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Sample records for encoded placental sequestration

  1. Placental Sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum Malaria Parasites Is Mediated by the Interaction Between VAR2CSA and Chondroitin Sulfate A on Syndecan-1.

    PubMed

    Ayres Pereira, Marina; Mandel Clausen, Thomas; Pehrson, Caroline; Mao, Yang; Resende, Mafalda; Daugaard, Mads; Riis Kristensen, Anders; Spliid, Charlotte; Mathiesen, Line; E Knudsen, Lisbeth; Damm, Peter; G Theander, Thor; R Hansson, Stefan; A Nielsen, Morten; Salanti, Ali

    2016-08-01

    During placental malaria, Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocytes sequester in the placenta, causing health problems for both the mother and fetus. The specific adherence is mediated by the VAR2CSA protein, which binds to placental chondroitin sulfate (CS) on chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) in the placental syncytium. However, the identity of the CSPG core protein and the cellular impact of the interaction have remain elusive. In this study we identified the specific CSPG core protein to which the CS is attached, and characterized its exact placental location. VAR2CSA pull-down experiments using placental extracts from whole placenta or syncytiotrophoblast microvillous cell membranes showed three distinct CSPGs available for VAR2CSA adherence. Further examination of these three CSPGs by immunofluorescence and proximity ligation assays showed that syndecan-1 is the main receptor for VAR2CSA mediated placental adherence. We further show that the commonly used placental choriocarcinoma cell line, BeWo, express a different set of proteoglycans than those present on placental syncytiotrophoblast and may not be the most biologically relevant model to study placental malaria. Syncytial fusion of the BeWo cells, triggered by forskolin treatment, caused an increased expression of placental CS-modified syndecan-1. In line with this, we show that rVAR2 binding to placental CS impairs syndecan-1-related Src signaling in forskolin treated BeWo cells, but not in untreated cells. PMID:27556547

  2. Placental Sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum Malaria Parasites Is Mediated by the Interaction Between VAR2CSA and Chondroitin Sulfate A on Syndecan-1

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Yang; Resende, Mafalda; Daugaard, Mads; Riis Kristensen, Anders; Damm, Peter; G. Theander, Thor; R. Hansson, Stefan; Salanti, Ali

    2016-01-01

    During placental malaria, Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocytes sequester in the placenta, causing health problems for both the mother and fetus. The specific adherence is mediated by the VAR2CSA protein, which binds to placental chondroitin sulfate (CS) on chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) in the placental syncytium. However, the identity of the CSPG core protein and the cellular impact of the interaction have remain elusive. In this study we identified the specific CSPG core protein to which the CS is attached, and characterized its exact placental location. VAR2CSA pull-down experiments using placental extracts from whole placenta or syncytiotrophoblast microvillous cell membranes showed three distinct CSPGs available for VAR2CSA adherence. Further examination of these three CSPGs by immunofluorescence and proximity ligation assays showed that syndecan-1 is the main receptor for VAR2CSA mediated placental adherence. We further show that the commonly used placental choriocarcinoma cell line, BeWo, express a different set of proteoglycans than those present on placental syncytiotrophoblast and may not be the most biologically relevant model to study placental malaria. Syncytial fusion of the BeWo cells, triggered by forskolin treatment, caused an increased expression of placental CS-modified syndecan-1. In line with this, we show that rVAR2 binding to placental CS impairs syndecan-1-related Src signaling in forskolin treated BeWo cells, but not in untreated cells. PMID:27556547

  3. The genomes of the South American opossum (Monodelphis domestica) and platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) encode a more complete purine catabolic pathway than placental mammals.

    PubMed

    Keebaugh, Alaine C; Thomas, James W

    2009-09-01

    The end product of purine catabolism varies amongst vertebrates and is a consequence of independent gene inactivation events that have truncated the purine catabolic pathway. Mammals have traditionally been grouped into two classes based on their end product of purine catabolism: most mammals, whose end product is allantoin due to an ancient loss of allantoinase (ALLN), and the hominoids, whose end product is uric acid due to recent inactivations of urate oxidase (UOX). However little is known about purine catabolism in marsupials and monotremes. Here we report the results of a comparative genomics study designed to characterize the purine catabolic pathway in a marsupial, the South American opossum (Monodelphis domestica), and a monotreme, the platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus). We found that both genomes encode a more complete set of genes for purine catabolism than do eutherians and conclude that a near complete purine catabolic pathway was present in the common ancestor of all mammals, and that the loss of ALLN is specific to placental mammals. Our results therefore provide a revised history for gene loss in the purine catabolic pathway and suggest that marsupials and monotremes represent a third class of mammals with respect to their end products of purine catabolism. PMID:20161190

  4. Equine placentation.

    PubMed

    Allen, W R; Stewart, F

    2001-01-01

    A tough, elastic glycoprotein capsule envelops the equine blastocyst between Days 6 and 23 after ovulation. It maintains the spherical configuration of, and provides physical support for, the embryo as it traverses the entire uterine lumen during Days 6-17, propelled by myometrial contractions that are stimulated by pulsatile release of prostaglandin F2alpha and prostaglandin E2. The capsule also accumulates constituents of the exocrine secretions of the endometrial glands ('uterine milk') as nutrients for the mobile embryo as it releases its antiluteolytic maternal recognition-of-pregnancy signal to the whole of the surface of the endometrium. Mobility ceases abruptly on Day 17 with a sudden increase in uterine tonicity that 'fixes' the conceptus at the base of one of the uterine horns. At Day 35, the trophoblast of the spherical conceptus has separated into its invasive and non-invasive components. The former, distinguished as the thickened, annulate chorionic girdle, invades the maternal endometrium to form the unique endometrial cups. These secrete a chorionic gonadotrophin that synergizes with pituitary follicle-stimulating hormone to induce secondary luteal development in the maternal ovaries. The cup cells express foreign fetal antigens that stimulate strong maternal humoral and cell-mediated immune responses, which curtail their lifespan. The non-invasive trophoblast of the allantochorion establishes a stable microvillous contact with the endometrial epithelium around Day 40 and, over the next 100 days, develops a complex multibranched interdigitation with the endometrium to form the microcotyledonary haemotrophic exchange units that cover the entire surface of the diffuse epitheliochorial placenta. Reduction in the effective total area of fetomaternal contact at this placental interface, by competition between twin conceptuses for the limited area of available endometrium, by attachment of the allantochorion to an imperfect endometrium in a mare with

  5. The distinct proteome of placental malaria parasites.

    SciTech Connect

    Fried, Michal; Hixson, Kim K.; Anderson, Lori; Ogata, Yuko; Mutabingwa, Theonest K.; Duffy, Patrick E.

    2007-09-01

    Malaria proteins expressed on the surface of Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocytes (IE) mediate adhesion and are targeted by protective immune responses. During pregnancy, IE sequester in the placenta. Placental IE bind to the molecule chondroitin sulfate A (CSA) and preferentially transcribe the gene that encodes VAR2CSA, a member of the PfEMP1 variant surface antigen family. Over successive pregnancies women develop specific immunity to CSA-binding IE and antibodies to VAR2CSA. We used tandem mass spectrometry together with accurate mass and time tag technology to study IE membrane fractions of placental parasites. VAR2CSA peptides were detected in placental IE and in IE from children, but the MC variant of VAR2CSA was specifically associated with placental IE. We identified six conserved hypothetical proteins with putative TM or signal peptides that were exclusively expressed by the placental IE, and 11 such proteins that were significantly more abundant in placental IE. One of these hypothetical proteins, PFI1785w, is a 42kDa molecule detected by Western blot in parasites infecting pregnant women but not those infecting children.

  6. Terrestrial sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Charlie Byrer

    2008-03-10

    Terrestrial sequestration is the enhancement of CO2 uptake by plants that grow on land and in freshwater and, importantly, the enhancement of carbon storage in soils where it may remain more permanently stored. Terrestrial sequestration provides an opportunity for low-cost CO2 emissions offsets.

  7. Terrestrial sequestration

    ScienceCinema

    Charlie Byrer

    2010-01-08

    Terrestrial sequestration is the enhancement of CO2 uptake by plants that grow on land and in freshwater and, importantly, the enhancement of carbon storage in soils where it may remain more permanently stored. Terrestrial sequestration provides an opportunity for low-cost CO2 emissions offsets.

  8. Ultrasound in placental disorders.

    PubMed

    D'Antonio, Francesco; Bhide, Amar

    2014-04-01

    The definition of placenta previa based on ultrasound findings is more practical, and the traditional definition (implantation of the placenta in the lower uterine segment) needs to be revised. The term 'placenta previa' should only be used when the placental edge overlaps or is within 2 cm of the internal cervical orifice in late pregnancy. If the placental edge is located further than 2 cm but within 3.5 cm from the internal cervical orifice, the placenta should be termed 'low-lying'. Unless the placental edge at least reaches the internal orifice at mid-trimester, symptomatic placenta previa in the third trimester will not be encountered. Caesarean section is the recommended mode of delivery for placenta previa at term. Attempt at vaginal delivery is appropriate for low-lying placenta, but the possibility of post-partum haemorrhage should be kept in mind. The incidence of invasive placentation, such as placenta accrete, has progressively risen in the past 3 decades, possibly as a consequence of increasing caesarean section rates. Ultrasound has a sensitivity of 91% and a specificity of 97% for the identification of all forms of invasive placentation. Chorioangiomas are benign non-trophoblastic placental tumours with excessive vascular proliferation within the stroma of chronic villi. They are usually asymptomatic, although occasionally can be associated with adverse fetal outcomes. Chorioangiomas usually appear as well-circumscribed, rounded, hypo-echoic lesions next to the chorionic surface. Iatrogenic delivery or prenatal intervention are two options, if fetal compromise is present. Prenatal detection leads to a dramatic increase in survival compared with those cases unsuspected antenatally. PMID:24461676

  9. Placental copper transport in the brindled mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Garnica, A.; Bates, J.

    1986-03-01

    Pregnant brindled (brin) mice were injected at 16 or 19 days gestation with 2 doses of CuCl/sub 2/ 6 mcg/g/dose, separated by 12 h, and sacrificed 6 h after the second. The copper conc. in placenta (P) and kidneys (K) of uninjected (UI) brin mice were higher than in UI controls, while conc. in liver (L) and fetal carcass (F) were lower. After injection (I), placental copper conc. increased while the carcass conc. remained unchanged. Brin mouse is a model for the human inborn error of copper metabolism, Menkes syndrome, which is characterized by signs of copper deficiency. These data indicate that metabolism of copper in brin fetus is abnormal, but depressed fetal copper levels cannot be corrected by acute copper dosing because of the sequestration of copper in placenta.

  10. Placental Aromatase Is Deficient in Placental Ischemia and Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Dobierzewska, Aneta; España-Perrot, Pedro P.; Venegas-Araneda, Pía; Guzmán-Rojas, Alejandra M.; González, María I.; Palominos-Rivera, Macarena; Irarrazabal, Carlos E.; Figueroa-Diesel, Horacio; Varas-Godoy, Manuel; Illanes, Sebastián E.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Preeclampsia is a maternal hypertensive disorder with uncertain etiology and a leading cause of maternal and fetal mortality worldwide, causing nearly 40% of premature births delivered before 35 weeks of gestation. The first stage of preeclampsia is characterized by reduction of utero-placental blood flow which is reflected in high blood pressure and proteinuria during the second half of pregnancy. In human placenta androgens derived from the maternal and fetal adrenal glands are converted into estrogens by the enzymatic action of placental aromatase. This implies that alterations in placental steroidogenesis and, subsequently, in the functionality or bioavailability of placental aromatase may be mechanistically involved in the pathophysiology of PE. Methods Serum samples were collected at 32–36 weeks of gestation and placenta biopsies were collected at time of delivery from PE patients (n = 16) and pregnant controls (n = 32). The effect of oxygen tension on placental cells was assessed by incubation JEG–3 cells under 1% and 8% O2 for different time periods, Timed-mated, pregnant New Zealand white rabbits (n = 6) were used to establish an in vivo model of placental ischemia (achieved by ligature of uteroplacental vessels). Aromatase content and estrogens and androgens concentrations were measured. Results The protein and mRNA content of placental aromatase significantly diminished in placentae obtained from preeclamptic patients compared to controls. Similarly, the circulating concentrations of 17-β-estradiol/testosterone and estrone/androstenedione were reduced in preeclamptic patients vs. controls. These data are consistent with a concomitant decrease in aromatase activity. Aromatase content was reduced in response to low oxygen tension in the choriocarcinoma JEG–3 cell line and in rabbit placentae in response to partial ligation of uterine spiral arteries, suggesting that reduced placental aromatase activity in preeclamptic patients may be

  11. Malignant cancer and invasive placentation

    PubMed Central

    D'Souza, Alaric W.; Wagner, Günter P.

    2014-01-01

    Cancer metastasis is an invasive process that involves the transplantation of cells into new environments. Since human placentation is also invasive, hypotheses about a relationship between invasive placentation in eutherian mammals and metastasis have been proposed. The relationship between metastatic cancer and invasive placentation is usually presented in terms of antagonistic pleiotropy. According to this hypothesis, evolution of invasive placentation also established the mechanisms for cancer metastasis. Here, in contrast, we argue that the secondary evolution of less invasive placentation in some mammalian lineages may have resulted in positive pleiotropic effects on cancer survival by lowering malignancy rates. These positive pleiotropic effects would manifest themselves as resistance to cancer cell invasion. To provide a preliminary test of this proposal, we re-analyze data from Priester and Mantel (Occurrence of tumors in domestic animals. Data from 12 United States and Canadian colleges of veterinary medicine. J Natl Cancer Inst 1971;47:1333-44) about malignancy rates in cows, horses, cats and dogs. From our analysis we found that equines and bovines, animals with less invasive placentation, have lower rates of metastatic cancer than felines and canines in skin and glandular epithelial cancers as well as connective tissue sarcomas. We conclude that a link between type of placentation and species-specific malignancy rates is more likely related to derived mechanisms that suppress invasion rather than different degrees of fetal placental aggressiveness. PMID:25324490

  12. [Morphological variability and placental function].

    PubMed

    Malassiné, A

    2001-01-01

    In mammals, the blastocyst defines with the maternal organism, a structure which allows embryonic development during gestation: the placenta. The structure of this organ varies remarkably across species. In this review the different type of placentation have been described in a comparative manner using terms of classification such as: placental materno-fetal interdigitation, matemofetal blood flow interrelationships, layers of the placental interhemal barrier, trophoblast invasiveness and decidual cell reaction, formation of syncytiotrophoblast. The human hemomonochorial placenta is characterized by a strong decidualization of the uterus and a major invasiveness of the extravillous trophoblast. Furthermore, there is a spectrum of placental endocrine activities across species. In some mammals (e.g., mouse and rat) the placenta eclipses the pituitary in the maintenance of ovarian function. In the human and in the sheep, horse, cat and guinea pig, the placenta acquires the ability to substitute for the ovaries in the maintenance of gestation at various time during pregnancy. The human placenta is characterized by a high rate of steroïdogenesis (progesterone and estrogens) and by the production of a primate specific trophoblastic hormone: human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). Recently, it was demonstrated that mutation of many genes in mice results in embryonic mortality or fetal growth restriction, due to defects in placental development. Furthermore, distinct molecular pathways regulate the differentiation of various trophoblast cell subtype of the mouse placenta. An important question is whether or not placental differentiation in other mammals is regulated by the same molecular mechanisms. Due to the striking diversity in placental structure, endocrine function and gene expression, caution must be exercised in extrapolating findings regarding placental function and development from one species to another. PMID:11575143

  13. Placental Growth Factor Administration Abolishes Placental Ischemia-Induced Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Spradley, Frank T; Tan, Adelene Y; Joo, Woo S; Daniels, Garrett; Kussie, Paul; Karumanchi, S Ananth; Granger, Joey P

    2016-04-01

    Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific disorder of new-onset hypertension. Unfortunately, the most effective treatment is early delivery of the fetus and placenta. Placental ischemia appears central to the pathogenesis of preeclampsia because placental ischemia/hypoxia induced in animals by reduced uterine perfusion pressure (RUPP) or in humans stimulates release of hypertensive placental factors into the maternal circulation. The anti-angiogenic factor soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1), which antagonizes and reduces bioavailable vascular endothelial growth factor and placental growth factor (PlGF), is elevated in RUPP rats and preeclampsia. Although PlGF and vascular endothelial growth factor are both natural ligands for sFlt-1, vascular endothelial growth factor also has high affinity to VEGFR2 (Flk-1) causing side effects like edema. PlGF is specific for sFlt-1. We tested the hypothesis that PlGF treatment reduces placental ischemia-induced hypertension by antagonizing sFlt-1 without adverse consequences to the mother or fetus. On gestational day 14, rats were randomized to 4 groups: normal pregnant or RUPP±infusion of recombinant human PlGF (180 μg/kg per day; AG31, a purified, recombinant human form of PlGF) for 5 days via intraperitoneal osmotic minipumps. On day 19, mean arterial blood pressure and plasma sFlt-1 were higher and glomerular filtration rate lower in RUPP than normal pregnant rats. Infusion of recombinant human PlGF abolished these changes seen with RUPP along with reducing oxidative stress. These data indicate that the increased sFlt-1 and reduced PlGF resulting from placental ischemia contribute to maternal hypertension. Our novel finding that recombinant human PlGF abolishes placental ischemia-induced hypertension, without major adverse consequences, suggests a strong therapeutic potential for this growth factor in preeclampsia. PMID:26831193

  14. Abundance of megalin and Dab2 is reduced in syncytiotrophoblast during placental malaria, which may contribute to low birth weight

    PubMed Central

    Lybbert, Jared; Gullingsrud, Justin; Chesnokov, Olga; Turyakira, Eleanor; Dhorda, Mehul; Guerin, Philippe J.; Piola, Patrice; Muehlenbachs, Atis; Oleinikov, Andrew V.

    2016-01-01

    Placental malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum contributes to ~200,000 child deaths annually, mainly due to low birth weight (LBW). Parasitized erythrocyte sequestration and consequent inflammation in the placenta are common attributes of placental malaria. The precise molecular details of placental changes leading to LBW are still poorly understood. We hypothesized that placental malaria may disturb maternofetal exchange of vitamins, lipids, and hormones mediated by the multi-ligand (n ~ 50) scavenging/signaling receptor megalin, which is abundantly expressed in placenta but was not previously analyzed in pregnancy outcomes. We studied abundance of megalin and its intracellular adaptor protein Dab2 by immunofluorescence microscopy in placental biopsies from Ugandan women with (n = 8) and without (n = 20) active placental malaria. We found that: (a) abundances of both megalin (p = 0.01) and Dab2 (p = 0.006) were significantly reduced in brush border of syncytiotrophoblast of infected placentas; (b) amounts of megalin and Dab2 were strongly correlated (Spearman’s r = 0.53, p = 0.003); (c) abundances of megalin and Dab2 (p = 0.046) were reduced in infected placentas from women with LBW deliveries. This study provides first evidence that placental malaria infection is associated with reduced abundance of megalin transport/signaling system and indicate that these changes may contribute to the pathology of LBW. PMID:27072056

  15. Programming placental nutrient transport capacity

    PubMed Central

    Fowden, A L; Ward, J W; Wooding, F P B; Forhead, A J; Constancia, M

    2006-01-01

    Many animal studies and human epidemiological findings have shown that impaired growth in utero is associated with physiological abnormalities in later life and have linked this to tissue programming during suboptimal intrauterine conditions at critical periods of development. However, few of these studies have considered the contribution of the placenta to the ensuing adult phenotype. In mammals, the major determinant of intrauterine growth is the placental nutrient supply, which, in turn, depends on the size, morphology, blood supply and transporter abundance of the placenta and on synthesis and metabolism of nutrients and hormones by the uteroplacental tissues. This review examines the regulation of placental nutrient transfer capacity and the potential programming effects of nutrition and glucocorticoid over-exposure on placental phenotype with particular emphasis on the role of the Igf2 gene in these processes. PMID:16439433

  16. Sonographic spectrum of placental abruption.

    PubMed

    Nyberg, D A; Cyr, D R; Mack, L A; Wilson, D A; Shuman, W P

    1987-01-01

    Fifty-seven cases of placental abruption detected by sonography were retrospectively reviewed. The location of hemorrhage was subchorionic in 46 cases (81%), retroplacental in nine cases (16%), and preplacental in two cases (4%). Subchorionic hematomas were more frequently shown in the 33 patients presenting before 20 menstrual weeks (91%) than in the 24 patients presenting after 20 weeks (67%). The echogenicity of hemorrhage depended on the time the sonogram was performed relative to the onset of symptoms: Acute hemorrhage was hyperechoic to isoechoic compared with the placenta, while resolving hematomas became hypoechoic within 1 week and sonolucent within 2 weeks. Acute hemorrhage was occasionally difficult to distinguish from the adjacent placenta. This occurred in five retroplacental hematomas that showed only an abnormally thick and heterogeneous placenta. Nine cases of placental abruption were initially confused with other mass lesions. Placental abruption causes a wide spectrum of sonographic findings that may be overlooked or misdiagnosed. PMID:3538831

  17. [Chronic placental insufficiency: incidence and causes].

    PubMed

    Fedorova, M V; Mariasheva, N V; Alekseevskiĭ, A V; Kotov, Iu B; Lukashenko, S Iu

    1990-08-01

    This population study has examined the incidence and determinants of placental insufficiency. Predictors of placental dysfunction were ascertained. They included somatic diseases, gestational complications, a positive obstetric and gynecologic history and a series of constitutional factors. Populations of primiparae+- and multigravidae at risk of placental insufficiency were identified. PMID:2260740

  18. Low Fetal Weight is Directly Caused by Sequestration of Parasites and Indirectly by IL-17 and IL-10 Imbalance in the Placenta of Pregnant Mice with Malaria.

    PubMed

    Fitri, Loeki Enggar; Sardjono, Teguh Wahju; Rahmah, Zainabur; Siswanto, Budi; Handono, Kusworini; Dachlan, Yoes Prijatna

    2015-04-01

    The sequestration of infected erythrocytes in the placenta can activate the syncytiotrophoblast to release cytokines that affect the micro-environment and influence the delivery of nutrients and oxygen to fetus. The high level of IL-10 has been reported in the intervillous space and could prevent the pathological effects. There is still no data of Th17 involvement in the pathogenesis of placental malaria. This study was conducted to reveal the influence of placental IL-17 and IL-10 levels on fetal weights in malaria placenta. Seventeen pregnant BALB/C mice were divided into control (8 pregnant mice) and treatment group (9 pregnant mice infected by Plasmodium berghei). Placental specimens stained with hematoxylin and eosin were examined to determine the level of cytoadherence by counting the infected erythrocytes in the intervillous space of placenta. Levels of IL-17 and IL-10 in the placenta were measured using ELISA. All fetuses were weighed by analytical balance. Statistical analysis using Structural Equation Modeling showed that cytoadherence caused an increased level of placental IL-17 and a decreased level of placental IL-10. Cytoadherence also caused low fetal weight. The increased level of placental IL-17 caused low fetal weight, and interestingly low fetal weight was caused by a decrease of placental IL-10. It can be concluded that low fetal weight in placental malaria is directly caused by sequestration of the parasites and indirectly by the local imbalance of IL-17 and IL-10 levels. PMID:25925177

  19. Placental Adaptations in Growth Restriction

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Song; Regnault, Timothy R.H.; Barker, Paige L.; Botting, Kimberley J.; McMillen, Isabella C.; McMillan, Christine M.; Roberts, Claire T.; Morrison, Janna L.

    2015-01-01

    The placenta is the primary interface between the fetus and mother and plays an important role in maintaining fetal development and growth by facilitating the transfer of substrates and participating in modulating the maternal immune response to prevent immunological rejection of the conceptus. The major substrates required for fetal growth include oxygen, glucose, amino acids and fatty acids, and their transport processes depend on morphological characteristics of the placenta, such as placental size, morphology, blood flow and vascularity. Other factors including insulin-like growth factors, apoptosis, autophagy and glucocorticoid exposure also affect placental growth and substrate transport capacity. Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is often a consequence of insufficiency, and is associated with a high incidence of perinatal morbidity and mortality, as well as increased risk of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases in later life. Several different experimental methods have been used to induce placental insufficiency and IUGR in animal models and a range of factors that regulate placental growth and substrate transport capacity have been demonstrated. While no model system completely recapitulates human IUGR, these animal models allow us to carefully dissect cellular and molecular mechanisms to improve our understanding and facilitate development of therapeutic interventions. PMID:25580812

  20. Intravital Placenta Imaging Reveals Microcirculatory Dynamics Impact on Sequestration and Phagocytosis of Plasmodium-Infected Erythrocytes

    PubMed Central

    de Moraes, Luciana Vieira; Tadokoro, Carlos Eduardo; Gómez-Conde, Iván; Olivieri, David N.; Penha-Gonçalves, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Malaria in pregnancy is exquisitely aggressive, causing a range of adverse maternal and fetal outcomes prominently linked to Plasmodium-infected erythrocyte cytoadherence to fetal trophoblast. To elucidate the physiopathology of infected erythrocytes (IE) sequestration in the placenta we devised an experimental system for intravital placental examination of P. berghei-infected mice. BALB/c females were mated to C57Bl/6 CFP+ male mice and infected with GFP+ P. berghei IE, and at gestational day 18, placentas were exposed for time-lapse imaging acquisition under two-photon microscopy. Real-time images and quantitative measurements revealed that trophoblast conformational changes transiently restrain blood flow in the mouse placental labyrinth. The complex dynamics of placental microcirculation promotes IE accumulation in maternal blood spaces with low blood flow and allows the establishment of stable IE-trophoblast contacts. Further, we show that the fate of sequestered IE includes engulfment by both macrophagic and trophoblastic fetal-derived cells. These findings reinforce the current paradigm that IE interact with the trophoblast and provide definitive evidence on two novel pathogenesis mechanisms: (1) trophoblast layer controls placental microcirculation promoting IE sequestration; and (2) fetal-derived placental cells engulf sequestered IE. PMID:23382682

  1. Intro to Carbon Sequestration

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2010-01-08

    NETL's Carbon Sequestration Program is helping to develop technologies to capture, purify, and store carbon dioxide (CO2) in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions without adversely influencing energy use or hindering economic growth. Carbon sequestration technologies capture and store CO2 that would otherwise reside in the atmosphere for long periods of time.

  2. Intro to Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    2008-03-06

    NETL's Carbon Sequestration Program is helping to develop technologies to capture, purify, and store carbon dioxide (CO2) in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions without adversely influencing energy use or hindering economic growth. Carbon sequestration technologies capture and store CO2 that would otherwise reside in the atmosphere for long periods of time.

  3. Parity and Placental Infection Affect Antibody Responses against Plasmodium falciparum during Pregnancy▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Mayor, Alfredo; Rovira-Vallbona, Eduard; Machevo, Sonia; Bassat, Quique; Aguilar, Ruth; Quintó, Llorenç; Jiménez, Alfons; Sigauque, Betuel; Dobaño, Carlota; Kumar, Sanjeev; Singh, Bijender; Gupta, Puneet; Chauhan, Virander S.; Chitnis, Chetan E.; Alonso, Pedro L.; Menéndez, Clara

    2011-01-01

    Women are at higher risk of Plasmodium falciparum infection when pregnant. The decreasing risk of malaria with subsequent pregnancies is attributed to parity-dependent acquisition of antibodies against placental parasites expressing variant surface antigens, VAR2CSA, that mediate placental sequestration through adhesion to chondroitin sulfate A (CSA). However, modulation of immunity during pregnancy may also contribute to increase the risk of malaria. We compared antibody responses among 30 Mozambican primigravidae and 60 multigravidae at delivery, 40 men, and 40 children. IgG levels were measured against the surface antigens of erythrocytes infected with P. falciparum isolated from 12 pregnant women (4 placental and 8 peripheral blood isolates) and 26 nonpregnant hosts. We also measured IgG levels against merozoite recombinant antigens and total IgG. Placental P. falciparum infection was associated with increased levels of total IgG as well as IgG levels against merozoite antigens and parasite isolates from pregnant and nonpregnant hosts. We therefore stratified comparisons of antibody levels by placental infection. Compared to multigravidae, uninfected primigravidae had lower total IgG as well as lower levels of IgGs against peripheral blood isolates from both pregnant and nonpregnant hosts. These differences were not explained by use of bed nets, season at delivery, neighborhood of residence, or age. Compared to men, infected primigravidae had higher levels of IgGs against isolates from pregnant women and CSA-binding lines but not against other isolates, supporting the concept of a pregnancy-specific development of immunity to these parasite variants. Results of this study show that parity and placental infection can modulate immune responses during pregnancy against malaria parasites. PMID:21300778

  4. Placental Origins of Chronic Disease.

    PubMed

    Burton, Graham J; Fowden, Abigail L; Thornburg, Kent L

    2016-10-01

    Epidemiological evidence links an individual's susceptibility to chronic disease in adult life to events during their intrauterine phase of development. Biologically this should not be unexpected, for organ systems are at their most plastic when progenitor cells are proliferating and differentiating. Influences operating at this time can permanently affect their structure and functional capacity, and the activity of enzyme systems and endocrine axes. It is now appreciated that such effects lay the foundations for a diverse array of diseases that become manifest many years later, often in response to secondary environmental stressors. Fetal development is underpinned by the placenta, the organ that forms the interface between the fetus and its mother. All nutrients and oxygen reaching the fetus must pass through this organ. The placenta also has major endocrine functions, orchestrating maternal adaptations to pregnancy and mobilizing resources for fetal use. In addition, it acts as a selective barrier, creating a protective milieu by minimizing exposure of the fetus to maternal hormones, such as glucocorticoids, xenobiotics, pathogens, and parasites. The placenta shows a remarkable capacity to adapt to adverse environmental cues and lessen their impact on the fetus. However, if placental function is impaired, or its capacity to adapt is exceeded, then fetal development may be compromised. Here, we explore the complex relationships between the placental phenotype and developmental programming of chronic disease in the offspring. Ensuring optimal placentation offers a new approach to the prevention of disorders such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and obesity, which are reaching epidemic proportions. PMID:27604528

  5. Macroautophagic cargo sequestration assays.

    PubMed

    Seglen, Per O; Luhr, Morten; Mills, Ian G; Sætre, Frank; Szalai, Paula; Engedal, Nikolai

    2015-03-01

    Macroautophagy, the process responsible for bulk sequestration and lysosomal degradation of cytoplasm, is often monitored by means of the autophagy-related marker protein LC3. This protein is linked to the phagophoric membrane by lipidation during the final steps of phagophore assembly, and it remains associated with autophagic organelles until it is degraded in the lysosomes. The transfer of LC3 from cytosol to membranes and organelles can be measured by immunoblotting or immunofluorescence microscopy, but these assays provide no information about functional macroautophagic activity, i.e., whether the phagophores are actually engaged in the sequestration of cytoplasmic cargo and enclosing this cargo into sealed autophagosomes. Moreover, accumulating evidence suggest that macroautophagy can proceed independently of LC3. There is therefore a need for alternative methods, preferably effective cargo sequestration assays, which can monitor actual macroautophagic activity. Here, we provide an overview of various approaches that have been used over the last four decades to measure macroautophagic sequestration activity in mammalian cells. Particular emphasis is given to the so-called "LDH sequestration assay", which measures the transfer of the autophagic cargo marker enzyme LDH (lactate dehydrogenase) from the cytosol to autophagic vacuoles. The LDH sequestration assay was originally developed to measure macroautophagic activity in primary rat hepatocytes. Subsequently, it has found use in several other cell types, and in this article we demonstrate a further validation and simplification of the method, and show that it is applicable to several cell lines that are commonly used to study autophagy. PMID:25576638

  6. Microparasites and Placental Invasiveness in Eutherian Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Capellini, Isabella; Nunn, Charles L.; Barton, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Placental invasiveness—the number of maternal tissue layers separating fetal tissues from maternal blood—is variable across mammalian species. Although this diversity is likely to be functionally important, variation in placental invasiveness remains unexplained. Here we test the hypothesis that increased risk of transplacental transmission of pathogens from the mother to the fetus promotes the evolution of non-invasive placentation, the most likely derived condition in eutherian mammals. Specifically, we predict that non-invasive placentation is associated with increased microparasite species richness relative to more invasive placental types, based on the assumption that higher numbers of microparasites in a population reflects greater risk of transplacental transmission to fetuses. As predicted, higher bacteria species richness is associated with non-invasive placentation. Protozoa species richness, however, shows the opposite pattern. Because invasive placentae facilitate the transfer of maternal antibodies to the fetus, we propose that the ancestral condition of invasive placentation is retained under selection for protection of newborns from higher risk of postnatal protozoan infection. Hence, our findings suggest that a tradeoff exists between protection against bacterial infection prenatally and protozoan infection postnatally. Future studies are needed to investigate how maternal prevalence of infection and the relative pre- versus postnatal risk of fetal infection by different microparasite groups vary among mammalian hosts in relation to placental invasiveness. PMID:26168031

  7. Placentation in different mammalian species.

    PubMed

    Chavatte-Palmer, Pascale; Tarrade, Anne

    2016-06-01

    The placenta is a complex, transient organ associated with viviparity, which is located at the interface of the dam and fetus during pregnancy. It is formed after attachment, or implantation, of the blastocyst on the uterine lining and derives from complex cellular and molecular interactions between uterine and embryonic tissues. In mammals, there are many forms of placentation but this organ has the same function in all species: it is responsible for orchestrating materno-fetal exchanges, together with endocrine and immunological functions. PMID:27155775

  8. Association between calcifying nanoparticles and placental calcification

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yanan; Zhang, Dechun; Lu, He; Luo, Shuang; Shen, Xuecheng

    2012-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to examine the possible contribution of calcifying nanoparticles to the pathogenesis of placental calcification. Methods Calcified placental tissues and distal tissue samples were collected from 36 confirmed placental calcification cases. In addition, 20 normal placental tissue samples were obtained as a control group. All the tissue samples were cultured using special nanobacterial culture methods. The cultured calcifying nanoparticles were examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and their growth was monitored by optical density (OD) at a wavelength of 650 nm. 16S rRNA gene expression of the cultured calcifying nanoparticles was also isolated and sequenced. Results Novel calcifying nanoparticles wrapped with electron-dense shells between 50 nm to 500 nm in diameter were observed in the extracellular matrix of calcified placental tissues. They were detected in placental villi and hydroxyapatite crystals, and contained “nucleic acid-like materials”. After isolation and four weeks of culture, 28 of 36 calcified placental tissue samples showed white granular precipitates attached to the bottom of the culture tubes. OD650 measurements indicated that the precipitates from the calcified placental tissues were able to grow in culture, whereas no such precipitates from the control tissues were observed. The 16S rRNA genes were isolated from the cultured calcifying nanoparticles and calcified placental tissues, and their gene sequencing results implied that calcifying nanoparticles were novel nanobacteria (GenBank JF823648). Conclusion Our results suggest that these novel calcifying nanoparticles may play a role in placental calcification. PMID:22615531

  9. l-Methionine Placental Uptake

    PubMed Central

    Araújo, João R.; Correia-Branco, Ana; Ramalho, Carla; Gonçalves, Pedro; Pinho, Maria J.; Keating, Elisa

    2013-01-01

    Our aim was to investigate the influence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and GDM-associated conditions upon the placental uptake of 14C-l-methionine (14C-l-Met). The 14C-l-Met uptake by human trophoblasts (TBs) obtained from normal pregnancies (normal trophoblast [NTB] cells) is mainly system l-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1 [L])-mediated, although a small contribution of system y+LAT2 is also present. Comparison of 14C-l-Met uptake by NTB and by human TBs obtained from GDM pregnancies (diabetic trophoblast [DTB] cells) reveals similar kinetics, but a contribution of systems A, LAT2, and b0+ and a greater contribution of system y+LAT1 appears to exist in DTB cells. Short-term exposure to insulin and long-term exposure to high glucose, tumor necrosis factor-α, and leptin decrease 14C-l-Met uptake in a human TB (Bewo) cell line. The effect of leptin was dependent upon phosphoinositide 3-kinase, extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK/MEK 1/2), and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. In conclusion, GDM does not quantitatively alter 14C-l-Met placental uptake, although it changes the nature of transporters involved in that process. PMID:23653387

  10. Complement Activation in Placental Malaria

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Chloe R.; Tran, Vanessa; Kain, Kevin C.

    2015-01-01

    Sixty percent of all pregnancies worldwide occur in malaria endemic regions. Pregnant women are at greater risk of malaria infection than their non-pregnant counterparts and have a higher risk of adverse birth outcomes including low birth weight resulting from intrauterine growth restriction and/or preterm birth. The complement system plays an essential role in placental and fetal development as well as the host innate immune response to malaria infection. Excessive or dysregulated complement activation has been associated with the pathobiology of severe malaria and with poor pregnancy outcomes, dependent and independent of infection. Here we review the role of complement in malaria and pregnancy and discuss its part in mediating altered placental angiogenesis, malaria-induced adverse birth outcomes, and disruptions to the in utero environment with possible consequences on fetal neurodevelopment. A detailed understanding of the mechanisms underlying adverse birth outcomes, and the impact of maternal malaria infection on fetal neurodevelopment, may lead to biomarkers to identify at-risk pregnancies and novel therapeutic interventions to prevent these complications. PMID:26733992

  11. Nomenclature and placental mammal phylogeny

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    An issue arising from recent progress in establishing the placental mammal Tree of Life concerns the nomenclature of high-level clades. Fortunately, there are now several well-supported clades among extant mammals that require unambiguous, stable names. Although the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature does not apply above the Linnean rank of family, and while consensus on the adoption of competing systems of nomenclature does not yet exist, there is a clear, historical basis upon which to arbitrate among competing names for high-level mammalian clades. Here, we recommend application of the principles of priority and stability, as laid down by G.G. Simpson in 1945, to discriminate among proposed names for high-level taxa. We apply these principles to specific cases among placental mammals with broad relevance for taxonomy, and close with particular emphasis on the Afrotherian family Tenrecidae. We conclude that no matter how reconstructions of the Tree of Life change in years to come, systematists should apply new names reluctantly, deferring to those already published and maximizing consistency with existing nomenclature. PMID:20406454

  12. RANGELAND SEQUESTRATION POTENTIAL ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Lee Spangler; George F. Vance; Gerald E. Schuman; Justin D. Derner

    2012-03-31

    Rangelands occupy approximately half of the world's land area and store greater than 10% of the terrestrial biomass carbon and up to 30% of the global soil organic carbon. Although soil carbon sequestration rates are generally low on rangelands in comparison to croplands, increases in terrestrial carbon in rangelands resulting from management can account for significant carbon sequestration given the magnitude of this land resource. Despite the significance rangelands can play in carbon sequestration, our understanding remains limited. Researchers conducted a literature review to identify sustainably management practices that conserve existing rangeland carbon pools, as well as increase or restore carbon sequestration potentials for this type of ecosystem. The research team also reviewed the impact of grazing management on rangeland carbon dynamics, which are not well understood due to heterogeneity in grassland types. The literature review on the impact of grazing showed a wide variation of results, ranging from positive to negative to no response. On further review, the intensity of grazing appears to be a major factor in controlling rangeland soil organic carbon dynamics. In 2003, researchers conducted field sampling to assess the effect of several drought years during the period 1993-2002. Results suggested that drought can significantly impact rangeland soil organic carbon (SOC) levels, and therefore, carbon sequestration. Resampling was conducted in 2006; results again suggested that climatic conditions may have overridden management effects on SOC due to the ecological lag of the severe drought of 2002. Analysis of grazing practices during this research effort suggested that there are beneficial effects of light grazing compared to heavy grazing and non-grazing with respect to increased SOC and nitrogen contents. In general, carbon storage in rangelands also increases with increased precipitation, although researchers identified threshold levels of

  13. A stochastic model for early placental development†

    PubMed Central

    Cotter, Simon L.; Klika, Václav; Kimpton, Laura; Collins, Sally; Heazell, Alexander E. P.

    2014-01-01

    In the human, placental structure is closely related to placental function and consequent pregnancy outcome. Studies have noted abnormal placental shape in small-for-gestational-age infants which extends to increased lifetime risk of cardiovascular disease. The origins and determinants of placental shape are incompletely understood and are difficult to study in vivo. In this paper, we model the early development of the human placenta, based on the hypothesis that this is driven by a chemoattractant effect emanating from proximal spiral arteries in the decidua. We derive and explore a two-dimensional stochastic model, and investigate the effects of loss of spiral arteries in regions near to the cord insertion on the shape of the placenta. This model demonstrates that disruption of spiral arteries can exert profound effects on placental shape, particularly if this is close to the cord insertion. Thus, placental shape reflects the underlying maternal vascular bed. Abnormal placental shape may reflect an abnormal uterine environment, predisposing to pregnancy complications. Through statistical analysis of model placentas, we are able to characterize the probability that a given placenta grew in a disrupted environment, and even able to distinguish between different disruptions. PMID:24850904

  14. Placental Genome and Maternal-Placental Genetic Interactions: A Genome-Wide and Candidate Gene Association Study of Placental Abruption

    PubMed Central

    Denis, Marie; Enquobahrie, Daniel A.; Tadesse, Mahlet G.; Gelaye, Bizu; Sanchez, Sixto E.; Salazar, Manuel; Ananth, Cande V.; Williams, Michelle A.

    2014-01-01

    While available evidence supports the role of genetics in the pathogenesis of placental abruption (PA), PA-related placental genome variations and maternal-placental genetic interactions have not been investigated. Maternal blood and placental samples collected from participants in the Peruvian Abruptio Placentae Epidemiology study were genotyped using Illumina’s Cardio-Metabochip platform. We examined 118,782 genome-wide SNPs and 333 SNPs in 32 candidate genes from mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative phosphorylation pathways in placental DNA from 280 PA cases and 244 controls. We assessed maternal-placental interactions in the candidate gene SNPS and two imprinted regions (IGF2/H19 and C19MC). Univariate and penalized logistic regression models were fit to estimate odds ratios. We examined the combined effect of multiple SNPs on PA risk using weighted genetic risk scores (WGRS) with repeated ten-fold cross-validations. A multinomial model was used to investigate maternal-placental genetic interactions. In placental genome-wide and candidate gene analyses, no SNP was significant after false discovery rate correction. The top genome-wide association study (GWAS) hits were rs544201, rs1484464 (CTNNA2), rs4149570 (TNFRSF1A) and rs13055470 (ZNRF3) (p-values: 1.11e-05 to 3.54e-05). The top 200 SNPs of the GWAS overrepresented genes involved in cell cycle, growth and proliferation. The top candidate gene hits were rs16949118 (COX10) and rs7609948 (THRB) (p-values: 6.00e-03 and 8.19e-03). Participants in the highest quartile of WGRS based on cross-validations using SNPs selected from the GWAS and candidate gene analyses had a 8.40-fold (95% CI: 5.8–12.56) and a 4.46-fold (95% CI: 2.94–6.72) higher odds of PA compared to participants in the lowest quartile. We found maternal-placental genetic interactions on PA risk for two SNPs in PPARG (chr3∶12313450 and chr3∶12412978) and maternal imprinting effects for multiple SNPs in the C19MC and IGF2/H19 regions

  15. Briefing on geological sequestration

    EPA Science Inventory

    Geological sequestration (GS) is generally recognized as the injection and long-term (e.g., hundreds to thousands of years) trapping of gaseous, liquid or supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) in subsurface media – primarily saline formations, depleted or nearly depleted oil and gas...

  16. Encoding Dictionaries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ide, Nancy

    1995-01-01

    Describes problems in devising a Text Encoding Initiative (TEI) encoding format for dictionaries. Asserts that the high degree of structuring and compression of information are among the most complex text types treated in the TEI. Concludes that the source of some TEI problems lies in the design of Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML). (CFR)

  17. Comparative aspects of trophoblast development and placentation.

    PubMed

    Carter, Anthony M; Enders, Allen C

    2004-07-01

    Based on the number of tissues separating maternal from fetal blood, placentas are classified as epitheliochorial, endotheliochorial or hemochorial. We review the occurrence of these placental types in the various orders of eutherian mammals within the framework of the four superorders identified by the techniques of molecular phylogenetics. The superorder Afrotheria diversified in ancient Africa and its living representatives include elephants, sea cows, hyraxes, aardvark, elephant shrews and tenrecs. Xenarthra, comprising armadillos, anteaters and sloths, diversified in South America. All placentas examined from members of these two oldest superorders are either endotheliochorial or hemochorial. The superorder Euarchontoglires includes two sister groups, Glires and Euarchonta. The former comprises rodents and lagomorphs, which typically have hemochorial placentas. The most primitive members of Euarchonta, the tree shrews, have endotheliochorial placentation. Flying lemurs and all higher primates have hemochorial placentas. However, the lemurs and lorises are exceptional among primates in having epitheliochorial placentation. Laurasiatheria, the last superorder to arise, includes several orders with epitheliochorial placentation. These comprise whales, camels, pigs, ruminants, horses and pangolins. In contrast, nearly all carnivores have endotheliochorial placentation, whilst bats have endotheliochorial or hemochorial placentas. Also included in Laurasiatheria are a number of insectivores that have many conserved morphological characters; none of these has epitheliochorial placentation. Consideration of placental type in relation to the findings of molecular phylogenetics suggests that the likely path of evolution in Afrotheria was from endotheliochorial to hemochorial placentation. This is also a likely scenario for Xenarthra and the bats. We argue that a definitive epitheliochorial placenta is a secondary specialization and that it evolved twice, once in the

  18. Evidence of Placental Hemorrhage and Preterm Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Gargano, Julia Warner; Holzman, Claudia B.; Senagore, Patricia K.; Reuss, M. Lynne; Pathak, Dorothy R.; Williams, Michelle A.; Fisher, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    Objective to evaluate evidence of placental hemorrhage (PH) obtained through maternal interviews, patient charts, and placental pathology examinations as potential indicators of a “bleeding pathway” to preterm delivery (PTD). Design Prospective cohort Setting Fifty-two clinics in five communities in Michigan, USA (1998–2004) Population A subset (N=996) of cohort participants with complete placental pathology data Methods First trimester bleeding and placental abruption were ascertained by mid-trimester interviews and chart review, respectively. Disc-impacting blood clot was defined as a gross placental examination finding of a blood clot impacting adjacent tissue. Microscopic hemorrhage was defined as “high” (top quintile) scores on an aggregate measure of placental pathology findings suggestive of atypical maternal vessel hemorrhage. These four PH indicators were compared with one another and with risk of PTD assessed by logistic regression analyses. Main Outcome Measures PTD and PTD subtypes (i.e., <35 weeks, 35–36 weeks; spontaneous, medically indicated) compared with term deliveries. Results Placental abruption cases had 2.3 to 5.5-fold increased odds of the other 3 PH indicators. Disc-impacting blood clots and microscopic hemorrhage were associated with one another (OR=4.6), but not with first trimester bleeding. In a multivariable model that included all four PH indicators and confounders, risk of PTD <35 weeks was elevated with first trimester bleeding (OR=1.9 (1.0, 3.4)), placental abruption (OR=5.2 (1.7, 16.2)), disc-impacting blood clots (OR=2.3 (1.0, 5.0)); and microscopic hemorrhage (OR=2.4 (1.4, 4.2)). Conclusions Multiple clinical and subclinical PH indicators are associated with PTD, particularly early PTD. PMID:20074262

  19. Technical comment on "The placental mammal ancestor and the post-K-Pg radiation of placentals".

    PubMed

    Springer, Mark S; Meredith, Robert W; Teeling, Emma C; Murphy, William J

    2013-08-01

    O'Leary et al. (Research Article, 8 February 2013, p. 662) examined mammalian relationships and divergence times and concluded that a single placental ancestor crossed the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) boundary. This conclusion relies on phylogenetic analyses that fail to discriminate between homology and homoplasy and further implies virus-like rates of nucleotide substitution in early Paleocene placentals. PMID:23929967

  20. Congenital neuroblastoma with placental involvement.

    PubMed

    Kume, Ayako; Morikawa, Teppei; Ogawa, Makiko; Yamashita, Aki; Yamaguchi, Shunichi; Fukayama, Masashi

    2014-01-01

    We describe an extremely rare case of congenital neuroblastoma with placental involvement. A fetus with a left abdominal mass detected during ultrasonography at 23 weeks' gestation developed hydrops fetalis by 26 weeks' gestation. The mother developed hypertension at 26 5/7 weeks' gestation. Based on a clinical diagnosis of pregnancy-induced hypertension, labor was induced at 26 6/7 weeks. However, intrauterine fetal death was diagnosed during delivery. Postmortern examination revealed a solid tumor at the site of the left adrenal gland. Histological examination of the tumor revealed dense proliferation of small round tumor cells with sparse cytoplasm and hyperchromatic nuclei. Some tumor-cell complexes contained abundant neurofibrils and Hormer-Wright rosettes were observed. A diagnosis of neuroblastoma of the left adrenal gland was made. The liver was markedly enlarged and was extensively replaced by neuroblastoma cells. In addition, small nests of tumor cells were detected in the blood vessels of various organs including the heart, lung, spleen, kidneys, stomach, small and large intestine, thyroid gland, testis, spinal cord, and bone marrow. Histological examination of the enlarged placenta revealed numerous neuroblastoma cells in the villous fetal capillary spaces. The present case was unusual in that the tumor cells were found not only in the chorionic villi, but also in the intervillous space of the maternal vascular system. However, there was no clinical evidence of maternal metastasis. PMID:25550872

  1. Placentomegaly and placental mesenchymal dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Rohilla, Minakshi; Siwatch, Sujata; Jain, Vanita; Nijhawan, Raje

    2012-01-01

    A 23-year-old primigravida presented to the labour ward at 37 weeks gestation referred with intrauterine growth restriction, oligohydramnios and placentomegaly. Differential diagnoses of placentomegaly were considered. Her antenatal blood screening tests were normal. There were no fetal malformations. However, triple screen and fetal karyotype were not done as patient presented late in pregnancy. The patient soon went into spontaneous labour and delivered a girl weighing 2.15 kg with a normal Apgar score. The cord was long and twisted; placenta was bulky, 1.7 kg, with prominent grape-like vesicles involving whole placenta with a rim of normal placenta at the periphery. Microscopy showed some areas of multiple villi with marked hydropic changes and myxoid degeneration, preserved vasculature and no trophoblastic proliferation. Placental mesenchymal dysplasia was thus diagnosed. The baby had no evidence of Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. The child is now 3 years old with normal development and is doing well. PMID:23266781

  2. Mosaic retroposon insertion patterns in placental mammals

    PubMed Central

    Churakov, Gennady; Kriegs, Jan Ole; Baertsch, Robert; Zemann, Anja; Brosius, Jürgen; Schmitz, Jürgen

    2009-01-01

    One and a half centuries after Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace outlined our current understanding of evolution, a new scientific era is dawning that enables direct observations of genetic variation. However, pure sequence-based molecular attempts to resolve the basal origin of placental mammals have so far resulted only in apparently conflicting hypotheses. By contrast, in the mammalian genomes where they were highly active, the insertion of retroelements and their comparative insertion patterns constitute a neutral, virtually homoplasy-free archive of evolutionary histories. The “presence” of a retroelement at an orthologous genomic position in two species indicates their common ancestry in contrast to its “absence” in more distant species. To resolve the placental origin controversy we extracted ∼2 million potentially phylogenetically informative, retroposon-containing loci from representatives of the major placental mammalian lineages and found highly significant evidence challenging all current single hypotheses of their basal origin. The Exafroplacentalia hypothesis (Afrotheria as the sister group to all remaining placentals) is significantly supported by five retroposon insertions, the Epitheria hypothesis (Xenarthra as the sister group to all remaining placentals) by nine insertion patterns, and the Atlantogenata hypothesis (a monophyletic clade comprising Xenarthra and Afrotheria as the sister group to Boreotheria comprising all remaining placentals) by eight insertion patterns. These findings provide significant support for a “soft” polytomy of the major mammalian clades. Ancestral successive hybridization events and/or incomplete lineage sorting associated with short speciation intervals are viable explanations for the mosaic retroposon insertion patterns of recent placental mammals and for the futile search for a clear root dichotomy. PMID:19261842

  3. Mosaic retroposon insertion patterns in placental mammals.

    PubMed

    Churakov, Gennady; Kriegs, Jan Ole; Baertsch, Robert; Zemann, Anja; Brosius, Jürgen; Schmitz, Jürgen

    2009-05-01

    One and a half centuries after Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace outlined our current understanding of evolution, a new scientific era is dawning that enables direct observations of genetic variation. However, pure sequence-based molecular attempts to resolve the basal origin of placental mammals have so far resulted only in apparently conflicting hypotheses. By contrast, in the mammalian genomes where they were highly active, the insertion of retroelements and their comparative insertion patterns constitute a neutral, virtually homoplasy-free archive of evolutionary histories. The "presence" of a retroelement at an orthologous genomic position in two species indicates their common ancestry in contrast to its "absence" in more distant species. To resolve the placental origin controversy we extracted approximately 2 million potentially phylogenetically informative, retroposon-containing loci from representatives of the major placental mammalian lineages and found highly significant evidence challenging all current single hypotheses of their basal origin. The Exafroplacentalia hypothesis (Afrotheria as the sister group to all remaining placentals) is significantly supported by five retroposon insertions, the Epitheria hypothesis (Xenarthra as the sister group to all remaining placentals) by nine insertion patterns, and the Atlantogenata hypothesis (a monophyletic clade comprising Xenarthra and Afrotheria as the sister group to Boreotheria comprising all remaining placentals) by eight insertion patterns. These findings provide significant support for a "soft" polytomy of the major mammalian clades. Ancestral successive hybridization events and/or incomplete lineage sorting associated with short speciation intervals are viable explanations for the mosaic retroposon insertion patterns of recent placental mammals and for the futile search for a clear root dichotomy. PMID:19261842

  4. Co2 geological sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Tianfu

    2004-11-18

    Human activities are increasingly altering the Earth's climate. A particular concern is that atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) may be rising fast because of increased industrialization. CO{sub 2} is a so-called ''greenhouse gas'' that traps infrared radiation and may contribute to global warming. Scientists project that greenhouse gases such as CO{sub 2} will make the arctic warmer, which would melt glaciers and raise sea levels. Evidence suggests that climate change may already have begun to affect ecosystems and wildlife around the world. Some animal species are moving from one habitat to another to adapt to warmer temperatures. Future warming is likely to exceed the ability of many species to migrate or adjust. Human production of CO{sub 2} from fossil fuels (such as at coal-fired power plants) is not likely to slow down soon. It is urgent to find somewhere besides the atmosphere to put these increased levels of CO{sub 2}. Sequestration in the ocean and in soils and forests are possibilities, but another option, sequestration in geological formations, may also be an important solution. Such formations could include depleted oil and gas reservoirs, unmineable coal seams, and deep saline aquifers. In many cases, injection of CO2 into a geological formation can enhance the recovery of hydrocarbons, providing value-added byproducts that can offset the cost of CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration. Before CO{sub 2} gas can be sequestered from power plants and other point sources, it must be captured. CO{sub 2} is also routinely separated and captured as a by-product from industrial processes such as synthetic ammonia production, H{sub 2} production, and limestone calcination. Then CO{sub 2} must be compressed into liquid form and transported to the geological sequestration site. Many power plants and other large emitters of CO{sub 2} are located near geological formations that are amenable to CO{sub 2} sequestration.

  5. High avidity antibodies to full-length VAR2CSA correlate with absence of placental malaria.

    PubMed

    Tutterrow, Yeung Lo; Salanti, Ali; Avril, Marion; Smith, Joseph D; Pagano, Ian S; Ako, Simon; Fogako, Josephine; Leke, Rose G F; Taylor, Diane Wallace

    2012-01-01

    VAR2CSA mediates sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes in the placenta, increasing the risk of poor pregnancy outcomes. Naturally acquired antibodies (Ab) to placental parasites at delivery have been associated with improved pregnancy outcomes, but Ab levels and how early in pregnancy Ab must be present in order to eliminate placental parasites before delivery remains unknown. Antibodies to individual Duffy-binding like domains of VAR2CSA have been studied, but the domains lack many of the conformational epitopes present in full-length VAR2CSA (FV2). Thus, the purpose of this study was to describe the acquisition of Ab to FV2 in women residing in high and low transmission areas and determine how Ab levels during pregnancy correlate with clearance of placental parasites. Plasma samples collected monthly throughout pregnancy from pregnant women living in high and low transmission areas in Cameroon were evaluated for Ab to FV2 and the proportion of high avidity Ab (i.e., Ab that remain bound in the presence of 3M NH(4)SCN) was assessed. Ab levels and proportion of high avidity Ab were compared between women with placental malaria (PM(+)) and those without (PM(-)) at delivery. Results showed that PM(-) women had significantly higher Ab levels (p = 0.0047) and proportion of high avidity Ab (p = 0.0009) than PM(+) women throughout pregnancy. Specifically, women with moderate to high Ab levels (>5,000 MFI) and those with ≥ 35% high avidity Ab at 5-6 months were found to have 2.3 (95% CI, 1.0-4.9) and 7.6-fold (p = 0.0013, 95% CI: 1.2-50.0) reduced risk of placental malaria, respectively. These data show that high levels of Ab to FV2, particularly those with high avidity for FV2, produced by mid-pregnancy are important in clearing parasites from the placenta. Both high Ab levels and proportion of high avidity Ab to FV2 may serve as correlates of protection for assessing immunity against placental malaria. PMID:22761948

  6. Ascending placentitis in the mare: A review.

    PubMed

    Cummins, C; Carrington, S; Fitzpatrick, E; Duggan, V

    2008-01-01

    Ascending placentitis is a condition that occurs late in pregnancy when bacteria enter the sterile uterus from the lower reproductive tract. It leads to abortion or the birth of premature and weakened foals. Early detection and treatment of this condition is vital for ensuring the production of a viable foal.Mares with ascending placentitis often present in late term pregnancy with signs of premature udder development and premature lactation. There may be a vulvar discharge. Early detection of placental problems is possible using trans-abdominal or trans-rectal ultrasonography. Hormones such as progesterone and relaxin may be measured as indicators of foetal stress and placental failure. Postpartum foetal membranes may be thickened and contain a fibronecrotic exudate. The region most affected is the cervical star. Definitive diagnosis of ascending placentitis is by histopathological examination of the chorioallantoic membrane.Ideal treatment strategies are aimed at curing the infection and prolonging the pregnancy to as close to term as possible and consist of anti-microbials, anti-inflammatories and hormonal support.Swabs are taken from affected mares to determine antibiotic sensitivity and to aid in treatment of foals born from these mares which are at risk of becoming septic. If detected early enough, the chances of producing a viable foal are greatly increased. PMID:21851713

  7. [Placental developmental defects in cloned mammalian animals].

    PubMed

    Ao, Zheng; Liu, Dewu; Cai, Gengyuan; Wu, Zhenfang; Li, Zicong

    2016-05-01

    The cloning technique, also called somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), has been successfully established and gradually applied to various mammalian species. However, the developmental rate of SCNT mammalian embryos is very low, usually at 1% to 5%, which limits the application of SCNT. Placental developmental defects are considered as the main cause of SCNT embryo development inhibition. Almost all of SCNT-derived mammalian placentas exhibit various abnormalities, such as placental hyperplasia, vascular defects and umbilical cord malformation. Mechanistically, these abnormalities result from failure of establishment of correct epigenetic modification in the trophectoderm genome, which leads to erroneous expression of important genes for placenta development-related, particularly imprinted genes. Consequently, aberrant imprinted gene expression gives rise to placental morphologic abnormalities and functional defects, therefore decreases developmental competence of cloned embryos. Currently, although numerous methods that can improve the developmental ability of SCNT-derived embryos have been reported, most of them are unable to substantially enhance the success rate of SCNT due to failure to eliminate the placental development defects. In this review, we summarize placental abnormalities and imprinted gene expression in mammalian cloning, and propose directions for the future research aiming to improve the cloning efficiency. PMID:27232488

  8. 21 CFR 862.1585 - Human placental lactogen test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... placental lactogen are used in the diagnosis and clinical management of high-risk pregnancies involving fetal distress associated with placental insufficiency. Measurements of HPL are also used in...

  9. 21 CFR 862.1585 - Human placental lactogen test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... placental lactogen are used in the diagnosis and clinical management of high-risk pregnancies involving fetal distress associated with placental insufficiency. Measurements of HPL are also used in...

  10. 21 CFR 862.1585 - Human placental lactogen test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... placental lactogen are used in the diagnosis and clinical management of high-risk pregnancies involving fetal distress associated with placental insufficiency. Measurements of HPL are also used in...

  11. 21 CFR 862.1585 - Human placental lactogen test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... placental lactogen are used in the diagnosis and clinical management of high-risk pregnancies involving fetal distress associated with placental insufficiency. Measurements of HPL are also used in...

  12. 21 CFR 862.1585 - Human placental lactogen test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... placental lactogen are used in the diagnosis and clinical management of high-risk pregnancies involving fetal distress associated with placental insufficiency. Measurements of HPL are also used in...

  13. Placental morphologic and functional imaging in high-risk pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Gudmundsson, Saemundur; Dubiel, Mariusz; Sladkevicius, Povilas

    2009-08-01

    The placenta is vital for fetal growth and development. Improvement in ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging have improved our understanding of placental morphology that can be important as in the case of placental accrete/percreta. Functional imaging is presently mainly performed by the use of Doppler ultrasound and can give information on placental perfusion, which can be vital for clinical diagnosis. This review summarizes the present knowledge on placental imaging and it's clinical value in high-risk pregnancies. PMID:19631087

  14. Deciphering ENCODE.

    PubMed

    Diehl, Adam G; Boyle, Alan P

    2016-04-01

    The ENCODE project represents a major leap from merely describing and comparing genomic sequences to surveying them for direct indicators of function. The astounding quantity of data produced by the ENCODE consortium can serve as a map to locate specific landmarks, guide hypothesis generation, and lead us to principles and mechanisms underlying genome biology. Despite its broad appeal, the size and complexity of the repository can be intimidating to prospective users. We present here some background about the ENCODE data, survey the resources available for accessing them, and describe a few simple principles to help prospective users choose the data type(s) that best suit their needs, where to get them, and how to use them to their best advantage. PMID:26962025

  15. Placental genetic variations in circadian clock-related genes increase the risk of placental abruption

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Chunfang; Gelaye, Bizu; Denis, Marie; Tadesse, Mahlet G; Enquobahrie, Daniel A; Ananth, Cande V; Pacora, Percy N; Salazar, Manuel; Sanchez, Sixto E; Williams, Michelle A

    2016-01-01

    The genetic architecture of placental abruption (PA) remains poorly understood. We examined variations in SNPs of circadian clock-related genes in placenta with PA risk. We also explored placental and maternal genomic contributions to PA risk. Placental genomic DNA samples were isolated from 280 PA cases and 244 controls. Genotyping was performed using the Illumina Cardio-MetaboChip. We examined 116 SNPs in 13 genes known to moderate circadian rhythms. Logistic regression models were fit to estimate odds ratios (ORs). The combined effect of multiple SNPs on PA risk was estimated using a weighted genetic risk score. We examined independent and joint associations of wGRS derived from placental and maternal genomes with PA. Seven SNPs in five genes (ARNTL2, CRY2, DEC1, PER3 and RORA), in the placental genome, were associated with PA risk. Each copy of the minor allele (G) of a SNP in the RORA gene (rs2899663) was associated with a 30% reduced odds of PA (95% CI 0.52-0.95). The odds of PA increased with increasing placental-wGRS (Ptrend<0.001). The ORs were 1.00, 2.16, 3.24 and 4.48 across quartiles. Associations persisted after the maternal-wGRS was included in the model. There was evidence of an additive contribution of placental and maternal genetic contributions to PA risk. Participants with placental- and maternal-wGRS in the highest quartile, compared with those in the lowest quartile, had a 15.57-fold (95% CI 3.34-72.60) increased odds of PA. Placental variants in circadian clock-related genes are associated with PA risk; and the association persists after control of genetic variants in the maternal genome. PMID:27186326

  16. Placental efficiency and adaptation: endocrine regulation

    PubMed Central

    Fowden, A L; Sferruzzi-Perri, A N; Coan, P M; Constancia, M; Burton, G J

    2009-01-01

    Size at birth is critical in determining life expectancy and is dependent primarily on the placental supply of nutrients. However, the fetus is not just a passive recipient of nutrients from the placenta. It exerts a significant acquisitive drive for nutrients, which acts through morphological and functional adaptations in the placenta, particularly when the genetically determined drive for fetal growth is compromised by adverse intrauterine conditions. These adaptations alter the efficiency with which the placenta supports fetal growth, which results in optimal growth for prevailing conditions in utero. This review examines placental efficiency as a means of altering fetal growth, the morphological and functional adaptations that influence placental efficiency and the endocrine regulation of these processes. PMID:19451204

  17. Zika Virus Infects Human Placental Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Quicke, Kendra M; Bowen, James R; Johnson, Erica L; McDonald, Circe E; Ma, Huailiang; O'Neal, Justin T; Rajakumar, Augustine; Wrammert, Jens; Rimawi, Bassam H; Pulendran, Bali; Schinazi, Raymond F; Chakraborty, Rana; Suthar, Mehul S

    2016-07-13

    The recent Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak in Brazil has been directly linked to increased cases of microcephaly in newborns. Current evidence indicates that ZIKV is transmitted vertically from mother to fetus. However, the mechanism of intrauterine transmission and the cell types involved remain unknown. We demonstrate that the contemporary ZIKV strain PRVABC59 (PR 2015) infects and replicates in primary human placental macrophages, called Hofbauer cells, and to a lesser extent in cytotrophoblasts, isolated from villous tissue of full-term placentae. Viral replication coincides with induction of type I interferon (IFN), pro-inflammatory cytokines, and antiviral gene expression, but with minimal cell death. Our results suggest a mechanism for intrauterine transmission in which ZIKV gains access to the fetal compartment by directly infecting placental cells and disrupting the placental barrier. PMID:27247001

  18. Massive pre-placental and subchorionic haematoma.

    PubMed

    Loi, K; Tan, K T

    2006-12-01

    We report an unusual case of massive pre-placental and subchorionic haematoma occurring in a 26-year-old woman who presented with antepartum haemorrhage at 24 weeks gestation. Ultrasonography showed a subchorionic haematoma in the lower posterior uterine wall measuring 5.0 cm in largest diameter. There was also a separate irregular multiloculated structure measuring 4.3 cm in largest diameter on the surface of the placenta, due to a pre-placental haematoma. The subchorionic haematoma diminished in size over time, while the pre-placental haematoma continued to grow, measuring 9.0 cm at 28 weeks, and 9.3 cm at 32 weeks. At 32 weeks, the patient presented with premature rupture of membranes and four days later, an emergency caesarean section was performed when the patient had another episode of severe antepartum haemorrhage. Both mother and child recovered well. The current literature on such haematomas is reviewed. PMID:17139407

  19. [Antenatal diagnosis of placental acretism-percretism].

    PubMed

    Haghenbeck-Altamirano, Francisco Javier; Leis-Márquez, Teresa; Ayala-Yáñez, Rodrigo; Juárez-García, Luz del Carmen; García-Moreno, Carla

    2013-05-01

    Placental acretism is an adherencial pathology associated with a high maternal morbidity and mortality rates. Antepartum diagnosis is essential to plan a proper management and reduce serious complications. Risk factors in these patients include prior cesarean sections, uterine scars and placenta previa. Second level ultrasonography may detect placental acretism with high sensitivity and specificity; magnetic resonance imaging may play a complimentary role in the diagnosis of placental acretism when ultrasonographic findings are non-conclusive, specially when determining miometrium invasion in placental acretism (incretism, percretism). This paper reports the case of a patient treated at the ABC Medical Center of Santa Fe, in her second gestation with the diagnosis of an arcuate uterus, previous cesarean section and placenta previa who presented a vaginal bleeding during pregnancy; ultrasound evaluation, in the second trimester, identified a probable placental acretism, in the third trimester, the same technology suggested placenta percreta, complimentary magnetic resonance imaging supported this diagnosis, with probable invasion to bladder, bowel and abdominal wall muscles. Imaging studies were performed at the Hospital Angeles Lomas (Maternal Fetal Clinic). A diagnosis of placenta acreta-percreta, called for a multidisciplinary surgical team, availability of blood products and other resources to face probable complications associated to the obstetrical resolution. Maternal results were optimal since histopathological evaluation reported miometrial incretism, with placental invasion millimeters away from the uterine serosa. Most ultrasonographic studies evaluating the invasion degree of the placenta have small sample sizes, generating a greater degree of false positive or false negative observations. Therefore, we agree with other authors that in all acretism cases (independent of their invasion degree), a multidisciplinary surgical team should be assembled in

  20. Placental Adaptation: What Can We Learn from Birthweight:Placental Weight Ratio?

    PubMed Central

    Hayward, Christina E.; Lean, Samantha; Sibley, Colin P.; Jones, Rebecca L.; Wareing, Mark; Greenwood, Susan L.; Dilworth, Mark R.

    2016-01-01

    Appropriate fetal growth relies upon adequate placental nutrient transfer. Birthweight:placental weight ratio (BW:PW ratio) is often used as a proxy for placental efficiency, defined as the grams of fetus produced per gram placenta. An elevated BW:PW ratio in an appropriately grown fetus (small placenta) is assumed to be due to up-regulated placental nutrient transfer capacity i.e., a higher nutrient net flux per gram placenta. In fetal growth restriction (FGR), where a fetus fails to achieve its genetically pre-determined growth potential, placental weight and BW:PW ratio are often reduced which may indicate a placenta that fails to adapt its nutrient transfer capacity to compensate for its small size. This review considers the literature on BW:PW ratio in both large cohort studies of normal pregnancies and those studies offering insight into the relationship between BW:PW ratio and outcome measures including stillbirth, FGR, and subsequent postnatal consequences. The core of this review is the question of whether BW:PW ratio is truly indicative of altered placental efficiency, and whether changes in BW:PW ratio reflect those placentas which adapt their nutrient transfer according to their size. We consider this question using data from mice and humans, focusing upon studies that have measured the activity of the well characterized placental system A amino acid transporter, both in uncomplicated pregnancies and in FGR. Evidence suggests that BW:PW ratio is reduced both in FGR and in pregnancies resulting in a small for gestational age (SGA, birthweight < 10th centile) infant but this effect is more pronounced earlier in gestation (<28 weeks). In mice, there is a clear association between increased BW:PW ratio and increased placental system A activity. Additionally, there is good evidence in wild-type mice that small placentas upregulate placental nutrient transfer to prevent fetal undergrowth. In humans, this association between BW:PW ratio and placental system A

  1. Reduced placental volume and flow in severe growth restricted fetuses

    PubMed Central

    Abulé, Renata Montes Dourado; Bernardes, Lisandra Stein; Doro, Giovana Farina; Miyadahira, Seizo; Francisco, Rossana Pulcinelli Vieira

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate placental volume and vascular indices in pregnancies with severe fetal growth restriction and determine their correlations to normal reference ranges and Doppler velocimetry results of uterine and umbilical arteries. METHODS: Twenty-seven fetuses with estimated weights below the 3rd percentile for gestational age were evaluated. Placental volume and vascular indices, including vascularization, flow, and vascularization flow indices, were measured by three-dimensional ultrasound using a rotational technique and compared to a previously described nomogram. The observed-to-expected placental volume ratio for gestational age and observed-to-expected placental volume ratio for fetal weight were calculated. Placental parameters correlated with the Doppler velocimetry results of uterine and umbilical arteries. RESULTS: The mean uterine artery pulsatility index was negatively correlated with the observed-to-expected placental volume ratio for gestational age, vascularization index and vascularization flow index. The observed-to-expected placental volume ratio for gestational age and observed-to-expected placental volume ratio for fetal weight and vascularization index were significantly lower in the group with a bilateral protodiastolic notch. No placental parameter correlated with the umbilical artery pulsatility index. CONCLUSIONS: Pregnancies complicated by severe fetal growth restriction are associated with reduced placental volume and vascularization. These findings are related to changes in uterine artery Doppler velocimetry. Future studies on managing severe fetal growth restriction should focus on combined results of placental three-dimensional ultrasound and Doppler studies of uterine arteries. PMID:27438567

  2. Placental specializations in lecithotrophic viviparous squamate reptiles.

    PubMed

    Stewart, James R

    2015-09-01

    Squamate reptiles have been thought to be predisposed to evolution of viviparity because embryos of most oviparous species undergo considerable development in the uterus prior to oviposition. A related hypothesis proposes that prolonged intrauterine gestation, an intermediate condition leading to viviparity, requires little or no physiological adjustment, other than reduction in thickness of the eggshell. This logical framework is often accompanied by an assumption that mode of parity (oviparity, viviparity) and pattern of embryonic nutrition (lecithotrophy, placentotrophy) are independent traits that evolve in sequence. Thus, specializations for viviparity should be absent in some lecithotrophic viviparous species. Studies of species of lizards with geographic variation in mode of parity challenge this scenario by demonstrating that placental specializations are correlated with viviparity. Uterine specializations for placental transport of calcium to viviparous embryos alter uterine physiology compared to oviparous females. In addition, comparative studies of oviparous and viviparous species, i.e., in which gene flow is disrupted, reveal that both uterine and embryonic structural modifications are commonly associated with viviparity, suggesting relatively rapid evolution of placental specializations. Studies of squamate reproductive biology support two hypotheses: 1) evolution of viviparity requires physiological adjustments of the uterine environment, and 2) evolution of viviparity promotes relatively rapid adaptations for placentation. Models for the evolution of viviparity from oviparity, or for reversals from viviparity to oviparity, should reflect current understanding of squamate reproductive biology and future studies should be designed to challenge these models. PMID:26055953

  3. BROMODICHLOROMETHANE INHIBITS HUMAN PLACENTAL TROPHOBLAST DIFFERENTIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    BROMODICHLOROMETHANE INHIBITS HUMAN PLACENTAL
    TROPHOBLAST DIFFERENTIATION
    Jiangang Chen, Twanda L. Thirkill, Peter N. Lohstroh, Susan R. Bielmeier, Michael
    G. Narotsky, Deborah S. Best, Randy A. Harrison, Kala Natarajan, Rex A. Pegram,
    Bill L. Lasley, and Gordon C. Do...

  4. Placental Nutrient Transport and Intrauterine Growth Restriction

    PubMed Central

    Gaccioli, Francesca; Lager, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction refers to the inability of the fetus to reach its genetically determined potential size. Fetal growth restriction affects approximately 5–15% of all pregnancies in the United States and Europe. In developing countries the occurrence varies widely between 10 and 55%, impacting about 30 million newborns per year. Besides having high perinatal mortality rates these infants are at greater risk for severe adverse outcomes, such as hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy and cerebral palsy. Moreover, reduced fetal growth has lifelong health consequences, including higher risks of developing metabolic and cardiovascular diseases in adulthood. Numerous reports indicate placental insufficiency as one of the underlying causes leading to altered fetal growth and impaired placental capacity of delivering nutrients to the fetus has been shown to contribute to the etiology of intrauterine growth restriction. Indeed, reduced expression and/or activity of placental nutrient transporters have been demonstrated in several conditions associated with an increased risk of delivering a small or growth restricted infant. This review focuses on human pregnancies and summarizes the changes in placental amino acid, fatty acid, and glucose transport reported in conditions associated with intrauterine growth restriction, such as maternal undernutrition, pre-eclampsia, young maternal age, high altitude and infection. PMID:26909042

  5. Macrophage Exosomes Induce Placental Inflammatory Cytokines: A Novel Mode of Maternal-Placental Messaging.

    PubMed

    Holder, Beth; Jones, Tessa; Sancho Shimizu, Vanessa; Rice, Thomas F; Donaldson, Beverly; Bouqueau, Marielle; Forbes, Karen; Kampmann, Beate

    2016-02-01

    During pregnancy, the placenta forms the interface between mother and fetus. Highly controlled regulation of trans-placental trafficking is therefore essential for the healthy development of the growing fetus. Extracellular vesicle-mediated transfer of protein and nucleic acids from the human placenta into the maternal circulation is well documented; the possibility that this trafficking is bi-directional has not yet been explored but could affect placental function and impact on the fetus.We hypothesized that the ability of the placenta to respond to maternal inflammatory signals is mediated by the interaction of maternal immune cell exosomes with placental trophoblast. Utilizing the BeWo cell line and whole placental explants, we demonstrated that the human placenta internalizes macrophage-derived exosomes in a time- and dose-dependent manner. This uptake was via clathrin-dependent endocytosis. Furthermore, macrophage exosomes induced release of proinflammatory cytokines by the placenta. Taken together, our data demonstrates that exosomes are actively transported into the human placenta and that exosomes from activated immune cells modulate placental cytokine production. This represents a novel mechanism by which immune cells can signal to the placental unit, potentially facilitating responses to maternal inflammation and infection, and thereby preventing harm to the fetus. PMID:26602702

  6. Placental toxicology: tobacco smoke, abused drugs, multiple chemical interactions, and placental function.

    PubMed

    Sastry, B V

    1991-01-01

    There are increasing numbers of reports on the tobacco smoking and ingestion of abused drugs (e.g. morphine, cocaine) by pregnant women and the effects of the substances on the developing fetus and newborn infant. The passage of drugs and chemicals from the mother to the fetus is influenced by the placental transport and metabolism of the substances. Further, these drugs and chemicals affect the nutrient transport systems in the placenta. The three major drugs of abuse-nicotine, morphine and cocaine-depress both active amino-acid uptake by human placental villi and transplacental amino-acid transport by reason of the drugs' influence on placental cholinergic and opiate systems. Part of this depression (10-16%) is not reversible. Nicotine blocks the cholinergic receptor and thus blocks acetylcholine (ACh)-facilitated amino-acid transport. Morphine stimulates opiate kappa receptors and depresses ACh release. Cocaine blocks Ca2+ influx and thus blocks ACh release. ACh causes dilation of blood vessels and maintains placental blood flow by the activation of endothelial muscarinic receptors. By interfering with ACh release and placental blood flow, the three drugs of abuse may depress the diffusion of amino acids and other nutrients from the trophoblast into the placental circulation. Three regulatory systems are delineated for amino-acid uptake by the placenta: placental ACh, phospholipid N-methyltransferase, and the gammaglutamyl cycle. These systems operate in concert with one another and are dependent on cellular formation of adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP). Placental hypoxia induced by carbon monoxide and other tobacco gases depresses the energy-dependent processes and thus the ATP levels of placental cells. Maternal tobacco smoking and drug abuse cause placental insufficiencies for amino-acid transport, which may partially explain the fetal intrauterine growth retardation caused by these substances. Part of the amino-acid deficits may be compensated for by the

  7. Bile acid sequestrants for cholesterol

    MedlinePlus

    Bile acid sequestrants are medicines that help lower your LDL (bad) cholesterol . Too much cholesterol in your blood can ... block them. These medicines work by blocking bile acid in your stomach from being absorbed in your ...

  8. Bile acid sequestrants for cholesterol

    MedlinePlus

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000787.htm Bile acid sequestrants for cholesterol To use the sharing features on this page, ... are medicines that help lower your LDL (bad) cholesterol . Too much cholesterol in your blood can stick ...

  9. Placental transfer and fetal elimination of morphine-3-β-glucuronide in the pregnant baboon

    PubMed Central

    Garland, Marianne; Abildskov, Kirsten M.; Kiu, Tung-wah; Daniel, Salha S.; Weldy, Piper; Stark, Raymond I.

    2008-01-01

    The glucuronide metabolites of several widely used drugs are detected in fetal plasma following maternal drug administration. However, the disposition of these metabolites is poorly understood and clinical concerns have been raised about accumulation of active metabolites in the fetus. For this reason, morphine-3-β-glucuronide (M3G), an active metabolite of morphine, was studied to provide quantitative data on disposition. Maternal, fetal, and bi-directional placental clearances of M3G were measured in 3 pregnant baboons. During maternal infusion of M3G to steady-state, the glucuronide metabolite readily appeared in fetal plasma achieving a mean (± SD) fetal-to-maternal concentration ratio of 0.79 ± 0.04. In paired maternal and fetal infusions, steady-state clearances (mean ± SD) were 53 ± 3 (maternal), 1.5 ± 0.5 (maternal-to-fetal), 2.6 ± 0.1 (fetal-to-maternal), and −0.70 ± 0.6 ml·min−1 (fetal). These clearance values support bidirectional transfer of M3G across the placenta and indicate negligible direct clearance from the fetus. The clearance of M3G across the placenta is more than twenty-fold less than that of morphine. Despite this low index of permeability, placental transfer contributes significantly to the glucuronide pool in the fetus. Placental transfer emerges as the major clearance pathway for the glucuronide from the fetus and suggests a component of active efflux. What is more, the results do not support the concept of sequestration in the fetal intestine as a significant route of clearance. Together these results clarify the distribution and clearance of glucuronides in the pregnant primate and facilitate prediction of fetal exposure to active metabolites. PMID:18566040

  10. Community Perceptions of Geologic Sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong-Parodi, G. M.; Farrell, A.; Ray, I.

    2007-12-01

    Political momentum for mitigating climate change through the use of large-scale energy technologies such as geologic sequestration is growing. This paper explores the views of communities living near an actual or potential geologic sequestration project site. Given the potential importance of geologic sequestration to U.S. energy policy, what might explain and influence the views of this technology by the community-members. Through focus groups and one-on-one interviews, we gathered the views of two communities in California's Central Valley. One community close to a Department of Energy sponsored geologic sequestration pilot-project and another similarly located community that is not actually a project site. Our analysis combined a review of the history of the communities with other technologies and their social and economic indicators with the results of the focus groups and interviews. The results suggest that the sense of community empowerment, as contextualized by the history of the community and socio-economic indicators, is an important indicator of positive views of geologic sequestration. In addition, the results indicate community members prefer to be informed about geologic sequestration from a variety of sources (e.g., academia and industry).

  11. Extensive shift in placental transcriptome profile in preeclampsia and placental origin of adverse pregnancy outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Sõber, Siim; Reiman, Mario; Kikas, Triin; Rull, Kristiina; Inno, Rain; Vaas, Pille; Teesalu, Pille; Marti, Jesus M. Lopez; Mattila, Pirkko; Laan, Maris

    2015-01-01

    One in five pregnant women suffer from gestational complications, prevalently driven by placental malfunction. Using RNASeq, we analyzed differential placental gene expression in cases of normal gestation, late-onset preeclampsia (LO-PE), gestational diabetes (GD) and pregnancies ending with the birth of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) or large-for-gestational-age (LGA) newborns (n = 8/group). In all groups, the highest expression was detected for small noncoding RNAs and genes specifically implicated in placental function and hormonal regulation. The transcriptome of LO-PE placentas was clearly distinct, showing statistically significant (after FDR) expressional disturbances for hundreds of genes. Taqman RT-qPCR validation of 45 genes in an extended sample (n = 24/group) provided concordant results. A limited number of transcription factors including LRF, SP1 and AP2 were identified as possible drivers of these changes. Notable differences were detected in differential expression signatures of LO-PE subtypes defined by the presence or absence of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). LO-PE with IUGR showed higher correlation with SGA and LO-PE without IUGR with LGA placentas. Whereas changes in placental transcriptome in SGA, LGA and GD cases were less prominent, the overall profiles of expressional disturbances overlapped among pregnancy complications providing support to shared placental responses. The dataset represent a rich catalogue for potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets. PMID:26268791

  12. Netrins and Their Roles in Placental Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Dakouane-Giudicelli, Mbarka; Alfaidy, Nadia; de Mazancourt, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Netrins, a family of laminin-related proteins, were originally identified as axonal guidance molecules. Subsequently, netrins were found to modulate various biological processes including morphogenesis, tumorogenesis, adhesion, and, recently, angiogenesis. In human placenta, the most vascularized organ, the presence of netrins has also been reported. Recent studies demonstrated the involvement of netrins in the regulation of placental angiogenesis. In this review we focused on the role of netrins in human placental angiogenesis. Among all netrins examined, netrin-4 and netrin-1 have been found to be either pro- or antiangiogenic factors. These opposite effects appear to be related to the endothelial cell phenotype studied and seem also to depend on the receptor type to which netrin binds, that is, the canonical receptor member of the DCC family, the members of the UNC5 family, or the noncanonical receptor members of the integrin family or DSCAM. PMID:25143950

  13. Significance of placental pathology in transplacental haemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Devi, Banti; Jennison, R. F.; Langley, F. A.

    1968-01-01

    Placentae were examined from 120 women whose pregnancy and delivery was normal, from 264 women whose pregnancy or delivery was complicated, and from 98 women who were Rh-negative without antibodies and 35 women Rh-negative with antibodies. The presence of Kline's haemorrhages, intervillous thrombi, infarcts, and retroplacental haemorrhages was positively correlated with the presence of foetal cells in the maternal circulation. When there were no maternal antibodies transplacental haemorrhages occurred occasionally in the absence of such placental lesions but more frequently when these lesions were present. Moreover, the greater the number of lesions in a placenta the greater the size of the transplacental haemorrhage. In Rh-negative women with antibodies the observed incidence of transplacental haemorrhage was significantly less despite an appreciable increase in placental lesions. Images PMID:4972435

  14. Discriminative Learning for Automatic Staging of Placental Maturity via Multi-layer Fisher Vector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Baiying; Yao, Yuan; Chen, Siping; Li, Shengli; Li, Wanjun; Ni, Dong; Wang, Tianfu

    2015-07-01

    Currently, placental maturity is performed using subjective evaluation, which can be unreliable as it is highly dependent on the observations and experiences of clinicians. To address this problem, this paper proposes a method to automatically stage placenta maturity from B-mode ultrasound (US) images based on dense sampling and novel feature descriptors. Specifically, our proposed method first densely extracts features with a regular grid based on dense sampling instead of a few unreliable interest points. Followed by, these features are clustered using generative Gaussian mixture model (GMM) to obtain high order statistics of the features. The clustering representatives (i.e., cluster means) are encoded by Fisher vector (FV) for staging accuracy enhancement. Differing from the previous studies, a multi-layer FV is investigated to exploit the spatial information rather than the single layer FV. Experimental results show that the proposed method with the dense FV has achieved an area under the receiver of characteristics (AUC) of 96.77%, sensitivity and specificity of 98.04% and 93.75% for the placental maturity staging, respectively. Our experimental results also demonstrate that the dense feature outperforms the traditional sparse feature for placental maturity staging.

  15. Discriminative Learning for Automatic Staging of Placental Maturity via Multi-layer Fisher Vector

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Baiying; Yao, Yuan; Chen, Siping; Li, Shengli; Li, Wanjun; Ni, Dong; Wang, Tianfu

    2015-01-01

    Currently, placental maturity is performed using subjective evaluation, which can be unreliable as it is highly dependent on the observations and experiences of clinicians. To address this problem, this paper proposes a method to automatically stage placenta maturity from B-mode ultrasound (US) images based on dense sampling and novel feature descriptors. Specifically, our proposed method first densely extracts features with a regular grid based on dense sampling instead of a few unreliable interest points. Followed by, these features are clustered using generative Gaussian mixture model (GMM) to obtain high order statistics of the features. The clustering representatives (i.e., cluster means) are encoded by Fisher vector (FV) for staging accuracy enhancement. Differing from the previous studies, a multi-layer FV is investigated to exploit the spatial information rather than the single layer FV. Experimental results show that the proposed method with the dense FV has achieved an area under the receiver of characteristics (AUC) of 96.77%, sensitivity and specificity of 98.04% and 93.75% for the placental maturity staging, respectively. Our experimental results also demonstrate that the dense feature outperforms the traditional sparse feature for placental maturity staging. PMID:26228175

  16. Differential placental gene expression in severe preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Sitras, V; Paulssen, R H; Grønaas, H; Leirvik, J; Hanssen, T A; Vårtun, A; Acharya, G

    2009-05-01

    We investigated the global placental gene expression profile in severe preeclampsia. Twenty-one women were randomly selected from 50 participants with uncomplicated pregnancies to match 21 patients with severe preeclampsia. A 30K Human Genome Survey Microarray v.2.0 (Applied Biosystems) was used to evaluate the gene expression profile. After RNA isolation, five preeclamptic placentas were excluded due to poor RNA quality. The series composed of 37 hybridizations in a one-channel detection system of chemiluminescence emitted by the microarrays. An empirical Bayes analysis was applied to find differentially expressed genes. In preeclamptic placentas 213 genes were significantly (fold-change>or=2 and pplacental histopathologic examination. In summary, placental gene expression is altered in preeclampsia and we provide a comprehensive list of the differentially expressed genes. Placental gene expression is different between early- and late-onset preeclampsia, suggesting differences in pathophysiology. PMID:19249095

  17. Placentation in mammals once grouped as insectivores.

    PubMed

    Carter, Anthony M; Enders, Allen C

    2010-01-01

    Interest in insectivoran grade mammals has been reawakened by taxonomic changes that place tenrecs and golden moles in a new order and separate hedgehogs from moles, shrews and solenodons. This survey of their placentation shows there is great variation even within families. As an example three subfamilies of tenrec have been examined. The interhemal region is cellular hemomonochorial in Echinops and Microgale but endotheliochorial in Micropotamogale. Golden moles, which are placed in the same order, have hemodichorial placentation. Many insectivores have complex arrangements for histotrophic nutrition involving columnar trophoblast cells. These range from areolae in moles through complexly folded hemophagous regions in tenrecs to the trophoblastic annulus in shrews. Of these placental characters, few offer support to current phylogenies. However, the case for placing hedgehogs and gymnures in a separate order (Erinaceomorpha) is bolstered by the presence of interstitial implantation, amniogenesis by cavitation, a hemochorial barrier and a prominent spongy zone; these features do not occur in shrews, moles or solenodons (Soricomorpha). Three insectivoran grade mammals deserve close attention as they have been selected for genome sequencing. One of these, the European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus), has not been studied with current methodology and renewed investigation of this or the closely related genus Atelerix should be a priority. PMID:19876821

  18. Prediction of fetal acidemia in placental abruption

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To determine the major predictive factors for fetal acidemia in placental abruption. Methods A retrospective review of pregnancies with placental abruption was performed using a logistic regression model. Fetal acidemia was defined as a pH of less than 7.0 in umbilical artery. The severe abruption score, which was derived from a linear discriminant function, was calculated to determine the probability of fetal acidemia. Results Fetal acidemia was seen in 43 survivors (43/222, 19%). A logistic regression model showed bradycardia (OR (odds ratio) 50.34, 95% CI 11.07 – 228.93), and late decelerations (OR 15.13, 3.05 – 74.97), but not abnormal ultrasonographic findings were to be associated with the occurrence of fetal acidemia. The severe abruption score was calculated for the occurrence of fetal acidemia, using 6 items including vaginal bleeding, gestational age, abdominal pain, abnormal ultrasonographic finding, late decelerations, and bradycardia. Conclusions An abnormal FHR pattern, especially bradycardia is the most significant risk factor in placental abruption predicting fetal acidemia, regardless of the presence of abnormal ultrasonographic findings or gestational age. PMID:23915223

  19. Notes on placentation in the Suina.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, A A; Bosma, A A

    1985-01-01

    We examined the gross and microscopic anatomy of placental tissues and umbilical cords from six species representing the three living families of the Suina. These species included, of the Suidae, the wart hog (Phacochoerus aethiopicus), the giant forest hog (Hylochoerus meinertzhageni), the domestic pig (Sus scrofa), and the banded pig of Malaysia (Sus scrofa vittatus); of the Tayassuidae, the white-lipped peccary (Tayassu pecari); of the Hippopotamidae, the hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius) and the pigmy hippopotamus (Choeropsis liberiensis). All these species have a diffuse epitheliochorial placenta. The chorion is folded, and has on its surface rows of shallow ripples or villi, interrupted by round, oval or irregularly shaped areolae. Placental capillaries indent the epithelial layer covering the tops and sides of the interareolar villi, but not the columnar cell layer lying in the troughs between these villi or covering the areolae. Cuboidal cells cover the crests of the villi in the Suidae and Hippopotamidae, whereas in the Tayassuidae the epithelium is syncytial in appearance. The similarities in placental structure between the six species are more apparent than the differences. Suidae and Tayassuidae have smooth umbilical cords containing two arteries and one vein; those of the Hippopotamidae are pustule-encrusted and contain two arteries and two veins. PMID:3991477

  20. Topological Analysis of Placental Arteries:. Correlation with Neonatal Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, H.; Yakubo, K.

    2007-07-01

    The aim of study was to assess whether any network index of placental surface arteries was associated with neonatal birth weight. Twenty-six placentas were randomly selected between 34 and 41 weeks of gestational ages. Placental weights ranged 385 to 770 g; and neonatal weights ranged 1960 to 3680 g. After visualization of placental surface arteries by a milk injection method, network indices including the number of nodes, network density, network diameter, average distance of nodes, and the degree centralization were determined. These network indices and placental weights were compared with neonatal birth weights. The Number of nodes, network density, network diameter, average distance of nodes, and the degree centralization were found to be as follows (Mean ± SD); 84.7 ± 29.3, 0.0262 ± 0.0088, 15.8 ± 2.77, 7.83 ± 1.13, 0.0263 ± 0.0091, respectively. We found that neonatal birth weights correlate with the number of nodes of placental surface arteries (correlation coefficient R=0.40) and placental weights (R=0.52) both. However, the number of nodes of placental surface arteries was not associated with the placental weights or the gestational age. We for the first time found that a topological factor, i.e., the number of nodes of placental surface arteries correlated with neonatal growth. There was no correlation between numbers of nodes and placental weights. This suggests that the number of nodes affects fetal growth independent of placental weights. A topological factor of placental vasculization might significantly affect fetal growth in utero and determine risks of vascular diseases in their future lives.

  1. Placental Dysfunction and Fetal Programming: The Importance of Placental Size, Shape, Histopathology, and Molecular Composition

    PubMed Central

    Longtine, Mark S.; Nelson, D. Michael

    2013-01-01

    Normal function of the placenta is pivotal for optimal fetal growth and development. Fetal programming commonly is associated with placental dysfunction that predisposes to obstetric complications and .suboptimal fetal outcomes. We consider several clinical phenotypes for placental dysfunction that likely predispose to fetal programming. Some of these reflect abnormal development of the chorioallantoic placenta in size, shape, or histopathology. Others result when exogenous stressors in the maternal environment combine with maladaptation of the placental response to yield small placentas with limited reserve, as typical of early-onset intrauterine growth restriction and preeclampsia. Still others reflect epigenetic changes, including altered expression of imprinted genes, altered enzymatic activity, or altered efficiencies in nutrient transport. Although the human placenta is a transient organ that persists only 9 months, the effects of this organ on the offspring remain for a lifetime. PMID:21710395

  2. Carbon sequestration in reclaimed minesoils

    SciTech Connect

    Ussiri, D.A.N.; Lal, R.

    2005-07-01

    Minesoils are drastically influenced by anthropogenic activities. They are characterized by low soil organic matter (SOM) content, low fertility, and poor physicochemical and biological properties, limiting their quality, capability, and functions. Reclamation of these soils has potential for resequestering some of the C lost and mitigating CO{sub 2} emissions. Soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration rates in minesoils are high in the first 20 to 30 years after reclamation in the top 15 cm soil depth. In general, higher rates of SOC sequestration are observed for minesoils under pasture and grassland management than under forest land use. Observed rates of SOC sequestration are 0.3 to 1.85 Mg C ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} for pastures and rangelands, and 0.2 to 1.64 Mg C ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} for forest land use. Proper reclamation and postreclamation management may enhance SOC sequestration and add to the economic value of the mined sites. Management practices that may enhance SOC sequestration include increasing vegetative cover by deep-rooted perennial vegetation and afforestation, improving soil fertility, and alleviation of physical, chemical and biological limitations by fertilizers and soil amendments such as biosolids, manure, coal combustion by-products, and mulches. Soil and water conservation are important to SOC sequestration. The potential of SOC sequestration in minesoils of the US is estimated to be 1.28 Tg C yr{sup -1}, compared to the emissions from coal combustion of 506 Tg C yr{sup -1}.

  3. Placental Protein 13 (PP13) - A Placental Immunoregulatory Galectin Protecting Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Than, Nándor Gábor; Balogh, Andrea; Romero, Roberto; Kárpáti, Eva; Erez, Offer; Szilágyi, András; Kovalszky, Ilona; Sammar, Marei; Gizurarson, Sveinbjorn; Matkó, János; Závodszky, Péter; Papp, Zoltán; Meiri, Hamutal

    2014-01-01

    Galectins are glycan-binding proteins that regulate innate and adaptive immune responses, and some confer maternal-fetal immune tolerance in eutherian mammals. A chromosome 19 cluster of galectins has emerged in anthropoid primates, species with deep placentation and long gestation. Three of the five human cluster galectins are solely expressed in the placenta, where they may confer additional immunoregulatory functions to enable deep placentation. One of these is galectin-13, also known as Placental Protein 13 (PP13). It has a "jelly-roll" fold, carbohydrate-recognition domain and sugar-binding preference resembling other mammalian galectins. PP13 is predominantly expressed by the syncytiotrophoblast and released from the placenta into the maternal circulation. Its ability to induce apoptosis of activated T cells in vitro, and to divert and kill T cells as well as macrophages in the maternal decidua in situ, suggests important immune functions. Indeed, mutations in the promoter and an exon of LGALS13 presumably leading to altered or non-functional protein expression are associated with a higher frequency of preeclampsia and other obstetrical syndromes, which involve immune dysregulation. Moreover, decreased placental expression of PP13 and its low concentrations in first trimester maternal sera are associated with elevated risk of preeclampsia. Indeed, PP13 turned to be a good early biomarker to assess maternal risk for the subsequent development of pregnancy complications caused by impaired placentation. Due to the ischemic placental stress in preterm preeclampsia, there is increased trophoblastic shedding of PP13 immunopositive microvesicles starting in the second trimester, which leads to high maternal blood PP13 concentrations. Our meta-analysis suggests that this phenomenon may enable the potential use of PP13 in directing patient management near to or at the time of delivery. Recent findings on the beneficial effects of PP13 on decreasing blood pressure due

  4. Placental Protein 13 (PP13) – A Placental Immunoregulatory Galectin Protecting Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Than, Nándor Gábor; Balogh, Andrea; Romero, Roberto; Kárpáti, Éva; Erez, Offer; Szilágyi, András; Kovalszky, Ilona; Sammar, Marei; Gizurarson, Sveinbjorn; Matkó, János; Závodszky, Péter; Papp, Zoltán; Meiri, Hamutal

    2014-01-01

    Galectins are glycan-binding proteins that regulate innate and adaptive immune responses, and some confer maternal-fetal immune tolerance in eutherian mammals. A chromosome 19 cluster of galectins has emerged in anthropoid primates, species with deep placentation and long gestation. Three of the five human cluster galectins are solely expressed in the placenta, where they may confer additional immunoregulatory functions to enable deep placentation. One of these is galectin-13, also known as Placental Protein 13 (PP13). It has a “jelly-roll” fold, carbohydrate-recognition domain and sugar-binding preference resembling other mammalian galectins. PP13 is predominantly expressed by the syncytiotrophoblast and released from the placenta into the maternal circulation. Its ability to induce apoptosis of activated T cells in vitro, and to divert and kill T cells as well as macrophages in the maternal decidua in situ, suggests important immune functions. Indeed, mutations in the promoter and an exon of LGALS13 presumably leading to altered or non-functional protein expression are associated with a higher frequency of preeclampsia and other obstetrical syndromes, which involve immune dysregulation. Moreover, decreased placental expression of PP13 and its low concentrations in first trimester maternal sera are associated with elevated risk of preeclampsia. Indeed, PP13 turned to be a good early biomarker to assess maternal risk for the subsequent development of pregnancy complications caused by impaired placentation. Due to the ischemic placental stress in preterm preeclampsia, there is increased trophoblastic shedding of PP13 immunopositive microvesicles starting in the second trimester, which leads to high maternal blood PP13 concentrations. Our meta-analysis suggests that this phenomenon may enable the potential use of PP13 in directing patient management near to or at the time of delivery. Recent findings on the beneficial effects of PP13 on decreasing blood pressure

  5. Placental transfer of antidepressant medications: implications for postnatal adaptation syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ewing, Grace; Tatarchuk, Yekaterina; Appleby, Dina; Schwartz, Nadav; Kim, Deborah

    2015-04-01

    Seven to thirteen percent of women are either prescribed or taking (depending on the study) an antidepressant during pregnancy. Because antidepressants freely cross into the intrauterine environment, we aim to summarize the current findings on placental transfer of antidepressants. Although generally low risk, antidepressants have been associated with postnatal adaptation syndrome (PNAS). Specifically, we explore whether the antidepressants most closely associated with PNAS (paroxetine, fluoxetine, venlafaxine) cross the placenta to a greater extent than other antidepressants. We review research on antidepressants in the context of placental anatomy, placental transport mechanisms, placental metabolism, pharmacokinetics, as well as non-placental maternal and fetal factors. This provides insight into the complexity involved in understanding how placental transfer of antidepressants may relate to adverse perinatal outcomes. Ultimately, from this data there is no pattern in which PNAS is related to placental transfer of antidepressant medications. In general, there is large interindividual variability for each type of antidepressant. To make the most clinically informed decisions about the use of antidepressants in pregnancy, studies that link maternal, placental and fetal genetic polymorphisms, placental transfer rates and infant outcomes are needed. PMID:25711391

  6. Cesarean Delivery for a Life-threatening Preterm Placental Abruption

    PubMed Central

    Okafor, II; Ugwu, EO

    2015-01-01

    Placental abruption is one of the major life-threatening obstetric conditions. The fetomaternal outcome of a severe placental abruption depends largely on prompt maternal resuscitation and delivery. A case of severe preterm placental abruption with intrauterine fetal death. Following a failed induction of labor with a deteriorating maternal condition despite resuscitation, emergency cesarean delivery was offered with good maternal outcome. Cesarean delivery could avert further disease progression and possible maternal death in cases of severe preterm placental abruption where vaginal delivery is not imminent. However, further studies are necessary before this could be recommended for routine clinical practice. PMID:27057388

  7. Placental programming of blood pressure in Indian children

    PubMed Central

    Winder, Nicola R; Krishnaveni, Ghattu V; Hill, Jacqueline C; Karat, Chitra LS; Fall, Caroline HD; Veena, Sargoor R; Barker, David JP

    2011-01-01

    Aim To determine whether the size and shape of the placental surface predict blood pressure in childhood. Methods We studied blood pressure in 471 nine-year-old Indian children whose placental length, breadth and weight were measured in a prospective birth cohort study. Results In the daughters of short mothers (placental breadth increased (β = 0.69 mmHg/cm, p = 0.05) and as the ratio of placental surface area to birthweight increased (p = 0.0003). In the daughters of tall mothers, SBP rose as the difference between placental length and breadth increased (β = 1.40 mmHg/cm, p = 0.007), that is as the surface became more oval. Among boys, associations with placental size were only statistically significant after adjusting for current BMI and height. After adjustment, SBP rose as placental breadth, area and weight decreased (for breadth β = −0.68 mmHg/cm, p < 0.05 for all three measurements). Conclusions The size and shape of the placental surface predict childhood blood pressure. Blood pressure may be programmed by variation in the normal processes of placentation: these include implantation, expansion of the chorionic surface in mid-gestation and compensatory expansion of the chorionic surface in late gestation. PMID:21166711

  8. Prevention of Defective Placentation and Pregnancy Loss by Blocking Innate Immune Pathways in a Syngeneic Model of Placental Insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Gelber, Shari E; Brent, Elyssa; Redecha, Patricia; Perino, Giorgio; Tomlinson, Stephen; Davisson, Robin L; Salmon, Jane E

    2015-08-01

    Defective placentation and subsequent placental insufficiency lead to maternal and fetal adverse pregnancy outcome, but their pathologic mechanisms are unclear, and treatment remains elusive. The mildly hypertensive BPH/5 mouse recapitulates many features of human adverse pregnancy outcome, with pregnancies characterized by fetal loss, growth restriction, abnormal placental development, and defects in maternal decidual arteries. Using this model, we show that recruitment of neutrophils triggered by complement activation at the maternal/fetal interface leads to elevation in local TNF-α levels, reduction of the essential angiogenic factor vascular endothelial growth factor, and, ultimately, abnormal placentation and fetal death. Blockade of complement with inhibitors specifically targeted to sites of complement activation, depletion of neutrophils, or blockade of TNF-α improves spiral artery remodeling and rescues pregnancies. These data underscore the importance of innate immune system activation in the pathogenesis of placental insufficiency and identify novel methods for treatment of pregnancy loss mediated by abnormal placentation. PMID:26071558

  9. Growth hormone-related genes from baboon (Papio hamadryas): characterization, placental expression and evolutionary aspects

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Sánchez, Irám Pablo; Tejero, Maria Elizabeth; Cole, Shelley A.; Comuzzie, Anthony G.; Nathanielsz, Peter W.; Wallis, Michael; Barrera-Saldaña, Hugo A.

    2011-01-01

    Pregnancy is a complex physiological condition, and the growth hormone (GH)-related hormones produced in the placenta, which emerged during the evolution of primates, are thought to play an important metabolic role in pregnancy that is not yet fully understood. The aim of this study was to identify the genes and transcription products of the GH family in baboon (Papio hamadryas) and to assess these in relation to the evolution of this gene family. GH-related transcripts were amplified using total RNA from placental tissue, by reverse transcription coupled to polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Three different GH-related transcripts were identified in baboon placental tissue, with two encoding chorionic somatomammotropins (CSH) and one the placental variant of GH (GH-2). The CSH transcripts showed some minor allelic variation, and a splice variant of CSH-C that retains its in-frame third intron. Gene sequences for GH-1 (probably representing the GH gene expressed primarily in the pituitary gland), GH-2 and the two CSHs were identified in the baboon genomic database, together with a CSH-related pseudogene. Phylogenetic analysis of the baboon GH-related sequences, together with those of a related Old World monkey, macaque, and ape outgroup (human), showed the equivalence of the genes in baboon and macaque, and revealed evidence for several episodes of rapid adaptive evolution. Many of the substitutions seen during the evolution of these placental proteins have occurred in the receptor-binding sites, especially site 2, contrasting with the strong conservation of the hydrophobic core. PMID:19651193

  10. Placental Features of Late-Onset Adverse Pregnancy Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, Lucy E.; Wareing, Mark; Greenwood, Susan L.; Jones, Rebecca L.; Sibley, Colin P.; Johnstone, Edward D.; Heazell, Alexander E. P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Currently, no investigations reliably identify placental dysfunction in late pregnancy. To facilitate the development of such investigations we aimed to identify placental features that differ between normal and adverse outcome in late pregnancy in a group of pregnancies with reduced fetal movement. Methods Following third trimester presentation with reduced fetal movement (N = 100), placental structure ex vivo was measured. Placental function was then assessed in terms of (i) chorionic plate artery agonist responses and length-tension characteristics using wire myography and (ii) production and release of placentally derived hormones (by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and enzyme linked immunosorbant assay of villous tissue and explant conditioned culture medium). Results Placentas from pregnancies ending in adverse outcome (N = 23) were ~25% smaller in weight, volume, length, width and disc area (all p<0.0001) compared with those from normal outcome pregnancies. Villous and trophoblast areas were unchanged, but villous vascularity was reduced (median (interquartile range): adverse outcome 10 (10–12) vessels/mm2 vs. normal outcome 13 (12–15), p = 0.002). Adverse outcome pregnancy placental arteries were relatively insensitive to nitric oxide donated by sodium nitroprusside compared to normal outcome pregnancy placental arteries (50% Effective Concentration 30 (19–50) nM vs. 12 (6–24), p = 0.02). Adverse outcome pregnancy placental tissue contained less human chorionic gonadotrophin (20 (11–50) vs. 55 (24–102) mIU/mg, p = 0.007) and human placental lactogen (11 (6–14) vs. 27 (9–50) mg/mg, p = 0.006) and released more soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (21 (13–29) vs. 5 (2–15) ng/mg, p = 0.01) compared with normal outcome pregnancy placental tissue. Conclusion These data provide a description of the placental phenotype of adverse outcome in late pregnancy. Antenatal tests that accurately reflect elements of this phenotype may

  11. Foetal placental blood flow in the lamb

    PubMed Central

    Faber, J. Job; Green, Thomas J.

    1972-01-01

    1. Fifteen sheep foetuses of 1·5-5·2 kg body weight were prepared with indwelling arterial and venous catheters for experimentation one to six days later. 2. Unanaesthetized foetuses were found to have mean arterial and central venous blood pressures of 40 ± 1·5 (S.E. of mean) and 2·0 ± 0·3 (S.E. of mean) mm Hg respectively, compared to intra-uterine pressure. Intra-uterine pressure was 16 ± 0·8 (S.E. of mean) mm Hg with respect to atmospheric pressure at mid-uterine level. 3. Mean placental blood flow of the foetuses was 199 ± 20 (S.E. of mean) ml./(min.kg body wt.). Mean cardiac output in eleven of the foetuses was 658 ± 102 (S.E. of mean) ml./(min.kg). 4. Mean foetal and maternal colloid osmotic pressures were 17·5 ± 0·7 (S.E. of mean) and 20·5 ± 0·6 (S.E. of mean) mm Hg respectively at 38° C. 5. Intravenous infusions into six ewes of 1·8 mole of mannitol and 0·4 mole of NaCl resulted in significant increases in foetal plasma osmolarity, sodium, potassium, and haemoglobin concentrations, without detectable transfer of mannitol to the foetal circulation. 6. In the sheep placenta there is osmotic and hydrostatic equilibration of water. As a consequence, there should be an interaction between foetal placental blood flow and foetal water exchange with the maternal circulation. It was concluded that this interaction tends to stabilize foetal placental blood flow. PMID:5039279

  12. Maternal environment and placental vascularization in small ruminants.

    PubMed

    Bairagi, S; Quinn, K E; Crane, A R; Ashley, R L; Borowicz, P P; Caton, J S; Redden, R R; Grazul-Bilska, A T; Reynolds, L P

    2016-07-01

    Uteroplacental development is a crucial step facilitating conceptus growth. Normal placental development comprises extensive placental angiogenesis to support fetoplacental transport, meeting the metabolic demands of the fetus. Compromised pregnancies due to maternal stressors such as over or undernutrition, maternal age or parity, altered body mass index, or genetic background result in altered vascular development of the placenta. This negatively affects placental growth and placental function and ultimately results in poor pregnancy outcomes. Nonetheless, the placenta acts as a sensor to the maternal stressors and undergoes modifications, which some have termed placental programming, to ensure healthy development of the conceptus. Sex steroid hormones such as estradiol-17β and progesterone, chemokines such as chemokine ligand 12, and angiogenic/vasoactive factors such as vascular endothelial growth factors, placental growth factor, angiopoietins, and nitric oxide regulate uteroplacental development and hence are often used as therapeutic targets to rescue compromised pregnancies. Interestingly, the presence of sex steroid receptors has been identified in the fetal membranes (developing fetal placenta). Environmental steroid mimetics known as endocrine disrupting compounds disrupt conceptus development and lead to transgenerational impairments by epigenetic modification of placental gene expression, which is another area deserving intense research efforts. This review attempts to summarize current knowledge concerning intrinsic and extrinsic factors affecting selected reproductive functions with the emphasis on placental development. PMID:27173956

  13. Ethical aspects of banking placental blood for transplantation.

    PubMed

    Sugarman, J; Reisner, E G; Kurtzberg, J

    1995-12-13

    Transplantation of blood cells harvested from the umbilical cord immediately after birth has been effective in repopulating the bone marrow. These placental blood transplantations may be safer than conventional bone marrow transplantations and may suspend the need to harvest bone marrow, a process fraught with difficulties. Further understanding and advancement of this emerging technology require developing large banks of placental blood. In this article, we examine some of the ethical issues associated with placental blood banking, including (1) questions about ownership of the tissue, (2) the necessity and nature of obtaining informed consent from parents for harvesting placental blood and the information-gathering process associated with it, (3) obligations to notify parents and children of the results of medical testing for infectious diseases and genetic information, (4) matters of privacy and confidentiality related to such information, and (5) the need for fair and equitable harvesting of and access to placental blood. PMID:7500510

  14. Human placental trophoblasts confer viral resistance to recipient cells

    PubMed Central

    Delorme-Axford, Elizabeth; Donker, Rogier B.; Mouillet, Jean-Francois; Chu, Tianjiao; Bayer, Avraham; Ouyang, Yingshi; Wang, Tianyi; Stolz, Donna B.; Sarkar, Saumendra N.; Morelli, Adrian E.; Sadovsky, Yoel; Coyne, Carolyn B.

    2013-01-01

    Placental trophoblasts form the interface between the fetal and maternal environments and serve to limit the maternal–fetal spread of viruses. Here we show that cultured primary human placental trophoblasts are highly resistant to infection by a number of viruses and, importantly, confer this resistance to nonplacental recipient cells by exosome-mediated delivery of specific microRNAs (miRNAs). We show that miRNA members of the chromosome 19 miRNA cluster, which are almost exclusively expressed in the human placenta, are packaged within trophoblast-derived exosomes and attenuate viral replication in recipient cells by the induction of autophagy. Together, our findings identify an unprecedented paracrine and/or systemic function of placental trophoblasts that uses exosome-mediated transfer of a unique set of placental-specific effector miRNAs to directly communicate with placental or maternal target cells and regulate their immunity to viral infections. PMID:23818581

  15. SOIL CARBON SEQUESTRATION/MARKETS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grasslands in the conterminous United States include about 212 of which about ~48 million hectares (Mha) of pasture and 164 Mha of rangeland. Rates of soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration can range from none to approaching 1 metric ton (mt) SOC/year. Climate and management influence potential i...

  16. Soil Carbon Sequestration/Markets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grasslands in the conterminous United States include about 212 of which about ~48 million hectares (Mha) of pasture and 164 Mha of rangeland. Rates of soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration can range from none to approaching 1 metric ton (mt) SOC/year. Climate and management influence potential i...

  17. Briefing on geological sequestration (Tulsa)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Geological sequestration (GS) is generally recognized as the injection and long-term (e.g., hundreds to thousands of years) trapping of gaseous, liquid or supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) in subsurface media – primarily saline formations, depleted or nearly depleted oil and gas...

  18. Carbon sequestration and land degradation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Storing carbon (C) in soil as organic matter is not only a viable strategy to sequester CO2 from the atmosphere, but is vital for improving the quality of soil. This presentation describes (1) C sequestration concepts and rationale, (2) relevant management approaches to avoid land degradation and fo...

  19. Evolutionary origins of the placental expression of Chromosome 19 cluster galectins and their complex dysregulation in preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Than, Nandor Gabor; Xu, Yi; Erez, Offer; Xu, Zhonghui; Bhatti, Gaurav; Leavitt, Ron; Chung, Tzu Hung; El-Azzamy, Haidy; LaJeunesse, Christopher; Wang, Bing; Balogh, Andrea; Szalai, Gabor; Land, Susan; Dong, Zhong; Hassan, Sonia S.; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Krispin, Manuel; Kim, Chong Jai; Tarca, Adi L.; Papp, Zoltan; Bohn, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The dysregulation of maternal-fetal immune tolerance is one of the proposed mechanisms leading to preeclampsia. Galectins are key regulator proteins of the immune response in vertebrates and maternal-fetal immune tolerance in eutherian mammals. Previously we found that three genes in a Chr19 cluster encoding for human placental galectin-13 (PP13), galectin-14 and galectin-16 emerged during primate evolution and may confer immune tolerance to the semi-allogeneic fetus. Materials and Methods This study involved various methodologies for gene and protein expression profiling, genomic DNA methylation analyses, functional assays on differentiating trophoblasts including gene silencing, luciferase reporter and methylation assays. These methods were applied on placental specimens, umbilical cord blood cells, primary trophoblasts and BeWo cells. Genomic DNA sequences were analyzed for transposable elements, transcription factor binding sites and evolutionary conservation. Results and Discussion The villous trophoblastic expression of Chr19 cluster galectin genes is developmentally regulated by DNA methylation and induced by key transcription factors of villous placental development during trophoblast fusion and differentiation. This latter mechanism arose via the co-option of binding sites for these transcription factors through promoter evolution and the insertion of an anthropoid-specific L1PREC2 transposable element into the 5’ untranslated region of an ancestral gene followed by gene duplication events. Among placental Chr19 cluster galectin genes, the expression of LGALS13 and LGALS14 is down-regulated in preterm severe preeclampsia associated with SGA. We reveal that this phenomenon is partly originated from the dysregulated expression of key transcription factors controlling trophoblastic functions and galectin gene expression. In addition, the differential DNA methylation of these genes was also observed in preterm preeclampsia irrespective of SGA

  20. Confined placental mosaicisms and uniparental disomy

    SciTech Connect

    Kalousek, D.K.; Langlois, S.; Harrison, K.J.

    1994-09-01

    Approximately 2% of pregnancies studied with chorionic villous sampling (CVS) show confined placental mosaicism (CPM) which persists to term in 50-70% of cases. An increased frequency of complications, such as intrauterine fetal growth restriction or intrauterine death, is observed in these pregnancies. As trisomic zygote rescue is a common mechanism responsible for CPM, fetal uniparental disomy (UPD), resulting from the loss of the extra trisomic chromosome in the embryonic stem cells, would be expected to occur in a proportion of pregnancies with CPM. We have studied 27 pregnancies with CPM involving trisomies for chromosomes 2, 7, 9, 10, 12, and 16 for involvement of specific cell lineage(s) and levels of mosaicism in term placentas. Also, DNA from the parents and infant was analyzed for UPD or biparental disomy (BPD). Five infants with UPD for chromosome 16 and one infant with UPD for chromosome 7 were detected. All other infants showed BPD for the chromosome involved in CPM. For trisomy 16 mosaic gestations, a close correlation between high levels of trisomic cells in placenta and intrauterine fetal growth restriction has been found irrespective of the type of disomy present in the infant. The effect of other trisomies (2, 7, 9, 10, 12) on placental function appears to be similar, but the low numbers of pregnancies studied and lack of detection of UPD for chromosomes 2, 9, 10 and 12 does not allow a definitive conclusion.

  1. Assisted Reproduction Technologies Impair Placental Steroid Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Collier, Abby C.; Miyagi, Shogo J.; Yamauchi, Yasuhiro; Ward, Monika A.

    2009-01-01

    The placenta plays a vital role in pregnancy by facilitating steroid passage from maternal to fetal circulation and/or direct production of hormones. Using a murine model, we demonstrated the differences in placental steroid metabolism between pregnancies conceived naturally and with assisted reproduction technologies (ART): in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). While the ovarian steroid production was similar (estrone, 17β-estradiol) or higher (estriol) in ART pregnancies compared to mating, the levels of placental estriol were significantly lower in ART group. Placentas from ART had significantly higher activities of the steroid metabolizing enzymes UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) and sulfotransferase (SULT), which in ICSI were also coupled with decreased activity of the steroid regenerating enzymes β-glucuronidase (β-G) and Aryl sulfatase (AS). Levels of steroid metabolites androstane-3α-17β-diol glucuronide and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate were higher in fetal compared to maternal blood in ART, but not in mating. This study demonstrates that in murine ART pregnancies, higher metabolism and clearance of steroids by the placenta may seriously affect the passage of essential hormones to the fetus. If a similar phenomenon exists in humans, this could provide a plausible explanation for obstetric and neonatal complications associated with ART, including the higher incidence of low birth weight babies. PMID:19406239

  2. Finite Element Modeling of Human Placental Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Mao; Manoogian, Sarah; Duma, Stefan M.; Stitzel, Joel D.

    2009-01-01

    Motor vehicle crashes account for a large portion of placental abruption and fetal losses. To better understand the material properties of the human placenta, a Finite Element (FE) model of human placenta tissue was created and verified using data from uniaxial tension tests. Sixty-four tensile tests at three different strain rates of 7% strain/s, 70% strain/s, and 700% strain/s from six whole human placentas were used for model development. Nominal stresses were calculated by dividing forces at the grips by the original cross-sectional area. Nominal strains were calculated by dividing cross-head displacement by the original gauge length. A detailed methodology for interpreting experimental data for application to material model development is presented. A model of the tension coupon was created in LS-DYNA and stretched in the same manner as the uniaxial tension tests. The behavior of the material was optimized to the uniaxial tension test using a multi-island genetic algorithm. The results demonstrate good correlation between experiments and the model, with an average difference of 2% between the optimized FE and experimental first principal stress at the termination state. The material parameters found in this study can be utilized in FE models of placental tissues for behavior under dynamic loading. PMID:20184849

  3. Evidence for placental compensation in cattle.

    PubMed

    Van Eetvelde, M; Kamal, M M; Hostens, M; Vandaele, L; Fiems, L O; Opsomer, G

    2016-08-01

    Prenatal development is known to be extremely sensitive to maternal and environmental challenges. In this study, we hypothesize that body growth and lactation during gestation in cattle reduce nutrient availability for the pregnant uterus, with consequences for placental development. Fetal membranes of 16 growing heifers and 27 fully grown cows of the Belgian Blue (BB) breed were compared to determine the effect of body growth on placental development. Furthermore, the fetal membranes of 49 lactating Holstein Friesian (HF) cows and 27 HF heifers were compared to study the impact of dam lactation compared to dam body growth. After parturition, calf birth weight and body measurements of dam and calf were recorded, as well as weight of total fetal membranes, cotyledons and intercotyledonary membranes. All cotyledons were individually measured to calculate both the surface of each individual cotyledon and the total cotyledonary surface per placenta. Total cotyledonary surface was unaffected by breed or the breed×parity interaction. Besides a 0.3 kg lower cotyledonary weight (P=0.007), heifer placentas had a smaller total cotyledonary surface compared with placentas of cows (0.48±0.017 v. 0.54±0.014 m2, respectively, P<0.001). Within the BB breed, fetal membranes of heifers had a 1.5 kg lower total weight and 1.0 kg lower intercotyledonary membrane weight (P<0.005) compared with cows. A cotyledon number of only 91±5.4 was found in multiparous BB dams, while growing BB heifers had a higher cotyledon number (126±6.7, P<0.001), but a greater proportion of smaller cotyledons (<40 cm2). Within the HF breed, no parity effect on intercotyledonary membrane weight, cotyledon number and individual cotyledonary surface was found. Placental efficiency (calf weight/total cotyledonary surface) was similar in HF and BB heifers but significantly higher in multiparous BB compared with multiparous HF dams (106.0±20.45 v. 74.3±12.27 kg/m2, respectively, P<0.001). Furthermore, a

  4. Early Dexamethasone Treatment Induces Placental Apoptosis in Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Wenbin; Shang, Hongkai; Li, Shaofu; Sloboda, Deborah M.; Ehrlich, Loreen; Lange, Karolin; Xu, Huaisheng; Henrich, Wolfgang; Dudenhausen, Joachim W.; Plagemann, Andreas; Newnham, John P.; Challis, John R. G.

    2015-01-01

    Glucocorticoid treatment given in late pregnancy in sheep resulted in altered placental development and function. An imbalance of placental survival and apoptotic factors resulting in an increased rate of apoptosis may be involved. We have now investigated the effects of dexamethasone (DEX) in early pregnancy on binucleate cells (BNCs), placental apoptosis, and fetal sex as a determinant of these responses. Pregnant ewes carrying singleton fetuses (n = 105) were randomized to control (n = 56, 2 mL saline/ewe) or DEX treatment (n = 49, intramuscular injections of 0.14 mg/kg ewe weight per 12 hours over 48 hours) at 40 to 41 days of gestation (dG). Placentomes were collected at 50, 100, 125, and 140 dG. At 100 dG, DEX in females reduced BNC numbers, placental antiapoptotic (proliferating cell nuclear antigen), and increased proapoptotic factors (Bax, p53), associated with a temporarily decrease in fetal growth. At 125 dG, BNC numbers and apoptotic markers were restored to normal. In males, ovine placental lactogen-protein levels after DEX were increased at 50 dG, but at 100 and 140 dG significantly decreased compared to controls. In contrast to females, these changes were independent of altered BNC numbers or apoptotic markers. Early DEX was associated with sex-specific, transient alterations in BNC numbers, which may contribute to changes in placental and fetal development. Furthermore, in females, altered placental apoptosis markers may be involved. PMID:25063551

  5. Early dexamethasone treatment induces placental apoptosis in sheep.

    PubMed

    Braun, Thorsten; Meng, Wenbin; Shang, Hongkai; Li, Shaofu; Sloboda, Deborah M; Ehrlich, Loreen; Lange, Karolin; Xu, Huaisheng; Henrich, Wolfgang; Dudenhausen, Joachim W; Plagemann, Andreas; Newnham, John P; Challis, John R G

    2015-01-01

    Glucocorticoid treatment given in late pregnancy in sheep resulted in altered placental development and function. An imbalance of placental survival and apoptotic factors resulting in an increased rate of apoptosis may be involved. We have now investigated the effects of dexamethasone (DEX) in early pregnancy on binucleate cells (BNCs), placental apoptosis, and fetal sex as a determinant of these responses. Pregnant ewes carrying singleton fetuses (n = 105) were randomized to control (n = 56, 2 mL saline/ewe) or DEX treatment (n = 49, intramuscular injections of 0.14 mg/kg ewe weight per 12 hours over 48 hours) at 40 to 41 days of gestation (dG). Placentomes were collected at 50, 100, 125, and 140 dG. At 100 dG, DEX in females reduced BNC numbers, placental antiapoptotic (proliferating cell nuclear antigen), and increased proapoptotic factors (Bax, p53), associated with a temporarily decrease in fetal growth. At 125 dG, BNC numbers and apoptotic markers were restored to normal. In males, ovine placental lactogen-protein levels after DEX were increased at 50 dG, but at 100 and 140 dG significantly decreased compared to controls. In contrast to females, these changes were independent of altered BNC numbers or apoptotic markers. Early DEX was associated with sex-specific, transient alterations in BNC numbers, which may contribute to changes in placental and fetal development. Furthermore, in females, altered placental apoptosis markers may be involved. PMID:25063551

  6. Placental ischemia increases seizure susceptibility and cerebrospinal fluid cytokines

    PubMed Central

    Warrington, Junie P

    2015-01-01

    Eclampsia is diagnosed in preeclamptic patients who develop unexplained seizures and/or coma during pregnancy or postpartum. Eclampsia is one of the leading causes of maternal and infant morbidity and mortality, accounting for ∼13% of maternal deaths worldwide. Little is known about the mechanisms contributing to the pathophysiology of eclampsia, partly due to the lack of suitable animal models. This study tested the hypothesis that placental ischemia, induced by reducing utero-placental perfusion, increases susceptibility to seizures, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) inflammation, and neurokinin B (NKB) expression in brain and plasma. Pentylenetetrazol (PTZ), a pro-convulsive drug, was injected into pregnant and placental ischemic rats (40 mg/kg, i.p.) on gestational day 19 followed by video monitoring for 30 min. Seizure scoring was blindly conducted. Placental ischemia hastened the onset of seizures compared to pregnant controls but had no effect on seizure duration. Placental ischemia increased CSF levels of IL-2, IL-17, IL-18 and eotaxin (CCL11), had no effect on plasma NKB; however, PTZ increased plasma NKB in both pregnant and placental ischemic rats. NKB was strongly correlated with latency to seizure in normal pregnant rats (R2 = 0.88 vs. 0.02 in placental ischemic rats). Lastly, NKB decreased in the anterior cerebrum in response to placental ischemia and PTZ treatment but was unchanged in the posterior cerebrum. These data demonstrate that placental ischemia is associated with increased susceptibility to seizures and CSF inflammation; thus provides an excellent model for elucidating mechanisms of eclampsia-like symptoms. Further studies are required to determine the role of CSF cytokines/chemokines in mediating increased seizure susceptibility. PMID:26603461

  7. Placental ischemia increases seizure susceptibility and cerebrospinal fluid cytokines.

    PubMed

    Warrington, Junie P

    2015-11-01

    Eclampsia is diagnosed in preeclamptic patients who develop unexplained seizures and/or coma during pregnancy or postpartum. Eclampsia is one of the leading causes of maternal and infant morbidity and mortality, accounting for ~13% of maternal deaths worldwide. Little is known about the mechanisms contributing to the pathophysiology of eclampsia, partly due to the lack of suitable animal models. This study tested the hypothesis that placental ischemia, induced by reducing utero-placental perfusion, increases susceptibility to seizures, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) inflammation, and neurokinin B (NKB) expression in brain and plasma. Pentylenetetrazol (PTZ), a pro-convulsive drug, was injected into pregnant and placental ischemic rats (40 mg/kg, i.p.) on gestational day 19 followed by video monitoring for 30 min. Seizure scoring was blindly conducted. Placental ischemia hastened the onset of seizures compared to pregnant controls but had no effect on seizure duration. Placental ischemia increased CSF levels of IL-2, IL-17, IL-18 and eotaxin (CCL11), had no effect on plasma NKB; however, PTZ increased plasma NKB in both pregnant and placental ischemic rats. NKB was strongly correlated with latency to seizure in normal pregnant rats (R(2) = 0.88 vs. 0.02 in placental ischemic rats). Lastly, NKB decreased in the anterior cerebrum in response to placental ischemia and PTZ treatment but was unchanged in the posterior cerebrum. These data demonstrate that placental ischemia is associated with increased susceptibility to seizures and CSF inflammation; thus provides an excellent model for elucidating mechanisms of eclampsia-like symptoms. Further studies are required to determine the role of CSF cytokines/chemokines in mediating increased seizure susceptibility. PMID:26603461

  8. Effect of leptin on the regulation of placental hormone secretion in cultured human placental cells.

    PubMed

    Coya, Raquel; Martul, Pedro; Algorta, Jaime; Aniel-Quiroga, Ma Angeles; Busturia, Ma Angeles; Señarís, Rosa

    2006-11-01

    Placenta is an important source of leptin during pregnancy that contributes to the high plasma leptin levels in pregnant women. Leptin and its functional receptors are synthesized in trophoblast cells that, in turn, secrete gestational hormones supporting a paracrine or autocrine role for leptin in the endocrine activity of the placenta. In the present study we examined the effect of leptin on in vitro release of gestational hormones (human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), human placental lactogen (hPL), progesterone, estrogens and testosterone) by human term placental cells in culture. Placentas at term were obtained immediately after delivery from mothers with uncomplicated pregnancies. Progesterone, hCG, hPL, estradiol, estrone, estriol and testosterone levels were measured by different assays in culture media of cells maintained in monolayer culture after incubation for 12, 24, 48 or 72 h with leptin or placebo. Incubation with leptin did not modify hCG, hPL, progesterone, estriol and estrone secretion for any of the doses and times assayed. However, leptin led to a dose-dependent decrease in estradiol release. This effect was observed when treatment with recombinant human leptin spanned from 12 to 72 h. At this time an increase in testosterone levels was observed in leptin-treated cells versus placebo. These results indicate that leptin can be considered a gestational hormone implied in the endocrine function of the placenta, with an important role in control of the production of steroid reproductive hormones in placental cells in vitro. PMID:17145648

  9. mineral sequestration by wollastonite carbonation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Wenjin; Fu, Liangjie; Ouyang, Jing; Yang, Huaming

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, we demonstrated a new approach to CO2 mineral sequestration using wollastonite carbonation assisted by sulfuric acid and ammonia. Samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and 29Si nuclear magnetic resonance. The change in Gibbs free energy from -223 kJ/mol for the leaching reaction of wollastonite to -101 kJ/mol for the carbonation reaction indicated that these two reactions can proceed spontaneously. The leached and carbonated wollastonite showed fibrous bassanite and granular calcium carbonate, respectively, while the crystal structure of pristine wollastonite was destroyed and the majority of the Ca2+ in pristine wollastonite leached. The chemical changes in the phases were monitored during the whole process. A high carbonation rate of 91.1 % could be obtained under the action of sulfuric acid and ammonia at 30 °C at normal atmospheric pressure, indicating its potential use for CO2 sequestration.

  10. Carbon Dioxide Sequestration: An Introduction

    SciTech Connect

    Oelkers, Dr. Eric; Cole, David R

    2008-01-01

    The success of human and industrial development over the past hundred years has lead to a huge increase in fossil fuel consumption and CO2 emission to the atmosphere leading to an unprecedented increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration. This increased CO2 content is believed to be responsible for a significant increase in global temperature over the past several decades. Global-scale climate modeling suggests that this temperature increase will continue at least over the next few hundred years leading to glacial melting, and raising seawater levels. In an attempt to attenuate this possibility, many have proposed the large scale sequestration of CO2 from our atmosphere. This introduction presents a summary of some of the evidence linking increasing atmosphere CO2 concentration to global warming and our efforts to stem this rise though CO2 sequestration.

  11. CO2 Sequestration short course

    SciTech Connect

    DePaolo, Donald J.; Cole, David R; Navrotsky, Alexandra; Bourg, Ian C

    2014-12-08

    Given the public’s interest and concern over the impact of atmospheric greenhouse gases (GHGs) on global warming and related climate change patterns, the course is a timely discussion of the underlying geochemical and mineralogical processes associated with gas-water-mineral-interactions encountered during geological sequestration of CO2. The geochemical and mineralogical processes encountered in the subsurface during storage of CO2 will play an important role in facilitating the isolation of anthropogenic CO2 in the subsurface for thousands of years, thus moderating rapid increases in concentrations of atmospheric CO2 and mitigating global warming. Successful implementation of a variety of geological sequestration scenarios will be dependent on our ability to accurately predict, monitor and verify the behavior of CO2 in the subsurface. The course was proposed to and accepted by the Mineralogical Society of America (MSA) and The Geochemical Society (GS).

  12. Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership

    SciTech Connect

    Susan M. Capalbo

    2005-11-01

    The Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts under this Partnership in Phase I fall into four areas: evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks that will be used to determine the location of pilot demonstrations in Phase II; development of GIS-based reporting framework that links with national networks; designing an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies and assessment frameworks; and initiating a comprehensive education and outreach program. The groundwork is in place to provide an assessment of storage capabilities for CO2 utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that would complement the ongoing DOE research agenda in Carbon Sequestration. The region has a diverse array of geological formations that could provide storage options for carbon in one or more of its three states. Likewise, initial estimates of terrestrial sinks indicate a vast potential for increasing and maintaining soil C on forested, agricultural, and reclaimed lands. Both options include the potential for offsetting economic benefits to industry and society. Steps have been taken to assure that the GIS-based framework is consistent among types of sinks within the Big Sky Partnership area and with the efforts of other DOE regional partnerships. The Partnership recognizes the critical importance of measurement, monitoring, and verification technologies to support not only carbon trading but all policies and programs that DOE and other agencies may want to pursue in support of GHG mitigation. The efforts in developing and implementing MMV technologies for geological sequestration reflect this concern. Research is also underway to identify and validate best management practices for soil C in the

  13. The future of carbon sequestration. 2nd ed.

    SciTech Connect

    2007-04-15

    The report is an overview of the opportunities for carbon sequestration to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. It provides a concise look at what is driving interest in carbon sequestration, the challenges faced in implementing carbon sequestration projects, and the current and future state of carbon sequestration. Topics covered in the report include: Overview of the climate change debate; Explanation of the global carbon cycle; Discussion of the concept of carbon sequestration; Review of current efforts to implement carbon sequestration; Analysis and comparison of carbon sequestration component technologies; Review of the economic drivers of carbon sequestration project success; and Discussion of the key government and industry initiatives supporting carbon sequestration.

  14. Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership

    SciTech Connect

    Kenneth J. Nemeth

    2006-08-30

    The Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership's (SECARB) Phase I program focused on promoting the development of a framework and infrastructure necessary for the validation and commercial deployment of carbon sequestration technologies. The SECARB program, and its subsequent phases, directly support the Global Climate Change Initiative's goal of reducing greenhouse gas intensity by 18 percent by the year 2012. Work during the project's two-year period was conducted within a ''Task Responsibility Matrix''. The SECARB team was successful in accomplishing its tasks to define the geographic boundaries of the region; characterize the region; identify and address issues for technology deployment; develop public involvement and education mechanisms; identify the most promising capture, sequestration, and transport options; and prepare action plans for implementation and technology validation activity. Milestones accomplished during Phase I of the project are listed below: (1) Completed preliminary identification of geographic boundaries for the study (FY04, Quarter 1); (2) Completed initial inventory of major sources and sinks for the region (FY04, Quarter 2); (3) Completed initial development of plans for GIS (FY04, Quarter 3); (4) Completed preliminary action plan and assessment for overcoming public perception issues (FY04, Quarter 4); (5) Assessed safety, regulatory and permitting issues (FY05, Quarter 1); (6) Finalized inventory of major sources/sinks and refined GIS algorithms (FY05, Quarter 2); (7) Refined public involvement and education mechanisms in support of technology development options (FY05, Quarter 3); and (8) Identified the most promising capture, sequestration and transport options and prepared action plans (FY05, Quarter 4).

  15. Placentation in the alpaca Lama pacos.

    PubMed

    Olivera, Luis; Zago, Douglas; Leiser, Rudolf; Jones, Carolyn; Bevilacqua, Estela

    2003-07-01

    Reproduction in South American camelids is poorly studied. To extend our knowledge of the development and cellular physiology of the placenta in the alpaca Lama pacos, we have examined specimens from day 150 of pregnancy to term. Morphological investigations using light, transmission and scanning electron microscopy, the histochemical localization of iron, alkaline and acid phosphatase activity, and the immunodetection of placental lactogen hormone were performed. Throughout pregnancy there was a progressive increase in the depths of folds on the uterine mucosa surface together with a thickening of the endometrium. Glandular cells exhibited PAS and acid phosphatase (AcP) positive secretion granules. In the chorion, giant trophoblast polyploid cells gradually became more numerous and larger. Non-giant cells exhibited positive granules for PAS, alkaline phosphatase (AkP) reaction and immunostaining for bovine placental lactogen hormone (PLH). SDS -PAGE electrophoresis and Western blotting procedures also confirmed the presence of a bovine PLH-like glycoprotein in the fetal alpaca placenta. Over the glandular openings, the chorion formed typical areolae, where the trophoblast exhibited AcP and PAS positive reactions. At these sites, the fetal endothelial cells contained iron-storage granules in their cytoplasm. The trophoblast-epithelial interface exhibited a complex microvillous interdigitation, in which an AkP reaction was very prominent. The chorionic capillaries progressively indented adjacent trophoblast cells. These data suggest that although the epitheliochorial alpaca placenta is diffuse, various trophoblast cell types and specialized areas of the maternofetal interface give the placenta micro-regional functions where histiotrophic nutrition, hormone production and molecular exchange are prevalent. PMID:12802689

  16. HSPC117 deficiency in cloned embryos causes placental abnormality and fetal death

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yingying; Hai, Tang; Liu, Zichuan; Zhou, Shuya; Lv, Zhuo; Ding, Chenhui; Liu, Lei; Niu, Yuyu; Zhao, Xiaoyang; Tong, Man; Wang, Liu; Jouneau, Alice; Zhang, Xun; Ji, Weizhi; Zhou, Qi

    2010-07-02

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has been successfully used in many species to produce live cloned offspring, albeit with low efficiency. The low frequency of successful development has usually been ascribed to incomplete or inappropriate reprogramming of the transferred nuclear genome. Elucidating the genetic differences between normal fertilized and cloned embryos is key to understand the low efficiency of SCNT. Here, we show that expression of HSPC117, which encodes a hypothetical protein of unknown function, was absent or very low in cloned mouse blastocysts. To investigate the role of HSPC117 in embryo development, we knocked-down this gene in normal fertilized embryos using RNA interference. We assessed the post-implantation survival of HSPC117 knock-down embryos at 3 stages: E9 (prior to placenta formation); E12 (after the placenta was fully functional) and E19 (post-natal). Our results show that, although siRNA-treated in vivo fertilized/produced (IVP) embryos could develop to the blastocyst stage and implanted without any difference from control embryos, the knock-down embryos showed substantial fetal death, accompanied by placental blood clotting, at E12. Furthermore, comparison of HSPC117 expression in placentas of nuclear transfer (NT), intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and IVP embryos confirmed that HSPC117 deficiency correlates well with failures in embryo development: all NT embryos with a fetus, as well as IVP and ICSI embryos, had normal placental HSPC117 expression while those NT embryos showing reduced or no expression of HSPC117 failed to form a fetus. In conclusion, we show that HSPC117 is an important gene for post-implantation development of embryos, and that HSPC117 deficiency leads to fetal abnormalities after implantation, especially following placental formation. We suggest that defects in HSPC117 expression may be an important contributing factor to loss of cloned NT embryos in vivo.

  17. Chapter 4: Geological Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Friedmann, J; Herzog, H

    2006-06-14

    Carbon sequestration is the long term isolation of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere through physical, chemical, biological, or engineered processes. The largest potential reservoirs for storing carbon are the deep oceans and geological reservoirs in the earth's upper crust. This chapter focuses on geological sequestration because it appears to be the most promising large-scale approach for the 2050 timeframe. It does not discuss ocean or terrestrial sequestration. In order to achieve substantial GHG reductions, geological storage needs to be deployed at a large scale. For example, 1 Gt C/yr (3.6 Gt CO{sub 2}/yr) abatement, requires carbon capture and storage (CCS) from 600 large pulverized coal plants ({approx}1000 MW each) or 3600 injection projects at the scale of Statoil's Sleipner project. At present, global carbon emissions from coal approximate 2.5 Gt C. However, given reasonable economic and demand growth projections in a business-as-usual context, global coal emissions could account for 9 Gt C. These volumes highlight the need to develop rapidly an understanding of typical crustal response to such large projects, and the magnitude of the effort prompts certain concerns regarding implementation, efficiency, and risk of the enterprise. The key questions of subsurface engineering and surface safety associated with carbon sequestration are: (1) Subsurface issues: (a) Is there enough capacity to store CO{sub 2} where needed? (b) Do we understand storage mechanisms well enough? (c) Could we establish a process to certify injection sites with our current level of understanding? (d) Once injected, can we monitor and verify the movement of subsurface CO{sub 2}? (2) Near surface issues: (a) How might the siting of new coal plants be influenced by the distribution of storage sites? (b) What is the probability of CO{sub 2} escaping from injection sites? What are the attendant risks? Can we detect leakage if it occurs? (3) Will surface leakage negate or reduce the

  18. Carbon Sequestration in Forest Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lal, R.

    2006-05-01

    Carbon (C) sequestration in soils and forests is an important strategy of reducing the net increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration by fossil fuel combustion, deforestation, biomass burning, soil cultivation and accelerated erosion. Further, the so-called "missing or fugitive CO2" is also probably being absorbed in a terrestrial sink. Three of the 15 strategies proposed to stabilize atmospheric CO2 concentrations by 2054, with each one to sequester 1 Pg Cyr-1, include: (i) biofuel plantations for bioethanol production, (ii) reforestation, afforestation and establishment of new plantations, and (iii) conversion of plow tillage to no-till farming. Enhancing soil organic carbon (SOC) pool is an important component in each of these three options, but especially so in conversion of degraded/marginal agricultural soils to short rotation woody perennials, and establishment of plantations for biofuel, fiber and timber production. Depending upon the prior SOC loss because of the historic land used and management-induced soil degradation, the rate of soil C sequestration in forest soils may be 0 to 3 Mg C ha-1 yr-1. Tropical forest ecosystems cover 1.8 billion hectares and have a SOC sequestration potential of 200 to 500 Tg C yr-1 over 59 years. However, increasing production of forest biomass may not always increase the SOC pool. Factors limiting the rate of SOC sequestration include C: N ratio, soil availability of N and other essential nutrients, concentration of recalcitrant macro-molecules (e.g., lignin, suberin), soil properties (e.g., clay content and mineralogy, aggregation), soil drainage, and climate (mean annual precipitation and temperature). The SOC pool can be enhanced by adopting recommended methods of forest harvesting and site preparation to minimize the "Covington effect," improving soil drainage, alleviating soil compaction, growing species with a high NPP, and improving soil fertility including the availability of micro-nutrients. Soil fertility

  19. Mechanisms of Soil Carbon Sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lal, Rattan

    2015-04-01

    Carbon (C) sequestration in soil is one of the several strategies of reducing the net emission of CO2 into the atmosphere. Of the two components, soil organic C (SOC) and soil inorganic C (SIC), SOC is an important control of edaphic properties and processes. In addition to off-setting part of the anthropogenic emissions, enhancing SOC concentration to above the threshold level (~1.5-2.0%) in the root zone has numerous ancillary benefits including food and nutritional security, biodiversity, water quality, among others. Because of its critical importance in human wellbeing and nature conservancy, scientific processes must be sufficiently understood with regards to: i) the potential attainable, and actual sink capacity of SOC and SIC, ii) permanence of the C sequestered its turnover and mean residence time, iii) the amount of biomass C needed (Mg/ha/yr) to maintain and enhance SOC pool, and to create a positive C budget, iv) factors governing the depth distribution of SOC, v) physical, chemical and biological mechanisms affecting the rate of decomposition by biotic and abiotic processes, vi) role of soil aggregation in sequestration and protection of SOC and SIC pool, vii) the importance of root system and its exudates in transfer of biomass-C into the SOC pools, viii) significance of biogenic processes in formation of secondary carbonates, ix) the role of dissolved organic C (DOC) in sequestration of SOC and SIC, and x) importance of weathering of alumino-silicates (e.g., powered olivine) in SIC sequestration. Lack of understanding of these and other basic processes leads to misunderstanding, inconsistencies in interpretation of empirical data, and futile debates. Identification of site-specific management practices is also facilitated by understanding of the basic processes of sequestration of SOC and SIC. Sustainable intensification of agroecosystems -- producing more from less by enhancing the use efficiency and reducing losses of inputs, necessitates thorough

  20. Ischemic placental syndrome - prediction and new disease monitoring.

    PubMed

    Kwiatkowski, Sebastian; Kwiatkowska, Ewa; Rzepka, Rafał; Torbe, Andrzej; Dolegowska, Barbara

    2016-06-01

    The last decade has seen an improved understanding of the cause of the development of pathologies such as gestational hypertension, preeclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction, intrauterine fetal death or placental abruption. Nowadays, we know that most conditions within this group share the same pathogenesis, the cause of which is placental ischemia. The following review is an attempt to propose a new method for prediction, diagnosis and - above all - appropriate monitoring of pregnant women and fetuses developing the ischemic placental syndrome with the use of tests that are new but yet widely available in clinical diagnosis. They are closely related to the condition's pathogenesis, therefore their elevated levels may predate clinical symptoms, and - most importantly - they correlate with syndrome aggravation and the occurrence of complications. Perhaps, the new look will allow us to improve perinatal results by reducing mortality and severe complications in pregnant women and fetal deaths resulting from sudden intrauterine fetal death or placental abruption. PMID:26444581

  1. The new framework for understanding placental mammal evolution.

    PubMed

    Asher, Robert J; Bennett, Nigel; Lehmann, Thomas

    2009-08-01

    An unprecedented level of confidence has recently crystallized around a new hypothesis of how living placental mammals share a pattern of common descent. The major groups are afrotheres (e.g., aardvarks, elephants), xenarthrans (e.g., anteaters, sloths), laurasiatheres (e.g., horses, shrews), and euarchontoglires (e.g., humans, rodents). Compared with previous hypotheses this tree is remarkably stable; however, some uncertainty persists about the location of the placental root, and (for example) the position of bats within laurasiatheres, of sea cows and aardvarks within afrotheres, and of dermopterans within euarchontoglires. A variety of names for sub-clades within the new placental mammal tree have been proposed, not all of which follow conventions regarding priority and stability. More importantly, the new phylogenetic framework enables the formulation of new hypotheses and testing thereof, for example regarding the possible developmental dichotomy that seems to distinguish members of the newly identified southern and northern radiations of living placental mammals. PMID:19582725

  2. Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership

    SciTech Connect

    Susan Capalbo

    2005-12-31

    The Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts under this Partnership in Phase I are organized into four areas: (1) Evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks that will be used to determine the location of pilot demonstrations in Phase II; (2) Development of GIS-based reporting framework that links with national networks; (3) Design of an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies, market-based opportunities for carbon management, and an economic/risk assessment framework; (referred to below as the Advanced Concepts component of the Phase I efforts) and (4) Initiation of a comprehensive education and outreach program. As a result of the Phase I activities, the groundwork is in place to provide an assessment of storage capabilities for CO{sub 2} utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that complements the ongoing DOE research agenda in Carbon Sequestration. The geology of the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership Region is favorable for the potential sequestration of enormous volume of CO{sub 2}. The United States Geological Survey (USGS 1995) identified 10 geologic provinces and 111 plays in the region. These provinces and plays include both sedimentary rock types characteristic of oil, gas, and coal productions as well as large areas of mafic volcanic rocks. Of the 10 provinces and 111 plays, 1 province and 4 plays are located within Idaho. The remaining 9 provinces and 107 plays are dominated by sedimentary rocks and located in the states of Montana and Wyoming. The potential sequestration capacity of the 9 sedimentary provinces within the region ranges from 25,000 to almost 900,000 million metric tons of CO{sub 2}. Overall every sedimentary formation investigated

  3. BIG SKY CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP

    SciTech Connect

    Susan M. Capalbo

    2004-01-04

    The Big Sky Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts during the first performance period fall into four areas: evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks; development of GIS-based reporting framework; designing an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies; and initiating a comprehensive education and outreach program. At the first Partnership meeting the groundwork was put in place to provide an assessment of capture and storage capabilities for CO{sub 2} utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that would complement the ongoing DOE research. The region has a diverse array of geological formations that could provide storage options for carbon in one or more of its three states. Likewise, initial estimates of terrestrial sinks indicate a vast potential for increasing and maintaining soil C on forested, agricultural, and reclaimed lands. Both options include the potential for offsetting economic benefits to industry and society. Complementary to the efforts on evaluation of sources and sinks is the development of the Big Sky Partnership Carbon Cyberinfrastructure (BSP-CC) and a GIS Road Map for the Partnership. These efforts will put in place a map-based integrated information management system for our Partnership, with transferability to the national carbon sequestration effort. The Partnership recognizes the critical importance of measurement, monitoring, and verification technologies to support not only carbon trading but other policies and programs that DOE and other agencies may want to pursue in support of GHG mitigation. The efforts begun in developing and implementing MMV technologies for geological sequestration reflect this concern. Research is also underway to identify and validate best

  4. Multiscale modelling of the feto–placental vasculature

    PubMed Central

    Clark, A. R.; Lin, M.; Tawhai, M.; Saghian, R.; James, J. L.

    2015-01-01

    The placenta provides all the nutrients required for the fetus through pregnancy. It develops dynamically, and, to avoid rejection of the fetus, there is no mixing of fetal and maternal blood; rather, the branched placental villi ‘bathe’ in blood supplied from the uterine arteries. Within the villi, the feto–placental vasculature also develops a complex branching structure in order to maximize exchange between the placental and maternal circulations. To understand the development of the placenta, we must translate functional information across spatial scales including the interaction between macro- and micro-scale haemodynamics and account for the effects of a dynamically and rapidly changing structure through the time course of pregnancy. Here, we present steps towards an anatomically based and multiscale approach to modelling the feto–placental circulation. We assess the effect of the location of cord insertion on feto–placental blood flow resistance and flow heterogeneity and show that, although cord insertion does not appear to directly influence feto–placental resistance, the heterogeneity of flow in the placenta is predicted to increase from a 19.4% coefficient of variation with central cord insertion to 23.3% when the cord is inserted 2 cm from the edge of the placenta. Model geometries with spheroidal and ellipsoidal shapes, but the same volume, showed no significant differences in flow resistance or heterogeneity, implying that normal asymmetry in shape does not affect placental efficiency. However, the size and number of small capillary vessels is predicted to have a large effect on feto–placental resistance and flow heterogeneity. Using this new model as an example, we highlight the importance of taking an integrated multi-disciplinary and multiscale approach to understand development of the placenta. PMID:25844150

  5. Overexpression of GLUT3 placental glucose transporter in diabetic rats.

    PubMed Central

    Boileau, P; Mrejen, C; Girard, J; Hauguel-de Mouzon, S

    1995-01-01

    The localization of the two major placental glucose transporter isoforms, GLUT1 and GLUT3 was studied in 20-d pregnant rats. Immunocytochemical studies revealed that GLUT1 protein is expressed ubiquitously in the junctional zone (maternal side) and the labyrinthine zone (fetal side) of the placenta. In contrast, expression of GLUT3 protein is restricted to the labyrinthine zone, specialized in nutrient transfer. After 19-d maternal insulinopenic diabetes (streptozotocin), placental GLUT3 mRNA and protein levels were increased four-to-fivefold compared to nondiabetic rats, whereas GLUT1 mRNA and protein levels remained unmodified. Placental 2-deoxyglucose uptake and glycogen concentration were also increased fivefold in diabetic rats. These data suggest that GLUT3 plays a major role in placental glucose uptake and metabolism. The role of hyperglycemia in the regulation of GLUT3 expression was assessed by lowering the glycemia of diabetic pregnant rats. After a 5-d phlorizin infusion to pregnant diabetic rats, placental GLUT3 mRNA and protein levels returned to levels similar to those observed in nondiabetic rats. Furthermore, a short-term hyperglycemia (12 h), achieved by performing hyperglycemic clamps induced a fourfold increase in placental GLUT3 mRNA and protein with no concomitant change in GLUT1 expression. This study provides the first evidence that placental GLUT3 mRNA and protein expression can be stimulated in vivo under hyperglycemic conditions. Thus, GLUT3 transporter isoform appears to be highly sensitive to ambient glucose levels and may play a pivotal role in the severe alterations of placental function observed in diabetic pregnancies. Images PMID:7615800

  6. Induction of pro-inflammatory response of the placental trophoblast by Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocytes and TNF

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Plasmodium falciparum placental malaria is characterized by the sequestration of infected erythrocytes (IEs) in the placental intervillous space via adherence to chondroitin sulphate A (CSA), production of inflammatory molecules, and leukocytes infiltration. Previous reports suggest that the syncytiotrophoblast (ST) immunologically responds to IEs contact. This study explores the inflammatory response induced in BeWo cells by adherence of IEs and TNFstimulation. Methods A non-syncitialized BeWo cells (trophoblast model) were used to evaluate its response to CSA-adherents IEs (FCB1csa, FCB2csa, FCR3csa, 3D7csa) and TNF stimulation. Expression of membrane ICAM-1 (mICAM-1) receptor in BeWo cells was quantified by flow cytometry and the IL-8, IL-6 and soluble ICAM-1 (sICAM-1) concentrations were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbentassay (ELISA) in BeWo stimulated supernatants. Results BeWo cells stimulated with TNF and CSA-adherents IEs of FCB1csa and 3D7csa (strains with higher adhesion) increase the expression of ICAM-1 on the surface of cells and the secretion of immune factors IL-8, IL-6 and sICAM-1. This inflammatory response appears to be related to the level of adherence of IEs because less adherent strains do not induce significant changes. Conclusions It was found that BeWo cells responds to CSA-IEs and to TNF favouring a placental pro-inflammatory environment, evidenced by increases in the expression of membrane mICAM-1 and release of soluble ICAM-1, as well as the IL-8 and IL-6 secretion. The expression of ICAM-1 in BeWo cells might be associated to an increase in leukocyte adhesion to the trophoblast barrier, promoting greater inflammation, while the sICAM-1 release could be a protection mechanism activated by trophoblastic cells, in order to regulate the local inflammatory response. PMID:24237643

  7. Placental programming of chronic diseases, cancer and lifespan: a review.

    PubMed

    Barker, D J P; Thornburg, K L

    2013-10-01

    Particular paths of fetal growth are now known to predict a range of disorders in adult life. This is thought to reflect fetal programming, the phenomenon whereby nutrition and other influences during development set the body's organs and systems for life. The thesis of this review is that normal variations in the processes of placental development lead to variations in the supply of nutrients to the fetus and programme a small number of key systems that are linked to later disease. A baby's growth and nutrition depend both on the function of the placenta, reflected in its gross morphology at birth, and on the mother's lifetime nutrition, reflected in her height and weight. In many studies, the effects of placental size and shape on later disease have been examined within different categories of mother's body size. The review shows that variations in gross placental morphology at birth predict a wide range of disorders in later life. Any particular placental phenotype seems to predict a limited number of diseases. Further research into the links between the processes of placentation and the morphology of the placenta at birth is now required. We need to know more about the relative importance of nutrient flow, nutrient balance and the timing of nutritional events in determining disorders in later life. We also need to understand why, compared to other placental mammals, the human placenta is so variable in its morphology and functional capacity. PMID:23916422

  8. Relationship between placental traits and maternal intrinsic factors in sheep.

    PubMed

    Ocak, S; Ogun, S; Onder, H

    2013-06-01

    The relationship between maternal intrinsic factors and placental traits was investigated on three Southern Mediterranean breed of sheep; Cukurova Assaf (CA), Cukurova (C) and Cukurova Meat Sheep (CMS). The effect of parity and birth type were also considered in the study as a potential influencing factor. Our hypothesis was to show that while differences in placental traits between breed, parity and birth type affected lamb condition and survivability, its correlation to maternal intrinsic behavioral factors may also be a strong indicator. The study found breed related differences of maternal behavioral factors and also showed significant correlation of these behavioral patterns to various placental traits. It confirmed earlier findings that parity played a major role in the refinement of these behavioral patterns. Significant differences in birth weight (P<0.05), placental weight (P<0.05), number of cotyledons (P<0.01) and cotyledon length (P<0.05) was seen between breeds. Cotyledon weight (P<0.05), width (P<0.01) and length (P<0.05) were found to differ by parity. Breed and parity interaction significantly influenced cotyledon quantity. While we detected breed specific differences in relation to maternal intrinsic factors we also noticed significant variance within breeds to these behavioral patterns when linked to placental traits. Further study is required on the correlation between placental traits and postnatal behavior on not just the ewes but also on their lambs. This could have a significant bearing on how producers manage and maximize lamb survivability. PMID:23602010

  9. Association between PAPP-A and placental thickness

    PubMed Central

    Mesdaghi-nia, Elaheh; Behrashi, Mitra; Saeidi, Arezoo; Abedzadeh Kalahroodi, Masoomeh; Sehat, Mojtaba

    2016-01-01

    Background: Measuring of maternal serum pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) in first trimester can be a way for early detection of adverse prenatal outcome due to faulty placenta. Objective: The aim was to Determination of association between placental thickness in second trimester with low level of PAPP-A in first trimester. Materials and Methods: In this cohort study, serum PAPP-A of 187 pregnant women was measured in the first trimester of pregnancy. Patients who had PAPP-A ≤0.8 MOM were in exposed and others who had PAPP-A >0.8 defined as unexposed group. The criteria of placental thickness in ultrasound study was thickness of 4 cm or more than 50% of placental length. Results: Of 187 patients, 87 patients had PAPP-A >0.8 and 93 patients had PAPP-A ≤0.8. Women with low levels of PAPP-A in the first trimester, had an increased incidence placental thickness of 34.4%, whereas another group had about 15% (p=0.002). Also, PAPP-A levels had acceptable sensitivity and specificity for placental thickness detection (71.1% and 54.8%, respectively. Conclusion: Our study showed that serum level of PAPP-A generally was low (≤0.8) in women with a thick placenta (>4 cm or >50% of placental length). The first trimester of pregnancy measurement of PAPP-A will be more predictable for healthy placenta. PMID:27525326

  10. Feto-placental adaptations to maternal obesity in the baboon

    PubMed Central

    Farley, Darren; Tejero, Maria E.; Comuzzie, Anthony G.; Higgins, Paul B.; Cox, Laura; Werner, Sherry L.; Jenkins, Susan L.; Li, Cun.; Choi, Jaehyek; Dick, Edward J.; Hubbard, Gene B.; Frost, Patrice; Dudley, Donald D.; Ballesteros, Brandon; Wu, Guoyao; Nathanielsz, Peter W.; Schlabritz-Loutsevitch, Natalia E.

    2010-01-01

    Maternal obesity is present in 20–34% of pregnant women and has been associated with both intrauterine growth restriction and large-for-gestational age fetuses. While fetal and placental functions have been extensively studied in the baboon, no data are available on the effect of maternal obesity on placental structure and function in this species. We hypothesize that maternal obesity in the baboon is associated with a maternal inflammatory state and induces structural and functional changes in the placenta. The major findings of this study were 1) decreased placental syncytiotrophoblast amplification factor, intact syncytiotrophoblast endoplasmic reticulum structure and decreased system A placental amino acid transport in obese animals; 2) fetal serum amino acid composition and mononuclear cells (PBMC) transcriptome were different in fetuses from obese compared with non-obese animals 3) maternal obesity in humans and baboons is similar in regard of increased placental and adipose tissue macrophage infiltration, increased CD14 expression in maternal PBMC and maternal hyperleptinemia. In summary, these data demonstrate that in obese baboons in the absence of increased fetal weight, placental and fetal phenotype are consistent with those described for large- for-gestational age human fetuses. PMID:19632719

  11. Metabolism of bupropion by baboon hepatic and placental microsomes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoming; Abdelrahman, Doaa R.; Fokina, Valentina M.; Hankins, Gary D.V.; Ahmed, Mahmoud S.; Nanovskaya, Tatiana N.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to determine the biotransformation of bupropion by baboon hepatic and placental microsomes, identify the enzyme(s) catalyzing the reaction(s) and determine its kinetics. Bupropion was metabolized by baboon hepatic and placental microsomes to hydroxybupropion (OH-BUP), threo- (TB) and erythrohydrobupropion (EB). OH-bupropion was the major metabolite formed by hepatic microsomes (Km 36 ± 6 µM, Vmax 258 ± 32 pmol mg protein−1 min−1), however the formation of OH-BUP by placental microsomes was below the limit of quantification. The apparent Km values of bupropion for the formation of TB and EB by hepatic and placental microsomes were similar. The selective inhibitors of CYP2B6 (ticlopidine and phencyclidine) and monoclonal antibodies raised against human CYP2B6 isozyme caused 80% inhibition of OH-BUP formation by baboon hepatic microsomes. The chemical inhibitors of aldo-keto reductases (flufenamic acid), carbonyl reductases (menadione), and 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (18β-glycyrrhetinic acid) significantly decreased the formation of TB and EB by hepatic and placental microsomes. Data indicate that CYP2B of baboon hepatic microsomes is responsible for biotransformation of bupropion to OH-BUP, while hepatic and placental short chain dehydrogenases/reductases and to a lesser extent aldo-keto reductases are responsible for the reduction of bupropion to TB and EB. PMID:21570381

  12. Stillbirth: Correlations Between Brain Injury and Placental Pathology.

    PubMed

    Ernst, Linda M; Bit-Ivan, Esther N; Miller, Emily S; Minturn, Lucy; Bigio, Eileen H; Weese-Mayer, Debra E

    2016-01-01

    Chronic placental pathologic processes such as fetal thrombotic vasculopathy have been linked to brain injury in neonates. We hypothesize that using stillbirth as a model, placental pathology can predict risk for hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. From a single institutional database of stillbirths ≥23 weeks' gestational age, we included cases with full autopsy and neuropathology examination. Bivariable analyses were performed to identify whether there was an association between placental pathologic findings and neuropathologic findings. Logistic regression was used to control for potential confounders. Among 97 potential cases, adequate tissue was analyzable from 79 cases (mean gestational age  =  33 weeks). Acute central nervous system hemorrhage and acute neuronal necrosis were the most common neuropathologic processes seen in this cohort (57% for each). Maternal vascular underperfusion was the most common placental pathology but was not significantly associated with a specific neuropathologic finding. High-grade chronic villitis (HGCV) and fetal thrombotic vasculopathy (FTV) were significantly associated with increased risk for pontosubicular necrosis (odds ratios, 15.73 and 3.79, respectively). These associations persisted after controlling for potential confounders. Chronic placental pathologies, specifically HGCV and FTV, were associated with pontosubicular necrosis, suggesting that placental pathology involving the fetal vasculature and altered fetoplacental blood flow carry the greatest likelihood of hypoxic/ischemic brain injury. PMID:26492345

  13. CpG methylation suppresses transcriptional activity of human syncytin-1 in non-placental tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Matouskova, Magda; Blazkova, Jana; Pajer, Petr; Pavlicek, Adam; Hejnar, Jiri . E-mail: hejnar@img.cas.cz

    2006-04-15

    Syncytin-1 is a captive envelope glycoprotein encoded by one of human endogenous retroviruses W. It is expressed exclusively in the placental trophoblast where it participates in cell-to-cell fusion during differentiation of syncytiotrophobast. In other tissues, however, syncytin-1 expression must be kept in check because inadvertent cell fusion might be dangerous for tissue organization and integrity. We describe here an inverse correlation between CpG methylation of syncytin-1 5' long terminal repeat and its expression. Hypomethylation of the syncytin-1 5' long terminal repeat in the placenta and in the choriocarcinoma-derived cell line BeWo was detected. However, other analyzed primary cells and cell lines non-expressing syncytin-1 contain proviruses heavily methylated in this sequence. CpG methylation of syncytin-1 is resistant to the effect of the demethylating agent 5-azacytidine. The inhibitory role of CpG methylation is further confirmed by transient transfection of in-vitro-methylated syncytin-1 promoter-driven reporter construct. Altogether, we conclude that CpG methylation plays a principal role in the transcriptional suppression of syncytin-1 in non-placental tissues, and, in contrast, demethylation of the syncytin-1 promoter in trophoblast is a prerequisite for its expression and differentiation of multinucleated syncytiotrophoblast.

  14. Major mouse placental compartments revealed by diffusion-weighted MRI, contrast-enhanced MRI, and fluorescence imaging

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, Eddy; Avni, Reut; Hadas, Ron; Raz, Tal; Garbow, Joel Richard; Bendel, Peter; Frydman, Lucio; Neeman, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Mammalian models, and mouse studies in particular, play a central role in our understanding of placental development. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) could be a valuable tool to further these studies, providing both structural and functional information. As fluid dynamics throughout the placenta are driven by a variety of flow and diffusion processes, diffusion-weighted MRI could enhance our understanding of the exchange properties of maternal and fetal blood pools—and thereby of placental function. These studies, however, have so far been hindered by the small sizes, the unavoidable motions, and the challenging air/water/fat heterogeneities, associated with mouse placental environments. The present study demonstrates that emerging methods based on the spatiotemporal encoding (SPEN) of the MRI information can robustly overcome these obstacles. Using SPEN MRI in combination with albumin-based contrast agents, we analyzed the diffusion behavior of developing placentas in a cohort of mice. These studies successfully discriminated the maternal from the fetal blood flows; the two orders of magnitude differences measured in these fluids’ apparent diffusion coefficients suggest a nearly free diffusion behavior for the former and a strong flow-based component for the latter. An intermediate behavior was observed by these methods for a third compartment that, based on maternal albumin endocytosis, was associated with trophoblastic cells in the interphase labyrinth. Structural features associated with these dynamic measurements were consistent with independent intravital and ex vivo fluorescence microscopy studies and are discussed within the context of the anatomy of developing mouse placentas. PMID:24969421

  15. Major mouse placental compartments revealed by diffusion-weighted MRI, contrast-enhanced MRI, and fluorescence imaging.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Eddy; Avni, Reut; Hadas, Ron; Raz, Tal; Garbow, Joel Richard; Bendel, Peter; Frydman, Lucio; Neeman, Michal

    2014-07-15

    Mammalian models, and mouse studies in particular, play a central role in our understanding of placental development. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) could be a valuable tool to further these studies, providing both structural and functional information. As fluid dynamics throughout the placenta are driven by a variety of flow and diffusion processes, diffusion-weighted MRI could enhance our understanding of the exchange properties of maternal and fetal blood pools--and thereby of placental function. These studies, however, have so far been hindered by the small sizes, the unavoidable motions, and the challenging air/water/fat heterogeneities, associated with mouse placental environments. The present study demonstrates that emerging methods based on the spatiotemporal encoding (SPEN) of the MRI information can robustly overcome these obstacles. Using SPEN MRI in combination with albumin-based contrast agents, we analyzed the diffusion behavior of developing placentas in a cohort of mice. These studies successfully discriminated the maternal from the fetal blood flows; the two orders of magnitude differences measured in these fluids' apparent diffusion coefficients suggest a nearly free diffusion behavior for the former and a strong flow-based component for the latter. An intermediate behavior was observed by these methods for a third compartment that, based on maternal albumin endocytosis, was associated with trophoblastic cells in the interphase labyrinth. Structural features associated with these dynamic measurements were consistent with independent intravital and ex vivo fluorescence microscopy studies and are discussed within the context of the anatomy of developing mouse placentas. PMID:24969421

  16. Maternal testosterone and placental function: Effect of electroacupuncture on placental expression of angiogenic markers and fetal growth.

    PubMed

    Fornes, Romina; Hu, Min; Maliqueo, Manuel; Kokosar, Milana; Benrick, Anna; Carr, David; Billig, Håkan; Jansson, Thomas; Manni, Luigi; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet

    2016-09-15

    Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have elevated circulating androgens during pregnancy and are at an increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Here we tested the hypotheses that maternal androgen excess decrease placental and fetal growth, and placental expression of markers of steroidogenesis, angiogenesis and sympathetic activity, and that acupuncture with low-frequency electrical stimulation prevents these changes. Pregnant rats were exposed to vehicle or testosterone on gestational day (GD)15-19. Low-frequency electroacupuncture (EA) or handling, as a control for the EA procedure, was given to control or testosterone exposed dams on GD16-20. On GD21, blood pressure was measured and maternal blood, fetuses and placentas collected. Placental steroid receptor expression and proteins involved in angiogenic, neurotrophic and adrenergic signaling were analyzed. EA did not affect any variables in control rats except maternal serum corticosterone, which was reduced. EA in testosterone exposed dams compared with controls increased systolic pressure by 30%, decreased circulating norepinephrine and corticosterone, fetal and placental weight and placental VEGFR1 and proNGF protein expression, and increased the VEGFA/VEGFR1 ratio, mature NGF (mNGF) and the mNGF/proNGF ratio. In conclusion, low-frequency EA in control animals did not have any negative influence on any of the studied variables. In contrast, EA in pregnant dams exposed to testosterone increased blood pressure and impaired placental growth and function, leading to decreased fetal growth. PMID:27208621

  17. BIG SKY CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP

    SciTech Connect

    Susan M. Capalbo

    2004-10-31

    The Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts under this Partnership fall into four areas: evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks; development of GIS-based reporting framework; designing an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies; and initiating a comprehensive education and outreach program. At the first two Partnership meetings the groundwork was put in place to provide an assessment of capture and storage capabilities for CO{sub 2} utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that would complement the ongoing DOE research. During the third quarter, planning efforts are underway for the next Partnership meeting which will showcase the architecture of the GIS framework and initial results for sources and sinks, discuss the methods and analysis underway for assessing geological and terrestrial sequestration potentials. The meeting will conclude with an ASME workshop. The region has a diverse array of geological formations that could provide storage options for carbon in one or more of its three states. Likewise, initial estimates of terrestrial sinks indicate a vast potential for increasing and maintaining soil C on forested, agricultural, and reclaimed lands. Both options include the potential for offsetting economic benefits to industry and society. Steps have been taken to assure that the GIS-based framework is consistent among types of sinks within the Big Sky Partnership area and with the efforts of other western DOE partnerships. Efforts are also being made to find funding to include Wyoming in the coverage areas for both geological and terrestrial sinks and sources. The Partnership recognizes the critical importance of measurement, monitoring, and verification

  18. BIG SKY CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP

    SciTech Connect

    Susan M. Capalbo

    2004-06-30

    The Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts under this Partnership fall into four areas: evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks; development of GIS-based reporting framework; designing an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies; and initiating a comprehensive education and outreach program. At the first two Partnership meetings the groundwork was put in place to provide an assessment of capture and storage capabilities for CO{sub 2} utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that would complement the ongoing DOE research. During the third quarter, planning efforts are underway for the next Partnership meeting which will showcase the architecture of the GIS framework and initial results for sources and sinks, discuss the methods and analysis underway for assessing geological and terrestrial sequestration potentials. The meeting will conclude with an ASME workshop (see attached agenda). The region has a diverse array of geological formations that could provide storage options for carbon in one or more of its three states. Likewise, initial estimates of terrestrial sinks indicate a vast potential for increasing and maintaining soil C on forested, agricultural, and reclaimed lands. Both options include the potential for offsetting economic benefits to industry and society. Steps have been taken to assure that the GIS-based framework is consistent among types of sinks within the Big Sky Partnership area and with the efforts of other western DOE partnerships. Efforts are also being made to find funding to include Wyoming in the coverage areas for both geological and terrestrial sinks and sources. The Partnership recognizes the critical importance of measurement

  19. BIG SKY CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP

    SciTech Connect

    Susan M. Capalbo

    2005-01-31

    The Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts under this Partnership in Phase I fall into four areas: evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks that will be used to determine the location of pilot demonstrations in Phase II; development of GIS-based reporting framework that links with national networks; designing an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies and assessment frameworks; and initiating a comprehensive education and outreach program. The groundwork is in place to provide an assessment of storage capabilities for CO{sub 2} utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that would complement the ongoing DOE research. Efforts are underway to showcase the architecture of the GIS framework and initial results for sources and sinks. The region has a diverse array of geological formations that could provide storage options for carbon in one or more of its three states. Likewise, initial estimates of terrestrial sinks indicate a vast potential for increasing and maintaining soil C on forested, agricultural, and reclaimed lands. Both options include the potential for offsetting economic benefits to industry and society. Steps have been taken to assure that the GIS-based framework is consistent among types of sinks within the Big Sky Partnership area and with the efforts of other western DOE partnerships. The Partnership recognizes the critical importance of measurement, monitoring, and verification technologies to support not only carbon trading but all policies and programs that DOE and other agencies may want to pursue in support of GHG mitigation. The efforts in developing and implementing MMV technologies for geological sequestration reflect this concern. Research is

  20. CARBON SEQUESTRATION SURFACE MINE LANDS

    SciTech Connect

    Donald H. Graves; Christopher Barton; Richard Sweigard; Richard Warner

    2003-07-24

    Over 160 acres of tree seedlings were planted during the last quarter. This quarter marked the beginning of the installation of new instrumentation and the inspection and calibration of previously installed recording devices. Sampling systems were initiated to quantify initial seedling success as well as height measurements. Nursery seedlings have been inoculated to produce mycorrhizal treated stock for 2004 spring plantings to determine the effects on carbon sequestration. All planting areas in western Kentucky have been sampled with the recording cone penetrometer and the nuclear density gauge to measure soil density.

  1. How to Enhance Soil Organic Carbon Sequestration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Optimizing crop yields and reducing soil erosion can enhance soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration. The influence of management practices on crop residue C and N inputs to the soil, SOC sequestration, and NO3-N leaching potential under irrigated, continuous crop production in northern Texas was e...

  2. Intralobar pulmonary sequestration and mediastinal bronchogenic cyst.

    PubMed Central

    Grewal, R. G.; Yip, C. K.

    1994-01-01

    A patient with a bronchogenic cyst and intralobar pulmonary sequestration is presented. Chest radiography showed a posterior mediastinal mass and a computed tomographic scan of the chest revealed, in addition, an abnormality suggestive of pulmonary sequestration. This was confirmed by an aortogram. It is important to be aware of the coexistence of these anomalies to make a diagnosis preoperatively. Images PMID:8016803

  3. Bilateral pulmonary sequestration: computed tomographic appearance

    SciTech Connect

    Wimbish, K.J.; Agha, F.P.; Brady, T.M.

    1983-04-01

    Intralobar pulmonary sequestration is one manifestation of the wide spectrum of congenital bronchopulmonary foregut malformations. Bilateral intralobar pulmonary sequestration is an exceedingly rare anomaly. Only two pathologically proven cases and one possible case have been reported. We report a case presenting as bilateral paraspinal masses, studied by computed tomograpy (CT) and angiography.

  4. Giant Placental Chorangioma: A Rare Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Amarjit; Bedi, Preet Kamal

    2016-01-01

    Chorangioma is a nontrophoblastic benign vascular tumour of the placenta, arising from the primitive chorionic mesenchyme. The clinical significance is related to the size of the tumours. Small chorangiomas, with a frequency of about 1%, are often asymptomatic. On the contrary, giant chorangiomas, greater than 5 cm in diameter, are rare tumours, with prevalence ranging from 1:9,000 to 1:50,000, and often associated with a variety of pregnancy complications and a poor perinatal outcome. We report a case of 26-year-old female who presented to us at 36 weeks of gestation with pain in the lower abdomen. Ultrasonograpy revealed polyhydramnios and a vascular tumour on the surface of placenta. Proper conservative antenatal management was done and a full term healthy baby was delievered. Histopathological examination of the extracted mass confirmed the diagnosis of chorangioma. The novelty of this report lies in the presence of large nontrophoblastic vascular placental tumour and the absence of any fetal complications. We emphasise the need of regular and timely antenatal management to diagnose and treat the complications of chorangioma at an early stage. PMID:27190814

  5. Giant Placental Chorangioma: A Rare Case Report.

    PubMed

    Kataria, Nidhi; Singh, Amarjit; Bedi, Preet Kamal

    2016-04-01

    Chorangioma is a nontrophoblastic benign vascular tumour of the placenta, arising from the primitive chorionic mesenchyme. The clinical significance is related to the size of the tumours. Small chorangiomas, with a frequency of about 1%, are often asymptomatic. On the contrary, giant chorangiomas, greater than 5 cm in diameter, are rare tumours, with prevalence ranging from 1:9,000 to 1:50,000, and often associated with a variety of pregnancy complications and a poor perinatal outcome. We report a case of 26-year-old female who presented to us at 36 weeks of gestation with pain in the lower abdomen. Ultrasonograpy revealed polyhydramnios and a vascular tumour on the surface of placenta. Proper conservative antenatal management was done and a full term healthy baby was delievered. Histopathological examination of the extracted mass confirmed the diagnosis of chorangioma. The novelty of this report lies in the presence of large nontrophoblastic vascular placental tumour and the absence of any fetal complications. We emphasise the need of regular and timely antenatal management to diagnose and treat the complications of chorangioma at an early stage. PMID:27190814

  6. Placental Cadmium Levels Are Associated with Increased Preeclampsia Risk

    PubMed Central

    Laine, Jessica E.; Ray, Paul; Bodnar, Wanda; Cable, Peter H.; Boggess, Kim; Offenbacher, Steven; Fry, Rebecca C.

    2015-01-01

    Environmental exposure to heavy metals is a potentially modifiable risk factor for preeclampsia (PE). Toxicologically, there are known interactions between the toxic metal cadmium (Cd) and essential metals such as selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn), as these metals can protect against the toxicity of Cd. As they relate to preeclampsia, the interaction between Cd and these essential metals is unknown. The aims of the present study were to measure placental levels of Cd, Se, and Zn in a cohort of 172 pregnant women from across the southeast US and to examine associations of metals levels with the odds of PE in a nested case-control design. Logistic regressions were performed to assess odds ratios (OR) for PE with exposure to Cd controlling for confounders, as well as interactive models with Se or Zn. The mean placental Cd level was 3.6 ng/g, ranging from 0.52 to 14.5 ng/g. There was an increased odds ratio for PE in relationship to placental levels of Cd (OR = 1.5; 95% CI: 1.1–2.2). The Cd-associated OR for PE increased when analyzed in relationship to lower placental Se levels (OR = 2.0; 95% CI: 1.1–3.5) and decreased with higher placental Se levels (OR = 0.98; 95% CI: 0.5–1.9). Similarly, under conditions of lower placental Zn, the Cd-associated OR for PE was elevated (OR = 1.8; 95% CI: 0.8–3.9), whereas with higher placental Zn it was reduced (OR = 1.3; 95% CI: 0.8–2.0). Data from this pilot study suggest that essential metals may play an important role in reducing the odds of Cd-associated preeclampsia and that replication in a larger cohort is warranted. PMID:26422011

  7. The Effect of Maternal Thrombophilia on Placental Abruption: Histologic Correlates

    PubMed Central

    Kinzler, Wendy L.; Prasad, Vinay; Ananth, Cande V.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine if the histology of placental abruption differs by maternal thrombophilia status. Study design This was a multicenter, case-control study of women with abruption and delivering at ≥20 weeks’ gestation, collected as part of the ongoing New Jersey-Placental Abruption Study. Women were identified by clinical criteria of abruption. Maternal blood was collected postpartum and tested for anticardiolipin antibodies, and mutations in the Factor V Leiden and prothrombin genes. Cases were comprised of women with an abruption and a positive thrombophilia screen. Controls were comprised of women with an abruption and a negative thrombophilia screen. All placental histology was systematically reviewed by two perinatal pathologists, blinded to the abruption status. Results A total of 135 women with placental abruption were identified, of which 63.0% (n=85) had at least one diagnosed maternal thrombophilia. There were increases in the rates of meconium-stained membranes (7.9% versus 2.1%, P=0.015) and decidual necrosis (4.5% versus 2.1%, P=0.023) when a maternal thrombophilia was diagnosed. Although there was no difference in the overall presence of infarcts between the 2 groups (27.0% versus 38.3%, P=0.064), the presence of an old infarct was more common among women with a positive thrombophilia screen (83.3% versus 44.4%, P=0.003). Conclusion Placental abruption with a positive maternal thrombophilia screen is associated with higher rates of old placental infarcts and decidual necrosis compared with abruption when thrombophilia is not diagnosed. These lesions suggest a chronic etiology of placental abruption in the presence of a maternal thrombophilia. PMID:19330709

  8. Geophysical monitoring technology for CO2 sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Jin-Feng; Li, Lin; Wang, Hao-Fan; Tan, Ming-You; Cui, Shi-Ling; Zhang, Yun-Yin; Qu, Zhi-Peng; Jia, Ling-Yun; Zhang, Shu-Hai

    2016-06-01

    Geophysical techniques play key roles in the measuring, monitoring, and verifying the safety of CO2 sequestration and in identifying the efficiency of CO2-enhanced oil recovery. Although geophysical monitoring techniques for CO2 sequestration have grown out of conventional oil and gas geophysical exploration techniques, it takes a long time to conduct geophysical monitoring, and there are many barriers and challenges. In this paper, with the initial objective of performing CO2 sequestration, we studied the geophysical tasks associated with evaluating geological storage sites and monitoring CO2 sequestration. Based on our review of the scope of geophysical monitoring techniques and our experience in domestic and international carbon capture and sequestration projects, we analyzed the inherent difficulties and our experiences in geophysical monitoring techniques, especially, with respect to 4D seismic acquisition, processing, and interpretation.

  9. Placental endoplasmic reticulum stress negatively regulates transcription of placental growth factor via ATF4 and ATF6β: implications for the pathophysiology of human pregnancy complications

    PubMed Central

    Mizuuchi, Masahito; Cindrova‐Davies, Tereza; Olovsson, Matts; Charnock‐Jones, D Stephen; Burton, Graham J

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Low maternal circulating concentrations of placental growth factor (PlGF) are one of the hallmarks of human pregnancy complications, including fetal growth restriction (FGR) and early‐onset pre‐eclampsia (PE). Currently, PlGF is used clinically with other biomarkers to screen for high‐risk cases, although the mechanisms underlying its regulation are largely unknown. Placental endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has recently been found to be elevated in cases of FGR, and to an even greater extent in early‐onset PE complicated with FGR. ER stress activates the unfolded protein response (UPR); attenuation of protein translation and a reduction in cell growth and proliferation play crucial roles in the pathophysiology of these complications of pregnancy. In this study, we further identified that ER stress regulates release of PlGF. We first observed that down‐regulation of PlGF protein was associated with nuclear localization of ATF4, ATF6α and ATF6β in the syncytiotrophoblast of placentae from PE patients. Transcript analysis showed a decrease of PlGF mRNA, and an increase from genes encoding those UPR transcription factors in placentae from cases of early‐onset PE, but not of late‐onset (>34 weeks) PE, compared to term controls. Further investigations indicated a strong correlation between ATF4 and PlGF mRNA levels only (r = − 0.73, p < 0.05). These results could be recapitulated in trophoblast‐like cells exposed to chemical inducers of ER stress or hypoxia–reoxygenation. The stability of PlGF transcripts was unchanged. The use of small interfering RNA specific for transcription factors in the UPR pathways revealed that ATF4 and ATF6β, but not ATF6α, modulate PlGF transcription. To conclude, ATF4 and ATF6β act synergistically in the negative regulation of PlGF mRNA expression, resulting in reduced PlGF secretion by the trophoblast in response to stress. Therefore, these results further support the targeting of placental ER stress as a

  10. CO2 Sequestration Crosswell Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morency, C.; Luo, Y.; Tromp, J.

    2010-12-01

    Geologic sequestration of CO2, a green house gas, represents an effort to reduce the large amount of CO2 generated as a by-product of fossil fuels combustion and emitted into the atmosphere. This process of sequestration involves CO2 storage deep underground into highly permeable porous media sealed by caprock. "4D seismics" is a natural non-intrusive monitoring technique which involves 3D time-lapse seismic surveys. The success of monitoring CO2 movement relies upon a proper description of the physics of the problem. We realize time-lapse migrations comparing acoustic, elastic (with or without Gassmann's formulae), and poroelastic simulations of 4D seismic imaging. This approach highlights the influence of using different physical theories on interpreting seismic data, and, more importantly, on extracting the CO2 signature from the seismic wave field. We investigate various types of inversions using (1) P-wave traveltimes, (2) P- & S-wave traveltimes and (3) P- & S-wave traveltimes and amplitudes. Simulations are performed using a spectral-element method, and finite-frequency sensitivity kernels, used in the non-linear iterative inversions, are calculated based on an adjoint method. Biot's equations are implemented in the forward and adjoint simulations to account for poroelastic effects.

  11. The investigation of placental relaxation and estimation of placental perfusion using echo-planar magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Duncan, K R; Gowland, P; Francis, S; Moore, R; Baker, P N; Johnson, I R

    1998-09-01

    Echo-planar imaging (EPI) is a form of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) which acquires images in milliseconds rather than minutes as with conventional MRI. The images produced using EPI are affected by the physiological environment in which the hydrogen atoms producing the signals are found, a process referred to as relaxation. Also by producing images a matter of milliseconds apart, quantification of perfusion within the tissue being imaged is feasible. The objective of this study was to investigate T1 and T2 relaxation times along with perfusion in placentae from normal pregnancies at different gestations and also to compare these to pregnancies complicated by abnormal placental function. A cross-sectional study of normal and compromised pregnancies from 20 weeks to term and a longitudinal study of normal pregnancy were performed. Placental T1, T2 relaxation times, and perfusion were measured using echo-planar magnetic resonance imaging. Placental T1 and T2 relaxation times decreased in normal pregnancy (P<0.001). Relaxation times in pregnancies associated with placental pathology appeared to be reduced for that gestation although the numbers were too small to allow any statistical validation. No differences in placental perfusion with gestation or between normal and compromised pregnancy were demonstrated using this technique. This is the first demonstration of placental magnetic resonance relaxation and perfusion measurements in normal pregnancy using echo-planar magnetic resonance imaging. In the future it may be possible to identify compromised pregnancies by differences in placental T1 and T2 relaxation times, using this novel non-invasive technique. PMID:9778128

  12. Histopathological placental lesions in mild gestational hyperglycemic and diabetic women

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate and compare the incidence of histopathological placental lesions in mild gestational hyperglycemia, gestational diabetes and overt diabetes at term and preterm gestation. Research design and methods One-hundred-and-thirty-one placental samples were collected from Diabetes mellitus (DM) positive screened patients. Two diagnostic tests, glycemic profile and 100 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in parallel identified 4 groups normoglycemic, mild gestational hyperglycemia (MGH), gestational DM (GDM) or overt DM (DM). Placental tissue specimens and sections from 4 groups were obtained by uniform random sampling and stained with hematoxylin-eosin. Results Placentas from MGH group presented 17 types of histopathological change and higher rates of syncytial nodes and endarteritis. GDM placentas presented only nine types of histopathological change, high rates of dysmaturity, low rates of calcification and no syncytial nodes. Overt DM placentas showed 22 types of histopathological change, 21 of which were present in the preterm period. There were histopathological similarities between MGH and DM placentas, but the former exhibited a higher incidence of endarteritis, which has been described as a "post-mortem" phenomenon. Conclusion Our results confirmed that the distinct placental changes associated with DM and MGH depend on gestational period during which the diabetic insult occurs. It may reasonably be inferred that subclinical maternal hyperglycemia during pregnancy, as showed in MGH group, is responsible for increased placental endarteritis, a postmortem lesion in the live fetus. PMID:21831283

  13. Placental leptin gene methylation and macrosomia during normal pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xinyun; Yang, Xinjun; Liu, Ziwei; Wu, Kele; Liu, Zheng; Lin, Chong; Wang, Yuhuan; Yan, Hongtao

    2014-03-01

    The present study examined the placental leptin (LEP) DNA methylation and mRNA levels in macrosomic infants from normal pregnancies. In total, 49 neonates with macrosomia, i.e., high birth weights of ≥ 4,000 g, and 52 neonates with normal birth weights between 2,500 g and 4,000 g were recruited from The Second Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University (Wenzhou, Zhejiang) in China. Placental LEP promoter methylation and LEP transcript levels were determined by Sequenom MassARRAY and quantitative PCR, respectively. LEP promoter methylation and mRNA levels were not significantly different between the individuals with macrosomia and the controls. However, stratification revealed that individual CpG dinucleotides were hypermethylated in macrosomia (P<0.05) in primiparous females and at 39 weeks of gestation (P<0.05). Variations in methylation did not affect placental LEP expression. It was concluded that the methylation of the placental LEP promoter was altered during a specific gestational period in macrosomia following a normal pregnancy and under certain conditions. However, placental LEP expression was not affected. PMID:24452268

  14. Regional changes of placental vascularization in preeclampsia: a review.

    PubMed

    Sahay, Akriti S; Sundrani, Deepali P; Joshi, Sadhana R

    2015-08-01

    Preeclampsia is characterized by vascular dysfunction and results in maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. The placenta plays a critical role in the growth and development of the fetus, and recent studies indicate that placental architecture, oxygen availability, and oxidative stress indices vary across different regions of the placenta. Our earlier studies have reported altered maternal angiogenesis and differential placental gene expression and methylation patterns of angiogenic factors in women with preeclampsia when compared with normotensive women. We have also demonstrated lower maternal and placental neurotrophin (NT) levels in women with preeclampsia. Studies suggest that oxidative stress is associated with proteases like matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and growth factors like NTs and angiogenic factors known to be involved in the process of angiogenesis. Recently, we have reported regionwise differential oxidative stress, antioxidant enzyme activity, and NT levels in placenta from normotensive control women and women with preeclampsia. The current review describes the regional changes in the placenta and highlights the role of placental oxidative stress in influencing regional differences in the expression of angiogenic factors, MMPs, and NTs. This review discusses the need for further research on various growth factors and proteins involved in the process of placental development across different regions of the placenta. This would help to understand whether regional differences in these factors affect the growth and development of the fetus. PMID:26269153

  15. Heterogeneous models place the root of the placental mammal phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Claire C; Foster, Peter G; Webb, Andrew E; Pisani, Davide; McInerney, James O; O'Connell, Mary J

    2013-09-01

    Heterogeneity among life traits in mammals has resulted in considerable phylogenetic conflict, particularly concerning the position of the placental root. Layered upon this are gene- and lineage-specific variation in amino acid substitution rates and compositional biases. Life trait variations that may impact upon mutational rates are longevity, metabolic rate, body size, and germ line generation time. Over the past 12 years, three main conflicting hypotheses have emerged for the placement of the placental root. These hypotheses place the Atlantogenata (common ancestor of Xenarthra plus Afrotheria), the Afrotheria, or the Xenarthra as the sister group to all other placental mammals. Model adequacy is critical for accurate tree reconstruction and by failing to account for these compositional and character exchange heterogeneities across the tree and data set, previous studies have not provided a strongly supported hypothesis for the placental root. For the first time, models that accommodate both tree and data set heterogeneity have been applied to mammal data. Here, we show the impact of accurate model assignment and the importance of data sets in accommodating model parameters while maintaining the power to reject competing hypotheses. Through these sophisticated methods, we demonstrate the importance of model adequacy, data set power and provide strong support for the Atlantogenata over other competing hypotheses for the position of the placental root. PMID:23813979

  16. Geologic Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide: Socioeconomic Characteristics and Landowner Acceptance of Carbon Sequestration Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parfomak, Elizabeth C.

    This study explores public acceptance of carbon dioxide sequestration sites through a mail survey of 4,001 landowners in central Illinois and Indiana, a region with high sequestration potential and recent siting proposals for FutureGen (an integrated power plant and sequestration demonstration project). The individuals sampled in this study include landowners both informed and uninformed about carbon sequestration, comparing groups based on ecological concern, economic conditions, views about the energy industry, environmental justice, familiarity with sequestration, and demographics. Of the survey respondents, 27% reported an understanding of carbon sequestration prior to receiving the survey, 2.5 times more than would be expected in the general U.S. population. Overall, 47% of survey respondents would oppose a local sequestration site while 30% would support one. The results suggest that greater familiarity with geologic sequestration has little influence on local site acceptance. Multivariate analysis found that landowner acceptance of sequestration sites derives primarily from gender, concern for the local environment, trust in government, experience with industrial activity, and belief in the potential of conservation/renewables. Because views on these issues are persistent, it may be difficult to overcome landowner opposition through education. Policy makers may, therefore, need to lower expectations for sequestration deployment in the United States and revisit other options for meeting the nation's CO2 emissions goals.

  17. High Levels of Antibodies to Multiple Domains and Strains of VAR2CSA Correlate with the Absence of Placental Malaria in Cameroonian Women Living in an Area of High Plasmodium falciparum Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Tutterrow, Yeung L.; Avril, Marion; Singh, Kavita; Long, Carole A.; Leke, Robert J.; Sama, Grace; Salanti, Ali; Smith, Joseph D.; Leke, Rose G. F.

    2012-01-01

    Placental malaria, caused by sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes in the placenta, is associated with increased risk of maternal morbidity and poor birth outcomes. The parasite antigen VAR2CSA (variant surface antigen 2-chondroitin sulfate A) is expressed on infected erythrocytes and mediates binding to chondroitin sulfate A, initiating inflammation and disrupting homeostasis at the maternal-fetal interface. Although antibodies can prevent sequestration, it is unclear whether parasite clearance is due to antibodies to a single Duffy binding-like (DBL) domain or to an extensive repertoire of antibodies to multiple DBL domains and allelic variants. Accordingly, plasma samples collected longitudinally from pregnant women were screened for naturally acquired antibodies against an extensive panel of VAR2CSA proteins, including 2 to 3 allelic variants for each of 5 different DBL domains. Analyses were performed on plasma samples collected from 3 to 9 months of pregnancy from women living in areas in Cameroon with high and low malaria transmission. The results demonstrate that high antibody levels to multiple VAR2CSA domains, rather than a single domain, were associated with the absence of placental malaria when antibodies were present from early in the second trimester until term. Absence of placental malaria was associated with increasing antibody breadth to different DBL domains and allelic variants in multigravid women. Furthermore, the antibody responses of women in the lower-transmission site had both lower magnitude and lesser breadth than those in the high-transmission site. These data suggest that immunity to placental malaria results from high antibody levels to multiple VAR2CSA domains and allelic variants and that antibody breadth is influenced by malaria transmission intensity. PMID:22331427

  18. Carbon sequestration via wood burial

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Ning

    2008-01-01

    To mitigate global climate change, a portfolio of strategies will be needed to keep the atmospheric CO2 concentration below a dangerous level. Here a carbon sequestration strategy is proposed in which certain dead or live trees are harvested via collection or selective cutting, then buried in trenches or stowed away in above-ground shelters. The largely anaerobic condition under a sufficiently thick layer of soil will prevent the decomposition of the buried wood. Because a large flux of CO2 is constantly being assimilated into the world's forests via photosynthesis, cutting off its return pathway to the atmosphere forms an effective carbon sink. It is estimated that a sustainable long-term carbon sequestration potential for wood burial is 10 ± 5 GtC y-1, and currently about 65 GtC is on the world's forest floors in the form of coarse woody debris suitable for burial. The potential is largest in tropical forests (4.2 GtC y-1), followed by temperate (3.7 GtC y-1) and boreal forests (2.1 GtC y-1). Burying wood has other benefits including minimizing CO2 source from deforestation, extending the lifetime of reforestation carbon sink, and reducing fire danger. There are possible environmental impacts such as nutrient lock-up which nevertheless appears manageable, but other concerns and factors will likely set a limit so that only part of the full potential can be realized. Based on data from North American logging industry, the cost for wood burial is estimated to be $14/tCO2($50/tC), lower than the typical cost for power plant CO2 capture with geological storage. The cost for carbon sequestration with wood burial is low because CO2 is removed from the atmosphere by the natural process of photosynthesis at little cost. The technique is low tech, distributed, easy to monitor, safe, and reversible, thus an attractive option for large-scale implementation in a world-wide carbon market. PMID:18173850

  19. Integrated Estimates of Global Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, Allison M.; Izaurralde, R Cesar; Smith, Steven J.; Clarke, Leon E.

    2008-02-01

    Assessing the contribution of terrestrial carbon sequestration to international climate change mitigation requires integration across scientific and disciplinary boundaries. As part of a scenario analysis for the US Climate Change Technology Program, measurements and geographic data were used to develop terrestrial carbon sequestration estimates for agricultural soil carbon, reforestation and pasture management. These estimates were then applied in the MiniCAM integrated assessment model to evaluate mitigation strategies within policy and technology scenarios aimed at achieving atmospheric CO2 stabilization by 2100. Adoption of terrestrial sequestration practices is based on competition for land and economic markets for carbon. Terrestrial sequestration reach a peak combined rate of 0.5 to 0.7 Gt carbon yr-1 in mid-century with contributions from agricultural soil (0.21 Gt carbon yr-1), reforestation (0.31 Gt carbon yr-1) and pasture (0.15 Gt carbon yr-1). Sequestration rates vary over time period and with different technology and policy scenarios. The combined contribution of terrestrial sequestration over the next century ranges from 31 to 41 GtC. The contribution of terrestrial sequestration to mitigation is highest early in the century, reaching up to 20% of total carbon mitigation. This analysis provides insight into the behavior of terrestrial carbon mitigation options in the presence and absence of climate change mitigation policies.

  20. Blocking Endogenous Leukemia Inhibitory Factor During Placental Development in Mice Leads to Abnormal Placentation and Pregnancy Loss

    PubMed Central

    Winship, Amy; Correia, Jeanne; Krishnan, Tara; Menkhorst, Ellen; Cuman, Carly; Zhang, Jian-Guo; Nicola, Nicos A.; Dimitriadis, Evdokia

    2015-01-01

    The placenta forms the interface between the maternal and fetal circulation and is critical for the establishment of a healthy pregnancy. Specialized trophoblast cells derived from the embryonic trophectoderm play a pivotal role in the establishment of the placenta. Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) is one of the predominant cytokines present in the placenta during early pregnancy. LIF has been shown to regulate trophoblast adhesion and invasion in vitro, however its precise role in vivo is unknown. We hypothesized that LIF would be required for normal placental development in mice. LIF and LIFRα were immunolocalized to placental trophoblasts and fetal vessels in mouse implantation sites during mid-gestation. Temporally blocking LIF action during specific periods of placental development via intraperitoneal administration of our specific LIFRα antagonist, PEGLA, resulted in abnormal placental trophoblast and vascular morphology and reduced activated STAT3 but not ERK. Numerous genes regulating angiogenesis and oxidative stress were altered in the placenta in response to LIF inhibition. Pregnancy viability was also significantly compromised in PEGLA treated mice. Our data suggest that LIF plays an important role in placentation in vivo and the maintenance of healthy pregnancy. PMID:26272398

  1. Effects of advanced maternal age and race/ethnicity on placental weight and placental weight/birthweight ratio in very low birthweight infants.

    PubMed

    de Jongh, B E; Mackley, A; Jain, N; Locke, R; Paul, D A

    2015-07-01

    To study the association of advanced maternal age (AMA) and race/ethnicity on placental pathology in very low birthweight (VLBW) infants. Retrospective analysis of placental pathology of inborn singleton VLBW infants from a regional level 3 NICU between July, 2002 and June, 2009. Subjects were stratified by age and race/ethnicity. Statistical analysis included One-way ANOVA, Chi Square and multivariable analyses. A total of 739 mother/infant dyads were included. AMA was associated with a decrease in placental weight and placental weight/birthweight ratio. Black/Non-Hispanic mothers ≥35 had a lower placental weight (p = 0.01) and lower placental weight/birth weight ratio (z-score, -0.45 ± 0.71 vs -0.04 ± 1.1, p = 0.01) compared to Black/Non-Hispanic mothers <35 years of age. After controlling for gestational age, race/ethnicity, maternal diabetes, maternal smoking, maternal hypertension and clinical chorioamnionitis, AMA, but not race/ethnicity, remained independently associated with placental weight/birthweight ratio z score (full model r(2) = 0.22, p < 0.01). In our study sample of VLBW infants, placental weight and placental weight/birthweight ratio were lower in mothers of advanced maternal age compared to mothers <35 years of age. Our data suggest that maternal age affects placentation in VLBW infants, which could influence maternal and neonatal outcomes. PMID:25567078

  2. Human placental coated vesicles contain receptor-bound transferrin.

    PubMed Central

    Booth, A G; Wilson, M J

    1981-01-01

    Human placental coated vesicles have been purified by a method involving sucrose-density-gradient centrifugation and treatment with wheat-germ agglutinin. These preparations were free of contamination by placental microvillus fragments. Crossed immunoelectrophoresis demonstrated that the coated vesicles contained a single serum protein, which was identified as transferrin. This transferrin was only observed after the vesicles were treated with a non-ionic detergent, and its behaviour during crossed hydrophobic-interaction immunoelectrophoresis suggested that a large proportion of it was receptor-bound. No other serum proteins, including immunoglobulin G, could be detected in these preparations. Receptor-bound transferrin was the only antigen common to placental coated vesicles and microvilli, implying that other plasma-membrane proteins are excluded from the region of membrane involved in coated-vesicle formation. Images PLATE 2 PLATE 1 Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. PMID:6272755

  3. Method for carbon dioxide sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yifeng; Bryan, Charles R.; Dewers, Thomas; Heath, Jason E.

    2015-09-22

    A method for geo-sequestration of a carbon dioxide includes selection of a target water-laden geological formation with low-permeability interbeds, providing an injection well into the formation and injecting supercritical carbon dioxide (SC--CO.sub.2) into the injection well under conditions of temperature, pressure and density selected to cause the fluid to enter the formation and splinter and/or form immobilized ganglia within the formation. This process allows for the immobilization of the injected SC--CO.sub.2 for very long times. The dispersal of scCO2 into small ganglia is accomplished by alternating injection of SC--CO.sub.2 and water. The injection rate is required to be high enough to ensure the SC--CO.sub.2 at the advancing front to be broken into pieces and small enough for immobilization through viscous instability.

  4. ENCODE data at the ENCODE portal.

    PubMed

    Sloan, Cricket A; Chan, Esther T; Davidson, Jean M; Malladi, Venkat S; Strattan, J Seth; Hitz, Benjamin C; Gabdank, Idan; Narayanan, Aditi K; Ho, Marcus; Lee, Brian T; Rowe, Laurence D; Dreszer, Timothy R; Roe, Greg; Podduturi, Nikhil R; Tanaka, Forrest; Hong, Eurie L; Cherry, J Michael

    2016-01-01

    The Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) Project is in its third phase of creating a comprehensive catalog of functional elements in the human genome. This phase of the project includes an expansion of assays that measure diverse RNA populations, identify proteins that interact with RNA and DNA, probe regions of DNA hypersensitivity, and measure levels of DNA methylation in a wide range of cell and tissue types to identify putative regulatory elements. To date, results for almost 5000 experiments have been released for use by the scientific community. These data are available for searching, visualization and download at the new ENCODE Portal (www.encodeproject.org). The revamped ENCODE Portal provides new ways to browse and search the ENCODE data based on the metadata that describe the assays as well as summaries of the assays that focus on data provenance. In addition, it is a flexible platform that allows integration of genomic data from multiple projects. The portal experience was designed to improve access to ENCODE data by relying on metadata that allow reusability and reproducibility of the experiments. PMID:26527727

  5. ENCODE data at the ENCODE portal

    PubMed Central

    Sloan, Cricket A.; Chan, Esther T.; Davidson, Jean M.; Malladi, Venkat S.; Strattan, J. Seth; Hitz, Benjamin C.; Gabdank, Idan; Narayanan, Aditi K.; Ho, Marcus; Lee, Brian T.; Rowe, Laurence D.; Dreszer, Timothy R.; Roe, Greg; Podduturi, Nikhil R.; Tanaka, Forrest; Hong, Eurie L.; Cherry, J. Michael

    2016-01-01

    The Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) Project is in its third phase of creating a comprehensive catalog of functional elements in the human genome. This phase of the project includes an expansion of assays that measure diverse RNA populations, identify proteins that interact with RNA and DNA, probe regions of DNA hypersensitivity, and measure levels of DNA methylation in a wide range of cell and tissue types to identify putative regulatory elements. To date, results for almost 5000 experiments have been released for use by the scientific community. These data are available for searching, visualization and download at the new ENCODE Portal (www.encodeproject.org). The revamped ENCODE Portal provides new ways to browse and search the ENCODE data based on the metadata that describe the assays as well as summaries of the assays that focus on data provenance. In addition, it is a flexible platform that allows integration of genomic data from multiple projects. The portal experience was designed to improve access to ENCODE data by relying on metadata that allow reusability and reproducibility of the experiments. PMID:26527727

  6. Sex-Specific Placental Responses in Fetal Development

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The placenta is an ephemeral but critical organ for the survival of all eutherian mammals and marsupials. It is the primary messenger system between the mother and fetus, where communicational signals, nutrients, waste, gases, and extrinsic factors are exchanged. Although the placenta may buffer the fetus from various environmental insults, placental dysfunction might also contribute to detrimental developmental origins of adult health and disease effects. The placenta of one sex over the other might possess greater ability to respond and buffer against environmental insults. Given the potential role of the placenta in effecting the lifetime health of the offspring, it is not surprising that there has been a resurging interest in this organ, including the Human Placental Project launched by the National Institutes of Child Health and Human Development. In this review, we will compare embryological development of the laboratory mouse and human chorioallantoic placentae. Next, evidence that various species, including humans, exhibit normal sex-dependent structural and functional placental differences will be examined followed by how in utero environmental changes (nutritional state, stress, and exposure to environmental chemicals) might interact with fetal sex to affect this organ. Recent data also suggest that paternal state impacts placental function in a sex-dependent manner. The research to date linking placental maladaptive responses and later developmental origins of adult health and disease effects will be explored. Finally, we will focus on how sex chromosomes and epimutations may contribute to sex-dependent differences in placental function, the unanswered questions, and future directions that warrant further consideration. PMID:26241064

  7. Animal models of human placentation--a review.

    PubMed

    Carter, A M

    2007-04-01

    This review examines the strengths and weaknesses of animal models of human placentation and pays particular attention to the mouse and non-human primates. Analogies can be drawn between mouse and human in placental cell types and genes controlling placental development. There are, however, substantive differences, including a different mode of implantation, a prominent yolk sac placenta, and fewer placental hormones in the mouse. Crucially, trophoblast invasion is very limited in the mouse and transformation of uterine arteries depends on maternal factors. The mouse also has a short gestation and delivers poorly developed young. Guinea pig is a good alternative rodent model and among the few species known to develop pregnancy toxaemia. The sheep is well established as a model in fetal physiology but is of limited value for placental research. The ovine placenta is epitheliochorial, there is no trophoblast invasion of uterine vessels, and the immunology of pregnancy may be quite different. We conclude that continued research on non-human primates is needed to clarify embryonic-endometrial interactions. The interstitial implantation of human is unusual, but the initial interaction between trophoblast and endometrium is similar in macaques and baboons, as is the subsequent lacunar stage. The absence of interstitial trophoblast cells in the monkey is an important difference from human placentation. However, there is a strong resemblance in the way spiral arteries are invaded and transformed in the macaque, baboon and human. Non-human primates are therefore important models for understanding the dysfunction that has been linked to pre-eclampsia and fetal growth restriction. Models that are likely to be established in the wake of comparative genomics include the marmoset, tree shrew, hedgehog tenrec and nine-banded armadillo. PMID:17196252

  8. Sex-Specific Placental Responses in Fetal Development.

    PubMed

    Rosenfeld, Cheryl S

    2015-10-01

    The placenta is an ephemeral but critical organ for the survival of all eutherian mammals and marsupials. It is the primary messenger system between the mother and fetus, where communicational signals, nutrients, waste, gases, and extrinsic factors are exchanged. Although the placenta may buffer the fetus from various environmental insults, placental dysfunction might also contribute to detrimental developmental origins of adult health and disease effects. The placenta of one sex over the other might possess greater ability to respond and buffer against environmental insults. Given the potential role of the placenta in effecting the lifetime health of the offspring, it is not surprising that there has been a resurging interest in this organ, including the Human Placental Project launched by the National Institutes of Child Health and Human Development. In this review, we will compare embryological development of the laboratory mouse and human chorioallantoic placentae. Next, evidence that various species, including humans, exhibit normal sex-dependent structural and functional placental differences will be examined followed by how in utero environmental changes (nutritional state, stress, and exposure to environmental chemicals) might interact with fetal sex to affect this organ. Recent data also suggest that paternal state impacts placental function in a sex-dependent manner. The research to date linking placental maladaptive responses and later developmental origins of adult health and disease effects will be explored. Finally, we will focus on how sex chromosomes and epimutations may contribute to sex-dependent differences in placental function, the unanswered questions, and future directions that warrant further consideration. PMID:26241064

  9. Racial disparity in placental pathology in the collaborative perinatal project

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yan; Huang, Lisu; Zhang, Huijuan; Klebanoff, Mark; Yang, Zujing; Zhang, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Objective: There is substantial disparity in perinatal outcomes between white and African-American women, but the underlying biological mechanisms are poorly understood. The placenta is the principal metabolic, respiratory, excretory, and endocrine organ of the fetus. We studied the association between maternal race and types and severity of placental pathology. Methods: Using data from the U.S. Collaborative Perinatal Project (1959-1966), we studied 32,295 African-American and white women with singleton births. CPP pathologists conducted detailed placental examinations following a standard protocol with quality control procedures. Logistic regression modeling was used to test the association between race and placental pathology adjusting for potential confounders. Results: Compared to white women, African-American women had a higher risk of fetal neutrophilic infiltration (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0-1.4), and 1.5-fold higher risk of low placental weight (95% CI, 1.3-1.7). However, various placental vascular lesions were significantly less common in African-American women, including infarcts and thrombosis in the cut surface, villous infarcts in the intervillous space, emergence of stromal fibrosis and Langerhans layer in the terminal villi, old hemorrhage in the maternal surface, thrombosis in the intervillous space, and calcification throughout the cut surface (aOR ranging from 0.5 to 0.8). Similar patterns were observed in pregnancies with pregnancy associated hypertension, small-for-gestational-age, and preterm birth. Conclusion: As compared with white women, African-American had higher prevalence of inflammatory lesions but lower prevalence of vascular lesions in placental pathology. PMID:26823843

  10. Interleukin-11 alters placentation and causes preeclampsia features in mice

    PubMed Central

    Winship, Amy L.; Koga, Kaori; Menkhorst, Ellen; Van Sinderen, Michelle; Rainczuk, Katarzyna; Nagai, Miwako; Cuman, Carly; Yap, Joanne; Zhang, Jian-Guo; Simmons, David; Young, Morag J.; Dimitriadis, Evdokia

    2015-01-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) is a pregnancy-specific disorder characterized by hypertension and proteinuria after 20 wk gestation. Abnormal extravillous trophoblast (EVT) invasion and remodeling of uterine spiral arterioles is thought to contribute to PE development. Interleukin-11 (IL11) impedes human EVT invasion in vitro and is elevated in PE decidua in women. We demonstrate that IL11 administered to mice causes development of PE features. Immunohistochemistry shows IL11 compromises trophoblast invasion, spiral artery remodeling, and placentation, leading to increased systolic blood pressure (SBP), proteinuria, and intrauterine growth restriction, although nonpregnant mice were unaffected. Real-time PCR array analysis identified pregnancy-associated plasma protein A2 (PAPPA2), associated with PE in women, as an IL11 regulated target. IL11 increased PAPPA2 serum and placental tissue levels in mice. In vitro, IL11 compromised primary human EVT invasion, whereas siRNA knockdown of PAPPA2 alleviated the effect. Genes regulating uterine natural killer (uNK) recruitment and differentiation were down-regulated and uNK cells were reduced after IL11 treatment in mice. IL11 withdrawal in mice at onset of PE features reduced SBP and proteinuria to control levels and alleviated placental labyrinth defects. In women, placental IL11 immunostaining levels increased in PE pregnancies and in serum collected from women before development of early-onset PE, shown by ELISA. These results indicate that elevated IL11 levels result in physiological changes at the maternal–fetal interface, contribute to abnormal placentation, and lead to the development of PE. Targeting placental IL11 may provide a new treatment option for PE. PMID:26655736

  11. Interleukin-11 alters placentation and causes preeclampsia features in mice.

    PubMed

    Winship, Amy L; Koga, Kaori; Menkhorst, Ellen; Van Sinderen, Michelle; Rainczuk, Katarzyna; Nagai, Miwako; Cuman, Carly; Yap, Joanne; Zhang, Jian-Guo; Simmons, David; Young, Morag J; Dimitriadis, Evdokia

    2015-12-29

    Preeclampsia (PE) is a pregnancy-specific disorder characterized by hypertension and proteinuria after 20 wk gestation. Abnormal extravillous trophoblast (EVT) invasion and remodeling of uterine spiral arterioles is thought to contribute to PE development. Interleukin-11 (IL11) impedes human EVT invasion in vitro and is elevated in PE decidua in women. We demonstrate that IL11 administered to mice causes development of PE features. Immunohistochemistry shows IL11 compromises trophoblast invasion, spiral artery remodeling, and placentation, leading to increased systolic blood pressure (SBP), proteinuria, and intrauterine growth restriction, although nonpregnant mice were unaffected. Real-time PCR array analysis identified pregnancy-associated plasma protein A2 (PAPPA2), associated with PE in women, as an IL11 regulated target. IL11 increased PAPPA2 serum and placental tissue levels in mice. In vitro, IL11 compromised primary human EVT invasion, whereas siRNA knockdown of PAPPA2 alleviated the effect. Genes regulating uterine natural killer (uNK) recruitment and differentiation were down-regulated and uNK cells were reduced after IL11 treatment in mice. IL11 withdrawal in mice at onset of PE features reduced SBP and proteinuria to control levels and alleviated placental labyrinth defects. In women, placental IL11 immunostaining levels increased in PE pregnancies and in serum collected from women before development of early-onset PE, shown by ELISA. These results indicate that elevated IL11 levels result in physiological changes at the maternal-fetal interface, contribute to abnormal placentation, and lead to the development of PE. Targeting placental IL11 may provide a new treatment option for PE. PMID:26655736

  12. Placental mammal diversification and the Cretaceous–Tertiary boundary

    PubMed Central

    Springer, Mark S.; Murphy, William J.; Eizirik, Eduardo; O'Brien, Stephen J.

    2003-01-01

    Competing hypotheses for the timing of the placental mammal radiation focus on whether extant placental orders originated and diversified before or after the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K/T) boundary. Molecular studies that have addressed this issue suffer from single calibration points, unwarranted assumptions about the molecular clock, and/or taxon sampling that lacks representatives of all placental orders. We investigated this problem using the largest available molecular data set for placental mammals, which includes segments of 19 nuclear and three mitochondrial genes for representatives of all extant placental orders. We used the Thorne/Kishino method, which permits simultaneous constraints from the fossil record and allows rates of molecular evolution to vary on different branches of a phylogenetic tree. Analyses that used different sets of fossil constraints, different priors for the base of Placentalia, and different data partitions all support interordinal divergences in the Cretaceous followed by intraordinal diversification mostly after the K/T boundary. Four placental orders show intraordinal diversification that predates the K/T boundary, but only by an average of 10 million years. In contrast to some molecular studies that date the rat–mouse split as old as 46 million years, our results show improved agreement with the fossil record and place this split at 16–23 million years. To test the hypothesis that molecular estimates of Cretaceous divergence times are an artifact of increased body size subsequent to the K/T boundary, we also performed analyses with a “K/T body size” taxon set. In these analyses, interordinal splits remained in the Cretaceous. PMID:12552136

  13. HIV-1 Nef Breaches Placental Barrier in Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Poonam; Agnihotri, Saurabh Kumar; Tewari, Mahesh Chandra; Kumar, Sadan; Sachdev, Monika; Tripathi, Raj Kamal

    2012-01-01

    The vertical transmission of HIV-1 from the mother to fetus is known, but the molecular mechanism regulating this transmission is not fully characterized. The fetus is highly protected by the placenta, which does not permit microbial pathogens to cross the placental barrier. In the present study, a rat model was established to observe the effect of HIV-1 protein Nef on placental barrier. Evans blue dye was used to assay permeability of placental barrier and fourteen day pregnant Sprague Dawley rats were injected intravenously with 2% Evans blue dye along with various concentrations of recombinant Nef. After an hour, animals were sacrificed and dye migration was observed through the assimilation of peripheral blood into fetus. Interestingly, traces of recombinant Nef protein were detected in the embryo as well as amniotic fluid and amniotic membrane along with placenta and uterus. Our study indicates that recombinant HIV-1-Nef protein breaches the placental barrier and allows the migration of Evans blue dye to the growing fetus. Further the concentration of Nef protein in blood is directly proportional to the intensity of dye migration and to the amount of Nef protein detected in uterus, placenta, amniotic membrane, amniotic fluid and embryo. Based on this study, it can be concluded that the HIV-1 Nef protein has a direct effect on breaching of the placental barrier in the model we have established in this study. Our observations will be helpful to understand the molecular mechanisms related to this breach of placental barrier by Nef in humans and may be helpful to identify specific Nef inhibitors. PMID:23240037

  14. Infant sex-specific placental cadmium and DNA methylation associations

    SciTech Connect

    Mohanty, April F.; Farin, Fred M.; Bammler, Theo K.; MacDonald, James W.; Afsharinejad, Zahra; Burbacher, Thomas M.; Siscovick, David S.; and others

    2015-04-15

    Background: Recent evidence suggests that maternal cadmium (Cd) burden and fetal growth associations may vary by fetal sex. However, mechanisms contributing to these differences are unknown. Objectives: Among 24 maternal-infant pairs, we investigated infant sex-specific associations between placental Cd and placental genome-wide DNA methylation. Methods: We used ANOVA models to examine sex-stratified associations of placental Cd (dichotomized into high/low Cd using sex-specific Cd median cutoffs) with DNA methylation at each cytosine-phosphate-guanine site or region. Statistical significance was defined using a false discovery rate cutoff (<0.10). Results: Medians of placental Cd among females and males were 5 and 2 ng/g, respectively. Among females, three sites (near ADP-ribosylation factor-like 9 (ARL9), siah E3 ubiquitin protein ligase family member 3 (SIAH3), and heparin sulfate (glucosamine) 3-O-sulfotransferase 4 (HS3ST4) and one region on chromosome 7 (including carnitine O-octanoyltransferase (CROT) and TP5S target 1 (TP53TG1)) were hypomethylated in high Cd placentas. Among males, high placental Cd was associated with methylation of three sites, two (hypomethylated) near MDS1 and EVI1 complex locus (MECOM) and one (hypermethylated) near spalt-like transcription factor 1 (SALL1), and two regions (both hypomethylated, one on chromosome 3 including MECOM and another on chromosome 8 including rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) 10 (ARHGEF10). Differentially methylated sites were at or close to transcription start sites of genes involved in cell damage response (SIAH3, HS3ST4, TP53TG1) in females and cell differentiation, angiogenesis and organ development (MECOM, SALL1) in males. Conclusions: Our preliminary study supports infant sex-specific placental Cd-DNA methylation associations, possibly accounting for previously reported differences in Cd-fetal growth associations across fetal sex. Larger studies are needed to replicate and extend these

  15. Placental Histopathological Changes Associated with Plasmodium vivax Infection during Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Dombrowski, Jamille G.; Ippólito, Vanessa; Aitken, Elizabeth H.; Valle, Suiane N.; Álvarez, José M.; Epiphânio, Sabrina; Marinho, Claudio R. F.

    2013-01-01

    Histological evidence of Plasmodium in the placenta is indicative of placental malaria, a condition associated with severe outcomes for mother and child. Histological lesions found in placentas from Plasmodium-exposed women include syncytial knotting, syncytial rupture, thickening of the placental barrier, necrosis of villous tissue and intervillositis. These histological changes have been associated with P. falciparum infections, but little is known about the contribution of P. vivax to such changes. We conducted a cross-sectional study with pregnant women at delivery and assigned them to three groups according to their Plasmodium exposure during pregnancy: no Plasmodium exposure (n = 41), P. vivax exposure (n = 59) or P. falciparum exposure (n = 19). We evaluated their placentas for signs of Plasmodium and placental lesions using ten histological parameters: syncytial knotting, syncytial rupture, placental barrier thickness, villi necrosis, intervillous space area, intervillous leucocytes, intervillous mononucleates, intervillous polymorphonucleates, parasitized erythrocytes and hemozoin. Placentas from P. vivax-exposed women showed little evidence of Plasmodium or hemozoin but still exhibited more lesions than placentas from women not exposed to Plasmodium, especially when infections occurred twice or more during pregnancy. In the Brazilian state of Acre, where diagnosis and primary treatment are readily available and placental lesions occur in the absence of detected placental parasites, relying on the presence of Plasmodium in the placenta to evaluate Plasmodium-induced placental pathology is not feasible. Multivariate logistic analysis revealed that syncytial knotting (odds ratio [OR], 4.21, P = 0.045), placental barrier thickness (OR, 25.59, P = 0.021) and mononuclear cells (OR, 4.02, P = 0.046) were increased in placentas from P. vivax-exposed women when compared to women not exposed to Plasmodium during pregnancy. A vivax-score was

  16. [Impact of maternal obesity and diabetes on placental function].

    PubMed

    Gabory, Anne; Chavatte-Palmer, Pascale; Vambergue, Anne; Tarrade, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Located at the feto-maternal interface, the placenta is involved in exchange, endocrine and immune functions, which impact fetal development. In contact with the maternal environment, this organ is sensitive to metabolic disorders as over-nutrition, obesity or diabetes. The alteration of blood parameters associated with these pathologies affects placental histology, vascularization and nutrient transfers and, according to the types of troubles, induces local inflammation or hypoxia. These placental changes lead to disturbance of development and fetal growth, which increase the risk of pathologies in offspring in adulthood. The placenta thus appears as a crucial player in the fetal programming. PMID:26850609

  17. Placental development during early pregnancy in sheep: Effects of embryo origin on fetal and placental growth and global methylation

    PubMed Central

    Grazul-Bilska, Anna T.; Johnson, Mary Lynn; Borowicz, Pawel P.; Baranko, Loren; Redmer, Dale A.; Reynolds, Lawrence P.

    2012-01-01

    The origin of embryos including those created through assisted reproductive technologies (ART) may have profound effects on placental and fetal development, possibly leading to compromised pregnancies associated with poor placental development. To determine the effects of embryo origin on fetal size, and maternal and fetal placental cellular proliferation and global methylation, pregnancies were achieved through natural mating (NAT), or transfer of embryos generated through in vivo (NAT-ET), IVF, or in vitro activation (IVA). On Day 22 of pregnancy, fetuses were measured and placental tissues were collected to immunodetect Ki67 (a marker of proliferating cells) and 5-methyl cytosine (5mC) followed by image analysis, and determination of mRNA expression for three DNA methyltransferases (DNMT). Fetal length and labeling index (proportion of proliferating cells) in maternal caruncles (CAR; maternal placenta) and fetal membranes (FM; fetal placenta) were less (P < 0.001) in NAT-ET, IVF and IVA than in NAT. Expression of 5mC was greater (P < 0.02) in IVF and IVA than in NAT. In CAR, mRNA expression for DNMT1 was greater (P < 0.01) in IVA compared to the other groups, but DNMT3A expression was less (P < 0.04) in NAT-ET and IVA than NAT. In FM, expression of mRNA for DNMT3A was greater (P < 0.01) in IVA compared to the other groups, and was similar in NAT, NAT-ET and IVF groups. Thus, embryo origin may have specific effects on growth and function of ovine utero-placental and fetal tissues through regulation of tissue growth, DNA methylation and likely other mechanisms. These data provide a foundation for determining expression of specific factors regulating placental and fetal tissue growth and function in normal and compromised pregnancies, including those achieved with ART. PMID:23117132

  18. Trade-based carbon sequestration accounting.

    PubMed

    King, Dennis M

    2004-04-01

    This article describes and illustrates an accounting method to assess and compare "early" carbon sequestration investments and trades on the basis of the number of standardized CO2 emission offset credits they will provide. The "gold standard" for such credits is assumed to be a relatively riskless credit based on a CO2 emission reduction that provides offsets against CO2 emissions on a one-for-one basis. The number of credits associated with carbon sequestration needs to account for time, risk, durability, permanence, additionality, and other factors that future trade regulators will most certainly use to assign "official" credits to sequestration projects. The method that is presented here uses established principles of natural resource accounting and conventional rules of asset valuation to "score" projects. A review of 20 "early" voluntary United States based CO2 offset trades that involve carbon sequestration reveals that the assumptions that buyers, sellers, brokers, and traders are using to characterize the economic potential of their investments and trades vary enormously. The article develops a "universal carbon sequestration credit scoring equation" and uses two of these trades to illustrate the sensitivity of trade outcomes to various assumptions about how future trade auditors are likely to "score" carbon sequestration projects in terms of their "equivalency" with CO2 emission reductions. The article emphasizes the importance of using a standard credit scoring method that accounts for time and risk to assess and compare even unofficial prototype carbon sequestration trades. The scoring method illustrated in this article is a tool that can protect the integrity of carbon sequestration credit trading and can assist buyers and sellers in evaluating the real economic potential of prospective trades. PMID:15453408

  19. Extracellular nucleic acids in maternal circulation as potential biomarkers for placental insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Hromadnikova, Ilona

    2012-07-01

    Since the placenta is being continuously remodeled during normal placental development, extracellular nucleic acids of both fetal and placental origin, packed into either trophoblast-derived apoptotic bodies or shedding syncytiotrophoblast microparticles, may be detected in maternal circulation during the course of normal gestation. Placental-insufficiency-related pregnancy complications have been shown to be associated with excessive placental trophoblast apoptosis and shedding of placenta debris. Recent advances in the field are reviewed with a focus on the diagnostic potential of particular molecular biomarkers and their eventual implementation in the currently used predictive and diagnostic algorithms for placental-insufficiency-related pregnancy complications. PMID:22364204

  20. Maternal obesity is associated with a lipotoxic placental environment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maternal obesity is associated with placental lipotoxicity, oxidative stress, and inflammation, where MAPK activity may play a central role. Accordingly, we have previously shown that placenta from obese women have increased activation of MAPK-JNK. Here, we performed RNA-sequencing on term placenta ...

  1. Placental transcriptome profile differences associated with selection for uterine capacity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Selection for 11 generations for uterine capacity (UC) resulted in 1.6 more live pigs born with no change in birth and placental weights. It was determined that the critical time period for the difference in litter size was established between d 25 and 45 of gestation. Our objective was to gain in...

  2. Anemia in a neonate with placental mesenchymal dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Satoshi; Morikawa, Mamoru; Umazume, Takeshi; Yamada, Takahiro; Kanno, Hiromi; Takakuwa, Emi; Minakami, Hisanori

    2016-05-01

    Causes of intrauterine fetal death (IUFD) are uncertain in most placental mesenchymal dysplasia (PMD) cases. Our case showed high α-fetoprotein levels in the maternal circulation, markedly dilated subchorionic vessels, and neonatal hemoglobin concentration of 8.4 g/dL, suggesting that fetal anemia may explain some adverse outcomes in PMD pregnancies. PMID:27190607

  3. Impact of Selection for Uterine Capacity on the Placental Transcriptome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Direct single trait selection for 11 generations resulted in a 1.6 pig advantage for uterine capacity (UC) while average birth and placental weights at term remained unchanged. A serial slaughter experiment conducted throughout gestation determined the critical time period for the line difference ...

  4. Placental transfer of the actinides and related heavy elements

    SciTech Connect

    Sikov, M.R.

    1986-11-01

    A selective literature review dealing with prenatal exposure of animals and humans to actinides and related heavy elements, comparative aspects of placental transfer and fetoplacental distribution are considered. General patterns have been derived from typical quantitative values, and used to compare similarities and dissimilarities, and to examine factors responsible for observed differences. 37 refs., 2 tabs.

  5. Placental Mechanics in the Zika-Microcephaly Relationship.

    PubMed

    Adibi, Jennifer J; Zhao, Yaqi; Cartus, Abigail R; Gupta, Phalguni; Davidson, Lance A

    2016-07-13

    How the Zika virus (ZIKV) accesses the embryo remains unknown. In this issue, Quicke et al. (2016) use an in vitro model of the human placenta to show that placental macrophages are more permissive to ZIKV infection than trophoblasts, which may be refractory to infection (Bayer et al., 2016). PMID:27414496

  6. Bisphenol A disrupts gene expression in human placental trophoblast cells.

    PubMed

    Rajakumar, Chandrew; Guan, Haiyan; Langlois, David; Cernea, Maria; Yang, Kaiping

    2015-06-01

    This study examined the effect of bisphenol A (BPA) on human placental gene expression using primary trophoblast cells as an in vitro model system. Trophoblast cells were isolated from human placentas at term, cultured and then exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of BPA (0.1-2 μg/ml) for up to 24h, after which levels of 11β-HSD2 mRNA, protein and activity were determined by standard radiometric conversion assay, western blotting, and qRT-PCR, respectively. The mRNA levels of several other prominent placental hormones/factors were also assessed by qRT-PCR. BPA dramatically increased levels of 11β-HSD2 activity, protein and mRNA in a time- and concentration-dependent manner (> 4-fold). BPA also augmented aromatase, glucose transporter-1, CRH, and hCG mRNA levels while reducing the level of leptin mRNA. These findings demonstrate that BPA severely disrupts human placental gene expression in vitro, which suggests that exposure to BPA may contribute to altered placental function and consequent pregnancy complications. PMID:25784278

  7. Polyaromatic compounds alter placental protein synthesis in pregnant rats

    SciTech Connect

    Shiverick, K.T.; Ogilvie, S.; Medrano, T. )

    1991-03-15

    The administration of the polyaromatic compounds {beta}-naphthoflavone ({beta}NF) and 3-methylcholanthrene (3MC) to pregnant rats during mid-gestation has been shown to produce marked feto-placental growth retardation. This study examined secretory protein synthesis in placental tissue from rats following administration of {beta}NF on gestation days (gd) 11-14 or 3MC on gd 12-14. Explants of placental basal zone tissue were cultured for 24 hours in serum-free medium in the presence of ({sup 3}H)leucine. Secreted proteins were analyzed by two-dimensional SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by either fluorography or immunostaining. Total incorporation of ({sup 3}H)leucine into secreted proteins was not altered in BZ explants from {beta}NF or 3MC-treated animals. However a selective decrease was observed in ({sup 3}H)leucine incorporation into a major complex of proteins with apparent molecular weight of 25-30,000 and isoelectric point between 5.3 to 5.7. This group of proteins has been further identified as being related to rat pituitary growth hormone (GH) using N-terminal amino acid microsequencing of individual spots from 2-D SDS-PA gels. This is the first report that synthesis of GH-related proteins by rat placenta is decreased following {beta}NF and 3MC administration, a change which may underlie the feto-placental growth retardation associated with these polyaromatic compounds.

  8. IL-10 Modulates Placental Responses to TLR Ligands

    PubMed Central

    Bayraktar, Mehmet; Peltier, Morgan; Vetrano, Anna; Arita, Yuko; Gurzenda, Ellen; Joseph, Ansamma; Kazzaz, Jeffrey; Sharma, Surendra; Hanna, Nazeeh

    2013-01-01

    Problem Intra-uterine infections increase production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. It is unclear whether different infectious agents determine the relative expression of pro-and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Methods of study We compared the placental inflammatory response induced by bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS, endotoxin from Gram-negative bacteria) with those induced by lipoteichoic acid (LTA, a cell wall component of Gram-positive bacteria). Placental explants from term delivery were treated with either LPS or LTA, in the presence or absence of IL-10, for 24 hrs. Cytokines, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production and cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression were quantified. Results Both LTA and LPS significantly induced several cytokines with LPS eliciting more potent effects. IL-6 and IL-8 were induced to comparable levels in response to both LTA and LPS whereas monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) production was induced more by LTA, demonstrating a differential placental response to a specific toll-like receptor (TLR) ligand. IL-10 treatment significantly reduced most pro-inflammatory cytokines as well as PGE2 induced by both LPS and LTA. Interestingly, IL-10 down-regulated LTA-mediated MCP1 induction, but not that mediated by LPS. Moreover, IL-10 was more effective in down-regulating PGE2 after LPS- when compared with LTA stimulation. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that placental exposure to LTA and LPS appear to trigger distinct cytokine responses that can be modulated by IL-10. PMID:19821803

  9. Syncytiotrophoblast Functions and Fetal Growth Restriction during Placental Malaria: Updates and Implication for Future Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Kidima, Winifrida B.

    2015-01-01

    Syncytiotrophoblast lines the intervillous space of the placenta and plays important roles in fetus growth throughout gestation. However, perturbations at the maternal-fetal interface during placental malaria may possibly alter the physiological functions of syncytiotrophoblast and therefore growth and development of the embryo in utero. An understanding of the influence of placental malaria on syncytiotrophoblast function is paramount in developing novel interventions for the control of placental pathology associated with placental malaria. In this review, we discuss how malaria changes syncytiotrophoblast function as evidenced from human, animal, and in vitro studies and, further, how dysregulation of syncytiotrophoblast function may impact fetal growth in utero. We also formulate a hypothesis, stemming from epidemiological observations, that nutrition may override pathogenesis of placental malaria-associated-fetal growth restriction. We therefore recommend studies on nutrition-based-interventional approaches for high placental malaria-risk women in endemic areas. More investigations on the role of nutrition on placental malaria pathogenesis are needed. PMID:26587536

  10. Making carbon sequestration a paying proposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Fengxiang X.; Lindner, Jeff S.; Wang, Chuji

    2007-03-01

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) has increased from a preindustrial concentration of about 280 ppm to about 367 ppm at present. The increase has closely followed the increase in CO2 emissions from the use of fossil fuels. Global warming caused by increasing amounts of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere is the major environmental challenge for the 21st century. Reducing worldwide emissions of CO2 requires multiple mitigation pathways, including reductions in energy consumption, more efficient use of available energy, the application of renewable energy sources, and sequestration. Sequestration is a major tool for managing carbon emissions. In a majority of cases CO2 is viewed as waste to be disposed; however, with advanced technology, carbon sequestration can become a value-added proposition. There are a number of potential opportunities that render sequestration economically viable. In this study, we review these most economically promising opportunities and pathways of carbon sequestration, including reforestation, best agricultural production, housing and furniture, enhanced oil recovery, coalbed methane (CBM), and CO2 hydrates. Many of these terrestrial and geological sequestration opportunities are expected to provide a direct economic benefit over that obtained by merely reducing the atmospheric CO2 loading. Sequestration opportunities in 11 states of the Southeast and South Central United States are discussed. Among the most promising methods for the region include reforestation and CBM. The annual forest carbon sink in this region is estimated to be 76 Tg C/year, which would amount to an expenditure of 11.1-13.9 billion/year. Best management practices could enhance carbon sequestration by 53.9 Tg C/year, accounting for 9.3% of current total annual regional greenhouse gas emission in the next 20 years. Annual carbon storage in housing, furniture, and other wood products in 1998 was estimated to be 13.9 Tg C in the region. Other sequestration options

  11. Fetal placental prostaglandin metabolism in the peripartum cow

    SciTech Connect

    Gross, T.S.; Williams, W.F.; Lewis, G.S.

    1986-03-05

    Previous results demonstrate that fetal placental tissue synthesizes prostaglandin E (PGE) prior to parturition. When placental membranes do not separate postpartum, PGE synthesis is maintained, while prostaglandin F (PGF) synthesis predominates when the membranes separate. Concurrent with separation is a decline in fetal placental binucleate cell (BNC) numbers. These data suggest a fetal placental conversion of PGE to PGF. For this experiment, placentomes were collected at ten days prepartum (PRE, n=12) and within 1 hr postpartum. Nine of the postpartum animals had fetal membrane separation within 12 hr postpartum (S) and eight did not exhibit membrane separation (NS). For each placentome, fetal (villi) components were manually isolated and examined for the ability to interconvert /sup 3/H labeled PGE/sub 2/ and PGF/sub 2/. All villi were unable to convert PGE/sub 2/ to PGF/sub 2/ (P > .05). The PRE and NS villi were able to convert PGF/sub 2/ to PGE/sub 2/ (P < .05) while S villi could not. When the BNC decline in numbers, as in the S villi, the ability to convert PGF/sub 2/ to PGE/sub 2/ (P < .05) while S villi could not. When the BNC decline in numbers, as in the S villi, the ability to convert PGF/sub 2/ to PGE/sub 2/ also declines (P < .05). These data suggest that peripartum fetal placental tissue might synthesize PGF which is then converted to PGE. It is possible that the BNC are directly converting PGF to PGE or that they are modulating this conversion. Therefore, with a decline in BNC numbers, PGF synthesis would predominate.

  12. Placental inflammation is not increased in inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Taleban, Sasha; Gundogan, Fusun; Chien, Edward K.; Degli-Esposti, Silvia; Saha, Sumona

    2015-01-01

    Background Women with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are at increased risk for adverse birth outcomes such as preterm delivery and small for gestational age (SGA) infants. Most recognized cases of fetal growth restriction in singleton pregnancies have underlying placental causes. However, studies in IBD examining poor birth outcomes have focused on maternal factors. We examined whether women with IBD have a higher rate of placental inflammation than non-IBD controls. Methods Between 2008 and 2011, the placental tissue of 7 ulcerative colitis, 5 Crohn’s disease, and 2 IBD-unclassified subjects enrolled in the Pregnancy in Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Neonatal Outcome (PIANO) registry were evaluated for villitis, deciduitis, and chorioamnionitis with/without a fetal inflammatory response. The history and birth outcomes of all IBD subjects were reviewed and matched to 26 non-IBD controls by gestational age at delivery. Results Of women with IBD, 29% delivered preterm infants and 21% delivered SGA infants. Half of the IBD patients had mild-moderate disease flares during pregnancy. Five (36%) patients required corticosteroids, 2 (14%) were maintained on an immunomodulator, and 3 (21%) others received tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibitors during their pregnancy. Chorioamnionitis was the only identified placental pathology present in the placentas reviewed, occurring less frequently in cases compared to controls (7% vs. 27%, P=0.32). Conclusions Placental inflammatory activation does not appear to be responsible for the increase in adverse birth outcome in women with IBD. Further studies are necessary to validate these findings in IBD to explain poor birth outcomes. PMID:26423206

  13. Placental fetal thrombotic vasculopathy is associated with neonatal encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Denise G M; Kelehan, Peter; McMenamin, Joseph B; Gorman, Winifred A; Madden, David; Tobbia, Iqdam N; Mooney, Eoghan E

    2004-07-01

    Neonatal encephalopathy (NE) remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality in the term infant, and many cases have an antepartum, rather than an intrapartum, etiology. Chronic processes such as thrombosis result in changes in the placenta. We sought to determine whether histopathological examination of the placenta in cases of NE, focusing on these changes, could identify significant antenatal processes that are not recognized by clinical assessment alone. Infants born at term with NE were identified retrospectively over a 12-year period. Placental tissue from deliveries during the study period was available for reexamination. Controls were selected from a cohort of 1000 consecutive deliveries on which clinical and pathological data were collected as part of an earlier study. Bivariate and multivariate analyses of clinical and pathological factors for cases and controls were used to test for an independent association with NE. Clinical and placental data was collected on 93 cases of NE and 387 controls. The placental features of fetal thrombotic vasculopathy (FTV), funisitis (signifying a fetal response to infection), and accelerated villous maturation were independently associated with NE. Of the clinical factors studied, meconium-stained liquor and abnormal cardiotocograph were independently associated. There were no independently associated clinical antenatal factors. Placental features of infection, thrombosis, and disturbed uteroplacental flow are significant independent factors in the etiology of NE in this study. Acute and chronic features suggest that NE may result from acute stress in an already compromised infant. The absence of significant clinical antenatal factors supports the value of placental examination in the investigation of infants with NE. PMID:15257552

  14. The impact of ionizing radiation on placental trophoblasts

    PubMed Central

    Kanter, D.J.; O'Brien, M.B.; Shi, X.-H.; Chu, T.; Mishima, T.; Beriwal, S.; Epperly, M.W.; Wipf, P.; Greenberger, J.S.; Sadovsky, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Exposure to low-dose radiation is widespread and attributable to natural sources. However, occupational, medical, accidental, and terrorist-related exposures remain a significant threat. Information on radiation injury to the feto-placental unit is scant and largely observational. We hypothesized that radiation causes trophoblast injury, and alters the expression of injury-related transcripts in vitro or in vivo, thus affecting fetal growth. Methods Primary human trophoblasts (PHTs), BeWo or NCCIT cells were irradiated in vitro, and cell number and viability were determined. Pregnant C57Bl/6HNsd mice were externally irradiated on E13.5, and placentas examined on E17.5. RNA expression was analyzed using microarrays and RT-qPCR. The experiments were repeated in the presence of the gramicidin S (GS)-derived nitroxide JP4-039, used to mitigate radiation-induced cell injury. Results We found that survival of in vitro–irradiated PHT cell was better than that of irradiated BeWo trophoblast cell line or the radiosensitive NCCIT mixed germ cell tumor line. Radiation altered the expression of several trophoblast genes, with a most dramatic effect on CDKN1A (p21, CIP1). Mice exposed to radiation at E13.5 exhibited a 25% reduction in mean weight by E17.5, and a 9% reduction in placental weight, which was associated with relatively small changes in placental gene expression. JP4-039 had a minimal effect on feto-placental growth or on gene expression in irradiated PHT cells or mouse placenta. Discussion and conclusion While radiation affects placental trophoblasts, the established placenta is fairly resistant to radiation, and changes in this tissue may not fully account for fetal growth restriction induced by ionizing radiation. PMID:24418702

  15. Shallow Carbon Sequestration Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Pendergrass, Gary; Fraley, David; Alter, William; Bodenhamer, Steven

    2013-09-30

    The potential for carbon sequestration at relatively shallow depths was investigated at four power plant sites in Missouri. Exploratory boreholes were cored through the Davis Shale confining layer into the St. Francois aquifer (Lamotte Sandstone and Bonneterre Formation). Precambrian basement contact ranged from 654.4 meters at the John Twitty Energy Center in Southwest Missouri to over 1100 meters near the Sioux Power Plant in St. Charles County. Investigations at the John Twitty Energy Center included 3D seismic reflection surveys, downhole geophysical logging and pressure testing, and laboratory analysis of rock core and water samples. Plans to perform injectivity tests at the John Twitty Energy Center, using food grade CO{sub 2}, had to be abandoned when the isolated aquifer was found to have very low dissolved solids content. Investigations at the Sioux Plant and Thomas Hill Energy Center in Randolph County found suitably saline conditions in the St. Francois. A fourth borehole in Platte County was discontinued before reaching the aquifer. Laboratory analyses of rock core and water samples indicate that the St. Charles and Randolph County sites could have storage potentials worthy of further study. The report suggests additional Missouri areas for further investigation as well.

  16. Carbon sequestration research and development

    SciTech Connect

    Reichle, Dave; Houghton, John; Kane, Bob; Ekmann, Jim; and others

    1999-12-31

    Predictions of global energy use in the next century suggest a continued increase in carbon emissions and rising concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) in the atmosphere unless major changes are made in the way we produce and use energy--in particular, how we manage carbon. For example, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) predicts in its 1995 ''business as usual'' energy scenario that future global emissions of CO{sub 2} to the atmosphere will increase from 7.4 billion tonnes of carbon (GtC) per year in 1997 to approximately 26 GtC/year by 2100. IPCC also projects a doubling of atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration by the middle of next century and growing rates of increase beyond. Although the effects of increased CO{sub 2} levels on global climate are uncertain, many scientists agree that a doubling of atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations could have a variety of serious environmental consequences. The goal of this report is to identify key areas for research and development (R&D) that could lead to an understanding of the potential for future use of carbon sequestration as a major tool for managing carbon emissions. Under the leadership of DOE, researchers from universities, industry, other government agencies, and DOE national laboratories were brought together to develop the technical basis for conceiving a science and technology road map. That effort has resulted in this report, which develops much of the information needed for the road map.

  17. Prenatal diagnosis of a placental infarction hematoma associated with fetal growth restriction, preeclampsia and fetal death: clinicopathological correlation

    PubMed Central

    Aurioles-Garibay, Alma; Hernandez-Andrade, Edgar; Romero, Roberto; Qureshi, Faisal; Ahn, Hyunyoung; Jacques, Suzanne M.; Garcia, Maynor; Yeo, Lami; Hassan, Sonia S.

    2014-01-01

    The lesion termed “placental infarction hematoma” is associated with fetal death and adverse perinatal outcome. Such lesion has been associated with a high risk of fetal death and abruption placentae. The fetal and placental hemodynamic changes associated with placental infarction hematoma have not been reported. This communication describes a case of early and severe growth restriction with preeclampsia, and progressive deterioration of the fetal and placental Doppler parameters in the presence of a placental infarction hematoma. PMID:24852332

  18. Blastomere removal from cleavage-stage mouse embryos alters placental function, which is associated with placental oxidative stress and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Yao, Qi; Chen, Li; Liang, Yuanjiao; Sui, Liucai; Guo, Li; Zhou, Jingwei; Fan, Kai; Jing, Jun; Zhang, Yunhai; Yao, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Blastomere biopsy is an essential technique in preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD), a screening test that can detect genetic abnormalities of embryos before their transfer into uterus. Our results showed that the weights of fetuses derived from biopsied embryos were lower than that of non-biopsied counterparts at E12.5, E15.5, and E18.5. The ratio of fetal/placental (F/P) weights in the biopsied group was significantly lower than that in the non-biopsied group at E18.5. At E18.5, the mRNAs for selected glucose transporters, system A amino acid transporters, system L amino acid transporters, and imprinted genes were downregulated in the placentae of biopsied group, and the GLUT1 and CAT3 protein levels were decreased too. More apoptotic cells were detected by TUNEL in the placentae of biopsied group. Placentae from biopsied embryos exhibited lower levels of SOD and GSH. Furthermore, the concentration of MDA increased in the placentae from biopsied group. The levels of IL1B, IL6, and TNFA also significantly increased in the placentae of biopsied group. This study suggested that placental function may be sensitive to blastomere biopsy procedures, and placental oxidative stress and inflammation associated with blastomere biopsy may be critical factors of abnormal placental function and further influence the fetal development. PMID:27109212

  19. Blastomere removal from cleavage-stage mouse embryos alters placental function, which is associated with placental oxidative stress and inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Qi; Chen, Li; Liang, Yuanjiao; Sui, Liucai; Guo, Li; Zhou, Jingwei; Fan, Kai; Jing, Jun; Zhang, Yunhai; Yao, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Blastomere biopsy is an essential technique in preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD), a screening test that can detect genetic abnormalities of embryos before their transfer into uterus. Our results showed that the weights of fetuses derived from biopsied embryos were lower than that of non-biopsied counterparts at E12.5, E15.5, and E18.5. The ratio of fetal/placental (F/P) weights in the biopsied group was significantly lower than that in the non-biopsied group at E18.5. At E18.5, the mRNAs for selected glucose transporters, system A amino acid transporters, system L amino acid transporters, and imprinted genes were downregulated in the placentae of biopsied group, and the GLUT1 and CAT3 protein levels were decreased too. More apoptotic cells were detected by TUNEL in the placentae of biopsied group. Placentae from biopsied embryos exhibited lower levels of SOD and GSH. Furthermore, the concentration of MDA increased in the placentae from biopsied group. The levels of IL1B, IL6, and TNFA also significantly increased in the placentae of biopsied group. This study suggested that placental function may be sensitive to blastomere biopsy procedures, and placental oxidative stress and inflammation associated with blastomere biopsy may be critical factors of abnormal placental function and further influence the fetal development. PMID:27109212

  20. ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF CO2 SEQUESTRATION TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect

    Bert R. Bock; Richard G. Rhudy; David E. Nichols

    2001-07-01

    In order to plan for potential CO{sub 2} mitigation mandates, utilities need better information on CO{sub 2} mitigation options, especially carbon sequestration options that involve non-utility operations. One of the major difficulties in evaluating CO{sub 2} sequestration technologies and practices, both geologic storage of captured CO{sub 2} and storage in biological sinks, is obtaining consistent, transparent, accurate, and comparable economics. This project is comparing the economics of major technologies and practices under development for CO{sub 2} sequestration, including captured CO{sub 2} storage options such as active oil reservoirs, depleted oil and gas reservoirs, deep aquifers, coal beds, and oceans, as well as the enhancement of biological sinks such as forests and croplands. An international group of experts has been assembled to compare on a consistent basis the economics of this diverse array of CO{sub 2} sequestration options. Designs and data collection are nearly complete for each of the CO{sub 2} sequestration options being compared. Initial spreadsheet development has begun on concepts involving storage of captured CO{sub 2}. No significant problems have been encountered, but some additional outside expertise will be accessed to supplement the team's expertise in the areas of life cycle analysis, oil and gas exploration and production, and comparing CO{sub 2} sequestration options that differ in timing and permanence of CO{sub 2} sequestration. Plans for the next reporting period are to complete data collection and a first approximation of the spreadsheet. We expect to complete this project on time and on budget.

  1. Federal Control of Geological Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Reitze, Arnold W.

    2011-04-01

    The United States has economically recoverable coal reserves of about 261 billion tons, which is in excess of a 250-­year supply based on 2009 consumption rates. However, in the near future the use of coal may be legally restricted because of concerns over the effects of its combustion on atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. In response, the U.S. Department of Energy is making significant efforts to help develop and implement a commercial scale program of geologic carbon sequestration that involves capturing and storing carbon dioxide emitted from coal-burning electric power plants in deep underground formations. This article explores the technical and legal problems that must be resolved in order to have a viable carbon sequestration program. It covers the responsibilities of the United States Environmental Protection Agency and the Departments of Energy, Transportation and Interior. It discusses the use of the Safe Drinking Water Act, the Clean Air Act, the National Environmental Policy Act, the Endangered Species Act, and other applicable federal laws. Finally, it discusses the provisions related to carbon sequestration that have been included in the major bills dealing with climate change that Congress has been considering in 2009 and 2010. The article concludes that the many legal issues that exist can be resolved, but whether carbon sequestration becomes a commercial reality will depend on reducing its costs or by imposing legal requirements on fossil-fired power plants that result in the costs of carbon emissions increasing to the point that carbon sequestration becomes a feasible option.

  2. Distinct patterns of gene-specific methylation in mammalian placentas: implications for placental evolution and function.

    PubMed

    Ng, H K; Novakovic, B; Hiendleder, S; Craig, J M; Roberts, C T; Saffery, R

    2010-04-01

    The placenta has arisen relatively recently and is among the most rapidly evolving tissues in mammals. Several different placental barrier and structure types appear to have independently evolved common functional features. Specific patterns of gene expression that determine placental development in humans are predicted to be accompanied by specific profiles of epigenetic modification. However, the stratification of epigenetic modifications into those involved in conserved aspects of placental function, versus those involved in divergent placental features, has yet to begin. As a first step towards this goal, we have investigated the methylation status of a small number of gene-specific methylation events recently identified in human placenta, in a panel of placental tissue from baboon, marmoset, cow, cat, guinea pig and mouse. These represent disparate placental barrier types and structures. In this study we hypothesized that specific epigenetic markings may be associated with placental barrier type or function, independent of phylogeny. However, in contrast to our predictions, the majority of gene-specific methylation appears to track with phylogeny, independent of placental barrier type or other structural features. This suggests that despite the likelihood of epigenetic modification playing a role in the functioning and evolution of different placental subtypes, there is no evidence for an involvement of the gene-specific methylation profiles we have identified, in specifying these differences. Further studies, examining larger numbers of epigenetic modifications across phylogeny, are required to define the role of specific epigenetic modifications in the evolution of distinct placental structures. PMID:20167366

  3. BIG SKY CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP

    SciTech Connect

    Susan M. Capalbo

    2004-06-01

    The Big Sky Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts during the second performance period fall into four areas: evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks; development of GIS-based reporting framework; designing an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies; and initiating a comprehensive education and outreach program. At the first two Partnership meetings the groundwork was put in place to provide an assessment of capture and storage capabilities for CO{sub 2} utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that would complement the ongoing DOE research. The region has a diverse array of geological formations that could provide storage options for carbon in one or more of its three states. Likewise, initial estimates of terrestrial sinks indicate a vast potential for increasing and maintaining soil C on forested, agricultural, and reclaimed lands. Both options include the potential for offsetting economic benefits to industry and society. Steps have been taken to assure that the GIS-based framework is consistent among types of sinks within the Big Sky Partnership area and with the efforts of other western DOE partnerships. Efforts are also being made to find funding to include Wyoming in the coverage areas for both geological and terrestrial sinks and sources. The Partnership recognizes the critical importance of measurement, monitoring, and verification technologies to support not only carbon trading but all policies and programs that DOE and other agencies may want to pursue in support of GHG mitigation. The efforts begun in developing and implementing MMV technologies for geological sequestration reflect this concern. Research is also underway to identify and validate best management practices for

  4. Relationship between Plasma D-Dimer Concentration and Three-Dimensional Ultrasound Placental Volume in Women at Risk for Placental Vascular Diseases: A Monocentric Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Fanget, Cécile; Chauleur, Céline; Stadler, Amandine; Presles, Emilie; Varlet, Marie-Noëlle; Gris, Jean-Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to correlate placental volumes deduced from three-dimensional ultrasound and virtual organ computer-aided analysis (VOCAL) software with systemic concentrations of D-dimer and soluble endothelial protein C receptor (sEPCR). Methods This was a monocentric experimental prospective study conducted from October 2008 to July 2009. Forty consecutive patients at risk of placental vascular pathology (PVP) recurrence or occurrence were included. Placental volumes were systematically measured three times (11–14, 16–18 and 20–22 weeks of gestation (WG)) by two independent sonographers. D-dimers and sEPCR plasma concentrations were measured using ELISA kits (Enzyme Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay). Results Eleven patients had a PVP. The plasma D-dimer level was positively correlated with placental volume (r = 0.45, p < 0.001). A smaller placental volume and placental quotient was evidenced in women who developed a PVP at the three gestational ages, and the difference was more pronounced during the third exam (20 WG). No obvious correlation could be demonstrated between the development of a PVP and the levels of D-dimer and sEPCR. There was no significant difference in the values of placental volumes measured by the two sonographers. Conclusion The placenta growth could be a major determinant of the elevation of D-dimer during pregnancy. Consideration of placental volume could allow for modulation of the D-dimer concentrations for restoring their clinical interest. PMID:27294274

  5. IFPA Meeting 2011 workshop report III: Placental immunology; epigenetic and microRNA-dependent gene regulation; comparative placentation; trophoblast differentiation; stem cells☆

    PubMed Central

    Ackerman, W.E.; Bulmer, J.N.; Carter, A.M.; Chaillet, J.R.; Chamley, L.; Chen, C.P.; Chuong, E.B.; Coleman, S.J.; Collet, G.P.; Croy, B.A.; de Mestre, A.M.; Dickinson, H.; Ducray, J.; Enders, A.C.; Fogarty, N.M.E.; Gauster, M.; Golos, T.; Haider, S.; Heazell, A.E.; Holland, O.J.; Huppertz, B.; Husebekk, A.; John, R.M.; Johnsen, G.M.; Jones, C.J.P.; Kalionis, B.; König, J.; Lorenzon, A.R.; Moffett, A.; de Mello, J.C. Moreira; Nuzzo, A.M.; Parham, P.; Parolini, O.; Petroff, M.G.; Pidoux, G.; Ramírez-Pinilla, M.P.; Robinson, W.P.; Rolfo, A.; Sadovsky, Y.; Soma, H.; Southcombe, J.H.; Tilburgs, T.; Lash, G.E.

    2014-01-01

    Workshops are an important part of the IFPA annual meeting as they allow for discussion of specialised topics. At IFPA meeting 2011 there were twelve themed workshops, five of which are summarized in this report. These workshops related to various aspects of placental biology: 1) immunology; 2) epigenetics; 3) comparative placentation; 4) trophoblast differentiation; 5) stem cells. PMID:22154501

  6. How herbivores coopt plant defenses: natural selection, specialization, and sequestration.

    PubMed

    Petschenka, Georg; Agrawal, Anurag A

    2016-04-01

    We review progress in understanding sequestration by herbivorous insects, the use of plant chemical defenses for their own defense. We incorporate sequestration into the framework of plant-insect coevolution by integrating three hierarchical issues: (1) the relationship between dietary specialization and sequestration of plant defenses, (2) the physiological mechanisms involved in sequestration, and (3) how sequestration evolves via interactions between trophic levels. Sequestration is often associated with specialization, but even specialized sequestration is not an evolutionary dead-end. Despite considerable progress in understanding physiological mechanisms, detailed knowledge of how plant toxins cross the insect gut epithelium is still largely lacking. Sequestration is likely a major vehicle for coevolutionary escalation in speciose plant-insect-predator interactions, suggesting that a strictly bitrophic view is untenable. PMID:27436642

  7. Localised fibrous mesothelioma arising in an intralobar pulmonary sequestration.

    PubMed Central

    Paksoy, N; Demircan, A; Altiner, M; Artvinli, M

    1992-01-01

    A localised fibrous mesothelioma arising from an intralobar lung sequestration occurred in a 64 year old Turkish woman. This appears to be the first report of a mesothelioma occurring within a pulmonary sequestration. Images PMID:1481189

  8. SOUTHWEST REGIONAL PARTNERSHIP ON CARBON SEQUESTRATION

    SciTech Connect

    Brian McPherson; Rick Allis; Barry Biediger; Joel Brown; Jim Cappa; George Guthrie; Richard Hughes; Eugene Kim; Robert Lee; Dennis Leppin; Charles Mankin; Orman Paananen; Rajesh Pawar; Tarla Peterson; Steve Rauzi; Jerry Stuth; Genevieve Young

    2004-11-01

    The Southwest Partnership Region includes six whole states, including Arizona, Colorado, Kansas, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Utah, roughly one-third of Texas, and significant portions of adjacent states. The Partnership comprises a large, diverse group of expert organizations and individuals specializing in carbon sequestration science and engineering, as well as public policy and outreach. The main objective of the Southwest Partnership project is to achieve an 18% reduction in carbon intensity by 2012. The Partnership made great progress in this first year. Action plans for possible Phase II carbon sequestration pilot tests in the region are almost finished, including both technical and non-technical aspects necessary for developing and carrying out these pilot tests. All partners in the Partnership are taking an active role in evaluating and ranking optimum sites and technologies for capture and storage of CO{sub 2} in the Southwest Region. We are identifying potential gaps in all aspects of potential sequestration deployment issues.

  9. The endocannabinoid system: A novel player in human placentation.

    PubMed

    Costa, M A

    2016-06-01

    Cannabis sativa is the most consumed illegal drug around the world. Its consumption during pregnancy is associated with gestational complications, particularly with fetal growth restriction. Endocannabinoids (eCBs) are lipid molecules that act by activating the G-protein coupled cannabinoid receptors, which are also target of the phytocannabinoid Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). The endocannabinoid system (ECS) participates in distinct biological processes, including pain, inflammation, neuroprotection, and several reproductive events. In addition, an abnormal expression of ECS is associated with infertility and miscarriages. This manuscript will review and discuss the expression of ECS in normal and pathological human placentas, and the role of eCBs and THC in trophoblast proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation, and function. The current evidence points towards a role of ECS in human placentation, shedding light on the contribution of the eCBs in the coordination of human placentation, and in the cellular mechanisms underlying the deleterious effects of cannabis consumption during pregnancy. PMID:26965993

  10. Disease-Modifying Drug Possibly Linked to Placental Insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Salahudheen, Sultan M.; Begam, Muzibunnisa A.

    2016-01-01

    Disease-modifying drugs (DMDs) such as interferon (IFN)-β and glatiramer acetate are often prescribed to slow disability progression in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). However, adverse pregnancy outcomes have been reported with these medications. We report the rare occurrence of severe placental complications in a 30-year-old pregnant woman with MS who continued to take IFN-β during her first trimester. She presented at the Tawam Hospital, Al Ain, United Arab Emirates, in 2013 with early-onset fetal growth restriction. At 30 gestational weeks, she developed severe pre-eclampsia. The baby was delivered via emergency Caesarean section and was discharged at the age of two months. Continuation of IFN-β during pregnancy may have contributed to the development of placental insufficiency in this patient. Increased education regarding the risks of DMDs for pregnant patients with MS is very important to ensure successful pregnancy outcomes. PMID:27606121

  11. Maternal thrombophilias are associated with specific placental lesions.

    PubMed

    Gogia, Navneet; Machin, Geoffrey A

    2008-01-01

    Maternal floor infarction (MFI), massive perivillous fibrin deposition (MPVFD), and fetal thrombotic vasculopathy (FTV) are specific placental lesions with associations to recurrent adverse fetal outcomes and with maternal thrombophilia. We studied the frequency of a range of acquired and genetic maternal thrombophilias in MFI (40 cases), MPVFD (87 cases), FTV (7 cases), and FTV+MPVFD (4 cases). Thrombophilias were identified in 16 (40%), 20 (23%), 5 (71%), and 2 (50%) of these lesions, respectively. Seventy-seven percent of the identified thrombophilias were genetic, and 23% were acquired. The most common genetic thrombophilia was protein S deficiency, which constituted 14 of the 36 genetic thrombophilias (39%). We advocate full maternal thrombophilia testing when the diagnosis of MFI, MPVFD, and FTV is made by placental pathology examination. Because of the possible contribution of paternal thrombophilic mutations to the fetal genotype, it would be desirable to test the whole family as well. PMID:18712951

  12. The role of extracellular vesicles in placental vascular complications.

    PubMed

    Aharon, Anat

    2015-02-01

    Extracellular membrane vesicles (EVs) also termed microvesicles (MVs) are secreted from different cells, are present in the blood circulation under normal physiological conditions, and their levels increase in a wide range of disease states. EVs contain proteins, growth and apoptotic factors, DNA fragments, microRNAs as well as messenger RNAs (mRNAs); therefore, they may function as regulators in cell-cell communication and mediators of cell signaling during multiple biological processes. The current review focuses on the role of EVs in healthy pregnancy and gestational vascular complications and discusses the involvement of EVs in gene regulation, placental hemostasis and cell function that overall reflect the placental-maternal crosstalk. PMID:25903528

  13. Placental transfer of radiopharmaceuticals and dosimetry in pregnancy

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, J.R.; Stabin, M.G.; Sparks, R.B.

    1999-01-01

    The calculation of radiation dose estimates to the fetus is often important in nuclear medicine. To obtain the best estimates of radiation dose to the fetus, the best biological and physical models should be employed. In this paper, after identification of radiopharmaceuticals often administered to women of childbearing age, the most recent data available on the placental crossover of these radiopharmaceuticals was used (with standard kinetic models describing the maternal distribution and retention and with the best available physical models) to obtain fetal dose estimates for these radiopharmaceuticals were identified as those most commonly administered to women of childbearing years. The literature yielded information on placental crossover of 15 radiopharmaceuticals, from animal or human data. Radiation dose estimates are presented in early pregnancy and at 3-, 6-, and 9-months gestation for these radiopharmaceuticals, as well as for many others used in nuclear medicine (the latter considering only maternal organ contributions to fetal dose). 46 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  14. SOUTHWEST REGIONAL PARTNERSHIP ON CARBON SEQUESTRATION

    SciTech Connect

    Brian McPherson

    2005-08-01

    The Southwest Partnership on Carbon Sequestration completed several more tasks during the period of October 1, 2004--March 31, 2005. The main objective of the Southwest Partnership project is to achieve an 18% reduction in carbon intensity by 2012. Action plans for possible Phase 2 carbon sequestration pilot tests in the region are completed, and a proposal was developed and submitted describing how the Partnership may develop and carry out appropriate pilot tests. The content of this report focuses on Phase 1 objectives completed during this reporting period.

  15. A microphysiological model of the human placental barrier.

    PubMed

    Blundell, Cassidy; Tess, Emily R; Schanzer, Ariana S R; Coutifaris, Christos; Su, Emily J; Parry, Samuel; Huh, Dongeun

    2016-08-01

    During human pregnancy, the fetal circulation is separated from maternal blood in the placenta by two cell layers - the fetal capillary endothelium and placental trophoblast. This placental barrier plays an essential role in fetal development and health by tightly regulating the exchange of endogenous and exogenous materials between the mother and the fetus. Here we present a microengineered device that provides a novel platform to mimic the structural and functional complexity of this specialized tissue in vitro. Our model is created in a multilayered microfluidic system that enables co-culture of human trophoblast cells and human fetal endothelial cells in a physiologically relevant spatial arrangement to replicate the characteristic architecture of the human placental barrier. We have engineered this co-culture model to induce progressive fusion of trophoblast cells and to form a syncytialized epithelium that resembles the syncytiotrophoblast in vivo. Our system also allows the cultured trophoblasts to form dense microvilli under dynamic flow conditions and to reconstitute expression and physiological localization of membrane transport proteins, such as glucose transporters (GLUTs), critical to the barrier function of the placenta. To provide a proof-of-principle for using this microdevice to recapitulate native function of the placental barrier, we demonstrated physiological transport of glucose across the microengineered maternal-fetal interface. Importantly, the rate of maternal-to-fetal glucose transfer in this system closely approximated that measured in ex vivo perfused human placentas. Our "placenta-on-a-chip" platform represents an important advance in the development of new technologies to model and study the physiological complexity of the human placenta for a wide variety of applications. PMID:27229450

  16. Placental disease and the maternal syndrome of preeclampsia: missing links?

    PubMed

    Tannetta, Dionne; Sargent, Ian

    2013-12-01

    Preeclampsia remains a significant obstetric risk worldwide. The pathophysiology of preeclampsia is complex, with multiple stages involving maladaptations in both placental and maternal physiology. The placenta links the pre-clinical stage of impaired remodeling of the uterine vasculature, occurring in early pregnancy, to the later clinical stages characterised by the maternal syndrome of hypertension and proteinuria. This review focuses on some of the recent candidates for the missing links in this process. PMID:24108542

  17. Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships Initiatives review meeting. Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    2006-07-01

    A total of 32 papers were presented at the review meeting in sessions entitled: updates on regional characterization activities; CO{sub 2} sequestration with EOR; CO{sub 2} sequestration in saline formations I and II; and terrestrial carbon sequestration field projects. In addition are five introductory papers. These are all available on the website in slide/overview/viewgraph form.

  18. Good practices in collecting umbilical cord and placental blood 1

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Lauren Auer; Bernardino, Elizabeth; Crozeta, Karla; Guimarães, Paulo Ricardo Bittencourt

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: to identify the factors related to the quality of umbilical cord and placental blood specimens, and define best practices for their collection in a government bank of umbilical cord and placental blood. Method: this was a descriptive study, quantitative approach, performed at a government umbilical cord and placental blood bank, in two steps: 1) verification of the obstetric, neonatal and operational factors, using a specific tool for gathering data as non-participant observers; 2) definition of best practices by grouping non-conformities observed before, during and after blood collection. The data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and the following statistical software: Statistica(r) and R(r). Results: while there was a correlation with obstetrical and neonatal factors, there was a larger correlation with operational factors, resulting in the need to adjust the professional practices of the nursing staff and obstetrical team involved in collecting this type of blood. Based on these non-conformities we defined best practices for nurses before, during and after blood collection. Conclusion: the best practices defined in this study are an important management tool for the work of nurses in obtaining blood specimens of high cell quality. PMID:27556876

  19. Triazole fungicide tebuconazole disrupts human placental trophoblast cell functions.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jinghua; Zhang, Jianyun; Li, Feixue; Liu, Jing

    2016-05-01

    Triazole fungicides are one of the top ten classes of current-use pesticides. Although exposure to triazole fungicides is associated with reproductive toxicity in mammals, limited information is available regarding the effects of triazole fungicides on human placental trophoblast function. Tebuconazole (TEB) is a common triazole fungicide that has been extensively used for fungi control. In this work, we showed that TEB could reduce cell viability, disturb normal cell cycle distribution and induce apoptosis of human placental trophoblast cell line HTR-8/SVneo (HTR-8). Bcl-2 protein expression decreased and the level of Bax protein increased after TEB treatment in HTR-8 cells. The results demonstrated that this fungicide induced apoptosis of trophoblast cells via mitochondrial pathway. Importantly, we found that the invasive and migratory capacities of HTR-8 cells decreased significantly after TEB administration. TEB altered the expression of key regulatory genes involved in the modulation of trophoblast functions. Taken together, TEB suppressed human trophoblast invasion and migration through affecting the expression of protease, hormones, angiogenic factors, growth factors and cytokines. As the invasive and migratory abilities of trophoblast are essential for successful placentation and fetus development, our findings suggest a potential risk of triazole fungicides to human pregnancy. PMID:26852204

  20. Geomolecular Dating and the Origin of Placental Mammals.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Matthew J

    2016-05-01

    In modern evolutionary divergence analysis the role of geological information extends beyond providing a timescale, to informing molecular rate variation across the tree. Here I consider the implications of this development. I use fossil calibrations to test the accuracy of models of molecular rate evolution for placental mammals, and reveal substantial misspecification associated with life history rate correlates. Adding further calibrations to reduce dating errors at specific nodes unfortunately tends to transfer underlying rate errors to adjacent branches. Thus, tight calibration across the tree is vital to buffer against rate model errors. I argue that this must include allowing maximum bounds to be tight when good fossil records permit, otherwise divergences deep in the tree will tend to be inflated by the interaction of rate errors and asymmetric confidence in minimum and maximum bounds. In the case of placental mammals I sought to reduce the potential for transferring calibration and rate model errors across the tree by focusing on well-supported calibrations with appropriately conservative maximum bounds. The resulting divergence estimates are younger than others published recently, and provide the long-anticipated molecular signature for the placental mammal radiation observed in the fossil record near the 66 Ma Cretaceous-Paleogene extinction event. PMID:26658702

  1. Glucose metabolism in pregnant sheep when placental growth is restricted

    SciTech Connect

    Owens, J.A.; Falconer, J.; Robinson, J.S. )

    1989-08-01

    The effect of restricting placental growth on glucose metabolism in pregnant sheep in late gestation was determined by primed constant infusions of D-(U-{sup 14}C)- and D-(2-{sup 3}H)glucose and antipyrine into fetuses of six control sheep and six sheep from which endometrial caruncles had been removed before pregnancy (caruncle sheep). In the latter, placental and fetal weights were reduced, as was the concentration of glucose in fetal arterial blood. Fetal glucose turnover in caruncle sheep was only 52-59% of that in controls, largely because of lower umbilical loss of glucose back to the placenta (38-39% of control) and lower fetal glucose utilization (61-74% of control). However, fetal glucose utilization on a weight-specific basis was similar in control and caruncle sheep. Significant endogenous glucose production occurred in control and caruncle fetal sheep. Maternal glucose production and partition of glucose between the gravid uterus and other maternal tissues were similar in control and caruncle sheep. In conclusion, when placental and fetal growth are restricted, fetal glucose utilization is maintained by reduced loss of glucose back to the placenta and mother and by maintaining endogenous glucose production.

  2. Hemodynamic aspects of normal human feto-placental (umbilical) circulation.

    PubMed

    Acharya, Ganesh; Sonesson, Sven-Erik; Flo, Kari; Räsänen, Juha; Odibo, Anthony

    2016-06-01

    Understanding the changes in normal circulatory dynamics that occur during the course of pregnancy is essential for improving our knowledge of pathophysiological mechanisms associated with feto-placental diseases. The umbilical circulation is the lifeline of the fetus, and it is accessible for noninvasive assessment. However, not all hemodynamic parameters can be reliably measured in utero using currently available technology. Experimental animal studies have been crucial in validating major concepts related to feto-placental circulatory physiology, but caution is required in directly translating the findings of such studies into humans due to species differences. Furthermore, it is important to establish normal reference ranges and take into account gestational age associated changes while interpreting the results of clinical investigation. Therefore, it is necessary to critically evaluate, synthesize and summarize the knowledge available from the studies performed on human pregnancies to be able to appropriately apply them in clinical practice. This narrative review is an attempt to present contemporary concepts on hemodynamics of feto-placental circulation based on human studies. PMID:27130575

  3. Prophylaxis of congenital toxoplasmosis. Effects of spiramycin on placental infection.

    PubMed

    Couvreur, J; Desmonts, G; Thulliez, P

    1988-07-01

    The results of parasitological investigation of the placenta for toxoplasma in 223 cases with documented congenital toxoplasmosis were analysed according to whether the mother had been treated, or not, with spiramycin during pregnancy. The investigation was negative in 10-11% of the cases when the mother had not been treated or had been inadequately treated; in 25% of the cases with a treatment of 3 g spiramycin day; and in 50% with spiramycin plus the combination of pyrimethamine with sulphonamide. This series is compared with a previous group of 321 women whose placental investigation was negative in 50% of untreated cases and 81% of treated women. The treatment categories are not directly comparable, because it is not possible to have a randomly assigned 'no treatment' group, for ethical reasons. Correlation between spiramycin treatment and negative results of mouse inoculation of placental material suggests that spiramycin might decrease the risk of materno-fetal transmission of toxoplasma by reducing the severity and duration of toxoplasmic placentitis. Current use of spiramycin in infected pregnant women is recommended because of its activity and lack of side effects. The dosage must not be lower than 3 g/day. Additional pyrimethamine plus sulphonamide should be restricted to selected cases with fetal abnormality diagnosed during pregnancy. Some data on pharmacology of spiramycin in mothers, placentas and fetuses are reviewed. They suggest that monitoring of maternal serum antibody titres for a dosage more adapted to individual cases may be desirable. PMID:3182443

  4. Placental IL-10 dysregulation and association with bronchopulmonary dysplasia risk.

    PubMed

    McGowan, Elisabeth C; Kostadinov, Stefan; McLean, Kathryn; Gotsch, Francesca; Venturini, Deborah; Romero, Roberto; Laptook, Abbot R; Sharma, Surendra

    2009-10-01

    Cytokine profiles in amniotic fluid, cord serum, and tracheal aspirate of premature infants suggest a shift toward a proinflammatory state. Cytokines also contribute to the pathogenesis of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). We hypothesize that the initiating events for BPD are reflected in the placenta and propose that placental expression of cytokines provide a blueprint of events leading to BPD. This is a retrospective, case-controlled study of placental cytokines of premature infants with (n = 49) and without (n = 49) BPD, matched for gender, birth weight, and year of birth at Women and Infants Hospital between 2003 and 2005. Cytokine expression, including IL-6 and IL-10, was determined by immunohistochemistry in membrane rolls, umbilical cords, and placentas. IL-6 was similarly expressed in all tissues of infants with and without BPD. In contrast, anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 was less prominent in the placenta of patients with BPD compared with those without BPD. IL-10 expression in the villous trophoblast layer was associated with a reduced odds ratio of developing BPD (adjusted OR 0.08, 95% CI 0.01-0.70, p = 0.02). These results suggest that a placental balance between inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines is crucial to normal lung organogenesis. Importantly, IL-10 seems to be protective against the development of BPD. PMID:19581835

  5. Placental IL-10 dysregulation and association with bronchopulmonary dysplasia risk

    PubMed Central

    McGowan, Elisabeth C.; Kostadinov, Stefan; McLean, Kathryn; Gotsch, Francesca; Venturini, Deborah; Romero, Roberto; Laptook, Abbot R.; Sharma, Surendra

    2009-01-01

    Cytokine profiles in amniotic fluid, cord serum, and tracheal aspirate of premature infants suggest a shift toward a pro-inflammatory state. Cytokines also contribute to the pathogenesis of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). We hypothesize that the initiating events for BPD are reflected in the placenta and propose that placental expression of cytokines provide a blueprint of events leading to BPD. This is a retrospective, case controlled study of placental cytokines of premature infants with (n=49) and without (n=49) BPD, matched for gender, birthweight and year of birth at Women and Infants Hospital between 2003 and 2005. Cytokine expression, including IL-6 and IL-10, was determined by immunohistochemistry in membrane rolls, umbilical cords, and placentas. IL-6 was similarly expressed in all tissues of infants with and without BPD. In contrast, anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 was less prominent in the placenta of patients with BPD compared to those without BPD. IL-10 expression in the villous trophoblast layer was associated with a reduced odds ratio of developing BPD (adjusted Odds Ratio 0.08, 95% confidence interval 0.01–0.70, p=0.02). These results suggest that a placental balance between inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines is crucial to normal lung organogenesis. Importantly, IL-10 appears to be protective against the development of BPD. PMID:19581835

  6. Use of Placental Membranes for the Treatment of Chronic Diabetic Foot Ulcers

    PubMed Central

    Brantley, Jonathan N.; Verla, Thomas D.

    2015-01-01

    Significance: Chronic diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) remain a challenge for physicians to treat. High mortality rates for DFU patients have pointed to the low effectiveness of standard care and lack of quality wound care products. The composition (collagen-rich tissue matrix and endogenous growth factors and cells) and functional properties (anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, and angiogenic) of placental membranes are uniquely suited to address the needs of chronic wounds. This led to the commercialization of placental membranes, which are now widely available to physicians as a new advanced wound treatment option. Recent Advances: Progress in tissue processing and preservation methods has facilitated the development of placental products for wounds. Currently, a variety of commercial placental products are available to physicians for the treatment of chronic DFUs and other wounds. This review summarizes the key factors that negatively impact DFU healing (including social factors, such as smoking, vascular deficiencies, hyperglycemia, and other metabolic abnormalities), describes the structure and biology of placental membranes, and overviews commercially available placental products for wounds and data from the most recent DFU clinical trials utilizing commercial placental membranes. Critical Issues: Although the effects of diabetes on wound healing are complex and not fully understood, some of the key factors and pathways that interfere with healing have been identified. However, a multidisciplinary approach for the assessment of patients with chronic DFUs and guidelines for selection of appropriate treatment modalities remain to be implemented. Future Directions: The biological properties of placental membranes show benefits for the treatment of chronic DFUs, but scientific and clinical data for commercially available placental products are limited. Therefore, we need (1) more randomized, controlled clinical trials for commercial placental products; (2) studies

  7. Disease-Modifying Drug Possibly Linked to Placental Insufficiency: Severe placental complications in a pregnant woman with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Salahudheen, Sultan M; Begam, Muzibunnisa A

    2016-08-01

    Disease-modifying drugs (DMDs) such as interferon (IFN)-β and glatiramer acetate are often prescribed to slow disability progression in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). However, adverse pregnancy outcomes have been reported with these medications. We report the rare occurrence of severe placental complications in a 30-year-old pregnant woman with MS who continued to take IFN-β during her first trimester. She presented at the Tawam Hospital, Al Ain, United Arab Emirates, in 2013 with early-onset fetal growth restriction. At 30 gestational weeks, she developed severe pre-eclampsia. The baby was delivered via emergency Caesarean section and was discharged at the age of two months. Continuation of IFN-β during pregnancy may have contributed to the development of placental insufficiency in this patient. Increased education regarding the risks of DMDs for pregnant patients with MS is very important to ensure successful pregnancy outcomes. PMID:27606121

  8. Review: Exploration of placentation from human beings to ocean-living species.

    PubMed

    Soma, H; Murai, N; Tanaka, K; Oguro, T; Kokuba, H; Yoshihama, I; Fujita, K; Mineo, S; Toda, M; Uchida, S; Mogoe, T

    2013-03-01

    This review covers four topics. 1) Placental pathology in Himalayan mountain people. To determine morphological changes of the placenta at high altitude, pathological examination was made of 1000 Himalayan placentas obtained in Nepal and Tibet and the results compared with Japanese placentas delivered at sea level. Characteristic findings in the placental villi of the Himalayan group included high incidences of villous chorangiosis and chorangioma. These processes were clarified by ultrastructural observation. 2) Placentation in Sirenians. The giant Takikawa sea cow, which lived 5 million years ago, was discovered on Hokkaido, Japan. It was an ancestor of the dugong as well as the manatees. Sirenia, the sea cow group, shares a common ancestor with Proboscidea, the elephants, even though they now inhabit quite different environments. A comparison was made of their zonary endothelial type of placentation. 3) Placentation in sharks and rays. The remarkable placentation of hammerhead sharks and manta rays is described. 4) Placentation in the Antarctic minke whale. Placental tissue samples of this whale were obtained from the Japan Institute of Cetacean Research. In an ultrastructural study of the utero-placental junction, microfilamental processes of the allantochorionic zone and crypt formation were visualized. PMID:23332416

  9. Alignment system for encoders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Villani, Daniel D. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    An improved encoder alignment system is disclosed which provides an indication of the extent of misalignment and a measure of the rate at which the misalignment may be changing. The invention is adapted for use with a conventional encoder which provides a digital coarse word having at least significant bit and a digital fine word having a least significant bit and a most significant bit. The invention generates the exclusive or of the least significant bit of the coarse digital signal and the least significant bit of the fine digital signal to provide a first signal. The invention then generates the exclusive or of the first signal and the complement of the most significant bit of the fine digital signal to provide an output signal which represents the misalignment of the encoder.

  10. Is Placental Mitochondrial Function a Regulator that Matches Fetal and Placental Growth to Maternal Nutrient Intake in the Mouse?

    PubMed Central

    Chiaratti, Marcos R.; Malik, Sajida; Diot, Alan; Rapa, Elizabeth; Macleod, Lorna; Morten, Karl; Vatish, Manu; Boyd, Richard; Poulton, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Background Effective fetal growth requires adequate maternal nutrition coupled to active transport of nutrients across the placenta, which, in turn requires ATP. Epidemiological and experimental evidence has shown that impaired maternal nutrition in utero results in an adverse postnatal phenotype for the offspring. Placental mitochondrial function might link maternal food intake to fetal growth since impaired placental ATP production, in response to poor maternal nutrition, could be a pathway linking maternal food intake to reduced fetal growth. Method We assessed the effects of maternal diet on placental water content, ATP levels and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content in mice at embryonic (E) day 18 (E18). Females maintained on either low- (LPD) or normal- (NPD) protein diets were mated with NPD males. Results To investigate the possibility of an underlying mitochondrial stress response, we studied cultured human trophoblast cells (BeWos). High throughput imaging showed that amino acid starvation induces changes in mitochondrial morphology that suggest stress-induced mitochondrial hyperfusion. This is a defensive response, believed to increase mitochondrial efficiency, that could underlie the increase in ATP observed in placenta. Conclusions These findings reinforce the pathophysiological links between maternal diet and conceptus mitochondria, potentially contributing to metabolic programming. The quiet embryo hypothesis proposes that pre-implantation embryo survival is best served by a relatively low level of metabolism. This may extend to post-implantation trophoblast responses to nutrition. PMID:26132581

  11. Rangeland sequestration potential assessment (Final Report)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rangelands occupy approximately half of the world's land area and store greater than 10% of the terrestrial biomass carbon and up to 30% of the global soil organic carbon. Although soil carbon sequestration rates are generally low on rangelands in comparison to croplands, increases in terriestrial c...

  12. Measuring Carbon Sequestration in Pasture Soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conversion of croplands to pasture can greatly increase sequestration of carbon in soil organic matter, removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and helping to reduce the impacts of climate change. The measurement of soil carbon, and its limitations, could impact future carbon credit programs. ...

  13. Growing cover crops to improve carbon sequestration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Different cover crops were grown and evaluated for improving carbon sequestration. The cover crops in the study include not only winter and summer types but also legumes and non-legumes, respectively. Winter legumes are white clover, bell beans, and purple vetch, and winter non-legumes are triticale...

  14. SOIL CARBON SEQUESTRATION UNDER DIFFERENT MANAGEMENT PRACTICES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Five management systems: continuous corn (CC), cropland to woodland (CW), cropland to pastures (CP), no-till (NT), and conservation reserve program (CRP), were selected to evaluate their long-term impacts (5, 10 and 15 yr) on soil C sequestration. Nine soil cores from each system were randomly colle...

  15. Fact Sheet: Soil Carbon Sequestration in Pastures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sequestration of carbon as soil organic matter is one way to remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and lower the potential for global climate change. Cultivation typically caused the loss of 20 to 50% the native soil organic matter. Establishing pasture on former croplands is expected to a...

  16. INTERNATIONAL COLLABORATION ON CO2 SEQUESTRATION

    SciTech Connect

    Howard J. Herzog; E. Eric Adams

    2005-04-01

    On December 4, 1997, the US Department of Energy (DOE), the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization of Japan (NEDO), and the Norwegian Research Council (NRC) entered into a ''Project Agreement for International Collaboration on CO{sub 2} Ocean Sequestration''. Government organizations from Japan, Canada, and Australia, and a Swiss/Swedish engineering firm later joined the agreement, which outlined a research strategy for ocean carbon sequestration via direct injection. The members agreed to an initial field experiment, with the hope that if the initial experiment was successful, there would be subsequent field evaluations of increasingly larger scale to evaluate environmental impacts of sequestration and the potential for commercialization. This report is a summary of the evolution of the collaborative effort, the supporting research, and results for the International Collaboration on CO{sub 2} Ocean Sequestration. Almost 100 papers and reports resulted from this collaboration, including 18 peer reviewed journal articles, 46 papers, 28 reports, and 4 graduate theses. A full listing of these publications is in the reference section.

  17. Grass roots of soil carbon sequestration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soils rooted with perennial grasses have high organic matter content, and therefore, can contribute to an agricultural future with high soil quality; a condition that can help to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions through soil carbon sequestration and improve a multitude of other ecosystem responses,...

  18. Carbon Sequestration under Irrigated Switchgrass Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Innovative strategies to mitigate threats of global climate change warrant evaluation of crops capable of producing high biomass for both energy generation and promotion of soil organic matter through C sequestration. Bioenergy crops have the potential to reduce the rate of atmospheric CO2 enrichmen...

  19. Polarization encoded color camera.

    PubMed

    Schonbrun, Ethan; Möller, Guðfríður; Di Caprio, Giuseppe

    2014-03-15

    Digital cameras would be colorblind if they did not have pixelated color filters integrated into their image sensors. Integration of conventional fixed filters, however, comes at the expense of an inability to modify the camera's spectral properties. Instead, we demonstrate a micropolarizer-based camera that can reconfigure its spectral response. Color is encoded into a linear polarization state by a chiral dispersive element and then read out in a single exposure. The polarization encoded color camera is capable of capturing three-color images at wavelengths spanning the visible to the near infrared. PMID:24690806

  20. Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Brian McPherson

    2006-03-31

    The Southwest Partnership on Carbon Sequestration completed its Phase I program in December 2005. The main objective of the Southwest Partnership Phase I project was to evaluate and demonstrate the means for achieving an 18% reduction in carbon intensity by 2012. Many other goals were accomplished on the way to this objective, including (1) analysis of CO{sub 2} storage options in the region, including characterization of storage capacities and transportation options, (2) analysis and summary of CO{sub 2} sources, (3) analysis and summary of CO{sub 2} separation and capture technologies employed in the region, (4) evaluation and ranking of the most appropriate sequestration technologies for capture and storage of CO{sub 2} in the Southwest Region, (5) dissemination of existing regulatory/permitting requirements, and (6) assessing and initiating public knowledge and acceptance of possible sequestration approaches. Results of the Southwest Partnership's Phase I evaluation suggested that the most convenient and practical ''first opportunities'' for sequestration would lie along existing CO{sub 2} pipelines in the region. Action plans for six Phase II validation tests in the region were developed, with a portfolio that includes four geologic pilot tests distributed among Utah, New Mexico, and Texas. The Partnership will also conduct a regional terrestrial sequestration pilot program focusing on improved terrestrial MMV methods and reporting approaches specific for the Southwest region. The sixth and final validation test consists of a local-scale terrestrial pilot involving restoration of riparian lands for sequestration purposes. The validation test will use desalinated waters produced from one of the geologic pilot tests. The Southwest Regional Partnership comprises a large, diverse group of expert organizations and individuals specializing in carbon sequestration science and engineering, as well as public policy and outreach. These partners include 21 state

  1. International Collaboration on CO2 Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Peter H. Israelsson; E. Eric Adams

    2007-06-30

    On December 4, 1997, the US Department of Energy (USDOE), the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization of Japan (NEDO), and the Norwegian Research Council (NRC) entered into a Project Agreement for International Collaboration on CO{sub 2} Ocean Sequestration. Government organizations from Japan, Canada, and Australia, and a Swiss/Swedish engineering firm later joined the agreement, which outlined a research strategy for ocean carbon sequestration via direct injection. The members agreed to an initial field experiment, with the hope that if the initial experiment was successful, there would be subsequent field evaluations of increasingly larger scale to evaluate environmental impacts of sequestration and the potential for commercialization. The evolution of the collaborative effort, the supporting research, and results for the International Collaboration on CO{sub 2} Ocean Sequestration were documented in almost 100 papers and reports, including 18 peer-reviewed journal articles, 46 papers, 28 reports, and 4 graduate theses. These efforts were summarized in our project report issued January 2005 and covering the period August 23, 1998-October 23, 2004. An accompanying CD contained electronic copies of all the papers and reports. This report focuses on results of a two-year sub-task to update an environmental assessment of acute marine impacts resulting from direct ocean sequestration. The approach is based on the work of Auerbach et al. [6] and Caulfield et al. [20] to assess mortality to zooplankton, but uses updated information concerning bioassays, an updated modeling approach and three modified injection scenarios: a point release of negatively buoyant solid CO{sub 2} hydrate particles from a moving ship; a long, bottom-mounted diffuser discharging buoyant liquid CO{sub 2} droplets; and a stationary point release of hydrate particles forming a sinking plume. Results suggest that in particular the first two discharge modes could be

  2. SOUTHWEST REGIONAL PARTNERSHIP FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION

    SciTech Connect

    Brian McPherson

    2004-04-01

    The Southwest Partnership Region includes five states (Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Utah) and contiguous areas from three adjacent states (west Texas, south Wyoming, and west Kansas). This energy-rich region exhibits some of the largest growth rates in the nation, and it contains two major CO{sub 2} pipeline networks that presently tap natural subsurface CO{sub 2} reservoirs for enhanced oil recovery at a rate of 30 million tons per year. The ten largest coal-fired power plants in the region produce 50% (140 million tons CO{sub 2}/y) of the total CO{sub 2} from power-plant fossil fuel combustion, with power plant emissions close to half the total CO{sub 2} emissions. The Southwest Regional Partnership comprises a large, diverse group of expert organizations and individuals specializing in carbon sequestration science and engineering, as well as public policy and outreach. These partners include 21 state government agencies and universities, the five major electric utility industries, seven oil, gas and coal companies, three federal agencies, the Navajo Nation, several NGOs including the Western Governors Association, and data sharing agreements with four other surrounding states. The Partnership is developing action plans for possible Phase II carbon sequestration pilot tests in the region, as well as the non-technical aspects necessary for developing and carrying out these pilot tests. The establishment of a website network to facilitate data storage and information sharing, decision-making, and future management of carbon sequestration in the region is a priority. The Southwest Partnership's approach includes (1) dissemination of existing regulatory/permitting requirements, (2) assessing and initiating public acceptance of possible sequestration approaches, and (3) evaluation and ranking of the most appropriate sequestration technologies for capture and storage of CO{sub 2} in the Southwest Region. The Partnership will also identify potential gaps in

  3. Genetic studies to characterize the origin of the mutation in placental aromatase deficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Harada, N; Ogawa, H; Shozu, M; Yamada, K

    1992-01-01

    Placental aromatase deficiency has recently been shown to be due to expression of RNA transcripts encoding abnormal aromatase molecules with 29 extra amino acids. To establish whether this aromatase deficiency is a hereditary or sporadic disease, we examined the genetic defect of the aromatase gene in the family of a patient. Direct sequencing of fragments of the aromatase gene prepared by PCR revealed that the splicing donor sequence (GT) of intron 6 in controls was mutated to GC in the patient, whereas the parents showed signals of both GT and GC. Subcloning of PCR products of the parents gave two different types of clones with GT and GC sequences in this site. Furthermore, for diagnosis of this deficiency, competitive-oligo-nucleotide-priming PCR of genomic DNA was performed in the presence of both normal and mutational oligonucleotide primers labeled with two kinds of fluorescent dyes, and the products were separated by agarose gel electrophoresis and were detected fluorometrically in the gel. Genomic DNA of the patient gave a PCR product primed only by the mutational primer, whereas that of controls gave a product primed only by the normal primer. The PCR products of the parents were primed by both primers. The results obtained by this fluorometric method were also confirmed by differential hybridizations with specific oligonucleotide probes. Thus these findings indicate that this deficiency is an autosomal hereditary disease and that the patient is a homozygote, while the parents are heterozygotes, for this mutation. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:1496995

  4. Time-Encoded Imagers.

    SciTech Connect

    Marleau, Peter; Brubaker, Erik

    2014-11-01

    This report provides a short overview of the DNN R&D funded project, Time-Encoded Imagers. The project began in FY11 and concluded in FY14. The Project Description below provides the overall motivation and objectives for the project as well as a summary of programmatic direction. It is followed by a short description of each task and the resulting deliverables.

  5. Video Time Encoding Machines

    PubMed Central

    Lazar, Aurel A.; Pnevmatikakis, Eftychios A.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate architectures for time encoding and time decoding of visual stimuli such as natural and synthetic video streams (movies, animation). The architecture for time encoding is akin to models of the early visual system. It consists of a bank of filters in cascade with single-input multi-output neural circuits. Neuron firing is based on either a threshold-and-fire or an integrate-and-fire spiking mechanism with feedback. We show that analog information is represented by the neural circuits as projections on a set of band-limited functions determined by the spike sequence. Under Nyquist-type and frame conditions, the encoded signal can be recovered from these projections with arbitrary precision. For the video time encoding machine architecture, we demonstrate that band-limited video streams of finite energy can be faithfully recovered from the spike trains and provide a stable algorithm for perfect recovery. The key condition for recovery calls for the number of neurons in the population to be above a threshold value. PMID:21296708

  6. Plasmids encoding therapeutic agents

    DOEpatents

    Keener, William K.

    2007-08-07

    Plasmids encoding anti-HIV and anti-anthrax therapeutic agents are disclosed. Plasmid pWKK-500 encodes a fusion protein containing DP178 as a targeting moiety, the ricin A chain, an HIV protease cleavable linker, and a truncated ricin B chain. N-terminal extensions of the fusion protein include the maltose binding protein and a Factor Xa protease site. C-terminal extensions include a hydrophobic linker, an L domain motif peptide, a KDEL ER retention signal, another Factor Xa protease site, an out-of-frame buforin II coding sequence, the lacZ.alpha. peptide, and a polyhistidine tag. More than twenty derivatives of plasmid pWKK-500 are described. Plasmids pWKK-700 and pWKK-800 are similar to pWKK-500 wherein the DP178-encoding sequence is substituted by RANTES- and SDF-1-encoding sequences, respectively. Plasmid pWKK-900 is similar to pWKK-500 wherein the HIV protease cleavable linker is substituted by a lethal factor (LF) peptide-cleavable linker.

  7. Reed-Solomon Encoder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Troung, T. K.; Reed, I. S.; Deutsch, L. J.; Hsu, I. S.; Wang, K.; Yeh, C. S.

    1985-01-01

    Report presents mathematical principles of Berlekamp bit serial multiplier algorithm and its application to design of very-large-scale integrated (VLSI) encoders for Reed-Solomon error-correcting codes. Structure made readily on single chip of negatively doped channel metal oxide semiconductor.

  8. Placental Pathology, Perinatal Death, Neonatal Outcome, and Neurological Development: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Roescher, Annemiek M.; Timmer, Albert; Erwich, Jan Jaap H. M.; Bos, Arend F.

    2014-01-01

    Background The placenta plays a crucial role during pregnancy for growth and development of the fetus. Less than optimal placental performance may result in morbidity or even mortality of both mother and fetus. Awareness among pediatricians, however, of the benefit of placental findings for neonatal care, is limited. Objectives To provide a systematic overview of the relation between placental lesions and neonatal outcome. Data sources Pubmed database, reference lists of selected publications and important research groups in the field. Study appraisal and synthesis methods We systematically searched the Pubmed database for literature on the relation between placental lesions and fetal and neonatal mortality, neonatal morbidity and neurological outcome. We conducted three separate searches starting with a search for placental pathology and fetal and neonatal mortality, followed by placental pathology and neonatal morbidity, and finally placental pathology and neurological development. We limited our search to full-text articles published in English from January 1995 to October 2013. We refined our search results by selecting the appropriate articles from the ones found during the initial searches. The first selection was based on the title, the second on the abstract, and the third on the full article. The quality of the selected articles was determined by using the Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale. Results Placental lesions are one of the main causes of fetal death, where placental lesions consistent with maternal vascular underperfusion are most important. Several neonatal problems are also associated with placental lesions, whereby ascending intrauterine infection (with a fetal component) and fetal thrombotic vasculopathy constitute the greatest problem. Conclusions The placenta plays a key role in fetal and neonatal mortality, morbidity, and outcome. Pediatricians should make an effort to obtain the results of placental examinations. PMID:24586764

  9. Regulation of cell surface protease matriptase by HAI2 is essential for placental development, neural tube closure and embryonic survival in mice

    PubMed Central

    Szabo, Roman; Hobson, John P.; Christoph, Kristina; Kosa, Peter; List, Karin; Bugge, Thomas H.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Hypomorphic mutations in the human SPINT2 gene cause a broad spectrum of abnormalities in organogenesis, including organ and digit duplications, atresia, fistulas, hypertelorism, cleft palate and hamartoma. SPINT2 encodes the transmembrane serine protease inhibitor HAI2 (placental bikunin), and the severe developmental effects of decreased HAI2 activity can be hypothesized to be a consequence of excess pericellular proteolytic activity. Indeed, we show here that HAI2 is a potent regulator of protease-guided cellular responses, including motogenic activity and transepithelial resistance of epithelial monolayers. Furthermore, we show that inhibition of the transmembrane serine protease matriptase (encoded by St14) is an essential function of HAI2 during tissue morphogenesis. Genetic inactivation of the mouse Spint2 gene led to defects in neural tube closure, abnormal placental labyrinth development associated with loss of epithelial cell polarity, and embryonic demise. Developmental defects observed in HAI2-deficient mice were caused by unregulated matriptase activity, as both placental development and embryonic survival in HAI2-deficient embryos were completely restored by the simultaneous genetic inactivation of matriptase. However, neural tube defects were detected in HAI2-deficient mice even in the absence of matriptase, although at lower frequency, indicating that the inhibition of additional serine protease(s) by HAI2 is required to complete neural development. Finally, by genetic complementation analysis, we uncovered a unique and complex functional interaction between HAI2 and the related HAI1 in the regulation of matriptase activity during development. This study indicates that unregulated matriptase-dependent cell surface proteolysis can cause a diverse array of abnormalities in mammalian development. PMID:19592578

  10. Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (SECARB)

    SciTech Connect

    Kenneth J. Nemeth

    2005-09-30

    The Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (SECARB) is a diverse partnership covering eleven states involving the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) an interstate compact; regulatory agencies and/or geological surveys from member states; the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI); academic institutions; a Native American enterprise; and multiple entities from the private sector. Figure 1 shows the team structure for the partnership. In addition to the Technical Team, the Technology Coalition, an alliance of auxiliary participants, in the project lends yet more strength and support to the project. The Technology Coalition, with its diverse representation of various sectors, is integral to the technical information transfer, outreach, and public perception activities of the partnership. The Technology Coalition members, shown in Figure 2, also provide a breadth of knowledge and capabilities in the multiplicity of technologies needed to assure a successful outcome to the project and serve as an extremely important asset to the partnership. The eleven states comprising the multi-state region are: Alabama; Arkansas; Florida; Georgia; Louisiana; Mississippi; North Carolina; South Carolina; Tennessee; Texas; and Virginia. The states making up the SECARB area are illustrated in Figure 3. The primary objectives of the SECARB project include: (1) Supporting the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Carbon Sequestration Program by promoting the development of a framework and infrastructure necessary for the validation and deployment of carbon sequestration technologies. This requires the development of relevant data to reduce the uncertainties and risks that are barriers to sequestration, especially for geologic storage in the SECARB region. Information and knowledge are the keys to establishing a regional carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) storage industry with public acceptance. (2) Supporting the President's Global Climate Change Initiative with the goal of reducing

  11. Maternal Obesity is Associated with a Lipotoxic Placental Environment

    PubMed Central

    Saben, Jessica; Lindsey, Forrest; Zhong, Ying; Thakali, Keshari; Badger, Thomas M.; Andres, Aline; Gomez-Acevedo, Horacio; Shankar, Kartik

    2014-01-01

    Maternal obesity is associated with placental lipotoxicity, oxidative stress, and inflammation, where MAPK activity may play a central role. Accordingly, we have previously shown that placenta from obese women have increased activation of MAPK-JNK. Here, we performed RNA-sequencing on term placenta from twenty-two subjects who were dichotomized based on pre-pregnancy BMI into lean (BMI 19–24 kg/m2; n = 12) and obese groups (BMI, 32–43 kg/m2; n = 12). RNA-seq revealed 288 genes to be significantly different in placenta from obese women by ≥1.4-fold. GO analysis identified genes related to lipid metabolism, angiogenesis, hormone activity, and cytokine activity to be altered in placenta from obese women. Indicative of a lipotoxic environment, increased placental lipid and CIDEA protein were associated with decreased AMPK and increased activation of NF-κB(p65) in placenta from obese women. Furthermore, we observed a 25% decrease in total antioxidant capacity and increased nuclear FOXO4 localization in placenta from obese women that was significantly associated with JNK activation, suggesting that maternal obesity may also be associated with increased oxidative stress in placenta. Maternal obesity was also associated with decreased HIF-1α protein expression, suggesting a potential link between increased inflammation/oxidative stress and decreased angiogenic factors. Together, these findings indicate that maternal obesity leads to a lipotoxic placental environment that is associated with decreased regulators of angiogenesis and increased markers of inflammation and oxidative stress. PMID:24484739

  12. The effects of diabetes on placental aromatase activity.

    PubMed

    McRobie, D J; Korzekwa, K R; Glover, D D; Tracy, T S

    1997-01-01

    Diabetes complicates 2-3% of all pregnancies and is associated with an increase in both perinatal morbidity and mortality, though reasons for these adverse outcomes are unknown. Estrogen biosynthesis is a critical factor during pregnancy and is carried out in the placenta via aromatase (cytochrome P450 19A1), which catalyzes the conversion of C-19 androgens to C-18 estrogens. Previous studies have shown that hormones such as insulin-like growth factors and insulin regulate aromatase activity when studied in vitro. Interestingly, levels of these hormones are altered in patients with diabetes. Thus, we hypothesized that the presence of maternal diabetes may alter placental aromatase activity and thus estrogen biosynthesis, possibly serving as one factor in the adverse outcomes of babies born to mothers with diabetes. To this end, we measured the production of 19-hydroxyandrostenedione, 19-oxoadrostenedione and estrone in 30 placental tissues from diabetic patients, using [7-3H]androst-4-ene-3,17-dione as a model substrate for aromatase (P450 19A1). A statistical difference was detected in the percentage of 19-oxoandrostenedione formed between the overt and control groups (P < 0.05). Additionally, NADPH P450-reductase levels were measured in these same tissues to determine whether alterations in this enzyme necessary for aromatase activity could be affected by diabetes. No differences in reductase levels were detected among the patient groups. However, a statistical correlation was found between NADPH P450-reductase activity and the formation velocities of all three estrogen products (P < 0.05). Thus, it appears that the presence of diabetes does not affect placental aromatase activity. PMID:9449216

  13. Ultrastructural, Cytochemical, and Radioautographic Localization of Placental Iron

    PubMed Central

    Parmley, Richard T.; Barton, James C.; Conrad, Marcel E.

    1981-01-01

    Maternal-fetal iron transfer across the guinea pig hemomonochorial placenta during the first, second, and third trimesters was examined using ultrastructural, cytochemical, radioautographic, and ferrokinetic methods. Acid ferrocyanide stained inorganic ferric iron on and in sinusoidal microvilli, cytoplasmic matrix or ground substance, and the outer basal plasmalemma of epithelial cells. Some stain deposits were observed within and on either side of the basement membrane. The extraluminal outer plasmalemma, intercellular junctions, and cytoplasm of endothelial cells frequently contained numerous stain deposits. Staining of trophoblast sinusoidal microvilli was similar during early and late gestation, whereas the staining of the basement membrane and endothelial cells was most prominent during the second and third trimesters. Staining of ferric iron was encountered in rare cytoplasmic granules of epithelial cells during late gestation, but not during early gestation. Placental macrophages contained acid-ferrocyanide-reactive ferric iron in large heterophagosomes and hyaloplasm. Acid ferricyanide failed to localize ferrous iron in either epithelial cells or macrophages. Light-microscopic radioautographic studies localized radioiron in placental epithelial cells and Prussian-blue-positive macrophages in specimens obtained 30 minutes after injection of radioiron (55Fe, 59Fe) into the maternal saphenous vein. At the ultrastructural level labeling was observed (in order of decreasing grain density) in or on the epithelial basal plasmalemma and basement membrane, endothelial cytoplasm, epithelial sinusoidal microvilli, and epithelial cytoplasm. Significant staining or radiolabeling was not observed in mitochondria, trophoblast granules, or nuclei. These results indicate that placental non-heme iron is trivalent and moves from the maternal to the fetal circulation by passing through trophoblast microvilli, cytoplasmic matrix, basal plasmalemma, basement membrane

  14. Diagnosis of Placental Abruption: Relationship between Clinical and Histopathological Findings

    PubMed Central

    Elsasser, Denise A.; Ananth, Cande V.; Prasad, Vinay; Vintzileos, Anthony M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective We evaluated the extent to which histologic lesions bearing a diagnosis of abruption conform to a diagnosis based on established clinical criteria. We further examined the profile of chronic and acute histologic lesions associated with clinical abruption. Methods Data from the New Jersey-Placental Abruption Study – a multi-center, case-control study – were utilized to compare the clinical and histologic criteria for abruption. The study was based on 162 women with clinically diagnosed abruption and 173 controls. We examined the concordance between clinical indicators for abruption with those of a histopathological diagnosis. The clinical criteria for a diagnosis of abruption included (i) evidence of retroplacental clot(s); (ii) abruption diagnosed on prenatal ultrasound; or (iii) vaginal bleeding accompanied by nonreassuring fetal status or uterine hypertonicity. The pathological criteria for abruption diagnosis included hematoma, fibrin deposition, compressed villi, and hemosiderin-laden histiocytes in cases with older hematomas. Acute lesions included chorioamnionitis, funisitis, acute deciduitis, meconium stained membranes, villous stromal hemorrhage, and villous edema. Chronic lesions included chronic deciduitis, decidual necrosis, decidual vasculopathy, placental infarctions, villous maldevelopment (delayed or accelerated maturation), hemosiderin deposition, intervillous thrombus, and chronic villitis. Results Of clinically diagnosed cases, the sensitivity and specificity for a histologic confirmation of abruption were 30.2% and 100%, respectively. Presence of retroplacental clots remained the single most common finding (77.1%) among clinically diagnosed cases. Among the acute lesions, chorioamnionitis and funisitis were associated with abruption. The only chronic histologic lesion associated with abruption was placental infarctions. Conclusions The concordance between clinical and pathologic criteria for abruption diagnosis is poor. The criteria

  15. Ultrasound-guided sampling of umbilical cord and placental blood to assess fetal wellbeing.

    PubMed

    Nicolaides, K H; Soothill, P W; Rodeck, C H; Campbell, S

    1986-05-10

    Fetal and maternal placental (intervillous) blood samples were obtained by means of an outpatient ultrasound-guided technique from a 33-week pregnancy with symmetrical intrauterine growth retardation. The baby was delivered by emergency caesarean section because blood gas, pH, and lactate measurements showed severe hypoxic acidosis, due to inadequate placental transfer. PMID:2871339

  16. A novel software-based technique for quantifying placental calcifications and infarctions from ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, John T.; McAuliffe, Fionnuala; Higgins, Mary; Stanton, Marie; Brennan, Patrick

    2008-03-01

    In obstetrics, antenatal ultrasound assessment of placental morphology comprises an important part of the estimation of fetal health. Ultrasound analysis of the placenta may reveal abnormalities such as placental calcification and infarcts. Current methods of quantification of these abnormalities are subjective and involve a grading system of Grannum stages I-III. The aim of this project is to develop a software tool that quantifies semi-automatically placental ultrasound images and facilitates the assessment of placental morphology. We have developed a 2D ultrasound imaging software tool that allows the obstetrician or sonographer to define the placental region of interest. A secondary reference map is created for use in our quantification algorithm. Using a slider technique the user can easily define an upper threshold based on high intensity for calcification classification and a lower threshold to define infarction regions based on low intensity within the defined region of interest. The percentage of the placental area that is calcified and also the percentage of infarction is calculated and this is the basis of our new metric. Ultrasound images of abnormal and normal placentas have been acquired to aid our software development. A full clinical prospective evaluation is currently being performed and we are currently applying this technology to the three-dimensional ultrasound domain. We have developed a novel software-based technique for calculating the extent of placental calcification and infarction, providing a new metric in this field. Our new metric may provide a more accurate measurement of placental calcification and infarction than current techniques.

  17. DOSE EFFECT OF GESTATIONAL ETHANOL EXPOSURE ON PLACENTATION AND FETAL GROWTH

    PubMed Central

    Gundogan, Fusun; Gilligan, Jeffrey; Qi, Wei; Chen, Eva; Naram, Rita; de la Monte, Suzanne M

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Prenatal ethanol exposure compromises fetal growth by impairing placentation. Invasive trophoblastic cells, which mediate placentation, express the insulin-IGF regulated gene, aspartyl-asparaginyl β-hydroxylase (ASPH), which has a critical role in cell motility and invasion. The aims of this study were to characterize effects of ethanol on trophoblastic cell motility, and assess ethanol dose -dependent impairments in placentation and fetal development. Methods Pregnant Long Evans dams were fed with isocaloric liquid diets containing 0%, 8%, 18% or 37% ethanol (caloric content) from gestation day (GD) 6 to GD18. Fetal development, placental morphology, density of invasive trophoblasts at the mesometrial triangle, as well as placental and mesometrial ASPH and Notch-1 protein expression were evaluated. Directional motility of control and ethanol-exposed HTR-8/SVneo cells was assessed by ATP Luminescence-Based assay. Results Severity of fetal growth impairment correlated with increasing doses of ethanol. Ethanol exposure produced dose-dependent alterations in branching morphogenesis at the labyrinthine zone, and inhibited physiological transformation of maternal arteries. ASPH and Notch-1 protein expression levels were reduced, corresponding with impairments in placentation. Discussion Prenatal ethanol exposure compromises fetal growth and placentation in a dose-responsive manner. Ethanol’s adverse effects on placental development are mediated by: 1) altered branching morphogenesis in labyrinthine zone; 2) suppression of invasive trophoblastic precursor cells; and 3) inhibition of trophoblastic cell adhesion and motility, corresponding with reduced ASPH and Notch-1 protein expression. PMID:25745824

  18. Effect of Fetal Size on Fetal Placental Hyaluronan and Hyaluronoglucosaminidases Throughout Gestation in the Pig

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous results indicated that the trophoblast-endometrial epithelial cell bilayer of porcine placenta undergoes microscopic folding during gestation, and the folded bilayer is embedded in placental stroma. We hypothesized that hyaluronan was a component of placental stroma, and that hyaluronidases...

  19. Malignant cancer and invasive placentation: A case for positive pleiotropy between endometrial and malignancy phenotypes.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Alaric W; Wagner, Günter P

    2014-01-01

    Cancer metastasis is an invasive process that involves the transplantation of cells into new environments. Since human placentation is also invasive, hypotheses about a relationship between invasive placentation in eutherian mammals and metastasis have been proposed. The relationship between metastatic cancer and invasive placentation is usually presented in terms of antagonistic pleiotropy. According to this hypothesis, evolution of invasive placentation also established the mechanisms for cancer metastasis. Here, in contrast, we argue that the secondary evolution of less invasive placentation in some mammalian lineages may have resulted in positive pleiotropic effects on cancer survival by lowering malignancy rates. These positive pleiotropic effects would manifest themselves as resistance to cancer cell invasion. To provide a preliminary test of this proposal, we re-analyze data from Priester and Mantel (Occurrence of tumors in domestic animals. Data from 12 United States and Canadian colleges of veterinary medicine. J Natl Cancer Inst 1971; 47: :1333-44) about malignancy rates in cows, horses, cats and dogs. From our analysis we found that equines and bovines, animals with less invasive placentation, have lower rates of metastatic cancer than felines and canines in skin and glandular epithelial cancers as well as connective tissue sarcomas. We conclude that a link between type of placentation and species-specific malignancy rates is more likely related to derived mechanisms that suppress invasion rather than different degrees of fetal placental aggressiveness. PMID:25324490

  20. Placental Malaria in Colombia: Histopathologic Findings in Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum Infections

    PubMed Central

    Carmona-Fonseca, Jaime; Arango, Eliana; Maestre, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    Studies on gestational malaria and placental malaria have been scarce in malaria-endemic areas of the Western Hemisphere. To describe the histopathology of placental malaria in Colombia, a longitudinal descriptive study was conducted. In this study, 179 placentas were studied by histologic analysis (112 with gestational malaria and 67 negative for malaria). Placental malaria was confirmed in 22.35%, 50.0% had previous infections, and 47.5% had acute infections. Typical malaria-associated changes were observed in 37%. The most common changes were villitis, intervillitis, deciduitis, increased fibrin deposition, increased syncytial knots, mononuclear (monocytes/macrophages and lymphocytes), polymorphonuclear cell infiltration, and trophozoites in fetal erythrocytes. No association was found between type of placental changes observed and histopathologic classification of placental malaria. The findings are consistent with those reported for placental malaria in other regions. Plasmodium vivax was the main parasite responsible for placental and gestational malaria, but its role in the pathogenesis of placental malaria was not conclusive. PMID:23546807

  1. [Potentialities of ultrasound study in the evaluation of developing chronic placental insufficiency].

    PubMed

    Nagaĭtseva, E A; Serova, N S

    2013-01-01

    The paper clarifies the ultrasound semiotics of the normal echographic pattern of the placenta in physiological pregnancy. It gives and systematizes the possible variants of the atypical placental structure in placental insufficiency in patients with spontaneous pregnancy and in women undergoing in vitro fertilization. PMID:23879041

  2. Experimentally Induced Placentitis with Streptococcus equi zooepidemicus in Late Gestation Mares: Prevention of Preterm Birth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Placental infection due to opportunistic pathogens is the most common cause of abortion and premature delivery in horses. However, current therapies used to treat mares with placentitis are based on clinical experience, anecdotal information or on case reports. Thus, the objective of this study was ...

  3. Selection for placental efficiency in swine: genetic parameters and trends.

    PubMed

    Mesa, H; Safranski, T J; Fischer, K A; Cammack, K M; Lamberson, W R

    2005-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate response to divergent selection for an index of placental efficiency in swine, and to evaluate the effect of placental efficiency on litter size. The selection index (SI) included total born (TB), birth weight (BRWT), and placental weight (PW), and was designed to increase in the high line (H) or decrease in the low line (L) the efficiency of the placental function (PE), defined as the ratio BRWT:PW. (Co)variance components were estimated for direct and maternal additive effects by using an animal model with MTDFREML procedures. Estimated breeding values were calculated by using records on individual BRWT (n = 2,111), PW (n = 2,006), PE (n = 1,677), and SI (n = 1,677). Litter traits were evaluated using records on 193 litters. The model included the fixed effects of contemporary group for all traits, with the addition of sex for individual traits and parity for litter traits. Litter was fitted as an uncorrelated random effect for all traits, and TB was used as a linear and quadratic covariate for BRWT, PW, and PE. Direct heritability estimates from single-trait models were 0.03, 0.25, 0.18, 0.11, and 0.08 for BRWT, PW, PE, SI, and TB, respectively. Estimated breeding values were compared between lines by using a model including generation, line within generation, and replicate within line as the error term. Estimates of genetic divergence were 20.7 +/- 2.7 g, 0.24 +/- 0.03, 0.11 +/- 0.02, and 0.07 +/- 0.02 per generation for PW, PE, SI, and TB, respectively (P < 0.01), but divergence was not significant for BRWT. At Generation 4, direct EBV was higher in L than in H for PW (55.9 +/- 8.7 vs. -24.2 +/- 9.5 g, respectively; P < 0.01) and higher in H than in L for PE (0.58 +/- 0.10 vs. -0.35 +/- 0.09 g, respectively; P < 0.01). However, EBV was not different for BRWT, SI, or TB. These results indicate that PW and PE are susceptible to change by genetic selection; however, the correlated response in TB was an unexpected

  4. Human placental cathepsin B1. Isolation and some physical properties

    PubMed Central

    Swanson, Arnold A.; Martin, Bill J.; Spicer, Sam S.

    1974-01-01

    A reproducible procedure for the isolation, from human placenta, of a cathepsin B1 in a homogeneous state, demonstrated by electrophoretic, ultracentrifugal and enzymic criteria, was carried out. The pH optimum was near pH5.5. The placental enzyme catalysed the release of acid-soluble u.v.-dense products from haemoglobin and myoglobin. It was inhibited by heavy metals and several compounds which react with the thiol groups. The optimum temperature was between 37° and 42°C. The molecular weight of the enzyme was calculated to be 24250. ImagesPLATE 1Fig. 5. PMID:4824207

  5. Correlation between First and Second Trimester Uterine Artery Doppler Velocimetry and Placental Bed Histopathology

    PubMed Central

    Akbaş, Murat; Şen, Cihat; Calay, Zerrin

    2014-01-01

    Aim. To evaluate the relationship between uterine artery Doppler indices and placental bed histopathology independent of clinical outcome. Materials and Methods. Uterine artery measurements were performed to 510 pregnant women who had come for routine antenatal care in 11–14th and 20–24th weeks. Placental bed biopsies from 141 cases were taken during cesarean section. Physiological changes and abnormal placental histology findings were investigated and compared with Doppler findings. Results. 116 biopsies were accepted as adequate biopsy and included in the study. Physiological changes were seen in 100 biopsies. Statistically significant higher PI and RI values in second trimester and higher notch rate in both trimesters were detected in the abnormal placental histology group (P < 0,001). Conclusion. Strong relationship between uterine artery Doppler indices and preeclampsia or intrauterine growth retardation has been shown in previous studies. In our study, we concluded that there is significant relationship between Doppler findings and placental bed histopathology independent of clinical course.

  6. The effect of Ramadan fasting and maternal hypoalbuminaemia on neonatal anthropometric parameters and placental weight.

    PubMed

    Sakar, M N; Balsak, D; Verit, F F; Zebitay, A G; Buyuk, A; Akay, E; Turfan, M; Demir, S; Yayla, M

    2016-05-01

    In Islamic religion, daytime fasting during the month called Ramadan is an annual practice. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of Ramadan fasting and maternal hypoalbuminaemia on neonatal growth parameters. A prospective case-control study was conducted in Diyarbakir and Istanbul, Turkey. The sample size of fasting group was 168 and that of non-fasting group was 170. Demographic characteristics, obstetrics ultrasonographic findings and laboratory parameters of the participants were recorded. Neonatal anthropometric parameters and placental weight were noted. The mean placental weight was significantly higher in the fasting group (p = 0.037). Also, in the fasting group, pregnant women with hypoalbuminaemia had significantly higher placental weight (p = 0.009). In conclusion, the mean placental weight in the fasting group was significantly higher. Also a significant correlation between placental weight and maternal serum albumin level was observed in the fasting group. PMID:26467047

  7. Sequestration and transport of lignin monomeric precursors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chang-Jun; Miao, Yu-Chen; Zhang, Ke-Wei

    2011-01-01

    Lignin is the second most abundant terrestrial biopolymer after cellulose. It is essential for the viability of vascular plants. Lignin precursors, the monolignols, are synthesized within the cytosol of the cell. Thereafter, these monomeric precursors are exported into the cell wall, where they are polymerized and integrated into the wall matrix. Accordingly, transport of monolignols across cell membranes is a critical step affecting deposition of lignin in the secondarily thickened cell wall. While the biosynthesis of monolignols is relatively well understood, our knowledge of sequestration and transport of these monomers is sketchy. In this article, we review different hypotheses on monolignol transport and summarize the recent progresses toward the understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying monolignol sequestration and transport across membranes. Deciphering molecular mechanisms for lignin precursor transport will support a better biotechnological solution to manipulate plant lignification for more efficient agricultural and industrial applications of cell wall biomass. PMID:21245806

  8. Antenatal diagnosis of extralobar pulmonar sequestration.

    PubMed

    Houda, El Mhabrech; Ahmed, Zrig; Amine, Ksia; Amina, Ben Salem; Raja, Faleh; Chiraz, Hafsa

    2014-01-01

    Extralobar pulmonary sequestrations (ELS) are masses of non-functioning lung tissue that are supplied by an anomalous systemic artery and do not have a bronchial connection to the native tracheobronchial tree. On prenatal ultrasonography, an ELS appears as a well-defined echodense, homogeneous mass. Detection by color flow Doppler ultrasonography of a systemic artery from the aorta to the fetal lung lesion is a pathognomonic feature of fetal ELS. MR imaging may help in the diagnosis of pulmonary sequestration by demonstrating a solid, well-defined mass, and the feeding artery. In this case report, we describe the sonographic and MR diagnosis of an ELS in a fetus at 22 weeks gestation with a review of the available literature. PMID:25667716

  9. Marine sequestration of carbon in bacterial metabolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lechtenfeld, Oliver J.; Hertkorn, Norbert; Shen, Yuan; Witt, Matthias; Benner, Ronald

    2015-03-01

    Linking microbial metabolomics and carbon sequestration in the ocean via refractory organic molecules has been hampered by the chemical complexity of dissolved organic matter (DOM). Here, using bioassay experiments and ultra-high resolution metabolic profiling, we demonstrate that marine bacteria rapidly utilize simple organic molecules and produce exometabolites of remarkable molecular and structural diversity. Bacterial DOM is similar in chemical composition and structural complexity to naturally occurring DOM in sea water. An appreciable fraction of bacterial DOM has molecular and structural properties that are consistent with those of refractory molecules in the ocean, indicating a dominant role for bacteria in shaping the refractory nature of marine DOM. The rapid production of chemically complex and persistent molecules from simple biochemicals demonstrates a positive feedback between primary production and refractory DOM formation. It appears that carbon sequestration in diverse and structurally complex dissolved molecules that persist in the environment is largely driven by bacteria.

  10. Carbon dioxide sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems

    SciTech Connect

    Wisniewski, J.; Dixon, R.K.; Kinsman, J.D.; Sampson, R.N.; Lugo, A.E.

    1993-01-01

    The terrestrial biosphere plays a prominent role in the global carbon (C) cycle. Terrestrial ecosystems are currently accumulating C and it appears feasible to manage existing terrestrial (forest, agronomic, desert) ecosystems to maintain or increase C storage. Forest ecosystems can be managed to sequester and store globally significant amounts of C. Agroecosystems and arid lands could be managed to conserve existing terrestrial C but CO2 sequestration rates by vegetation in these systems is relatively low. Biomass from forest agroecosystems has the potential to be used as an energy source and trees could be used to conserve energy in urban environments. Some ecosystem management practices that result in C sequestration and conservation provide ancillary benefits.

  11. Sequestration and Transport of Lignin Monomeric Precursors

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, C.J.; Miao, Y.-C.; Zhang, K.-W.

    2011-01-18

    Lignin is the second most abundant terrestrial biopolymer after cellulose. It is essential for the viability of vascular plants. Lignin precursors, the monolignols, are synthesized within the cytosol of the cell. Thereafter, these monomeric precursors are exported into the cell wall, where they are polymerized and integrated into the wall matrix. Accordingly, transport of monolignols across cell membranes is a critical step affecting deposition of lignin in the secondarily thickened cell wall. While the biosynthesis of monolignols is relatively well understood, our knowledge of sequestration and transport of these monomers is sketchy. In this article, we review different hypotheses on monolignol transport and summarize the recent progresses toward the understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying monolignol sequestration and transport across membranes. Deciphering molecular mechanisms for lignin precursor transport will support a better biotechnological solution to manipulate plant lignification for more efficient agricultural and industrial applications of cell wall biomass.

  12. INTERNATIONAL COLLABORATION ON CO2 SEQUESTRATION

    SciTech Connect

    H.J. Herzog; E.E. Adams

    2000-08-23

    The specific objective of our project on CO{sub 2} ocean sequestration is to investigate its technical feasibility and to improve the understanding of any associated environmental impacts. Our ultimate goal is to minimize any impacts associated with the eventual use of ocean carbon sequestration to reduce greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere. The project will continue through March 31, 2002, with a field experiment to take place in the summer of 2001 off the Kona Coast of Hawaii. At GHGT-4 in Interlaken, we presented a paper detailing our plans. The purpose of this paper is to present an update on our progress to date and our plans to complete the project. The co-authors of this paper are members of the project's Technical Committee, which has been formed to supervise the technical aspects and execution of this project.

  13. Antenatal diagnosis of extralobar pulmonar sequestration

    PubMed Central

    Houda, El Mhabrech; Ahmed, Zrig; Amine, Ksia; Amina, Ben Salem; Raja, Faleh; Chiraz, Hafsa

    2014-01-01

    Extralobar pulmonary sequestrations (ELS) are masses of non-functioning lung tissue that are supplied by an anomalous systemic artery and do not have a bronchial connection to the native tracheobronchial tree. On prenatal ultrasonography, an ELS appears as a well-defined echodense, homogeneous mass. Detection by color flow Doppler ultrasonography of a systemic artery from the aorta to the fetal lung lesion is a pathognomonic feature of fetal ELS. MR imaging may help in the diagnosis of pulmonary sequestration by demonstrating a solid, well-defined mass, and the feeding artery. In this case report, we describe the sonographic and MR diagnosis of an ELS in a fetus at 22 weeks gestation with a review of the available literature. PMID:25667716

  14. Carbon Sequestration Atlas and Interactive Maps from the Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration

    DOE Data Explorer

    McPherson, Brian

    In November of 2002, DOE announced a global climate change initiative involving joint government-industry partnerships working together to find sensible, low cost solutions for reducing GHG emissions. As a result, seven regional partnerships were formed; the Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration (SWP) is one of those. These groups are utilizing their expertise to assess sequestration technologies to capture carbon emissions, identify and evaluate appropriate storage locations, and engage a variety of stakeholders in order to increase awareness of carbon sequestration. Stakeholders in this project are made up of private industry, NGOs, the general public, and government entities. There are a total of 44 current organizations represented in the partnership including electric utilities, oil and gas companies, state governments, universities, NGOs, and tribal nations. The SWP is coordinated by New Mexico Tech and encompasses New Mexico, Arizona, Colorado, Oklahoma, Utah, and portions of Kansas, Nevada, Texas, and Wyoming. Field test sites for the region are located in New Mexico (San Juan Basin), Utah (Paradox Basin), and Texas (Permian Basin).[Taken from the SWP C02 Sequestration Atlas] The SWP makes available at this website their CO2 Sequestration Atlas and an interactive data map.

  15. MIDWEST REGIONAL CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP (MRCSP)

    SciTech Connect

    David Ball; Judith Bradbury; Rattan Lal; Larry Wickstrom; Neeraj Gupta; Robert Burns; Bob Dahowski

    2004-04-30

    This is the first semiannual report for Phase I of the Midwest Carbon Sequestration Partnership (MRCSP). The project consists of nine tasks to be conducted over a two year period that started in October 2003. The makeup of the MRCSP and objectives are described. Progress on each of the active Tasks is also described and where possible, for those Tasks at some point of completion, a summary of results is presented.

  16. INTERNATIONAL COLLABORATION ON CO2 SEQUESTRATION

    SciTech Connect

    Howard J. Herzog; E. Eric Adams

    2002-09-01

    The primary focus of this reporting period was to prepare for conducting the ocean carbon sequestration field experiment during the summer of 2002. We discuss four key aspects of this preparation: (1) Design criteria for a CO{sub 2} flow system mounted on a ship; (2) Inter-model comparison of plume models; (3) Application of a double plume model to compute near field mixing; and (4) Evaluation of tracers.

  17. WEST COAST REGIONAL CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP

    SciTech Connect

    Larry Myer; Terry Surles; Kelly Birkinshaw

    2004-01-01

    The West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership is one of seven partnerships which have been established by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate carbon dioxide capture, transport and sequestration (CT&S) technologies best suited for different regions of the country. The West Coast Region comprises Arizona, California, Nevada, Oregon, Washington, and the North Slope of Alaska. Led by the California Energy Commission, the West Coast Partnership is a consortium of over thirty five organizations, including state natural resource and environmental protection agencies; national labs and universities; private companies working on CO{sub 2} capture, transportation, and storage technologies; utilities; oil and gas companies; nonprofit organizations; and policy/governance coordinating organizations. In an eighteen month Phase I project, the Partnership will evaluate both terrestrial and geologic sequestration options. Work will focus on five major objectives: (1) Collect data to characterize major CO{sub 2} point sources, the transportation options, and the terrestrial and geologic sinks in the region, and compile and organize this data via a geographic information system (GIS) database; (2) Address key issues affecting deployment of CT&S technologies, including storage site permitting and monitoring, injection regulations, and health and environmental risks (3) Conduct public outreach and maintain an open dialogue with stakeholders in CT&S technologies through public meetings, joint research, and education work (4) Integrate and analyze data and information from the above tasks in order to develop supply curves and cost effective, environmentally acceptable sequestration options, both near- and long-term (5) Identify appropriate terrestrial and geologic demonstration projects consistent with the options defined above, and create action plans for their safe and effective implementation A kickoff meeting for the West Coast Partnership was held on Sept 30-Oct

  18. Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Brian McPherson

    2006-04-01

    The Southwest Partnership on Carbon Sequestration completed several more tasks during the period of April 1, 2005-September 30, 2005. The main objective of the Southwest Partnership project is to evaluate and demonstrate the means for achieving an 18% reduction in carbon intensity by 2012. While Phase 2 planning is well under way, the content of this report focuses exclusively on Phase 1 objectives completed during this reporting period. Progress during this period was focused in the three areas: geological carbon storage capacity in New Mexico, terrestrial sequestration capacity for the project area, and the Integrated Assessment Model efforts. The geologic storage capacity of New Mexico was analyzed and Blanco Mesaverde (which extends into Colorado) and Basin Dakota Pools were chosen as top two choices for the further analysis for CO{sub 2} sequestration in the system dynamics model preliminary analysis. Terrestrial sequestration capacity analysis showed that the four states analyzed thus far (Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico and Utah) have relatively limited potential to sequester carbon in terrestrial systems, mainly due to the aridity of these areas, but the large land area offered could make up for the limited capacity per hectare. Best opportunities were thought to be in eastern Colorado/New Mexico. The Integrated Assessment team expanded the initial test case model to include all New Mexico sinks and sources in a new, revised prototype model in 2005. The allocation mechanism, or ''String of Pearls'' concept, utilizes potential pipeline routes as the links between all combinations of the source to various sinks. This technique lays the groundwork for future, additional ''String of Pearls'' analyses throughout the SW Partnership and other regions as well.

  19. Role of Biofilms in Geological Carbon Sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerlach, Robin; Mitchell, Andrew C.; Spangler, Lee H.; Cunningham, Al B.

    2010-05-01

    Geologic sequestration of CO2 involves injection into underground formations including oil beds, deep un-minable coal seams, and deep saline aquifers with temperature and pressure conditions such that CO2 will likely be in the supercritical state. Supercritical CO2 (scCO2) is only slightly soluble in water (approximately 4%) and it is therefore likely that two fluid phases will develop in the subsurface, an aqueous and a supercritical phase. Supercritical CO2 is less dense and much less viscous than water therefore creating the potential for upward leakage of CO2 through fractures, disturbed rock, or cement lining near injection wells. Our research focuses on microbially-based strategies for controlling leakage of CO2 during geologic sequestration and enhancing the process of CO2 trapping. We have demonstrated that engineered microbial biofilms are capable of enhancing formation, mineral, and solubility trapping in carbon sequestration-relevant formation materials. Batch and flow experiments at atmospheric and high pressures (> 74 bar) have shown the ability of microbial biofilms to decrease the permeability of natural and artificial porous media, survive the exposure to scCO2, and facilitate the conversion of gaseous and supercritical CO2 into long-term stable carbonate phases as well as increase the solubility of CO2 in brines. Successful development of these biologically-based concepts could result in microbially enhanced carbon sequestration strategies as well as CO2 leakage mitigation technologies which can be applied either before CO2 injection or as a remedial measure. Acknowledgement: This work was funded by the Zero Emissions Research and Technology (ZERT) program (U.S. DOE Award No. DE-FC26-04NT42262). However any opinions, conclusions, findings or recommendations expressed herein are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect those of DOE.

  20. CO2 sequestration in basalts: laboratory measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otheim, L. T.; Adam, L.; van Wijk, K.; McLing, T. L.; Podgorney, R. K.

    2010-12-01

    Geologic sequestration of CO2 is proposed as the only promising large-scale method to help reduce CO2 gas emission by its capture at large point sources and subsequent long-term storage in deep geologic formations. Reliable and cost-effective monitoring will be important aspect of ensuring geological sequestration is a safe, effective, and acceptable method for CO2 emissions mitigation. Once CO2 injection starts, seismic methods can be used to monitor the migration of the carbon dioxide plume. To calibrate changes in rock properties from field observations, we propose to first analyze changes in elastic properties on basalt cores. Carbon dioxide sequestration in basalt rocks results in fluid substitution and mixing of CO2 with water and rock mineralizations. Carbon dioxide sequestration in mafic rocks creates reactions such as Mg2SiO 4 + CaMgSi2O 6 + 4CO2 = Mg 3Ca(CO 3) 4 + 3SiO2 whereby primary silicate minerals within the basalt react with carbonic acid laden water to creating secondary carbonate minerals and silicates. Using time-lapse laboratory scale experiments, such as laser generated ultrasonic wave propagation; it is possible to observe small changes in the physical properties of a rock. We will show velocity and modulus measurements on three basalt core samples for different saturation. The ultimate goal of the project is to track seismic changes due to fluid substitution and mineralization. The porosity of our basalts ranges from 8% to 12%, and the P-wave velocity increases by 20% to 40% from dry to water saturated conditions. Petrographic analysis (CT-scans, thin sections, XRF, XRf) will aid in the characterization of the mineral structure in these basalts and its correlation to seismic properties changes resulting from fluid substitution and mineralization.

  1. SOUTHEAST REGIONAL CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHP (SECARB)

    SciTech Connect

    Kenneth J. Nemeth

    2005-04-01

    The Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (SECARB) is on schedule and within budget projections for the work completed during the first 18-months of its two year program. Work during the semiannual period (fifth and sixth project quarters) of the project (October 1, 2004-March 31, 2005) was conducted within a ''Task Responsibility Matrix.'' Under Task 1.0 Define Geographic Boundaries of the Region, no changes occurred during the fifth or sixth quarters of the project. Under Task 2.0 Characterize the Region, refinements have been made to the general mapping and screening of sources and sinks. Integration and geographical information systems (GIS) mapping is ongoing. Characterization during this period was focused on smaller areas having high sequestration potential. Under Task 3.0 Identify and Address Issues for Technology Deployment, SECARB continues to expand upon its assessment of safety, regulatory, permitting, and accounting frameworks within the region to allow for wide-scale deployment of promising terrestrial and geologic sequestration approaches. Under Task 4.0 Develop Public Involvement and Education Mechanisms, SECARB has used results of a survey and focus group meeting to refine approaches that are being taken to educate and involve the public. Under Task 5.0 Identify the Most Promising Capture, Sequestration, and Transport Options, SECARB has evaluated findings from work performed during the first 18-months. The focus of the project team has shifted from region-wide mapping and characterization to a more detailed screening approach designed to identify the most promising opportunities. Under Task 6.0 Prepare Action Plans for Implementation and Technology Validation Activity, the SECARB team is developing an integrated approach to implementing the most promising opportunities and in setting up measurement, monitoring and verification (MMV) programs for the most promising opportunities. Milestones completed during the fifth and sixth project

  2. Microscopic chorionic pseudocysts in placental membranes: a histologic lesion of in utero hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Stanek, Jerzy; Weng, Eric

    2007-01-01

    Grossly apparent and microscopically intermediate trophoblast-lined subchorionic, septal, and cell island cysts are relatively common placental findings. To analyze the clinicopathologic correlations of histologically similar but grossly inapparent microscopic chorionic pseudocysts (lakes) arising in the chorion laeve of placental membranes (mccpm), selected placental and clinical parameters of all 172 consecutive placentas with mccpm (study group, sg) and all consecutive 3743 placentas without mccpm (comparative group, cg) from years 1994 through 2005 were statistically compared; mccpm were observed in 4.3% of all placentas and in 14.9% of placentas from preeclamptic mothers from 24- to 42-week pregnancies, their gestational weeks' distribution almost mirroring that of the distribution of preeclampsia, with a peak in the middle of the 3rd trimester. Microscopic chorionic pseudocysts (lakes) arising in the chorion laeve of placental membranes were statistically significantly more common in patients with preeclampsia and maternal diabetes mellitus. In placentas with mccpm, decidual arteriolopathy, homogeneous placental maturation, global hypoxic pattern of placental injury, chorangiosis, placental infarction, laminar necrosis of membranes, stem obliterative endarteritis, erythroblasts of fetal blood, and decidual hemosiderosis were statistically significantly more common, while acute chorioamnionitis, villous fibrosis, and villous edema were less common (P < or = 0.05). There were no statistically significant differences between sg and cg in meconium staining, retroplacental hematoma, perivillous fibrin deposition, intervillous thrombi, chronic villitis, chorangiomas, placenta accreta, amnion nodosum, and marginate/vallate placenta. Highly statistically significant associations of mccpm with preeclampsia and a cluster of placental lesions known to be linked to placental hypoxia indicate that the mccpm form in response to hypoxia, particularly in patients with

  3. Multiphase Sequestration Geochemistry: Model for Mineral Carbonation

    SciTech Connect

    White, Mark D.; McGrail, B. Peter; Schaef, Herbert T.; Hu, Jian Z.; Hoyt, David W.; Felmy, Andrew R.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Wurstner, Signe K.

    2011-04-01

    Carbonation of formation minerals converts low viscosity supercritical CO2 injected into deep saline reservoirs for geologic sequestration into an immobile form. Until recently the scientific focus of mineralization reactions with reservoir rocks has been those that follow an aqueous-mediated dissolution/precipitation mechanism, driven by the sharp reduction in pH that occurs with CO2 partitioning into the aqueous phase. For sedimentary basin formations the kinetics of aqueous-mediated dissolution/precipitation reactions are sufficiently slow to make the role of mineralization trapping insignificant over a century period. For basaltic saline formations aqueous-phase mineralization progresses at a substantially higher rate, making the role of mineralization trapping significant, if not dominant, over a century period. The overlooked mineralization reactions for both sedimentary and basaltic saline formations, however, are those that occur in liquid or supercritical CO2 phase; where, dissolved water appears to play a catalyst role in the formation of carbonate minerals. A model is proposed in this paper that describes mineral carbonation over sequestration reservoir conditions ranging from dissolved CO2 in aqueous brine to dissolved water in supercritical CO2. The model theory is based on a review of recent experiments directed at understanding the role of water in mineral carbonation reactions of interest in geologic sequestration systems occurring under low water contents.

  4. Integrating Steel Production with Mineral Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Klaus Lackner; Paul Doby; Tuncel Yegulalp; Samuel Krevor; Christopher Graves

    2008-05-01

    The objectives of the project were (i) to develop a combination iron oxide production and carbon sequestration plant that will use serpentine ores as the source of iron and the extraction tailings as the storage element for CO2 disposal, (ii) the identification of locations within the US where this process may be implemented and (iii) to create a standardized process to characterize the serpentine deposits in terms of carbon disposal capacity and iron and steel production capacity. The first objective was not accomplished. The research failed to identify a technique to accelerate direct aqueous mineral carbonation, the limiting step in the integration of steel production and carbon sequestration. Objective (ii) was accomplished. It was found that the sequestration potential of the ultramafic resource surfaces in the US and Puerto Rico is approximately 4,647 Gt of CO2 or over 500 years of current US production of CO2. Lastly, a computer model was developed to investigate the impact of various system parameters (recoveries and efficiencies and capacities of different system components) and serpentinite quality as well as incorporation of CO2 from sources outside the steel industry.

  5. Reducing Boron Toxicity by Microbial Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Hazen, T.; Phelps, T.J.

    2002-01-01

    While electricity is a clean source of energy, methods of electricity-production, such as the use of coal-fired power plants, often result in significant environmental damage. Coal-fired electrical power plants produce air pollution, while contaminating ground water and soils by build-up of boron, which enters surrounding areas through leachate. Increasingly high levels of boron in soils eventually overcome boron tolerance levels in plants and trees, resulting in toxicity. Formation of insoluble boron precipitates, mediated by mineral-precipitating bacteria, may sequester boron into more stable forms that are less available and toxic to vegetation. Results have provided evidence of microbially-facilitated sequestration of boron into insoluble mineral precipitates. Analyses of water samples taken from ponds with high boron concentrations showed that algae present contained 3-5 times more boron than contained in the water in the samples. Boron sequestration may also be facilitated by the incorporation of boron within algal cells. Experiments examining boron sequestration by algae are in progress. In bacterial experiments with added ferric citrate, the reduction of iron by the bacteria resulted in an ironcarbonate precipitate containing boron. An apparent color change showing the reduction of amorphous iron, as well as the precipitation of boron with iron, was more favorable at higher pH. Analysis of precipitates by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy revealed mineralogical composition and biologicallymediated accumulation of boron precipitates in test-tube experiments.

  6. Possible impacts of sequestration on federal research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-10-01

    U.S. federal research and development (R&D) activities could be reduced by up to $57.5 billion, or 8.4%, through 2017 because of automatic reductions in U.S. federal funding, referred to as sequestration, that are set to begin in January 2013 under the 2011 Budget Control Act. That is according to a 27 September analysis by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). If defense R&D is pulled from the equation, sequestration could cut nondefense R&D by $50.8 billion, or 17.2% through that same time period, according to AAAS. Under an equal allocation scenario, the Department of Energy could lose $4.6 billion for R&D over that time period, the National Science Foundation could lose $2.1 billion for R&D, and NASA could lose $3.5 billion, according to the analysis, which also notes that states could be hit hard by decreased federal R&D spending. Congressional leaders currently are looking into how to avoid sequestration. For more information, see http://www.aaas.org/news/releases/2012/0928sequester.shtml.

  7. The Text Encoding Initiative: Flexible and Extensible Document Encoding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnard, David T.; Ide, Nancy M.

    1997-01-01

    The Text Encoding Initiative (TEI), an international collaboration aimed at producing a common encoding scheme for complex texts, examines the requirement for generality versus the requirement to handle specialized text types. Discusses how documents and users tax the limits of fixed schemes requiring flexible extensible encoding to support…

  8. Placental transport of brevetoxin-3 in CD-1 mice

    PubMed Central

    Benson, Janet M.; Gomez, Andrea P.; Statom, Gloria L.; Tibbetts, Brad M.; Fleming, Lora E.; Backer, Lorraine C.; Reich, Andrew; Baden, Daniel G.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the distribution of brevetoxin-3 administered to pregnant dams and to determine the extent of placental transport to fetuses. Twenty-nine pregnant CD-1 mice were administered 3H-brevetoxin-3 (~1.3 μCi/animal; ~2.8 μg compound/kg) by intratracheal instillation on one of gestational days 15–18. Groups of four or five dams were killed at selected times through 48 h post dosing. Four pregnant dams were administered 3H-brevetoxin-3 on gestational day 15 or 16 via osmotic minipump to provide continuous delivery of compound (~0.13 μCi, 7.5 ng compound/day) over a 72-h period after which the dams and fetuses were d. Brevetoxin-associated radioactivity was detected in placentas and fetuses within 0.5 h of intratracheal administration. Concentrations of brevetoxin equivalents in fetuses were approximately 0.3 ng/g throughout the 48-h post dosing, resulting in a calculated dose to fetuses of 19 ng/g-h. Following brevetoxin infusion, concentration of brevetoxin equivalents in fetuses was 0.1 ng/g, lower than that present in most maternal tissues. Results demonstrated placental transport of brevetoxin or its metabolites following maternal acute exposure and repeated low-dose exposure. The consequences of these findings for pregnant women exposed to brevetoxins by inhalation or ingestion remain to be determined. PMID:17011606

  9. Immediate post-placental IUD insertion: the expulsion problem.

    PubMed

    Thiery, M; Van Kets, H; Van der Pas, H

    1985-04-01

    This paper reports an evaluation of immediate post-placental insertion of a non-copper (Lippes Loop D) and several copper-bearing IUD models (TCu200, TCu220C, MLCu375, MLCu250, Nova T-PP, DimélysR). Based on the analysis of a total of 2,646 insertions and 55,794 woman-months of experience, we conclude that placement of an IUD within ten minutes of delivery of the placenta is a valuable alternative to interval insertion, because this method is safe and effective. Effectiveness was significantly lower for the Lippes Loop D than for the T- and ML-IUD models tested, the latter showing roughly comparable pertinent event rates. Pertinent event rates for copper IUDs were influenced by the skill of the operator; age of the recipient only had a significant effect on effectiveness, whereas parity had no significant effect on pertinent event rates. The single and still unsolved problem associated with immediate postpartum insertion is the greater likelihood of expulsion compared with interval insertion, and this hazard is significantly much greater for the Loop than for the copper-bearing devices assessed. The evolution of the expulsion rates shows a constant time-relationship. This pattern makes it obvious why follow-up of recipients, at least during the first trimester following insertion, is mandatory if immediate post-placental IUD insertion is to be optimally effective. PMID:4006467

  10. Placental and fetal toxicity of albendazole sulphoxide in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Teruel, Miriam T; Felipe, Antonio E; Solana, Hugo D; Sallovitz, Juan M; Lanusse, Carlos E

    2003-06-01

    This work characterized the effects of albendazole sulphoxide (ABZSO) on placental and fetal parameters in Wistar rats on day 20 of gestation. ABZSO was fed in laboratory chow at 0, 2.5, 5, 10, 20 or 30 mg/kg/d from day 6 to 15 of gestation to pregnant rats. Data of resorptions, placental and fetal characteristics and fetal skeletal malformations were recorded. Resorption percentages in the 20 and 30 mg/kg/d groups were significantly higher compared to the control group. Placentas of ABZSO-treated rats had lower weight and smaller size than untreated rats. The fetal weight and size were lower in the 5 mg/kg/d dose compared to no treatment. In the 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg/d groups, reductions in ossification process were observed. ABZSO induced malformations and/or fetal death when orally administered to pregnant rats. This data contributes to characterization of the reproductive toxicity of ABZSO, the main active metabolite of albendazole. PMID:12776788

  11. Placental transfer of albendazole sulphoxide enantiomers in sheep.

    PubMed

    Capece, B P S; Pérez, R; Andaluz, A; Pérez, F; Garcia, F; Castells, G; Arboix, M; Cristòfol, C

    2002-03-01

    Albendazole sulphoxide (ABZSO) is an anthelmintic drug used in veterinary practice. Its molecule has a chiral centre in the sulphur atom and racemic formulations are always used. The kinetics of the ABZSO enantiomers in the last third of pregnancy in ewes, and the placental transfer to the fetus, were studied after a single-dose oral administration (7.5 mg/kg) of a racemic formulation. In mothers, the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) and C(max) values of (+)-ABZSO (42.4+/-10.5 microg/mL and 1.9+/-0.4 microg/mL, respectively) were higher than those of (-)-ABZSO (15.3+/-5.1 microg/mL and 1.0+/-0.3 microg/mL). The MRT values were 17.0+/-1.6 h for (+)-ABZSO and 13.1+/-1.8 h for (-)-ABZSO. Similar kinetic parameters were obtained in the fetus for both enantiomers, but the fetal concentrations were lower compared with values for the dam. The AUC ratio between (-)-ABZSO/(+)-ABZSO in the dam was 0.36 and in the fetuses 0.64, indicating a higher impairment for the (+)-enantiomer in its placental transfer to the fetus. PMID:12093190

  12. Placental pathology: a systematic approach with clinical correlations.

    PubMed

    Redline, R W

    2008-03-01

    Despite advances over the past 25 years in the monitoring of in utero fetal status, the gravid uterus remains a "black box" integrating underlying genetic risk factors, preexisting maternal disease, and injurious extrinsic events in a poorly understood way to produce an evolving state linked to pregnancy outcome. It is currently believed that many short- and long-term adverse pregnancy outcomes and even some long-term chronic diseases extending into adult life are at least in part determined by processes occurring during intrauterine life. The placenta has been described as a "diary of intrauterine life" and has the potential to illuminate many aspects of these processes. Unfortunately a systematic and objective catalog of placental abnormalities has never been agreed upon. This report outlines a simple conceptual framework separating placental patterns of injury and maladaptation into three categories of lesions affecting the maternal and fetal vasculature (maldevelopment, obstruction, and disruption) and two categories of inflammatory lesions (infectious and idiopathic). Data are presented supporting the importance of these processes for an understanding of preterm delivery, intrauterine growth restriction, hypoxic-ischemic injury, and recurrent pregnancy loss. PMID:17950457

  13. Placental microRNA expression in pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Enquobahrie, Daniel A.; Abetew, Dejene F.; Sorensen, Tanya K.; Willoughby, David; Chidambaram, Kumaravel; Williams, Michelle A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective The role of post-transcription regulation in preeclampsia is largely unknown. We investigated preeclampsia related placental microRNA (miRNA) expression using microarray and confirmatory qRT-PCR experiments. Study design Placental expressions of characterized and novel miRNAs (1,295 probes) were measured in samples collected from 20 preeclampsia cases and 20 controls. Differential expression was evaluated using Students T-test and fold change analyses. In pathway analysis, we examined functions/functional relationships of targets of differentially expressed miRNAs. Results Eight miRNAs were differentially expressed (1 up- and 7 down-regulated) among preeclampsia cases compared with controls. These included previously identified candidates (miR-210, miR-1 and a miRNA in the 14q32.31 cluster region) and others that are novel (miR- 584 and miR-34c-5p). These miRNAs target genes that participate in organ/system development (cardiovascular and reproductive system), immunologic dysfunction, cell adhesion, cell cycle and signaling. Conclusion Expression of microRNAs that target genes in diverse pathophysiological processes is altered in the setting of preeclampsia. PMID:21093846

  14. The molecular evolution of acrosin in placental mammals.

    PubMed

    Raterman, Denise; Springer, Mark S

    2008-07-01

    Acrosin is thought to fulfill several different roles in fertilization including that of a serine protease and in secondary zona pellucida (ZP) binding. However, acrosin's importance as a fertilization protein has been questioned. Especially since it was discovered that acrosin knockout mice are fertile. In this study, we explored the sites involved in serine protease activity and secondary binding. We also assessed conservation in functional sites across species and examined whether amino acid changes present in the human population have the potential to affect fertility. In addition, since many mammalian reproduction proteins have been found to evolve rapidly, we tested for positive selection. Sequences from 43 mammals from all 19 placental orders, which included a total of 828 nucleotides from acrosin exons 2, 3, 4, and a portion of exon 5, were obtained. We found that all sites of the serine catalytic triad as well as three other sites linked to catalytic activity were completely conserved. Five of six sites proposed to play a role in secondary binding were 100% conserved as basic residues. These results support an evolutionary conserved role for acrosin as a serine protease and secondary binding protein across placental mammals. We found statistically significant support for positive selection within acrosin, but no single amino acid site reached the significance level of P > 0.95 for inclusion within the category omega > 1. Based upon two amino acid mutation scoring systems, three out of seven human residue changing single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were found to be potentially protein-altering mutations. PMID:18247330

  15. Placentation in mammals: Definitive placenta, yolk sac, and paraplacenta.

    PubMed

    Carter, A M; Enders, A C

    2016-07-01

    An overview is given of variations in placentation with particular focus on yolk sac, paraplacenta, and other structures important to histotrophic nutrition. The placenta proper varies in general shape, internal structure, and the number of tissues in the interhemal barrier. Yolk sac membranes persist to term in insectivores, colugos, rodents, and lagomorphs. In the latter two orders, they are of known importance for maternal-fetal transfer of antibodies, vitamins, lipids, and proteins. The detached yolk sac of bats is also active throughout gestation. A vascular paraplacenta, or smooth chorioallantois, has known functions in ruminants and carnivores and is found in several other orders of mammal where its function has yet to be explored. In human gestation, the chorion (avascular chorioallantois) is important for hormone synthesis. The true chorion of squirrels and hedgehogs is avascular but may nevertheless allow transfer from mother to fetus through the exocelom. Hemophagous areas with columnar trophoblast are paraplacental structures in carnivores and elephants but occur also within the placenta as in hyenas and moles. In shrews, it is the yolk sac that ingests and processes red cells. Areolas and chorionic vesicles are other structures important for absorption of uterine secretions and ingestion of cellular debris. In conclusion, we find that paraplacental structures, while showing less variation than the placenta proper, contribute not just to the integrity of overall placentation, but in various ways to maternal-fetal interrelationships. PMID:27155730

  16. A Rare Cause of Placental Abruption: Uterine Torsion

    PubMed Central

    Güneş, Muhammed Siraç; Kiran, Gürkan; Gülşen, Mehmet Serdar

    2016-01-01

    Uterine torsion is defined as a rotation on its long axis and it is a dangerous, unexpected obstetric emergency. We report a case of uterine torsion at 32 weeks of gestation in a singleton pregnancy. A 37-year-old woman with multiple prior cesarean deliveries referred to emergency unit of our hospital at 32 weeks of gestation with severe abdominal pain and mild vaginal bleeding. Ultrasonography showed a single fetus in vertex position, with a normal amniotic fluid. Fetal biometer was appropriate for 32 weeks of gestation. Placental location was anterior with a subchorionic hypoechogenic small area which was suspected to be a sign of placental abruption. An emergency cesarean section was performed under general anesthesia. The 180° uterine torsion was diagnosed and it was not possible to perform detorsion of the gravid uterus by exteriorization by pfannenstiel incision. Posterior hysterotomy was performed and a male baby of 1830 grams weight was delivered. The newborn was transported to Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) of another hospital and discharged within two weeks. Patient recovered well and was discharged on second postoperation day. Uterine torsion is a very rare and life threatening situation. In unexpected cases posterior low transuerse hysterotomy is generally performed and it is suggested as a safe choice when detorsion was not accomplished. It is not easy to keep in mind the possibility of uterine torsion in cases of abdominal pain during pregnancy. Because it generally causes abruption, management of abruption is vitally important to prevent fetal mortality. PMID:26894131

  17. Observer reliability in assessing placental maturity by histology.

    PubMed Central

    Khong, T Y; Staples, A; Bendon, R W; Chambers, H M; Gould, S J; Knowles, S; Shen-Schwarz, S

    1995-01-01

    AIMS--To evaluate the ability of five experienced perinatal pathologists to assess placental maturity reliably by histology. METHODS--Twenty four haematoxylin and eosin slides, six each from placentas of 27, 31, 35, and 39 weeks' gestation, were circulated to five pathologists on three separate occasions. The slides were labelled with the correct or incorrect gestational ages. RESULTS--The mean absolute error over all 360 readings was 2.72 weeks. Only 54% of the slides were assessed within two weeks of the correct gestation. Pathologist tended to overestimate younger gestations and underestimate older gestations. Two, and possibly three, pathologist were influenced by the gestational age state on the label. One pathologist, who did not appear to be influenced by the label, was more accurate in diagnosing gestation of the placentas than other colleagues. CONCLUSIONS--Experienced pathologists can have difficulty in assessing the villous maturity of placentas by histology. They can also be influenced by clinical information provided, such as gestational age. Other observer reliability studies must address the issue of the influence of labelled information on observer variation. A difference in maturation would have to be of a six week magnitude to have a chance of being detected by current methods. This may limit the value of the histological diagnosis of placental dysmaturity as a surrogate marker for uteroplacental ischaemia. PMID:7629287

  18. Sequestration Options for the West Coast States

    SciTech Connect

    Myer, Larry

    2006-04-30

    The West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (WESTCARB) is one of seven partnerships that have been established by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) technologies best suited for different regions of the country. The West Coast Region comprises Arizona, California, Nevada, Oregon, Washington, Alaska, and British Columbia. Led by the California Energy Commission, WESTCARB is a consortium of about 70 organizations, including state natural resource and environmental protection agencies; national laboratories and universities; private companies working on carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) capture, transportation, and storage technologies; utilities; oil and gas companies; nonprofit organizations; and policy/governance coordinating organizations. Both terrestrial and geologic sequestration options were evaluated in the Region during the 18-month Phase I project. A centralized Geographic Information System (GIS) database of stationary source, geologic and terrestrial sink data was developed. The GIS layer of source locations was attributed with CO{sub 2} emissions and other data and a spreadsheet was developed to estimate capture costs for the sources in the region. Phase I characterization of regional geological sinks shows that geologic storage opportunities exist in the WESTCARB region in each of the major technology areas: saline formations, oil and gas reservoirs, and coal beds. California offers outstanding sequestration opportunities because of its large capacity and the potential of value-added benefits from enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and enhanced gas recovery. The estimate for storage capacity of saline formations in the ten largest basins in California ranges from about 150 to about 500 Gt of CO{sub 2}, the potential CO{sub 2}-EOR storage was estimated to be 3.4 Gt, and the cumulative production from gas reservoirs suggests a CO{sub 2} storage capacity of 1.7 Gt. A GIS-based method for source

  19. The Midwest Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (MRCSP)

    SciTech Connect

    James J. Dooley; Robert Dahowski; Casie Davidson

    2005-12-01

    This final report summarizes the Phase I research conducted by the Midwest regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (MRCSP). The Phase I effort began in October 2003 and the project period ended on September 31, 2005. The MRCSP is a public/private partnership led by Battelle with the mission of identifying the technical, economic, and social issues associated with implementation of carbon sequestration technologies in its seven state geographic region (Indiana, Kentucky, Maryland, Michigan, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia) and identifying viable pathways for their deployment. It is one of seven partnerships that together span most of the U.S. and parts of Canada that comprise the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Regional Carbon Sequestration Program led by DOE's national Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The MRCSP Phase I research was carried out under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-03NT41981. The total value of Phase I was $3,513,513 of which the DOE share was $2,410,967 or 68.62%. The remainder of the cost share was provided in varying amounts by the rest of the 38 members of MRCSP's Phase I project. The next largest cost sharing participant to DOE in Phase I was the Ohio Coal Development Office within the Ohio Air Quality Development Authority (OCDO). OCDO's contribution was $100,000 and was contributed under Grant Agreement No. CDO/D-02-17. In this report, the MRCSP's research shows that the seven state MRCSP region is a major contributor to the U. S. economy and also to total emissions of CO2, the most significant of the greenhouse gases thought to contribute to global climate change. But, the research has also shown that the region has substantial resources for sequestering carbon, both in deep geological reservoirs (geological sequestration) and through improved agricultural and land management practices (terrestrial sequestration). Geological reservoirs, especially deep saline reservoirs, offer the potential to permanently store CO2 for

  20. VLSI Reed-Solomon Encoder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, K. Y.

    1983-01-01

    Modular Reed-solomon encoder uses identical custom VLSI chips called "symbol slices." By cascading and properly interconnecting group of these chips, encoder is made for any desired error-correcting capability and interleaving level. VLSI encoder requires only one-tenth the number of chips required by conventional Reed-Solomon Circuit implemented with discrete IC's.

  1. Human placental perfusion method in the assessment of transplacental passage of antiepileptic drugs

    SciTech Connect

    Myllynen, Paeivi . E-mail: paivi.k.myllynen@oulu.fi; Pienimaeki, Paeivi; Vaehaekangas, Kirsi

    2005-09-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological diseases, affecting about 0.5 to 1% of pregnant women. It is commonly accepted that older antiepileptic drugs bear teratogenic potential. So far, no agreement has been reached about the safest antiepileptic drug during pregnancy. It is known that nearly all drugs cross the placenta at least to some extent. Nowadays, there is very little information available of the pharmacokinetics of drugs in the feto-placental unit. Detailed information about drug transport across the placenta would be valuable for the development of safe and effective treatments. For reasons of safety, human studies on placental transfer are restricted to a limited number of drugs. Interspecies differences limit the extrapolation of animal data to humans. Several in vitro methods for the study of placental transfer have been developed over the past decades. The placental perfusion method is the only experimental method that has been used to study human placental transfer of substances in organized placental tissue. The aim of this article is to review human placental perfusion data on antiepileptic drugs. According to perfusion data, it seems that most of the antiepileptic drugs are transferred across the placenta meaning significant fetal exposure.

  2. Placental profiling of UGT1A enzyme expression and activity and interactions with preeclampsia at term.

    PubMed

    Collier, Abby C; Thévenon, Audrey D; Goh, William; Hiraoka, Mark; Kendal-Wright, Claire E

    2015-12-01

    Placental UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) enzymes have critical roles in hormone, nutrient, chemical balance and fetal exposure during pregnancy. Placental UGT1A isoforms were profiled and differences between preeclamptic (PE) and non-PE placental UGT expression determined. In third trimester villous placenta, UGT1A1, 1A4, 1A6 and 1A9 were expressed and active in all specimens (n = 10), but UGT1A3, 1A5, 1A7, 1A8 and 1A10 were absent. The UGT1A activities were comparable to human liver microsomes per milligram, but placental microsome yields were only 2 % of liver (1 mg/g of tissue vs. 45 mg/g of tissue). For successful PCR, placental collection and processing within 60 min from delivery, including DNAse and ≥300 ng of RNA in reverse transcription were essential and snap freezing in liquid nitrogen immediately was the best preservation method. Although UGT1A6 mRNA was lower in PE (P < 0.001), there were no other significant effects on UGT mRNA, protein or activities. A more comprehensive tissue sample set is required for confirmation of PE interactions with UGT. Placental UGT1A enzyme expression patterns are similar to the liver and a detoxicative role for placental UGT1A is inferred. PMID:25465229

  3. Effect of exercise on maternal hemodynamics and placental blood flow in healthy women.

    PubMed

    Rauramo, I; Forss, M

    1988-01-01

    Intervillous placental blood flow responses to standardized exercise during late pregnancy were studied using a Xenon technique in 25 healthy women. Thirteen of them were studied twice between the 32nd and 38th weeks of pregnancy, with mean 32 (range 22 to 40) days between the studies. At the end of a 6-min exercise, mean maternal heart rate had risen from 77 +/- 10 (SD) to 154 +/- 11 beats/min, amounting to 63% of maximal oxygen uptake. Stroke volume rose by 9%, cardiac output by 65% and cardiac index by 71% as a consequence of exercise, but peripheral vascular resistance declined by 41%. The placental blood flow was at a similar level after the exercise as before the exercise, being 95 +/- 19 (mean +/- SD) ml/min/100 ml of intervillous space before, 98 +/- 24 one min after, and 93 +/- 16 30 min after the cessation of exercise. No change was found in the level of placental blood flow between the 32-34th and 37-38th weeks of pregnancy. The placental blood flow had a positive correlation with maternal weight, mean arterial blood pressure and with diastolic blood pressure. Maternal heart rate, cardiac output, cardiac index, placental weight and the birth weight of the infant was not correlated with placental blood flow. It is concluded that in normal pregnancy a short submaximal exercise has little effect on placental blood flow measured after exercise. PMID:3176909

  4. Maternal fructose drives placental uric acid production leading to adverse fetal outcomes.

    PubMed

    Asghar, Zeenat A; Thompson, Alysha; Chi, Maggie; Cusumano, Andrew; Scheaffer, Suzanne; Al-Hammadi, Noor; Saben, Jessica L; Moley, Kelle H

    2016-01-01

    Maternal metabolic diseases increase offspring risk for low birth weight and cardiometabolic diseases in adulthood. Excess fructose consumption may confer metabolic risks for both women and their offspring. However, the direct consequences of fructose intake per se are unknown. We assessed the impact of a maternal high-fructose diet on the fetal-placental unit in mice in the absence of metabolic syndrome and determined the association between maternal serum fructose and placental uric acid levels in humans. In mice, maternal fructose consumption led to placental inefficiency, fetal growth restriction, elevated fetal serum glucose and triglyceride levels. In the placenta, fructose induced de novo uric acid synthesis by activating the activities of the enzymes AMP deaminase and xanthine oxidase. Moreover, the placentas had increased lipids and altered expression of genes that control oxidative stress. Treatment of mothers with the xanthine oxidase inhibitor allopurinol reduced placental uric acid levels, prevented placental inefficiency, and improved fetal weights and serum triglycerides. Finally, in 18 women delivering at term, maternal serum fructose levels significantly correlated with placental uric acid levels. These findings suggest that in mice, excess maternal fructose consumption impairs placental function via a xanthine oxidase/uric acid-dependent mechanism, and similar effects may occur in humans. PMID:27125896

  5. Placental Weight and Male Genital Anomalies: A Nationwide Danish Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Arendt, Linn Håkonsen; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia Høst; Wilcox, Allen J; Henriksen, Tine Brink; Olsen, Jørn; Lindhard, Morten Søndergaard

    2016-06-15

    The most consistently reported risk indicators for the male genital anomalies cryptorchidism and hypospadias are prematurity and low birth weight. Placental dysfunction has been hypothesized as a possible underlying cause, and an association between placental weight at birth and hypospadias has been indicated. In a population-based cohort of 388,422 Danish singleton boys born alive (1997-2008), we studied the association between placental weight and cryptorchidism and hypospadias. Missing data were handled with multiple imputation, and we estimated hazard ratios by means of Cox regression models. During follow-up, 1,713 boys were diagnosed with hypospadias and 6,878 with cryptorchidism (3,624 underwent corrective surgery). We observed an association between low placental weight and risk of both genital anomalies. Boys with a placental weight in the lowest decile (<10%) had higher risks of both cryptorchidism (hazard ratio = 1.52, 95% confidence interval: 1.31, 1.76) and hypospadias (hazard ratio = 1.97, 95% confidence interval: 1.59, 2.45) than boys in the reference decile (50.0-59.9%). In conclusion, we found higher risks of both genital malformations in boys born with a low placental weight. The relationship seemed stronger for hypospadias than for cryptorchidism. Taken together, our data support a role for placental dysfunction in the etiology of these anomalies. PMID:27257113

  6. Docosahexaenoic Acid Supplementation Early in Pregnancy May Prevent Deep Placentation Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Carvajal, Jorge A.

    2014-01-01

    Uteroplacental ischemia may cause preterm birth, either due to preterm labor, preterm premature rupture of membranes, or medical indication (in the presence of preeclampsia or fetal growth restriction). Uteroplacental ischemia is the product of defective deep placentation, a failure of invasion, and transformation of the spiral arteries by the trophoblast. The failure of normal placentation generates a series of clinical abnormalities nowadays called “deep placentation disorders”; they include preeclampsia, fetal growth restriction, preterm labor, preterm premature rupture of membranes, in utero fetal death, and placental abruption. Early reports suggested that a LC-PUFAs (long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids) rich diet reduces the incidence of deep placentation disorders. Recent randomized controlled trials are inconsistent to show the benefit of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation during pregnancy to prevent deep placentation disorders, but most of them showed that DHA supplementation was associated with lower risk of early preterm birth. We postulate that DHA supplementation, early in pregnancy, may reduce the incidence of deep placentation disorders. If our hypothesis is correct, DHA supplementation, early in pregnancy, will become a safe and effective strategy for primary prevention of highly relevant pregnancy diseases, such as preterm birth, preeclampsia, and fetal growth restriction. PMID:25019084

  7. Maternal fructose drives placental uric acid production leading to adverse fetal outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Asghar, Zeenat A.; Thompson, Alysha; Chi, Maggie; Cusumano, Andrew; Scheaffer, Suzanne; Al-Hammadi, Noor; Saben, Jessica L.; Moley, Kelle H.

    2016-01-01

    Maternal metabolic diseases increase offspring risk for low birth weight and cardiometabolic diseases in adulthood. Excess fructose consumption may confer metabolic risks for both women and their offspring. However, the direct consequences of fructose intake per se are unknown. We assessed the impact of a maternal high-fructose diet on the fetal-placental unit in mice in the absence of metabolic syndrome and determined the association between maternal serum fructose and placental uric acid levels in humans. In mice, maternal fructose consumption led to placental inefficiency, fetal growth restriction, elevated fetal serum glucose and triglyceride levels. In the placenta, fructose induced de novo uric acid synthesis by activating the activities of the enzymes AMP deaminase and xanthine oxidase. Moreover, the placentas had increased lipids and altered expression of genes that control oxidative stress. Treatment of mothers with the xanthine oxidase inhibitor allopurinol reduced placental uric acid levels, prevented placental inefficiency, and improved fetal weights and serum triglycerides. Finally, in 18 women delivering at term, maternal serum fructose levels significantly correlated with placental uric acid levels. These findings suggest that in mice, excess maternal fructose consumption impairs placental function via a xanthine oxidase/uric acid-dependent mechanism, and similar effects may occur in humans. PMID:27125896

  8. Placental heme receptor LRP1 correlates with the heme exporter FLVCR1 and neonatal iron status.

    PubMed

    Cao, Chang; Pressman, Eva K; Cooper, Elizabeth M; Guillet, Ronnie; Westerman, Mark; O'Brien, Kimberly O

    2014-09-01

    LDL receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) is a transmembrane receptor highly expressed in human placenta. It was recently found to be the receptor for heme and its plasma-binding protein hemopexin (Hx) and is integral to systemic heme clearance. Little is known about systemic concentrations of Hx during pregnancy and whether maternal Hx and placental LRP1 contributes to fetal iron (Fe) homeostasis during pregnancy. We hypothesized that placental LRP1 would be upregulated in maternal/neonatal Fe insufficiency and would be related to maternal circulating Hx. Placental LRP1 expression was assessed in 57 pregnant adolescents (14-18 years) in relationship with maternal and cord blood Fe status indicators (hemoglobin (Hb), serum ferritin, transferrin receptor), the Fe regulatory hormone hepcidin and serum Hx. Hx at mid-gestation correlated positively with Hb at mid-gestation (r=0.35, P=0.02) and Hx at delivery correlated positively with cord hepcidin (r=0.37, P=0.005). Placental LRP1 protein expression was significantly higher in women who exhibited greater decreases in serum Hx from mid-gestation to term (r=0.28, P=0.04). Significant associations were also found between placental LRP1 protein with cord hepcidin (r=-0.29, P=0.03) and placental heme exporter feline leukemia virus C receptor 1 (r=0.34, P=0.03). Our data are consistent with a role for placental heme Fe utilization in supporting fetal Fe demands. PMID:24947444

  9. Placental vascular defects in compromised pregnancies: effects of assisted reproductive technologies and other maternal stressors.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Lawrence P; Borowicz, Pawel P; Palmieri, Chiara; Grazul-Bilska, Anna T

    2014-01-01

    Many factors negatively affect pregnancy establishment and subsequent fetal growth and development, including maternal factors such as nutritional stress, age, body mass index, and genetic background, and external factors including environmental stress, psychosocial stress, multiple fetuses, medical conditions (e.g., polycystic ovary syndrome), lifestyle choices (e.g., alcohol consumption, smoking), and assisted reproductive technologies. These same factors have similar consequences for placental growth and development, including vascular development. We and others have shown that placental vascular development begins very early in pregnancy and determines, to a large extent, placental function-that is, the magnitude of the increase in placental blood flow and thus nutrient transport to the fetus. During the peri-implantation period and also later in pregnancy, cloned (somatic cell nuclear transfer) embryos exhibit a variety of placental defects including reduced vascularization and altered expression of angiogenic factors. Although placental defects are less pronounced in pregnancies resulting from the transfer of in vitro fertilized embryos, we and others have recently demonstrated that vascularization, expression of angiogenic factors, sex steroid receptors, several epigenetic markers, and growth of utero-placental tissues all were altered during early pregnancy after transfer of embryos obtained through natural mating, in vitro fertilization, or other assisted reproductive techniques. These observations are in agreement with the recent reports that in humans even singleton pregnancies established with assisted reproductive techniques are at increased risk of preterm delivery and low birth weight, and seem especially relevant considering the rapidly expanding use of these techniques in humans and animals. PMID:25015812

  10. Placental abnormalities in equine pregnancies generated by SCNT from one donor horse.

    PubMed

    Pozor, Malgorzata A; Sheppard, Barbara; Hinrichs, Katrin; Kelleman, Audrey A; Macpherson, Margo L; Runcan, Erin; Choi, Young-Ho; Diaw, Mouhamadou; Mathews, Philip M

    2016-10-01

    Placental changes associated with SCNT have been described in several species, but little information is available in this area in the horse. We evaluated the ultrasonographic, gross, and histopathological characteristics of placentas from three successful and five unsuccessful equine SCNT pregnancies, established using cells from a single donor horse. Starting at approximately 6-month gestation, the pregnancies were monitored periodically using transrectal (TR) and transabdominal (TA) ultrasonography (US) to examine the placentas, fetal fluids, and fetuses. Of the five mares that aborted, one mare did so suddenly without any abnormal signs detected by US and four had enlarged umbilical vessels visible on TA-US before abortion. Placental edema (TR-US) and intravascular thrombi in the umbilical cords were seen (TA-US) in two of these four mares; one mare aborted shortly after acute placental separation was identified on TA-US. In three mares that delivered live foals, TA-US showed engorged allantoic vessels and enlarged umbilical vessels. Two of these mares had placental thickening visible on TR-US, interpreted as a sign of placentitis, that subsided after aggressive medical treatment. Seven of the eight placentas were submitted for gross and histopathological examinations after delivery. All placentas had some degree of edema, abnormally engorged allantoic vessels, and enlarged umbilical vessels. Placentitis, large allantoic vesicles, cystic pouches in the fetal part of the cord, and hemorrhages and thrombi in the umbilical vessels were detected only in placentas from mares that aborted. Equine pregnancies resulting from SCNT may be associated with placental pathologies that can be detected using ultrasonography. However, interpreting their severity is difficult. Although placental abnormalities have been observed in SCNT pregnancies in other species, to the best of our knowledge, placentitis has not been previously reported and may be an important complication of

  11. Matrotrophy and placentation in invertebrates: a new paradigm.

    PubMed

    Ostrovsky, Andrew N; Lidgard, Scott; Gordon, Dennis P; Schwaha, Thomas; Genikhovich, Grigory; Ereskovsky, Alexander V

    2016-08-01

    histophagy are rarer, plausibly evolving through heterochronous development of the embryonic mouthparts and digestive system. During gestation, matrotrophic modes can shift, intergrade, and be performed simultaneously. Invertebrate matrotrophic adaptations are less complex structurally than in chordates, but they are more diverse, being formed either by a parent, embryo, or both. In a broad and still preliminary sense, there are indications of trends or grades of evolutionarily increasing complexity of nutritive structures: formation of (i) local zones of enhanced nutritional transport (placental analogues), including specialized parent-offspring cell complexes and various appendages increasing the entire secreting and absorbing surfaces as well as the contact surface between embryo and parent, (ii) compartmentalization of the common incubatory space into more compact and 'isolated' chambers with presumably more effective nutritional relationships, and (iii) internal secretory ('milk') glands. Some placental analogues in onychophorans and arthropods mimic the simplest placental variants in vertebrates, comprising striking examples of convergent evolution acting at all levels-positional, structural and physiological. PMID:25925633

  12. Time encoded radiation imaging

    DOEpatents

    Marleau, Peter; Brubaker, Erik; Kiff, Scott

    2014-10-21

    The various technologies presented herein relate to detecting nuclear material at a large stand-off distance. An imaging system is presented which can detect nuclear material by utilizing time encoded imaging relating to maximum and minimum radiation particle counts rates. The imaging system is integrated with a data acquisition system that can utilize variations in photon pulse shape to discriminate between neutron and gamma-ray interactions. Modulation in the detected neutron count rates as a function of the angular orientation of the detector due to attenuation of neighboring detectors is utilized to reconstruct the neutron source distribution over 360 degrees around the imaging system. Neutrons (e.g., fast neutrons) and/or gamma-rays are incident upon scintillation material in the imager, the photons generated by the scintillation material are converted to electrical energy from which the respective neutrons/gamma rays can be determined and, accordingly, a direction to, and the location of, a radiation source identified.

  13. Rotary encoding device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leviton, Douglas B. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A device for position encoding of a rotating shaft in which a polygonal mirror having a number of facets is mounted to the shaft and a light beam is directed towards the facets is presented. The facets of the polygonal mirror reflect the light beam such that a light spot is created on a linear array detector. An analog-to-digital converter is connected to the linear array detector for reading the position of the spot on the linear array detector. A microprocessor with memory is connected to the analog-to-digital converter to hold and manipulate the data provided by the analog-to-digital converter on the position of the spot and to compute the position of the shaft based upon the data from the analog-to-digital converter.

  14. Linear encoding device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leviton, Douglas B. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A Linear Motion Encoding device for measuring the linear motion of a moving object is disclosed in which a light source is mounted on the moving object and a position sensitive detector such as an array photodetector is mounted on a nearby stationary object. The light source emits a light beam directed towards the array photodetector such that a light spot is created on the array. An analog-to-digital converter, connected to the array photodetector is used for reading the position of the spot on the array photodetector. A microprocessor and memory is connected to the analog-to-digital converter to hold and manipulate data provided by the analog-to-digital converter on the position of the spot and to compute the linear displacement of the moving object based upon the data from the analog-to-digital converter.

  15. SOUTHEAST REGIONAL CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP (SECARB)

    SciTech Connect

    Kenneth J. Nemeth

    2004-09-01

    The Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (SECARB) is on schedule and within budget projections for the work completed during the first year of its two year program. Work during the semiannual period (third and fourth quarter) of the project (April 1--September 30, 2004) was conducted within a ''Task Responsibility Matrix.'' Under Task 1.0 Define Geographic Boundaries of the Region, Texas and Virginia were added during the second quarter of the project and no geographical changes occurred during the third or fourth quarter of the project. Under Task 2.0 Characterize the Region, general mapping and screening of sources and sinks has been completed, with integration and Geographical Information System (GIS) mapping ongoing. The first step focused on the macro level characterization of the region. Subsequent characterization will focus on smaller areas having high sequestration potential. Under Task 3.0 Identify and Address Issues for Technology Deployment, SECARB has completed a preliminary assessment of safety, regulatory, permitting, and accounting frameworks within the region to allow for wide-scale deployment of promising terrestrial and geologic sequestration approaches. Under Task 4.0 Develop Public Involvement and Education Mechanisms, SECARB has conducted a survey and focus group meeting to gain insight into approaches that will be taken to educate and involve the public. Task 5.0 and 6.0 will be implemented beginning October 1, 2004. Under Task 5.0 Identify the Most Promising Capture, Sequestration, and Transport Options, SECARB will evaluate findings from work performed during the first year and shift the focus of the project team from region-wide mapping and characterization to a more detailed screening approach designed to identify the most promising opportunities. Under Task 6.0 Prepare Action Plans for Implementation and Technology Validation Activity, the SECARB team will develop an integrated approach to implementing and setting up

  16. CARBON SEQUESTRATION ON SURFACE MINE LANDS

    SciTech Connect

    Donald H. Graves; Christopher Barton; Richard Sweigard; Richard Warner

    2005-06-22

    An area planted in 2004 on Bent Mountain in Pike County was shifted to the Department of Energy project to centralize an area to become a demonstration site. An additional 98.3 acres were planted on Peabody lands in western Kentucky and Bent Mountain to bring the total area under study by this project to 556.5 acres as indicated in Table 2. Major efforts this quarter include the implementation of new plots that will examine the influence of differing geologic material on tree growth and survival, water quality and quantity and carbon sequestration. Normal monitoring and maintenance was conducted and additional instrumentation was installed to monitor the new areas planted.

  17. Fly Ash Characteristics and Carbon Sequestration Potential

    SciTech Connect

    Palumbo, Anthony V.; Amonette, James E.; Tarver, Jana R.; Fagan, Lisa A.; McNeilly, Meghan S.; Daniels, William L.

    2007-07-20

    Concerns for the effects of global warming have lead to an interest in the potential for inexpensive methods to sequester carbon dioxide (CO2). One of the proposed methods is the sequestration of carbon in soil though the growth of crops or forests.4,6 If there is an economic value placed on sequestration of carbon dioxide in soil there may be an an opportunity and funding to utilize fly ash in the reclamation of mine soils and other degraded lands. However, concerns associated with the use of fly ash must be addressed before this practice can be widely adopted. There is a vast extent of degraded lands across the world that has some degree of potential for use in carbon sequestration. Degraded lands comprise nearly 2 X 109 ha of land throughout the world.7 Although the potential is obviously smaller in the United States, there are still approximately 4 X 106 ha of degraded lands that previously resulted from mining operations14 and an additional 1.4 X 108 ha of poorly managed lands. Thus, according to Lal and others the potential is to sequester approximately 11 Pg of carbon over the next 50 years.1,10 The realization of this potential will likely be dependent on economic incentives and the use of soil amendments such as fly ash. There are many potential benefits documented for the use of fly ash as a soil amendment. For example, fly ash has been shown to increase porosity, water-holding capacity, pH, conductivity, and dissolved SO42-, CO32-, HCO3-, Cl- and basic cations, although some effects are notably decreased in high-clay soils.8,13,9 The potential is that these effects will promote increased growth of plants (either trees or grasses) and result in greater carbon accumulation in the soil than in untreated degraded soils. This paper addresses the potential for carbon sequestration in soils amended with fly ash and examines some of the issues that should be considered in planning this option. We describe retrospective studies of soil carbon accumulation on

  18. Maternal Administration of Sildenafil Citrate Alters Fetal and Placental Growth and Fetal-Placental Vascular Resistance in the Growth-Restricted Ovine Fetus.

    PubMed

    Oyston, Charlotte; Stanley, Joanna L; Oliver, Mark H; Bloomfield, Frank H; Baker, Philip N

    2016-09-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) causes short- and long-term morbidity. Reduced placental perfusion is an important pathogenic component of IUGR; substances that enhance vasodilation in the uterine circulation, such as sildenafil citrate (sildenafil), may improve placental blood flow and fetal growth. This study aimed to examine the effects of sildenafil in the growth-restricted ovine fetus. Ewes carrying singleton pregnancies underwent insertion of vascular catheters, and then, they were randomized to receive uterine artery embolization (IUGR) or to a control group. Ewes in the IUGR group received a daily infusion of sildenafil (IUGR+SC; n=10) or vehicle (IUGR+V; n=8) for 21 days. The control group received no treatment (n=9). Umbilical artery blood flow was measured using Doppler ultrasound and the resistive index (RI) calculated. Fetal weight, biometry, and placental weight were obtained at postmortem after treatment completion. Umbilical artery RI in IUGR+V fell less than in controls; the RI of IUGR+SC was intermediate to that of the other 2 groups (mean±SEM for control versus IUGR+V versus IUGR+SC: ∆RI, 0.09±0.03 versus -0.01±0.02 versus 0.03±0.02; F(2, 22)=4.21; P=0.03). Compared with controls, lamb and placental weights were reduced in IUGR+V but not in IUGR+SC (control versus IUGR+V versus IUGR+SC: fetal weight, 4381±247 versus 3447±235 versus 3687±129 g; F(2, 24)=5.49; P=0.01 and placental weight: 559.7±35.0 versus 376.2±32.5 versus 475.2±42.5 g; F(2, 24)=4.64; P=0.01). Sildenafil may be a useful adjunct in the management of IUGR. An increase in placental weight and fall in fetal-placental resistance suggests that changes to growth are at least partly mediated by changes to placental growth rather than alterations in placental efficiency. PMID:27432857

  19. Making the impossible possible: rooting the tree of placental mammals.

    PubMed

    Teeling, Emma C; Hedges, S Blair

    2013-09-01

    Untangling the root of the evolutionary tree of placental mammals has been nearly an impossible task. The good news is that only three possibilities are seriously considered. The bad news is that all three possibilities are seriously considered. Paleontologists favor a root anchored by Xenarthra (e.g., sloths and anteater), whereas molecular evolutionists have favored the two other possible roots: Afrotheria (e.g., elephants, hyraxes, and tenrecs) and Atlantogenata (Afrotheria + Xenarthra). Now, two groups of researchers have scrutinized the largest available genomic data sets bearing on the question and have come to opposite conclusions, as reported in this issue of Molecular Biology and Evolution. Needless to say, more research is needed. PMID:23813980

  20. Screening and analyzing genes associated with Amur tiger placental development.

    PubMed

    Li, Q; Lu, T F; Liu, D; Hu, P F; Sun, B; Ma, J Z; Wang, W J; Wang, K F; Zhang, W X; Chen, J; Guan, W J; Ma, Y H; Zhang, M H

    2014-01-01

    The Amur tiger is a unique endangered species in the world, and thus, protection of its genetic resources is extremely important. In this study, an Amur tiger placenta cDNA library was constructed using the SMART cDNA Library Construction kit. A total of 508 colonies were sequenced, in which 205 (76%) genes were annotated and mapped to 74 KEGG pathways, including 29 metabolism, 29 genetic information processing, 4 environmental information processing, 7 cell motility, and 5 organismal system pathways. Additionally, PLAC8, PEG10 and IGF-II were identified after screening genes from the expressed sequence tags, and they were associated with placental development. These findings could lay the foundation for future functional genomic studies of the Amur tiger. PMID:25299101

  1. Placental site trophoblastic tumor: A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Xianling; Liu, Xi; Tian, Quan; Xue, Yan; An, Ruifang

    2015-01-01

    Summary Here, we report a case of a placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT) in a 36-year-old Chinese woman 10 months after a normal pregnancy. Two months postpartum, the woman presented with abnormal vaginal discharge and her condition was overlooked by her local hospital. The woman did not receive further attention until a mass with a heterogeneous echo was found in an ultrasound examination eight months postpartum. The final diagnosis was confirmed by histological examinations in conjunction with immunohistochemical studies. Since the patient had potential risk factors, she was successfully treated with a hysterectomy and peri- and post-operative chemotherapy. The latest follow-up (16 months after diagnosis) was uneventful, and the patient exhibited no signs of recurrence or metastasis. PMID:26361566

  2. Placental mesenchymal dysplasia associated with spontaneous ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome.

    PubMed

    Davoudian, Payam

    2015-01-01

    Placental mesenchymal dysplasia (PMD) is a rare disorder of unknown aetiology characterised by placentomegaly, serpiginous surface blood vessels and large cystic villi. Although a mimic of molar pregnancies and other entities, it can be distinguished from them by its association with intrauterine growth restriction or death of a relatively normal fetus and its characteristic histopathology. We report the case of a 20-year-old primigravida who presented at 16 weeks with heavy clotty vaginal bleeding and subsequent miscarriage. The placenta was grossly abnormal and resembled a partial molar pregnancy. PMD was confirmed by microscopic examination. Postmiscarriage, ultrasound revealed enlarged and multicystic ovaries similar to those seen in ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS), which returned to normal a few weeks after miscarriage. This is the first report of PMD associated with OHSS, and we hypothesise that the most likely pathogenesis is ovarian stimulation from PMD-derived vascular endothelial growth factor. PMID:25920736

  3. Placental diversity in malagasy tenrecs: placentation in shrew tenrecs (Microgale spp.), the mole-like rice tenrec (Oryzorictes hova) and the web-footed tenrec (Limnogale mergulus).

    PubMed

    Enders, A C; Blankenship, T N; Goodman, S M; Soarimalala, V; Carter, A M

    2007-07-01

    Placentation in tenrecs of the subfamily Oryzorictinae, family Tenrecidae, has not been described previously. The structure of the placenta of this group and especially of the genus Microgale was investigated to determine its similarity or dissimilarity to previously described placentas of the tenrec subfamilies Potamogalinae and Tenrecinae. Fifteen specimens of the genus Microgale ranging from an early yolk sac stage to near term were available for study. Placentation in Microgale was found to be different from other tenrecids in that there is an early simple lateral rather than central haemophagous region. In addition, a more villous portion of the placental disk forms before the formation of a more compact labyrinth. Although the definitive placenta is cellular haemomonochorial, it lacks the spongy zone found in the Tenrecinae. Neither does it resemble the endotheliochorial condition found in the Potamogalinae. Of the two genera of the subfamily Oryzorictinae represented by single specimens, the placenta of Limnogale resembled that of the Microgale but Oryzorictes had several differences including a lobulated placental disk. It is concluded that there is more variation in placentation both within the subfamily Oryzorictinae and within the family Tenrecidae than would ordinarily be expected. PMID:17113148

  4. In vitro placental model optimization for nanoparticle transport studies

    PubMed Central

    Cartwright, Laura; Poulsen, Marie Sønnegaard; Nielsen, Hanne Mørck; Pojana, Giulio; Knudsen, Lisbeth E; Saunders, Margaret; Rytting, Erik

    2012-01-01

    Background Advances in biomedical nanotechnology raise hopes in patient populations but may also raise questions regarding biodistribution and biocompatibility, especially during pregnancy. Special consideration must be given to the placenta as a biological barrier because a pregnant woman’s exposure to nanoparticles could have significant effects on the fetus developing in the womb. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to optimize an in vitro model for characterizing the transport of nanoparticles across human placental trophoblast cells. Methods The growth of BeWo (clone b30) human placental choriocarcinoma cells for nanoparticle transport studies was characterized in terms of optimized Transwell® insert type and pore size, the investigation of barrier properties by transmission electron microscopy, tight junction staining, transepithelial electrical resistance, and fluorescein sodium transport. Following the determination of nontoxic concentrations of fluorescent polystyrene nanoparticles, the cellular uptake and transport of 50 nm and 100 nm diameter particles was measured using the in vitro BeWo cell model. Results Particle size measurements, fluorescence readings, and confocal microscopy indicated both cellular uptake of the fluorescent polystyrene nanoparticles and the transcellular transport of these particles from the apical (maternal) to the basolateral (fetal) compartment. Over the course of 24 hours, the apparent permeability across BeWo cells grown on polycarbonate membranes (3.0 μm pore size) was four times higher for the 50 nm particles compared with the 100 nm particles. Conclusion The BeWo cell line has been optimized and shown to be a valid in vitro model for studying the transplacental transport of nanoparticles. Fluorescent polystyrene nanoparticle transport was size-dependent, as smaller particles reached the basal (fetal) compartment at a higher rate. PMID:22334780

  5. Placental Syncytium Forms a Biophysical Barrier against Pathogen Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Zeldovich, Varvara B.; Clausen, Casper H.; Bradford, Emily; Fletcher, Daniel A.; Maltepe, Emin; Robbins, Jennifer R.; Bakardjiev, Anna I.

    2013-01-01

    Fetal syncytiotrophoblasts form a unique fused multinuclear surface that is bathed in maternal blood, and constitutes the main interface between fetus and mother. Syncytiotrophoblasts are exposed to pathogens circulating in maternal blood, and appear to have unique resistance mechanisms against microbial invasion. These are due in part to the lack of intercellular junctions and their receptors, the Achilles heel of polarized mononuclear epithelia. However, the syncytium is immune to receptor-independent invasion as well, suggesting additional general defense mechanisms against infection. The difficulty of maintaining and manipulating primary human syncytiotrophoblasts in culture makes it challenging to investigate the cellular and molecular basis of host defenses in this unique tissue. Here we present a novel system to study placental pathogenesis using murine trophoblast stem cells (mTSC) that can be differentiated into syncytiotrophoblasts and recapitulate human placental syncytium. Consistent with previous results in primary human organ cultures, murine syncytiotrophoblasts were found to be resistant to infection with Listeria monocytogenes via direct invasion and cell-to-cell spread. Atomic force microscopy of murine syncytiotrophoblasts demonstrated that these cells have a greater elastic modulus than mononuclear trophoblasts. Disruption of the unusually dense actin structure – a diffuse meshwork of microfilaments - with Cytochalasin D led to a decrease in its elastic modulus by 25%. This correlated with a small but significant increase in invasion of L. monocytogenes into murine and human syncytium. These results suggest that the syncytial actin cytoskeleton may form a general barrier against pathogen entry in humans and mice. Moreover, murine TSCs are a genetically tractable model system for the investigation of specific pathways in syncytial host defenses. PMID:24348256

  6. Characterization of ovine utero-placental interface tensile failure.

    PubMed

    Klinich, K D; Miller, C S; Hu, J; Samorezov, J E; Pearlman, M D; Schneider, L W; Rupp, J D

    2012-10-01

    Data on the strength of the utero-placental interface (UPI) would help improve understanding of the mechanisms of placental abruption (premature separation of the placenta from the uterus) during motor-vehicle crashes involving pregnant occupants. An ovine model was selected for study because like the human, its placenta has a villous attachment structure. Uteri with intact placentas were obtained from three sheep as by-products of another research study. The samples were harvested between 102 and 119 days of the 145-day gestational period. Rectangular specimens with areas measuring 15 mm × 5 mm were cut through the thickness of the placenta and uterus. Each subject provided eight samples, of which four were tested at a nominal strain rate of 0.10 strains/sec and the remainder was tested at a nominal strain rate of 1.0 strains/sec. Sutures were used to secure the uterine side of the specimens to the test fixture, while mechanical clamps were used to attach the placenta side. A FARO arm scanner recorded the initial geometry of the tissue, and a random dot pattern applied to the placenta and uterus tissue allowed visualization of displacement. For the structure of the UPI, mean tensile failure strain and standard deviations are 0.37 (0.11) and 0.37 (0.18) for the 0.10 and 1.0 strain rates, respectively (p-value = 0.970) while the associated failure stresses are 6.5 (1.37) and 15.0 (5.08) kPa, (p-value = 0.064). The results from sheep UPI testing provide the first estimate of the human UPI structural failure tolerance. PMID:22809672

  7. Up-regulation of placental leptin by human chorionic gonadotropin.

    PubMed

    Maymó, Julieta L; Pérez Pérez, Antonio; Sánchez-Margalet, Víctor; Dueñas, José L; Calvo, Juan Carlos; Varone, Cecilia L

    2009-01-01

    Leptin, the 16,000 molecular weight protein product of the obese gene, was originally considered as an adipocyte-derived signaling molecule for the central control of metabolism. However, leptin has been suggested to be involved in other functions during pregnancy, particularly in placenta, in which it was found to be expressed. In the present work, we have found that recombinant human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) added to BeWo choriocarcinoma cell line showed a stimulatory effect on endogenous leptin expression, when analyzed by Western blot. This effect was time and dose dependent. Maximal effect was achieved at hCG 100 IU/ml. Moreover, hCG treatment enhanced leptin promoter activity up to 12.9 times, evaluated by transient transfection with a plasmid construction containing different promoter regions and the reporter gene luciferase. This effect was dose dependent and evidenced with all the promoter regions analyzed, regardless of length. Similar results were obtained with placental explants, thus indicating physiological relevance. Because hCG signal transduction usually involves cAMP signaling, this pathway was analyzed. Contrarily, we found that dibutyryl cAMP counteracted hCG effect on leptin expression. Furthermore, cotransfection with the catalytic subunit of PKA and/or the transcription factor cAMP response element binding protein repressed leptin expression. Thereafter we determined that hCG effect could be partially blocked by pharmacologic inhibition of MAPK pathway with 50 microM PD98059 but not by the inhibition of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway with 0.1 microm wortmannin. Moreover, hCG treatment promoted MAPK kinase and ERK1/ERK2 phosphorylation in placental cells. Finally, cotransfection with a dominant-negative mutant of MAPK blocked the hCG-mediated activation of leptin expression. In conclusion, we provide some evidence suggesting that hCG induces leptin expression in trophoblastic cells probably involving the MAPK signal transduction

  8. Widanelfarasia, a diminutive placental from the late Eocene of Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Seiffert, Erik R.; Simons, Elwyn L.

    2000-01-01

    The lower dentition of Widanelfarasia (new genus), a diminutive late Eocene placental from the Fayum Depression in Egypt, is described. Widanelfarasia exhibits a complex of features associated with incipient zalambdodonty and at least three unequivocal apomorphies [loss of P1, an enlarged I2 (relative to I3), and a basal cusp on I2], which provide weak support for its placement as a possible sister taxon of either a tenrecid–chrysochlorid clade or of solenodontids. The former hypothesis gains additional support from biogeographical evidence, but both scenarios are currently tenuous as Widanelfarasia is clearly not truly zalambdodont. Phylogenetic hypotheses positing affinities with tenrecids alone or chrysochlorids alone must invoke either convergent acquisition of zalambdodonty in these taxa or autapomorphic reversal in Widanelfarasia. Given these considerations, a relationship with more generalized taxa from the Laurasian Paleogene (e.g., geolabidids, nyctitheriids, leptictids) cannot yet be ruled out. Comparisons with other Paleogene Afro-Arabian forms are generally inconclusive. A relationship with the earlier Eocene Chambilestes from Tunisia—currently represented by a single specimen preserving P4–M3—seems possible based on the geometry and predicted occlusal relationships of these teeth, but cannot be confidently determined until these two taxa come to be represented by common diagnostic elements. Todralestes (late Paleocene, Morocco) exhibits general phenetic similarities to Widanelfarasia, but it is not yet known whether this taxon shares any of Widanelfarasia's unequivocal dental apomorphies. Pending the recovery of more informative material, we tentatively refer Widanelfarasia to Placentalia incertae sedis. Truly zalambdodont placentals remain conspicuously absent from the Paleogene of Afro-Arabia. PMID:10694573

  9. Today's PTA Advocate: Speak Up to Stop Sequestration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chevalier, Jacque

    2012-01-01

    The word sequestration has been in the news lately when talking about the federal budget. Sequestration refers to across-the-board cuts, and depending on where one lives and the amount of federal aid one's community receives, those cuts could amount to as much as 17 percent. That spells bad news for schools unless parents, educators, and other…

  10. 40 CFR 98.443 - Calculating CO2 geologic sequestration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Calculating CO2 geologic sequestration. 98.443 Section 98.443 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Geologic Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide §...

  11. Carbon dynamics and sequestration in urban turfgrass ecosystems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Urbanization is a global trend. Turfgrass covers 1.9% of land in the continental US. Here we review existing literature associated with carbon (C) pools, sequestration, and nitrous oxide emission of urban turfgrass ecosystems. Turfgrasses exhibit significant carbon sequestration (0.34–1.4 Mg ha-1 ye...

  12. Carbon capture and sequestration: integrating technology, monitoring, regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Elizabeth Wilson; David Gerard

    2007-03-15

    This book is a first systematic presentation of the technical, legal, and economic forces that must coalesce to realize carbon dioxide capture and geologic sequestration as a viable CO{sub 2} reduction strategy. It synthesizes key engineering data and explains the technological and legal conditions that must be in place for carbon sequestration to be realized. 49 ills.

  13. Placental DNA methylation of peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor-γ co-activator-1α promoter is associated with maternal gestational glucose level.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xuemei; Gao, Hongjie; Zeng, Wanjiang; Chen, Suhua; Feng, Ling; Deng, Dongrui; Qiao, Fu-yuan; Liao, Lihong; McCormick, Kenneth; Ning, Qin; Luo, Xiaoping

    2015-08-01

    Intrauterine exposure to hyperglycaemia may increase the risk of later-life metabolic disorders. Although the underlying mechanism is not fully understood, epigenetic dysregulation in fetal programming has been implicated. With regard to energy homoeostasis, PGC-1α (peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor γ co-activator-1α, encoded by the PPARGC1A gene) plays a regulatory role in several biochemical processes. We hypothesized that maternal gestational glucose levels would positively correlate with DNA methylation of the PPARGC1A promoter in placental tissue. We undertook a cross-sectional study of 58 mothers who underwent uncomplicated Caesarean delivery in a university hospital. Maternal gestational glucose concentration was determined after a 75-g OGTT (oral glucose tolerance test) at 24-28 weeks of gestation. Placenta tissue and cord blood were collected immediately after delivery. Genomic DNA was extracted and thereafter bisulfite conversion was performed. After PCR amplification, the DNA methylation of the PPARGC1A promoter was quantified using a pyrosequencing technique. The protein level of PGC-1α was evaluated by Western blotting. For all participants as a whole, including the GDM (gestational diabetes mellitus) and normoglycaemia groups, the maternal gestational glucose level was positively correlated with placental DNA methylation, and negatively correlated with cord blood DNA methylation of the PPARGC1A promoter in a CpG site-specific manner. In the GDM group alone, the placental CpG site-specific methylation of the PPARGC1A promoter strongly correlated with gestational 2-h post-OGTT glycaemia. Epigenetic alteration of the PPAGRC1A promoter may be one of the potential mechanisms underlying the metabolic programming in offspring exposed to intrauterine hyperglycaemia. PMID:25875376

  14. Estradiol signaling via sequestrable surface receptors.

    PubMed

    Benten, W P; Stephan, C; Lieberherr, M; Wunderlich, F

    2001-04-01

    Estradiol (E(2))-signaling is widely considered to be exclusively mediated through the transcription-regulating intracellular estrogen receptor (ER) alpha and ERbeta. The aim of this study was to investigate transcription-independent E(2)-signaling in mouse IC-21 macrophages. E(2) and E(2)-BSA induce a rapid rise in the intracellular free Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) of Fura-2 loaded IC-21 cells as examined by spectrofluorometry. These changes in [Ca(2+)](i) can be inhibited by pertussis toxin, but not by the ER-blockers tamoxifen and raloxifene. The E(2)-signaling initiated at the plasma membrane is mediated through neither ERalpha nor ERbeta, but rather through a novel G protein-coupled membrane E(2)-receptor as revealed by RT-PCR, flow cytometry, and confocal laser scanning microscopy. A special feature of this E(2)-receptor is its sequestration upon agonist stimulation. Sequestration depends on energy and temperature, and it proceeds through a clathrin- and caveolin-independent pathway. PMID:11250949

  15. INTERNATIONAL COLLABORATION ON CO2 SEQUESTRATION

    SciTech Connect

    H.J. Herzog; E.E. Adams

    1999-08-23

    The ocean represents the largest potential sink for anthropogenic CO{sub 2}. In order to better understand this potential, Japan, Norway, and the United States signed a Project Agreement for International Collaboration on CO{sub 2} Ocean Sequestration in December 1997; since that time, Canada and ABB (Switzerland) have joined the project. The objective of the project is to investigate the technical feasibility of, and improve understanding of the environmental impacts from, CO{sub 2} ocean sequestration in order to minimize the impacts associated with the eventual use of this technique to reduce greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere. The project will continue through March 31, 2002, with a field experiment to take place in the summer of 2000 off the Kona Coast of Hawaii. The implementing research organizations are the Research Institute of Innovative Technology for the Earth (Japan), the Norwegian Institute for Water Research (Norway), and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (USA). The general contractor for the project will be the Pacific International Center for High Technology Research in Hawaii. A Technical Committee has been formed to supervise the technical aspects and execution of this project. The members of this committee are the co-authors of this paper. In this paper we discuss key issues involved with the design, ocean engineering, measurements, siting, and costs of this experiment.

  16. Double-Difference Tomography for Sequestration MVA

    SciTech Connect

    Westman, Erik

    2008-12-31

    Analysis of synthetic data was performed to determine the most cost-effective tomographic monitoring system for a geologic carbon sequestration injection site. Double-difference tomographic inversion was performed on 125 synthetic data sets: five stages of CO2 plume growth, five seismic event regions, and five geophone arrays. Each resulting velocity model was compared quantitatively to its respective synthetic velocity model to determine an accuracy value. The results were examined to determine a relationship between cost and accuracy in monitoring, verification, and accounting applications using double-difference tomography. The geophone arrays with widely-varying geophone locations, both laterally and vertically, performed best. Additionally, double difference seismic tomography was performed using travel time data from a carbon sequestration site at the Aneth oil field in southeast Utah as part of a Department of Energy initiative on monitoring, verification, and accounting (MVA) of sequestered CO2. A total of 1,211 seismic events were recorded from a borehole array consisting of 22 geophones. Artificial velocity models were created to determine the ease with which different CO2 plume locations and sizes can be detected. Most likely because of the poor geophone arrangement, a low velocity zone in the Desert Creek reservoir can only be detected when regions of test site containing the highest ray path coverage are considered. MVA accuracy and precision may be improved through the use of a receiver array that provides more comprehensive ray path coverage.

  17. International Collaboration on CO2 Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Howard J. Herzog; E. Eric Adams

    2006-05-19

    This reporting period covers the first half of the two-year sub-task, which includes a review of recent and ongoing engineering studies concerning practical modes for the ocean discharge of CO{sub 2}, review of recent and ongoing experimental studies concerning the rates (and extent) of formation and dissolution for CO{sub 2} hydrates, review of recent and ongoing biological studies concerning organism response to reduced pH and increased CO{sub 2} concentration, and the definition of discharge scenarios. These steps have been successfully completed. Results-to-date were presented at the Annual Fall Meeting of AGU (December 2005) and will be presented at the Annual DOE Meeting on Carbon Capture and Sequestration (May, 2006). The objective during this reporting period was to begin a two-year sub-task to update an assessment of environmental impacts from direct ocean sequestration. The approach is based on the work of Auerbach et al. (1997) and Caulfield et al. (1997) to assess acute impacts, but uses updated information concerning injection scenarios and bioassays.

  18. Carbon Sequestration on Surface Mine Lands

    SciTech Connect

    Donald H. Graves; Christopher Barton; Richard Sweigard; Richard Warner

    2005-10-02

    During this quarter a general forest monitoring program was conducted to measure treatment effects on above ground and below ground carbon C and Nitrogen (N) pools for the tree planting areas. Detailed studies to address specific questions pertaining to Carbon cycling was initiated with the development of plots to examine the influence of mycorrhizae, spoil chemical and mineralogical properties, and use of amendment on forest establishment and carbon sequestration. Efforts continued during this period to examine decomposition and heterotrophic respiration on C cycling in the reforestation plots. Projected climate change resulting from elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide has given rise to various strategies to sequester carbon in various terrestrial ecosystems. Reclaimed surface mine soils present one such potential carbon sink where traditional reclamation objectives can complement carbon sequestration. New plantings required the modification and design and installation on monitoring equipment. Maintenance and data monitoring on past and present installations are a continuing operation. The Department of Mining Engineering continued the collection of penetration resistance, penetration depth, and bulk density on both old and new treatment areas. Data processing and analysis is in process for these variables. Project scientists and graduate students continue to present results at scientific meetings, tours and field days presentations of the research areas are being conducted on a request basis.

  19. Rna-seq analysis of the functional compartments within the rat placentation site

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The rat placentation site is distinctly organized into interacting zones, the so-called labyrinth, junctional, and metrial gland compartments. These zones house unique cell populations equipped to undertake myriad prescribed functions including transport, hormonal responses, and immune interactions....

  20. Intrauterine Growth Restriction Associated with Hematologic Abnormalities: Probable Manifestations of Placental Mesenchymal Dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Payo, Cristina; Bernabeu, Rocio Alvarez; Villar, Isabel Salas; Goy, Enrique Iglesias

    2015-10-01

    Introduction Placental mesenchymal dysplasia is a rare vascular disease associated with intrauterine growth restriction, fetal demise as well as Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. Some neonates present hematologic abnormalities possibly related to consumptive coagulopathy and hemolytic anemia in the placental circulation. Case report We present a case of placental mesenchymal dysplasia in a fetus with intrauterine growth restriction and cerebellar hemorrhagic injury diagnosed in the 20th week of pregnancy. During 26th week, our patient had an intrauterine fetal demise in the context of gestational hypertension. We have detailed the ultrasound findings that made us suspect the presence of hematologic disorders during 20th week. Discussion We believe that the cerebellar hematoma could be the consequence of thrombocytopenia accompanied by anemia. If hemorrhagic damage during fetal life is found, above all associates with an anomalous placental appearance and with intrauterine growth restriction, PMD should be suspected along other etiologies. PMID:26495159

  1. Is the Perinatal Outcome of Placental Abruption Modified by Clinical Presentation?

    PubMed Central

    Furukawa, Seishi; Sameshima, Hiroshi; Ikenoue, Tsuyomu; Ohashi, Masanao; Nagai, Yoshio

    2011-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the impact of the clinical presentation on perinatal outcome in placental abruption. Study Design. A retrospective study was performed in 97 placental abruptions. Placental abruptions were classified according to clinical presentation: pregnancy-induced hypertension (HT, n = 22), threatened premature labor and/or premature rupture of membranes (TPL/ROM, n = 35), clinically low risk (LR, n = 27), and others (n = 13). Perinatal outcomes were compared among the HT, TPL/ROM, and LR groups. Results. The HT had significantly higher incidence of IUGR, IFUD, and low fibrinogen. The TPL/ROM had less severe disease. However, the LR had significantly higher incidence of IUFD, low UA pH < 7.1, low Apgar score of <7 at 5 min, and low fibrinogen. Conclusion. Disease severity in placental abruption is likely to depend on the clinical presentation. PMID:21490793

  2. Three-dimensional high-definition flow in the diagnosis of placental lakes.

    PubMed

    Inubashiri, Eisuke; Deguchi, Keizou; Abe, Kiyotaka; Saitou, Atushi; Watanabe, Yukio; Akutagawa, Noriyuki; Kuroki, Katumaru; Sugawara, Masaki; Maeda, Nobuhiko

    2014-10-01

    Placental lakes are sonolucent areas often found in the normal placenta. Most of them are asymptomatic. They are sometimes related to placenta accreta or intrauterine fetal growth restriction, among other conditions. Although Doppler sonography is useful for evaluating noxious placental lakes, it is not easy to adapt Doppler studies to conventional two-dimensional color Doppler sonography because of the low-velocity blood flow and high vascularity in the placenta. Here, we demonstrate how three-dimensional high-definition imaging of flow provides a novel visual depiction of placental lakes, which helps substantially with the differential diagnosis. As far as we know, there have been no previous reports of observation of placental lakes using three-dimensional high-definition imaging of flow. PMID:27278031

  3. Contemporary issues in the management of abnormal placentation during pregnancy in developing nations: An Indian perspective

    PubMed Central

    Bajwa, Sukhwinder Kaur; Singh, Anita; Bajwa, Sukhminder Jit Singh

    2013-01-01

    The gap between the developed and developing nations with regards to maternal mortality and morbidity may have narrowed but still a lot of dedicated work is required to bridge these differences. Obstetrical haemorrhage is the leading cause of maternal deaths in these developing nations especially in India. The most common causes of this fatal haemorrhage are the placental abnormalities which rarely get detected before delivery. Numerous factors have been incremental in the causation of this abnormal placental implantation with resultant complications. The present article is an attempt to review possible predictors of abnormal placental implantation. Also, a genuine attempt has been made to enumerate possible measures to identify the predictors of abnormal placentation during early pregnancy and their suitable prevention and management. PMID:24404455

  4. Regiospecificity of placental metabolism by cytochromes P450 and glutathione S-transferase.

    PubMed

    McRobie, D J; Glover, D D; Tracy, T S

    1996-01-01

    The placenta possesses the ability to metabolize numerous xenobiotics and endogenous steroids. However, it is unknown whether regional differences in these enzymatic reactions exist in the human placenta. To this end, we undertook a study of four regions of the placenta, the chorionic plate, maternal surface, placental margin and whole tissue, to assess the activities of cytochrome P450 1A1 and 19A1 (aromatase) and glutathione S-stransferase in these fractions. No differences in either P450 1A1 or glutathione S-transferase activities were noted among any of the placental fractions. However, with respect to P450 19A1 activity, the placental margin differed significantly from all other fractions (p < 0.05). This study demonstrates that whole tissue samples of the human placenta are adequate for placental cytochrome P450 and glutathione S-transferase metabolism studies. PMID:8938464

  5. Chromosomal Mosaicism in Human Feto-Placental Development: Implications for Prenatal Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Grati, Francesca Romana

    2014-01-01

    Chromosomal mosaicism is one of the primary interpretative issues in prenatal diagnosis. In this review, the mechanisms underlying feto-placental chromosomal mosaicism are presented. Based on the substantial retrospective diagnostic experience with chorionic villi samples (CVS) of a prenatal diagnosis laboratory the following items are discussed: (i) The frequency of the different types of mosaicism (confined placental, CPM, and true fetal mosaicisms, TFM); (ii) The risk of fetal confirmation after the detection of a mosaic in CVS stratified by chromosome abnormality and placental tissue involvement; (iii) The frequency of uniparental disomy for imprinted chromosomes associated with CPM; (iv) The incidence of false-positive and false-negative results in CVS samples analyzed by only (semi-)direct preparation or long term culture; and (v) The implications of the presence of a feto-placental mosaicism for microarray analysis of CVS and non-invasive prenatal screening (NIPS). PMID:26237479

  6. Space vehicle onboard command encoder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A flexible onboard encoder system was designed for the space shuttle. The following areas were covered: (1) implementation of the encoder design into hardware to demonstrate the various encoding algorithms/code formats, (2) modulation techniques in a single hardware package to maintain comparable reliability and link integrity of the existing link systems and to integrate the various techniques into a single design using current technology. The primary function of the command encoder is to accept input commands, generated either locally onboard the space shuttle or remotely from the ground, format and encode the commands in accordance with the payload input requirements and appropriately modulate a subcarrier for transmission by the baseband RF modulator. The following information was provided: command encoder system design, brassboard hardware design, test set hardware and system packaging, and software.

  7. N-Consecutive-Phase Encoder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Lee, Ho-Kyoung; Weber, Charles

    1995-01-01

    N-consecutive-phase encoder (NCPE) is conceptual encoder for generating alphabet of N consecutive full-response continuous-phase-modulation (CPM) signals. Enables use of binary preencoder of higher rate than used with simple continuous-phase encoder (CPE). NCPE makes possible to achieve power efficiencies and bandwidth efficiencies greater than conventional trellis coders with continuous-phase frequency-shift keying (CPFSK).

  8. Single synchronous pulmonary metastasis from placental site trophoblastic tumor and teratoma.

    PubMed

    Billè, Andrea; Girelli, Lara; Colecchia, Maurizio; Pastorino, Ugo

    2015-01-01

    Placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT) is a rare variant of gestational trophoblastic tumor (GTN), accounting for 1-2% of all GTNs. Primary testicular PSTTs are extremely rare. Thirty percent of patients with PSTT show multiple lung and brain metastases at the time of diagnosis. We present the first case of a synchronous single pulmonary trophoblastic placental tumor metastasis together with a teratoma and a mixed germinal tumor of the testis, treated with minimally invasive lung metastasectomy. PMID:25908040

  9. Virus-Free Human Placental Cell Lines To Study Genetic Functions | NCI Technology Transfer Center | TTC

    Cancer.gov

    The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development's Section on Cellular Differentiation is seeking statements of capability or interest from parties interested in collaborative research to further develop, evaluate, or commercialize immortalized virus-free human placental cell lines.The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development's Section on Cellular Differentiation is seeking statements of capability or interest from parties interested in collaborative research to further develop, evaluate, or commercialize immortalized virus-free human placental cell lines.

  10. Atrial and placental melanoma metastasis: a case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Lakshminarayana, Pradeep; Danson, Sarah; Suvarna, Kim; Hancock, Barry

    2007-01-01

    Malignant melanoma can metastasize to virtually any organ of the body. The aggressiveness is determined by the primary site, depth of dermal invasion, presence or absence of ulceration, lymphovascular infiltration and regional lymph node involvement. We report a case of a pregnant woman with a previous history of stage 3 melanoma who presented with cardiac metastasis and placental melanoma infiltration. A review of literature on cardiac and placental involvement of melanoma is also provided. PMID:17501986

  11. Loss of inherited genomic imprints in mice leads to severe disruption in placental lipid metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Himes, K. P.; Young, A.; Koppes, E.; Stolz, D.; Barak, Y.; Sadovsky, Y.; Chaillet, J.R.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Monoallelic expression of imprinted genes is necessary for placental development and normal fetal growth. Differentially methylated domains (DMDs) largely determine the parental-specific monoallelic expression of imprinted genes. Maternally derived DNA (cytosine-5-) -methyltransferase 1o (DNMT1o) maintains DMDs during the eight-cell stage of development. DNMT1o-deficient mouse placentas have a generalized disruption of genomic imprints. Previous studies have demonstrated that DNMT1o deficiency alters placental morphology and broadens the embryonic weight distribution in late gestation. Lipids are critical for fetal growth. Thus, we assessed the impact of disrupted imprinting on placental lipids. Methods Lipids were quantified from DNMT1o-deficient mouse placentas and embryos at E17.5 using a modified Folch method. Expression of select genes critical for lipid metabolism was quantified with RT-qPCR. Mitochondrial morphology was assessed by TEM and mitochondrial aconitase and cytoplasmic citrate concentrations quantified. DMD methylation was determined by EpiTYPER. Results We found that DNMT1o deficiency is associated with increased placental triacylglycerol levels. Neither fetal triacylglycerol concentrations nor expression of select genes that mediate placental lipid transport were different from wild type. Placental triacylglycerol accumulation was associated with impaired beta-oxidation and abnormal citrate metabolism with decreased mitochondrial aconitase activity and increased cytoplasmic citrate concentrations. Loss of methylation at the MEST DMD was strongly associated with placental triacylglycerol accumulation. Discussion A generalized disruption of genomic imprints leads to triacylglycerol accumulation and abnormal mitochondrial function. This could stem directly from a loss of methylation at a given DMD, such as MEST, or represent a consequence of abnormal placental development. PMID:25662615

  12. Development of Non-Viral, Trophoblast-Specific Gene Delivery for Placental Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Abd Ellah, Noura; Taylor, Leeanne; Troja, Weston; Owens, Kathryn; Ayres, Neil; Pauletti, Giovanni; Jones, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Low birth weight is associated with both short term problems and the fetal programming of adult onset diseases, including an increased risk of obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Placental insufficiency leading to intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) contributes to the prevalence of diseases with developmental origins. Currently there are no therapies for IUGR or placental insufficiency. To address this and move towards development of an in utero therapy, we employ a nanostructure delivery system complexed with the IGF-1 gene to treat the placenta. IGF-1 is a growth factor critical to achieving appropriate placental and fetal growth. Delivery of genes to a model of human trophoblast and mouse placenta was achieved using a diblock copolymer (pHPMA-b-pDMAEMA) complexed to hIGF-1 plasmid DNA under the control of trophoblast-specific promoters (Cyp19a or PLAC1). Transfection efficiency of pEGFP-C1-containing nanocarriers in BeWo cells and non-trophoblast cells was visually assessed via fluorescence microscopy. In vivo transfection and functionality was assessed by direct placental-injection into a mouse model of IUGR. Complexes formed using pHPMA-b-pDMAEMA and CYP19a-923 or PLAC1-modified plasmids induce trophoblast-selective transgene expression in vitro, and placental injection of PLAC1-hIGF-1 produces measurable RNA expression and alleviates IUGR in our mouse model, consequently representing innovative building blocks towards human placental gene therapies. PMID:26473479

  13. Placental membrane aging and HMGB1 signaling associated with human parturition

    PubMed Central

    Menon, Ramkumar; Behnia, Faranak; Polettini, Jossimara; Saade, George R; Campisi, Judith; Velarde, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Aging is associated with the onset of several diseases in various organ systems; however, different tissues may age differently, rendering some of them dysfunctional sooner than others. Placental membranes (fetal amniochorionic membranes) protect the fetus throughout pregnancy, but their longevity is limited to the duration of pregnancy. The age-associated dysfunction of these membranes is postulated to trigger parturition. Here, we investigated whether cellular senescence—the loss of cell division potential as a consequence of stress—is involved in placental membrane function at term. We show telomere reduction, p38 MAPK activation, increase in p21 expression, loss of lamin B1 loss, increase in SA-β-galactosidase, and senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) gene expression in placental membranes after labor and delivery (term labor [TL]) compared to membranes prior to labor at term (term, not-in-labor [TNIL]). Exposing TNIL placental membranes to cigarette smoke extract, an oxidative stress inducer, also induced markers of cellular senescence similar to those in TL placental membranes. Bioinformatics analysis of differentially expressed SASP genes revealed HMGB1 signaling among the top pathways involved in labor. Further, we show that recombinant HMGB1 upregulates the expression of genes associated with parturition in myometrial cells. These data suggest that the natural physiologic aging of placental tissues is associated with cellular senescence and human parturition. PMID:26851389

  14. Assisted reproduction causes placental maldevelopment and dysfunction linked to reduced fetal weight in mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shuqiang; Sun, Fang-zhen; Huang, Xiuying; Wang, Xiaohong; Tang, Na; Zhu, Baoyi; Li, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Compelling evidence indicates that stress in utero, as manifested by low birth weight (LBW), increases the risk of metabolic syndrome in adulthood. Singletons conceived by assisted reproductive technology (ART) display a significant increase in LBW risk and ART offspring have a different metabolic profile starting at birth. Here, used mouse as a model, we found that ART resulted in reduced fetal weight and placental overgrowth at embryonic day 18.5 (E18.5). The ART placentae exhibited histomorphological alterations with defects in placental layer segregation and glycogen cells migration at E18.5. Further, ART treatments resulted in downregulation of a majority of placental nutrient transporters and reduction in placental efficiency. Moreover, the ART placentae were associated with increased methylation levels at imprinting control regions of H19, KvDMR1 and disrupted expression of a majority of imprinted genes important for placental development and function at E18.5. Our results from the mouse model show the first piece of evidence that ART treatment could affect fetal growth by disrupting placental development and function, suggests that perturbation of genomic imprinting resulted from embryo manipulation may contribute to these problems. PMID:26085229

  15. Development of Non-Viral, Trophoblast-Specific Gene Delivery for Placental Therapy.

    PubMed

    Abd Ellah, Noura; Taylor, Leeanne; Troja, Weston; Owens, Kathryn; Ayres, Neil; Pauletti, Giovanni; Jones, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Low birth weight is associated with both short term problems and the fetal programming of adult onset diseases, including an increased risk of obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Placental insufficiency leading to intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) contributes to the prevalence of diseases with developmental origins. Currently there are no therapies for IUGR or placental insufficiency. To address this and move towards development of an in utero therapy, we employ a nanostructure delivery system complexed with the IGF-1 gene to treat the placenta. IGF-1 is a growth factor critical to achieving appropriate placental and fetal growth. Delivery of genes to a model of human trophoblast and mouse placenta was achieved using a diblock copolymer (pHPMA-b-pDMAEMA) complexed to hIGF-1 plasmid DNA under the control of trophoblast-specific promoters (Cyp19a or PLAC1). Transfection efficiency of pEGFP-C1-containing nanocarriers in BeWo cells and non-trophoblast cells was visually assessed via fluorescence microscopy. In vivo transfection and functionality was assessed by direct placental-injection into a mouse model of IUGR. Complexes formed using pHPMA-b-pDMAEMA and CYP19a-923 or PLAC1-modified plasmids induce trophoblast-selective transgene expression in vitro, and placental injection of PLAC1-hIGF-1 produces measurable RNA expression and alleviates IUGR in our mouse model, consequently representing innovative building blocks towards human placental gene therapies. PMID:26473479

  16. The Interrelationships of Placental Mammals and the Limits of Phylogenetic Inference.

    PubMed

    Tarver, James E; Dos Reis, Mario; Mirarab, Siavash; Moran, Raymond J; Parker, Sean; O'Reilly, Joseph E; King, Benjamin L; O'Connell, Mary J; Asher, Robert J; Warnow, Tandy; Peterson, Kevin J; Donoghue, Philip C J; Pisani, Davide

    2016-02-01

    Placental mammals comprise three principal clades: Afrotheria (e.g., elephants and tenrecs), Xenarthra (e.g., armadillos and sloths), and Boreoeutheria (all other placental mammals), the relationships among which are the subject of controversy and a touchstone for debate on the limits of phylogenetic inference. Previous analyses have found support for all three hypotheses, leading some to conclude that this phylogenetic problem might be impossible to resolve due to the compounded effects of incomplete lineage sorting (ILS) and a rapid radiation. Here we show, using a genome scale nucleotide data set, microRNAs, and the reanalysis of the three largest previously published amino acid data sets, that the root of Placentalia lies between Atlantogenata and Boreoeutheria. Although we found evidence for ILS in early placental evolution, we are able to reject previous conclusions that the placental root is a hard polytomy that cannot be resolved. Reanalyses of previous data sets recover Atlantogenata + Boreoeutheria and show that contradictory results are a consequence of poorly fitting evolutionary models; instead, when the evolutionary process is better-modeled, all data sets converge on Atlantogenata. Our Bayesian molecular clock analysis estimates that marsupials diverged from placentals 157-170 Ma, crown Placentalia diverged 86-100 Ma, and crown Atlantogenata diverged 84-97 Ma. Our results are compatible with placental diversification being driven by dispersal rather than vicariance mechanisms, postdating early phases in the protracted opening of the Atlantic Ocean. PMID:26733575

  17. The Interrelationships of Placental Mammals and the Limits of Phylogenetic Inference

    PubMed Central

    Tarver, James E.; dos Reis, Mario; Mirarab, Siavash; Moran, Raymond J.; Parker, Sean; O’Reilly, Joseph E.; King, Benjamin L.; O’Connell, Mary J.; Asher, Robert J.; Warnow, Tandy; Peterson, Kevin J.; Donoghue, Philip C.J.; Pisani, Davide

    2016-01-01

    Placental mammals comprise three principal clades: Afrotheria (e.g., elephants and tenrecs), Xenarthra (e.g., armadillos and sloths), and Boreoeutheria (all other placental mammals), the relationships among which are the subject of controversy and a touchstone for debate on the limits of phylogenetic inference. Previous analyses have found support for all three hypotheses, leading some to conclude that this phylogenetic problem might be impossible to resolve due to the compounded effects of incomplete lineage sorting (ILS) and a rapid radiation. Here we show, using a genome scale nucleotide data set, microRNAs, and the reanalysis of the three largest previously published amino acid data sets, that the root of Placentalia lies between Atlantogenata and Boreoeutheria. Although we found evidence for ILS in early placental evolution, we are able to reject previous conclusions that the placental root is a hard polytomy that cannot be resolved. Reanalyses of previous data sets recover Atlantogenata + Boreoeutheria and show that contradictory results are a consequence of poorly fitting evolutionary models; instead, when the evolutionary process is better-modeled, all data sets converge on Atlantogenata. Our Bayesian molecular clock analysis estimates that marsupials diverged from placentals 157–170 Ma, crown Placentalia diverged 86–100 Ma, and crown Atlantogenata diverged 84–97 Ma. Our results are compatible with placental diversification being driven by dispersal rather than vicariance mechanisms, postdating early phases in the protracted opening of the Atlantic Ocean. PMID:26733575

  18. Placental Hypomethylation Is More Pronounced in Genomic Loci Devoid of Retroelements

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Aniruddha; Macaulay, Erin C.; Rodger, Euan J.; Stockwell, Peter A.; Parry, Matthew F.; Roberts, Hester E.; Slatter, Tania L.; Hung, Noelyn A.; Devenish, Celia J.; Morison, Ian M.

    2016-01-01

    The human placenta is hypomethylated compared to somatic tissues. However, the degree and specificity of placental hypomethylation across the genome is unclear. We assessed genome-wide methylation of the human placenta and compared it to that of the neutrophil, a representative homogeneous somatic cell. We observed global hypomethylation in placenta (relative reduction of 22%) compared to neutrophils. Placental hypomethylation was pronounced in intergenic regions and gene bodies, while the unmethylated state of the promoter remained conserved in both tissues. For every class of repeat elements, the placenta showed lower methylation but the degree of hypomethylation differed substantially between these classes. However, some retroelements, especially the evolutionarily younger Alu elements, retained high levels of placental methylation. Surprisingly, nonretrotransposon-containing sequences showed a greater degree of placental hypomethylation than retrotransposons in every genomic element (intergenic, introns, and exons) except promoters. The differentially methylated fragments (DMFs) in placenta and neutrophils were enriched in gene-poor and CpG-poor regions. The placentally hypomethylated DMFs were enriched in genomic regions that are usually inactive, whereas hypermethylated DMFs were enriched in active regions. Hypomethylation of the human placenta is not specific to retroelements, indicating that the evolutionary advantages of placental hypomethylation go beyond those provided by expression of retrotransposons and retrogenes. PMID:27172225

  19. The Endocannabinoid System in the Postimplantation Period: A Role during Decidualization and Placentation

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, B. M.; Correia-da-Silva, G.; Almada, M.; Costa, M. A.; Teixeira, N. A.

    2013-01-01

    Although the detrimental effects of cannabis consumption during gestation are known for years, the vast majority of studies established a link between cannabis consumption and foetal development. The complex maternal-foetal interrelationships within the placental bed are essential for normal pregnancy, and decidua definitively contributes to the success of this process. Nevertheless, the molecular signalling network that coordinates strategies for successful decidualization and placentation are not well understood. The discovery of the endocannabinoid system highlighted new signalling mediators in various physiological processes, including reproduction. It is known that endocannabinoids present regulatory functions during blastocyst development, oviductal transport, and implantation. In addition, all the endocannabinoid machinery was found to be expressed in decidual and placental tissues. Additionally, endocannabinoid's plasmatic levels were found to fluctuate during normal gestation and to induce decidual cell death and disturb normal placental development. Moreover, aberrant endocannabinoid signalling during the period of placental development has been associated with pregnancy disorders. It indicates the existence of a possible regulatory role for these molecules during decidualization and placentation processes, which are known to be particularly vulnerable. In this review, the influence of the endocannabinoid system in these critical processes is explored and discussed. PMID:24228028

  20. A prospective study to compare serum human placental lactogen and menstrual dates for determining gestational age.

    PubMed

    Whittaker, P G; Lind, T; Lawson, J Y

    1987-01-01

    In a group of 575 healthy pregnant women with certain menstrual dates the estimation of the length of gestation from maternal serum human placental lactogen concentrations has been compared with gestational age calculated from the last menstrual period and ultrasonic measurements of the fetal biparietal diameter. In 412 of these patients labor started spontaneously, and the estimated dates of delivery determined by these three methods were also compared. In the range of 9 to 17 weeks of pregnancy, gestational age can be determined by human placental lactogen measurement to within 7 days (+/- 1 SD) which compares favorably with other methods. Regarding the prediction of the expected date of delivery, 88% were delivered within 2 weeks of the date predicted by last menstrual period, 82% within 2 weeks of the sonar date, and 80% by the date determined by human placental lactogen assessment. Prediction of delivery in a further group of 139 women with uncertain dates gave 73% within 2 weeks by sonar date and 69% within 2 weeks by human placental lactogen determination. We suggest human placental lactogen measurements should become part of routine antenatal care complementing rather than replacing the role of ultrasonic scanning. For those doctors and patients who wish to avoid more exposure to ultrasonic scanning than absolutely necessary, human placental lactogen estimates offer an alternative method for assessing the length of gestation. PMID:3541617

  1. Dickkopf-1 induced apoptosis in human placental choriocarcinoma is independent of canonical Wnt signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Peng Sha; Miao Chenglin; Li Jing; Fan Xiujun; Cao Yujing; Duan Enkui . E-mail: duane@ioz.ac.cn

    2006-11-24

    Placental choriocarcinoma, a reproductive system carcinoma in women, has about 0.81% occurrence frequency in China, which leads to over 90% lethality due to indistinct pathogenesis and the absence of efficient therapeutic treatment. In the present study, using immunostaining and reverse transcription PCR, we reported that Dickkopf-1 (Dkk-1) is prominently expressed in human cytotrophoblast (CTB) cell, but absent in the human placental choriocarcinoma cell line JAR and JEG3, implicating an unknown correlation between Dkk-1 and carcinogenesis of placental choriocarcinoma. Further, through exogenous introduction of Dkk-1, we found repressed proliferation in JAR and JEG3, induced apoptosis in JAR, and discovered significant tumor suppression effects of Dkk-1 in placental choriocarcinoma. Moreover we found that this function of Dkk-1 is achieved through c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), whereas the canonical Wnt pathway may not have a great role. This discovery is not symphonic to previous functional understanding of Dkk-1, a canonical Wnt signaling antagonist. Together, our data indicate the possible correlation between Dkk-1 and human placental choriocarcinoma and suggest potential applications of Dkk-1 in treatment of human placental choriocarcinomas.

  2. Placental fractalkine is up-regulated in severe early-onset preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Siwetz, Monika; Dieber-Rotheneder, Martina; Cervar-Zivkovic, Mila; Kummer, Daniel; Kremshofer, Julia; Weiss, Gregor; Herse, Florian; Huppertz, Berthold; Gauster, Martin

    2015-05-01

    The pathogenesis of preeclampsia (PE) includes the release of placental factors into the maternal circulation, inducing an inflammatory environment in the mother. One of the factors may be the proinflammatory chemokine fractalkine, which is expressed in the syncytiotrophoblast of human placenta, from where it is released into the maternal circulation by constitutive shedding. We examined whether placental fractalkine is up-regulated in severe early-onset PE and whether the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and IL-6 are able to increase the expression of fractalkine. Gene expression analysis, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and immunohistochemistry consistently showed increased fractalkine expression in placentas from severe early-onset PE, compared to gestational age-matched controls. Expression of a disintegrin and metalloproteinases (ADAMs) 10 and 17, which convert transmembrane fractalkine into the soluble form, was significantly increased in these cases. Incubation of first-trimester placental explants with TNF-α provoked a significant increase in fractalkine expression and release of the soluble form, whereas IL-6 had no effect. TNF-α-mediated up-regulation of placental fractalkine was reversed in the presence of the aspirin-derivative salicylate, which impaired activation of NF-κB p65 in TNF-α-treated explants. On the basis of data from placental explants, we suggest that increased maternal TNF-α may up-regulate the expression and release of placental fractalkine, which, in turn, may contribute to an exaggerated systemic inflammatory response in PE. PMID:25769431

  3. Placental fractalkine is up-regulated in severe early onset preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Siwetz, Monika; Dieber-Rotheneder, Martina; Cervar-Zivkovic, Mila; Kummer, Daniel; Kremshofer, Julia; Weiss, Gregor; Herse, Florian; Huppertz, Berthold; Gauster, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The pathogenesis of preeclampsia includes the release of placental factors into the maternal circulation inducing an inflammatory environment in the mother. One of the factors may be the pro-inflammatory chemokine fractalkine, which is expressed in the syncytiotrophoblast of human placenta, from where it is released into the maternal circulation by constitutive shedding. We examined whether placental fractalkine is up-regulated in severe early onset preeclampsia and whether the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin-6 are able to increase the expression of fractalkine. Gene expression analysis, ELISA, and immunohistochemistry consistently showed increased fractalkine expression in placentas from severe early onset preeclampsia, compared to gestational age-matched controls. Expression of the metalloproteinases ADAM10 and ADAM17, which convert transmembrane fractalkine into the soluble form, was significantly increased in these cases. Incubation of first trimester placental explants with TNF-α provoked a significant increase in fractalkine expression and release of the soluble form, whereas interleukin-6 had no effect. TNF-α-mediated up-regulation of placental fractalkine was reversed in the presence of the Aspirin-derivative salicylate, which impaired activation of NF-κB p65 in TNF-α-treated explants. Based on data from placental explants we suggest that increased maternal TNF-α may up-regulate the expression and release of placental fractalkine, which in turn may contribute to an exaggerated systemic inflammatory response in preeclampsia. PMID:25769431

  4. Protective Antibodies against Placental Malaria and Poor Outcomes during Pregnancy, Benin

    PubMed Central

    Denoeud-Ndam, Lise; Doritchamou, Justin; Viwami, Firmine; Salanti, Ali; Nielsen, Morten A.; Fievet, Nadine; Massougbodji, Achille; Luty, Adrian J.F.; Deloron, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Placental malaria is caused by Plasmodium falciparum–infected erythrocytes that bind to placental tissue. Binding is mediated by VAR2CSA, a parasite antigen coded by the var gene, which interacts with chondroitin sulfate A (CSA). Consequences include maternal anemia and fetal growth retardation. Antibody-mediated immunity to placental malaria is acquired during successive pregnancies, but the target of VAR2CSA-specific protective antibodies is unclear. We assessed VAR2CSA-specific antibodies in pregnant women and analyzed their relationships with protection against placental infection, preterm birth, and low birthweight. Antibody responses to the N-terminal region of VAR2CSA during early pregnancy were associated with reduced risks for infections and low birthweight. Among women infected during pregnancy, an increase in CSA binding inhibition was associated with reduced risks for placental infection, preterm birth, and low birthweight. These data suggest that antibodies against VAR2CSA N-terminal region mediate immunity to placental malaria and associated outcomes. Our results validate current vaccine development efforts with VAR2CSA N-terminal constructs. PMID:25898123

  5. Protective Antibodies against Placental Malaria and Poor Outcomes during Pregnancy, Benin.

    PubMed

    Ndam, Nicaise Tuikue; Denoeud-Ndam, Lise; Doritchamou, Justin; Viwami, Firmine; Salanti, Ali; Nielsen, Morten A; Fievet, Nadine; Massougbodji, Achille; Luty, Adrian J F; Deloron, Philippe

    2015-05-01

    Placental malaria is caused by Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes that bind to placental tissue. Binding is mediated by VAR2CSA, a parasite antigen coded by the var gene, which interacts with chondroitin sulfate A (CSA). Consequences include maternal anemia and fetal growth retardation. Antibody-mediated immunity to placental malaria is acquired during successive pregnancies, but the target of VAR2CSA-specific protective antibodies is unclear. We assessed VAR2CSA-specific antibodies in pregnant women and analyzed their relationships with protection against placental infection, preterm birth, and low birthweight. Antibody responses to the N-terminal region of VAR2CSA during early pregnancy were associated with reduced risks for infections and low birthweight. Among women infected during pregnancy, an increase in CSA binding inhibition was associated with reduced risks for placental infection, preterm birth, and low birthweight. These data suggest that antibodies against VAR2CSA N-terminal region mediate immunity to placental malaria and associated outcomes. Our results validate current vaccine development efforts with VAR2CSA N-terminal constructs. PMID:25898123

  6. Placental Hypomethylation Is More Pronounced in Genomic Loci Devoid of Retroelements.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Aniruddha; Macaulay, Erin C; Rodger, Euan J; Stockwell, Peter A; Parry, Matthew F; Roberts, Hester E; Slatter, Tania L; Hung, Noelyn A; Devenish, Celia J; Morison, Ian M

    2016-01-01

    The human placenta is hypomethylated compared to somatic tissues. However, the degree and specificity of placental hypomethylation across the genome is unclear. We assessed genome-wide methylation of the human placenta and compared it to that of the neutrophil, a representative homogeneous somatic cell. We observed global hypomethylation in placenta (relative reduction of 22%) compared to neutrophils. Placental hypomethylation was pronounced in intergenic regions and gene bodies, while the unmethylated state of the promoter remained conserved in both tissues. For every class of repeat elements, the placenta showed lower methylation but the degree of hypomethylation differed substantially between these classes. However, some retroelements, especially the evolutionarily younger Alu elements, retained high levels of placental methylation. Surprisingly, nonretrotransposon-containing sequences showed a greater degree of placental hypomethylation than retrotransposons in every genomic element (intergenic, introns, and exons) except promoters. The differentially methylated fragments (DMFs) in placenta and neutrophils were enriched in gene-poor and CpG-poor regions. The placentally hypomethylated DMFs were enriched in genomic regions that are usually inactive, whereas hypermethylated DMFs were enriched in active regions. Hypomethylation of the human placenta is not specific to retroelements, indicating that the evolutionary advantages of placental hypomethylation go beyond those provided by expression of retrotransposons and retrogenes. PMID:27172225

  7. Placental Responses to Changes in the Maternal Environment Determine Fetal Growth

    PubMed Central

    Dimasuay, Kris Genelyn; Boeuf, Philippe; Powell, Theresa L.; Jansson, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Placental responses to maternal perturbations are complex and remain poorly understood. Altered maternal environment during pregnancy such as hypoxia, stress, obesity, diabetes, toxins, altered nutrition, inflammation, and reduced utero-placental blood flow may influence fetal development, which can predispose to diseases later in life. The placenta being a metabolically active tissue responds to these perturbations by regulating the fetal supply of nutrients and oxygen and secretion of hormones into the maternal and fetal circulation. We have proposed that placental nutrient sensing integrates maternal and fetal nutritional cues with information from intrinsic nutrient sensing signaling pathways to balance fetal demand with the ability of the mother to support pregnancy by regulating maternal physiology, placental growth, and placental nutrient transport. Emerging evidence suggests that the nutrient-sensing signaling pathway mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) plays a central role in this process. Thus, placental nutrient sensing plays a critical role in modulating maternal–fetal resource allocation, thereby affecting fetal growth and the life-long health of the fetus. PMID:26858656

  8. Assessment of Placental Stiffness Using Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse Elastography in Pregnant Women with Fetal Anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Göya, Cemil; Tunç, Senem; Teke, Memik; Hattapoğlu, Salih

    2016-01-01

    Objective We aimed to evaluate placental stiffness measured by acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) elastography in pregnant women in the second trimester with a normal fetus versus those with structural anomalies and non-structural findings. Materials and Methods Forty pregnant women carrying a fetus with structural anomalies diagnosed sonographically at 18–28 weeks of gestation comprised the study group. The control group consisted of 34 healthy pregnant women with a sonographically normal fetus at a similar gestational age. Placental shear wave velocity (SWV) was measured by ARFI elastography and compared between the two groups. Structural anomalies and non-structural findings were scored based on sonographic markers. Placental stiffness measurements were compared among fetus anomaly categories. Doppler parameters of umbilical and uterine arteries were compared with placental SWV measurements. Results All placental SWV measurements, including minimum SWV, maximum SWV, and mean SWV were significantly higher in the study group than the control group ([0.86 ± 0.2, 0.74 ± 0.1; p < 0.001], [1.89 ± 0.7, 1.59 ± 0.5; p = 0.04], and [1.26 ± 0.4, 1.09 ± 0.2; p = 0.01]), respectively. Conclusion Placental stiffness evaluated by ARFI elastography during the second trimester in pregnant women with fetuses with congenital structural anomalies is higher than that of pregnant women with normal fetuses. PMID:26957906

  9. Extreme expansion of the olfactory receptor gene repertoire in African elephants and evolutionary dynamics of orthologous gene groups in 13 placental mammals

    PubMed Central

    Matsui, Atsushi; Touhara, Kazushige

    2014-01-01

    Olfactory receptors (ORs) detect odors in the environment, and OR genes constitute the largest multigene family in mammals. Numbers of OR genes vary greatly among species—reflecting the respective species' lifestyles—and this variation is caused by frequent gene gains and losses during evolution. However, whether the extent of gene gains/losses varies among individual gene lineages and what might generate such variation is unknown. To answer these questions, we used a newly developed phylogeny-based method to classify >10,000 intact OR genes from 13 placental mammal species into 781 orthologous gene groups (OGGs); we then compared the OGGs. Interestingly, African elephants had a surprisingly large repertoire (∼2000) of functional OR genes encoded in enlarged gene clusters. Additionally, OR gene lineages that experienced more gene duplication had weaker purifying selection, and Class II OR genes have evolved more dynamically than those in Class I. Some OGGs were highly expanded in a lineage-specific manner, while only three OGGs showed complete one-to-one orthology among the 13 species without any gene gains/losses. These three OGGs also exhibited highly conserved amino acid sequences; therefore, ORs in these OGGs may have physiologically important functions common to every placental mammal. This study provides a basis for inferring OR functions from evolutionary trajectory. PMID:25053675

  10. Extreme expansion of the olfactory receptor gene repertoire in African elephants and evolutionary dynamics of orthologous gene groups in 13 placental mammals.

    PubMed

    Niimura, Yoshihito; Matsui, Atsushi; Touhara, Kazushige

    2014-09-01

    Olfactory receptors (ORs) detect odors in the environment, and OR genes constitute the largest multigene family in mammals. Numbers of OR genes vary greatly among species--reflecting the respective species' lifestyles--and this variation is caused by frequent gene gains and losses during evolution. However, whether the extent of gene gains/losses varies among individual gene lineages and what might generate such variation is unknown. To answer these questions, we used a newly developed phylogeny-based method to classify >10,000 intact OR genes from 13 placental mammal species into 781 orthologous gene groups (OGGs); we then compared the OGGs. Interestingly, African elephants had a surprisingly large repertoire (∼ 2000) of functional OR genes encoded in enlarged gene clusters. Additionally, OR gene lineages that experienced more gene duplication had weaker purifying selection, and Class II OR genes have evolved more dynamically than those in Class I. Some OGGs were highly expanded in a lineage-specific manner, while only three OGGs showed complete one-to-one orthology among the 13 species without any gene gains/losses. These three OGGs also exhibited highly conserved amino acid sequences; therefore, ORs in these OGGs may have physiologically important functions common to every placental mammal. This study provides a basis for inferring OR functions from evolutionary trajectory. PMID:25053675

  11. Sequestrated Thrombolysis: Comparative Evaluation In Vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, Sumit; Laerum, Frode; Brosstad, Frank; Kvernebo, Knut; Sakariassen, Kjell S.

    2000-03-15

    Purpose: Lysis of a thrombus is a function of the local concentration of thrombolytic enzymes. This study was designed to determine in a porcine model of acute deep vein thrombosis (DVT) whether perithrombic sequestration of small volumes of a concentrated enzyme solution can accelerate the process of thrombolysis.Methods: DVT was induced in both hind limbs using a previously described technique (n = 32). Thirty minutes later the animal was heparinized and unilateral thrombolysis was attempted using 8 mg recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA); saline was administered in the opposite leg. For conventional high-volume infusion (CI) (n = 5) rt-PA (0.067 mg/ml) was infused at 1 ml/min. For sequestrated thrombolysis the external iliac vein was endoluminally occluded, and rt-PA (0.25 mg/ml) administered either for proximal injection (ST-P) (n = 5), as a bolus every 3 min through a microcatheter placed via the balloon catheter, or for transthrombic injection (ST-T) (n = 5), as a bolus every 3 min through a Katzen wire in the balloon catheter. At autopsy, the thrombus mass in the iliofemoral veins was measured, and the extent of residual thrombosis in the venous tributaries graded at four sites. From these data a thrombolysis score was calculated.Results: One pig died before thrombolysis could be performed. Only with ST-T was residual thrombus mass in the test limb normalized to control, residual thrombus index (RTI), consistently less than unity. The median RTI of this group was 0.50 (range 0.39-0.97) compared with 1.22 (0.64-1.38) for ST-P and 0.88 (0.37-1.13) for CI. Compared with contralateral controls, a lower grade of residual thrombosis in tributaries was observed in test limbs at more venous sites with ST-T (8/20; 95% confidence interval 5-13) and ST-P (9/20; confidence interval 5-13) than with CI (2/20; confidence interval 0-5) (p= 0.04). A trend toward lower thrombolysis scores was observed with ST-T (p = 0.08). Systemic fibrinogenolysis was not

  12. Prosodic Encoding in Silent Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkenfeld, Deborah

    In silent reading, short-memory tasks, such as semantic and syntactic processing, require a stage of phonetic encoding between visual representation and the actual extraction of meaning, and this encoding includes prosodic as well as segmental features. To test for this suprasegmental coding, an experiment was conducted in which subjects were…

  13. An Overview of Geologic Carbon Sequestration Potential in California

    SciTech Connect

    Cameron Downey; John Clinkenbeard

    2005-10-01

    As part of the West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (WESTCARB), the California Geological Survey (CGS) conducted an assessment of geologic carbon sequestration potential in California. An inventory of sedimentary basins was screened for preliminary suitability for carbon sequestration. Criteria included porous and permeable strata, seals, and depth sufficient for critical state carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) injection. Of 104 basins inventoried, 27 met the criteria for further assessment. Petrophysical and fluid data from oil and gas reservoirs was used to characterize both saline aquifers and hydrocarbon reservoirs. Where available, well log or geophysical information was used to prepare basin-wide maps showing depth-to-basement and gross sand distribution. California's Cenozoic marine basins were determined to possess the most potential for geologic sequestration. These basins contain thick sedimentary sections, multiple saline aquifers and oil and gas reservoirs, widespread shale seals, and significant petrophysical data from oil and gas operations. Potential sequestration areas include the San Joaquin, Sacramento, Ventura, Los Angeles, and Eel River basins, followed by the smaller Salinas, La Honda, Cuyama, Livermore, Orinda, and Sonoma marine basins. California's terrestrial basins are generally too shallow for carbon sequestration. However, the Salton Trough and several smaller basins may offer opportunities for localized carbon sequestration.

  14. Assessing The Effectiveness Of Soil Carbon Sequestration In North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, A. K.; Yang, X.; Post, W.

    2006-12-01

    Soil carbon sequestration has been shown to be an important part of a portfolio of carbon sequestration strategies in the U.S. and Canada, and one that can be implemented at relatively low costs. This analysis focuses on the estimate of carbon sequestration in soil as a result of a change from conventional plow tillage (CT) to no-till (NT) in North America and the resulting uptake of CO2 from 1981-2000. We use the terrestrial component of the Integrated Science Assessment Model (ISAM-2), which simulates carbon and nitrogen fluxes as well as the interactions between carbon cycle and nitrogen cycle within the terrestrial biosphere at a 0.5o x 0.5o spatial resolution. To estimate carbon sequestration in soils, following a change in cropland management from CT to NT, we implement empirically-based sequestration estimates, or CMR curves in the ISAM. The CMR curves are based on the mean annual change in soil carbon over the expected duration of active sequestration. These empirical relationships have been developed for changes from CT to NT for five different climate regions, which are consistent with those used in the IPCC guidelines for carbon accounting. To calculate sequestration rates in North America, we use the measured area under NT over the period 1981- 2000. Cropland management (CT to NT) is accompanied by changes in CO2 concentration, climate, land use and land cover, and nitrogen deposition. Since these changes affect carbon and nitrogen cycles, and the interaction between them, which could augment or lessen carbon sequestration, we take a holistic approach to study carbon sequestration by incorporating major environmental changes.

  15. IFPA Gábor Than Award Lecture: Recognition of placental failure is key to saving babies' lives.

    PubMed

    Heazell, A E P; Worton, S A; Higgins, L E; Ingram, E; Johnstone, E D; Jones, R L; Sibley, C P

    2015-04-01

    In high-income countries, placental failure is implicated in up to 65% of cases of stillbirth. Placental failure describes the situation where the placenta cannot meet the fetus' needs and may be the end-result of a variety of underlying pathological processes evident in the placental disc, membranes and umbilical cord. These include lesions with genetic, environmental, infectious, inflammatory, mechanical, metabolic, traumatic or vascular origin. Investigation of placental tissue from stillbirths and from pregnancies at an increased risk of stillbirth has demonstrated changes in macroscopic and microscopic structure which are themselves related to abnormal placental function. A better understanding and identification of placental failure may improve the management of pregnancy complications and of pregnancies after stillbirth (which have a 5-fold increased risk of stillbirth). The majority of current antenatal tests focus on the fetus and its response to the intrauterine environment; few of these investigations reduce stillbirths in low-risk pregnancies. However, some currently used investigations reflect placental development, structure and vascular function, while other investigations employed in clinical research settings such as the evaluation of placental structure and shape have a good predictive value for adverse fetal outcome. In addition, recent studies suggest that biomarkers of placental inflammation and deteriorating placental function can be detected in maternal blood suggesting that holistic evaluation of placental structure and function is possible. We anticipate that development of reliable tests of placental structure and function, coupled to assessment of fetal wellbeing offer a new opportunity to identify pregnancies at risk of stillbirth and to direct novel therapeutic strategies to prevent it. PMID:25582276

  16. Peri-encoding predictors of memory encoding and consolidation.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Noga; Pell, Liat; Edelson, Micah G; Ben-Yakov, Aya; Pine, Alex; Dudai, Yadin

    2015-03-01

    We review reports of brain activations that occur immediately prior to the onset or following the offset of to-be-remembered information and can predict subsequent mnemonic success. Memory-predictive pre-encoding processes, occurring from fractions of a second to minutes prior to event onset, are mainly associated with activations in the medial temporal lobe (MTL), amygdala and midbrain, and with enhanced theta oscillations. These activations may be considered as the neural correlates of one or more cognitive operations, including contextual processing, attention, and the engagement of distinct computational modes associated with prior encoding or retrieval. Post-encoding activations that correlate with subsequent memory performance are mainly observed in the MTL, sensory cortices and frontal regions. These activations may reflect binding of elements of the encoded information and initiation of memory consolidation. In all, the findings reviewed here illustrate the importance of brain states in the immediate peri-encoding time windows in determining encoding success. Understanding these brain states and their specific effects on memory may lead to optimization of the encoding of desired memories and mitigation of undesired ones. PMID:25446944

  17. The Fluid Mechanics of Carbon Dioxide Sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huppert, Herbert E.; Neufeld, Jerome A.

    2014-01-01

    Humans are faced with a potentially disastrous global problem owing to the current emission of 32 gigatonnes of carbon dioxide (CO2) annually into the atmosphere. A possible way to mitigate the effects is to store CO2 in large porous reservoirs within the Earth. Fluid mechanics plays a key role in determining both the feasibility and risks involved in this geological sequestration. We review current research efforts looking at the propagation of CO2 within the subsurface, the possible rates of leakage, the mechanisms that act to stably trap CO2, and the geomechanical response of the crust to large-scale CO2 injection. We conclude with an outline for future research.

  18. Cascade enzymatic reactions for efficient carbon sequestration.

    PubMed

    Xia, Shunxiang; Zhao, Xueyan; Frigo-Vaz, Benjamin; Zheng, Wenyun; Kim, Jungbae; Wang, Ping

    2015-04-01

    Thermochemical processes developed for carbon capture and storage (CCS) offer high carbon capture capacities, but are generally hampered by low energy efficiency. Reversible cascade enzyme reactions are examined in this work for energy-efficient carbon sequestration. By integrating the reactions of two key enzymes of RTCA cycle, isocitrate dehydrogenase and aconitase, we demonstrate that intensified carbon capture can be realized through such cascade enzymatic reactions. Experiments show that enhanced thermodynamic driving force for carbon conversion can be attained via pH control under ambient conditions, and that the cascade reactions have the potential to capture 0.5 mol carbon at pH 6 for each mole of substrate applied. Overall it manifests that the carbon capture capacity of biocatalytic reactions, in addition to be energy efficient, can also be ultimately intensified to approach those realized with chemical absorbents such as MEA. PMID:25708541

  19. Purple fingers: convection in carbon sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slim, Anja; Bandi, Mahesh; Mahadevan, L.

    2011-11-01

    In geological carbon sequestration, CO2 injected into a saline formation is less dense than the resident brine and floats above it. It is slightly soluble in brine and progressively dissolves. Brine with dissolved CO2 is slightly denser than ``pure'' brine giving the potential for convective overturning. We experimentally study the dissolution process from first contact between CO2 and brine through onset of convection to almost complete saturation for Rayleigh numbers between 80 and 1200. We present an analogue experiment using potassium permanganate as our solute, which closely mimics relevant CO2 properties. We describe the different dynamical regimes and connect these with trends in several global measures, including the dissolution flux. We find onset of convection using both amplitude and flux deviations from pure diffusion.

  20. CARBON SEQUESTRATION OF SURFACE MINE LANDS

    SciTech Connect

    Donald H. Graves; Christopher Barton; Richard Sweigard; Richard Warner

    2004-05-19

    The January-March 2004 Quarter was dedicated to tree planting activities in two locations in Kentucky. During year one of this project there was no available mine land to plant in the Hazard area so 107 acres were planted in the Martin county mine location. This year 120 acres was planted in the Hazard area to compensate for the prior year and an additional 57 acres was planted on Peabody properties in western Kentucky. An additional set of special plots were established on each of these areas that contained 4800 seedlings each for special carbon sequestration determinations. Plantings were also conducted to continue compaction and water quality studies on two newly established areas as well as confirmed measurements on the first years plantings. Total plantings on this project now amount to 357 acres containing 245,960 tree seedlings.

  1. Information encoder/decoder using chaotic systems

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Samuel Lee; Miller, William Michael; McWhorter, Paul Jackson

    1997-01-01

    The present invention discloses a chaotic system-based information encoder and decoder that operates according to a relationship defining a chaotic system. Encoder input signals modify the dynamics of the chaotic system comprising the encoder. The modifications result in chaotic, encoder output signals that contain the encoder input signals encoded within them. The encoder output signals are then capable of secure transmissions using conventional transmission techniques. A decoder receives the encoder output signals (i.e., decoder input signals) and inverts the dynamics of the encoding system to directly reconstruct the original encoder input signals.

  2. Information encoder/decoder using chaotic systems

    DOEpatents

    Miller, S.L.; Miller, W.M.; McWhorter, P.J.

    1997-10-21

    The present invention discloses a chaotic system-based information encoder and decoder that operates according to a relationship defining a chaotic system. Encoder input signals modify the dynamics of the chaotic system comprising the encoder. The modifications result in chaotic, encoder output signals that contain the encoder input signals encoded within them. The encoder output signals are then capable of secure transmissions using conventional transmission techniques. A decoder receives the encoder output signals (i.e., decoder input signals) and inverts the dynamics of the encoding system to directly reconstruct the original encoder input signals. 32 figs.

  3. In Vivo Function of PTEX88 in Malaria Parasite Sequestration and Virulence.

    PubMed

    Matz, Joachim M; Ingmundson, Alyssa; Costa Nunes, Jean; Stenzel, Werner; Matuschewski, Kai; Kooij, Taco W A

    2015-06-01

    Malaria pathology is linked to remodeling of red blood cells by eukaryotic Plasmodium parasites. Central to host cell refurbishment is the trafficking of parasite-encoded virulence factors through the Plasmodium translocon of exported proteins (PTEX). Much of our understanding of its function is based on experimental work with cultured Plasmodium falciparum, yet direct consequences of PTEX impairment during an infection remain poorly defined. Using the murine malaria model parasite Plasmodium berghei, it is shown here that efficient sequestration to the pulmonary, adipose, and brain tissue vasculature is dependent on the PTEX components thioredoxin 2 (TRX2) and PTEX88. While TRX2-deficient parasites remain virulent, PTEX88-deficient parasites no longer sequester in the brain, correlating with abolishment of cerebral complications in infected mice. However, an apparent trade-off for virulence attenuation was spleen enlargement, which correlates with a strongly reduced schizont-to-ring-stage transition. Strikingly, general protein export is unaffected in PTEX88-deficient mutants that mature normally in vitro. Thus, PTEX88 is pivotal for tissue sequestration in vivo, parasite virulence, and preventing exacerbation of spleen pathology, but these functions do not correlate with general protein export to the host erythrocyte. The presented data suggest that the protein export machinery of Plasmodium parasites and their underlying mechanistic features are considerably more complex than previously anticipated and indicate challenges for targeted intervention strategies. PMID:25820521

  4. Murine malaria parasite sequestration: CD36 is the major receptor, but cerebral pathology is unlinked to sequestration.

    PubMed

    Franke-Fayard, Blandine; Janse, Chris J; Cunha-Rodrigues, Margarida; Ramesar, Jai; Büscher, Philippe; Que, Ivo; Löwik, Clemens; Voshol, Peter J; den Boer, Marion A M; van Duinen, Sjoerd G; Febbraio, Maria; Mota, Maria M; Waters, Andrew P

    2005-08-01

    Sequestration of malaria-parasite-infected erythrocytes in the microvasculature of organs is thought to be a significant cause of pathology. Cerebral malaria (CM) is a major complication of Plasmodium falciparum infections, and PfEMP1-mediated sequestration of infected red blood cells has been considered to be the major feature leading to CM-related pathology. We report a system for the real-time in vivo imaging of sequestration using transgenic luciferase-expressing parasites of the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei. These studies revealed that: (i) as expected, lung tissue is a major site, but, unexpectedly, adipose tissue contributes significantly to sequestration, and (ii) the class II scavenger-receptor CD36 to which PfEMP1 can bind is also the major receptor for P. berghei sequestration, indicating a role for alternative parasite ligands, because orthologues of PfEMP1 are absent from rodent malaria parasites, and, importantly, (iii) cerebral complications still develop in the absence of CD36-mediated sequestration, dissociating parasite sequestration from CM-associated pathology. Real-time in vivo imaging of parasitic processes may be used to evaluate the molecular basis of pathology and develop strategies to prevent pathology. PMID:16051702

  5. Placental Protein 13 (galectin-13) has decreased placental expression but increased shedding and maternal serum concentrations in patients presenting with preterm preeclampsia and HELLP syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Than, Nandor Gabor; Rahman, Omar Abdul; Magenheim, Rita; Nagy, Balint; Fule, Tibor; Hargitai, Beata; Sammar, Marei; Hupuczi, Petronella; Tarca, Adi L.; Szabo, Gabor; Kovalszky, Ilona; Meiri, Hamutal; Sziller, Istvan; Rigo, Janos; Romero, Roberto; Papp, Zoltan

    2009-01-01

    Placental Protein 13 (PP13) is a galectin expressed by the syncytiotrophoblast. Women who subsequently develop preterm preeclampsia have low first trimester maternal serum PP13 concentrations. This study revealed that third trimester maternal serum PP13 concentration increased with gestational age in normal pregnancies (p<0.0001), and it was significantly higher in women presenting with preterm preeclampsia (p=0.02) and HELLP syndrome (p=0.01) than in preterm controls. Conversely, placental PP13 mRNA (p=0.03) and protein, as well as cytoplasmic PP13 staining of the syncytiotrophoblast (p<0.05) was decreased in these pathological pregnancies compared to controls. No differences in placental expression and serum concentrations of PP13 were found at term between patients with preeclampsia and control women. In contrast, the immunoreactivity of the syncytiotrophoblast microvillous membrane was stronger in both term and preterm preeclampsia and HELLP syndrome than in controls. Moreover, large syncytial cytoplasm protrusions, membrane blebs and shed microparticles strongly stained for PP13 in preeclampsia and HELLP syndrome. In conclusion, parallel to its decreased placental expression, an augmented membrane shedding of PP13 contributes to the increased third trimester maternal serum PP13 concentrations in women with preterm preeclampsia and HELLP syndrome. PMID:18791734

  6. RNA-seq analysis of the rat placentation site reveals maternal obesity-associated changes in placental and offspring thyroid hormone signaling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction In animal models, maternal obesity (OB) leads to augmented risk of offspring OB. While placental function is influenced by maternal habitus, the effect of maternal obesity on the interacting zones of the placenta [the labyrinth (LZ), junctional (JZ) and metrial gland (MG)] remains unkno...

  7. Characterization of urokinase receptor expression by human placental trophoblasts.

    PubMed

    Zini, J M; Murray, S C; Graham, C H; Lala, P K; Karikó, K; Barnathan, E S; Mazar, A; Henkin, J; Cines, D B; McCrae, K R

    1992-06-01

    The processes of implantation and placentation are both dependent on the invasion and remodeling of the uterine endometrium and vasculature by trophoblasts. Because the secretion and autocrine binding of urokinase (uPA) appears to be a common mechanism used by cells to facilitate plasmin-dependent tissue invasion, we measured the production of uPA and expression of uPA receptors by trophoblasts. Prourokinase bound specifically, reversibly, and with high affinity to cultured trophoblasts, via the uPA epidermal growth factor-like domain. Trophoblasts derived from two first-trimester placentae bound more prourokinase than cells isolated from term placentae. Furthermore, in vitro differentiation of cultured cytotrophoblasts into syncytiotrophoblasts was associated with diminished expression of urokinase receptors and a parallel decrease in the cellular content of uPA receptor mRNA. Trophoblasts also secreted prourokinase and plasminogen activator inhibitors types 1 and 2 (PAI-1 and PAI-2). Although prourokinase was secreted in amounts sufficient to endogenously saturate trophoblast uPA receptors, trophoblasts secreted greater amounts of PAI-1 and PAI-2 than uPA, and no net plasminogen activator activity was detected in trophoblast conditioned medium. In contrast, plasminogen added directly to cultured trophoblasts was readily converted to plasmin. Although the invasion and remodeling of uterine tissues by trophoblasts is a complex process dependent on several proteases of varying specificity, our findings suggest that the expression and modulation of urokinase receptors on the trophoblast cell surface may play an important role in this process. PMID:1316787

  8. Placental Induced Growth Factor (PIGf) in Coronary Artery Disease

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sundaresan, Alamelu; Carabello, Blaise; Mehta, Satish; Schlegel, Todd; Pellis, Neal; Ott, Mark; Pierson, Duane

    2010-01-01

    Our previous studies on normal human lymphocytes have shown a five-fold increase (p less than 0.001) in angiogenic inducers such as Placental Induced Growth Factor (PIGf) in physiologically stressful environments such as modeled microgravity, a space analog. This suggests de-regulation of cardiovascular signalling pathways indicated by upregulation of PIGf. In the current study, we measured PIGf in the plasma of 33 patients with and without coronary artery disease (CAD) to investigate whether such disease is associated with increased levels of PIGf. A control consisting of 31 sex matched apparently healthy subjects was also included in the study. We observed that the levels of PIGf in CAD patients were significantly increased compared to those in healthy control subjects (p less than 0.001) and usually increased beyond the clinical threshold level (greater than 27ng/L). The mechanisms leading to up-regulation of angiogenic factors and the adaptation of organisms to stressful environments such as isolation, high altitude, hypoxia, ischemia, microgravity, increased radiation, etc are presently unknown and require further investigation in spaceflight and these other physiologically stressed environments.

  9. Placental-derived stem cells: Culture, differentiation and challenges.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Maira S; Barreto-Filho, João B

    2015-05-26

    Stem cell therapy is a promising approach to clinical healing in several diseases. A great variety of tissues (bone marrow, adipose tissue, and placenta) are potentially sources of stem cells. Placenta-derived stem cells (p-SCs) are in between embryonic and mesenchymal stem cells, sharing characteristics with both, such as non-carcinogenic status and property to differentiate in all embryonic germ layers. Moreover, their use is not ethically restricted as fetal membranes are considered medical waste after birth. In this context, the present review will be focused on the biological properties, culture and potential cell therapy uses of placental-derived stem cells. Immunophenotype characterization, mainly for surface marker expression, and basic principles of p-SC isolation and culture (mechanical separation or enzymatic digestion of the tissues, the most used culture media, cell plating conditions) will be presented. In addition, some preclinical studies that were performed in different medical areas will be cited, focusing on neurological, liver, pancreatic, heart, muscle, pulmonary, and bone diseases and also in tissue engineering field. Finally, some challenges for stem cell therapy applications will be highlighted. The understanding of the mechanisms involved in the p-SCs differentiation and the achievement of pure cell populations (after differentiation) are key points that must be clarified before bringing the preclinical studies, performed at the bench, to the medical practice. PMID:26029347

  10. [Placental epigenetic programming in intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR)].

    PubMed

    Casanello, Paola; Castro-Rodríguez, José A; Uauy, Ricardo; Krause, Bernardo J

    2016-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a perinatal condition affecting foetal growth, with under the 10th percentile of the weight curve expected for gestational age. This condition has been associated with higher cardiovascular and metabolic risk and post-natal obesity. There are also major changes in placental function, and particularly in a key molecule in this regulation, nitric oxide. The synthesis of nitric oxide has numerous control mechanisms and competition with arginase for their common substrate, the amino acid L-arginine. This competition is reflected in various vascular diseases and particularly in the endothelium of the umbilical vessels of babies with IUGR. Along with this, there is regulation at the epigenetic level, where methylation in specific regions of some gene promoters, such as the nitric oxide synthase, regulating their expression. It is currently of great interest to understand the mechanisms by which diseases such as IUGR may be conditioned, particularly by maternal nutritional and metabolic conditions, and epigenetic mechanisms that could eventually be modifiable, and thus a focus of interest for health interventions. PMID:27209119

  11. Role of transporters in placental transfer of drugs

    SciTech Connect

    Ganapathy, Vadivel . E-mail: vganapat@mail.mcg.edu; Prasad, Puttur D.

    2005-09-01

    Human placenta functions as an important transport organ that mediates the exchange of nutrients and metabolites between maternal and fetal circulations. This function is made possible because of the expression of a multitude of transport proteins in the placental syncytiotrophoblast with differential localization in the maternal-facing brush border membrane versus the fetal-facing basal membrane. Even though the physiological role of most of these transport proteins is to handle nutrients, many of them interact with xenobiotics and pharmacological agents. These transport proteins therefore play a critical role in the disposition of drugs across the maternal-fetal interface, with some transporters facilitating the entry of drugs from maternal circulation into fetal circulation whereas others preventing such entry by actively eliminating drugs from the placenta back into maternal circulation. The net result as to whether the placenta enhances the exposure of the developing fetus to drugs and xenobiotics or functions as a barrier to protect the fetus from such agents depends on the types of transporters expressed in the brush border membrane and basal membrane of the syncytiotrophoblast and on the functional mode of these transporters (influx versus efflux)

  12. Cytokeratins 8 and 19 in the mouse placental development.

    PubMed

    Tamai, Y; Ishikawa, T; Bösl, M R; Mori, M; Nozaki, M; Baribault, H; Oshima, R G; Taketo, M M

    2000-10-30

    To investigate the expression and biological roles of cytokeratin 19 (K19) in development and in adult tissues, we inactivated the mouse K19 gene (Krt1-19) by inserting a bacterial beta-galactosidase gene (lacZ) by homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells, and established germ line mutant mice. Both heterozygous and homozygous mutant mice were viable, fertile, and appeared normal. By 7.5-8.0 days post coitum (dpc), heterozygous mutant embryos expressed lacZ in the notochordal plate and hindgut diverticulum, reflecting the fact that the notochord and the gut endoderm are derived from the axial mesoderm-originated cells. In the adult mutant, lacZ was expressed mainly in epithelial tissues. To investigate the possible functional cooperation and synergy between K19 and K8, we then constructed compound homozygous mutants, whose embryos died approximately 10 dpc. The lethality resulted from defects in the placenta where both K19 and K8 are normally expressed. As early as 9. 5 dpc, the compound mutant placenta had an excessive number of giant trophoblasts, but lacked proper labyrinthine trophoblast or spongiotrophoblast development, which apparently caused flooding of the maternal blood into the embryonic placenta. These results indicate that K19 and K8 cooperate in ensuring the normal development of placental tissues. PMID:11062258

  13. The effect of placental subfractions on Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Frank, F; Sartori, M J; Asteggiano, C; Lin, S; de Fabro, S P; Fretes, R E

    2000-10-01

    Five subfractions were collected from six term placentas by mincing and differential centrifugation: homogenate, nuclear, mitochondrial, lysosomal, and supernatant. The effect of each subfraction on Trypanosoma cruzi was assessed by trypan blue exclusion, relative infectivity of mice, and penetration of susceptible cultured VERO cells. Ultrastructural changes in trypomastigotes were identified after high cell mortality was shown by dye exclusion following treatment with lysosomal and supernatant fractions. Trypomastigotes treated with other subfractions or preheated subfractions, those recovered from infected VERO cells, and controls remained unaffected. This was confirmed by the ability of treated trypomastigotes to infect mice or to penetrate susceptible cultured VERO cells. There were a 48% decrease in parasitemia and fewer myocardial lesions in Balb/c mice following treatment with the lysosomal subfraction compared to homogenate and controls. VERO cells were invaded about half as often after lysosomal treatment compared to controls (P < 0. 05); an 11% decrease in cell invasion following homogenate treatment was not significant. Placental lysosomal enzyme activity was unaffected by trypomastigotes. Human placentas contain one or more heat-labile substances in lysosomal and supernatant subfractions which inhibit or injure trypomastigotes of T. cruzi in cell-free systems. PMID:11001862

  14. Insertion of isolated insulin receptors into placental membrane vesicles.

    PubMed Central

    Christiansen, K; Carlsen, J

    1992-01-01

    Purified human insulin receptors were inserted into placental plasma-membrane vesicles by fusion of membranes with receptor-lysophosphatidylcholine micelles. Scatchard analysis of insulin binding showed that about 10-15% of the added receptors became inserted into the membrane. The receptor number could be increased about 3-fold, corresponding to approx. 5 pmol of receptor/mg of membrane protein. The receptors became firmly bound to the membrane, as they could not be removed by extensive wash. The insertion of exogenous receptors could be demonstrated by immunoblotting. The inserted insulin receptor had the same insulin-binding affinity as the isolated receptor and the endogenous receptor of the membrane. Insulin binding in the presence or absence of Triton X-100 revealed that more than 80% of the exogenous receptors had a right-side-out orientation. Function of the inserted receptors, as observed by insulin-stimulated autophosphorylation, could be demonstrated. About 80% of the added lysophospholipid, corresponding to approx. 160 nmol of lysophospholipid/mg of membrane protein, became integrated into the membrane and was partly metabolized to phospholipid and to non-esterified fatty acid. The method of insertion of isolated insulin receptors using the natural detergent, lysophospholipid, may be a method for insertion of receptors into intact cells, where the lysophospholipid, as in the plasma-membrane vesicles, will be acylated to phospholipid. Images Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:1736892

  15. Placental development during early pregnancy in sheep: Effects of embryo origin on vascularization

    PubMed Central

    Grazul-Bilska, Anna T.; Johnson, Mary Lynn; Borowicz, Pawel P.; Bilski, Jerzy J.; Cymbaluk, Taylor; Norberg, Spencer; Redmer, Dale A.; Reynolds, Lawrence P.

    2014-01-01

    Utero-placental growth and vascular development are critical for pregnancy establishment that may be altered by various factors including assisted reproductive technologies (ART), nutrition, or others, leading to compromised pregnancy. We hypothesized that placental vascularization and expression of angiogenic factors are altered early in pregnancies after transfer of embryos created using selected ART methods. Pregnancies were achieved through natural mating (NAT), or transfer of embryos from natural mating (NAT-ET), or in vitro fertilization (IVF) or activation (IVA). Placental tissues were collected on day 22 of pregnancy. In maternal caruncles (CAR), vascular cell proliferation was less (P<0.05) for IVA than other groups. Compared to NAT, density of blood vessels was less (P<0.05) for IVF and IVA in fetal membranes (FM), and for NAT-ET, IVF and IVA in CAR. In FM, mRNA expression was decreased (P<0.01–0.08) in NAT-ET, IVF and IVA compared to NAT for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptor FLT-1, placental growth factor (PGF), neuropilin (NP) 1 and 2, angiopoietin (ANGPT) 1 and 2, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS3), hypoxia inducible factor-1A (HIF1A), fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 2 and its receptor FGFR2. In CAR, mRNA expression was decreased (P<0.01–0.05) in NAT-ET, IVF and IVA compared to NAT for VEGF, FLT-1, PGF, ANGPT1 and TEK. Decreased mRNA expression for 12 of 14 angiogenic factors across FM and CAR in NAT-ET, IVF and IVA pregnancies was associated with reduced placental vascular development, which would lead to poor placental function and compromised fetal and placental growth and development. PMID:24472816

  16. Aquaporin-1, a New Maternally Expressed Gene, Regulates Placental Development in the Mouse.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jing; He, Hongjuan; Liu, Hui; Liu, Qi; Zhang, Lili; Liu, Boqi; Sugimoto, Kenkichi; Wu, Qiong

    2016-08-01

    Imprinted genes play an important role in placental and embryonic development. Abnormalities in their regulation can result in placental and embryonic dysplasia, leading to congenital diseases. The imprinting state, expression, and function of aquaporin-1 (Aqp1) were explored in knockout mice by imprinting analysis, real-time PCR, and immunohistochemistry. In the present study, Aqp1 was identified as a new, imprinted, and placenta-specific maternally expressed gene in the mouse. Compared with wild-type Aqp1(+/+) mice, there was significant placental and embryonic overgrowth in Aqp1(-/+) (loss of maternal allele) and Aqp1(-/-) mice, but not in Aqp1(+/-) (loss of paternal allele) mice at Embryonic Day (E) 12.5-E18.5. In addition, the masses of Postnatal Day 0 (P0) embryos (Aqp1(-/-) and Aqp1(-/+)) were highest among the four types. In Aqp1(-/+) and Aqp1(-/-) mice, phenotypic analysis indicated that the number and branching of blood vessels, as well as the labyrinth area, increased significantly in placentae of E12.5-E18.5 mice. Moreover, there were abnormalities in the placental junctional zone and the labyrinthine zone at E15.5. Quantitative analysis showed that Aqp1 expression decreased significantly in the placentae of Aqp1(-/+) and Aqp1(-/-) mice at E15.5, and that the AQP1 protein expression signals were detected weakly in the decidual and spongioblast layers. Our results demonstrate that Aqp1 is maternally expressed in the placenta, and that its deficiency resulted in placental abnormalities in the mouse. Aqp1 may have a specific inhibitory role in mouse placental development. These results provide new insights for the treatment of diseases relating to placental and embryonic development. PMID:27307076

  17. (1)H MRS: a potential biomarker of in utero placental function.

    PubMed

    Macnaught, Gillian; Gray, Calum; Walker, Jane; Simpson, Mary; Norman, Jane; Semple, Scott; Denison, Fiona

    2015-10-01

    The placenta is a temporary organ that is essential for a healthy pregnancy. It performs several important functions, including the transport of nutrients, the removal of waste products and the metabolism of certain substances. Placental disorders have been found to account for over 50% of stillbirths. Despite this, there are currently no methods available to directly and non-invasively assess placental function in utero. The primary aim of this pilot study was to investigate the use of (1)H MRS for this purpose. (1)H MRS offers the possibility to detect several placental metabolites, including choline, lipids and the amino acids glutamine and glutamate (Glx), which are vital to fetal development and placental function. Here, in utero placental spectra were acquired from nine small for gestational age (SGA) pregnancies, a cohort who are at increased risk of perinatal morbidity and mortality, and from nine healthy gestation-matched pregnancies. All subjects were between 26 and 39 weeks of gestation. Placenta Glx, choline and lipids at 1.3 and 0.9 ppm were quantified as amplitude ratios to that of intrinsic H2O. Wilcoxon signed rank tests indicated a significant difference in Glx/H2O (p = 0.024) between the two groups, but not in choline/H2O (p = 0.722) or in either lipid/H2O ratio (1.3 ppm, p = 0.813; 0.9 ppm, p = 0.058). This study has demonstrated that (1)H MRS has potential for the detection of placental metabolites in utero. This warrants further investigation as a tool for the monitoring of placental function. PMID:26313636

  18. Two digital video encoder circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eldon, John A.

    1992-11-01

    Central to `multimedia' image processing is the desire to encode computer graphics data into a standard television signal, complete with line, field, and color subcarrier synchronizing information. The numerous incompatibilities between television and computer display standards render this operation far less trivial than it sounds to anyone who hasn't worked with both types of signals. To simplify the task of encoding computer graphics signals into standard NTSC (North America and Japan) or PAL (most of Europe) television format for display, broadcast, or recording, TRW LSI Products Inc. has introduced the two newest members of it multimedia integrated circuit family, the TMC22090 and TMC22190 digital video encoders.

  19. High resolution modeling of direct ocean carbon sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Follows; John Marshall

    2004-04-22

    This work has followed two themes: (1) Developing and using the adjoint of the MIT ocean biogeochemistry model to examine the efficiency of carbon sequestration in a global configuration. We have demonstrated the power of the adjoint method for systematic ocean model sensitivity studies. We have shown that the relative efficiency of carbon sequestration in the Atlantic and Pacific basins changes with the period of interest. For decadal to centennial scales, the Pacific is more efficient. On longer timescales the Atlantic is more efficient . (2) We have developed and applied a high-resolution, North Atlantic circulation and tracer model to investigate the role of the mesoscale in controlling sequestration efficiency. We show that the mesoscale eddy field, and its explicit representation, significantly affects the estimated sequestration efficiency for local sources on the Eastern US seaboard.

  20. Robot-assisted segmental resection for intralobar pulmonary sequestration

    PubMed Central

    Konecna, J.; Karenovics, W.; Veronesi, G.; Triponez, F.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Pulmonary sequestration is a rare congenital malformation found most frequently as intralobar sequestration in the left lower lobe. Complete surgical resection is considered the treatment of choice. Presentation We present the case of a 29- year-old woman with intralobar pulmonary sequestration (ILS) diagnosed on chest CT. The sequestration was located in the left lower basal segments (segments 9 and 10) and was treated successfully by robot-assisted segmental resection without complication. Discussion Recently, robot- assisted thoracoscopic lobar resections started to be performed for ILS. The sublobar, segmental resection are reserved mainly for the resection of pulmonary nodules. We report a first case of robot-assisted anatomical segmental resection for ILS. Conclusion We highlight the role of robotic technology offering three-dimensional view and excellent dexterity enhancing the surgical performance and getting the surgical procedure more precise and safer. This could be useful especially in case of challenging sublobar resections. PMID:27061483

  1. Video-assisted thoracic surgery for pulmonary sequestration.

    PubMed

    Aydoğdu, Koray; Sayılır, Ebru; İncekara, Funda; Fındık, Göktürk; Kaya, Sadi

    2015-11-01

    Bronchopulmonary sequestration is a rare developmental abnormality. Most cases are asymptomatic and found incidentally. The definitive treatment for bronchopulmonary sequestration is surgical excision. An 18-year-old man was admitted to our clinic with longstanding cough, fever, and dense sputum. Chest computed tomography identified cystic bronchiectasis in common areas of the left lower lobe, and parenchymal destruction with air-fluid levels. A left lower lobectomy was performed via a video-thoracoscopic approach. PMID:25957092

  2. Investigations into Wetland Carbon Sequestration as Remediation for Global Warming

    SciTech Connect

    Thom, Ronald M.; Blanton, Susan L.; Borde, Amy B.; Williams, Greg D.; Woodruff, Dana L.; Huesemann, Michael H.; KW Nehring and SE Brauning

    2002-01-01

    Wetlands can potentially sequester vast amounts of carbon. However, over 50% of wetlands globally have been degraded or lost. Restoration of wetland systems may therefore result in increased sequestration of carbon. Preliminary results of our investigations into atmospheric carbon sequestration by restored coastal wetlands indicate that carbon can be sequestered in substantial quantities in the first 2-50 years after restoration of natural hydrology and sediment accretion processes.

  3. Maternal obesity is associated with a reduction in placental taurine transporter activity

    PubMed Central

    Ditchfield, A M; Desforges, M; Mills, T A; Glazier, J D; Wareing, M; Mynett, K; Sibley, C P; Greenwood, S L

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Maternal obesity increases the risk of poor pregnancy outcome including stillbirth, pre-eclampsia, fetal growth restriction and fetal overgrowth. These pregnancy complications are associated with dysfunctional syncytiotrophoblast, the transporting epithelium of the human placenta. Taurine, a β-amino acid with antioxidant and cytoprotective properties, has a role in syncytiotrophoblast development and function and is required for fetal growth and organ development. Taurine is conditionally essential in pregnancy and fetal tissues depend on uptake of taurine from maternal blood. We tested the hypothesis that taurine uptake into placental syncytiotrophoblast by the taurine transporter protein (TauT) is lower in obese women (body mass index (BMI)⩾30 kg m−2) than in women of ideal weight (BMI 18.5–24.9 kg m−2) and explored potential regulatory factors. Subjects/Methods: Placentas were collected from term (37–42-week gestation), uncomplicated, singleton pregnancies from women with BMI 19–49 kg m−2. TauT activity was measured as the Na+-dependent uptake of 3H-taurine into placental villous fragments. TauT expression in membrane-enriched placental samples was investigated by western blot. In vitro studies using placental villous explants examined whether leptin or IL-6, adipokines/cytokines that are elevated in maternal obesity, regulates TauT activity. Results: Placental TauT activity was significantly lower in obese women (BMI⩾30) than women of ideal weight (P<0.03) and inversely related to maternal BMI (19–49 kg m−2; P<0.05; n=61). There was no difference in TauT expression between placentas of ideal weight and obese class III (BMI⩾40) subjects. Long-term exposure (48 h) of placental villous explants to leptin or IL-6 did not affect TauT activity. Conclusions: Placental TauT activity at term is negatively related to maternal BMI. We propose that the reduction in placental TauT activity in maternal obesity

  4. Animal Models to Study Placental Development and Function throughout Normal and Dysfunctional Human Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Grigsby, Peta L.

    2016-01-01

    Abnormalities of placental development and function are known to underlie many pathologies of pregnancy, including spontaneous preterm birth, fetal growth restriction and preeclampsia. A growing body of evidence also underscores the importance of placental dysfunction in the lifelong health of both mother and offspring. However, our knowledge regarding placental structure and function throughout pregnancy remains limited. Understanding the temporal growth and functionality of the human placenta throughout the entirety of gestation is important if we are to gain a better understanding of placental dysfunction. The utilization of new technologies and imaging techniques that could enable safe monitoring of placental growth and function in vivo has become a major focus area for the National Institutes of Child Health & Human Development, as evident by the establishment of the “Human Placenta Project”. Many of the objectives of the Human Placenta Project will necessitate pre-clinical studies and testing in appropriately designed animal models that can be readily translated to the clinical setting. This review will describe the advantages and limitations of relevant animals such as the guinea pig, sheep and non-human primate models that have been used to study the role of the placenta in fetal growth disorders, preeclampsia or other maternal diseases during pregnancy. PMID:26752715

  5. Placental weight and foetal growth rate as predictors of ischaemic heart disease in a Swedish cohort.

    PubMed

    Heshmati, A; Koupil, I

    2014-06-01

    Studies on placental size and cardiovascular disease have shown inconsistent results. We followed 10,503 men and women born in Uppsala, Sweden, 1915-1929 from 1964 to 2008 to assess whether birth characteristics, including placental weight and placenta/birth weight ratio, were predictive of future ischaemic heart disease (IHD). Adjustments were made for birth cohort, age, sex, mother's parity, birth weight, gestational age and social class at birth. Placental weight and birth weight were negatively associated with IHD. The effect of placental weight on IHD was stronger in individuals from medium social class at birth and in those with low education. Men and women from non-manual social class at birth had the lowest risk for IHD as adults. We conclude that low foetal growth rate rather than placental weight was more predictive of IHD in the Swedish cohort. However, the strong effect of social class at birth on risk for IHD did not appear to be mediated by foetal growth rate. PMID:24901654

  6. A dating success story: genomes and fossils converge on placental mammal origins

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The timing of the placental mammal radiation has been a source of contention for decades. The fossil record of mammals extends over 200 million years, but no confirmed placental mammal fossils are known prior to 64 million years ago, which is approximately 1.5 million years after the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) mass extinction that saw the end of non-avian dinosaurs. Thus, it came as a great surprise when the first published molecular clock studies suggested that placental mammals originated instead far back in the Cretaceous, in some cases doubling divergence estimates based on fossils. In the last few decades, more than a hundred new genera of Mesozoic mammals have been discovered, and molecular divergence studies have grown from simple clock-like models applied to a few genes to sophisticated analyses of entire genomes. Yet, molecular and fossil-based divergence estimates for placental mammal origins have remained remote, with knock-on effects for macro-scale reconstructions of mammal evolution. A few recent molecular studies have begun to converge with fossil-based estimates, and a new phylogenomic study in particular shows that the palaeontological record was mostly correct; most placental mammal orders diversified after the K-Pg mass extinction. While a small gap still remains for Late Cretaceous supraordinal divergences, this study has significantly improved the congruence between molecular and palaeontological data and heralds a broader integration of these fields of evolutionary science. PMID:22883371

  7. Human placental cell and tissue uptake of doxorubicin and its liposomal formulations.

    PubMed

    Soininen, Suvi K; Repo, Jenni K; Karttunen, Vesa; Auriola, Seppo; Vähäkangas, Kirsi H; Ruponen, Marika

    2015-12-01

    The anticancer drug doxorubicin and its liposomal formulations are in clinical use, doxorubicin also during pregnancy. However, little is known about how doxorubicin and its liposomal formulations are taken up by placental cells and whether they can cross human placenta. We therefore investigated quantitative cellular uptake and toxicity of doxorubicin and its two liposomal formulations, pH-sensitive liposomal doxorubicin (L-DOX) and commercially available pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PL-DOX), in human placental choriocarcinoma (BeWo) cells. PL-DOX showed significantly lower cellular uptake and toxicity compared with doxorubicin and L-DOX. In preliminary studies with human placental perfusion, PL-DOX did not cross the placenta at all in 4h, whereas doxorubicin and L-DOX crossed the placenta at low levels (max 12% of the dose). Furthermore, PL-DOX did not accumulate in placental tissue while doxorubicin did (up to 70% of the dose). Surface pegylation probably explains the low placental cell and tissue uptake of PL-DOX. Formulation of doxorubicin thus seems to enable a decrease of fetal exposure. PMID:26383631

  8. Animal Models to Study Placental Development and Function throughout Normal and Dysfunctional Human Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Grigsby, Peta L

    2016-01-01

    Abnormalities of placental development and function are known to underlie many pathologies of pregnancy, including spontaneous preterm birth, fetal growth restriction, and preeclampsia. A growing body of evidence also underscores the importance of placental dysfunction in the lifelong health of both mother and offspring. However, our knowledge regarding placental structure and function throughout pregnancy remains limited. Understanding the temporal growth and functionality of the human placenta throughout the entirety of gestation is important if we are to gain a better understanding of placental dysfunction. The utilization of new technologies and imaging techniques that could enable safe monitoring of placental growth and function in vivo has become a major focus area for the National Institutes of Child Health and Human Development, as evident by the establishment of the "Human Placenta Project." Many of the objectives of the Human Placenta Project will necessitate preclinical studies and testing in appropriately designed animal models that can be readily translated to the clinical setting. This review will describe the advantages and limitations of relevant animals such as the guinea pig, sheep, and nonhuman primate models that have been used to study the role of the placenta in fetal growth disorders, preeclampsia, or other maternal diseases during pregnancy. PMID:26752715

  9. The placental pursuit for an adequate oxidant balance between the mother and the fetus

    PubMed Central

    Herrera, Emilio A.; Krause, Bernardo; Ebensperger, German; Reyes, Roberto V.; Casanello, Paola; Parra-Cordero, Mauro; Llanos, Anibal J.

    2014-01-01

    The placenta is the exchange organ that regulates metabolic processes between the mother and her developing fetus. The adequate function of this organ is clearly vital for a physiologic gestational process and a healthy baby as final outcome. The umbilico-placental vasculature has the capacity to respond to variations in the materno-fetal milieu. Depending on the intensity and the extensity of the insult, these responses may be immediate-, mediate-, and long-lasting, deriving in potential morphostructural and functional changes later in life. These adjustments usually compensate the initial insults, but occasionally may switch to long-lasting remodeling and dysfunctional processes, arising maladaptation. One of the most challenging conditions in modern perinatology is hypoxia and oxidative stress during development, both disorders occurring in high-altitude and in low-altitude placental insufficiency. Hypoxia and oxidative stress may induce endothelial dysfunction and thus, reduction in the perfusion of the placenta and restriction in the fetal growth and development. This Review will focus on placental responses to hypoxic conditions, usually related with high-altitude and placental insufficiency, deriving in oxidative stress and vascular disorders, altering fetal and maternal health. Although day-to-day clinical practice, basic and clinical research are clearly providing evidence of the severe impact of oxygen deficiency and oxidative stress establishment during pregnancy, further research on umbilical and placental vascular function under these conditions is badly needed to clarify the myriad of questions still unsettled. PMID:25009498

  10. The effects of maternal exercise on fetal oxygenation and feto-placental growth.

    PubMed

    Clapp, James F

    2003-09-22

    Sustained bouts of maternal exercise during pregnancy cause an acute reduction in oxygen and nutrient delivery to the placental site. The decreased flow also initiates a slight fall in intervillous and fetal pO2 which initiates a fetal sympathetic response. This, coupled with hemoconcentration and improved placental perfusion balance, maintains fetal tissue perfusion and oxygen uptake. Exercise training during pregnancy (regular bouts of sustained exercise) increases resting maternal (and perhaps fetal) plasma volume, intervillous space blood volume, cardiac output and placental function. These changes buffer the acute reductions in oxygen and nutrient delivery during exercise and probably increase 24 h nutrient delivery to the placental site. Thus, the effect of any given exercise regimen on fetal growth and size at birth is dependent on the type, frequency, intensity and duration of the exercise as well as the time point in the pregnancy when the exercise is performed. Maternal carbohydrate intake is yet another modifying factor. Beginning a moderate exercise regimen increases both anatomic markers of placental function and size at birth while maintaining a rigorous exercise regimen throughout pregnancy selectively reduces growth of the fetal fat organ and size at birth. Likewise, decreasing exercise performance in late-pregnancy increases size at birth while increasing exercise performance decreases it. Finally, the infants born of exercising women who eat carbohydrates which elevate 24 h blood glucose levels are large at birth irrespective of exercise performance. PMID:12965094

  11. A role for GPR55 in human placental venous endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Kremshofer, Julia; Siwetz, Monika; Berghold, Veronika M.; Lang, Ingrid; Huppertz, Berthold; Gauster, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Endocannabinoids and their G protein-coupled receptors have been suggested to play a key role in human pregnancy, by regulating important aspects such as implantation, decidualization, placentation and labour. G protein-coupled receptor 55 (GPR55) was previously postulated to be another cannabinoid receptor, since specific cannabinoids were shown to act independently of the classical cannabinoid receptors CB1 or CB2. Current knowledge about GPR55 expression and function in human placenta is very limited and motivated us to evaluate human placental GPR55 expression in relation to other human peripheral tissues and to analyze spatiotemporal GPR55 expression in human placenta. Gene expression analysis revealed low GPR55 levels in human placenta, when compared to spleen and lung, the organs showing highest GPR55 expression. Moreover, expression analysis showed 5.8 fold increased placental GPR55 expression at term compared to first trimester. Immunohistochemistry located GPR55 solely at the fetal endothelium of first trimester and term placenta. qPCR and immunocytochemistry consistently confirmed GPR55 expression in isolated primary placental arterial and venous endothelial cells. Incubation with L-α-lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI), the specific and functional ligand for GPR55, at a concentration of 1 μM, significantly enhanced migration of venous, but not arterial endothelial cells. LPI enhanced migration was inhibited by the GPR55 antagonist O-1918, suggesting a role of the LPI-GPR55 axis in placental venous endothelium function. PMID:25869640

  12. Placental Insufficiency Associated with Loss of Cited1 Causes Renal Medullary Dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Sparrow, Duncan B.; Boyle, Scott C.; Sams, Rebecca S.; Mazuruk, Bogdan; Zhang, Li; Moeckel, Gilbert W.; Dunwoodie, Sally L.; de Caestecker, Mark P.

    2009-01-01

    A number of studies have shown that placental insufficiency affects embryonic patterning of the kidney and leads to a decreased number of functioning nephrons in adulthood; however, there is circumstantial evidence that placental insufficiency may also affect renal medullary growth, which could account for cases of unexplained renal medullary dysplasia and for abnormalities in renal function among infants who had experienced intrauterine growth retardation. We observed that mice with late gestational placental insufficiency associated with genetic loss of Cited1 expression in the placenta had renal medullary dysplasia. This was not caused by lower urinary tract obstruction or by defects in branching of the ureteric bud during early nephrogenesis but was associated with decreased tissue oxygenation and increased apoptosis in the expanding renal medulla. Loss of placental Cited1 was required for Cited1 mutants to develop renal dysplasia, and this was not dependent on alterations in embryonic Cited1 expression. Taken together, these findings suggest that renal medullary dysplasia in Cited1 mutant mice is a direct consequence of decreased tissue oxygenation resulting from placental insufficiency. PMID:19297558

  13. A role for GPR55 in human placental venous endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Kremshofer, Julia; Siwetz, Monika; Berghold, Veronika M; Lang, Ingrid; Huppertz, Berthold; Gauster, Martin

    2015-07-01

    Endocannabinoids and their G protein-coupled receptors have been suggested to play a key role in human pregnancy, by regulating important aspects such as implantation, decidualization, placentation and labor. G protein-coupled receptor 55 (GPR55) was previously postulated to be another cannabinoid receptor, since specific cannabinoids were shown to act independently of the classical cannabinoid receptors CB1 or CB2. Current knowledge about GPR55 expression and function in human placenta is very limited and motivated us to evaluate human placental GPR55 expression in relation to other human peripheral tissues and to analyze spatiotemporal GPR55 expression in human placenta. Gene expression analysis revealed low GPR55 levels in human placenta, when compared to spleen and lung, the organs showing highest GPR55 expression. Moreover, expression analysis showed 5.8 fold increased placental GPR55 expression at term compared to first trimester. Immunohistochemistry located GPR55 solely at the fetal endothelium of first trimester and term placentas. qPCR and immunocytochemistry consistently confirmed GPR55 expression in isolated primary placental arterial and venous endothelial cells. Incubation with L-α-lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI), the specific and functional ligand for GPR55, at a concentration of 1 µM, significantly enhanced migration of venous, but not arterial endothelial cells. LPI-enhanced migration was inhibited by the GPR55 antagonist O-1918, suggesting a role of the LPI-GPR55 axis in placental venous endothelium function. PMID:25869640

  14. Sirh7/Ldoc1 knockout mice exhibit placental P4 overproduction and delayed parturition.

    PubMed

    Naruse, Mie; Ono, Ryuichi; Irie, Masahito; Nakamura, Kenji; Furuse, Tamio; Hino, Toshiaki; Oda, Kanako; Kashimura, Misho; Yamada, Ikuko; Wakana, Shigeharu; Yokoyama, Minesuke; Ishino, Fumitoshi; Kaneko-Ishino, Tomoko

    2014-12-01

    Sirh7/Ldoc1 [sushi-ichi retrotransposon homolog 7/leucine zipper, downregulated in cancer 1, also called mammalian retrotransposon-derived 7 (Mart7)] is one of the newly acquired genes from LTR retrotransposons in eutherian mammals. Interestingly, Sirh7/Ldoc1 knockout (KO) mice exhibited abnormal placental cell differentiation/maturation, leading to an overproduction of placental progesterone (P4) and placental lactogen 1 (PL1) from trophoblast giant cells (TGCs). The placenta is an organ that is essential for mammalian viviparity and plays a major endocrinological role during pregnancy in addition to providing nutrients and oxygen to the fetus. P4 is an essential hormone in the preparation and maintenance of pregnancy and the determination of the timing of parturition in mammals; however, the biological significance of placental P4 in rodents is not properly recognized. Here, we demonstrate that mouse placentas do produce P4 in mid-gestation, coincident with a temporal reduction in ovarian P4, suggesting that it plays a role in the protection of the conceptuses specifically in this period. Pregnant Sirh7/Ldoc1 knockout females also displayed delayed parturition associated with a low pup weaning rate. All these results suggest that Sirh7/Ldoc1 has undergone positive selection during eutherian evolution as a eutherian-specific acquired gene because it impacts reproductive fitness via the regulation of placental endocrine function. PMID:25468940

  15. Prevalence of gestational, placental and congenital malaria in north-west Colombia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The frequency of pregnancy-associated malaria is increasingly being documented in American countries. In Colombia, with higher frequency of Plasmodium vivax over Plasmodium falciparum infection, recent reports confirmed gestational malaria as a serious public health problem. Thick smear examination is the gold standard to diagnose malaria in endemic settings, but in recent years, molecular diagnostic methods have contributed to elucidate the dimension of the problem of gestational malaria. The study was aimed at exploring the prevalence of gestational, placental and congenital malaria in women who delivered at the local hospitals of north-west Colombia, between June 2008 and April 2011. Methods A group of 129 parturient women was selected to explore the prevalence of gestational, placental and congenital malaria in a descriptive, prospective and transversal (prevalence) design. Diagnosis was based on the simultaneous application of two independent diagnostic tests: microscopy of thick blood smears and a polymerase chain reaction assay (PCR). Results The prevalence of gestational malaria (thick smear /PCR) was 9.1%/14.0%; placental malaria was 3.3%/16.5% and congenital malaria was absent. A history of gestational malaria during the current pregnancy was significantly associated with gestational malaria at delivery. Plasmodium vivax caused 65% of cases of gestational malaria, whereas P. falciparum caused most cases of placental malaria. Conclusions Gestational and placental malaria are a serious problem in the region, but the risk of congenital malaria is low. A history of malaria during pregnancy may be a practical indicator of infection at delivery. PMID:24053184

  16. The placentation of eulipotyphla-reconstructing a morphotype of the Mammalian placenta.

    PubMed

    Ferner, Kirsten; Siniza, Swetlana; Zeller, Ulrich

    2014-10-01

    Placentation determines the developmental status of the neonate, which can be considered as the most vulnerable stage in the mammalian life cycle. In this respect, the different evolutionary and ecological adaptations of marsupial and placental mammals have most likely been associated with the different reproductive strategies of the two therian clades. The morphotypes of marsupial and placental neonates, as well as the placental stem species pattern of Marsupialia, have already been reconstructed. To contribute to a better understanding of the evolution of Placentalia, a histological and ultrastructural investigation of the placenta in three representatives of Eulipotyphla, that is, core insectivores, has been carried out in this study. We studied the Musk shrew (Suncus murinus), the four-toed hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris), and the Iberian mole (Talpa occidentalis). As a result, a eulipotyphlan placental morphotype consisting of a compact and invasive placenta was reconstructed. This supports the widely accepted hypothesis that the stem lineage of Placentalia is characterized by an invasive, either endothelio- or hemochorial placenta. Evolutionary transformations toward a diffuse, noninvasive placenta occurred in the stem lineages of lower primates and cetartiodactyles and were associated with prolonged gestation and the production of few and highly precocial neonates. Compared to the choriovitelline placenta of Marsupialia, the chorioallantoic placenta of Placentalia allows for a more intimate contact and is associated with more advanced neonates. PMID:24797275

  17. Sirh7/Ldoc1 knockout mice exhibit placental P4 overproduction and delayed parturition

    PubMed Central

    Naruse, Mie; Ono, Ryuichi; Irie, Masahito; Nakamura, Kenji; Furuse, Tamio; Hino, Toshiaki; Oda, Kanako; Kashimura, Misho; Yamada, Ikuko; Wakana, Shigeharu; Yokoyama, Minesuke; Ishino, Fumitoshi; Kaneko-Ishino, Tomoko

    2014-01-01

    Sirh7/Ldoc1 [sushi-ichi retrotransposon homolog 7/leucine zipper, downregulated in cancer 1, also called mammalian retrotransposon-derived 7 (Mart7)] is one of the newly acquired genes from LTR retrotransposons in eutherian mammals. Interestingly, Sirh7/Ldoc1 knockout (KO) mice exhibited abnormal placental cell differentiation/maturation, leading to an overproduction of placental progesterone (P4) and placental lactogen 1 (PL1) from trophoblast giant cells (TGCs). The placenta is an organ that is essential for mammalian viviparity and plays a major endocrinological role during pregnancy in addition to providing nutrients and oxygen to the fetus. P4 is an essential hormone in the preparation and maintenance of pregnancy and the determination of the timing of parturition in mammals; however, the biological significance of placental P4 in rodents is not properly recognized. Here, we demonstrate that mouse placentas do produce P4 in mid-gestation, coincident with a temporal reduction in ovarian P4, suggesting that it plays a role in the protection of the conceptuses specifically in this period. Pregnant Sirh7/Ldoc1 knockout females also displayed delayed parturition associated with a low pup weaning rate. All these results suggest that Sirh7/Ldoc1 has undergone positive selection during eutherian evolution as a eutherian-specific acquired gene because it impacts reproductive fitness via the regulation of placental endocrine function. PMID:25468940

  18. Placental Metal Concentrations in Relation to Maternal and Infant Toenails in a U.S. Cohort.

    PubMed

    Punshon, Tracy; Li, Zhigang; Marsit, Carmen J; Jackson, Brian P; Baker, Emily R; Karagas, Margaret R

    2016-02-01

    Metal contaminants cross the placenta, presenting a heightened risk of perturbing fetal development. Information about placental concentrations and transfer of multiple potentially toxic metals from low to moderate exposure is lacking. We measured concentrations of Cd, Pb, Hg, Mn, Se, and Zn in 750 placentas collected from women enrolled in the New Hampshire Birth Cohort Study and examined the correlation between elements, and profiles of potentially toxic metals (Cd, Pb, Hg, and Mn) stratified by nutrient concentrations (Zn and Se) using principal components analyses. We further examined the indirect effects of maternal metal concentrations on infant metal concentrations through placental metal concentrations using structural equation models. Placental metal concentrations were all correlated, particularly Zn and Mn, and Zn and Cd, and the principal component of metals differed by stratum of high versus low Zn and Se. Associations were observed between placenta and maternal toenail Se (β = 63.49; P < 0.0001) and Pb (β = 0.90; P < 0.0001) but not other metals. Structural equation models did not indicate any statistically significant indirect effects through placental metal concentrations. Placental metal concentrations may represent a distinct biomarker of metal exposure and adverse health impacts to the fetus, particularly those stemming from the placenta. PMID:26727403

  19. Recovery Act: Geologic Sequestration Training and Research

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, Peter; Esposito, Richard; Theodorou, Konstantinos; Hannon, Michael; Lamplugh, Aaron; Ellison, Kirk

    2013-06-30

    Work under the project entitled "Geologic Sequestration Training and Research," was performed by the University of Alabama at Birmingham and Southern Company from December 1, 2009, to June 30, 2013. The emphasis was on training of students and faculty through research on topics central to further development, demonstration, and commercialization of carbon capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS). The project had the following components: (1) establishment of a laboratory for measurement of rock properties, (2) evaluation of the sealing capacity of caprocks, (3) evaluation of porosity, permeability, and storage capacity of reservoirs, (4) simulation of CO{sub 2} migration and trapping in storage reservoirs and seepage through seal layers, (5) education and training of students through independent research on rock properties and reservoir simulation, and (6) development of an advanced undergraduate/graduate level course on coal combustion and gasification, climate change, and carbon sequestration. Four graduate students and one undergraduate student participated in the project. Two were awarded Ph.D. degrees for their work, the first in December 2010 and the second in August 2013. A third graduate student has proposed research on an advanced technique for measurement of porosity and permeability, and has been admitted to candidacy for the Ph.D. The fourth graduate student is preparing his proposal for research on CCUS and solid waste management. The undergraduate student performed experimental measurements on caprock and reservoir rock samples and received his B.S.M.E. degree in May 2012. The "Caprock Integrity Laboratory," established with support from the present project, is fully functional and equipped for measurement of porosity, permeability, minimum capillary displacement pressure, and effective permeability to gas in the presence of wetting phases. Measurements are made at ambient temperature and under reservoir conditions, including supercritical CO{sub 2

  20. Herbivore-induced resource sequestration in plants: why bother?

    PubMed

    Orians, Colin M; Thorn, Alexandra; Gómez, Sara

    2011-09-01

    Herbivores can cause numerous changes in primary plant metabolism. Recent studies using radioisotopes, for example, have found that insect herbivores and related cues can induce faster export from leaves and roots and greater partitioning into tissues inaccessible to foraging herbivores. This process, termed induced resource sequestration, is being proposed as an important response of plants to cope with herbivory. Here, we review the evidence for resource sequestration and suggest that associated allocation and ecological costs may limit the benefit of this response because resources allocated to storage are not immediately available to other plant functions or may be consumed by other enemies. We then present a conceptual model that describes the conditions under which benefits might outweigh costs of induced resource sequestration. Benefits and costs are discussed in the context of differences in plant life-history traits and biotic and abiotic conditions, and new testable hypotheses are presented to guide future research. We predict that intrinsic factors related to life history, ontogeny and phenology will alter patterns of induced sequestration. We also predict that induced sequestration will depend on certain external factors: abiotic conditions, types of herbivores, and trophic interactions. We hope the concepts presented here will stimulate more focused research on the ecological and evolutionary costs and benefits of herbivore-induced resource sequestration. PMID:21431939

  1. Integrating terrestrial sequestration into a greenhouse gas management plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Joel R.; Sampson, Neil

    Terrestrial sequestration has the potential to contribute to national and global greenhouse gas management strategies. However, spatial and temporal variability in sequestration potential and in the implementation of sequestering technologies introduces serious questions about how to resolve uncertainties and raise the credibility of terrestrial sequestration. Carbon flux in terrestrial ecosystems without land use change generally is less than one ton CO2e/ha and driven primarily by precipitation. Land use and management changes are relatively common and are driven by economics and social considerations both in the private and public sectors. Implementing a credible greenhouse gas management program that integrates terrestrial sequestration along with other sources and sinks requires a systematic approach to identify and quantitatively monitor changes in the drivers of terrestrial sequestration. A credible terrestrial sequestration monitoring program will require close attention to integrating direct measurement of soils and vegetation, statistically valid scaling, remote sensing, and computer modeling. Predicting changes at a level of confidence useful to policy development will also require an understanding of how land owners and managers respond to private sector price signals and government conservation initiatives.

  2. Guide to CO{sub 2} capture, sequestration, and storage

    SciTech Connect

    Drazga, B.

    2007-02-15

    The report addresses the probability of incorporating carbon sequestration (CS) as a viable market mechanism for sustainable development. The approach includes analyzing the utility of carbon sequestration projects as a mechanism for promoting sustainable forestry practices and environmental preservation, as well as addressing stakeholder interests in the implementation of these projects. The report provides an overview and conceptual framework of the issues and the problems associated with sequestration projects in general; and discusses the economic and policy constraints and the challenges associated with the implementation of these projects. It examines the methodology currently being used in this area and address the problems associated with leakages specific to forest-based carbon sequestration projects. The report gives a conceptual framework of the topic, and provides a detailed analysis of the linkages between carbon and climate change and the issues associated with the current treaties, specifically the Kyoto Protocol. The report discusses the problem of leakage, compellance versus volunteerism, and the feasibility of the market approach to carbon sequestration. The report also examines the flaws involved with the current approach and identifies some of the early success stories. The report uses the Bolivia Noelle Kempff Climate Action model as a case study of a large-scale carbon project at work in a developing country. It examines what some countries are currently doing to link the various issues pertaining to carbon sequestration and sustainable development.

  3. Serial position encoding of signs.

    PubMed

    Miozzo, Michele; Petrova, Anna; Fischer-Baum, Simon; Peressotti, Francesca

    2016-09-01

    Reduced short-term memory (STM) capacity has been reported for sign as compared to speech when items have to be recalled in a specific order. This difference has been attributed to a more precise and efficient serial position encoding in verbal STM (used for speech) than visuo-spatial STM (used for sign). We tested in the present investigation whether the reduced STM capacity with signs stems from a lack of positional encoding available in verbal STM. Error analyses reported in prior studies have revealed that positions are defined in verbal STM by distance from both the start and the end of the sequence (both-edges positional encoding scheme). Our analyses of the errors made by deaf participants with finger-spelled letters revealed that the both-edges positional encoding scheme underlies the STM representation of signs. These results indicate that the cause of the STM disadvantage is not the type of positional encoding but rather the difficulties in binding an item in visuo-spatial STM to its specific position in the sequence. Both-edges positional encoding scheme could be specific of sign, since it has not been found in visuo-spatial STM tasks conducted with hearing participants. PMID:27244095

  4. Photobiological hydrogen production and carbon dioxide sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berberoglu, Halil

    Photobiological hydrogen production is an alternative to thermochemical and electrolytic technologies with the advantage of carbon dioxide sequestration. However, it suffers from low solar to hydrogen energy conversion efficiency due to limited light transfer, mass transfer, and nutrient medium composition. The present study aims at addressing these limitations and can be divided in three parts: (1) experimental measurements of the radiation characteristics of hydrogen producing and carbon dioxide consuming microorganisms, (2) solar radiation transfer modeling and simulation in photobioreactors, and (3) parametric experiments of photobiological hydrogen production and carbon dioxide sequestration. First, solar radiation transfer in photobioreactors containing microorganisms and bubbles was modeled using the radiative transport equation (RTE) and solved using the modified method of characteristics. The study concluded that Beer-Lambert's law gives inaccurate results and anisotropic scattering must be accounted for to predict the local irradiance inside a photobioreactor. The need for accurate measurement of the complete set of radiation characteristics of microorganisms was established. Then, experimental setup and analysis methods for measuring the complete set of radiation characteristics of microorganisms have been developed and successfully validated experimentally. A database of the radiation characteristics of representative microorganisms have been created including the cyanobacteria Anabaena variabilis, the purple non-sulfur bacteria Rhodobacter sphaeroides and the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii along with its three genetically engineered strains. This enabled, for the first time, quantitative assessment of the effect of genetic engineering on the radiation characteristics of microorganisms. In addition, a parametric experimental study has been performed to model the growth, CO2 consumption, and H 2 production of Anabaena variabilis as functions of

  5. Carbon Sequestration: Enhanced Evaluation of Uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNeish, J. A.; Wang, Y.; Dewars, T.; Hadgu, T.; Jove Colon, C. F.; Sun, A.

    2010-12-01

    Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) is an option to mitigate impacts of atmospheric carbon emission. Initial studies indicate that for long-term geologic storage of carbon to be effective, the leakage rates must be less than 0.1 - 0.01%/yr. Recent efforts have been made to apply the existing probabilistic performance assessment (PA) methodology developed for deep nuclear waste geologic repositories to evaluate the effectiveness of subsurface carbon storage. However, to address the most pressing management, regulatory, and scientific concerns with subsurface carbon storage (CS), the existing PA methodology and tools must be enhanced and upgraded. For example, in the evaluation of a nuclear waste repository, a PA model is essentially a forward model that samples input parameters and runs multiple realizations to estimate future consequences and determine important parameters driving the system performance. In the CS evaluation, however, a PA model must be able to run both forward and inverse calculations to support real-time site monitoring as an integral part of the design and operational phases. The monitoring data must be continually fused into the PA model through model inversion and parameter estimation. Model calculations will in turn guide the design of optimal monitoring and carbon-injection strategies (e.g., in terms of monitoring techniques, locations, and time intervals). This study formulates the advanced PA concept for CS systems and establishes a prototype PA framework for the concept. The new PA framework includes a built-in optimization capability for model parameterization and monitoring system design. The capabilities of this framework will be demonstrated with a hypothetical CS system. The work lays the foundation for the development of a new generation of PA tools for effective management of CS activities. The work supports energy security and climate change/adaptation by furthering the capability to effectively manage proposed carbon capture

  6. Carbon Sequestration on Surface Mine Lands

    SciTech Connect

    Donald H. Graves; Christopher Barton; Bon Jun Koo; Richard Sweigard; Richard Warner

    2004-11-30

    The first quarter of 2004 was dedicated to tree planting activities in two locations in Kentucky. During the first year of this project there was not available mine land to plant in the Hazard area, so 107 acres were planted in the Martin County mine location. This year 120 acres were planted in the Hazard area to compensate for the prior year and an additional 57 acres were planted on Peabody properties in western Kentucky. Additional sets of special plots were established on each of these areas that contained 4800 seedlings each for carbon sequestration demonstrations. Plantings were also conducted to continue compaction and water quality studies on the newly established areas as well as continual measurements of the first year's plantings. Total plantings on this project now amount to 357 acres containing 245,960 seedlings. During the second quarter of this year monitoring systems were established for all the new research areas. Weather data pertinent to the research as well as hydrology and water quality monitoring continues to be conducted on all areas. Studies established to assess specific questions pertaining to carbon flux and the invasion of the vegetation by small mammals are being quantified. Experimental practices initiated with this research project will eventually allow for the planting on long steep slopes with loose grading systems and allow mountain top removal areas to be constructed with loose spoil with no grading of the final layers of rooting material when establishing trees for the final land use designation. Monitoring systems have been installed to measure treatment effects on both above and below ground carbon and nitrogen pools in the planting areas. Soil and tissue samples were collected from both years planting and analyses were conducted in the laboratory. Examination of decomposition and heterotropic respiration on carbon cycling in the reforestation plots continued during the reporting period. Entire planted trees were extracted

  7. Placental lipases in pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM).

    PubMed

    Barrett, Helen L; Kubala, Marta H; Scholz Romero, Katherin; Denny, Kerina J; Woodruff, Trent M; McIntyre, H David; Callaway, Leonie K; Nitert, Marloes Dekker

    2014-01-01

    Infants of women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are more likely to be born large for gestational age with a higher percentage body fat. Elevated maternal lipids may contribute to this. Placental lipases such as lipoprotein lipase (LPL), endothelial lipase (EL) and hormone sensitive lipase (HSL) are involved in transferring lipids from mother to fetus. Previous studies of expression of these lipases in placentae in women with diabetes in pregnancy have reported divergent results. Intracellular lipases such as adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), and HSL are central to lipid droplet metabolism. The activities of these lipases are both influenced by Perilipin 1, and ATGL is also activated by a co-factor comparative gene identification-58 (CGI-58) and inhibited by G0/G1 switch gene 2 (GS02). None of these modifying factors or ATGL have been examined previously in placenta. The purpose of this study was therefore to examine the expression of ATGL, HSL, LPL, EL, as well as Perilipin 1, GS02 and CGI-58 in term pregnancies complicated by GDM. mRNA and protein expression of the lipases were measured in placentae from 17 women with GDM and 17 normoglycaemic pregnancies, matched for maternal BMI and gestational age of delivery. ATGL mRNA expression was increased and HSL mRNA expression reduced in placentae from GDM although there was no differences in protein expression of any of the lipases. All lipases were localised to trophoblasts and endothelial cells. The expression of Perilipin 1 and CGI-58 mRNA was increased and GS02 not altered in GDM. These results suggest that there is no difference in expression in these four lipases between GDM and normoglycaemic placentae, and therefore altered lipid transfer via these lipases does not contribute to large for gestational age in infants of women with GDM. PMID:25118138

  8. Cholinergic urethral brush cells are widespread throughout placental mammals.

    PubMed

    Deckmann, Klaus; Krasteva-Christ, Gabriela; Rafiq, Amir; Herden, Christine; Wichmann, Judy; Knauf, Sascha; Nassenstein, Christina; Grevelding, Christoph G; Dorresteijn, Adriaan; Chubanov, Vladimir; Gudermann, Thomas; Bschleipfer, Thomas; Kummer, Wolfgang

    2015-11-01

    We previously identified a population of cholinergic epithelial cells in murine, human and rat urethrae that exhibits a structural marker of brush cells (villin) and expresses components of the canonical taste transduction signaling cascade (α-gustducin, phospholipase Cβ2 (PLCβ2), transient receptor potential cation channel melanostatin 5 (TRPM5)). These cells serve as sentinels, monitoring the chemical composition of the luminal content for potentially hazardous compounds such as bacteria, and initiate protective reflexes counteracting further ingression. In order to elucidate cross-species conservation of the urethral chemosensory pathway we investigated the occurrence and molecular make-up of urethral brush cells in placental mammals. We screened 11 additional species, at least one in each of the five mammalian taxonomic units primates, carnivora, perissodactyla, artiodactyla and rodentia, for immunohistochemical labeling of the acetylcholine synthesizing enzyme, choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), villin, and taste cascade components (α-gustducin, PLCβ2, TRPM5). Corresponding to findings in previously investigated species, urethral epithelial cells with brush cell shape were immunolabeled in all 11 mammals. In 8 species, immunoreactivities against all marker proteins and ChAT were observed, and double-labeling immunofluorescence confirmed the cholinergic nature of villin-positive and chemosensory (TRPM5-positive) cells. In cat and horse, these cells were not labeled by the ChAT antiserum used in this study, and unspecific reactions of the secondary antiserum precluded conclusions about ChAT-expression in the bovine epithelium. These data indicate that urethral brush cells are widespread throughout the mammalian kingdom and evolved not later than about 64.5millionyears ago. PMID:26044348

  9. IFPA Meeting 2013 Workshop Report III: maternal placental immunological interactions, novel determinants of trophoblast cell fate, dual ex vivo perfusion of the human placenta.

    PubMed

    Abumaree, M H; Brownbill, P; Burton, G; Castillo, C; Chamley, L; Croy, B A; Drewlo, S; Dunk, C; Girard, S; Hansson, S; Jones, S; Jurisicova, A; Lewis, R; Letarte, M; Parast, M; Pehrson, C; Rappolee, D; Schneider, H; Tannetta, D; Varmuza, S; Wadsack, C; Wallace, A E; Zenerino, C; Lash, G E

    2014-02-01

    Workshops are an important part of the IFPA annual meeting as they allow for discussion of specialised topics. At IFPA meeting 2013 there were twelve themed workshops, three of which are summarized in this report. These workshops related to various aspects of placental biology but collectively covered areas of placental function, cell turnover and immunology: 1) immunology; 2) novel determinants of placental cell fate; 3) dual perfusion of human placental tissue. PMID:24321780

  10. Uterine and placental interactions during necrotic tip development in the pig from day 22 to 42 of gestation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Placental development is important for fetal development and nutrient and waste transport. The pig, a litter bearing animal, has an epitheliochorial placenta that forms a noninvasive attachment with the uterine endometrium. Insufficient placental development is one of the primary causes of fetal dea...

  11. Clustering and classical analysis of clinical and placental phenotypes in fetal growth restriction and constitutional fetal smallness.

    PubMed

    Stanek, Jerzy; Biesiada, Jacek

    2016-06-01

    This study aims to determine whether placental examination can be used to distinguish between pathologic fetal growth restriction (FGR) and constitutional fetal smallness. Data were extracted from a clinicoplacental database of high risk pregnancies during the period 1994-2013. These data were used to compare the 590 consecutive cases having birth weights below the 10th percentile with the 5201 remaining cases having gestational ages ≥20 weeks. The authors analyzed 20 clinical and 46 placental phenotypes using classical statistics, clustering analysis, and multidimensional scaling. Of the low-birth-weight babies, the following types of cases were compared: Four categories of placental phenotypes (those with features of poor uteroplacental perfusion, postuterine placental pathology, chronic inflammation, and a mixed category) better defined the presumably true FGR than did the clinical phenotypes. Maternal smoking and oligohydramnios were associated with fewer abnormal placental phenotypes than were maternal hypertensive diseases and abnormal Dopplers. Early-onset cases of fetal smallness clustered with placental features of poor uteroplacental perfusion, whereas late onset cases did not. Placental examination helps to retrospectively distinguish constitutionally small fetuses from those that are pathologically growth restricted. The latter correlate best with the clinical risk for FGR and with early-onset FGR. This correlation may have prognostic significance for the child and for future pregnancies, since hypoxic placental lesions can occur without clinical risk factors but with a tendency to recur in future pregnancies. PMID:27238719

  12. Alliance for Sequestration Training, Outreach, Research & Education

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, Hilary

    2013-09-01

    The Sequestration Training, Outreach, Research and Education (STORE) Alliance at The University of Texas at Austin completed its activity under Department of Energy Funding (DE- FE0002254) on September 1, 2013. The program began as a partnership between the Institute for Geophysics, the Bureau of Economic Geology and the Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering Department at UT. The initial vision of the program was to promote better understanding of CO2 utilization and storage science and engineering technology through programs and opportunities centered on training, outreach, research and technology transfer, and education. With over 8,000 hrs of formal training and education (and almost 4,500 of those hours awarded as continuing education credits) to almost 1,100 people, STORE programs and activities have provided benefits to the Carbon Storage Program of the Department of Energy by helping to build a skilled workforce for the future CCS and larger energy industry, and fostering scientific public literacy needed to continue the U.S. leadership position in climate change mitigation and energy technologies and application. Now in sustaining mode, the program is housed at the Center for Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering, and benefits from partnerships with the Gulf Coast Carbon Center, TOPCORP and other programs at the university receiving industry funding.

  13. Chemokine sequestration by atypical chemokine receptors.

    PubMed

    Hansell, C A H; Simpson, C V; Nibbs, R J B

    2006-12-01

    Leucocyte migration is essential for robust immune and inflammatory responses, and plays a critical role in many human diseases. Chemokines, a family of small secreted protein chemoattractants, are of fundamental importance in this process, directing leucocyte trafficking by signalling through heptahelical G-protein-coupled receptors expressed by the migrating cells. However, several mammalian chemokine receptors, including D6 and CCX-CKR (ChemoCentryx chemokine receptor), do not fit existing models of chemokine receptor function, and do not even appear to signal in response to chemokine binding. Instead, these 'atypical' chemokine receptors are biochemically specialized for chemokine sequestration, acting to regulate chemokine bioavailability and thereby influence responses through signalling-competent chemokine receptors. This is of critical importance in vivo, as mice lacking D6 show exaggerated cutaneous inflammatory responses and an increased susceptibility to the development of skin cancer. CCX-CKR, on the other hand, is predicted to modulate homoeostatic lymphocyte and dendritic cell trafficking, key migratory events in acquired immune responses that are directed by CCX-CKR-binding chemokines. Thus studies on 'atypical' chemokine receptors are revealing functional and biochemical diversity within the chemokine receptor family and providing insights into novel mechanisms of chemokine regulation. PMID:17073739

  14. Natural CO2 Analogs for Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Scott H. Stevens; B. Scott Tye

    2005-07-31

    The report summarizes research conducted at three naturally occurring geologic CO{sub 2} fields in the US. The fields are natural analogs useful for the design of engineered long-term storage of anthropogenic CO{sub 2} in geologic formations. Geologic, engineering, and operational databases were developed for McElmo Dome in Colorado; St. Johns Dome in Arizona and New Mexico; and Jackson Dome in Mississippi. The three study sites stored a total of 2.4 billion t (46 Tcf) of CO{sub 2} equivalent to 1.5 years of power plant emissions in the US and comparable in size with the largest proposed sequestration projects. The three CO{sub 2} fields offer a scientifically useful range of contrasting geologic settings (carbonate vs. sandstone reservoir; supercritical vs. free gas state; normally pressured vs. overpressured), as well as different stages of commercial development (mostly undeveloped to mature). The current study relied mainly on existing data provided by the CO{sub 2} field operator partners, augmented with new geochemical data. Additional study at these unique natural CO{sub 2} accumulations could further help guide the development of safe and cost-effective design and operation methods for engineered CO{sub 2} storage sites.

  15. Northeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleman, A. J.; Trautz, R. C.

    2008-12-01

    Geologic carbon storage is a viable option for the electric power industry in the "Northeast" region to meet regional and forthcoming federal CO2 cap-and-trade programs. Capturing CO2 emissions and storing the gas in underground geological formations could significantly reduce the amount of CO2 released to the atmosphere. However, before this can be implemented, site-specific geological research needs to be conducted to determine which formations are potentially capable of storing the quantity of CO2 emitted by power plants in the Northeast region. While the target geosequestration formations in the Northeast may have less storage capacity than those in the Midwest, Southeast or Southwest, the available capacities may be large enough to sequester a significant fraction of the CO2 produced by some regional power plants (which are also smaller, individually and in total, than those in the other regions). The study will also conduct baseline assessments of electric power producer plants and CO2 emission estimates and create first level screening on potential geologic structures for CO2 sequestration. The work will establish a general database of "Other Uses" (current industrial and technological innovations/options), characterize transport issues, both on land and offshore, and, provide general guidance on the physical and land-use constraint factors of "add-on" capture technologies at existing power plants.

  16. The economics of soil C sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, P.; Paustian, K.; Smith, P.; Moran, D.

    2014-12-01

    Carbon is a critical component of soil vitality and of our ability to produce food. Carbon sequestered in soils also provides a further regulating ecosystem service, valued as the avoided damage from global climate change. We consider the demand and supply attributes that underpin and constrain the emergence of a market value for this vital global ecosystem service: markets being what economists regard as the most efficient institutions for allocating scarce resources to the supply and consumption of valuable goods. This paper considers how a potentially large global supply of soil carbon sequestration is reduced by economic and behavioural constraints that impinge on the emergence of markets, and alternative public policies that can efficiently transact demand for the service from private and public sector agents. In essence this is a case of significant market failure. In the design of alternative policy options we consider whether soil carbon mitigation is actually cost-effective relative to other measures in agriculture and elsewhere in the economy, and the nature of behavioural incentives that hinder policy options. We suggest that reducing cost and uncertainties of mitigation through soil-based measures is crucial for improving uptake. Monitoring and auditing processes will also be required to eventually facilitate wide-scale adoption of these measures.

  17. The Necessity of Awareness of Early Symptoms of Placental Abruption Among Pregnant Japanese Women

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Shunji; Shinmura, Hiroki

    2016-01-01

    Background In 2012, the recommendation for immediate contact and visit to obstetric institutions by pregnant women was emphasized by The Japan Obstetric Compensation System for Cerebral Palsy (JOCSC). In this study, we examined whether or not the increased awareness has led to the improvement of perinatal outcomes of placental abruption managed at private clinics. Methods We reviewed the obstetric records of 38 singleton pregnant women complicated by placental abruption that developed at home, and were managed at private clinics from April 2008 through April 2016. Results The perinatal outcomes, specifically the rate of cases with ≥ 1 hour time interval between symptom onset and clinic visit, have not changed significantly after the intervention. Conclusion The provision of information regarding the early clinical symptoms associated with placental abruption in pregnant women has not been well documented in Japan. PMID:27540442

  18. Involvement of miRNAs in Placental Alterations Mediated by Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Rudov, Alexander; Buonocore, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress (OS) is known to be strongly involved in a large number of fetal, neonatal, and adult diseases, including placental disorders, leading to pregnancy loss and stillbirths. A growing body of research links OS to preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, obesity, spontaneous abortion, recurrent pregnancy, preterm labor, and intrauterine growth restriction. While a considerable number of miRNAs have been related to physiological functions and pathological conditions of the placenta, a direct link among these miRNAs, placental functions, and OS is still lacking. This review summarizes data describing the role of miRNAs in placental pathophysiological processes and their possible impact on OS damaging responses. As miRNAs can be found in circulation, improving our understanding on their role in the pathogenesis of pregnancy related disorders could have an important impact on the diagnosis and prognosis of these diseases. PMID:24790700

  19. A clinical case of equine fungal placentitis with reference to hormone profiles and ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    MURASE, Harutaka; NIWA, Hidekazu; KATAYAMA, Yoshinari; SATO, Fumio; HADA, Tetsuro; NAMBO, Yasuo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Fungal placentitis is an infectious disease inducing abortion in pregnant mares. In the present report, we describe a field case of abortion caused by fungal placentitis with consecutive examinations. The progesterone level and combined thickness of the uterus and placenta (CTUP) were abnormal before the onset of clinical signs. Additionally, the estradiol level started to change before the appearance of clinical signs. Abnormal serum amyloid A values and an abnormal fetal heart rate were observed after the onset of clinical signs. The present report demonstrates that the progesterone level and CTUP may be adequate as early diagnostic markers of fungal placentitis and bacterial infection. Endocrinological evaluation based on cutoff values or serial measurements were also useful for early diagnosis. PMID:26858578

  20. Oxidative Stress Status and Placental Implications in Diabetic Rats Undergoing Swimming Exercise After Embryonic Implantation

    PubMed Central

    Damasceno, Débora Cristina; Sinzato, Yuri Karen; Ribeiro, Viviane Maria; Rudge, Marilza Vieira Cunha; Calderon, Iracema Mattos Paranhos

    2015-01-01

    The potential benefits and risks of physical exercise on fetal development during pregnancy remain unclear. The aim was to analyze maternal oxidative stress status and the placental morphometry to relate to intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) from diabetic female rats submitted to swimming program after embryonic implantation. Pregnant Wistar rats were distributed into 4 groups (11 animals/group): control—nondiabetic sedentary rats, control exercised—nondiabetic exercised rats, diabetic—diabetic sedentary rats, and diabetic exercised—diabetic exercised rats. A swimming program was used as an exercise model. At the end of pregnancy, the maternal oxidative stress status, placental morphology, and fetal weight were analyzed. The swimming program was not efficient to reduce the hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress. This fact impaired placental development, resulting in altered blood flow and energy reserves, which contributed to a deficient exchange of nutrients and oxygen for the fetal development, leading to IUGR. PMID:25361551

  1. Cord compression may rapidly influence the expression of placental angiogenic genes in pre-eclampsia.

    PubMed

    Järvenpää, J; Vuoristo, J T; Ukkola, O; Hirvikoski, P; Savolainen, E-R; Raudaskoski, T; Ryynänen, M

    2008-05-01

    Gene expression studies have demonstrated the altered expression level of placental angiogenesis related genes in severe pre-eclampsia (PE). In cord compression, the transportation of oxygen from the placenta to the fetus is blocked, and it is speculated that during blockade the originally hypoxic placenta may become hyperoxic. We compared the placental gene expression profiles of one pre-eclamptic patient with cord compression (the index patient) to the profiles of patients with PE and those of normal pregnancy controls (including one woman with cord compression). The gene expression of the cord compression PE patient resembled that observed in the normal pregnancies. We hypothesize that umbilical blockade may in a short period of time lead to placental hyperoxia, which in turn has an effect on angiogenic gene expression profile. PMID:18387671

  2. Acute Placental Villitis as Evidence of Fetal Sepsis: An Autopsy Case Report.

    PubMed

    Bae, Go Eun; Yoon, Nara; Choi, Misun; Hwang, Soohyun; Hwang, Hyewon; Kim, Jung-Sun

    2016-01-01

    Acute placental villitis is very rare and believed to reflect overwhelming fetal sepsis in utero, commonly caused by Escherichia coli or group B streptococci. We present a case of intrauterine fetal death associated with acute placental villitis and acute necrotizing chorioamnionitis by early-onset group B streptococcal infection. A 36-year-old woman presented with decreased fetal movement and fever at 21 weeks of gestation. Ultrasound demonstrated intrauterine fetal death. After delivery, the placenta revealed multifocal neutrophilic infiltration in chorionic villi, most prominently beneath the trophoblast basement membrane, which was also accompanied by acute necrotizing chorioamnionitis. Gram-positive microorganisms were detected in villous vessels as well as in the major organs of the fetus, which was consistent with Streptococcus agalactiae (group B) cultured from maternal blood. Acute placental villitis should be recognized as evidence of fetal sepsis that often has lethal clinical outcome, as compared to intra-amniotic infection associated with acute chorioamnionitis alone. PMID:26457860

  3. Genome Enabled Discovery of Carbon Sequestration Genes in Poplar

    SciTech Connect

    Filichkin, Sergei; Etherington, Elizabeth; Ma, Caiping; Strauss, Steve

    2007-02-22

    The goals of the S.H. Strauss laboratory portion of 'Genome-enabled discovery of carbon sequestration genes in poplar' are (1) to explore the functions of candidate genes using Populus transformation by inserting genes provided by Oakridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the University of Florida (UF) into poplar; (2) to expand the poplar transformation toolkit by developing transformation methods for important genotypes; and (3) to allow induced expression, and efficient gene suppression, in roots and other tissues. As part of the transformation improvement effort, OSU developed transformation protocols for Populus trichocarpa 'Nisqually-1' clone and an early flowering P. alba clone, 6K10. Complete descriptions of the transformation systems were published (Ma et. al. 2004, Meilan et. al 2004). Twenty-one 'Nisqually-1' and 622 6K10 transgenic plants were generated. To identify root predominant promoters, a set of three promoters were tested for their tissue-specific expression patterns in poplar and in Arabidopsis as a model system. A novel gene, ET304, was identified by analyzing a collection of poplar enhancer trap lines generated at OSU (Filichkin et. al 2006a, 2006b). Other promoters include the pGgMT1 root-predominant promoter from Casuarina glauca and the pAtPIN2 promoter from Arabidopsis root specific PIN2 gene. OSU tested two induction systems, alcohol- and estrogen-inducible, in multiple poplar transgenics. Ethanol proved to be the more efficient when tested in tissue culture and greenhouse conditions. Two estrogen-inducible systems were evaluated in transgenic Populus, neither of which functioned reliably in tissue culture conditions. GATEWAY-compatible plant binary vectors were designed to compare the silencing efficiency of homologous (direct) RNAi vs. heterologous (transitive) RNAi inverted repeats. A set of genes was targeted for post transcriptional silencing in the model Arabidopsis system; these include the floral meristem identity gene (APETALA1 or

  4. Development of fetal and placental innate immune responses during establishment of persistent infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus.

    PubMed

    Smirnova, Natalia P; Webb, Brett T; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle; Van Campen, Hana; Antoniazzi, Alfredo Q; Morarie, Susan E; Hansen, Thomas R

    2012-08-01

    Transplacental viral infections are dependent upon complex interactions between feto-placental and maternal immune responses and the stage of fetal development at which the infection occurs. Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) has the ability to cross the placenta and infect the fetus. Infection early in gestation with non-cytopathic (ncp) BVDV leads to persistent infection. Establishment of fetal persistent infection results in life-long viremia, virus-specific immunotolerance, and may have detrimental developmental consequences. We have previously shown that heifers infected experimentally with ncp BVDV type 2 on d. 75 of gestation had transient robust up-regulation of the type I interferon (IFN) stimulated genes (ISGs) 3-15 days after viral inoculation. Blood from persistently infected (PI) fetuses, collected 115 days post maternal infection, demonstrated moderate chronic up-regulation of ISGs. This infection model was used to delineate timing of the development of innate immune responses in the fetus and placenta during establishment of persistent infection. It was hypothesized that: (i) chronic stimulation of innate immune responses occurs following infection of the fetus and (ii) placental production of the type I IFN contributes to up-regulation of ISGs in PI fetuses. PI fetuses, generated by intranasal inoculation of pregnant heifers with ncp BVDV, and control fetuses from uninfected heifers, were collected via Cesarean sections on d. 82, 89, 97, 192, and 245 of gestation. Fetal viremia was confirmed starting on d. 89. Significant up-regulation of mRNA encoding cytosolic dsRNA sensors -RIG-I and MDA5 - was detected on d. 82-192. Detection of viral dsRNA by cytosolic sensors leads to the stimulation of ISGs, which was reflected in significant up-regulation of ISG15 mRNA in fetal blood on d. 89, 97, and 192. No difference in IFN-α and IFN-β mRNA concentration was found in fetal blood or caruncular tissue, while a significant increase in both IFN-α and IFN

  5. Even a Chronic Mild Hyperglycemia Affects Membrane Fluidity and Lipoperoxidation in Placental Mitochondria in Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Figueroa-García, María del Consuelo; Espinosa-García, María Teresa; Martinez-Montes, Federico; Palomar-Morales, Martín; Mejía-Zepeda, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    It is known the deleterious effects of diabetes on embryos, but the effects of diabetes on placenta and its mitochondria are still not well known. In this work we generated a mild hyperglycemia model in female wistar rats by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin in 48 hours-old rats. The sexual maturity onset of the female rats was delayed around 6-7 weeks and at 16 weeks-old they were mated, and sacrificed at day 19th of pregnancy. In placental total tissue and isolated mitochondria, the fatty acids composition was analyzed by gas chromatography, and lipoperoxidation was measured by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. Membrane fluidity in mitochondria was measured with the excimer forming probe dipyrenylpropane and mitochondrial function was measured with a Clark-type electrode. The results show that even a chronic mild hyperglycemia increases lipoperoxidation and decreases mitochondrial function in placenta. Simultaneously, placental fatty acids metabolism in total tissue is modified but in a different way than in placental mitochondria. Whereas the chronic mild hyperglycemia induced a decrease in unsaturated to saturated fatty acids ratio (U/S) in placental total tissue, the ratio increased in placental mitochondria. The measurements of membrane fluidity showed that fluidity of placenta mitochondrial membranes increased with hyperglycemia, showing consistency with the fatty acids composition through the U/S index. The thermotropic characteristics of mitochondrial membranes were changed, showing lower transition temperature and activation energies. All of these data together demonstrate that even a chronic mild hyperglycemia during pregnancy of early reproductive Wistar rats, generates an increment of lipoperoxidation, an increase of placental mitochondrial membrane fluidity apparently derived from changes in fatty acids composition and consequently, mitochondrial malfunction. PMID:26630275

  6. Even a Chronic Mild Hyperglycemia Affects Membrane Fluidity and Lipoperoxidation in Placental Mitochondria in Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Figueroa-García, María del Consuelo; Espinosa-García, María Teresa; Martinez-Montes, Federico; Palomar-Morales, Martín; Mejía-Zepeda, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    It is known the deleterious effects of diabetes on embryos, but the effects of diabetes on placenta and its mitochondria are still not well known. In this work we generated a mild hyperglycemia model in female wistar rats by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin in 48 hours-old rats. The sexual maturity onset of the female rats was delayed around 6–7 weeks and at 16 weeks-old they were mated, and sacrificed at day 19th of pregnancy. In placental total tissue and isolated mitochondria, the fatty acids composition was analyzed by gas chromatography, and lipoperoxidation was measured by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. Membrane fluidity in mitochondria was measured with the excimer forming probe dipyrenylpropane and mitochondrial function was measured with a Clark-type electrode. The results show that even a chronic mild hyperglycemia increases lipoperoxidation and decreases mitochondrial function in placenta. Simultaneously, placental fatty acids metabolism in total tissue is modified but in a different way than in placental mitochondria. Whereas the chronic mild hyperglycemia induced a decrease in unsaturated to saturated fatty acids ratio (U/S) in placental total tissue, the ratio increased in placental mitochondria. The measurements of membrane fluidity showed that fluidity of placenta mitochondrial membranes increased with hyperglycemia, showing consistency with the fatty acids composition through the U/S index. The thermotropic characteristics of mitochondrial membranes were changed, showing lower transition temperature and activation energies. All of these data together demonstrate that even a chronic mild hyperglycemia during pregnancy of early reproductive Wistar rats, generates an increment of lipoperoxidation, an increase of placental mitochondrial membrane fluidity apparently derived from changes in fatty acids composition and consequently, mitochondrial malfunction. PMID:26630275

  7. miR-34a expression, epigenetic regulation, and function in human placental diseases

    PubMed Central

    Doridot, Ludivine; Houry, Dorothée; Gaillard, Harald; Chelbi, Sonia T; Barbaux, Sandrine; Vaiman, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) is the major pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorder responsible for maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality that can be associated with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). PE and IUGR are thought to be due to a placental defect, occurring early during pregnancy. Several placental microRNAs (miRNAs) have been shown to be deregulated in the context of placental diseases and could thus play a role in the pathophysiology of PE. Here, we show that pri-miR-34a is overexpressed in preeclamptic placentas and that its placental expression is much higher during the first trimester of pregnancy than at term, suggesting a possible developmental role. We explored pri-miR-34a regulation and showed that P53, a known activator of miR-34a, is reduced in all pathological placentas and that hypoxia can induce pri-miR-34a expression in JEG-3 cells. We also studied the methylation status of the miR-34a promoter and revealed hypomethylation in all preeclamptic placentas (associated or not with IUGR), whereas hypoxia induced a hypermethylation in JEG-3 cells at 72 h. Despite the overexpression of pri-miR-34a in preeclampsia, there was a striking decrease of the mature miR-34a in this condition, suggesting preeclampsia-driven alteration of pri-miR-34a maturation. SERPINA3, a protease inhibitor involved in placental diseases, is elevated in IUGR and PE. We show here that miR-34a overexpression in JEG-3 downregulates SERPINA3. The low level of mature miR-34a could thus be an important mechanism contributing to SERPINA3 upregulation in placental diseases. Overall, our results support a role for miR-34a in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia, through deregulation of the pri-miRNA expression and its altered maturation. PMID:24081307

  8. Nicotine Directly Induces Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Response in Rat Placental Trophoblast Giant Cells.

    PubMed

    Wong, Michael K; Holloway, Alison C; Hardy, Daniel B

    2016-05-01

    Nicotine exposure during pregnancy leads to placental insufficiency impairing both fetal and neonatal development. Previous studies from our laboratory have demonstrated that in rats, nicotine augmented endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in association with placental insufficiency; however, the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Therefore, we sought to investigate the possible direct effect of nicotine on ER stress in Rcho-1 rat placental trophoblast giant (TG) cells during differentiation. Protein and/or mRNA expression of markers involved in ER stress (eg, phosphorylated PERK, eIF2α, CHOP, and BiP/GRP78) and TG cell differentiation and function (eg, Pl-1, placental growth factor [Pgf], Hsd11b1, and Hsd11b2) were quantified via Western blot or real-time polymerase chain reaction. Nicotine treatment led to dose-dependent increases in the phosphorylation of PERK[Thr981] and eIF2α[Ser51], whereas pretreatment with a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) antagonist (mecamylamine hydrochloride) blocked the induction of PERK phosphorylation, verifying the direct involvement of nicotine and nAChR binding. We next investigated select target genes known to play essential roles in placental TG cell differentiation and function (Pl-1, Pgf, Hsd11b1, and Hsd11b2), and found that nicotine significantly augmented the mRNA levels of Hsd11b1 in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, using tauroursodeoxycholic acid, a safe bile acid known to improve protein chaperoning and folding, we were able to prevent nicotine-induced increases in both PERK phosphorylation and Hsd11b1 mRNA levels, revealing a potential novel therapeutic approach to reverse the deleterious effects of nicotine exposure in pregnancy. Collectively, these results implicate that nicotine, acting through its receptor, can directly augment ER stress and impair placental function. PMID:26803847

  9. Maternal tobacco use modestly alters correlated epigenome-wide placental DNA methylation and gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Suter, Melissa; Ma, Jun; Harris, Alan; Patterson, Lauren; Brown, Kathleen A; Shope, Cynthia; Showalter, Lori; Abramovici, Adi

    2011-01-01

    Several studies linking alterations in differential placental methylation with pregnancy disorders have implicated (de) regulation of the placental epigenome with fetal programming and later-in-life disease. We have previously demonstrated that maternal tobacco use is associated with alterations in promoter methylation of placental CYP1A1 and that these changes are correlated with CYP1A1 gene expression and fetal growth restriction. In this study we sought to expand our analysis of promoter methylation by correlating it to gene expression on a genome-wide scale. Employing side-by-side IlluminaHG-12 gene transcription with Infinium27K methylation arrays, we interrogated correlative changes in placental gene expression and DNA methylation associated with maternal tobacco smoke exposure at an epigenome-wide level and in consideration of signature gene pathways. We observed that the expression of 623 genes and the methylation of 1,024 CpG dinucleotides are significantly altered among smokers, with only 38 CpGs showing significant differential methylation (differing by a methylation level of ≥10%). We identified a significant Pearson correlation (≥0.7 or ≤-0.7) between placental transcriptional regulation and differential CpG methylation in only 25 genes among non-smokers but in 438 genes among smokers (18-fold increase, p < 0.0001), with a dominant effect among oxidative stress pathways. Differential methylation at as few as 6 sites was attributed to maternal smoking-mediated birth weight reduction in linear regression models with Bonferroni correction (p < 1.8 × 10−6). These studies suggest that a common perinatal exposure (such as maternal smoking) deregulates placental methylation in a CpG site-specific manner that correlates with meaningful alterations in gene expression along signature pathways. PMID:21937876

  10. The association of anti-phospholipid antibodies with parity in placental malaria

    PubMed Central

    Owens, S; Chamley, L W; Ordi, J; Brabin, B J; Johnson, P M

    2005-01-01

    Anti-phospholipid antibodies (aPL) are autoantibodies associated with both infections and the pathogenesis of certain pregnancy complications. In the latter, but not the former, aPL are dependent on a co-factor, β2 glycoprotein I (β2GPI), which can also be used as an antigen for detection of such aPL in pregnancy. A cross-sectional study was carried out on serum samples from Kumasi, Ghana, to determine the occurrence and β2GPI-dependence of aPL in placental malaria. Anti-cardiolipin, anti-phosphatidylserine and anti-β2GPI enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) were performed on sera from 103 HIV-non-infected gravid women. Placental malaria, both active and past infection, was diagnosed in 33/103 (32%) based on placental histology. In multiparae, β2GPI-independent IgM antibodies to cardiolipin (P = 0·018) and phosphatidylserine (P = 0·009) were observed, which were most pronounced in past placental malaria infection. In primiparae, no association emerged between aPL and placental malaria. Trends for improved clinical parameters were identified in infected women with levels of anti-cardiolipin beyond the 99th multiple of the median for a healthy, non-malarious population. This study in placental malaria reports parity associations of β2GPI-independent aPL profiles, and does not support a role for β2GPI-dependent aPL. It is of significance in the context of the known parity differences in pregnancy malaria immunity. PMID:16297164

  11. Post-transcriptional down regulation of ICAM-1 in feto-placental endothelium in GDM.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Pérez, Francisca Isidora; Hiden, Ursula; Gauster, Martin; Lang, Ingrid; Konya, Viktoria; Heinemann, Akos; Lögl, Jelena; Saffery, Richard; Desoye, Gernot; Cvitic, Silvija

    2016-03-01

    Maternal gestational diabetes (GDM) is associated with hyperglycaemia and hyperinsulinemia in the fetal circulation which consequently may induce endothelial dysfunction in the feto-placental vasculature. In fact, feto-placental vasculature reveals various morphological changes in response to GDM. The cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and E-selectin promote attachment and trans-endothelial migration of leukocytes, and are up regulated in inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. Thus, we hypothesized that the GDM environment upregulates ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and E-selectin in the feto-placental endothelium. We isolated primary feto-placental endothelial cells (fpEC) after normal (n=18) and GDM pregnancy (n=11) and analyzed mRNA (RT-qPCR) and protein expression (Immunoblot) of ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and E-selectin. While other CAMs were unchanged on mRNA and protein levels, ICAM-1 protein was decreased by GDM. Further analysis revealed also a decrease in the release of soluble ICAM-1 (sICAM-1), whose levels correlated negatively with maternal BMI. We conclude that this reduction of ICAM-1 protein species is the result of post-translational regulation, since ICAM-1 mRNA expression was unchanged. In fact, miRNAs targeting ICAM-1 were upregulated in GDM fpEC. Immunohistochemistry showed weaker ICAM-1 staining in the placental endothelium after GDM pregnancies, and demonstrated ICAM-1 binding partners CD11a and CD18 expressed on leukocytes in fetal circulation and on placental tissue macrophages. This study identified reduction of ICAM-1 protein in fpEC in GDM pregnancy, which was regulated post-transcriptionally. Low ICAM-1 protein production may represent a protective, placenta-specific mechanism to avoid leukocyte transmigration into the placenta in response to GDM. PMID:26761204

  12. Neuromyelitis Optica IgG Causes Placental Inflammation and Fetal Death

    PubMed Central

    Saadoun, Samira; Waters, Patrick; Leite, M. Isabel; Bennett, Jeffrey L.; Vincent, Angela; Papadopoulos, Marios C.

    2013-01-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the CNS and affects women of childbearing age. Most patients with NMO have circulating Abs, termed NMO-IgG, against the astrocytic water channel protein aquaporin-4. In the CNS, NMO-IgG causes complement-mediated astrocyte damage, inflammatory cell infiltration, and myelin loss. In this study, we show that aquaporin-4 is expressed in the syncytiotrophoblast of human and mouse placenta. Placental aquaporin-4 expression is high during mid-gestation and progressively decreases with advancing pregnancy. Intraperitoneally injected NMO-IgG binds mouse placental aquaporin-4, activates coinjected human complement, and causes inflammatory cell infiltration into the placenta and placental necrosis. There was no damage to maternal organs that express aquaporin-4, including the brain, spinal cord, kidneys, and skeletal muscle. In control experiments, no placentitis was found in mice injected with NMO-IgG without complement, non–NMO-IgG with human complement, or in aquaporin-4 null mice injected with NMO-IgG and human complement. The infiltrating cells were primarily neutrophils with a few scattered eosinophils and macrophages. NMO-IgG and human complement–induced placentitis caused fetal death, but some fetuses were born normal when lower amounts of NMO-IgG and human complement were injected. Sivelestat, a neutrophil elastase inhibitor, and aquaporumab, a nonpathogenic IgG that competes with NMO-IgG for aquaporin-4 binding, significantly reduced NMO-IgG and human complement induced placentitis and fetal death. Our data suggest that NMO-IgG can cause miscarriage, thus challenging the concept that NMO affects only the CNS. These findings have implications for the management of NMO during pregnancy. PMID:23935196

  13. A "cure" for preeclampsia: Improving neonatal outcomes by overcoming excess fetal placental vascular resistance.

    PubMed

    Byrne, T J

    2015-09-01

    From a broad perspective there are only three arterial systems that respond to relative hypoxia with vasoconstriction. They are the placental, the pulmonic and the renal vascular beds. The renal system's adaptation to hypoxia is markedly different from the other two circulatory beds and will not be further considered here. Regional vasoconstriction is adaptive in the placenta and lung because it redirects red blood cells from areas of relative hypoxia to more oxygenated areas thereby maximizing oxygen uptake for a given cardiac output. The fetal placental and pulmonary vascular systems are unique because their smooth muscle cells have a unique and possibly identical potassium channel that responds to hypoxia by closing, thereby depolarizing the cell membrane allowing calcium ion influx and muscle contraction. It may be that a variety of initial causes of temporary or local placental hypoxia initiate a cascade of first fetal placental then maternal vasoconstriction and endothelial activation leading to the clinical syndrome we call preeclampsia. The response cascades seen in preeclampsia, which for purposes of this article I will abbreviate as (PECL), after development of widespread vasoconstriction, will also be seen to be identical or at least parallel in pulmonary hypertension (PAH). This means that some or all of the pharmacotherapies presently used, tested or considered in early PAH may also have a therapeutic effect in PECL by reducing fetal placental arterial resistance thereby increasing fetal placental flow. This would allow increased oxygen and other nutrient uptake and possibly increased fetal cardiac output in the face of reduced fetal cardiac work. This may allow a delay in delivery in which fetuses grow and are better oxygenated in preterm PECL, improving neonatal outcomes. PMID:26105573

  14. Characterization of the adverse effects of nicotine on placental development: in vivo and in vitro studies

    PubMed Central

    Holloway, A. C.; Salomon, A.; Soares, M. J.; Garnier, V.; Raha, S.; Sergent, F.; Nicholson, C. J.; Feige, J. J.; Benharouga, M.

    2013-01-01

    In utero exposure to nicotine is associated with increased risk of numerous adverse fetal and neonatal outcomes, which suggests that it acts directly to affect placental development and the establishment of the fetomaternal circulation (FC). This study used both in vivo [Wistar rats treated with 1 mg/kg nicotine from 2 wk prior to mating until gestational day (GD) 15] and in vitro (RCHO-1 cell line; treated with 10−9 to 10−3M nicotine) models to examine the effects of nicotine on these pathways. At GD 15, control and treated placentas were examined for the impact of nicotine on 1) trophoblast invasion, proliferation, and degree of hypoxia, 2) labyrinth vascularization, 3) expression of key genes of placental development, and 4) expression of placental angiogenic factors. The RCHO-1 cell line was used to determine the direct effects of nicotine on trophoblast differentiation. Our in vivo experiments show that nicotine inhibits trophoblast interstitial invasion, increases placental hypoxia, downregulates labyrinth vascularization as well as key transcription factors Hand1 and GCM1, and decreases local and circulating EG-VEGF, a key placental angiogenic factor. The in vitro experiments confirmed the inhibitory effects of nicotine on the trophoblast migration, invasion, and differentiation processes and demonstrated that those effects are most likely due to a dysregulation in the expression of nicotine receptors and a decrease in MMP9 activity. Taken together, these data suggest that adverse effects of maternal smoking on pregnancy outcome are due in part to direct and endocrine effects of nicotine on the main processes of placental development and establishment of FC. PMID:24368670

  15. CO2 SEQUESTRATION POTENTIAL OF TEXAS LOW-RANK COALS

    SciTech Connect

    Duane A. McVay; Walter B. Ayers Jr.; Jerry L. Jensen

    2003-10-01

    The objectives of this project are to evaluate the feasibility of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sequestration in Texas low-rank coals and to determine the potential for enhanced coalbed methane (CBM) recovery as an added benefit of sequestration. The main objective for this reporting period was to further characterize the three areas selected as potential CO{sub 2} sequestration sites. Well-log data are critical for defining depth, thickness, number, and grouping of coal seams at the proposed sequestration sites. Thus, we purchased 12 hardcopy well logs (in addition to 15 well logs obtained during previous quarter) from a commercial source and digitized them to make coal-occurrence maps and cross sections. Detailed correlation of coal zones is important for reservoir analysis and modeling. Thus, we correlated and mapped Wilcox Group subdivisions--the Hooper, Simsboro and Calvert Bluff formations, as well as the coal-bearing intervals of the Yegua and Jackson formations in well logs. To assess cleat properties and describe coal characteristics, we made field trips to Big Brown and Martin Lake coal mines. This quarter we also received CO{sub 2} and methane sorption analyses of the Sandow Mine samples, and we are assessing the results. GEM, a compositional simulator developed by the Computer Modeling Group (CMG), was selected for performing the CO{sub 2} sequestration and enhanced CBM modeling tasks for this project. This software was used to conduct preliminary CO{sub 2} sequestration and methane production simulations in a 5-spot injection pattern. We are continuing to pursue a cooperative agreement with Anadarko Petroleum, which has already acquired significant relevant data near one of our potential sequestration sites.

  16. Different metabolic activity in placental and reflected regions of the human amniotic membrane.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Asmita; Weidinger, Adelheid; Hofer, Martin; Steinborn, Ralf; Lindenmair, Andrea; Hennerbichler-Lugscheider, Simone; Eibl, Johann; Redl, Heinz; Kozlov, Andrey V; Wolbank, Susanne

    2015-11-01

    Cells of the human amniotic membrane (hAM) have stem cell characteristics with low immunogenicity and anti-inflammatory properties. While hAM is an excellent source for tissue engineering, so far, its sub-regions have not been taken into account. We show that placental and reflected hAM differ distinctly in morphology and functional activity, as the placental region has significantly higher mitochondrial activity, however significantly less reactive oxygen species. Since mitochondria may participate in processes such as cell rescue, we speculate that amniotic sub-regions may have different potential for tissue regeneration, which may be crucial for clinical applications. PMID:26386652

  17. Diagnosis of placental pathogens in small ruminants by immunohistochemistry and PCR on paraffin-embedded samples.

    PubMed

    Navarro, J A; Ortega, N; Buendia, A J; Gallego, M C; Martínez, C M; Caro, M R; Sánchez, J; Salinas, J

    2009-08-01

    A histological study was carried out on 58 formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded samples of placenta from sheep and goats that had aborted, and the placental lesions were graded. Sequential histological sections of each cotyledon were then immunostained with specific antibodies and used for PCR detection of Chlamydophila abortus, Coxiella burnetii, Salmonella Abortusovis, Brucella melitensis, Listeria monocytogenes and Toxoplasma gondii. Most of the cotyledons showed different degrees of placentitis. The proportional agreement between the two techniques was 0.879 (kappa value 0.746). C abortus was the most prevalent pathogen. Mixed infections were common. PMID:19666916

  18. Maternal Serum Analytes as Predictors of Fetal Growth Restriction with Different Degrees of Placental Vascular Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Blitz, Matthew J; Rochelson, Burton; Vohra, Nidhi

    2016-06-01

    Abnormal levels of maternal serum analytes have been associated with fetal growth restriction (FGR) and preeclampsia secondary to placental vascular dysfunction. Accurately identifying the FGR fetuses at highest risk for adverse outcomes remains challenging. Placental function can be assessed by Doppler analysis of the maternal and fetal circulation. Although the combination of multiple abnormal maternal serum analytes and abnormal Doppler findings is strongly associated with adverse outcomes, the predictive value remains too low to be used as a screening test in a low-risk population. Stratification of cases based on the severity of Doppler abnormalities may improve predictive models. PMID:27235917

  19. What fossils can tell us about the evolution of viviparity and placentation.

    PubMed

    Carter, A M

    2008-11-01

    Recently a fossil of one of the earliest jawed fishes was found with a fetal skeleton and the remains of a cord. It was from the Devonian period and takes the history of vertebrate placentation back to 380 million years ago. This and later fossil evidence for viviparity in marine reptiles and early mammals is reviewed. Of particular interest are the fossils of horses as they document that a reproductive strategy with a single precocial newborn was evolved early on. In one instance there is sufficient representation of soft tissue to imply that early horses had a diffuse placenta, much as had been predicted by phylogenetic analyses of placentation. PMID:18774606

  20. Chorioamniotic membrane separation caused by the seromucinous collection from a placental chorioangioma

    PubMed Central

    Eom, Hye Mi; Choi, Byung Hee; Jeong, Eun Jeong; Byun, Jung Mi; Jeong, Dae Hoon; Sung, Moon Su; Lee, Kyung Bok; Kim, Ki Tae; Yoon, Hye Kyoung

    2016-01-01

    Placental chorioangioma is a benign non-trophoblastic tumor of the placenta that can have various adverse effects on the mother and fetus depending on its size. Chorioamniotic membrane separation is rare condition of detachment between the amniotic membrane and chorionic membrane. Chorioamniotic membrane separation after the second trimester of pregnancy is usually occurs after invasive procedures or may occur spontaneously; it is mostly associated with fetal abnormalities. Here, we report a case of chorioamniotic membrane separation that might be occurred caused by the seromucinous secretion from a placental chorioangioma. PMID:27200315

  1. A study of placental transfer mechanisms in nonhuman primates using (/sup 14/C)phenylalanine

    SciTech Connect

    Pueschel, S.M.; Boylan, J.M.; Jackson, B.T.; Piasecki, G.J.

    1982-02-01

    Placental transfer mechanisms were investigated in pregnant Macaca Fascicularis and Macaca mulatta during the gestational age of 120 to 130 days. These primates underwent an operative procedure that allowed continuous fetal blood sampling. The administration of (/sup 14/C)phenylalanine into the maternal circulation revealed a significant increase of radioactive material in the fetal circulation, indicating an active placental transport mechanism unidirectional to the fetus. When (/sup 14/C)phenylalanine was injected into the fetus, radioactive aromatic amino acids in the maternal circulation increased only slightly over time, resembling a simple diffusion process.

  2. Hypertension produced by placental ischemia in pregnant rats is associated with increased soluble endoglin expression.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Jeffrey S; Gilbert, Sara A B; Arany, Marietta; Granger, Joey P

    2009-02-01

    Recent clinical studies indicate that an excess of angiostatic factors, such as soluble endoglin (sEng), is related to the occurrence of preeclampsia. Although recent clinical studies report that sEng is increased in preeclamptic women, the mechanisms underlying its overexpression remain unclear. Evidence suggests that hypoxia and induction of heme oxygenase-1 have opposing effects on sEng expression, the former stimulatory and the latter inhibitory. Hence, we hypothesized that placental ischemia because of reduced uterine perfusion pressure (RUPP) in the pregnant rat would increase sEng expression and decrease heme oxygenase-1. Mean arterial pressure was obtained via arterial catheter, and serum and placental proteins were measured by Western blot. Mean arterial pressure was increased (132+/-3 mm Hg versus 102+/-2 mm Hg; P<0.001), and fetal (2.35+/-0.05 g versus 1.76+/-0.08 g; P<0.001) and placental weight were decreased (0.47+/-0.04 g versus 0.58+/-0.03 g; P<0.01) in the RUPP compared with normal pregnant controls. Serum sEng (0.10+/-0.02 arbitrary pixel units [apu] versus 0.05+/-0.01 apu; P<0.05) and placental endoglin (4.7+/-2.3 apu versus 1.45+/-0.42 apu; P<0.05) were increased along with placental hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha (1.42+/-0.25 apu versus 0.68+/-0.09 apu; P<0.05) expression in the RUPP versus the normal pregnant dams. Placental HO-1 (1.4+/-0.3 apu versus 2.5+/-0.1 apu; P<0.05) expression decreased in the RUPP compared with normal pregnant dams. The present findings support our hypothesis that placental ischemia because of RUPP increases the expression of sEng and shifts the balance of angiogenic factors in the maternal circulation toward an angiostatic state. The present study provides further evidence that placental ischemia is a strong in vivo stimulus of angiostatic factors during pregnancy. PMID:19075097

  3. Genetic recapitulation of human pre-eclampsia risk during convergent evolution of reduced placental invasiveness in eutherian mammals

    PubMed Central

    Elliot, Michael G.; Crespi, Bernard J.

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between phenotypic variation arising through individual development and phenotypic variation arising through diversification of species has long been a central question in evolutionary biology. Among humans, reduced placental invasion into endometrial tissues is associated with diseases of pregnancy, especially pre-eclampsia, and reduced placental invasiveness has also evolved, convergently, in at least 10 lineages of eutherian mammals. We tested the hypothesis that a common genetic basis underlies both reduced placental invasion arising through a developmental process in human placental disease and reduced placental invasion found as a derived trait in the diversification of Euarchontoglires (rodents, lagomorphs, tree shrews, colugos and primates). Based on whole-genome analyses across 18 taxa, we identified 1254 genes as having evolved adaptively across all three lineages exhibiting independent evolutionary transitions towards reduced placental invasion. These genes showed strong evidence of enrichment for associations with pre-eclampsia, based on genetic-association studies, gene-expression analyses and gene ontology. We further used in silico prediction to identify a subset of 199 genes that are likely targets of natural selection during transitions in placental invasiveness and which are predicted to also underlie human placental disorders. Our results indicate that abnormal ontogenies can recapitulate major phylogenetic shifts in mammalian evolution, identify new candidate genes for involvement in pre-eclampsia, imply that study of species with less-invasive placentation will provide useful insights into the regulation of placental invasion and pre-eclampsia, and recommend a novel comparative functional-evolutionary approach to the study of genetically based human disease and mammalian diversification. PMID:25602073

  4. Gravity referenced elevation encoder development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goddard, R. E.

    1993-05-01

    Recent progress in the development of a gravity-sensor-based instrument for determining the elevation angle of DSN antennas is described. The benefits of such a system include the capability to locate the Gravity Referenced Elevation Encoder (GREE) directly on the primary reflector (thus bypassing structural flexure and deformation error sources), anticipated lower maintenance costs compared to the present gimbal encoders, direct replaceability, or supplementation of the present gimbal encoders and the utilization of off-the-shelf components to construct the GREE. This article includes a description of the nominal GREE design. Test results on a laboratory breadboard model are given. Rigid-body dynamics of the GREE are derived and the simulated performance in response to measured antenna vibrations is given.

  5. Gravity referenced elevation encoder development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goddard, R. E.

    1993-01-01

    Recent progress in the development of a gravity-sensor-based instrument for determining the elevation angle of DSN antennas is described. The benefits of such a system include the capability to locate the Gravity Referenced Elevation Encoder (GREE) directly on the primary reflector (thus bypassing structural flexure and deformation error sources), anticipated lower maintenance costs compared to the present gimbal encoders, direct replaceability, or supplementation of the present gimbal encoders and the utilization of off-the-shelf components to construct the GREE. This article includes a description of the nominal GREE design. Test results on a laboratory breadboard model are given. Rigid-body dynamics of the GREE are derived and the simulated performance in response to measured antenna vibrations is given.

  6. Fly Photoreceptors Encode Phase Congruency

    PubMed Central

    Friederich, Uwe; Billings, Stephen A.; Hardie, Roger C.; Juusola, Mikko; Coca, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    More than five decades ago it was postulated that sensory neurons detect and selectively enhance behaviourally relevant features of natural signals. Although we now know that sensory neurons are tuned to efficiently encode natural stimuli, until now it was not clear what statistical features of the stimuli they encode and how. Here we reverse-engineer the neural code of Drosophila photoreceptors and show for the first time that photoreceptors exploit nonlinear dynamics to selectively enhance and encode phase-related features of temporal stimuli, such as local phase congruency, which are invariant to changes in illumination and contrast. We demonstrate that to mitigate for the inherent sensitivity to noise of the local phase congruency measure, the nonlinear coding mechanisms of the fly photoreceptors are tuned to suppress random phase signals, which explains why photoreceptor responses to naturalistic stimuli are significantly different from their responses to white noise stimuli. PMID:27336733

  7. Fly Photoreceptors Encode Phase Congruency.

    PubMed

    Friederich, Uwe; Billings, Stephen A; Hardie, Roger C; Juusola, Mikko; Coca, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    More than five decades ago it was postulated that sensory neurons detect and selectively enhance behaviourally relevant features of natural signals. Although we now know that sensory neurons are tuned to efficiently encode natural stimuli, until now it was not clear what statistical features of the stimuli they encode and how. Here we reverse-engineer the neural code of Drosophila photoreceptors and show for the first time that photoreceptors exploit nonlinear dynamics to selectively enhance and encode phase-related features of temporal stimuli, such as local phase congruency, which are invariant to changes in illumination and contrast. We demonstrate that to mitigate for the inherent sensitivity to noise of the local phase congruency measure, the nonlinear coding mechanisms of the fly photoreceptors are tuned to suppress random phase signals, which explains why photoreceptor responses to naturalistic stimuli are significantly different from their responses to white noise stimuli. PMID:27336733

  8. CO2 Sequestration within Spent Oil Shale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, H.; Worrall, F.; Gluyas, J.; Morgan, C.; Fraser, J.

    2013-12-01

    Worldwide deposits of oil shales are thought to represent ~3 trillion barrels of oil. Jordanian oil shale deposits are extensive and of high quality, and could represent 100 billion barrels of oil, leading to much interest and activity in the development of these deposits. The exploitation of oil shales has raised a number of environmental concerns including: land use, waste disposal, water consumption, and greenhouse gas emissions. The dry retorting of oil shales can overcome a number of the environmental impacts, but this leaves concerns over management of spent oil shale and CO2 production. In this study we propose that the spent oil shale can be used to sequester CO2 from the retorting process. Here we show that by conducting experiments using high pressure reaction facilities, we can achieve successful carbonation of spent oil shale. High pressure reactor facilities in the Department of Earth Sciences, Durham University, are capable of reacting solids with a range of fluids up to 15 MPa and 350°C, being specially designed for research with supercritical fluids. Jordanian spent oil shale was reacted with high pressure CO2 in order to assess whether there is potential for sequestration. Fresh and reacted materials were then examined by: Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS), Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) methods. Jordanian spent oil shale was found to sequester up to 5.8 wt % CO2, on reacting under supercritical conditions, which is 90% of the theoretical carbonation. Jordanian spent oil shale is composed of a large proportion of CaCO3, which on retorting decomposes, forming CaSO4 and Ca-oxides which are the focus of carbonation reactions. A factorially designed experiment was used to test different factors on the extent of carbonation, including: pressure; temperature; duration; and the water content. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) techniques were then used to determine the significance of

  9. Carbon sequestration by young Norway spruce monoculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokorny, R.; Rajsnerova, P.; Kubásek, J.

    2012-04-01

    Many studies have been focused on allometry, wood-mass inventory, carbon (C) sequestration, and biomass expansion factors as the first step for the evaluation of C sinks of different plant ecosystems. To identify and quantify these terrestrial C sinks, and evaluate CO2 human-induced emissions on the other hand, information for C balance accounting (for impletion of commitment to Kyoto protocol) are currently highly needed. Temperate forest ecosystems have recently been identified as important C sink. Carbon sink might be associated with environmental changes (elevated [CO2], air temperature, N deposition etc.) and large areas of managed fast-growing young forests. Norway spruce (Pice abies L. Karst) is the dominant tree species (35%) in Central European forests. It covers 55 % of the total forested area in the Czech Republic, mostly at high altitudes. In this contribution we present C sequestration by young (30-35 year-old) Norway spruce monocultures in highland (650-700 m a.s.l., AT- mean annual temperature: 6.9 ° C; P- annual amount of precipitation: 700 mm; GL- growing season duration: 150 days) and mountain (850-900 m a.s.l.; AT of 5.5 ° C; P of 1300 mm; and GL of 120 days) areas and an effect of a different type of thinning. However, the similar stem diameter at the breast height and biomass proportions among above-ground tree organs were obtained in the both localities; the trees highly differ in their height, above-ground organ's biomass values and total above ground biomass, particularly in stem. On the total mean tree biomass needle, branch and stem biomass participated by 22 %, 24 % and 54 % in highland, and by 19 %, 23 % and 58 % in mountain area, respectively. Silvicultural management affects mainly structure, density, and tree species composition of the stand. Therefore, dendrometric parameters of a tree resulted from genotype, growth conditions and from management history as well. Low type of thinning (LT; common in highland) stimulates rather tree

  10. Placental fetal stem segmentation in a sequence of histology images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Athavale, Prashant; Vese, Luminita A.

    2012-02-01

    Recent research in perinatal pathology argues that analyzing properties of the placenta may reveal important information on how certain diseases progress. One important property is the structure of the placental fetal stems. Analysis of the fetal stems in a placenta could be useful in the study and diagnosis of some diseases like autism. To study the fetal stem structure effectively, we need to automatically and accurately track fetal stems through a sequence of digitized hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained histology slides. There are many problems in successfully achieving this goal. A few of the problems are: large size of images, misalignment of the consecutive H&E slides, unpredictable inaccuracies of manual tracing, very complicated texture patterns of various tissue types without clear characteristics, just to name a few. In this paper we propose a novel algorithm to achieve automatic tracing of the fetal stem in a sequence of H&E images, based on an inaccurate manual segmentation of a fetal stem in one of the images. This algorithm combines global affine registration, local non-affine registration and a novel 'dynamic' version of the active contours model without edges. We first use global affine image registration of all the images based on displacement, scaling and rotation. This gives us approximate location of the corresponding fetal stem in the image that needs to be traced. We then use the affine registration algorithm "locally" near this location. At this point, we use a fast non-affine registration based on L2-similarity measure and diffusion regularization to get a better location of the fetal stem. Finally, we have to take into account inaccuracies in the initial tracing. This is achieved through a novel dynamic version of the active contours model without edges where the coefficients of the fitting terms are computed iteratively to ensure that we obtain a unique stem in the segmentation. The segmentation thus obtained can then be used as an

  11. Functional analyses of placental protein 13/galectin-13.

    PubMed

    Than, Nandor G; Pick, Elah; Bellyei, Szabolcs; Szigeti, Andras; Burger, Ora; Berente, Zoltan; Janaky, Tamas; Boronkai, Arpad; Kliman, Harvey; Meiri, Hamutal; Bohn, Hans; Than, Gabor N; Sumegi, Balazs

    2004-03-01

    Placental protein 13 (PP13) was cloned from human term placenta. As sequence analyses, alignments and computational modelling showed its conserved structural and functional homology to members of the galectin family, the protein was designated galectin-13. Similar to human eosinophil Charcot-Leyden crystal protein/galectin-10 but not other galectins, its weak lysophospholipase activity was confirmed by 31P-NMR. In this study, recombinant PP13/galectin-13 was expressed and specific monoclonal antibody to PP13 was developed. Endogenous lysophospholipase activity of both the purified and also the recombinant protein was verified. Sugar binding assays revealed that N-acetyl-lactosamine, mannose and N-acetyl-glucosamine residues widely expressed in human placenta had the strongest binding affinity to both the purified and recombinant PP13/galectin-13, which also effectively agglutinated erythrocytes. The protein was found to be a homodimer of 16 kDa subunits linked together by disulphide bonds, a phenomenon differing from the noncovalent dimerization of previously known prototype galectins. Furthermore, reducing agents were shown to decrease its sugar binding activity and abolish its haemagglutination. Phosphorylation sites were computed on PP13/galectin-13, and phosphorylation of the purified protein was confirmed. Using affinity chromatography, PAGE, MALDI-TOF MS and post source decay, annexin II and beta/gamma actin were identified as proteins specifically bound to PP13/galectin-13 in placenta and fetal hepatic cells. Perinuclear staining of the syncytiotrophoblasts showed its expression in these cells, while strong labelling of the syncytiotrophoblasts' brush border membrane confirmed its galectin-like externalization to the cell surface. Knowing its colocalization and specific binding to annexin II, PP13/galectin-13 was assumed to be secreted to the outer cell surface by ectocytosis, in microvesicles containing actin and annexin II. With regard to our functional

  12. Carbon sequestration and its role in the global carbon cycle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McPherson, Brian J.; Sundquist, Eric T.

    2009-01-01

    For carbon sequestration the issues of monitoring, risk assessment, and verification of carbon content and storage efficacy are perhaps the most uncertain. Yet these issues are also the most critical challenges facing the broader context of carbon sequestration as a means for addressing climate change. In response to these challenges, Carbon Sequestration and Its Role in the Global Carbon Cycle presents current perspectives and research that combine five major areas: • The global carbon cycle and verification and assessment of global carbon sources and sinks • Potential capacity and temporal/spatial scales of terrestrial, oceanic, and geologic carbon storage • Assessing risks and benefits associated with terrestrial, oceanic, and geologic carbon storage • Predicting, monitoring, and verifying effectiveness of different forms of carbon storage • Suggested new CO2 sequestration research and management paradigms for the future. The volume is based on a Chapman Conference and will appeal to the rapidly growing group of scientists and engineers examining methods for deliberate carbon sequestration through storage in plants, soils, the oceans, and geological repositories.

  13. Terrestrial biological carbon sequestration: Science for enhancement and implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Post, Wilfred M.; Amonette, James E.; Birdsey, Richard; Garten, Charles T., Jr.; Izaurralde, R. Cesar; Jardine, Philip M.; Jastrow, Julie; Lal, Rattan; Marland, Gregg; McCarl, Bruce A.; Thomson, Allison M.; West, Tristram O.; Wullschleger, Stan D.; Metting, F. Blaine

    The purpose of this chapter is to review terrestrial biological carbon sequestration and evaluate the potential carbon storage capacity if present and new techniques are more aggressively utilized. Photosynthetic CO2 capture from the atmosphere and storage of the C in aboveground and belowground biomass and in soil organic and inorganic forms can be exploited for safe and affordable greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation [Watson et al., 2000]. Nevertheless, C sequestration in the terrestrial biosphere has not been seriously pursued since its introduction in the Kyoto Protocol over a decade ago. Concerns have been raised that C sequestration in the biosphere is finite and not permanent, that it is difficult to measure and monitor, that there would be "carbon leakage" outside of the mitigation activity, and that any attention paid to environmental sequestration would be a distraction from the central issue of reducing GHG emissions from energy production and use. International accord and success in reducing emissions from the energy system are not coming easily, and concerns about climate change are growing. It is time to reevaluate all available options that might not be permanent yet have the potential to buy time, bridging to a future when new energy system technologies and a transformed energy infrastructure can fully address the climate challenge. Terrestrial sequestration is one option large enough to make a contribution in the coming decades using proven land management methods and with the possibility that new technologies could significantly enhance the opportunity.

  14. Simultaneous leaching and carbon sequestration in constrained aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Phelps, Tommy Joe; Moon, Ji Won; Roh, Yul; Cho, Kyu Seong

    2011-01-01

    The behavior of metal ions leaching and precipitated mineral phases of metal-rich fly ash (FA) was examined in order to evaluate microbial impacts on carbon sequestration and metal immobilization. The leaching solutions consisted of aerobic deionized water (DW) and artificial eutrophic water (AEW) that was anaerobic, organic- and mineral-rich, and higher salinity as is typical of bottom water in eutrophic algae ponds. The Fe- and Ca-rich FAs were predominantly composed of quartz, mullite, portlandite, calcite, hannebachite, maghemite, and hematite. After 86 days, only Fe and Ca contents exhibited a decrease in leaching solutions while other major and trace elements showed increasing or steady trends in preference to the type of FA and leaching solution. Ca-rich FA showed strong carbon sequestration efficiency ranging up to 32.3 g CO(2)/kg FA after 86 days, corresponding to almost 65% of biotic carbon sequestration potential under some conditions. Variations in the properties of FAs such as chemical compositions, mineral constituents as well as the type of leaching solution impacted CO(2) capture. Even though the relative amount of calcite increased sixfold in the AEW and the relative amount of mineral phase reached 37.3 wt% using Ca-rich FA for 86 days, chemical sequestration did not accomplish simultaneous precipitation and sequestration of several heavy metals.

  15. Biologically Enhanced Carbon Sequestration: Research Needs and Opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Oldenburg, Curtis; Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Torn, Margaret S.

    2008-03-21

    Fossil fuel combustion, deforestation, and biomass burning are the dominant contributors to increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) concentrations and global warming. Many approaches to mitigating CO{sub 2} emissions are being pursued, and among the most promising are terrestrial and geologic carbon sequestration. Recent advances in ecology and microbial biology offer promising new possibilities for enhancing terrestrial and geologic carbon sequestration. A workshop was held October 29, 2007, at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) on Biologically Enhanced Carbon Sequestration (BECS). The workshop participants (approximately 30 scientists from California, Illinois, Oregon, Montana, and New Mexico) developed a prioritized list of research needed to make progress in the development of biological enhancements to improve terrestrial and geologic carbon sequestration. The workshop participants also identified a number of areas of supporting science that are critical to making progress in the fundamental research areas. The purpose of this position paper is to summarize and elaborate upon the findings of the workshop. The paper considers terrestrial and geologic carbon sequestration separately. First, we present a summary in outline form of the research roadmaps for terrestrial and geologic BECS. This outline is elaborated upon in the narrative sections that follow. The narrative sections start with the focused research priorities in each area followed by critical supporting science for biological enhancements as prioritized during the workshop. Finally, Table 1 summarizes the potential significance or 'materiality' of advances in these areas for reducing net greenhouse gas emissions.

  16. [Seagrass ecosystems: contributions to and mechanisms of carbon sequestration].

    PubMed

    Qiu, Guang-Long; Lin, Hsing-Juh; Li, Zong-Shan; Fan, Hang-Qing; Zhou, Hao-Lang; Liu, Guo-Hua

    2014-06-01

    The ocean's vegetated habitats, in particular seagrasses, mangroves and salt marshes, each capture and store a comparable amount of carbon per year, forming the Earth's blue carbon sinks, the most intense carbon sinks on the planet. Seagrass meadows, characterized by high primary productivity, efficient water column filtration and sediment stability, have a pronounced capacity for carbon sequestration. This is enhanced by low decomposition rates in anaerobic seagrass sediments. The carbon captured by seagrass meadows contributes significantly to the total blue carbon. At a global scale, seagrass ecosystems are carbon sink hot spots and have profound influences on the global carbon cycle. This importance combined with the many other functions of seagrass meadows places them among the most valuable ecosystems in the world. Unfortunately, seagrasses are declining globally at an alarming rate owing to anthropogenic disturbances and climate change, making them also among the most threatened ecosystems on the Earth. The role of coastal systems in carbon sequestration has received far too little attention and thus there are still many uncertainties in evaluating carbon sequestration of global seagrass meadows accurately. To better assess the carbon sequestration of global seagrass ecosystems, a number of scientific issues should be considered with high priorities: 1) more accurate measurements of seagrass coverage at national and global levels; 2) more comprehensive research into species- and location-specific carbon sequestration efficiencies; 3) in-depth exploration of the effects of human disturbance and global climate change on carbon capture and storage by seagrass ecosystems. PMID:25223044

  17. Simultaneous leaching and carbon sequestration in constrained aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Moon, Ji-Won; Cho, Kyu-Seong; Moberly, James G; Roh, Yul; Phelps, Tommy J

    2011-12-01

    The behavior of metal ions' leaching and precipitated mineral phases of metal-rich fly ash (FA) was examined in order to evaluate microbial impacts on carbon sequestration and metal immobilization. The leaching solutions consisted of aerobic deionized water (DW) and artificial eutrophic water (AEW) that was anaerobic, organic- and mineral-rich, and higher salinity as is typical of bottom water in eutrophic algae ponds. The Fe- and Ca-rich FAs were predominantly composed of quartz, mullite, portlandite, calcite, hannebachite, maghemite, and hematite. After 86 days, only Fe and Ca contents exhibited a decrease in leaching solutions while other major and trace elements showed increasing or steady trends in preference to the type of FA and leaching solution. Ca-rich FA showed strong carbon sequestration efficiency ranging up to 32.3 g CO(2)/kg FA after 86 days, corresponding to almost 65% of biotic carbon sequestration potential under some conditions. Variations in the properties of FAs such as chemical compositions, mineral constituents as well as the type of leaching solution impacted CO(2) capture. Even though the relative amount of calcite increased sixfold in the AEW and the relative amount of mineral phase reached 37.3 wt% using Ca-rich FA for 86 days, chemical sequestration did not accomplish simultaneous precipitation and sequestration of several heavy metals. PMID:21246259

  18. A Novel Virus-Like Particle Based Vaccine Platform Displaying the Placental Malaria Antigen VAR2CSA

    PubMed Central

    Thrane, Susan; Janitzek, Christoph M.; Agerbæk, Mette Ø.; Ditlev, Sisse B.; Resende, Mafalda; Nielsen, Morten A.; Theander, Thor G.; Salanti, Ali; Sander, Adam F.

    2015-01-01

    Placental malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum is a major cause of mortality and severe morbidity. Clinical testing of a soluble protein-based vaccine containing the parasite ligand, VAR2CSA, has been initiated. VAR2CSA binds to the human receptor chondroitin sulphate A (CSA) and is responsible for sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocytes in the placenta. It is imperative that a vaccine against malaria in pregnancy, if administered to women before they become pregnant, can induce a strong and long lasting immune response. While most soluble protein-based vaccines have failed during clinical testing, virus-like particle (VLP) based vaccines (e.g., the licensed human papillomavirus vaccines) have demonstrated high efficacy, suggesting that the spatial assembly of the vaccine antigen is a critical parameter for inducing an optimal long-lasting protective immune response. We have developed a VLP vaccine display platform by identifying regions of the HPV16 L1 coat protein where a biotin acceptor site (AviTagTM) can be inserted without compromising VLP-assembly. Subsequent biotinylation of Avi-L1 VLPs allow us to anchor monovalent streptavidin (mSA)-fused proteins to the biotin, thereby obtaining a dense and repetitive VLP-display of the vaccine antigen. The mSA-VAR2CSA antigen was delivered on the Avi-L1 VLP platform and tested in C57BL/6 mice in comparison to two soluble protein-based vaccines consisting of naked VAR2CSA and mSA-VAR2CSA. The mSA-VAR2CSA Avi-L1 VLP and soluble mSA-VAR2CSA vaccines induced higher antibody titers than the soluble naked VAR2CSA vaccine after three immunizations. The VAR2CSA Avi-L1 VLP vaccine induced statistically significantly higher endpoint titres compared to the soluble mSA-VAR2CSA vaccine, after 1st and 2nd immunization; however, this difference was not statistically significant after 3rd immunization. Importantly, the VLP-VAR2CSA induced antibodies were functional in inhibiting the binding of parasites to CSA

  19. Role of the Placental Vitamin D Receptor in Modulating Feto-Placental Growth in Fetal Growth Restriction and Preeclampsia-Affected Pregnancies

    PubMed Central

    Murthi, Padma; Yong, Hannah E. J.; Ngyuen, Thy P. H.; Ellery, Stacey; Singh, Harmeet; Rahman, Rahana; Dickinson, Hayley; Walker, David W.; Davies-Tuck, Miranda; Wallace, Euan M.; Ebeling, Peter R.

    2016-01-01

    Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is a common pregnancy complication that affects up to 5% of pregnancies worldwide. Recent studies demonstrate that Vitamin D deficiency is implicated in reduced fetal growth, which may be rescued by supplementation of Vitamin D. Despite this, the pathway(s) by which Vitamin D modulate fetal growth remains to be investigated. Our own studies demonstrate that the Vitamin D receptor (VDR) is significantly decreased in placentae from human pregnancies complicated by FGR and contributes to abnormal placental trophoblast apoptosis and differentiation and regulation of cell-cycle genes in vitro. Thus, Vitamin D signaling is important for normal placental function and fetal growth. This review discusses the association of Vitamin D with fetal growth, the function of Vitamin D and its receptor in pregnancy, as well as the functional significance of a placental source of Vitamin D in FGR. Additionally, we propose that for Vitamin D to be clinically effective to prevent and manage FGR, the molecular mechanisms of Vitamin D and its receptor in modulating fetal growth requires further investigation. PMID:26924988

  20. Difference in expression patterns of placental cholesterol transporters, ABCA1 and SR-BI, in Meishan and Yorkshire pigs with different placental efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Linjun; Xu, Xiangdong; Huang, Ji; Lei, Minggang; Xu, Dequan; Zhao, Shuhong; Yu, Mei

    2016-01-01

    Cholesterol is a key cell membrane component and precursor of steroid hormones. The maternal cholesterol is an important exogenous cholesterol source for the developing embryos and its transportation is mediated by ABCA1 and SR-BI. Here we reported that during the peri-implantation period in pigs, ABCA1 was expressed by uterine luminal epithelium (LE) and interestingly, its expression was more abundantly in LE on mesometrial side of uterus. However, SR-BI was expressed primarily by LE, glandular epithelial cells (GE) and trophoblast cells (Tr). During the placentation period, the expression levels of ABCA1 and SR-BI proteins at epithelial bilayer and placental areolae were significantly higher in Chinese Meishan pigs compared to Yorkshire pigs. Consisitently, mRNA levels of HMGCR, the rate-limiting enzyme for cholesterol synthesis, were significantly higher in Meishan placentas than in Yorkshire placentas. Our findings revealed the routes of transplacental cholesterol transport mediated by ABCA1 and SR-BI in pigs and indicated that ABCA1 related pathway may participate in anchoring the conceptus to the mesometrial side of uterus. Additionally, an ABCA1 dependent compensatory mechanism related to the placental efficiency in response to the smaller placenta size in Meishan pigs was suggested. PMID:26852751

  1. Difference in expression patterns of placental cholesterol transporters, ABCA1 and SR-BI, in Meishan and Yorkshire pigs with different placental efficiency.

    PubMed

    Hong, Linjun; Xu, Xiangdong; Huang, Ji; Lei, Minggang; Xu, Dequan; Zhao, Shuhong; Yu, Mei

    2016-01-01

    Cholesterol is a key cell membrane component and precursor of steroid hormones. The maternal cholesterol is an important exogenous cholesterol source for the developing embryos and its transportation is mediated by ABCA1 and SR-BI. Here we reported that during the peri-implantation period in pigs, ABCA1 was expressed by uterine luminal epithelium (LE) and interestingly, its expression was more abundantly in LE on mesometrial side of uterus. However, SR-BI was expressed primarily by LE, glandular epithelial cells (GE) and trophoblast cells (Tr). During the placentation period, the expression levels of ABCA1 and SR-BI proteins at epithelial bilayer and placental areolae were significantly higher in Chinese Meishan pigs compared to Yorkshire pigs. Consisitently, mRNA levels of HMGCR, the rate-limiting enzyme for cholesterol synthesis, were significantly higher in Meishan placentas than in Yorkshire placentas. Our findings revealed the routes of transplacental cholesterol transport mediated by ABCA1 and SR-BI in pigs and indicated that ABCA1 related pathway may participate in anchoring the conceptus to the mesometrial side of uterus. Additionally, an ABCA1 dependent compensatory mechanism related to the placental efficiency in response to the smaller placenta size in Meishan pigs was suggested. PMID:26852751

  2. Role of the Placental Vitamin D Receptor in Modulating Feto-Placental Growth in Fetal Growth Restriction and Preeclampsia-Affected Pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Murthi, Padma; Yong, Hannah E J; Ngyuen, Thy P H; Ellery, Stacey; Singh, Harmeet; Rahman, Rahana; Dickinson, Hayley; Walker, David W; Davies-Tuck, Miranda; Wallace, Euan M; Ebeling, Peter R

    2016-01-01

    Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is a common pregnancy complication that affects up to 5% of pregnancies worldwide. Recent studies demonstrate that Vitamin D deficiency is implicated in reduced fetal growth, which may be rescued by supplementation of Vitamin D. Despite this, the pathway(s) by which Vitamin D modulate fetal growth remains to be investigated. Our own studies demonstrate that the Vitamin D receptor (VDR) is significantly decreased in placentae from human pregnancies complicated by FGR and contributes to abnormal placental trophoblast apoptosis and differentiation and regulation of cell-cycle genes in vitro. Thus, Vitamin D signaling is important for normal placental function and fetal growth. This review discusses the association of Vitamin D with fetal growth, the function of Vitamin D and its receptor in pregnancy, as well as the functional significance of a placental source of Vitamin D in FGR. Additionally, we propose that for Vitamin D to be clinically effective to prevent and manage FGR, the molecular mechanisms of Vitamin D and its receptor in modulating fetal growth requires further investigation. PMID:26924988

  3. 47 CFR 11.32 - EAS Encoder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false EAS Encoder. 11.32 Section 11.32 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL EMERGENCY ALERT SYSTEM (EAS) Equipment Requirements § 11.32 EAS Encoder. (a) EAS Encoders must at a minimum be capable of encoding the EAS protocol described in § 11.31 and providing the EAS...

  4. 47 CFR 11.32 - EAS Encoder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false EAS Encoder. 11.32 Section 11.32 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL EMERGENCY ALERT SYSTEM (EAS) Equipment Requirements § 11.32 EAS Encoder. (a) EAS Encoders must at a minimum be capable of encoding the EAS protocol described in § 11.31 and providing the EAS...

  5. 47 CFR 11.32 - EAS Encoder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false EAS Encoder. 11.32 Section 11.32 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL EMERGENCY ALERT SYSTEM (EAS) Equipment Requirements § 11.32 EAS Encoder. (a) EAS Encoders must at a minimum be capable of encoding the EAS protocol described in § 11.31 and providing the EAS...

  6. Early History of Mammals Is Elucidated with the ENCODE Multiple Species Sequencing Data

    PubMed Central

    Nikolaev, Sergey; Montoya-Burgos, Juan I; Margulies, Elliott H; Program, NISC Comparative Sequencing; Rougemont, Jacques; Nyffeler, Bruno; Antonarakis, Stylianos E

    2007-01-01

    Understanding the early evolution of placental mammals is one of the most challenging issues in mammalian phylogeny. Here, we addressed this question by using the sequence data of the ENCODE consortium, which include 1% of mammalian genomes in 18 species belonging to all main mammalian lineages. Phylogenetic reconstructions based on an unprecedented amount of coding sequences taken from 218 genes resulted in a highly supported tree placing the root of Placentalia between Afrotheria and Exafroplacentalia (Afrotheria hypothesis). This topology was validated by the phylogenetic analysis of a new class of genomic phylogenetic markers, the conserved noncoding sequences. Applying the tests of alternative topologies on the coding sequence dataset resulted in the rejection of the Atlantogenata hypothesis (Xenarthra grouping with Afrotheria), while this test rejected the second alternative scenario, the Epitheria hypothesis (Xenarthra at the base), when using the noncoding sequence dataset. Thus, the two datasets support the Afrotheria hypothesis; however, none can reject both of the remaining topological alternatives. PMID:17206863

  7. How Infants Encode Spatial Extent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Sean; Huttenlocher, Janellen; Levine, Susan; Duffy, Renee

    2005-01-01

    This study explores how infants encode an object's spatial extent. We habituated 6.5-month-old infants to a dowel inside a container and then tested whether they dishabituate to a change in absolute size when the relation between dowel and container is held constant (by altering the size of both container and dowel) and when the relation changes…

  8. Shaft encoder presents digital output

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hillis, D. A.

    1966-01-01

    Circuits that include compensation circuitry time a capacitance relative to a reference voltage so that a digital presentation occurs that is representative of the positional condition of the mechanical shaft being monitored. This circuitry may be employed in multiples to furnish binary encoding of a number of rotating devices simultaneously.

  9. Encoding Standards for Linguistic Corpora.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ide, Nancy

    The demand for extensive reusability of large language text collections for natural languages processing research requires development of standardized encoding formats. Such formats must be capable of representing different kinds of information across the spectrum of text types and languages, capable of representing different levels of…

  10. 40 CFR 98.448 - Geologic sequestration monitoring, reporting, and verification (MRV) plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide § 98.448 Geologic sequestration monitoring, reporting, and verification (MRV... between the injection flow meter and injection well and/or the production flow meter and production...

  11. 40 CFR 98.448 - Geologic sequestration monitoring, reporting, and verification (MRV) plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide § 98.448 Geologic sequestration monitoring, reporting, and verification (MRV... between the injection flow meter and injection well and/or the production flow meter and production...

  12. 40 CFR 98.448 - Geologic sequestration monitoring, reporting, and verification (MRV) plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide § 98.448 Geologic sequestration monitoring, reporting, and verification (MRV... between the injection flow meter and injection well and/or the production flow meter and production...

  13. An Alternative Mechanism for Accelerated Carbon Sequestration in Concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Haselbach, Liv M.; Thomle, Jonathan N.

    2014-07-01

    The increased rate of carbon dioxide sequestration (carbonation) is desired in many primary and secondary life applications of concrete in order to make the life cycle of concrete structures more carbon neutral. Most carbonation rate studies have focused on concrete exposed to air under various conditions. An alternative mechanism for accelerated carbon sequestration in concrete was investigated in this research based on the pH change of waters in contact with pervious concrete which have been submerged in carbonate laden waters. The results indicate that the concrete exposed to high levels of carbonate species in water may carbonate faster than when exposed to ambient air, and that the rate is higher with higher concentrations. Validation of increased carbon dioxide sequestration was also performed via thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). It is theorized that the proposed alternative mechanism reduces a limiting rate effect of carbon dioxide dissolution in water in the micro pores of the concrete.

  14. A Circular Bioeconomy with Biobased Products from CO2 Sequestration.

    PubMed

    Venkata Mohan, S; Modestra, J Annie; Amulya, K; Butti, Sai Kishore; Velvizhi, G

    2016-06-01

    The unprecedented climate change influenced by elevated concentrations of CO2 has compelled the research world to focus on CO2 sequestration. Although existing natural and anthropogenic CO2 sinks have proven valuable, their ability to further assimilate CO2 is now questioned. Thus, we highlight here the importance of biological sequestration methods as alternate and viable routes for mitigating climate change while simultaneously synthesizing value-added products that could sustainably fuel the circular bioeconomy. Four conceptual models for CO2 biosequestration and the synthesis of biobased products, as well as an integrated CO2 biorefinery model, are proposed. Optimizing and implementing this biorefinery model might overcome the limitations of existing sequestration methods and could help realign the carbon balance. PMID:27048926

  15. Sequestration of Methylene Blue into Polyelectrolyte Complex Coacervates.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Mengmeng; Zacharia, Nicole S

    2016-08-01

    Polyelectrolyte complex coacervation is a process that has been proposed as a model for protocell formation due to its ability to compartmentalize chemicals in solution without a membrane. During the liquid-liquid phase separation that results in water rich and polyelectrolyte rich phases, small molecules present in solution selectively partition to one phase over the other. This sequestration is based on relative affinities. Here, a study of the sequestration of methylene blue (MB) into the complex coacervate phase of three pairs of synthetic polyelectrolytes is presented; branched polyethylene imine with polyacrylic acid, polyvinyl sulfonate, or poly(4-styrenesulfonic acid). These materials are characterized with UV-vis, zeta potential measurements, and dynamic light scattering. The branched polyethylene imine/poly(4-styrenesulfonic acid) system is shown to have a significantly higher sequestration capacity for the MB as compared to either of the other two systems, based on π-π interactions which are not possible in the other systems. PMID:27336461

  16. Thyroglossal duct cyst accompanied by laryngomalacia and pulmonary sequestration.

    PubMed

    Yagasaki, Hideaki; Makino, Koichi; Goto, Yusuke; Suzuki, Takeyuki; Oyachi, Noboru; Obana, Kazuko; Ko, Junichi; Komai, Takayuki

    2014-06-01

    A 2-month-old full-term female infant developed nasal stridor, which progressed to respiratory distress and poor sucking ability. Direct pharyngoscopy showed laryngomalacia and a midline cystic mass in the lingual region. The mass pressed on the epiglottis, causing dyspnea. Computed tomography incidentally revealed extralobar pulmonary sequestration. Direct deroofing of the lingual cyst and plication of the epiglottis were performed at 3 months of age, and the patient recovered from the respiratory distress. Histopathology of the cystic mass showed a thyroglossal duct cyst. Thoracoscopic resection of the pulmonary sequestration was then done at 17 months of age. Thyroglossal duct cysts in the lingual region may cause destabilization of the epiglottis and laryngomalacia, resulting in acquired respiratory obstruction. The combination of thyroglossal duct cyst, laryngomalacia, and pulmonary sequestration is rare; therefore, reports must be accumulated in order to explore the embryological origins of such cases. PMID:24894942

  17. Invasive implantation and intimate placental associations in a placentotrophic African lizard, Trachylepis ivensi (scincidae).

    PubMed

    Blackburn, Daniel G; Flemming, Alexander F

    2012-02-01

    In the viviparous lizard Trachylepis ivensi (Scincidae) of central Africa, reproducing females ovulate tiny ∼1 mm eggs and supply the nutrients for development by placental means. Histological study shows that this species has evolved an extraordinary placental pattern long thought to be confined to mammals, in which fetal tissues invade the uterine lining to contact maternal blood vessels. The vestigial shell membrane disappears very early in development, allowing the egg to absorb uterine secretions. The yolk is enveloped precocially by the trilaminar yolk sac and no isolated yolk mass or yolk cleft develops. Early placentas are formed from the chorion and choriovitelline membranes during the neurula through pharyngula stages. During implantation, cells of the chorionic ectoderm penetrate between uterine epithelial cells. The penetrating tissue undergoes hypertrophy and hyperplasia, giving rise to sheets of epithelial tissue that invade beneath the uterine epithelium, stripping it away. As a result, fetal epithelium entirely replaces the uterine epithelium, and lies in direct contact with maternal capillaries and connective tissue. Placentation is endotheliochorial and fundamentally different from that of all other viviparous reptiles known. Further, the pattern of fetal membrane development (with successive loss and re-establishment of an extensive choriovitelline membrane) is unique among vertebrates. T. ivensi represents a new extreme in placental specializations of reptiles, and is the most striking case of convergence on the developmental features of viviparous mammals known. PMID:21956253

  18. RNA-seq analysis of placental gene expression: Effect of maternal obesity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The rat placentation site is organized into distinct zones: the labyrinth (L), junctional (J), and metrial gland (MG) compartments. We utilized massively parallel sequencing (RNA-seq) to assess mRNA expression profiles for each zone of the late-gestation rat placenta (dpc18.5). In addition, we eluci...

  19. Association between delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase polymorphism and placental lead levels.

    PubMed

    Kayaaltı, Zeliha; Sert, Selda; Kaya-Akyüzlü, Dilek; Söylemez, Esma; Söylemezoğlu, Tülin

    2016-01-01

    Lead inhibits the delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity and results in neurotoxic aminolevulinic acid accumulation in the blood. During pregnancy, lead in the maternal blood can easily cross the placenta. The aim of this study was to determine whether the maternal ALAD G177C polymorphism (rs1800435) was related to the placental lead levels. The study population comprised 97 blood samples taken from mothers to investigate ALAD G177C polymorphism and their placentas to measure lead levels. ALAD G177C polymorphism was detected by standard polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) technique and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) equipped with a graphite furnace and Zeeman background correction system was used for lead determination. The median placental lead levels for ALAD1-1, ALAD1-2 and ALAD2-2 genotypes were 7.54 μg/kg, 11.78 μg/kg and 18.53 μg/kg, respectively. Statistically significant association was found between the maternal ALAD G177C polymorphism and placental lead levels (p<0.05). This study suggested that maternal ALAD G177C polymorphism was associated with placental lead levels. PMID:26701682

  20. Differential loss of embryonic globin genes during the radiation of placental mammals

    PubMed Central

    Opazo, Juan C.; Hoffmann, Federico G.; Storz, Jay F.

    2008-01-01

    The differential gain and loss of genes from homologous gene families represents an important source of functional variation among the genomes of different species. Differences in gene content between species are primarily attributable to lineage-specific gene gains via duplication and lineage-specific losses via deletion or inactivation. Here, we use a comparative genomic approach to investigate this process of gene turnover in the β-globin gene family of placental mammals. By analyzing genomic sequence data from representatives of each of the main superordinal clades of placental mammals, we were able to reconstruct pathways of gene family evolution during the basal radiation of this physiologically and morphologically diverse vertebrate group. Our analysis revealed that an initial expansion of the nonadult portion of the β-globin gene cluster in the ancestor of placental mammals was followed by the differential loss and retention of ancestral gene lineages, thereby generating variation in the complement of embryonic globin genes among contemporary species. The sorting of ε-, γ-, and η-globin gene lineages among the basal clades of placental mammals has produced species differences in the functional types of hemoglobin isoforms that can be synthesized during the course of embryonic development. PMID:18755893