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Sample records for encephalomyelitis equine

  1. Alphaviral equine encephalomyelitis (Eastern, Western and Venezuelan).

    PubMed

    Aréchiga-Ceballos, N; Aguilar-Setién, A

    2015-08-01

    Summary Alphaviral equine encephalomyelitis is a mosquito-borne infection that causes severe neurological disease and fatalities in horses and humans in the Americas. Consequently, the equine alphaviruses (Eastern, Western and Venezuelan) are of considerable concern worldwide and are notifiable to the World Organisation for Animal Health. In addition, these diseases are considered a potent potential biological weapon, emphasising the need to develop an effective vaccine. Alphaviral equine encephalomyelitis is caused by Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (EEEV), Western equine encephalomyelitis virus (WEEV) or Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus (VEEV), which are related members of the Alphavirus genus in the Togaviridae family. Although related, the three viruses are genetically and antigenically distinct. The disease is characterised by fever, anorexia, depression and clinical signs of encephalomyelitis, and may be fatal in up to 90% of cases, for both humans and horses, particularly in the case of EEE. Surviving horses develop lifelong immunity but may have permanent neuropathology. The aim of this paper is to analyse the scientific information available on the evolution of EEE, WEE and VEE, and any potential vaccines. PMID:26601451

  2. 21 CFR 866.3240 - Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents. 866.3240 Section 866.3240 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological...

  3. 21 CFR 866.3240 - Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents. 866.3240 Section 866.3240 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological...

  4. 21 CFR 866.3240 - Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents. 866.3240 Section 866.3240 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological...

  5. 21 CFR 866.3240 - Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents. 866.3240 Section 866.3240 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological...

  6. 21 CFR 866.3240 - Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents. 866.3240 Section 866.3240 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological...

  7. Eastern Equine Encephalomyelitis Virus Infection in a Horse from California

    PubMed Central

    Kinde, Hailu; Jay, Michele T.; Kramer, Laura D.; Green, Emily-Gene N.; Chiles, Robert E.; Ostlund, Eileen; Husted, Stan; Smith, Jonathan; Parker, Michael D.

    2002-01-01

    A yearling quarter horse, which was raised in southern California, received routine vaccinations for prevention of infection by Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (EEEV). One week later, severe neurologic signs developed, and the horse was humanely destroyed because vaccine-related encephalomyelitis was suspected. A final diagnosis of EEEV infection was established on the basis of acute onset of the neurologic signs, histopathologic and serologic testing, and isolation and molecular characterization of EEEV from brain tissue. The vaccine was extensively tested for viral inactivation. Nucleotide sequences from the vaccine and the virus isolated in the affected horse were also compared. In California, arboviral encephalomyelitides are rarely reported, and EEEV infection has not previously been documented. This report describes the occurrence of EEEV infection in the horse and the investigation to determine the source of infection, which was not definitively identified. PMID:11927026

  8. Virological and serological studies of Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis in humans.

    PubMed Central

    Bowen, G S; Calisher, C H

    1976-01-01

    During the 1971 epidemic of Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis (VEE) in south Texas, 203 suspect VEE cases were evaluated by the Center for Disease Control. Sixty-seven were confirmed as cases of VEE. Laboratory confirmation was accomplished by isolation of VEE virus from a serum specimen taken during the acute illness in 50 (75%) of the confirmed cases. Serological confirmation was obtained in 17 cases (25%). Virus isolations were most often obtained from sera collected during the first 3 days of illness. Peak serum virus titers (algebraic mean, 10(5-7) suckling mouse intracranial 50% lethal doses [SMICLD50] per ml) occurred on day 2 of illness. One-half of the sera from which virus was isolated contained at least 10(5) SMICLD50/ml, which has been shown to be sufficient to infect some vector mosquitoes. Blood from 13 virus-positive VEE cases was obtained 1 and 11 months after illness. Hemagglutination-inhibiting, complement-fixing, and neutralizing antibodies were formed by all 13 patients 1 month after illness. Hemagglutination-inhibiting antibody titers were essentially unchanged 11 months after illness. Complement-fixing antibody was undetectable 11 months after illness in 23% of cases and was detectable at dilutions of 1:8 or 1:6 in 77%. Neutralizing antibody (measured by log neutralization index) was not detectable 1 year after illness in one person (8%); titers had declined from 1.0 to 2.0 in 46%, were unchanged in 39%, and were not tested in one person (8%). No evidence of intrafamilial spread of VEE virus was obtained in either of two illness and antibody surveys. A randomized household illness and antibody survey of 681 Port Isabel residents revealed an inapparent infection ratio of 1:11 and an overall antibody prevalence of 3.2%. PMID:956360

  9. [Molecular biology characteristics of an attenuated mutant of the Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus].

    PubMed

    Solianik, R G; Karpova, E F; Tsilinskiĭ, Ia Ia; Tymchishin, P N

    1983-01-01

    The main molecular biology parameters of an attenuated mutant DMS-20/6 of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus derived by treatment with dimethylsulphate of the wild type virus (strain No. 627) were determined. The sedimentation coefficient of sucrose density gradient purified and concentrated virus was 280 S, the buoyant density of virions in sucrose density gradient was 1.19 g/cm3. The DMS-20/6 virion had 3 proteins with molecular weights of 56, 50, and 34 kilodaltons, and the size of virions by negative staining was 58-77 nm. PMID:6314669

  10. EFFECT OF ADJUVANTS ON ANTIBODY RESPONSE OF RABBITS INOCULATED WITH VENEZUELAN EQUINE ENCEPHALOMYELITIS VIRUS

    PubMed Central

    Shepel, Michael; Klugerman, Maxwell R.

    1963-01-01

    Shepel, Michael (U.S. Army Biological Laboratories, Fort Detrick, Frederick, Md.) and Maxwell R. Klugerman. Effect of adjuvants on antibody response of rabbits inoculated with Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus. J. Bacteriol. 85:1150–1155. 1963.—Hemagglutination-inhibition, neutralization, and complement-fixation tests were performed on sera of rabbits inoculated with Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis (VEE) virus in combination with Freund's adjuvants and in Hank's salt solution. This study indicated that the complete adjuvants (i.e., with mycobacteria) considerably increased the antibody response to VEE virus. Mycobacterium butyricum (M. smegmatis) appeared to be more effective than M. tuberculosis H37Ra. In the absence of mycobacteria, the response was much less pronounced. Paper electrophoretic studies of the antisera demonstrated a marked increase in gamma-globulin production, an increase in the beta-globulin, and an increase in total protein as the result of adding VEE virus to the complete adjuvants. A decrease in the albumin fraction appeared to be caused by the complete adjuvants rather than by the VEE virus itself. The incomplete adjuvant (without mycobacteria) plus virus contributed little, if any, stimulation toward the production of gamma-globulin, nor did it appear to affect the serum-albumin levels. Images PMID:14044008

  11. A prospective field evaluation of an enzyme immunoassay: Detection of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus antigen in pools of Culiseta melanura

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, T.W.; Olson, J.G.; Lewis, T.E.; Carpenter, J.W.; Lorenz, L.H.; Lembeck, L.A.; Joseph, S.R.; Pagac, B.B.

    1987-01-01

    A prospective field study was conducted to determine the sensitivity and specificity of an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) compared to virus isolation in cell culture for the detection of eastern equine encephalomyelitis (EEE) virus in naturally infected mosquitoes. A total of 10,811 adult female Culiseta melanura were collected in light traps during 1985 from four locations in Maryland. Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus was isolated from 5 of 495 mosquito pools in African green monkey kidney and baby hamster kidney cell cultures. All five virus-infected pools were detected by the EIA, and all 490 uninfected pools were correctly scored as not containing virus. The EIA did not produce false positive or false negative results. Results support the assertion of previous researchers that the antigen detection EIA is a rapid, sensitive, specific, and simple alternative to traditional bioassays for the detection of EEE virus in mosquitoes.

  12. Intranasal exposure of the Richardson's ground squirrel to Western equine encephalomyelitis virus.

    PubMed Central

    Leung, M K; McLintock, J; Iversen, J

    1978-01-01

    Adult Richardson's ground squirrels were infected with western equine encephalomyelitis virus by intranasal instillation. Mortality followed the instillation of a minimum threshold of 4.7 logs of virus while infection was produced by a dosage of 2.3 logs. The incubation period was from four to seven days, being preceded by a viremic phase. Signs were depression, ataxia and paralysis of the limbs. Highest titres of virus were recovered from the brain and histopathological changes involving the central nervous system included meningitis, vasculitis, perivascular cuffing, gliosis, neuronophagia and neuronal degeneration. The virus was also found in a variety of extraneural tissues. Lesions in extraneural tissues included necrosis of brown fat and an apparent increase in number of Kupffer's cells in the liver. The lymphoid tissue was involved indicating a possible source for viremia. The duration and magnitude of viremia were ample enough to provide virus source for arthropods. The potential for transmission of the virus independent of arthropods was discussed in view of the pathogenesis demonstrated in the experimental infections. PMID:667706

  13. Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus and Culiseta melanura activity at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, 1985-90.

    PubMed

    Pagac, B B; Turell, M J; Olsen, G H

    1992-09-01

    Mosquito population densities, virus isolations and seroconversion in sentinel quail were used to monitor eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (EEE) activity at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Laurel, Maryland, from 1985 through 1990. A dramatic increase in the number of Culiseta melanura collected in 1989, as compared with the 3 previous years, was associated with virus isolations from this species (5/75 pools; n = 542 mosquitoes) and with seroconversion in sentinel quail (4/22 birds positive). This was the first detection of EEE virus activity in this area since a 1984 EEE outbreak killed 7 whooping cranes. PMID:1357091

  14. Biological characteristics of an enzootic subtype of western equine encephalomyelitis virus from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, T I; Avilés, G; Sabattini, M S

    1997-02-01

    In order to expand our knowledge on the biological characteristics of an enzootic South American subtype of western equine encephalomyelitis (WEE) virus, strain AG80-646, we inoculated guinea pigs, rabbits, newborn chickens and Vero and chick embryo cell cultures with this and other WEE and Wee-related viruses. AG80-646 was found apathogenic for guinea pigs even when inoculated intracranially (i.e.) or intraperitoneally (i.p.), and the animals did not develop viraemia. AG80-646 killed rabbits and the animals developed high viraemia (peak titer was 7.0 log PFU/0.1 ml). These data and previous serological evidence led us to look for a mammal as a natural host. AG80-646 was found lethal for newborn chickens inoculated subcutaneously (s.c.) (peak viraemia titer was 6.6 log PFU/0.1 ml). AG80-646 produced plaques (diameter 0.8-1.0 mm) in Vero and chick embryo cells 3-4 days post infection (p.i.) A comparison of AG80-646 with other WEE complex virus strains led to the following observations: (1) The lethality for guinea pigs was high for the two epizootic Argentinian strains, Cba 87 and Cba CIV 180, zero for the two enzootic strains, AG80-646 and BeAr 10315 (virus Aura), and intermediate for the Russian strain Y62-33 (low by i.c. route and zero by i.p. route); (2) AG80-646 was more virulent for rabbits inoculated i.p. than the three epizootic strains Cba 87, Cba CIV 180 and McMillan; (3) AG80-646 was less virulent for new-born chickens than the Argentinian epizootic strain Cba CIV 180; (4) The viraemia level correlated always with the strain virulence in each animal host. This study provides tools for the differentiation of WEE complex viruses and strains in the future ecological work on WEE in South America. PMID:9199709

  15. In mice the efficiency of immunization with Venezuelan Equine Encephalomyelitis virus TC-83 is transiently increased by dehydroepiandrosterone.

    PubMed

    Negrette, B; Bonilla, E; Valero, N; Giraldoth, D; Medina-Leendertz, S; Añez, F

    2001-12-01

    To determine whether treatment with dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) improves the efficiency of immunization against the Venezuelan Equine Encephalomyelitis (VEE) virus, mice were vaccinated with the TC-83 VEE virus. DHEA (10 mg/kg) was administered in a single dose, 4 hours before vaccination. IgM antibody titers were determined at days 7, 14 and 21 post-immunization. Treatment with DHEA increased antibody titers at day 14 after immunization. Mice were challenged with live VEE virus at day 21, and viral titers were plaque assayed in chicken embryo fibroblasts from days 2 to 5 post-infection. After the challenge, viremia decreased on day 2 and brain virus levels were reduced at day 4 in mice treated with DHEA. These results suggest that DHEA treatment could enhance the efficiency of immunization against VEE virus in mice. PMID:11787268

  16. IDENTIFICATION OF REPTILIAN AND AMPHIBIAN BLOOD MEALS FROM MOSQUITOES IN AN EASTERN EQUINE ENCEPHALOMYELITIS VIRUS FOCUS IN CENTRAL ALABAMA

    PubMed Central

    CUPP, EDDIE W.; ZHANG, DUNHUA; YUE, XIN; CUPP, MARY S.; GUYER, CRAIG; SPRENGER, TONYA R.; UNNASCH, THOMAS R.

    2005-01-01

    Uranotaenia sapphirina, Culex erraticus, and Cx. peccator were collected in an enzootic eastern equine encephalomyelitis (EEE) virus focus in central Alabama (Tuskegee National Forest) from 2001 to 2003 and analyzed for virus as well as host selection. EEE virus was detected in each species every year except 2003, when pools of Cx. peccator were negative. Most (97%) of the 130 Cx. peccator blood meals identified were from ectothermic hosts; 3% were from birds. Among blood meals from reptiles (approximately 75% of the total), 81% were from Agkistrodon piscivorus (cottonmouth); all amphibian blood meals (approximately 25%) were from Rana spp. with > 50% taken from the bullfrog R. catesbeiana. Host identifications were made from 131 of 197 Cx. erraticus, but only 3 (2%) were derived from ectothermic species. Identification of Ur. sapphirina blood meals proved difficult and only 2 of 35 hosts were determined. Both were from R. catesbeiana. Ectothermic species are possible EEE virus reservoirs in the southeastern United States where species such as Cx. peccator and Ur. sapphirina occur with large, diverse reptilian, amphibian, and avian populations such as those at the Tuskegee site. PMID:15381805

  17. Clinical observations and management of a severe equine herpesvirus type 1 outbreak with abortion and encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Latent equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) infection is common in horse populations worldwide and estimated to reach a prevalence nearing 90% in some areas. The virus causes acute outbreaks of disease that are characterized by abortion and sporadic cases of myeloencephalopathy (EHM), both severe threats to equine facilities. Different strains vary in their abortigenic and neuropathogenic potential and the simultaneous occurrence of EHM and abortion is rare. In this report, we present clinical observations collected during an EHV-1 outbreak caused by a so-called “neuropathogenic” EHV-1 G2254/D752 polymerase (Pol) variant, which has become more prevalent in recent years and is less frequently associated with abortions. In this outbreak with 61 clinically affected horses, 6/7 pregnant mares aborted and 8 horses developed EHM. Three abortions occurred after development of EHM symptoms. Virus detection was performed by nested PCR targeting gB from nasal swabs (11 positive), blood serum (6 positive) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (9 positive) of a total of 42 horses sampled. All 6 fetuses tested positive for EHV-1 by PCR and 4 by virus isolation. Paired serum neutralization test (SNT) on day 12 and 28 after the index case showed a significant (≥ 4-fold) increase in twelve horses (n = 42; 28.6%). This outbreak with abortions and EHM cases on a single equine facility provided a unique opportunity for the documentation of clinical disease progression as well as diagnostic procedures. PMID:23497661

  18. Infection dynamics of western equine encephalomyelitis virus (Togaviridae: Alphavirus) in four strains of Culex tarsalis (Diptera: Culicidae): an immunocytochemical study

    PubMed Central

    Oviedo, Marco V Neira; Romoser, William S; James, Calvin BL; Mahmood, Farida; Reisen, William K

    2012-01-01

    Background Vector competence describes the efficiency with which vector arthropods become infected with and transmit pathogens and depends on interactions between pathogen and arthropod genetics as well as environmental factors. For arbovirus transmission, the female mosquito ingests viremic blood, the virus infects and replicates in midgut cells, escapes from the midgut, and disseminates to other tissues, including the salivary glands. Virus-laden saliva is then injected into a new host. For transmission to occur, the virus must overcome several “barriers”, including barriers to midgut infection and/or escape and salivary infection and/or escape. By examining the spatial/temporal infection dynamics of Culex tarsalis strains infected with western equine encephalomyelitis virus (WEEV), we identified tissue tropisms and potential tissue barriers, and evaluated the effects of viral dose and time postingestion. Methods Using immunostained paraffin sections, WEEV antigens were tracked in four Cx. tarsalis strains: two recently colonized California field strains – Coachella Valley, Riverside County (COAV) and Kern National Wildlife Refuge (KNWR); and two laboratory strains selected for WEEV susceptibility (high viremia producer, HVP), and WEEV resistance (WR). Results and conclusions Tissues susceptible to WEEV infection included midgut epithelium, neural ganglia, trachea, chorionated eggs, and salivary glands. Neuroendocrine cells in the retrocerebral complex were occasionally infected, indicating the potential for behavioral effects. The HVP and COAV strains vigorously supported viral growth, whereas the WR and KNWR strains were less competent. Consistent with earlier studies, WEEV resistance appeared to be related to a dose-dependent midgut infection barrier, and a midgut escape barrier. The midgut escape barrier was not dependent upon the ingested viral dose. Consistent with midgut infection modulation, disseminated infections were less common in the WR and

  19. Rural cases of equine West Nile virus encephalomyelitis and the normalized difference vegetation index

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ward, M.P.; Ramsay, B.H.; Gallo, K.

    2005-01-01

    Data from an outbreak (August to October, 2002) of West Nile virus (WNV) encephalomyelitis in a population of horses located in northern Indiana was scanned for clusters in time and space. One significant (p = 0.04) cluster of case premises was detected, occurring between September 4 and 10 in the south-west part of the study area (85.70??N, 45.50??W). It included 10 case premises (3.67 case premises expected) within a radius of 2264 m. Image data were acquired by the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) sensor onboard a National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration polar-orbiting satellite. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) was calculated from visible and near-infrared data of daily observations, which were composited to produce a weekly-1km2 resolution raster image product. During the epidemic, a significant (p<0.01) decrease (0.025 per week) in estimated NDVI was observed at all case and control premise sites. The median estimated NDVI (0.659) for case premises within the cluster identified was significantly (p<0.01) greater than the median estimated NDVI for other case (0.571) and control (0.596) premises during the same period. The difference in median estimated NDVI for case premises within this cluster, compared to cases not included in this cluster, was greatest (5.3% and 5.1%, respectively) at 1 and 5 weeks preceding occurrence of the cluster. The NDVI may be useful for identifying foci of WNV transmission. ?? Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

  20. Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus infection in six captive southern cassowaries (Casuarius casuarius).

    PubMed

    Guthrie, Amanda; Citino, Scott; Rooker, Leah; Zelazo-Kessler, Alexandra; Lim, Ailam; Myers, Carl; Bolin, Steven R; Trainor, Karen

    2016-08-01

    CASE DESCRIPTION Within a 2-week period, 4 southern cassowaries (Casuarius casuarius) at an exhibit at a Virginia zoo died acutely subsequent to eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) infection. This prompted a search for other EEEV outbreaks in cassowaries, which resulted in the identification of 2 additional cassowaries that died of EEEV infection at a conservation center in Florida. CLINICAL FINDINGS Both juvenile and adult birds were affected. Three of the 6 birds died acutely with no premonitory signs. Clinical disease in the other 3 birds was characterized by lethargy and ataxia. Clinicopathologic findings typically included leukocytosis, hyperuricemia, abnormally high liver enzyme activities, and hyper-β globulinemia, which was indicative of acute inflammation. TREATMENT AND OUTCOME The 3 birds with clinical disease died despite supportive treatment. Gross abnormalities commonly observed during necropsy included coelomitis and evidence of diarrhea. Frequently observed histologic abnormalities were encephalitis, vasculitis, hepatitis, nephritis, and splenitis. The diagnosis of EEEV infection was confirmed by detection of serum anti-EEEV antibodies or detection of viral RNA in brain tissue by use of a reverse-transcriptase PCR assay. CLINICAL RELEVANCE Findings suggested that EEEV can cause high morbidity and mortality rates in southern cassowaries. Clinical disease might be reduced or prevented by vaccination, isolation of ill birds, and mosquito control strategies. PMID:27439350

  1. Multiplex qRT-PCR for the Detection of Western Equine Encephalomyelitis, St. Louis Encephalitis, and West Nile Viral RNA in Mosquito Pools (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Brault, Aaron C; Fang, Ying; Reisen, William K

    2015-05-01

    Following the introduction of West Nile virus into California during the summer of 2003, public health and vector control programs expanded surveillance efforts and were in need of diagnostics capable of rapid, sensitive, and specific detection of arbovirus infections of mosquitoes to inform decision support for intervention. Development of a multiplex TaqMan or real-time semiquantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay in which three virus specific primer-probe sets were used in the same reaction is described herein for the detection of western equine encephalomyelitis, St. Louis encephalitis and West Nile viral RNA. Laboratory validation and field data from 10 transmission seasons are reported. The comparative sensitivity and specificity of this multiplex assay to singleplex RT-PCR as well as an antigen detection (rapid analyte measurement platform) and standard plaque assays indicate this assay to be rapid and useful in providing mosquito infection data to estimate outbreak risk. PMID:26334826

  2. Kunjin flaviviral encephalomyelitis in an Arabian gelding in New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Tee, S Y; Horadagoda, N; Mogg, T D

    2012-08-01

    Flaviviruses, including Kunjin virus, are arboviruses that cause encephalomyelitis in humans and horses. This case report describes an Arabian gelding exhibiting neurological signs of flavivirus encephalomyelitis, the diagnostic investigation and confirmation of an unreported case of Kunjin virus equine encephalomyelitis in Australia. PMID:22827627

  3. Combining reverse-transcription multiplex PCR and microfluidic electrophoresis to simultaneously detect seven mosquito-transmitted zoonotic encephalomyelitis viruses.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Ostlund, Eileen N; Jun, Yang; Nie, Fu-Ping; Li, Ying-Guo; Johnson, Donna J; Lin, Rui; Li, Zheng-Guo

    2016-06-01

    Several mosquito-transmitted viruses are causative agents for zoonotic encephalomyelitis. Rapid identification of these viruses in mosquito populations is an effective method for surveying these diseases. To detect multiple mosquito-transmitted viral agents, including West Nile virus, Saint Louis encephalitis virus, Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus, Western equine encephalomyelitis virus, Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus, Highlands J virus and Japanese encephalitis virus, an assay using multiplex reverse-transcription PCR combined with microfluidic electrophoresis was developed and evaluated. Tailed nested primers were used in the assay to amplify specific viral genomic segments, and products with specific length were further analyzed by using a microfluidic electrophoresis chip. The assay exhibited good specificity and analytical sensitivity (10(2) copies/µL). This technology can be helpful in the quarantine and surveillance of exotic encephalomyelitis viruses which are transmitted by mosquitoes. PMID:27256022

  4. Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Gray, Matthew Philip; Gorelick, Marc H

    2016-06-01

    Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis is a primarily pediatric, immune-mediated disease characterized by demyelination and polyfocal neurologic symptoms that typically occur after a preceding viral infection or recent immunization. This article presents the pathophysiology, diagnostic criteria, and magnetic resonance imaging characteristics of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. We also present evaluation and management strategies. PMID:27253358

  5. Equine Piroplasmosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Equine piroplasmosis is an infectious, tick-borne disease caused by the hemoprotozoan parasites Theileria (previously Babesia) equi and Babesia caballi. Piroplasmosis affects all wild and domestic equid species and causes signs related to intravascular hemolysis and associated systemic illness. Infe...

  6. Learning about equine biosecurity.

    PubMed

    Nixon, Jane

    2015-06-01

    Equine consultant, Jane Nixon, attended the first equine biosecurity course at the British Racing School in November last year, organised by Whorl Publishing. Here, she reports on some of the issues covered. PMID:26044699

  7. [EPIDEMIOLOGIC ANALYSIS OF OUTBREAKS OF DISEASES CAUSED BY AMERICAN EQUINE ENCEPHALITIS CAUSATIVE AGENTS IN ENDEMIC REGIONS].

    PubMed

    Petrov, A A; Lebedev, V N; Kulish, V S; Pyshnaya, N S; Stovba, L F; Borisevich, S V

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiologic analysis of epidemic outbreaks caused by American equine encephalitis causative agents is carried out in the review. Eastern equine encephalomyelitis (EEE), Western equine encephalomyelitis (WEE) and Venezuela equine encephalomyelitis (VEE) viruses are etiologic agents of dangerous transmissive diseases that are usually accompanied by fever and neurologic symptoms. Among the New World alphaviruses, VEE virus has the most potential danger for humans and domestic animals. Currently, enzootic strains of VEE play an increasing role as etiologic agents of human diseases. Most of the VEE cases in humans in endemic regions during inter-epidemic period are caused by infection with VEE subtype ID virus. A possibility of emergence of novel epidemic outbreaks of VEE is determined by mutations of ID subtype strains into IC subtype, and those currently pose a potential threat as an etiologic agent of the disease. Despite low morbidity, EEE and WEE are a problem for healthcare due to a relatively high frequency of lethal outcomes of the disease. PMID:26829861

  8. Equine placentation.

    PubMed

    Allen, W R; Stewart, F

    2001-01-01

    A tough, elastic glycoprotein capsule envelops the equine blastocyst between Days 6 and 23 after ovulation. It maintains the spherical configuration of, and provides physical support for, the embryo as it traverses the entire uterine lumen during Days 6-17, propelled by myometrial contractions that are stimulated by pulsatile release of prostaglandin F2alpha and prostaglandin E2. The capsule also accumulates constituents of the exocrine secretions of the endometrial glands ('uterine milk') as nutrients for the mobile embryo as it releases its antiluteolytic maternal recognition-of-pregnancy signal to the whole of the surface of the endometrium. Mobility ceases abruptly on Day 17 with a sudden increase in uterine tonicity that 'fixes' the conceptus at the base of one of the uterine horns. At Day 35, the trophoblast of the spherical conceptus has separated into its invasive and non-invasive components. The former, distinguished as the thickened, annulate chorionic girdle, invades the maternal endometrium to form the unique endometrial cups. These secrete a chorionic gonadotrophin that synergizes with pituitary follicle-stimulating hormone to induce secondary luteal development in the maternal ovaries. The cup cells express foreign fetal antigens that stimulate strong maternal humoral and cell-mediated immune responses, which curtail their lifespan. The non-invasive trophoblast of the allantochorion establishes a stable microvillous contact with the endometrial epithelium around Day 40 and, over the next 100 days, develops a complex multibranched interdigitation with the endometrium to form the microcotyledonary haemotrophic exchange units that cover the entire surface of the diffuse epitheliochorial placenta. Reduction in the effective total area of fetomaternal contact at this placental interface, by competition between twin conceptuses for the limited area of available endometrium, by attachment of the allantochorion to an imperfect endometrium in a mare with

  9. Equine Arteritis Virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    03. Nidovirales : 03.004. Arteriviridae : 03.004.0. {03.004.0. unknown} : 03.004.0.01. Arterivirus : 03.004.0.01.001. Equine arteritis virus will be published online. The article details the phenotypic and genotypic makeup of equine arteritis virus (EAV), and summarizes its biological properties....

  10. Avian Encephalomyelitis in Layer Pullets Associated with Vaccination.

    PubMed

    Sentíes-Cué, C Gabriel; Gallardo, Rodrigo A; Reimers, Nancy; Bickford, Arthur A; Charlton, Bruce R; Shivaprasad, H L

    2016-06-01

    Avian encephalomyelitis (AE) was diagnosed in three flocks of leghorn layer pullets following AE vaccination. Ages of the birds were 11, 12, and 14 wk. The submissions came from three different companies located in two geographic areas of the Central Valley of California. The clinical signs included birds down on their legs, unilateral recumbency or sitting on their hocks, lethargy, reluctance to move, dehydration, unevenness in size, low weight, tremors of the head in a few birds, and mildly to moderately elevated mortality. The flocks had been vaccinated against fowl pox and AE with a combined product in the wing-web 2 wk prior to the onset of AE clinical signs. Histopathologic examination revealed lesions consistent with AE, including lymphocytic perivascular infiltration and neuronal central chromatolysis in the brain and spinal cord, as well as gliosis in the cerebellar molecular layer. The AE virus was detected by reverse-transcriptase PCR in the brain homogenate from three cases and peripheral nerves in one case. Additionally, the AE virus was isolated in specific-pathogen-free (SPF) embryonated eggs from brain tissue pool samples. Other avian viral infections capable of causing encephalitis, including avian paramyxoviruses, avian influenza virus (AIV), West Nile virus (WNV), eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV), and western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV), were ruled out by attempting virus isolation and molecular procedures. PMID:27309297

  11. Equine viral arteritis.

    PubMed

    Balasuriya, Udeni B R

    2014-12-01

    Equine arteritis virus (EAV), the causative agent of equine viral arteritis (EVA), is a respiratory and reproductive disease that occurs throughout the world. EAV infection is highly species-specific and exclusively limited to members of the family Equidae, which includes horses, donkeys, mules, and zebras. EVA is an economically important disease and outbreaks could cause significant losses to the equine industry. The primary objective of this article is to summarize current understanding of EVA, specifically the disease, pathogenesis, epidemiology, host immune response, vaccination and treatment strategies, prevention and control measures, and future directions. PMID:25441113

  12. Eastern Equine Encephalitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Image of Culiseta melanura mosquito, photo taken by Jason Williams, reproduced by permission from the Virginia Mosquito Control Association. Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is ...

  13. Protective efficacies of live attenuated and formaldehyde-inactivated Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus vaccines against aerosol challenge in hamsters.

    PubMed Central

    Jahrling, P B; Stephenson, E H

    1984-01-01

    Although two investigational vaccines are used to immunize humans against Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus, neither had previously been tested for protective efficacy against aerosol exposure. Live attenuated vaccine (TC-83) protected all hamsters challenged by either aerosol or subcutaneous routes with 4.7 to 5.2 log10 PFU of virulent Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus. Formaldehyde-inactivated vaccine (C-84) failed to protect against aerosol challenge but did protect against subcutaneous challenge. Protection elicited by TC-83 vaccine did not depend solely on serum-neutralizing antibody. These studies suggest that TC-83 vaccine is preferable to C-84 vaccine for protecting laboratory workers at risk to aerosol exposure. PMID:6715512

  14. Applied equine genetics

    PubMed Central

    FINNO, C. J.; BANNASCH, D. L.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Genome sequencing of the domestic horse and subsequent advancements in the field of equine genomics have led to an explosion in the development of tools for mapping traits and diseases and evaluating gene expression. The objective of this review is to discuss the current progress in the field of equine genomics, with specific emphasis on assembly and analysis of the reference sequence and subsequent sequencing of a Quarter Horse mare; the genomic tools currently available to researchers and their implications in genomic investigations in the horse; the genomics of Mendelian and non-Mendelian traits; the genomics of performance traits and considerations regarding genetic testing in the horse. The whole-genome sequencing of a Quarter Horse mare has provided additional variants within the equine genome that extend past single nucleotide polymorphisms to include insertions/deletions and copy number variants. Equine single nucleotide polymorphism arrays have allowed for the investigation of both simple and complex genetic traits while DNA microarrays have provided a tool for examining gene expression across various tissues and with certain disease conditions. Recently, next-generation sequencing has become more affordable and both whole-genome DNA sequencing and transcriptome-wide RNA sequencing are methodologies that are being applied to equine genomic research. Research in the field of equine genomics continues to expand rapidly as the cost of genotyping and sequencing decreases, resulting in a need for quality bioinformatics software and expertise to appropriately handle both the size and complexity of these data. PMID:24802051

  15. Hemagglutinating Encephalomyelitis Coronavirus Infection in Pigs, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Cappuccio, Javier; Piñeyro, Pablo; Basso, Walter; Moré, Gastón; Kienast, Mariana; Schonfeld, Sergio; Cáncer, José L.; Arauz, Sandra; Pintos, María E.; Nanni, Mariana; Machuca, Mariana; Hirano, Norio; Perfumo, Carlos J.

    2008-01-01

    We describe an outbreak of vomiting, wasting, and encephalomyelitis syndrome in piglets in Argentina, caused by porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis coronavirus (PHE-CoV) infection. Diagnosis was made by epidemiologic factors, pathologic features, immunohistochemistry, reverse transcription–PCR, and genomic sequencing. This study documents PHE-CoV infection in South America. PMID:18325268

  16. Review of equine piroplasmosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Equine piroplasmosis is caused by one of two erythrocytic parasites Babesia caballi or Theileria equi. Although the genus of the latter remains controversial the most recent designation, Theileria is utilized in this review. Shared pathogenesis includes tick-borne transmission and erythrolysis leadi...

  17. Equine cricoid cartilage densitometry.

    PubMed Central

    Behrens, E; Poteet, B; Cohen, N

    1993-01-01

    The density of the cricoid cartilage from 29 equine larynges collected from an abattoir was determined by dual photon absorptiometry (DPA). Densities of the right and left cricoid cartilages were highly correlated. No correlation was found between age of the horse and the density of the cricoid cartilage. PMID:8269372

  18. Equine influenza serological methods.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Thomas M; Reedy, Stephanie E

    2014-01-01

    Serologic tests for equine influenza virus (EIV) antibodies are used for many purposes, including retrospective diagnosis, subtyping of virus isolates, antigenic comparison of different virus strains, and measurement of immune responses to EIV vaccines. The hemagglutination-inhibition (HI), single radial hemolysis (SRH), and serum micro-neutralization tests are the most widely used for these purposes and are described here. The presence of inhibitors of hemagglutination in equine serum complicates interpretation of HI assay results, and there are alternative protocols (receptor-destroying enzyme, periodate, trypsin-periodate) for their removal. With the EIV H3N8 strains in particular, equine antibody titers may be magnified by pretreating the HI test antigen with Tween-80 and ether. The SRH assay offers stronger correlations between serum antibody titers and protection from disease. Other tests are sometimes used for specialized purposes such as the neuraminidase-inhibition assay for subtyping, or ELISA for measuring different specific antibody isotypes, and are not described here. PMID:24899450

  19. Equine Disease Surveillance: Quarterly Summary.

    PubMed

    2016-01-23

    West Nile virus in Europe and the USA. Evidence that the spread of vesicular stomatitis in the USA is beginning to slow. Summary of UK surveillance testing, July to September 2015 These are among matters discussed in the most recent quarterly equine disease surveillance report, prepared by Defra, the Animal Health Trust and the British Equine Veterinary Association. PMID:26795859

  20. Equine disease surveillance: quarterly summary.

    PubMed

    2016-07-30

    National and international disease outbreaksAfrican horse sickness in South AfricaRising EHV-1 abortion cases in the UKSummary of surveillance testing, January to March 2016 These are among matters discussed in the most recent quarterly equine disease surveillance report, prepared by Defra, the Animal Health Trust and the British Equine Veterinary Association. PMID:27474057

  1. A Rare Sequela of Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Kodadhala, Vijay; Kurukumbi, Mohankumar; Jayam-Trouth, Annapurni

    2014-01-01

    Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis is a demyelinating disease, typically occurring in children following a febrile infection or a vaccination. Primary and secondary immune responses contribute to inflammation and subsequent demyelination, but the exact pathogenesis is still unknown. Diagnosis of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis is strongly suggested by temporal relationship between an infection or an immunization and the onset of neurological symptoms. Biopsy is definitive. In general, the disease is self-limiting and the prognostic outcome is favorable with anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive agents. Locked-in syndrome describes patients who are awake and conscious but have no means of producing limb, speech, or facial movements. Locked-in syndrome is a rare complication of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. We present a case of incomplete locked-in syndrome occurring in a 34-year-old male secondary to acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. Our case is unique, as acute disseminated encephalomyelitis occurred in a 34-year-old which was poorly responsive to immunosuppression resulting in severe disability. PMID:24977089

  2. Myalgic Encephalomyelitis: Symptoms and Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Jasona, Leonard A.; Zinn, Marcie L.; Zinn, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (ME) continues to cause significant morbidity worldwide with an estimated one million cases in the United States. Hurdles to establishing consensus to achieve accurate evaluation of patients with ME continue, fueled by poor agreement about case definitions, slow progress in development of standardized diagnostic approaches, and issues surrounding research priorities. Because there are other medical problems, such as early MS and Parkinson’s Disease, which have some similar clinical presentations, it is critical to accurately diagnose ME to make a differential diagnosis. In this article, we explore and summarize advances in the physiological and neurological approaches to understanding, diagnosing, and treating ME. We identify key areas and approaches to elucidate the core and secondary symptom clusters in ME so as to provide some practical suggestions in evaluation of ME for clinicians and researchers. This review, therefore, represents a synthesis of key discussions in the literature, and has important implications for a better understanding of ME, its biological markers, and diagnostic criteria. There is a clear need for more longitudinal studies in this area with larger data sets, which correct for multiple testing. PMID:26411464

  3. Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis.

    PubMed

    Howe, Daniel K; MacKay, Robert J; Reed, Stephen M

    2014-12-01

    Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) can be caused by either of 2 related protozoan parasites, Sarcocystis neurona and Neospora hughesi, although S. neurona is the most frequent etiologic pathogen. Horses are commonly infected, but clinical disease occurs infrequently; the factors influencing disease occurrence are not well understood. Risk factors for the development of EPM include the presence of opossums and prior stressful health-related events. Attempts to reproduce EPM experimentally have reliably induced antibody responses in challenged horses but have not consistently produced acute neurologic disease. Diagnosis and options for treatment of EPM have improved over the past decade. PMID:25441115

  4. Advances in equine dental radiology.

    PubMed

    Baratt, Robert

    2013-08-01

    Although diagnostic images can be obtained with traditional rare-earth film-screen combinations, digital radiography (DR) has enhanced the ability of the general practitioner to obtain diagnostic radiographs of the equine head. With the widespread availability of DR in equine practices, the practitioner can more readily learn the correct positioning for the various projections of the equine head that are used to evaluate the dentition and sinuses. Digital systems provide rapid processing of the image, enabling the practitioner to correct positioning errors and retake the image without significant delay. PMID:23915665

  5. Equine metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, R.; Keen, J.; McGowan, C.

    2015-01-01

    Laminitis is one of the most common and frustrating clinical presentations in equine practice. While the principles of treatment for laminitis have not changed for several decades, there have been some important paradigm shifts in our understanding of laminitis. Most importantly, it is essential to consider laminitis as a clinical sign of disease and not as a disease in its own right. Once this shift in thinking has occurred, it is logical to then question what disease caused the laminitis. More than 90 per cent of horses presented with laminitis as their primary clinical sign will have developed it as a consequence of endocrine disease; most commonly equine metabolic syndrome (EMS). Given the fact that many horses will have painful protracted and/or chronic recurrent disease, a good understanding of the predisposing factors and how to diagnose and manage them is crucial. Current evidence suggests that early diagnosis and effective management of EMS should be a key aim for practising veterinary surgeons to prevent the devastating consequences of laminitis. This review will focus on EMS, its diagnosis and management. PMID:26273009

  6. Understanding equine stereotypies.

    PubMed

    Nicol, C

    1999-04-01

    It is frequently asserted that equine stereotypies, such as crib-biting, wind-sucking and weaving, are caused by boredom. However, this explanation is too general to be of practical use in discerning the causes of each stereotypy or in devising management practices to prevent their occurrence. The majority of equine stereotypes start within one month of weaning when both the nutritional and social environment of the foal are substantially altered. Epidemiological research has revealed that the provision of low quantities of forage and minimal opportunities for social contact are associated with a higher reported prevalence of stereotypic behaviour. Experimental data also suggest that oral stereotypies develop in response to a low forage diet but this may be partially adaptative. Oral stereotypies may increase salivary flow therefore reducing the acidity of gastric tract and speeding the transit of ingested feed. Stereotypic horses may be less reactive to short-term aversive stimulation. Neither direct nor circumstantial evidence confirms anecdotal reports that horses copy stereotypies from each other. Surgical and pharmacological methods of prevention should not be attempted unless the underlying causes are removed. PMID:11314230

  7. ADHD as Sequel to Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Millichap, J Gordon

    2016-02-01

    Investigators from Ruth Children's Hospital, Haifa, and Schneider Medical Center, Petah Tikuah, Israel, evaluated the long-term motor and neurocognitive outcome of 43 children hospitalized during 2002-2012 with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM), and identified prognostic risk factors. PMID:27053911

  8. Psychosocial Equine Program for Veterans.

    PubMed

    Ferruolo, David M

    2016-01-01

    Nearly half of all combat veterans suffer from serious psychological disorders and reintegration issues. Veterans shy away from typical talk therapy and are seeking alternative treatments. Equine-facilitated mental health therapy has shown promise in treating veterans with depressive and anxiety disorders and reintegration issues. This article reports on an institutional review board-approved pilot program designed to address the mental health needs of veterans. Furthermore, this article discusses future directions for evolving development of equine treatment programming. PMID:26897999

  9. Contagious Equine Metritis: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Eaglesome, M. D.; Garcia, M. M.

    1979-01-01

    Contagious equine metritis is a highly contagious genital infection of mares, spread venereally, and was first described in 1977. Although most contagious equine metritis outbreaks involved Thoroughbreds, infection in other breeds has also occurred. The disease has been reported in Europe, Australia and the United States. In Canada, contagious equine metritis has been designated a reportable disease under the Animal Disease and Protection Act. Contagious equine metritis is characterized by an endometritis and infertility and infected mares show no signs of systemic infection. Clinical signs have not been observed in stallions. An asymptomatic carrier state exists in both mares and stallions. Infected mares respond clinically to the topical and parenteral administration of antibacterial drugs. However, a proportion of mares remain carriers of the contagious equine metritis organism. Treatment of stallions is successful. Haemophilus equigenitalis has been proposed as the species name of the Gram-negative, microaerophilic coccobacillus. Sample collection and laboratory methods for the diagnosis of contagious equine metritis are described. PMID:389400

  10. Equine respiratory pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Foreman, J H

    1999-12-01

    Differentiation of diseases of the equine respiratory tract is based on history, clinical signs, auscultation, endoscopy, imaging, and sampling of airway exudate. Upper respiratory therapies include surgical correction of airway obstructions; flushing of localized abscesses (strangles), guttural pouch disease, or sinusitis; and oral or parenteral antibiotic and anti-inflammatory therapy if deemed necessary. Pneumonia usually is treated with antimicrobials, anti-inflammatories, and bronchodilators. Pleural drainage is indicated if significant pleural effusion is present. The most commonly used therapies for early inflammatory and chronic allergic obstructive conditions include bronchodilators and anti-inflammatories. Acute respiratory distress, particularly acute pulmonary edema, is treated with diuretics (usually furosemide), intranasal oxygen, bronchodilators, corticosteroids, and alleviation of the underlying cause. Furosemide also had been used in North America as a race-day preventative for exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage (EIPH), but recent data have shown that furosemide may be a performance-enhancing agent itself. PMID:10589473

  11. Equine Assisted Psychotherapy: The Equine Assisted Growth and Learning Association's Model Overview of Equine-Based Modalities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Notgrass, Clayton G.; Pettinelli, J. Douglas

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the Equine Assisted Growth and Learning Association's (EAGALA) experiential model called "Equine Assisted Psychotherapy" (EAP). EAGALA's model is based on the Association for Experiential Education's (AEE) tenets and is focused on the learner's experience with horses. Drawing on the historical use of equines in the…

  12. Myalgic encephalomyelitis: International Consensus Criteria

    PubMed Central

    Carruthers, B M; van de Sande, M I; De Meirleir, K L; Klimas, N G; Broderick, G; Mitchell, T; Staines, D; Powles, A C P; Speight, N; Vallings, R; Bateman, L; Baumgarten-Austrheim, B; Bell, D S; Carlo-Stella, N; Chia, J; Darragh, A; Jo, D; Lewis, D; Light, A R; Marshall-Gradisbik, S; Mena, I; Mikovits, J A; Miwa, K; Murovska, M; Pall, M L; Stevens, S

    2011-01-01

    , Japan; A. Kirchenstein Institute of Microbiology and Virology, Riga Stradins University, Riga, Latvia; Department of Biochemistry & Basic Medical Sciences, Washington State University, Portland, OR; Department of Sports Sciences, University of the Pacific, Stockton, CA USA). Myalgic encephalomyelitis: International Consensus Criteria (Review). J Intern Med 2011; 270: 327–338. The label ‘chronic fatigue syndrome’ (CFS) has persisted for many years because of the lack of knowledge of the aetiological agents and the disease process. In view of more recent research and clinical experience that strongly point to widespread inflammation and multisystemic neuropathology, it is more appropriate and correct to use the term ‘myalgic encephalomyelitis’ (ME) because it indicates an underlying pathophysiology. It is also consistent with the neurological classification of ME in the World Health Organization’s International Classification of Diseases (ICD G93.3). Consequently, an International Consensus Panel consisting of clinicians, researchers, teaching faculty and an independent patient advocate was formed with the purpose of developing criteria based on current knowledge. Thirteen countries and a wide range of specialties were represented. Collectively, members have approximately 400 years of both clinical and teaching experience, authored hundreds of peer-reviewed publications, diagnosed or treated approximately 50 000 patients with ME, and several members coauthored previous criteria. The expertise and experience of the panel members as well as PubMed and other medical sources were utilized in a progression of suggestions/drafts/reviews/revisions. The authors, free of any sponsoring organization, achieved 100% consensus through a Delphi-type process. The scope of this paper is limited to criteria of ME and their application. Accordingly, the criteria reflect the complex symptomatology. Operational notes enhance clarity and specificity by providing guidance in the

  13. The equine intestinal microbiome.

    PubMed

    Costa, Marcio C; Weese, J Scott

    2012-06-01

    The equine intestinal tract contains a complex microbial population (microbiota) that plays an important role in health and disease. Despite the undeniable importance of a 'normal' microbiota, understanding of the composition and function of this population is currently limited. As methods to characterize the microbiota and its genetic makeup (the microbiome) have evolved, the composition and complexity of this population are starting to be revealed. As is befitting a hindgut fermenter, members of the Firmicutes phylum appear to predominate, yet there are significant populations of numerous other phyla. The microbiome appears to be profoundly altered in certain disease states, and better understanding of these alterations may offer hope for novel preventive and therapeutic measures. The development and increasing availability of next generation sequencing and bioinformatics methods offer a revolution in microbiome evaluation and it is likely that significant advances will be made in the near future. Yet, proper use of these methods requires further study of basic aspects such as optimal testing protocols, the relationship of the fecal microbiome to more proximal locations where disease occurs, normal intra- and inter-horse variation, seasonal variation, and similar factors. PMID:22626511

  14. A Review of Equine Laparoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Hendrickson, Dean A.

    2012-01-01

    Minimally invasive surgery in the human was first identified in mid 900's. The procedure as is more commonly practiced now was first reported in 1912. There have been many advances and new techniques developed in the past 100 years. Equine laparoscopy, was first reported in the 1970's, and similarly has undergone much transformation in the last 40 years. It is now considered the standard of care in many surgical techniques such as cryptorchidectomy, ovariectomy, nephrosplenic space ablation, standing abdominal exploratory, and many other reproductive surgeries. This manuscript describes the history of minimally invasive surgery, and highlights many of the techniques that are currently performed in equine surgery. Special attention is given to instrumentation, ligating techniques, and the surgical principles of equine minimally invasive surgery. PMID:23762585

  15. 9 CFR 113.325 - Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.325 Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine. Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing tissues or fluids from embryonated chicken eggs. Only Master...

  16. 9 CFR 113.325 - Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.325 Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine. Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing tissues or fluids from embryonated chicken eggs. Only Master...

  17. 9 CFR 113.325 - Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.325 Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine. Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing tissues or fluids from embryonated chicken eggs. Only Master...

  18. Equine Rhinosporidiosis in United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Ken C.; Bestbier, Mark E.; Barrelet, Annalisa; Kipar, Anja

    2007-01-01

    We report 4 cases of equine rhinosporidiosis in the United Kingdom. These cases provide evidence of spread of infectious agents from rhinosporidiosis-endemic areas to nonendemic areas by increased international movement of livestock. Surveillance should continue for this infective agent of potential relevance for numerous species, including humans. PMID:18252114

  19. Equine rhinosporidiosis in United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Leeming, Gail; Smith, Ken C; Bestbier, Mark E; Barrelet, Annalisa; Kipar, Anja

    2007-09-01

    We report 4 cases of equine rhinosporidiosis in the United Kingdom. These cases provide evidence of spread of infectious agents from rhinosporidiosis-endemic areas to nonendemic areas by increased international movement of livestock. Surveillance should continue for this infective agent of potential relevance for numerous species, including humans. PMID:18252114

  20. Vector ecology of equine piroplasmosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Equine piroplasmosis (EP) is a disease of equidae including horses, donkeys, mules and zebras caused by either of two protozoan parasites, Theileria equi or Babesia caballi. These parasites are biologically transmitted between hosts via tick-vectors and although they have inherent differences, they ...

  1. Reversible postvaccination paraneoplastic encephalomyelitis in a patient with lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yi-Jen; Lai, Ming-Liang; Huang, Chin-Wei

    2010-12-01

    Encephalomyelitis occurs in paraneoplastic syndrome and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis through different autoimmune mechanisms. No postvaccinal encephalomyelitis other than acute disseminated encephalomyelitis has been reported in patients with malignancy. A 68-year-old woman was admitted because of a headache followed by a gait disturbance and psychomotor retardation 2 days after she had received an influenza vaccination followed by abulia, limb rigidity and hyperreflexia of both legs, and meningeal irritation. Cerebrospinal fluid studies showed increased intracranial pressure, elevated immunoglobulins G and A, and pleocytosis. Contrasted brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed ventriculomegaly and multiple symmetric leptomeningeal enhancement, without demyelinating changes or cortical ribbon signs. Somatosensory evoked potentials and nerve conduction velocity studies suggested myelitis. Encephalomyelitis was diagnosed on the basis of clinical and laboratory examinations. The etiological survey identified a lung adenocarcinoma. Both the encephalomyelitis and the lung adenocarcinoma simultaneously progressed after the vaccination and then, after targeted therapy for lung cancer, simultaneously subsided. In conclusion, postinfluenza-vaccination paraneoplastic encephalomyelitis may occur in patients with lung adenocarcinoma. PMID:20964557

  2. National Equine Forum: Taking up the reins on equine issues.

    PubMed

    2015-04-01

    Gill Harris reports from this year's National Equine Forum, where one of the main themes was the horse industry and government. The forum, held in London on March 5, was attended by more than 200 people with a connection to the equestrian industry. Lord de Mauley, parliamentary undersecretary of state for natural environment and science at Defra, set the course of the proceedings. PMID:25837945

  3. Surveillance of equine respiratory viruses in Ontario

    PubMed Central

    Diaz-Mendez, Andrés; Viel, Laurent; Hewson, Joanne; Doig, Paul; Carman, Susy; Chambers, Thomas; Tiwari, Ashish; Dewey, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this project was to develop and implement an active surveillance program for the early and rapid detection of equine influenza viruses in Ontario. For this purpose, from October 2003 to October 2005, nasopharyngeal swabs and acute and convalescent serum samples were collected from 115 client-owned horses in 23 outbreaks of respiratory disease in Ontario. Sera were paired and tested for antibody to equine influenza 1 (AE1-H7N7), equine influenza 2 (AE2-H3N8), equine herpesvirus 1 and 4 (EHV1 and EHV4), and equine rhinitis A and B (ERAV and ERBV). Overall, the cause-specific morbidity rate of equine influenza virus in the respiratory outbreaks was 56.5% as determined by the single radial hemolysis (SRH) test. The AE2-H3N8 was isolated from 15 horses in 5 outbreaks. A 4-fold increase in antibody levels or the presence of a high titer against ERAV or ERBV was observed in 10 out of 13 outbreaks in which AE2-H3N8 was diagnosed as the primary cause of disease. In conclusion, AE2-H3N8 was found to be an important contributor to equine respiratory viral disease. Equine rhinitis A and B (ERAV and ERBV) represented an important component in the equine respiratory disease of performing horses. PMID:21197227

  4. Vector ecology of equine piroplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Scoles, Glen A; Ueti, Massaro W

    2015-01-01

    Equine piroplasmosis is a disease of Equidae, including horses, donkeys, mules, and zebras, caused by either of two protozoan parasites, Theileria equi or Babesia caballi. These parasites are biologically transmitted between hosts via tick vectors, and although they have inherent differences they are categorized together because they cause similar pathology and have similar morphologies, life cycles, and vector relationships. To complete their life cycle, these parasites must undergo a complex series of developmental events, including sexual-stage development in their tick vectors. Consequently, ticks are the definitive hosts as well as vectors for these parasites, and the vector relationship is restricted to a few competent tick species. Because the vector relationship is critical to the epidemiology of these parasites, we highlight current knowledge of the vector ecology of these tick-borne equine pathogens, emphasizing tick transmissibility and potential control strategies to prevent their spread. PMID:25564746

  5. Contrasting Case Definitions for Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Jason, Leonard A.; Brown, Abigail; Clyne, Erin; Bartgis, Lindsey; Evans, Meredyth; Brown, Molly

    2013-01-01

    This article uses data from patients recruited using the 1994 case definition of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) to contrast those meeting criteria for the Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) Canadian case definition with those that did not meet these criteria. The study also contrasts those meeting criteria for Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (ME) based on criteria from Ramsay and other theorists with those that did not meet the ME criteria. The ME/CFS case definition criteria identified a subset of patients with more functional impairments and physical, mental, and cognitive problems than the subset not meeting these criteria. The ME subset had more functional impairments, and more severe physical and cognitive symptoms than the subset not meeting ME criteria. When applied to a population meeting the 1994 CFS case definition, both ME/CFS and ME criteria appear to select a more severe subset of patients. PMID:22158691

  6. Chronic fatigue syndrome or myalgic encephalomyelitis in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Tapabrata

    2003-09-01

    Chronic fatigue syndrome or myalgic encephalomyelitis in children and adolescents is still poorly understood. The provisional diagnostic criteria and the concept are depicted here. The treatment modalities and prognosis for the disease are yet inconsistent. PMID:15168991

  7. Equine Management and Production. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This package contains the instructor's manual, instructor's resource package, and student workbook for a 1-year introductory course in equine management and production. The course emphasizes the skills needed to manage small one- or two-horse facilities and to enter postsecondary equine education programs. The instructor's manual presents basic…

  8. Platelet aggregating material from equine arterial tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, M.D.

    1983-02-22

    Novel hemostatic agent comprises equine arterial fibrillar collagen in a carrier. The agent is useful for the aggregation of platelets for clinical diagnostic tests and for the clotting of blood, such as for controlling bleeding in warm blooded species. The fibrillar collagen is obtained by extracting homogenized equine arterial tissue with aqueous solutions followed by extensive dialysis. No Drawings

  9. Platelet aggregating material from equine arterial tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, Morris D.

    1983-02-22

    Novel hemostatic agent comprises equine arterial fibrillar collagen in a carrier. The agent is useful for the aggregation of platelets for clinical diagnostic tests and for the clotting of blood, such as for controlling bleeding in warm blooded species. The fibrillar collagen is obtained by extracting homogenized equine arterial tissue with aqueous solutions followed by extensive dialysis.

  10. Neuroborreliosis presenting as acute disseminated encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Ruben; Lisboa, Lurdes; Neves, João; García López, Milagros; Santos, Elsa; Ribeiro, Augusto

    2012-12-01

    We report a case of a 5-year-old boy with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis as the initial presentation of neuroborreliosis. Parents report an upper-airway infection a few days before the development of acute encephalopathy, mild facial palsy, and seizures. The patient needed mechanical ventilation for 10 days, and after extubation, he presented hypotonia, ataxia, dysarthria, as well as weak gag and cough reflexes. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed hyperintense lesions on T2- and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery sequences on the right subcortical occipital and parietal region, left posterior arm of the internal capsule, and in the medulla oblongata. Borrelia burgdorferi was identified in the plasma and cerebrospinal fluid by polymerase chain reaction and in the plasma by Western blotting. He was treated with ceftriaxone, methylprednisolone, and human immunoglobulin. Recovery was partial. PMID:23222106

  11. Immunoregulation of passively induced allergic encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Willenborg, D O; Sjollema, P; Danta, G

    1986-03-01

    Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) can be readily induced passively by transfer of lymphocytes from neuroantigen immunized rats to naive recipients. This passively induced disease runs an acute, monophasic, self-limiting course, much the same as is usually seen in actively induced diseases. Here we examine the mechanisms regulating passive EAE. We report that splenectomy, thymectomy, and increasing age of recipients, manipulations which have been reported to influence recovery from actively induced EAE, have no effect on passively induced disease. EAE effector cells are not inactivated when transferred into recipients that have been actively sensitized and are beginning their recovery from clinical signs; this being a time when recovery associated suppressor cells are thought to be present. Finally, in the absence of suppressor T cells in both the recipient and in the transfer cell population, recovery from passive EAE still occurs. We conclude that suppressor T cells play no role in regulating passively induced EAE. PMID:2936807

  12. Dual infections of equine herpesvirus 1 and equine arteritis virus in equine respiratory mucosa explants.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jing; Negussie, Haileleul; Laval, Kathlyn; Poelaert, Katrien C K; Nauwynck, Hans J

    2016-07-15

    Equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) and equine arteritis virus (EAV) induce respiratory problems and abortion in horses and are considered as two serious threats to equine industry. Both EHV-1 and EAV misuse patrolling leukocytes in the upper respiratory tract to breach the basement membrane (BM) and to migrate to blood vessels. So far, the behavior and impact of a double infection in the respiratory mucosa of a horse are unknown. In the present study, the outcome of double infections with EHV-1 and the low virulent EAV strain 08P187 (superinfection with an interval of 12h or co-infection) were compared with single infections in fully susceptible RK-13 cells and equine upper respiratory mucosa explants. When RK-13 cells were inoculated with either EHV-1 or EAV 12h prior to the subsequent EAV or EHV-1 inoculation, the latter EAV or EHV-1 infection was clearly suppressed at 24hpi or 36hpi, respectively, without EHV-1 and EAV co-infecting the same RK-13 cells. After simultaneous infection with EHV-1 and EAV, higher numbers of EAV infected cells but similar numbers of EHV-1 infected cells were found compared to the single infections, with a low number of EHV-1 and EAV co-infected RK-13 cells at 48hpi and 72hpi. In the upper respiratory mucosa exposed to EAV 12h prior to EHV-1, the number and size of the EHV-1-induced plaques were similar to those of the EHV-1 single infected mucosa explants. In nasal and nasopharyngeal mucosae, EAV and EHV-1 pre-infections slightly reduced the number of EHV-1 and EAV infected leukocytes compared to the single infections and co-infection. In double EAV and EHV-1 infected explants, no co-infected leukocytes were detected. From these results, it can be concluded that EAV and EHV-1 are only slightly influencing each other's infection and that they do not infect the same mucosal leukocytes. PMID:27117322

  13. Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus, Southern Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Estrada-Franco, José G.; Navarro-Lopez, Roberto; Freier, Jerome E.; Cordova, Dionicio; Clements, Tamara; Moncayo, Abelardo; Kang, Wenli; Gomez-Hernandez, Carlos; Rodriguez-Dominguez, Gabriela; Ludwig, George V.

    2004-01-01

    Equine epizootics of Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) occurred in the southern Mexican states of Chiapas in 1993 and Oaxaca in 1996. To assess the impact of continuing circulation of VEE virus (VEEV) on human and animal populations, serologic and viral isolation studies were conducted in 2000 to 2001 in Chiapas State. Human serosurveys and risk analyses indicated that long-term endemic transmission of VEEV occurred among villages with seroprevalence levels of 18% to 75% and that medical personnel had a high risk for VEEV exposure. Seroprevalence in wild animals suggested cotton rats as possible reservoir hosts in the region. Virus isolations from sentinel animals and genetic characterizations of these strains indicated continuing circulation of a subtype IE genotype, which was isolated from equines during the recent VEE outbreaks. These data indicate long-term enzootic and endemic VEEV circulation in the region and continued risk for disease in equines and humans. PMID:15663847

  14. Regulatory T cells in spontaneous autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Furtado, G C; Olivares-Villagómez, D; Curotto de Lafaille, M A; Wensky, A K; Latkowski, J A; Lafaille, J J

    2001-08-01

    Spontaneous experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) develops in 100% of mice harboring a monoclonal myelin basic protein (MBP)-specific CD4+ alphabeta T-cell repertoire. Monoclonality of the alphabeta T-cell repertoire can be achieved by crossing MBP-specific T-cell receptor (TCR) transgenic mice with either RAG-/- mice or TCR alpha-/-/TCR beta-/- double knockout mice. Spontaneous EAE can be prevented by a single administration of purified CD4+ splenocytes or thymocytes obtained from wild-type syngeneic mice. The regulatory T cells (T-reg) that protect from spontaneous EAE need not express the CD25 marker, as effective protection can be attained with populations depleted of CD25+ T cells. Although the specificity of the regulatory T cells is important for their generation or regulatory function, T cells that protect from spontaneous EAE can have a diverse TCR alpha and beta chain composition. T-reg cells expand poorly in vivo, and appear to be long lived. Finally, precursors for T-reg are present in fetal liver as well as in the bone marrow of aging mice. We propose that protection of healthy individuals from autoimmune diseases involves several layers of regulation, which consist of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells, CD4+CD25- T-reg cells, and anti-TCR T cells, with each layer potentially operating at different stages of T-helper cell-mediated immune responses. PMID:11722629

  15. Sarcocystis sp. encephalomyelitis in a cat.

    PubMed

    Bisby, Tricia M; Holman, Patricia J; Pitoc, George A; Packer, Rebecca A; Thompson, Craig A; Raskin, Rose E

    2010-03-01

    A 5-month-old male neutered domestic shorthair cat was evaluated for spinal pain, ataxia, and anisocoria. Neuroanatomic localization indicated diffuse or multifocal central nervous system disease. On cerebrospinal fluid analysis, neutrophilic pleocytosis and intracellular protozoal merozoites were observed. The merozoites were oval, 2-4 microm in width and 4-6 microm in length, and had linear arrays of nuclear material concentrated at one pole. Serum was positive for Sarcocystis sp. antibodies and negative for Toxoplasma gondii antibodies. The organism was determined to be either Sarcocystis neurona or Sarcocystis dasypi based on sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer 1 ribosomal RNA genomic region. Clinical disease resolved following treatment with 3 different protocols for protozoal infection. This case is the first to demonstrate the antemortem diagnosis and survival of a domestic cat with Sarcocystis sp.-associated encephalomyelitis. Clinicians and cytopathologists should include Sarcocystis sp. as a differential for feline inflammatory central nervous system disease characterized by neutrophilic pleocytosis. PMID:19548967

  16. Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis After Influenza Vaccination: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Ti; Huang, Yi-Chen; Peng, Meng-Chin; Wang, Ming-Chu; Lin, Kon-Ping

    2016-06-01

    Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system that has been associated with influenza immunization, but only a few cases related to vaccination for influenza have been reported. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis developed in a 42-year-old woman within 3 weeks of receiving the seasonal influenza vaccine. She had 80% recovery after 3 months of treatment with methylprednisolone. Although cases of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis after vaccination for influenza are rare, enough of them have occurred that critical care nurses should be aware of the possibility. Early treatment can prevent serious residual signs and symptoms; therefore, correct and quick diagnosis is important. Medical history obtained from patients with central nervous system problems should include history of recent vaccinations. PMID:27252106

  17. Budding equine vets hone their skills and knowledge.

    PubMed

    2015-02-28

    One hundred and fifty 'equine enthusiast' veterinary students gathered at Bristol veterinary school's Langford campus earlier this month for a national student equine veterinary symposium. A wide-ranging programme of lectures, practicals and seminars gave participants an opportunity to learn from some of the most experienced equine clinicians in the UK. Lorna Sowerbutts, vice-president of the Bristol Equine Veterinary Society, reports. PMID:25722330

  18. 9 CFR 317.9 - Labeling of equine products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labeling of equine products. 317.9... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION LABELING, MARKING DEVICES, AND CONTAINERS General § 317.9 Labeling of equine products. The immediate containers of any equine products shall be labeled to show the kinds of...

  19. 9 CFR 317.9 - Labeling of equine products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Labeling of equine products. 317.9... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION LABELING, MARKING DEVICES, AND CONTAINERS General § 317.9 Labeling of equine products. The immediate containers of any equine products shall be labeled to show the kinds of...

  20. Training Law Enforcement Officials on Responding to Equine Calls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Kathleen P.; Stauffer, Gary; Stauffer, Monte; Anderson, Doug; Biodrowski, Kristie

    2016-01-01

    The occurrence of equine abuse/neglect cases is an ongoing issue. However, officials responding to equine cases are rarely experienced in handling horses. Therefore, workshops teaching basic horse husbandry were offered to better equip and prepare officials to respond to equine cases. Trainings consisted of both classroom and hands-on sessions.…

  1. 9 CFR 113.208 - Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., Killed Virus. 113.208 Section 113.208 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.208 Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus....

  2. 9 CFR 113.208 - Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., Killed Virus. 113.208 Section 113.208 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.208 Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus....

  3. 9 CFR 113.208 - Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., Killed Virus. 113.208 Section 113.208 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.208 Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus....

  4. 9 CFR 113.208 - Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., Killed Virus. 113.208 Section 113.208 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.208 Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus....

  5. 9 CFR 113.208 - Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., Killed Virus. 113.208 Section 113.208 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.208 Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus....

  6. Histomorphology of the equine cervix.

    PubMed

    Huchzermeyer, S; Wehrend, A; Bostedt, H

    2005-02-01

    The cervix provides an effective, morphological barrier between the uterus and the outside world. The aim of this study was to characterize the epithelial morphology and the vascular structures of the equine cervix along the longitudinal and horizontal axis in more detail by light microscopy. For this purpose, cervical tissue specimens that had been removed from five different regions along the caudocranial axis of 10 genitally healthy mares were available. The histological staining was carried out with haematoxylin-eosin, azan according to Heidenhain, periodic acid-Schiff reaction and resorcinfuchsin. An average epithelial cell height of 17.5 +/- 1.7 microm is measured, there being differences in the various areas of the mucosal folds and along the longitudinal axis of the cervix. Three types of cells can be differentiated morphologically. Contrary to the data in the literature, in a large number of cells the free cell membrane shows a clearly discernible border of kinocilia along the total cervical canal. The deep layers of the lamina propria mucosae show pronounced vascularization (46.3 +/- 25.1 vessels/mm2) that mainly consists of veins and venules. Support of the occlusive function of the cervical canal in the form of a cavernous body is assumed to be the function of this vascular plexus. PMID:15649225

  7. Equine ambulatory practice: challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Ramey, David W

    2012-04-01

    Current economic conditions make the practice of equine medicine challenging, to say the least. The downward trend in the US economy has had a huge impact on horse owners and equine veterinarians alike. Horses are expensive to keep; as such, economics are the driving factor in the problem of the unwanted horse. Under these conditions, efficient equine ambulatory practices are well-suited to weather the economic storm. As contributors to this issue of Veterinary Clinics of North America note, one can practice high-quality medicine and surgery without the overhead and expense of a large clinic. Ambulatory practitioners certainly face formidable challenges, but they also have opportunities to establish and secure a good future. PMID:22640575

  8. Evidence-based equine dentistry: preventive medicine.

    PubMed

    Carmalt, James L

    2007-08-01

    Dental problems are some of the most common reasons for a horse to be presented to an equine veterinarian. Despite the importance of anecdotal evidence as a starting point, the science of equine dentistry (especially prophylactic dentistry) has remained poorly supported by evidence-based approaches to diagnosis and treatment. In the 21st century, veterinarians have an ethical responsibility to promote and use the results of evidence-based research and not propagate statements attesting to the purported benefits of intervention without supporting research. Consider also that society is becoming more litigious and therefore is basing treatment plans and advice on published research, which protects the profession from legal challenges concerning our professional conduct. This article reviews the current published evidence concerning the role of equine dentistry in feed digestibility and performance. PMID:17616326

  9. Nationwide serological survey of equine influenza in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Adeyefa, C A; Hamblin, C; Cullinane, A A; McCauley, J W

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this work was to examine the incidence of equine influenza viruses in the equine population of an area of tropical Africa where equine influenza virus activity has recently been reported for the first time. A serological survey of sera from horses and donkeys from regions of Nigeria taken from 1990 to 1993 was carried out and the results obtained were com-pared with equine sera from Western Europe (Ireland). The sera were assayed for presence of antibodies by both haemagglutination inhibition (HI) and ELISA using a monoclonal antibody to the prototype H3 equine influenza virus, A/equine/Miami/1/63. The results showed that equine influenza was present in horses and donkeys in all regions of Nigeria. PMID:8881415

  10. Introduction to Equine Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    McGowan, Catherine M; Cottriall, Suzanne

    2016-04-01

    Physical therapy (physiotherapy, or PT) can be broadly defined as the restoration of movement and function and includes assessment, treatment, and rehabilitation. This review outlines the history, definition, and regulation of PT, followed by the core scientific principles of PT. Because musculoskeletal physiotherapy is the predominant subdiscipline in equine PT, encompassing poor performance, back pain syndromes, other musculoskeletal disorders, and some neuromuscular disorders, the sciences of functional biomechanics, neuromotor control, and the sensorimotor system in the spine, pelvis, and peripheral joints are reviewed. Equine PT also may involve PT assessment and treatment of riders. PMID:26906262

  11. Customer service in equine veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Blach, Edward L

    2009-12-01

    This article explores customer service in equine veterinary medicine. It begins with a discussion about the differences between customers and clients in veterinary medicine. An overview of the nature of the veterinary-client-patient relationship and its effects on the veterinarian's services sheds light on how to evaluate your customer service. The author reviews a study performed in 2007 that evaluated 24 attributes of customer service and their importance to clients of equine veterinarians in their decision to select a specific veterinarian or hospital. The article concludes with an overview of how to evaluate your customer service in an effort to optimize your service to achieve customer loyalty. PMID:19945637

  12. The structure and regulation of the Irish equine industries: Links to considerations of equine welfare

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    The equine industries in Ireland are vibrant and growing. They are broadly classified into two sectors: Thoroughbred racing, and sports and leisure. This paper describes these sectors in terms of governance, education and training in equine welfare, and available data concerning horse numbers, identification, traceability and disposal. Animal welfare, and specifically equine welfare, has received increasing attention internationally. There is general acceptance of concepts such as animal needs and persons' responsibilities toward animals in their care, as expressed in the 'Five Freedoms'. As yet, little has been published on standards of equine welfare pertaining to Ireland, or on measures to address welfare issues here. This paper highlights the central role of horse identification and legal registration of ownership to safeguard the health and welfare of horses. PMID:21851704

  13. Are Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and chronic fatigue syndrome different illnesses? A preliminary analysis.

    PubMed

    Jason, Leonard A; Sunnquist, Madison; Brown, Abigail; Evans, Meredyth; Newton, Julia L

    2016-01-01

    Considerable discussion has transpired regarding whether chronic fatigue syndrome is a distinct illness from Myalgic Encephalomyelitis. A prior study contrasted the Myalgic Encephalomyelitis International Consensus Criteria with the Fukuda and colleagues' chronic fatigue syndrome criteria and found that the Myalgic Encephalomyelitis International Consensus Criteria identified a subset of patients with greater functional impairment and physical, mental, and cognitive problems than the larger group who met Fukuda and colleagues' criteria. The current study analyzed two discrete data sets and found that the Myalgic Encephalomyelitis International Consensus Criteria identified more impaired individuals with more severe symptomatology. PMID:24510231

  14. Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus Induces Apoptosis through the Unfolded Protein Response Activation of EGR1

    PubMed Central

    Baer, Alan; Lundberg, Lindsay; Swales, Danielle; Waybright, Nicole; Pinkham, Chelsea; Dinman, Jonathan D.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is a previously weaponized arthropod-borne virus responsible for causing acute and fatal encephalitis in animal and human hosts. The increased circulation and spread in the Americas of VEEV and other encephalitic arboviruses, such as eastern equine encephalitis virus and West Nile virus, underscore the need for research aimed at characterizing the pathogenesis of viral encephalomyelitis for the development of novel medical countermeasures. The host-pathogen dynamics of VEEV Trinidad donkey-infected human astrocytoma U87MG cells were determined by carrying out RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) of poly(A) and mRNAs. To identify the critical alterations that take place in the host transcriptome following VEEV infection, samples were collected at 4, 8, and 16 h postinfection and RNA-Seq data were acquired using an Ion Torrent PGM platform. Differential expression of interferon response, stress response factors, and components of the unfolded protein response (UPR) was observed. The protein kinase RNA-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK) arm of the UPR was activated, as the expression of both activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) and CHOP (DDIT3), critical regulators of the pathway, was altered after infection. Expression of the transcription factor early growth response 1 (EGR1) was induced in a PERK-dependent manner. EGR1−/− mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) demonstrated lower susceptibility to VEEV-induced cell death than isogenic wild-type MEFs, indicating that EGR1 modulates proapoptotic pathways following VEEV infection. The influence of EGR1 is of great importance, as neuronal damage can lead to long-term sequelae in individuals who have survived VEEV infection. IMPORTANCE Alphaviruses represent a group of clinically relevant viruses transmitted by mosquitoes to humans. In severe cases, viral spread targets neuronal tissue, resulting in significant and life-threatening inflammation dependent on a combination

  15. New Hosts for Equine Herpesvirus 9

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Tammy A.; Donovan, Taryn A.; Busch, Martin D.M.; Wise, Annabel G.; Maes, Roger K.; Kiupel, Matti

    2008-01-01

    Equine herpesvirus 9 was detected in a polar bear with progressive encephalitis; the source was traced to 2 members of a potential equid reservoir species, Grevy’s zebras. The virus was also found in an aborted Persian onager. Thus, the natural host range is extended to 6 species in 3 mammalian orders. PMID:18826828

  16. Focus on equine practice at student symposium.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Jordan

    2016-03-12

    Veterinary students with a particular interest in equine medicine and surgery gathered at Nottingham vet school recently to further their knowledge and skills in these areas. Jordan Sinclair, editor of the Journal of the Association of Veterinary Students, reports. PMID:26966303

  17. Eastern Equine Encephalitis Treated With Intravenous Immunoglobulins

    PubMed Central

    Mukerji, Shibani S.; Lam, Alice D.

    2016-01-01

    We report the case of a 68-year-old man from southeastern Massachusetts presenting with encephalitis due to eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) virus. Despite the high morbidity and mortality rate of EEE, the patient made a near complete recovery in the setting of receiving early intravenous immunoglobulins. PMID:26740855

  18. Equine Management and Production. Vocational Agriculture Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudolph, James A.

    This basic core of instruction for equine management and production is designed to assist instructors in preparing students for successful employment or management of a one- or two-horse operation. Contents include seven instructional areas totaling seventeen units of instruction: (1) Orientation (basic horse production; handling and grooming;…

  19. The haemagglutination activity of equine herpesvirus type 1 glycoprotein C.

    PubMed

    Andoh, Kiyohiko; Hattori, Shiho; Mahmoud, Hassan Y A H; Takasugi, Maaya; Shimoda, Hiroshi; Bannai, Hiroshi; Tsujimura, Koji; Matsumura, Tomio; Kondo, Takashi; Kirisawa, Rikio; Mochizuki, Masami; Maeda, Ken

    2015-01-01

    Equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) has haemagglutination (HA) activity toward equine red blood cells (RBCs), but the identity of its haemagglutinin is unknown. To identify the haemagglutinin of EHV-1, the major glycoproteins of EHV-1 were expressed in 293T cells, and the cells or cell lysates were mixed with equine RBCs. The results showed that only EHV-1 glycoprotein C (gC)-producing cells adsorbed equine RBCs, and that the lysate of EHV-1 gC-expressing cells agglutinated equine RBCs. EHV-1 lacking gC did not show HA activity. HA activity was inhibited by monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific for gC, but not by antibodies directed against other glycoproteins. In addition, HA activity was not inhibited by the addition of heparin. These results indicate that EHV-1 gC can bind equine RBCs irrespective of heparin, in contrast to other herpesvirus gC proteins. PMID:25456403

  20. Annotation of the Protein Coding Regions of the Equine Genome

    PubMed Central

    Hestand, Matthew S.; Kalbfleisch, Theodore S.; Coleman, Stephen J.; Zeng, Zheng; Liu, Jinze; Orlando, Ludovic; MacLeod, James N.

    2015-01-01

    Current gene annotation of the horse genome is largely derived from in silico predictions and cross-species alignments. Only a small number of genes are annotated based on equine EST and mRNA sequences. To expand the number of equine genes annotated from equine experimental evidence, we sequenced mRNA from a pool of forty-three different tissues. From these, we derived the structures of 68,594 transcripts. In addition, we identified 301,829 positions with SNPs or small indels within these transcripts relative to EquCab2. Interestingly, 780 variants extend the open reading frame of the transcript and appear to be small errors in the equine reference genome, since they are also identified as homozygous variants by genomic DNA resequencing of the reference horse. Taken together, we provide a resource of equine mRNA structures and protein coding variants that will enhance equine and cross-species transcriptional and genomic comparisons. PMID:26107351

  1. Equine immunoglobulins and organization of immunoglobulin genes.

    PubMed

    Walther, Stefanie; Rusitzka, Tamara V; Diesterbeck, Ulrike S; Czerny, Claus-Peter

    2015-12-01

    Our understanding of how equine immunoglobulin genes are organized has increased significantly in recent years. For equine heavy chains, 52 IGHV, 40 IGHD, 8 IGHJ and 11 IGHC are present. Seven of these IGHCs are gamma chain genes. Sequence diversity is increasing between fetal, neonatal, foal and adult age. The kappa light chain contains 60 IGKV, 5 IGKJ and 1 IGKC, whereas there are 144 IGLV, 7 IGLJ, and 7 IGLC for the lambda light chain, which is expressed predominantly in horses. Significant transcriptional differences for IGLV and IGLC are identified in different breeds. Allotypic and allelic variants are observed for IGLC1, IGLC5, and IGLC6/7, and two IGLV pseudogenes are also transcribed. During age development, a decrease in IGLVs is noted, although nucleotide diversity and significant differences in gene usage increased. The following paper suggests a standardization of the existing nomenclature of immunoglobulin genes. PMID:26219564

  2. Lipids of human and equine smegma.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, H J; Gershbein, L L

    1976-01-01

    The lipids of human and equine smegma pools were saponified and the total fatty acids submitted to temperature programmed gas chromatography (GC) analysis. In contrast to the human products, the horse smegma fatty acids contained very low odd saturated as well as olefinic branched chain acid contents. The cyclopropane fatty acid, 9,10-methyleneoctadecanoic acid, occurred in smegma sampled from men over 35 years of age but could not be detected in the pool from persons of 17-20 years of age nor in any of the equine mixtures. The alcoholic fraction from horse smegma contained about 85% sterol, the remainder constituting alcohols of C12 to C28 and of which 43.5% were branched chain components. The corresponding product from human smegma was primarily sterol. Squalene comprised the main hydrocarbon present in smegma of either species. PMID:1018879

  3. Prevalence of equine viral arteritis in Algeria.

    PubMed

    Laabassi, F; Amelot, G; Laugier, C; Zientara, S; Nasri, A M; Hans, A

    2014-12-01

    In order to determine the prevalence of equine viral arteritis in Algeria, 268 sera from non-vaccinated horses were collected from the western and eastern regions. Serological analysis of the sera, which were collected from 2009 to 2011, was performed using the virus neutralisation test, as described by the World Organisation for Animal Health. Overall, 20 sera (7.46%) were seropositive, 152 (56.71%) were negative and 96 sera (35.82%) were cytotoxic. Equine arteritis virus (EAV) seroprevalence was significantly higher in the western region (Tiaret) than in the eastern region (Barika and El-Eulma). Interestingly, more than 20% of the tested horses over 16 years old were seropositive for EAV. However, EAV prevalence did not depend on either horse breed or horse gender. This study is the first to describe the circulation of EAV in the Algerian horse population. PMID:25812220

  4. Molecular Characterization of Equine Rotavirus in Ireland▿

    PubMed Central

    Collins, P. J.; Cullinane, A.; Martella, V.; O'Shea, H.

    2008-01-01

    Group A rotaviruses are important causative agents of severe, acute dehydrating diarrhea in foals. A total of 86 rotavirus-positive fecal samples, collected from diarrheic foals from 11 counties in three of the four provinces of Ireland, were obtained from the Irish Equine Centre in Kildare during a 7-year (1999 to 2005) passive surveillance study and were characterized molecularly to establish the VP7 (G type) and VP4 (P type) antigenic specificities. Fifty-eight samples (67.5%) were found to contain G3 viruses, while in 26 samples (30.2%) the rotaviruses were typed as G14 and in 2 samples (2.3%) there was a mixed infection, G3 plus G14. All samples except for two, which were untypeable, were characterized as P[12]. Fifty-eight percent of the samples were obtained from County Kildare, the center of the Irish horse industry, where an apparent shift from G3P[12] to G14P[12] was observed in 2003. By sequence analysis of the VP7 protein, the G3 Irish strains were shown to resemble viruses of the G3A subtype (H2-like) (97.1 to 100% amino acid [aa] identity), while the G14 Irish strains displayed 93.9 to 97.1% aa identity to other G14 viruses. In the VP8* fragment of the VP4 protein, the P[12] Irish viruses displayed high conservation (92.3 to 100% aa) with other equine P[12] viruses. Worldwide, G3P[12] and G14P[12] are the most prevalent equine rotavirus strains, and G3P[12] vaccines have been developed for prevention of rotavirus-associated diarrhea in foals. Investigations of the VP7/VP4 diversity of the circulating equine viruses and the dynamics of strain replacement are important for better assessing the efficacies of the vaccines. PMID:18716232

  5. Computed tomographic anatomy of the equine foot.

    PubMed

    Claerhoudt, S; Bergman, E H J; Saunders, J H

    2014-10-01

    This study describes a detailed computed tomographic reference of the normal equine foot. Ten forefeet of five adult cadavers, without evidence of orthopaedic disease, were used. Computed tomography (CT) was performed on all feet. Two-millimetre thick transverse slices were obtained, and sagittal and dorsal planes were reformatted. The CT images were matched with the corresponding anatomic slices. The phalanges and the distal sesamoid bone showed excellent detail. The extensor and flexor tendons (including their attachments) could be clearly evaluated. The collateral (sesamoidean) ligaments could be readily located, but were difficult to delineate at their proximal attachment. The distal digital annular ligament could only be distinguished from the deep digital flexor tendon proximal to the distal sesamoid bone, and its proximal attachment could be identified, but not its distal insertion. Small ligaments (impar ligament, chondrosesamoidean, chondrocoronal and chondrocompedal ligaments, axial and abaxial palmar ligaments of the proximal inter-phalangeal joint) were seen with difficulty and not at all slices. The joint capsules could not be delineated from the surrounding soft tissue structures. The lateral and medial proprius palmar digital artery and vein could be visualized occasionally on some slices. The ungular cartilages, corium and hoof wall layering were seen. The nerves, the articular and fibrocartilage of the distal sesamoid bone and the chondroungular ligament could not be assessed. Computed tomography of the equine foot can be of great value when results of radiography and ultrasonography are inconclusive. Images obtained in this study may serve as reference for CT of the equine foot. PMID:24611958

  6. Spinal internuncial neurones in progressive encephalomyelitis with rigidity.

    PubMed Central

    Howell, D A; Lees, A J; Toghill, P J

    1979-01-01

    The clinical and pathological features of a fourth patient with progressive encephalomyelitis with rigidity are reported and compared with those previously described. It is suggested that the muscular rigidity, abnormal postures, painful muscular spasms, and myoclonus are a product of excessive and abnormal discharges of alpha motor neurones caused by their release from control by spinal internuncial neurones. A count of neuronal perikarya in the ventral horns confirmed that the disease selectively destroyed small and medium sized neurones, most of which were spinal internuncial neurones. Experimental, clinical, and pathological evidence concerning spinal internuncial neurones is reviewed and found to conform to this theory. The pathogenesis of opsoclonus may be similar. Images PMID:501376

  7. 9 CFR 316.12 - Marking of equine carcasses and parts thereof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marking of equine carcasses and parts... equine carcasses and parts thereof. (a) All inspected and passed equine carcasses and parts thereof... marking products in this part. (b) All equine carcasses and meat and other parts thereof shall be...

  8. 9 CFR 316.12 - Marking of equine carcasses and parts thereof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Marking of equine carcasses and parts... equine carcasses and parts thereof. (a) All inspected and passed equine carcasses and parts thereof... marking products in this part. (b) All equine carcasses and meat and other parts thereof shall be...

  9. Effects of Equine Assisted Activities on Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanning, Beth A.; Baier, Margaret E. Matyastik; Ivey-Hatz, Julie; Krenek, Nancy; Tubbs, Jack D.

    2014-01-01

    Quality of life assessments were used in this study to determine the behavioral changes of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who participated in equine assisted activities. Behavioral changes of children with ASD participating in 9 weeks of equines assisted activities (EAA) (N = 10) were compared to behavioral changes of…

  10. Online Leader Training Course: Nebraska Equine Extension Leader Certification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cottle, Lena; D'Angelo, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    The Nebraska Equine Advancement Level Leader Certification Program is an online learning tool that clarifies principles of the Nebraska 4-H Equine Advancement Programs. Through an online Moodle course through eXtension.org, 4-H leaders and Extension educators are able to fulfill the certification requirement from any location before allowing youth…

  11. Equine-Assisted Therapies: Complementary Medicine or Not?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratcliffe, Katherine T.; Sanekane, Cindy

    2009-01-01

    Equine-assisted therapies are interventions that use the unique qualities of a horse to assist persons with disabilities to improve their gross motor, language, social, and self-help skills. Programs offering these services are varied and operate on all major continents across the world. The effectiveness of equine-assisted therapies is generally…

  12. Analysis of antigenic variation in equine 2 influenza A viruses.

    PubMed

    Hinshaw, V S; Naeve, C W; Webster, R G; Douglas, A; Skehel, J J; Bryans, J

    1983-01-01

    Influenza outbreaks involving viruses of the H3N8 subtype (equine 2) often occur in vaccinated horses. For this reason, a series of influenza viruses of the H3N8 subtype were examined to determine if antigenic variation could be detected in isolates during the period 1963-81. Antigenic analyses with post-infection ferret sera and monoclonal antibodies showed that the haemagglutinins of recent isolates were antigenically distinguishable from the prototype A/eq/Miami/1/63 and that antigenically distinguishable groups of equine 2 viruses co-circulate in the horse population. Based on these studies, it is recommended that a recent equine strain, A/equine/Fontainebleu/1/79 or A/equine/Kentucky/1/81, serve as an additional prototype strain for this subtype.Antigenic variation in equine 2 viruses may be of epidemiological significance, yet the overall conservation of these strains makes it unlikely that vaccine failures can be attributed solely to antigenic changes in these viruses. A sufficiently potent vaccine, containing a current representative of the most prevalent equine 2 strain, may improve the protection afforded by equine vaccines. PMID:6601538

  13. Selection of peptides for serological detection of equine infectious anemia.

    PubMed

    Santos, E M; Cardoso, R; Souza, G R L; Goulart, L R; Heinemann, M B; Leite, R C; Reis, J K P

    2012-01-01

    Equine infectious anemia caused by equine infectious anemia virus is an important disease due to its high severity and incidence in animals. We used a phage display library to isolate peptides that can be considered potential markers for equine infectious anemia diagnosis. We selected peptides using IgG purified from a pool comprised of 20 sera from animals naturally infected with equine infectious anemia virus. The diagnostic potential of these peptides was investigated by ELISA, Western blot and dot blot with purified IgG and serum samples. Based on the results, we chose a peptide mimetic for glycoprotein gp45 epitopes of equine infectious anemia virus, with potential for use as an antigen in indirect diagnostic assays. Synthesis of this peptide has possible applications for the development of new diagnostic tools for this disease. PMID:22653674

  14. Development and characterization of a homologous radioimmunoassay for equine prolactin

    SciTech Connect

    Roser, J.F.; Chang, Y.S.; Papkoff, H.; Li, C.H.

    1984-04-01

    A specific and sensitive homologous radioimmunoassay has been developed for equine prolactin, suitable for measuring prolactin concentrations in serum of horses. The sensitivity of the assay ranged from 0.4 to 0.6 ng/ml and the intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation averaged 6.9 and 15.4%, respectively, for five doses of hormone. Cross-reactivity with other mammalian and nonmammalian prolactins and growth hormones was less than 20 and 0.3%, respectively. Cross-reactivity with equine growth hormone was less than 0.07%. Equine serum and pituitary extracts showed parallel dilution-response curves with equine prolactin. The percentage recovery of exogenous equine prolactin in serum was 89%. Preliminary analysis of several physiological samples (stallions, pregnant, and nonpregnant mares) yielded values from 0.6 to 12.0 ng/ml.

  15. Regulation of axonemal motility in demembranated equine sperm.

    PubMed

    Loux, Shavahn C; Macías-Garcia, Beatríz; González-Fernández, Lauro; Canesin, Heloisa DeSiqueira; Varner, Dickson D; Hinrichs, Katrin

    2014-12-01

    Equine in vitro fertilization is not yet successful because equine sperm do not effectively capacitate in vitro. Results of previous studies suggest that this may be due to failure of induction of hyperactivated motility in equine sperm under standard capacitating conditions. To evaluate factors directly affecting axonemal motility in equine sperm, we developed a demembranated sperm model and analyzed motility parameters in this model under different conditions using computer-assisted sperm analysis. Treatment of ejaculated equine sperm with 0.02% Triton X-100 for 30 sec maximized both permeabilization and total motility after reactivation. The presence of ATP was required for motility of demembranated sperm after reactivation, but cAMP was not. The calculated intracellular pH of intact equine sperm was 7.14 ± 0.07. Demembranated sperm showed maximal total motility at pH 7. Neither increasing pH nor increasing calcium levels, nor any interaction of the two, induced hyperactivated motility in demembranated equine sperm. Motility of demembranated sperm was maintained at free calcium concentrations as low as 27 pM, and calcium arrested sperm motility at much lower concentrations than those reported in other species. Calcium arrest of sperm motility was not accompanied by flagellar curvature, suggesting a failure of calcium to induce the tonic bend seen in other species and thought to support hyperactivated motility. This indicated an absence, or difference in calcium sensitivity, of the related asymmetric doublet-sliding proteins. These studies show a difference in response to calcium of the equine sperm axoneme to that reported in other species that may be related to the failure of equine sperm to penetrate oocytes in vitro under standard capacitating conditions. Further work is needed to determine the factors that stimulate hyperactivated motility at the axonemal level in equine sperm. PMID:25339104

  16. Restriction of Equine Infectious Anemia Virus by Equine APOBEC3 Cytidine Deaminases ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Zielonka, Jörg; Bravo, Ignacio G.; Marino, Daniela; Conrad, Elea; Perković, Mario; Battenberg, Marion; Cichutek, Klaus; Münk, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    The mammalian APOBEC3 (A3) proteins comprise a multigene family of cytidine deaminases that act as potent inhibitors of retroviruses and retrotransposons. The A3 locus on the chromosome 28 of the horse genome contains multiple A3 genes: two copies of A3Z1, five copies of A3Z2, and a single copy of A3Z3, indicating a complex evolution of multiple gene duplications. We have cloned and analyzed for expression the different equine A3 genes and examined as well the subcellular distribution of the corresponding proteins. Additionally, we have tested the functional antiretroviral activity of the equine and of several of the human and nonprimate A3 proteins against the Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV), the Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), and the Adeno-associated virus type 2 (AAV-2). Hematopoietic cells of horses express at least five different A3s: A3Z1b, A3Z2a-Z2b, A3Z2c-Z2d, A3Z2e, and A3Z3, whereas circulating macrophages, the natural target of EIAV, express only part of the A3 repertoire. The five A3Z2 tandem copies arose after three consecutive, recent duplication events in the horse lineage, after the split between Equidae and Carnivora. The duplicated genes show different antiviral activities against different viruses: equine A3Z3 and A3Z2c-Z2d are potent inhibitors of EIAV while equine A3Z1b, A3Z2a-Z2b, A3Z2e showed only weak anti-EIAV activity. Equine A3Z1b and A3Z3 restricted AAV and all equine A3s, except A3Z1b, inhibited SIV. We hypothesize that the horse A3 genes are undergoing a process of subfunctionalization in their respective viral specificities, which might provide the evolutionary advantage for keeping five copies of the original gene. PMID:19458006

  17. Enlargement of Cerebral Ventricles as an Early Indicator of Encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Hentschel, Jan; Ji, Yiyi; Skodowski, Julia; Pohlmann, Andreas; Millward, Jason M.; Paul, Friedemann; Wuerfel, Jens; Niendorf, Thoralf; Waiczies, Sonia

    2013-01-01

    Inflammatory disorders of the central nervous system such as multiple sclerosis and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis involve an invasion of immune cells that ultimately leads to white matter demyelination, neurodegeneration and development of neurological symptoms. A clinical diagnosis is often made when neurodegenerative processes are already ongoing. In an attempt to seek early indicators of disease, we studied the temporal and spatial distribution of brain modifications in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). In a thorough magnetic resonance imaging study performed with EAE mice, we observed significant enlargement of the ventricles prior to disease clinical manifestation and an increase in free water content within the cerebrospinal fluid as demonstrated by changes in T2 relaxation times. The increase in ventricle size was seen in the lateral, third and fourth ventricles. In some EAE mice the ventricle size started returning to normal values during disease remission. In parallel to this macroscopic phenomenon, we studied the temporal evolution of microscopic lesions commonly observed in the cerebellum also starting prior to disease onset. Our data suggest that changes in ventricle size during the early stages of brain inflammation could be an early indicator of the events preceding neurological disease and warrant further exploration in preclinical and clinical studies. PMID:23991157

  18. Enlargement of cerebral ventricles as an early indicator of encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Lepore, Stefano; Waiczies, Helmar; Hentschel, Jan; Ji, Yiyi; Skodowski, Julia; Pohlmann, Andreas; Millward, Jason M; Paul, Friedemann; Wuerfel, Jens; Niendorf, Thoralf; Waiczies, Sonia

    2013-01-01

    Inflammatory disorders of the central nervous system such as multiple sclerosis and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis involve an invasion of immune cells that ultimately leads to white matter demyelination, neurodegeneration and development of neurological symptoms. A clinical diagnosis is often made when neurodegenerative processes are already ongoing. In an attempt to seek early indicators of disease, we studied the temporal and spatial distribution of brain modifications in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). In a thorough magnetic resonance imaging study performed with EAE mice, we observed significant enlargement of the ventricles prior to disease clinical manifestation and an increase in free water content within the cerebrospinal fluid as demonstrated by changes in T2 relaxation times. The increase in ventricle size was seen in the lateral, third and fourth ventricles. In some EAE mice the ventricle size started returning to normal values during disease remission. In parallel to this macroscopic phenomenon, we studied the temporal evolution of microscopic lesions commonly observed in the cerebellum also starting prior to disease onset. Our data suggest that changes in ventricle size during the early stages of brain inflammation could be an early indicator of the events preceding neurological disease and warrant further exploration in preclinical and clinical studies. PMID:23991157

  19. Topical distribution of acyclovir in normal equine skin and equine sarcoids: An in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Haspeslagh, M; Taevernier, L; Maes, A A; Vlaminck, L E M; De Spiegeleer, B; Croubels, S M; Martens, A M

    2016-06-01

    Topical acyclovir application is an owner-friendly treatment for occult equine sarcoids, without the caustic side-effects other topical treatments have. Variable clinical success rates have been described, but it is not known to what rate and extent acyclovir penetrates in and through equine skin from a topical formulation. In the current study, an in vitro Franz diffusion model was used to determine the permeation parameters for a generic 5% acyclovir cetomacrogol cream for both healthy and sarcoid equine skin. The distribution of acyclovir between different layers of both skin types was also evaluated. While acyclovir penetrated through both skin types, significantly less acyclovir permeated to the deep dermis of sarcoid skin (197.62ng/mm(3)) compared to normal skin (459.41ng/mm(3)). Within sarcoid skin samples, significantly higher acyclovir concentrations were found in the epidermis (983.59ng/mm(3)) compared to the superficial dermis (450.02ng/mm(3)) and the deep dermis. At each sample point, significantly more acyclovir permeated to the receptor fluid through normal skin compared to sarcoid skin, which is reflected in the significantly higher permeation parameters of normal skin. Normal skin was found to be more permissive for acyclovir, but even in sarcoid skin, enough acyclovir reached the deep dermis to treat a Herpes simplex virus infection. In the case of equine sarcoids, the treatment is aimed at the Bovine papillomavirus and no information is available on the susceptibility of the DNA polymerase of this virus for acyclovir. Therefore, further research is needed to determine the efficacy of acyclovir to treat equine sarcoids. PMID:27234546

  20. Characterisation of the Equine adenovirus 2 genome.

    PubMed

    Giles, Carla; Vanniasinkam, Thiru; Barton, Mary; Mahony, Timothy J

    2015-09-30

    Equine adenovirus 2 (EAdV-2) is one of two serotypes of adenoviruses known to infect equines. Initial studies did not associate EAdV-2 infections with any specific clinical syndromes, although more recent evidence suggests that EAdV-2 may be associated with clinical and subclinical gastrointestinal infections of foals and adults respectively. In contrast, Equine adenovirus 1 is well recognised as a pathogen associated with upper respiratory tract infections of horses. In this study the complete genome sequence of EAdV-2 is reported. As expected, genes common to the adenoviruses were identified. Phylogenetic reconstructions using selected EAdV-2 genes confirmed the classification of this virus within the Mastadenovirus genus, and supported the hypothesis that EAdV-2 and EAdV-1 have evolved from separate lineages within the adenoviruses. One spliced open reading frame was identified that encoded for a polypeptide with high similarity to the pIX and E1b_55K adenovirus homologues and was designated pIX_E1b_55K. In addition to this fused version of E1b_55K, a separate E1b_55K encoding gene was also identified. These polypeptides do not appear to have evolved from a gene duplication event as the fused and unfused E1b_55K were most similar to E1b_55K homologues from the Atadenovirus and Mastadenovirus genera respectively. The results of this study suggest that EAdV-2 has an unusual evolutionary history that warrants further investigation. PMID:26220513

  1. Bovine and equine peritubular and intertubular dentin.

    PubMed

    Stock, S R; Deymier-Black, A C; Veis, A; Telser, A; Lux, E; Cai, Z

    2014-09-01

    Dentin contains 1-2μm diameter tubules extending from the pulp cavity to near the junction with enamel. Peritubular dentin (PTD) borders the tubule lumens and is surrounded by intertubular dentin (ITD). Differences in PTD and ITD composition and microstructure remain poorly understood. Here, a (∼200nm)(2), 10.1keV synchrotron X-ray beam maps X-ray fluorescence and X-ray diffraction simultaneously around tubules in 15-30μm thick bovine and equine specimens. Increased Ca fluorescence surrounding tubule lumens confirms that PTD is present, and the relative intensities in PTD and ITD correspond to carbonated apatite (cAp) volume fraction of ∼0.8 in PTD vs. 0.65 assumed for ITD. In the PTD near the lumen edges, Zn intensity is strongly peaked, corresponding to a Zn content of ∼0.9mgg(-1) for an assumed concentration of ∼0.4mgg(-1) for ITD. In the equine specimen, the Zn K-edge position indicates that Zn(2+) is present, similar to bovine dentin (Deymier-Black et al., 2013), and the above edge structure is consistent with spectra from macromolecules related to biomineralization. Transmission X-ray diffraction shows only cAp, and the 00.2 diffraction peak (Miller-Bravais indices) width is constant from ITD to the lumen edge. The cAp 00.2 average preferred orientation is axisymmetric (about the tubule axis) in both bovine and equine dentin, and the axisymmetric preferred orientation continues from ITD through the PTD to the tubule lumen. These data indicate that cAp structure does not vary from PTD to ITD. PMID:24911530

  2. Eastern Equine Encephalitis in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Carrera, Jean-Paul; Forrester, Naomi; Wang, Eryu; Vittor, Amy Y.; Haddow, Andrew D.; López-Vergès, Sandra; Abadía, Ivan; Castaño, Elizabeth; Sosa, Nestor; Báez, Carmen; Estripeaut, Dora; Díaz, Yamilka; Beltrán, Davis; Cisneros, Julio; Cedeño, Hector G.; da Rosa, Amelia P. Travassos; Hernandez, Humberto; Martínez-Torres, Alex O.; Tesh, Robert B.; Weaver, Scott C.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND The eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) and Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) viruses are pathogens that infect humans and horses in the Americas. Outbreaks of neurologic disease in humans and horses were reported in Panama from May through early August 2010. METHODS We performed antibody assays and tests to detect viral RNA and isolate the viruses in serum samples from hospitalized patients. Additional cases were identified with enhanced surveillance. RESULTS A total of 19 patients were hospitalized for encephalitis. Among them, 7 had confirmed EEE, 3 had VEE, and 1 was infected with both viruses; 3 patients died, 1 of whom had confirmed VEE. The clinical findings for patients with EEE included brain lesions, seizures that evolved to status epilepticus, and neurologic sequelae. An additional 99 suspected or probable cases of alphavirus infection were detected during active surveillance. In total, 13 cases were confirmed as EEE, along with 11 cases of VEE and 1 case of dual infection. A total of 50 cases in horses were confirmed as EEE and 8 as VEE; mixed etiologic factors were associated with 11 cases in horses. Phylogenetic analyses of isolates from 2 cases of equine infection with the EEE virus and 1 case of human infection with the VEE virus indicated that the viruses were of enzootic lineages previously identified in Panama rather than new introductions. CONCLUSIONS Cases of EEE in humans in Latin America may be the result of ecologic changes that increased human contact with enzootic transmission cycles, genetic changes in EEE viral strains that resulted in increased human virulence, or an altered host range. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and the Secretaría Nacional de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación, Panama.) PMID:23964935

  3. Kinesio Taping Fundamentals for the Equine Athlete.

    PubMed

    Molle, Sybille

    2016-04-01

    The Kinesio taping method was developed in Japan for use in humans in 1979. The use of complementary therapies is becoming common in equine athletes and the discovery of Kinesio taping potential brought it into the animal world. Kinesio taping can be used to treat a wide range of clinical conditions, from tendon injuries to neurologic disorders and from muscle contractures to postural insufficiencies. Its use in veterinary medicine is promising, but relies heavily on evidence-based clinical reports. Further scientific research is needed to fully understand the real effectiveness of application. PMID:26898963

  4. New flow cytometry approaches in equine andrology.

    PubMed

    Peña, Fernando J; Ortega Ferrusola, Cristina; Martín Muñoz, Patricia

    2016-07-01

    Flow cytometry is currently recognized as a robust tool for the evaluation of sperm quality and function. However, within equine reproduction, this technique has not reached the sophistication of other areas of biology and medicine. In recent years, more sophisticated flow cytometers have been introduced in andrology laboratories, and the number of tests that can be potentially used in the evaluation of sperm physiology has increased accordingly. In this review, recent advances in the evaluation of stallion spermatozoa will be discussed. These new techniques in flow cytometry are able to simultaneously measure damage to different sperm regions and/or changes in functionality. PMID:27160445

  5. Current economic trends in equine practice.

    PubMed

    Clark, Andrew R

    2009-12-01

    Current economic trends in equine practice are trends of weakness. Most practices, after a decade of double-digit growth, have migrated to survival mode within a few months. Understanding that all regions and disciplines are affected differently, using the Porter five forces model, we can identify changes that must be made in our business models first to survive and then to position ourselves to prosper when the recession ends. If we are to avoid long-term damage to our practices, we must use cost control and work efficiency in addition to price concessions. PMID:19945636

  6. Lawsonia intracellularis and equine proliferative enteropathy.

    PubMed

    Page, Allen E; Slovis, Nathan M; Horohov, David W

    2014-12-01

    Lawsonia intracellularis is the etiologic agent for equine proliferative enteropathy (EPE), which typically affects weanling and yearling horses. In North America, EPE cases often occur between August and January, although cases outside of this time frame have been reported. Clinical signs of EPE are usually nonspecific and include lethargy, pyrexia, anorexia, peripheral edema, weight loss, colic, and diarrhea. Diagnosis is based on the presence of hypoproteinemia and hypoalbuminemia along with clinical signs and positive commercial serologic and/or molecular testing. Treatment requires the use of antimicrobials with good intracellular penetration and supportive care to prevent or decrease secondary complications. PMID:25300636

  7. Equine rehabilitation therapy for joint disease.

    PubMed

    Porter, Mimi

    2005-12-01

    The principles of physical rehabilitation therapy can be applied to the horse to provide a reduction in discomfort and dysfunction associated with the various forms of joint disease. Physical agents,such as ice, heat, electricity, sound, light, magnetic fields, compression, and movement, can be used by the rehabilitation therapist to attempt to control pain, reduce swelling, and restore optimal movement and function in the affected joint. The equine therapist's attention is focused not only on the affected joint but on the body as a whole to manage secondary or compensatory problems. PMID:16297723

  8. Cardiogenic shock from atypical Takotsubo cardiomyopathy attributed to acute disseminated encephalomyelitis lesion involving the medulla.

    PubMed

    Venkatraman, A; Bajaj, N S; Khawaja, A; Meador, W

    2016-04-01

    We present here a case of atypical Takotsubo cardiomyopathy arising as a result of a lesion in the medulla oblongata. The patient was diagnosed with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, and had improvement with intravenous steroids. PMID:26868678

  9. A Review of Evidence that Equine Influenza Viruses Are Zoonotic.

    PubMed

    Xie, Tai; Anderson, Benjamin D; Daramragchaa, Ulziimaa; Chuluunbaatar, Maitsetset; Gray, Gregory C

    2016-01-01

    Among scientists, there exist mixed opinions whether equine influenza viruses infect man. In this report, we summarize a 2016 systematic and comprehensive review of the English, Chinese, and Mongolian scientific literature regarding evidence for equine influenza virus infections in man. Searches of PubMed, Web of Knowledge, ProQuest, CNKI, Chongqing VIP Database, Wanfang Data and MongolMed yielded 2831 articles, of which 16 met the inclusion criteria for this review. Considering these 16 publications, there was considerable experimental and observational evidence that at least H3N8 equine influenza viruses have occasionally infected man. In this review we summarize the most salient scientific reports. PMID:27420100

  10. Update on viral diseases of the equine respiratory tract.

    PubMed

    Gilkerson, James R; Bailey, Kirsten E; Diaz-Méndez, Andrés; Hartley, Carol A

    2015-04-01

    Many viral agents have been associated with respiratory disease of the horse. The most important viral causes of respiratory disease in horses are equine influenza and the equine alphaherpesviruses. Agents such as equine viral arteritis virus, African horse sickness virus, and Hendra virus establish systemic infections. Clinical signs of disease resulting from infection with these agents can manifest as respiratory disease, but the respiratory tract is not the major body system affected by these viruses. Treatment of viral respiratory disease is generally limited to supportive therapies, whereas targeted antimicrobial therapy is effective in cases of bacterial infection. PMID:25648568

  11. Factors influencing the international spread of equine diseases.

    PubMed

    Timoney, P J

    2000-12-01

    In an era of increasing globalization, the risk of spread of infectious diseases in humans and animals, including equids, has never been greater. International movement of equids and trade in semen are the most important factors responsible for the dissemination of various equine pathogens. Other factors that can or do have the potential to influence the global distribution of equine infectious diseases include: multinational trade agreements, emergent diseases, mutation of pathogens, climate related phenomena, migration of amplifying/reservoir hosts or vectors, availability of new vectors, vaccine contamination and agroterrorism. The relative importance of each of these factors is considered in relation to the spread of equine diseases. PMID:11219348

  12. Isolation and molecular characterisation of equine rotaviruses from Germany.

    PubMed

    Elschner, Mandy; Schrader, Christina; Hotzel, Helmut; Prudlo, Jutta; Sachse, Konrad; Eichhorn, Werner; Herbst, Werner; Otto, Peter

    2005-01-31

    A total of 26 rotavirus positive faecal samples of diarrhoeal foals, and 8 equine rotavirus isolates were examined. Viral RNA patterns were generated, G typing was performed by PCR, and a P[12]-specific DNA probe was developed for P typing. Furthermore, five equine rotavirus isolates were sequenced in the genomic regions coding for VP7 and part of VP4. Rotaviruses of genotype G3 P[12] were found in 22 faecal samples and G14 P[12] type could be found in 4 faecal samples. These findings confirm that in Germany G3 P[12] is the predominating type of equine rotaviruses. PMID:15627523

  13. Equine monocyte-derived macrophage cultures and their applications for infectivity and neutralization studies of equine infectious anemia virus.

    PubMed

    Raabe, M R; Issel, C J; Montelaro, R C

    1998-03-01

    Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) has been shown to infect cells of monocyte/macrophage lineage. These primary cells are intrinsically difficult to obtain, to purify and to culture in vitro for extended periods of time. As a result, most in vitro studies concerning this lentivirus make use of primary equine fibroblasts or transformed canine or feline cell lines. We describe methods that yield reproducibly pure cultures of equine blood monocytes from peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The in vitro differentiation of these cells into mature equine macrophage was verified using various cytochemical staining methods. The equine monocyte-derived macrophage (MDM) cultures were found to replicate cell-adapted and field strains of EIAV more efficiently than cultures of fully differentiated equine splenic macrophage. Having established reproducible and fully differentiated cultures of equine macrophage, in vitro assays of virus infectivity and serum neutralization were developed using the in vivo target cell of EIAV. These procedures, while developed for the EIAV system, should be equally useful for in vitro cultures of other macrophage-tropic pathogens of horses. PMID:9628225

  14. Genetic variability of the equine casein genes.

    PubMed

    Brinkmann, J; Jagannathan, V; Drögemüller, C; Rieder, S; Leeb, T; Thaller, G; Tetens, J

    2016-07-01

    The casein genes are known to be highly variable in typical dairy species, such as cattle and goat, but the knowledge about equine casein genes is limited. Nevertheless, mare milk production and consumption is gaining importance because of its high nutritive value, use in naturopathy, and hypoallergenic properties with respect to cow milk protein allergies. In the current study, the open reading frames of the 4 casein genes CSN1S1 (αS1-casein), CSN2 (β-casein), CSN1S2 (αS2-casein), and CSN3 (κ-casein) were resequenced in 253 horses of 14 breeds. The analysis revealed 21 nonsynonymous nucleotide exchanges, as well as 11 synonymous nucleotide exchanges, leading to a total of 31 putative protein isoforms predicted at the DNA level, 26 of which considered novel. Although the majority of the alleles need to be confirmed at the transcript and protein level, a preliminary nomenclature was established for the equine casein alleles. PMID:27108172

  15. Probable acute disseminated encephalomyelitis due to Haemophilus influenzae meningitis.

    PubMed

    Beleza, Pedro; Ribeiro, Manuel; Pereira, João; Ferreira, Carla; Jordão, Maria José; Almeida, Fátima

    2008-05-01

    We report the case of a 17-year-old male on long-term steroid therapy for minimal lesion glomerulopathy who, after an upper respiratory infection, presented with Haemophilus influenzae type b meningitis. Twenty-four hours later he developed depression of consciousness which progressed to coma and left hemiparesis. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed multiple lesions (hyperintense on T2 and slightly hypointense on Tl) involving mainly white matter suggestive of inflammation. MRI features were compatible with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM), although a differential diagnosis included cerebritis or vasculitis, secondary to bacterial meningitis. The patient was treated with high-dose steroids which resulted in a gradual improvement followed by complete clinical recovery. We propose a diagnosis of ADEM was the best diagnosis because of the radiological features and response to steroids. The occurrence of ADEM associated with acute meningitis, however rare, represents an important diagnostic challenge for the clinician. PMID:18355336

  16. Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome Associated with Refractory Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Delgado, Silvia R.; Tornes, Leticia; Maldonado, Janice; Hernandez, Jeffrey; Campos, Yesica; Rammohan, Kottil

    2016-01-01

    We present the case of a young man who was transferred to our hospital with worsening acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) despite treatment with intravenous methylprednisolone, intravenous immunoglobulin and plasma exchange. He developed neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) without the use of dopamine-modulating drugs. His progressive clinical improvement started after treatment with intravenous cyclophosphamide and methylprednisolone. In our patient, acute demyelination with severe bilateral inflammation of the basal ganglia could have caused a state of central dopamine depletion, creating proper conditions for the development of NMS. Significant clinical improvement of our case after treatment with intravenous cyclophosphamide and steroids provides further evidence for a possible role of the inflammatory lesions in the pathogenesis of NMS in association with ADEM. PMID:27239186

  17. Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome Associated with Refractory Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Delgado, Silvia R; Tornes, Leticia; Maldonado, Janice; Hernandez, Jeffrey; Campos, Yesica; Rammohan, Kottil

    2016-01-01

    We present the case of a young man who was transferred to our hospital with worsening acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) despite treatment with intravenous methylprednisolone, intravenous immunoglobulin and plasma exchange. He developed neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) without the use of dopamine-modulating drugs. His progressive clinical improvement started after treatment with intravenous cyclophosphamide and methylprednisolone. In our patient, acute demyelination with severe bilateral inflammation of the basal ganglia could have caused a state of central dopamine depletion, creating proper conditions for the development of NMS. Significant clinical improvement of our case after treatment with intravenous cyclophosphamide and steroids provides further evidence for a possible role of the inflammatory lesions in the pathogenesis of NMS in association with ADEM. PMID:27239186

  18. Diagnosis and therapy of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis and its variants.

    PubMed

    Berzero, Giulia; Cortese, Andrea; Ravaglia, Sabrina; Marchioni, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is traditionally regarded as a monophasic demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system occurring in children after infection or vaccination. ADEM in children has a polysymptomatic presentation that includes encephalopathy, fever and meningeal signs. In adults, encephalopathy is less frequent and the clinical presentation is usually dominated by long tract involvement. Despite the initial clinical severity, the functional outcome is favorable in most cases. ADEM is a subgroup within the broader spectrum of postinfectious neurological syndromes (PINSs), which includes variants characterized by additional peripheral nervous system involvement, and variants characterized by a relapsing or chronic progressive course. The literature on the matter is scarce, mostly consisting of retrospective studies. The aims of this paper are to review the clinical and paraclinical profile of ADEM and its variants, to identify potential predictors of outcome, to summarize current treatment strategies and to outline research perspectives. PMID:26620160

  19. Chronic fatigue syndrome versus sudden onset myalgic encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Jason, Leonard A; Evans, Meredyth; Brown, Abigail; Sunnquist, Madison; Newton, Julia L

    2015-01-01

    A revised sudden onset case definition for Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (ME) has been developed (Jason, Damrongvachiraphan, et al., 2012 ) based on past case definitions. In a prior study, Jason, Brown, and colleagues ( 2012 ) compared patients recruited using the 1994 case definition of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) to contrast those meeting criteria for the revised ME criteria. They found that this revised ME case definition identified patients with more functional impairments and physical, mental, and cognitive problems than those meeting the CFS criteria. The study by Jason, Brown, et al. ( 2012 ) only selected individuals who first met the CFS criteria, and it only relied on one Chicago-based data set. The current study replicated this comparison with two distinct data sets with different case ascertainment methods. Results indicate that the ME criteria identified a group of patients with more functional disabilities as well as more severe post-exertional malaise symptoms. PMID:25584529

  20. Suppression of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis by 15-deoxyspergualin.

    PubMed

    Yamamura, T; Da-Lin, Y; Satoh, J; Tabira, T

    1987-12-01

    15-Deoxyspergualin (DSG), a novel antitumor antibiotic, was tested for treatment of acute experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) in Lewis rats. Clinical and histologic signs of EAE by active sensitization with myelin basic protein were profoundly inhibited by prophylactic administration of DSG in a dose-dependent manner. By the treatment during the inductive phase, the onset of EAE was significantly delayed. Antigen-specific proliferation of lymph node cells and the ability of spleen cells to transfer EAE were suppressed but concanavalin A-induced lymphocyte proliferation was not altered. Passive EAE induced with an encephalitogenic T cell line was also prevented by DSG-treatment, although DSG did not suppress but rather augmented the activation of T cells in vitro. Taken together, DSG is not a non-specific lymphocyte toxin but a unique immunomodulator that can suppress both inductive and effector phases of EAE. PMID:3502003

  1. A rationally designed CD4 analogue inhibits experimental allergic encephalomyelitis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jameson, Bradford A.; McDonnell, James M.; Marini, Joseph C.; Korngold, Robert

    1994-04-01

    EXPERIMENTAL allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an acute inflammatory autoimmune disease of the central nervous system that can be elicited in rodents and is the major animal model for the study of multiple sclerosis (MS)1,2. The pathogenesis of both EAE and MS directly involves the CD4+ helper T-cell subset3-5. Anti-CD4 monoclonal antibodies inhibit the development of EAE in rodents6-9, and are currently being used in human clinical trials for MS. We report here that similar therapeutic effects can be achieved in mice using a small (rationally designed) synthetic analogue of the CD4 protein surface. It greatly inhibits both clinical incidence and severity of EAE with a single injection, but does so without depletion of the CD4+ subset and without the inherent immunogenicity of an antibody. Furthermore, this analogue is capable of exerting its effects on disease even after the onset of symptoms.

  2. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis: Updates on an inflammatory CNS syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pohl, Daniela; Alper, Gulay; Van Haren, Keith; Kornberg, Andrew J; Lucchinetti, Claudia F; Tenembaum, Silvia; Belman, Anita L

    2016-08-30

    Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is an immune-mediated demyelinating CNS disorder with predilection to early childhood. ADEM is generally considered a monophasic disease. However, recurrent ADEM has been described and defined as multiphasic disseminated encephalomyelitis. ADEM often occurs postinfectiously, although a causal relationship has never been established. ADEM and multiple sclerosis are currently viewed as distinct entities, generally distinguishable even at disease onset. However, pathologic studies have demonstrated transitional cases of yet unclear significance. ADEM is clinically defined by acute polyfocal neurologic deficits including encephalopathy. MRI typically demonstrates reversible, ill-defined white matter lesions of the brain and often also the spinal cord, along with frequent involvement of thalami and basal ganglia. CSF analysis may reveal a mild pleocytosis and elevated protein, but is generally negative for intrathecal oligoclonal immunoglobulin G synthesis. In the absence of a specific diagnostic test, ADEM is considered a diagnosis of exclusion, and ADEM mimics, especially those requiring a different treatment approach, have to be carefully ruled out. The role of biomarkers, including autoantibodies like anti-myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein, in the pathogenesis and diagnosis of ADEM is currently under debate. Based on the presumed autoimmune etiology of ADEM, the current treatment approach consists of early immunotherapy. Outcome of ADEM in pediatric patients is generally favorable, but cognitive deficits have been reported even in the absence of other neurologic sequelae. This review summarizes the current knowledge on epidemiology, pathology, clinical presentation, neuroimaging features, CSF findings, differential diagnosis, therapy, and outcome, with a focus on recent advances and controversies. PMID:27572859

  3. Preferential Use of Public TCR during Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yunqian; Nguyen, Phuong; Ma, Jing; Wu, Tianhua; Jones, Lindsay L; Pei, Deqing; Cheng, Cheng; Geiger, Terrence L

    2016-06-15

    How the TCR repertoire, in concert with risk-associated MHC, imposes susceptibility for autoimmune diseases is incompletely resolved. Due largely to recombinatorial biases, a small fraction of TCRα or β-chains are shared by most individuals, or public. If public TCR chains modulate a TCRαβ heterodimer's likelihood of productively engaging autoantigen, because they are pervasive and often high frequency, they could also broadly influence disease risk and progression. Prior data, using low-resolution techniques, have identified the heavy use of select public TCR in some autoimmune models. In this study, we assess public repertoire representation in mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis at high resolution. Saturation sequencing was used to identify >18 × 10(6) TCRβ sequences from the CNSs, periphery, and thymi of mice at different stages of autoimmune encephalomyelitis and healthy controls. Analyses indicated the prominent representation of a highly diverse public TCRβ repertoire in the disease response. Preferential formation of public TCR implicated in autoimmunity was identified in preselection thymocytes, and, consistently, public, disease-associated TCRβ were observed to be commonly oligoclonal. Increased TCR sharing and a focusing of the public TCR response was seen with disease progression. Critically, comparisons of peripheral and CNS repertoires and repertoires from preimmune and diseased mice demonstrated that public TCR were preferentially deployed relative to nonshared, or private, sequences. Our findings implicate public TCR in skewing repertoire response during autoimmunity and suggest that subsets of public TCR sequences may serve as disease-specific biomarkers or influence disease susceptibility or progression. PMID:27183575

  4. Equine Endothelial Cells Support Productive Infection of Equine Infectious Anemia Virus

    PubMed Central

    Maury, Wendy; Oaks, J. Lindsay; Bradley, Sarahann

    1998-01-01

    Previous cell infectivity studies have demonstrated that the lentivirus equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) infects tissue macrophages in vivo and in vitro. In addition, some strains of EIAV replicate to high titer in vitro in equine fibroblasts and fibroblast cell lines. Here we report a new cell type, macrovascular endothelial cells, that is infectible with EIAV. We tested the ability of EIAV to infect purified endothelial cells isolated from equine umbilical cords and renal arteries. Infectivity was detected by cell supernatant reverse transcriptase positivity, EIAV antigen positivity within individual cells, and the detection of viral RNA by in situ hybridization. Virus could rapidly spread through the endothelial cultures, and the supernatants of infected cultures contained high titers of infectious virus. There was no demonstrable cell killing in infected cultures. Three of four strains of EIAV that were tested replicated in these cultures, including MA-1, a fibroblast-tropic strain, Th.1, a macrophage-tropic strain, and WSU5, a strain that is fibroblast tropic and can cause disease. Finally, upon necropsy of a WSU5-infected horse 4 years postinfection, EIAV-positive endothelial cells were detected in outgrowths of renal artery cultures. These findings identify a new cell type that is infectible with EIAV. The role of endothelial cell infection in the course of equine infectious anemia is currently unknown, but endothelial cell infection may be involved in the edema that can be associated with infection. Furthermore, the ability of EIAV to persistently infect endothelial cultures and the presence of virus in endothelial cells from a long-term carrier suggest that this cell type can serve as a reservoir for the virus during subclinical phases of infection. PMID:9765477

  5. Controlling equine influenza: Traditional to next generation serological assays.

    PubMed

    Kinsley, Rebecca; Scott, Simon D; Daly, Janet M

    2016-05-01

    Serological assays provide an indirect route for the recognition of infectious agents via the detection of antibodies against the infectious agent of interest within serum. Serological assays for equine influenza A virus can be applied for different purposes: diagnosing infections; subtyping isolates; surveillance of circulating strains; and to evaluate the efficacy of vaccines before they reach the market. Haemagglutination inhibition (HI) and single radial haemolysis (SRH) assays are most commonly used in the equine field. This review outlines how both these assays together with virus neutralization (VN) and ELISA are performed, interpreted and applied for the control of equine influenza, giving the limitations and advantages of each. The pseudotyped virus neutralization assay (PVNA) is also discussed as a promising prospect for the future of equine influenza virus serology. PMID:27066704

  6. Whooping crane titers to eastern equine encephalitis vaccinations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olsen, G.H.; Kolski, E.; Hatfield, J.S.; Docherty, D.E.

    2005-01-01

    In 1984 an epizootic of eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) virus killed 7 of 39 (18%) whooping cranes in captivity at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center in Laurel, Maryland, USA. Since that time whooping cranes have been vaccinated with a human EEE vaccine. This vaccine was unavailable for several years, necessitating use of an equine vaccine in the cranes. This study compared the antibody titers measured for three years using the human vaccine with those measured for two years using the equine form. Whooping cranes developed similarly elevated titers in one year using the human vaccine and both years using the equine vaccine. However, in two years where the human vaccine was used, the whooping cranes developed significantly lower titers compared to other years.

  7. The protective antigens of equine herpesvirus type 1.

    PubMed

    Papp-Vid, G; Derbyshire, J B

    1978-04-01

    Equine herpesvirus type 1 was cultivated in swine testis cell cultures and partially purified by differential centrifugation and centrifugation in a linear sucrose density gradient. The viral envelope was separated from the nucleocapsid by treatment with Rexol 25J followed by sucrose gradient centrifugation. The envelope and nucleocapsid preparations were then electrophoresed in polyacrylamide gel after solubilization with sodium dodecyl sulphate. Hamsters were immunized with various preparations of the partially purified virus, including live or inactivated equine herpesvirus type 1 and viral envelope and nucleocapsid, all derived from the Kentucky D strain of the virus. Challenge of the immunized hamsters, with a hamster-adapted strain of equine herpesvirus type 1 demonstrated protection only in those animals which had been vaccinated with envelope-containing materials. When vaccination was carried out with fractions of electrophoresed envelope or nucleocapsid, protection was induced only by polypeptides of high molecular weight containing a glycoprotein component of the envelope of equine herpesvirus type 1. PMID:208736

  8. Presence of respiratory viruses in equines in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mancini, Dalva Assunção Portari; Pereira, Aparecida Santo Pietro; Mendonça, Rita Maria Zucatelli; Kawamoto, Adelia Hiroko Nagamori; Alves, Rosely Cabette Barbosa; Pinto, José Ricardo; Mori, Enio; Richtzenhain, Leonardo José; Mancini-Filho, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Equines are susceptible to respiratory viruses such as influenza and parainfluenza. Respiratory diseases have adversely impacted economies all over the world. This study was intended to determine the presence of influenza and parainfluenza viruses in unvaccinated horses from some regions of the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Blood serum collected from 72 equines of different towns in this state was tested by hemagglutination inhibition test to detect antibodies for both viruses using the corresponding antigens. About 98.6% (71) and 97.2% (70) of the equines responded with antibody protective titers (≥ 80 HIU/25µL) H7N7 and H3N8 subtypes of influenza A viruses, respectively. All horses (72) also responded with protective titers (≥ 80) HIU/25µL against the parainfluenza virus. The difference between mean antibody titers to H7N7 and H3N8 subtypes of influenza A viruses was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). The mean titers for influenza and parainfluenza viruses, on the other hand, showed a statistically significant difference (p < 0.001). These results indicate a better antibody response from equines to parainfluenza 3 virus than to the equine influenza viruses. No statistically significant differences in the responses against H7N7 and H3N8 subtypes of influenza A and parainfluenza 3 viruses were observed according to the gender (female, male) or the age (≤ 2 to 20 years-old) groups. This study provides evidence of the concomitant presence of two subtypes of the equine influenza A (H7N7 and H3N8) viruses and the parainfluenza 3 virus in equines in Brazil. Thus, it is advisable to vaccinate equines against these respiratory viruses. PMID:24878995

  9. Principles and Application of Hydrotherapy for Equine Athletes.

    PubMed

    King, Melissa R

    2016-04-01

    Hydrotherapy has become a key element within equine rehabilitation protocols and is used to address range of motion, proprioception, strength, neuromotor control, pain, and inflammation. Various forms of hydrotherapy can be tailored to the individual's injury and the expected return to athletic performance. This article describes the mechanisms of action of hydrotherapies and potential use in the clinical management of equine musculoskeletal injuries. PMID:26898962

  10. Methocarbamol suspension for the treatment of rhabdomyolysis in equines.

    PubMed

    Pruitt, Bobby N

    2013-01-01

    Rhabdomyolysis in equines occurs in horses due to physical overexertion or underlying pathologic myopathy. Methocarbamol is a muscle relaxant that can be used in equines to treat symptoms associated with Rhabdomyolysis. Methocarbamol is available as a solution for injection but is not commercially available as an oral suspension. This article focuses on the treatment of Tying-up caused by overexertion, and details the treatment of Rhabdomyolysis with an oral suspension that was prepared for a veterinarian by a compounding pharmacist. PMID:24459784

  11. PRESENCE OF RESPIRATORY VIRUSES IN EQUINES IN BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    Mancini, Dalva Assunção Portari; Pereira, Aparecida Santo Pietro; Mendonça, Rita Maria Zucatelli; Kawamoto, Adelia Hiroko Nagamori; Alves, Rosely Cabette Barbosa; Pinto, José Ricardo; Mori, Enio; Richtzenhain, Leonardo José; Mancini-Filho, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Equines are susceptible to respiratory viruses such as influenza and parainfluenza. Respiratory diseases have adversely impacted economies all over the world. This study was intended to determine the presence of influenza and parainfluenza viruses in unvaccinated horses from some regions of the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Blood serum collected from 72 equines of different towns in this state was tested by hemagglutination inhibition test to detect antibodies for both viruses using the corresponding antigens. About 98.6% (71) and 97.2% (70) of the equines responded with antibody protective titers (≥ 80 HIU/25µL) H7N7 and H3N8 subtypes of influenza A viruses, respectively. All horses (72) also responded with protective titers (≥ 80) HIU/25µL against the parainfluenza virus. The difference between mean antibody titers to H7N7 and H3N8 subtypes of influenza A viruses was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). The mean titers for influenza and parainfluenza viruses, on the other hand, showed a statistically significant difference (p < 0.001). These results indicate a better antibody response from equines to parainfluenza 3 virus than to the equine influenza viruses. No statistically significant differences in the responses against H7N7 and H3N8 subtypes of influenza A and parainfluenza 3 viruses were observed according to the gender (female, male) or the age (≤ 2 to 20 years-old) groups. This study provides evidence of the concomitant presence of two subtypes of the equine influenza A (H7N7 and H3N8) viruses and the parainfluenza 3 virus in equines in Brazil. Thus, it is advisable to vaccinate equines against these respiratory viruses. PMID:24878995

  12. Incidence of Burkholderia mallei infection among indigenous equines in India

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Praveen; Singha, Harisankar; Goyal, Sachin K; Khurana, Sandip K; Tripathi, Badri Naryan; Dutt, Abha; Singh, Dabal; Sharma, Neeraj; Jain, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Burkholderia mallei is the causative agent of glanders which is a highly contagious and fatal disease of equines. Considering the nature and severity of the disease in equines, and potential of transmission to human beings, glanders is recognised as a ‘notifiable’ disease in many countries. An increasing number of glanders outbreaks throughout the Asian continents, including India, have been noticed recently. In view of the recent re-emergence of the disease, the present study was undertaken to estimate the prevalence of glanders among indigenous equines from different parts of India. Serum samples were analysed by complement fixation test (CFT) and ELISA for the detection of B mallei specific antibodies. A total of 7794 equines, which included 4720 horses, 1881 donkeys and 1193 mules were sampled from April 2011 to December 2014 from 10 states of India. Serologically, 36 equines (pony=7, mules=10, horses=19) were found to be positive for glanders by CFT and indirect-ELISA. The highest number of cases were detected in Uttar Pradesh (n=31) followed by Himachal Pradesh (n=4) and Chhattisgarh (n=1). Isolation of B mallei was attempted from nasal and abscess swabs collected from seropositive equines. Four isolates of B mallei were cultured from nasal swabs of two mules and two ponies. Identity of the isolates was confirmed by PCR and sequencing of fliP gene fragment. The study revealed circulation of B mallei in northern India and the need for continued surveillance to support the eradication. PMID:26457190

  13. Costs Associated with Equine Breeding in Kentucky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Cassandra L.

    There were approximately 9 million horses in the United States having a 102 billion impact on the U.S. economy (AHC, 2005). Over 1 million of those horses were involved in the breeding sector. In Kentucky, nearly 18% of the horse population have been involved in breeding. Managing an equine enterprise can be difficult, particularly given that many who undertake such endeavors do not have a background or education in business management. Kentucky Cooperative Extension has produced interactive spreadsheets to help horse owners better understand the costs associated with owning horses or managing certain equine businesses, including boarding and training operations. However, there has been little support for breeders. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to provide owners with a list of services offered for breeding and the costs associated with those services. Survey questions were created from a list of topics pertinent to equine breeding and from that list of questions, an electronic survey was created. The survey was sent via Qualtrics Survey Software to collect information on stallion and mare management costs as well as expenses related to owning and breeding. Question topics included veterinary and housing costs, management and advertising expenses, and membership fees. A total of 78 farms were selected from the 2013 breeder's listings for the Kentucky Quarter Horse Association (n = 39) and the Kentucky Thoroughbred Farm Managers' Club (n = 26), and other breed association contacts (n = 13). These farms were selected from the lists by outside individuals who were not related to the project. Participants were asked to answer all questions relevant to the farm. After the initial survey distribution, follow-up e-mails and phone calls were conducted in order to answer any questions participants might have had about the survey. Survey response rate was 32.1% (25 of 78 surveys returned). Farms in Kentucky had an average of two farm-owned and two outside

  14. Mechanisms of oxidative injury in equine disease.

    PubMed

    Wong, David M; Moore, Rustin M; Brockus, Charles W

    2012-08-01

    Oxygen is essential to aerobic life, but it is also associated with the production of highly reactive compounds that can pose danger to physiologic systems when the oxygen concentration is excessive. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are required for normal physiologic processes, but when produced in excess, they can overwhelm endogenous antioxidants, resulting in significant cellular damage and, eventually, cell death. Ischemic events can initiate numerous pathophysiologic mechanisms leading to increased production of ROS, loss of cellular energy production, and lipid peroxidation. Although reperfusion is a necessary step in cellular recovery from ischemia, it can be deleterious by leading to the generation of even more ROS and stimulating the accumulation of neutrophils. Both of these processes may contribute to irreversible cell death and, ultimately, organ failure. This article reviews oxygen metabolism, ischemia, and reperfusion injury and how these processes may occur in equine disorders. PMID:22935994

  15. Contagious equine metritis eradicated from Japan.

    PubMed

    Anzai, Toru; Kamada, Masanobu; Niwa, Hidekazu; Eguchi, Masashi; Nishi, Hideki

    2012-04-01

    Contagious equine metritis (CEM), a contagious venereal disease of horses, invaded Japan in 1980 and spread in the Thoroughbred population of the Hidaka-Iburi district of Hokkaido. To eradicate CEM, we ran a program aimed at detecting Taylorella equigenitalis, the causal agent, in carrier horses by using the PCR test, followed by culling or treatment. In 2001, the first year of the program, 12,356 Thoroughbred racing stallions and mares were tested and 11 carriers were found. Four, two, one, and one carrier mares were detected in 2002, 2003, 2004, and 2005, respectively, by application of the program at the same scale as in 2001. No PCR-positive horses were found from 2006 to 2010. These results strongly suggest that CEM was eradicated from Japan by 2010. PMID:22123306

  16. Equine Tetherin Blocks Retrovirus Release and Its Activity Is Antagonized by Equine Infectious Anemia Virus Envelope Protein

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Xin; Hu, Zhe; Gu, Qinyong; Wu, Xingliang; Zheng, Yong-Hui; Wei, Ping

    2014-01-01

    Human tetherin is a host restriction factor that inhibits replication of enveloped viruses by blocking viral release. Tetherin has an unusual topology that includes an N-terminal cytoplasmic tail, a single transmembrane domain, an extracellular domain, and a C-terminal glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor. Tetherin is not well conserved across species, so it inhibits viral replication in a species-specific manner. Thus, studies of tetherin activities from different species provide an important tool for understanding its antiviral mechanism. Here, we report cloning of equine tetherin and characterization of its antiviral activity. Equine tetherin shares 53%, 40%, 36%, and 34% amino acid sequence identity with feline, human, simian, and murine tetherins, respectively. Like the feline tetherin, equine tetherin has a shorter N-terminal domain than human tetherin. Equine tetherin is localized on the cell surface and strongly blocks human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), and equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) release from virus-producing cells. The antiviral activity of equine tetherin is neutralized by EIAV envelope protein, but not by the HIV-1 accessory protein Vpu, which is a human tetherin antagonist, and EIAV envelope protein does not counteract human tetherin. These results shed new light on our understanding of the species-specific tetherin antiviral mechanism. PMID:24227834

  17. 9 CFR 312.3 - Official marks and devices to identify inspected and passed equine products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... inspected and passed equine products. 312.3 Section 312.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND... § 312.3 Official marks and devices to identify inspected and passed equine products. (a) The official... § 317.2 of this subchapter to identify inspected and passed mule and other (nonhorse) equine...

  18. 9 CFR 312.3 - Official marks and devices to identify inspected and passed equine products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... inspected and passed equine products. 312.3 Section 312.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND... § 312.3 Official marks and devices to identify inspected and passed equine products. (a) The official... § 317.2 of this subchapter to identify inspected and passed mule and other (nonhorse) equine...

  19. ASPEN+ and economic modeling of equine waste utilization for localized hot water heating via fast pyrolysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ASPEN Plus based simulation models have been developed to design a pyrolysis process for the on-site production and utilization of pyrolysis oil from equine waste at the Equine Rehabilitation Center at Morrisville State College (MSC). The results indicate that utilization of all available Equine Reh...

  20. Equine herpesvirus type 1 modulates inflammatory host immune response genes in equine endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Johnstone, Stephanie; Barsova, Jekaterina; Campos, Isabel; Frampton, Arthur R

    2016-08-30

    Equine herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy (EHM), a disease caused by equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1), is characterized by severe inflammation, thrombosis, and hypoxia in central nervous system (CNS) endothelial cells, which can result in a spectrum of clinical signs including urinary incontinence, ataxia, and paralysis. Strains of EHV-1 that contain a single point mutation within the viral DNA polymerase (nucleotide A2254>G2254: amino acid N752→D752) are isolated from EHM afflicted horses at higher frequencies than EHV-1 strains that do not harbor this mutation. Due to the correlation between the DNA Pol mutation and EHM disease, EHV-1 strains that contain the mutation have been designated as neurologic. In this study, we measured virus replication, cell to cell spread efficacy, and host inflammatory responses in equine endothelial cells infected with 12 different strains of EHV-1. Two strains, T953 (Ohio 2003) (neurologic) and Kentucky A (KyA) (non-neurologic), have well described disease phenotypes while the remaining strains used in this study are classified as neurologic or non-neurologic based solely on the presence or absence of the DNA pol mutation, respectively. Results show that the neurologic strains do not replicate better or spread more efficiently in endothelial cells. Also, the majority of the host inflammatory genes were modulated similarly regardless of EHV-1 genotype. Analyses of host gene expression showed that a subset of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including the CXCR3 ligands CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11, as well as CCL5, IL-6 and TNF-α were consistently up-regulated in endothelial cells infected with each EHV-1 strain. The identification of specific pro-inflammatory cytokines in endothelial cells that are modulated by EHV-1 provides further insight into the factors that contribute to the immunopathology observed after infection and may also reveal new targets for disease intervention. PMID:27527764

  1. IgA in the horse: cloning of equine polymeric Ig receptor and J chain and characterization of recombinant forms of equine IgA.

    PubMed

    Lewis, M J; Wagner, B; Irvine, R M; Woof, J M

    2010-11-01

    As in other mammals, immunoglobulin A (IgA) in the horse has a key role in immune defense. To better dissect equine IgA function, we isolated complementary DNA (cDNA) clones for equine J chain and polymeric Ig receptor (pIgR). When coexpressed with equine IgA, equine J chain promoted efficient IgA polymerization. A truncated version of equine pIgR, equivalent to secretory component, bound with nanomolar affinity to recombinant equine and human dimeric IgA but not with monomeric IgA from either species. Searches of the equine genome localized equine J chain and pIgR to chromosomes 3 and 5, respectively, with J chain and pIgR coding sequence distributed across 4 and 11 exons, respectively. Comparisons of transcriptional regulatory sequences suggest that horse and human pIgR expression is controlled through common regulatory mechanisms that are less conserved in rodents. These studies pave the way for full dissection of equine IgA function and open up possibilities for immune-based treatment of equine diseases. PMID:20631692

  2. Inhibition of the immunoproteasome ameliorates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Basler, Michael; Mundt, Sarah; Muchamuel, Tony; Moll, Carlo; Jiang, Jing; Groettrup, Marcus; Kirk, Christopher J

    2014-02-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic demyelinating immune mediated disease of the central nervous system. The immunoproteasome is a distinct class of proteasomes found predominantly in monocytes and lymphocytes. Recently, we demonstrated a novel function of immunoproteasomes in cytokine production and T cell differentiation. In this study, we investigated the therapeutic efficacy of an inhibitor of the immunoproteasome (ONX 0914) in two different mouse models of MS. ONX 0914 attenuated disease progression after active and passive induction of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), both in MOG₃₅-₅₅ and PLP₁₃₉₋₁₅₁-induced EAE. Isolation of lymphocytes from the brain or spinal cord revealed a strong reduction of cytokine-producing CD4(+) cells in ONX 0914 treated mice. Additionally, ONX 0914 treatment prevented disease exacerbation in a relapsing-remitting model. An analysis of draining lymph nodes after induction of EAE revealed that the differentiation to Th17 or Th1 cells was strongly impaired in ONX 0914 treated mice. These results implicate the immunoproteasome in the development of EAE and suggest that immunoproteasome inhibitors are promising drugs for the treatment of MS. PMID:24399752

  3. Tanshinone IIA attenuates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jun; Yang, Xue; Han, Dong; Feng, Juan

    2016-08-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory autoimmune neurodegenerative disease, which features focal demyelination and inflammatory cell infiltration of the brain and the spinal cord. Tanshinone IIA (TSIIA), one of the major fat‑soluble components of Salvia miltiorrhiza (Danshen), has anti‑inflammatory, immunoregulatory and neuroprotective activity; however, its efficacy in MS remains unknown. The current study was designed to investigate the potential therapeutic function of TSIIA on MS in the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) rat model. In comparison to the vehicle control group, the TSIIA‑treated groups showed notably improved clinical symptoms and pathological changes, including central nervous system inflammatory cell infiltration and demyelination. Following administration of TSIIA, the quantity of CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells and macrophages/microglia in the spinal cord were reduced to different extents. Furthermore, TSIIA was also shown to downregulate interleukin (IL)‑17 and IL‑23 levels in the brain and serum of EAE rats. The results collectively provide evidence that TSIIA alleviates EAE and support its utility as a novel therapy for MS. PMID:27357729

  4. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis presenting as a brainstem encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Atherton, Daniel S; Perez, Sarah R; Gundacker, Nathan D; Franco, Ricardo; Han, Xiaosi

    2016-04-01

    Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is a disease characterized by inflammation and destruction of myelin. Acute hemorrhagic leukoencephalitis (AHLE) is a severe form of ADEM known for its particularly poor outcome. We present a case of a young Caucasian female who presented with drowsiness and slurred speech followed by rapid brainstem involvement resembling rhomboencephalitis. Despite multiple diagnostic tests and empiric therapy with immunosuppressants, immunoglobulins, and antimicrobials, she lost most brainstem reflexes within a few weeks and ultimately passed away. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed progression of lesions from the brainstem to eventually involve bilateral cerebral hemispheres. Autopsy and microscopic examination of the brain revealed several hemorrhagic lesions throughout the brain and rendered a diagnosis of AHLE. AHLE was initially described in 1941 and is thought to be autoimmune related, possibly related to cross reactivity between the immune system and CNS tissues like myelin. While a definitive inciting pathogen was not discovered, this case emphasizes the importance of considering AHLE in the differential diagnosis of patients with rapid loss of neurologic function and highlights an atypical presentation of ADEM/AHLE. PMID:26903073

  5. UNUSUAL CLINICAL CASES THAT MIMIC ACUTE DISSEMINATED ENCEPHALOMYELITIS.

    PubMed

    Duman, Özgür; Yürekli, Vedat Ali; Gencpinar, Pinar; Karaali, Kamil; Gümüş, Hakan; Okuyaz, Çetin; Hazar, Volkan; Haspolat, Şenay

    2015-09-01

    Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is an immune-mediated monophasic inflammatory demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system which poses a diagnostic challenge. We report on six cases of different etiologies that mimicked the clinical and radiologic findings of ADEM. The cases were collected from four different reference hospitals in Turkey. The same radiologist from the Akdeniz University Faculty of Medicine examined the magnetic resonance images of all patients. Three (50%) patients had antecedent infections. Initial symptoms of the patients were as follows: fever in 50%, altered consciousness in 33.3% and convulsions in 16.7% of patients. Neurologic examination showed long tract signs in 83.3%, ataxia in 50% and altered consciousness in 50% of patients. Cerebrospinal fluid examination revealed lymphocytic pleocytosis only in case 6. Four patients received steroid pulse therapy and one of these initially underwent intravenous immunoglobulin therapy. The patients' definitive diagnoses were as follows: paraspinal neuroblastoma-associated paraneoplastic syndrome; histiocytic sarcoma; mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes; and cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy in one patient each, while two patients had hemophagocytic syndrome. The present case series demonstrated difficulties in diagnosing ADEM while revealing extremely rare disorders that mimic ADEM radiologically and clinically. PMID:26666111

  6. Inhibition of the immunoproteasome ameliorates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Basler, Michael; Mundt, Sarah; Muchamuel, Tony; Moll, Carlo; Jiang, Jing; Groettrup, Marcus; Kirk, Christopher J

    2014-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic demyelinating immune mediated disease of the central nervous system. The immunoproteasome is a distinct class of proteasomes found predominantly in monocytes and lymphocytes. Recently, we demonstrated a novel function of immunoproteasomes in cytokine production and T cell differentiation. In this study, we investigated the therapeutic efficacy of an inhibitor of the immunoproteasome (ONX 0914) in two different mouse models of MS. ONX 0914 attenuated disease progression after active and passive induction of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), both in MOG35–55 and PLP139–151-induced EAE. Isolation of lymphocytes from the brain or spinal cord revealed a strong reduction of cytokine-producing CD4+ cells in ONX 0914 treated mice. Additionally, ONX 0914 treatment prevented disease exacerbation in a relapsing-remitting model. An analysis of draining lymph nodes after induction of EAE revealed that the differentiation to Th17 or Th1 cells was strongly impaired in ONX 0914 treated mice. These results implicate the immunoproteasome in the development of EAE and suggest that immunoproteasome inhibitors are promising drugs for the treatment of MS. PMID:24399752

  7. Tuftsin-driven experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis recovery requires neuropilin-1.

    PubMed

    Nissen, Jillian C; Tsirka, Stella E

    2016-06-01

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an animal model of demyelinating autoimmune disease, such as multiple sclerosis (MS), which is characterized by central nervous system white matter lesions, microglial activation, and peripheral T-cell infiltration secondary to blood-brain barrier disruption. We have previously shown that treatment with tuftsin, a tetrapeptide generated from IgG proteolysis, dramatically improves disease symptoms in EAE. Here, we report that microglial expression of Neuropilin-1 (Nrp1) is required for tuftsin-driven amelioration of EAE symptoms. Nrp1 ablation in microglia blocks microglial signaling and polarization to the anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype, and ablation in either the microglia or immunosuppressive regulatory T cells (Tregs) reduces extended functional contacts between them and Treg activation, implicating a role for microglia in the activation process, and more generally, how immune surveillance is conducted in the CNS. Taken together, our findings delineate the mechanistic action of tuftsin as a candidate therapeutic against immune-mediated demyelinating lesions. GLIA 2016;64:923-936. PMID:26880314

  8. Regulation of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by natural killer (NK) cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, B; Yamamura, T; Kondo, T; Fujiwara, M; Tabira, T

    1997-11-17

    In this report, we establish a regulatory role of natural killer (NK) cells in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a prototype T helper cell type 1 (Th1)-mediated disease. Active sensitization of C57BL/6 (B6) mice with the myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)35-55 peptide induces a mild form of monophasic EAE. When mice were deprived of NK cells by antibody treatment before immunization, they developed a more serious form of EAE associated with relapse. Aggravation of EAE by NK cell deletion was also seen in beta 2-microglobulin-/- (beta 2m-/-) mice, indicating that NK cells can play a regulatory role in a manner independent of CD8+ T cells or NK1.1+ T cells (NK-T cells). The disease enhancement was associated with augmentation of T cell proliferation and production of Th1 cytokines in response to MOG35-55. EAE passively induced by the MOG35-55-specific T cell line was also enhanced by NK cell deletion in B6, beta 2m-/-, and recombination activation gene 2 (RAG-2)-/- mice, indicating that the regulation by NK cells can be independent of T, B, or NK-T cells. We further showed that NK cells inhibit T cell proliferation triggered by antigen or cytokine stimulation. Taken together, we conclude that NK cells are an important regulator for EAE in both induction and effector phases. PMID:9362528

  9. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis--achievements and prospective advances.

    PubMed

    Batoulis, Helena; Recks, Mascha S; Addicks, Klaus; Kuerten, Stefanie

    2011-12-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disorder of the CNS. Different subtypes of the disease have been noted, and characterized by distinct clinical courses and histopathologic manifestations. The most intensively studied animal model of MS, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), classically leads to deficits in motor functions, and is mediated by T helper cells. Recently, T(H)17 cells were ascribed an even greater pathogenic impact than T(H)1 cells, but new findings render this view controversial. Although classic EAE has been an invaluable tool, it does not cover the entire pathogenic entity of MS. Especially B-cell contribution and autoantibody-dependence are not mirrored adequately: therefore, new B-cell-dependent models, such as MP4-induced EAE, have been introduced. Furthermore, certain symptoms and the spontaneous onset of MS are not featured in classic EAE. Herein, atypical and spontaneous EAE models can be used for investigation of common symptoms, such as tremor and ataxia, as well as spontaneous disease development. MS displays a marked inter-individual heterogeneity, and no single model will be able to cover all features. Thus, depending on the objective of one's study, the appropriate EAE model has to be carefully chosen. In addition, refined models should be designed to gain a more complete understanding of MS. PMID:22085358

  10. Silencing microRNA-155 ameliorates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Murugaiyan, Gopal; Beynon, Vanessa; Mittal, Akanksha; Joller, Nicole; Weiner, Howard L

    2011-09-01

    IFN-γ-producing Th1 and IL-17-producing Th17 cells are the key participants in various autoimmune diseases, including multiple sclerosis and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Although both of these T cell subsets are known to be regulated by specific transcription factors and cytokines, the role of microRNAs that control these two inflammatory T cell subsets and whether targeting microRNAs can have therapeutic effects are not known. In this study, we show that microRNA-155 (Mir-155) expression is elevated in CD4(+) T cells during EAE, and Mir-155(-/-) mice had a delayed course and reduced severity of disease and less inflammation in the CNS. The attenuation of EAE in Mir-155(-/-) mice was associated with a decrease in Th1 and Th17 responses in the CNS and peripheral lymphoid organs. The T cell-intrinsic function of Mir-155(-/-) was demonstrated by the resistance of Mir-155(-/-) CD4(+) T cell-repleted Rag-1(-/-) mice to EAE. Finally, we found that anti-Mir-155 treatment reduced clinical severity of EAE when given before and after the appearance of clinical symptoms. These findings demonstrate that Mir-155 confers susceptibility to EAE by affecting inflammatory T cell responses and identify Mir-155 as a new target for therapeutic intervention in multiple sclerosis. PMID:21788439

  11. Immunomodulation of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis by cinnamon metabolite sodium benzoate

    PubMed Central

    Pahan, Kalipada

    2011-01-01

    Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS), the most common human demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. Sodium benzoate (NaB), a metabolite of cinnamon and a FDA-approved drug against urea cycle disorders in children, is a widely used food additive, which is long known for its microbicidal effect. However, recent studies reveal that apart from its microbicidal effects, NaB can also regulate many immune signaling pathways responsible for inflammation, glial cell activation, switching of T-helper cells, modulation of regulatory T cells, cell-to-cell contact, and migration. As a result, NaB alters the neuroimmunology of EAE and ameliorates the disease process of EAE. In this review, we have made an honest attempt to analyze these newly-discovered immunomodulatory activities of NaB and associated mechanisms that may help in considering this drug for various inflammatory human disorders including MS as primary or adjunct therapy. PMID:21425926

  12. Translational utility of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis: recent developments

    PubMed Central

    Guerreiro-Cacais, Andre Ortlieb; Laaksonen, Hannes; Flytzani, Sevasti; N’diaye, Marie; Olsson, Tomas; Jagodic, Maja

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex autoimmune condition with firmly established genetic and environmental components. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have revealed a large number of genetic polymorphisms in the vicinity of, and within, genes that associate to disease. However, the significance of these single-nucleotide polymorphisms in disease and possible mechanisms of action remain, with a few exceptions, to be established. While the animal model for MS, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), has been instrumental in understanding immunity in general and mechanisms of MS disease in particular, much of the translational information gathered from the model in terms of treatment development (glatiramer acetate and natalizumab) has been extensively summarized. In this review, we would thus like to cover the work done in EAE from a GWAS perspective, highlighting the research that has addressed the role of different GWAS genes and their pathways in EAE pathogenesis. Understanding the contribution of these pathways to disease might allow for the stratification of disease subphenotypes in patients and in turn open the possibility for new and individualized treatment approaches in the future. PMID:26622189

  13. Genetic analysis of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, D.; Rosenwasser, O.A.; O`Neill, J.K.; Turk, J.L.

    1995-10-15

    Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system that exhibits many pathologic similarities with multiple sclerosis. While products of the MHC are known to control the development of EAE, it is clear that non-MHC products also influence susceptibility. The chromosomal locations of these were investigated in selective crosses between MHC class II-compatible, EAE-susceptible Biozzi ABH, and low responder nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice. The disease was dominant and highly influenced by gender in the backcross one (BC{sub 1}) generation. Female mice were significantly more susceptible than male mice. Segregation of disease frequency of female animals in this cross suggested that EAE was controlled by a major locus. Although microsatellite-based exclusion mapping indicated that a number of regions on chromosomes 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, and 18 showed evidence of linkage (p<0.05) compared with expected random distributions of alleles, disease susceptibility was most strongly linked (p<0.05) to chromosome 7. However, by selectively analyzing animals that were either severely affected or almost normal, additional susceptibility loci were mapped on chromosomes 18 and 11 that were linked (p<0.001) to resistance and the development of severe disease, respectively. The data indicate a major locus on chromosome 7, affecting initiation and severity of EAE that is probably modified by several other unlinked loci. These localizations may provide candidate loci for the analysis of human autoimmune-demyelinating disease. 30 refs., 5 tabs.

  14. Persistent pseudobulbar affect secondary to acute disseminated encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhendong; Luo, Shijian; Ou, Jianying; Huang, Rihe; Wang, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Pseudobulbar affect (PBA) is a common complication of central nervous system diseases such as stroke, multiple sclerosis, and other neurological diseases, but it remains under-recognized and under-treated in the clinic. PBA caused by acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) has rarely been reported. Here, we report a 30-year-old Chinese woman who has experienced PBA from ADEM for 7 years. The patient's principal manifestations were extreme emotions or tears when she saw, heard, or spoke about sad news or other sad things; the durations of these unmanageable emotions were often less than 30 sec, and they occurred at frequencies that ranged from one to several times a day. Occasionally, she laughed uncontrollably while people were talking despite a lack of funny or sad stimuli in the conversation or the surrounding environment. Thus, her social functioning was impaired. This case indicates that the long-term PBA can occur secondarily to ADEM, and this possibility should be considered clinically to ensure timely identification and treatment. PMID:25792370

  15. Tanshinone IIA attenuates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Jun; Yang, Xue; Han, Dong; Feng, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory autoimmune neurodegenerative disease, which features focal demyelination and inflammatory cell infiltration of the brain and the spinal cord. Tanshinone IIA (TSIIA), one of the major fat-soluble components of Salvia miltiorrhiza (Danshen), has anti-inflammatory, immunoregulatory and neuroprotective activity; however, its efficacy in MS remains unknown. The current study was designed to investigate the potential therapeutic function of TSIIA on MS in the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) rat model. In comparison to the vehicle control group, the TSIIA-treated groups showed notably improved clinical symptoms and pathological changes, including central nervous system inflammatory cell infiltration and demyelination. Following administration of TSIIA, the quantity of CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells and macrophages/microglia in the spinal cord were reduced to different extents. Furthermore, TSIIA was also shown to downregulate interleukin (IL)-17 and IL-23 levels in the brain and serum of EAE rats. The results collectively provide evidence that TSIIA alleviates EAE and support its utility as a novel therapy for MS. PMID:27357729

  16. IFN-gamma determines distinct clinical outcomes in autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Wensky, Allen K; Furtado, Glaucia C; Marcondes, Maria Cecilia Garibaldi; Chen, Shaohua; Manfra, Denise; Lira, Sergio A; Zagzag, David; Lafaille, Juan J

    2005-02-01

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an inflammatory disease of the CNS initiated by autoreactive CD4(+) T cells. EAE classically presents with a progressive ascending paralysis and is a model of multiple sclerosis that recapitulates some aspects of the disease. In this report we describe a mouse strain that spontaneously develops a severe, nonclassical form of EAE with 100% incidence. The distinct clinical phenotype is marked initially by a slight head tilt, progressing to a severe head tilt, spinning, or a rotatory motion. Classical EAE spontaneously occurs in myelin basic protein (MBP)-specific TCR transgenic RAG-1(-/-) mice (referred to as T/R(-)), whereas nonclassical EAE spontaneously occurs in T/R(-) IFN-gamma(-/-) mice (T/R(-)gamma(-)). Thus, the TCR recognizes the same Ag (MBP) and uses identical TCR in both cases. The cellular infiltrate in nonclassical EAE is predominantly found in the brainstem and cerebellum, with very little inflammation in the spinal cord, which is primarily affected in classical disease. Importantly, depending on the genetic makeup and priming conditions of the MBP-specific T cells, nonclassical disease can occur in the presence of an inflammatory infiltrate with eosinophilic, neutrophilic, or monocytic characteristics. Finally, we believe that nonclassical spontaneous EAE could be a useful model for the study of some characteristics of multiple sclerosis not observed in classical EAE, such as the inflammatory responses in the brainstem and cerebellum that can cause vertigo. PMID:15661899

  17. R-flurbiprofen attenuates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Schmitz, Katja; de Bruin, Natasja; Bishay, Philipp; Männich, Julia; Häussler, Annett; Altmann, Christine; Ferreirós, Nerea; Lötsch, Jörn; Ultsch, Alfred; Parnham, Michael J; Geisslinger, Gerd; Tegeder, Irmgard

    2014-01-01

    R-flurbiprofen is the non-cyclooxygenase inhibiting R-enantiomer of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug flurbiprofen, which was assessed as a remedy for Alzheimer's disease. Because of its anti-inflammatory, endocannabinoid-modulating and antioxidative properties, combined with low toxicity, the present study assessed R-flurbiprofen in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) models of multiple sclerosis in mice. Oral R-flurbiprofen prevented and attenuated primary progressive EAE in C57BL6/J mice and relapsing-remitting EAE in SJL mice, even if the treatment was initiated on or after the first flare of the disease. R-flurbiprofen reduced immune cell infiltration and microglia activation and inflammation in the spinal cord, brain and optic nerve and attenuated myelin destruction and EAE-evoked hyperalgesia. R-flurbiprofen treatment increased CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ regulatory T cells, CTLA4+ inhibitory T cells and interleukin-10, whereas the EAE-evoked upregulation of pro-inflammatory genes in the spinal cord was strongly reduced. The effects were associated with an increase of plasma and cortical endocannabinoids but decreased spinal prostaglandins, the latter likely due to R to S inversion. The promising results suggest potential efficacy of R-flurbiprofen in human MS, and its low toxicity may justify a clinical trial. PMID:25269445

  18. Beneficial effects of blueberries in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Xin, Junping; Feinstein, Douglas L; Hejna, Matthew J; Lorens, Stanley A; McGuire, Susan O

    2012-06-13

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an animal model of autoimmune disease that presents with pathological and clinical features similar to those of multiple sclerosis (MS) including inflammation and neurodegeneration. This study investigated whether blueberries, which possess immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective properties, could provide protection in EAE. Dietary supplementation with 1% whole, freeze-dried blueberries reduced disease incidence by >50% in a chronic EAE model (p < 0.01). When blueberry-fed mice with EAE were compared with control-fed mice with EAE, blueberry-fed mice had significantly lower motor disability scores (p = 0.03) as well as significantly greater myelin preservation in the lumbar spinal cord (p = 0.04). In a relapsing-remitting EAE model, blueberry-supplemented mice showed improved cumulative and final motor scores compared to control diet-fed mice (p = 0.01 and 0.03, respectively). These data demonstrate that blueberry supplementation is beneficial in multiple EAE models, suggesting that blueberries, which are easily administered orally and well-tolerated, may provide benefit to MS patients. PMID:22243431

  19. Histamine and neuroinflammation: insights from murine experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Passani, Maria B.; Ballerini, Clara

    2012-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory, neurodegenerative disease of the CNS whose pathogenesis remains largely unknown, and available therapies are rarely successful in reversing neurological deficits or stopping disease progression. Ongoing studies on MS and the widely used murine model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) are focused on the many components of this complex and heterogeneous neurodegenerative disease in the hope of providing a mechanism-based characterization of MS that will afford successful strategies to limit and repair the neuronal damage. Recently, histamine has been postulated to have a key regulatory role in EAE and MS pathogenesis. Histamine is a mediator of inflammation and immune responses, exerting its many actions through four G protein-coupled receptors (H1,2,3,4R) that signal through distinct intracellular pathways and have different therapeutic potentials as they vary in expression, isoform distribution, signaling properties, and function. Immune cells involved in MS/EAE, including dendritic cells (DCs) and T lymphocytes, express H1R, H2R and H4R, and histamine may have varying and counteracting effects on a particular cell type, depending on the receptor subtypes being activated. Here, we review evidence of the complex and controversial role of histamine in the pathogenesis of MS and EAE and evaluate the therapeutic potential of histaminergic ligands in the treatment of autoimmune diseases. PMID:22563309

  20. An Etiological Model for Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Jason, Leonard A.; Sorenson, Matthew; Porter, Nicole; Belkairous, Natalie

    2011-01-01

    Kindling might represent a heuristic model for understanding the etiology of Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS). Kindling occurs when an organism is exposed repeatedly to an initially sub-threshold stimulus resulting in hypersensitivity and spontaneous seizure-like activity. Among patients with ME/CFS, chronically repeated low-intensity stimulation due to an infectious illness might cause kindling of the limbic-hypothalamic-pituitary axis. Kindling might also occur by high-intensity stimulation (e.g., brain trauma) of the limbic-hypothalamic-pituitary axis. Once this system is charged or kindled, it can sustain a high level of arousal with little or no external stimulus and eventually this could lead to hypocortisolism. Seizure activity may spread to adjacent structures of the limbic-hypothalamic-pituitary axis in the brain, which might be responsible for the varied symptoms that occur among patients with ME/CFS. In addition, kindling may also be responsible for high levels of oxidative stress, which has been found in patients with ME/CFS. PMID:21892413

  1. Adoptive transfer of murine relapsing experimental allergic encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Lublin, F D

    1985-02-01

    Relapsing experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE), an autoimmune disorder resembling multiple sclerosis, has been produced by inoculating SJL/J mice with spinal cord or myelin basic protein in appropriate adjuvants. To determine whether initially sensitized lymphocytes or the persistence of antigen depots in the animal were responsible for the relapsing episodes of inflammatory demyelination, adoptive transfer studies were undertaken utilizing lymphocytes from relapsing EAE-immunized donors transferred directly or after in vitro culture. In direct-transfer studies donor lymphocytes produced clinical and pathological signs of relapsing EAE in 3 of 7 recipients of lymph node lymphocytes and 1 of 5 recipients of splenic lymphocytes. In vitro culture of lymphocytes in myelin basic protein or T cell growth factor prior to transfer increased both the incidence of disease and the number of animals having relapses, and allowed transfer with fewer lymphocytes. Because all animals had delayed onset of disease, this study demonstrates that the ability to develop relapsing inflammatory demyelination is transferable with lymphocytes and does not require the presence of antigen. PMID:3977301

  2. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in a child presenting as acute disseminated encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Tullu, Milind S; Patil, Dhananjay P; Muranjan, Mamta N; Kher, Archana S; Lahiri, Keya R

    2011-01-01

    Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis is an extremely rare occurrence in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. We describe an 8-year-old male child who presented with weakness of both lower limbs for 10 days and focal convulsions for 2 days. The child had left, upper motor neuron facial palsy, lower limb hypotonia, and exaggerated deep tendon reflexes. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay antibodies for HIV tested positive and the CD4 count was 109 cells/µL. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, brain) revealed extensive confluent hyperintensities (on T2-weighted images) in left parietal, right temporal, and right occipital regions of the white matter, and similar signals were seen in right lentiform nucleus and right posterior thalami, suggesting acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. There was transient improvement with intravenous methyl prednisolone. The patient succumbed to the illness. Perinatally transmitted pediatric HIV infection presenting with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis has not yet been reported in the medical literature. PMID:20656677

  3. Mitoprotective dietary approaches for Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: Caloric restriction, fasting, and ketogenic diets.

    PubMed

    Craig, Courtney

    2015-11-01

    Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome is an idiopathic illness characterized by debilitating fatigue and neuro-immune abnormalities. A growing body of evidence proposes mitochondrial dysfunction as a central perpetrator of the illness due to activation of immune-inflammatory pathways that burden the mitochondria. Under a model of mitochondrial dysfunction, this paper explores dietary strategies that are mitoprotective. Studied for decades, the cellular mechanisms of ketogenic diets, fasting, and caloric restriction now reveal mitochondria-specific mechanisms which could play a role in symptom reduction in Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. Future research should examine the physiological effects of these dietary strategies in Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. PMID:26315446

  4. Characterization of equine hyalocytes: their immunohistochemical properties, morphologies and distribution

    PubMed Central

    SANO, Yuto; MATSUDA, Kazuya; OKAMOTO, Minoru; TAKEHANA, Kazushige; HIRAYAMA, Kazuko; TANIYAMA, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    In horse, the characterizations of hyalocytes under the steady state are still unclear. Therefore, we investigated characterizations of hyalocytes in normal equine eyes by their immunohistochemical phenotype, histomorphology and distribution. Thirty-one eyes from 18 horses, divided into 4 groups (G) by age, were used: early (G1) and late gestation (G2) fetuses, 1- to 3-year-old (G3) and 8- to 24-year-old (G4) horses. Equine hyalocytes were histologically classified into 4 types, and they immunohistochemically expressed MHC II and CD163. Hyalocytes were detected on and/or around ciliary processes and pars plana in G2, G3 and G4, but were not located on retina and optic papilla. A significant increase in distribution was found between G2 and both G3 and G4, and the largest distribution was found at ciliary processes in these groups. Equine hyalocytes were characterized as residential ocular macrophage and MHC II antigen-bearing cell, accompanied by a pleomorphic appearance and located in the contiguous ciliary body. Our data provided characterizations of hyalocytes in normal equine eyes and may well contribute to improving the understanding of pathogenesis of equine ocular disease. PMID:26888584

  5. Epidemiological survey of equine influenza in horses in India.

    PubMed

    Mavadiya, S V; Raval, S K; Mehta, S A; Kanani, A N; Vagh, A A; Tank, P H; Patel, P R

    2012-12-01

    A highly contagious virus infection in horses, influenza is the single most important equine respiratory disease in the world. This paper presents details of a one-year study (1 June 2008 to 31 May 2009) to determine the prevalence of equine influenza in the horses of Gujarat State in India. The prevalence of equine influenza A/equi-2 was 12.02%, but none of the samples were positive for equine influenza A/equi-1. The prevalence of equine influenza (A/equi-2) was 15.38%, 11.94%, 10.18%, and 9.09% in horses of the Kathiyawari breed, a non-descript breed, the Marwari breed and the Indian Thoroughbred breed, respectively. The highest prevalence of influenza was observed in yearlings (17.48%) and prevalence was at its highest in the month of April (28.89%). The prevalence rate in males, females and geldings was 11.95%, 10.38% and 8.47%, respectively. The mortality rate and case fatality rate were 1.28% and 10.64%, respectively. PMID:23520740

  6. Characterization of equine hyalocytes: their immunohistochemical properties, morphologies and distribution.

    PubMed

    Sano, Yuto; Matsuda, Kazuya; Okamoto, Minoru; Takehana, Kazushige; Hirayama, Kazuko; Taniyama, Hiroyuki

    2016-07-01

    In horse, the characterizations of hyalocytes under the steady state are still unclear. Therefore, we investigated characterizations of hyalocytes in normal equine eyes by their immunohistochemical phenotype, histomorphology and distribution. Thirty-one eyes from 18 horses, divided into 4 groups (G) by age, were used: early (G1) and late gestation (G2) fetuses, 1- to 3-year-old (G3) and 8- to 24-year-old (G4) horses. Equine hyalocytes were histologically classified into 4 types, and they immunohistochemically expressed MHC II and CD163. Hyalocytes were detected on and/or around ciliary processes and pars plana in G2, G3 and G4, but were not located on retina and optic papilla. A significant increase in distribution was found between G2 and both G3 and G4, and the largest distribution was found at ciliary processes in these groups. Equine hyalocytes were characterized as residential ocular macrophage and MHC II antigen-bearing cell, accompanied by a pleomorphic appearance and located in the contiguous ciliary body. Our data provided characterizations of hyalocytes in normal equine eyes and may well contribute to improving the understanding of pathogenesis of equine ocular disease. PMID:26888584

  7. Purification of myeloperoxidase from equine polymorphonuclear leucocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Mathy-Hartert, M; Bourgeois, E; Grülke, S; Deby-Dupont, G; Caudron, I; Deby, C; Lamy, M; Serteyn, D

    1998-01-01

    Increases of plasma concentrations of neutrophil myeloperoxidase (MPO) can be used as markers of polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMN) activation in pathological situations (sepsis, acute lung injury, acute inflammation). To develop an assay for measurement of plasma MPO in horses during the above-mentioned infectious and inflammatory conditions, MPO was purified from equine PMN isolated from blood anticoagulated with citrate. PMN were extracted in a saline milieu (0.2 M Na acetate, 1 M NaCl, pH 4.7) to eliminate most of cellular proteins. Pellets were then extracted in the same buffer containing cationic detergent (1% cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide). The supernatant was further purified by ion exchange chromatography (Hiload S Sepharose HP column 0.5 x 26 cm, equilibrated with 25 mM Na acetate, 0.2 M NaCl, pH 4.7) with a NaCl gradient (until 1 M). Most of the peroxidase activity of MPO (spectrophotometrically measured by the oxidation of orthodianisidine by hydrogen peroxide) was eluted at 0.65 M NaCl. MPO was further purified by gel filtration chromatography (Sephacryl S 200 column 2.6 x 42 cm with 25 mM Na acetate, 0.2 M NaCl, pH 4.7). MPO (specific activity: 74.3 U/mg) was obtained with a yield of 30% from the detergent extraction supernatant. Electrophoresis (non-reducing conditions) showed 3 bands identified, by comparison with human MPO, (i) the mature tetrameric enzyme (150 kDa) with 2 light and 2 heavy subunits, (ii) the precursor form (88 kDa) and (iii) a form of the heavy subunit without the prosthetic heme group (40 kDa). The mature enzyme and its precursor were glycosylated and possessed peroxidase activity. Equine MPO showed strong similarities with human and bovine MPO, with an absorption peak at 430 nm (Soret peak) characteristic of ferrimyeloperoxidase. Enzymatic activity was pH dependent (optimal value at pH 5.5). Images Figure 1. PMID:9553712

  8. IFNAR signaling directly modulates T lymphocyte activity, resulting in milder experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis development.

    PubMed

    Kavrochorianou, Nadia; Evangelidou, Maria; Markogiannaki, Melina; Tovey, Michael; Thyphronitis, George; Haralambous, Sylva

    2016-01-01

    Although interferon-β is used as first-line therapy for multiple sclerosis, the cell type-specific activity of type I interferons in multiple sclerosis and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, remains obscure. In this study, we have elucidated the in vivo immunomodulatory role of type I interferon signaling in T cells during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by use of a novel transgenic mouse, carrying a cd2-ifnar1 transgene on a interferon-α/β receptor 1 null genetic background, thus allowing expression of the interferon-α/β receptor 1 and hence, a functional type I interferon receptor exclusively on T cells. These transgenic mice exhibited milder experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis with reduced T cell infiltration, demyelination, and axonal damage in the central nervous system. It is noteworthy that interferon-β administration in transgenic mice generated a more pronounced, protective effect against experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis compared with untreated littermates. In vivo studies demonstrated that before experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis onset, endogenous type I interferon receptor signaling in T cells led to impaired T-helper 17 responses, with a reduced fraction of CCR6(+) CD4(+) T cells in the periphery. At the acute phase, an increased proportion of interleukin-10- and interferon-γ-producing CD4(+) T cells was detected in the periphery of the transgenic mice, accompanied by up-regulation of the interferon-γ-induced gene Irgm1 in peripheral T cells. Together, these results reveal a hitherto unknown T cell-associated protective role of type I interferon in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis that may provide valuable clues for designing novel therapeutic strategies for multiple sclerosis. PMID:26232452

  9. Ultrasonographic assessment of the equine palmar tendons

    PubMed Central

    Padaliya, N. R.; Ranpariya, J. J.; Kumar, Dharmendra; Javia, C. B.; Barvalia, D. R.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate the equine palmar tendon by ultrasonography (USG) in standing the position. Materials and Methods: USG of palmar tendons was performed in 40 adult horses using linear transducer having frequency of 10-18 MHz (e-soate, My Lab FIVE) and L52 linear array transducer (Titan, SonoSite) with frequencies ranging from 8 to 10 MHz. Palmar tendon was divided into 7 levels from distal to accessory carpal bone up to ergot in transverse scanning and 3 levels in longitudinal scanning. Results: The USG evaluation was very useful for diagnosis of affections of the conditions such as chronic bowed tendon, suspensory ligament desmitis, carpal sheath tenosynovitis and digital sheath effusions. The mean cross-sectional area (cm2) of affected tendons was significantly increased in affected than normal tendons. The echogenicity was also found reduced in affected tendons and ligaments along with disorganization of fiber alignment depending on the severity of lesion and injury. Conclusion: USG proved ideal diagnostic tool for diagnosis and post-treatment healing assessment of tendon injuries in horses. PMID:27047074

  10. Assessing equine sperm-membrane integrity.

    PubMed

    Lagares, M A; Petzoldt, R; Sieme, H; Klug, E

    2000-05-01

    The swelling of cells in a hypo-osmotic medium has been described as an important criterion for assessing the functional integrity of the sperm plasma membrane. The resistance of equine spermatozoa to osmolarity changes was studied by extending 98 semen samples collected from nine stallions in media at five osmolarities (300, 200, 150, 100, and 50 mOsmol l(-1)). The response of the cells was measured by the spermatocrit technique and eosin staining. Spermatocrit determines the increase on spermatozoal volume under hypo-osmotic conditions, a sign of functional integrity of sperm plasma membrane, whereas the eosin staining evaluates the viability of spermatozoa. A significant positive correlation (P<0.01) was observed between spermatocrit values and percentage of eosin-unstained cells. Spermatocrit measurements and eosin staining proved to be useful methods to evaluate the integrity of sperm plasma membrane under hypo-osmotic conditions and could be used as an additional criterion to predict semen preservation ability. PMID:10863971

  11. Equine Model for Soft Tissue Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Moreau, J.E.; Lo, T.; Quinn, K.P.; Fourligas, N.; Georgakoudi, I.; Leisk, G.G.; Mazan, M.; Thane, K.E.; Taeymans, O.; Hoffman, A.M.; Kaplan, D. L.; Kirker-Head, C.A.

    2016-01-01

    Soft tissue regeneration methods currently yield suboptimal clinical outcomes due to loss of tissue volume and a lack of functional tissue regeneration. Grafted tissues and natural biomaterials often degrade or resorb too quickly, while most synthetic materials do not degrade. In previous research we demonstrated that soft tissue regeneration can be supported using silk porous biomaterials for at least 18 months in vivo in a rodent model. In the present study, we scaled the system to a survival study using a large animal model and demonstrated the feasibility of these biomaterials for soft tissue regeneration in adult horses. Both slow and rapidly degrading silk matrices were evaluated in subcutaneous pocket and intramuscular defect depots. We showed that we can effectively employ an equine model over six months to simultaneously evaluate many different implants, reducing the number of animals needed. Furthermore, we were able to tailor matrix degradation by varying the initial format of the implanted silk. Finally, we demonstrate ultrasound imaging of implants to be an effective means for tracking tissue regeneration and implant degradation. PMID:25350377

  12. Comparison of two methods for measurement of equine insulin.

    PubMed

    Banse, Heidi E; McCann, Joseph; Yang, Fan; Wagg, Catherine; McFarlane, Dianne

    2014-06-13

    Diagnosis of equine hyperinsulinemia requires an accurate method for quantification of equine insulin concentrations. The objectives of the current study were to compare 2 commercially available techniques for measurement of equine insulin, the radioimmunoassay (RIA) and chemiluminescent immunoassay (CIA). Recovery was poor for both assays, but worse for the CIA. Serial dilution of a high endogenous insulin sample yielded better linearity for the RIA (r (2) = 0.99, P < 0.001) than the CIA (r (2) = 0.92, P = 0.009). Bland-Altman analysis indicated that the CIA was, on average, 91 pmol/l higher than the RIA, with wide limits of agreement (95% limits of agreement: -508 to 691 pmol/l). These findings suggest that results between the assays should not be considered interchangeable. PMID:24928598

  13. Automatic segmentation of equine larynx for diagnosis of laryngeal hemiplegia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salehin, Md. Musfequs; Zheng, Lihong; Gao, Junbin

    2013-10-01

    This paper presents an automatic segmentation method for delineation of the clinically significant contours of the equine larynx from an endoscopic image. These contours are used to diagnose the most common disease of horse larynx laryngeal hemiplegia. In this study, hierarchal structured contour map is obtained by the state-of-the-art segmentation algorithm, gPb-OWT-UCM. The conic-shaped outer boundary of equine larynx is extracted based on Pascal's theorem. Lastly, Hough Transformation method is applied to detect lines related to the edges of vocal folds. The experimental results show that the proposed approach has better performance in extracting the targeted contours of equine larynx than the results of using only the gPb-OWT-UCM method.

  14. An epizootic of equine influenza in Upper Egypt in 2000.

    PubMed

    Abd El-Rahim, I H A; Hussein, M

    2004-12-01

    This study describes an epizootic of respiratory tract disease caused by influenza virus infection in a large population of equines in Luxor and Aswan, Upper Egypt, during the winter of 2000. The epizootic started in January and the infection rate reached its peak in February before gradually decreasing until the end of April, 2000. Horses, donkeys and mules of all ages and both sexes were affected. Free movement of the infected equines and direct contact between the animals at markets facilitated the rapid spread of the disease. The cause of the epizootic was established by use of serological testing and the identification of the influenza virus in nasal secretions. Egg inoculation and the haemagglutination test were used to detect the influenza virus. Both haemagglutination inhibition (HI) and agar gel precipitation tests were performed to identify the isolated influenza virus using reference antisera against A/Equi-1 (H7N7) and A/Equi-2 (H3N8). Antibodies against the equine influenza virus were demonstrated in 416 (95.6%) out of 435 collected sera using the HI test. High rectal temperature, inappetence, conjunctivitis, redness of nasal mucosa, a serous to mucopurulent nasal discharge and a harsh dry cough were the most common clinical manifestations. Stress factors, such as using equines for heavy transportation and drawing, precipitated the onset of the disease, intensified the clinical syndrome, delayed recovery and facilitated secondary bacterial infection. The present study suggested that the absence of a vaccination programme against equine influenza was one of the principal causes of the spread of infection during this outbreak. In conclusion, the implementation of a national equine influenza vaccination programme, using an effective updated vaccine, is essential in Egypt. PMID:15861887

  15. Extraction, radioiodination, and in vivo catabolism of equine fibrinogen

    SciTech Connect

    Coyne, C.P.; Hornof, W.J.; Kelly, A.B.; O'Brien, T.R.; DeNardo, S.J.

    1985-12-01

    Equine fibrinogen was isolated and aliquots were stored frozen at -70 C before radiolabeling with 125I (half-life = 60.2 days; gamma = 35 keV, using monochloroiodine reagent. Radioiodination efficiencies were 49% to 53%, resulting in a labeled product with 98% protein-bound activity and 91% clottable radioactivity. In 6 equine in vivo investigations, plasma half-lives of 125I-labeled fibrinogen were from 4.1 to 5.2 days, corresponding to a mean daily plasma elimination rate of approximately 15%.

  16. Isolation of equine peripheral blood mononuclear cells using Percoll.

    PubMed

    May, S A; Hooke, R E; Lees, P

    1991-01-01

    The concentration of Percoll required for isolating equine peripheral blood mononuclear cells has been reinvestigated. A poor cell yield was obtained at the 60 per cent concentration already reported. It is recommended that workers specifically interested in high yields of mononuclear cells, for investigation of lymphocyte and monocyte functions, use a concentration of 65 per cent Percoll. However, workers wishing to isolate pure populations of equine neutrophils might consider a concentration of 70 per cent in the upper layer of Percoll used to retain the mononuclear cells. PMID:1646471

  17. Equine abortion and premature birth associated with Cellulosimicrobium cellulans infection.

    PubMed

    Bolin, David C; Donahue, James M; Vickers, Mary L; Giles, Ralph C; Harrison, Lenn; Jackson, Carney; Poonacha, K B; Roberts, John E; Sebastian, Manu M; Sells, Steve E; Tramontin, Robert; Williams, Neil M

    2004-07-01

    During the 2002 and 2003 foaling seasons, Cellulosimicrobium (Cellumonas) cellulans (formerly Oerskovia xanthineolytica) was the principal microorganism isolated from fetal tissues or placentas from cases of equine abortion, premature birth, and term pregnancies. Significant pathologic findings included chronic placentitis and pyogranulomatous pneumonia. In addition, microscopic and macroscopic alterations in the allantochorion from 4 of 7 cases of placentitis were similar to those caused by Crossiella equi and other nocardioform bacteria. This report confirms a causative role of C. cellulans infection in equine abortion. PMID:15305747

  18. Lipocalin-2 Protein Deficiency Ameliorates Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Youngpyo; Kim, Jong-Heon; Seo, Minchul; Kim, Jae-Hong; Jin, Myungwon; Jeon, Sangmin; Seo, Jung-wan; Lee, Won-Ha; Bing, So Jin; Jee, Youngheun; Lee, Won Kee; Park, Dong Ho; Kook, Hyun; Suk, Kyoungho

    2014-01-01

    Lipocalin-2 (LCN2) plays an important role in cellular processes as diverse as cell growth, migration/invasion, differentiation, and death/survival. Furthermore, recent studies indicate that LCN2 expression and secretion by glial cells are induced by inflammatory stimuli in the central nervous system. The present study was undertaken to examine the regulation of LCN2 expression in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and to determine the role of LCN2 in the disease process. LCN2 expression was found to be strongly increased in spinal cord and secondary lymphoid tissues after EAE induction. In spinal cords astrocytes and microglia were the major cell types expressing LCN2 and its receptor 24p3R, respectively, whereas in spleens, LCN2 and 24p3R were highly expressed in neutrophils and dendritic cells, respectively. Furthermore, disease severity, inflammatory infiltration, demyelination, glial activation, the expression of inflammatory mediators, and the proliferation of MOG-specific T cells were significantly attenuated in Lcn2-deficient mice as compared with wild-type animals. Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein-specific T cells in culture exhibited an increased expression of Il17a, Ifng, Rorc, and Tbet after treatment with recombinant LCN2 protein. Moreover, LCN2-treated glial cells expressed higher levels of proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and MMP-9. Adoptive transfer and recombinant LCN2 protein injection experiments suggested that LCN2 expression in spinal cord and peripheral immune organs contributes to EAE development. Taken together, these results imply LCN2 is a critical mediator of autoimmune inflammation and disease development in EAE and suggest that LCN2 be regarded a potential therapeutic target in multiple sclerosis. PMID:24808182

  19. Studies of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in old mice.

    PubMed

    Endoh, M; Rapoport, S I; Tabira, T

    1990-01-01

    In old BALB/c mice susceptibility to experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) with bovine proteolipid apoprotein (PLP) is reduced significantly. Eleven of 21 8-week BALB/c mice developed clinical signs of EAE following injection of PLP but only two of 18 12-month BALB/c mice and one of 19 24-month BALB/c mice showed clinical signs of EAE. Susceptibility to EAE induced by either PLP or bovine myelin basic protein (MBP) also was reduced in old SJL mice. However, the aging process had no effect on the clinical signs of EAE in both strains, if EAE appeared. Some old BALB/c mice developed histologic EAE with significant demyelination without clinical signs. Lymphocyte proliferative response to mitogens and antigens, and interleukin-2 (IL-2) production, also were depressed in the aged mice (24-month BALB/c and 18-month SJL) probably due to the functional defect of T cells, since the function of macrophages as antigen-presenting cells was not affected in the old mice. PLP-sensitized spleen cells (SPC) from 8-week mice were able to adoptively transfer EAE to young and aged recipients. PLP-sensitized T cells from 8-week mice, reconstituted with young or old monocytes, also were able to transfer EAE into young mice. In contrast, spleen cells from aged mice did not induce EAE, so the reduction of EAE susceptibility was mainly explained by the failure of T cell activity. This T cell defect was not restored by exogenous IL-2. PMID:1698815

  20. Dihydrotestosterone as a Protective Agent in Chronic Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Giatti, Silvia; Rigolio, Roberta; Romano, Simone; Mitro, Nico; Viviani, Barbara; Cavaletti, Guido; Caruso, Donatella; Garcia-Segura, Luis Miguel; Melcangi, Roberto Cosimo

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease affecting the central nervous system. As reported by clinical observations, variation in hormonal levels might alter disease susceptibility and progression. Specifically, decreased levels of testosterone in males are reported to be permissive for disease onset. Accordingly, testosterone seems to exert protective effects in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). In this context, it is important to highlight that testosterone is further metabolized into 17β-estradiol or dihydrotestosterone (DHT). In this study, we aimed to explore the protective effects of DHT treatment in EAE Dark Agouti rats (i.e. an experimental model showing a protracted relapsing EAE). Data obtained 45 days after EAE induction showed that DHT exerts a beneficial effect on clinical scores, coupled with decreased gliosis (i.e. glial fibrillary acidic protein and major histocompatibility complex of class II staining) and inflammation (i.e. translocator protein 18 kDa, interleukin-1β, Toll-like receptor 4 and nuclear factor-κB expression) in the spinal cord. Moreover, parameters linked to oxidative stress and tissue damage, like thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance levels and Bcl-2-associated X protein expression, and to mitochondrial activity (i.e. content of mitochondrial DNA and proteins), were improved after DHT administration. This neuroactive steroid may be further metabolized into 3α- or 3β-diol. However, assessment of the levels of these metabolites after DHT treatment seems to suggest that the protective effects observed here are due to DHT itself. Altogether, the present results indicate that DHT was effective in reducing the severity of chronic EAE and, consequently, may represent an interesting perspective for multiple sclerosis treatment. PMID:25765436

  1. Role of orexin-A in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Fatemi, Iman; Shamsizadeh, Ali; Ayoobi, Fatemeh; Taghipour, Zahra; Sanati, Mohammad Hossein; Roohbakhsh, Ali; Motevalian, Manijeh

    2016-02-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of orexin-A (OX-A) on behavioral and pathological parameters and on gene expression of some multiple sclerosis-related peptides in a model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). EAE was induced by subcutaneous administration of MOG 35-55. Following immunization, the treatment was initiated by using SB.334867 (orexin-1 receptor antagonist) and/or OX-A. Locomotor activity and exploratory behaviors were monitored using open field and T-maze continuous alternation task (T-CAT) respectively. Pain sensitivity was assessed by hot-plate test. Histopathological assessments were performed by H&E staining. The expression of TGF-β, MBP, MMP-9, IL-12, iNOS and MCP-1 were measured using real-time PCR method in lumbar spinal cord. OX-A administration in EAE mice remarkably attenuated the clinical symptoms, increased latency response in hot plate test, inhibited infiltration of inflammatory cells, up-regulated mRNA expression of TGF-β as well as MBP and down-regulated mRNA expression of iNOS, MMP-9 and IL-12. In contrast SB.334867 administration in EAE mice deteriorated the clinical symptoms, decreased the alternation in T-CAT, increased infiltration of inflammatory cells, down-regulated mRNA expression of TGF-β and MBP and up-regulated mRNA expression of iNOS. Results of this study suggest that the orexinergic system might be involved in pathological development of EAE. These findings suggest orexinergic system as a potential target for treatment of multiple sclerosis. PMID:26857503

  2. Neuroendothelial NMDA receptors as therapeutic targets in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Macrez, Richard; Ortega, Maria C; Bardou, Isabelle; Mehra, Anupriya; Fournier, Antoine; Van der Pol, Susanne M A; Haelewyn, Benoit; Maubert, Eric; Lesept, Flavie; Chevilley, Arnaud; de Castro, Fernando; De Vries, Helga E; Vivien, Denis; Clemente, Diego; Docagne, Fabian

    2016-09-01

    Multiple sclerosis is among the most common causes of neurological disability in young adults. Here we provide the preclinical proof of concept of the benefit of a novel strategy of treatment for multiple sclerosis targeting neuroendothelial N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptors. We designed a monoclonal antibody against N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors, which targets a regulatory site of the GluN1 subunit of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor sensitive to the protease tissue plasminogen activator. This antibody reverted the effect of tissue plasminogen activator on N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor function without affecting basal N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor activity (n = 21, P < 0.01). This antibody bound N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors on the luminal surface of neurovascular endothelium in human tissues and in mouse, at the vicinity of tight junctions of the blood-spinal cord barrier. Noteworthy, it reduced human leucocyte transmigration in an in vitro model of the blood-brain barrier (n = 12, P < 0.05). When injected during the effector phase of MOG-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (n = 24), it blocked the progression of neurological impairments, reducing cumulative clinical score (P < 0.001) and mean peak score (P < 0.001). This effect was observed in wild-type animals but not in tissue plasminogen activator knock-out animals (n = 10). This therapeutic effect was associated to a preservation of the blood-spinal cord barrier (n = 6, P < 0.001), leading to reduced leucocyte infiltration (n = 6, P < 0.001). Overall, this study unveils a critical function of endothelial N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor in multiple sclerosis, and highlights the therapeutic potential of strategies targeting the protease-regulated site of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor. PMID:27435092

  3. Estrogen treatment prevents gray matter atrophy in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    MacKenzie-Graham, Allan J; Rinek, Gilda A; Avedisian, Andrea; Morales, Laurie B; Umeda, Elizabeth; Boulat, Benoit; Jacobs, Russell E; Toga, Arthur W; Voskuhl, Rhonda R

    2012-07-01

    Gray matter atrophy is an important correlate to clinical disability in multiple sclerosis (MS), and many treatment trials include atrophy as an outcome measure. Atrophy has been shown to occur in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the most commonly used animal model of MS. The clinical severity of EAE is reduced in estrogen-reated mice, but it remains unknown whether estrogen treatment can reduce gray matter atrophy in EAE. In this study, mice with EAE were treated with either estrogen receptor (ER)-α ligand or ER-β ligand, and diffusion tensor images (DTI) were collected and neuropathology was performed. DTI showed atrophy in the cerebellar gray matter of vehicle-treated EAE mice compared with healthy controls but not in ER-α or ER-β ligand-treated EAE mice. Neuropathology demonstrated that Purkinje cell numbers were decreased in vehicle-treated EAE mice, whereas neither ER ligand-treated EAE groups showed a decrease. This is the first report of a neuroprotective therapy in EAE that unambiguously prevents gray matter atrophy while sparing a major neuronal cell type. Fractional anisotropy (FA) in the cerebellar white matter was decreased in vehicle- and ER-β ligand-treated but not in ER-α ligand-treated EAE mice. Inflammatory cell infiltration was increased in vehicle- and ER-β ligand-treated but not in ER-α ligand-treated EAE mice. Myelin staining was decreased in vehicle-treated EAE mice and was spared in both ER ligand-treated groups. This is consistent with decreased FA as a potential biomarker for inflammation rather than myelination or axonal damage in the cerebellum in EAE. PMID:22411609

  4. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis associated with hepatitis A virus infection.

    PubMed

    Alehan, Füsun K; Kahveci, Suat; Uslu, Yasemin; Yildirim, Tülin; Yilmaz, Başak

    2004-06-01

    We describe the case of a 30-month-old boy who developed acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) after hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection and ultimately died. As far as we know, this is only the second case of HAV-associated ADEM to be reported in the literature. The child was brought to hospital with fever, lethargy and weakness of 2 days duration. He had developed jaundice, abdominal pain and malaise 2 weeks beforehand and these problems had resolved within 2 days. Neurological examination revealed lethargy, generalised weakness and positive Babinski's signs bilaterally. Cerebrospinal fluid examination showed mild lymphocytic pleocytosis, increased protein and elevated anti-HAV IgM and IgG titres. Serum HAV IgM and IgG titres were also elevated. Despite aggressive treatment with ceftriaxone, acyclovir and anti-oedema measures, he developed papilloedema and coma within 24 hours of admission. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed diffuse cerebral oedema and multifocal hyperintensities on T2-weighted images, with most lesions in the white matter of both cerebral hemispheres. The diagnosis of ADEM was established and high-dose steroids and intravenous immunoglobulin were added to the treatment regimen. However, his clinical condition continued to deteriorate and he died on the 20th day in hospital. This case shows that HAV infection can be linked with ADEM. Patients with HAV infection should be examined carefully for central nervous system symptoms during follow-up. Likewise, the possibility of HAV infection should be investigated in cases of ADEM. PMID:15186542

  5. Equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV1) induces alterations in the immunophenotypic profile of equine monocyte-derived dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Claessen, Christophe; De Lange, Valérie; Huang, Teng; Ma, Guanggang; Osterrieder, Nikolaus; Favoreel, Herman; Van de Walle, Gerlinde R

    2016-04-01

    Equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV1) is an α-herpesvirus that can infect a variety of different cells in vitro and in vivo, including dendritic cells (DC) which are essential in the immune response against EHV1. Infection of equine monocyte-derived DC (MDDC) with EHV1 induced down-regulation of major histocompatibility complex I (MHCI), CD83, CD86, CD206, CD29 and CD172a, but not of CD11a/CD18 and MHCII. This down-regulation was not mediated by the virion host-shutoff (VHS) protein or pUL49.5. Interestingly, down-regulation of CD83 and CD86 was in part mediated by pUL56. Taken together, these data indicate that EHV1 employs different and still unresolved mechanisms to induce down-regulation of several functionally important cell surface proteins on equine DC. PMID:26920348

  6. Alleviation of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in C57BL/6 mice by soy daidzein.

    PubMed

    Razeghi Jahromi, Soodeh; Arrefhosseini, Seyed Rafi; Ghaemi, Amir; Alizadeh, Akram; Moradi Tabriz, Hedieh; Togha, Mansoureh

    2014-08-01

    Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) is considered as the murine model of multiple sclerosis. Daidzein a phytostrogenic compound of soy is known to impose immunomodulatory and antioxidative effects. We conducted this study to assess the potential protective and therapeutic effects of daidzein on allergic encephalomyelitis.C57BL/6 mice were induced with allergic encephalomyelitis using myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (35-55) and received daidzein or dimethyl sulfoxide as the vehicle control. To assess the protective effect of daidzein, the mice were administered with 20 mg/kg of daidzein from 21 days prior to 21 days post EAE induction on a daily basis. To evaluate the therapeutic effect of daidzein, mice were fed with 300 mg/kg daidzein after the appearance of the first clinical signs for 10 days. One day after the last gavage, the mice were sacrificed. Spleen and brain were removed for further histological and immunological analysis.Feeding mice with low dose of daidzein prior to disease induction did not affect disease severity. However, treating with high dose of daidzein after the onset of the disease reduced interferon-γ and interleukin-12 secretion, enhanced interleukin-10 production, suppressed lymphocyte proliferation, and decreased cytotoxicity as judged by lactate dehydrogenase release.In conclusion, daidzein reduced the extent of demyelination and disease severity. Chronic oral therapy with low dose of daidzein did not prevent experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. However, high doses of daidzein could prohibit disease exacerbation.  PMID:24659161

  7. Serological evidence of avian encephalomyelitis virus infection associated with vertical transmission in chicks.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiao-hui; Zhao, Jing; Qin, Xiu-hui; Zhang, Guo-zhong

    2015-11-01

    Avian encephalomyelitis virus (AEV) can be transmitted both horizontally and vertically. In the present study, we report a typical case of AEV infection in broiler breeder chickens and their progeny identified by clinical survey of the disease, antibody detection, and reverse transcription (RT)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. PMID:26493005

  8. Forelimb muscle activity during equine locomotion.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Simon M; Whitton, R Chris; King, Melissa; Haussler, Kevin K; Kawcak, Chris E; Stover, Susan M; Pandy, Marcus G

    2012-09-01

    Few quantitative data exist to describe the activity of the distal muscles of the equine forelimb during locomotion, and there is an incomplete understanding of the functional roles of the majority of the forelimb muscles. Based on morphology alone it would appear that the larger proximal muscles perform the majority of work in the forelimb, whereas the smaller distal muscles fulfil supplementary roles such as stabilizing the joints and positioning the limb for impact with the ground. We measured the timing and amplitude of the electromyographic activity of the intrinsic muscles of the forelimb in relation to the phase of gait (stance versus swing) and the torque demand placed on each joint during walking, trotting and cantering. We found that all forelimb muscles, except the extensor carpi radialis (ECR), were activated just prior to hoof-strike and deactivated during stance. Only the ECR was activated during swing. The amplitudes of muscle activation typically increased as gait speed increased. However, the amplitudes of muscle activation were not proportional to the net joint torques, indicating that passive structures may also contribute significantly to torque generation. Our results suggest that the smaller distal muscles help to stabilize the forelimb in early stance, in preparation for the passive structures (tendons and ligaments) to be stretched. The distal forelimb muscles remain active throughout stance only during canter, when the net torques acting about the distal forelimb joints are highest. The larger proximal muscles activate in a complex coordination to position and stabilize the shoulder and elbow joints during ground contact. PMID:22875767

  9. Ultrafiltration of equine digital lamellar tissue.

    PubMed

    Underwood, Claire; Collins, Simon N; van Eps, Andrew W; Allavena, Rachel E; Medina-Torres, Carlos E; Pollitt, Christopher C

    2014-11-01

    There are no experimentally validated pharmacological means of preventing laminitis; however, locally acting pharmaceutical agents with the potential to prevent laminitis have been identified. Demonstrating therapeutic drug concentrations in lamellar tissue is essential for evaluating the efficacy of these agents. The aim of this study was to develop an experimental technique for repeatedly sampling lamellar interstitial fluid. A technique for placing ultrafiltration probes was developed in vitro using 15 cadaver limbs. Subsequently, lamellar ultrafiltration probes were placed in one forelimb in six living horses. Interstitial fluid was collected continuously from the probes as ultrafiltrate for 4 (n = 4) or 14 days (n = 2). The rate of ultrafiltrate collection was calculated every 12 h. Biochemical analyses were performed on ultrafiltrate collected on night 1 (12-24 h post-implantation) and night 4 (84-96 h post-implantation). Sections surrounding the probe and control tissue from the contralateral limb were harvested, stained with H&E and Masson's trichrome and scored based on the tissue response to the probe. Ultrafiltration probes were placed in the lamellar tissue in all six horses. Ultrafiltrate was collected from these probes at 55 (30-63) μL/h (median [interquartile range]). Fluid production decreased significantly with time from night 3 onwards (P < 0.05). There was no significant change in the constituents of the ultrafiltrate between nights 1 and 4 (P > 0.05). The technique was well tolerated. This study demonstrates that ultrafiltration can be used to sample equine digital lamellar interstitial fluid, and has potential for measuring lamellar drug levels. PMID:25439438

  10. The folding-unfolding transition of equine lysozyme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haezebrouck, P.; Van Dael, H.

    1993-03-01

    A detailed study of the chemical and thermal unfolding transition of equine lysozyme in the presence and in the absence of Ca 2+ gives evidence for a two-step unfolding process. The pretransition can be related to the transfer of exposed Trp groups to the protein interior.

  11. The Influence of Equine Essentials on Teacher Holonomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Troy Ernest

    2009-01-01

    Analyzing the effects of the Equine Essentials discipline model by examining measurable differences in teacher holonomy at schools applying the model with varying degrees of intensity was the purpose of this study. The study decomposed the analysis into tests for the presence of each of the five dimensions of holonomy: efficacy, craftsmanship,…

  12. A mechanostatistical approach to cortical bone remodelling: an equine model.

    PubMed

    Wang, X; Thomas, C D L; Clement, J G; Das, R; Davies, H; Fernandez, J W

    2016-02-01

    In this study, the development of a mechanostatistical model of three-dimensional cortical bone remodelling informed with in vivo equine data is presented. The equine model was chosen as it is highly translational to the human condition due to similar Haversian systems, availability of in vivo bone strain and biomarker data, and furthermore, equine models are recommended by the US Federal Drugs Administration for comparative joint research. The model was derived from micro-computed tomography imaged specimens taken from the equine third metacarpal bone, and the Frost-based 'mechanostat' was informed from both in vivo strain gauges and biomarkers to estimate bone growth rates. The model also described the well-known 'cutting cone' phenomena where Haversian canals tunnel and replace bone. In order to make this model useful in practice, a partial least squares regression (PLSR) surrogate model was derived based on training data from finite element simulations with different loads. The PLSR model was able to predict microstructure and homogenised Young's modulus with errors less than 2.2% and 0.6%, respectively. PMID:25862068

  13. Design and validation of a simulator for equine joint injections.

    PubMed

    Fox, Victoria; Sinclair, Charlotte; Bolt, David M; Lowe, John; Weller, Renate

    2013-01-01

    Joint injections are commonly used in equine practice for diagnosis and treatment of joint disorders. Performing joint injections is hence an essential skill for equine practitioners. However, opportunities for veterinary students to practice this skill are often scarce in veterinary curricula. The aim of this study was to design and validate an equine joint injection simulator. We hypothesized that the simulator will enhance student ability and confidence in performing joint injections. The simulator was constructed around an equine forelimb skeleton with soft tissues rebuilt using building foam and rubber bands. An electrical circuit including a buzzer, a battery, wire wool in the joints, and a hypodermic needle at the end of the cable was incorporated. If the students placed the needle into the joint correctly, instant auditory feedback was provided by the buzzer. To validate the simulator, 45 veterinary students were allocated to three groups: cadaver limb, textbook, or simulator. Students' ability to perform joint injections was tested and students' opinions were evaluated with a questionnaire. The proportion of students performing a metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint injection correctly was significantly higher in the cadaver (93%) and simulator (76%) groups compared to the textbook group (50%). There was no significant difference between groups for performing a distal interphalangeal (DIP) joint injection correctly. Students rated the learning experience with the cadaver and simulator group high and with the textbook group low. The joint injection simulator represents an affordable teaching aid that allows students to repeatedly practice this skill in their own time with immediate feedback. PMID:23709111

  14. Equine Piroplasmosis Associated with Amblyomma cajennense Ticks, Texas, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report an outbreak of equine piroplasmosis in southern Texas, USA. Infection prevalence reached 100% in some areas (292 positive horses). Amblyomma cajennense was the predominant tick and experimentally transmitted Theileria equi to a uninfected horse. We suggest transmission by this tick species...

  15. Equine-assisted therapy for anxiety and posttraumatic stress symptoms.

    PubMed

    Earles, Julie L; Vernon, Laura L; Yetz, Jeanne P

    2015-04-01

    We tested the efficacy of the Equine Partnering Naturally(©) approach to equine-assisted therapy for treating anxiety and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Participants were 16 volunteers who had experienced a Criterion A traumatic event, such as a rape or serious accident, and had current PTSD symptoms above 31 on the PTSD Checklist (PCL-S; Weathers, Litz, Herman, Huska, & Keane, ). Participants engaged in tasks with horses for 6 weekly 2-hour sessions. Immediately following the final session, participants reported significantly reduced posttraumatic stress symptoms, d = 1.21, less severe emotional responses to trauma, d = 0.60, less generalized anxiety, d = 1.01, and fewer symptoms of depression, d = 0.54. As well, participants significantly increased mindfulness strategies, d = 1.28, and decreased alcohol use, d = 0.58. There was no significant effect of the treatment on physical health, proactive coping, self-efficacy, social support, or life satisfaction. Thus, we found evidence that the Equine Partnering Naturally(©) approach to equine-assisted therapy may be an effective treatment for anxiety and posttraumatic stress symptoms. Future research should include larger groups, random assignment, and longer term follow-up. PMID:25782709

  16. Empowering Abused Women through Equine Assisted Career Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froeschle, Janet

    2009-01-01

    Female survivors of domestic violence may experience symptoms of low self-esteem, insecurity, difficulty with problem solving, low self-efficacy, and high anxiety with regard to their economic future. Creative methods are needed to help abuse survivors overcome these factors so they are able to set and attain career goals. Equine assisted therapy…

  17. Equine-facilitated psychotherapy benefits students and children.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Florence; Bradberry, Judy; Williams, Cheryl

    2004-01-01

    Baccalaureate nursing students who participated in equine-facilitated psychotherapy (EFP) clinical observation found that they could benefit as much from the program as the child clients. By identifying beneficial educational outcomes of this nontraditional learning assignment, the authors hope readers will explore similar possibilities for nurses at various stages of their professional development. PMID:14765690

  18. 76 FR 55213 - Commercial Transportation of Equines to Slaughter

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-07

    ... Register (72 FR 62798-62802, Docket No. APHIS-2006-0168) a proposed rule \\1\\ to amend the regulations by... indicate that the equine is able to bear weight on all four limbs, is able to walk unassisted, is not...

  19. The role of inflammation and matrix metalloproteinases in equine endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Benali, Silvia; Giannuzzi, Diana; Mantovani, Roberto; Castagnaro, Massimo; Falomo, Maria Elena

    2012-01-01

    Equine endometriosis is a multifactorial disease considered to be a major cause of equine infertility. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reliability of histomorphological grading for biopsy-like samples compared to entire uterine wall samples, to examine the association between the degree of endometriosis with animal age, and to investigate the role of inflammation in endometriosis and the expression of different matrix metalloproteinases in equine endometrium. Histomorphological lesions in 35 uterine samples were examined while comparing biopsy-like samples and entire-wall samples. Seventeen uterine samples were stained with antibodies against MMP-2, MMP-9, MMP-14, and TIMP-2. The morphologic evaluation results of the biopsy-like tissue and entire-wall samples were significantly correlated. Endometriosis in older mares (>12 years of age) was more severe than in young mares (2~4 years of age), confirming the positive correlation between animal age and disease severity, while inflammation was poorly related to the degree of endometriosis. MMP-2 and MMP-14 were detected in stromal cells, while MMP-9 and TIMP-2 were both found in stromal and glandular epithelial cells. There were no significant differences in MMPs expression between the two groups (young vs. old mares). Additional studies on the activity of MMPs could further define the role of these enzymes in equine endometriosis. PMID:22705739

  20. Clinical effects of CO2 laser on equine diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindholm, Arne; Svensson, Ulf; Collinder, Eje

    2002-10-01

    CO2 lasers has been used for five years at Malaren Equine Hospital, as an alternative treatment of some equine diseases. The application of CO2 laser has been studied for evaluation of its appropriateness for treatment of the equine diseases sarcoids, lameness in fetlock joints or pulmonary haemorrhage. During the last five years, above 100 equine sarcoids have been removed by laser surgery (CO2 laser) and so far resulting in significantly few recurrences compared with results from usual excision surgery. In one study, acute traumatic arthritis in fetlock joints was treated three times every second day with defocalised CO2 laser. The therapeutic effectiveness of CO2 laser in this study was better than that of the customary therapy with betamethasone plus hyaluronan. During one year, chronic pulmonary bleeders, namely exercise induced pulmonary haemorrhage, has been treated with defocalised CO2 laser. Six race horses have been treated once daily during five days. Until now, three of these horses have subsequently been successfully racing and no symptoms of pulmonary haemorrhage have been observed. These studies indicate that CO2 laser might be an appropriate therapy on sarcoids and traumatic arthritis, and probably also on exercise induced pulmonary haemorrhage. Other treatments for this pulmonary disease are few.

  1. Equine motor neuron disease in 2 horses from Saskatchewan.

    PubMed

    Husulak, Michelle L; Lohmann, Katharina L; Gabadage, Kamal; Wojnarowicz, Chris; Marqués, Fernando J

    2016-07-01

    Two horses from Saskatchewan were presented with signs of sweating, muscle fasciculations, weight loss, and generalized weakness. The horses were diagnosed with equine motor neuron disease (EMND), by histological assessment of a spinal accessory nerve or sacrocaudalis dorsalis medialis muscle biopsy. This is the first report of EMND in western Canada. PMID:27429468

  2. Detection of equine rotavirus by reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP).

    PubMed

    Nemoto, Manabu; Imagawa, Hiroshi; Tsujimura, Koji; Yamanaka, Takashi; Kondo, Takashi; Matsumura, Tomio

    2010-06-01

    Reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) was applied to detection of equine rotavirus. Because equine rotavirus of the single P genotype, P[12], is predominant in the equine population worldwide, an RT-LAMP primer set was designed to target the genotype P[12] sequence and thus detect equine rotavirus. The detection limit of the RT-LAMP assay was 10(3) copies of viral RNA, whereas that of semi-nested RT-PCR for genotype P[12] was 10(5) copies. The RT-LAMP assay specifically amplified genotype P[12] but did not amplify the other P genotype strains. The RT-LAMP assay did not amplify any pathogens related to equine intestinal disorder other than rotavirus. Using 96 diarrheal stools, the RT-LAMP assay detected equine rotavirus in 58 samples, whereas semi-nested RT-PCR only detected equine rotavirus in 25 samples. The RT-LAMP assay did not detect equine rotavirus with fecal samples collected from nine healthy foals. These results indicate that the RT-LAMP assay is specific for equine rotavirus and more sensitive than semi-nested RT-PCR. Because it is easy to manipulate without the need for a thermal cycler or gel electrophoresis, the RT-LAMP assay should be applicable to diagnosis of equine rotavirus infections in diagnostic laboratories. PMID:20160420

  3. Therapeutic plasma exchange in acute disseminated encephalomyelitis in children.

    PubMed

    Borras-Novell, Cristina; García Rey, Enric; Perez Baena, Luis Francisco; Jordan Garcia, Iolanda; Catella Cahiz, Dolors; Cambra, Francisco

    2015-12-01

    Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system that is probably due to an autoimmune mechanism with an acute presentation and a monophasic course. The management of patients with ADEM is based on supportive therapy, corticosteroids, and intravenous immunoglobulin, and in selected cases, with therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE). The aim of our study is to evaluate the efficacy of TPE, as adjuvant therapy in pediatric patients with ADEM. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of children with the diagnosis of ADEM between 2009 and 2011 to which TPE was indicated and were admitted in the ICU of Hospital Sant Joan de Deu (Spain). The diagnosis of ADEM was made by clinical and laboratory criteria and by the presence of compatible lesions on cranio-spinal Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). For signaling TPE, we followed the guidelines established by the American Association of Apheresis (ASFA) in 2010. Five cases were identified. The predominant neurological symptoms in our patients were: altered level of consciousness, seizures, motor deficits, cranial nerve disorders, and aphasia. Most important demyelinating lesions were located in cortical and subcortical white matter of the brain and highlighted brainstream. Patients performed between 4 and 5 sessions, with no reported side effects. Progressive clinical improvement was evident in all patients, with good neurosensory response to stimulation, cessation of seizures, and recovery of limb mobility. Nowadays, one patient's right paresis persists and another suffers epileptic seizures. None of the cases in our series presented new episodes of demyelination. Due to the suggested immune-mediated pathogenesis of ADEM, treatment is based on immunomodulatory agents, being glucocorticoids the most important ones. The treatment can be complemented with intravenous immunoglobulin and plasmapheresis. Available data suggests that plasma exchange is beneficial

  4. Polymerase I pathway inhibitor ameliorates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Achiron, Anat; Mashiach, Roi; Zilkha-Falb, Rina; Meijler, Michael M; Gurevich, Michael

    2013-10-15

    Applying high throughput gene expression microarrays we identified that the suppression of polymerase 1 (POL1) pathway is associated with benign course of multiple sclerosis (MS). This finding supports the rationale for direct targeting of the POL1 transcription machinery as an innovative strategy to suppress MS. To evaluate the effects of a specific polymerase I inhibitor (POL1-I) on experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), we immunized female C57BL/6J mice (8 weeks) with MOG35-55/CFA. A new POL1-I was administered at a daily dose of 12.5mg/kg body weight by oral gavage either from the day of immunization until disease onset (EAE score 1.0, immunization model), at disease onset (EAE score=1.0) for the following 14 days (treatment model), or by alternate daily dose of 25.0mg/kg body weight, by oral gavage from the day of immunization for the following 25 days (combined model). POL1-I remarkably suppressed EAE in the immunization model; while in the Vehicle group the onset of EAE occurred on day 10.0±0.4 with maximal clinical score of 3.2±0.2, in the POL1-I treated mice onset was significantly delayed and occurred on day 16.9±1.1 (p=0.001), and maximal disease score 2.0±0.1 was reduced (p=0.004). In the treatment model POL1-I treatment significantly reduced disease activity; maximal score was 2.0±0.5 while in the Vehicle group it reached a mean maximal score of 3.9±0.1, (p=0.0008). In the combined model, POL1-I treatment completely inhibited disease activity. The effect of POL1-I treatment was modulated through decreased expression of POL1 pathway key-related genes LRPPRC, pre-RNA, POLR1D and RRN3 together with activation of P53 dependent apoptosis of CD4+ splenocytes. Our findings demonstrate that POL1 pathway inhibition delayed and suppressed the development of EAE and ameliorated the disease in mice with persistent clinical signs. PMID:23998422

  5. Myalgic encephalomyelitis, chronic fatigue syndrome: An infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Underhill, R A

    2015-12-01

    The etiology of myalgic encephalomyelitis also known as chronic fatigue syndrome or ME/CFS has not been established. Controversies exist over whether it is an organic disease or a psychological disorder and even the existence of ME/CFS as a disease entity is sometimes denied. Suggested causal hypotheses have included psychosomatic disorders, infectious agents, immune dysfunctions, autoimmunity, metabolic disturbances, toxins and inherited genetic factors. Clinical, immunological and epidemiological evidence supports the hypothesis that: ME/CFS is an infectious disease; the causal pathogen persists in patients; the pathogen can be transmitted by casual contact; host factors determine susceptibility to the illness; and there is a population of healthy carriers, who may be able to shed the pathogen. ME/CFS is endemic globally as sporadic cases and occasional cluster outbreaks (epidemics). Cluster outbreaks imply an infectious agent. An abrupt flu-like onset resembling an infectious illness occurs in outbreak patients and many sporadic patients. Immune responses in sporadic patients resemble immune responses in other infectious diseases. Contagion is shown by finding secondary cases in outbreaks, and suggested by a higher prevalence of ME/CFS in sporadic patients' genetically unrelated close contacts (spouses/partners) than the community. Abortive cases, sub-clinical cases, and carrier state individuals were found in outbreaks. The chronic phase of ME/CFS does not appear to be particularly infective. Some healthy patient-contacts show immune responses similar to patients' immune responses, suggesting exposure to the same antigen (a pathogen). The chronicity of symptoms and of immune system changes and the occurrence of secondary cases suggest persistence of a causal pathogen. Risk factors which predispose to developing ME/CFS are: a close family member with ME/CFS; inherited genetic factors; female gender; age; rest/activity; previous exposure to stress or toxins

  6. Selective therapy in equine parasite control--application and limitations.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, M K; Pfister, K; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, G

    2014-05-28

    Since the 1960s equine parasite control has relied heavily on frequent anthelmintic treatments often applied with frequent intervals year-round. However, increasing levels of anthelmintic resistance in cyathostomins and Parascaris equorum are now forcing the equine industry to change to a more surveillance-based treatment approach to facilitate a reduction in treatment intensity. The principle of selective therapy has been implemented with success in small ruminant parasite control, and has also found use in horse populations. Typically, egg counts are performed from all individuals in the population, and those exceeding a predetermined cutoff threshold are treated. Several studies document the applicability of this method in populations of adult horses, where the overall cyathostomin egg shedding can be controlled by only treating about half the horses. However, selective therapy has not been evaluated in foals and young horses, and it remains unknown whether the principle is adequate to also provide control over other important parasites such as tapeworms, ascarids, and large strongyles. One recent study associated selective therapy with increased occurrence of Strongylus vulgaris. Studies are needed to evaluate potential health risks associated with selective therapy, and to assess to which extent development of anthelmintic resistance can be delayed with this approach. The choice of strongyle egg count cutoff value for anthelmintic treatment is currently based more on tradition than science, and a recent publication illustrated that apparently healthy horses with egg counts below 100 eggs per gram (EPG) can harbor cyathostomin burdens in the range of 100,000 luminal worms. It remains unknown whether leaving such horses untreated constitutes a potential threat to equine health. The concept of selective therapy has merit for equine strongyle control, but several questions remain as it has not been fully scientifically evaluated. There is a great need for new and

  7. Equine 5α-reductase activity and expression in epididymis.

    PubMed

    Corbin, C J; Legacki, E L; Ball, B A; Scoggin, K E; Stanley, S D; Conley, A J

    2016-10-01

    The 5α-reductase enzymes play an important role during male sexual differentiation, and in pregnant females, especially equine species where maintenance relies on 5α-reduced progesterone, 5α-dihydroprogesterone (DHP). Epididymis expresses 5α-reductases but was not studied elaborately in horses. Epididymis from younger and older postpubertal stallions was divided into caput, corpus and cauda and examined for 5α-reductase activity and expression of type 1 and 2 isoforms by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Metabolism of progesterone and testosterone to DHP and dihydrotestosterone (DHT), respectively, by epididymal microsomal protein was examined by thin-layer chromatography and verified by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Relative inhibitory potencies of finasteride and dutasteride toward equine 5α-reductase activity were investigated. Pregnenolone was investigated as an additional potential substrate for 5α-reductase, suggested previously from in vivo studies in mares but never directly examined. No regional gradient of 5α-reductase expression was observed by either enzyme activity or transcript analysis. Results of PCR experiments suggested that type 1 isoform predominates in equine epididymis. Primers for the type 2 isoform were unable to amplify product from any samples examined. Progesterone and testosterone were readily reduced to DHP and DHT, and activity was effectively inhibited by both inhibitors. Using epididymis as an enzyme source, no experimental evidence was obtained supporting the notion that pregnenolone could be directly metabolized by equine 5α-reductases as has been suggested by previous investigators speculating on alternative metabolic pathways leading to DHP synthesis in placenta during equine pregnancies. PMID:27466384

  8. Unraveling the Equine Lymphocyte Proteome: Differential Septin 7 Expression Associates with Immune Cells in Equine Recurrent Uveitis

    PubMed Central

    Degroote, Roxane L.; Hauck, Stefanie M.; Amann, Barbara; Hirmer, Sieglinde; Ueffing, Marius; Deeg, Cornelia A.

    2014-01-01

    Equine recurrent uveitis is a spontaneous, lymphocyte-driven autoimmune disease. It affects horses worldwide and presents with painful remitting-relapsing inflammatory attacks of inner eye structures eventually leading to blindness. Since lymphocytes are the key players in equine recurrent uveitis, we were interested in potential changes of their protein repertoire which may be involved in disease pathogenesis. To create a reference for differential proteome analysis, we first unraveled the equine lymphocyte proteome by two-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate - polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and subsequently identified 352 protein spots. Next, we compared lymphocytes from ERU cases and healthy horses with a two-dimensional fluorescence difference in gel electrophoresis approach. With this technique, we identified seven differentially expressed proteins between conditions. One of the significantly lower expressed candidates, septin 7, plays a role in regulation of cell shape, motility and migration. Further analyses revealed T cells as the main cell type with decreased septin 7 abundance in equine recurrent uveitis. These findings point to a possible pathogenetic role of septin 7 in this sight-threatening disease. PMID:24614191

  9. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis in a case of autoimmune haemolytic anaemia: a rare association.

    PubMed

    Hajra, Adrija; Bandyopadhyay, Dhrubajyoti

    2016-01-01

    Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is a demyelinating disease that may occur in a postvaccination condition or as a parainfectious encephalomyelitis. It is almost always monophasic. The underlying pathogenesis of ADEM may include perivascular inflammation, oedema and demyelination in the central nervous system. We present a case of a 15-year-old girl who was diagnosed as having ADEM, as well as detected to be a follow-up case of autoimmune haemolytic anaemia on steroid treatment. She presented with progressive weakness of the right lower limb for the past 4 days. MRI showed multiple subcortical lesions of varying size showing hyperintensities in T2 fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR). The patient responded well to steroid therapy. No residual lesion was found on follow-up. Very few cases have been found with this rare association in the literature. PMID:27268491

  10. Therapeutic Approach to the Management of Pediatric Demyelinating Disease: Multiple Sclerosis and Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Brenton, J Nicholas; Banwell, Brenda L

    2016-01-01

    Acquired pediatric demyelinating diseases manifest acutely with optic neuritis, transverse myelitis, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, or with various other acute deficits in focal or polyfocal areas of the central nervous system. Patients may experience a monophasic illness (as in the case of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis) or one that may manifest as a chronic, relapsing disease [e.g., multiple sclerosis (MS)]. The diagnosis of pediatric MS and other demyelinating disorders of childhood has been facilitated by consensus statements regarding diagnostic definitions. Treatment of pediatric MS has been modeled after data obtained from clinical trials in adult-onset MS. There are now an increasing number of new therapeutic agents for MS, and many will be formally studied for use in pediatric patients. There are important efficacy and safety concerns regarding the use of these therapies in children and young adults. This review will discuss acute management as well as chronic immunotherapies in acquired pediatric demyelination. PMID:26496907

  11. A Systematic Review of Recent Advances in Equine Influenza Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Paillot, Romain

    2014-01-01

    Equine influenza (EI) is a major respiratory disease of horses, which is still causing substantial outbreaks worldwide despite several decades of surveillance and prevention. Alongside quarantine procedures, vaccination is widely used to prevent or limit spread of the disease. The panel of EI vaccines commercially available is probably one of the most varied, including whole inactivated virus vaccines, Immuno-Stimulating Complex adjuvanted vaccines (ISCOM and ISCOM-Matrix), a live attenuated equine influenza virus (EIV) vaccine and a recombinant poxvirus-vectored vaccine. Several other strategies of vaccination are also evaluated. This systematic review reports the advances of EI vaccines during the last few years as well as some of the mechanisms behind the inefficient or sub-optimal response of horses to vaccination. PMID:26344892

  12. Platelet activating factor as a mediator of equine cell locomotion.

    PubMed

    Dawson, J; Lees, P; Sedgwick, A D

    1988-01-01

    Equine polymorphonuclear (PMN) and mononuclear (MN) leucocytes were separated on Percoll gradients and used to study the chemoattractant properties of the polar ether-linked phospholipid, platelet activating factor (PAF). Six concentrations of PAF ranging from 1 ng/ml to 100 micrograms/ml were studied in each of two in vitro assay systems, the agarose microdroplet and a microfilter technique. Very significant (p less than 0.01) increases in the movement of both PMN and MN cells were obtained with most concentrations of PAF. In two instances there was no apparent concentration-response relationship, although the action of PAF was approximately bell-shaped in two others. The possible significance of these findings for equine inflammatory conditions is discussed. PMID:3188378

  13. A Rapid Method for the Diagnosis of Equine Virus Abortion

    PubMed Central

    Correa, W. M.

    1970-01-01

    Smears and imprints were made from the liver of 27 equine fetuses, believed to have aborted as a result of Equine Virus Abortion (EVA) infection. Several different fixatives and staining techniques were employed for the demonstration of typical intra-nuclear inclusion bodies in these preparations, and the following conclusions were reached. Methanol proved to be the best fixative and Pappenheim's panoptic method was the best staining technique, giving good contrast and definition of the inclusion bodies. Cytological methods provided a simple and rapid means of diagnosis, but histological sections provided evidence of lesions which was most useful when inclusion bodies were very difficult to find. However, cytological methods proved better than histological sections for the demonstration of EVA intranuclear inclusion bodies. ImagesFig. 1. PMID:4192198

  14. Myalgic encephalomyelitis: a review with emphasis on key findings in biomedical research

    PubMed Central

    Hooper, M

    2007-01-01

    This review examines research findings in patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis in light of the current debate about this chronic multiple‐symptom, multiorgan, multisystem illness and the conflicting views in medicine. These issues cannot be separated from the political opinions and assertions that conflict with science and medicine, and will be part of this review as they have enormous consequences for scientific and medical research, patients, clinicians, carers and policy makers. PMID:16935967

  15. Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis After Plasmodium Vivax Infection: Case Report and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Sidhu, Jasmeet; Maheshwari, Anu; Gupta, Raju; Devgan, Veena

    2015-01-01

    Acute demyelinating encephalomyelitis (ADEM) usually occurs after viral infections or vaccination. Its occurrence after Plasmodium vivax infection is extremely uncommon. We report the case of an 8-year-old girl who had choreo-athetoid movements and ataxia after recovery from P.vivax infection. Diagnosis of ADEM was made on the basis of magnetic resonance imaging findings. The child responded to corticosteroids with complete neurological recovery. PMID:26266032

  16. Antigenicity and immunogenicity of experimental equine influenza ISCOM vaccines.

    PubMed

    Mumford, J A; Jessett, D; Dunleavy, U; Wood, J; Hannant, D; Sundquist, B; Cook, R F

    1994-07-01

    A comparison of the antigenicity and immunogenicity of ISCOM vaccines prepared from equine influenza viruses H3N8 and H7N7 was made with inactivated whole-virus vaccines containing equivalent amounts of virus haemagglutinin. ISCOMs stimulated superior antibody responses in terms of both amount and duration. As with conventional whole-virus vaccines, the levels of antibody to virus haemagglutinin induced by ISCOMs correlated with protection. PMID:7975864

  17. The microbiome associated with equine periodontitis and oral health.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Rebekah; Lappin, David Francis; Dixon, Padraic Martin; Buijs, Mark Johannes; Zaura, Egija; Crielaard, Wim; O'Donnell, Lindsay; Bennett, David; Brandt, Bernd Willem; Riggio, Marcello Pasquale

    2016-01-01

    Equine periodontal disease is a common and painful condition and its severe form, periodontitis, can lead to tooth loss. Its aetiopathogenesis remains poorly understood despite recent increased awareness of this disorder amongst the veterinary profession. Bacteria have been found to be causative agents of the disease in other species, but current understanding of their role in equine periodontitis is extremely limited. The aim of this study was to use high-throughput sequencing to identify the microbiome associated with equine periodontitis and oral health. Subgingival plaque samples from 24 horses with periodontitis and gingival swabs from 24 orally healthy horses were collected. DNA was extracted from samples, the V3-V4 region of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene amplified by PCR and amplicons sequenced using Illumina MiSeq. Data processing was conducted using USEARCH and QIIME. Diversity analyses were performed with PAST v3.02. Linear discriminant analysis effect size (LEfSe) was used to determine differences between the groups. In total, 1308 OTUs were identified and classified into 356 genera or higher taxa. Microbial profiles at health differed significantly from periodontitis, both in their composition (p < 0.0001, F = 12.24; PERMANOVA) and in microbial diversity (p < 0.001; Mann-Whitney test). Samples from healthy horses were less diverse (1.78, SD 0.74; Shannon diversity index) and were dominated by the genera Gemella and Actinobacillus, while the periodontitis group samples showed higher diversity (3.16, SD 0.98) and were dominated by the genera Prevotella and Veillonella. It is concluded that the microbiomes associated with equine oral health and periodontitis are distinct, with the latter displaying greater microbial diversity. PMID:27080859

  18. Hematopoiesis In The Equine Fetal Liver Suggests Immune Preparedness

    PubMed Central

    Battista, JM; Tallmadge, RL; Stokol, T; Felippe, MJB

    2014-01-01

    We investigated how the equine fetus prepares its pre-immune humoral repertoire for an imminent exposure to pathogens in the neonatal period, particularly how the primary hematopoietic organs are equipped to support B cell hematopoiesis and immunoglobulin (Ig) diversity. We demonstrated that the liver and the bone marrow at approximately 100 days of gestation (DG) are active sites of hematopoiesis based on the expression of signature mRNA (c-KIT, CD34, IL7R, CXCL12, IRF8, PU.1, PAX5, NOTCH1, GATA1, CEBPA) and protein markers (CD34, CD19, IgM, CD3, CD4, CD5, CD8, CD11b, CD172A) of hematopoietic development and leukocyte differentiation molecules, respectively. To verify Ig diversity achieved during the production of B cells, V(D)J segments were sequenced in primary lymphoid organs of the equine fetus and adult horse, revealing that similar heavy chain VDJ segments and CDR3 lengths were most frequently used independent of life stage. In contrast, different lambda light chain segments were predominant in equine fetal compared to adult stage and, surprisingly, the fetus had less restricted use of variable gene segments to construct the lambda chain. Fetal Igs also contained elements of sequence diversity, albeit to a smaller degree than that of the adult horse. Our data suggest that the B cells produced in the liver and bone marrow of the equine fetus generate a wide repertoire of pre-immune Igs for protection, and the more diverse use of different lambda variable gene segments in fetal life may provide the neonate an opportunity to respond to a wider range of antigens at birth. PMID:25179685

  19. MRI findings in eastern equine encephalitis: the "parenthesis" sign.

    PubMed

    Nickerson, Joshua P; Kannabiran, Suma; Burbank, Heather N

    2016-01-01

    Two patients with eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) presented to a tertiary referral center. Both subjects' brain magnetic resonance imaging showed T2/FLAIR (fluid-attenuated inversion recovery) hyperintensities including linear areas of hyperintensity in the external and internal capsules with sparing of the lentiform nuclei. Single case reports of imaging findings in EEE exist with nonspecific patterns of abnormality. We propose that this "( ) parentheses sign" on T2 or FLAIR imaging may distinguish EEE from other processes. PMID:26995574

  20. Osteogenic potential of sorted equine mesenchymal stem cell subpopulations

    PubMed Central

    Radtke, Catherine L.; Nino-Fong, Rodolfo; Rodriguez-Lecompte, Juan Carlos; Esparza Gonzalez, Blanca P.; Stryhn, Henrik; McDuffee, Laurie A.

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to use non-equilibrium gravitational field-flow fractionation (GrFFF), an immunotag-less method of sorting mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), to sort equine muscle tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MMSCs) and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSC) into subpopulations and to carry out assays in order to compare their osteogenic capabilities. Cells from 1 young adult horse were isolated from left semitendinosus muscle tissue and from bone marrow aspirates of the fourth and fifth sternebrae. Aliquots of 800 × 103 MSCs from each tissue source were sorted into 5 fractions using non-equilibrium GrFFF (GrFFF proprietary system). Pooled fractions were cultured and expanded for use in osteogenic assays, including flow cytometry, histochemistry, bone nodule assays, and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) for gene expression of osteocalcin (OCN), RUNX2, and osterix. Equine MMSCs and BMSCs were consistently sorted into 5 fractions that remained viable for use in further osteogenic assays. Statistical analysis confirmed strongly significant upregulation of OCN, RUNX2, and osterix for the BMSC fraction 4 with P < 0.00001. Flow cytometry revealed different cell size and granularity for BMSC fraction 4 and MMSC fraction 2 compared to unsorted controls and other fractions. Histochemisty and bone nodule assays revealed positive staining nodules without differences in average nodule area, perimeter, or stain intensity between tissues or fractions. As there are different subpopulations of MSCs with different osteogenic capacities within equine muscle- and bone marrow-derived sources, these differences must be taken into account when using equine stem cell therapy to induce bone healing in veterinary medicine. PMID:25852225

  1. Special problems of children with myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome and the enteroviral link

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Since 1997, it has been known that myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome constitutes the biggest cause of long‐term sickness leading to absence from school, in both staff and pupils. The scale of the problem in children is substantial, and the pattern of illness in schools suggests a prominent role for viral infection—for example, the clustering of cases. The Dowsett–Colby study of 1997, researching long‐term sickness, reported on a school roll of 333 024 pupils and 27 327 staff, and found a prevalence of long‐term sickness in 70 of 100 000 pupils and 500 of 100 000 staff; 39% of cases were in clusters of three or more. The peak age was 14–16 years. The illness is known to be potentially severe and chronic. In addition, the Tymes Trust has reported that many affected children struggle for recognition of their needs, and are bullied by medical and educational professionals. Children should have time to recover sufficiently before returning to school; sustainable, energy‐efficient and often home‐based education is important here to fulfil legal obligations. Research is needed on viruses that trigger childhood myalgic encephalomyelitis—for example, enteroviruses—and on the neurocognitive defects caused by myalgic encephalomyelitis. We should recognise the value of previous biological research and records of outbreaks, and I recommend that myalgic encephalomyelitis be made notifiable owing to the encephalitic nature of the effects commonly reported in this illness. PMID:16935964

  2. Experimental infection of cows with newly isolated Akabane virus strain (AKAV-7) causing encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyeyeoun; Jeong, Hansol; Park, Surim; Yang, Myeon-Sik; Kim, Jongwon; Bae, Jaehyun; Kwon, Yonghwan; Kim, Min-Su; Oem, Jae-Ku; Lee, Myoung-Heon; Lim, Chae-Woong; Kim, Bumseok

    2016-01-01

    Akabane virus (AKAV), an arthropod-transmitted bunyavirus, is a major cause of congenital abnormalities and encephalomyelitis in ruminants. In 2010, there was a major outbreak of encephalomyelitis in Korea and fifteen AKAV strains, including AKAV-7, were isolated from cows. To identify the neuropathogenicity of AKAV-7, we performed experimental infection of cows. Six-month-old female Korean Holstein dairy cattle were inoculated with AKAV-7 by various routes, including intracerebral (IC), intrasubarachnoid space (IS), subcutaneous (SC) and intravenous (IV); a separate group was vaccinated before intravenous infection. Five of the six cows in the IC group and two of the six cows in the IS group showed clinical signs such as locomotor ataxia and paralysis of the hind limbs. Three of six cows died after IC infection 9-12 days post infection (dpi). Histopathologic changes such as nonsuppurative encephalomyelitis were confirmed in various parts of the central nervous system in the IC, IS and SC groups. Early onset of neutralizing antibodies in the serum and lower viral mRNA levels in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and various tissues in the vaccinated group was noticeable compared to the unvaccinated group (IV group). We suggest that the AKAV vaccine currently used in Korea may be partially effective for protection against AKAV-7 in cows. PMID:27287214

  3. Localization of Bovine Papillomavirus Nucleic Acid in Equine Sarcoids.

    PubMed

    Gaynor, A M; Zhu, K W; Dela Cruz, F N; Affolter, V K; Pesavento, P A

    2016-05-01

    Bovine papillomaviruses (BPV1/BPV2) have long been associated with equine sarcoids; deciphering their contribution has been difficult due to their ubiquitous presence on skin and in the environment, as well as the lack of decent techniques to interrogate their role in pathogenesis. We have developed and characterized an in situ hybridization (ISH) assay that uses a pool of probes complementary to portions of the E5, E6, and E7 genes. This assay is highly sensitive for direct visualization of viral transcript and nucleic acid in routinely processed histopathologic samples. We demonstrate here the visualization of BPV nucleic acid in 18 of 18 equine sarcoids, whereas no detectable viral DNA was present in 15 of 15 nonsarcoid controls by this technique. In nearly 90% (16/18) of the sarcoids, 50% or more of the fibroblastic cell nuclei distributed throughout the neoplasm had detectable hybridization. In the remaining 2 cases, fewer than half of the fibroblastic cells contained detectable hybridization, but viral nucleic acid was also detected in epithelial cells of the sebaceous glands, hair follicles and epidermis. A sensitive ISH assay is an indispensable addition to the molecular methods used to detect viral nucleic acid in tissue. We have used this technique to determine the specific cellular localization and distribution of BPV in a subset of equine sarcoids. PMID:26215759

  4. Equine articular chondrocytes on MACT scaffolds for cartilage defect treatment.

    PubMed

    Nürnberger, S; Meyer, C; Ponomarev, I; Barnewitz, D; Resinger, C; Klepal, W; Albrecht, C; Marlovits, S

    2013-10-01

    Treatment of cartilage defects poses challenging problems in human and veterinary medicine, especially in horses. This study examines the suitability of applying scaffold materials similar to those used for human cartilage regeneration on equine chondrocytes. Chondrocytes gained from biopsies of the talocrural joint of three horses were propagated in 2D culture and grown on two different scaffold materials, hyaluronan (HYAFF®) and collagen (BioGide®), and evaluated by light and electron microscopy. The equine chondrocytes developed well in both types of materials. They were vital and physiologically highly active. On the surface of the scaffolds, they formed cell multilayers. Inside the hyaluronan web, the chondrocytes were regularly distributed and spanned the large scaffold fibre distances by producing their own matrix sheath. Half-circle-like depressions occasionally found in the cell membrane were probably related to movement on the flexible matrix sheath. Inside the dense collagen scaffold, only single cells were found. They passed through the scaffold strands by cell shape adaptation. This study showed that the examined scaffold materials can be used for equine chondrocyte cultivation. Chondrocytes tend to form multilayers on the surface of both, very dense and very porous scaffolds, and have strategies to span between and move in large gaps. PMID:23323689

  5. A brief history of equine private practice in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Marlow, C H B

    2010-12-01

    Horse breeding in South Africa started in 1652, shortly after the 1st European settlement in the Cape. African horsesickness posed a serious problem and after a devastating outbreak of the disease in 1719, horses were largely replaced by oxen for agricultural and transport purposes but remained important from a sporting and military point of view. Examples of the latter are the export of horses for military use to India in the mid-19th century and for use in the Crimean War in 1854, reaching a zenith in the Anglo-Boer war in which an estimated 450 000 horses succumbed. Research and disease control and initially also health services were the responsibility of state veterinary authorities. Private equine practice was pioneered by Jack Boswell in the late 1930s, mainly involving race horses and Thoroughbred studs as part of a general practice. Specialised equine private practices were only initiated 10 years later and developed further during the 2nd half of the 20th century. These developments are described in some detail, including resumes of the veterinarians involved, clinical challenges encountered, scientific advances as well as developments in the equine industry with the emphasis on Thoroughbreds and the racing community. The regulatory environment, especially regarding the import and export of horses, and the role of various organisations and associations are also briefly discussed. PMID:21526732

  6. Low-power laser effects in equine traumatology and postsurgically

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antikas, Theo G.

    1991-05-01

    The present field study on 800 cases of LPL treatments in situ using a preset `blind code' was designed to verify previously published field results; and to check whether a practicing equine vet, trainer, horse owner or rider may obtain beneficial therapeutic effects in traumatology and/or post-surgery, two of the most prevailing modalities in equine sportsmedicine. With the exception of chronic infected traumas, the positive/beneficial response to LPL treatment was verified in a range of 33.3% (infected) to 100% (non-infected, surgical) of the traumas under investigation. The administration of antibiotics, a modality compatible with LPL treatment in infected injuries, increased the beneficial effects of LPL irradiation to 66.7%. This fact indicates that laser irradiation should not be considered a replacement of common therapeutic routine but simply an efficient follow up or parallel treatment that may act synergistically to the benefit of an injured equine athlete. In the case of non-infected surgical trauma, LPL-treatment was additionally found to shorten the post-surgical `inactive' time period or `comeback time' (CBT), thus bringing the horse back into its sportive capacity considerably faster than without LPL irradiation, and at a statistically significant level (p < 0.001).

  7. In vitro evidence for a bacterial pathogenesis of equine laminitis.

    PubMed

    Mungall, B A; Kyaw-Tanner, M; Pollitt, C C

    2001-04-01

    Utilizing an in vitro laminitis explant model, we have investigated how bacterial broth cultures and purified bacterial proteases activate matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and alter structural integrity of cultured equine lamellar hoof explants. Four Gram-positive Streptococcus spp. and three Gram-negative bacteria all induced a dose-dependent activation of MMP-2 and MMP-9 and caused lamellar explants to separate. MMP activation was deemed to have occurred if a specific MMP inhibitor, batimastat, blocked MMP activity and prevented lamellar separation. Thermolysin and streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin B (SpeB) both separated explants dose-dependently but only thermolysin was inhibitable by batimastat or induced MMP activation equivalent to that seen with bacterial broths. Additionally, thermolysin and broth MMP activation appeared to be cell dependent as MMP activation did not occur in isolation. These results suggest the rapid increase in streptococcal species in the caecum and colon observed in parallel with carbohydrate induced equine laminitis may directly cause laminitis via production of exotoxin(s) capable of activating resident MMPs within the lamellar structure. Once activated, these MMPs can degrade key components of the basement membrane (BM) hemidesmosome complex, ultimately separating the BM from the epidermal basal cells resulting in the characteristic laminitis histopathology of hoof lamellae. While many different causative agents have been evaluated in the past, the results of this study provide a unifying aetiological mechanism for the development of carbohydrate induced equine laminitis. PMID:11240100

  8. Vector Competence of Culex (Melanoconion) taeniopus for Equine-Virulent Subtype IE Strains of Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus

    PubMed Central

    Deardorff, Eleanor R.; Weaver, Scott C.

    2010-01-01

    The mosquito Culex (Melanoconion) taeniopus is a proven vector of enzootic Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) subtype IE in Central America. It has been shown to be highly susceptible to infection by this subtype, and conversely to be highly refractory to infection by other VEEV subtypes. During the 1990s in southern coastal Mexico, two VEE epizootics in horses were attributed to subtype IE VEEV. These outbreaks were associated with VEEV strains with an altered infection phenotype for the epizootic mosquito vector, Aedes (Ochlerotatus) taeniorhynchus. To determine the infectivity for the enzootic vector, Culex taeniopus, mosquitoes from a recently established colony were orally exposed to VEEV strains from the outbreak. The equine-virulent strains exhibited high infectivity and transmission potential comparable to a traditional enzootic subtype IE VEEV strain. Thus, subtype IE VEEV strains in Chiapas are able to efficiently infect enzootic and epizootic vectors and cause morbidity and mortality in horses. PMID:20519599

  9. Development of an Equine-Tropic Replication-Competent Lentivirus Assay for Equine Infectious Anemia Virus-Based Lentiviral Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Bannister, Richard; Leroux-Carlucci, Marie A.; Evans, Nerys E.; Miskin, James E.; Mitrophanous, Kyriacos A.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The release of lentiviral vectors for clinical use requires the testing of vector material, production cells, and, if applicable, ex vivo-transduced cells for the presence of replication-competent lentivirus (RCL). Vectors derived from the nonprimate lentivirus equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) have been directly administered to patients in several clinical trials, with no toxicity observed to date. Because EIAV does not replicate in human cells, and because putative RCLs derived from vector components within human vector production cells would most likely be human cell-tropic, we previously developed an RCL assay using amphotropic murine leukemia virus (MLV) as a surrogate positive control and human cells as RCL amplification/indicator cells. Here we report an additional RCL assay that tests for the presence of theoretical “equine-tropic” RCLs. This approach provides further assurance of safety by detecting putative RCLs with an equine cell-specific tropism that might not be efficiently amplified by the human cell-based RCL assay. We tested the ability of accessory gene-deficient EIAV mutant viruses to replicate in a highly permissive equine cell line to direct our choice of a suitable EIAV-derived positive control. In addition, we report for the first time the mathematical rationale for use of the Poisson distribution to calculate minimal infectious dose of positive control virus and for use in monitoring assay positive/spike control failures in accumulating data sets. No RCLs have been detected in Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP)-compliant RCL assays to date, further demonstrating that RCL formation is highly unlikely in contemporary minimal lentiviral vector systems. PMID:23121195

  10. Antibody responses after vaccination against equine influenza in the Republic of Korea in 2013.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun-Ju; Kim, Bo-Hye; Yang, Sunjoo; Choi, Eun-Jin; Shin, Ye-Jin; Song, Jae-Young; Shin, Yeun-Kyung

    2015-11-01

    In this study, antibody responses after equine influenza vaccination were investigated among 1,098 horses in Korea using the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay. The equine influenza viruses, A/equine/South Africa/4/03 (H3N8) and A/equine/Wildeshausen/1/08 (H3N8), were used as antigens in the HI assay. The mean seropositive rates were 91.7% (geometric mean antibody levels (GMT), 56.8) and 93.6% (GMT, 105.2) for A/equine/South Africa/4/03 and A/equine/Wildeshausen/1/08, respectively. Yearlings and two-year-olds in training exhibited lower positive rates (68.1% (GMT, 14) and 61.7% (GMT, 11.9), respectively, with different antigens) than average. Horses two years old or younger may require more attention in vaccination against equine influenza according to the vaccination regime, because they could be a target of the equine influenza virus. PMID:26062436