperidinones, caprolactams, and structurally related lactams. Given the prevalence of quaternary N-heterocycles in biologically active alkaloids and pharmaceutical agents, we envision that our method will provide a synthetic entry into the de novo asymmetric synthesis of such structures. As an entry for these investigations we demonstrate how the described catalysis affords enantiopure quaternary lactams that intercept synthetic intermediates previously employed in the synthesis of the Aspidosperma alkaloids quebrachamine and rhazinilam, but that were previously only available by chiral auxiliary approaches or as racemic mixtures. PMID:22270628

  15. Molecular diversity of spirooxindoles. Synthesis and biological activity.

    PubMed

    Pavlovska, Tetyana L; Redkin, Ruslan Gr; Lipson, Victoria V; Atamanuk, Dmytro V

    2016-02-01

    Spirooxindoles are important synthetic targets possessing extended biological activity and drug discovery applications. This review focuses on the various strategies for the enantioselective synthesis of spirocyclic oxindoles relying on reports over the past decade and from earlier work. The spirooxindoles in this review are separated into three structural classes, and then further categorized into the method type from which the spirocycle is generated. PMID:26419598

  16. Chemoenzymatic flow cascade for the synthesis of protected mandelonitrile derivatives.

    PubMed

    Delville, Mariëlle M E; Koch, Kaspar; van Hest, Jan C M; Rutjes, Floris P J T

    2015-02-14

    A chemoenzymatic two-step cascade process, with both steps having incompatible reaction conditions, was successfully performed in continuous flow. The chemoenzymatic aqueous formation of cyanohydrins was integrated with a subsequent organic phase protection step in a single flow process utilising a membrane-based phase separation module. The wider applicability of our setup was demonstrated with the synthesis of nine protected cyanohydrin derivatives, all obtained in good yields and high to excellent enantioselectivity. PMID:25519974

  17. Synthesis, characterization and applications of magnetite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanmukhla, Vikram Kumar

    In the past few years, the synthesis of magnetic nanoparticles has received considerable attention due to their potential use in clinical applications. Since the properties of these nanoparticles depend strongly on their size, shape and crystallinity, there is a need for a general method to produce these particles with a controlled size, shape and crystal type. Of the many magnetic materials (Co, Ni, and Fe), the magnetite (Fe3O 4) is least toxic and hence most promising for applications in medical diagnostics. Microemulsion-based synthesis utilizes the local aqueous environment within a reverse micelle as a nano-scale reactor and allows synthesizing nanoparticles with a hydrophilic surface for subsequent functionalization. By controlling the water-to-surfactant ratio, the type of surfactants, and the ionic strength of the aqueous core, one can control the size and shape of the resulting particles. We developed such a system that allows the multi-step synthesis of surface-functionalized, magnetic nanoparticles in a one-pot synthesis reaction. By altering the system chemistry, we were further able to produce either spheres or cylinders of controlled dimension in the size range of 5 nm to 30 nm. Using standard bio-conjugation techniques, we successfully immobilized an enzyme onto the nanoparticles. We also developed a theoretical model for the separation and fractionation of nanoparticles based on their size and magnetic properties. Using the multiphysics and finite element modeling capabilities of FEMLAB(TM), we solved the coupled system of PDEs describing the interaction of magnetic particles within a magnetic field for either static (cylindrical beaker) or convective flow (capillary) conditions. A net retention time as high as 310 s is achieved for 200 nm particles at field strength of 1250 kA/m. The model allows the design of a magnetic, field-flow fractionation (MFFF) system to separate nanoparticles by size.

  18. C2-Symmetric diamines and their derivatives as promising organocatalysts for asymmetric synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zlotin, S. G.; Kochetkov, S. V.

    2015-11-01

    The review is devoted to the application of C2-symmetric diamines and their derivatives as organocatalysts for asymmetric reactions (aldol, Michael, Mannich, Diels-Alder reactions, desymmetrization, allylation, etc.). Amino acid derivatives, di- and polyamides (sulfamides), bisureas, bisthioureas, bisamidines and bisguanidines are considered. Significant attention is given to the effect of the catalyst structure on the mechanism of catalytic action. Successful applications of such catalysts in enantioselective synthesis of chiral biologically active compounds are summarized. The bibliography includes 181 references.

  19. Synthesis, characterization and applications of different nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, Whitney Elaine

    There has been a growing interest in the field of nanoscience for the last several decades including the use in optical, electrical, biological and medicinal applications. This thesis focuses on the synthesis of different nanoparticles for their potential uses in drug delivery and antimicrobial agents as well as porous alumina membranes as surface enhanced Raman scattering or SERS substrates. The synthesis of nanocomposites (NCs) composed of silica and poly(4-vinyl pyridine) (P4VP) in a basic ethanol solution is presented in chapter 2. The composition of the NCs appears to be homogenous after synthesis and is greatly affected by heat and pH changes. When the NCs are heated, a core-shell nanostructure is produced with silica forming a shell around a P4VP core. At lower pHs, the NCs form a silica core with a P4VP shell while at higher pHs the silica is etched away causing the NC to decompose. A novel synthesis method of growing stable copper oxide nanoparticles with poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) is presented in chapter 3. Insoluble copper (I) oxide is dissolved with ammonium hydroxide and reduced using sodium borohydride to form metallic copper nanoparticles that oxidize overtime to form copper oxide nanoparticles stable in an aqueous environment. In addition to copper oxide nanoparticles, copper (I) iodide and copper (II) sulfide particles were also synthesized in the presence of PAA. In chapter 4, alumina membranes with 100nm and 200nm pores were coated with silver and used as SERS substrates to detect small molecules. The alumina membranes are coated with silver by reducing silver (I) oxide with ethanol. The thickness of the silver layer depends primarily on the length of time the substrate comes into contact with the Ag2O in solution with longer exposure times producing thicker films. Raman scattering of 10-100nM adenine concentrations were collected.

  20. Template-based modeling of a psychrophilic lipase: conformational changes, novel structural features and its application in predicting the enantioselectivity of lipase catalyzed transesterification of secondary alcohols.

    PubMed

    Xu, Tao; Gao, Bei; Zhang, Lujia; Lin, Jingpin; Wang, Xuedong; Wei, Dongzhi

    2010-12-01

    In order to fully explore the structure-function relationship of a Proteus lipase (LipK107) that was screened from the soil in our previous study, we have modeled the three-dimensional (3-D) structures of the enzyme in its active and inactive conformations on the basis of crystal structures of Burkholderia glumae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa lipases in the present study. Both homology models suggested that LipK107 possessed a catalytic triad (Ser79-Asp232-H254), an oxyanion hole (Leu13 and Gln80) which was used to stabilize the reaction tetrahedral intermediates, and a lid substructure that controlled the access of the substrate to the active site. The existence of the lid was further verified by carrying out the interfacial activation experiment. The conformational change of LipK107 which was caused by lid opening action was predicted by superimposing the two theoretical models for the first time. Finally, both 3-D structures were used to predict the enantioselectivity of LipK107 when the enzyme was used to catalyze the resolution of racemic 1-phenylethanol. Lid-open model of LipK107 identified the R-enantiomer as the preferred enantiomer, while lid-closed mode showed that the S-enantiomer was more favored. However, only the lid-open conformational model could led to predictions that agreed with the following the experimental result of real biocatalysis reaction of 1-phenylethanol. PMID:20828637

  1. Enantioselective determination of (R)- and (S)-lansoprazole in human plasma by chiral liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry and its application to a stereoselective pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Sun, Luning; Cao, Yang; Jiao, Huiwen; Fang, Yunqian; Yang, Zhicheng; Bian, Mingliang; Zhang, Hongwen; Gong, Xiaojian; Wang, Yongqing

    2015-11-01

    A simple and enantioselective method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of (R)- and (S)-lansoprazole in human plasma by chiral liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. Lansoprazole enantiomers and internal standard (esomeprazole) were extracted from plasma using acetonitrile as protein precipitating agent. Baseline chiral separation was achieved within 9.0 min on a Chiralpak IC column (150 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) with the column temperature of 30°C. The mobile phase consisted of 10 mM ammonium acetate solution containing 0.05% acetic acid/acetonitrile (50:50, v/v). The mass spectrometric analysis was performed using a QTrap 5500 mass spectrometer coupled with an electrospray ionization source in positive ion mode. The multiple reactions monitoring transitions of m/z 370.1→252.1 and 346.1→198.1 were used to quantify lansoprazole enantiomers and esomeprazole, respectively. For each enantiomer, no apparent matrix effect was found, the calibration curve was linear over 5.00-3000 ng/mL, the intra- and inter-day precisions were below 10.0%, and the accuracy was -3.8 to 3.3%. Analytes were stable during the study. No chiral inversion was observed during sample storage, preparation procedure and analysis. The method was applied to the stereoselective pharmacokinetic studies in human after intravenous administration of dexlansoprazole or racemic lansoprazole. PMID:26333119

  2. Enantioselective Alcohol C-H Functionalization for Polyketide Construction: Unlocking Redox-Economy and Site-Selectivity for Ideal Chemical Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jiajie; Kasun, Zachary A; Krische, Michael J

    2016-05-01

    The development and application of stereoselective and site-selective catalytic methods that directly convert lower alcohols to higher alcohols are described. These processes merge the characteristics of transfer hydrogenation and carbonyl addition, exploiting alcohols and π-unsaturated reactants as redox pairs, which upon hydrogen transfer generate transient carbonyl-organometal pairs en route to products of C-C coupling. Unlike classical carbonyl additions, stoichiometric organometallic reagents and discrete alcohol-to-carbonyl redox reactions are not required. Additionally, due to a kinetic preference for primary alcohol dehydrogenation, the site-selective modification of glycols and higher polyols is possible, streamlining or eliminating use of protecting groups. The total syntheses of several iconic type I polyketide natural products were undertaken using these methods. In each case, the target compounds were prepared in significantly fewer steps than previously achieved. PMID:27113543

  3. Synthesis of complex fluorides for optical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepleton, Seth Eugene

    Large single crystals of alkali metal fluorides are desirable for many reasons. Fluoride laser crystals have a wide transmission range and on account of their low phonon energies, many efficient laser emissions have been obtained from 285 nm to 4.34 microm.1,2 Inorganic fluoride single crystals feature large bandgaps, very wide optical transmittance ranges from vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) to mid-IR wavelength regions, lower refractive indices than those of oxides, and typically lower phonon energies (which drastically reduce multiphonon relaxation rates of rare earth ions).3 The main goal of this work was to investigate the hydrothermal synthesis of alkali metal fluorides. Melt techniques have been used thoroughly to research a variety of fluoride systems and showed many phases that were inaccessible due to incongruent melting or phase stability. The existence of these phases was shown but never characterized or grown as a crystalline material. Solution growth in supercritical water was an ideal way to attempt the synthesis of novel compounds and phases. New synthetic routes to known phases and compounds also arose as a part of this work. Optically clear colorless crystals of K2BeF4 were synthesized up to 2 mm in size, and showed no phase transitions up to 1029 K, which suggests paraelectricitys at room temperature, contradicting previous reports.4 Attempts to incorporate a rare earth ion into the fluoroberyllate lattice proved unsuccessful however reactions between beryllium fluoride and lanthanide fluorides could be exploited as a synthetic route to single crystal rare earth fluorides. Hydrothermal reactions with KF produced crystals of three different phases: hexagonal KY2F7, trigonal KYF4 and orthorhombic K2YF5. All were optically clear, colorless crystals, with the K2YF5 crystals growing the largest. This compound is beneficial due to its application as a radiation dosimeter and laser host. 5,6 Optical quality colorless crystals of RbY2F7 and CsY2F7 up to 4 mm in size were produced, and many spectroscopically active rare earth elements were doped into both hosts. A novel synthetic pathway to the hexagonal beta-RbGd3F 10, was discovered which led to the novel compound, beta-RbHo 3F10. The hydrothermal synthesis of hexafluoroelpasolites and lanthanide sesquioxides is also investigated. The hydrothermal synthesis described in this work has furthered the study of complex fluorides for optical applications. Novel synthetic pathways were discovered to known optical materials. Novel materials were also discovered. 1Takashima, M. In Advanced Inorganic Fluorides: Synthesis, Characterization and Applications, Nakajima, T.; Zemva, B.; Tressaud, A.; Elsevier: Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2000, 176. 2Fouassier, C. In Advanced Inorganic Fluorides: Synthesis, Characterization and Applications, Nakajima, T.; Zemva, B.; Tressaud, A.; Elsevier: Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2000, 316. 3Capper, P. In Bulk Crystal Growth of Electronic, Optical and Optoelectronic Materials, John Wiley and Sons: Great Britain, 2005. 4Solans, X.; Gonzalez-Silgo, C.; Calvet, T.; Ruiz-Perez, C.; Martinez-Sarrion, M. L.; Mestres, L. Phys. Rev. B 1998, 57(9), 5122-5125. 5Azorin-Nieto, J.; Khaidukov, N.M.; Sanchez-Rodriguez, A.; Azorin-Vega, J.C. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, 2007, B263, 36-40. 6Wang, D.; Min, Y.; Xia, S.; Makhov, V.N.; Khaidukov, N.M.; J.C. Krupa, J.C. Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 2003, 361, 294-298.

  4. Synthesis, Characterization and Application of Water-soluble Gold and Silver Nanoclusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Santosh

    The term `nanotechnology' has emerged as a buzzword since the last few decades. It has found widespread applications across disciplines, from medicine to energy. The synthesis of gold and silver nanoclusters has found much excitement, due to their novel material properties. Seminal work by various groups, including ours, has shown that the size of these clusters can be controlled with atomic precision. This control gives access to tuning the optical and electronic properties. The majority of nanoclusters reported thus far are not water soluble, which limit their applications in biology that requires water-solubility. Going from organic to aqueous phase is by no means a simple task, as it is associated with many challenges. Their stability in the presence of oxygen, difficulty in characterization, and separation of pure nanoclusters are some of the major bottlenecks associated with the synthesis of water-soluble gold nanoclusters. Water-soluble gold nanoclusters hold great potential in biological labeling, bio-catalysis and nano-bioconjugates. To overcome this problem, a new ligand with structural rigidity is needed. After considering various possibilities, we chose Captopril as a candidate ligand. In my thesis research, the synthesis of Au25 nanocluster capped with captopril has been reported. Captopril-protected Au25 nanocluster showed significantly higher thermal stability and enhanced chiroptical properties than the Glutathione-capped cluster, which confirms our initial rationale, that the ligand is critical in protecting the nanocluster. The optical absorption properties of these Au25 nanoclusters are studied and compared to the plasmonic nanoparticles. The high thermal stability and solubility of Au25 cluster capped with Captopril motivated us to explore this ligand for the synthesis of other gold clusters. Captopril is a chiral molecule with two chiral centers. The chiral ligand can induce chirality to the overall cluster, even if the core is achiral. Therefore, to obtain Au38 clusters as an enantiomer, the ligand employed should be chiral. The enantioselective synthesis of Au 38 capped with different chiral ligands has been reported and their chiroptical properties have been compared. The synthesis of a series of water-soluble Au nanoclusters has motivated us to study the effect of capping ligands and the core-size on their steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence properties, since the photoluminescence properties are particularly important for bioimaging and biomedical applications of nanoclusters. To gain fundamental insights into the origin of luminescence in nanoclusters, the effect of temperature on the fluorescence properties of these clusters has also been studied. The different sized nanoclusters ranging from a few dozen atoms to hundreds of atoms form a bridge between discrete atoms and the plasmonic nanocrystals; the latter involves essentially collective electron excitation-a phenomenon well explained by classical physics as opposed to quantum physics. The central question is: at what size does this transition from quantum behavior to classical behavior occur? To unravel this, we have successfully synthesized a series of silver nanoclusters. The precise formula assignment and their structural determination are still ongoing. We have successfully demonstrated the application of these water-soluble Au nanoclusters in photodynamic therapy for the treatment of cancer. We have successfully demonstrated that Au nanocluster system can produce singlet oxygen without the presence of any organic photosensitizers. In a collaborative project with Dr. Peteanu's group, the quenching efficiency of organic dyes by these water soluble nanoclusters is studied in different systems. Overall, this thesis outlines the successful synthesis of a family of water-soluble nanoclusters, their optical, chiroptical and fluorescence properties, as well as some applications of these nanoclusters.

  5. Boron Nitrides - Properties, Synthesis and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haubner, R.; Wilhelm, M.; Weissenbacher, R.; Lux, B.

    Boron nitride is a extraordinary topic in the area of materials science. Due to the special bonding behaviors of boron and nitrogen the BN exists in many different structures. The well-defined crystallographic structures are hexagonal BN (h-BN), rhombohedral BN (r-BN), wurtzitic BN (w-BN), and cubic BN (c-BN). Additionally, other crystalline and amorphous structures exist. Exceptional is that there are still discussions about the BN phase diagram. In the present stage c-BN is the stable phase at standard conditions but exact data about the phase transition line are not yet available. Synthesis of h-BN powders and coatings is described as well as applications of BN in ceramic materials and as lubricant. For c-BN the high-pressure high-temperature synthesis for powder production is discussed, and an overview about applications in wear resistant ceramics (polycrystalline c-BN) is given. The low-pressure methods for nano-cBN deposition (PVD and Plasma CVD) are described.

  6. A direct approach to amines with remote stereocentres by enantioselective CuH-catalysed reductive relay hydroamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Shaolin; Niljianskul, Nootaree; Buchwald, Stephen L.

    2016-02-01

    Amines with remote stereocentres (stereocentres that are three or more bonds away from the C-N bond) are important structural elements in many pharmaceutical agents and natural products. However, previously reported methods to prepare these compounds in an enantioselective manner are indirect and require multistep synthesis. Here, we report a copper-hydride-catalysed, enantioselective synthesis of γ- or δ-chiral amines from readily available allylic alcohols, esters and ethers using a reductive relay hydroamination strategy (a net reductive process in which an amino group is installed at a site remote from the original carbon-carbon double bond). The protocol was suitable for substrates containing a wide range of functional groups and provided remote chiral amine products with high levels of regio- and enantioselectivity. Sequential amination of substrates containing several carbon-carbon double bonds could be achieved, demonstrating the high chemoselectivity of this process.

  7. Synthesis and electronic applications of oxide-metal eutectic composites

    SciTech Connect

    Holder, J.D.; Cochran, J.K.; Hill, D.N.; Chapman, A.T.; Clark, G.W.

    1980-01-01

    A review is given of important developments in the synthesis of oxide-metal eutectic composites and the composite application in the continuing development of field emitters. Known metal oxide-metal binary and ternary eutectic systems are listed. The synthesis, electrical conductivity, thermodynamics, and applications are discussed. (FS)

  8. Biogenetically Inspired Synthesis of Lingzhiol.

    PubMed

    Sharmah Gautam, Krishna; Birman, Vladimir B

    2016-04-01

    A concise stereo- and enantioselective synthesis of lingzhiol has been achieved featuring a biogenetically inspired Brønsted acid catalyzed semipinacol rearrangement of a glycidyl alcohol intermediate. PMID:26974229

  9. Total Synthesis of Epicoccin G

    PubMed Central

    Nicolaou, K. C.; Totokotsopoulos, Sotirios; Giguère, Denis; Sun, Ya-Ping; Sarlah, David

    2011-01-01

    An expedient enantioselective total synthesis of epicoccin G and related dithiodiketopiperazines through a strategy featuring direct two-directional sulfenylation, photooxygenation and Kornblum–DeLaMare rearrangement is described. PMID:21548595

  10. Synthesis, characterization and application of electrode materials

    SciTech Connect

    He, L.

    1995-07-07

    It has been known that significant advances in electrochemistry really depend on improvements in the sensitivity, selectivity, convenience, and/or economy of working electrodes, especially through the development of new working electrode materials. The advancement of solid state chemistry and materials science makes it possible to provide the materials which may be required as satisfactory electrode materials. The combination of solid state techniques with electrochemistry expands the applications of solid state materials and leads to the improvement of electrocatalysis. The study of Ru-Ti{sub 4}O{sub 7} and Pt-Ti{sub 4}O{sub 7} microelectrode arrays as introduced in paper 1 and paper 4, respectively, focuses on their synthesis and characterization. The synthesis is described by high temperature techniques for Ru or Pt microelectrode arrays within a conductive Ti{sub 4}O{sub 7} ceramic matrix. The characterization is based on the data obtained by x-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy, voltammetry and amperometry. These microelectrode arrays show significant enhancement in current densities in comparison to solid Ru and Pt electrodes. Electrocatalysis at pyrochlore oxide Bi{sub 2}Ru{sub 2}O{sub 7.3} and Bi{sub 2}Ir{sub 2}O{sub 7} electrodes are described in paper 2 and paper 3, respectively. Details are reported for the synthesis and characterization of composite Bi{sub 2}Ru{sub 2}O{sub 7.3} electrodes. Voltammetric data are examined for evidence that oxidation can occur with transfer of oxygen to the oxidation products in the potential region corresponding to anodic discharge of H{sub 2}O with simultaneous evolution of O{sub 2}. Paper 3 includes electrocatalytic activities of composite Bi{sub 2}Ir{sub 2}O{sub 7} disk electrodes for the oxidation of I{sup -} and the reduction of IO{sub 3}{sup -}.

  11. Enantioselective synthesis of ansa-zirconocenes.

    PubMed

    LoCoco, Matthew D; Jordan, Richard F

    2004-11-01

    The reaction of the chiral chelated bis-amide complex Zr{(2R,4R)-PhNCHMeCH2CHMeNPh}Cl2(THF)2 (R,R-7) with lithium ansa-bis-indenyl reagents Li2[SBI](Et2O) (8a, SBI = (1-indenyl)2SiMe2) or Li2[EBI](Et2O) (8b, EBI = 1,2-(1-indenyl)2ethane) in THF affords the corresponding ansa-zirconocenes S,S-(SBI)Zr{(2R,4R)-PhNCHMeCH2CHMeNPh} (S,S,R,R-9a) or S,S-(EBI)Zr{(2R,4R)-PhNCHMeCH2CHMeNPh} (S,S,R,R-9b) in >95% isolated yield and >99% enantiomeric excess. Compound 9b was converted to the corresponding enantiomerically pure dichloride S,S-(EBI)ZrCl2 (S,S-10b) in 91% isolated yield by reaction with HCl in Et2O. The chiral diamine (2R,4R)-HPhNCHMeCH2CHMeNHPh (R,R-5) was recovered from this reaction. PMID:15506741

  12. Optical nanoparticles: synthesis and biomedical application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nhung Tran, Hong; Nghiem, Thi Ha Lien; Thuy Duong Vu, Thi; Chu, Viet Ha; Huan Le, Quang; Nhung Hoang, Thi My; Thanh Nguyen, Lai; Pham, Duc Minh; Thuan Tong, Kim; Hoa Do, Quang; Vu, Duong; Nghia Nguyen, Trong; Tan Pham, Minh; Nguyen Duong, Cao; Thuy Tran, Thanh; Son Vu, Van; Thuy Nguyen, Thi; Nguyen, Thi Bich Ngoc; Tran, Anh Duc; Thuong Trinh, Thi; Nguyen, Thi Thai An

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of our results on studies of synthesis and biomedical application of optical nanoparticles. Gold, dye-doped silica based and core-shell multifunctional multilayer (SiO2/Au, Fe3O4/SiO2, Fe3O4/SiO2/Au) water-monodispersed nanoparticles were synthesized by chemical route and surface modified with proteins and biocompatible chemical reagents. The particles were conjugated with antibody or aptamer for specific detecting and imaging bacteria and cancer cells. The photothermal effects of gold nanoshells (SiO2/Au and Fe3O4/SiO2/Au) on cells and tissues were investigated. The nano silver substrates were developed for surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy to detect melamine.

  13. Nanostructured metal foams: synthesis and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Luther, Erik P; Tappan, Bryce; Mueller, Alex; Mihaila, Bogdan; Volz, Heather; Cardenas, Andreas; Papin, Pallas; Veauthier, Jackie; Stan, Marius

    2009-01-01

    Fabrication of monolithic metallic nanoporous materials is difficult using conventional methodology. Here they report a relatively simple method of synthesizing monolithic, ultralow density, nanostructured metal foams utilizing self-propagating combustion synthesis of novel metal complexes containing high nitrogen energetic ligands. Nanostructured metal foams are formed in a post flame-front dynamic assembly with densities as low as 0.011 g/cc and surface areas as high as 270 m{sup 2}/g. They have produced metal foams via this method of titanium, iron, cobalt, nickel, zirconium, copper, palladium, silver, hafnium, platinum and gold. Microstructural features vary as a function of composition and process parameters. Applications for the metal foams are discussed including hydrogen absorption in palladium foams. A model for the sorption kinetics of hydrogen in the foams is presented.

  14. An Enantioselective Assembly of Dihydropyranones through an NHC/LiCl-Mediated in situ Activation of ?,?-Unsaturated Carboxylic Acids.

    PubMed

    Que, Yonglei; Lu, Yinan; Wang, Wenjing; Wang, Yuhong; Wang, Haotian; Yu, Chenxia; Li, Tuanjie; Wang, Xiang-Shan; Shen, Shide; Yao, Changsheng

    2016-03-01

    A straightforward N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC)/LiCl-mediated synthesis of dihydropyranones from ?,?-unsaturated carboxylic acids and 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds was realized through the in situ activation strategy. The key advantages of this protocol include ready availability and high stability of starting materials, good yields, and excellent enantioselectivity. PMID:26864639

  15. Short communication: synthesis and applications of Coumarin.

    PubMed

    Kinza Aslam, Kinza; Khosa, M Kaleem; Jahan, Nazish; Nosheen, Sofia

    2010-10-01

    In this work, coumarin was synthesized by Perkin reaction using salicylaldehyde, acetic acid and sodium acetate. Due to the misuse of acetic anhydride in narcotics synthesis, acetic acid was substituted for acetic anhydride in Perkin reaction. On the basis of this substitution a hypothesis was proposed that "acetic acid could be substituted as an acetylating agent in place of acetic anhydride in coumarin synthesis via Perkin reaction". In the present research project, salicylaldehyde was prepared from phenol, sodium hydroxide and chloroform for further procedure. Then four different coumarin samples were synthesized by changing the parameter of reactants proportions. From this parameter, we designed a trend of high product yield. Yields of Coumarin samples will lead towards either acceptance or rejection of the above proposed hypothesis. In the next step, these Coumarin samples were characterized by age yield (%), solubility and melting points. At last Antibacterial activities of all the four coumarin samples were evaluated against two bacterial strains; E.coli and S.aureus. As a consequence of all above, it was inferred that the yields of all coumarin samples obtained were low as compared to the yield obtained by the use of acetic anhydride in previous reports. This led to the rejection of proposed hypothesis. Among four Coumarin samples, sample-4 obtained by taking equal amounts of all the reactants had shown maximum yield, best characterization and excellent antibacterial activity. In spite of low yields obtained, the remarkable antibacterial activities of Coumarin samples have enabled us to suggest coumarin as a strong antibacterial agent and it must be employed for further applications. PMID:20884461

  16. Enantioselective acyl transfer catalysis by a combination of common catalytic motifs and electrostatic interactions

    PubMed Central

    Mandai, Hiroki; Fujii, Kazuki; Yasuhara, Hiroshi; Abe, Kenko; Mitsudo, Koichi; Korenaga, Toshinobu; Suga, Seiji

    2016-01-01

    Catalysts that can promote acyl transfer processes are important to enantioselective synthesis and their development has received significant attention in recent years. Despite noteworthy advances, discovery of small-molecule catalysts that are robust, efficient, recyclable and promote reactions with high enantioselectivity can be easily and cost-effectively prepared in significant quantities (that is, >10 g) has remained elusive. Here, we demonstrate that by attaching a binaphthyl moiety, appropriately modified to establish H-bonding interactions within the key intermediates in the catalytic cycle, and a 4-aminopyridyl unit, exceptionally efficient organic molecules can be prepared that facilitate enantioselective acyl transfer reactions. As little as 0.5 mol% of a member of the new catalyst class is sufficient to generate acyl-substituted all-carbon quaternary stereogenic centres in quantitative yield and in up to 98:2 enantiomeric ratio (er) in 5 h. Kinetic resolution or desymmetrization of 1,2-diol can be performed with high efficiency and enantioselectivity as well. PMID:27079273

  17. Enantioselective acyl transfer catalysis by a combination of common catalytic motifs and electrostatic interactions.

    PubMed

    Mandai, Hiroki; Fujii, Kazuki; Yasuhara, Hiroshi; Abe, Kenko; Mitsudo, Koichi; Korenaga, Toshinobu; Suga, Seiji

    2016-01-01

    Catalysts that can promote acyl transfer processes are important to enantioselective synthesis and their development has received significant attention in recent years. Despite noteworthy advances, discovery of small-molecule catalysts that are robust, efficient, recyclable and promote reactions with high enantioselectivity can be easily and cost-effectively prepared in significant quantities (that is, >10 g) has remained elusive. Here, we demonstrate that by attaching a binaphthyl moiety, appropriately modified to establish H-bonding interactions within the key intermediates in the catalytic cycle, and a 4-aminopyridyl unit, exceptionally efficient organic molecules can be prepared that facilitate enantioselective acyl transfer reactions. As little as 0.5 mol% of a member of the new catalyst class is sufficient to generate acyl-substituted all-carbon quaternary stereogenic centres in quantitative yield and in up to 98:2 enantiomeric ratio (er) in 5 h. Kinetic resolution or desymmetrization of 1,2-diol can be performed with high efficiency and enantioselectivity as well. PMID:27079273

  18. Direct and Highly Regioselective and Enantioselective Allylation of ?-Diketones

    PubMed Central

    Chalifoux, Wesley A.; Reznik, Samuel K.; Leighton, James L.

    2012-01-01

    The enantioselective allylation of ketones represents both a problem of fundamental importance in asymmetric reaction design and one of only a very small number of available methods to access valuable tertiary carbinols. Despite the vast amount of attention from chemists that this problem has elicited,1-8 however, success has generally been limited to just a few simple ketone types thus limiting the utility of these methods. A method for the selective allylation of functionally complex ketones would be expected to increase the utility of ketone allylation methods in the chemical synthesis of important targets. Here we describe the operationally simple, direct, regioselective, and enantioselective allylation of ?-diketones. The strong tendency of ?-diketones to act as nucleophilic species was overcome by the co-optation of their enol form to provide the necessary Brnsted acid activation. This unprecedented reaction thus not only significantly expands the pool of enantiomerically enriched and functionally complex tertiary carbinols that may be easily accessed, but also overturns more than a century of received wisdom regarding the reactivity of ?-diketones. PMID:22763452

  19. Kinetic Resolution of β-Sulfonyl Ketones through Enantioselective β-Elimination using a Cation-Binding Polyether Catalyst.

    PubMed

    Li, Liang; Liu, Yidong; Peng, Yang; Yu, Lei; Wu, Xiaoyan; Yan, Hailong

    2016-01-01

    Reported herein is the first enantioselective β-elimination reaction catalyzed by a chiral cation-binding polyether. By using this catalytic protocol, a wide range of β-sulfonyl ketones could be effectively resolved with high stereoselectivity (S up to >300). Key to the success of this process is the favorable secondary interactions of the catalyst with the Lewis basic groups on the sulfone substrate. The enone product of this process can be easily converted into the racemic starting material, and allows an effective recycling and overall synthesis of chiral β-sulfonyl ketones in high yield and excellent enantioselectivity. PMID:26577251

  20. Regioconvergent and Enantioselective Rhodium-Catalyzed Hydroamination of Internal and Terminal Alkynes: A Highly Flexible Access to Chiral Pyrazoles.

    PubMed

    Haydl, Alexander M; Hilpert, Lukas J; Breit, Bernhard

    2016-05-01

    The rhodium-catalyzed asymmetric N-selective coupling of pyrazole derivatives with internal and terminal alkynes features an utmost chemo-, regio-, and enantioselective access to enantiopure allylic pyrazoles, readily available for incorporation in small-molecule pharmaceuticals. This methodology is distinguished by a broad substrate scope, resulting in a remarkable compatability with a variety of different functional groups. It furthermore exhibits an intriguing case of regio-, position-, and enantioselectivity in just one step, underscoring the sole synthesis of just one out of up to six possible products in a highly flexible approach to allylated pyrazoles by emanating from various internal and terminal alkynes. PMID:26990445

  1. A Cu/Pd Cooperative Catalysis for Enantioselective Allylboration of Alkenes.

    PubMed

    Jia, Tao; Cao, Peng; Wang, Bing; Lou, Yazhou; Yin, Xuemei; Wang, Min; Liao, Jian

    2015-11-01

    A cooperative Cu/Pd-catalyzed asymmetric three-component reaction of styrenes, B2(pin)2, and allyl carbonates was reported. This reaction, in the presence of chiral CuOAc/SOP and achiral Pd(dppf)Cl2 catalysts, occurs smoothly with high enantioselectivities (up to 97% ee) . The allylboration products, which contain alkene (or diene) unite and alkylboron group, are easily functionalized. The utility of this protocol was demonstrated through the synthesis of an antipsychotic drug, (-)-preclamol. PMID:26458555

  2. Enantioselective organocatalytic Biginelli reaction: dependence of the catalyst on sterics, hydrogen bonding, and reinforced chirality.

    PubMed

    Saha, Satyajit; Moorthy, Jarugu Narasimha

    2011-01-21

    From a systematic investigation involving the synthesis of a series of catalysts and screening studies, the organocatalyst 16, which is sterically hindered, contains a strong hydrogen-bonding site, and is endowed with reinforced chirality, is shown to promote the Biginelli cyclocondensation of aromatic as well as aliphatic aldehydes with ethyl acetoacetate and urea in a remarkably high enantioselectivity (ee ca. 94-99%). PMID:21192642

  3. Enantioselective Intramolecular Aldehyde α-Alkylation with Simple Olefins: Direct Access to Homo-Ene Products

    PubMed Central

    Comito, Robert J.; Finelli, Fernanda G.

    2013-01-01

    A highly selective method for the synthesis of asymmetrically substituted carbocycles and heterocycles from unactivated aldehyde–olefin precursors has been achieved via enantioselective SOMO-catalysis. Addition of a catalytically generated enamine radical cation across a pendent olefin serves to establish a general asymmetric strategy towards the production of a wide range of formyl-substituted rings with alkene transposition. Conceptually, this novel mechanism allows direct access to “homo-ene” type products. PMID:23745728

  4. Synthesis of γ-Valerolactone from Carbohydrates and its Applications.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zehui

    2016-01-01

    γ-Valerolactone (GVL) is a valuable chemical intermediate that can be obtained by catalytic reduction of levulinic acid (LA) or alkyl levulinates (AL). There are many reports on the synthesis of GVL from LA or AL. However, the demand for the large-scale synthesis of GVL requires more environmentally friendly and cost-effective production processes. This article focuses on the recent advance in the synthesis of GVL from carbohydrates or lignocellulosic biomass. In addition, application of GVL as the reaction solvents, fuel additives, and as precursor for the synthesis of jet fuel and polymer monomers is also discussed. PMID:26733161

  5. Synthesis, characterization and applications of graphene architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Abhay Varghese

    Graphene, a two--dimensional sheet of sp2 hybridized carbon atoms arranged in a honeycomb lattice structure, has garnered tremendous interest from the scientific community for its unique combination of properties. It has interesting electrical, thermal, optical and mechanical properties that scientists and engineers are trying to understand and harness to improve current products as well as focus on disruptive technologies that can be made possible by this next generation material. In this thesis the synthesis, characterization and applications of various graphene architectures were explored from the context of a bottom--up and top--down synthesis approach. The work is divided into three main chapters and each one deals with a unique architecture of graphene as well as its properties and an application to a real world problem. In Chapter 2, we focus on bottom--up synthesis of graphene sheets by chemical vapor deposition. We then studied the wetting properties of graphene coated surfaces. More specifically the wetting properties of single and multilayer graphene films on flat and nanoscale rough surfaces are explored and the insights gained are used in improving heat transfer performance of copper surfaces. Single layer graphene, on certain flat surfaces, was shown to exhibit `wetting transparency' as a result of its sheer thinness and this property is of interest in various wetting related applications. Surface protection from corrosion and/or oxidation without change in wetting properties is tremendously useful in multiple fields and we looked to apply this property to dehumidification of copper surfaces. The short time scales results demonstrated that graphene indeed served to prevent oxidation of the surface which in turn promoted increased heat transfer co--efficients with respect to the oxidized copper surfaces. Closer inspection of the surface over long time scales however revealed that the oxide layer changed the wetting properties and this was detrimental to the heat transfer process. In Chapter 3, we explore the assembly of graphene papers by top down methods (i.e. exfoliation of bulk graphite). We then explore the use of such graphene papers as an anode material in Lithium--ion batteries. The morphologically novel electrode fabrication and its exceptional performance as a lithium ion battery anode were explored and an in--depth investigation was carried out to determine the precise reason for the enhanced anode performance. A modified thermal reduction technique of a stable graphene oxide paper was developed to create a novel, free standing, binder free, reduced graphene oxide architecture using the top--down synthesis approach. The process was optimized to maximize the capacity by varying temperature and time as the critical parameters for reduction. An in--depth study was undertaken using raman spectroscopy, computational modelling, scanning electron microscopy, x--ray diffraction and x--ray photoelectron spectroscopy to show that lithium metal was plated into the nano--pores of the anode and the defective nature of the graphene sheets acted as seed points for this plating. In Chapter 4 we focus on graphene oxide papers produced by top--down exfoliation methods. More specifically, controlled instabilities or wrinkles created on graphene oxide thin films were developed as a tunable optical transmission layer for use in dynamic glazing systems. Graphene oxide thin films, prepared using the top--down synthesis, were subjected to compressive strains in the uni--axial and bi--axial direction to create uniform wrinkling of the films. Scanning electron, optical and atomic force microscopy was used to image the wrinkling morphology to qualitatively understand the behavior of the films and delaminated buckling of the graphene oxide films was determined to be the cause of the wrinkling. UV--VIS--NIR transmission measurements were carried out to determine the average transmission of the films with uni-axial and bi-axial wrinkling. Maximization of the dynamic range of optical transmission in the visible wavelength region was achieved with bi--axial wrinkling and this method was studied in depth to understand the role of applied strain, substrate pre--strain, graphene oxide film thickness and cycling stability.

  6. Synthesis and applications of heterostructured semiconductor nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khon, Elena

    Semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) have been of great interest to researchers for several decades due to their unique optoelectronic properties. These nanoparticles are widely used for a variety of different applications. However, there are many unresolved issues that lower the efficiency and/or stability of devices which incorporate these NCs. Our research is dedicated to addressing these issues by identifying potential problems and resolving them, improving existing systems, generating new synthetic strategies, and/or building new devices. The general strategies for the synthesis of different nanocrystals were established in this work, one of which is the colloidal growth of gold domains onto CdS semiconductor nanocrystals. Control of shape and size was achieved simply by adjusting the temperature and the time of the reaction. Depending on the exact morphology of Au and CdS domains, fabricated nano-composites can undergo evaporation-induced self-assembly onto a substrate, which is very useful for building devices. CdS/Au heterostructures can assemble in two different ways: through end-to-end coupling of Au domains, resulting in the formation of one-dimensional chains; and via side-by-side packing of CdS nanorods, leading to the onset of two-dimensional superlattices. We investigated the nature of exciton-plasmon interactions in Au-tipped CdS nanorods using femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy. The study demonstrated that the key optoelectronic properties of electrically coupled metal and semiconductor domains are significantly different from those observed in systems with weak inter-domain coupling. In particular, strongly-coupled nanocomposites promote mixing of electronic states at semiconductor-metal domain interfaces, which causes a significant suppression of both plasmon and exciton carrier excitations. Colloidal QDs are starting to replace organic molecules in many different applications, such as organic light emmiting diods (OLEDs), due to their light emmision tunability. We reported a general strategy for the assembly of all-inorganic light-emitting nanocrystal films with an emission quantum yield in the 30-52% range. Our methodology relies on solution-processing of CdSe nanocrystals into a crystalline matrix of a wide band gap semiconductor (CdS, ZnS). As a result, we replace original organic ligands on nanocrystal surfaces with an inorganic medium which efficiently preserves the quantum confinement of electrical charges in CdSe NCs. In addition to strong emission, fabricated films demonstrated excellent thermal and chemical stability, and a large refractive index, which avails their integration into emerging solid-state nanocrystal devices. The ability to control size and shape of NCs is essential as it automatically affects the optoelectronic properties of the crystals. Colloidal chemistry offers an assortment of synthetic tools for tuning the shape of NCs, but some nanoparticle morphologies require alternative processing strategies. We have shown that chemical etching of colloidal nanoparticles can facilitate the realization of desirable nanocrystal geometries. This methodology allows both CdSe and CdS composed semiconductor domains be exposed to the external environment, while maintaining a structural design that is highly desirable for catalytic applications. Hydrogen production tests confirmed the improved catalytic activity of CdSe/CdS dimers. We expect that the demonstrated application will become a common methodology in the synthesis of charge-separating nanocrystals, leading to advanced nanoparticle architectures for applications in the areas of photocatalysis, photovoltaics, and light detection.

  7. Advances in enantioselective separations using electromigration capillary techniques.

    PubMed

    Preinerstorfer, Beatrix; Lämmerhofer, Michael; Lindner, Wolfgang

    2009-01-01

    The most recent literature dealing with enantioselective separations and stereoselective analyses of chiral entities including especially pharmaceuticals, phytochemicals, biochemicals, agrochemicals, fine chemicals and specific test compounds by electromigration techniques such as CE, MEKC, MEEKC, CEC and microchip CE is reviewed. The review covers literature from 2007 until mid-2008, i.e. studies that were published after the appearance of the latest review article on that topic in Electrophoresis by Gübitz and Schmid (see Electrophoresis 2007, 28, 114). Particular attention is given to the description of new chiral selector systems, studies on separation mechanisms and applications in the above-specified electromigration techniques. PMID:19107703

  8. Enantioselective Hydrosilylation of Imines Catalyzed by Chiral Zinc Acetate Complexes.

    PubMed

    Bezłada, Agata; Szewczyk, Marcin; Mlynarski, Jacek

    2016-01-01

    A series of zinc acetate complexes with optically pure diphenylethanediamine (DPEDA)-derived ligands have been employed as enantioselective catalyst for the hydrosilylation of various imines. High control of stereoselectivity (up to 97% ee) and excellent yields (up to 96%) were gained for a broad range of N-phosphinoylimines by using (R,R)-N,N'-dibenzyl-1,2-diphenylethane-1,2-diamine. This is the first successful application of an air-stable and environmentally friendly chiral Zn(OAc)2 complex instead of the previously used harmful diethylzinc in the asymmetric reduction of the C═N double bond. PMID:26667387

  9. Synthesis and characterization of advanced materials for Navy applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Covino, J.; Lee, I.

    1994-01-01

    The synthesis of ceramics and ceramic coatings through the sol-gel process has extensive application with the United States Navy and a broad range of potential commercial applications as well. This paper surveys seven specific applications for which the Navy is investigating these advanced materials. For each area, the synthetic process is described and the characteristics of the materials are discussed.

  10. Oxidative 1,2- and 1,3-alkyl shift processes: developments and applications in synthesis.

    PubMed

    Guérard, Kimiaka C; Guérinot, Amandine; Bouchard-Aubin, Cloé; Ménard, Marc-André; Lepage, Mathieu; Beaulieu, Marc André; Canesi, Sylvain

    2012-03-01

    Oxidative 1,2- and 1,3- alkyl shifts mediated by a hypervalent iodine reagent were performed on simple and inexpensive phenol derivatives. These transpositions enable rapid redesign of the main aromatic skeleton to generate good yields of highly functionalized scaffolds containing a prochiral dienone system, a quaternary carbon center connected to as many as four sp(2) centers, and a carbonyl functionality or precursor. An efficient enantioselective version of this process resulting in the formation of a challenging quaternary carbon center is also described. The products represent the central cores of several natural products having important bioactivities. As an illustration of the potential of this method, we describe the rapid synthesis of several functionalized polycyclic systems as well as a formal synthesis of acetylaspidoalbidine, a hexacyclic alkaloid belonging to the Aspidosperma family. PMID:22332792

  11. Silver nanoparticles: Synthesis methods, bio-applications and properties.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, Elham; Milani, Morteza; Fekri Aval, Sedigheh; Kouhi, Mohammad; Akbarzadeh, Abolfazl; Tayefi Nasrabadi, Hamid; Nikasa, Parisa; Joo, San Woo; Hanifehpour, Younes; Nejati-Koshki, Kazem; Samiei, Mohammad

    2016-03-01

    Silver nanoparticles size makes wide range of new applications in various fields of industry. Synthesis of noble metal nanoparticles for applications such as catalysis, electronics, optics, environmental and biotechnology is an area of constant interest. Two main methods for Silver nanoparticles are the physical and chemical methods. The problem with these methods is absorption of toxic substances onto them. Green synthesis approaches overcome this limitation. Silver nanoparticles size makes wide range of new applications in various fields of industry. This article summarizes exclusively scalable techniques and focuses on strengths, respectively, limitations with respect to the biomedical applicability and regulatory requirements concerning silver nanoparticles. PMID:24937409

  12. Enantioselective disposition of albuterol in humans.

    PubMed

    Boulton, D W; Fawcett, J P

    1996-01-01

    The study of enantioselective disposition of chiral drugs is important to provide a rationale of plasma concentration-effect relationships, which are often misleading when based on total drug concentration. It is also important when considering new dosage routes or formulations in order to optimize therapeutic plasma concentrations of the active enantiomer. Improvements in the sensitivity and selectivity of biological assays coupled with the developments in chiral analysis have made it possible to study the enantioselective disposition of drugs. Although valuable pharmacokinetic data were obtained for the beta 2-agonists by nonenantioselective methodology, more recent chiral studies have revealed the existence of extensive enantioselectivity in the disposition of these agents. The most significant features of the enantioselective disposition of albuterol are the relatively rapid plasma clearance and low bioavailability of the eutomer. Although this in itself does not necessarily justify the development of a single enantiomer formulation, the implications of the high levels of distomer after i.v. and oral dosing await clarification. Similarly, more work is required to elucidate the consequences of the major difference in disposition between albuterol and terbutaline in humans through both in vivo and in vitro studies of the mechanisms giving rise to this phenomenon. The enantioselective disposition of the other clinically used beta 2-agonists, such as fenoterol, formoterol, and salmeterol also needs to be characterized. The metabolism of the majority of beta 2-agonists is generally by conjugation to give one major metabolite. The situation is therefore uncomplicated by multiple metabolic pathways, which may differ in the extent and direction of their enantioselectivity. Many beta 2-agonists are excreted largely unchanged in the urine making studies of urinary excretion accessible without the requirement for very sensitive assays. The realization that the enantiomers of beta 2-agonists previously thought of as "inactive" may be associated with toxic effects is a further compelling reason to study the enantioselective pharmacokinetics of this class of drugs. In addition, the role of enantiomers in producing side effects, such as tremor and reduction in renal function, needs to be reassessed. The beta 2-agonists can be looked on as textbook examples of the inherent danger of ignoring chirality in the study of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. The growing body of information on the enantioselective disposition of beta 2-agonists in humans will enhance the rational use of these drugs in the future management of patients. PMID:8866176

  13. General Stereodivergent Enantioselective Total Synthetic Approach toward Macrosphelides A-G and M.

    PubMed

    Häcker, Christine; Plietker, Bernd

    2015-08-21

    A straightforward enantioselective total synthesis algorithm for the preparation of 8 out of 13 macrosphelides within 9-11 steps starting from tert-butyl sorbate is presented. The use of a cyclic sulfate as both protecting and reactivity directing group is the key element within this algorithm. A high-pressure transesterification allows for the selective ring-enlargement of the 15-membered macrosphelides into the 16-membered counterparts. The absolute configurations of the natural products were unambiguously assigned both by the chemical synthesis and by X-ray structure analysis. PMID:26203878

  14. Enantioselective Addition of Bromonitromethane to Aliphatic N-Boc Aldimines Using a Homogeneous Bifunctional Chiral Organocatalyst

    PubMed Central

    Schwieter, Kenneth E.; Johnston, Jeffrey N.

    2016-01-01

    This report details the enantioselective synthesis of β-amino-α-bromo nitroalkanes with β-alkyl substituents, using homogeneous catalysis to prepare either antipode. Use of a bifunctional Brønsted base/acid catalyst allows equal access to either enantiomer of the products, enabling the use of Umpolung Amide Synthesis (UmAS) to prepare the corresponding L- or D-α-amino amide bearing alkyl side chains – overall, in only 4 steps from aldehyde. The approach also addresses an underlying incompatibility between bromonitromethane and solid hydroxide bases.

  15. Enantioselective Rhodium-Catalyzed Dearomative Arylation or Alkenylation of Quinolinium Salts.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Liu, Yunlong; Zhang, Dongdong; Wei, Hao; Shi, Min; Wang, Feijun

    2016-03-01

    A highly enantioselective rhodium(I)-catalyzed dearomative arylation or alkenylation of easily available N-alkylquinolinium salts is reported, thus providing an effective and practical approach to the synthesis of dihydroquinolines in up to 99?%?ee. This reaction tolerates a wide range of functional groups with respect to both the organic boronic acids and the quinoline starting materials. Moreover, the synthetic utility of this protocol is demonstrated in the formal asymmetric synthesis of bioactive tetrahydroquinoline and the total syntheses of (-)-angustureine and (+)-cuspareine. PMID:26879692

  16. Enantioselective degradation of the chiral fungicides metalaxyl and furalaxyl by Brevibacillus brevis.

    PubMed

    Sulimma, Lutz; Bullach, Anke; Kusari, Souvik; Lamshöft, Marc; Zühlke, Sebastian; Spiteller, Michael

    2013-06-01

    For almost four decades, the chiral fungicides metalaxyl and furalaxyl have been in use in plant protection on a global scale. Both substances are distributed as racemic mixtures, yet the desirable interference in nucleic acid synthesis of harmful fungi only occurs by the (-)-R-enantiomer. As enantioselective degradation in Scheyern (Germany) and Yaoundé (Cameroon) soils has been documented, the influence of 50 isolated microorganisms on the R/S ratio was investigated. A high-pressure liquid chromatography method with a chiral column to separate enantiomers of metalaxyl and furalaxyl, and subsequent detection by tandem mass spectrometry, was employed. Only one of these microorganisms, a strain of Brevibacillus brevis, showed an enantioselective degradation pattern in liquid culture; the respective (-)-R-enantiomers were preferably degraded. Moreover, (-)-R-furalaxyl was degraded faster in cultures supplemented simultaneously with both fungicides of the same concentration. PMID:23716265

  17. Enantioselective desymmetrization of prochiral cyclohexanones by organocatalytic intramolecular Michael additions to α,β-unsaturated esters.

    PubMed

    Gammack Yamagata, Adam D; Datta, Swarup; Jackson, Kelvin E; Stegbauer, Linus; Paton, Robert S; Dixon, Darren J

    2015-04-13

    A new catalytic asymmetric desymmetrization reaction for the synthesis of enantioenriched derivatives of 2-azabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane, a key motif common to many alkaloids, has been developed. Employing a cyclohexanediamine-derived primary amine organocatalyst, a range of prochiral cyclohexanone derivatives possessing an α,β-unsaturated ester moiety linked to the 4-position afforded the bicyclic products, which possess three stereogenic centers, as single diastereoisomers in high enantioselectivity (83-99% ee) and in good yields (60-90%). Calculations revealed that stepwise C-C bond formation and proton transfer via a chair-shaped transition state dictate the exclusive endo selectivity and enabled the development of a highly enantioselective primary amine catalyst. PMID:25727215

  18. Organocatalysis by Networks of Cooperative Hydrogen Bonds: Enantioselective Direct Mannich Addition to Preformed Arylideneureas.

    PubMed

    Lillo, Victor J; Mansilla, Javier; Saá, José M

    2016-03-18

    The concept of noncovalent organocatalysis by means of networks of cooperative hydrogen bonds (NCHB organocatalysis) has been explored. Arylideneureas were chosen as ideal substrates because of their powerful donor-acceptor properties. We have examined their uncatalyzed, direct Mannich reaction with acetoacetates in comparison with that catalyzed by a number of salan derivatives capable of providing a network of cooperative hydrogen bonds. Catalyst D [(R,R)-N,N'-bis(salicyl)cyclohexane-1,2-diamine] was found to drive the above direct Mannich reaction in an enantioselective manner, thereby allowing the synthesis of several Biginelli dihydropyrimidinones with high enantioselectivity. DFT calculations (B3LYP-D-PCM/6-31+G*//B3LYP/6-31+G*) revealed that the NCHB organocatalyst lowers the energy barrier of the reaction. The NCHB organocatalysts appear to function as biomimetic catalysts. PMID:26918408

  19. Bio-inspired synthesis of metal nanomaterials and applications.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jiale; Lin, Liqin; Sun, Daohua; Chen, Huimei; Yang, Dapeng; Li, Qingbiao

    2015-10-01

    This critical review focuses on recent advances in the bio-inspired synthesis of metal nanomaterials (MNMs) using microorganisms, viruses, plants, proteins and DNA molecules as well as their applications in various fields. Prospects in the design of bio-inspired MNMs for novel applications are also discussed. PMID:26083903

  20. Gd-TEMDO: Design, Synthesis, and MRI Application.

    PubMed

    Boltjes, André; Shrinidhi, Annadka; van de Kolk, Kees; Herdtweck, Eberhardt; Dömling, Alexander

    2016-05-23

    A simple Ugi tetrazole multicomponent reaction allows the synthesis of a novel macrocyclic cyclen derivative with four appendant tetrazole arms in just two steps in excellent yields. This ligand, called TEMDO, turns out to have a high complexation affinity with lanthanoid metals. Here we describe the design, synthesis, solid-state structure, binding constant, and some MRI applications of the Gd-TEMDO complex as the first example of a congeneric family of oligo-amino tetrazoles. PMID:26991633

  1. Supramolecular dendritic polymers: from synthesis to applications.

    PubMed

    Dong, Ruijiao; Zhou, Yongfeng; Zhu, Xinyuan

    2014-07-15

    CONSPECTUS: Supramolecular dendritic polymers (SDPs), which perfectly combine the advantages of dendritic polymers with those of supramolecular polymers, are a novel class of non-covalently bonded, highly branched macromolecules with three-dimensional globular topology. Because of their dynamic/reversible nature, unique topological structure, and exceptional physical/chemical properties (e.g., low viscosity, high solubility, and a large number of functional terminal groups), SDPs have attracted increasing attention in recent years in both academic and industrial fields. In particular, the reversibility of non-covalent interactions endows SDPs with the ability to undergo dynamic switching of structure, morphology, and function in response to various external stimuli, such as pH, temperature, light, stress, and redox agents, which further provides a flexible and robust platform for designing and developing smart supramolecular polymeric materials and functional supramolecular devices. The existing SDPs can be systematically classified into the following six major types according to their topological features: supramolecular dendrimers, supramolecular dendronized polymers, supramolecular hyperbranched polymers, supramolecular linear-dendritic block copolymers, supramolecular dendritic-dendritic block copolymers, and supramolecular dendritic multiarm copolymers. These different types of SDPs possess distinct morphologies, unique architectures, and specific functions. Benefiting from their versatile topological structures as well as stimuli-responsive properties, SDPs have displayed not only unique characteristics or advantages in supramolecular self-assembly behaviors (e.g., controllable morphologies, specific performance, and facile functionalization) but also great potential to be promising candidates in various fields. In this Account, we summarize the recent progress in the synthesis, functionalization, and self-assembly of SDPs as well as their potential applications in a wide range of fields. A variety of synthetic methods using non-covalent interactions have been established to prepare different types of SDPs based on varied mono- or multifunctionalized building blocks (e.g., monomer, dendron, dendrimer, and hyperbranched polymer) with homo- or heterocomplementary units. In addition, SDPs can be further endowed with excellent functionalities by employing different modification approaches involving terminal, focal-point, and backbone modification. Similar to conventional dendritic polymers, SDPs can self-assemble into diverse supramolecular structures such as micelles, vesicles, fibers, nanorings, tubes, and many hierarchical structures. Finally, we highlight some typical examples of recent applications of SDP-based systems in biomedical fields (e.g., controlled drug/gene/protein delivery, bioimaging, and biomimetic chemistry), nanotechnology (e.g., nanoreactors, catalysis, and molecular imprinting), and functional materials. The current research on SDPs is still at the very early stage, and much more work needs to be done. We anticipate that future studies of SDPs will focus on developing multifunctional, hierarchical supramolecular materials toward their practical applications by utilization of cooperative non-covalent interactions. PMID:24779892

  2. Spiro[2.4]hepta-4,6-dienes: synthesis and application in organic synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menchikov, L. G.; Nefedov, O. M.

    2016-03-01

    This review integrates and describes systematically the data in the field of spiro[2.4]hepta-4,6-dienes published in the past 15 years. The changes in the development of studies that took place during this period are noted. The methods for the synthesis, the reactivity details and key chemical transformations of spiro[2.4]hepta-4,6-dienes are considered, with the emphasis on applications of these compounds in organic synthesis. The bibliography includes 207 references.

  3. Chiral catalysts dually functionalized with amino acid and Zn2+ complex components for enantioselective direct aldol reactions inspired by natural aldolases: design, synthesis, complexation properties, catalytic activities, and mechanistic study.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Susumu; Kitamura, Masanori; Yamada, Yasuyuki; Aoki, Shin

    2009-10-12

    Aldolases are enzymes that catalyze stereospecific aldol reactions in a reversible manner. Naturally occurring aldolases include class I aldolases, which catalyze aldol reactions via enamine intermediates, and class II aldolases, in which Zn(2+) enolates of substrates react with acceptor aldehydes. In this work, Zn(2+) complexes of L-prolyl-pendant[15]aneN(5) (ZnL(3)), L-prolyl-pendant[12]aneN(4) (ZnL(4)), and L-valyl-pendant[12]aneN(4) (ZnL(5)) were designed and synthesized for use as chiral catalysts for enantioselective aldol reactions. The complexation constants for L(3) to L(5) with Zn(2+) [logK(s)(ZnL)] were determined to be 14.1 (for ZnL(3)), 7.6 (for ZnL(4)), and 9.6 (for ZnL(5)), indicating that ZnL(3) is more stable than ZnL(4) and ZnL(5). The deprotonation constants of Zn(2+)-bound water [pK(a)(ZnL) values] for ZnL(3), ZnL(4), and ZnL(5) were calculated to be 9.2 (for ZnL(3)), 8.2 (for ZnL(4)), and 8.6 (for ZnL(5)), suggesting that the Zn(2+) ions in ZnL(3) is a less acidic Lewis acid than in ZnL(4) and ZnL(5). These values also indicated that the amino groups on the side chains weakly coordinate to Zn(2+). We carried out aldol reactions between acetone and 2-chlorobenzaldehyde and other aldehydes in the presence of catalytic amounts of the chiral Zn(2+) complexes in acetone/H(2)O at 25 and 37 degrees C. Whereas ZnL(3) yielded the aldol product in 43% yield and 1% ee (R), ZnL(4) and ZnL(5) afforded good chemical yields and high enantioselectivities of up to 89% ee (R). UV titrations of proline and ZnL(4) with acetylacetone (acac) in DMSO/H(2)O (1:2) indicate that ZnL(4) facilitates the formation of the ZnL(4)(acac)(-) complex (K(app)=2.1x10(2) M(-1)), whereas L-proline forms a Schiff base with acac with a very small equilibrium constant. These results suggest that the amino acid components and the Zn(2+) ions in ZnL(4) and ZnL(5) function in a cooperative manner to generate the Zn(2+)-enolate of acetone, thus permitting efficient enantioselective C-C bond formation with aldehydes. PMID:19746465

  4. The productive merger of iodonium salts and organocatalysis: a non-photolytic approach to the enantioselective alpha-trifluoromethylation of aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Allen, Anna E; Macmillan, David W C

    2010-04-14

    An enantioselective organocatalytic alpha-trifluoromethylation of aldehydes has been accomplished using a commercially available, electrophilic trifluoromethyl source. The merging of Lewis acid and organocatalysis provides a new strategy for the enantioselective construction of trifluoromethyl stereogenicity, an important chiral synthon for pharmaceutical, materials, and agrochemical applications. This mild and operationally simple protocol allows rapid access to enantioenriched alpha-trifluoromethylated aldehydes through a nonphotolytic pathway. PMID:20297822

  5. Carbohydrate-Based Lactones: Synthesis and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xavier, Nuno M.; Rauter, Amlia P.; Queneau, Yves

    The synthesis and uses of different kinds of carbohydrate-based lactones are described. This group of compounds includes aldonolactones, other related monocyclic lactones and bicyclic systems. The latter can arise from uronic acids, carboxymethyl ethers or glycosides, or from C-branched sugars.

  6. Application of variable metric methods to structural synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanderplaats, G. N.; Sugimoto, H.

    1985-01-01

    Powell (1977, 1978), Biggs (1972, 1975), and Han (1976, 1977) have developed a class of variable metric methods which create an explicit, quadratic, subproblem which is to be solved for finding a search direction for design improvement. A one-dimensional search is then performed. The present paper has the objective to present this variable metric approach in the context of structural synthesis. The variable metric algorithm is modified for application to the structural synthesis problem. The application of the new procedure is illustrated with the aid of examples, taking into account a 10-bar planar truss, a 17-bar planar tower, and a cantilever beam.

  7. Design and synthesis of mixed oxides nanoparticles for biofuel applications

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Senniang

    2010-05-15

    The work in this dissertation presents the synthesis of two mixed metal oxides for biofuel applications and NMR characterization of silica materials. In the chapter 2, high catalytic efficiency of calcium silicate is synthesized for transesterfication of soybean oil to biodisels. Chapter 3 describes the synthesis of a new Rh based catalyst on mesoporous manganese oxides. The new catalyst is found to have higher activity and selectivity towards ethanol. Chapter 4 demonstrates the applications of solid-state Si NMR in the silica materials.

  8. Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles for Revolutionizing Agriculture: Synthesis and Applications

    PubMed Central

    Sabir, Sidra; Arshad, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    Nanotechnology is the most innovative field of 21st century. Extensive research is going on for commercializing nanoproducts throughout the world. Due to their unique properties, nanoparticles have gained considerable importance compared to bulk counterparts. Among other metal nanoparticles, zinc oxide nanoparticles are very much important due to their utilization in gas sensors, biosensors, cosmetics, drug-delivery systems, and so forth. Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) also have remarkable optical, physical, and antimicrobial properties and therefore have great potential to enhance agriculture. As far as method of formation is concerned, ZnO NPs can be synthesized by several chemical methods such as precipitation method, vapor transport method, and hydrothermal process. The biogenic synthesis of ZnO NPs by using different plant extracts is also common nowadays. This green synthesis is quite safe and ecofriendly compared to chemical synthesis. This paper elaborates the synthesis, properties, and applications of zinc oxide nanoparticles. PMID:25436235

  9. Evaluation of Pseudoenantiomeric Mixed Carbonates as Efficient Fluorogenic Probes for Enantioselectivity Screening.

    PubMed

    Zadlo, Anna; Koszelewski, Dominik; Borys, Filip; Ostaszewski, Ryszard

    2016-01-01

    We report mixed carbonates as enzyme substrates and demonstrate their application as fluorogenic probes for lipase and esterase enantiopreference screening. By the application of pseudoenantiomers with distinct fluorescence behaviors, it is possible to evaluate the activity and enantiopreference of hydrolytic enzymes. In order to validate our method, enantioselectivities calculated from fluorometric measurements were compared with the results obtained from larger-scale kinetic resolution. PMID:26507370

  10. Phosphine-mediated Highly Enantioselective Spirocyclization with Ketimines as Substrates.

    PubMed

    Han, Xiaoyu; Chan, Wai-Lun; Yao, Weijun; Wang, Yongjiang; Lu, Yixin

    2016-05-23

    Phosphine-catalyzed enantioselective annulation reactions involving ketimines are a daunting synthetic challenge owing to the intrinsic low reactivity of ketimine substrates. A highly enantioselective [3+2] cycloaddition reaction that makes use of isatin-derived ketimines as reaction partners was developed. Notably, both simple and γ-substituted allenoates could be utilized, and various 3,2'-pyrrolidinyl spirooxindoles with a tetrasubstituted stereocenter were obtained in excellent yields and with nearly perfect enantioselectivity (>98 % ee in all cases). PMID:27080309

  11. Synthesis of silver nanoparticle and its application.

    PubMed

    Pandian, A Muthu Kumara; Karthikeyan, C; Rajasimman, M; Dinesh, M G

    2015-11-01

    In this work, silver nanoparticles have been synthesized by wet chemical technique, green synthesis and microbial methods. Silver nitrate (10(-3)M) was used with aqueous extract to produce silver nanoparticles. From the results it was observed that the yield of nanoparticles was high in green synthesis. The size of the silver nanoparticles was determined from Scanning Electron Microscope analysis (SEM). Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was carried out to determine the presence of biomolecules in them. Its cytotoxic effect was studied in cancerous cell line and normal cell line. MTT assay was done to test its optimal concentration and efficacy which gives valuable information for the use of silver nanoparticles for future cancer therapy. PMID:25866204

  12. Vinyldisiloxanes: their synthesis, cross coupling and applications.

    PubMed

    Sore, Hannah F; Boehner, Christine M; Laraia, Luca; Logoteta, Patrizia; Prestinari, Cora; Scott, Matthew; Williams, Katharine; Galloway, Warren R J D; Spring, David R

    2011-01-21

    During the studies towards the development of pentafluorophenyldimethylsilanes as a novel organosilicon cross coupling reagent it was revealed that the active silanolate and the corresponding disiloxane formed rapidly under basic conditions. The discovery that disiloxanes are in equilibrium with the silanolate led to the use of disiloxanes as cross coupling partners under fluoride free conditions. Our previous report focused on the synthesis and base induced cross coupling of aryl substituted vinyldisiloxanes with aryl halides; good yields and selectivities were achieved. As a continuation of our research, studies into the factors which influence the successful outcome of the cross coupling reaction with both alkyl and aryl substituted vinyldisiloxanes were examined and a proposed mechanism discussed. Further investigation into expanding the breadth and diversity of substituted vinyldisiloxanes in cross coupling was explored and applied to the synthesis of unsymmetrical trans-stilbenes and cyclic structures containing the trans-alkene architecture. PMID:20941422

  13. Enantioselective toxicities of chiral ionic liquids 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium lactate to aquatic algae.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui; Zou, Yuqin; Zhang, Lijuan; Wen, Yuezhong; Liu, Weiping

    2014-09-01

    With the wide application of chiral ionic liquids (CILs) as green solvents, their threats to the aquatic environment cannot be ignored. Thus, risk assessment and the prospective design of inherently safe CILs have become more urgent. However, whether enantioselectivity is a feature of the aquatic toxicity of CILs is poorly understood. Herein, we describe the first investigation into the ecotoxicities of CILs toward green algae Scenedesmus obliquus and Euglena gracilis. A series of methylimidazolium lactic ionic liquids, which cation parts with different alkyl chains and anion part is enantiomers of lactate, are used as representative CILs. The results of S. obliquus showed that the EC50 value of L-(+)-1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium lactate (L-(+)-EMIM L) was more than 5000 μM, while the EC50 value of D-(-)-1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium lactate (D-(-)-EMIM L) was 2255.21 μM. Such a distinct difference indicates the enantioselective toxicity of CILs to algae. This enantioselectivity initially persisted with increasing carbon chain length, but no longer exhibited when with greater carbon chain lengths, due to changes in the toxicity weightings of the cation parts. Further research showed that the enantioselective effects of CILs resulted from the differences in the production of reactive oxygen species, the damage to cell membrane integrity and cell wall after exposure to CILs. Results from this study showed that monitoring for the racemate CILs will give an inadequate or misleading environmental risk assessment. Thus, we should improve our ability to predict their effects in natural environments. In the meantime, non-selective use of CILs will do harm to aquatic organisms. Therefore, to minimize their potential for environmental impact, the enantioselective toxicities of CILs with short alkyl chains should be taken into consideration. PMID:24880783

  14. Enantioselective Analysis in instruments onboard ROSETTA/PHILAE and ExoMars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendrik Bredehöft, Jan; Thiemann, Wolfram; Meierhenrich, Uwe; Goesmann, Fred

    It has been suggested a number of times in the past, to look for chirality as a biomarker. So far, for lack of appropriate instrumentation, space missions have never included enantioselective analysis. The distinction between enantiomers is of crucial importance to the question of the origin of the very first (pre)biotic molecules. If molecules detected in situ on another celestial body were found to exhibit a chiral bias, this would mean that at least partial asymmetric synthesis could take place abiotically. If this chiral bias should be found to be near 100For the currently flying ESA mission ROSETTA an enantioselective instrument was built, to try for the first time to detect and separate chiral molecules in situ. This instrument is COSAC, the Cometary Sampling and Acquisition Experiment, an enantioselective GCMS device[1,2], which is included in the lander PHLIAE that will eventually in 2014 land on the nucleus of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. A similar but even more powerful type of enantioselective GC-MS is in preparation for ESA's ExoMars mission. This instrument is part of MOMA, the Mars Organic Molecules Analyser. It has the objective of identifying and quantifying chiral organic molecules in surface and subsurface samples of Mars. Currently ExoMars is scheduled for 2018. The newly developed enantioselective technique utilized by both COSAC and MOMA will be described, including sample acquisition, derivatization, and separation in space-resistant chiral stationary capillary columns with time-of-flight mass spectrometric detection. Results of enantioselective analyses of representative test samples with special emphasis on amino acids[3], the building blocks of protein polymers, will be presented and we will discuss potential results of space missions Rosetta and ExoMars. [1] Thiemann W.H.-P., Meierhenrich U.: ESA Mission ROSETTA Will Probe for Chirality of Cometary Amino Acids. Origins of Life and Evolution of Biospheres 31 (2001), 199-210. [2] Goesmann F., Rosenbauer H., Roll R., Szopa C., Raulin F., Sternberg R., Israel G., Meier-henrich U., Thiemann W., Muñoz Caro G.M.: COSAC, The cometary sampling and composi-n tion experiment on Philae. Space Science Reviews 128 (2007), 257-280. [3] Meierhenrich U.J.: Amino Acids and the Asymmetry of Life -Caught in the Act of Forma-tion. Springer, Heidelberg Berlin New York (2008).

  15. Bio-Inspired Green Nanoparticles: Synthesis, Mechanism, and Antibacterial Application

    PubMed Central

    Velusamy, Palaniyandi; Kumar, Govindarajan Venkat; Jeyanthi, Venkadapathi; Das, Jayabrata; Pachaiappan, Raman

    2016-01-01

    In the recent years, noble nanoparticles have attracted and emerged in the field of biology, medicine and electronics due to their incredible applications. There were several methods have been used for synthesis of nanoparticles such as toxic chemicals and high energy physical procedures. To overcome these, biological method has been used for the synthesis of various metal nanoparticles. Among the nanoparticles, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have received much attention in various fields, such as antimicrobial activity, therapeutics, bio-molecular detection, silver nanocoated medical devices and optical receptor. Moreover, the biological approach, in particular the usage of natural organisms has offered a reliable, simple, nontoxic and environmental friendly method. Hence, the current article is focused on the biological synthesis of silver nanoparticles and their application in the biomedical field. PMID:27123159

  16. Inherently chiral concave molecules--from synthesis to applications.

    PubMed

    Szumna, Agnieszka

    2010-11-01

    This tutorial review covers the recent development in the synthesis and application of molecules and finite assemblies that are chiral owing to their curvature. A modified definition of inherent chirality is provided. Various classes of chiral concave molecules are presented including salphen complexes, cyclic amides, derivatives of sumanene, trioxatricornan or subphthalocyanine, cyclotriveratrylenes, homooxacalix[3]arenes, calixarenes, resorcinarenes, phthalocyanines, corannulenes and cavitands. Some of these bowl shaped compounds exhibit high inversion barriers, comparable with the stability of classical carbon chirality centres, while the others (e.g. hydrogen bonded assemblies) can only be detected by NMR. This review is focused on practical aspects of synthesis, resolution and applications in chiral recognition and asymmetric synthesis. PMID:20882239

  17. Bio-Inspired Green Nanoparticles: Synthesis, Mechanism, and Antibacterial Application.

    PubMed

    Velusamy, Palaniyandi; Kumar, Govindarajan Venkat; Jeyanthi, Venkadapathi; Das, Jayabrata; Pachaiappan, Raman

    2016-04-01

    In the recent years, noble nanoparticles have attracted and emerged in the field of biology, medicine and electronics due to their incredible applications. There were several methods have been used for synthesis of nanoparticles such as toxic chemicals and high energy physical procedures. To overcome these, biological method has been used for the synthesis of various metal nanoparticles. Among the nanoparticles, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have received much attention in various fields, such as antimicrobial activity, therapeutics, bio-molecular detection, silver nanocoated medical devices and optical receptor. Moreover, the biological approach, in particular the usage of natural organisms has offered a reliable, simple, nontoxic and environmental friendly method. Hence, the current article is focused on the biological synthesis of silver nanoparticles and their application in the biomedical field. PMID:27123159

  18. Synthesis and photovoltaic application of coper (I) sulfide nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Yue; Wadia, Cyrus; Ma, Wanli; Sadtler, Bryce; Alivisatos, A.Paul

    2008-06-24

    We present the rational synthesis of colloidal copper(I) sulfide nanocrystals and demonstrate their application as an active light absorbing component in combination with CdS nanorods to make a solution-processed solar cell with 1.6percent power conversion efficiency on both conventional glass substrates and flexible plastic substrates with stability over a 4 month testing period.

  19. Mutation of Residue βF71 of Escherichia coli Penicillin Acylase Results in Enhanced Enantioselectivity and Improved Catalytic Properties

    PubMed Central

    Shapovalova, I.V.; Alkema, W.B.L.; Jamskova, O.V.; de Vries, E.; Guranda, D.T.; Janssen, D.B.

    2009-01-01

    Residue phenylalanine 71 of the β-chain of penicillin acylase from E. coli is involved in substrate binding and chiral discrimination of its enantiomers. Different amino acid residues have been introduced at position βF71, and the mutants were studied with respect to their enantioselectivity and substrate specificity. Some mutants demonstrated remarkably improved catalytic activity. Moreover, mutation of βF71 residue allowed to enhance penicillin acylase enantioselectivity. The catalytic activity to the specific substrates was improved up to 36 times, most notably for K, R, and L mutants. Increased activity to a D-phenylglycine derivative - a valuable specificity improvement for biocatalytic synthesis of new penicillins and cephalosporins - was shown for βF71R and βF71L mutants. The synthetic capacity of penicillin acylase with 6-aminopenicillanic acid as an external nucleophile was especially sensitive to mutation of the β71 residue in contrast to the synthesis with 7-aminodeacetoxycephalosporanic acid. PMID:22649620

  20. Film grain synthesis and its application to re-graining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schallauer, Peter; Mörzinger, Roland

    2006-01-01

    Digital film restoration and special effects compositing require more and more automatic procedures for movie regraining. Missing or inhomogeneous grain decreases perceived quality. For the purpose of grain synthesis an existing texture synthesis algorithm has been evaluated and optimized. We show that this algorithm can produce synthetic grain which is perceptually similar to a given grain template, which has high spatial and temporal variation and which can be applied to multi-spectral images. Furthermore a re-grain application framework is proposed, which synthesises based on an input grain template artificial grain and composites this together with the original image content. Due to its modular approach this framework supports manual as well as automatic re-graining applications. Two example applications are presented, one for re-graining an entire movie and one for fully automatic re-graining of image regions produced by restoration algorithms. Low computational cost of the proposed algorithms allows application in industrial grade software.

  1. Enzymatic Enantioselective Decarboxylative Protonation of Heteroaryl Malonates

    PubMed Central

    Lewin, Ross; Goodall, Mark; Thompson, Mark L; Leigh, James; Breuer, Michael; Baldenius, Kai; Micklefield, Jason

    2015-01-01

    The enzyme aryl/alkenyl malonate decarboxylase (AMDase) catalyses the enantioselective decarboxylative protonation (EDP) of a range of disubstituted malonic acids to give homochiral carboxylic acids that are valuable synthetic intermediates. AMDase exhibits a number of advantages over the non-enzymatic EDP methods developed to date including higher enantioselectivity and more environmentally benign reaction conditions. In this report, AMDase and engineered variants have been used to produce a range of enantioenriched heteroaromatic α-hydroxycarboxylic acids, including pharmaceutical precursors, from readily accessible α-hydroxymalonates. The enzymatic method described here represents an improvement upon existing synthetic chemistry methods that have been used to produce similar compounds. The relationship between the structural features of these new substrates and the kinetics associated with their enzymatic decarboxylation is explored, which offers further insight into the mechanism of AMDase. PMID:25766433

  2. A formal, one-pot β-chlorination of primary alcohols and its utilization in the transformation of terpene feedstock and the synthesis of a C2-symmetrical terminal bis-epoxide.

    PubMed

    Swatschek, Jörg; Grothues, Lydia; Bauer, Jonathan O; Strohmann, Carsten; Christmann, Mathias

    2014-02-01

    A one-pot transformation of alkan-1-ols into 2-chloroalkan-1-ols is described. As a practical application, terpene-derived primary alcohols were converted into semiochemicals such as olfactory lactones (aerangis lactone, whisky lactone, and cognac lactone) and pheromones (cruentol and ferrugineol). Using heptane-1,7-diol as a bifunctional substrate, the corresponding bis-epoxide was synthesized by bidirectional synthesis in good yield and high enantioselectivity. PMID:24437547

  3. Layered double hydroxide films: synthesis, properties and applications.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaoxiao; Zhang, Fazhi; Evans, David G; Duan, Xue

    2010-08-01

    Layered double hydroxide (LDH) films have been widely investigated in the last few years because of their promising applications in areas such as catalysis, anti-corrosion coatings for metals, and as components in optical, electrical, and magnetic devices. In this Feature Article we review recent work, from our own laboratory and elsewhere, on the synthesis, properties and applications of functional LDH films, and also offer some perspectives for the design of future multifunctional LDH films. PMID:20549015

  4. Catalytic Enantioselective Conversion of Epoxides to Thiiranes.

    PubMed

    Liao, Saihu; Leutzsch, Markus; Monaco, Mattia Riccardo; List, Benjamin

    2016-04-27

    A highly efficient and enantioselective Brønsted acid catalyzed conversion of epoxides to thiiranes has been developed. The reaction proceeds in a kinetic resolution, furnishing both epoxide and thiirane in high yields and enantiomeric purity. Heterodimer formation between the catalyst and sulfur donor affords an effective way to prevent catalyst decomposition and enables catalyst loadings as low as 0.01 mol %. PMID:27070207

  5. Enantioselective Bromo-oxycyclization of Silanol.

    PubMed

    Xia, Zilei; Hu, Jiadong; Shen, Zhigao; Wan, Xiaolong; Yao, Qizheng; Lai, Yisheng; Gao, Jin-Ming; Xie, Weiqing

    2016-01-01

    Relying on the nucleophilicity of silanol for building up silicon-incorporated scaffold with an enantiopure tetrasubstituted carbon center remains elusive. In this report, asymmetric bromo-oxycyclization of olefinic silanol by using chiral anionic phase-transfer catalyst is described. This protocol provided a facile entry to a wide arrangement of enantiopure benzoxasilole in moderate to excellent enantioselectivities depending on the unique reactivity of bromine/N-benzyl-DABCO complex. PMID:26654658

  6. Enantioselective ?-Protonation by a Cooperative Catalysis Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Michael H.; Cohen, Daniel T.; Schwamb, C. Benjamin; Mishra, Rama K.; Scheidt, Karl A.

    2015-01-01

    An enantioselective N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC)-catalyzed ?-protonation through the orchestration of three distinct organocatalysts has been developed. This cooperative catalyst system enhances both yield and selectivity, compared to only the NHC-catalyzed process. This new method allows for the efficient conversion of a large scope of aryl-oxobutenoates to highly enantioenriched succinate derivatives and demonstrates the benefits of combining different activation modes in organocatalysis. PMID:25929160

  7. Enantioselective Phytotoxicity of Imazamox Against Maize Seedlings.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jing; Zhang, Xiaoxiao; Li, Xuesheng; Zeng, Dongqiang; Tan, Huihua

    2016-02-01

    There is increasing concern about the enantioselective effects of chiral herbicides. To study the enantioselective toxicity of the chiral herbicide imazamox on maize, maize seedlings (Zhengda 619, Zea mays L.) were exposed to imazamox racemate and enantiomers in hydroponic experiments. The results showed that imazamox enantiomers selectively affected maize. The effective concentration of Rac-, S- and R-imazamox that caused 50 % inhibition after 5 days treatments (EC50,5d) were 0.4212, 1.2142 and 0.2460 mg L(-1), respectively, for maize root length; 0.0002, 0.1005, 0.0032 mg L(-1), respectively, for maize root fresh weight; 0.7114, 1.4056 and 0.4530 mg L(-1), respectively, for maize shoot height; 0.6220, 1.5418, 0.2286 mg L(-1), respectively, for maize shoot fresh weight; and 0.1100, 0.3306, 0.0307 mg L(-1), respectively, for the total chlorophyll content of leaves. The root morphological parameters and root activity reflected the toxicity effects in the order R-imazamox > Rac-imazamox > S-imazamox. Maize roots were more sensitive to imazamox than maize shoots. The chiral herbicide imazamox poses enantioselective phytotoxicity on maize seedlings: the order of toxicity is R-imazamox > Rac-imazamox > S-imazamox. PMID:26508428

  8. The Construction of All-Carbon Quaternary Stereocenters by Use of Pd-Catalyzed Asymmetric Allylic Alkylation Reactions in Total Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Allen Y.

    2014-01-01

    All-carbon quaternary stereocenters have posed significant challenges in the synthesis of complex natural products. These important structural motifs have inspired the development of broadly applicable palladium-catalyzed asymmetric allylic alkylation reactions of unstabilized non-biased enolates for the synthesis of enantioenriched α-quaternary products. This microreview outlines key considerations in the application of palladium-catalyzed asymmetric allylic alkylation reactions and presents recent total syntheses of complex natural products that have employed these powerful transformations for the direct, catalytic, enantioselective construction of all-carbon quaternary stereocenters. PMID:24944521

  9. Enantioselective Cyanosilylation of Ketones with Lithium(I) Dicyanotrimethylsilicate(IV) Catalyzed by a Chiral Lithium(I) Phosphoryl Phenoxide.

    PubMed

    Hatano, Manabu; Yamakawa, Katsuya; Kawai, Tomoaki; Horibe, Takahiro; Ishihara, Kazuaki

    2016-03-14

    A highly enantioselective cyanosilylation of ketones was developed by using a chiral lithium(I) phosphoryl phenoxide aqua complex as an acid/base cooperative catalyst. The pentacoordinate silicate generated in situ from Me3 SiCN/LiCN acts as an extremely reactive cyano reagent. Described is a 30 gram scale reaction and the synthesis of the key precursor to (+)-13-hydroxyisocyclocelabenzine. PMID:26834083

  10. Organocatalytic Enantioselective Formal [4 + 2] Cycloaddition of Enones with Cyclic N-Sulfonylimines and Methylene Chromene for Chiral Spirocyclic Compounds.

    PubMed

    Fei, Jie; Qian, Qingqing; Sun, Xiaohua; Gu, Xiaodong; Zou, Chuncheng; Ye, Jinxing

    2015-11-01

    A highly enantioselective synthesis of spirocycles and bridged rings has been developed through a formal [4 + 2] cycloaddition reaction between enones and N-sulfonylimines. The unprecedented strategy has been realized utilizing N-sulfonylimine as a novel dienophile through enamine-iminium tautomerism of N-sulfonylimine. In addition, a γ,ε-regioselective cycloaddition reaction proceeded by employing methylene chromene species as dienophiles. PMID:26468610

  11. Enantioselective domino reaction of CO2, amines and allyl chlorides under iridium catalysis: formation of allyl carbamates.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Min; Zhao, Xiaoming; Zheng, Shengcai

    2014-05-01

    The enantioselective domino reaction between CO2 (1 atm), amines and linear allyl chlorides in the presence of an iridium complex, DABCO and toluene at 15 °C was realized, which gave branched allyl carbamates in acceptable to high yields with up to excellent regioselectivity (99/1) and 94% ee. This is the first example of the synthesis of chiral allyl carbamates through catalytic domino reactions using CO2. PMID:24652315

  12. The Application of MP-FTS to Aperture Synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hattori, M.; Ohta, I. S.; Matsuo, H.; Shibata, Y.

    2000-12-01

    The application of the Martin-Puplett type Fourier transform spectrometer to aperture synthesis is considered. The configuration of the mirrors and beam splitters and the fundamental mathematical elements of the system are summarized. We show that the system can measure spectrally resolved spatial distribution of the Stokes parameters of sources as interfered signals. An original Martin-Puplett type Fourier transform spectrometer that can be applied to aperture synthesis in mm and sub-mm wave bands has been constructed. The preliminary results of our laboratory experiments are reported.

  13. Aerosol synthesis and application of folded graphene-based materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yantao; Wang, Zhongying; Qiu, Yang

    2015-12-01

    Graphene oxide colloid has been widely used in the synthesis of various graphene-based materials. Graphene oxide sheets, with a low bending rigidity, can be folded when assembled in aqueous phase. A simple but industrial scalable way, aerosol processing, can be used to fabricate folded graphene-based materials. These folded materials can carry various cargo materials and be used in different applications such as time-controlled drug release, medical imaging enhancement, catalyst support and energy related areas. The aerosol synthesis of folded graphene-based materials can also be easily extended to fabricate hybrid nanomaterials without any complicated chemistries.

  14. Biologically Relevant Glycopeptides: Synthesis and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Clay S.; Payne, Richard J.; Koeller, Kathryn M.; Wong, Chi-Huey

    Over the past two decades interest in glycopeptides and glycoproteins has intensified, due in part to the development of new and efficient methods for the synthesis of these compounds. This includes a number of chemical and enzymatic techniques for incorporating glycosylation onto the peptide backbone as well as the introduction of powerful peptide ligation methods for the construction of glycoproteins. This review discusses these methods with a special emphasis on biologically relevant glycopeptides and glycoproteins. This includes the development of a number of antigens which hold promise as potential vaccines for HIV, cancer, or a host of other clinically important diseases. In addition the development of new antibiotics aimed at overcoming the problem of resistance will be discussed. Finally, chemical and enzymatic methods for the construction of glycopeptide mimetics will be described.

  15. Application of optimality criteria in structural synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Terai, K.

    1974-01-01

    The rational use of optimality criteria was investigated for a class of structural synthesis problems where materials, configuration and applied load conditions are specified, and the minimum weight design is to be determined. The potential of hybrid methods of structural optimization for dealing with relatively large design problems involving practical complexity was explored. The reduced basis concept in design space was used to decrease the number of generalized design variables dealt with by the mathematical programming algorithm. Optimality criteria methods for obtaining design vectors associated with displacement, system buckling and natural frequency constraints are presented. A stress ratio method was used to generate a basis design vector representing the stress constraints. The finite element displacement method was used as the basic structural analysis tool. Results for several examples of truss systems subject to stress, displacement and minimum size constraints are presented. An assessment of these results indicates the effectiveness of the hybrid method developed.

  16. Nanosilver particles in medical applications: synthesis, performance, and toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Liangpeng; Li, Qingtao; Wang, Meng; Ouyang, Jun; Li, Xiaojian; Xing, Malcolm MQ

    2014-01-01

    Nanosilver particles (NSPs), are among the most attractive nanomaterials, and have been widely used in a range of biomedical applications, including diagnosis, treatment, drug delivery, medical device coating, and for personal health care. With the increasing application of NSPs in medical contexts, it is becoming necessary for a better understanding of the mechanisms of NSPs’ biological interactions and their potential toxicity. In this review, we first introduce the synthesis routes of NSPs, including physical, chemical, and biological or green synthesis. Then the unique physiochemical properties of NSPs, such as antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, and anti-inflammatory activity, are discussed in detail. Further, some recent applications of NSPs in prevention, diagnosis, and treatment in medical fields are described. Finally, potential toxicology considerations of NSPs, both in vitro and in vivo, are also addressed. PMID:24876773

  17. Nanoparticles: synthesis and applications in life science and environmental technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luong Nguyen, Hoang; Nguyen, Hoang Nam; Hai Nguyen, Hoang; Quynh Luu, Manh; Hieu Nguyen, Minh

    2015-03-01

    This work focuses on the synthesis, functionalization, and application of gold and silver nanoparticles, magnetic nanoparticles Fe3O4, combination of 4-ATP-coated silver nanoparticles and Fe3O4 nanoparticles. The synthesis methods such as chemical reduction, seeding, coprecipitation,and inverse microemulsion will be outlined. Silica- and amino-coated nanoparticles are suitable for several applications in biomedicine and the environment. The applications of the prepared nanoparticles for early detection of breast cancer cells, basal cell carcinoma, antibacterial test, arsenic removal from water, Herpes DNA separation, CD4+ cell separation and isolation of DNA of Hepatitis virus type B (HBV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) are discussed. Finally, some promising perspectives will be pointed out. Invited talk at the 7th International Workshop on Advanced Materials Science and Nanotechnology IWAMSN2014, 2-6 November, 2014, Ha Long, Vietnam.

  18. Lipase-catalyzed highly enantioselective kinetic resolution of boron-containing chiral alcohols.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Leandro H; Barcellos, Thiago

    2009-07-16

    The first application of enzymes as catalysts to obtain optically pure boron compounds is described. The kinetic resolution of boron-containing chiral alcohols via enantioselective transesterification catalyzed by lipases was studied. Aromatic, allylic, and aliphatic secondary alcohols containing a boronate ester or boronic acid group were resolved by lipase from Candida antartica (CALB), and excellent E values (E > 200) and high enantiomeric excesses (up to >99%) of both remaining substrates and acetylated product were obtained. PMID:19552446

  19. Upconversion Nanomaterials: Synthesis, Mechanism, and Applications in Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jiao; Zhao, Julia Xiaojun

    2012-01-01

    Upconversion is an optical process that involves the conversion of lower-energy photons into higher-energy photons. It has been extensively studied since mid-1960s and widely applied in optical devices. Over the past decade, high-quality rare earth-doped upconversion nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized with the rapid development of nanotechnology and are becoming more prominent in biological sciences. The synthesis methods are usually phase-based processes, such as thermal decomposition, hydrothermal reaction, and ionic liquids-based synthesis. The main difference between upconversion nanoparticles and other nanomaterials is that they can emit visible light under near infrared irradiation. The near infrared irradiation leads to low autofluorescence, less scattering and absorption, and deep penetration in biological samples. In this review, the synthesis of upconversion nanoparticles and the mechanisms of upconversion process will be discussed, followed by their applications in different areas, especially in the biological field for biosensing. PMID:22736958

  20. Organocatalytic enantioselective peroxidation of ketimines derived from isatins.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Shuichi; Takahashi, Shun

    2015-06-01

    The first catalytic enantioselective addition of hydroperoxides to ketimines derived from isatins has been developed. Excellent yields and enantioselectivities were observed for the reaction of various ketimines with peroxides using a cinchona alkaloid sulfonamide catalyst. Both enantiomers of products could be obtained by using pseudoenantiomeric chiral catalysts. The obtained product can be converted to optically active α-amino hydroperoxide. PMID:25965522

  1. Asymmetric hydrogenation of ethyl pyruvate: Diffusion effects on enantioselectivity

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Yongkui; Wang, Jian; LeBlond, C.

    1996-07-01

    Enantioselectivity in the hydrogenation of ethyl pyruvate over cinchona-alkaloid-modified Pt has been studied. Kinetic studies indicated different mechanisms in different reaction regimes. Solution hydrogen concentration strongly corrrelated with reaction rates and enantioselectivity. 28 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. High-Yield Synthesis and Applications of Anisotropic Gold Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vigderman, Leonid

    This work will describe research directed towards the synthesis of anisotropic gold nanoparticles as well as their functionalization and biological applications. The thesis will begin by describing a new technique for the high-yield synthesis of gold nanorods using hydroquinone as a reducing agent. This addresses important limitations of the traditional nanorod synthesis including low yield of gold ions conversion to metallic form and inability to produce rods with longitudinal surface plasmon peak above 850 nm. The use of hydroquinone was also found to improve the synthesis of gold nanowires via the nanorod-seed mediated procedure developed in our lab. The thesis will next present the synthesis of novel starfruitshaped nanorods, mesorods, and nanowires using a modified nanorod-seed mediated procedure. The starfruit particles displayed increased activity as surfaceenhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) substrates as compared to smooth structures. Next, a method for the functionalization of gold nanorods using a cationic thiol, 16-mercaptohexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (MTAB), will be described. By using this thiol, we were able to demonstrate the complete removal of toxic surfactant from the nanorods and were also able to precisely quantify the grafting density of thiol molecules on the nanorod surface through a combination of several analytical techniques. Finally, this thesis will show that MTABfunctionalized nanorods are nontoxic and can be taken up in extremely high numbers into cancer cells. The thesis will conclude by describing the surprising uptake of larger mesorods and nanowires functionalized with MTAB into cells in high quantities.

  3. Late-Stage Diversification of Chiral N-Heterocyclic-Carbene Precatalysts for Enantioselective Homoenolate Additions

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Pinguan; Gondo, Chenaimwoyo A.

    2011-01-01

    A library of chiral triazolium salts has been prepared by late-state diversification of a triazolium amine salt. By utilizing a primary amine as a functional handle, a single triazolium salt can be transformed into a variety of chiral N-heterocyclic carbene precatalysts. This approach makes the preparation of chiral N-heterocyclic carbenes possible by a single-step modification of a triazolium salt, rather than the usual need for multistep organic synthesis and challenging heterocycle formation for each member of a catalyst library. We have screened these catalysts for control of diastereo- and enantioselectivity in a ?-lactam-forming reaction between ?,?-unsaturated aldehydes and cyclic ketimines. PMID:21254434

  4. Tertiary thiols from allylic thiocarbamates by tandem enantioselective [3,3]-sigmatropic rearrangement and stereospecific arylation.

    PubMed

    Mingat, Gaëlle; MacLellan, Paul; Laars, Marju; Clayden, Jonathan

    2014-02-21

    The synthesis of tertiary thiols in enantiomerically enriched form is accomplished by lithiation of enantiomerically enriched N-aryl allylic thiocarbamates. Formation of an allyllithium derivative promotes intramolecular N to C aryl migration to the position α to sulfur, generally with good stereospecificity. The substrates may themselves be obtained by Pd-catalyzed enantioselective [3,3]-sigmatropic rearrangement of N-aryl O-allyl thiocarbamates. Solvolysis of the product thiocarbamates yields tertiary thiols, which may be converted to sulfide derivatives. PMID:24502387

  5. Diastereoselective and enantioselective conjugate addition reactions utilizing α,β-unsaturated amides and lactams

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Summary The conjugate addition reaction has been a useful tool in the formation of carbon–carbon bonds. The utility of this reaction has been demonstrated in the synthesis of many natural products, materials, and pharmacological agents. In the last three decades, there has been a significant increase in the development of asymmetric variants of this reaction. Unfortunately, conjugate addition reactions using α,β-unsaturated amides and lactams remain underdeveloped due to their inherently low reactivity. This review highlights the work that has been done on both diastereoselective and enantioselective conjugate addition reactions utilizing α,β-unsaturated amides and lactams. PMID:25977728

  6. Iridium-Catalyzed Diastereoselective and Enantioselective Allylic Substitutions with Acyclic α-Alkoxy Ketones.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xingyu; Chen, Wenyong; Hartwig, John F

    2016-05-01

    The asymmetric alkylation of acyclic ketones is a longstanding challenge in organic synthesis. Reported herein are diastereoselective and enantioselective allylic substitutions with acyclic α-alkoxy ketones catalyzed by a metallacyclic iridium complex to form products with contiguous stereogenic centers derived from the nucleophile and electrophile. These reactions occur between allyl methyl carbonates and unstabilized copper(I) enolates generated in situ from acyclic α-alkoxy ketones. The resulting products can be readily converted into enantioenriched tertiary alcohols and tetrahydrofuran derivatives without erosion of enantiomeric purity. PMID:27038004

  7. Enantioselective cycloaddition of münchnones onto [60]fullerene: organocatalysis versus metal catalysis.

    PubMed

    Marco-Martínez, Juan; Reboredo, Silvia; Izquierdo, Marta; Marcos, Vanesa; López, Juan Luis; Filippone, Salvatore; Martín, Nazario

    2014-02-19

    Novel chiral catalytic systems based on both organic compounds and metal salts have been developed for the enantioselective [3 + 2] cycloaddition of münchnones onto fullerenes and olefins. These two different approaches proved to be efficient and complementary in the synthesis of optically active pyrrolino[3,4:1,2][60]fullerenes with high levels of enantiomeric excess and moderate to good conversions. Further functionalization of the pyrrolinofullerene carboxylic acid derivatives has been carried out by esterification and amidation reactions. PMID:24483247

  8. Enantioselective Cycloaddition of Münchnones onto [60]Fullerene: Organocatalysis versus Metal Catalysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Novel chiral catalytic systems based on both organic compounds and metal salts have been developed for the enantioselective [3 + 2] cycloaddition of münchnones onto fullerenes and olefins. These two different approaches proved to be efficient and complementary in the synthesis of optically active pyrrolino[3,4:1,2][60]fullerenes with high levels of enantiomeric excess and moderate to good conversions. Further functionalization of the pyrrolinofullerene carboxylic acid derivatives has been carried out by esterification and amidation reactions. PMID:24483247

  9. Chiral separation by enantioselective liquid-liquid extraction.

    PubMed

    Schuur, Boelo; Verkuijl, Bastiaan J V; Minnaard, Adriaan J; de Vries, Johannes G; Heeres, Hero J; Feringa, Ben L

    2011-01-01

    The literature on enantioselective liquid-liquid extraction (ELLE) spans more than half a century of research. Nonetheless, a comprehensive overview has not appeared during the past few decades. Enantioselective liquid-liquid extraction is a technology of interest for a wide range of chemists and chemical engineers in the fields of fine chemicals, pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, fragrances and foods. In this review the principles and advances of resolution through enantioselective liquid-liquid extraction are discussed, starting with an introduction on the principles of enantioselective liquid-liquid extraction including host-guest chemistry, extraction and phase transfer mechanisms, and multistage liquid-liquid extraction processing. Then the literature on enantioselective liquid-liquid extraction systems is reviewed, structured on extractant classes. The following extractant classes are considered: crown ether based extractants, metal complexes and metalloids, extractants based on tartrates, and a final section with all other types of chiral extractants. PMID:21107491

  10. Synthesis of boron nitride nanotubes and their applications

    PubMed Central

    Kalay, Saban; Yilmaz, Zehra; Sen, Ozlem; Emanet, Melis; Kazanc, Emine

    2015-01-01

    Summary Boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) have been increasingly investigated for use in a wide range of applications due to their unique physicochemical properties including high hydrophobicity, heat and electrical insulation, resistance to oxidation, and hydrogen storage capacity. They are also valued for their possible medical and biomedical applications including drug delivery, use in biomaterials, and neutron capture therapy. In this review, BNNT synthesis methods and the surface modification strategies are first discussed, and then their toxicity and application studies are summarized. Finally, a perspective for the future use of these novel materials is discussed. PMID:25671154

  11. Synthesis of boron nitride nanotubes and their applications.

    PubMed

    Kalay, Saban; Yilmaz, Zehra; Sen, Ozlem; Emanet, Melis; Kazanc, Emine; Çulha, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) have been increasingly investigated for use in a wide range of applications due to their unique physicochemical properties including high hydrophobicity, heat and electrical insulation, resistance to oxidation, and hydrogen storage capacity. They are also valued for their possible medical and biomedical applications including drug delivery, use in biomaterials, and neutron capture therapy. In this review, BNNT synthesis methods and the surface modification strategies are first discussed, and then their toxicity and application studies are summarized. Finally, a perspective for the future use of these novel materials is discussed. PMID:25671154

  12. Novel magnetic vortex nanorings/nanodiscs: Synthesis and theranostic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiao-Li; Yang, Yong; Wu, Jian-Peng; Zhang, Yi-Fan; Fan, Hai-Ming; Ding, Jun

    2015-12-01

    Recent discoveries in the synthesis and applications of magnetic vortex nanorings/nanodiscs in theranostic applications are reviewed. First, the principles of nanomagnetism and magnetic vortex are introduced. Second, methods for producing magnetic vortex nanorings/nanodiscs are presented. Finally, theranostic applications of magnetic vortex nanorings/nanodiscs are addressed. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 21376192 and 81571809), the Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20126101110017), and MOE AcRF Tier 2-MOE2011-T2-1-043 and A-Star SERC 1321202068.

  13. Waveform synthesis for imaging and ranging applications

    DOEpatents

    Doerry, Armin W.; Dudley, Peter A.; Dubert, Dale F.; Tise, Bertice L.

    2004-12-07

    Frequency dependent corrections are provided for quadrature imbalance and Local Oscillator (LO) feed-through. An operational procedure filters imbalance and LO feed-through effects without prior calibration or equalization. Waveform generation can be adjusted/corrected in a synthetic aperture radar system (SAR), where a rolling phase shift is applied to the SAR's QDWS signal where it is demodulated in a receiver; unwanted energies, such as LO feed-through and/or imbalance energy, are separated from a desired signal in Doppler; the separated energy is filtered from the receiver leaving the desired signal; and the separated energy in the receiver is measured to determine the degree of imbalance that is represented by it. Calibration methods can also be implemented into synthesis. The degree of LO feed-through and imbalance can be used to determine calibration values that can then be provided as compensation for frequency dependent errors in components, such as the QDWS and SSB mixer, affecting quadrature signal quality.

  14. Green synthesis of nanoparticles and its potential application.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Imtiyaz; Singh, N B; Singh, Ajey; Singh, Himani; Singh, S C

    2016-04-01

    Nanotechnology is a new and emerging technology with wealth of applications. It involves the synthesis and application of materials having one of the dimensions in the range of 1-100 nm. A wide variety of physico-chemical approaches are being used these days for the synthesis of nanoparticles (NPs). However, biogenic reduction of metal precursors to produce corresponding NPs is eco-friendly, less expensive, free of chemical contaminants for medical and biological applications where purity of NPs is of major concern. Biogenic reduction is a "Bottom Up" approach similar to chemical reduction where a reducing agent is replaced by extract of a natural products with inherent stabilizing, growth terminating and capping properties. Furthermore, the nature of biological entities in different concentrations in combination with reducing organic agents influence the size and shape of NPs. Present review focuses on microbes or plants based green synthesis of Ag, Au, Cu, Fe, Pd, Ru, PbS, CdS, CuO, CeO2, Fe3O4, TiO2, and ZnO NPs and their potential applications. PMID:26721237

  15. Nanoceria as Antioxidant: Synthesis and Biomedical Applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The therapeutic application of nanomaterials has been a focus of numerous studies in the past decade. Due to its unique redox properties, cerium oxide (ceria) is finding widespread use in the treatment of medical disorders caused by the reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI). The radical-scavenging rol...

  16. Synthesis of Fluorosurfactants for Emulsion-Based Biological Applications

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Microemulsion represents an attractive platform for fundamental and applied biomedical research because the emulsified droplets can serve as millions of compartmentalized micrometer-sized reactors amenable to high-throughput screening or online monitoring. However, establishing stable emulsions with surfactants that are compatible with biological applications remains a significant challenge. Motivated by the lack of commercially available surfactants suitable for microemulsion-based biological assays, this study describes the facile synthesis of a biocompatible fluorosurfactant with nonionic tris(hydroxymethyl)methyl (Tris) polar head groups. We have further demonstrated compatibility of the developed surfactant with diverse emulsion-based applications, including DNA polymeric nanoparticle synthesis, enzymatic activity assay, and bacterial or mammalian cell culture, in the setup of both double- and multiphases of emulsions. PMID:24646088

  17. Conducting Polymer Nanostructures: Template Synthesis and Applications in Energy Storage

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Lijia; Qiu, Hao; Dou, Chunmeng; Li, Yun; Pu, Lin; Xu, Jianbin; Shi, Yi

    2010-01-01

    Conducting polymer nanostructures have received increasing attention in both fundamental research and various application fields in recent decades. Compared with bulk conducting polymers, conducting polymer nanostructures are expected to display improved performance in energy storage because of the unique properties arising from their nanoscaled size: high electrical conductivity, large surface area, short path lengths for the transport of ions, and high electrochemical activity. Template methods are emerging for a sort of facile, efficient, and highly controllable synthesis of conducting polymer nanostructures. This paper reviews template synthesis routes for conducting polymer nanostructures, including soft and hard template methods, as well as its mechanisms. The application of conducting polymer mesostructures in energy storage devices, such as supercapacitors and rechargeable batteries, are discussed. PMID:20717527

  18. Cellulose nanocrystals: synthesis, functional properties, and applications

    PubMed Central

    George, Johnsy; Sabapathi, SN

    2015-01-01

    Cellulose nanocrystals are unique nanomaterials derived from the most abundant and almost inexhaustible natural polymer, cellulose. These nanomaterials have received significant interest due to their mechanical, optical, chemical, and rheological properties. Cellulose nanocrystals primarily obtained from naturally occurring cellulose fibers are biodegradable and renewable in nature and hence they serve as a sustainable and environmentally friendly material for most applications. These nanocrystals are basically hydrophilic in nature; however, they can be surface functionalized to meet various challenging requirements, such as the development of high-performance nanocomposites, using hydrophobic polymer matrices. Considering the ever-increasing interdisciplinary research being carried out on cellulose nanocrystals, this review aims to collate the knowledge available about the sources, chemical structure, and physical and chemical isolation procedures, as well as describes the mechanical, optical, and rheological properties, of cellulose nanocrystals. Innovative applications in diverse fields such as biomedical engineering, material sciences, electronics, catalysis, etc, wherein these cellulose nanocrystals can be used, are highlighted. PMID:26604715

  19. Norbornene based polybetaines: Synthesis and biological applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colak, Semra

    Polymeric betaines gain considerable attention for their interesting solution properties, but even more so, for their favorable bio- and haemocompatible properties. When incorporated into materials or used as surface coatings, some of these zwitterionic polymers strongly resist protein absorption due to their hygroscopic nature, making betaines promising candidates for medical diagnostics, drug delivery, and tissue engineering applications. This dissertation introduces novel norbornene-based polybetaines as foundational materials for biological applications, including non-fouling coatings and antimicrobial macromolecules. Sulfo- and carboxybetaines, composed of backbones that do not contain hydrolyzable units under physiological conditions, as well as new polymers that carry a dual functionality at the repeat unit level, coupling a zwitterionic functionality with an alkyl moiety varied to adjust the amphiphilicity of the overall system, are introduced. How structural changes, backbone chemistry, hydrophilicity/amphiphilicity, and coating surface roughness impact their non-fouling properties is investigated.

  20. Electrospun metallic nanowires: Synthesis, characterization, and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalil, Abdullah; Singh Lalia, Boor; Hashaikeh, Raed; Khraisheh, Marwan

    2013-11-01

    Metals are known to have unique thermal, mechanical, electrical, and catalytic properties. On the other hand, metallic nanowires are promising materials for variety of applications such as transparent conductive film for photovoltaic devices, electrodes for batteries, as well as nano-reinforcement for composite materials. Whereas varieties of methods have been explored to synthesize metal nanowires with different characteristics, electrospinning has also been found to be successful for that purpose. Even though electrospinning of polymeric nanofibers is a well-established field, there are several challenges that need to be overcome to use the electrospinning technique for the fabrication of metallic nanowires. These challenges are mainly related to the multi-steps fabrication process and its relation to the structure evolution of the nanowires. In addition to reviewing the literature, this article identifies promising avenues for further research in this area with particular emphasis on the applications that nonwoven metal wires confined in a nano-scale can open.

  1. Recent developments in β-C-glycosides: synthesis and applications.

    PubMed

    Lalitha, Krishnamoorthy; Muthusamy, Kumarasamy; Prasad, Y Siva; Vemula, Praveen Kumar; Nagarajan, Subbiah

    2015-01-30

    In the last few years, considerable progress has been made in the synthesis of C-glycosides. Despite its challenging chemistry, due to its versatility, C-glycosides play a pivotal role in developing novel materials, surfactants and bioactive molecules. In this review, we present snapshots of various synthetic methodologies developed for C-glycosides in the recent years and the potential application of C-glycosides derived from β-C-glycosidic ketones. PMID:25498016

  2. Nitroderivatives of catechol: from synthesis to application.

    PubMed

    Gavazov, Kiril B

    2012-03-01

    Nitroderivatives of catechol (NDCs) are reviewed with special emphasis on their complexes and applications. Binary, ternary and quaternary NDC complexes with more than 40 elements (aluminum, arsenic, boron, beryllium, calcium, cobalt, copper, iron, gallium, germanium, magnesium, manganese, molybdenum, niobium, rare earth elements, silicon, tin, strontium, technetium, thallium, titanium, uranium, vanadium, tungsten, zinc and zirconium) are discussed and the key characteristics of the developed analytical procedures - tabulated. The bibliography includes 206 references. PMID:24061167

  3. Plasma Synthesis of Nanoparticles for Nanocomposite Energy Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Peter C. Kong; Alex W. Kawczak

    2008-09-01

    The nanocomposite energy applications for plasma reactor produced nanoparticles are reviewed. Nanoparticles are commonly defined as particles less than 100 nm in diameter. Due to this small size, nanoparticles have a high surface-to-volume ratio. This increases the surface energy compared to the bulk material. The high surface-to-volume ratio and size effects (quantum effects) give nanoparticles distinctive chemical, electronic, optical, magnetic and mechanical properties from those of the bulk material. Nanoparticles synthesis can be grouped into 3 broad approaches. The first one is wet phase synthesis (sol-gel processing), the second is mechanical attrition, and the third is gas-phase synthesis (aerosol). The properties of the final product may differ significantly depending on the fabrication route. Currently, there are no economical large-scale production processes for nanoparticles. This hinders the widespread applications of nanomaterials in products. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is engaging in research and development of advanced modular hybrid plasma reactors for low cost production of nanoparticles that is predicted to accelerate application research and enable the formation of technology innovation alliances that will result in the commercial production of nanocomposites for alternative energy production devices such as fuel cells, photovoltaics and electrochemical double layer capacitors.

  4. Silver nanoparticles: synthesis, properties, and therapeutic applications

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Liuya; Lu, Jingran; Xu, Huizhong; Patel, Atish; Chen, Zhe-Sheng; Chen, Guofang

    2014-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been widely used in biomedical fields because of their intrinsic therapeutic properties. Here, we introduce methods of synthesizing AgNPs and discuss their physicochemical, localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) and toxicity properties. We also review the impact of AgNPs on human health and the environment along with the underlying mechanisms. More importantly, we highlight the newly emerging applications of AgNPs as antiviral agents, photosensitizers and/or radiosensitizers, and anticancer therapeutic agents in the treatment of leukemia, breast cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, lung cancer, and skin and/or oral carcinoma. PMID:25543008

  5. Synthesis and applications of silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balantrapu, Krishna Chaitanya

    Due to their unique properties, silver nanoparticles are used in a wide range of applications, like electronics, optics, catalysis, biology, etc. The preferred route for their preparation has been, and still is, the reduction of silver salts in solutions. While dedicated reducing agents, solvents, and dispersants are typically used in this approach, in some cases, the same additive (ex: polyols) may play multiple roles. Such dual-function additives are particularly interesting alternatives as they offer the possibility of replacing the undesirable reductants often used in conventional precipitation methods. In the current research, an environmentally friendly route to prepare stable concentrated aqueous dispersions of silver nanoparticles is investigated experimentally. It was found that Arabic gum, a well known stabilizing agent, can also rapidly and completely reduce Ag 2O to metallic silver in alkaline solutions (pH >12.0) and elevated temperature (65 C). The average size of the silver nanoparticles could be tailored from 13 to 30 nm by varying the experimental conditions. To prepare stable metal colloids by chemical precipitation methods requires in most cases a high concentration of polymeric dispersants. Consequently, the particles are embedded in the organic matrix, which can not be removed without affecting the properties of the particles and/or the dispersion stability. This can have a negative effect in many applications. In this work, an enzymatic hydrolysis method for isolating the silver particles from dispersions containing high concentrations of polymer was identified. In addition, a chemical hydrolysis method yielding dispersed silver nanoparticles with low content of residual polymer for printable electronics applications is investigated. The low sintering temperature of silver nanoparticles and high electrical conductivity make them very attractive for the fabrication of conductive patterns especially for flexible electronic applications. In the final section of this thesis, the silver nanoparticles are deposited using inkjet printing technology with a Dimatix printer DMP -2831. Silver nanoparticles of 13 nm, 80 nm, and mixtures of the two sizes were used to evaluate the effect of particle size and size distribution on the electrical properties of sintered films. The silver layers deposited with a 'drop-on-demand' inkjet printer were heated at temperatures ranging from 125C to 200C. The small particles formed less resistive films at 125C, while the larger ones provided better electrical conductivity above 150C. The inks containing mixed small and large particles yielded the most conductive silver films over the entire investigated temperature range. A mechanism explaining these results is proposed based on the evolution of film microstructure with temperature.

  6. Electrochemically mediated enantioselective reduction of chiral sulfoxides.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kuan-I; Challinor, Victoria L; Kielmann, Linda; Sharpe, Philip C; De Voss, James J; Kappler, Ulrike; McEwan, Alastair G; Bernhardt, Paul V

    2015-03-01

    The respiratory DMSO reductase from Rhodobacter capsulatus catalyzes the reduction of dimethyl sulfoxide to dimethyl sulfide. Herein, we have utilized this Mo enzyme as an enantioselective catalyst to generate optically pure sulfoxides (methyl p-tolyl sulfoxide, methyl phenyl sulfoxide and phenyl vinyl sulfoxide) from racemic starting materials. A hexaaminecobalt coordination compound in its divalent oxidation state was employed as the mediator of electron transfer between the working electrode and DMSO reductase to continually reactivate the enzyme after turnover. In all cases, chiral HPLC analysis of the reaction mixture revealed that the S-sulfoxide was reduced more rapidly leading to enrichment or isolation of the R isomer. PMID:25410832

  7. Enantioselective cellular uptake of chiral semiconductor nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martynenko, I. V.; Kuznetsova, V. A.; Litvinov, I. K.; Orlova, A. O.; Maslov, V. G.; Fedorov, A. V.; Dubavik, A.; Purcell-Milton, F.; Gun'ko, Yu K.; Baranov, A. V.

    2016-02-01

    The influence of the chirality of semiconductor nanocrystals, CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) capped with L- and D-cysteine, on the efficiency of their uptake by living Ehrlich Ascite carcinoma cells is studied by spectral- and time-resolved fluorescence microspectroscopy. We report an evident enantioselective process where cellular uptake of the L-Cys QDs is almost twice as effective as that of the D-Cys QDs. This finding paves the way for the creation of novel approaches to control the biological properties and behavior of nanomaterials in living cells.

  8. Ir-Catalyzed enantioselective group transfer reactions.

    PubMed

    Schafer, Andrew G; Blakey, Simon B

    2015-10-01

    Recently, several novel iridium complexes have been shown to catalyse group transfer reactions in a highly selective fashion. Rhodium complexes, and in particular dirhodium tetracarboxylate salts, have proven to be a remarkably useful class of catalysts for these reactions through several decades of development. Recent results suggest that iridium may offer opportunities to address challenges in this chemistry and provide complementary reactivity patterns. This tutorial review outlines the recent developments in Ir-catalyzed enantioselective group transfer chemistry with highlights on examples which display this unique reactivity. PMID:26051004

  9. High enantioselective Novozym 435-catalyzed esterification of (R,S)-flurbiprofen monitored with a chiral stationary phase.

    PubMed

    Siódmiak, Tomasz; Mangelings, Debby; Vander Heyden, Yvan; Ziegler-Borowska, Marta; Marszałł, Michał Piotr

    2015-03-01

    Lipases form Candida rugosa and Candida antarctica were tested for their application in the enzymatic kinetic resolution of (R,S)-flurbiprofen by enantioselective esterification. Successful chromatographic separation with well-resolved peaks of (R)- and (S)-flurbiprofen and their esters was achieved in one run on chiral stationary phases by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In this study screening of enzymes was performed, and Novozym 435 was selected as an optimal catalyst for obtaining products with high enantiopurity. Additionally, the influence of organic solvents (dichloromethane, dichloroethane, dichloropropane, and methyl tert-butyl ether), primary alcohols (methanol, ethanol, n-propanol, and n-butanol), reaction time, and temperature on the enantiomeric ratio and conversion was tested. The high values of enantiomeric ratio (E in the range of 51.3-90.5) of the esterification of (R,S)-flurbiprofen were obtained for all tested alcohols using Novozym 435, which have a great significance in the field of biotechnological synthesis of drugs. The optimal temperature range for the performed reactions was from 37 to 45 °C. As a result of the optimization, (R)-flurbiprofen methyl ester was obtained with a high optical purity, eep = 96.3 %, after 96 h of incubation. The enantiomeric ratio of the reaction was E = 90.5 and conversion was C = 35.7 %. PMID:25561056

  10. [Progress in synthesis technologies and application of aviation biofuels].

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaoying; Liu, Xiang; Zhao, Xuebing; Yang, Ming; Liu, Dehua

    2013-03-01

    Development of aviation biofuels has attracted great attention worldwide because that the shortage of fossil resources has become more and more serious. In the present paper, the development background, synthesis technologies, current application status and existing problems of aviation biofuels were reviewed. Several preparation routes of aviation biofuels were described, including Fischer-Tropsch process, catalytic hydrogenation and catalytic cracking of bio-oil. The status of flight tests and commercial operation were also introduced. Finally the problems for development and application of aviation biofuels were stated, and some accommodation were proposed. PMID:23789270

  11. Boron nitride nanotube: synthesis and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiano, Amanda L.; Park, Cheol; Lee, Joseph W.; Luong, Hoa H.; Gibbons, Luke J.; Chu, Sang-Hyon; Applin, Samantha; Gnoffo, Peter; Lowther, Sharon; Kim, Hyun Jung; Danehy, Paul M.; Inman, Jennifer A.; Jones, Stephen B.; Kang, Jin Ho; Sauti, Godfrey; Thibeault, Sheila A.; Yamakov, Vesselin; Wise, Kristopher E.; Su, Ji; Fay, Catharine C.

    2014-04-01

    Scientists have predicted that carbon's immediate neighbors on the periodic chart, boron and nitrogen, may also form perfect nanotubes, since the advent of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in 1991. First proposed then synthesized by researchers at UC Berkeley in the mid 1990's, the boron nitride nanotube (BNNT) has proven very difficult to make until now. Herein we provide an update on a catalyst-free method for synthesizing highly crystalline, small diameter BNNTs with a high aspect ratio using a high power laser under a high pressure and high temperature environment first discovered jointly by NASA/NIA/JSA. Progress in purification methods, dispersion studies, BNNT mat and composite formation, and modeling and diagnostics will also be presented. The white BNNTs offer extraordinary properties including neutron radiation shielding, piezoelectricity, thermal oxidative stability (> 800°C in air), mechanical strength, and toughness. The characteristics of the novel BNNTs and BNNT polymer composites and their potential applications are discussed.

  12. Boron Nitride Nanotube: Synthesis and Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiano, Amanda L.; Park, Cheol; Lee, Joseph W.; Luong, Hoa H.; Gibbons, Luke J.; Chu, Sang-Hyon; Applin, Samantha I.; Gnoffo, Peter; Lowther, Sharon; Kim, Hyun Jung; Danehy, Paul M.; Inman, Jennifer A.; Jones, Stephen B.; Kang, Jin Ho; Sauti, Godfrey; Thibeault, Sheila A.; Yamakov, Vesselin; Wise, Kristopher E.; Su, Ji; Fay, Catharine C.

    2014-01-01

    Scientists have predicted that carbon's immediate neighbors on the periodic chart, boron and nitrogen, may also form perfect nanotubes, since the advent of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in 1991. First proposed then synthesized by researchers at UC Berkeley in the mid 1990's, the boron nitride nanotube (BNNT) has proven very difficult to make until now. Herein we provide an update on a catalyst-free method for synthesizing highly crystalline, small diameter BNNTs with a high aspect ratio using a high power laser under a high pressure and high temperature environment first discovered jointly by NASA/NIA JSA. Progress in purification methods, dispersion studies, BNNT mat and composite formation, and modeling and diagnostics will also be presented. The white BNNTs offer extraordinary properties including neutron radiation shielding, piezoelectricity, thermal oxidative stability (> 800 C in air), mechanical strength, and toughness. The characteristics of the novel BNNTs and BNNT polymer composites and their potential applications are discussed.

  13. Gold Nanocages: Synthesis, Properties, and Applications

    PubMed Central

    SKRABALAK, SARA E.; CHEN, JINGYI; SUN, YUGANG; LU, XIANMAO; AU, LESLIE; COBLEY, LAIRE M.; XIA, YOUNAN

    2008-01-01

    Conspectus Noble-metal nanocages represent a novel class of nanostructures with hollow interiors and porous walls. They are prepared using the remarkably simple galvanic replacement reaction between solutions containing metal precursor salts and Ag nanostructures prepared by polyol reduction. The electrochemical potential difference between the two species drives the reaction, with the reduced metal depositing on the surface of the Ag nanostructure. In our most studied example involving HAuCl4 as the metal precursor, the resultant Au epitaxially deposits on the surface of the Ag nanocubes, adopting their cubic structure. Concurrent with this deposition, the interior Ag is oxidized and removed, together with alloying and dealloying, to produce hollow and eventually porous structures that we commonly refer to as Au nanocages. This approach has proven versatile, with a wide range of morphologies – including nanorings, prism-shaped nanoboxes, nanotubes, and multiple-walled nanoshells or nanotubes – being produced by changing the shape of the initial Ag template. Besides Au-based structures, Pt- and Pd-containing hollow nanostructures have been prepared by switching the metal salt precursors to Na2PtCl4 or Na2PdCl4, respectively. Additionally, we have found it easy to tune both the composition and localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of the metal nanocages by simply changing the amount of metal precursor added to the suspension of Ag nanocubes. In this way, we are developing these structures for biomedical and catalytic applications. As the Au nanocages are predicted by discrete dipole approximations (DDA) to have large absorption cross-sections and their LSPR can be tuned into the near-infrared where the attenuation of light by blood and soft tissue is greatly reduced, they are attractive for biomedical applications in which the selective absorption of light at great depths is desirable. For example, we have explored their use as contrast enhancement agents for both optical coherence tomography (OCT) and photoacoustic tomography (PAT), with improvements being observed in each case. As the Au nanocages have large absorption cross-sections, they are also effective photothermal transducers, which when targeted to cancer cells could provide a therapeutic effect by selectively killing them by hyperthermia. Our in vitro work illustrates the feasibility of this technique as a less invasive form of cancer treatment. PMID:18570442

  14. Synthesis, characterization, and applications of nanocomposite membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kizilel, Riza

    In the present work polymer nanocomposites (PCN) derived from synthetic lithium hectorite clay (SLH) and polyethylene oxide (PEO) have been prepared and characterized for use as polymer electrolytes in lithium ion secondary batteries and as catalytic membranes for fuel cell applications. PCNs are prepared by intercalating polyethylene oxide in the clay layers of SLH. The resulting films are physically and electrochemically evaluated. In situ small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) studies have been conducted to monitor the structural changes of polymer nanocomposites upon heating. These nanocomposites are made of different mass ratios of PEO and SLH. On the basis of the in situ SAXS results, it was found that the polymer matrix losses its crystallinity at about 60°C and the composite is stable up to 150°C. Conductivity values, activation energies, and lithium transference numbers indicate that the PCNs are single ion conductors with transference numbers close to unity. The activation energies are in the range of 0.02 eV, two orders of magnitude higher than the conventional polymer electrolytes. A synthetic hectorite was also ion-exchanged with Pt(II) and suspended in a solution containing PEO for the fuel cell applications. The resulting membrane was subsequently reduced under H2 at 200°C for 2--3 hr. The final membrane contains Pt(0) at 2.4 wt% loading levels. XRD shows development of Pt(0) by the appearance of crystalline peaks upon reduction. A lineshape analysis using the Scherrer equation of the (220) peak shows Pt(0) particles of 3.8 nm or 7.5 nm depending upon processing conditions. These values are confirmed by TEM, and a high dispersion of the metal is evident. XRD and TGA confirm that PEO is stable to the processing conditions. In situ SAXS measurements of the reduction process were also performed. Under a reducing atmosphere, the shape of the scattering curves visually changes between 100--120°C. Analysis of the scattering curves using the general unified fit equation yields particles with diameters of 4.8--5.1 nm, and is assumed to arise from the reduced Pt(0) nanoparticles. Later, the membranes were used in an actual setup for the oxidation and separation of CO from the H2-rich gas. The spacing of the membrane helps to reduce the CO concentration level by preventing CO gas to penetrate. Poor CO stream, which goes through the membrane, reacts with O2 and then is converted to CO2 catalytically.

  15. Engineering and Applications of fungal laccases for organic synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Kunamneni, Adinarayana; Camarero, Susana; García-Burgos, Carlos; Plou, Francisco J; Ballesteros, Antonio; Alcalde, Miguel

    2008-01-01

    Laccases are multi-copper containing oxidases (EC 1.10.3.2), widely distributed in fungi, higher plants and bacteria. Laccase catalyses the oxidation of phenols, polyphenols and anilines by one-electron abstraction, with the concomitant reduction of oxygen to water in a four-electron transfer process. In the presence of small redox mediators, laccase offers a broader repertory of oxidations including non-phenolic substrates. Hence, fungal laccases are considered as ideal green catalysts of great biotechnological impact due to their few requirements (they only require air, and they produce water as the only by-product) and their broad substrate specificity, including direct bioelectrocatalysis. Thus, laccases and/or laccase-mediator systems find potential applications in bioremediation, paper pulp bleaching, finishing of textiles, bio-fuel cells and more. Significantly, laccases can be used in organic synthesis, as they can perform exquisite transformations ranging from the oxidation of functional groups to the heteromolecular coupling for production of new antibiotics derivatives, or the catalysis of key steps in the synthesis of complex natural products. In this review, the application of fungal laccases and their engineering by rational design and directed evolution for organic synthesis purposes are discussed. PMID:19019256

  16. Enantioselective Construction of Pyrrolidines by Palladium-Catalyzed Asymmetric [3+2] Cycloaddition of Trimethylenemethane with Imines

    PubMed Central

    Trost, Barry M.; Silverman, Steven M.

    2012-01-01

    A protocol for the enantioselective [3+2] cycloaddition of trimethylenemethane (TMM) with imines has been developed. Central to this effort were the novel phosphoramidite ligands developed in our laboratories. The conditions developed to effect an asymmetric TMM reaction using 2-trimethylsilylmethyl allyl acetate were shown to be tolerant of a wide variety of imine acceptors to provide the corresponding pyrrolidine cycloadducts with excellent yields and selectivities. Use of a bis-2-naphthyl phosphoramidite allowed the successful cycloaddition of the parent TMM with N-Boc imines, and has further permitted the reaction of substituted donors with N-tosyl aldimines and ketimines in high regio-, diastereo-, and enantioselectivity. Use of a diphenylazetidine ligand allows the complimentary synthesis of the exocyclic nitrile product shown, and we demonstrate control of the regioselectivity of the product based on manipulation of the reaction parameters. PMID:22309214

  17. The enantioselective organocatalytic 1,4-addition of electron-rich benzenes to alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Paras, Nick A; MacMillan, David W C

    2002-07-10

    The first enantioselective organocatalytic alkylation of electron-rich benzene rings with alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes has been accomplished. The use of iminium catalysis has provided a new strategy for the enantioselective construction of benzylic stereogenicity, an important chiral synthon for natural product and medicinal agent synthesis. The (2S,5S)-5-benzyl-2-tert-butylimidazolidinone amine catalyst has been found to mediate the conjugate addition of a wide variety of substituted and unsubstituted anilines to unsaturated aldehydes. A diverse spectrum of aldehyde substrates can also be accommodated in this new organocatalytic transformation. While catalyst quantities of 10 mol % were generally employed in this study, successful alkylations conducted with catalyst loadings as low as 1 mol % are described. PMID:12095321

  18. Enantioselective degradation, abiotic racemization, and chiral transformation of triadimefon in soils.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhaoyang; Zhang, Yanchuan; Li, Qiaoling; Wang, Weixiao; Li, Jingyin

    2011-04-01

    Triadimefon is a widely used triazole fungicide with one chiral carbon center. In soils, plants, and animals, triadimefon could be metabolized to triadimenol by reduction of the carbonyl group to an alcohol, resulting in the occurrence of a second chiral carbon in triadimenol. The enantioselective degradation of triadimefon and its chiral transformation to triadimenol in two soils, a Baoding alkaline yellow soil and a Wuhan acidic red soil, were investigated. The results showed the occurrence of enantioselectivity with R-(-)-triadimefon preferentially degraded in both soils. Abiotic racemization was observed by incubation of enantiopure triadimefon enantiomers. The racemization was clearly pH dependent and took place much more rapidly in Baoding alkaline soil than in Wuhan acidic soil. Further enantioselective analysis of converted triadimenol showed that triadimenol stereoisomer concentration invariably followed the order 1R,2R>1S,2S>1S,2R>1R,2S in Baoding soil, regardless of racemic triadimefon or single enantiomers initially treated. However, in the case of Wuhan soil, different triadimenol stereoisomer patterns could be produced depending on initial triadimefon composition at the time of application. The abiotic racemization was documented to have a great influence on the chiral profiles of triadimefon and its metabolite triadimenol. The mechanism and structural consideration of the racemization were further discussed, underscoring the importance of considering configurational stability in proper evaluation of environmental fate and risk of chiral pesticides. PMID:21391648

  19. Enantioselective analysis of melagatran via an LSPR biosensor integrated with a microfluidic chip.

    PubMed

    Guo, Longhua; Yin, Yuechun; Huang, Rong; Qiu, Bin; Lin, Zhenyu; Yang, Huang-Hao; Li, Jianrong; Chen, Guonan

    2012-10-21

    The impact of chiral compounds on pharmacological and biological processes is well known. With the increasing need for enantiomerically pure compounds, effective strategies for enantioseparation and chiral discrimination are in great demand. Herein we report a simple but efficient approach for the enantioselective determination of chiral compounds based on a localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) biosensor integrated with a microfluidic chip. A glass microfluidic chip with an effective volume of ~0.75 μL was fabricated for this application. Gold nanorods (AuNRs) with an aspect ratio of ~2.6 were self-assembled onto the surface of the inner wall of the chip to serve as LSPR transducers, which would translate the analyte binding events into quantitative concentration information. Human α-thrombin was immobilized onto the AuNR surface for enantioselective sensing of the enantiomers of melagatran. The proposed sensor was found to be highly selective for RS-melagatran, while the binding of its enantiomer, SR-melagatran, to the sensor was inactive. Under optimal conditions, the limit of detection of this sensor for RS-melagatran was found to be 0.9 nM, whereas the presence of 10,000-fold amounts of SR-melagatran did not interfere with the detection. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of an LSPR-based enantioselective biosensor. PMID:22836379

  20. Synthesis and catalytic applications of combined zeolitic/mesoporous materials

    PubMed Central

    Vernimmen, Jarian; Cool, Pegie

    2011-01-01

    Summary In the last decade, research concerning nanoporous siliceous materials has been focused on mesoporous materials with intrinsic zeolitic features. These materials are thought to be superior, because they are able to combine (i) the enhanced diffusion and accessibility for larger molecules and viscous fluids typical of mesoporous materials with (ii) the remarkable stability, catalytic activity and selectivity of zeolites. This review gives an overview of the state of the art concerning combined zeolitic/mesoporous materials. Focus is put on the synthesis and the applications of the combined zeolitic/mesoporous materials. The different synthesis approaches and formation mechanisms leading to these materials are comprehensively discussed and compared. Moreover, Ti-containing nanoporous materials as redox catalysts are discussed to illustrate a potential implementation of combined zeolitic/mesoporous materials. PMID:22259762

  1. Application of global sensitivity equations in multidisciplinary aircraft synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Hajela, P.; Bloebaum, C.L.; Sobieszczanski-sobieski, J. NASA, Hampton, VA )

    1990-12-01

    The present paper investigates the applicability of the Global Sensitivity Equation (GSE) method in the multidisciplinary synthesis of aeronautical vehicles. The GSE method provides an efficient approach for representing a large coupled system by smaller subsystems and accounts for the subsystem interactions by means of first-order behavior sensitivities. This approach was applied in an aircraft synthesis problem with performance constraints stemming from the disciplines of structures, aerodynamics, and flight mechanics. Approximation methods were considered in an attempt to reduce problem dimensionality and to improve the efficiency of the optimization process. The influence of efficient constraint representations, the choice of design variables, and design variable scaling on the conditioning of the system matrix was also investigated. 10 refs.

  2. Enantioselective Construction of Remote Quaternary Stereocenters

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Tian-Sheng; Patel, Harshkumar H.; Sigman, Matthew S.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Molecules containing all-carbon quaternary stereocenters – carbon atoms bonded to four distinct carbon substituents – are prevalent in Nature. However, the construction of such compounds in an enantioselective fashion remains a long-standing challenge to synthetic organic chemists. In particular, methods for forging quaternary stereocenters that are remote from other functional groups are underdeveloped. Herein we report a catalytic and enantioselective intermolecular Heck-type reaction of trisubstituted-alkenyl alcohols with aryl boronic acids. The reported method allows direct access to quaternary all-carbon-substituted β-, γ-, δ-, ε- or ζ aryl carbonyl compounds, as the unsaturation of the alkene is relayed to the alcohol resulting in the formation of a carbonyl group. The scope of the process also includes incorporation of pre-existing stereocenters along the alkyl chain, which links the alkene and the alcohol, wherein the stereocenter is preserved. The described method is flexible, allowing access to diverse building blocks containing an enantiomerically enriched, quaternary center. PMID:24717439

  3. Enantioselective construction of remote quaternary stereocentres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Tian-Sheng; Patel, Harshkumar H.; Sigman, Matthew S.

    2014-04-01

    Small molecules that contain all-carbon quaternary stereocentres--carbon atoms bonded to four distinct carbon substituents--are found in many secondary metabolites and some pharmaceutical agents. The construction of such compounds in an enantioselective fashion remains a long-standing challenge to synthetic organic chemists. In particular, methods for synthesizing quaternary stereocentres that are remote from other functional groups are underdeveloped. Here we report a catalytic and enantioselective intermolecular Heck-type reaction of trisubstituted-alkenyl alcohols with aryl boronic acids. This method provides direct access to quaternary all-carbon-substituted β-, γ-, δ-, ɛ- or ζ-aryl carbonyl compounds, because the unsaturation of the alkene is relayed to the alcohol, resulting in the formation of a carbonyl group. The scope of the process also includes incorporation of pre-existing stereocentres along the alkyl chain, which links the alkene and the alcohol, in which the stereocentre is preserved. The method described allows access to diverse molecular building blocks containing an enantiomerically enriched quaternary centre.

  4. Bismuth-based oxide semiconductors: Mild synthesis and practical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timmaji, Hari Krishna

    In this dissertation study, bismuth based oxide semiconductors were prepared using 'mild' synthesis techniques---electrodeposition and solution combustion synthesis. Potential environmental remediation and solar energy applications of the prepared oxides were evaluated. Bismuth vanadate (BiVO4) was prepared by electrodeposition and solution combustion synthesis. A two step electrosynthesis strategy was developed and demonstrated for the first time. In the first step, a Bi film was first electrodeposited on a Pt substrate from an acidic BiCl3 medium. Then, this film was anodically stripped in a medium containing hydrolyzed vanadium precursor, to generate Bi3+, and subsequent BiVO4 formation by in situ precipitation. The photoelectrochemical data were consistent with the in situ formation of n-type semiconductor films. In the solution combustion synthesis procedure, BiVO4 powders were prepared using bismuth nitrate pentahydrate as the bismuth precursor and either vanadium chloride or vanadium oxysulfate as the vanadium precursor. Urea, glycine, or citric acid was used as the fuel. The effect of the vanadium precursor on the photocatalytic activity of combustion synthesized BiVO 4 was evaluated in this study. Methyl orange was used as a probe to test the photocatalytic attributes of the combustion synthesized (CS) samples, and benchmarked against a commercial bismuth vanadate sample. The CS samples showed superior activity to the commercial benchmark sample, and samples derived from vanadium chloride were superior to vanadium oxysulfate counterparts. The photoelectrochemical properties of the various CS samples were also studied and these samples were shown to be useful both for environmental photocatalytic remediation and water photooxidation applications. Silver bismuth tungstate (AgBiW2O8) nanoparticles were prepared for the first time by solution combustion synthesis by using silver nitrate, bismuth nitrate, sodium tungstate as precursors for Ag, Bi, and W respectively and urea as the fuel. The photocatalytic activity of these nanoparticles was superior to a sample prepared by solid-state synthesis. The combustion-synthesized particles were subsequently modified with Pt catalyst islands using a photodeposition technique and then used for the photo-generation of syngas (CO + H2). Formic acid was used in these experiments for in situ generation of CO2 and its subsequent reduction to CO. In the absence of Pt modification, H2 was not obtained. These results were compared with those obtained with acetic acid in place of formic acid, and finally the mechanistic pathways for syngas and methane photogeneration are presented.

  5. Synthesis, Characterization and Application Of PbS Quantum Dots

    SciTech Connect

    Sarma, Sweety; Datta, Pranayee; Barua, Kishore Kr.; Karmakar, Sanjib

    2009-06-29

    Lead Chalcogenides (PbS, PbSe, PbTe) quantum dots (QDs) are ideal for fundamental studies of strongly quantum confined systems with possible technological applications. Tunable electronic transitions at near--infrared wavelengths can be obtained with these QDs. Applications of lead chalcogenides encompass quite a good number of important field viz. the fields of telecommunications, medical electronics, optoelectronics etc. Very recently, it has been proposed that 'memristor'(Memory resistor) can be realized in nanoscale systems with coupled ionic and electronic transports. The hystersis characteristics of 'memristor' are observed in many nanoscale electronic devices including semiconductor quantum dot devices. This paper reports synthesis of PbS QDs by chemical route. The fabricated samples are characterized by UV-Vis, XRD, SEM, TEM, EDS, etc. Observed characteristics confirm nano formation. I-V characteristics of the sample are studied for investigating their applications as 'memristor'.

  6. Catalytic Enantioselective Conjugate Allylation of Unsaturated Methylidene Ketones

    PubMed Central

    Brozek, Laura A.; Sieber, Joshua D.; Morken, James P.

    2011-01-01

    The use of unsaturated methylidene ketones in catalytic conjugate allylations allows for a significant expansion in substrate scope and, with appropriate chiral ligands, occurs in a highly enantioselective fashion. PMID:21288009

  7. BIOACCUMULATION AND ENANTIOSELECTIVE BIOTRANSFORMATION OF FIPRONIL AND SELECTED CONAZOLE FUNGICIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this research, dietary accumulation and enantioselective biotransformation were determined for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) exposed separately to the phenylpyrazole insecticide fipronil and to a series of selected conazole fungicides. Bioaccumulation of each pesticide ...

  8. A general enantioselective route to the chamigrene natural product family

    PubMed Central

    White, David E.; Stewart, Ian C.; Seashore-Ludlow, Brinton A.; Grubbs, Robert H.; Stoltz, Brian M.

    2010-01-01

    Described in this report is an enantioselective route toward the chamigrene natural product family. The key disconnections in our synthetic approach include sequential enantioselective decarboxylative allylation and ring-closing olefin metathesis to form the all-carbon quaternary stereocenter and spirocyclic core present in all members of this class of compounds. The generality of this strategy is demonstrated by the first total syntheses of elatol and the proposed structure of laurencenone B, as well as the first enantioselective total syntheses of laurencenone C and α-chamigrene. A brief exploration of the substrate scope of the enantioselective decarboxylative allylation/ring-closing metathesis sequence with fully substituted vinyl chlorides is also presented. PMID:20798895

  9. Enantioselective effects of herbicide imazapyr on Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Yu-Ling; Wang, Yei-Shung; Yen, Jui-Hung

    2014-01-01

    The enantioselective toxicity of chiral herbicides in the environment is of increasing concern. To investigate the enantioselective effects of the chiral herbicide imazapyr on target organisms, we exposed Arabidopsis thaliana to imazapyr enantiomers and racemate. The results show that imazapyr was enantioselectively toxic to A. thaliana. The total chlorophyll content in A. thaliana was affected more by (+)-imazapyr than (±)-imazapyr and (-)-imazapyr. Concentrations of proline and malondialdehyde reflected a toxic effect in the order of (+)-imazapyr > (±)-imazapyr > (-)-imazapyr at every concentration. Acetolactate synthase (ALS) activity was inhibited more by (+)-imazapyr than (±)-imazapyr or (-)-imazapyr. At 100 mg L(-1) of imazapyr, ALS activity was 78%, 43%, and 19% with (-)-, (±)-, and (+)-imazapyr, respectively. The results suggest the significant enantioselective toxicity of imazapyr in A. thaliana for greater toxicity with (+)-imazapyr than (±)-imazapyr and (-)-imazapyr, which suggests that (+)-imazapyr has more herbicidal effect. PMID:25035913

  10. Asymmetric organic/metal(oxide) hybrid nanoparticles: synthesis and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Jie; Liu, Yijing; Hood, Taylor C.; Zhang, Peng; Gong, Jinlong; Nie, Zhihong

    2013-05-01

    Asymmetric particles (APs) with broken centrosymmetry are of great interest, due to the asymmetric surface properties and diverse functionalities. In particular, organic/metal(oxide) APs naturally combine the significantly different and complementary properties of organic and inorganic species, leading to their unique applications in various fields. In this review article, we highlighted recent advances in the synthesis and applications of organic/metal(oxide) APs. This type of APs is grounded on chemical or physical interactions between metal(oxide) NPs and organic small molecular or polymeric ligands. The synthetic methodologies were summarized in three categories, including the selective surface modifications, phase separation of mixed ligands on the surface of metal(oxide) NPs, and direct synthesis of APs. We further discussed the unique applications of organic/metal(oxide) APs in self-assembly, sensors, catalysis, and biomedicine, as a result of the distinctions between asymmetrically distributed organic and inorganic components. Finally, challenges and future directions are discussed in an outlook section.

  11. Enantioselective control of lattice and shape chirality in inorganic nanostructures using chiral biomolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Moshe, Assaf; Wolf, Sharon Grayer; Sadan, Maya Bar; Houben, Lothar; Fan, Zhiyuan; Govorov, Alexander O.; Markovich, Gil

    2014-07-01

    A large number of inorganic materials form crystals with chiral symmetry groups. Enantioselectively synthesizing nanostructures of such materials should lead to interesting optical activity effects. Here we report the synthesis of colloidal tellurium and selenium nanostructures using thiolated chiral biomolecules. The synthesis conditions are tuned to obtain tellurium nanostructures with chiral shapes and large optical activity. These nanostructures exhibit visible optical and chiroptical responses that shift with size and are successfully simulated by an electromagnetic model. The model shows that they behave as chiral optical resonators. The chiral tellurium nanostructures are transformed into chiral gold and silver telluride nanostructures with very large chiroptical activity, demonstrating a simple colloidal chemistry path to chiral plasmonic and semiconductor metamaterials. These materials are natural candidates for studies related to interactions of chiral (bio)molecules with chiral inorganic surfaces, with relevance to asymmetric catalysis, chiral crystallization and the evolution of homochirality in biomolecules.

  12. Enantioselective control of lattice and shape chirality in inorganic nanostructures using chiral biomolecules.

    PubMed

    Ben-Moshe, Assaf; Wolf, Sharon Grayer; Bar Sadan, Maya; Houben, Lothar; Fan, Zhiyuan; Govorov, Alexander O; Markovich, Gil

    2014-01-01

    A large number of inorganic materials form crystals with chiral symmetry groups. Enantioselectively synthesizing nanostructures of such materials should lead to interesting optical activity effects. Here we report the synthesis of colloidal tellurium and selenium nanostructures using thiolated chiral biomolecules. The synthesis conditions are tuned to obtain tellurium nanostructures with chiral shapes and large optical activity. These nanostructures exhibit visible optical and chiroptical responses that shift with size and are successfully simulated by an electromagnetic model. The model shows that they behave as chiral optical resonators. The chiral tellurium nanostructures are transformed into chiral gold and silver telluride nanostructures with very large chiroptical activity, demonstrating a simple colloidal chemistry path to chiral plasmonic and semiconductor metamaterials. These materials are natural candidates for studies related to interactions of chiral (bio)molecules with chiral inorganic surfaces, with relevance to asymmetric catalysis, chiral crystallization and the evolution of homochirality in biomolecules. PMID:25001884

  13. Controlled synthesis of porous platinum nanostructures for catalytic applications.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yanqin; Zhang, Junwei; Yang, Yong; Huang, Zhengren; Long, Nguyen Viet; Nogami, Masayuki

    2014-02-01

    Porous platinum, that has outstanding catalytic and electrical properties and superior resistant characteristics to corrosion, has been widely applied in chemical, petrochemical, pharmaceutical, electronic, and automotive industries. As the catalytic activity and selectivity depend on the size, shape and structure of nanomaterials, the strategies for controlling these factors of platinum nanomaterials to get excellent catalytic properties are discussed. Here, recent advances in the design and preparation of various porous platinum nanostructures are reviewed, including wet-chemical synthesis, electro-deposition, galvanic replacement reaction and de-alloying technology. The applications of various platinum nanostructures are also discussed, especially in fuel cells. PMID:24749422

  14. Applications of C–H Functionalization Logic to Cyclobutane Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The application of C–H functionalization logic to target-oriented synthesis provides an exciting new venue for the development of new and useful strategies in organic chemistry. In this article, C–H functionalization reactions are explored as an alternative approach to access pseudodimeric cyclobutane natural products, such as the dictazole and the piperarborenine families. The use of these strategies in a variety of complex settings highlights the subtle geometric, steric, and electronic effects at play in the auxiliary guided C–H functionalization of cyclobutanes. PMID:24548142

  15. Enantioselective hydrogenation of ethyl acetoacetate on asymmetric Raney Ni catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Zubareva, N.D.; Chernysheva, V.V.; Grigor'ev, Yu.A.; Klabunovskii, E.I.

    1987-09-10

    The properties of Raney nickel catalysts modified by (+)-tartaric acid and active in enantioselective hydrogenation of ethyl acetoacetate depend on the chemical and phase compositions of the starting Ni-Al alloys. A decrease of the Ni content in the Ni-Al alloy specimens which corresponds to an increase of the fraction of the NiAl/sub 3/ intermetallic compound in them contributes to an increase of the catalytic activity and enantioselectivity of the action of the obtained catalysts.

  16. Enantioselective organocatalytic oxidation of functionalized sterically hindered disulfides.

    PubMed

    Khiar, Noureddine; Mallouk, Siham; Valdivia, Victoria; Bougrin, Khalid; Soufiaoui, Mohammed; Fernndez, Inmaculada

    2007-03-29

    [structure: see text]. The first study on enantioselective oxidation of functionalized sterically hindered disulfides is reported. This study shows that the Shi organocatalytic system using carbohydrate-derived ketone with oxone is superior to the Ellman-Bolm vanadium catalyst in terms of chemical yield and enantioselectivity. Whereas the latter system afforded mostly racemic thiosulfinates in low to moderate yields, the former one afforded thiosulfinates with up to 96% ee. PMID:17341090

  17. Enantioselective alpha-trifluoromethylation of aldehydes via photoredox organocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Nagib, David A; Scott, Mark E; MacMillan, David W C

    2009-08-12

    The first enantioselective, organocatalytic alpha-trifluoromethylation and alpha-perfluoroalkylation of aldehydes have been accomplished using a readily available iridium photocatalyst and a chiral imidazolidinone catalyst. A range of alpha-trifluoromethyl and alpha-perfluoroalkyl aldehydes were obtained from commercially available perfluoroalkyl halides with high efficiency and enantioselectivity. The resulting alpha-trifluoromethyl aldehydes were subsequently shown to be versatile precursors for the construction of a variety of enantioenriched trifluoromethylated building blocks. PMID:19722670

  18. Catalytic enantioselective alkylation of aldehydes by using organozinc halide reagents.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Yuichiro; Kanehira, Shinichi; Hayashi, Yasuki; Harada, Toshiro

    2013-03-01

    Functionalized alkylzinc halides can be employed in the enantioselective addition to aldehydes by using a titanium(IV) catalyst derived from a H(8)-binaphthol derivative in the presence of [Ti(OiPr)(4)] and MgBr(2). A range of functionalities, including olefin, chlorine atoms, protected alcohols, amides, and cyano groups, are tolerated in the present reaction, providing the corresponding functionalized alcohols in high yields and enantioselectivities (see scheme). PMID:23386512

  19. Turinese stereochemistry: Eligio Perucca's enantioselectivity and Primo Levi's asymmetry.

    PubMed

    Kahr, Bart; Bing, Yonghong; Kaminsky, Werner; Viterbo, Davide

    2009-01-01

    A reputation restored: Eligio Perucca (see photo) first observed the enantioselective adsorption of a racemic mixture to a chiral crystal (NaClO(3)) in Turin in 1919. However, this milestone in enantioselective chemistry and chiroptics went unnoticed. Identified previously as a coward who refused in 1941 to supervise the research of the budding stereochemist Primo Levi because of the race laws, Perucca was opposed to the fascist regime. PMID:19266531

  20. Enantioselective Biotransformation of Chiral PCBs in Whole Poplar Plants

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Guangshu; Hu, Dingfei; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; Schnoor, Jerald L.

    2011-01-01

    Chiral PCBs have been used as molecular probes of biological metabolic processes due to their special physical, chemical and biological properties. Many animal studies showed the enantioselective biotransformation of chiral PCBs, but it is unclear whether plants can enantioselectively biotransform chiral PCBs. In order to explore the enantioselectivity of chiral PCBs in whole plants, poplars (Populus deltoides × nigra, DN34), a model plant with complete genomic sequence, were hydroponically exposed to 2,2′,3,5′,6-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB95) and 2,2′,3,3′,6,6′-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB136) for 20 days. PCB95 and PCB136 were shown to be absorbed, taken-up and translocated in whole poplars, and they were detected in various tissues of whole poplars. However, the enantioselectivity of poplar for PCB95 and PCB136 proved to be quite different. The first eluting enantiomer of PCB95 was enantioselectively removed in whole poplar, especially in the middle and bottom xylem. It was likely enantioselectively metabolized inside poplar tissues, in contrast to racemic mixtures of PCB95 remaining in hydroponic solutions in contact with plant roots of whole and dead poplars. Unlike PCB95, PCB136 remained nearly racemic in most parts of whole poplars after 20 days exposure. These results suggest that PCB136 is more difficult to be enantioslectively biotransformed than PCB95 in whole poplars. This is the first evidence of enantioselectivity of chiral PCBs in whole plants, and suggests that poplars can enantioselectively biotransform at least one chiral PCB. PMID:21329345

  1. A carbohydrate approach for the formal total synthesis of (-)-aspergillide C.

    PubMed

    Srihari, Pabbaraja; Hari Krishna, Namballa; Sridhar, Ydhyam; Kamal, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    An enantioselective formal total synthesis of aspergillide C is accomplished using commercially available tri-O-acetyl-D-galactal employing a Ferrier-type C-glycosylation, utilizing a Trost hydrosilylation and protodesilylation as key reactions. PMID:25670981

  2. Homochiral porous metal-organic coordination polymers: synthesis, structure and functional properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yutkin, M. P.; Dybtsev, D. N.; Fedin, Vladimir P.

    2011-11-01

    The review concerns the state of the art in and prospects for the development of chemistry of a new class of porous compounds, homochiral metal-organic coordination polymers. Main approaches to the synthesis and structure determination of such systems by X-ray diffraction analysis, as well as stability of metal-organic frameworks and supramolecular chemistry of host-guest inclusion compounds are considered. Prospects for practical application of these compounds first of all for enantioselective resolution and catalysis are discussed. The bibliography includes 175 references. Dedicated to Academician O M Nefedov on the occasion of his 80th birthday.

  3. Nanocrystals-Related Synthesis, Assembly, and Energy Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Zou, Bo; Yu, Williams; Seo, Jaetae; Zhu, Ting; Hu, Michael Z.

    2012-01-01

    During the past decades, nanocrystals have attracted broad attention due to their unique shape- and size-dependent physical and chemical properties that differ drastically from their bulk counterparts. Hitherto, much effort has been dedicated to achieving rational controlling over the morphology, assembly, and related energy applications of the nanomaterials. Therefore, the ability to manipulate the morphology, size, and size distribution of inorganic nanomaterials is still an important goal in modern materials physics and chemistry. Especially, the world s demand for energy supply is causing a dramatic escalation of social and political unrest. Likewise, the environmental impact of the global climate change due to the combustion of fossil fuel is becoming increasingly alarming. These problems compel us to search for effective routes to build devices that can supply sustainable energy, with not only high efficiency but also environmental friendship. One of ways to relieve the energy crisis is to exploit devices based on renewable energy sources, such as solar energy and water power. Aiming at this exploration, the primary stage requires the design of appropriate strategies for the synthesis of high-quality nanocrystals with respect to size uniformity and superior electrochemical performances. As a consequence, we organize the current special issue for Journal of Nanomaterials to provide the authors with a platform and readers with the latest achievements of nanocrystals-related synthesis, assembly, and energy applications.

  4. Semiconducting black phosphorus: synthesis, transport properties and electronic applications.

    PubMed

    Liu, Han; Du, Yuchen; Deng, Yexin; Ye, Peide D

    2015-05-01

    Phosphorus is one of the most abundant elements preserved in earth, and it comprises a fraction of ?0.1% of the earth crust. In general, phosphorus has several allotropes, and the two most commonly seen allotropes, i.e. white and red phosphorus, are widely used in explosives and safety matches. In addition, black phosphorus, though rarely mentioned, is a layered semiconductor and has great potential in optical and electronic applications. Remarkably, this layered material can be reduced to one single atomic layer in the vertical direction owing to the van der Waals structure, and is known as phosphorene, in which the physical properties can be tremendously different from its bulk counterpart. In this review article, we trace back to the research history on black phosphorus of over 100 years from the synthesis to material properties, and extend the topic from black phosphorus to phosphorene. The physical and transport properties are highlighted for further applications in electronic and optoelectronics devices. PMID:25307017

  5. Synthesis and application of one-dimensional nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Daihua

    My research has been focused on the synthesis, characterization and application of three types of one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures, including metal oxide nanowires, transition metal oxide core-shell nanocables, and carbon nanotubes. They represent a new class of materials that have attracted steadily growing interest due to their peculiar properties and unique applications complementary to bulk materials. This dissertation will summarize my studies on these three 1D nanomaterials, as well as propose future research work that may lead to further development of this field. Following a brief introduction to 1D nanomaterials in Chapter 1, Chapter 2 will focus on the first material - metal oxide nanowires. The discussion starts from the synthesis approach and material characterization of metal oxide nanowires, and then shifts to the electron transport properties and potential applications. A series of functional devices based on In2O 3 and SnO2 nanowires will be demonstrated and evaluated, which range from field effect transistors (FETs), nonvolatile memories, to photo-detecting devices and chemical sensors. Chapter 3 will discuss the fabrication of transition metal oxide (TMO) core-shell nanocables and their electron transport properties as a function of temperature and external magnetic field. The discussion will primarily focus on one of the TMO materials---magnetite (Fe3O 4) core-shell nanowires and nanotubes. Chapter 4 focuses on the application of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in macroelectronics and explores the feasibility of using CNT films as transparent electrodes for organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). Chapter 5, in the end, summarizes the above discussions and proposes future research directions in 1D nanomaterials.

  6. Aerosol Route Synthesis and Applications of Doped Nanostructured Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahu, Manoranjan

    Nanotechnology presents an attractive opportunity to address various challenges in air and water purification, energy, and other environment issues. Thus, the development of new nanoscale materials in low-cost scalable synthesis processes is important. Furthermore, the ability to independently manipulate the material properties as well as characterize the material at different steps along the synthesis route will aide in product optimization. In addition, to ensure safe and sustainable development of nanotechnology applications, potential impacts need to be evaluated. In this study, nanomaterial synthesis in a single-step gas phase reactor to continuously produce doped metal oxides was demonstrated. Copper-doped TiO2 nanomaterial properties (composition, size, and crystal phase) were independently controlled based on nanoparticle formation and growth mechanisms dictated by process control parameters. Copper dopant found to significantly affect TiO2 properties such as particle size, crystal phase, stability in the suspension, and absorption spectrum (shift from UV to visible light absorption). The in-situ charge distribution characterization of the synthesized nanomaterials was carried out by integrating a tandem differential mobility analyzer (TDMA) set up with the flame reactor synthesis system. Both singly- and doubly- charged nanoparticles were measured, with the charged fractions dependent on particle mobility and dopant concentration. A theoretical calculation was conducted to evaluate the relative importance of the two charging mechanisms, diffusion and thermo-ionization, in the flame. Nanoparticle exposure characterization was conducted during synthesis as a function of operating condition, product recovery and handling technique, and during maintenance of the reactors. Strategies were then indentified to minimize the exposure risk. The nanoparticle exposure potential varied depending on the operating conditions such as precursor feed rate, working conditions of the fume hood, ventilation system, and distance from the reactors. Nanoparticle exposure varied during product recovery and handling depending on the quantity of nanomaterial handled. Most nanomaterial applications require nanomaterials to be in solution. Thus, the role of nanomaterial physio-chemical properties (size, crystal phase, dopant types and concentrations) on dispersion properties was investigated based on hydrodynamic size and surface charge. Dopant type and concentration were found to significantly affect iso-electric point (IEP)-shifting the IEP to a high or lower pH value compared to pristine TiO2 based on the oxidation state of the dopant. The microbial inactivation effectiveness of as-synthesized nanomaterials was investigated under different light irradiation conditions. Microbial inactivation was found to strongly depend on the light irradiation condition as well as on material properties such chemical composition, crystal phase, and particle size. The potential interaction mechanisms of copper-doped TiO2 nanomaterial with microbes were also explored. The studies conducted as part of this dissertation addressed issues in nanomaterial synthesis, characterization and their potential environmental applications.

  7. Expanding the scope of Metal-Free enantioselective allylic substitutions: Anthrones

    PubMed Central

    Ceban, Victor; Tauchman, Jiří; Meazza, Marta; Gallagher, Greg; Light, Mark E.; Gergelitsová, Ivana; Veselý, Jan; Rios, Ramon

    2015-01-01

    The highly enantioselective asymmetric allylic alkylation of Morita–Baylis–Hillman carbonates with anthrones is presented. The reaction is simply catalyzed by cinchona alkaloid derivatives affording the final alkylated products in good yields and excellent enantioselectivities. PMID:26592555

  8. Carbon nanotubes from synthesis to in vivo biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Sajid, Muhammad Imran; Jamshaid, Usama; Jamshaid, Talha; Zafar, Nadiah; Fessi, H; Elaissari, Abdelhamid

    2016-03-30

    Owing to their unique and interesting properties, extensive research round the globe has been carried out on carbon nanotubes and carbon nanotubes based systems to investigate their practical usefulness in biomedical applications. The results from these studies demonstrate a great promise in their use in targeted drug delivery systems, diagnostic techniques and in bio-analytical applications. Although, carbon nanotubes possess quite interesting properties, which make them potential candidates in the biomedical science, but they also have some inherent properties which arise great concern regarding their biosafety. In this comprehensive review, we have discussed different aspects of carbon nanotubes and carbon nanotube based systems related to biomedical applications. In the beginning, a short historical account of these tiny yet powerful particles is given followed by discussion regarding their types, properties, methods of synthesis, large scale production method, purification techniques and characterization aspects of carbon nanotubes. In the second part of the review, the functionalization of carbon nanotubes is reviewed in detail, which is not only important to make them biocompatible and stable in biological systems but also render them a great property of loading various biomolecules, diagnostic and therapeutic moieties resulting in diversified applications. In the final part of the review, emphasis is given on the pharmacokinetic aspects of carbon nanotubes including administration routes, absorption mechanisms, distribution and elimination of carbon nanotubes based systems. Lastly, a comprehensive account about the potential biomedical applications has been given followed by insights into the future. PMID:26827920

  9. Modular solid-phase synthesis, catalytic application and efficient recycling of supported phosphine-phosphite ligand libraries.

    PubMed

    Heutz, Frank J L; Kamer, Paul C J

    2016-02-01

    In spite of decades of research in the field of homogeneous asymmetric catalysis the discovery of new high performance catalysts still relies heavily on trial-and-error. There is still a lack of efficient combinatorial methods which enable the synthesis and screening of vast ligand libraries, especially for bidentate phosphorus ligands. Here we present a highly modular solid-phase synthetic approach which provides facile access to libraries of phosphine-phosphite ligands in quantitative yield requiring only minimal work-up. The obtained library of supported phosphine-phosphites was successfully applied in rhodium catalyzed asymmetric hydrogenation obtaining high enantioselectivities up to 98%. Also, these polymer supported ligands could be successfully recycled under batch conditions exhibiting only a small decline of activity and no loss of selectivity. PMID:26486695

  10. Enantioselective assembly of spirocyclic oxindole-dihydropyranones through NHC-catalyzed cascade reaction of isatins with N-hydroxybenzotriazole esters of ?,?-unsaturated carboxylic acid.

    PubMed

    Que, Yonglei; Li, Tuanjie; Yu, Chenxia; Wang, Xiang-Shan; Yao, Changsheng

    2015-03-20

    An NHC-catalyzed formal [4 + 2] reaction of isatins with N-hydroxybenzotriazole ester of ?,?-unsaturated carboxylic acids bearing ?-H to construct spirocyclic oxindole-dihydropyranones featuring a chiral tetrasubstituted carbon stereogenic center was developed. The high enantioselectivity, the ready availability of the raw materials, the facile assembly, and the potential biological significance of the final products make this protocol an attractive alternative for the synthesis of spirocyclic heterocycles. PMID:25692461

  11. Enantioselective Approach to (-)-Hamigeran B and (-)-4-Bromohamigeran B via Catalytic Asymmetric Hydrogenation of Racemic Ketone To Assemble the Chiral Core Framework.

    PubMed

    Lin, Han; Xiao, Li-Jun; Zhou, Min-Jie; Yu, Hong-Ming; Xie, Jian-Hua; Zhou, Qi-Lin

    2016-03-18

    A new strategy featuring an iridium-catalyzed asymmetric hydrogenation of a racemic ketone via dynamic kinetic resolution to generate a cyclopentanol with three contiguous stereocenters and a SmI2-promoted pinacol coupling to install the six-membered ring with correct stereochemistry has been described for the enantioselective total synthesis of (-)-hamigeran B (19 steps, 10.6% overall yield) and (-)-4-bromohamigeran B (19 steps, 12.3% overall yield). PMID:26943071

  12. Copper-catalyzed enantioselective propargylic etherification of propargylic esters with alcohols.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Kazunari; Shibata, Masashi; Nishibayashi, Yoshiaki

    2015-02-25

    Enantioselective propargylic etherification of propargylic esters with not only aliphatic alcohols but also phenols in the presence of a catalytic amount of copper-Pybox complex gives the corresponding propargylic ethers in good to high yields with a high to excellent enantioselectivity (up to 99% ee). The result described here provides the first successful example of enantioselective propargylic etherification. PMID:25658141

  13. Enzymatic routes for the synthesis of ursodeoxycholic acid.

    PubMed

    Eggert, Thorsten; Bakonyi, Daniel; Hummel, Werner

    2014-12-10

    Ursodeoxycholic acid, a secondary bile acid, is used as a drug for the treatment of various liver diseases, the optimal dose comprises the range of 8-10mg/kg/day. For industrial syntheses, the structural complexity of this bile acid requires the use of an appropriate starting material as well as the application of regio- and enantio-selective enzymes for its derivatization. Most strategies for the synthesis start from cholic acid or chenodeoxycholic acid. The latter requires the conversion of the hydroxyl group at C-7 from α- into β-position in order to obtain ursodeoxycholic acid. Cholic acid on the other hand does not only require the same epimerization reaction at C-7 but the removal of the hydroxyl group at C-12 as well. There are several bacterial regio- and enantio-selective hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (HSDHs) to carry out the desired reactions, for example 7α-HSDHs from strains of Clostridium, Bacteroides or Xanthomonas, 7β-HSDHs from Clostridium, Collinsella, or Ruminococcus, or 12α-HSDH from Clostridium or from Eggerthella. However, all these bioconversion reactions need additional steps for the regeneration of the coenzymes. Selected multi-step reaction systems for the synthesis of ursodeoxycholic acid are presented in this review. PMID:25131646

  14. Enantioselective Recognition in Solution: The Case of Countercurrent Chromatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubio, Núria; Minguillón, Cristina

    Countercurrent chromatography (CCC) is a preparative separation technique that works with a liquid stationary phase. Biphasic liquid systems are needed to perform a separation. Since a chiral selector is required to perform enantiomer separations, special requirements are imposed in CCC. The chiral selector (CS) must be located in the stationary phase since partitioning with the mobile phase would cause losses of the valuable chiral selector in the mobile phase. Sulfated cyclodextrins and proteins were used as polar CS located in the polar stationary phase (reversed phase mode). Apolar CSs such as N-dodecyl-L-proline 3,5-dimethylanilide or Whelk-O selectors, quinine and quinidine derivatives, cellulose or amylose apolar derivatives were used located in the apolar stationary phase (normal phase mode). The special CCC displacement method called pH-zone refining was found useful in the increase of the loading capacity for cellulose, quinine, quinidine, and proline-derived selectors. Dual and multidual mode uses of CCC could produce an increase in peak separation thereby broadening the applicability of moderately enantioselective CSs.

  15. Altering the Enantioselectivity of Tyrosyl-tRNA Synthetase by Insertion of a Stereospecific Editing Domain.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Charles J; First, Eric A

    2016-03-15

    Translation of mRNAs by the ribosome is stereospecific, with only l-amino acids being incorporated into the nascent polypeptide chain. This stereospecificity results from the exclusion of d-amino acids at three steps during protein synthesis: (1) the aminoacylation of tRNA by aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, (2) binding of aminoacyl-tRNAs to EF-Tu, and (3) recognition of aminoacyl-tRNAs by the ribosome. As a first step toward incorporating d-amino acids during protein synthesis, we have altered the enantioselectivity of tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase. This enzyme is unusual among aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, as it can aminoacylate tRNA with d-tyrosine (albeit at a reduced rate compared to l-tyrosine). To change the enantioselectivity of tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase, we introduced the post-transfer editing domain from Pyrococcus horikoshii phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase into the connective polypeptide 1 (CP1) domain of Geobacillus stearothermophilus tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase (henceforth designated TyrRS-FRSed). We show that the phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase editing domain is stereospecific, hydrolyzing l-Tyr-tRNA(Tyr), but not d-Tyr-tRNA(Tyr). We further show that inserting the phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase editing domain into the CP1 domain of tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase decreases the activity of the synthetic site in tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase. This decrease in activity is critical, as it prevents the rate of synthesis from overwhelming the ability of the editing domain to hydrolyze the l-Tyr-tRNA(Tyr) product. Overall, inserting the phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase editing domain results in a 2-fold shift in the enantioselectivity of tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase toward the d-Tyr-tRNA(Tyr) product. When a 4-fold excess of d-tyrosine is used, approximately 40% of the tRNA(Tyr) is aminoacylated with d-tyrosine. PMID:26890980

  16. Cell-free protein synthesis: applications in proteomics and biotechnology.

    PubMed

    He, Mingyue

    2008-01-01

    Protein production is one of the key steps in biotechnology and functional proteomics. Expression of proteins in heterologous hosts (such as in E. coli) is generally lengthy and costly. Cell-free protein synthesis is thus emerging as an attractive alternative. In addition to the simplicity and speed for protein production, cell-free expression allows generation of functional proteins that are difficult to produce by in vivo systems. Recent exploitation of cell-free systems enables novel development of technologies for rapid discovery of proteins with desirable properties from very large libraries. This article reviews the recent development in cell-free systems and their application in the large scale protein analysis. PMID:18786663

  17. Group IV nanoparticles: synthesis, properties, and biological applications.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jiyang; Chu, Paul K

    2010-10-01

    In this review, the emerging roles of group IV nanoparticles including silicon, diamond, silicon carbide, and germanium are summarized and discussed from the perspective of biologists, engineers, and medical practitioners. The synthesis, properties, and biological applications of these new nanomaterials have attracted great interest in the past few years. They have gradually evolved into promising biomaterials due to their innate biocompatibility; toxic ions are not released when they are used in vitro or in vivo, and their wide fluorescence spectral regions span the near-infrared, visible, and near-ultraviolet ranges. Additionally, they generally have good resistance against photobleaching and have lifetimes on the order of nanoseconds to microseconds, which are suitable for bioimaging. Some of the materials possess unique mechanical, chemical, or physical properties, such as ultrachemical and thermal stability, high hardness, high photostability, and no blinking. Recent data have revealed the superiority of these nanoparticles in biological imaging and drug delivery. PMID:20730824

  18. Nanoparticles for hyperthermic therapy: synthesis strategies and applications in glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Jyoti; Lal, Sumit; Van Noorden, Cornelis JF

    2014-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and most aggressive malignant primary brain tumor in humans. Current GBM treatment includes surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy, sometimes supplemented with novel therapies. Despite recent advances, survival of GBM patients remains poor. Major challenges in GBM treatment are drug delivery across the blood–brain barrier, restriction of damage to healthy brain tissues, and limitation of resistance to therapies. This article reviews recent advances in the application of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), gold nanorods (GNRs), and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) for hyperthermia ablation of GBM. First, the article introduces GBM, its current treatment, and hyperthermia as a potential modality for the management of GBM. Second, it introduces MNPs, GNRs, and CNTs as inorganic agents to induce hyperthermia in GBM. Third, it discusses different methodologies for synthesis of each inorganic agent. Finally, it reviews in vitro and in vivo studies in which MNPs, GNRs, and CNTs have been applied for hyperthermia ablation and drug delivery in GBM. PMID:24959075

  19. Synthesis and characterization of aqueous quantum dots for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hui

    Quantum Dots (QDs) are semiconductor nanocrystals (120 nm) exhibiting distinctive photoluminescence (PL) properties due to the quantum confinement effect. Having many advantages over organic dyes, such as broad excitation and resistance to photobleaching, QDs are widely used in bioapplications as one of most exciting nanobiotechnologies. To date, most commercial QDs are synthesized through the traditional organometallic method and contain toxic elements, such as cadmium, lead, mercury, arsenic, etc. The overall goal of this thesis study is to develop an aqueous synthesis method to produce nontoxic quantum dots with strong emission and good stability, suitable for biomedical imaging applications. Firstly, an aqueous, simple, environmentally friendly synthesis method was developed. With cadmium sulfide (CdS) QDs as an example system, various processing parameters and capping molecules were examined to improve the synthesis and optimize the PL properties. The obtained water soluble QDs exhibited ultra small size (5 nm), strong PL and good stability. Thereafter, using the aqueous method, the zinc sulfide (ZnS) QDs were synthesized with different capping molecules, i.e., 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) and 3-(mercaptopropyl)trimethoxysilane (MPS). Especially, via a newly developed capping molecule replacement method, the present ZnS QDs exhibited bright blue emission with a quantum yield of 75% and more than 60 days lifetime in the ambient conditions. Two cytotoxicity tests with human endothelial cells verified the nontoxicity of the ZnS QDs by cell counting with Trypan blue staining and fluorescence assay with Alamar Blue. Taking advantage of the versatile surface chemistry, several strategies were explored to conjugate the water soluble QDs with biomolecules, i.e., antibody and streptavidin. Accordingly, the imaging of Salmonella t. cells and biotinylated microbeads has been successfully demonstrated. In addition, polyethylenimine (PEI)-QDs complex was formed and delivered into PC12 neuronal cells for intracellular imaging with uniform distribution. The water soluble QDs were also embedded in electrospun polymer fibers as fluorescent nanocomposite. In summary, the ease of aqueous processing and the excellent PL properties of the nontoxic water soluble ZnS QDs provide great potential for various in vivo applications.

  20. Crystalline colloidal array hydrogel materials: From synthesis to applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lei

    This dissertation is focused on the synthesis, characterization, and applications of crystalline colloidal array (CCA) hydrogel materials. CCA are three dimensional periodic structures formed by the electrostatic self-assembly of monodisperse macroionic colloidal spheres in an aqueous medium. CCA dispersions efficiently Bragg diffract light in the near UV to near IR spectral region, and are useful in areas of optical device fabrication, chemical sensing devices, and novel separation materials. We developed methodologies to synthesize monodisperse colloidal silica spheres via hydrolysis and condensation of tetraethoxysilane in nonionic reverse microemulsion systems. We examined the effects of reaction parameters and surfactant hydrophilic-lipophilic-balance (HLB) number on the final particle size and size distribution. We developed a unique multi-step growth technique by which the final particle diameter can be continuously selected with extremely narrow size distributions over a broad size range. We also developed methodologies to surface functionalize silica spheres to increase the particle surface charge density by two orders of magnitude. The resulting dispersions readily self-assemble into CCA and Bragg diffract light over a broad concentration range. In addition, we discovered an anomalously intense secondary diffraction phenomenon from CCA which occurs due to the superimposed Bragg diffraction from numerous lattice planes. This was quantitatively modeled by using dynamical diffraction and light scattering theory. We extended the microemulsion synthesis methodologies to fabricate monodisperse SiOsb2/CdS composite spheres with well-controlled and complex morphologies. By controlling the co-precipitation process, CdS could be incorporated into silica spheres as quantum dots, as large inclusions, as surface patches and welds, or as shells or cores. Further processing of these materials by selectively etching out CdS templates also generated a series of porous silica spheres with controlled pore characteristics. We also developed the synthesis of a novel hydrogel material with an embedded mesoscopic periodic array of water voids. These voids, much larger than the average mesh spacing of the hydrogel matrix, serve as "entropic traps" in which macromolecules preferentially partition to maximize their conformational entropy. We examined the partitioning of model chain polymers between the voids and the gel medium by probing the Bragg diffraction from the void array. Our results are the first experimental verification of the entropic trapping phenomenon. The materials developed here may be useful for applications in optical filters, nonlinear optics, catalyst supports, and macromolecular separation materials.

  1. Structure, synthesis, and applications of TiO2 nanobelts.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhenhuan; Tian, Jian; Sang, Yuanhua; Cabot, Andreu; Liu, Hong

    2015-04-24

    TiO2 semiconductor nanobelts have unique structural and functional properties, which lead to great potential in many fields, including photovoltaics, photocatalysis, energy storage, gas sensors, biosensors, and even biomaterials. A review of synthetic methods, properties, surface modification, and applications of TiO2 nanobelts is presented here. The structural features and basic properties of TiO2 nanobelts are systematically discussed, with the many applications of TiO2 nanobelts in the fields of photocatalysis, solar cells, gas sensors, biosensors, and lithium-ion batteries then introduced. Research efforts that aim to overcome the intrinsic drawbacks of TiO2 nanobelts are also highlighted. These efforts are focused on the rational design and modification of TiO2 nanobelts by doping with heteroatoms and/or forming surface heterostructures, to improve their desirable properties. Subsequently, the various types of surface heterostructures obtained by coupling TiO2 nanobelts with metal and metal oxide nanoparticles, chalcogenides, and conducting polymers are described. Further, the charge separation and electron transfer at the interfaces of these heterostructures are also discussed. These properties are related to improved sensitivity and selectivity for specific gases and biomolecules, as well as enhanced UV and visible light photocatalytic properties. The progress in developments of near-infrared-active photocatalysts based on TiO2 nanobelts is also highlighted. Finally, an outline of important directions of future research into the synthesis, modification, and applications of this unique material is given. PMID:25800706

  2. Diastereoselective synthesis of fused lactone-pyrrolidinones; application to a formal synthesis of (-)-salinosporamide A.

    PubMed

    Logan, Angus W J; Sprague, Simon J; Foster, Robert W; Marx, Léo B; Garzya, Vincenzo; Hallside, Michal S; Thompson, Amber L; Burton, Jonathan W

    2014-08-15

    A mild, diastereoselective synthesis of fused lactone-pyrrolidinones using an oxidative radical cyclization is reported. The methodology is demonstrated in a formal synthesis of (-)-salinosporamide A. PMID:25068416

  3. Enantioselective Cyclizations of Silyloxyenynes Catalyzed by Cationic Metal Phosphine Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Brazeau, Jean-François; Zhang, Suyan; Colomer, Ignacio; Corkey, Britton K.; Toste, F. Dean

    2012-01-01

    The discovery of complementary methods for enantioselective transition-metal-catalyzed cyclization with silyloxyenynes has been accomplished using chiral phosphine ligands. Under palladium catalysis, 1,6-silyloxyenynes bearing a terminal alkyne led to the desired 5-membered ring with high enantioselectivities (up to 91% ee). As for reactions under cationic gold catalysis, 1,6- and 1,5-silyloxyenynes bearing an internal alkyne furnished the chiral cyclopentane derivatives with excellent enantiomeric excess (up to 94% ee). Modification of the substrate by incorporating an α,β-unsaturation led to the discovery of a tandem cyclization. Remarkably, using silyloxy-1,3-dien-7-ynes under gold catalysis conditions provided the bicyclic derivatives with excellent diastereo- and enantioselectivities (up to >20:1 dr and 99% ee). PMID:22296571

  4. Enantioselective cyclizations of silyloxyenynes catalyzed by cationic metal phosphine complexes.

    PubMed

    Brazeau, Jean-François; Zhang, Suyan; Colomer, Ignacio; Corkey, Britton K; Toste, F Dean

    2012-02-01

    The discovery of complementary methods for enantioselective transition metal-catalyzed cyclization with silyloxyenynes has been accomplished using chiral phosphine ligands. Under palladium catalysis, 1,6-silyloxyenynes bearing a terminal alkyne led to the desired five-membered ring with high enantioselectivities (up to 91% ee). As for reactions under cationic gold catalysis, 1,6- and 1,5-silyloxyenynes bearing an internal alkyne furnished the chiral cyclopentane derivatives with excellent enantiomeric excess (up to 94% ee). Modification of the substrate by incorporating an α,β-unsaturation led to the discovery of a tandem cyclization. Remarkably, using silyloxy-1,3-dien-7-ynes under gold catalysis conditions provided the bicyclic derivatives with excellent diastereo- and enantioselectivities (up to >20:1 dr and 99% ee). PMID:22296571

  5. Enantioselective Pharmacokinetics of ?-Lipoic Acid in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Uchida, Ryota; Okamoto, Hinako; Ikuta, Naoko; Terao, Keiji; Hirota, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    ?-Lipoic acid (LA) is widely used for nutritional supplements as a racemic mixture, even though the R enantiomer is biologically active. After oral administration of the racemic mixture (R-?-lipoic acid (RLA) and S-?-lipoic acid (SLA) mixed at the ratio of 50:50) to rats, RLA showed higher plasma concentration than SLA, and its area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero to the last (AUC) was significantly about 1.26 times higher than that of SLA. However, after intravenous administration of the racemic mixture, the pharmacokinetic profiles, initial concentration (C0), AUC, and half-life (T1/2) of the enantiomers were not significantly different. After oral and intraduodenal administration of the racemic mixture to pyrolus-ligated rats, the AUCs of RLA were significantly about 1.24 and 1.32 times higher than that of SLA, respectively. In addition, after intraportal administration the AUC of RLA was significantly 1.16 times higher than that of SLA. In conclusion, the enantioselective pharmacokinetics of LA in rats arose from the fraction absorbed multiplied by gastrointestinal availability (FaFg) and hepatic availability (Fh), and not from the total clearance. PMID:26402669

  6. Enantioselective component selection in multicomponent supramolecular gels.

    PubMed

    Edwards, William; Smith, David K

    2014-01-22

    We investigate a two-component acid-amine gelation system in which chirality plays a vital role. A carboxylic acid based on a second generation l-lysine dendron interacts with chiral amines and subsequently assembles into supramolecular gel fibers. The chirality of the amine controls the assembly of the resulting diastereomeric complexes, even if this chirality is relatively "poor quality". Importantly, the selective incorporation of one enantiomer of an amine over the other into the gel network has been demonstrated, with the R amine that forms complexes which assemble into the most stable gel being primarily selected for incorporation. Thermodynamic control has been proven by forming a gel exclusively with an S amine, allowing the R enantiomer to diffuse through the gel network, and displacing it from the "solidlike" fibers, demonstrating that these gels adapt and evolve in response to chemical stimuli to which they are exposed. Excess amine, which remains unincorporated within the solidlike gel fiber network, can diffuse out and be reacted with an isocyanate, allowing us to quantify the enantioselectivity of component selection but also demonstrating how gels can act as selective reservoirs of potential reagents, releasing them on demand to undergo further reactions; hence, component-selective gel assembly can be coupled with controlled reactivity. PMID:24400807

  7. Synthesis of Uniform, Monodisperse, Sophorolipid Twisted Ribbons.

    PubMed

    Cuvier, Anne-Sophie; Babonneau, Florence; Berton, Jan; Stevens, Christian V; Fadda, Giulia C; Genois, Isabelle; Le Griel, Patrick; Péhau-Arnaudet, Gérard; Baccile, Niki

    2015-11-01

    Control over size monodispersity in chiral self-assembled systems is important for potential applications like templating, tissue engineering or enantioselective chromatography, just to cite a few examples. In this context, it was reported that the saturated form of sophorolipids (SL), a bioderived glycolipid, are able to form self-assembled twisted ribbons in water at neutral pH. Here, we show the possibility to control their size dispersion, generally between 10 and 40 nm after synthesis to a value of 13.5±1.5 nm, by a simple dialysis step eliminating the excess of NaCl. We use transmission electron microscopy under cryogenic conditions (cryo-TEM) combined with small angle neutron scattering (SANS) to characterize the ribbon dispersion both visually and statistically. Two negative controls show the importance of salt in the aggregation process of the ribbons. PMID:26317317

  8. An aromatic ion platform for enantioselective Brønsted acid catalysis.

    PubMed

    Gheewala, Chirag D; Collins, Bridget E; Lambert, Tristan H

    2016-02-26

    Chiral acid catalysts are useful for the synthesis of enantioenriched small molecules, but the standard catalysts require laborious and expensive preparations. Here, we describe a chiral Brønsted acid prepared in one step from naturally occurring (-)-menthol and readily available 1,2,3,4,5-pentacarbomethoxycyclopentadiene. Aromatic stabilization serves as a key contributing factor to the potent acidity of the resulting compound, which is shown to catalyze both Mukaiyama-Mannich and oxocarbenium aldol reactions with high efficiency and enantioselectivity. Catalyst loadings as low as 0.01 mole percent and preparative scalability (25 grams) are demonstrated. Alternative amide catalysts are also shown to be promising platforms. In addition to proton catalysis, a chiral anion pathway is demonstrated to be viable with this catalyst system. PMID:26917768

  9. Atomic layer deposition of enantioselective thin film of alumina on chiral self-assembled-monolayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moshe, Hagay; Levi, Gila; Sharon, Daniel; Mastai, Yitzhak

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, we describe the synthesis of new chiral nanosized surfaces based on chiral self-assembled monolayers coated with metal oxide (Al2O3) nanolayers. In this new type of nanosized chiral surface, the Al2O3 nanolayers enable the protection of the chiral self-assembled monolayers while preserving their enantioselective nature. The chiral nature of the SAMs/Al2O3 films was characterized by a variety of techniques, such as, quartz crystal microbalance, circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy and chiral crystallization. The proposed methodology for the preparation of nanoscale chiral surfaces described in this article could open up opportunities in other fields of chemistry, such as chiral catalysis.

  10. Enantioselective syntheses and sensory properties of 2-methyl-tetrahydrofuran-3-thiol acetates.

    PubMed

    Dai, Yifeng; Shao, Junqiang; Yang, Shaoxiang; Sun, Baoguo; Liu, Yongguo; Ning, Ting; Tian, Hongyu

    2015-01-21

    The enantioselective synthesis of four stereoisomers of 2-methyl-tetrahydrofuran-3-thiol acetate was achieved. The two enantiomers of the important intermediate cis-2-methyl-3-hydroxy-tetrahydrofuran were obtained by Sharpless asymmetric dihydroxylation (AD), whereas the two enantiomers of trans-2-methyl-3-hydroxy-tetrahydrofuran were derived from the corresponding optically active cis-isomers by Mitsunobu reaction. Each stereoisomer of 2-methyl-3-hydroxy-tetrahydrofuran went through mesylation and nucleophilic substitution to afford the corresponding product with specific configuration. (2R,3S)- and (2R,3R)-2-methyl-tetrahydrofuran-3-thiol acetate were obtained in 80% ee, whereas the (2S,3R)- and (2S,3S)-isomers were in 62% ee. The odor properties of the synthesized four stereoisomers were evaluated by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O), which revealed perceptible differences among stereoisomers both in odor features and in intensities. PMID:25560460

  11. Synthesis of internally functionalized silica nanoparticles for theranostic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walton, Nathan Isaac

    This thesis addresses the synthesis and characterization of novel inorganic silica nanoparticle hybrids. It focuses in large part on their potential applications in the medical field. Silica acts as a useful carrier for a variety of compounds and this thesis silica will demonstrate its use as a carrier for boron or gadolinium. Boron-10 and gadolinium-157 have been suggested for the radiological treatment of tumor cells through the process called neutron capture therapy (NCT). Gadolinium is also commonly used as a Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) contrast agent. Particles that carry it have potential theranostic applications of both imaging and treating tumors. Chapter 1 presents a background on synthetic strategies and usages of silica nanoparticles, and NCT theory. Chapter 2 describes a procedure to create mesoporous metal chelating silica nanoparticles, mDTTA. This is achieved via a co-condensation of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and 3-trimethoxysilyl-propyl diethylenetriamine (SiDETA) followed by a post-synthesis modification step with bromoacetic acid (BrAA). These particles have a large surface area and well-defined pores of ~2 nm. The mDTTA nanoparticles were used to chelate the copper(II), cobalt(II) and gadolinium(III). The chelating of gadolinium is the most interesting since it can be used as a MRI contrast agent and a neutron capture therapeutic. The synthetic procedure developed also allows for the attachment of a fluorophore that gives the gadolinium chelating mDTTA nanoparticles a dual imaging modality. Chapter 3 presents the synthetic method used to produce two classes of large surface area organically modified silica (ORMOSIL) nanoparticles. Condensating the organosilane vinyltrimethoxysilane in a micellar solution results in nanoparticles that are either surface rough (raspberry-like) or mesoporous nanoparticles, which prior to this thesis has not been demonstrated in ORMOSIL chemistry. Furthermore, the vinyl functionalities are modified, using hydroboration, to make the nanoparticles into water-dispersible boron carriers that also have potential boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) applications. Lastly, Chapter 4 provides a general description of NCT, specifically that involving boron-10 and gadolinium-157. It further describes the synthetic methodology used in producing fatty acid coated boron nanoparticles (BNPs). The BNPs are encapsulated with silica to add a hydrophilic shell so that they can potentially be used in biological systems as BNCT agents. The silica shell is also modified with a fluorophore, dansyl chloride, so that the particle hybrid could be imaged during cell studies.

  12. Immobilization and Characterization of a New Regioselective and Enantioselective Lipase Obtained from a Metagenomic Library

    PubMed Central

    Alnoch, Robson Carlos; Martini, Viviane Paula; Glogauer, Arnaldo; Costa, Allen Carolina dos Santos; Piovan, Leandro; Muller-Santos, Marcelo; de Souza, Emanuel Maltempi; de Oliveira Pedrosa, Fábio; Mitchell, David Alexander; Krieger, Nadia

    2015-01-01

    In previous work, a new lipase and its cognate foldase were identified and isolated from a metagenomic library constructed from soil samples contaminated with fat. This new lipase, called LipG9, is a true lipase that shows specific activities that are comparable to those of well-known industrially-used lipases with high activity against long-chain triglycerides. In the present work, LipG9 was co-expressed and co-immobilized with its foldase, on an inert hydrophobic support (Accurel MP1000). We studied the performance of this immobilized LipG9 (Im-LipG9) in organic media, in order to evaluate its potential for use in biocatalysis. Im-LipG9 showed good stability, maintaining a residual activity of more than 70% at 50°C after incubation in n-heptane (log P 4.0) for 8 h. It was also stable in polar organic solvents such as ethanol (log P -0.23) and acetone (log P -0.31), maintaining more than 80% of its original activity after 8 h incubation at 30°C. The synthesis of ethyl esters was tested with fatty acids of different chain lengths in n-heptane at 30 °C. The best conversions (90% in 3 h) were obtained for medium and long chain saturated fatty acids (C8, C14 and C16), with the maximum specific activity, 29 U per gram of immobilized preparation, being obtained with palmitic acid (C16). Im-LipG9 was sn-1,3-specific. In the transesterification of the alcohol (R,S)-1-phenylethanol with vinyl acetate and the hydrolysis of the analogous ester, (R,S)-1-phenylethyl acetate, Im-LipG9 showed excellent enantioselectivity for the R-isomer of both substrates (E> 200), giving an enantiomeric excess (ee) of higher than 95% for the products at 49% conversion. The results obtained in this work provide the basis for the development of applications of LipG9 in biocatalysis. PMID:25706996

  13. Immobilization and characterization of a new regioselective and enantioselective lipase obtained from a metagenomic library.

    PubMed

    Alnoch, Robson Carlos; Martini, Viviane Paula; Glogauer, Arnaldo; Costa, Allen Carolina dos Santos; Piovan, Leandro; Muller-Santos, Marcelo; de Souza, Emanuel Maltempi; de Oliveira Pedrosa, Fábio; Mitchell, David Alexander; Krieger, Nadia

    2015-01-01

    In previous work, a new lipase and its cognate foldase were identified and isolated from a metagenomic library constructed from soil samples contaminated with fat. This new lipase, called LipG9, is a true lipase that shows specific activities that are comparable to those of well-known industrially-used lipases with high activity against long-chain triglycerides. In the present work, LipG9 was co-expressed and co-immobilized with its foldase, on an inert hydrophobic support (Accurel MP1000). We studied the performance of this immobilized LipG9 (Im-LipG9) in organic media, in order to evaluate its potential for use in biocatalysis. Im-LipG9 showed good stability, maintaining a residual activity of more than 70% at 50 °C after incubation in n-heptane (log P 4.0) for 8 h. It was also stable in polar organic solvents such as ethanol (log P -0.23) and acetone (log P -0.31), maintaining more than 80% of its original activity after 8 h incubation at 30 °C. The synthesis of ethyl esters was tested with fatty acids of different chain lengths in n-heptane at 30 °C. The best conversions (90% in 3 h) were obtained for medium and long chain saturated fatty acids (C8, C14 and C16), with the maximum specific activity, 29 U per gram of immobilized preparation, being obtained with palmitic acid (C16). Im-LipG9 was sn-1,3-specific. In the transesterification of the alcohol (R,S)-1-phenylethanol with vinyl acetate and the hydrolysis of the analogous ester, (R,S)-1-phenylethyl acetate, Im-LipG9 showed excellent enantioselectivity for the R-isomer of both substrates (E> 200), giving an enantiomeric excess (ee) of higher than 95% for the products at 49% conversion. The results obtained in this work provide the basis for the development of applications of LipG9 in biocatalysis. PMID:25706996

  14. Green synthesis and applications of Au-Ag bimetallic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Meena Kumari, M; Jacob, John; Philip, Daizy

    2015-02-25

    This paper reports for the first time the synthesis of bimetallic nanoparticles at room temperature using the fruit juice of pomegranate. Simultaneous reduction of gold and silver ions in different molar ratios leads to the formation of alloy as well as core-shell nanostructures. The nanoparticles have been characterized using UV-vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The synthesized alloy particles are used as catalysts in the reduction of 2-, 3-, 4-nitrophenols to the corresponding amines and in the degradation of methyl orange. The reduction kinetics for all the reactions follows pseudo-first order. The rate constants follow the order k4-nitrophenolapplication. The nitric oxide and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity shown by the nanoparticles promise the potential application in biomedical field. PMID:25218228

  15. Yolk/shell nanoparticles: classifications, synthesis, properties, and applications.

    PubMed

    Purbia, Rahul; Paria, Santanu

    2015-12-21

    Core/shell nanoparticles were first reported in the early 1990s with a simple spherical core and shell structure, but the area is gradually diversifying in multiple directions such as different shapes, multishells, yolk/shell etc., because of the development of different new properties of the materials, which are useful for several advanced applications. Among different sub-areas of core/shell nanoparticles, yolk/shell nanoparticles (YS NPs) have drawn significant attention in recent years because of their unique properties such as low density, large surface area, ease of interior core functionalization, a good molecular loading capacity in the void space, tunable interstitial void space, and a hollow outer shell. The YS NPs have better properties over simple core/shell or hollow NPs in various fields including biomedical, catalysis, sensors, lithium batteries, adsorbents, DSSCs, microwave absorbers etc., mainly because of the presence of free void space, porous hollow shell, and free core surface. This review presents an extensive classification of YS NPs based on their structures and types of materials, along with synthesis strategies, properties, and applications with which one would be able to draw a complete picture of this area. PMID:26567966

  16. Green synthesis and applications of Au-Ag bimetallic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meena Kumari, M.; Jacob, John; Philip, Daizy

    2015-02-01

    This paper reports for the first time the synthesis of bimetallic nanoparticles at room temperature using the fruit juice of pomegranate. Simultaneous reduction of gold and silver ions in different molar ratios leads to the formation of alloy as well as core-shell nanostructures. The nanoparticles have been characterized using UV-vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The synthesized alloy particles are used as catalysts in the reduction of 2-, 3-, 4-nitrophenols to the corresponding amines and in the degradation of methyl orange. The reduction kinetics for all the reactions follows pseudo-first order. The rate constants follow the order k4-nitrophenol < k2-nitrophenol < k3-nitrophenol. Thermal conductivity is measured as a function of volume fraction and it is observed that the incorporation of the alloy nanoparticles enhances the thermal conductivity of the base fluid (water) showing nanofluid application. The nitric oxide and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity shown by the nanoparticles promise the potential application in biomedical field.

  17. Yolk/shell nanoparticles: classifications, synthesis, properties, and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purbia, Rahul; Paria, Santanu

    2015-11-01

    Core/shell nanoparticles were first reported in the early 1990s with a simple spherical core and shell structure, but the area is gradually diversifying in multiple directions such as different shapes, multishells, yolk/shell etc., because of the development of different new properties of the materials, which are useful for several advanced applications. Among different sub-areas of core/shell nanoparticles, yolk/shell nanoparticles (YS NPs) have drawn significant attention in recent years because of their unique properties such as low density, large surface area, ease of interior core functionalization, a good molecular loading capacity in the void space, tunable interstitial void space, and a hollow outer shell. The YS NPs have better properties over simple core/shell or hollow NPs in various fields including biomedical, catalysis, sensors, lithium batteries, adsorbents, DSSCs, microwave absorbers etc., mainly because of the presence of free void space, porous hollow shell, and free core surface. This review presents an extensive classification of YS NPs based on their structures and types of materials, along with synthesis strategies, properties, and applications with which one would be able to draw a complete picture of this area.

  18. Nanostructured organic electronic materials: Synthesis and sensor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dua, Vineet

    2009-12-01

    This study is an investigation into (a) the process by which one obtains bulk quantities of nanofibers of parent polythiophene, (b) in-situ deposition of nanofibers of polythiophene on flexible substrate and its application in vapor sensing, and (c) inkjet printing of graphene on flexible substrate and its application as a detector. (a) The 2 nd chapter of the thesis is an extension of "seeding" method from aqueous to organic solvents to synthesize parent polythiophene nanofibers. Bulk quantities of parent polythiophene nanofibers were synthesized in one step using catalytic amounts of freeze dried V2O5. This work is published in Chemistry Letters 2008 37(5), 526--527. (b) The 3rd chapter deals with in-situ films of polythiophene nanofibers on plastic substrates. In this a one step method to directly deposit nanofibers of parent polythiophene on flexible substrate is discussed. These films show a reversible detection of highly oxidizing vapors such as NO2, Cl2 and SO 2 at ppb levels under ambient conditions. This work is published in Macromolecules 2009, 42, 5414--5415. (c) The 4 th chapter describes the synthesis of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) using a mild reducing agent ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) rather than traditionally used harsh reducing agents (N2H4). Dispersions of RGO were inkjet printed on flexible substrate and has been shown to detect aggressive vapors NO2 and Cl2 at ambient conditions. This work is accepted for publication in Angewandte Chemie (Nov 2009).

  19. Defect-related luminescent materials: synthesis, emission properties and applications.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cuimiao; Lin, Jun

    2012-12-01

    Luminescent materials have found a wide variety of applications, including information displays, lighting, X-ray intensification and scintillation, and so on. Therefore, much effort has been devoted to exploring novel luminescent materials so far. In the past decade, defect-related luminescent materials have inspired intensive research efforts in their own right. This kind of luminescent material can be basically classified into silica-based materials, phosphate systems, metal oxides, BCNO phosphors, and carbon-based materials. These materials combine several favourable attributes of traditional commercially available phosphors, which are stable, efficient, and less toxic, being free of the burdens of intrinsic toxicity or elemental scarcity and the need for stringent, intricate, tedious, costly, or inefficient preparation steps. Defect-related luminescent materials can be produced inexpensively and on a large scale by many approaches, such as sol-gel process, hydro(solvo)thermal reaction, hydrolysis methods, and electrochemical methods. This review article highlights the recent advances in the chemical synthesis and luminescent properties of the defect-related materials, together with their control and tuning, and emission mechanisms (solid state physics). We also speculate on their future and discuss potential developments for their applications in lighting and biomedical fields. PMID:23019577

  20. Enantioselective Properties of Nucleic Acid Aptamer Molecular Recognition Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peyrin, Eric

    Target-specific chiral selectors, which are characterized by a predictable elution order depending on the target enantiomer employed for the selection of the chiral selector, have recently received much attention in the enantioselective analysis field. In this context, bioaffinity-based molecular recognition tools such as nucleic acid aptamers have notably demonstrated very attractive features for the chiral discrimination of active molecules. In this chapter, the enantioselective properties of aptamer chiral selectors and the major factors that control and modulate the liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis enantiomer separation are addressed.

  1. Reinvestigation of a Catalytic, Enantioselective Alkene Dibromination and Chlorohydroxylation.

    PubMed

    Denmark, Scott E; Carson, Nessa

    2015-12-01

    Attempts to reproduce eight, putative, enantioselective dibromination and chlorohydroxylation reactions from oft-cited literature studies are described. The reactions were performed with full fidelity to the original report wherever possible. Analysis of the enantiomeric composition was performed by chiral stationary phase HPLC or SFC (CSP-HPLC or CSP-SFC), as opposed to the original report, which used chiral shift reagent NMR spectroscopy. After careful study, the reported levels of enantioselectivity were found to be incorrect. Possible explanations for the false positive results are discussed. PMID:26566099

  2. Iridium-catalyzed enantioselective hydrogenation of imines in supercritical carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Kainz, S.; Brinkmann, A.; Leitner, W.; Pfaltz, A.

    1999-07-14

    Supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO{sub 2}) was shown to be a reaction medium with unique properties for highly efficient iridium-catalyzed enantioselective hydrogenation of prochiral imines. Cationic iridium(I) complexes with chiral phosphinodihydrooxazoles, modified with perfluoroalkyl groups in the ligand or in the anion, were synthesized and tested in the hydrogenation of N-(1-phenylethylidene)aniline. Both the side chains and the lipophilic anions increased the solubility, but the choice of the anion also had a dramatic effect on the enantioselectivity with tetrakis-3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenylborate (BARF) leading to the highest asymmetric induction. (R)-N-phenyl-1-phenylethylamine was formed quantitatively within 1 h in scCO{sub 2}[d(CO{sub 2}) = 0.75 g mL{sup {minus}1}] at 40 C and a H{sub 2} pressure of 30 bar with enantiomeric excesses of up to 81% using 0.078 mol % catalyst. The use of scCO{sub 2} instead of conventional solvents such as CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} allowed the catalyst loading to be lowered significantly owing to a change in the rate profile of the reaction. the homogeneous nature of the catalytically active species under the reaction conditions was demonstrated and was found to depend strongly on the composition of the reaction mixture and especially on the presence of the substrate. Utilizing the selective extractive properties of scCO{sub 2}, the product could be readily separated from the catalyst, which could be recycled several times without significant loss of activity and enantioselectivity. High-pressure FT-IR and NMR investigations revealed that the reactivity of the products to form the corresponding carbamic acids plays an important role for the application of this new methodology.

  3. Synthesis, characterization and biosensing application of photon upconverting nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Manoj; Zhang, Peng

    2009-02-01

    Phosphor/fluorescent molecules/particles have been widely used in various applications for quite some time. Typically, light with longer wavelength(s) is emitted when excited by shorter wavelength light. The opposite effect also exists, where a phosphor particle is excited with an infrared or red light and emits color(s) of shorter wavelengths, a process called up-conversion. Materials with upconverting properties have narrower absorption and line emission spectra than their down-converting counterparts. Because most non-target materials in a complex mixture do not possess such photon up-conversion properties, a dramatically improved S/N ratio is expected in sensing and luminescence reporting applications. This makes photon upconverting materials ideal for identification of trace amounts of target molecules. Here we report the synthesis, characterization and DNA detection application based on NaYF4:Yb3+, Er3+ photon upconverting nanoparticles. The design of a nucleotide sensor for the detection of point mutation associated with sickle cell disease is described. The underlying principle for the detection is luminescence resonance energy transfer (LRET), with the photon upconverting nanoparticle as the donor and a dye, N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-6-carboxyrhodamine (TAMRA), as the acceptor. The detection scheme is based on a sandwich-type hybridization format. The presence of the target DNA is indicated by the increase of the normalized acceptor's emission. Based on photon upconverting nanoparticles, which display high S/N ratio and no photobleaching, the DNA sensor demonstrates high sensitivity and specificity. The results demonstrate great potential of such nanomaterials as oligonucleotide sensors.

  4. Sustainable synthesis, characterization, and applications of metal oxide nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiano, Amanda Lyn

    Nanomaterials have attracted significant research focus due to their advantageous and unique properties (i.e. electronic, magnetic, optical, and mechanical) as compared with the bulk. Metal oxide nanostructures are of particular interest, as they are very robust and display high chemical and thermal stability, while offering a diverse array of fascinating properties. By reliably controlling the size, morphology, composition, and crystallinity of these nanostructures, their properties can be tuned for a specific purpose. These advantageous tailorable properties render them as ideal candidates for many applications such as catalysis, sensing, electronics, optoelectronics, energy storage, and even medicine. Driven by their increased popularity and potential applications, efforts to synthesize nanomaterials have moved toward environmentally-friendly methodologies, such as wet-chemical, molten-salt, hydrothermal, and sol-gel methods. We will discuss the green synthesis of strontium ruthenate (SrRuO 3), the yttrium manganese oxides (YMnO3 and YMn2O 5), and the magnetic spinel ferrites (MFe2O4 where 'M' is Mg, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn) and our ability to reliably tune their properties for various applications. The effects of the molten salt parameters on the resulting particle size and morphology were explored for SrRuO 3 and the yttrium manganese oxides. For example, rapid cooling rates and the use of surfactants allowed us to produced faceted octahedra of SrRuO 3, which resulted in a 4-fold enhancement of their activity towards methanol oxidation with respect to smooth rounded particles. Similarly, using the hydrothermal method, we generated ferrite nanoparticles of different compositions and sizes. We investigated their potential as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and as photocatalysts, and observed significant differences as a function of both size and composition. Similarly, we will also examine surface and structural effects upon the electronic properties of V2O 3 nanowires.

  5. Synthesis and Applications of Inorganic/Organic-Polymer Nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goyal, Anubha

    This research work focuses on developing new synthesis routes to fabricate polymer nanocomposites tailored towards different applications. A simple, one-step method has been devised for synthesizing free-standing, flexible metal nanoparticle-polydimethylsiloxane films. This process simplifies prevalent methods to synthesize nanocomposites, in that here nanoparticles are created in situ while curing the polymer. This route circumvents the need for pre-synthesized nanoparticles, external reducing agents and stabilizers, thereby significantly reducing processing time and cost. The resulting nanocomposite also demonstrates enhancement in mechanical and antibacterial properties, with other envisaged applications in biomedical devices and catalysis. Applying the same mechanism as that used for the formation of bulk metalsiloxane nanocomposites, metal core-siloxane shell nanoparticles and siloxane nanowires were synthesized, with octadecylsilane as the precursor and in situ formed metal nanoparticles (gold, silver) as the catalyst. This method offers some unique advantages over the previously existing methods. This is a room temperature route which does not require high temperature refluxing or the use of pre-synthesized nanoparticles. Furthermore, this synthesis process gives a control over the shape of resulting nanocomposite structures (1-D wires or 0-D spherical particles). High thermal stability of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) makes it viable to alternatively synthesize metal nanoparticles in the polymer matrix by thermal decomposition process. This technique is generic across a range of metals (palladium, iron, nickel) and results in nanoparticles with a very narrow size distribution. Membranes with palladium nanoparticles demonstrate catalytic activity in ethylene hydrogenation reaction. Additionally, a new nanocomposite electrode has been developed for flexible and light-weight Li-ion batteries. Flexible films were prepared by the integration of the poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene (PVDF-HFP) polymer electrolyte with the three-dimensional (3D), nanostructured electrode composed of aligned carbon nanotube (CNT)-copper oxide hybrid. This hybrid electrode was fabricated by a combination of chemical vapor deposition and electrodeposition techniques. Embedding it in PVDF polymer results in a flexible system and also renders an external separator redundant. This new design shows an improvement in electrochemical performance over pure CNTs as both CNTs and Cu2O contribute towards electrochemical activity. Efforts have also been undertaken towards synthesizing synthetic adhesives by mimicking the design principles found in nature. Aligned patterned CNTs have been used to replicate the fibrillar structure found in geckos' toes which generates adhesion through van der Waals forces. The adhesive forces in CNTs were found to be higher than in geckos and the key to this phenomenon lies in the extensive side-wall contact obtained on compressing CNTs against a surface.

  6. Enantioselective Synthesis of α-Methyl-β-cyclopropyldihydrocinnamates.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Melodie; Nolting, Andrew; Shevlin, Michael; Weisel, Mark; Maligres, Peter E; Lee, Joshua; Orr, Robert K; Plummer, Christopher W; Tudge, Matthew T; Campeau, Louis-Charles; Ruck, Rebecca T

    2016-02-01

    α- and β-substitution of dihydrocinnamates has been shown to increase the biological activity of various drug candidates. Recently, we identified enantio- and diastereopure α-methyl-β-cyclopropyldihydrocinnamates to be important pharmacophores in one of our drug discovery programs and endeavored to devise an asymmetric hydrogenation strategy to improve access to this valuable framework. We used high throughput experimentation to define stereoconvergent Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling conditions affording (Z)-α-methyl-β-cyclopropylcinnamates and subsequent ruthenium-catalyzed asymmetric hydrogenation conditions affording the desired products in excellent enantio- and diastereoselectivities. These conditions were executed on multigram to kilogram scale to provide three key enantiopure α-methyl-β-cyclopropyldihydrocinnamates with high selectivity. PMID:26743694

  7. Enantioselective synthesis of L-(-)-4- boronophenylalanine (L-BPA)

    DOEpatents

    Samsel, Edward G.

    1992-01-01

    A method of making substantially pure L-BPA is disclosed. The method includes the steps of reacting 4-bromobenzaldehyde with ethylene glycol to form 4-bromobenzaldehyde ethylene glycol acetal, sequentially reacting 4-bromobenzaldehyde ethyleneglycol acetal with Mg to produce the Grignard reagent and thereafter reacting with tributyl borate and then converting to an acid environment to form 4-boronobenzaldehyde, reacting 4-boronobenzaldehyde with diethanol amine to form 4-boronobenzaldehyde diethanolamine ester, condensing the 4-boronobenzaldehyde diethanolamine ester with 2-phenyl-2-oxazolin-5-one to form an azlactone, reacting the azlactone with an alkali metal hydroxide to form z-.alpha.-benzoylamino-4-boronocinnamic acid, asymmetrically hydrogenating the z-.alpha.-benzoylamino-4-boronocinnamic acid in the presence of a catalyst of a cheltate complex of rhodium (I) with chiral bisphosphines to form L-(+)-N-benzoyl-4-boronophenylalanine, and thereafter acidifying the L-(+)-N-benzoyl-4-boronophenylalanine in an organic medium to produce L-BPA.

  8. Enantioselective synthesis of L-(-)-4- boronophenylalanine (L-BPA)

    DOEpatents

    Samsel, E.G.

    1992-10-20

    A method of making substantially pure L-BPA is disclosed. The method includes the steps of reacting 4-bromobenzaldehyde with ethylene glycol to form 4-bromobenzaldehyde ethylene glycol acetal, sequentially reacting 4-bromobenzaldehyde ethyleneglycol acetal with Mg to produce the Grignard reagent and thereafter reacting with tributyl borate and then converting to an acid environment to form 4-boronobenzaldehyde, reacting 4-boronobenzaldehyde with diethanol amine to form 4-boronobenzaldehyde diethanolamine ester, condensing the 4-boronobenzaldehyde diethanolamine ester with 2-phenyl-2-oxazolin-5-one to form an azlactone, reacting the azlactone with an alkali metal hydroxide to form z-[alpha]-benzoylamino-4boronocinnamic acid, asymmetrically hydrogenating the z-[alpha]-benzoylamino-4-boronocinnamic acid in the presence of a catalyst of a cheltate complex of rhodium (I) with chiral bisphosphines to form L-(+)-N-benzoyl-4-boronophenylalanine, and thereafter acidifying the L-(+)-N-benzoyl-4-boronophenylalanine in an organic medium to produce L-BPA. 3 figs.

  9. Synthesis of nanostructured materials for biosensor and fuel cell applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil, Maria Paula

    Nanotechnology has attracted the attention of many different fields due to the new and exiting possibilities it entails. However, the future of nanotechnology depends on (i) the successful understanding and discovery of material properties at the nanoscale, (ii) efficient manufacture of nanoscale materials, and (iii) most importantly, incorporation of nanomaterials into real world applications and devices. The purpose of this research is to synthesize macroscale materials for applications such as fuel cell membranes or biosensors by assembly or modification at the nanoscale. This research is concentrated in two main projects. The first project focuses on the direct synthesis of a PEEK fuel cell membrane from sulfonated monomers with nanoscale features. S-PEEK membranes were evaluated for possible fuel cell applications by determining the degree of sulfonation, water swelling, proton conductivity, methanol diffusivity and thermal stability. As synthesized S-PEEK membranes exhibit conductivities (25°C) from 0.02--0.07 S/cm, water swelling from 13--54%, ion-exchange capacities (IEC) from 0.7--1.5 mmol/g and methanol diffusion coefficients from 3 x 10-7 --5 x 10-8 cm2/s at 25°C. These diffusion coefficients are much lower than that of NafionRTM (2 x 10-6 cm2/s), making S-PEEK membranes a good alternative to reduce problems associated with high methanol crossover in direct methanol fuel cells. The second project consists of synthesizing (2D) or (3D) nanowire thin film Pt electrodes for applications as glucose sensors. Although platinum nanowires have shown to have unique properties, it is still challenging to fabricate nanowire devices such as sensors. This research reports the fabrication of platinum nanowires into continuous thin film electrodes and the application as biosensors. The electrodes were synthesized by the following steps: (1) construction of a nanostructured mesoporous thin film template by self-assembly of surfactant and silicate species, (2) electrodeposition of platinum within the pores of the silica template, (3) removal of the silica template, and (4) immobilization of the enzyme on the platinum electrodes. SEM, TEM, chronoamperometry and cyclic voltammetry were used to characterize the electrodes. The sensor sensitivity was determined amperometrically. The sensors show improved sensitivities and stabilities, providing a promising approach to integrate nanowires into useful devices.

  10. Highly Selective Synthesis of Halomon, Plocamenone, and Isoplocamenone

    PubMed Central

    Bucher, Cyril; Deans, Richard M.; Burns, Noah Z.

    2015-01-01

    Over 160 chiral vicinal bromochlorinated natural products have been identified, however a lack of synthetic methods for the selective incorporation of halogens into organic molecules has hindered their synthesis. Here we disclose the first total synthesis and structural confirmation of isoplocamenone and plocamenone, as well as the first selective and scaleable synthesis of the preclinical anticancer natural product halomon. The synthesis of these interhalogenated compounds has been enabled by our recently developed chemo-, regio-, and enantioselective dihalogenation reaction. PMID:26394844

  11. Highly Selective Synthesis of Halomon, Plocamenone, and Isoplocamenone.

    PubMed

    Bucher, Cyril; Deans, Richard M; Burns, Noah Z

    2015-10-14

    Over 160 chiral vicinal bromochlorinated natural products have been identified; however, a lack of synthetic methods for the selective incorporation of halogens into organic molecules has hindered their synthesis. Here we disclose the first total synthesis and structural confirmation of isoplocamenone and plocamenone, as well as the first selective and scalable synthesis of the preclinical anticancer natural product halomon. The synthesis of these inter-halogenated compounds has been enabled by our recently developed chemo-, regio-, and enantioselective dihalogenation reaction. PMID:26394844

  12. Synthesis of Boron Nitride Nanotubes for Engineering Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurst, Janet; Hull, David; Gorican, Dan

    2005-01-01

    Boron Nitride nanotubes (BNNT) are of interest to the scientific and technical communities for many of the same reasons that carbon nanotubes (CNT) have attracted large amounts of attention. Both materials have potentially unique and significant properties which may have important structural and electronic applications in the future. However of even more interest than their similarities may be the differences between carbon and boron nanotubes. Whilt boron nitride nanotubes possess a very high modulus similaar to CNT, they are also more chemically and thermally inert. Additionally BNNT possess more uniform electronic properties, having a uniform band gap of approximately 5.5 eV while CNT vary from semi-conductin to conductor behavior. Boron Nitride nanotubes have been synthesized by a variety of methods such as chemical vapor deposition, arc discharge and reactive milling. Consistently producing a reliable product has proven difficult. Progress in synthesis of 1-2 gram sized batches of Boron Nitride nanotubes will be discussed as well as potential uses for this unique material.

  13. Sonochemical synthesis of manganese (II) hydroxide for supercapacitor applications

    SciTech Connect

    Anandan, Sambandam; Gnana Sundara Raj, Balasubramaniam; Lee, Gang-Juan; Wu, Jerry J.

    2013-09-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Octahedral Mn(OH){sub 2} nanoparticles were prepared by sonochemical process. • TEM images indicates the formation of octahedral Mn(OH){sub 2} nanoparticles. • Octahedral Mn(OH){sub 2} nanoparticles are evaluated as a supercapacitor material. - Abstract: In this research, a rapid and controllable synthesis of octahedral Mn(OH){sub 2} nanoparticles with a size range from 140 to 200 nm has been done by a sonochemial irradiation method for the energy storage applications. Transmission electron microscopic images, energy disperse X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray photo electron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analyses clearly indicate the formation of octahedral Mn(OH){sub 2} nanoparticles. Octahedral Mn(OH){sub 2} nanoparticles were evaluated as a supercapacitor material that exhibits specific capacitance 127 F g{sup −1} at a current density of 0.5 mA cm{sup −2} in the potential range from −0.1 to 0.8 V in 1 M Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution.

  14. Direct Hydrothermal Synthesis of Carbonaceous Silver Nanocables for Electrocatalytic Applications.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chuyang; Suryanto, Bryan Harry Rahmat; Zhao, Chuan; Jiang, Xuchuan; Yu, Aibing

    2015-08-01

    This study demonstrates a facile but efficient hydrothermal method for the direct synthesis of both carbonaceous silver (Ag@C core-shell) nanocables and carbonaceous nanotubes under mild conditions (<180 °C). The carbonaceous tubes can be formed by removal of the silver cores via an etching process under temperature control (60-140 °C). The structure and composition are characterized using various advanced microscopic and spectroscopic techniques. The pertinent variables such as temperature, reaction time, and surfactants that can affect the formation and growth of the nanocables and nanotubes are investigated and optimized. It is found that cetyltrimethylammonium bromide plays multiple roles in the formation of Ag@C nanocables and carbonaceous nanotubes including: a shape controller for metallic Ag wires and Ag@C cables, a source of Br(-) ions to form insoluble AgBr and then Ag crystals, an etching agent of silver cores to form carbonaceous tubes, and an inducer to refill silver particles into the carbonaceous tubes to form core-shell structures. The formation mechanism of carbonaceous silver nanostructures depending upon temperature is also discussed. Finally, the electrocatalytic performance of the as-prepared Ag@C nanocables is assessed for the oxidation reduction reaction and found to be very active but much less costly than the commonly used platinum catalysts. The findings should be useful for designing and constructing carbonaceous-metal nanostructures with potential applications in conductive materials, catalysts, and biosensors. PMID:25808560

  15. Silver nanoparticles: synthesis, properties, toxicology, applications and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Quang Huy; Quy Nguyen, Van; Le, Anh-Tuan

    2013-09-01

    In recent years the outbreak of re-emerging and emerging infectious diseases has been a significant burden on global economies and public health. The growth of population and urbanization along with poor water supply and environmental hygiene are the main reasons for the increase in outbreak of infectious pathogens. Transmission of infectious pathogens to the community has caused outbreaks of diseases such as influenza (A/H5N1), diarrhea (Escherichia coli), cholera (Vibrio cholera), etc throughout the world. The comprehensive treatments of environments containing infectious pathogens using advanced disinfectant nanomaterials have been proposed for prevention of the outbreaks. Among these nanomaterials, silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) with unique properties of high antimicrobial activity have attracted much interest from scientists and technologists to develop nanosilver-based disinfectant products. This article aims to review the synthesis routes and antimicrobial effects of Ag-NPs against various pathogens including bacteria, fungi and virus. Toxicology considerations of Ag-NPs to humans and ecology are discussed in detail. Some current applications of Ag-NPs in water-, air- and surface- disinfection are described. Finally, future prospects of Ag-NPs for treatment and prevention of currently emerging infections are discussed.

  16. Enantioselective sorption of the chiral fungicide metalaxyl on soil from non-racemic aqueous solutions: Environmental implications.

    PubMed

    Celis, Rafael; Gámiz, Beatriz; Facenda, Gracia; Hermosín, María C

    2015-12-30

    Mechanisms governing the enantioselectivity of the processes that determine the behavior of chiral pollutants in the environment need to be better understood. Understanding these mechanisms should help improve predictions of the hazards and risks chiral compounds can pose to people and the environment. We report the results of batch sorption experiments indicating that the sorption of the chiral fungicide metalaxyl on soil from non-racemic initial solutions was enantioselective. While from a racemic initial solution the two enantiomers of metalaxyl were sorbed on the soil to the same extent, increasing the fraction of R-enantiomer in the initial solution led to enhanced sorption of this enantiomer and to reduced sorption of the S-enantiomer. Considering the shape of the sorption isotherms (S-type) and the sorption behavior of model sorbents, we attributed this effect to molecular interactions between metalaxyl enantiomer species at the sorbed state, where R-R metalaxyl interactions appeared to be more favorable than R-S metalaxyl interactions. We discuss important environmental implications of the proposed mechanism, such as those related to the fact that the biological degradation of metalaxyl is known to be an enantioselective process that can yield non-racemic residues in soils shortly after application of the fungicide as a racemic mixture. PMID:26259163

  17. Catalytic, Enantioselective, Intramolecular Carbosulfenylation of Olefins. Preparative and Stereochemical Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Denmark, Scott E.; Jaunet, Alex

    2014-01-01

    The first catalytic, enantioselective, intramolecular carbosulfenylation of isolated alkenes with aromatic nucleophiles is described. The combination of N-phenylsulfenylphthalimide, a chiral selenophosphoramide derived from BINAM, and ethanesulfonic acid as a co-catalytic Brønsted acid induced an efficient and selective cyclofunctionalization of various alkenes (aliphatic and aromatic) tethered to a 3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl ring. Under these conditions, 6-phenylthio-5,6,7,8-tetrahydronaphthalenes are formed diastereospecifically in good yields (50–92%) and high enantioselectivities (71:29 – 97:3 er). E-Alkenes reacted much more rapidly and with much higher selectivity than Z-alkenes, whereas electron rich alkenes reacted more rapidly but with comparable selectivity to electron-neutral alkenes and electron deficient alkenes. The Brønsted acid played a critical role in effecting reproducible enantioselectivity. A model for the origin of enantioselectivity and the dependence of rate and selectivity on alkene structure is proposed along with a rationale for the site selectivity in reactions with mono-activated arene nucleophiles. PMID:24328051

  18. Whole cells in enantioselective reduction of benzyl acetoacetate

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Joyce Benzaquem; Ramos, Aline de Souza; Lopes, Raquel de Oliveira; da Silva, Gabriela Veloso Vieira; de Souza, Rodrigo Octavio Mendonça Alves

    2014-01-01

    The β-ketoester benzyl acetoacetate was enantioselectively reduced to benzyl (S)-3-hydroxybutanoate by seven microorganism species. The best result using free cells was obtained with the yeast Hansenula sp., which furnished 97% ee and 85% of conversion within 24 h. After immobilization in calcium alginate spheres, K.marxianus showed to be more stable after 2 cycles of reaction. PMID:25477927

  19. Pyrones to Pyrans: Enantioselective Radical Additions to Acyloxy Pyrones

    PubMed Central

    Sibi, Mukund P.; Zimmerman, Jake

    2008-01-01

    This manuscript describes a highly site, diastereo-, and enantioselective intermolecular radical addition/hydrogen atom transfer to hydroxypyrones pyromeconic and kojic acids. The methodology can be extended to the formation of chiral quaternary centers. The products obtained are densely functionalized pyran moieties. The products contain structural features amenable for the introduction of additional substituents. PMID:17031933

  20. Synthesis and characterization of advanced nanomaterials for energy applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Ming

    Energy is essential for life. It is thus important to continue understanding how to reduce energy consumption, and increase energy generation. The use of nanoscale materials (nanomaterials) are expected to reduce resources and energy needed in fabricating electrical and electronic devices and help in reducing energy consumption. For example, boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) which have uniform band structures, are expected to find application in nanoscale electronic and optoelectronic devices. These devices will have smaller dimension, cost fewer resources and less energy to fabricate, and consume less energy due to minimum electron scattering in their ideally defect-free tubular structures. On the other hand, nanomaterials are also expected to improve the performance of thermoelectric devices that can convert heat into energy. In this thesis, we first investigated low-temperature synthesis of BNNTs (Chapter 1). Effects of substrate temperatures, bias voltages, and catalysts are discussed and a selective-phase growth model is proposed. During the course of this investigation, we discovered Si nanotubes (SiNTs) by catalytic plasma treatment (Chapter 2). The detailed growth parameters and characterizations are presented and a modified growth model is discussed. In addition, electronic properties are measured by AFM. Since Si has exceptional thermoelectric properties, the newly discovered SiNTs are prospects for related applications. We have thus evaluated the potential conversion efficiency and production cost of various nanostructured thermoelectric materials (Chapter 3 and 4). Based on state-of-the-art dish-stirling systems, we evaluate the feasibility of replacing stirling engines by thermoelectric modules. Finally, we have decided to investigate the properties of boron-nanocarbon ensembles (Chapter 5 and 6) as prospective thermoelectric materials. Detailed characterizations includes SEM, HRTEM, Raman, XRD are presented. Seebeck coefficient and electrical conductivity are both measured with various temperatures. Induction quenching confirms that boron-doping help improve power factor of nanocarbon ensembles.

  1. Stereoselective Synthesis of Highly Functionalized Cyclopropanes. Application to the Asymmetric Synthesis of (1S,2S)-2,3-Methanoamino Acids.

    PubMed

    Dorizon, Philippe; Su, Guifa; Ludvig, Gitte; Nikitina, Lilyia; Paugam, Renée; Ollivier, Jean; Salaün, Jacques

    1999-06-25

    One-pot palladium(0)-catalyzed alkylation and S(N)(') cyclization of 1,4-dichlorobut-2-ene 1 by the anion of alpha-substituted carbonitriles 2a-d can provide highly functionalized cyclopropanes (E)-4a-d, diastereoselectivity, (de 88-100%). Several attempts to achieve the asymmetric synthesis of the 1-amino-2-ethenylcyclopropanecarbonitrile (E)-9, by means of this new procedure, i.e., using chiral palladium ligands, chiral aminoacetonitriles (-)- and (+)-12 (from 1-hydroxypinanone) or chiral allyl chlorides (4S)-20b-d and (4R)-20e (from (2S) ethyl lactate) have pointed up the reversibility of the palladium-catalyzed cyclization step, responsible for the low enantioselectivity observed (ee 88%) and provided the enantiomerically enriched 1-amino-2-propenylcyclopropanecarbonitrile (E)-22 (ee > 83%) suitable precursor of (1S,2S)-2,3-methanoamino acids. PMID:11674544

  2. Patterns in Organometallic Chemistry with Application in Organic Synthesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Jeffrey; Labinger, Jay A.

    1980-01-01

    Of interest in this discussion of organometallic complexes are stoichiometric or catalytic reagents for organic synthesis in the complex transformations observed during synthesis for transition metal organometallic complexes. Detailed are general reaction types from which the chemistry or many transition metal organometallic complexes can be…

  3. Synthesis and properties of unagglomerated nanocomposite particles for nanomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouse, Sarah M.

    2005-11-01

    Methods have been developed to prepare stable, unagglomerated active-medical-agent nanoparticles in a range of sizes, based on reverse-micelle microemulsion techniques. The process used to prepare monodisperse, spherical nanocomposite particles is based on methods originally outlined in detail by Adair et al. and Li et al. The "Molecular Dot" (MD) nanoparticles incorporate a variety of medically-active substances, such as organic fluorophores and therapeutic drugs, internally distributed in silica, titania, calcium phosphate, or calcium phospho-silicate matrices. The synthesis techniques have also been modified to produce nanoparticles containing combinations of fluorophores and medicinal agents, in order to monitor drug release and location. The specific biomedical application for the nanocomposite particles dictates the selection of core and shell-matrix materials. For example, the protective shell-matrices of the silica and titania MDs shield the active-medical agents from damage due to changes in pH, temperature, and other environmental effects. Conversely, the calcium phosphate and calcium phospho-silicate shell-matrix nanoparticles can potentially be engineered to dissolve in physiological environments. The method used to remove residual precursor materials while maintaining a well-dispersed assembly of nanoparticles is critical to the use of nanocolloids in medical applications. The dispersion approach is based on protection-dispersion theory tailored to accommodate the high surface areas and reactivity of sub-50 nm particles in aqueous or water/ethanol mixtures. Dispersion of the nanocomposite particles is further enhanced with the use of size-exclusion high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to simultaneously wash and disperse the nanocomposite particle suspensions. The state of dispersion of the nanosuspensions is evaluated using the average agglomeration number (AAN) approach in conjunction with other characterization techniques. The formulation of a non-aggregating colloid to deliver active-medical agents has the potential to revolutionize controlled, targeted, systemic delivery for a variety of drug and genetic therapies. The active-medical agent nanoparticles may be applied to a range of biomedical applications, including bioimaging, drug delivery, gene therapy, and combinations thereof. The fluorescent Molecular Dot nanoparticles have been utilized in applications such as in vitro cell labeling, as well as chemical and biological targeting. In addition, the Molecular Dots are a promising alternative to current bioimaging technologies, as the fluorescent emissions from the nanoparticulates do not exhibit blinking/intermittent qualities. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  4. Synthesis, assembly, and applications of single-walled carbon nanotube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Koungmin

    This dissertation presents the synthesis and assembly of aligned carbon nanotubes, and their applications in both nano-electronics such as transistor and integrated circuits and macro-electronics in energy conversion devices as transparent conducting electrodes. Also, the high performance chemical sensor using metal oxide nanowire has been demonstrated. Chapter 1 presents a brief introduction of carbon nanotube, followed by discussion of a new synthesis technique using nanosphere lithography to grow highly aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes atop quartz and sapphire substrates. This method offers great potential to produce carbon nanotube arrays with simultaneous control over the nanotube orientation, position, density, diameter and even chirality. Chapter 3 introduces the wafer-scale integration and assembly of aligned carbon nanotubes, including full-wafer scale synthesis and transfer of massively aligned carbon nanotube arrays, and nanotube device fabrication on 4 inch Si/SiO2 wafer to yield submicron channel transistors with high on-current density ˜ 20 muA/mum and good on/off ratio and CMOS integrated circuits. In addition, various chemical doping methods for n-type nanotube transistors are studied to fabricate CMOS integrated nanotube circuits such as inverter, NAND and NOR logic devices. Furthermore, defect-tolerant circuit design for NAND and NOR is proposed and demonstrated to guarantee the correct operation of logic circuit, regardless of the presence of mis-aligned or mis-positioned nanotubes. Carbon nanotube flexible electronics and smart textiles for ubiquitous computing and sensing are demonstrated in chapter 4. A facile transfer printing technique has been introduced to transfer massively aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes from the original sapphire/quartz substrates to virtually any other substrates, including glass, silicon, polymer sheets, and even fabrics. The characterization of transferred nanotubes reveals that the transferred nanotubes are highly conductive, transparent, and flexible as well. Based on transferred nanotube arrays on fabric, we have successfully demonstrated nanotube transistors with on/off ratios ˜ 105, and chemical sensors for low-concentration NO2 and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT). In Chapter 5, I present the study of transparent conductive thin films made with two kinds of commercial carbon nanotubes: HiPCO and arc-discharge nanotubes. These films have been further exploited as hole-injection electrodes for organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) on both rigid glass and flexible substrates. Our experiments reveal that films based on arc discharge nanotubes are overwhelmingly better than HiPCO-nanotube-based films in all the critical aspects, including the surface roughness, sheet resistance, and transparency. The optimized films show a typical sheet resistance of ˜160O/□ at 87% transparency and have been successfully used to make OLEDs with high stability and long lifetime. Lastly, I present the fast and scalable integration of nanowire chemical sensors with micromachined hotplates built on SiN membranes. These hotplates allowed nanowire chemical sensors to operate at elevated temperatures in order to enhance the sensitivity of chemical sensors to target gases. By applying different current through the platinum heating filament, we can easily vary the device temperature from room temperature to 350°C. These nanosensors with integrated hot plates have been exploited for the detection of ethanol, CO and hydrogen down to concentrations of 1 ppm, 10 ppm and 50 ppm, respectively.

  5. Phytotoxicity of chiral herbicide bromacil: Enantioselectivity of photosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zunwei; Zou, Yuqin; Wang, Jia; Li, Meichao; Wen, Yuezhong

    2016-04-01

    With the wide application of chiral herbicides and the frequent detection of photosystem II (PSII) herbicides, it is of great importance to assess the direct effects of PSII herbicides on photosynthesis in an enantiomeric level. In the present study, the enantioselective phytotoxicity of bromacil (BRO), typical photosynthesis inhibition herbicide, on Arabidopsis thaliana was investigated. The results showed that S-BRO exhibited a greater inhibition of electron transmission in photosystem I (PSI) of A. thaliana than R-BRO by inhibiting the transcription of fnr 1. S-BRO also changed the chlorophyll fluorescence parameters Y (II), Y (NO), and Y (NPQ) to a greater extent than R-Bro. Transcription of genes psbO2, Lhcb3 and Lhcb6 was down-regulated in an enantioselective rhythm and S-BRO caused more serious influence, indicating that S-BRO did worse damage to the photosystem II (PSII) of A. thaliana than R-BRO. This study suggested that S-BRO disturbed the photosynthesis of plants to a larger extent than R-BRO and provided a new sight to evaluate the phytotoxicity of chiral herbicides. PMID:26802342

  6. Enantioselective stable isotope analysis (ESIA) of polar Herbicides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maier, Michael; Qiu, Shiran; Elsner, Martin

    2013-04-01

    The complexity of aquatic systems makes it challenging to assess the environmental fate of chiral micropolutants. As an example, chiral herbicides are frequently detected in the environment (Buser and Muller, 1998); however, hydrological data is needed to determine their degradability from concentration measurements. Otherwise declining concentrations cannot unequivocally be attributed to degradation, but could also be caused by dilution effects. In contrast, isotope ratios or enantiomeric ratios are elegant alternatives that are independent of dilution and can even deliver insights into reaction mechanisms. To combine the advantages of both approaches we developed an enatioselective stable isotope analysis (ESIA) method to investigate the fate of the chiral herbicides 4-CPP ((RS)-2-(4-chlorophenoxy)-propionic acid), mecoprop (2-(4-Chloro-2-methylphenoxy)-propionic acid) and dichlorprop (2-(2,4-Dichlorophenoxy)-propionic acid). After testing the applicable concentration range of the method, enantioselective isotope fractionation was investigated by microbial degradation using dichlorprop as a model compound. The method uses enantioselective gas-chromatography (GC) to separate enantiomers. Subsequently samples are combusted online to CO2 and carbon isotope ratios are determined for each enantiomer by isotope-ratio-mass-spectrometry (IRMS). Because the analytes contain a polar carboxyl-group, samples were derivatised prior to GC-IRMS analysis with methanolic BF3 solution. Precise carbon isotope analysis (2σ ≤0.5‰) was achieved with a high sensitivity of ≥ 7 ng C that is needed on column for one analysis. Microbial degradation of the model compound dichlorprop was conducted with Delftia acidovorans MC1 and pronounced enantiomer fractionation, but no isotope fractionation was detected. The absence of isotope fractionation can be explained by two scenarios: either the degrading enzyme has no isotopic preference, or another step in the reaction without an isotopic preference was rate determining. Our findings are in contrast to previously reported results for the degradation of α-hexachlorocyclohexane (Badea et al., 2012), where isotope fractionation, but no enantiomeric fractionation was observed. Hence the two lines of evidence seem to be independent of each other. Enhanced insight maybe provided when both effects appear simultaneously, as shown downstream of a landfill site under anaerobic conditions for the chiral herbicide 4-CPP (Milosevic et al., 2013). Buser HR, Muller MD (1998): Occurrence and transformation reactions of chiral and achiral phenoxyalkanoic acid herbicides in lakes and rivers in Switzerland. Environmental Science & Technology 32 (5):626-633. Badea S-L, Vogt C, Gehre M, Fischer A, Danet A-F, Richnow H-H (2011): Development of an enantiomer-specific stable carbon isotope analysis (ESIA) method for assessing the fate of alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane in the environment. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry 25 (10):1363-1372. Milosevic N, Qiu S, Elsner M, Einsiedl F, Maier MP, Bensch HKV, Albrechtsen HJ, Bjerg PL (2013): Combined isotope and enantiomer analysis to assess the fate of phenoxy acids in a eterogeneous geologic setting at an old landfill. Water Research 47 (2): 637-649.

  7. Green synthesis of water soluble semiconductor nanocrystals and their applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ying

    II-VI semiconductor nanomaterials, e.g. CdSe and CdTe, have attracted great attention over the past decades due to their fascinating optical and electrical properties. The research presented here focuses on aqueous semiconductor nanomaterials. The work can be generally divided into three parts: synthesis, property study and application. The synthetic work is devoted to develop new methods to prepare shape- and structure-controlled II-VI semiconductor nanocrystals including nanoparticles and nanowires. CdSe and CdSe CdS semiconductor nanocrystals have been synthesized using sodium citrate as a stabilizer. Upon prolonged illumination with visible light, photoluminescence quantum yield of those quantum dots can be enhanced up to 5000%. The primary reason for luminescence enhancement is considered to be the removing of specific surface states (photocorrosion) and the smoothing of the CdSe core surface (photoannealing). CdTe nanowires are prepared through self-organization of stabilizer-depleted CdTe nanoparticles. The dipolar-dipolar attraction is believed to be the driving force of nanowire formation. The rich surface chemistry of CdTe nanowire is reflected by the formation of silica shell with different morphologies when nanowires with different capping ligands are used. Te and Se nanowires are prepared by chemical decomposition of CdTe and CdSe nanoparticles in presence of an external chemical stimulus, EDTA. These results not only provide a new example of NP→NW transformation, but also lead to a better understanding of the molecular process occurring in the stabilizer-depleted nanoparticles. The applications of those semiconductor materials are primarily based on the construction of nano-structured ultrathin films with desirable functions by using layer-by-layer technique (LBL). We demonstrate that light-induced micro-scale multicolor luminescent patterns can be obtained on photoactivable CdSe/CdS nanoparticles thin films by combining the advantages of LBL as well as high-throughput and simplicity of photolithography. Photoconductive LBL thin films are fabricated from Te nanowires. The thin film has distinctively metallic mirror-like appearance and displays strong photoconductance effect characteristic of narrow band-gap semiconductors. In-situ reduction of gold results in formation of Au nanoparticles adhering to Te nanowires, which leads to the disappearance of photoconductivity of the Te thin film. Those nanomaterials are considered for various applications, such as light emitting devices, data storage materials, biosensors, photodetectors.

  8. Metal-Catalyzed Directed Regio- and Enantioselective Ring-Opening of Epoxides.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chuan; Luo, Lan; Yamamoto, Hisashi

    2016-02-16

    Control of regio- and stereoselectivity of chemical reactions is the central theme in synthetic chemistry. Regioselective and enantiospecific ring opening of readily available enantioenriched epoxides precursors provides a straightforward access to diverse highly functionalized molecules which can serve as chiral building blocks for synthesis of biologically active compounds. However, prior to our research work, the scope of catalytic highly regioselective ring opening of epoxides is limited to structurally or electronically biased epoxides, such as terminal and aromatic epoxides. Regioselective ring-opening of epoxides with substituents on both sides demonstrating similar steric and electronic effects is still a formidable challenge for organic chemists. To address this challenge, our approach is to use the readily available functional moiety incorporated in an epoxide as a directing group to realize the regioselective nucleophilic attack on the oxirane ring. Alternatively, asymmetric ring-opening of epoxides can also provide the ring-opening products in highly enantioenriched form. However, excellent results are usually obtained in the case of the kinetic resolution of terminal epoxides or the desymmetrization of meso-epoxides. In these cases, the issue of regiocontrol of the ring-opening is circumvented or minimized. Based on our successful results of regioselective ring-opening of functionalized epoxides by implementing the directed ring-opening strategy, we also investigated the enantioselective ring-opening of internal epoxides bearing a functional moiety as directing group. This Account summarizes our research on metal-catalyzed directed ring-opening reactions of epoxides, which encompasses the following breakthroughs: (1) highly regioselective ring-opening of various substrates including epoxy allylic alcohols, epoxy homoallylic alcohols and epoxy allylic sulfonamides with a variety of N-, O-, and halide-nucleophiles catalyzed by W-, Mo-, or Ni-salt; (2) first kinetic resolutions of epoxy allylic alcohols, epoxy homoallylic alcohols, and epoxy allylic sulfonamides with various amines as nucleophiles, which were catalyzed by W-bishydroxamic acid (W-BHA), nickel-BINAM, and Gd-N,N'-dioxide catalytic system, respectively; (3) successful implementation of the strategy of combined asymmetric syntheses by the combination of the enantioselective epoxidation and the enantioselective ring-opening of 2,3-epoxy alcohols establishing a new entry to prepare amino alcohols in regio-, diastereo-, and enantiomerically pure form. PMID:26789498

  9. PDMS based microfluidic chips and their application in material synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Xiuqing

    Microfluidics is a highly interdisciplinary science which is to deal with the behavior, control and manipulation of fluids that are constrained to sub-milimeter scale. It incorporates the knowledge and technique intersecting physics, chemistry, mechanics, nanoscience and biotechnology, with practical applications to the design of systems in which small volumes of fluids will be used. In this thesis, we started our research from GER fluid synthesis which then is applied to designing different functions of microfluidic devices, valve, pump, and mixer. We built a way to correlate mechanical signal with electric signal by soft matter. The mechanical devices based GER fluid had good operating stability and mechanical performance. We studied how to improve the performance of GER fluid by increasing the yield stress while avoiding the sendimentation of nanoparticles in GER suspension. The meaning of this work is to enhance the stability and mechanical strength of GER fluid when it is applyed to the microfluidc channels. We tried different oils and studied the particle size for the GER effect. The largest yield stress which amounts to 300 kPa is achievable compared to previous GER fluid with 100 kPa. Microfluidic reactor, directing the flow of microliter volumes along microscale channels, offers the advantages of precise control of reagent loading, fast mixing and an enhanced reaction rate, cessation of the reaction at specific stages, and more. Basically, there are two microfluidic flow regimes, continuous flow and segmented flow (suspended droplets, channel-spanning slug, and wall-wetting films). Both flow regimes offer chemical reaction applications, e.g., continuous flow formation of polymer nanospheres and inorganic nanoparticles, size- and shape-control synthesis by segmented flow, and precipitate-forming reactions in droplets, wherein the segmented flow has gained more popularity in that area. The compartmentalization of segmented flow offers advantages to chemical reactions. Here, we report the microfluidic fabrication of magnetically responsive microsphere, macroporous polymer microspheres and hollow titania microspheres. To prepare magnetically responsive microsphere, we introduced magnetic particles into liquid shell and drug into liquid core. After cross-linking reaction of the shell, we studied the magnetic contraction and extention behavior which induced the drug release efficiency. To prepare porous polymer, the H 2O2 solution was encapsulated in polymer precursor, after which we investigated its decomposition under UV irradiation, which simultaneously induces the polymerization of the encapsulating shell. Because the H 2O2 decomposition leads to the release of oxygen, porous microspheres were obtained from a combined H2O2-decomposition/polymer precursor polymerization reaction. To prepare hollow titanium gel microspheres, water droplets were first formed by the flow focusing geometry in microfluidic chip and used as a soft template. Then hydrolysis and gelation of titanium alkoxide on the droplet's surface were induced in following serpentine channels, controlled by interface water diffusion. The water diffusion process can be controlled by the amount of the "dewetting" reagent butanol, by which the surface morphology of the titania microspheres can be tuned.

  10. Synthesis, characterization and potential applications of iron-platinum nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandwana, Vikas

    Monodisperse FePt nanoparticles with controlled size and geometry have drawn great attention in the last decade for fundamental scientific studies and for their potential applications in advanced materials and devices such as ultra-high-density magnetic recording media, exchange-coupled nanocomposite magnets, biomedicines and nanodevices. This dissertation focuses on the synthesis and characterization of FePt nanoparticles and their use in potential applications. The FePt nanoparticles of different size (2 to 16 nm) and shape (spherical, cubic, rod) were synthesized by a chemical solution method. The size and shape of these particles were controlled by adjusting reaction parameters. The as-synthesized FePt nanoparticles have chemically disordered fcc structure and are superparamagnetic at room temperature. Upon heat treatment the nanoparticles were transformed into ordered L10 structure, and high coercivity up to 27 kOe was achieved. Magnetic properties of annealed FePt nanoparticles including magnetization and coercivity were strongly dependent on particle size, shape, composition and annealing temperature. FePt/Fe3O4 bimagnetic nanoparticles with two different morphologies, core/shell and heterodimer, were prepared by coating or attaching Fe3O4 on surface of FePt nanoparticles. The size of FePt and Fe3O4 was tuned very finely to obtain most effective exchange coupling. The heterodimer nanoparticles resulted in relatively poor magnetic properties compared to the core/shell nanoparticles due to insufficient exchange coupling. By optimizing the dimensions of the FePt and Fe3O 4 in core/shell bimagnetic nanoparticles, energy products up to 17.8 MGOe were achieved. FePt/Fe3O4 core/shell and FePt+Fe3O 4 mixed nanoparticles with similar magnetic properties were compacted under 2.0 GPa at 400°C, 500°C and 600°C. A density up to 84% of the full density was achieved. After annealing at 650°C in forming gas, the FePt/Fe3O4 compacted samples were converted into L10 FePt/Fe3Pt magnetic nanocomposite. The nanoscale morphology was retained before and after annealing for bulk samples made from both core/shell and mixed nanoparticles. After annealing, the highest energy product in the bulk samples was 18.1 MGOe based on the theoretical density. The core/shell nanoparticle compacted samples had more effective exchange coupling than the mixed nanoparticle compacted samples. FePt/Au core/shell nanoparticles were successfully synthesized where Au shell was coated by reduction of gold acetate on surface of FePt nanoparticles. The FePt/Au core/shell nanoparticles show ferromagnetism after annealing at optimum temperature without any significant sintering. Also, FePtAu nanoparticles were prepared by doping Au into FePt nanoparticles during the synthesis. By tuning right stoichiometry of the FexPtyAu100-x-y nanoparticles, the phase transition temperature from fcc to L1 0 was reduced by more than 200°C. After annealing at 500°C, the highest coercivity of 18 kOe was obtained from the Fe51Pt 36Au13 nanoparticles compared to 2 kOe from Fe51Pt 49 nanoparticles without any sacrifice in saturation magnetization.

  11. Synthesis, characterization and applications of a perdeuterated amphipol.

    PubMed

    Giusti, Fabrice; Rieger, Jutta; Catoire, Laurent J; Qian, Shuo; Calabrese, Antonio N; Watkinson, Thomas G; Casiraghi, Marina; Radford, Sheena E; Ashcroft, Alison E; Popot, Jean-Luc

    2014-10-01

    Amphipols are short amphipathic polymers that can substitute for detergents at the hydrophobic surface of membrane proteins (MPs), keeping them soluble in the absence of detergents while stabilizing them. The most widely used amphipol, known as A8-35, is comprised of a polyacrylic acid (PAA) main chain grafted with octylamine and isopropylamine. Among its many applications, A8-35 has proven particularly useful for solution-state NMR studies of MPs, for which it can be desirable to eliminate signals originating from the protons of the surfactant. In the present work, we describe the synthesis and properties of perdeuterated A8-35 (perDAPol). Perdeuterated PAA was obtained by radical polymerization of deuterated acrylic acid. It was subsequently grafted with deuterated amines, yielding perDAPol. The number-average molar mass of hydrogenated and perDAPol, ~4 and ~5 kDa, respectively, was deduced from that of their PAA precursors, determined by size exclusion chromatography in tetrahydrofuran following permethylation. Electrospray ionization-ion mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry measurements show the molar mass and distribution of the two APols to be very similar. Upon neutron scattering, the contrast match point of perDAPol is found to be ~120% D2O. In (1)H-(1)H nuclear overhauser effect NMR spectra, its contribution is reduced to ~6% of that of hydrogenated A8-35, making it suitable for extended uses in NMR spectroscopy. PerDAPol ought to also be of use for inelastic neutron scattering studies of the dynamics of APol-trapped MPs, as well as small-angle neutron scattering and analytical ultracentrifugation. PMID:24652511

  12. Isolation of lipase producer and its performance in enantioselective hydrolysis of glycidyl butyrate.

    PubMed

    Jia, Shi-Ying; Xu, Jian-He; Li, Qing Shan; Yu, Jun Tang

    2003-01-01

    A racemic glycidyl butyrate resolving strain, preliminarily identified as a Rhizopus sp., had been isolated from soil. Its extracellular lipase was found to enantioselectively hydrolyze the (S)-enantiomer of the chiral ester, with optimal activities at pH 5.3 and 42 degrees C. Higher enantioselectivity of the enzyme was observed at lower temperatures, while the best enantioselectivity was obtained at pH 5.5-6.0, with an E value (enantiomeric ratio) of 57. PMID:12495206

  13. Chiral-at-metal iridium complex for efficient enantioselective transfer hydrogenation of ketones.

    PubMed

    Tian, Cheng; Gong, Lei; Meggers, Eric

    2016-03-01

    A bis-cyclometalated iridium(iii) complex with metal-centered chirality catalyzes the enantioselective transfer hydrogenation of ketones with high enantioselectivities at low catalyst loadings down to 0.002 mol%. Importantly, the rate of catalysis and enantioselectivity are markedly improved in the presence of a pyrazole co-ligand. The reaction is proposed to proceed via an iridium-hydride intermediate exploiting metal-ligand cooperativity (bifunctional catalysis). PMID:26911401

  14. Anisotropic nanomaterials: Synthesis, optical and magnetic properties, and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banholzer, Matthew John

    As nanoscience and nanotechnology mature, anisotropic metal nanostructures are emerging in a variety of contexts as valuable class of nanostructures due to their distinctive attributes. With unique properties ranging from optical to magnetic and beyond, these structures are useful in many new applications. Chapter two discusses the nanodisk code: a linear array of metal disk pairs that serve as surface-enhanced Raman scattering substrates. These multiplexing structures employ a binary encoding scheme, perform better than previous nanowires designs (in the context of SERS) and are useful for both convert encoding and tagging of substrates (based both on spatial disk position and spectroscopic response) as well as biomolecule detection (e.g. DNA). Chapter three describes the development of improved, silver-based nanodisk code structures. Work was undertaken to generate structures with high yield and reproducibility and to reoptimize the geometry of each disk pair for maximum Raman enhancement. The improved silver structures exhibit greater enhancement than Au structures (leading to lower DNA detection limits), convey additional flexibility, and enable trinary encoding schemes where far more unique structures can be created. Chapter four considers the effect of roughness on the plasmonic properties of nanorod structures and introduces a novel method to smooth the end-surfaces of nanorods structures. The smoothing technique is based upon a two-step process relying upon diffusion control during nanowires growth and selective oxidation after each step of synthesis is complete. Empirical and theoretical work show that smoothed nanostructures have superior and controllable optical properties. Chapter five concerns silica-encapsulated gold nanoprisms. This encapsulation allows these highly sensitive prisms to remain stable and protected in solution, enabling their use as class-leading sensors. Theoretical study complements the empirical work, exploring the effect of encapsulation on the SPR of these structures. Chapter six focuses on the magnetic properties of Au-Ni heterostructures. In addition to demonstration of nanoconfinement effects based upon the anisotropy of the nanorods/nanodisk structure, the magnetic coupling of rod-disk heterostructures is examined. Subsequent investigations suggest that the magnetic behavior of disks can be influenced by nearby rod segments, leading to the creation of a three-state spin system that may prove useful in device applications.

  15. Synthesis and characterization of iron based nanoparticles for novel applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khurshid, Hafsa

    The work in this thesis has been focused on the fabrication and characterization of iron based nanoparticles with controlled size and morphology with the aim: (i) to investigate their properties for potential applications in MICR toners and biomedical field and (ii) to study finite size effects on the magnetic properties of the nanoparticles. For the biomedical applications, core/shell structured iron/iron-oxide and hollow shell nanoparticles were synthesized by thermal decomposition of iron organometallic compounds [Fe(CO)5] at high temperature. Core/shell structured iron/iron-oxide nanoparticles have been prepared in the presence of oleic acid and oleylamine. Particle size and composition was controlled by varying the reaction parameters during synthesis. The as-made particles are hydrophobic and not dispersible in water. Water dispersibility was achieved by ligand exchange a with double hydrophilic diblock copolymer. Relaxometery measurements of the transverse relaxation time T2 of the nanoparticles solution at 3 Tesla confirm that the core/shell nanoparticles are an excellent MRI contrast agent using T2 weighted imaging sequences. In comparison to conventionally used iron oxide nanoparticles, iron/iron-oxide core/shell nanoparticles offer four times stronger T2 shortening effect at comparable core size due to their higher magnetization. The magnetic properties were studied as a function of particle size, composition and morphology. Hollow nanostructures are composed of randomly oriented grains arranged together to make a shell layer and make an interesting class of materials. The hollow morphology can be used as an extra degree of freedom to control the magnetic properties. Owing to their hollow morphology, they can be used for the targeted drug delivery applications by filling the drug inside their cavity. For the magnetic toners applications, particles were synthesized by chemically reducing iron salt using sodium borohydride and then coated with polyethylene glycol. Parameters such as the reactant concentrations and their flow rate were varied to study the effect of particle size, structure and crystallinity on the magnetic nanoparticles. Many different hydrophilic surfactants and polymers electrolytes were investigated for the particles' stability in water. PSSNa was found to be the best coating agent among all the other investigated polymer and surfactants for particles stability in water. Particles have an average size of 50 nm and magnetization above 150 emu/g. It is anticipated that owing to their high saturation magnetization and magneto crystalline anisotropy, the incorporations of PSSNa coated nanoparticles into the MICR toner can reduce the pigment loading and hence optimize the toner quality. The magnetic properties were studied as a function of particle size, composition and morphology. The saturation magnetization and coercivity was found to be strongly dependent on the particle size and morphology. The estimated effective anisotropy of the particles was found to be much higher than their bulk values because of their morphology and finite size effects. Core/shell particles below an average size of 12 nm display superparamagnetism and exchange bias phenomenon. The hollow morphology can be used as an extra degree of freedom to control magnetic properties. The enormously large number of pinned spins at the inner and outer surface and at the interface between the grain boundaries in hollow nanoparticles, gives rise to a very large value of effective anisotropy in these nanoparticles and measured hyteresis loops are minor loops. The surface spin disorder contribution to magnetic behavior is strongly influenced by the cooling field magnitude.

  16. Application of lean manufacturing concepts to drug discovery: rapid analogue library synthesis.

    PubMed

    Weller, Harold N; Nirschl, David S; Petrillo, Edward W; Poss, Michael A; Andres, Charles J; Cavallaro, Cullen L; Echols, Martin M; Grant-Young, Katherine A; Houston, John G; Miller, Arthur V; Swann, R Thomas

    2006-01-01

    The application of parallel synthesis to lead optimization programs in drug discovery has been an ongoing challenge since the first reports of library synthesis. A number of approaches to the application of parallel array synthesis to lead optimization have been attempted over the years, ranging from widespread deployment by (and support of) individual medicinal chemists to centralization as a service by an expert core team. This manuscript describes our experience with the latter approach, which was undertaken as part of a larger initiative to optimize drug discovery. In particular, we highlight how concepts taken from the manufacturing sector can be applied to drug discovery and parallel synthesis to improve the timeliness and thus the impact of arrays on drug discovery. PMID:16961404

  17. Recent progress on the synthesis and applications of carbon based nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Rajavel, K; Minitha, C R; Ranjith, K S; Rajendra Kumar, R T

    2012-06-01

    This article reviews the latest developments in the synthesis of Graphene, Carbon nanotubes and graphene/CNT based devices based on patents, patent applications and articles published in the last two years. A brief introduction about CNT and Graphene is presented, followed by the latest techniques and advanced processing for the large scale synthesis of Graphene and CNTs. Furthermore, a brief account of emerging devices based on applications of CNTs and graphene not limited to sensors, high speed electronics, energy harvesting and storage applications are presented. PMID:22292609

  18. Expanding the Scope of Primary Amine Catalysis: Stereoselective Synthesis of Indanedione-Fused 2,6-Disubstituted trans-Spirocyclohexanones.

    PubMed

    Madhusudhan Reddy, G; Ko, Chi-Ting; Hsieh, Kai-Hong; Lee, Chia-Jui; Das, Utpal; Lin, Wenwei

    2016-03-18

    A cinchona-alkaloid-derived chiral primary-amine-catalyzed enantioselective method for the synthesis of the thermodynamically less stable indanedione-fused 2,6-trans-disubstituted spirocyclohexanones is demonstrated. Both the enantiomeric forms of the trans isomer are obtained in excellent yields and enantioselectivities. Furthermore, one of the enantiopure trans-spiranes bearing an additional α-substitution on the cyclohexanone ring was then epimerized into its thermodynamically stable cis counterpart, with little loss of enantioselectivity to demonstrate the feasibility of such a transformation. Mechanistic investigations revealed two competing pathways, a concerted Diels-Alder reaction and a stepwise Michael addition, for the formation of corresponding products. PMID:26907160

  19. 77 FR 8324 - Applications for the Environment: Real-Time Information Synthesis (AERIS) User Needs Workshop...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-14

    ... Applications for the Environment: Real-Time Information Synthesis (AERIS) User Needs Workshop; Notice of Public... Program Office (ITS JPO) will host a free public workshop to discuss the Applications for the Environment... potential environmental benefits in a connected vehicle environment. For more information on the...

  20. Mechanistic Investigations into the Application of Sulfoxides in Carbohydrate Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Brabham, Robin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The utility of sulfoxides in a diverse range of transformations in the field of carbohydrate chemistry has seen rapid growth since the first introduction of a sulfoxide as a glycosyl donor in 1989. Sulfoxides have since developed into more than just anomeric leaving groups, and today have multiple roles in glycosylation reactions. These include as activators for thioglycosides, hemiacetals, and glycals, and as precursors to glycosyl triflates, which are essential for stereoselective β‐mannoside synthesis, and bicyclic sulfonium ions that facilitate the stereoselective synthesis of α‐glycosides. In this review we highlight the mechanistic investigations undertaken in this area, often outlining strategies employed to differentiate between multiple proposed reaction pathways, and how the conclusions of these investigations have and continue to inform upon the development of more efficient transformations in sulfoxide‐based carbohydrate synthesis. PMID:26744250