Long distance quantum communication using continuous variable encoding
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Linshu; Albert, Victor; Michael, Marios; Muralidharan, Sreraman; Zou, Changling; Jiang, Liang
Quantum communication enables faithful quantum state transfer between different parties and protocols for cryptographic purposes. However, quantum communication over long distances (>1000km) remains challenging due to optical channel attenuation. This calls for investigation on developing novel encoding schemes that correct photon loss errors efficiently. In this talk, we introduce the generalization of multi-component Schrödinger cat states and propose to encode quantum information in these cat states for ultrafast quantum repeaters. We detail the quantum error correction procedures at each repeater station and characterize the performance of this novel encoding scheme given practical imperfections, such as coupling loss. A comparison with other quantum error correcting codes for bosonic modes will be discussed.
Spectral-temporal-polarization encoding of photons for multi-user secure quantum communication
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Donkor, Eric
2014-05-01
We describe a Quantum Key Distribution protocol that combines temporal-, spectraland polarization-encoding of photons for secure communication over an interconnected network of users. Temporal encoding is used to identify a user's location or address on the network. Polarization encoding is used to generate private cryptographic key. Polarization encoded information is locally and randomly generated by users and exchanged only over a dedicated secure channel. Spectral encoding allows for the detection of eavesdropping and tampering by a malicious agent. Temporal-spectral signals sent from the network administrator (Alice) to a user are bright light source. On the other hand spectral-temporal signal from a network user (Bob) to the administrator (Alice) are single photons. Signals are sent across the network as ordered light pairs. The ordering format is randomly chosen and are revealed only at the time of key selection between the parties so that a secure one-time cryptographic pad can be generated
Quantum Spread Spectrum Communication
Humble, Travis S
2010-01-01
We demonstrate that spectral teleportation can coherently dilate the spectral probability amplitude of a single photon. In preserving the encoded quantum information, this variant of teleportation subsequently enables a form of quantum spread spectrum communication.
Quantum repeater with continuous variable encoding
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Linshu; Albert, Victor V.; Michael, Marios; Muralidharan, Sreraman; Zou, Changling; Jiang, Liang
2016-05-01
Quantum communication enables faithful quantum state transfer between different parties and protocols for cryptographic purposes. However, quantum communication over long distances (>1000km) remains challenging due to optical channel attenuation. This calls for investigation on developing novel encoding schemes that correct photon loss errors efficiently. In this talk, we introduce the generalization of multi-component Schrödinger cat states and propose to encode quantum information in these cat states for ultrafast quantum repeaters. We detail the quantum error correction procedures at each repeater station and characterize the performance of this novel encoding scheme given practical imperfections, such as coupling loss. A comparison with other quantum error correcting codes for bosonic modes will be discussed.
Relativistic Quantum Communication
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hosler, Dominic
In this Ph.D. thesis, I investigate the communication abilities of non-inertial observers and the precision to which they can measure parametrized states. I introduce relativistic quantum field theory with field quantisation, and the definition and transformations of mode functions in Minkowski, Schwarzschild and Rindler spaces. I introduce information theory by discussing the nature of information, defining the entropic information measures, and highlighting the differences between classical and quantum information. I review the field of relativistic quantum information. We investigate the communication abilities of an inertial observer to a relativistic observer hovering above a Schwarzschild black hole, using the Rindler approximation. We compare both classical communication and quantum entanglement generation of the state merging protocol, for both the single and dual rail encodings. We find that while classical communication remains finite right up to the horizon, the quantum entanglement generation tends to zero. We investigate the observers' abilities to precisely measure the parameter of a state that is communicated between Alice and Rob. This parameter was encoded to either the amplitudes of a single excitation state or the phase of a NOON state. With NOON states the dual rail encoding provided greater precision, which is different to the results for the other situations. The precision was maximum for a particular number of excitations in the NOON state. We calculated the bipartite communication for Alice-Rob and Alice-AntiRob beyond the single mode approximation. Rob and AntiRob are causally disconnected counter-accelerating observers. We found that Alice must choose in advance with whom, Rob or AntiRob she wants to create entanglement using a particular setup. She could communicate classically to both.
Experimental Satellite Quantum Communications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vallone, Giuseppe; Bacco, Davide; Dequal, Daniele; Gaiarin, Simone; Luceri, Vincenza; Bianco, Giuseppe; Villoresi, Paolo
2015-07-01
Quantum communication (QC), namely, the faithful transmission of generic quantum states, is a key ingredient of quantum information science. Here we demonstrate QC with polarization encoding from space to ground by exploiting satellite corner cube retroreflectors as quantum transmitters in orbit and the Matera Laser Ranging Observatory of the Italian Space Agency in Matera, Italy, as a quantum receiver. The quantum bit error ratio (QBER) has been kept steadily low to a level suitable for several quantum information protocols, as the violation of Bell inequalities or quantum key distribution (QKD). Indeed, by taking data from different satellites, we demonstrate an average value of QBER =4.6 % for a total link duration of 85 s. The mean photon number per pulse μsat leaving the satellites was estimated to be of the order of one. In addition, we propose a fully operational satellite QKD system by exploiting our communication scheme with orbiting retroreflectors equipped with a modulator, a very compact payload. Our scheme paves the way toward the implementation of a QC worldwide network leveraging existing receivers.
Experimental Satellite Quantum Communications.
Vallone, Giuseppe; Bacco, Davide; Dequal, Daniele; Gaiarin, Simone; Luceri, Vincenza; Bianco, Giuseppe; Villoresi, Paolo
2015-07-24
Quantum communication (QC), namely, the faithful transmission of generic quantum states, is a key ingredient of quantum information science. Here we demonstrate QC with polarization encoding from space to ground by exploiting satellite corner cube retroreflectors as quantum transmitters in orbit and the Matera Laser Ranging Observatory of the Italian Space Agency in Matera, Italy, as a quantum receiver. The quantum bit error ratio (QBER) has been kept steadily low to a level suitable for several quantum information protocols, as the violation of Bell inequalities or quantum key distribution (QKD). Indeed, by taking data from different satellites, we demonstrate an average value of QBER=4.6% for a total link duration of 85 s. The mean photon number per pulse μ_{sat} leaving the satellites was estimated to be of the order of one. In addition, we propose a fully operational satellite QKD system by exploiting our communication scheme with orbiting retroreflectors equipped with a modulator, a very compact payload. Our scheme paves the way toward the implementation of a QC worldwide network leveraging existing receivers. PMID:26252672
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jackson, Judy; Calder, Neil
2007-11-01
Few would dispute that the science of particle physics in the United States has reached a crossroads. Policies, decisions, and events of the coming decade will be critical in determining whether the United States continues to carry out a competitive program of leadership in this field of fundamental science. The field of particle physics has responded to this reality by fundamentally changing its model of communication from “business as usual” to a strategic and collaborative method that is clearly focused on achieving a healthy future for the science. Over the past half-dozen years, the particle physics community has gone from being an oft-cited example of how not to communicate effectively, to a frequently cited—and emulated—model for science communication. This review outlines the new approach toward communication in particle physics and then goes into detail about three case studies.
Measurement-based quantum communication
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zwerger, M.; Briegel, H. J.; Dür, W.
2016-03-01
We review and discuss the potential of using measurement-based elements in quantum communication schemes, where certain tasks are realized with the help of entangled resource states that are processed by measurements. We consider long-range quantum communication based on the transmission of encoded quantum states, where encoding, decoding and syndrome readout are implemented using small-scale resource states. We also discuss entanglement-based schemes and consider measurement-based quantum repeaters. An important element in these schemes is entanglement purification, which can also be implemented in a measurement-based way. We analyze the influence of noise and imperfections in these schemes and show that measurement-based implementation allows for very large error thresholds of the order of 10 % noise per qubit and more. We show how to obtain optimal resource states for different tasks and discuss first experimental realizations of measurement-based quantum error correction using trapped ions and photons.
Hierarchical quantum communication
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shukla, Chitra; Pathak, Anirban
2013-08-01
A general approach to study the hierarchical quantum information splitting (HQIS) is proposed and the same is used to systematically investigate the possibility of realizing HQIS using different classes of 4-qubit entangled states that are not connected by stochastic local operations and classical communication (SLOCC). Explicit examples of HQIS using 4-qubit cluster state and 4-qubit |Ω> state are provided. Further, the proposed HQIS scheme is generalized to introduce two new aspects of hierarchical quantum communication. To be precise, schemes of probabilistic hierarchical quantum information splitting and hierarchical quantum secret sharing are obtained by modifying the proposed HQIS scheme. A number of practical situations where hierarchical quantum communication would be of use, are also presented.
Strong connections between quantum encodings, nonlocality, and quantum cryptography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sikora, Jamie; Chailloux, André; Kerenidis, Iordanis
2014-02-01
Encoding information in quantum systems can offer surprising advantages but at the same time there are limitations that arise from the fact that measuring an observable may disturb the state of the quantum system. In our work, we provide an in-depth analysis of a simple question: What happens when we perform two measurements sequentially on the same quantum system? This question touches upon some fundamental properties of quantum mechanics, namely the uncertainty principle and the complementarity of quantum measurements. Our results have interesting consequences, for example, they can provide a simple proof of the optimal quantum strategy in the famous Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt game. Moreover, we show that the way information is encoded in quantum systems can provide a different perspective in understanding other fundamental aspects of quantum information, like nonlocality and quantum cryptography. We prove some strong equivalences between these notions and provide a number of applications in all areas.
Quantum gloves: Quantum states that encode as much as possible chirality and nothing else
Collins, D.; Diosi, L.; Gisin, N.; Massar, S.; Popescu, S.
2005-08-15
Communicating a physical quantity cannot be done using information only - i.e., using abstract cbits and/or qubits. Rather one needs appropriate physical realizations of cbits and/or qubits. We illustrate this by considering the problem of communicating chirality. We discuss in detail the physical resources this necessitates and introduce the natural concept of quantum gloves - i.e., rotationally invariant quantum states that encode as much as possible the concept of chirality and nothing more.
Noisy quantum phase communication channels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Teklu, Berihu; Trapani, Jacopo; Olivares, Stefano; Paris, Matteo G. A.
2015-06-01
We address quantum phase channels, i.e communication schemes where information is encoded in the phase-shift imposed to a given signal, and analyze their performances in the presence of phase diffusion. We evaluate mutual information for coherent and phase-coherent signals, and for both ideal and realistic phase receivers. We show that coherent signals offer better performances than phase-coherent ones, and that realistic phase channels are effective ones in the relevant regime of low energy and large alphabets.
Interoperability in encoded quantum repeater networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nagayama, Shota; Choi, Byung-Soo; Devitt, Simon; Suzuki, Shigeya; Van Meter, Rodney
2016-04-01
The future of quantum repeater networking will require interoperability between various error-correcting codes. A few specific code conversions and even a generalized method are known, however, no detailed analysis of these techniques in the context of quantum networking has been performed. In this paper we analyze a generalized procedure to create Bell pairs encoded heterogeneously between two separate codes used often in error-corrected quantum repeater network designs. We begin with a physical Bell pair and then encode each qubit in a different error-correcting code, using entanglement purification to increase the fidelity. We investigate three separate protocols for preparing the purified encoded Bell pair. We calculate the error probability of those schemes between the Steane [[7,1,3
Quantum Information Theory for Quantum Communication
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koashi, Masato
This chapter gives a concise description of the fundamental concepts of quantum information and quantum communication, which is pertinent to the discussions in the subsequent chapters. Beginning with the basic set of rules that dictate quantum mechanics, the chapter explains the most general ways to describe quantum states, measurements, and state transformations. Convenient mathematical tools are also presented to provide an intuitive picture of a qubit, which is the simplest unit of quantum information. The chapter then elaborates on the distinction between quantum communication and classical communication, with emphasis on the role of quantum entanglement as a communication resource. Quantum teleportation and dense coding are then explained in the context of optimal resource conversions among quantum channels, classical channels, and entanglement.
Quantum channel capacities: Multiparty communication
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Demianowicz, Maciej; Horodecki, Paweł
2006-10-01
We analyze different aspects of multiparty communication over quantum memoryless channels and generalize some of the key results known from bipartite channels to the multiparty scenario. In particular, we introduce multiparty versions of subspace and entanglement transmission fidelities. We also provide alternative, local, versions of fidelities and show their equivalence to the global ones in context of capacity regions defined. An equivalence of two different capacity notions with respect to two types of fidelities is proven. In analogy to the bipartite case it is shown, via sufficiency of isometric encoding theorem, that additional classical forward side channel does not increase capacity region of any quantum channel with k senders and m receivers which represents a compact unit of general quantum networks theory. The result proves that recently provided capacity region of a multiple access channel [M. Horodecki , Nature 436, 673 (2005); J. Yard , e-print quant-ph/0501045], is optimal also in a scenario of an additional support of forward classical communication.
Practical secure quantum communications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Diamanti, Eleni
2015-05-01
We review recent advances in the field of quantum cryptography, focusing in particular on practical implementations of two central protocols for quantum network applications, namely key distribution and coin flipping. The former allows two parties to share secret messages with information-theoretic security, even in the presence of a malicious eavesdropper in the communication channel, which is impossible with classical resources alone. The latter enables two distrustful parties to agree on a random bit, again with information-theoretic security, and with a cheating probability lower than the one that can be reached in a classical scenario. Our implementations rely on continuous-variable technology for quantum key distribution and on a plug and play discrete-variable system for coin flipping, and necessitate a rigorous security analysis adapted to the experimental schemes and their imperfections. In both cases, we demonstrate the protocols with provable security over record long distances in optical fibers and assess the performance of our systems as well as their limitations. The reported advances offer a powerful toolbox for practical applications of secure communications within future quantum networks.
Minimized state complexity of quantum-encoded cryptic processes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Riechers, Paul M.; Mahoney, John R.; Aghamohammadi, Cina; Crutchfield, James P.
2016-05-01
The predictive information required for proper trajectory sampling of a stochastic process can be more efficiently transmitted via a quantum channel than a classical one. This recent discovery allows quantum information processing to drastically reduce the memory necessary to simulate complex classical stochastic processes. It also points to a new perspective on the intrinsic complexity that nature must employ in generating the processes we observe. The quantum advantage increases with codeword length: the length of process sequences used in constructing the quantum communication scheme. In analogy with the classical complexity measure, statistical complexity, we use this reduced communication cost as an entropic measure of state complexity in the quantum representation. Previously difficult to compute, the quantum advantage is expressed here in closed form using spectral decomposition. This allows for efficient numerical computation of the quantum-reduced state complexity at all encoding lengths, including infinite. Additionally, it makes clear how finite-codeword reduction in state complexity is controlled by the classical process's cryptic order, and it allows asymptotic analysis of infinite-cryptic-order processes.
Complete experimental toolbox for alignment-free quantum communication
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
D'Ambrosio, Vincenzo; Nagali, Eleonora; Walborn, Stephen P.; Aolita, Leandro; Slussarenko, Sergei; Marrucci, Lorenzo; Sciarrino, Fabio
2012-07-01
Quantum communication employs the counter-intuitive features of quantum physics for tasks that are impossible in the classical world. It is crucial for testing the foundations of quantum theory and promises to revolutionize information and communication technologies. However, to execute even the simplest quantum transmission, one must establish, and maintain, a shared reference frame. This introduces a considerable overhead in resources, particularly if the parties are in motion or rotating relative to each other. Here we experimentally show how to circumvent this problem with the transmission of quantum information encoded in rotationally invariant states of single photons. By developing a complete toolbox for the efficient encoding and decoding of quantum information in such photonic qubits, we demonstrate the feasibility of alignment-free quantum key-distribution, and perform proof-of-principle demonstrations of alignment-free entanglement distribution and Bell-inequality violation. The scheme should find applications in fundamental tests of quantum mechanics and satellite-based quantum communication.
Multiuser quantum communication networks
Wojcik, Antoni; Kurzynski, Pawel; Grudka, Andrzej; Luczak, Tomasz; Gdala, Tomasz; Bednarska, Malgorzata
2007-02-15
We study a quantum state transfer between spins interacting with an arbitrary network of spins coupled by uniform XX interactions. It is shown that in such a system under fairly general conditions, we can expect a nearly perfect transfer of states. Then we analyze a generalization of this model to the case of many network users, where the sender can choose which party he wants to communicate with by appropriately tuning his local magnetic field. We also remark that a similar idea can be used to create an entanglement between several spins coupled to the network.
Intersatellite quantum communication feasibility study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tomaello, Andrea; Dall'Arche, Alberto; Naletto, Giampiero; Villoresi, Paolo
2011-08-01
The shift in the Communication paradigm from the bit to the qubit is increasingly exploited in terrestrial long range links and networks, with strong potentials in secure communications, quantum computing and metrology. The space-to-ground quantum key distribution was also considered as feasible. A new different scenario for the quantum communications is that of the intersatellite link. In this study we focus on the extension of intersatellite communications into the quantum domain. The long distances involved and the fast relative motion are severe constraints, partially compensated by the absence of beam degradation due to the propagation in the atmosphere as well as the relatively low background noise level. We address the conception of the optical terminal and the predicted performances in the case of constellations of LEO and MEO satellite including the quantum communications and quantum teleportation.
Quantum secure direct communication and deterministic secure quantum communication
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Long, Gui-Lu; Deng, Fu-Guo; Wang, Chuan; Li, Xi-Han; Wen, Kai; Wang, Wan-Ying
2007-07-01
In this review article, we review the recent development of quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) and deterministic secure quantum communication (DSQC) which both are used to transmit secret message, including the criteria for QSDC, some interesting QSDC protocols, the DSQC protocols and QSDC network, etc. The difference between these two branches of quantum communication is that DSQC requires the two parties exchange at least one bit of classical information for reading out the message in each qubit, and QSDC does not. They are attractive because they are deterministic, in particular, the QSDC protocol is fully quantum mechanical. With sophisticated quantum technology in the future, the QSDC may become more and more popular. For ensuring the safety of QSDC with single photons and quantum information sharing of single qubit in a noisy channel, a quantum privacy amplification protocol has been proposed. It involves very simple CHC operations and reduces the information leakage to a negligible small level. Moreover, with the one-party quantum error correction, a relation has been established between classical linear codes and quantum one-party codes, hence it is convenient to transfer many good classical error correction codes to the quantum world. The one-party quantum error correction codes are especially designed for quantum dense coding and related QSDC protocols based on dense coding.
Communication Capacity of Quantum Computation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bose, S.; Rallan, L.; Vedral, V.
2000-12-01
By considering quantum computation as a communication process, we relate its efficiency to its classical communication capacity. This formalism allows us to derive lower bounds on the complexity of search algorithms in the most general context. It enables us to link the mixedness of a quantum computer to its efficiency and also allows us to derive the critical level of mixedness beyond which there is no quantum advantage in computation.
Minimal-memory realization of pearl-necklace encoders of general quantum convolutional codes
Houshmand, Monireh; Hosseini-Khayat, Saied
2011-02-15
Quantum convolutional codes, like their classical counterparts, promise to offer higher error correction performance than block codes of equivalent encoding complexity, and are expected to find important applications in reliable quantum communication where a continuous stream of qubits is transmitted. Grassl and Roetteler devised an algorithm to encode a quantum convolutional code with a ''pearl-necklace'' encoder. Despite their algorithm's theoretical significance as a neat way of representing quantum convolutional codes, it is not well suited to practical realization. In fact, there is no straightforward way to implement any given pearl-necklace structure. This paper closes the gap between theoretical representation and practical implementation. In our previous work, we presented an efficient algorithm to find a minimal-memory realization of a pearl-necklace encoder for Calderbank-Shor-Steane (CSS) convolutional codes. This work is an extension of our previous work and presents an algorithm for turning a pearl-necklace encoder for a general (non-CSS) quantum convolutional code into a realizable quantum convolutional encoder. We show that a minimal-memory realization depends on the commutativity relations between the gate strings in the pearl-necklace encoder. We find a realization by means of a weighted graph which details the noncommutative paths through the pearl necklace. The weight of the longest path in this graph is equal to the minimal amount of memory needed to implement the encoder. The algorithm has a polynomial-time complexity in the number of gate strings in the pearl-necklace encoder.
Network-Centric Quantum Communications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hughes, Richard
2014-03-01
Single-photon quantum communications (QC) offers ``future-proof'' cryptographic security rooted in the laws of physics. Today's quantum-secured communications cannot be compromised by unanticipated future technological advances. But to date, QC has only existed in point-to-point instantiations that have limited ability to address the cyber security challenges of our increasingly networked world. In my talk I will describe a fundamentally new paradigm of network-centric quantum communications (NQC) that leverages the network to bring scalable, QC-based security to user groups that may have no direct user-to-user QC connectivity. With QC links only between each of N users and a trusted network node, NQC brings quantum security to N2 user pairs, and to multi-user groups. I will describe a novel integrated photonics quantum smartcard (``QKarD'') and its operation in a multi-node NQC test bed. The QKarDs are used to implement the quantum cryptographic protocols of quantum identification, quantum key distribution and quantum secret splitting. I will explain how these cryptographic primitives are used to provide key management for encryption, authentication, and non-repudiation for user-to-user communications. My talk will conclude with a description of a recent demonstration that QC can meet both the security and quality-of-service (latency) requirements for electric grid control commands and data. These requirements cannot be met simultaneously with present-day cryptography.
Entanglement purification for quantum communication
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pan, Jian-Wei; Simon, Christoph; Brukner, Časlav; Zeilinger, Anton
2001-04-01
The distribution of entangled states between distant locations will be essential for the future large-scale realization of quantum communication schemes such as quantum cryptography and quantum teleportation. Because of unavoidable noise in the quantum communication channel, the entanglement between two particles is more and more degraded the further they propagate. Entanglement purification is thus essential to distil highly entangled states from less entangled ones. Existing general purification protocols are based on the quantum controlled-NOT (CNOT) or similar quantum logic operations, which are very difficult to implement experimentally. Present realizations of CNOT gates are much too imperfect to be useful for long-distance quantum communication. Here we present a scheme for the entanglement purification of general mixed entangled states, which achieves 50 per cent of the success probability of schemes based on the CNOT operation, but requires only simple linear optical elements. Because the perfection of such elements is very high, the local operations necessary for purification can be performed with the required precision. Our procedure is within the reach of current technology, and should significantly simplify the implementation of long-distance quantum communication.
Entanglement purification for quantum communication.
Pan, J W; Simon, C; Brukner, C; Zeilinger, A
2001-04-26
The distribution of entangled states between distant locations will be essential for the future large-scale realization of quantum communication schemes such as quantum cryptography and quantum teleportation. Because of unavoidable noise in the quantum communication channel, the entanglement between two particles is more and more degraded the further they propagate. Entanglement purification is thus essential to distil highly entangled states from less entangled ones. Existing general purification protocols are based on the quantum controlled-NOT (CNOT) or similar quantum logic operations, which are very difficult to implement experimentally. Present realizations of CNOT gates are much too imperfect to be useful for long-distance quantum communication. Here we present a scheme for the entanglement purification of general mixed entangled states, which achieves 50 per cent of the success probability of schemes based on the CNOT operation, but requires only simple linear optical elements. Because the perfection of such elements is very high, the local operations necessary for purification can be performed with the required precision. Our procedure is within the reach of current technology, and should significantly simplify the implementation of long-distance quantum communication. PMID:11323664
A model of quantum communication device for quantum hashing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vasiliev, A.
2016-02-01
In this paper we consider a model of quantum communications between classical computers aided with quantum processors, connected by a classical and a quantum channel. This type of communications implying both classical and quantum messages with moderate use of quantum processing is implicitly used in many quantum protocols, such as quantum key distribution or quantum digital signature. We show that using the model of a quantum processor on multiatomic ensembles in the common QED cavity we can speed up quantum hashing, which can be the basis of quantum digital signature and other communication protocols.
Reliable quantum communication over a quantum relay channel
Gyongyosi, Laszlo; Imre, Sandor
2014-12-04
We show that reliable quantum communication over an unreliable quantum relay channels is possible. The coding scheme combines the results on the superadditivity of quantum channels and the efficient quantum coding approaches.
Quantum Discord as a Resource in Quantum Communication
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Madhok, Vaibhav; Datta, Animesh
2013-01-01
As quantum technologies move from the issues of principle to those of practice, it is important to understand the limitations on attaining tangible quantum advantages. In the realm of quantum communication, quantum discord captures the damaging effects of a decoherent environment. This is a consequence of quantum discord quantifying the advantage of quantum coherence in quantum communication. This establishes quantum discord as a resource for quantum communication processes. We discuss this progress, which derives a quantitative relation between the yield of the fully quantum Slepian-Wolf (FQSW) protocol in the presence of noise and the quantum discord of the state involved. The significance of quantum discord in noisy versions of teleportation, super-dense coding, entanglement distillation and quantum state merging are discussed. These results lead to open questions regarding the tradeoff between quantum entanglement and discord in choosing the optimal quantum states for attaining palpable quantum advantages in noisy quantum protocols.
Quantum Discord as a Resource in Quantum Communication
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Madhok, Vaibhav; Datta, Animesh
2012-06-01
As quantum technologies move from the issues of principle to those of practice, it is important to understand the limitations on attaining tangible quantum advantages. In the realm of quantum communication, quantum discord captures the damaging effects of a decoherent environment. This is a consequence of quantum discord quantifying the advantage of quantum coherence in quantum communication. This establishes quantum discord as a resource for quantum communication processes. We discuss this progress, which derives a quantitative relation between the yield of the fully quantum Slepian-Wolf (FQSW) protocol in the presence of noise and the quantum discord of the state involved. The significance of quantum discord in noisy versions of teleportation, super-dense coding, entanglement distillation and quantum state merging are discussed. These results lead to open questions regarding the tradeoff between quantum entanglement and discord in choosing the optimal quantum states for attaining palpable quantum advantages in noisy quantum protocols.
Entanglement enhances security in quantum communication
Demkowicz-Dobrzanski, Rafal; Sen, Aditi; Sen, Ujjwal; Lewenstein, Maciej
2009-07-15
Secret sharing is a protocol in which a 'boss' wants to send a classical message secretly to two 'subordinates', such that none of the subordinates is able to know the message alone, while they can find it if they cooperate. Quantum mechanics is known to allow for such a possibility. We analyze tolerable quantum bit error rates in such secret sharing protocols in the physically relevant case when the eavesdropping is local with respect to the two channels of information transfer from the boss to the two subordinates. We find that using entangled encoding states is advantageous to legitimate users of the protocol. We therefore find that entanglement is useful for secure quantum communication. We also find that bound entangled states with positive partial transpose are not useful as a local eavesdropping resource. Moreover, we provide a criterion for security in secret sharing--a parallel of the Csiszar-Koerner criterion in single-receiver classical cryptography.
Eavesdropping of quantum communication from a noninertial frame
Bradler, K.
2007-02-15
We introduce a relativistic version of the quantum encryption protocol by considering two inertial observers who wish to securely transmit quantum information encoded in a free scalar quantum field state forming Minkowski particles. In a nonrelativistic setting a certain amount of shared classical resources is necessary to perfectly encrypt the state. We show that in the case of a uniformly accelerated eavesdropper the communicating parties need to share (asymptotically in the limit of infinite acceleration) just half of the classical resources.
Quantum direct communication with authentication
Lee, Hwayean; Lim, Jongin; Yang, HyungJin
2006-04-15
We propose two quantum direct communication (QDC) protocols with user authentication. Users can identify each other by checking the correlation of Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) states. Alice can directly send a secret message to Bob without any previously shared secret using the remaining GHZ states after authentication. Our second QDC protocol can be used even though there is no quantum link between Alice and Bob. The security of the transmitted message is guaranteed by properties of entanglement of GHZ states.
Secure direct communication with a quantum one-time pad
Deng Fuguo; Long Guilu
2004-05-01
Quantum secure direct communication is the direct communication of secret messages without first producing a shared secret key. It may be used in some urgent circumstances. Here we propose a quantum secure direct communication protocol using single photons. The protocol uses batches of single photons prepared randomly in one of four different states. These single photons serve as a one-time pad which is used directly to encode the secret messages in one communication process. We also show that it is unconditionally secure. The protocol is feasible with present-day technique.
On the error analysis of quantum repeaters with encoding
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Epping, Michael; Kampermann, Hermann; Bruß, Dagmar
2016-03-01
Losses of optical signals scale exponentially with the distance. Quantum repeaters are devices that tackle these losses in quantum communication by splitting the total distance into shorter parts. Today two types of quantum repeaters are subject of research in the field of quantum information: Those that use two-way communication and those that only use one-way communication. Here we explain the details of the performance analysis for repeaters of the second type. Furthermore we compare the two different schemes. Finally we show how the performance analysis generalizes to large-scale quantum networks.
Quantum communication with coherent states and linear optics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arrazola, Juan Miguel; Lütkenhaus, Norbert
2014-10-01
We introduce a general mapping for encoding quantum communication protocols involving pure states of multiple qubits, unitary transformations, and projective measurements into another set of protocols that employ a coherent state of light in a linear combination of optical modes, linear-optics transformations, and measurements with single-photon threshold detectors. This provides a general framework for transforming protocols in quantum communication into a form in which they can be implemented with current technology. We explore the similarity between properties of the original qubit protocols and the coherent-state protocols obtained from the mapping and make use of the mapping to construct additional protocols in the context of quantum communication complexity and quantum digital signatures. Our results have the potential of bringing a wide class of quantum communication protocols closer to their experimental demonstration.
Source encoding for orbiter communications links
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1975-01-01
The feasibility of using data compression to improve link efficiency as an alternative to increased transmitter power, reducing receiver noise figures, increasing antenna gain through more stringent orbiter attitude constraints, etc. is studied. A method of encoding digital data is developed which permits low band-width encoding as well as a unique system of adaptive run length encoding. The effectiveness of these techniques for the air-to-ground link and for the bandwidth-limited ground-to-ground data link used for the orbiter downlink data is evaluated. Results are presented.
Integrated source and channel encoded digital communications system design study
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Huth, G. K.
1974-01-01
Studies on the digital communication system for the direct communication links from ground to space shuttle and the links involving the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS). Three main tasks were performed:(1) Channel encoding/decoding parameter optimization for forward and reverse TDRS links,(2)integration of command encoding/decoding and channel encoding/decoding; and (3) modulation coding interface study. The general communication environment is presented to provide the necessary background for the tasks and to provide an understanding of the implications of the results of the studies.
Complete experimental toolbox for alignment-free quantum communication
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sciarrino, Fabio
2013-03-01
Quantum communication employs the counter-intuitive features of quantum physics for tasks that are impossible in the classical world. It is crucial for testing the foundations of quantum theory and promises to revolutionize information and communication technologies. However, to execute even the simplest quantum transmission, one must establish, and maintain, a shared reference frame. This introduces a considerable overhead in resources, particularly if the parties are in motion or rotating relative to each other. We experimentally show how to circumvent this problem with the transmission of quantum information encoded in rotationally invariant states of single photons. Our approach exploits multiple degrees of freedom of single photons. In particular, the polarization and transverse spatial modes stand out for this purpose. Just as the circular polarization states are eigenstates of the spin angular momentum of light, the helical-wavefront Laguerre-Gaussian modes are eigenmodes of its orbital angular momentum (OAM). We implement photonic qubit invariant under rotation around the optical axis by combining the polarization with OAM properties. By developing a complete toolbox for the efficient encoding and decoding of quantum information in such photonic qubits, we demonstrate the feasibility of alignment-free quantum key-distribution, and perform proof-of-principle demonstrations of alignment-free entanglement distribution and Bell-inequality violation. The core of our toolbox is a liquid crystal device, named ``q-plate,'' that maps polarization-encoded qubits into qubits encoded in hybrid polarization-OAM states of the same photon that are invariant under arbitrary rotations around the propagation direction, and vice versa. The scheme should find applications in fundamental tests of quantum mechanics and satellite-based quantum communication. We will discuss the potential applications of this scheme to real quantum communication network. European project
Integrated Devices for Quantum Information with Polarization Encoded Qubits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sansoni, Linda
Quantum information deals with the information processing tasks that can be accomplished by using the laws of quantum mechanics. Its aim is to develop suitable strategies in particular for quantum computation and quantum communication, but also for quantum metrology and quantum simulation. In this chap.
Metrology for industrial quantum communications: the MIQC project
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rastello, M. L.; Degiovanni, I. P.; Sinclair, A. G.; Kück, S.; Chunnilall, C. J.; Porrovecchio, G.; Smid, M.; Manoocheri, F.; Ikonen, E.; Kubarsepp, T.; Stucki, D.; Hong, K. S.; Kim, S. K.; Tosi, A.; Brida, G.; Meda, A.; Piacentini, F.; Traina, P.; Natsheh, A. Al; Cheung, J. Y.; Müller, I.; Klein, R.; Vaigu, A.
2014-12-01
The ‘Metrology for Industrial Quantum Communication Technologies’ project (MIQC) is a metrology framework that fosters development and market take-up of quantum communication technologies and is aimed at achieving maximum impact for the European industry in this area. MIQC is focused on quantum key distribution (QKD) technologies, the most advanced quantum-based technology towards practical application. QKD is a way of sending cryptographic keys with absolute security. It does this by exploiting the ability to encode in a photon's degree of freedom specific quantum states that are noticeably disturbed if an eavesdropper trying to decode it is present in the communication channel. The MIQC project has started the development of independent measurement standards and definitions for the optical components of QKD system, since one of the perceived barriers to QKD market success is the lack of standardization and quality assurance.
Secure communications using quantum cryptography
Hughes, R.J.; Buttler, W.T.; Kwiat, P.G.
1997-08-01
The secure distribution of the secret random bit sequences known as {open_quotes}key{close_quotes} material, is an essential precursor to their use for the encryption and decryption of confidential communications. Quantum cryptography is an emerging technology for secure key distribution with single-photon transmissions, nor evade detection (eavesdropping raises the key error rate above a threshold value). We have developed experimental quantum cryptography systems based on the transmission of non-orthogonal single-photon states to generate shared key material over multi-kilometer optical fiber paths and over line-of-sight links. In both cases, key material is built up using the transmission of a single-photon per bit of an initial secret random sequence. A quantum-mechanically random subset of this sequence is identified, becoming the key material after a data reconciliation stage with the sender. In our optical fiber experiment we have performed quantum key distribution over 24-km of underground optical fiber using single-photon interference states, demonstrating that secure, real-time key generation over {open_quotes}open{close_quotes} multi-km node-to-node optical fiber communications links is possible. We have also constructed a quantum key distribution system for free-space, line-of-sight transmission using single-photon polarization states, which is currently undergoing laboratory testing. 7 figs.
Abstract Algebra, Projective Geometry and Time Encoding of Quantum Information
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Planat, Michel; Saniga, Metod
2005-10-01
Algebraic geometrical concepts are playing an increasing role in quantum applications such as coding, cryptography, tomography and computing. We point out here the prominent role played by Galois fields viewed as cyclotomic extensions of the integers modulo a prime characteristic p. They can be used to generate efficient cyclic encoding, for transmitting secrete quantum keys, for quantum state recovery and for error correction in quantum computing. Finite projective planes and their generalization are the geometric counterpart to cyclotomic concepts, their coordinatization involves Galois fields, and they have been used repetitively for enciphering and coding. Finally, the characters over Galois fields are fundamental for generating complete sets of mutually unbiased bases, a generic concept of quantum information processing and quantum entanglement. Gauss sums over Galois fields ensure minimum uncertainty under such protocols. Some Galois rings which are cyclotomic extensions of the integers modulo 4 are also becoming fashionable for their role in time encoding and mutual unbiasedness.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hwang, Tzonelih; Luo, Yi-Ping; Yang, Chun-Wei; Lin, Tzu-Han
2014-04-01
This work proposes a new direction in quantum cryptography called quantum authencryption. Quantum authencryption (QA), a new term to distinguish from authenticated quantum secure direct communications, is used to describe the technique of combining quantum encryption and quantum authentication into one process for off-line communicants. QA provides a new way of quantum communications without the presence of a receiver on line, and thus makes many applications depending on secure one-way quantum communications, such as quantum E-mail systems, possible. An example protocol using single photons and one-way hash functions is presented to realize the requirements on QA.
Secure communications using quantum cryptography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hughes, Richard J.; Buttler, William T.; Kwiat, Paul G.; Luther, Gabriel G.; Morgan, George L.; Nordholt, Jane E.; Peterson, C. Glen; Simmons, Charles M.
1997-07-01
The secure distribution of the secret random bit sequences known as `key' material, is an essential precursor to their use for the encryption and decryption of confidential communications. Quantum cryptography is an emerging technology for secure key distribution with single-photon transmissions: Heisenburg's uncertainty principle ensures that an adversary can neither successfully tap the key transmissions, nor evade detection (eavesdropping raises the key error rate above a threshold value). We have developed experimental quantum cryptography systems based on the transmission of non-orthogonal single-photon states to generate shared key material over multi-kilometer optical fiber paths and over line-of-sight links. In both cases, key material is built up using the transmission of a single- photon per bit of an initial secret random sequence. A quantum-mechanically random subset of this sequence is identified, becoming the key material after a data reconciliation stage with the sender. In our optical fiber experiment we have performed quantum key distribution over 24-km of underground optical fiber using single-photon interference states, demonstrating that secure, real-time key generation over `open' multi-km node-to-node optical fiber communications links is possible.
Multiplexed Sequence Encoding: A Framework for DNA Communication.
Zakeri, Bijan; Carr, Peter A; Lu, Timothy K
2016-01-01
Synthetic DNA has great propensity for efficiently and stably storing non-biological information. With DNA writing and reading technologies rapidly advancing, new applications for synthetic DNA are emerging in data storage and communication. Traditionally, DNA communication has focused on the encoding and transfer of complete sets of information. Here, we explore the use of DNA for the communication of short messages that are fragmented across multiple distinct DNA molecules. We identified three pivotal points in a communication-data encoding, data transfer & data extraction-and developed novel tools to enable communication via molecules of DNA. To address data encoding, we designed DNA-based individualized keyboards (iKeys) to convert plaintext into DNA, while reducing the occurrence of DNA homopolymers to improve synthesis and sequencing processes. To address data transfer, we implemented a secret-sharing system-Multiplexed Sequence Encoding (MuSE)-that conceals messages between multiple distinct DNA molecules, requiring a combination key to reveal messages. To address data extraction, we achieved the first instance of chromatogram patterning through multiplexed sequencing, thereby enabling a new method for data extraction. We envision these approaches will enable more widespread communication of information via DNA. PMID:27050646
Satellite-Based Quantum Communications
Hughes, Richard J; Nordholt, Jane E; McCabe, Kevin P; Newell, Raymond T; Peterson, Charles G
2010-09-20
Single-photon quantum communications (QC) offers the attractive feature of 'future proof', forward security rooted in the laws of quantum physics. Ground based quantum key distribution (QKD) experiments in optical fiber have attained transmission ranges in excess of 200km, but for larger distances we proposed a methodology for satellite-based QC. Over the past decade we have devised solutions to the technical challenges to satellite-to-ground QC, and we now have a clear concept for how space-based QC could be performed and potentially utilized within a trusted QKD network architecture. Functioning as a trusted QKD node, a QC satellite ('QC-sat') could deliver secret keys to the key stores of ground-based trusted QKD network nodes, to each of which multiple users are connected by optical fiber or free-space QC. A QC-sat could thereby extend quantum-secured connectivity to geographically disjoint domains, separated by continental or inter-continental distances. In this paper we describe our system concept that makes QC feasible with low-earth orbit (LEO) QC-sats (200-km-2,000-km altitude orbits), and the results of link modeling of expected performance. Using the architecture that we have developed, LEO satellite-to-ground QKD will be feasible with secret bit yields of several hundred 256-bit AES keys per contact. With multiple ground sites separated by {approx} 100km, mitigation of cloudiness over any single ground site would be possible, potentially allowing multiple contact opportunities each day. The essential next step is an experimental QC-sat. A number of LEO-platforms would be suitable, ranging from a dedicated, three-axis stabilized small satellite, to a secondary experiment on an imaging satellite. to the ISS. With one or more QC-sats, low-latency quantum-secured communications could then be provided to ground-based users on a global scale. Air-to-ground QC would also be possible.
Multiplexed Sequence Encoding: A Framework for DNA Communication
Zakeri, Bijan; Carr, Peter A.; Lu, Timothy K.
2016-01-01
Synthetic DNA has great propensity for efficiently and stably storing non-biological information. With DNA writing and reading technologies rapidly advancing, new applications for synthetic DNA are emerging in data storage and communication. Traditionally, DNA communication has focused on the encoding and transfer of complete sets of information. Here, we explore the use of DNA for the communication of short messages that are fragmented across multiple distinct DNA molecules. We identified three pivotal points in a communication—data encoding, data transfer & data extraction—and developed novel tools to enable communication via molecules of DNA. To address data encoding, we designed DNA-based individualized keyboards (iKeys) to convert plaintext into DNA, while reducing the occurrence of DNA homopolymers to improve synthesis and sequencing processes. To address data transfer, we implemented a secret-sharing system—Multiplexed Sequence Encoding (MuSE)—that conceals messages between multiple distinct DNA molecules, requiring a combination key to reveal messages. To address data extraction, we achieved the first instance of chromatogram patterning through multiplexed sequencing, thereby enabling a new method for data extraction. We envision these approaches will enable more widespread communication of information via DNA. PMID:27050646
Recent advances on integrated quantum communications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Orieux, Adeline; Diamanti, Eleni
2016-08-01
In recent years, the use of integrated technologies for applications in the field of quantum information processing and communications has made great progress. The resulting devices feature valuable characteristics such as scalability, reproducibility, low cost and interconnectivity, and have the potential to revolutionize our computation and communication practices in the future, much in the way that electronic integrated circuits have drastically transformed our information processing capacities since the last century. Among the multiple applications of integrated quantum technologies, this review will focus on typical components of quantum communication systems and on overall integrated system operation characteristics. We are interested in particular in the use of photonic integration platforms for developing devices necessary in quantum communications, including sources, detectors and both passive and active optical elements. We also illustrate the challenges associated with performing quantum communications on chip, by using the case study of quantum key distribution—the most advanced application of quantum information science. We conclude with promising perspectives in this field.
Multiparty controlled quantum secure direct communication based on quantum search algorithm
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kao, Shih-Hung; Hwang, Tzonelih
2013-12-01
In this study, a new controlled quantum secure direct communication (CQSDC) protocol using the quantum search algorithm as the encoding function is proposed. The proposed protocol is based on the multi-particle Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger entangled state and the one-step quantum transmission strategy. Due to the one-step transmission of qubits, the proposed protocol can be easily extended to a multi-controller environment, and is also free from the Trojan horse attacks. The analysis shows that the use of quantum search algorithm in the construction of CQSDC appears very promising.
Spatially encoded multiple-quantum excitation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ridge, Clark D.; Borvayeh, Leila; Walls, Jamie D.
2013-05-01
In this work, we present a simple method to spatially encode the transition frequencies of nuclear spin transitions and to read out these frequencies within a single scan. The experiment works by combining pulsed field gradients with an excitation sequence that selectively excites spin transitions within certain sample regions. After the initial excitation, imaging the resulting widehat{z}-magnetization is used to determine the locations where the excitations occurred, from which the corresponding transition frequencies are determined. Simple experimental demonstrations of this technique on one- and two-spin systems are presented.
Entanglement enhances security in quantum communication
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Demkowicz-Dobrzański, Rafał; Sen(de), Aditi; Sen, Ujjwal; Lewenstein, Maciej
2009-07-01
Secret sharing is a protocol in which a “boss” wants to send a classical message secretly to two “subordinates,” such that none of the subordinates is able to know the message alone, while they can find it if they cooperate. Quantum mechanics is known to allow for such a possibility. We analyze tolerable quantum bit error rates in such secret sharing protocols in the physically relevant case when the eavesdropping is local with respect to the two channels of information transfer from the boss to the two subordinates. We find that using entangled encoding states is advantageous to legitimate users of the protocol. We therefore find that entanglement is useful for secure quantum communication. We also find that bound entangled states with positive partial transpose are not useful as a local eavesdropping resource. Moreover, we provide a criterion for security in secret sharing—a parallel of the Csiszár-Körner criterion in single-receiver classical cryptography.
Atmospheric continuous-variable quantum communication
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heim, B.; Peuntinger, C.; Killoran, N.; Khan, I.; Wittmann, C.; Marquardt, Ch; Leuchs, G.
2014-11-01
We present a quantum communication experiment conducted over a point-to-point free-space link of 1.6 km in urban conditions. We study atmospheric influences on the capability of the link to act as a continuous-variable (CV) quantum channel. Continuous polarization states (that contain the signal encoding as well as a local oscillator (LO) in the same spatial mode) are prepared and sent over the link in a polarization multiplexed setting. Both signal and LO undergo the same atmospheric fluctuations. These are intrinsically auto-compensated which removes detrimental influences on the interferometric visibility. At the receiver, we measure the Q-function and interpret the data using the framework of effective entanglement (EE). We compare different state amplitudes and alphabets (two-state and four-state) and determine their optimal working points with respect to the distributed EE. Based on the high entanglement transmission rates achieved, our system indicates the high potential of atmospheric links in the field of CV quantum key distribution.
Classical noise, quantum noise and secure communication
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tannous, C.; Langlois, J.
2016-01-01
Secure communication based on message encryption might be performed by combining the message with controlled noise (called pseudo-noise) as performed in spread-spectrum communication used presently in Wi-Fi and smartphone telecommunication systems. Quantum communication based on entanglement is another route for securing communications as demonstrated by several important experiments described in this work. The central role played by the photon in unifying the description of classical and quantum noise as major ingredients of secure communication systems is highlighted and described on the basis of the classical and quantum fluctuation dissipation theorems.
Software-defined Quantum Communication Systems
Humble, Travis S; Sadlier, Ronald J
2013-01-01
We show how to extend the paradigm of software-defined communication to include quantum communication systems. We introduce the decomposition of a quantum communication terminal into layers separating the concerns of the hardware, software, and middleware. We provide detailed descriptions of how each component operates and we include results of an implementation of the super-dense coding protocol. We argue that the versatility of software-defined quantum communication test beds can be useful for exploring new regimes in communication and rapidly prototyping new systems.
Novel systems and methods for quantum communication, quantum computation, and quantum simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gorshkov, Alexey Vyacheslavovich
Precise control over quantum systems can enable the realization of fascinating applications such as powerful computers, secure communication devices, and simulators that can elucidate the physics of complex condensed matter systems. However, the fragility of quantum effects makes it very difficult to harness the power of quantum mechanics. In this thesis, we present novel systems and tools for gaining fundamental insights into the complex quantum world and for bringing practical applications of quantum mechanics closer to reality. We first optimize and show equivalence between a wide range of techniques for storage of photons in atomic ensembles. We describe experiments demonstrating the potential of our optimization algorithms for quantum communication and computation applications. Next, we combine the technique of photon storage with strong atom-atom interactions to propose a robust protocol for implementing the two-qubit photonic phase gate, which is an important ingredient in many quantum computation and communication tasks. In contrast to photon storage, many quantum computation and simulation applications require individual addressing of closely-spaced atoms, ions, quantum dots, or solid state defects. To meet this requirement, we propose a method for coherent optical far-field manipulation of quantum systems with a resolution that is not limited by the wavelength of radiation. While alkali atoms are currently the system of choice for photon storage and many other applications, we develop new methods for quantum information processing and quantum simulation with ultracold alkaline-earth atoms in optical lattices. We show how multiple qubits can be encoded in individual alkaline-earth atoms and harnessed for quantum computing and precision measurements applications. We also demonstrate that alkaline-earth atoms can be used to simulate highly symmetric systems exhibiting spin-orbital interactions and capable of providing valuable insights into strongly
Ultrafast and fault-tolerant quantum communication across long distances.
Muralidharan, Sreraman; Kim, Jungsang; Lütkenhaus, Norbert; Lukin, Mikhail D; Jiang, Liang
2014-06-27
Quantum repeaters (QRs) provide a way of enabling long distance quantum communication by establishing entangled qubits between remote locations. In this Letter, we investigate a new approach to QRs in which quantum information can be faithfully transmitted via a noisy channel without the use of long distance teleportation, thus eliminating the need to establish remote entangled links. Our approach makes use of small encoding blocks to fault-tolerantly correct both operational and photon loss errors. We describe a way to optimize the resource requirement for these QRs with the aim of the generation of a secure key. Numerical calculations indicate that the number of quantum memory bits at each repeater station required for the generation of one secure key has favorable polylogarithmic scaling with the distance across which the communication is desired. PMID:25014798
Quantum communication with an accelerated partner
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Downes, T. G.; Ralph, T. C.; Walk, N.
2013-01-01
An unsolved problem in relativistic quantum information research is how to model efficient, directional quantum communication between localized parties in a fully quantum field-theoretical framework. We propose a tractable approach to this problem based on calculating expectation values of localized field observables in the Heisenberg picture. We illustrate our approach by analyzing, and obtaining approximate analytical solutions to, the problem of communicating coherent states between an inertial sender, Alice, and an accelerated receiver, Rob. We use these results to determine the efficiency with which continuous variable quantum key distribution could be carried out over such a communication channel.
Long distance quantum communication using quantum error correction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gingrich, R. M.; Lee, H.; Dowling, J. P.
2004-01-01
We describe a quantum error correction scheme that can increase the effective absorption length of the communication channel. This device can play the role of a quantum transponder when placed in series, or a cyclic quantum memory when inserted in an optical loop.
Optimal architectures for long distance quantum communication
Muralidharan, Sreraman; Li, Linshu; Kim, Jungsang; Lütkenhaus, Norbert; Lukin, Mikhail D.; Jiang, Liang
2016-01-01
Despite the tremendous progress of quantum cryptography, efficient quantum communication over long distances (≥1000 km) remains an outstanding challenge due to fiber attenuation and operation errors accumulated over the entire communication distance. Quantum repeaters (QRs), as a promising approach, can overcome both photon loss and operation errors, and hence significantly speedup the communication rate. Depending on the methods used to correct loss and operation errors, all the proposed QR schemes can be classified into three categories (generations). Here we present the first systematic comparison of three generations of quantum repeaters by evaluating the cost of both temporal and physical resources, and identify the optimized quantum repeater architecture for a given set of experimental parameters for use in quantum key distribution. Our work provides a roadmap for the experimental realizations of highly efficient quantum networks over transcontinental distances. PMID:26876670
Optimal architectures for long distance quantum communication.
Muralidharan, Sreraman; Li, Linshu; Kim, Jungsang; Lütkenhaus, Norbert; Lukin, Mikhail D; Jiang, Liang
2016-01-01
Despite the tremendous progress of quantum cryptography, efficient quantum communication over long distances (≥ 1000 km) remains an outstanding challenge due to fiber attenuation and operation errors accumulated over the entire communication distance. Quantum repeaters (QRs), as a promising approach, can overcome both photon loss and operation errors, and hence significantly speedup the communication rate. Depending on the methods used to correct loss and operation errors, all the proposed QR schemes can be classified into three categories (generations). Here we present the first systematic comparison of three generations of quantum repeaters by evaluating the cost of both temporal and physical resources, and identify the optimized quantum repeater architecture for a given set of experimental parameters for use in quantum key distribution. Our work provides a roadmap for the experimental realizations of highly efficient quantum networks over transcontinental distances. PMID:26876670
Optimal architectures for long distance quantum communication
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Muralidharan, Sreraman; Li, Linshu; Kim, Jungsang; Lütkenhaus, Norbert; Lukin, Mikhail D.; Jiang, Liang
2016-02-01
Despite the tremendous progress of quantum cryptography, efficient quantum communication over long distances (≥1000 km) remains an outstanding challenge due to fiber attenuation and operation errors accumulated over the entire communication distance. Quantum repeaters (QRs), as a promising approach, can overcome both photon loss and operation errors, and hence significantly speedup the communication rate. Depending on the methods used to correct loss and operation errors, all the proposed QR schemes can be classified into three categories (generations). Here we present the first systematic comparison of three generations of quantum repeaters by evaluating the cost of both temporal and physical resources, and identify the optimized quantum repeater architecture for a given set of experimental parameters for use in quantum key distribution. Our work provides a roadmap for the experimental realizations of highly efficient quantum networks over transcontinental distances.
Quantum-dots-encoded-microbeads based molecularly imprinted polymer.
Liu, Yixi; Liu, Le; He, Yonghong; He, Qinghua; Ma, Hui
2016-03-15
Quantum dots encoded microbeads have various advantages such as large surface area, superb optical properties and the ability of multiplexing. Molecularly imprinted polymer that can mimic the natural recognition entities has high affinity and selectivity for the specific analyte. Here, the concept of utilizing the quantum dots encoded microbeads as the supporting material and the polydopamine as the functional monomer to form the core-shell molecular imprinted polymer was proposed for the first time. The resulted imprinted polymer can provide various merits: polymerization can complete in aqueous environment; fabrication procedure is facile and universal; the obvious economic advantage; the thickness of the imprinting layer is highly controllable; polydopamine coating can improve the biocompatibility of the quantum dot encoded microbeads. The rabbit IgG binding and flow cytometer experiment result showed the distinct advantages of this strategy: cost-saving, facile and fast preparation procedure. Most importantly, the ability for the multichannel detection, which makes the imprinted polydopamine modified encoded-beads very attractive in protein pre-concentration, recognition, separation and biosensing. PMID:26520251
Multiparty-controlled quantum secure direct communication
Xiu, X.-M. Dong, L.; Gao, Y.-J.; Chi, F.
2007-12-15
A theoretical scheme of a multiparty-controlled quantum secure direct communication is proposed. The supervisor prepares a communication network with Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen pairs and auxiliary particles. After passing a security test of the communication network, a supervisor tells the users the network is secure and they can communicate. If the controllers allow the communicators to communicate, the controllers should perform measurements and inform the communicators of the outcomes. The communicators then begin to communicate after they perform a security test of the quantum channel and verify that it is secure. The recipient can decrypt the secret message in a classical message from the sender depending on the protocol. Any two users in the network can communicate through the above processes under the control of the supervisor and the controllers.
Secure communication via quantum illumination
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shapiro, Jeffrey H.; Zhang, Zheshen; Wong, Franco N. C.
2014-10-01
In the quantum illumination protocol for secure communication, Alice prepares entangled signal and idler beams via spontaneous parametric downconversion. She sends the signal beam to Bob, while retaining the idler. Bob imposes message modulation on the beam he receives from Alice, amplifies it, and sends it back to her. Alice then decodes Bob's information by making a joint quantum measurement on the light she has retained and the light she has received from him. The basic performance analysis for this protocol—which demonstrates its immunity to passive eavesdropping, in which Eve can only listen to Alice and Bob's transmissions—is reviewed, along with the results of its first proof-of-principle experiment. Further analysis is then presented, showing that secure data rates in excess of 1 Gbps may be possible over 20-km-long fiber links with technology that is available or under development. Finally, an initial scheme for thwarting active eavesdropping, in which Eve injects her own light into Bob's terminal, is proposed and analyzed.
Secure quantum communication using classical correlated channel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Costa, D.; de Almeida, N. G.; Villas-Boas, C. J.
2016-07-01
We propose a secure protocol to send quantum information from one part to another without a quantum channel. In our protocol, which resembles quantum teleportation, a sender (Alice) and a receiver (Bob) share classical correlated states instead of EPR ones, with Alice performing measurements in two different bases and then communicating her results to Bob through a classical channel. Our secure quantum communication protocol requires the same amount of classical bits as the standard quantum teleportation protocol. In our scheme, as in the usual quantum teleportation protocol, once the classical channel is established in a secure way, a spy (Eve) will never be able to recover the information of the unknown quantum state, even if she is aware of Alice's measurement results. Security, advantages, and limitations of our protocol are discussed and compared with the standard quantum teleportation protocol.
Recent progress of quantum communication in China (Conference Presentation)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Qiang
2016-04-01
Quantum communication, based on the quantum physics, can provide information theoretical security. Building a global quantum network is one ultimate goal for the research of quantum information. Here, this talk will review the progress for quantum communication in China, including quantum key distribution over metropolitan area with untrustful relay, field test of quantum entanglement swapping over metropolitan network, the 2000 km quantum key distribution main trunk line, and satellite based quantum communication.
Long-distance quantum communication over noisy networks without long-time quantum memory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mazurek, Paweł; Grudka, Andrzej; Horodecki, Michał; Horodecki, Paweł; Łodyga, Justyna; Pankowski, Łukasz; PrzysieŻna, Anna
2014-12-01
The problem of sharing entanglement over large distances is crucial for implementations of quantum cryptography. A possible scheme for long-distance entanglement sharing and quantum communication exploits networks whose nodes share Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) pairs. In Perseguers et al. [Phys. Rev. A 78, 062324 (2008), 10.1103/PhysRevA.78.062324] the authors put forward an important isomorphism between storing quantum information in a dimension D and transmission of quantum information in a D +1 -dimensional network. We show that it is possible to obtain long-distance entanglement in a noisy two-dimensional (2D) network, even when taking into account that encoding and decoding of a state is exposed to an error. For 3D networks we propose a simple encoding and decoding scheme based solely on syndrome measurements on 2D Kitaev topological quantum memory. Our procedure constitutes an alternative scheme of state injection that can be used for universal quantum computation on 2D Kitaev code. It is shown that the encoding scheme is equivalent to teleporting the state, from a specific node into a whole two-dimensional network, through some virtual EPR pair existing within the rest of network qubits. We present an analytic lower bound on fidelity of the encoding and decoding procedure, using as our main tool a modified metric on space-time lattice, deviating from a taxicab metric at the first and the last time slices.
Quantum Communication Experiments Over Optical Fiber
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takesue, Hiroki
Quantum key distribution (QKD) is expected to be the first application of quantum information to be realized as a practical system. In the last decade, research on QKD made significant progress both in concept and technology. In this chapter, we review the progress of technologies designed to realize high-speed and long-distance quantum communication over optical fiber, focusing on the results obtained by NTT. The first section describes a roadmap towards scalable quantum communications, which is composed of three phases. The second section reviews our effort to realize phase 1 quantum communication systems, namely point-to-point QKD systems based on the differential phase shift QKD (DPS-QKD) protocol. The third section describes entanglement generation and application in the telecom band, which are the key technologies for realizing phase 2 and 3 systems. The final section provides a summary and describes the future outlook.
Software-defined Quantum Communication Systems
Humble, Travis S; Sadlier, Ronald J
2014-01-01
Quantum communication systems harness modern physics through state-of-the-art optical engineering to provide revolutionary capabilities. An important concern for quantum communication engineering is designing and prototyping these systems to prototype proposed capabilities. We apply the paradigm of software-defined communica- tion for engineering quantum communication systems to facilitate rapid prototyping and prototype comparisons. We detail how to decompose quantum communication terminals into functional layers defining hardware, software, and middleware concerns, and we describe how each layer behaves. Using the super-dense coding protocol as a test case, we describe implementations of both the transmitter and receiver, and we present results from numerical simulations of the behavior. We find that while the theoretical benefits of super dense coding are maintained, there is a classical overhead associated with the full implementation.
Data detection algorithms for multiplexed quantum dot encoding.
Goss, Kelly C; Messier, Geoff G; Potter, Mike E
2012-02-27
A group of quantum dots can be designed to have a unique spectral emission by varying the size of the quantum dots (wavelength) and number of quantum dots (intensity). This technique has been previously proposed for biological tags and object identification. The potential of this system lies in the ability to have a large number of distinguishable wavelengths and intensity levels. This paper presents a communications system model for MxQDs including the interference between neighbouring QD colours and detector noise. An analytical model of the signal-to-noise ratio of a Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) spectrometer is presented and confirmed with experimental results. We then apply a communications system perspective and propose data detection algorithms that increase the readability of the quantum dots tags. It is demonstrated that multiplexed quantum dot barcodes can be read with 99.7% accuracy using the proposed data detection algorithms in a system with 6 colours and 6 intensity values resulting in 46,655 unique spectral codes. PMID:22418382
The Holy Grail of quantum optical communication
García-Patrón, Raúl; Navarrete-Benlloch, Carlos; Lloyd, Seth; Shapiro, Jeffrey H.; Cerf, Nicolas J.
2014-12-04
Optical parametric amplifiers together with phase-shifters and beamsplitters have certainly been the most studied objects in the field of quantum optics. Despite such an intensive study, optical parametric amplifiers still keep secrets from us. We will show how they hold the answer to one of the oldest problems in quantum communication theory, namely the calculation of the optimal communication rate of optical channels.
The Holy Grail of quantum optical communication
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
García-Patrón, Raúl; Navarrete-Benlloch, Carlos; Lloyd, Seth; Shapiro, Jeffrey H.; Cerf, Nicolas J.
2014-12-01
Optical parametric amplifiers together with phase-shifters and beamsplitters have certainly been the most studied objects in the field of quantum optics. Despite such an intensive study, optical parametric amplifiers still keep secrets from us. We will show how they hold the answer to one of the oldest problems in quantum communication theory, namely the calculation of the optimal communication rate of optical channels.
Entanglement-Based Quantum Cryptography and Quantum Communication
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zeilinger, Anton
2007-03-01
Quantum entanglement, to Erwin Schroedinger the essential feature of quantum mechanics, has become a central resource in various quantum communication protocols including quantum cryptography and quantum teleportation. From a fundamental point of view what is exploited in these experiments is the very fact which led Schroedinger to his statement namely that in entangled states joint properties of the entangled systems may be well defined while the individual subsystems may carry no information at all. In entanglement-based quantum cryptography it leads to the most elegant possible solution of the classic key distribution problem. It implies that the key comes into existence at spatially distant location at the same time and does not need to be transported. A number recent developments include for example highly efficient, robust and stable sources of entangled photons with a broad bandwidth of desired features. Also, entanglement-based quantum cryptography is successfully joining other methods in the work towards demonstrating quantum key distribution networks. Along that line recently decoy-state quantum cryptography over a distance of 144 km between two Canary Islands was demonstrated successfully. Such experiments also open up the possibility of quantum communication on a really large scale using LEO satellites. Another important possible future branch of quantum communication involves quantum repeaters in order to cover larger distances with entangled states. Recently the connection of two fully independent lasers in an entanglement swapping experiment did demonstrate that the timing control of such systems on a femtosecond time scale is possible. A related development includes recent demonstrations of all-optical one-way quantum computation schemes with the extremely short cycle time of only 100 nanoseconds.
Quantum communication with macroscopically bright nonclassical states.
Usenko, Vladyslav C; Ruppert, Laszlo; Filip, Radim
2015-11-30
We analyze homodyne detection of macroscopically bright multimode nonclassical states of light and propose their application in quantum communication. We observe that the homodyne detection is sensitive to a mode-matching of the bright light to the highly intense local oscillator. Unmatched bright modes of light result in additional noise which technically limits detection of Gaussian entanglement at macroscopic level. When the mode-matching is sufficient, we show that multimode quantum key distribution with bright beams is feasible. It finally merges the quantum communication with classical optical technology of visible beams of light. PMID:26698776
High-fidelity linear optical quantum computing with polarization encoding
Spedalieri, Federico M.; Lee, Hwang; Dowling, Jonathan P.
2006-01-15
We show that the KLM scheme [Knill, Laflamme, and Milburn, Nature 409, 46 (2001)] can be implemented using polarization encoding, thus reducing the number of path modes required by half. One of the main advantages of this new implementation is that it naturally incorporates a loss detection mechanism that makes the probability of a gate introducing a non-detected error, when non-ideal detectors are considered, dependent only on the detector dark-count rate and independent of its efficiency. Since very low dark-count rate detectors are currently available, a high-fidelity gate (probability of error of order 10{sup -6} conditional on the gate being successful) can be implemented using polarization encoding. The detector efficiency determines the overall success probability of the gate but does not affect its fidelity. This can be applied to the efficient construction of optical cluster states with very high fidelity for quantum computing.
Nonperturbative approach to relativistic quantum communication channels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Landulfo, André G. S.
2016-05-01
We investigate the transmission of both classical and quantum information between two arbitrary observers in globally hyperbolic spacetimes using a quantum field as a communication channel. The field is supposed to be in some arbitrary quasifree state and no choice of representation of its canonical commutation relations is made. Both sender and receiver possess some localized two-level quantum system with which they can interact with the quantum field to prepare the input and receive the output of the channel, respectively. The interaction between the two-level systems and the quantum field is such that one can trace out the field degrees of freedom exactly and thus obtain the quantum channel in a nonperturbative way. We end the paper determining the unassisted as well as the entanglement-assisted classical and quantum channel capacities.
Nonlocal Quantum Information Transfer Without Superluminal Signalling and Communication
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Walleczek, Jan; Grössing, Gerhard
2016-01-01
It is a frequent assumption that—via superluminal information transfers—superluminal signals capable of enabling communication are necessarily exchanged in any quantum theory that posits hidden superluminal influences. However, does the presence of hidden superluminal influences automatically imply superluminal signalling and communication? The non-signalling theorem mediates the apparent conflict between quantum mechanics and the theory of special relativity. However, as a `no-go' theorem there exist two opposing interpretations of the non-signalling constraint: foundational and operational. Concerning Bell's theorem, we argue that Bell employed both interpretations, and that he finally adopted the operational position which is associated often with ontological quantum theory, e.g., de Broglie-Bohm theory. This position we refer to as "effective non-signalling". By contrast, associated with orthodox quantum mechanics is the foundational position referred to here as "axiomatic non-signalling". In search of a decisive communication-theoretic criterion for differentiating between "axiomatic" and "effective" non-signalling, we employ the operational framework offered by Shannon's mathematical theory of communication, whereby we distinguish between Shannon signals and non-Shannon signals. We find that an effective non-signalling theorem represents two sub-theorems: (1) Non-transfer-control (NTC) theorem, and (2) Non-signification-control (NSC) theorem. Employing NTC and NSC theorems, we report that effective, instead of axiomatic, non-signalling is entirely sufficient for prohibiting nonlocal communication. Effective non-signalling prevents the instantaneous, i.e., superluminal, transfer of message-encoded information through the controlled use—by a sender-receiver pair —of informationally-correlated detection events, e.g., in EPR-type experiments. An effective non-signalling theorem allows for nonlocal quantum information transfer yet—at the same time
Communication: Quantum mechanics without wavefunctions
Schiff, Jeremy; Poirier, Bill
2012-01-21
We present a self-contained formulation of spin-free non-relativistic quantum mechanics that makes no use of wavefunctions or complex amplitudes of any kind. Quantum states are represented as ensembles of real-valued quantum trajectories, obtained by extremizing an action and satisfying energy conservation. The theory applies for arbitrary configuration spaces and system dimensionalities. Various beneficial ramifications--theoretical, computational, and interpretational--are discussed.
An exactly solvable model for quantum communications.
Smith, Graeme; Smolin, John A
2013-12-12
Information theory establishes the ultimate limits on performance for noisy communication systems. Accurate models of physical communication devices must include quantum effects, but these typically make the theory intractable. As a result, communication capacities--the maximum possible rates of data transmission--are not known, even for transmission between two users connected by an electromagnetic waveguide with Gaussian noise. Here we present an exactly solvable model of communication with a fully quantum electromagnetic field. This gives explicit expressions for all point-to-point capacities of noisy quantum channels, with implications for quantum key distribution and fibre-optic communications. We also develop a theory of quantum communication networks by solving some rudimentary models including broadcast and multiple-access channels. We compare the predictions of our model with the orthodox Gaussian model and in all cases find agreement to within a few bits. At high signal-to-noise ratios, our simple model captures the relevant physics while remaining amenable to exact solution. PMID:24240277
A Novel Quantum Covert Channel Protocol Based on Any Quantum Secure Direct Communication Scheme
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Shu-Jiang; Chen, Xiu-Bo; Niu, Xin-Xin; Yang, Yi-Xian
2013-05-01
By analyzing the basic properties of unitary transformations used in a quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) protocol, we show the main idea why a covert channel can be established within any QSDC channel which employs unitary transformations to encode information. On the basis of the fact that the unitary transformations used in a QSDC protocol are secret and independent, a novel quantum covert channel protocol is proposed to transfer secret messages with unconditional security. The performance, including the imperceptibility, capacity and security of the proposed protocol are analyzed in detail.
Graphene-based qubits in quantum communications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, G. Y.; Lue, N.-Y.
2012-07-01
We explore the potential application of graphene-based qubits in photonic quantum communications. In particular, the valley pair qubit in double quantum dots of gapped graphene is investigated as a quantum memory in the implementation of quantum repeaters. For the application envisioned here, our work extends the recent study of the qubit [Wu , arXiv:1104.0443; Phys. Rev. BPRBMDO1098-012110.1103/PhysRevB.84.195463 84, 195463 (2011)] to the case where the qubit is placed in an in-plane magnetic field configuration. It develops, for the configuration, a method of qubit manipulation, based on a unique ac electric field-induced, valley-orbit interaction-derived mechanism in gapped graphene. It also studies the optical response of graphene quantum dots in the configuration, in terms of valley excitation with respect to photonic polarization, and illustrates faithful photon ↔ valley quantum state transfers. This work suggests the interesting prospect of an all-graphene approach for the solid state components of a quantum network, e.g., quantum computers and quantum memories in communications.
Repeated quantum error correction on a continuously encoded qubit by real-time feedback
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cramer, J.; Kalb, N.; Rol, M. A.; Hensen, B.; Blok, M. S.; Markham, M.; Twitchen, D. J.; Hanson, R.; Taminiau, T. H.
2016-05-01
Reliable quantum information processing in the face of errors is a major fundamental and technological challenge. Quantum error correction protects quantum states by encoding a logical quantum bit (qubit) in multiple physical qubits. To be compatible with universal fault-tolerant computations, it is essential that states remain encoded at all times and that errors are actively corrected. Here we demonstrate such active error correction on a continuously protected logical qubit using a diamond quantum processor. We encode the logical qubit in three long-lived nuclear spins, repeatedly detect phase errors by non-destructive measurements, and apply corrections by real-time feedback. The actively error-corrected qubit is robust against errors and encoded quantum superposition states are preserved beyond the natural dephasing time of the best physical qubit in the encoding. These results establish a powerful platform to investigate error correction under different types of noise and mark an important step towards fault-tolerant quantum information processing.
Controlled Bidirectional Quantum Secure Direct Communication
Chou, Yao-Hsin; Lin, Yu-Ting; Zeng, Guo-Jyun; Lin, Fang-Jhu; Chen, Chi-Yuan
2014-01-01
We propose a novel protocol for controlled bidirectional quantum secure communication based on a nonlocal swap gate scheme. Our proposed protocol would be applied to a system in which a controller (supervisor/Charlie) controls the bidirectional communication with quantum information or secret messages between legitimate users (Alice and Bob). In this system, the legitimate users must obtain permission from the controller in order to exchange their respective quantum information or secret messages simultaneously; the controller is unable to obtain any quantum information or secret messages from the decoding process. Moreover, the presence of the controller also avoids the problem of one legitimate user receiving the quantum information or secret message before the other, and then refusing to help the other user decode the quantum information or secret message. Our proposed protocol is aimed at protecting against external and participant attacks on such a system, and the cost of transmitting quantum bits using our protocol is less than that achieved in other studies. Based on the nonlocal swap gate scheme, the legitimate users exchange their quantum information or secret messages without transmission in a public channel, thus protecting against eavesdroppers stealing the secret messages. PMID:25006596
Enhanced quantum communication via optical refocusing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lupo, Cosmo; Giovannetti, Vittorio; Pirandola, Stefano; Mancini, Stefano; Lloyd, Seth
2011-07-01
We consider the problem of quantum communication mediated by a passive optical refocusing system. The model captures the basic features of all those situations in which a signal is either refocused by a repeater for long-distance communication, or it is focused on a detector prior to the information decoding process. Introducing a general method for linear passive optical systems, we determine the conditions under which optical refocusing implies information transmission gain. Although the finite aperture of the repeater may cause loss of information, we show that the presence of the refocusing system can substantially enhance the rate of reliable communication with respect to the free-space propagation. We explicitly address the transferring of classical messages over the quantum channel, but the results can be easily extended to include the case of transferring quantum messages as well.
Secure quantum private information retrieval using phase-encoded queries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Olejnik, Lukasz
2011-08-01
We propose a quantum solution to the classical private information retrieval (PIR) problem, which allows one to query a database in a private manner. The protocol offers privacy thresholds and allows the user to obtain information from a database in a way that offers the potential adversary, in this model the database owner, no possibility of deterministically establishing the query contents. This protocol may also be viewed as a solution to the symmetrically private information retrieval problem in that it can offer database security (inability for a querying user to steal its contents). Compared to classical solutions, the protocol offers substantial improvement in terms of communication complexity. In comparison with the recent quantum private queries [Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.100.230502 100, 230502 (2008)] protocol, it is more efficient in terms of communication complexity and the number of rounds, while offering a clear privacy parameter. We discuss the security of the protocol and analyze its strengths and conclude that using this technique makes it challenging to obtain the unconditional (in the information-theoretic sense) privacy degree; nevertheless, in addition to being simple, the protocol still offers a privacy level. The oracle used in the protocol is inspired both by the classical computational PIR solutions as well as the Deutsch-Jozsa oracle.
Secure quantum private information retrieval using phase-encoded queries
Olejnik, Lukasz
2011-08-15
We propose a quantum solution to the classical private information retrieval (PIR) problem, which allows one to query a database in a private manner. The protocol offers privacy thresholds and allows the user to obtain information from a database in a way that offers the potential adversary, in this model the database owner, no possibility of deterministically establishing the query contents. This protocol may also be viewed as a solution to the symmetrically private information retrieval problem in that it can offer database security (inability for a querying user to steal its contents). Compared to classical solutions, the protocol offers substantial improvement in terms of communication complexity. In comparison with the recent quantum private queries [Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 230502 (2008)] protocol, it is more efficient in terms of communication complexity and the number of rounds, while offering a clear privacy parameter. We discuss the security of the protocol and analyze its strengths and conclude that using this technique makes it challenging to obtain the unconditional (in the information-theoretic sense) privacy degree; nevertheless, in addition to being simple, the protocol still offers a privacy level. The oracle used in the protocol is inspired both by the classical computational PIR solutions as well as the Deutsch-Jozsa oracle.
Multiparty Controlled Deterministic Secure Quantum Communication Through Entanglement Swapping
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dong, Li; Xiu, Xiao-Ming; Gao, Ya-Jun; Chi, Feng
A three-party controlled deterministic secure quantum communication scheme through entanglement swapping is proposed firstly. In the scheme, the sender needs to prepare a class of Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) states which are used as quantum channel. The two communicators may securely communicate under the control of the controller if the quantum channel is safe. The roles of the sender, the receiver, and the controller can be exchanged owing to the symmetry of the quantum channel. Different from other controlled quantum secure communication schemes, the scheme needs lesser additional classical information for transferring secret information. Finally, it is generalized to a multiparty controlled deterministic secure quantum communication scheme.
Yu, Leo; Natarajan, Chandra M; Horikiri, Tomoyuki; Langrock, Carsten; Pelc, Jason S; Tanner, Michael G; Abe, Eisuke; Maier, Sebastian; Schneider, Christian; Höfling, Sven; Kamp, Martin; Hadfield, Robert H; Fejer, Martin M; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa
2015-01-01
Practical quantum communication between remote quantum memories rely on single photons at telecom wavelengths. Although spin-photon entanglement has been demonstrated in atomic and solid-state qubit systems, the produced single photons at short wavelengths and with polarization encoding are not suitable for long-distance communication, because they suffer from high propagation loss and depolarization in optical fibres. Establishing entanglement between remote quantum nodes would further require the photons generated from separate nodes to be indistinguishable. Here, we report the observation of correlations between a quantum-dot spin and a telecom single photon across a 2-km fibre channel based on time-bin encoding and background-free frequency downconversion. The downconverted photon at telecom wavelengths exhibits two-photon interference with another photon from an independent source, achieving a mean wavepacket overlap of greater than 0.89 despite their original wavelength mismatch (900 and 911 nm). The quantum-networking operations that we demonstrate will enable practical communication between solid-state spin qubits across long distances. PMID:26597223
Yu, Leo; Natarajan, Chandra M.; Horikiri, Tomoyuki; Langrock, Carsten; Pelc, Jason S.; Tanner, Michael G.; Abe, Eisuke; Maier, Sebastian; Schneider, Christian; Höfling, Sven; Kamp, Martin; Hadfield, Robert H.; Fejer, Martin M.; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa
2015-01-01
Practical quantum communication between remote quantum memories rely on single photons at telecom wavelengths. Although spin-photon entanglement has been demonstrated in atomic and solid-state qubit systems, the produced single photons at short wavelengths and with polarization encoding are not suitable for long-distance communication, because they suffer from high propagation loss and depolarization in optical fibres. Establishing entanglement between remote quantum nodes would further require the photons generated from separate nodes to be indistinguishable. Here, we report the observation of correlations between a quantum-dot spin and a telecom single photon across a 2-km fibre channel based on time-bin encoding and background-free frequency downconversion. The downconverted photon at telecom wavelengths exhibits two-photon interference with another photon from an independent source, achieving a mean wavepacket overlap of greater than 0.89 despite their original wavelength mismatch (900 and 911 nm). The quantum-networking operations that we demonstrate will enable practical communication between solid-state spin qubits across long distances. PMID:26597223
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Leo; Natarajan, Chandra M.; Horikiri, Tomoyuki; Langrock, Carsten; Pelc, Jason S.; Tanner, Michael G.; Abe, Eisuke; Maier, Sebastian; Schneider, Christian; Höfling, Sven; Kamp, Martin; Hadfield, Robert H.; Fejer, Martin M.; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa
2015-11-01
Practical quantum communication between remote quantum memories rely on single photons at telecom wavelengths. Although spin-photon entanglement has been demonstrated in atomic and solid-state qubit systems, the produced single photons at short wavelengths and with polarization encoding are not suitable for long-distance communication, because they suffer from high propagation loss and depolarization in optical fibres. Establishing entanglement between remote quantum nodes would further require the photons generated from separate nodes to be indistinguishable. Here, we report the observation of correlations between a quantum-dot spin and a telecom single photon across a 2-km fibre channel based on time-bin encoding and background-free frequency downconversion. The downconverted photon at telecom wavelengths exhibits two-photon interference with another photon from an independent source, achieving a mean wavepacket overlap of greater than 0.89 despite their original wavelength mismatch (900 and 911 nm). The quantum-networking operations that we demonstrate will enable practical communication between solid-state spin qubits across long distances.
Classical communication cost of quantum steering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sainz, Ana Belén; Aolita, Leandro; Brunner, Nicolas; Gallego, Rodrigo; Skrzypczyk, Paul
2016-07-01
Quantum steering is observed when performing appropriate local measurements on an entangled state. Here we discuss the possibility of simulating classically this effect, using classical communication instead of entanglement. We show that infinite communication is necessary for exactly simulating steering for any pure entangled state, as well as for a class of mixed entangled states. Moreover, we discuss the communication cost of steering for general entangled states, as well as approximate simulation. Our findings reveal striking differences between Bell nonlocality and steering and provide a natural way of measuring the strength of the latter.
Quantum holographic encoding in a two-dimensional electron gas
Moon, Christopher
2010-05-26
The advent of bottom-up atomic manipulation heralded a new horizon for attainable information density, as it allowed a bit of information to be represented by a single atom. The discrete spacing between atoms in condensed matter has thus set a rigid limit on the maximum possible information density. While modern technologies are still far from this scale, all theoretical downscaling of devices terminates at this spatial limit. Here, however, we break this barrier with electronic quantum encoding scaled to subatomic densities. We use atomic manipulation to first construct open nanostructures - 'molecular holograms' - which in turn concentrate information into a medium free of lattice constraints: the quantum states of a two-dimensional degenerate Fermi gas of electrons. The information embedded in the holograms is transcoded at even smaller length scales into an atomically uniform area of a copper surface, where it is densely projected into both two spatial degrees of freedom and a third holographic dimension mapped to energy. In analogy to optical volume holography, this requires precise amplitude and phase engineering of electron wavefunctions to assemble pages of information volumetrically. This data is read out by mapping the energy-resolved electron density of states with a scanning tunnelling microscope. As the projection and readout are both extremely near-field, and because we use native quantum states rather than an external beam, we are not limited by lensing or collimation and can create electronically projected objects with features as small as {approx}0.3 nm. These techniques reach unprecedented densities exceeding 20 bits/nm{sup 2} and place tens of bits into a single fermionic state.
Industrial application for global quantum communication
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mirza, A.; Petruccione, F.
2012-09-01
In the last decade the quantum communication community has witnessed great advances in photonic quantum cryptography technology with the research, development and commercialization of automated Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) devices. These first generation devices are however bottlenecked by the achievable spatial coverage. This is due to the intrinsic absorption of the quantum particle into the communication medium. As QKD is of paramount importance in the future ICT landscape, various innovative solutions have been developed and tested to expand the spatial coverage of these networks such as the Quantum City initiative in Durban, South Africa. To expand this further into a global QKD-secured network, recent efforts have focussed on high-altitude free-space techniques through the use of satellites. This couples the QKD-secured Metropolitan Area Networks (MANs) with secured ground-tosatellite links as access points to a global network. Such a solution, however, has critical limitations that reduce its commercial feasibility. As parallel step to the development of satellitebased global QKD networks, we investigate the use of the commercial aircrafts' network as secure transport mechanisms in a global QKD network. This QKD-secured global network will provide a robust infrastructure to create, distribute and manage encryption keys between the MANs of the participating cities.
Quantum secure direct communication based on supervised teleportation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Yue; Liu, Yu
2008-03-01
We present a quantum secure direct communication(QSDC) scheme as an extension for a proposed supervised secure entanglement sharing protocol. Starting with a quick review on the supervised entanglement sharing protocol - the "Wuhan" protocol [Y. Li, et al., quant-ph/0709.1449 (2007)], we primarily focus on its further extend using for a QSDC task, in which the communication attendant Alice encodes the secret message directly onto a sequence of 2-level particles which then can be faithfully teleported to Bob using the shared maximal entanglement states obtained by the previous "Wuhan" protocol. We also evaluate the security of the QSDC scheme, where an individual self-attack performed by Alice and Bob - the out of control attack is introduced and the robustness of our scheme on the OCA is documented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chang, Yan; Zhang, Shi-Bin; Yan, Li-Li; Sheng, Zhi-Wei
2013-06-01
A multiparty controlled bidirectional quantum secure direct communication and authentication protocol is proposed based on EPR pair and entanglement swapping. The legitimate identities of communicating parties are encoded to Bell states which act as a detection sequence. Secret messages are transmitted by using the classical XOR operation, which serves as a one-time-pad. No photon with secret information transmits in the quantum channel. Compared with the protocols proposed by Wang et al. [Acta Phys. Sin. 56 (2007) 673; Opt. Commun. 266 (2006) 732], the protocol in this study implements bidirectional communication and authentication, which defends most attacks including the ‘man-in-the-middle’ attack efficiently.
Coherent communication with continuous quantum variables
Wilde, Mark M.; Krovi, Hari; Brun, Todd A.
2007-06-15
The coherent bit (cobit) channel is a resource intermediate between classical and quantum communication. It produces coherent versions of teleportation and superdense coding. We extend the cobit channel to continuous variables by providing a definition of the coherent nat (conat) channel. We construct several coherent protocols that use both a position-quadrature and a momentum-quadrature conat channel with finite squeezing. Finally, we show that the quality of squeezing diminishes through successive compositions of coherent teleportation and superdense coding.
Multiple channel secure communication using chaotic system encoding
Miller, S.L.
1996-12-31
fA new method to encrypt signals using chaotic systems has been developed that offers benefits over conventional chaotic encryption methods. The method simultaneously encodes multiple plaintext streams using a chaotic system; a key is required to extract the plaintext from the chaotic cipertext. A working prototype demonstrates feasibility of the method by simultaneously encoding and decoding multiple audio signals using electrical circuits.
Discord as a quantum resource for bi-partite communication
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chrzanowski, Helen M.; Gu, Mile; Assad, Syed M.; Symul, Thomas; Modi, Kavan; Ralph, Timothy C.; Vedral, Vlatko; Lam, Ping Koy
2014-12-01
Coherent interactions that generate negligible entanglement can still exhibit unique quantum behaviour. This observation has motivated a search beyond entanglement for a complete description of all quantum correlations. Quantum discord is a promising candidate. Here, we experimentally demonstrate that under certain measurement constraints, discord between bipartite systems can be consumed to encode information that can only be accessed by coherent quantum interactions. The inability to access this information by any other means allows us to use discord to directly quantify this `quantum advantage'.
Time-reversal-symmetric single-photon wave packets for free-space quantum communication.
Trautmann, N; Alber, G; Agarwal, G S; Leuchs, G
2015-05-01
Readout and retrieval processes are proposed for efficient, high-fidelity quantum state transfer between a matter qubit, encoded in the level structure of a single atom or ion, and a photonic qubit, encoded in a time-reversal-symmetric single-photon wave packet. They are based on controlling spontaneous photon emission and absorption of a matter qubit on demand in free space by stimulated Raman adiabatic passage. As these processes do not involve mode selection by high-finesse cavities or photon transport through optical fibers, they offer interesting perspectives as basic building blocks for free-space quantum-communication protocols. PMID:25978231
Time-Reversal-Symmetric Single-Photon Wave Packets for Free-Space Quantum Communication
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Trautmann, N.; Alber, G.; Agarwal, G. S.; Leuchs, G.
2015-05-01
Readout and retrieval processes are proposed for efficient, high-fidelity quantum state transfer between a matter qubit, encoded in the level structure of a single atom or ion, and a photonic qubit, encoded in a time-reversal-symmetric single-photon wave packet. They are based on controlling spontaneous photon emission and absorption of a matter qubit on demand in free space by stimulated Raman adiabatic passage. As these processes do not involve mode selection by high-finesse cavities or photon transport through optical fibers, they offer interesting perspectives as basic building blocks for free-space quantum-communication protocols.
PREFACE: Quantum Information, Communication, Computation and Cryptography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Benatti, F.; Fannes, M.; Floreanini, R.; Petritis, D.
2007-07-01
The application of quantum mechanics to information related fields such as communication, computation and cryptography is a fast growing line of research that has been witnessing an outburst of theoretical and experimental results, with possible practical applications. On the one hand, quantum cryptography with its impact on secrecy of transmission is having its first important actual implementations; on the other hand, the recent advances in quantum optics, ion trapping, BEC manipulation, spin and quantum dot technologies allow us to put to direct test a great deal of theoretical ideas and results. These achievements have stimulated a reborn interest in various aspects of quantum mechanics, creating a unique interplay between physics, both theoretical and experimental, mathematics, information theory and computer science. In view of all these developments, it appeared timely to organize a meeting where graduate students and young researchers could be exposed to the fundamentals of the theory, while senior experts could exchange their latest results. The activity was structured as a school followed by a workshop, and took place at The Abdus Salam International Center for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) and The International School for Advanced Studies (SISSA) in Trieste, Italy, from 12-23 June 2006. The meeting was part of the activity of the Joint European Master Curriculum Development Programme in Quantum Information, Communication, Cryptography and Computation, involving the Universities of Cergy-Pontoise (France), Chania (Greece), Leuven (Belgium), Rennes1 (France) and Trieste (Italy). This special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical collects 22 contributions from well known experts who took part in the workshop. They summarize the present day status of the research in the manifold aspects of quantum information. The issue is opened by two review articles, the first by G Adesso and F Illuminati discussing entanglement in continuous variable
Quantum Limits of Space-to-Ground Optical Communications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hemmati, H.; Dolinar, S.
2012-01-01
Quantum limiting factors contributed by the transmitter, the optical channel, and the receiver of a space-to-ground optical communications link are described. Approaches to move toward the ultimate quantum limit are discussed.
Heralded photon amplification for quantum communication
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Osorio, C. I.; Bruno, N.; Sangouard, N.; Zbinden, H.; Gisin, N.; Thew, R. T.
2012-08-01
Heralded noiseless amplification based on single-photon sources and linear optics is ideally suited for long-distance quantum communication tasks based on discrete variables. We experimentally demonstrate such an amplifier, operating at telecommunication wavelengths. Coherent amplification is performed with a gain of G=1.98±0.20 for a state with a maximum expected gain G=2. We also demonstrate that there is no need for a stable phase reference between the initial signal state and the local auxiliary photons used by the amplifier. We discuss these results in the context of experimental device-independent quantum key distribution based on heralded qubit amplification, and we highlight several key challenges for its realization.
Repeated quantum error correction on a continuously encoded qubit by real-time feedback.
Cramer, J; Kalb, N; Rol, M A; Hensen, B; Blok, M S; Markham, M; Twitchen, D J; Hanson, R; Taminiau, T H
2016-01-01
Reliable quantum information processing in the face of errors is a major fundamental and technological challenge. Quantum error correction protects quantum states by encoding a logical quantum bit (qubit) in multiple physical qubits. To be compatible with universal fault-tolerant computations, it is essential that states remain encoded at all times and that errors are actively corrected. Here we demonstrate such active error correction on a continuously protected logical qubit using a diamond quantum processor. We encode the logical qubit in three long-lived nuclear spins, repeatedly detect phase errors by non-destructive measurements, and apply corrections by real-time feedback. The actively error-corrected qubit is robust against errors and encoded quantum superposition states are preserved beyond the natural dephasing time of the best physical qubit in the encoding. These results establish a powerful platform to investigate error correction under different types of noise and mark an important step towards fault-tolerant quantum information processing. PMID:27146630
Repeated quantum error correction on a continuously encoded qubit by real-time feedback
Cramer, J.; Kalb, N.; Rol, M. A.; Hensen, B.; Blok, M. S.; Markham, M.; Twitchen, D. J.; Hanson, R.; Taminiau, T. H.
2016-01-01
Reliable quantum information processing in the face of errors is a major fundamental and technological challenge. Quantum error correction protects quantum states by encoding a logical quantum bit (qubit) in multiple physical qubits. To be compatible with universal fault-tolerant computations, it is essential that states remain encoded at all times and that errors are actively corrected. Here we demonstrate such active error correction on a continuously protected logical qubit using a diamond quantum processor. We encode the logical qubit in three long-lived nuclear spins, repeatedly detect phase errors by non-destructive measurements, and apply corrections by real-time feedback. The actively error-corrected qubit is robust against errors and encoded quantum superposition states are preserved beyond the natural dephasing time of the best physical qubit in the encoding. These results establish a powerful platform to investigate error correction under different types of noise and mark an important step towards fault-tolerant quantum information processing. PMID:27146630
Integrated source and channel encoded digital communication system design study
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Huth, G. K.; Udalov, S.
1974-01-01
This study investigated the configuration and integration of a wideband communication system with a Ku-band rendezvous radar system. The goal of the study was to provide as much commonality between the two systems as possible. The antenna design was described with the only change being the requirement for dual polarization (linear for the radar system and circular for the communication system).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shukla, Chitra; Pathak, Anirban
2014-09-01
Recently, an orthogonal-state-based protocol of direct quantum communication without actual transmission of particles is proposed by Salih et al. (Phys Rev Lett 110:170502, 2013) using chained quantum Zeno effect. The counterfactual condition (claim) of Salih et al. is weakened here to the extent that transmission of particles is allowed, but transmission of the message qubits (the qubits on which the secret information is encoded) is not allowed. Remaining within this weaker (non-counterfactual) condition, an orthogonal-state-based protocol of deterministic secure quantum communication is proposed using entanglement swapping, where actual transmission of the message qubits is not required. Further, it is shown that there exists a large class of quantum states that can be used to implement the proposed protocol. The security of the proposed protocol originates from monogamy of entanglement. As the protocol can be implemented without using conjugate coding, its security is independent of non-commutativity.
Repeated quantum error correction by real-time feedback on continuously encoded qubits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cramer, Julia; Kalb, Norbert; Rol, M. Adriaan; Hensen, Bas; Blok, Machiel S.; Markham, Matthew; Twitchen, Daniel J.; Hanson, Ronald; Taminiau, Tim H.
Because quantum information is extremely fragile, large-scale quantum information processing requires constant error correction. To be compatible with universal fault-tolerant computations, it is essential that quantum states remain encoded at all times and that errors are actively corrected. I will present such active quantum error correction in a hybrid quantum system based on the nitrogen vacancy (NV) center in diamond. We encode a logical qubit in three long-lived nuclear spins, detect errors by multiple non-destructive measurements using the optically active NV electron spin and correct them by real-time feedback. By combining these new capabilities with recent advances in spin control, multiple cycles of error correction can be performed within the dephasing time. We investigate both coherent and incoherent errors and show that the error-corrected logical qubit can indeed store quantum states longer than the best spin used in the encoding. Furthermore, I will present our latest results on increasing the number of qubits in the encoding, required for quantum error correction for both phase- and bit-flip.
Integrated source and channel encoded digital communication system design study
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Alem, W. K.; Huth, G. K.; Simon, M. K.
1978-01-01
The particular Ku-band carrier, PN despreading, and symbol synchronization strategies, which were selected for implementation in the Ku-band transponder aboard the orbiter, were assessed and evaluated from a systems performance viewpoint, verifying that system specifications were met. A study was performed of the design and implementation of tracking techniques which are suitable for incorporation into the Orbiter Ku-band communication system. Emphasis was placed on maximizing tracking accuracy and communication system flexibility while minimizing cost, weight, and system complexity of Orbiter and ground systems hardware. The payload communication study assessed the design and performance of the forward link and return link bent-pipe relay modes for attached and detached payloads. As part of this study, a design for a forward link bent-pipe was proposed which employs a residual carrier but which is tracked by the existing Costas loop.
Quantum issues in optical communication. [noise reduction in signal reception
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kennedy, R. S.
1973-01-01
Various approaches to the problem of controlling quantum noise, the dominant noise in an optical communications system, are discussed. It is shown that, no matter which way the problem is approached, there always remain uncertainties. These uncertainties exist because, to date, only very few communication problems have been solved in their full quantum form.
Quantum communication complexity advantage implies violation of a Bell inequality.
Buhrman, Harry; Czekaj, Łukasz; Grudka, Andrzej; Horodecki, Michał; Horodecki, Paweł; Markiewicz, Marcin; Speelman, Florian; Strelchuk, Sergii
2016-03-22
We obtain a general connection between a large quantum advantage in communication complexity and Bell nonlocality. We show that given any protocol offering a sufficiently large quantum advantage in communication complexity, there exists a way of obtaining measurement statistics that violate some Bell inequality. Our main tool is port-based teleportation. If the gap between quantum and classical communication complexity can grow arbitrarily large, the ratio of the quantum value to the classical value of the Bell quantity becomes unbounded with the increase in the number of inputs and outputs. PMID:26957600
Quantum communication complexity advantage implies violation of a Bell inequality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buhrman, Harry; Czekaj, Łukasz; Grudka, Andrzej; Horodecki, Michał; Horodecki, Paweł; Markiewicz, Marcin; Speelman, Florian; Strelchuk, Sergii
2016-03-01
We obtain a general connection between a large quantum advantage in communication complexity and Bell nonlocality. We show that given any protocol offering a sufficiently large quantum advantage in communication complexity, there exists a way of obtaining measurement statistics that violate some Bell inequality. Our main tool is port-based teleportation. If the gap between quantum and classical communication complexity can grow arbitrarily large, the ratio of the quantum value to the classical value of the Bell quantity becomes unbounded with the increase in the number of inputs and outputs.
Multiplexed communication over a high-speed quantum channel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heurs, M.; Webb, J. G.; Dunlop, A. E.; Harb, C. C.; Ralph, T. C.; Huntington, E. H.
2010-03-01
In quantum information systems it is of particular interest to consider the best way in which to use the nonclassical resources consumed by that system. Quantum communication protocols are integral to quantum information systems and are among the most promising near-term applications of quantum information science. Here we show that a multiplexed, digital quantum communications system supported by a comb of vacuum squeezing has a greater channel capacity per photon than a source of broadband squeezing with the same analog band width. We report on the time-resolved, simultaneous observation of the first dozen teeth in a 2.4-GHz comb of vacuum squeezing produced by a subthreshold optical parametric oscillator, as required for such a quantum communications channel. We also demonstrate multiplexed communication on that channel.
Multiplexed communication over a high-speed quantum channel
Heurs, M.; Webb, J. G.; Dunlop, A. E.; Harb, C. C.; Huntington, E. H.; Ralph, T. C.
2010-03-15
In quantum information systems it is of particular interest to consider the best way in which to use the nonclassical resources consumed by that system. Quantum communication protocols are integral to quantum information systems and are among the most promising near-term applications of quantum information science. Here we show that a multiplexed, digital quantum communications system supported by a comb of vacuum squeezing has a greater channel capacity per photon than a source of broadband squeezing with the same analog band width. We report on the time-resolved, simultaneous observation of the first dozen teeth in a 2.4-GHz comb of vacuum squeezing produced by a subthreshold optical parametric oscillator, as required for such a quantum communications channel. We also demonstrate multiplexed communication on that channel.
Integrated source and channel encoded digital communication system design study
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Huth, G. K.; Trumpis, B. D.; Udalov, S.
1975-01-01
Various aspects of space shuttle communication systems were studied. The following major areas were investigated: burst error correction for shuttle command channels; performance optimization and design considerations for Costas receivers with and without bandpass limiting; experimental techniques for measuring low level spectral components of microwave signals; and potential modulation and coding techniques for the Ku-band return link. Results are presented.
Quantum Communication for the Ultimate Capacity and Security
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sasaki, Masahide; Fujiwara, Mikio; Takeoka, Masahiro
Quantum info-communication technologies (Q-ICT) will be able to realize quantum communication which attains higher capacity than that of conventional optical communications, and the unconditionally secure communication, known as quantum key distribution (QKD), that cannot be broken by any future technologies. In this article we first review a brief history of Q-ICT, and introduce basic notions and results so far. We then present our recent results on these two technologies, addressing current limitations of the known schemes, and finally discuss future perspectives, especially a challenge to merge the merits of the two.
Efficient Controlled Quantum Secure Direct Communication Protocols
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Patwardhan, Siddharth; Moulick, Subhayan Roy; Panigrahi, Prasanta K.
2016-03-01
We study controlled quantum secure direct communication (CQSDC), a cryptographic scheme where a sender can send a secret bit-string to an intended recipient, without any secure classical channel, who can obtain the complete bit-string only with the permission of a controller. We report an efficient protocol to realize CQSDC using Cluster state and then go on to construct a (2-3)-CQSDC using Brown state, where a coalition of any two of the three controllers is required to retrieve the complete message. We argue both protocols to be unconditionally secure and analyze the efficiency of the protocols to show it to outperform the existing schemes while maintaining the same security specifications.
Efficient Controlled Quantum Secure Direct Communication Protocols
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Patwardhan, Siddharth; Moulick, Subhayan Roy; Panigrahi, Prasanta K.
2016-07-01
We study controlled quantum secure direct communication (CQSDC), a cryptographic scheme where a sender can send a secret bit-string to an intended recipient, without any secure classical channel, who can obtain the complete bit-string only with the permission of a controller. We report an efficient protocol to realize CQSDC using Cluster state and then go on to construct a (2-3)-CQSDC using Brown state, where a coalition of any two of the three controllers is required to retrieve the complete message. We argue both protocols to be unconditionally secure and analyze the efficiency of the protocols to show it to outperform the existing schemes while maintaining the same security specifications.
Two-step quantum direct communication protocol using the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen pair block
Deng Fuguo; Liu Xiaoshu; Long Guilu
2003-10-01
A protocol for quantum secure direct communication using blocks of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) pairs is proposed. A set of ordered N EPR pairs is used as a data block for sending secret message directly. The ordered N EPR set is divided into two particle sequences, a checking sequence and a message-coding sequence. After transmitting the checking sequence, the two parties of communication check eavesdropping by measuring a fraction of particles randomly chosen, with random choice of two sets of measuring bases. After insuring the security of the quantum channel, the sender Alice encodes the secret message directly on the message-coding sequence and sends them to Bob. By combining the checking and message-coding sequences together, Bob is able to read out the encoded messages directly. The scheme is secure because an eavesdropper cannot get both sequences simultaneously. We also discuss issues in a noisy channel.
Discord as a quantum resource for bi-partite communication
Chrzanowski, Helen M.; Assad, Syed M.; Symul, Thomas; Lam, Ping Koy; Gu, Mile; Modi, Kavan; Vedral, Vlatko; Ralph, Timothy C.
2014-12-04
Coherent interactions that generate negligible entanglement can still exhibit unique quantum behaviour. This observation has motivated a search beyond entanglement for a complete description of all quantum correlations. Quantum discord is a promising candidate. Here, we experimentally demonstrate that under certain measurement constraints, discord between bipartite systems can be consumed to encode information that can only be accessed by coherent quantum interactions. The inability to access this information by any other means allows us to use discord to directly quantify this ‘quantum advantage’.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Xiong, Fugin
2003-01-01
One half of Professor Xiong's effort will investigate robust timing synchronization schemes for dynamically varying characteristics of aviation communication channels. The other half of his time will focus on efficient modulation and coding study for the emerging quantum communications.
Fault-tolerant Remote Quantum Entanglement Establishment for Secure Quantum Communications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsai, Chia-Wei; Lin, Jason
2016-02-01
This work presents a strategy for constructing long-distance quantum communications among a number of remote users through collective-noise channel. With the assistance of semi-honest quantum certificate authorities (QCAs), the remote users can share a secret key through fault-tolerant entanglement swapping. The proposed protocol is feasible for large-scale distributed quantum networks with numerous users. Each pair of communicating parties only needs to establish the quantum channels and the classical authenticated channels with his/her local QCA. Thus, it enables any user to communicate freely without point-to-point pre-establishing any communication channels, which is efficient and feasible for practical environments.
Fault-tolerant Remote Quantum Entanglement Establishment for Secure Quantum Communications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsai, Chia-Wei; Lin, Jason
2016-07-01
This work presents a strategy for constructing long-distance quantum communications among a number of remote users through collective-noise channel. With the assistance of semi-honest quantum certificate authorities (QCAs), the remote users can share a secret key through fault-tolerant entanglement swapping. The proposed protocol is feasible for large-scale distributed quantum networks with numerous users. Each pair of communicating parties only needs to establish the quantum channels and the classical authenticated channels with his/her local QCA. Thus, it enables any user to communicate freely without point-to-point pre-establishing any communication channels, which is efficient and feasible for practical environments.
Step-by-step magic state encoding for efficient fault-tolerant quantum computation
Goto, Hayato
2014-01-01
Quantum error correction allows one to make quantum computers fault-tolerant against unavoidable errors due to decoherence and imperfect physical gate operations. However, the fault-tolerant quantum computation requires impractically large computational resources for useful applications. This is a current major obstacle to the realization of a quantum computer. In particular, magic state distillation, which is a standard approach to universality, consumes the most resources in fault-tolerant quantum computation. For the resource problem, here we propose step-by-step magic state encoding for concatenated quantum codes, where magic states are encoded step by step from the physical level to the logical one. To manage errors during the encoding, we carefully use error detection. Since the sizes of intermediate codes are small, it is expected that the resource overheads will become lower than previous approaches based on the distillation at the logical level. Our simulation results suggest that the resource requirements for a logical magic state will become comparable to those for a single logical controlled-NOT gate. Thus, the present method opens a new possibility for efficient fault-tolerant quantum computation. PMID:25511387
Step-by-step magic state encoding for efficient fault-tolerant quantum computation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goto, Hayato
2014-12-01
Quantum error correction allows one to make quantum computers fault-tolerant against unavoidable errors due to decoherence and imperfect physical gate operations. However, the fault-tolerant quantum computation requires impractically large computational resources for useful applications. This is a current major obstacle to the realization of a quantum computer. In particular, magic state distillation, which is a standard approach to universality, consumes the most resources in fault-tolerant quantum computation. For the resource problem, here we propose step-by-step magic state encoding for concatenated quantum codes, where magic states are encoded step by step from the physical level to the logical one. To manage errors during the encoding, we carefully use error detection. Since the sizes of intermediate codes are small, it is expected that the resource overheads will become lower than previous approaches based on the distillation at the logical level. Our simulation results suggest that the resource requirements for a logical magic state will become comparable to those for a single logical controlled-NOT gate. Thus, the present method opens a new possibility for efficient fault-tolerant quantum computation.
Satellite quantum communication towards GEO distances
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vallone, Giuseppe; Dequal, Daniele; Tomasin, M.; Schiavon, M.; Vedovato, F.; Bacco, Davide; Gaiarin, Simone; Bianco, Giuseppe; Luceri, Vincenza; Villoresi, Paolo
2016-04-01
We report on several experiments of single photon transmission from space to ground realized at the Matera Laser Ranging Observatory (MLRO) of the Italian Space Agency in Matera (Italy). We simulated a source of coherent pulses attenuated to the single photon level by exploiting laser ranging satellites equipped with corner-cube retroreﬂectors (CCRs). By such technique we report QC with qubits encoded in polarization from low-Earth-orbit (LEO) at distance up to 2500km from the ground station, achieving a low quantum bit error ratio (QBER) for diﬀerent satellites. The same technique is exploited to demonstrate single photon exchange with a medium-Earth-orbit (MEO) satellite, Lageos-2 at more than 7000 km of distance from the MLRO station. In both experiments the temporal jitter of the received counts is of the order of 1.2ns FWHM due to the intrinsic jitter of the single photon detectors. In order to improve the discrimination of signal from the background and reaching distances corresponding to GEO satellites, we improved the detection scheme by using fast single photon detectors with 40 ps FWHM jitter. We report improved single photon detection jitter from Beacon-C and Ajisai, obtaining 340 ps FWHM in the best case.
Integrated source and channel encoded digital communication system design study
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Udalov, S.; Huth, G. K.
1977-01-01
The analysis of the forward link signal structure for the shuttle orbiter Ku-band communication system was carried out, based on the assumptions of a 3.03 Mcps PN code. It is shown that acquisition requirements for the forward link can be met at the acquisition threshold C/N0 sub 0 value of about 60 dB-Hz, which corresponds to a bit error rate (BER) of about 0.001. It is also shown that the tracking threshold for the forward link is at about 57 dB-Hz. The analysis of the bent pipe concept for the orbiter was carried out, along with the comparative analysis of the empirical data. The complexity of the analytical approach warrants further investigation to reconcile the empirical and theoretical results. Techniques for incorporating a text and graphics capability into the forward link data stream are considered and a baseline configuration is described.
Efficient Quantum Secure Direct Communication Using the Orbital Angular Momentum of Single Photons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jian, Zhuo-Ru; Jin, Guang-Sheng; Wang, Tie-Jun
2016-03-01
Quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) is to transmit information directly through quantum channels without generating secret keys. The efficiencies of QSDC rely on the capacity of qubits. Exploiting orbital angular momentum of single photons, we proposed a high-capacity one-time pad QSDC protocol. The information is encoded on the Hermite-Gauss mode and transmitted directly on the Laguerre-Gauss mode of the photon pluses. The proposed system provides a high coding space, and the proposed protocol is robust against collective-dephasing channel noise.
Transfer and teleportation of quantum states encoded in decoherence-free subspace
Wei Hua; Deng Zhijao; Zhang Xiaolong; Feng Mang
2007-11-15
Quantum state transfer and teleportation, with qubits encoded in internal states of atoms in cavities, among spatially separated nodes of a quantum network in a decoherence-free subspace are proposed, based on a cavity-assisted interaction with single-photon pulses. We show in detail the implementation of a logic-qubit Hadamard gate and a two-logic-qubit conditional gate, and discuss the experimental feasibility of our scheme.
Quantum communication through a spin ring with twisted boundary conditions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bose, S.; Jin, B.-Q.; Korepin, V. E.
2005-08-01
We investigate quantum communication between the sites of a spin ring with twisted boundary conditions. Such boundary conditions can be achieved by a magnetic flux through the ring. We find that a nonzero twist can improve communication through finite odd-numbered rings and enable high-fidelity multiparty quantum communication through spin rings (working near perfectly for rings of five and seven spins). We show that in certain cases, the twist results in the complete blockage of quantum-information flow to a certain site of the ring. This effect can be exploited to interface and entangle a flux qubit and a spin qubit without embedding the latter in a magnetic field.
Distributed wireless quantum communication networks with partially entangled pairs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Xu-Tao; Zhang, Zai-Chen; Xu, Jin
2014-01-01
Wireless quantum communication networks transfer quantum state by teleportation. Existing research focuses on maximal entangled pairs. In this paper, we analyse the distributed wireless quantum communication networks with partially entangled pairs. A quantum routing scheme with multi-hop teleportation is proposed. With the proposed scheme, is not necessary for the quantum path to be consistent with the classical path. The quantum path and its associated classical path are established in a distributed way. Direct multi-hop teleportation is conducted on the selected path to transfer a quantum state from the source to the destination. Based on the feature of multi-hop teleportation using partially entangled pairs, if the node number of the quantum path is even, the destination node will add another teleportation at itself. We simulated the performance of distributed wireless quantum communication networks with a partially entangled state. The probability of transferring the quantum state successfully is statistically analyzed. Our work shows that multi-hop teleportation on distributed wireless quantum networks with partially entangled pairs is feasible.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Zhen-Bo; Gong, Li-Hua; Wen, Ru-Hong
2016-03-01
A novel multiparty controlled bidirectional quantum secure direct communication protocol combining continuous-variable states with qubit block transmission is proposed. Two legitimate communication parties encode their own secret information into entangled optical modes with translation operations, and the secret information of each counterpart can only be recovered under the permission of all controllers. Due to continuous-variable states and block transmission strategy, the proposed protocol is easy to realize with perfect qubit efficiency. Security analyses show that the proposed protocol is free from common attacks, including the man-in-the-middle attack.
Quantum Sensing and Communications Being Developed for Nanotechnology
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lekki, John D.; Nguyen, Quang-Viet
2005-01-01
An interdisciplinary quantum communications and sensing research effort for application in microdevices has been underway at the NASA Glenn Research Center since 2000. Researchers in Glenn's Instrumentation and Controls, Communications Technology, and Propulsion and Turbomachinery Divisions have been working together to study and develop techniques that utilize quantum effects for sensing and communications. The emerging technology provides an innovative way to communicate faster and farther using less power and to sense, measure, and image environmental properties in ways that are not possible with existing technology.
Secure satellite communication using multi-photon tolerant quantum communication protocol
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Darunkar, Bhagyashri; Punekar, Nikhil; Verma, Pramode K.
2015-09-01
This paper proposes and analyzes the potential of a multi-photon tolerant quantum communication protocol to secure satellite communication. For securing satellite communication, quantum cryptography is the only known unconditionally secure method. A number of recent experiments have shown feasibility of satellite-aided global quantum key distribution (QKD) using different methods such as: Use of entangled photon pairs, decoy state methods, and entanglement swapping. The use of single photon in these methods restricts the distance and speed over which quantum cryptography can be applied. Contemporary quantum cryptography protocols like the BB84 and its variants suffer from the limitation of reaching the distances of only Low Earth Orbit (LEO) at the data rates of few kilobits per second. This makes it impossible to develop a general satellite-based secure global communication network using the existing protocols. The method proposed in this paper allows secure communication at the heights of the Medium Earth Orbit (MEO) and Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO) satellites. The benefits of the proposed method are two-fold: First it enables the realization of a secure global communication network based on satellites and second it provides unconditional security for satellite networks at GEO heights. The multi-photon approach discussed in this paper ameliorates the distance and speed issues associated with quantum cryptography through the use of contemporary laser communication (lasercom) devices. This approach can be seen as a step ahead towards global quantum communication.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Tao; Yang, Guo-Jian; Deng, Fu-Guo
2016-01-01
We propose a heralded quantum repeater protocol based on the general interface between the circularly polarized photon and the quantum dot embedded in a double-sided optical microcavity. Our effective time-bin encoding on photons results in the deterministic faithful entanglement distribution with one optical fiber for the transmission of each photon in our protocol, not two or more. Our efficient parity-check detector implemented with only one input-output process of a single photon as a result of cavity quantum electrodynamics makes the entanglement channel extension and entanglement purification in quantum repeater far more efficient than others, and it has the potential application in fault-tolerant quantum computation as well. Meanwhile, the deviation from a collective-noise channel leads to some phase-flip errors on the nonlocal electron spins shared by the parties and these errors can be depressed by our simplified entanglement purification process. Finally, we discuss the performance of our proposal, concluding that it is feasible with current technology.
Quantum Authencryption with Two-Photon Entangled States for Off-Line Communicants
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ye, Tian-Yu
2016-02-01
In this paper, a quantum authencryption protocol is proposed by using the two-photon entangled states as the quantum resource. Two communicants Alice and Bob share two private keys in advance, which determine the generation of two-photon entangled states. The sender Alice sends the two-photon entangled state sequence encoded with her classical bits to the receiver Bob in the manner of one-step quantum transmission. Upon receiving the encoded quantum state sequence, Bob decodes out Alice's classical bits with the two-photon joint measurements and authenticates the integrity of Alice's secret with the help of one-way hash function. The proposed protocol only uses the one-step quantum transmission and needs neither a public discussion nor a trusted third party. As a result, the proposed protocol can be adapted to the case where the receiver is off-line, such as the quantum E-mail systems. Moreover, the proposed protocol provides the message authentication to one bit level with the help of one-way hash function and has an information-theoretical efficiency equal to 100 %.
GENERAL: Efficient quantum secure communication with a publicly known key
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Chun-Yan; Li, Xi-Han; Deng, Fu-Guo; Zhou, Hong-Yu
2008-07-01
This paper presents a simple way for an eavesdropper to eavesdrop freely the secret message in the experimental realization of quantum communication protocol proposed by Beige et al (2002 Acta Phys. Pol. A 101 357). Moreover, it introduces an efficient quantum secure communication protocol based on a publicly known key with decoy photons and two biased bases by modifying the original protocol. The total efficiency of this new protocol is double that of the original one. With a low noise quantum channel, this protocol can be used for transmitting a secret message. At present, this protocol is good for generating a private key efficiently.
Quantum communication in the presence of a horizon
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Su, Daiqin; Ralph, T. C.
2014-10-01
Based on homodyne detection, we discuss how the presence of an event horizon affects quantum communication between an inertial partner, Alice, and a uniformly accelerated partner, Rob. We show that there exists a low frequency cutoff for Rob's homodyne detector that maximizes the signal to noise ratio and it approximately corresponds to the Unruh frequency. In addition, the low frequency cutoff which minimizes the conditional variance between Alice's input state and Rob's output state is also approximately equal to the Unruh frequency. Thus the Unruh frequency provides a natural low frequency cutoff in order to optimize quantum communication of both classical and quantum information between Alice and Rob.
Authenticated semi-quantum direct communication protocols using Bell states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luo, Yi-Ping; Hwang, Tzonelih
2016-02-01
This study presents the first two authenticated semi-quantum direct communication protocols without using any classical channel. By pre-sharing a master secret key between two communicants, a sender with advanced quantum devices can transmit a secret message to a receiver who can only perform classical operations without any information leakage. The receiver is then capable of verifying the message up to the single-qubit level, i.e., a one-qubit modification of the transmitted quantum sequence can be detected with a probability close to 1. Moreover, the proposed protocols are resistant to several well-known attacks.
Quantum data locking for high-rate private communication
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lupo, Cosmo; Lloyd, Seth
2015-03-01
We show that, if the accessible information is used as a security quantifier, quantum channels with a certain symmetry can convey private messages at a tremendously high rate, as high as less than one bit below the rate of non-private classical communication. This result is obtained by exploiting the quantum data locking effect. The price to pay to achieve such a high private communication rate is that accessible information security is in general not composable. However, composable security holds against an eavesdropper who is forced to measure her share of the quantum system within a finite time after she gets it.
Doubly infinite separation of quantum information and communication
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Zi-Wen; Perry, Christopher; Zhu, Yechao; Koh, Dax Enshan; Aaronson, Scott
2016-01-01
We prove the existence of (one-way) communication tasks with a subconstant versus superconstant asymptotic gap, which we call "doubly infinite," between their quantum information and communication complexities. We do so by studying the exclusion game [C. Perry et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 030504 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.030504] for which there exist instances where the quantum information complexity tends to zero as the size of the input n increases. By showing that the quantum communication complexity of these games scales at least logarithmically in n , we obtain our result. We further show that the established lower bounds and gaps still hold even if we allow a small probability of error. However in this case, the n -qubit quantum message of the zero-error strategy can be compressed polynomially.
Quantum error correction assisted by two-way noisy communication
Wang, Zhuo; Yu, Sixia; Fan, Heng; Oh, C. H.
2014-01-01
Pre-shared non-local entanglement dramatically simplifies and improves the performance of quantum error correction via entanglement-assisted quantum error-correcting codes (EAQECCs). However, even considering the noise in quantum communication only, the non-local sharing of a perfectly entangled pair is technically impossible unless additional resources are consumed, such as entanglement distillation, which actually compromises the efficiency of the codes. Here we propose an error-correcting protocol assisted by two-way noisy communication that is more easily realisable: all quantum communication is subjected to general noise and all entanglement is created locally without additional resources consumed. In our protocol the pre-shared noisy entangled pairs are purified simultaneously by the decoding process. For demonstration, we first present an easier implementation of the well-known EAQECC [[4, 1, 3; 1
Quantum error correction assisted by two-way noisy communication
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Zhuo; Yu, Sixia; Fan, Heng; Oh, C. H.
2014-11-01
Pre-shared non-local entanglement dramatically simplifies and improves the performance of quantum error correction via entanglement-assisted quantum error-correcting codes (EAQECCs). However, even considering the noise in quantum communication only, the non-local sharing of a perfectly entangled pair is technically impossible unless additional resources are consumed, such as entanglement distillation, which actually compromises the efficiency of the codes. Here we propose an error-correcting protocol assisted by two-way noisy communication that is more easily realisable: all quantum communication is subjected to general noise and all entanglement is created locally without additional resources consumed. In our protocol the pre-shared noisy entangled pairs are purified simultaneously by the decoding process. For demonstration, we first present an easier implementation of the well-known EAQECC [[4, 1, 3; 1
Quantum error correction assisted by two-way noisy communication.
Wang, Zhuo; Yu, Sixia; Fan, Heng; Oh, C H
2014-01-01
Pre-shared non-local entanglement dramatically simplifies and improves the performance of quantum error correction via entanglement-assisted quantum error-correcting codes (EAQECCs). However, even considering the noise in quantum communication only, the non-local sharing of a perfectly entangled pair is technically impossible unless additional resources are consumed, such as entanglement distillation, which actually compromises the efficiency of the codes. Here we propose an error-correcting protocol assisted by two-way noisy communication that is more easily realisable: all quantum communication is subjected to general noise and all entanglement is created locally without additional resources consumed. In our protocol the pre-shared noisy entangled pairs are purified simultaneously by the decoding process. For demonstration, we first present an easier implementation of the well-known EAQECC [[4, 1, 3; 1
Quantum key distribution using qudits that each encode one bit of raw key
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chau, H. F.
2015-12-01
All known qudit-based prepare-and-measure quantum key distribution (PMQKD) schemes are more error resilient than their qubit-based counterparts. Their high error resiliency comes partly from the careful encoding of multiple bits of signals used to generate the raw key in each transmitted qudit so that the same eavesdropping attempt causes a higher bit error rate (BER) in the raw key. Here I show that highly-error-tolerant PMQKD schemes can be constructed simply by encoding one bit of classical information in each transmitted qudit in the form (|i > ±|j >) /√{2 } , where |i > 's form an orthonormal basis of the 2n-dimensional Hilbert space. Moreover, I prove that these schemes can tolerate up to the theoretical maximum of a 50% BER for n ≥2 provided the raw key is generated under a certain technical condition, making them extremely-error-tolerant PMQKD schemes involving the transmission of unentangled finite-dimensional qudits. This shows the potential of processing quantum information using lower-dimensional quantum signals encoded in a higher-dimensional quantum state.
Towards scalable quantum communication using atomic ensembles and light
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lukin, Mikhail
2002-03-01
One of the challenges in experimental quantum information science involves reliable transport (communication) of quantum bits over long distances under realistic conditions involving decoherence and noise. Photons are the fastest and simplest carriers of quantum information since they interact weakly with environment, but they are difficult to localize and store. It appears that an ideal solution would be to store and process quantum information in matter (i.e. nodes of quantum memory), and to communicate between these nodes using photons. In this talk we discuss how quantum optical techniques can be used to accomplish this goal using atomic ensembles and light as tools. In particular, we describe a fast and robust mechanism for quantum state transfer between light fields and atoms. This is achieved by adiabatically reducing the group velocity of propagating light to zero, thereby ``trapping'' the photon states in atomic ensembles. We describe the basic principles of this technique as well as our recent experimental progress toward realization of these ideas. We then describe how these techniques can be used to implement scalable technique for long-distance quantum communication in realistic noisy channels.
Optimal approach to quantum communication using dynamic programming.
Jiang, Liang; Taylor, Jacob M; Khaneja, Navin; Lukin, Mikhail D
2007-10-30
Reliable preparation of entanglement between distant systems is an outstanding problem in quantum information science and quantum communication. In practice, this has to be accomplished by noisy channels (such as optical fibers) that generally result in exponential attenuation of quantum signals at large distances. A special class of quantum error correction protocols, quantum repeater protocols, can be used to overcome such losses. In this work, we introduce a method for systematically optimizing existing protocols and developing more efficient protocols. Our approach makes use of a dynamic programming-based searching algorithm, the complexity of which scales only polynomially with the communication distance, letting us efficiently determine near-optimal solutions. We find significant improvements in both the speed and the final-state fidelity for preparing long-distance entangled states. PMID:17959783
Encoding quantum information in a stabilized manifold of a superconducting cavity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Touzard, S.; Leghtas, Z.; Mundhada, S. O.; Axline, C.; Reagor, M.; Chou, K.; Blumoff, J.; Sliwa, K. M.; Shankar, S.; Frunzio, L.; Schoelkopf, R. J.; Mirrahimi, M.; Devoret, M. H.
In a superconducting Josephson circuit architecture, we activate a multi-photon process between two modes by applying microwave drives at specific frequencies. This creates a pairwise exchange of photons between a high-Q cavity and the environment. The resulting open dynamical system develops a two-dimensional quasi-energy ground state manifold. Can we encode, protect and manipulate quantum information in this manifold? We experimentally investigate the convergence and escape rates in and out of this confined subspace. Finally, using quantum Zeno dynamics, we aim to perform gates which maintain the state in the protected manifold at all times. Work supported by: ARO, ONR, AFOSR and YINQE.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shimizu, Kaoru; Imoto, Nobuyuki
2000-11-01
We propose a single-photon interferometer which provides cryptographic quantum communication equivalent to that obtained using a pair of polarization entangled photon twins as a carrier [Phys. Rev. A 60, 157 (1999)]. Instead of manipulating and measuring the internal states of entangled photon twins, cryptographic quantum communication is possible by manipulating a single photon in an extended interferometer. The use of the single-photon interferometer offers significant experimental advantages compared to our previous approach.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Na; Li, Jian; Li, Lei-Lei; Wang, Zheng; Wang, Tao
2016-04-01
A deterministic secure quantum communication and authentication protocol based on extended GHZ-W state and quantum one-time pad is proposed. In the protocol, state |φ -> is used as the carrier. One photon of |φ -> state is sent to Alice, and Alice obtains a random key by measuring photons with bases determined by ID. The information of bases is secret to others except Alice and Bob. Extended GHZ-W states are used as decoy photons, the positions of which in information sequence are encoded with identity string ID of the legal user, and the eavesdropping detection rate reaches 81%. The eavesdropping detection based on extended GHZ-W state combines with authentication and the secret ID ensures the security of the protocol.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Na; Li, Jian; Li, Lei-Lei; Wang, Zheng; Wang, Tao
2016-08-01
A deterministic secure quantum communication and authentication protocol based on extended GHZ-W state and quantum one-time pad is proposed. In the protocol, state | φ -> is used as the carrier. One photon of | φ -> state is sent to Alice, and Alice obtains a random key by measuring photons with bases determined by ID. The information of bases is secret to others except Alice and Bob. Extended GHZ-W states are used as decoy photons, the positions of which in information sequence are encoded with identity string ID of the legal user, and the eavesdropping detection rate reaches 81%. The eavesdropping detection based on extended GHZ-W state combines with authentication and the secret ID ensures the security of the protocol.
Error filtration and entanglement purification for quantum communication
Gisin, N.; Linden, N.; Massar, S.; Popescu, S.
2005-07-15
The key realization that led to the emergence of the new field of quantum information processing is that quantum mechanics, the theory that describes microscopic particles, allows the processing of information in fundamentally new ways. But just as in classical information processing, errors occur in quantum information processing, and these have to be corrected. A fundamental breakthrough was the realization that quantum error correction is in fact possible. However, most work so far has not been concerned with technological feasibility, but rather with proving that quantum error correction is possible in principle. Here we describe a method for filtering out errors and entanglement purification which is particularly suitable for quantum communication. Our method is conceptually new, and, crucially, it is easy to implement in a wide variety of physical systems with present-day technology and should therefore be of wide applicability.
A universal quantum information processor for scalable quantum communication and networks.
Yang, Xihua; Xue, Bolin; Zhang, Junxiang; Zhu, Shiyao
2014-01-01
Entanglement provides an essential resource for quantum computation, quantum communication, and quantum networks. How to conveniently and efficiently realize the generation, distribution, storage, retrieval, and control of multipartite entanglement is the basic requirement for realistic quantum information processing. Here, we present a theoretical proposal to efficiently and conveniently achieve a universal quantum information processor (QIP) via atomic coherence in an atomic ensemble. The atomic coherence, produced through electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in the Λ-type configuration, acts as the QIP and has full functions of quantum beam splitter, quantum frequency converter, quantum entangler, and quantum repeater. By employing EIT-based nondegenerate four-wave mixing processes, the generation, exchange, distribution, and manipulation of light-light, atom-light, and atom-atom multipartite entanglement can be efficiently and flexibly achieved in a deterministic way with only coherent light fields. This method greatly facilitates the operations in quantum information processing, and holds promising applications in realistic scalable quantum communication and quantum networks. PMID:25316514
Quantum ratchets for quantum communication with optical superlattices
Romero-Isart, Oriol; Garcia-Ripoll, Juan Jose
2007-11-15
We propose to use a quantum ratchet to transport quantum information in a chain of atoms trapped in an optical superlattice. The quantum ratchet is created by a continuous modulation of the optical superlattice which is periodic in time and in space. Though there is zero average force acting on the atoms, we show that indeed the ratchet effect permits atoms on even and odd sites to move along opposite directions. By loading the optical lattice with two-level bosonic atoms, this scheme permits us to perfectly transport a qubit or entangled state imprinted in one or more atoms to any desired position in the lattice. From the quantum computation point of view, the transport is achieved by a smooth concatenation of perfect swap gates. We analyze setups with noninteracting and interacting particles and in the latter case we use the tools of optimal control to design optimal modulations. We also discuss the feasibility of this method in current experiments.
Memory assisted free space quantum communication
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jordaan, Bertus; Namazi, Mehdi; Goham, Connor; Shahrokhshahi, Reihaneh; Vallone, Giuseppe; Villoresi, Paolo; Figueroa, Eden
2016-05-01
A quantum memory assisted node between different quantum channels has the capability to modify and synchronize its output, allowing for easy connectivity, and advanced cryptography protocols. We present the experimental progress towards the storage of single photon level pulses carrying random polarization qubits into a dual rail room temperature quantum memory (RTQM) after ~ 20m of free space propagation. The RTQM coherently stores the input pulses through electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) of a warm 87 Rb vapor and filters the output by polarization elements and temperature-controlled etalon resonators. This allows the characterization of error rates for each polarization basis and the testing of the synchronization ability of the quantum memory. This work presents a steppingstone towards quantum key distribution and quantum repeater networks. The work was supported by the US-Navy Office of Naval Research, Grant Number N00141410801 and the Simons Foundation, Grant Number SBF241180.B. J. acknowledges financial assistance of the National Research Foundation (NRF) of South Africa.
Communication theory of quantum systems. Ph.D. Thesis, 1970
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yuen, H. P. H.
1971-01-01
Communication theory problems incorporating quantum effects for optical-frequency applications are discussed. Under suitable conditions, a unique quantum channel model corresponding to a given classical space-time varying linear random channel is established. A procedure is described by which a proper density-operator representation applicable to any receiver configuration can be constructed directly from the channel output field. Some examples illustrating the application of our methods to the development of optical quantum channel representations are given. Optimizations of communication system performance under different criteria are considered. In particular, certain necessary and sufficient conditions on the optimal detector in M-ary quantum signal detection are derived. Some examples are presented. Parameter estimation and channel capacity are discussed briefly.
Long-distance measurement-device-independent multiparty quantum communication.
Fu, Yao; Yin, Hua-Lei; Chen, Teng-Yun; Chen, Zeng-Bing
2015-03-01
The Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) entanglement, originally introduced to uncover the extreme violation of local realism against quantum mechanics, is an important resource for multiparty quantum communication tasks. But the low intensity and fragility of the GHZ entanglement source in current conditions have made the practical applications of these multiparty tasks an experimental challenge. Here we propose a feasible scheme for practically distributing the postselected GHZ entanglement over a distance of more than 100 km for experimentally accessible parameter regimes. Combining the decoy-state and measurement-device-independent protocols for quantum key distribution, we anticipate that our proposal suggests an important avenue for practical multiparty quantum communication. PMID:25793788
A 14 × 14 μm2 footprint polarization-encoded quantum controlled-NOT gate based on hybrid waveguide
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, S. M.; Cheng, Q. Q.; Gong, Y. X.; Xu, P.; Sun, C.; Li, L.; Li, T.; Zhu, S. N.
2016-05-01
Photonic quantum information processing system has been widely used in communication, metrology and lithography. The recent emphasis on the miniaturized photonic platform is thus motivated by the urgent need for realizing large-scale information processing and computing. Although the integrated quantum logic gates and quantum algorithms based on path encoding have been successfully demonstrated, the technology for handling another commonly used polarization-encoded qubits has yet to be fully developed. Here, we show the implementation of a polarization-dependent beam-splitter in the hybrid waveguide system. With precisely design, the polarization-encoded controlled-NOT gate can be implemented using only single such polarization-dependent beam-splitter with the significant size reduction of the overall device footprint to 14 × 14 μm2. The experimental demonstration of the highly integrated controlled-NOT gate sets the stage to develop large-scale quantum information processing system. Our hybrid design also establishes the new capabilities in controlling the polarization modes in integrated photonic circuits.
A 14 × 14 μm2 footprint polarization-encoded quantum controlled-NOT gate based on hybrid waveguide
Wang, S. M.; Cheng, Q. Q.; Gong, Y. X.; Xu, P.; Sun, C.; Li, L.; Li, T.; Zhu, S. N.
2016-01-01
Photonic quantum information processing system has been widely used in communication, metrology and lithography. The recent emphasis on the miniaturized photonic platform is thus motivated by the urgent need for realizing large-scale information processing and computing. Although the integrated quantum logic gates and quantum algorithms based on path encoding have been successfully demonstrated, the technology for handling another commonly used polarization-encoded qubits has yet to be fully developed. Here, we show the implementation of a polarization-dependent beam-splitter in the hybrid waveguide system. With precisely design, the polarization-encoded controlled-NOT gate can be implemented using only single such polarization-dependent beam-splitter with the significant size reduction of the overall device footprint to 14 × 14 μm2. The experimental demonstration of the highly integrated controlled-NOT gate sets the stage to develop large-scale quantum information processing system. Our hybrid design also establishes the new capabilities in controlling the polarization modes in integrated photonic circuits. PMID:27142992
Wang, S M; Cheng, Q Q; Gong, Y X; Xu, P; Sun, C; Li, L; Li, T; Zhu, S N
2016-01-01
Photonic quantum information processing system has been widely used in communication, metrology and lithography. The recent emphasis on the miniaturized photonic platform is thus motivated by the urgent need for realizing large-scale information processing and computing. Although the integrated quantum logic gates and quantum algorithms based on path encoding have been successfully demonstrated, the technology for handling another commonly used polarization-encoded qubits has yet to be fully developed. Here, we show the implementation of a polarization-dependent beam-splitter in the hybrid waveguide system. With precisely design, the polarization-encoded controlled-NOT gate can be implemented using only single such polarization-dependent beam-splitter with the significant size reduction of the overall device footprint to 14 × 14 μm(2). The experimental demonstration of the highly integrated controlled-NOT gate sets the stage to develop large-scale quantum information processing system. Our hybrid design also establishes the new capabilities in controlling the polarization modes in integrated photonic circuits. PMID:27142992
Simple algorithm for computing the communication complexity of quantum communication processes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hansen, A.; Montina, A.; Wolf, S.
2016-04-01
A two-party quantum communication process with classical inputs and outcomes can be simulated by replacing the quantum channel with a classical one. The minimal amount of classical communication required to reproduce the statistics of the quantum process is called its communication complexity. In the case of many instances simulated in parallel, the minimal communication cost per instance is called the asymptotic communication complexity. Previously, we reduced the computation of the asymptotic communication complexity to a convex minimization problem. In most cases, the objective function does not have an explicit analytic form, as the function is defined as the maximum over an infinite set of convex functions. Therefore, the overall problem takes the form of a minimax problem and cannot directly be solved by standard optimization methods. In this paper, we introduce a simple algorithm to compute the asymptotic communication complexity. For some special cases with an analytic objective function one can employ available convex-optimization libraries. In the tested cases our method turned out to be notably faster. Finally, using our method we obtain 1.238 bits as a lower bound on the asymptotic communication complexity of a noiseless quantum channel with the capacity of 1 qubit. This improves the previous bound of 1.208 bits.
Clarke, Patrick J.; Collins, Robert J.; Dunjko, Vedran; Andersson, Erika; Jeffers, John; Buller, Gerald S.
2012-01-01
Digital signatures are frequently used in data transfer to prevent impersonation, repudiation and message tampering. Currently used classical digital signature schemes rely on public key encryption techniques, where the complexity of so-called ‘one-way' mathematical functions is used to provide security over sufficiently long timescales. No mathematical proofs are known for the long-term security of such techniques. Quantum digital signatures offer a means of sending a message, which cannot be forged or repudiated, with security verified by information-theoretical limits and quantum mechanics. Here we demonstrate an experimental system, which distributes quantum signatures from one sender to two receivers and enables message sending ensured against forging and repudiation. Additionally, we analyse the security of the system in some typical scenarios. Our system is based on the interference of phase-encoded coherent states of light and our implementation utilizes polarization-maintaining optical fibre and photons with a wavelength of 850 nm. PMID:23132024
Communication: Fully coherent quantum state hopping
Martens, Craig C.
2015-10-14
In this paper, we describe a new and fully coherent stochastic surface hopping method for simulating mixed quantum-classical systems. We illustrate the approach on the simple but unforgiving problem of quantum evolution of a two-state quantum system in the limit of unperturbed pure state dynamics and for dissipative evolution in the presence of both stationary and nonstationary random environments. We formulate our approach in the Liouville representation and describe the density matrix elements by ensembles of trajectories. Population dynamics are represented by stochastic surface hops for trajectories representing diagonal density matrix elements. These are combined with an unconventional coherent stochastic hopping algorithm for trajectories representing off-diagonal quantum coherences. The latter generalizes the binary (0,1) “probability” of a trajectory to be associated with a given state to allow integers that can be negative or greater than unity in magnitude. Unlike existing surface hopping methods, the dynamics of the ensembles are fully entangled, correctly capturing the coherent and nonlocal structure of quantum mechanics.
Communication: Fully coherent quantum state hopping
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martens, Craig C.
2015-10-01
In this paper, we describe a new and fully coherent stochastic surface hopping method for simulating mixed quantum-classical systems. We illustrate the approach on the simple but unforgiving problem of quantum evolution of a two-state quantum system in the limit of unperturbed pure state dynamics and for dissipative evolution in the presence of both stationary and nonstationary random environments. We formulate our approach in the Liouville representation and describe the density matrix elements by ensembles of trajectories. Population dynamics are represented by stochastic surface hops for trajectories representing diagonal density matrix elements. These are combined with an unconventional coherent stochastic hopping algorithm for trajectories representing off-diagonal quantum coherences. The latter generalizes the binary (0,1) "probability" of a trajectory to be associated with a given state to allow integers that can be negative or greater than unity in magnitude. Unlike existing surface hopping methods, the dynamics of the ensembles are fully entangled, correctly capturing the coherent and nonlocal structure of quantum mechanics.
Experimental characterization of Gaussian quantum-communication channels
Di Guglielmo, James; Hage, Boris; Franzen, Alexander; Schnabel, Roman; Fiurasek, Jaromir
2007-07-15
We present a full experimental characterization of continuous-variable quantum-communication channels established by shared entanglement together with local operations and classical communication. The resulting teleportation channel was fully characterized by measuring all elements of the covariance matrix of the shared two-mode squeezed Gaussian state. From the experimental data we determined the lower bound to the quantum channel capacity, the teleportation fidelity of coherent states, and the logarithmic negativity and purity of the shared state. Additionally, a positive secret key rate was obtained for two of the established channels.
Intrinsic quantum correlations of weak coherent states for quantum communication
Sua Yongmeng; Scanlon, Erin; Beaulieu, Travis; Bollen, Viktor; Lee, Kim Fook
2011-03-15
Intrinsic quantum correlations of weak coherent states are observed between two parties through a novel detection scheme, which can be used as a supplement to the existence decoy-state Bennett-Brassard 1984 protocol and the differential phase-shift quantum key distribution (DPS-QKD) protocol. In a proof-of-principle experiment, we generate bipartite correlations of weak coherent states using weak local oscillator fields in two spatially separated balanced homodyne detections. We employ a nonlinearity of postmeasurement method to obtain the bipartite correlations from two single-field interferences at individual homodyne measurements. This scheme is then used to demonstrate bits correlations between two parties over a distance of 10 km through a transmission fiber. We believe that the scheme can add another physical layer of security to these protocols for quantum key distribution.
Quantum-secure covert communication on bosonic channels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bash, Boulat A.; Gheorghe, Andrei H.; Patel, Monika; Habif, Jonathan L.; Goeckel, Dennis; Towsley, Don; Guha, Saikat
2015-10-01
Computational encryption, information-theoretic secrecy and quantum cryptography offer progressively stronger security against unauthorized decoding of messages contained in communication transmissions. However, these approaches do not ensure stealth--that the mere presence of message-bearing transmissions be undetectable. We characterize the ultimate limit of how much data can be reliably and covertly communicated over the lossy thermal-noise bosonic channel (which models various practical communication channels). We show that whenever there is some channel noise that cannot in principle be controlled by an otherwise arbitrarily powerful adversary--for example, thermal noise from blackbody radiation--the number of reliably transmissible covert bits is at most proportional to the square root of the number of orthogonal modes (the time-bandwidth product) available in the transmission interval. We demonstrate this in a proof-of-principle experiment. Our result paves the way to realizing communications that are kept covert from an all-powerful quantum adversary.
Quantum-secure covert communication on bosonic channels
Bash, Boulat A.; Gheorghe, Andrei H.; Patel, Monika; Habif, Jonathan L.; Goeckel, Dennis; Towsley, Don; Guha, Saikat
2015-01-01
Computational encryption, information-theoretic secrecy and quantum cryptography offer progressively stronger security against unauthorized decoding of messages contained in communication transmissions. However, these approaches do not ensure stealth—that the mere presence of message-bearing transmissions be undetectable. We characterize the ultimate limit of how much data can be reliably and covertly communicated over the lossy thermal-noise bosonic channel (which models various practical communication channels). We show that whenever there is some channel noise that cannot in principle be controlled by an otherwise arbitrarily powerful adversary—for example, thermal noise from blackbody radiation—the number of reliably transmissible covert bits is at most proportional to the square root of the number of orthogonal modes (the time-bandwidth product) available in the transmission interval. We demonstrate this in a proof-of-principle experiment. Our result paves the way to realizing communications that are kept covert from an all-powerful quantum adversary. PMID:26478089
Quantum-secure covert communication on bosonic channels.
Bash, Boulat A; Gheorghe, Andrei H; Patel, Monika; Habif, Jonathan L; Goeckel, Dennis; Towsley, Don; Guha, Saikat
2015-01-01
Computational encryption, information-theoretic secrecy and quantum cryptography offer progressively stronger security against unauthorized decoding of messages contained in communication transmissions. However, these approaches do not ensure stealth--that the mere presence of message-bearing transmissions be undetectable. We characterize the ultimate limit of how much data can be reliably and covertly communicated over the lossy thermal-noise bosonic channel (which models various practical communication channels). We show that whenever there is some channel noise that cannot in principle be controlled by an otherwise arbitrarily powerful adversary--for example, thermal noise from blackbody radiation--the number of reliably transmissible covert bits is at most proportional to the square root of the number of orthogonal modes (the time-bandwidth product) available in the transmission interval. We demonstrate this in a proof-of-principle experiment. Our result paves the way to realizing communications that are kept covert from an all-powerful quantum adversary. PMID:26478089
Continuous-variable measurement-device-independent multipartite quantum communication
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Yadong; Zhou, Jian; Gong, Xinbao; Guo, Ying; Zhang, Zhi-Ming; He, Guangqiang
2016-02-01
A continuous-variable measurement-device-independent multiparty quantum communication protocol is investigated in this paper. Utilizing the distributed continuous-variable Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state, this protocol can implement both quantum cryptographic conference and quantum secret sharing. We analyze the security of the protocol against both the entangling cloner attack and the coherent attack. The entangling cloner attack is a practical individual attack, and the coherent attack is the optimal attack Eve can implement. Simulation results show that the coherent attack can greatly reduce the secret key rate. Different kinds of entangled attacks are compared and we finally discuss the optimal coherent attacks.
Natural Mode Entanglement as a Resource for Quantum Communication
Heaney, Libby; Vedral, Vlatko
2009-11-13
Natural particle-number entanglement resides between spatial modes in coherent ultracold atomic gases. However, operations on the modes are restricted by a superselection rule that forbids coherent superpositions of different particle numbers. This seemingly prevents mode entanglement being used as a resource for quantum communication. In this Letter, we demonstrate that mode entanglement of a single massive particle can be used for dense coding and quantum teleportation despite the superselection rule. In particular, we provide schemes where the dense coding linear photonic channel capacity is reached without a shared reservoir and where the full quantum channel capacity is achieved if both parties share a coherent particle reservoir.
Quantum Teamwork for Unconditional Multiparty Communication with Gaussian States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Jing; Adesso, Gerardo; Xie, Changde; Peng, Kunchi
2009-08-01
We demonstrate the capability of continuous variable Gaussian states to communicate multipartite quantum information. A quantum teamwork protocol is presented according to which an arbitrary possibly entangled multimode state can be faithfully teleported between two teams each comprising many cooperative users. We prove that N-mode Gaussian weighted graph states exist for arbitrary N that enable unconditional quantum teamwork implementations for any arrangement of the teams. These perfect continuous variable maximally multipartite entangled resources are typical among pure Gaussian states and are unaffected by the entanglement frustration occurring in multiqubit states.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Yuan-hua; Li, Xiao-lan; Sang, Ming-huang; Nie, Yi-you; Wang, Zi-sheng
2013-12-01
A scheme is presented to implement bidirectional controlled quantum teleportation (QT) by using a five-qubit entangled state as a quantum channel, where Alice may transmit an arbitrary single qubit state called qubit A to Bob and at the same time, Bob may also transmit an arbitrary single qubit state called qubit B to Alice via the control of the supervisor Charlie. Based on our channel, we explicitly show how the bidirectional controlled QT protocol works. By using this bidirectional controlled teleportation, espcially, a bidirectional controlled quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) protocol, i.e., the so-called controlled quantum dialogue, is further investigated. Under the situation of insuring the security of the quantum channel, Alice (Bob) encodes a secret message directly on a sequence of qubit states and transmits them to Bob (Alice) supervised by Charlie. Especially, the qubits carrying the secret message do not need to be transmitted in quantum channel. At last, we show this QSDC scheme may be determinate and secure.
Comment on: Supervisory Asymmetric Deterministic Secure Quantum Communication
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kao, Shih-Hung; Tsai, Chia-Wei; Hwang, Tzonelih
2012-12-01
In 2010, Xiu et al. (Optics Communications 284:2065-2069, 2011) proposed several applications based on a new secure four-site distribution scheme using χ-type entangled states. This paper points out that one of these applications, namely, supervisory asymmetric deterministic secure quantum communication, is subject to an information leakage problem, in which the receiver can extract two bits of a three-bit secret message without the supervisor's permission. An enhanced protocol is proposed to resolve this problem.
Free-space optical communications using encoding of data on different orbital-angular-momentum modes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Willner, Asher J.; Ren, Yongxiong; Xie, Guodong; Li, Long; Cao, Yinwen; Zhao, Zhe; Liao, Peicheng; Wang, Zhe; Yan, Yan; Ahmed, Nisar; Liu, Cong; Tur, Moshe; Willner, Alan E.
2016-03-01
Free-space optical communications can play a significant role in line-of-sight links. In general, data can be encoded on the amplitude, phase, or temporal position of the optical wave. Importantly, there are environments for which ever-more information is desired for a given amount of optical energy. This can be accomplished if there are more degrees-of-freedom that the wave can occupy to provide higher energy efficiency for a given capacity (i.e., bits/photon). Traditionally, free-space optical links have used only a single beam, such that there was little opportunity for a wave to occupy more than one spatial location, thereby not allowing the spatial domain to be used for data encoding. Recently, space- and mode-multiplexing has been demonstrated to simultaneously transmit multiple data-carrying free-space beams. Each spatially overlapping mode was orthogonal to other modes and carried a unique amount of orbital-angular-momentum (OAM). In this paper, we consider that OAM modes could be a data-encoding domain, such that a beam could uniquely occupy one of many modes, i.e., 4 modes would provide 4 possible states and double the bits of information for the same amount of energy. In the past, such OAM-based encoding was shown at kHz data rates. We will present the architecture and experimental results for OAM-based data encoding for a free-space 1.55-μm data link under different system parameters. Key features of the results include: (a) encoding on several modes is accomplished using a fast switch, and (b) low bit-error-rates are achieved at >Gbit/s, which is orders-of-magnitude faster than previous results.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tamaki, Kiyoshi; Lo, Hoi-Kwong; Fung, Chi-Hang Fred; Qi, Bing
2012-04-01
In this paper, we study the unconditional security of the so-called measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDIQKD) with the basis-dependent flaw in the context of phase encoding schemes. We propose two schemes for the phase encoding: The first one employs a phase locking technique with the use of non-phase-randomized coherent pulses, and the second one uses conversion of standard Bennett-Brassard 1984 (BB84) phase encoding pulses into polarization modes. We prove the unconditional security of these schemes and we also simulate the key generation rate based on simple device models that accommodate imperfections. Our simulation results show the feasibility of these schemes with current technologies and highlight the importance of the state preparation with good fidelity between the density matrices in the two bases. Since the basis-dependent flaw is a problem not only for MDIQKD but also for standard quantum key distribution (QKD), our work highlights the importance of an accurate signal source in practical QKD systems.
Localization and its consequences for quantum walk algorithms and quantum communication
Keating, J. P.; Linden, N.; Matthews, J. C. F.; Winter, A.
2007-07-15
The exponential speedup of quantum walks on certain graphs, relative to classical particles diffusing on the same graph, is a striking observation. It has suggested the possibility of new fast quantum algorithms. We point out here that quantum mechanics can also lead, through the phenomenon of localization, to exponential suppression of motion on these graphs (even in the absence of decoherence). In fact, for physical embodiments of graphs, this will be the generic behavior. It also has implications for proposals for using spin networks, including spin chains, as quantum communication channels.
FAST TRACK COMMUNICATION: Graphene based quantum dots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, H. G.; Hu, H.; Pan, Y.; Mao, J. H.; Gao, M.; Guo, H. M.; Du, S. X.; Greber, T.; Gao, H.-J.
2010-08-01
Laterally localized electronic states are identified on a single layer of graphene on ruthenium by low temperature scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS). The individual states are separated by 3 nm and comprise regions of about 90 carbon atoms. This constitutes a highly regular quantum dot-array with molecular precision. It is evidenced by quantum well resonances (QWRs) with energies that relate to the corrugation of the graphene layer. The dI/dV conductance spectra are modeled by a layer height dependent potential-well with a delta-function potential that describes the barrier for electron penetration into graphene. The resulting QWRs are strongest and lowest in energy on the isolated 'hill' regions with a diameter of 2 nm, where the graphene is decoupled from the surface.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dong, Li; Wang, Jun-Xi; Li, Qing-Yang; Shen, Hong-Zhi; Dong, Hai-Kuan; Xiu, Xiao-Ming; Ren, Yuan-Peng; Gao, Ya-Jun
2015-12-01
We propose a quantum secure direct communication protocol via a collective noise channel, exploiting polarization-entangled Bell states and the nondemolition parity analysis based on weak cross-Kerr nonlinearities. The participant Bob, who will receive the secret information, sends one of two photons in a polarization-entangled Bell state exploiting the transmission circuit against the collective noise to the participant Alice, who will send the secret information, by the means of photon block transmission. If the first security check employing the nondemolition parity analysis is passed, the task of securely distributing the quantum channel is fulfilled. Encoding secret information on the photons sent from Bob by performing single-photon unitary transformation operations, Alice resends these photons to Bob through the transmission circuit against the collective noise. Exploiting the nondemolition parity analysis to distinguish Bell states, Bob can obtain the secret information from Alice after the second security check is passed, and the resulting Bell states can be applied to other tasks of quantum information processing. Under the condition of the secure quantum channel being confirmed, the photons that are utilized in the role of the security check can be applied to the function of secure direct communication, thus enhancing the efficiency of transmitting secret information and saving a lot of resources.
Bidirectional Quantum Secure Direct Communication in Trapped Ion Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cui, Yeqin; Gao, Jianguo
2016-03-01
We propose a feasible scheme for implementing quantum secure direct communication in trapped ion systems. According to the results measured by the sender, the receiver can obtain different secret messages in a deterministic way. Our scheme is insensitive to both the initial vibrational state and heating. The probability of the success in our scheme is 1.0.
Quantum Communication in the Ion-Trapped System
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Xiong
2016-03-01
A theoretical scheme of quantum communication is proposed in the context of ion-trapped systems. According to the results, the receiver can obtain different secret messages in a deterministic way. Our scheme is insensitive to both the initial vibrational state and heating. The probability of the success in our scheme is 1.0.
Measurement-based noiseless linear amplification for quantum communication
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chrzanowski, Helen M.; Walk, Nathan; Assad, Syed M.; Janousek, Jiri; Hosseini, Sara; Ralph, Timothy C.; Symul, Thomas; Lam, Ping Koy
2014-04-01
Entanglement distillation is an indispensable ingredient in extended quantum communication networks. Distillation protocols are necessarily non-deterministic and require advanced experimental techniques such as noiseless amplification. Recently, it was shown that the benefits of noiseless amplification could be extracted by performing a post-selective filtering of the measurement record to improve the performance of quantum key distribution. We apply this protocol to entanglement degraded by transmission loss of up to the equivalent of 100 km of optical fibre. We measure an effective entangled resource stronger than that achievable by even a maximally entangled resource passively transmitted through the same channel. We also provide a proof-of-principle demonstration of secret key extraction from an otherwise insecure regime. The measurement-based noiseless linear amplifier offers two advantages over its physical counterpart: ease of implementation and near-optimal probability of success. It should provide an effective and versatile tool for a broad class of entanglement-based quantum communication protocols.
Quantum Sensing and Communications Being Developed for Nanotechnology
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nguyen, Quang-Viet; Seibert, Marc A.
2003-01-01
An interdisciplinary quantum communications and sensing research effort has been underway at the NASA Glenn Research Center since the summer of 2000. Researchers in the Communications Technology, Instrumentation and Controls, and Propulsion and Turbomachinery Divisions have been working together to study and develop techniques that use the principle of quantum entanglement (QE). This work is supported principally by the Nanotechnology Base R&T program at Glenn. As applied to communications and sensing, QE is an emerging technology that holds promise as a new and innovative way to communicate faster and farther, and to sense, measure, and image environmental properties in ways that are not possible with existing technology. Quantum entangled photons are "inseparable" as described by a wave function formalism. For two entangled photons, the term "inseparable" means that one cannot describe one photon without completely describing the other. This inseparability gives rise to what appears as "spooky," or nonintuitive, behavior because of the quantum nature of the process. For example, two entangled photons of lower energy can be created simultaneously from a single photon of higher energy in a process called spontaneous parametric down-conversion. Our research is focused on the use of polarization-entangled photons generated by passing a high-energy (blue) photon through a nonlinear beta barium borate crystal to generate two red photons that have orthogonal, but entangled, polarization states. Although the actual polarization state of any one photon is not known until it is measured, the act of measuring the polarization of one photon completely determines the polarization state of its twin because of entanglement. This unique relationship between the photons provides extra information about the system. For example, entanglement makes it easy to distinguish entangled photons from other photons impinging on a detector. For many other applications, ranging from quantum
Design the RS(255,239) encoder and interleaving in the space laser communication system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lang, Yue; Tong, Shou-feng
2013-08-01
Space laser communication is researched by more and more countries. Space laser communication deserves to be researched. We can acquire higher transmission speed and better transmission quality between satellite and satellite, satellite and earth by setting up laser link. But in the space laser communication system，the reliability is under influences of many factors of atmosphere，detector noise, optical platform jitter and other factors. The intensity of the signal which is attenuated because of the long transmission distance is demanded to have higher intensity to acquire low BER. The channel code technology can enhance the anti-interference ability of the system. The theory of channel coding technology is that some redundancies is added to information codes. So it can make use of the checkout polynomial to correct errors at the sink port. It help the system to get low BER rate and coding gain. Reed-Solomon (RS) code is one of the channel code, and it is one kind of multi-ary BCH code, and it can correct both burst errors and random errors, and it is widely used in the error-control schemes. The new method of the RS encoder and interleaving based on the FPGA is proposed, aiming at satisfying the needs of the widely-used error control technology in the space laser communication field. An improved method for Finite Galois Field multiplier of encoding is proposed, and it is suitable for FPGA implementation. Comparison of the XOR gates cost between the optimization and original, the number of XOR gates is lessen more than 40% .Then give a new structure of interleaving by using the FPGA. By controlling the in-data stream and out-data stream of encoder, the asynchronous process of the whole frame is accomplished, while by using multi-level pipeline, the real-time transfer of the data is achieved. By controlling the read-address and write-address of the block RAM, the interleaving operation of the arbitrary depth is synchronously implemented. Compared with the normal
Free-space quantum cryptography with quantum and telecom communication channels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Toyoshima, Morio; Takayama, Yoshihisa; Klaus, Werner; Kunimori, Hiroo; Fujiwara, Mikio; Sasaki, Masahide
2008-07-01
Quantum cryptography is a new technique that uses the laws of physics to transmit information securely. In such systems, the vehicle to transfer quantum information is a single photon. However, the transmission distance is limited by the absorption of photons in an optical fiber in which the maximum demonstrated range is about 100 km. Free-space quantum cryptography between a ground station and a satellite is a way of sending the quantum information further distances than that with optical fibers since there is no birefringence effect in the atmosphere. At the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT), the laser communication demonstration between the NICT optical ground station and a low earth orbit satellite was successfully conducted in 2006. For such space communication links, free-space quantum cryptography is considered to be an important application in the future. We have developed a prototype system for free-space quantum cryptography using a weak coherent light and a telecom communication channel. The preliminary results are presented.
Towards communication-efficient quantum oblivious key distribution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Panduranga Rao, M. V.; Jakobi, M.
2013-01-01
Symmetrically private information retrieval, a fundamental problem in the field of secure multiparty computation, is defined as follows: A database D of N bits held by Bob is queried by a user Alice who is interested in the bit Db in such a way that (1) Alice learns Db and only Db and (2) Bob does not learn anything about Alice's choice b. While solutions to this problem in the classical domain rely largely on unproven computational complexity theoretic assumptions, it is also known that perfect solutions that guarantee both database and user privacy are impossible in the quantum domain. Jakobi [Phys. Rev. APLRAAN1050-294710.1103/PhysRevA.83.022301 83, 022301 (2011)] proposed a protocol for oblivious transfer using well-known quantum key device (QKD) techniques to establish an oblivious key to solve this problem. Their solution provided a good degree of database and user privacy (using physical principles like the impossibility of perfectly distinguishing nonorthogonal quantum states and the impossibility of superluminal communication) while being loss-resistant and implementable with commercial QKD devices (due to the use of the Scarani-Acin-Ribordy-Gisin 2004 protocol). However, their quantum oblivious key distribution (QOKD) protocol requires a communication complexity of O(NlogN). Since modern databases can be extremely large, it is important to reduce this communication as much as possible. In this paper, we first suggest a modification of their protocol wherein the number of qubits that need to be exchanged is reduced to O(N). A subsequent generalization reduces the quantum communication complexity even further in such a way that only a few hundred qubits are needed to be transferred even for very large databases.
Quantum communication using a multiqubit entangled channel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghose, Shohini; Hamel, Angele
2015-12-01
We describe a protocol in which two senders each teleport a qubit to a receiver using a multiqubit entangled state. The multiqubit channel used for teleportation is genuinely 4-qubit entangled and is not equivalent to a product of maximally entangled Bell pairs under local unitary operations. We discuss a scenario in which both senders must participate for the qubits to be successfully teleported. Such an all-or-nothing scheme cannot be implemented with standard two-qubit entangled Bell pairs and can be useful for different communication and computing tasks.
Quantum communication using a multiqubit entangled channel
Ghose, Shohini; Hamel, Angele
2015-12-31
We describe a protocol in which two senders each teleport a qubit to a receiver using a multiqubit entangled state. The multiqubit channel used for teleportation is genuinely 4-qubit entangled and is not equivalent to a product of maximally entangled Bell pairs under local unitary operations. We discuss a scenario in which both senders must participate for the qubits to be successfully teleported. Such an all-or-nothing scheme cannot be implemented with standard two-qubit entangled Bell pairs and can be useful for different communication and computing tasks.
Partitioned-Interval Quantum Optical Communications Receiver
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vilnrotter, Victor A.
2013-01-01
The proposed quantum receiver in this innovation partitions each binary signal interval into two unequal segments: a short "pre-measurement" segment in the beginning of the symbol interval used to make an initial guess with better probability than 50/50 guessing, and a much longer segment used to make the high-sensitivity signal detection via field-cancellation and photon-counting detection. It was found that by assigning as little as 10% of the total signal energy to the pre-measurement segment, the initial 50/50 guess can be improved to about 70/30, using the best available measurements such as classical coherent or "optimized Kennedy" detection.
An Online Banking System Based on Quantum Cryptography Communication
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Ri-gui; Li, Wei; Huan, Tian-tian; Shen, Chen-yi; Li, Hai-sheng
2014-07-01
In this paper, an online banking system has been built. Based on quantum cryptography communication, this system is proved unconditional secure. Two sets of GHZ states are applied, which can ensure the safety of purchase and payment, respectively. In another word, three trading participants in each triplet state group form an interdependent and interactive relationship. In the meantime, trading authorization and blind signature is introduced by means of controllable quantum teleportation. Thus, an effective monitor is practiced on the premise that the privacy of trading partners is guaranteed. If there is a dispute or deceptive behavior, the system will find out the deceiver immediately according to the relationship mentioned above.
Quantum Communication between Atomic Ensembles Using Coherent Light
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Duan, Lu-Ming; Cirac, J. I.; Zoller, P.; Polzik, E. S.
2000-12-01
Protocols for quantum communication between massive particles, such as atoms, are usually based on making use of nonclassical light, and/or superhigh finesse optical cavities are normally needed to enhance interaction between atoms and photons. We demonstrate a remarkable result: by using only coherent light, entanglement can be generated between distant free space atomic ensembles, and an unknown quantum state can thus be teleported from one to another. Neither nonclassical light nor cavities are needed in the scheme, which greatly simplifies its experimental implementation.
Quantum dots encoded Au coated polystyrene bead arranged micro-channel for multiplex arrays.
Cao, Yuan-Cheng; Wang, Zhan; Yang, Runyu; Zou, Linling; Zhou, Zhen; Mi, Tie; Shi, Hong
2016-01-01
This paper describes a promising micro-channel multiplex immunoassay method based on the quantum dots encoded beads which requires micro-volume sample. Briefly, Au nanoparticles coated polystyrene (PS) beads were prepared and Quantum dots (QDs) were employed to encode 4 types of the PS beads by different emission wavelength QDs and various intensities. Different coding types of the beads were immobilized with different antibodies on the surface and BSA was used to block the unsatisfied sites. The antibody linked beads were then arranged in the 150 µm diameter optical capillary where the specific reactions took place before the detections. Results showed that the antibody on the Au coated surface maintains the bioactivity for the immunoreactions. Using this system, the fluorescent intensity was linear with analyte concentration in the range of 1×10(-7)-1×10(-5) mg/mL (RSD<5%, 4 repeats) and the lower detection limit reached 5×10(-8) mg/mL. It was proved to be a promising approach for the future miniaturization analytical devices. PMID:26695326
Fast quantum communication in linear networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jacobs, Kurt; Wu, Rebing; Wang, Xiaoting; Ashhab, Sahel; Chen, Qi-Ming; Rabitz, Herschel
2016-05-01
Here we consider the speed at which quantum information can be transferred between the nodes of a linear network. Because such nodes are linear oscillators, this speed is also important in the cooling and state preparation of mechanical oscillators, as well as in frequency conversion. We show that if there is no restriction on the size of the linear coupling between two oscillators, then there exist control protocols that will swap their respective states with high fidelity within a time much shorter than a single oscillation period. Standard gradient search methods fail to find these fast protocols. We were able to do so by augmenting standard search methods with a path-tracing technique, demonstrating that this technique has remarkable power to solve time-optimal control problems, as well as confirming the highly challenging nature of these problems. As a further demonstration of the power of path tracing, first introduced by Moore Tibbets et al. (Phys. Rev. A, 86 (2012) 062309), we apply it to the generation of entanglement in a linear network.
Communication Tasks with Infinite Quantum-Classical Separation.
Perry, Christopher; Jain, Rahul; Oppenheim, Jonathan
2015-07-17
Quantum resources can be more powerful than classical resources-a quantum computer can solve certain problems exponentially faster than a classical computer, and computing a function of two parties' inputs can be done with exponentially less communication with quantum messages than with classical ones. Here we consider a task between two players, Alice and Bob where quantum resources are infinitely more powerful than their classical counterpart. Alice is given a string of length n, and Bob's task is to exclude certain combinations of bits that Alice might have. If Alice must send classical messages, then she must reveal nearly n bits of information to Bob, but if she is allowed to send quantum bits, the amount of information she must reveal goes to zero with increasing n. Next, we consider a version of the task where the parties may have access to entanglement. With this assistance, Alice only needs to send a constant number of bits, while without entanglement, the number of bits Alice must send grows linearly with n. The task is related to the Pusey-Barrett-Rudolph theorem which arises in the context of the foundations of quantum theory. PMID:26230777
Vergne, Amélie L; Aubin, Thierry; Martin, Samuel; Mathevon, Nicolas
2012-11-01
In the Crocodylia order, all species are known for their ability to produce sounds in several communication contexts. Though recent experimental studies have brought evidence of the important biological role of young crocodilian calls, especially at hatching time, the juvenile vocal repertoire still needs to be clarified in order to describe thoroughly the crocodilian acoustic communication channel. The goal of this study is to investigate the acoustic features (structure and information coding) in the contact call of juveniles from three different species (Nile crocodile Crocodylus niloticus, Black caiman, Melanosuchus niger and Spectacled caiman, Caiman crocodilus). We have shown that even though substantial structural differences exist between the calls of different species, they do not seem relevant for crocodilians. Indeed, juveniles and adults from the species studied use a similar and non-species-specific way of encoding information, which relies on frequency modulation parameters. Interestingly, using conditioning experiments, we demonstrated that this tolerance in responses to signals of different acoustic structures was unlikely to be related to a lack of discriminatory abilities. This result reinforced the idea that crocodilians have developed adaptations to use sounds efficiently for communication needs. PMID:22820991
Experimental bit commitment based on quantum communication and special relativity.
Lunghi, T; Kaniewski, J; Bussières, F; Houlmann, R; Tomamichel, M; Kent, A; Gisin, N; Wehner, S; Zbinden, H
2013-11-01
Bit commitment is a fundamental cryptographic primitive in which Bob wishes to commit a secret bit to Alice. Perfectly secure bit commitment between two mistrustful parties is impossible through asynchronous exchange of quantum information. Perfect security is however possible when Alice and Bob split into several agents exchanging classical and quantum information at times and locations suitably chosen to satisfy specific relativistic constraints. Here we report on an implementation of a bit commitment protocol using quantum communication and special relativity. Our protocol is based on [A. Kent, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 130501 (2012)] and has the advantage that it is practically feasible with arbitrary large separations between the agents in order to maximize the commitment time. By positioning agents in Geneva and Singapore, we obtain a commitment time of 15 ms. A security analysis considering experimental imperfections and finite statistics is presented. PMID:24237497
Communication at the quantum speed limit along a spin chain
Murphy, Michael; Montangero, Simone; Giovannetti, Vittorio; Calarco, Tommaso
2010-08-15
Spin chains have long been considered as candidates for quantum channels to facilitate quantum communication. We consider the transfer of a single excitation along a spin-1/2 chain governed by Heisenberg-type interactions. We build on the work of Balachandran and Gong [V. Balachandran and J. Gong, Phys. Rev. A 77, 012303 (2008)] and show that by applying optimal control to an external parabolic magnetic field, one can drastically increase the propagation rate by two orders of magnitude. In particular, we show that the theoretical maximum propagation rate can be reached, where the propagation of the excitation takes the form of a dispersed wave. We conclude that optimal control is not only a useful tool for experimental application, but also for theoretical inquiry into the physical limits and dynamics of many-body quantum systems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moll, Florian; Nauerth, Sebastian; Fuchs, Christian; Horwath, Joachim; Rau, Markus; Weinfurter, Harald
2012-10-01
Quantum Key Distribution (QKD), either fiber based or free-space, allows for provably secure key distribution solely based on the laws of quantum mechanics. Feasibility of QKD systems in aircraft-ground links was demonstrated with a successful key exchange. Experiment flights were undertaken during night time at the site of the German Aerospace Center (DLR) Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany. The aircraft was a Dornier 228 equipped with a laser communication terminal, originally designed for optical data downlinks with intensity modulation and direct detection. The counter terminal on ground was an optical ground station with a 40 cm Cassegrain type receiver telescope. Alice and Bob, as the transmitter and receiver systems usually are called in QKD, were integrated in the flight and ground terminals, respectively. A second laser source with 1550 nm wavelength was used to transmit a 100 MHz signal for synchronization of the two partners. The so called BB84 protocol, here implemented with faint polarization encoded pulses at 850nm wavelength, was applied as key generation scheme. Within two flights, measurements of the QKD and communication channel could be obtained with link distance of 20 km. After link acquisition, the tracking systems in the aircraft and on ground were able to keep lock of the narrow QKD beam. Emphasis of this paper is put on presentation of the link technology, i.e. link design and modifications of the communication terminals. First analysis of link attenuation, performance of the QKD system and scintillation of the sync signal is also addressed.
Quantum mechanics and faster-than-light communication Methodological considerations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghirardi, G. C.; Weber, T.
1983-11-01
A critical analysis is made of proposals for faster-than-light communications schemes based on quantum mechanics concepts. The point of view taken is that no reduction in one physical system can have an instantaneous effect on another, isolated system. It is shown that the philosophical contradictions exposed by the Einstein-Podolsky Rosen can be directly transferred to an interpretation of physical events. Attention is directed toward the possibility of a photon, propagating in one direction with either circular or plane polarization, entering a nonselective laser tube. The photon originally emerged from a quantum decay process which yielded two photons traveling in opposite directions. The photon in the laser gain tube precipitates a beam which is polarized as the initiating photon. A first observer can then determine the polarization observed by a second observer (with the laser) before the signal arrives. It is concluded that the FLASH argument of Herbert (1982) therefore assumes a violation of quantum mechanical laws in order to use quantum mechanics to prove that faster-than-light communication is possible.
Quantum cryptography for secure free-space communications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hughes, Richard J.; Buttler, William T.; Kwiat, Paul G.; Lamoreaux, Steve K.; Luther, Gabriel G.; Morgan, George L.; Nordholt, Jane E.; Peterson, C. Glen
1999-04-01
The secure distribution of the secret random bit sequences known as 'key' material, is an essential precursor to their use for the encryption and decryption of confidential communications. Quantum cryptography is a new technique for secure key distribution with single-photon transmissions: Heisenberg's uncertainty principle ensures that an adversary can neither successfully tap the key transmissions, nor evade detection (eavesdropping raises the key error rate above a threshold value). We have developed experimental quantum cryptography systems based on the transmission of non- orthogonal photon polarization states to generate shared key material over line-of-sight optical links. Key material is built up using the transmission of a single-photon per bit of an initial secret random sequence. A quantum-mechanically random subset of this sequence is identified, becoming the key material after a data reconciliation stage with the sender. We have developed and tested a free-space quantum key distribution (QKD) system over an outdoor optical path of approximately 1 km at Los Alamos National Laboratory under nighttime conditions. Results show that free-space QKD can provide secure real-time key distribution between parties who have a need to communicate secretly. Finally, we examine the feasibility of surface to satellite QKD.
Quantum cryptography for secure free-space communications
Hughes, R.J.; Buttler, W.T.; Kwiat, P.G.; Lamoreaux, S.K.; Luther, G.G.; Morgan, G.L.; Nordholt, J.E.; Peterson, C.G.
1999-03-01
The secure distribution of the secret random bit sequences known as key material, is an essential precursor to their use for the encryption and decryption of confidential communications. Quantum cryptography is a new technique for secure key distribution with single-photon transmissions: Heisenberg`s uncertainty principle ensures that an adversary can neither successfully tap the key transmissions, nor evade detection (eavesdropping raises the key error rate above a threshold value). The authors have developed experimental quantum cryptography systems based on the transmission of non-orthogonal photon polarization states to generate shared key material over line-of-sight optical links. Key material is built up using the transmission of a single-photon per bit of an initial secret random sequence. A quantum-mechanically random subset of this sequence is identified, becoming the key material after a data reconciliation stage with the sender. The authors have developed and tested a free-space quantum key distribution (QKD) system over an outdoor optical path of {approximately}1 km at Los Alamos National Laboratory under nighttime conditions. Results show that free-space QKD can provide secure real-time key distribution between parties who have a need to communicate secretly. Finally, they examine the feasibility of surface to satellite QKD.
Experimental multiplexing of quantum key distribution with classical optical communication
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Liu-Jun; Chen, Luo-Kan; Ju, Lei; Xu, Mu-Lan; Zhao, Yong; Chen, Kai; Chen, Zeng-Bing; Chen, Teng-Yun; Pan, Jian-Wei
2015-02-01
We demonstrate the realization of quantum key distribution (QKD) when combined with classical optical communication, and synchronous signals within a single optical fiber. In the experiment, the classical communication sources use Fabry-Pérot (FP) lasers, which are implemented extensively in optical access networks. To perform QKD, multistage band-stop filtering techniques are developed, and a wavelength-division multiplexing scheme is designed for the multi-longitudinal-mode FP lasers. We have managed to maintain sufficient isolation among the quantum channel, the synchronous channel and the classical channels to guarantee good QKD performance. Finally, the quantum bit error rate remains below a level of 2% across the entire practical application range. The proposed multiplexing scheme can ensure low classical light loss, and enables QKD over fiber lengths of up to 45 km simultaneously when the fibers are populated with bidirectional FP laser communications. Our demonstration paves the way for application of QKD to current optical access networks, where FP lasers are widely used by the end users.
FAST TRACK COMMUNICATION: Reversible arithmetic logic unit for quantum arithmetic
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kirkedal Thomsen, Michael; Glück, Robert; Axelsen, Holger Bock
2010-09-01
This communication presents the complete design of a reversible arithmetic logic unit (ALU) that can be part of a programmable reversible computing device such as a quantum computer. The presented ALU is garbage free and uses reversible updates to combine the standard reversible arithmetic and logical operations in one unit. Combined with a suitable control unit, the ALU permits the construction of an r-Turing complete computing device. The garbage-free ALU developed in this communication requires only 6n elementary reversible gates for five basic arithmetic-logical operations on two n-bit operands and does not use ancillae. This remarkable low resource consumption was achieved by generalizing the V-shape design first introduced for quantum ripple-carry adders and nesting multiple V-shapes in a novel integrated design. This communication shows that the realization of an efficient reversible ALU for a programmable computing device is possible and that the V-shape design is a very versatile approach to the design of quantum networks.
Experimental multiplexing of quantum key distribution with classical optical communication
Wang, Liu-Jun; Chen, Luo-Kan; Ju, Lei; Xu, Mu-Lan; Zhao, Yong; Chen, Kai; Chen, Zeng-Bing; Chen, Teng-Yun Pan, Jian-Wei
2015-02-23
We demonstrate the realization of quantum key distribution (QKD) when combined with classical optical communication, and synchronous signals within a single optical fiber. In the experiment, the classical communication sources use Fabry-Pérot (FP) lasers, which are implemented extensively in optical access networks. To perform QKD, multistage band-stop filtering techniques are developed, and a wavelength-division multiplexing scheme is designed for the multi-longitudinal-mode FP lasers. We have managed to maintain sufficient isolation among the quantum channel, the synchronous channel and the classical channels to guarantee good QKD performance. Finally, the quantum bit error rate remains below a level of 2% across the entire practical application range. The proposed multiplexing scheme can ensure low classical light loss, and enables QKD over fiber lengths of up to 45 km simultaneously when the fibers are populated with bidirectional FP laser communications. Our demonstration paves the way for application of QKD to current optical access networks, where FP lasers are widely used by the end users.
Djordjevic, Ivan B
2010-04-12
The Bell states preparation circuit is a basic circuit required in quantum teleportation. We describe how to implement it in all-fiber technology. The basic building blocks for its implementation are directional couplers and highly nonlinear optical fiber (HNLF). Because the quantum information processing is based on delicate superposition states, it is sensitive to quantum errors. In order to enable fault-tolerant quantum computing the use of quantum error correction is unavoidable. We show how to implement in all-fiber technology encoders and decoders for sparse-graph quantum codes, and provide an illustrative example to demonstrate this implementation. We also show that arbitrary set of universal quantum gates can be implemented based on directional couplers and HNLFs. PMID:20588656
Design and analysis of communication protocols for quantum repeater networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jones, Cody; Kim, Danny; Rakher, Matthew T.; Kwiat, Paul G.; Ladd, Thaddeus D.
2016-08-01
We analyze how the performance of a quantum-repeater network depends on the protocol employed to distribute entanglement, and we find that the choice of repeater-to-repeater link protocol has a profound impact on entanglement-distribution rate as a function of hardware parameters. We develop numerical simulations of quantum networks using different protocols, where the repeater hardware is modeled in terms of key performance parameters, such as photon generation rate and collection efficiency. These parameters are motivated by recent experimental demonstrations in quantum dots, trapped ions, and nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond. We find that a quantum-dot repeater with the newest protocol (‘MidpointSource’) delivers the highest entanglement-distribution rate for typical cases where there is low probability of establishing entanglement per transmission, and in some cases the rate is orders of magnitude higher than other schemes. Our simulation tools can be used to evaluate communication protocols as part of designing a large-scale quantum network.
Novel Quantum Virtual Private Network Scheme for PON via Quantum Secure Direct Communication
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gong, Li-Hua; Liu, Ye; Zhou, Nan-Run
2013-09-01
Two quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) protocols with quantum identification (QI) based on passive optical network (PON) architecture are proposed. One QSDC protocol can be implemented between two different optical network units just with simple configurations of PON by optical line terminal when they are in the same virtual private network after optical line terminal performing QI to the optical network units in the given PON architecture. The other QSDC protocol is also implemented between any two legitimated users in the virtual private network but with considerable reduction of workload of the optical line terminal. The security analysis shows that the proposed QSDC schemes with quantum identification are unconditionally secure and allow the legitimate users to exchange their secret information efficiently and to realize a quantum virtual private network in the PON networks ultimately.
An Immune Quantum Communication Model for Dephasing Noise Using Four-Qubit Cluster State
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Rui-jin; Li, Dong-fen; Qin, Zhi-guang
2016-01-01
Quantum secure communication of dephasing in the presence of noise is a hot spot in research in the field of quantum secure communication. Quantum steganography aims is to transfer secret information in public quantum channel. But because effect of annealing phase noise, quantum states which is need to transfer easily delayed or changed. So, quantum steganography is very meaning apply to transmit secret information covertly in quantum noisy channels. The article introduced dephasing noise impact on the physics of quantum state, through the theoretical research, construct the logic of quantum states to back the phase noise immunity, and construct the decoherence free subspace, It can guarantees fidelity secret information exchange through quantum communication model in a noisy environment.
Decoding of quantum dots encoded microbeads using a hyperspectral fluorescence imaging method.
Liu, Yixi; Liu, Le; He, Yonghong; Zhu, Liang; Ma, Hui
2015-05-19
We presented a decoding method of quantum dots encoded microbeads with its fluorescence spectra using line scan hyperspectral fluorescence imaging (HFI) method. A HFI method was developed to attain both the spectra of fluorescence signal and the spatial information of the encoded microbeads. A decoding scheme was adopted to decode the spectra of multicolor microbeads acquired by the HFI system. Comparison experiments between the HFI system and the flow cytometer were conducted. The results showed that the HFI system has higher spectrum resolution; thus, more channels in spectral dimension can be used. The HFI system detection and decoding experiment with the single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) immobilized multicolor beads was done, and the result showed the efficiency of the HFI system. Surface modification of the microbeads by use of the polydopamine was characterized by the scanning electron microscopy and ssDNA immobilization was characterized by the laser confocal microscope. These results indicate that the designed HFI system can be applied to practical biological and medical applications. PMID:25902043
Long-distance quantum communication with neutral atoms
Razavi, Mohsen; Shapiro, Jeffrey H.
2006-04-15
The architecture proposed by Duan, Lukin, Cirac, and Zoller (DLCZ) for long-distance quantum communication with atomic ensembles is analyzed. Its fidelity and throughput in entanglement distribution, entanglement swapping, and quantum teleportation is derived within a framework that accounts for multiple excitations in the ensembles as well as loss and asymmetries in the channel. The DLCZ performance metrics that are obtained are compared to the corresponding results for the trapped-atom quantum communication architecture that has been proposed by a team from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Northwestern University (MIT and NU). Both systems are found to be capable of high-fidelity entanglement distribution. However, the DLCZ scheme only provides conditional teleportation and repeater operation, whereas the MIT-NU architecture affords full Bell-state measurements on its trapped atoms. Moreover, it is shown that achieving unity conditional fidelity in DLCZ teleportation and repeater operation requires ideal photon-number resolving detectors. The maximum conditional fidelities for DLCZ teleportation and repeater operation that can be realized with nonresolving detectors are 1/2 and 2/3, respectively.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Apostolopoulos, John G.
2000-12-01
Video communication over lossy packet networks such as the Internet is hampered by limited bandwidth and packet loss. This paper presents a system for providing reliable video communication over these networks, where the system is composed of two subsystems: (1) multiple state video encoder/decoder and (2) a path diversity transmission system. Multiple state video coding combats the problem of error propagation at the decoder by coding the video into multiple independently decodable streams, each with its own prediction process and state. If one stream is lost the other streams can still be decoded to produce usable video, and furthermore, the correctly received streams provide bidirectional (previous and future) information that enables improved state recovery for the corrupted stream. This video coder is a form of multiple description coding (MDC), and its novelty lies in its use of information from the multiple streams to perform state recovery at the decoder. The path diversity transmission system explicitly sends different subsets of packets over different paths, as opposed to the default scenarios where the packets proceed along a single path, thereby enabling the end- to-end video application to effectively see an average path behavior. We refer to this as path diversity. Generally, seeing this average path behavior provides better performance than seeing the behavior of any individual random path. For example, the probability that all of the multiple paths are simultaneously congested is much less than the probability that a single path is congested. The resulting path diversity provides the multiple state video decoder with an appropriate virtual channel to assist in recovering from lost packets, and can also simplify system design, e.g. FEC design. We propose two architectures for achieving path diversity, and examine the effectiveness of path diversity in communicating video over a lossy packet network.
Dynamic (2, 3) Threshold Quantum Secret Sharing of Secure Direct Communication
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lai, Hong; Orgun, A. Mehmet; Xiao, Jing-Hua; Pieprzyk, Josef; Xue, Li-Yin
2015-04-01
In this paper, we show that a (2, 3) discrete variable threshold quantum secret sharing scheme of secure direct communication can be achieved based on recurrence using the same devices as in BB84. The scheme is devised by first placing the shares of smaller secret pieces into the shares of the largest secret piece, converting the shares of the largest secret piece into corresponding quantum state sequences, inserting nonorthogonal state particles into the quantum state sequences with the purpose of detecting eavesdropping, and finally sending the new quantum state sequences to the three participants respectively. Consequently, every particle can on average carry up to 1.5-bit messages due to the use of recurrence. The control codes are randomly prepared using the way to generate fountain codes with pre-shared source codes between Alice and Bob, making three participants can detect eavesdropping by themselves without sending classical messages to Alice. Due to the flexible encoding, our scheme is also dynamic, which means that it allows the participants to join and leave freely. Supported in part by an International Macquarie University Research Excellence Scholarship (iMQRES), Australian Research Council Grant DP0987734. This work is also supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (973 Program) under Grant No. 2010CB923200, the National Natural Science Foundation of China under No. 61377067, Fund of State Key Laboratory of Information Photonics and Optical Communications Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, China, National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 61202362, 61262057, 61472433, and China Postdoctora Science Foundation under Grant No. 2013M542560
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2011-09-12
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Dialpoint Communications Corp., Pacel Corp., Quantum Group, Inc. (The), and Tradequest... accurate information concerning the securities of Quantum Group, Inc. (The) because it has not filed...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deng, Xiaowei; Hao, Shuhong; Tian, Caixing; Su, Xiaolong; Xie, Changde; Peng, Kunchi
2016-02-01
Squeezed state can increase the signal-to-noise ratio in quantum communication and quantum measurement. However, losses and noises existing in real communication channels will reduce or even totally destroy the squeezing. The phenomenon of disappearance of the squeezing will result in the failure of quantum communication. In this letter, we present the experimental demonstrations on the disappearance and revival of the squeezing in quantum communication with squeezed state. The experimental results show that the squeezed light is robust (squeezing never disappears) in a pure lossy but noiseless channel. While in a noisy channel, the excess noise will lead to the disappearance of the squeezing, and the squeezing can be revived by the use of a correlated noisy channel (non-Markovian environment). The channel capacity of quantum communication is increased after the squeezing is revived. The presented results provide useful technical references for quantum communication with squeezed light.
Probabilistic authenticated quantum dialogue
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hwang, Tzonelih; Luo, Yi-Ping
2015-12-01
This work proposes a probabilistic authenticated quantum dialogue (PAQD) based on Bell states with the following notable features. (1) In our proposed scheme, the dialogue is encoded in a probabilistic way, i.e., the same messages can be encoded into different quantum states, whereas in the state-of-the-art authenticated quantum dialogue (AQD), the dialogue is encoded in a deterministic way; (2) the pre-shared secret key between two communicants can be reused without any security loophole; (3) each dialogue in the proposed PAQD can be exchanged within only one-step quantum communication and one-step classical communication. However, in the state-of-the-art AQD protocols, both communicants have to run a QKD protocol for each dialogue and each dialogue requires multiple quantum as well as classical communicational steps; (4) nevertheless, the proposed scheme can resist the man-in-the-middle attack, the modification attack, and even other well-known attacks.
Complete hyperentangled-Bell-state analysis for quantum communication
Sheng Yubo; Deng Fuguo; Long Guilu
2010-09-15
It is impossible to unambiguously distinguish the four Bell states in polarization, resorting to linear optical elements only. Recently, the hyperentangled Bell state, the simultaneous entanglement in more than one degree of freedom, has been used to assist in the complete Bell-state analysis of the four Bell states. However, if the additional degree of freedom is qubitlike, one can only distinguish 7 from the group of 16 states. Here we present a way to distinguish the hyperentangled Bell states completely with the help of cross-Kerr nonlinearity. Also, we discuss its application in the quantum teleportation of a particle in an unknown state in two different degrees of freedom and in the entanglement swapping of hyperentangled states. These applications will increase the channel capacity of long-distance quantum communication.
Reply to 'Comment on 'Secure direct communication with a quantum one-time-pad''
Deng Fuguo; Long Guilu
2005-07-15
We reply to the preceding comment which focused on whether there exists a quantum privacy amplification technique for purifying the unknown single-photon states transmitted. In this Reply, we will show that quantum privacy amplification is principally possible, and a specific scheme for direct communication protocol based on single photons has been constructed and will be published elsewhere. Then the secure direct quantum communication is secure against the attack strategy in the preceding comment by using quantum privacy amplification directly.
Efficient single-photon entanglement concentration for quantum communications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Lan; Sheng, Yu-Bo
2014-02-01
We present two entanglement concentration protocols for single-photon entanglement. The first protocol is implemented with linear optics. With the help of the 50:50 beam splitter, variable beam splitter and an auxiliary photon, a less-entangled single-photon state can be concentrated into a maximally single-photon entangled state with some probability. The second protocol is implemented with the cross-Kerr nonlinearity. With the help of the cross-Kerr nonlinearity, the sophisticated single photon detector is not required. Moreover, the second protocol can be reused to get higher success probability. All these advantages may make the protocols useful in the long-distance quantum communication.
Quantum secret sharing via local operations and classical communication
Yang, Ying-Hui; Gao, Fei; Wu, Xia; Qin, Su-Juan; Zuo, Hui-Juan; Wen, Qiao-Yan
2015-01-01
We investigate the distinguishability of orthogonal multipartite entangled states in d-qudit system by restricted local operations and classical communication. According to these properties, we propose a standard (2, n)-threshold quantum secret sharing scheme (called LOCC-QSS scheme), which solves the open question in [Rahaman et al., Phys. Rev. A, 91, 022330 (2015)]. On the other hand, we find that all the existing (k, n)-threshold LOCC-QSS schemes are imperfect (or “ramp”), i.e., unauthorized groups can obtain some information about the shared secret. Furthermore, we present a (3, 4)-threshold LOCC-QSS scheme which is close to perfect. PMID:26586412
Quantum Secure Direct Communication Based on Chaos with Authentication
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Dazu; Chen, Zhigang; Guo, Ying; Lee, Moon Ho
2007-12-01
A quantum secure direct communication protocol based on chaos is proposed with authentication. It has an advantage over distributing the secret message directly and verifying the communicators’ identities with the assistance of a trusted center. To ensure the security of the secret message and the process of verification, the initial order of the travel particles is disturbed according to a chaotic sequence generated secretly via the general Arnold map. Security analysis demonstrates that the present scheme is secure against several attack strategies, such as the man-in-the-middle attack and Trojan horse attack.
Quantum secret sharing via local operations and classical communication.
Yang, Ying-Hui; Gao, Fei; Wu, Xia; Qin, Su-Juan; Zuo, Hui-Juan; Wen, Qiao-Yan
2015-01-01
We investigate the distinguishability of orthogonal multipartite entangled states in d-qudit system by restricted local operations and classical communication. According to these properties, we propose a standard (2, n)-threshold quantum secret sharing scheme (called LOCC-QSS scheme), which solves the open question in [Rahaman et al., Phys. Rev. A, 91, 022330 (2015)]. On the other hand, we find that all the existing (k, n)-threshold LOCC-QSS schemes are imperfect (or "ramp"), i.e., unauthorized groups can obtain some information about the shared secret. Furthermore, we present a (3, 4)-threshold LOCC-QSS scheme which is close to perfect. PMID:26586412
Quantum secret sharing via local operations and classical communication
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Ying-Hui; Gao, Fei; Wu, Xia; Qin, Su-Juan; Zuo, Hui-Juan; Wen, Qiao-Yan
2015-11-01
We investigate the distinguishability of orthogonal multipartite entangled states in d-qudit system by restricted local operations and classical communication. According to these properties, we propose a standard (2, n)-threshold quantum secret sharing scheme (called LOCC-QSS scheme), which solves the open question in [Rahaman et al., Phys. Rev. A, 91, 022330 (2015)]. On the other hand, we find that all the existing (k, n)-threshold LOCC-QSS schemes are imperfect (or “ramp”), i.e., unauthorized groups can obtain some information about the shared secret. Furthermore, we present a (3, 4)-threshold LOCC-QSS scheme which is close to perfect.
Security of direct communication quantum channel with feedback
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Usenko, Constantin V.
2015-01-01
In the direct communication quantum channels, the authorized recipient (Bob) and the non-authorized recipient (Eve) have different abilities for verification of received information. Bob can apply the feedback to commit the sender (Alice) to perform verification. Eve has to use for verification an indirect method based on the measurement of a set of incompatible observables enough for determination of the coding basis used by Alice. In the protocol of direct communication, regular modification of coding basis and masking it with an equilibrium in average information carrier density matrix prevents reconstruction of coding basis by the results of Eve’s measurements of an arbitrary set of observables. This provides unconditional security of the channel.
Glenn Research Center quantum communicator receiver design and development
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hizlan, Murad; Lekki, John D.; Nguyen, Binh V.
2009-10-01
We investigate, design, and develop a prototype real-time synchronous receiver for the second-generation quantum communicator recently developed at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Glenn Research Center. This communication system exploits the temporal coincidences between simultaneously fired low-power laser sources to communicate at power levels several orders of magnitude less than what is currently achievable through classical means, with the ultimate goal of creating ultra-low-power microsize optical communications and sensing devices. The proposed receiver uses a unique adaptation of the early-late gate method for symbol synchronization and a newly identified 31-bit synchronization word for frame synchronization. This receiver, implemented in a field-programmable gate array (FPGA), also provides a number of significant additional features over the existing non-real-time experimental receiver, such as real-time bit error rate (BER) statistics collection and display, and recovery and display of embedded textual information. It also exhibits an indefinite run time and statistics collection.
Entanglement-based quantum communication secured by nonlocal dispersion cancellation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Catherine; Zhang, Zheshen; Steinbrecher, Gregory R.; Zhou, Hongchao; Mower, Jacob; Zhong, Tian; Wang, Ligong; Hu, Xiaolong; Horansky, Robert D.; Verma, Varun B.; Lita, Adriana E.; Mirin, Richard P.; Marsili, Francesco; Shaw, Matthew D.; Nam, Sae Woo; Wornell, Gregory W.; Wong, Franco N. C.; Shapiro, Jeffrey H.; Englund, Dirk
2014-12-01
Quantum key distribution (QKD) enables participants to exchange secret information over long distances with unconditional security. However, the performance of today's QKD systems is subject to hardware limitations, such as those of available nonclassical-light sources and single-photon detectors. By encoding photons in high-dimensional states, the rate of generating secure information under these technical constraints can be maximized. Here, we demonstrate a complete time-energy entanglement-based QKD system with proven security against the broad class of arbitrary collective attacks. The security of the system is based on nonlocal dispersion cancellation between two time-energy entangled photons. This resource-efficient QKD system is implemented at telecommunications wavelength, is suitable for optical fiber and free-space links, and is compatible with wavelength-division multiplexing.
Information Trade-Offs for Optical Quantum Communication
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wilde, Mark M.; Hayden, Patrick; Guha, Saikat
2012-04-01
Recent work has precisely characterized the achievable trade-offs between three key information processing tasks—classical communication (generation or consumption), quantum communication (generation or consumption), and shared entanglement (distribution or consumption), measured in bits, qubits, and ebits per channel use, respectively. Slices and corner points of this three-dimensional region reduce to well-known protocols for quantum channels. A trade-off coding technique can attain any point in the region and can outperform time sharing between the best-known protocols for accomplishing each information processing task by itself. Previously, the benefits of trade-off coding that had been found were too small to be of practical value (viz., for the dephasing and the universal cloning machine channels). In this Letter, we demonstrate that the associated performance gains are in fact remarkably high for several physically relevant bosonic channels that model free-space or fiber-optic links, thermal-noise channels, and amplifiers. We show that significant performance gains from trade-off coding also apply when trading photon-number resources between transmitting public and private classical information simultaneously over secret-key-assisted bosonic channels.
Information trade-offs for optical quantum communication.
Wilde, Mark M; Hayden, Patrick; Guha, Saikat
2012-04-01
Recent work has precisely characterized the achievable trade-offs between three key information processing tasks-classical communication (generation or consumption), quantum communication (generation or consumption), and shared entanglement (distribution or consumption), measured in bits, qubits, and ebits per channel use, respectively. Slices and corner points of this three-dimensional region reduce to well-known protocols for quantum channels. A trade-off coding technique can attain any point in the region and can outperform time sharing between the best-known protocols for accomplishing each information processing task by itself. Previously, the benefits of trade-off coding that had been found were too small to be of practical value (viz., for the dephasing and the universal cloning machine channels). In this Letter, we demonstrate that the associated performance gains are in fact remarkably high for several physically relevant bosonic channels that model free-space or fiber-optic links, thermal-noise channels, and amplifiers. We show that significant performance gains from trade-off coding also apply when trading photon-number resources between transmitting public and private classical information simultaneously over secret-key-assisted bosonic channels. PMID:22540777
Quantum Secure Direct Communication in a noisy environment: Theory and Experiment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Long, Gui Lu
Quantum communication holds promise for absolutely security in secret message transmission. Quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) is an important branch of the quantum communication in which secret messages are sent directly over a quantum channel with security[Phys. Rev. A 65 , 032302 (2002)]. QSDC offers higher security and is instantaneous in communication, and is a great improvement to the classical communication mode. It is also a powerful basic quantum communication primitive for constructing many other quantum communication tasks such as quantum bidding, quantum signature and quantum dialogue and so on. Since the first QSDC protocol proposed in 2000, it has become one of the extensive research focuses. In this talk, the basic ideas of QSDC will be reviewed, and major QSDC protocols will be described, such as the efficient-QSDC protocol, the two-step QSDC protocol, the one-time-pad QSDC protocol, the high-dimensional QSDC protocol and so on. Experimental progress is also developing steadily, and will also be reviewed. In particular, the quantum one-time-pad QSDC protocol has recently been successfully demonstrated experimentally[arXiv:1503.00451]. Work supported by China National Natural Science Foundation, the Ministry of Science and Technology of China.
Characterization of measurements in quantum communication. Ph.D. Thesis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chan, V. W. S.
1975-01-01
A characterization of quantum measurements by operator valued measures is presented. The generalized measurements include simultaneous approximate measurement of noncommuting observables. This characterization is suitable for solving problems in quantum communication. Two realizations of such measurements are discussed. The first is by adjoining an apparatus to the system under observation and performing a measurement corresponding to a self-adjoint operator in the tensor-product Hilbert space of the system and apparatus spaces. The second realization is by performing, on the system alone, sequential measurements that correspond to self-adjoint operators, basing the choice of each measurement on the outcomes of previous measurements. Simultaneous generalized measurements are found to be equivalent to a single finer grain generalized measurement, and hence it is sufficient to consider the set of single measurements. An alternative characterization of generalized measurement is proposed. It is shown to be equivalent to the characterization by operator-values measures, but it is potentially more suitable for the treatment of estimation problems. Finally, a study of the interaction between the information-carrying system and a measurement apparatus provides clues for the physical realizations of abstractly characterized quantum measurements.
Absorption-based quantum communication with NV centres
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scharfenberger, Burkhard; Kosaka, Hideo; Munro, William J.; Nemoto, Kae
2015-10-01
We propose a scheme for performing an entanglement-swapping operation within a quantum communications hub (a Bell like measurement) using an NV-centre’s | +/- 1> ≤ftrightarrow | {A}2> optical transition. This is based on the heralded absorption of a photon resonant with that transition. The quantum efficiency of a single photon absorption is low but can be improved by placing the NV centre inside a micro cavity to boost the interaction time and further by recycling the leaked photon back into the cavity after flipping its phase and/or polarization. Throughout this process, the NV is repeatedly monitored via a QND measurement that heralds whether or not the photon absorption has succeeded. Upon success we know a destructive Bell measurement has occurred between that photon and NV centre. Given low losses and high per-pass absorption probability, this scheme should allow the total success probability to approach unity. With long electron spin coherence times possible at low temperatures, this component could be useful within a memory-based quantum repeater or relay.
Wang, Jindong; Qin, Xiaojuan; Jiang, Yinzhu; Wang, Xiaojing; Chen, Liwei; Zhao, Feng; Wei, Zhengjun; Zhang, Zhiming
2016-04-18
A proof-of-principle demonstration of a one-way polarization encoding quantum key distribution (QKD) system is demonstrated. This approach can automatically compensate for birefringence and phase drift. This is achieved by constructing intrinsically stable polarization-modulated units (PMUs) to perform the encoding and decoding, which can be used with four-state protocol, six-state protocol, and the measurement-device-independent (MDI) scheme. A polarization extinction ratio of about 30 dB was maintained for several hours over a 50 km optical fiber without any adjustments to our setup, which evidences its potential for use in practical applications. PMID:27137268
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yuen, H. P.; Shapiro, J. H.
1978-01-01
To determine the ultimate performance limitations imposed by quantum effects, it is also essential to consider optimum quantum-state generation. Certain 'generalized' coherent states of the radiation field possess novel quantum noise characteristics that offer the potential for greatly improved optical communications. These states have been called two-photon coherent states because they can be generated, in principle, by stimulated two-photon processes. The use of two-photon coherent state (TCS) radiation in free-space optical communications is considered. A simple theory of quantum state propagation is developed. The theory provides the basis for representing the free-space channel in a quantum-mechanical form convenient for communication analysis. The new theory is applied to TCS radiation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thapliyal, Kishore; Verma, Amit; Pathak, Anirban
2015-12-01
Recently, a large number of protocols for bidirectional controlled state teleportation (BCST) have been proposed using n-qubit entangled states (nin {5,6,7}) as quantum channel. Here, we propose a general method of selecting multiqubit (n>4) quantum channels suitable for BCST and show that all the channels used in the existing protocols of BCST can be obtained using the proposed method. Further, it is shown that the quantum channels used in the existing protocols of BCST form only a negligibly small subset of the set of all the quantum channels that can be constructed using the proposed method to implement BCST. It is also noted that all these quantum channels are also suitable for controlled bidirectional remote state preparation. Following the same logic, methods for selecting quantum channels for other controlled quantum communication tasks, such as controlled bidirectional joint remote state preparation and controlled quantum dialogue, are also provided.
Efficient bounds on quantum-communication rates via their reduced variants
Nowakowski, Marcin L.; Horodecki, Pawel
2010-10-15
We investigate one-way communication scenarios where Bob operating on his component can transfer some subsystem to the environment. We define reduced versions of quantum-communication rates and, further, prove upper bounds on a one-way quantum secret key, distillable entanglement, and quantum-channel capacity by means of their reduced versions. It is shown that in some cases they drastically improve their estimation.
Efficient bounds on quantum-communication rates via their reduced variants
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nowakowski, Marcin L.; Horodecki, Pawel
2010-10-01
We investigate one-way communication scenarios where Bob operating on his component can transfer some subsystem to the environment. We define reduced versions of quantum-communication rates and, further, prove upper bounds on a one-way quantum secret key, distillable entanglement, and quantum-channel capacity by means of their reduced versions. It is shown that in some cases they drastically improve their estimation.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Harger, R. O.
1974-01-01
Abstracts are reported relating to the techniques used in the research concerning optical transmission of information. Communication through the turbulent atmosphere, quantum mechanics, and quantum communication theory are discussed along with the results.
The braided single-stage protocol for quantum secure communication
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Darunkar, Bhagyashri; Verma, Pramode K.
2014-05-01
This paper presents the concept and implementation of a Braided Single-stage Protocol for quantum secure communication. The braided single-stage protocol is a multi-photon tolerant secure protocol. This multi-photon tolerant protocol has been implemented in the laboratory using free-space optics technology. The proposed protocol capitalizes on strengths of the three-stage protocol and extends it with a new concept of braiding. This protocol overcomes the limitations associated with the three-stage protocol in the following ways: It uses the transmission channel only once as opposed to three times in the three-stage protocol, and it is invulnerable to man-in-the-middle attack. This paper also presents the error analysis resulting from the misalignment of the devices in the implementation. The experimental results validate the efficient use of transmission resources and improvement in the data transfer rate.
Measurement-based noiseless linear amplification for quantum communication
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chrzanowski, H. M.; Walk, N.; Haw, J. Y.; Thearle, O.; Assad, S. M.; Janousek, J.; Hosseini, S.; Ralph, T. C.; Symul, T.; Lam, P. K.
2014-11-01
Entanglement distillation is an indispensable ingredient in extended quantum communication networks. Distillation protocols are necessarily non-deterministic and require non-trivial experimental techniques such as noiseless amplification. We show that noiseless amplification could be achieved by performing a post-selective filtering of measurement outcomes. We termed this protocol measurement-based noiseless linear amplification (MBNLA). We apply this protocol to entanglement that suffers transmission loss of up to the equivalent of 100km of optical fibre and show that it is capable of distilling entanglement to a level stronger than that achievable by transmitting a maximally entangled state through the same channel. We also provide a proof-of-principle demonstration of secret key extraction from an otherwise insecure regime via MBNLA. Compared to its physical counterpart, MBNLA not only is easier in term of implementation, but also allows one to achieve near optimal probability of success.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zawadzki, Piotr
2016-04-01
Quantum attacks that provide an undetectable eavesdropping of the ping-pong protocol operating over lossy quantum channels have already been demonstrated by Wójcik (Phys Rev Lett 90(15):157901, 2003) and Zhang et al. (Phys Lett A 333(12):46-50, 2004). These attacks provide a maximum information gain of 0.311 bits per protocol cycle as long as the induced loss rate remains acceptable. Otherwise, the skipping of some protocol cycles is advised to stay within an accepted loss limit. Such policy leads to a reduction in information gain proportional to the number of skipped cycles. The attack transformation parametrized by the induced loss ratio is proposed. It provides smaller reduction in information gain when the losses accepted by the communicating parties are too low to mount the most effective attack. Other properties of the attack remain the same.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Proklov, V. V.; Byshevski-Konopko, O. A.; Filatov, A. L.
2015-10-01
New acousto-optical (AO) methods and devices necessary for the creation of noncoherent optical code division multiple access (O-CDMA) systems are considered. Based on an AO multiwavelength filter, an original device generating spectral-encoded signals for O-CDMA systems with optimum WDM has been created and studied. It is shown that modern AO technology is capable of surmounting difficulties that previously hindered the transition of optical communication systems to CDMA data transmission.
Long-distance quantum communication with atomic ensembles and linear optics.
Duan, L M; Lukin, M D; Cirac, J I; Zoller, P
2001-11-22
Quantum communication holds promise for absolutely secure transmission of secret messages and the faithful transfer of unknown quantum states. Photonic channels appear to be very attractive for the physical implementation of quantum communication. However, owing to losses and decoherence in the channel, the communication fidelity decreases exponentially with the channel length. Here we describe a scheme that allows the implementation of robust quantum communication over long lossy channels. The scheme involves laser manipulation of atomic ensembles, beam splitters, and single-photon detectors with moderate efficiencies, and is therefore compatible with current experimental technology. We show that the communication efficiency scales polynomially with the channel length, and hence the scheme should be operable over very long distances. PMID:11719796
Long-distance quantum communication with atomic ensembles and linear optics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Duan, L.-M.; Lukin, M. D.; Cirac, J. I.; Zoller, P.
2001-11-01
Quantum communication holds promise for absolutely secure transmission of secret messages and the faithful transfer of unknown quantum states. Photonic channels appear to be very attractive for the physical implementation of quantum communication. However, owing to losses and decoherence in the channel, the communication fidelity decreases exponentially with the channel length. Here we describe a scheme that allows the implementation of robust quantum communication over long lossy channels. The scheme involves laser manipulation of atomic ensembles, beam splitters, and single-photon detectors with moderate efficiencies, and is therefore compatible with current experimental technology. We show that the communication efficiency scales polynomially with the channel length, and hence the scheme should be operable over very long distances.
Bloemink, Marieke J; Dambacher, Corey M; Knowles, Aileen F; Melkani, Girish C; Geeves, Michael A; Bernstein, Sanford I
2009-06-19
We investigated the biochemical and biophysical properties of one of the four alternative regions within the Drosophila myosin catalytic domain: the relay domain encoded by exon 9. This domain of the myosin head transmits conformational changes in the nucleotide-binding pocket to the converter domain, which is crucial to coupling catalytic activity with mechanical movement of the lever arm. To study the function of this region, we used chimeric myosins (IFI-9b and EMB-9a), which were generated by exchange of the exon 9-encoded domains between the native embryonic body wall (EMB) and indirect flight muscle isoforms (IFI). Kinetic measurements show that exchange of the exon 9-encoded region alters the kinetic properties of the myosin S1 head. This is reflected in reduced values for ATP-induced actomyosin dissociation rate constant (K(1)k(+2)) and ADP affinity (K(AD)), measured for the chimeric constructs IFI-9b and EMB-9a, compared to wild-type IFI and EMB values. Homology models indicate that, in addition to affecting the communication pathway between the nucleotide-binding pocket and the converter domain, exchange of the relay domains between IFI and EMB affects the communication pathway between the nucleotide-binding pocket and the actin-binding site in the lower 50-kDa domain (loop 2). These results suggest an important role of the relay domain in the regulation of actomyosin cross-bridge kinetics. PMID:19393244
Integrated source and channel encoded digital communication system design study. [for space shuttles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Huth, G. K.
1976-01-01
The results of several studies Space Shuttle communication system are summarized. These tasks can be divided into the following categories: (1) phase multiplexing for two- and three-channel data transmission, (2) effects of phase noise on the performance of coherent communication links, (3) analysis of command system performance, (4) error correcting code tradeoffs, (5) signal detection and angular search procedure for the shuttle Ku-band communication system, and (6) false lock performance of Costas loop receivers.
Practical long-distance quantum communication using concatenated entanglement swapping
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khalique, Aeysha; Tittel, Wolfgang; Sanders, Barry C.
2013-08-01
We construct a theory for long-distance quantum communication based on sharing entanglement through a linear chain of N elementary swapping segments of length L=Nl where l is the length of each elementary swap setup. Entanglement swapping is achieved by linear optics, photon counting, and postselection, and we include effects due to multiphoton sources, transmission loss, and detector inefficiencies and dark counts. Specifically we calculate the resultant four-mode state shared by the two parties at the two ends of the chain, and we derive the two-photon coincidence rate expected for this state and thereby the visibility of this long-range-entangled state. The expression is a nested sum with each sum extending from zero to infinite photons, and we solve the case N=2 exactly for the ideal case (zero dark counts, unit-efficiency detectors, and no transmission loss) and numerically for N=2 in the nonideal case with truncation at nmax=3 photons in each mode. For the general case, we show that the computational complexity for the numerical solution is nmax12N.
Highly Efficient Long-Distance Quantum Communication: a Blueprint for Implementation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Linshu; Muralidharan, Sreraman; Kim, Jungsang; Lutkenhaus, Norbert; Lukin, Mikhail; Jiang, Liang
2015-03-01
Quantum repeaters provide a way for long distance quantum communication through optical fiber networks. Transmission losses and operation errors are two major challenges to the implementation of quantum repeaters. At each intermediate repeater station, transmission losses can be overcome using either heralded entanglement generation or quantum error correction, while operation errors can be corrected via entanglement purification or quantum error correction. Depending on the mechanisms used to correct loss and operation errors respectively, three generations of quantum repeaters have been proposed. We present a quantitative comparison of different quantum repeater schemes by evaluating the time- and qubit-resource consumed simultaneously. We can identify the most efficient scheme for given technological capabilities, which are characterized by fiber coupling efficiency, local gate fidelity, and local gate speed. Our work provides a roadmap for high-speed quantum networks across continental distances. Linshu and Sreraman contributed equally to this work.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, LiLi; Ma, WenPing; Wang, MeiLing; Shen, DongSu
2016-05-01
We present an efficient three-party quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) protocol with single photos in both polarization and spatial-mode degrees of freedom. The three legal parties' messages can be encoded on the polarization and the spatial-mode states of single photons independently with desired unitary operations. A party can obtain the other two parties' messages simultaneously through a quantum channel. Because no extra public information is transmitted in the classical channels, the drawback of information leakage or classical correlation does not exist in the proposed scheme. Moreover, the comprehensive security analysis shows that the presented QSDC network protocol can defend the outsider eavesdropper's several sorts of attacks. Compared with the single photons with only one degree of freedom, our protocol based on the single photons in two degrees of freedom has higher capacity. Since the preparation and the measurement of single photon quantum states in both the polarization and the spatial-mode degrees of freedom are available with current quantum techniques, the proposed protocol is practical.
Secure multi-party communication with quantum key distribution managed by trusted authority
Hughes, Richard John; Nordholt, Jane Elizabeth; Peterson, Charles Glen
2015-01-06
Techniques and tools for implementing protocols for secure multi-party communication after quantum key distribution ("QKD") are described herein. In example implementations, a trusted authority facilitates secure communication between multiple user devices. The trusted authority distributes different quantum keys by QKD under trust relationships with different users. The trusted authority determines combination keys using the quantum keys and makes the combination keys available for distribution (e.g., for non-secret distribution over a public channel). The combination keys facilitate secure communication between two user devices even in the absence of QKD between the two user devices. With the protocols, benefits of QKD are extended to multi-party communication scenarios. In addition, the protocols can retain benefit of QKD even when a trusted authority is offline or a large group seeks to establish secure communication within the group.
Secure multi-party communication with quantum key distribution managed by trusted authority
Nordholt, Jane Elizabeth; Hughes, Richard John; Peterson, Charles Glen
2013-07-09
Techniques and tools for implementing protocols for secure multi-party communication after quantum key distribution ("QKD") are described herein. In example implementations, a trusted authority facilitates secure communication between multiple user devices. The trusted authority distributes different quantum keys by QKD under trust relationships with different users. The trusted authority determines combination keys using the quantum keys and makes the combination keys available for distribution (e.g., for non-secret distribution over a public channel). The combination keys facilitate secure communication between two user devices even in the absence of QKD between the two user devices. With the protocols, benefits of QKD are extended to multi-party communication scenarios. In addition, the protocols can retain benefit of QKD even when a trusted authority is offline or a large group seeks to establish secure communication within the group.
16 kb/s high quality voice encoding for satellite communication networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yatsuzuka, Yohtaro; Yamazaki, Tomohiro; Iizuka, Shigeru
1986-12-01
A 16 kb/s adaptive predictive coding (APC) with maximum likelihood quantization (MLQ), which can cover a range of coding rates from 4.8-16 kb/s, for low C/N satellite communications systems is described, and its performance is evaluated. The requirements for a 16 kb/s voice coding technique in low C/N digital satellite communication systems, such as maritime and thin-route communications, are discussed. The use of a 9.6 kb/s voice coding channel for small-size antenna systems is proposed. NEC-7720 DSP chips were employed to implement the 16 kb/s APC/MLQ codec. A multimedia multiplexing for low C/N digital communications systems, and a small-scale circuit multiplication system for business services are examined. It is observed that the 16 kb/s APC hardware code with MLQ is applicable for speech and nonvoice signals.
Quantum secure communication using continuous variable Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen correlations
He Guangqiang; Zhu Jun; Zeng Guihua
2006-01-15
A quantum secure communication protocol using correlations of continuous variable Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) pairs is proposed. The proposed protocol may implement both quantum key distribution and quantum message encryption by using a nondegenerate optical parametric amplifier (NOPA). The general Gaussian-cloner attack strategy is investigated in detail by employing Shannon information theory. Results show that the proposed scheme is secure, which is guaranteed physically by the correlations of the continuous variable EPR entanglement pairs generated by the NOPA.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dickson, Esther; Burton, Neil
2011-01-01
This small-scale study reports the findings from an investigation into non-verbal communication. It primarily seeks to analyse whether 9 and 13 year-olds can encode and decode non-verbal communication in the context of classroom behaviour management. This research showed that, in contrast to previous published research, there were no distinct…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gao, Gan
2015-08-01
Song [Song D 2004 Phys. Rev. A 69 034301] first proposed two key distribution schemes with the symmetry feature. We find that, in the schemes, the private channels which Alice and Bob publicly announce the initial Bell state or the measurement result through are not needed in discovering keys, and Song’s encoding methods do not arrive at the optimization. Here, an optimized encoding method is given so that the efficiencies of Song’s schemes are improved by 7/3 times. Interestingly, this optimized encoding method can be extended to the key distribution scheme composed of generalized Bell states. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11205115), the Program for Academic Leader Reserve Candidates in Tongling University (Grant No. 2014tlxyxs30), and the 2014-year Program for Excellent Youth Talents in University of Anhui Province, China.
Quantum superposition of the order of parties as a communication resource
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feix, Adrien; Araújo, Mateus; Brukner, Časlav
2015-11-01
In a variant of communication complexity tasks, two or more separated parties cooperate to compute a function of their local data, using a limited amount of communication. It is known that communication of quantum systems and shared entanglement can increase the probability for the parties to arrive at the correct value of the function, compared to classical resources. Here we show that quantum superpositions of the direction of communication between parties can also serve as a resource to improve the probability of success. We present a tripartite task for which such a superposition provides an advantage compared to the case where the parties communicate in a fixed order. In a more general context, our result also provides semi-device-independent certification of the absence of a definite order of communication.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Kan; Gong, Yan-Xiao; Yu, Xu-Tao; Lu, Sheng-Li
2014-10-01
In our previous work [Phys. Rev. A 89, 022329 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevA.89.022329], we proposed a teleportation-based quantum communication scheme in a quantum wireless multihop network with arbitrary types of Bell pairs shared between adjacent nodes. Here we revised the scheme by introducing a result-mapping method for halving the classical communication cost, with which the source and intermediate nodes map the measurement outcomes to those corresponding to the target Bell pair type assigned by the destination node. A routing protocol is utilized to piggyback the target Bell pair type notification information which introduces no extra communication cost.
Field test of a practical secure communication network with decoy-state quantum cryptography.
Chen, Teng-Yun; Liang, Hao; Liu, Yang; Cai, Wen-Qi; Ju, Lei; Liu, Wei-Yue; Wang, Jian; Yin, Hao; Chen, Kai; Chen, Zeng-Bing; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Pan, Jian-Wei
2009-04-13
We present a secure network communication system that operated with decoy-state quantum cryptography in a real-world application scenario. The full key exchange and application protocols were performed in real time among three nodes, in which two adjacent nodes were connected by approximate 20 km of commercial telecom optical fiber. The generated quantum keys were immediately employed and demonstrated for communication applications, including unbreakable real-time voice telephone between any two of the three communication nodes, or a broadcast from one node to the other two nodes by using one-time pad encryption. PMID:19365479
Lower bound on the communication cost of simulating bipartite quantum correlations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vértesi, T.; Bene, E.
2009-12-01
Suppose Alice and Bob share a maximally entangled state of any finite dimension and each perform two-outcome measurements on the respective part of the state. It is known, due to the recent result of Regev and Toner, that if a classical model is augmented with two bits of communication, then all the quantum correlations arising from these measurements can be reproduced. Here, we show that two bits of communication are in fact necessary for the perfect simulation. In particular, we prove that a pair of maximally entangled four-dimensional quantum systems cannot be simulated by a classical model augmented by only one bit of communication.
Lower bound on the communication cost of simulating bipartite quantum correlations
Vertesi, T.; Bene, E.
2009-12-15
Suppose Alice and Bob share a maximally entangled state of any finite dimension and each perform two-outcome measurements on the respective part of the state. It is known, due to the recent result of Regev and Toner, that if a classical model is augmented with two bits of communication, then all the quantum correlations arising from these measurements can be reproduced. Here, we show that two bits of communication are in fact necessary for the perfect simulation. In particular, we prove that a pair of maximally entangled four-dimensional quantum systems cannot be simulated by a classical model augmented by only one bit of communication.
Photonic crystal chips for optical communications and quantum information processing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Englund, Dirk; Fushman, Ilya; Faraon, Andrei; Ellis, Bryan; Vučković, Jelena
2008-08-01
We discuss recent our recent progress on functional photonic crystals devices and circuits for classical and quantum information processing. For classical applications, we have demonstrated a room-temperature-operated, low threshold, nanocavity laser with pulse width in the picosecond regime; and an all-optical switch controlled with 60 fJ pulses that shows switching time on the order of tens of picoseconds. For quantum information processing, we discuss the promise of quantum networks on multifunctional photonic crystals chips. We also discuss a new coherent probing technique of quantum dots coupled to photonic crystal nanocavities and demonstrate amplitude and phase nonlinearities realized with control beams at the single photon level.
Quantum Stackelberg duopoly with incomplete information [rapid communication
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lo, C.-F.; Kiang, D.
2005-10-01
We investigate the quantum version of the Stackelberg duopoly with incomplete information, especially how the quantum entanglement affects the first-mover advantage in the classical form. It is found that while positive entanglement enhances the first-mover advantage beyond the classical limit, the advantage is dramatically suppressed by negative entanglement. Moreover, despite that positive quantum entanglement improves the first-mover's tolerance for the informational incompleteness, the quantum effect does not change the basic fact that Firm A's lack of complete information of Firm B's unit cost is eradicating the first-mover advantage.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Castelletto, S. A.; Scholten, R. E.
2008-03-01
Single photon counting, based on single photon sources and detectors, is a key ingredient for certain applications aiming at new quantum information technologies. Quantum cryptography, quantum radiometry, distributed quantum computing, as well as adjacent technologies such as biomedical and astronomical imaging, and low power classical communication also rely on single-photon technology. This paper reviews the present status of single photon sources and related counting measurement techniques, based on correlated (or heralded) photons in parametric down-conversion, and their possible impact on the above mentioned technologies, as well as an assessment for photon standards in the future.
Reduced randomness in quantum cryptography with sequences of qubits encoded in the same basis
Lamoureux, L.-P.; Cerf, N. J.; Bechmann-Pasquinucci, H.; Gisin, N.; Macchiavello, C.
2006-03-15
We consider the cloning of sequences of qubits prepared in the states used in the BB84 or six-state quantum cryptography protocol, and show that the single-qubit fidelity is unaffected even if entire sequences of qubits are prepared in the same basis. This result is only valid provided that the sequences are much shorter than the total key. It is of great importance for practical quantum cryptosystems because it reduces the need for high-speed random number generation without impairing on the security against finite-size cloning attacks.
The Implications of Encoder/Modulator/ Phased Array Designs for Future Broadband LEO Communications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vanderaar, Mark; Jensen, Chris A.; Terry, John D.
1997-01-01
In this paper we summarize the effects of modulation and channel coding on the design of wide angle scan, broadband, phased army antennas. In the paper we perform several trade studies. First, we investigate the amplifier back-off requirement as a function of variability of modulation envelope. Specifically, we contrast constant and non-constant envelope modulations, as well as single and multiple carrier schemes. Additionally, we address the issues an(f concerns of using pulse shaping filters with the above modulation types. Second, we quantify the effects of beam steering on the quality of data, recovery using selected modulation techniques. In particular, we show that the frequency response of the array introduces intersymbol interference for broadband signals and that the mode of operation for the beam steering controller may introduce additional burst or random errors. Finally, we show that the encoder/modulator design must be performed in conjunction with the phased array antenna design.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Lili; Ma, Wenping
2016-02-01
In this paper, we propose a new controlled quantum secure direct communication (CQSDC) protocol with single photons in both polarization and spatial-mode degrees of freedom. Based on the defined local collective unitary operations, the sender’s secret messages can be transmitted directly to the receiver through encoding secret messages on the particles. Only with the help of the third side, the receiver can reconstruct the secret messages. Each single photon in two degrees of freedom can carry two bits of information, so the cost of our protocol is less than others using entangled qubits. Moreover, the security of our QSDC network protocol is discussed comprehensively. It is shown that our new CQSDC protocol cannot only defend the outsider eavesdroppers’ several sorts of attacks but also the inside attacks. Besides, our protocol is feasible since the preparation and the measurement of single photon quantum states in both the polarization and the spatial-mode degrees of freedom are available with current quantum techniques.
Practical Quantum Cryptography for Secure Free-Space Communications
Buttler, W.T.; Hughes, R.J.; Kwiat, P.G.; Lamoreaux, S.K.; Morgan, G.L.; Nordholt, J.E.; Peterson, C.G.
1999-02-01
Quantum cryptography is an emerging technology in which two parties may simultaneously generate shared, secret cryptographic key material using the transmission of quantum states of light. The security of these transmissions is based on the inviolability of the laws of quantum mechanics and information-theoretically secure post-processing methods. An adversary can neither successfully tap the quantum transmissions, nor evade detection, owing to Heisenberg's uncertainty principle. In this paper we describe the theory of quantum cryptography, and the most recent results from our experimental free-space system with which we have demonstrated for the first time the feasibility of quantum key generation over a point-to-point outdoor atmospheric path in daylight. We achieved a transmission distance of 0.5 km, which was limited only by the length of the test range. Our results provide strong evidence that cryptographic key material could be generated on demand between a ground station and a satellite (or between two satellites), allowing a satellite to be securely re-keyed on orbit. We present a feasibility analysis of surface-to-satellite quantum key generation.
Zhang, Yequn; Djordjevic, Ivan B; Gao, Xin
2012-08-01
Inspired by recent demonstrations of orbital angular momentum-(OAM)-based single-photon communications, we propose two quantum-channel models: (i) the multidimensional quantum-key distribution model and (ii) the quantum teleportation model. Both models employ operator-sum representation for Kraus operators derived from OAM eigenkets transition probabilities. These models are highly important for future development of quantum-error correction schemes to extend the transmission distance and improve date rates of OAM quantum communications. By using these models, we calculate corresponding quantum-channel capacities in the presence of atmospheric turbulence. PMID:22859154
Quantum Steganography for Multi-party Covert Communication
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Lin; Tang, Guang-Ming; Sun, Yi-Feng; Yan, Shu-Fan
2016-01-01
A novel multi-party quantum steganography protocol based on quantum secret sharing is proposed in this paper. Hidden channels are built in HBB and improved HBB quantum secret sharing protocols for secret messages transmitting, via the entanglement swapping of GHZ states and Bell measurement. Compared with the original protocol, there are only a few different GHZ sates transmitted in the proposed protocol, making the hidden channel with good imperceptibility. Moreover, the secret messages keep secure even when the hidden channel is under the attack from the dishonest participators, for the sub-secretmessages distributed randomly to different participators. With good imperceptibility and security, the capacity of proposed protocol is higher than previous multi-party quantum steganography protocol.
Relativistic Quantum Communication and the Structure of Spacetime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martin-Martinez, Eduardo
We study the transmission of information and correlations through quantum fields in cosmological backgrounds. With this aim, we make use of quantum information tools to quantify the classical and quantum correlations induced by a quantum massless scalar field in two particle detectors, one located in the early universe (Alice's) and the other located at a later time (Bob's). In particular, we focus on two phenomena: a) the consequences on the transmission of information of the violations of the strong Huygens principle for quantum fields, and b) the analysis of the field vacuum correlations via correlation harvesting from Alice to Bob. We will study a standard cosmological model first and then assess whether these results also hold if we use other than the general relativistic dynamics. As a particular example, we will study the transmission of information through the Big Bounce, that replaces the Big Bang, in the effective dynamics of Loop Quantum Cosmology. We show that much more information reaches us through timelike channels (not mediated by real photons) than it is carried by rays of light, which are usually regarded as the only carriers of information.
Hybrid ququart-encoded quantum cryptography protected by Kochen-Specker contextuality
Cabello, Adan; D'Ambrosio, Vincenzo; Nagali, Eleonora; Sciarrino, Fabio
2011-09-15
Quantum cryptographic protocols based on complementarity are not secure against attacks in which complementarity is imitated with classical resources. The Kochen-Specker (KS) theorem provides protection against these attacks, without requiring entanglement or spatially separated composite systems. We analyze the maximum tolerated noise to guarantee the security of a KS-protected cryptographic scheme against these attacks and describe a photonic realization of this scheme using hybrid ququarts defined by the polarization and orbital angular momentum of single photons.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kurpiers, Philipp; Frey, Tobias; Wallraff, Andreas
In circuit quantum electrodynamics (QED) systems quantum communication over distances beyond chip-scale requires low-loss waveguides. We measure the loss per unit length and the phase stability of commercially available waveguide technologies down to Millikelvin temperatures and single photon levels. More specifically, we characterize the frequency dependent attenuation and dispersion properties of a range of semi-rigid microwave cables and waveguides. We study the properties of various, commonly used conducting and dielectric materials with high accuracy in resonant structures to extract the internal quality factor which is inversely proportional to the loss per unit length. Furthermore, we compare our data with corresponding loss models. The results of our characterization are relevant to applications in which quantum communication is needed between nodes of a small network, e.g. between quantum circuits realized on different chips within the same or in distinct cryogenic systems.
Cryptanalysis and improvement of a quantum communication-based online shopping mechanism
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Wei; Yang, Ying-Hui; Jia, Heng-Yue
2015-06-01
Recently, Chou et al. (Electron Commer Res 14:349-367, 2014) presented a novel controlled quantum secure direct communication protocol which can be used for online shopping. The authors claimed that their protocol was immune to the attacks from both external eavesdropper and internal betrayer. However, we find that this protocol is vulnerable to the attack from internal betrayer. In this paper, we analyze the security of this protocol to show that the controller in this protocol is able to eavesdrop the secret information of the sender (i.e., the customer's shopping information), which indicates that it cannot be used for secure online shopping as the authors expected. Accordingly, an improvement of this protocol, which could resist the controller's attack, is proposed. In addition, we present another protocol which is more appropriate for online shopping. Finally, a discussion about the difference in detail of the quantum secure direct communication process between regular quantum communications and online shopping is given.
Quantum correlations in Newtonian space and time: arbitrarily fast communication or nonlocality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gisin, Nicolas
2013-03-01
Experimental violations of Bell inequalities using space-like separated measurements precludes the explanation of quantum correlations through causal influences propagating at subluminal speed. Yet, ``everything looks as if the two parties somehow communicate behind the scene.'' We investigate the assumption that they do so at a speed faster than light, though finite. Such an assumption doesn't respect the spirit of Einstein relativity. However, it is not crystal clear that such ``communication behind the scene'' would contradict relativity. Indeed, one could imagine that this communication remains for ever hidden to humans, i.e. that it could not be controlled by humans, only Nature exploits it to produce correlations that can't be explained by usual common causes. To define faster than light hidden communication requires a universal privileged reference frame in which this faster than light speed is defined. Again, such a universal privileged frame is not in the spirit of relativity, but it is also clearly not in contradiction: for example the reference frame in which the cosmic microwave background radiation is isotropic defines such a privileged frame. Hence, a priori, a hidden communication explanation is not more surprising than nonlocality. We prove that for any finite speed, such models predict correlations that can be exploited for faster-than-light communication. This superluminal communication doesn't require access to any hidden physical quantities, but only the manipulation of measurement devices at the level of our present-day description of quantum experiments. Consequently, all possible explanations of quantum correlations that satisfy the principle of continuity, which states that everything propagates gradually and continuously through space and time, or in other words, all combination of local common causes and direct causes that reproduce quantum correlations, lead to faster than light communication. Accordingly, either there is superluminal
Long-distance quantum communication through any number of entanglement-swapping operations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khalique, Aeysha; Sanders, Barry C.
2014-09-01
We develop a theory and accompanying mathematical model for quantum communication via any number of intermediate entanglement-swapping operations and solve numerically for up to three intermediate entanglement-swapping operations. Our model yields two-photon interference visibilities postselected on photon counts at the intermediate entanglement-swapping stations. Realistic experimental conditions are accommodated through the parametric down-conversion rate, photon-counter efficiencies and dark-count rates, and instrument and transmission losses. We calculate achievable quantum communication distances such that two-photon interference visibility exceeds the Bell-inequality threshold.
Using graph states for quantum computation and communication
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goyal, Kovid
In this work, we describe a method to achieve fault tolerant measurement based quantum computation in two and three dimensions. The proposed scheme has an threshold of 7.8*10^-3 and poly-logarithmic overhead scaling. The overhead scaling below the threshold is also studied. The scheme uses a combination of topological error correction and magic state distillation to construct a universal quantum computer on a qubit lattice. The chapters on measurement based quantum computation are written in review form with extensive discussion and illustrative examples.In addition, we describe and analyze a family of entanglement purification protocols that provide a flexible trade-off between overhead, threshold and output quality. The protocols are studied analytically, with closed form expressions for their threshold.
Quantum entanglement and the communication complexity of the inner product function
Cleve, R.; Dam, W. van |; Nielsen, M. |; Tapp, A.
1998-08-01
The authors consider the communication complexity of the binary inner product function in a variation of the two-party scenario where the parties have an a priori supply of particles in an entangled quantum state. They prove linear lower bounds for both exact protocols, as well as for protocols that determine the answer with bounded-error probability. The proofs employ a novel kind of quantum reduction from multibit communication problems to the problem of computing the inner product. The communication required for the former problem can then be bounded by an application of Holevo`s theorem. They also give a specific example of a probabilistic scenario where entanglement reduces the communication complexity of the inner product function by one bit.
Timofeev, A. V.; Pomozov, D. I.; Makkaveev, A. P.; Molotkov, S. N.
2007-05-15
Quantum cryptography systems combine two communication channels: a quantum and a classical one. (They can be physically implemented in the same fiber-optic link, which is employed as a quantum channel when one-photon states are transmitted and as a classical one when it carries classical data traffic.) Both channels are supposed to be insecure and accessible to an eavesdropper. Error correction in raw keys, interferometer balancing, and other procedures are performed by using the public classical channel. A discussion of the requirements to be met by the classical channel is presented.
A probabilistic quantum communication protocol using mixed entangled channel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Choudhury, Binayak S.; Dhara, Arpan
2016-05-01
Qubits are realized as polarization state of photons or as superpositions of the spin states of electrons. In this paper we propose a scheme to probabilistically teleport an unknown arbitrary two-qubit state using a non-maximally entangled GHZ- like state and a non-maximally Bell state simultaneously as quantum channels. We also discuss the success probability of our scheme. We perform POVM in the protocol which is operationally advantageous. In our scheme we show that the non-maximal quantum resources perform better than maximal resources.
Noise Estimation and Adaptive Encoding for Asymmetric Quantum Error Correcting Codes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Florjanczyk, Jan; Brun, Todd; Center for Quantum Information Science; Technology Team
We present a technique that improves the performance of asymmetric quantum error correcting codes in the presence of biased qubit noise channels. Our study is motivated by considering what useful information can be learned from the statistics of syndrome measurements in stabilizer quantum error correcting codes (QECC). We consider the case of a qubit dephasing channel where the dephasing axis is unknown and time-varying. We are able to estimate the dephasing angle from the statistics of the standard syndrome measurements used in stabilizer QECC's. We use this estimate to rotate the computational basis of the code in such a way that the most likely type of error is covered by the highest distance of the asymmetric code. In particular, we use the [ [ 15 , 1 , 3 ] ] shortened Reed-Muller code which can correct one phase-flip error but up to three bit-flip errors. In our simulations, we tune the computational basis to match the estimated dephasing axis which in turn leads to a decrease in the probability of a phase-flip error. With a sufficiently accurate estimate of the dephasing axis, our memory's effective error is dominated by the much lower probability of four bit-flips. Aro MURI Grant No. W911NF-11-1-0268.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Morett, Laura M.
2014-01-01
In the interest of clarifying how gesture facilitates L2 word learning, the current study investigates gesture's influence on three interrelated cognitive processes subserving L2 word learning: communication, encoding, and recall. Individuals unfamiliar with Hungarian learned 20 Hungarian words that were either accompanied or unaccompanied by…
Communication: Heavy atom quantum diffraction by scattering from surfaces.
Moix, Jeremy M; Pollak, Eli
2011-01-01
Typically one expects that when a heavy particle collides with a surface, the scattered angular distribution will follow classical mechanics. The heavy mass usually assures that the coherence length of the incident particle in the direction of the propagation of the particle (the parallel direction) will be much shorter than the characteristic lattice length of the surface, thus leading to a classical description. Recent work on molecular interferometry has shown that extreme collimation of the beam creates a perpendicular coherence length which is sufficiently long so as to observe interference of very heavy species passing through a grating. Here we show, using quantum mechanical simulations, that the same effect will lead to quantum diffraction of heavy particles colliding with a surface. The effect is robust with respect to the incident energy, the angle of incidence, and the mass of the particle. PMID:21218990
Communication: Test of quantum chemistry in vibrationally hot hydrogen molecules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Niu, M. L.; Salumbides, E. J.; Ubachs, W.
2015-08-01
Precision measurements are performed on highly excited vibrational quantum states of molecular hydrogen. The v = 12, J = 0 - 3 rovibrational levels of H2 ( X 1 Σg + ), lying only 2000 cm-1 below the first dissociation limit, were populated by photodissociation of H2S and their level energies were accurately determined by two-photon Doppler-free spectroscopy. A comparison between the experimental results on v = 12 level energies with the best ab initio calculations shows a good agreement, where the present experimental accuracy of 3.5 × 10-3 cm-1 is more precise than theory, hence providing a gateway to further test theoretical advances in this benchmark quantum system.
On the passive probing of fiber optic quantum communication channels
Korol'kov, A. V.; Katamadze, K. G.; Kulik, S. P.; Molotkov, S. N.
2010-04-15
Avalanche photodetectors based on InGaAs:P are the most sensitive and only detectors operating in the telecommunication wavelength range 1.30-1.55 {mu}m in the fiber optic quantum cryptography systems that can operate in the single photon count mode. In contrast to the widely used silicon photodetectors for wavelengths up to 1 {mu}m operating in a waiting mode, these detectors always operate in a gated mode. The production of an electron-hole pair in the process of the absorption of a photon and the subsequent appearance of an avalanche of carriers can be accompanied by the inverse processes of the recombination and emission of photons. Such a backward emission can present a potential serious problem for the stability of fiber optic quantum cryptography systems against passive probing. The results of analyzing the detection of backscattered radiation are reported. The probability of such an emission has been estimated.
Number-theoretic nature of communication in quantum spin systems.
Godsil, Chris; Kirkland, Stephen; Severini, Simone; Smith, Jamie
2012-08-01
The last decade has witnessed substantial interest in protocols for transferring information on networks of quantum mechanical objects. A variety of control methods and network topologies have been proposed, on the basis that transfer with perfect fidelity-i.e., deterministic and without information loss-is impossible through unmodulated spin chains with more than a few particles. Solving the original problem formulated by Bose [Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 207901 (2003)], we determine the exact number of qubits in unmodulated chains (with an XY Hamiltonian) that permit transfer with a fidelity arbitrarily close to 1, a phenomenon called pretty good state transfer. We prove that this happens if and only if the number of nodes is n = p - 1, 2p - 1, where p is a prime, or n = 2(m) - 1. The result highlights the potential of quantum spin system dynamics for reinterpreting questions about the arithmetic structure of integers and, in this case, primality. PMID:23006153
Farouk, Ahmed; Zakaria, Magdy; Megahed, Adel; Omara, Fatma A
2015-01-01
In this paper, we generalize a secured direct communication process between N users with partial and full cooperation of quantum server. So, N - 1 disjointed users u1, u2, …, uN-1 can transmit a secret message of classical bits to a remote user uN by utilizing the property of dense coding and Pauli unitary transformations. The authentication process between the quantum server and the users are validated by EPR entangled pair and CNOT gate. Afterwards, the remained EPR will generate shared GHZ states which are used for directly transmitting the secret message. The partial cooperation process indicates that N - 1 users can transmit a secret message directly to a remote user uN through a quantum channel. Furthermore, N - 1 users and a remote user uN can communicate without an established quantum channel among them by a full cooperation process. The security analysis of authentication and communication processes against many types of attacks proved that the attacker cannot gain any information during intercepting either authentication or communication processes. Hence, the security of transmitted message among N users is ensured as the attacker introduces an error probability irrespective of the sequence of measurement. PMID:26577473
Farouk, Ahmed; Zakaria, Magdy; Megahed, Adel; Omara, Fatma A.
2015-01-01
In this paper, we generalize a secured direct communication process between N users with partial and full cooperation of quantum server. So, N − 1 disjointed users u1, u2, …, uN−1 can transmit a secret message of classical bits to a remote user uN by utilizing the property of dense coding and Pauli unitary transformations. The authentication process between the quantum server and the users are validated by EPR entangled pair and CNOT gate. Afterwards, the remained EPR will generate shared GHZ states which are used for directly transmitting the secret message. The partial cooperation process indicates that N − 1 users can transmit a secret message directly to a remote user uN through a quantum channel. Furthermore, N − 1 users and a remote user uN can communicate without an established quantum channel among them by a full cooperation process. The security analysis of authentication and communication processes against many types of attacks proved that the attacker cannot gain any information during intercepting either authentication or communication processes. Hence, the security of transmitted message among N users is ensured as the attacker introduces an error probability irrespective of the sequence of measurement. PMID:26577473
Man-in-the-middle attack on quantum secure communications with authentication
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Tzu Han; Hwang, Tzonelish
2014-04-01
This study points out a man-in-the-middle (MIM) attack on many of quantum secure communication with authentication protocols. The MIM attack is due to a design carelessness on performing public discussions on a nonauthenticated classical channel. A possible solution is proposed to solve the problem.
Comment on 'Secure direct communication with a quantum one-time pad'
Hoffmann, Holger; Bostroem, Kim; Felbinger, Timo
2005-07-15
In the paper [Phys. Rev. A 69, 052319 (2004)], a quantum direct communication protocol is proposed which is claimed to be unconditionally secure even for the case of a noisy channel. We show that this is not the case by giving an undetectable attack scheme.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gupta, Manish Kumar; Dowling, Jonathan P.
2015-05-01
We propose a noble method for multiplexing OAM states to increase bandwidth of communication in a birefringent single-mode optical fiber for quantum communication and QKD applications by minimizing the decoherence. We analytically derive and show that the rate of decoherence for OAM state in a birefringent optical fiber is proportional to l2. We also show numerically that decoherence can be minimized with CPMG pulse sequence to preserve the state with > 90 % fidelity for smaller values of l to allow for high-bandwidth communication. Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803, USA.
Entanglement distillation for quantum communication network with atomic-ensemble memories.
Li, Tao; Yang, Guo-Jian; Deng, Fu-Guo
2014-10-01
Atomic ensembles are effective memory nodes for quantum communication network due to the long coherence time and the collective enhancement effect for the nonlinear interaction between an ensemble and a photon. Here we investigate the possibility of achieving the entanglement distillation for nonlocal atomic ensembles by the input-output process of a single photon as a result of cavity quantum electrodynamics. We give an optimal entanglement concentration protocol (ECP) for two-atomic-ensemble systems in a partially entangled pure state with known parameters and an efficient ECP for the systems in an unknown partially entangled pure state with a nondestructive parity-check detector (PCD). For the systems in a mixed entangled state, we introduce an entanglement purification protocol with PCDs. These entanglement distillation protocols have high fidelity and efficiency with current experimental techniques, and they are useful for quantum communication network with atomic-ensemble memories. PMID:25321967
FAST TRACK COMMUNICATION: Quantum anomalies and linear response theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sela, Itamar; Aisenberg, James; Kottos, Tsampikos; Cohen, Doron
2010-08-01
The analysis of diffusive energy spreading in quantized chaotic driven systems leads to a universal paradigm for the emergence of a quantum anomaly. In the classical approximation, a driven chaotic system exhibits stochastic-like diffusion in energy space with a coefficient D that is proportional to the intensity ɛ2 of the driving. In the corresponding quantized problem the coherent transitions are characterized by a generalized Wigner time tɛ, and a self-generated (intrinsic) dephasing process leads to nonlinear dependence of D on ɛ2.
Non-Markovian effects on quantum-communication protocols
Yeo, Ye; Oh, C. H.; An, Jun-Hong
2010-09-15
We show how, under the influence of non-Markovian environments, two different maximally entangled Bell states give rise to states that have equal classical correlations and the same capacities to violate the Bell-Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality, but intriguingly differing usefulness for teleportation and dense coding. We elucidate how different entanglement measures like negativity and concurrence, and two different measures of quantum discord, could account for these behaviors. In particular, we explicitly show how the Ollivier-Zurek measure of discord directly accounts for one state being a better resource for dense coding compared to another. Our study leads to several important issues about these measures of discord.
Secure communications with low-orbit spacecraft using quantum cryptography
Hughes, Richard J.; Buttler, William T.; Kwiat, Paul G.; Luther, Gabriel G.; Morgan, George L; Nordholt, Jane E.; Peterson, Charles G.; Simmons, Charles M.
1999-01-01
Apparatus and method for secure communication between an earth station and spacecraft. A laser outputs single pulses that are split into preceding bright pulses and delayed attenuated pulses, and polarized. A Pockels cell changes the polarization of the polarized delayed attenuated pulses according to a string of random numbers, a first polarization representing a "1," and a second polarization representing a "0." At the receiving station, a beamsplitter randomly directs the preceding bright pulses and the polarized delayed attenuated pulses onto longer and shorter paths, both terminating in a beamsplitter which directs the preceding bright pulses and a first portion of the polarized delayed attenuated pulses to a first detector, and a second portion of the polarized delayed attenuated pulses to a second detector to generate a key for secure communication between the earth station and the spacecraft.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thapliyal, Kishore; Pathak, Anirban
2015-07-01
Recently, several aspects of controlled quantum communication (e.g., bidirectional controlled state teleportation, controlled quantum secure direct communication, controlled quantum dialogue, etc.) have been studied using -qubit entanglement. Specially, a large number of schemes for bidirectional controlled state teleportation are proposed using -qubit entanglement . Here, we propose a set of protocols to illustrate that it is possible to realize all these tasks related to controlled quantum communication using only Bell states and permutation of particles. As the generation and maintenance of a Bell state is much easier than a multi-partite entanglement, the proposed strategy has a clear advantage over the existing proposals. Further, it is shown that all the schemes proposed here may be viewed as applications of the concept of quantum cryptographic switch which was recently introduced by some of us. The performances of the proposed protocols as subjected to the amplitude damping and phase damping noise on the channels are also discussed.
Detecting relay attacks on RFID communication systems using quantum bits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jannati, Hoda; Ardeshir-Larijani, Ebrahim
2016-08-01
RFID systems became widespread in variety of applications because of their simplicity in manufacturing and usability. In the province of critical infrastructure protection, RFID systems are usually employed to identify and track people, objects and vehicles that enter restricted areas. The most important vulnerability which is prevalent among all protocols employed in RFID systems is against relay attacks. Until now, to protect RFID systems against this kind of attack, the only approach is the utilization of distance-bounding protocols which are not applicable over low-cost devices such as RFID passive tags. This work presents a novel technique using emerging quantum technologies to detect relay attacks on RFID systems. Recently, it is demonstrated that quantum key distribution (QKD) can be implemented in a client-server scheme where client only requires an on-chip polarization rotator that may be integrated into a handheld device. Now we present our technique for a tag-reader scenario which needs similar resources as the mentioned QKD scheme. We argue that our technique requires less resources and provides lower probability of false alarm for the system, compared with distance-bounding protocols, and may pave the way to enhance the security of current RFID systems.
Non-Markovianity and reservoir memory of quantum channels: a quantum information theory perspective
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bylicka, B.; Chruściński, D.; Maniscalco, S.
2014-07-01
Quantum technologies rely on the ability to coherently transfer information encoded in quantum states along quantum channels. Decoherence induced by the environment sets limits on the efficiency of any quantum-enhanced protocol. Generally, the longer a quantum channel is the worse its capacity is. We show that for non-Markovian quantum channels this is not always true: surprisingly the capacity of a longer channel can be greater than of a shorter one. We introduce a general theoretical framework linking non-Markovianity to the capacities of quantum channels and demonstrate how harnessing non-Markovianity may improve the efficiency of quantum information processing and communication.
Aerospace laser communications technology as enabler for worldwide quantum key distribution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moll, Florian; Weinfurter, Harald; Rau, Markus; Schmidt, Christopher; Melén, Gwen; Vogl, Tobias; Nauerth, Sebastian; Fuchs, Christian
2016-04-01
A worldwide growing interest in fast and secure data communications pushes technology development along two lines. While fast communications can be realized using laser communications in fiber and free-space, inherently secure communications can be achieved using quantum key distribution (QKD). By combining both technologies in a single device, many synergies can be exploited, therefore reducing size, weight and power of future systems. In recent experiments we demonstrated quantum communications over large distances as well as between an aircraft and a ground station which proved the feasibility of QKD between moving partners. Satellites thus may be used as trusted nodes in combination with QKD receiver stations on ground, thereby enabling fast and secure communications on a global scale. We discuss the previous experiment with emphasis on necessary developments to be done and corresponding ongoing research work of German Aerospace Center (DLR) and Ludwig Maximilians University Munich (LMU). DLR is performing research on satellite and ground terminals for the high-rate laser communication component, which are enabling technologies for the QKD link. We describe the concept and hardware of three generations of OSIRIS (Optical High Speed Infrared Link System) laser communication terminals for low Earth orbiting satellites. The first type applies laser beam pointing solely based on classical satellite control, the second uses an optical feedback to the satellite bus and the third, currently being in design phase, comprises of a special coarse pointing assembly to control beam direction independent of satellite orientation. Ongoing work also targets optical terminals for CubeSats. A further increase of beam pointing accuracy can be achieved with a fine pointing assembly. Two ground stations will be available for future testing, an advanced stationary ground station and a transportable ground station. In parallel the LMU QKD source size will be reduced by more than an
Video Encryption and Decryption on Quantum Computers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yan, Fei; Iliyasu, Abdullah M.; Venegas-Andraca, Salvador E.; Yang, Huamin
2015-08-01
A method for video encryption and decryption on quantum computers is proposed based on color information transformations on each frame encoding the content of the encoding the content of the video. The proposed method provides a flexible operation to encrypt quantum video by means of the quantum measurement in order to enhance the security of the video. To validate the proposed approach, a tetris tile-matching puzzle game video is utilized in the experimental simulations. The results obtained suggest that the proposed method enhances the security and speed of quantum video encryption and decryption, both properties required for secure transmission and sharing of video content in quantum communication.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zimmermann, Tomáš; Vaníček, Jiří
2010-06-01
We propose an approximate method for evaluating the importance of non-Born-Oppenheimer effects on the quantum dynamics of nuclei. The method uses a generalization of the dephasing representation (DR) of quantum fidelity to several diabatic potential energy surfaces and its computational cost is the cost of dynamics of a classical phase space distribution. It can be implemented easily into any molecular dynamics program and also can utilize on-the-fly ab initio electronic structure information. We test the methodology on three model problems introduced by Tully and on the photodissociation of NaI. The results show that for dynamics close to the diabatic limit, the decay of fidelity due to nondiabatic effects is described accurately by the DR. In this regime, unlike the mixed quantum-classical methods such as surface hopping or Ehrenfest dynamics, the DR can capture more subtle quantum effects than the population transfer between potential energy surfaces. Hence we propose using the DR to estimate the dynamical importance of diabatic, spin-orbit, or other couplings between potential energy surfaces. The acquired information can help reduce the complexity of a studied system without affecting the accuracy of the quantum simulation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cooney, Tom; Mosonyi, Milán; Wilde, Mark M.
2016-06-01
This paper studies the difficulty of discriminating between an arbitrary quantum channel and a "replacer" channel that discards its input and replaces it with a fixed state. The results obtained here generalize those known in the theory of quantum hypothesis testing for binary state discrimination. We show that, in this particular setting, the most general adaptive discrimination strategies provide no asymptotic advantage over non-adaptive tensor-power strategies. This conclusion follows by proving a quantum Stein's lemma for this channel discrimination setting, showing that a constant bound on the Type I error leads to the Type II error decreasing to zero exponentially quickly at a rate determined by the maximum relative entropy registered between the channels. The strong converse part of the lemma states that any attempt to make the Type II error decay to zero at a rate faster than the channel relative entropy implies that the Type I error necessarily converges to one. We then refine this latter result by identifying the optimal strong converse exponent for this task. As a consequence of these results, we can establish a strong converse theorem for the quantum-feedback-assisted capacity of a channel, sharpening a result due to Bowen. Furthermore, our channel discrimination result demonstrates the asymptotic optimality of a non-adaptive tensor-power strategy in the setting of quantum illumination, as was used in prior work on the topic. The sandwiched Rényi relative entropy is a key tool in our analysis. Finally, by combining our results with recent results of Hayashi and Tomamichel, we find a novel operational interpretation of the mutual information of a quantum channel {mathcal{N}} as the optimal Type II error exponent when discriminating between a large number of independent instances of {mathcal{N}} and an arbitrary "worst-case" replacer channel chosen from the set of all replacer channels.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cooney, Tom; Mosonyi, Milán; Wilde, Mark M.
2016-05-01
This paper studies the difficulty of discriminating between an arbitrary quantum channel and a "replacer" channel that discards its input and replaces it with a fixed state. The results obtained here generalize those known in the theory of quantum hypothesis testing for binary state discrimination. We show that, in this particular setting, the most general adaptive discrimination strategies provide no asymptotic advantage over non-adaptive tensor-power strategies. This conclusion follows by proving a quantum Stein's lemma for this channel discrimination setting, showing that a constant bound on the Type I error leads to the Type II error decreasing to zero exponentially quickly at a rate determined by the maximum relative entropy registered between the channels. The strong converse part of the lemma states that any attempt to make the Type II error decay to zero at a rate faster than the channel relative entropy implies that the Type I error necessarily converges to one. We then refine this latter result by identifying the optimal strong converse exponent for this task. As a consequence of these results, we can establish a strong converse theorem for the quantum-feedback-assisted capacity of a channel, sharpening a result due to Bowen. Furthermore, our channel discrimination result demonstrates the asymptotic optimality of a non-adaptive tensor-power strategy in the setting of quantum illumination, as was used in prior work on the topic. The sandwiched Rényi relative entropy is a key tool in our analysis. Finally, by combining our results with recent results of Hayashi and Tomamichel, we find a novel operational interpretation of the mutual information of a quantum channel {{N}} as the optimal Type II error exponent when discriminating between a large number of independent instances of {{N}} and an arbitrary "worst-case" replacer channel chosen from the set of all replacer channels.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tan, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Xiaoqian
2016-05-01
We propose two controlled quantum secure communication schemes by entanglement distillation or generalized measurement. The sender Alice, the receiver Bob and the controllers David and Cliff take part in the whole schemes. The supervisors David and Cliff can control the information transmitted from Alice to Bob by adjusting the local measurement angles θ _4 and θ _3. Bob can verify his secret information by classical one-way function after communication. The average amount of information is analyzed and compared for these two methods by MATLAB. The generalized measurement is a better scheme. Our schemes are secure against some well-known attacks because classical encryption and decoy states are used to ensure the security of the classical channel and the quantum channel.
Continuous-variable quantum-state sharing via quantum disentanglement
Lance, Andrew M.; Symul, Thomas; Lam, Ping Koy; Bowen, Warwick P.; Sanders, Barry C.; Tyc, Tomas; Ralph, T.C.
2005-03-01
Quantum-state sharing is a protocol where perfect reconstruction of quantum states is achieved with incomplete or partial information in a multipartite quantum network. Quantum-state sharing allows for secure communication in a quantum network where partial information is lost or acquired by malicious parties. This protocol utilizes entanglement for the secret-state distribution and a class of 'quantum disentangling' protocols for the state reconstruction. We demonstrate a quantum-state sharing protocol in which a tripartite entangled state is used to encode and distribute a secret state to three players. Any two of these players can collaborate to reconstruct the secret state, while individual players obtain no information. We investigate a number of quantum disentangling processes and experimentally demonstrate quantum-state reconstruction using two of these protocols. We experimentally measure a fidelity, averaged over all reconstruction permutations, of F=0.73{+-}0.02. A result achievable only by using quantum resources.
Cryptanalysis of Quantum Secure Direct Communication and Authentication Scheme via Bell States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gao, Fei; Qin, Su-Juan; Guo, Fen-Zhuo; Wen, Qiao-Yan
2011-02-01
The security of the quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) and authentication protocol based on Bell states is analyzed. It is shown that an eavesdropper can invalidate the authentication function, and implement a successful man-in-the-middle attack, where he/she can obtain or even modify the transmitted secret without introducing any error. The particular attack strategy is demonstrated and an improved protocol is presented.
Comment on "Quantum Secure Direct Communication with Authentication Expansion Using Single Photons"
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Yu-Guang; Jia, Xin; Xia, Juan; Shi, Lei; Zhang, Hua
2012-12-01
The security of the quantum secure direct communication protocol with authentication expansion using single photons is analyzed. It is shown that an eavesdropper can obtain or even modify the transmitted secret without introducing any error by implementing a simple man-in-the-middle attack after the authentication is successfully carried out. Furthermore, a denial-of-service attack is also discussed. The particular attack strategy is demonstrated and an improved protocol is presented.
Quantum direct communication protocol strengthening against Pavičić’s attack
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Bo; Shi, Wei-Xu; Wang, Jian; Tang, Chao-Jing
2015-12-01
A quantum circuit providing an undetectable eavesdropping of information in message mode, which compromises all two-state ψ-ϕ quantum direct communication (QDC) protocols, has been recently proposed by Pavičić [Phys. Rev. A 87 (2013) 042326]. A modification of the protocol’s control mode is proposed, which improves users’ 25% detection probability of Eve to 50% at best, as that in ping-pong protocol. The modification also improves the detection probability of Wójcik’s attack [Phys. Rev. Lett 90 (2003) 157901] to 75% at best. The resistance against man-in-the-middle (MITM) attack as well as the discussion of security for four Bell state protocols is presented. As a result, the protocol security is strengthened both theoretically and practically, and quantum advantage of superdense coding is restored.
Quantum Limits of Space-to-Ground Optical Communications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hemmati, H.; Dolinar, S.
2012-01-01
For a pure loss channel, the ultimate capacity can be achieved with classical coherent states (i.e., ideal laser light): (1) Capacity-achieving receiver (measurement) is yet to be determined. (2) Heterodyne detection approaches the ultimate capacity at high mean photon numbers. (3) Photon-counting approaches the ultimate capacity at low mean photon numbers. A number of current technology limits drive the achievable performance of free-space communication links. Approaching fundamental limits in the bandwidth-limited regime: (1) Heterodyne detection with high-order coherent-state modulation approaches ultimate limits. SOA improvements to laser phase noise, adaptive optics systems for atmospheric transmission would help. (2) High-order intensity modulation and photon-counting can approach heterodyne detection within approximately a factor of 2. This may have advantages over coherent detection in the presence of turbulence. Approaching fundamental limits in the photon-limited regime (1) Low-duty cycle binary coherent-state modulation (OOK, PPM) approaches ultimate limits. SOA improvements to laser extinction ratio, receiver dark noise, jitter, and blocking would help. (2) In some link geometries (near field links) number-state transmission could improve over coherent-state transmission
Communication via the statistics of photon-number squeezed light.
Paramanandam, Joshua; Parker, Michael A
2005-06-17
A method of communication employing the second order statistics of photon-number squeezed light is demonstrated. The technique encodes the information content in both nonstationary noise processes and in the average optical power, thereby creating two orthogonal channels and increasing the transmission capacity. Communication via the fragile quantum state has potential applications for privatized communication. PMID:16090471
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pal, Amrindra; Kumar, Santosh; Sharma, Sandeep; Raghuwanshi, Sanjeev K.
2016-04-01
Encoder is a device that allows placing digital information from many inputs to many outputs. Any application of combinational logic circuit can be implemented by using encoder and external gates. In this paper, 4 to 2 line encoder is proposed using electro-optic effect inside lithium-niobate based Mach-Zehnder interferometers (MZIs). The MZI structures have powerful capability to switching an optical input signal to a desired output port. The paper constitutes a mathematical description of the proposed device and thereafter simulation using MATLAB. The study is verified using beam propagation method (BPM).
Experimental demonstration of graph-state quantum secret sharing.
Bell, B A; Markham, D; Herrera-Martí, D A; Marin, A; Wadsworth, W J; Rarity, J G; Tame, M S
2014-01-01
Quantum communication and computing offer many new opportunities for information processing in a connected world. Networks using quantum resources with tailor-made entanglement structures have been proposed for a variety of tasks, including distributing, sharing and processing information. Recently, a class of states known as graph states has emerged, providing versatile quantum resources for such networking tasks. Here we report an experimental demonstration of graph state-based quantum secret sharing--an important primitive for a quantum network with applications ranging from secure money transfer to multiparty quantum computation. We use an all-optical setup, encoding quantum information into photons representing a five-qubit graph state. We find that one can reliably encode, distribute and share quantum information amongst four parties, with various access structures based on the complex connectivity of the graph. Our results show that graph states are a promising approach for realising sophisticated multi-layered communication protocols in quantum networks. PMID:25413490
Experimental demonstration of graph-state quantum secret sharing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bell, B. A.; Markham, D.; Herrera-Martí, D. A.; Marin, A.; Wadsworth, W. J.; Rarity, J. G.; Tame, M. S.
2014-11-01
Quantum communication and computing offer many new opportunities for information processing in a connected world. Networks using quantum resources with tailor-made entanglement structures have been proposed for a variety of tasks, including distributing, sharing and processing information. Recently, a class of states known as graph states has emerged, providing versatile quantum resources for such networking tasks. Here we report an experimental demonstration of graph state-based quantum secret sharing—an important primitive for a quantum network with applications ranging from secure money transfer to multiparty quantum computation. We use an all-optical setup, encoding quantum information into photons representing a five-qubit graph state. We find that one can reliably encode, distribute and share quantum information amongst four parties, with various access structures based on the complex connectivity of the graph. Our results show that graph states are a promising approach for realising sophisticated multi-layered communication protocols in quantum networks.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Datta, Nilanjana; Hsieh, Min-Hsiu; Oppenheim, Jonathan
2016-05-01
State redistribution is the protocol in which given an arbitrary tripartite quantum state, with two of the subsystems initially being with Alice and one being with Bob, the goal is for Alice to send one of her subsystems to Bob, possibly with the help of prior shared entanglement. We derive an upper bound on the second order asymptotic expansion for the quantum communication cost of achieving state redistribution with a given finite accuracy. In proving our result, we also obtain an upper bound on the quantum communication cost of this protocol in the one-shot setting, by using the protocol of coherent state merging as a primitive.
Sathe, Tushar R; Agrawal, Amit; Nie, Shuming
2006-08-15
Mesoporous beads are promising materials for embedding functional nanoparticles because of their nanometer-sized pores and large surface areas. Here we report the development of silica microbeads embedded with both semiconductor quantum dots (QD) and iron oxide (Fe3O4) nanocrystals as a new class of dual-function carriers for optical encoding and magnetic separation. The embedding (doping) process is carried out by either simultaneous or sequential addition of quantum dots and iron oxide (Fe3O4) nanocrystals in solution. The doping process is fast and quantitative, but the incorporated iron oxide strongly attenuates the signal intensity of QD fluorescence. We find that this attenuation is not due to conventional fluorescence quenching but is caused by the broad optical absorption spectrum of mixed-valence Fe3O4. For improved biocompatibility and reduced nonspecific binding, the encoded beads are further coated with amphiphilic polymers such as octylamine poly(acrylic acid). The results indicate that the polymer-coated beads are well suited for target capturing and enrichment, yielding magnetic separation efficiencies higher than 99%. By combining the multiplexing capability of QDs with the superparamagnetic properties of iron oxide nanocrystals, this class of encoded beads is expected to find broad applications in high-throughput and multiplexed biomolecular assays. PMID:16906704
Quantum key distribution without sending a quantum signal
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ralph, T. C.; Walk, N.
2015-06-01
Quantum Key Distribution is a quantum communication technique in which random numbers are encoded on quantum systems, usually photons, and sent from one party, Alice, to another, Bob. Using the data sent via the quantum signals, supplemented by classical communication, it is possible for Alice and Bob to share an unconditionally secure secret key. This is not possible if only classical signals are sent. While this last statement is a long standing result from quantum information theory it turns out only to be true in a non-relativistic setting. If relativistic quantum field theory is considered we show it is possible to distribute an unconditionally secure secret key without sending a quantum signal, instead harnessing the intrinsic entanglement between different regions of space-time. The protocol is practical in free space given horizon technology and might be testable in principle in the near term using microwave technology.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adesso, Gerardo; Serafini, Alessio; Illuminati, Fabrizio
2007-03-01
We present a novel, detailed study on the usefulness of three-mode Gaussian states for realistic processing of continuous variable (CV) quantum information, with a particular emphasis on the possibilities opened up by their genuine tripartite entanglement. We describe practical schemes to engineer several classes of pure and mixed three-mode states that stand out for their informational and/or entanglement properties. In particular, we introduce a simple procedure—based on passive optical elements—to produce pure three-mode Gaussian states with arbitrary entanglement structure (upon availability of an initial two-mode squeezed state). We analyse in depth the properties of distributed entanglement and the origin of its sharing structure, showing that the promiscuity of entanglement sharing is a feature peculiar to symmetric Gaussian states that survives even in the presence of significant degrees of mixedness and decoherence. Next, we discuss the suitability of the considered tripartite entangled states to the implementation of quantum information and communication protocols with CVs. This will lead to a feasible experimental proposal to test the promiscuous sharing of CV tripartite entanglement, in terms of the optimal fidelity of teleportation networks with Gaussian resources. We finally focus on the application of three-mode states to symmetric and asymmetric telecloning, and single out the structural properties of the optimal Gaussian resources for the latter protocol in different settings. Our analysis aims to lay the basis for a practical quantum communication with CVs beyond the bipartite scenario.
Entanglement-assisted quantum convolutional coding
Wilde, Mark M.; Brun, Todd A.
2010-04-15
We show how to protect a stream of quantum information from decoherence induced by a noisy quantum communication channel. We exploit preshared entanglement and a convolutional coding structure to develop a theory of entanglement-assisted quantum convolutional coding. Our construction produces a Calderbank-Shor-Steane (CSS) entanglement-assisted quantum convolutional code from two arbitrary classical binary convolutional codes. The rate and error-correcting properties of the classical convolutional codes directly determine the corresponding properties of the resulting entanglement-assisted quantum convolutional code. We explain how to encode our CSS entanglement-assisted quantum convolutional codes starting from a stream of information qubits, ancilla qubits, and shared entangled bits.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Zhi-Hao; Chen, Han-Wu
2016-08-01
The security of quantum broadcast communication (QBC) and authentication protocol based on Greenberger–Horne–Zeilinger (GHZ) state and quantum one-time pad is analyzed. It is shown that there are some security issues in this protocol. Firstly, an external eavesdropper can take the intercept–measure–resend attack strategy to eavesdrop on 0.369 bit of every bit of the identity string of each receiver without being detected. Meanwhile, 0.524 bit of every bit of the secret message can be eavesdropped on without being detected. Secondly, an inner receiver can take the intercept–measure–resend attack strategy to eavesdrop on half of the identity string of the other’s definitely without being checked. In addition, an alternative attack called the CNOT-operation attack is discussed. As for the multi-party QBC protocol, the attack efficiency increases with the increase of the number of users. Finally, the QBC protocol is improved to a secure one. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61502101 and 61170321), the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province, China (Grant No. BK20140651), the Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education, China (Grant No. 20110092110024), and the Project Funded by PAPD and CICAEET.
Ultrafast superconducting single-photon detectors for infrared wavelength quantum communications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Verevkin, Aleksandr A.; Pearlman, Aaron; Slysz, Wojtek; Zhang, Jin; Sobolewski, Roman; Chulkova, Galina; Okunev, Oleg; Kouminov, Pavel; Drakinskij, Vladimir; Smirnov, Konstantin; Kaurova, Natalia; Voronov, Boris; Gol'tsman, Gregory; Currie, Marc
2003-08-01
We have developed a new class of superconducting single-photon detectors (SSPDs) for ultrafast counting of infrared (IR) photons for secure quantum communications. The devices are operated on the quantum detection mechanism, based on the photon-induced hotspot formation and subsequent appearance of a transient resistive barrier across an ultrathin and submicron-wide superconducting stripe. The detectors are fabricated from 3.5-nm-thick NbN films and they operate at 4.2 K inside a closed-cycle refrigerator or liquid helium cryostat. Various continuous and pulsed laser sources have been used in our experiments, enabling us to determine the detector experimental quantum efficiency (QE) in the photon-counting mode, response time, time jitter, and dark counts. Our 3.5-nm-thick SSPDs reached QE above 15% for visible light photons and 5% at 1.3 - 1.5 μm infrared range. The measured real-time counting rate was above 2 GHz and was limited by the read-out electronics (intrinsic response time is <30 ps). The measured jitter was <18 ps, and the dark counting rate was <0.01 per second. The measured noise equivalent power (NEP) is 2 x 10-18 W/Hz1/2 at λ = 1.3 μm. In near-infrared range, in terms of the counting rate, jitter, dark counts, and overall sensitivity, the NbN SSPDs significantly outperform their semiconductor counterparts. An ultrafast quantum cryptography communication technology based on SSPDs is proposed and discussed.
Time-bin entangled qubits for quantum communication created by femtosecond pulses
Marcikic, I.; Riedmatten, H. de; Scarani, V.; Zbinden, H.; Gisin, N.; Tittel, W.
2002-12-01
We create pairs of nondegenerate time-bin entangled photons at telecom wavelengths with ultrashort pump pulses. Entanglement is shown by performing Bell kind tests of the Franson type with visibilities of up to 91%. As time-bin entanglement can easily be protected from decoherence as encountered in optical fibers, this experiment opens the road for complex quantum communication protocols over long distances. We also investigate the creation of more than one photon pair in a laser pulse and present a simple tool to quantify the probability of such events to happen.
A revised controlled deterministic secure quantum communication with five-photon entangled state
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiu, Xiao-Ming; Dong, Li; Gao, Ya-Jun; Chi, Feng; Ren, Yuan-Peng; Liu, Hui-Wei
2010-01-01
A revised controlled deterministic secure quantum communication protocol using five-photon entangled state is proposed. It amends the security loopholes pointed by Qin et al. in [S.J. Qin, Q.Y. Wen, L.M. Meng, F.C. Zhu, Opt. Commun. 282 (2009) 2656] in the original protocol proposed by Xiu et al. in [X.M. Xiu, L. Dong, Y.J. Gao, F. Chi, Opt. Commun. 282 (2009) 333]. The security loopholes are solved by using order rearrangement of transmission photons and two-step security test.
Information leakage in three-party simultaneous quantum secure direct communication with EPR pairs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Lian-Ying; Chen, Xiu-Bo; Xu, Gang; Yang, Yi-Xian
2011-04-01
In 2007, Wang et al. [M. Y. Wang and F. L. Yan, Chin. Phys. Lett. 24 (2007) 2486] proposed a three-party simultaneous quantum secure direct communication (3P-SQSDC) scheme with EPR pairs. Recently, Chong et al. [S. K. Chong and T. Hwang, Opt. Commun. OPTICS-15438 (2010(online))] proposed an enhancement on Wang et al.'s scheme. The communications in Chong et al.'s 3P-SQSDC can be paralleled and thus their scheme has higher efficiency. However, we find that both of the schemes have the information leakage, because the legitimate parties' secret messages have a strong correlation. This kind of security loophole leads to the consequence that any eavesdropper (Eve) can directly conjecture some information about the secrets without any active attack.
Quantum phase communication channels in the presence of static and dynamical phase diffusion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Trapani, Jacopo; Teklu, Berihu; Olivares, Stefano; Paris, Matteo G. A.
2015-07-01
We address quantum communication channels based on phase modulation of coherent states and analyze in detail the effects of static and dynamical (stochastic) phase diffusion. We evaluate mutual information for an ideal phase receiver and for a covariant phase-space-based receiver, and compare their performances by varying the number of symbols in the alphabet and/or the overall energy of the channel. Our results show that phase communication channels are generally robust against phase noise, especially for large alphabets in the low-energy regime. In the presence of dynamical (non-Markovian) noise the mutual information is preserved by the time correlation of the environment, and when the noise spectra are detuned with respect to the information carrier, revivals of mutual information appear.
Structure of local quantum operations and classical communication: Finite versus infinite rounds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cohen, Scott M.
2015-04-01
Every measurement that can be implemented by local quantum operations and classical communication (LOCC) using an infinite number of rounds is the limit of a sequence of measurements, where each measurement in the sequence requires only a finite number of rounds. This rather obvious and well-known fact is nonetheless of interest as it shows that these infinite-round measurements can be approximated arbitrarily closely simply by using more and more rounds of communication. Here we demonstrate the perhaps less obvious result that (at least) for bipartite systems, the reverse relationship also holds. Specifically, we show that every finite-round bipartite LOCC measurement is the limit of a continuous sequence of LOCC measurements, where each measurement in that sequence can be implemented by LOCC, but only with the use of an infinite number of rounds. Thus, the set of LOCC measurements that require an infinite number of rounds is dense in the entirety of LOCC, as is the set of finite-round LOCC measurements. This means there exist measurements that can only be implemented by LOCC by using an infinite number of rounds, but can nonetheless be approximated closely by using one round of communication, and actually in some cases, no communication is needed at all. These results follow from a necessary condition presented here for finite-round LOCC, which is extremely simple to check, is very easy to prove, and which can be violated by utilizing an infinite number of rounds.
An Extremely Low Power Quantum Optical Communication Link for Autonomous Robotic Explorers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lekki, John; Nguyen, Quang-Viet; Bizon, Tom; Nguyen, Binh; Kojima, Jun
2007-01-01
One concept for planetary exploration involves using many small robotic landers that can cover more ground than a single conventional lander. In addressing this vision, NASA has been challenged in the National Nanotechnology Initiative to research the development of miniature robots built from nano-sized components. These robots have very significant challenges, such as mobility and communication, given the small size and limited power generation capability. The research presented here has been focused on developing a communications system that has the potential for providing ultra-low power communications for robots such as these. In this paper an optical communications technique that is based on transmitting recognizable sets of photons is presented. Previously pairs of photons that have an entangled quantum state have been shown to be recognizable in ambient light. The main drawback to utilizing entangled photons is that they can only be generated through a very energy inefficient nonlinear process. In this paper a new technique that generates sets of photons from pulsed sources is described and an experimental system demonstrating this technique is presented. This technique of generating photon sets from pulsed sources has the distinct advantage in that it is much more flexible and energy efficient, and is well suited to take advantage of the very high energy efficiencies that are possible when using nano scale sources. For these reasons the communication system presented in this paper is well suited for use in very small, low power landers and rovers. In this paper a very low power optical communications system for miniature robots, as small as 1 cu cm is addressed. The communication system is a variant of photon counting communications. Instead of counting individual photons the system only counts the arrival of time coincident sets of photons. Using sets of photons significantly decreases the bit error rate because they are highly identifiable in the
High-performance diamond-based single-photon sources for quantum communication
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Su, Chun-Hsu; Greentree, Andrew D.; Hollenberg, Lloyd C. L.
2009-11-01
Quantum communication places stringent requirements on single-photon sources. Here we report a theoretical study of the cavity Purcell enhancement of two diamond point defects, the nickel-nitrogen (NE8) and silicon-vacancy (SiV) centers, for high-performance, near on-demand single-photon generation. By coupling the centers strongly to high-finesse optical photonic-band-gap cavities with modest quality factor Q=O(104) and small mode volume V=O(λ3) , these system can deliver picosecond single-photon pulses at their zero-phonon lines with probabilities of 0.954 (NE8) and 0.812 (SiV) under a realistic optical excitation scheme. The undesirable blinking effect due to transitions via metastable states can also be suppressed with O(10-4) blinking probability. We analyze the application of these enhanced centers, including the previously studied cavity-enhanced nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center, to long-distance Bennett-Brassard 1984 protocol quantum key distribution (QKD) in fiber-based, open-air terrestrial and satellite-ground setups. In this comparative study, we show that they can deliver performance comparable with decoy state implementation with weak coherent sources, and are most suitable for open-air communication.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Verevkin, A.; Pearlman, A.; Słysz, W.; Zhang, J.; Currie, M.; Korneev, A.; Chulkova, G.; Okunev, O.; Kouminov, P.; Smirnov, K.; Voronov, B.; Gol'Tsman, G. N.; Sobolewski, Roman
2004-09-01
The paper reports progress on the design and development of niobium-nitride, superconducting single-photon detectors (SSPDs) for ultrafast counting of near-infrared photons for secure quantum communications. The SSPDs operate in the quantum detection mode, based on photon-induced hotspot formation and subsequent appearance of a transient resistive barrier across an ultrathin and submicron-width superconducting stripe. The devices are fabricated from 3.5 nm thick NbN films and kept at cryogenic (liquid helium) temperatures inside a cryostat. The detector experimental quantum efficiency in the photon-counting mode reaches above 20% in the visible radiation range and up to 10% at the 1.3-1.55 µm infrared range. The dark counts are below 0.01 per second. The measured real-time counting rate is above 2 GHz and is limited by readout electronics (the intrinsic response time is below 30 ps). The SSPD jitter is below 18 ps, and the best-measured value of the noise-equivalent power (NEP) is 2 × 10-18 W/Hz1/2 at 1.3 µm. In terms of photon-counting efficiency and speed, these NbN SSPDs significantly outperform semiconductor avalanche photodiodes and photomultipliers.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Strauss, Andre
The following essays on communication are presented: communication as a condition of survival, communication for special purposes, the means of transmission of communication, communication within social and economic structures, the teaching of communication through the press, the teaching of modern languages, communication as a point of departure,…
Nikolopoulos, Georgios M.; Ranade, Kedar S.; Alber, Gernot
2006-03-15
We investigate the error tolerance of quantum cryptographic protocols using d-level systems. In particular, we focus on prepare-and-measure schemes that use two mutually unbiased bases and a key-distillation procedure with two-way classical communication. For arbitrary quantum channels, we obtain a sufficient condition for secret-key distillation which, in the case of isotropic quantum channels, yields an analytic expression for the maximally tolerable error rate of the cryptographic protocols under consideration. The difference between the tolerable error rate and its theoretical upper bound tends slowly to zero for sufficiently large dimensions of the information carriers.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Naseri, Mosayeb; Raji, Mehrdad Ahmadzadeh; Hantehzadeh, Mohamad Reza; Farouk, Ahmed; Boochani, Arash; Solaymani, Shahram
2015-11-01
We propose a scheme for a secure message communication network with authentication following the idea in controlled teleportation. In this scheme, the servers of the network provide the service to prepare the entangled states as quantum channels. For preventing the eavesdropping, a security checking method is suggested. After the security check, any two users in the network may communicate securely and directly under the control of the servers on the network.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Zhi-Hao; Chen, Han-Wu; Liu, Wen-Jie
2016-06-01
The information leakage problem in the efficient bidirectional quantum secure direct communication protocol with single photons in both polarization and spatial-mode degrees of freedom is pointed out. Next, a way to revise this protocol to a truly secure one is given. We hope people pay more attention to the information leakage problem in order to design truly secure quantum communication protocols.
Nguyen, Trang; Hossain, Mohammad Arif; Jang, Yeong Min
2016-01-01
This paper presents a modulation scheme in the time domain based on On-Off-Keying and proposes various compatible supports for different types of image sensors. The content of this article is a sub-proposal to the IEEE 802.15.7r1 Task Group (TG7r1) aimed at Optical Wireless Communication (OWC) using an image sensor as the receiver. The compatibility support is indispensable for Image Sensor Communications (ISC) because the rolling shutter image sensors currently available have different frame rates, shutter speeds, sampling rates, and resolutions. However, focusing on unidirectional communications (i.e., data broadcasting, beacons), an asynchronous communication prototype is also discussed in the paper. Due to the physical limitations associated with typical image sensors (including low and varying frame rates, long exposures, and low shutter speeds), the link speed performance is critically considered. Based on the practical measurement of camera response to modulated light, an operating frequency range is suggested along with the similar system architecture, decoding procedure, and algorithms. A significant feature of our novel data frame structure is that it can support both typical frame rate cameras (in the oversampling mode) as well as very low frame rate cameras (in the error detection mode for a camera whose frame rate is lower than the transmission packet rate). A high frame rate camera, i.e., no less than 20 fps, is supported in an oversampling mode in which a majority voting scheme for decoding data is applied. A low frame rate camera, i.e., when the frame rate drops to less than 20 fps at some certain time, is supported by an error detection mode in which any missing data sub-packet is detected in decoding and later corrected by external code. Numerical results and valuable analysis are also included to indicate the capability of the proposed schemes. PMID:27213396
Nguyen, Trang; Hossain, Mohammad Arif; Jang, Yeong Min
2016-01-01
This paper presents a modulation scheme in the time domain based on On-Off-Keying and proposes various compatible supports for different types of image sensors. The content of this article is a sub-proposal to the IEEE 802.15.7r1 Task Group (TG7r1) aimed at Optical Wireless Communication (OWC) using an image sensor as the receiver. The compatibility support is indispensable for Image Sensor Communications (ISC) because the rolling shutter image sensors currently available have different frame rates, shutter speeds, sampling rates, and resolutions. However, focusing on unidirectional communications (i.e., data broadcasting, beacons), an asynchronous communication prototype is also discussed in the paper. Due to the physical limitations associated with typical image sensors (including low and varying frame rates, long exposures, and low shutter speeds), the link speed performance is critically considered. Based on the practical measurement of camera response to modulated light, an operating frequency range is suggested along with the similar system architecture, decoding procedure, and algorithms. A significant feature of our novel data frame structure is that it can support both typical frame rate cameras (in the oversampling mode) as well as very low frame rate cameras (in the error detection mode for a camera whose frame rate is lower than the transmission packet rate). A high frame rate camera, i.e., no less than 20 fps, is supported in an oversampling mode in which a majority voting scheme for decoding data is applied. A low frame rate camera, i.e., when the frame rate drops to less than 20 fps at some certain time, is supported by an error detection mode in which any missing data sub-packet is detected in decoding and later corrected by external code. Numerical results and valuable analysis are also included to indicate the capability of the proposed schemes. PMID:27213396
Quantum coding with finite resources
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tomamichel, Marco; Berta, Mario; Renes, Joseph M.
2016-05-01
The quantum capacity of a memoryless channel determines the maximal rate at which we can communicate reliably over asymptotically many uses of the channel. Here we illustrate that this asymptotic characterization is insufficient in practical scenarios where decoherence severely limits our ability to manipulate large quantum systems in the encoder and decoder. In practical settings, we should instead focus on the optimal trade-off between three parameters: the rate of the code, the size of the quantum devices at the encoder and decoder, and the fidelity of the transmission. We find approximate and exact characterizations of this trade-off for various channels of interest, including dephasing, depolarizing and erasure channels. In each case, the trade-off is parameterized by the capacity and a second channel parameter, the quantum channel dispersion. In the process, we develop several bounds that are valid for general quantum channels and can be computed for small instances.
Quantum coding with finite resources
Tomamichel, Marco; Berta, Mario; Renes, Joseph M.
2016-01-01
The quantum capacity of a memoryless channel determines the maximal rate at which we can communicate reliably over asymptotically many uses of the channel. Here we illustrate that this asymptotic characterization is insufficient in practical scenarios where decoherence severely limits our ability to manipulate large quantum systems in the encoder and decoder. In practical settings, we should instead focus on the optimal trade-off between three parameters: the rate of the code, the size of the quantum devices at the encoder and decoder, and the fidelity of the transmission. We find approximate and exact characterizations of this trade-off for various channels of interest, including dephasing, depolarizing and erasure channels. In each case, the trade-off is parameterized by the capacity and a second channel parameter, the quantum channel dispersion. In the process, we develop several bounds that are valid for general quantum channels and can be computed for small instances. PMID:27156995
Quantum Security for the Physical Layer
Humble, Travis S
2013-01-01
The physical layer describes how communication signals are encoded and transmitted across a channel. Physical security often requires either restricting access to the channel or performing periodic manual inspections. In this tutorial, we describe how the field of quantum communication offers new techniques for securing the physical layer. We describe the use of quantum seals as a unique way to test the integrity and authenticity of a communication channel and to provide security for the physical layer. We present the theoretical and physical underpinnings of quantum seals including the quantum optical encoding used at the transmitter and the test for non-locality used at the receiver. We describe how the envisioned quantum physical sublayer senses tampering and how coordination with higher protocol layers allow quantum seals to influence secure routing or tailor data management methods. We conclude by discussing challenges in the development of quantum seals, the overlap with existing quantum key distribution cryptographic services, and the relevance of a quantum physical sublayer to the future of communication security.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Min; Zhang, Xiaoguang; Zhang, Wenbo; Xi, Lixia; Tang, Xianfeng
2015-08-01
We propose a design of a multi-OAM-modes ring-core fiber with two guided modes regions which possesses relatively large effective index separations required for the vector modes. This fiber can support 28 information states bearing OAM spanning 8 OAM orders with large effective mode area by using polarization multiplexing and both signs of topological charge in the ring region, combined with two degenerate fundamental polarization modes in the core region which can hold the whole C bands. There is a high isolation between the modes in these two regions. These designed features have potential applications in the next generation fiber communication systems either in the quantum domain or in the classical domain.
Triplet singlet spin communication between DNA nucleotides serves the basis for quantum computing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tulub, Alexander A.; Stefanov, Vassily E.
2007-02-01
The nature of spin communication between DNA nucleotide pairs is discussed. The results are based on CIU (2 × 10 6 configurations, 6-311G ∗∗ basis set) quantum chemistry computations at a constant temperature T = 310 K of complementary nucleotide pairs, guanosine-cytidine (G-C) and adenosine-thymidine (A-T) monophosphates, assembled into DNA fragments of different length. Calculations reveal alternation of low energy triplet-singlet (T-S) potential energy surfaces (PESs), assigned to individual nucleotides. In a narrow energy interval these PESs approach, showing repulsion and uncommon crossings. Complementary nucleotide pairing, a result of Watson-Crick hydrogen bonding, produces a global minimum in total energy, coming from the unique crossing between two singlet by nature PESs strictly around 310 K. Interaction between non-complementary nucleotides reveals no minima and points rather to system destabilization. Computations show that regularly organized DNA is a structure of similarly oriented spins along each of its two chains, so that the resultant spin of the whole structure is equal to zero. Disordering in spin structure produces coherent effects, appearing in spin flipping, which serves the basis for constructing DNA-based quantum computing.
Optimal measurements for symmetric quantum states with applications to optical communication
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krovi, Hari; Guha, Saikat; Dutton, Zachary; da Silva, Marcus P.
2015-12-01
The minimum probability of error (MPE) measurement discriminates between a set of candidate quantum states with the minimum average error probability allowed by quantum mechanics. Conditions for a measurement to be MPE were derived by Yuen, Kennedy, and Lax [H. P. Yuen et al., IEEE Trans. Info. Theory IT-21, 125134 (1975)]. MPE measurements have been found for states that form a single orbit under a group action, i.e., there is a transitive group action on the states in the set. For such state sets, termed geometrically uniform (GU) previously, it was shown that the "pretty good measurement" attains the MPE. Even so, evaluating the actual probability of error (and other performance metrics) attained by the pretty good measurement on a GU set involves inverting large matrices and is not easy in general. Our first contribution is a formula for the MPE and conditional probabilities of GU sets, using group representation theory. Next, we consider sets of pure states that have multiple orbits under the group action. Such states are termed compound geometrically uniform (CGU). MPE measurements for general CGU sets are not known. In this paper, we show how our representation-theoretic description of optimal measurements for GU sets naturally generalizes to the CGU case. We show how to compute the MPE measurement for CGU sets by reducing the problem to solving a few simultaneous equations. The number of equations depends on the sizes of the multiplicity space of irreducible representations. For many common group representations (such as those of several practical good linear codes), this is much more tractable than solving large semidefinite programs—which is what is needed to solve the Yuen-Kennedy-Lax conditions numerically for arbitrary state sets. We show how to evaluate MPE measurements for CGU states in some examples relevant to quantum-limited classical optical communication.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sharma, Vishal; Thapliyal, Kishore; Pathak, Anirban; Banerjee, Subhashish
2016-07-01
The effect of noise on various protocols of secure quantum communication has been studied. Specifically, we have investigated the effect of amplitude damping, phase damping, squeezed generalized amplitude damping, Pauli type as well as various collective noise models on the protocols of quantum key distribution, quantum key agreement, quantum secure direct quantum communication and quantum dialogue. From each type of protocol of secure quantum communication, we have chosen two protocols for our comparative study: one based on single-qubit states and the other one on entangled states. The comparative study reported here has revealed that single-qubit-based schemes are generally found to perform better in the presence of amplitude damping, phase damping, squeezed generalized amplitude damping noises, while entanglement-based protocols turn out to be preferable in the presence of collective noises. It is also observed that the effect of noise depends upon the number of rounds of quantum communication involved in a scheme of quantum communication. Further, it is observed that squeezing, a completely quantum mechanical resource present in the squeezed generalized amplitude channel, can be used in a beneficial way as it may yield higher fidelity compared to the corresponding zero squeezing case.
Quantum error correction beyond qubits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aoki, Takao; Takahashi, Go; Kajiya, Tadashi; Yoshikawa, Jun-Ichi; Braunstein, Samuel L.; van Loock, Peter; Furusawa, Akira
2009-08-01
Quantum computation and communication rely on the ability to manipulate quantum states robustly and with high fidelity. To protect fragile quantum-superposition states from corruption through so-called decoherence noise, some form of error correction is needed. Therefore, the discovery of quantum error correction (QEC) was a key step to turn the field of quantum information from an academic curiosity into a developing technology. Here, we present an experimental implementation of a QEC code for quantum information encoded in continuous variables, based on entanglement among nine optical beams. This nine-wave-packet adaptation of Shor's original nine-qubit scheme enables, at least in principle, full quantum error correction against an arbitrary single-beam error.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Qing; Huang, Yongmei; Ren, Jigang
2014-08-01
Free-Space Quantum Communication(FSQC) based on the BB84(Bennett-Brassard 1984) protocol makes use of two groups of conjugate basis polarized photon as the carriers of information to realize the communication between a satelits and a group station. Polarization would show some problems like the contrast of polarization to be worser and the polarization-basis unmatched when transfering. In order to achieve the BB84 protocol, ground station needed to track and calibrate for the polarization zero direction of the satellite equipments. So the polarization maintaining and polarization-basis calibrating is one of the key technologies of the FSQC system. Firstly, this paper established the mathematical model of polarization in the FSQC system, and then derived the mathematical relation between the contrast of polarization and the phase delay in theory. Some proposals of Optical System designs have been suggested in the paper. Finally the problem of dynamic polarization-basis in the satellite-ground link had been analysed and the dynamic characteristic of the deviation angle of polarization-basis in this paper.
Quantum information. Unconditional quantum teleportation between distant solid-state quantum bits.
Pfaff, W; Hensen, B J; Bernien, H; van Dam, S B; Blok, M S; Taminiau, T H; Tiggelman, M J; Schouten, R N; Markham, M; Twitchen, D J; Hanson, R
2014-08-01
Realizing robust quantum information transfer between long-lived qubit registers is a key challenge for quantum information science and technology. Here we demonstrate unconditional teleportation of arbitrary quantum states between diamond spin qubits separated by 3 meters. We prepare the teleporter through photon-mediated heralded entanglement between two distant electron spins and subsequently encode the source qubit in a single nuclear spin. By realizing a fully deterministic Bell-state measurement combined with real-time feed-forward, quantum teleportation is achieved upon each attempt with an average state fidelity exceeding the classical limit. These results establish diamond spin qubits as a prime candidate for the realization of quantum networks for quantum communication and network-based quantum computing. PMID:25082696
Multi-state Quantum Teleportation via One Entanglement State
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Ying; Zeng, Gui-Hua; Moon Ho, Lee
2008-08-01
A multi-sender-controlled quantum teleportation scheme is proposed to teleport several secret quantum states from different senders to a distance receiver based on only one Einstein Podolsky Rosen (EPR) pair with controlled-NOT (CNOT) gates. In the present scheme, several secret single-qubit quantum states are encoded into a multi-qubit entangled quantum state. Two communication modes, i.e., the detecting mode and the message mode, are employed so that the eavesdropping can be detected easily and the teleported message may be recovered efficiently. It has an advantage over teleporting several different quantum states for one scheme run with more efficiency than the previous quantum teleportation schemes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, L. L.; Ma, W. P.; Shen, D. S.; Wang, M. L.
2015-10-01
With single photos in both polarization and spatial-mode degrees of freedom,we present an efficient bidirectional quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) protocol is proposed. The participants' secret messages can be transmitted directly in a quantum channel through performing different local unitary operations, which are chosen by the two participants separately from the Pauli operations and Hadamard operations, on the polarization states and the spatial-mode states of single photons. Each single photon in two degrees of freedom can carry two bits of information. Thus the capacity of quantum communication of our protocol is improved. Moreover, we discuss the security of our QSDC network protocol comprehensively. It is showed that the proposed scheme not only can defend several outsider eavesdropper's attacks but also can remove the drawback of information leakage, which prevents the secret messages being leaked out to other people through the public information. In addition, our protocol is practical since the preparation and the measurement of single photon quantum states in both the polarization and the spatial-mode degrees of freedom are available with current quantum techniques.
Quantum cryptographic system with reduced data loss
Lo, H.K.; Chau, H.F.
1998-03-24
A secure method for distributing a random cryptographic key with reduced data loss is disclosed. Traditional quantum key distribution systems employ similar probabilities for the different communication modes and thus reject at least half of the transmitted data. The invention substantially reduces the amount of discarded data (those that are encoded and decoded in different communication modes e.g. using different operators) in quantum key distribution without compromising security by using significantly different probabilities for the different communication modes. Data is separated into various sets according to the actual operators used in the encoding and decoding process and the error rate for each set is determined individually. The invention increases the key distribution rate of the BB84 key distribution scheme proposed by Bennett and Brassard in 1984. Using the invention, the key distribution rate increases with the number of quantum signals transmitted and can be doubled asymptotically. 23 figs.
Quantum cryptographic system with reduced data loss
Lo, Hoi-Kwong; Chau, Hoi Fung
1998-01-01
A secure method for distributing a random cryptographic key with reduced data loss. Traditional quantum key distribution systems employ similar probabilities for the different communication modes and thus reject at least half of the transmitted data. The invention substantially reduces the amount of discarded data (those that are encoded and decoded in different communication modes e.g. using different operators) in quantum key distribution without compromising security by using significantly different probabilities for the different communication modes. Data is separated into various sets according to the actual operators used in the encoding and decoding process and the error rate for each set is determined individually. The invention increases the key distribution rate of the BB84 key distribution scheme proposed by Bennett and Brassard in 1984. Using the invention, the key distribution rate increases with the number of quantum signals transmitted and can be doubled asymptotically.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fahmi, Akbar
2015-11-01
Bell's theorem states that quantum mechanics is not a locally causal theory. This state is often interpreted as nonlocality in quantum mechanics. Toner and Bacon [Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 187904 (2003), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.91.187904] have shown that a shared random-variable theory augmented by one bit of classical communication exactly simulates the Bell correlation in a singlet state. In this paper, we show that in Toner and Bacon protocol, one of the parties (Bob) can deduce another party's (Alice) measurement outputs, if she only informs Bob of one of her own outputs. Afterwards, we suggest a nonlocal version of Toner and Bacon protocol wherein classical communications is replaced by nonlocal effects, so that Alice's measurements cause instantaneous effects on Bob's outputs. In the nonlocal version of Toner and Bacon's protocol, we get the same result again. We also demonstrate that the same approach is applicable to Svozil's protocol.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chang, Yan; Zhang, Shi-Bin; Yan, Li-Li; Han, Gui-Hua
2015-08-01
Higher channel capacity and security are difficult to reach in a noisy channel. The loss of photons and the distortion of the qubit state are caused by noise. To solve these problems, in our study, a hyperentangled Bell state is used to design faithful deterministic secure quantum communication and authentication protocol over collective-rotation and collective-dephasing noisy channel, which doubles the channel capacity compared with using an ordinary Bell state as a carrier; a logical hyperentangled Bell state immune to collective-rotation and collective-dephasing noise is constructed. The secret message is divided into several parts to transmit, however the identity strings of Alice and Bob are reused. Unitary operations are not used. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61402058), the Science and Technology Support Project of Sichuan Province, China (Grant No. 2013GZX0137), the Fund for Young Persons Project of Sichuan Province, China (Grant No. 12ZB017), and the Foundation of Cyberspace Security Key Laboratory of Sichuan Higher Education Institutions, China (Grant No. szjj2014-074).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yamamoto, Naokatsu; Akahane, Kouichi; Umezawa, Toshimasa; Kawanishi, Tetsuya
2015-04-01
A monolithically integrated quantum dot (QD) optical gain modulator (OGM) with a QD semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) was successfully developed. Broadband QD optical gain material was used to achieve Gbps-order high-speed optical data transmission, and an optical gain change as high as approximately 6-7 dB was obtained with a low OGM voltage of 2.0 V. Loss of optical power due to insertion of the device was also effectively compensated for by the SOA section. Furthermore, it was confirmed that the QD-OGM/SOA device helped achieve 6.0-Gbps error-free optical data transmission over a 2.0-km-long photonic crystal fiber. We also successfully demonstrated generation of Gbps-order, high-speed, and error-free optical signals in the >5.5-THz broadband optical frequency bandwidth larger than the C-band. These results suggest that the developed monolithically integrated QD-OGM/SOA device will be an advantageous and compact means of increasing the usable optical frequency channels for short-reach communications.
Experimental quantum secret sharing using telecommunication fiber
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bogdanski, Jan; Rafiei, Nima; Bourennane, Mohamed
2008-12-01
We report quantum secret sharing experiment in telecommunication fiber in five-party implementation. The quantum secret sharing experiment has been based on a single qubit protocol, which has opened the door to practical secret sharing implementation over fiber channels and in free space. The previous quantum secret sharing proposals were based on multiparticle entangled states, difficult in the practical implementation and not scalable. The secret sharing protocol has been implemented in an interferometric fiber optics setup with phase encoding and demonstrated for three, four, and five parties. The experimental setup measurements have shown feasibility and scalability of secure multiparty quantum communication over commercial telecom fiber networks.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luo, Yi-Ping; Hwang, Tzonelih
2013-08-01
We point out that our previous work [Optics Communications 284 (2011) 3144] contains a mistake in the key updating equation. We correct the error to avoid an information leakage problem. We revisit our previous work entitled "New arbitrated quantum signature of classical messages against collective amplitude damping noise" [1] and discover a mistake in the key updating equation which could cause a key to reveal to a semi-honest arbitrator.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stouffer, Donald D.
1990-01-01
Communication in its many forms is a critical component for an effective Space Grant Program. Good communication is needed within individual Space Grant College/Consortia, for example between consortium affiliates and the consortium program office. Effective communication between the several programs, NASA Headquarters, and NASA field centers also is required. Further, communication among the above program elements, industry, local and state government, and the public also are necessary for meeting program objectives.
An Efficient Scheme of Quantum Wireless Multi-hop Communication using Coefficient Matrix
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Bei; Zha, Xin-Wei; Duan, Ya-Jun; Sun, Xin-Mei
2015-08-01
By defining the coefficient matrix, a new quantum teleportation scheme in quantum wireless multi-hop network is proposed. With the help of intermediate nodes, an unknown qubit state can be teleported between two distant nodes which do not share entanglement in advance. Arbitrary Bell pairs and entanglement swapping are utilized for establishing quantum channel among intermediate nodes. Using collapsed matrix, the initial quantum state can be perfectly recovered at the destination.
Relativistic quantum cryptography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Molotkov, S. N.; Nazin, S. S.
2003-07-01
The problem of unconditional security of quantum cryptography (i.e. the security which is guaranteed by the fundamental laws of nature rather than by technical limitations) is one of the central points in quantum information theory. We propose a relativistic quantum cryptosystem and prove its unconditional security against any eavesdropping attempts. Relativistitic causality arguments allow to demonstrate the security of the system in a simple way. Since the proposed protocol does not empoly collective measurements and quantum codes, the cryptosystem can be experimentally realized with the present state-of-art in fiber optics technologies. The proposed cryptosystem employs only the individual measurements and classical codes and, in addition, the key distribution problem allows to postpone the choice of the state encoding scheme until after the states are already received instead of choosing it before sending the states into the communication channel (i.e. to employ a sort of "antedate" coding).
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false EAS Encoder. 11.32 Section 11.32 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL EMERGENCY ALERT SYSTEM (EAS) Equipment Requirements § 11.32 EAS Encoder. (a) EAS Encoders must at a minimum be capable of encoding the EAS protocol described in § 11.31 and providing the EAS...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false EAS Encoder. 11.32 Section 11.32 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL EMERGENCY ALERT SYSTEM (EAS) Equipment Requirements § 11.32 EAS Encoder. (a) EAS Encoders must at a minimum be capable of encoding the EAS protocol described in § 11.31 and providing the EAS...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false EAS Encoder. 11.32 Section 11.32 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL EMERGENCY ALERT SYSTEM (EAS) Equipment Requirements § 11.32 EAS Encoder. (a) EAS Encoders must at a minimum be capable of encoding the EAS protocol described in § 11.31 and providing the EAS...
Optical orbital angular momentum for optical communication and its measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ke, Xi-zheng; Lv, Hong; Wu, Jing-zhi; Hu, Shu-qiao
2009-07-01
The beam with orbital angular momentum is a present domestic and foreign research key direction. Its application and development will bring the profound influence in the optical communications field. At the same time, light's orbital angular momentum promises potential applications in both classical and quantum optical communication. The research progress of the beam with orbital angular momentum and encoding information as light's OAM for free-space optical communication were reviewed in this article, the existing design method, mechanism and description methods of encoding information as light's OAM were discussed. In quantum communication, qudits can be encoded in photons using their OAM for creating high-dimensional entanglement based on entangled photon pairs from SPDC. In this paper, light's OAM is used as information carrier for classical and quantum communication, which is promising to ensures the security of atmospheric laser communication, improves the density and precision of information transmission. It is apparent that an efficient way to measure the orbital angular momentum of individual photons and light beams with good efficiency would be of potentially great importance for optical communications and quantum information. In view of the above, the measurements of orbital angular momentum of individual photons and light beams are analyzed and discussed in detail.
Communication: Spin-free quantum computational simulations and symmetry adapted states.
Whitfield, James Daniel
2013-07-14
The ideas of digital simulation of quantum systems using a quantum computer parallel the original ideas of numerical simulation using a classical computer. In order for quantum computational simulations to advance to a competitive point, many techniques from classical simulations must be imported into the quantum domain. In this article, we consider the applications of symmetry in the context of quantum simulation. Building upon well established machinery, we propose a form of first quantized simulation that only requires the spatial part of the wave function, thereby allowing spin-free quantum computational simulations. We go further and discuss the preparation of N-body states with specified symmetries based on projection techniques. We consider two simple examples, molecular hydrogen and cyclopropenyl cation, to illustrate the ideas. The methods here are the first to explicitly deal with preparing N-body symmetry-adapted states and open the door for future investigations into group theory, chemistry, and quantum simulation. PMID:23862919
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Meng-Zheng; Ye, Liu
2015-04-01
An efficient scheme is proposed to implement a quantum cloning machine in separate cavities based on a hybrid interaction between electron-spin systems placed in the cavities and an optical coherent pulse. The coefficient of the output state for the present cloning machine is just the direct product of two trigonometric functions, which ensures that different types of quantum cloning machine can be achieved readily in the same framework by appropriately adjusting the rotated angles. The present scheme can implement optimal one-to-two symmetric (asymmetric) universal quantum cloning, optimal symmetric (asymmetric) phase-covariant cloning, optimal symmetric (asymmetric) real-state cloning, optimal one-to-three symmetric economical real-state cloning, and optimal symmetric cloning of qubits given by an arbitrary axisymmetric distribution. In addition, photon loss of the qubus beams during the transmission and decoherence effects caused by such a photon loss are investigated.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reid, M. D.
2013-12-01
The demonstration of quantum teleportation of a photonic qubit from Alice to Bob usually relies on data conditioned on detection at Bob's location. I show that Bohm's Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) paradox can be used to verify that the quantum benchmark for qubit teleportation has been reached, without postselection. This is possible for scenarios insensitive to losses at the generation station, and with efficiencies of ηB>1/3 for the teleportation process. The benchmark is obtained if it is shown that Bob can “steer” Alice's record of the qubit as stored by Charlie. EPR steering inequalities involving m measurement settings can also be used to confirm quantum teleportation, for efficiencies ηB>1/m, if one assumes trusted detectors for Charlie and Alice. Using proofs of monogamy, I show that two-setting EPR steering inequalities can signify secure teleportation of the qubit state.
Analysis of quantum error-correcting codes: Symplectic lattice codes and toric codes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harrington, James William
Quantum information theory is concerned with identifying how quantum mechanical resources (such as entangled quantum states) can be utilized for a number of information processing tasks, including data storage, computation, communication, and cryptography. Efficient quantum algorithms and protocols have been developed for performing some tasks (e.g. , factoring large numbers, securely communicating over a public channel, and simulating quantum mechanical systems) that appear to be very difficult with just classical resources. In addition to identifying the separation between classical and quantum computational power, much of the theoretical focus in this field over the last decade has been concerned with finding novel ways of encoding quantum information that are robust against errors, which is an important step toward building practical quantum information processing devices. In this thesis I present some results on the quantum error-correcting properties of oscillator codes (also described as symplectic lattice codes) and toric codes. Any harmonic oscillator system (such as a mode of light) can be encoded with quantum information via symplectic lattice codes that are robust against shifts in the system's continuous quantum variables. I show the existence of lattice codes whose achievable rates match the one-shot coherent information over the Gaussian quantum channel. Also, I construct a family of symplectic self-dual lattices and search for optimal encodings of quantum information distributed between several oscillators. Toric codes provide encodings of quantum information into two-dimensional spin lattices that are robust against local clusters of errors and which require only local quantum operations for error correction. Numerical simulations of this system under various error models provide a calculation of the accuracy threshold for quantum memory using toric codes, which can be related to phase transitions in certain condensed matter models. I also present
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ide, Nancy
1995-01-01
Describes problems in devising a Text Encoding Initiative (TEI) encoding format for dictionaries. Asserts that the high degree of structuring and compression of information are among the most complex text types treated in the TEI. Concludes that the source of some TEI problems lies in the design of Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML). (CFR)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Molotkov, S. N.; Potapova, T. A.
2015-06-01
The problem of quantum key distribution security in channels with large losses is still open. Quasi-single-photon sources of quantum states with losses in the quantum communication channel open up the possibility of attacking with unambiguous state discrimination (USD) measurements, resulting in a loss of privacy. In this letter, the problem is solved by counting the classic reference pulses. Conservation of the number of counts of intense coherent pulses makes it impossible to conduct USD measurements. Moreover, the losses in the communication channel are considered to be unknown in advance and are subject to change throughout the series parcels. Unlike other protocols, differential phase shift (Inoue et al 2002 Phys. Rev. Lett. 89 037902, Inoue et al 2003 Phys. Rev. A 68 022317, Takesue et al 2007 Nat. Photon. 1 343, Wen et al 2009 Phys. Rev. Lett. 103 170503) and coherent one way (Stucki et al 2005 Appl. Phys. Lett. 87 194108, Branciard et al 2005 Appl. Phys. Lett. 87 194108, Branciard et al 2008 New J. Phys. 10 013031, Stucki et al 2008 Opt. Express 17 13326), the simplicity of the protocol makes it possible to carry out a complete analysis of its security.
Intrication temporelle et communication quantique
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bussieres, Felix
Quantum communication is the art of transferring a quantum state from one place to another and the study of tasks that can be accomplished with it. This thesis is devoted to the development of tools and tasks for quantum communication in a real-world setting. These were implemented using an underground optical fibre link deployed in an urban environment. The technological and theoretical innovations presented here broaden the range of applications of time-bin entanglement through new methods of manipulating time-bin qubits, a novel model for characterizing sources of photon pairs, new ways of testing non-locality and the design and the first implementation of a new loss-tolerant quantum coin-flipping protocol. Manipulating time-bin qubits. A single photon is an excellent vehicle in which a qubit, the fundamental unit of quantum information, can be encoded. In particular, the time-bin encoding of photonic qubits is well suited for optical fibre transmission. Before this thesis, the applications of quantum communication based on the time-bin encoding were limited due to the lack of methods to implement arbitrary operations and measurements. We have removed this restriction by proposing the first methods to realize arbitrary deterministic operations on time-bin qubits as well as single qubit measurements in an arbitrary basis. We applied these propositions to the specific case of optical measurement-based quantum computing and showed how to implement the feedforward operations, which are essential to this model. This therefore opens new possibilities for creating an optical quantum computer, but also for other quantum communication tasks. Characterizing sources of photon pairs. Experimental quantum communication requires the creation of single photons and entangled photons. These two ingredients can be obtained from a source of photon pairs based on non-linear spontaneous processes. Several tasks in quantum communication require a precise knowledge of the properties
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Online-Offline, 1998
1998-01-01
This theme issue on communication includes annotated listings of Web sites, CD-ROM and computer software, videos, books, and professional resources that deal with various methods of communication. Sidebars discuss mythology, photojournalism, sharing ideas on the Web, and songs of protest. Suggestions for class activities are also included. (LRW)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Griner, James
2010-01-01
NASA s communication work for the UAS Command and Control area will build upon work currently being conducted under NASA Recovery Act funds. Communication portions of UAS NextGen ConOps, Stateof- the-Art assessment, and Gap Analysis. Preliminary simulations for UAS CNPC link scalability assessment. Surrogate UAS aircraft upgrades. This work will also leverage FY10 in-guide funding for communication link model development. UAS are currently managed through exceptions and are operating using DoD frequencies for line-of-sight (LOS) and satellite-based communications links, low-power LOS links in amateur bands, or unlicensed Instrument/Scientific/Medical (ISM) frequencies. None of these frequency bands are designated for Safety and Regularity of Flight. No radio-frequency (RF) spectrum has been allocated by the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) specifically for UAS command and control links, for either LOS or Beyond LOS (BLOS) communication.
Open-loop quantum control as a resource for secure communications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pastorello, Davide
2016-05-01
Properties of unitary time evolution of quantum systems can be applied to define quantum cryptographic protocols. Dynamics of a qubit can be exploited as a data encryption/decryption procedure by means of timed measurements, implementation of an open-loop control scheme over a qubit increases robustness of a protocol employing this principle.
Quantum Cryptography for Secure Communications to Low-Earth Orbit Satellites
Hughes, R.J.; Buttler, W.T.; Kwiat, P.G.; Lamoreaux, S.K.; Morgan, G.L.; Peterson, C.G.; Twyeffort, E.; Simmons, C.M.; Nordholt, J.E.
1999-06-03
This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Quantum cryptography is an emerging technology in which two parties may simultaneously generate shared, secret cryptographic key material using the transmission of quantum states of light. The security of these transmissions is based on the inviolability of the laws of quantum mechanics. An adversary can neither successfully tap the quantum transmissions, nor evade detection. Key material is built up using the transmission of a single-photon per bit. We have developed an experimental quantum cryptography system based on the transmission of non-orthogonal single-photon polarization states to generate shared key material over line-of-sight optical links. Our results provide strong evidence that cryptographic key material could be generated on demand between a ground station and a satellite (or between two satellites), allowing a satellite to be securely re-keyed on in orbit.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yue, Qiu-Ling; Yu, Chao-Hua; Liu, Bin; Wang, Qing-Le
2016-05-01
Recently, Chang et al. [Sci Chin-Phys Mech Astron. 57(10), 1907-1912, 2014] proposed two robust quantum secure communication protocols with authentication based on Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) pairs, which can resist collective noise. In this paper, we analyze the security of their protocols, and show that there is a kind of security flaw in their protocols. By a kind of impersonation attack, the eavesdropper can obtain half of the message on average. Furthermore, an improved method of their protocols is proposed to close the security loophole.
An operational approach to spacetime symmetries: Lorentz transformations from quantum communication
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Höhn, Philipp A.; Müller, Markus P.
2016-06-01
In most approaches to fundamental physics, spacetime symmetries are postulated a priori and then explicitly implemented in the theory. This includes Lorentz covariance in quantum field theory and diffeomorphism invariance in quantum gravity, which are seen as fundamental principles to which the final theory has to be adjusted. In this paper, we suggest, within a much simpler setting, that this kind of reasoning can actually be reversed, by taking an operational approach inspired by quantum information theory. We consider observers in distinct laboratories, with local physics described by the laws of abstract quantum theory, and without presupposing a particular spacetime structure. We ask what information-theoretic effort the observers have to spend to synchronize their descriptions of local physics. If there are ‘enough’ observables that can be measured universally on several different quantum systems, we show that the observers’ descriptions are related by an element of the orthochronous Lorentz group {{{O}}}+(3,1), together with a global scaling factor. Not only does this operational approach predict the Lorentz transformations, but it also accurately describes the behavior of relativistic Stern–Gerlach devices in the WKB approximation, and it correctly predicts that quantum systems carry Lorentz group representations of different spin. This result thus hints at a novel information-theoretic perspective on spacetime.
Expected number of quantum channels in quantum networks
Chen, Xi; Wang, He-Ming; Ji, Dan-Tong; Mu, Liang-Zhu; Fan, Heng
2015-01-01
Quantum communication between nodes in quantum networks plays an important role in quantum information processing. Here, we proposed the use of the expected number of quantum channels as a measure of the efficiency of quantum communication for quantum networks. This measure quantified the amount of quantum information that can be teleported between nodes in a quantum network, which differs from classical case in that the quantum channels will be consumed if teleportation is performed. We further demonstrated that the expected number of quantum channels represents local correlations depicted by effective circles. Significantly, capacity of quantum communication of quantum networks quantified by ENQC is independent of distance for the communicating nodes, if the effective circles of communication nodes are not overlapped. The expected number of quantum channels can be enhanced through transformations of the lattice configurations of quantum networks via entanglement swapping. Our results can shed lights on the study of quantum communication in quantum networks. PMID:26173556
Expected number of quantum channels in quantum networks.
Chen, Xi; Wang, He-Ming; Ji, Dan-Tong; Mu, Liang-Zhu; Fan, Heng
2015-01-01
Quantum communication between nodes in quantum networks plays an important role in quantum information processing. Here, we proposed the use of the expected number of quantum channels as a measure of the efficiency of quantum communication for quantum networks. This measure quantified the amount of quantum information that can be teleported between nodes in a quantum network, which differs from classical case in that the quantum channels will be consumed if teleportation is performed. We further demonstrated that the expected number of quantum channels represents local correlations depicted by effective circles. Significantly, capacity of quantum communication of quantum networks quantified by ENQC is independent of distance for the communicating nodes, if the effective circles of communication nodes are not overlapped. The expected number of quantum channels can be enhanced through transformations of the lattice configurations of quantum networks via entanglement swapping. Our results can shed lights on the study of quantum communication in quantum networks. PMID:26173556
Quantum information processing with electronic and nuclear spins in semiconductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klimov, Paul Victor
Traditional electronic and communication devices operate by processing binary information encoded as bits. Such digital devices have led to the most advanced technologies that we encounter in our everyday lives and they influence virtually every aspect of our society. Nonetheless, there exists a much richer way to encode and process information. By encoding information in quantum mechanical states as qubits, phenomena such as coherence and entanglement can be harnessed to execute tasks that are intractable to digital devices. Under this paradigm, it should be possible to realize quantum computers, quantum communication networks and quantum sensors that outperform their classical counterparts. The electronic spin states of color-center defects in the semiconductor silicon carbide have recently emerged as promising qubit candidates. They have long-lived quantum coherence up to room temperature, they can be controlled with mature magnetic resonance techniques, and they have a built-in optical interface operating near the telecommunication bands. In this thesis I will present two of our contributions to this field. The first is the electric-field control of electron spin qubits. This development lays foundation for quantum electronics that operate via electrical gating, much like traditional electronics. The second is the universal control and entanglement of electron and nuclear spin qubits in an ensemble under ambient conditions. This development lays foundation for quantum devices that have a built-in redundancy and can operate in real-world conditions. Both developments represent important steps towards practical quantum devices in an electronic grade material.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bailenson, Jeremy; Buzzanell, Patrice; Deetz, Stanley; Tewksbury, David; Thompson, Robert J.; Turow, Joseph; Bichelmeyer, Barbara; Bishop, M. J.; Gayeski, Diane
2013-01-01
Scholars representing the field of communications were asked to identify what they considered to be the most exciting and imaginative work currently being done in their field, as well as how that work might change our understanding. The scholars included Jeremy Bailenson, Patrice Buzzanell, Stanley Deetz, David Tewksbury, Robert J. Thompson, and…
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hathorn, S.
1985-01-01
An overview of NASA's Thin Route satellite telecommunication project is presented. Thin Route employs applications technology satellites (ATS) in place of more costly commercial multi- transponder telecommunications satellites. This system allows remote and underdeveloped areas to communicate with the outside world for purposes of obtaining medical assistance among other things. The system represents a substantial cost saving over commercial systems.
Diehl, Adam G; Boyle, Alan P
2016-04-01
The ENCODE project represents a major leap from merely describing and comparing genomic sequences to surveying them for direct indicators of function. The astounding quantity of data produced by the ENCODE consortium can serve as a map to locate specific landmarks, guide hypothesis generation, and lead us to principles and mechanisms underlying genome biology. Despite its broad appeal, the size and complexity of the repository can be intimidating to prospective users. We present here some background about the ENCODE data, survey the resources available for accessing them, and describe a few simple principles to help prospective users choose the data type(s) that best suit their needs, where to get them, and how to use them to their best advantage. PMID:26962025
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Zhihao; Chen, Hanwu; Liu, Wenjie
2016-06-01
A new attack strategy, the so-called intercept-selectively-measure-resend attack is put forward. It shows that there are some security issues in the controlled quantum secure direct communication (CQSDC) and authentication protocol based on five-particle cluster states and quantum one-time pad. Firstly, an eavesdropper (Eve) can use this attack to eavesdrop on 0.656 bit of every bit of the identity string of the receiver and 1.406 bits of every couple of the corresponding bits of the secret message without being detected. Also, she can eavesdrop on 0.311 bit of every bit of the identity string of the controller. Secondly, the receiver can also take this attack to obtain 1.311 bits of every couple of the corresponding bits of the secret message without the permission of the controller, which is not allowed in the CQSDC protocols. In fact, there is another security issue in this protocol, that is, one half of the information about the secret is leaked out unconsciously. In addition, an alternative attack strategy which is called as the selective-CNOT-operation attack strategy to attack this protocol is discussed.
Five-wave-packet quantum error correction based on continuous-variable cluster entanglement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hao, Shuhong; Su, Xiaolong; Tian, Caixing; Xie, Changde; Peng, Kunchi
2015-10-01
Quantum error correction protects the quantum state against noise and decoherence in quantum communication and quantum computation, which enables one to perform fault-torrent quantum information processing. We experimentally demonstrate a quantum error correction scheme with a five-wave-packet code against a single stochastic error, the original theoretical model of which was firstly proposed by S. L. Braunstein and T. A. Walker. Five submodes of a continuous variable cluster entangled state of light are used for five encoding channels. Especially, in our encoding scheme the information of the input state is only distributed on three of the five channels and thus any error appearing in the remained two channels never affects the output state, i.e. the output quantum state is immune from the error in the two channels. The stochastic error on a single channel is corrected for both vacuum and squeezed input states and the achieved fidelities of the output states are beyond the corresponding classical limit.
Quantum enigma machine: Experimentally demonstrating quantum data locking
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lum, Daniel J.; Howell, John C.; Allman, M. S.; Gerrits, Thomas; Verma, Varun B.; Nam, Sae Woo; Lupo, Cosmo; Lloyd, Seth
2016-08-01
Shannon proved in 1949 that information-theoretic-secure encryption is possible if the encryption key is used only once, is random, and is at least as long as the message itself. Notwithstanding, when information is encoded in a quantum system, the phenomenon of quantum data locking allows one to encrypt a message with a shorter key and still provide information-theoretic security. We present one of the first feasible experimental demonstrations of quantum data locking for direct communication and propose a scheme for a quantum enigma machine that encrypts 6 bits per photon (containing messages, new encryption keys, and forward error correction bits) with less than 6 bits per photon of encryption key while remaining information-theoretically secure.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Cuihua; Xing, Peng
2015-08-01
In recent years, Chinese service industry is developing rapidly. Compared with developed countries, service quality should be the bottleneck for Chinese service industry. On the background of three major telecommunications service providers in China, the functions of customer perceived utilities are established. With the goal of consumer's perceived utility maximization, the classic Nash equilibrium solution and quantum equilibrium solution are obtained. Then a numerical example is studied and the changing trend of service quality and customer perceived utility is further analyzed by the influence of the entanglement operator. Finally, it is proved that quantum game solution is better than Nash equilibrium solution.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chakrabarti, Amitabha; Chakraborti, Anirban; Jedidi, Aymen
2010-12-01
We study quantum entanglements induced on product states by the action of 8-vertex braid matrices, rendered unitary with purely imaginary spectral parameters (rapidity). The unitarity is displayed via the 'canonical factorization' of the coefficients of the projectors spanning the basis. This adds one more new facet to the famous and fascinating features of the 8-vertex model. The double periodicity and the analytic properties of the elliptic functions involved lead to a rich structure of the 3-tangle quantifying the entanglement. We thus explore the complex relationship between topological and quantum entanglement.
FAST TRACK COMMUNICATION: A Temperley-Lieb quantum chain with two- and three-site interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ikhlef, Y.; Jacobsen, J. L.; Saleur, H.
2009-07-01
We study the phase diagram of a quantum chain of spin-1/2 particles whose world lines form a dense loop gas with loop weight n. In addition to the usual two-site interaction corresponding to the XXZ spin chain, we introduce a three-site interaction. The resulting model contains a Majumdar-Ghosh-like gapped phase and a new integrable point, which we solve exactly. We also locate a critical line realizing dilute O(n) criticality, without introducing explicit dilution in the loops. Our results have implications for anisotropic spin chains, as well as anyonic quantum chains.
Quantum technologies with hybrid systems
Kurizki, Gershon; Bertet, Patrice; Kubo, Yuimaru; Mølmer, Klaus; Petrosyan, David; Rabl, Peter; Schmiedmayer, Jörg
2015-01-01
An extensively pursued current direction of research in physics aims at the development of practical technologies that exploit the effects of quantum mechanics. As part of this ongoing effort, devices for quantum information processing, secure communication, and high-precision sensing are being implemented with diverse systems, ranging from photons, atoms, and spins to mesoscopic superconducting and nanomechanical structures. Their physical properties make some of these systems better suited than others for specific tasks; thus, photons are well suited for transmitting quantum information, weakly interacting spins can serve as long-lived quantum memories, and superconducting elements can rapidly process information encoded in their quantum states. A central goal of the envisaged quantum technologies is to develop devices that can simultaneously perform several of these tasks, namely, reliably store, process, and transmit quantum information. Hybrid quantum systems composed of different physical components with complementary functionalities may provide precisely such multitasking capabilities. This article reviews some of the driving theoretical ideas and first experimental realizations of hybrid quantum systems and the opportunities and challenges they present and offers a glance at the near- and long-term perspectives of this fascinating and rapidly expanding field. PMID:25737558
Moiseev, S. A.; Tittel, W.
2010-07-15
We study quantum compression and decompression of light pulses that carry quantum information using a photon-echo quantum memory technique with controllable inhomogeneous broadening of an isolated atomic absorption line. We investigate media with differently broadened absorption profiles, transverse and longitudinal, finding that the recall efficiency can be as large as unity and that the quantum information encoded into the photonic qubits can remain unperturbed. Our results provide insight into reversible light-atom interaction and are interesting in view of future quantum communication networks, where pulse compression and decompression may play an important role in increasing the qubit rate or in mapping quantum information from photonic carriers with large optical bandwidth into atomic memories with smaller bandwidth.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moiseev, S. A.; Tittel, W.
2010-07-01
We study quantum compression and decompression of light pulses that carry quantum information using a photon-echo quantum memory technique with controllable inhomogeneous broadening of an isolated atomic absorption line. We investigate media with differently broadened absorption profiles, transverse and longitudinal, finding that the recall efficiency can be as large as unity and that the quantum information encoded into the photonic qubits can remain unperturbed. Our results provide insight into reversible light-atom interaction and are interesting in view of future quantum communication networks, where pulse compression and decompression may play an important role in increasing the qubit rate or in mapping quantum information from photonic carriers with large optical bandwidth into atomic memories with smaller bandwidth.
Robust quantum receivers for coherent state discrimination
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Becerra, Francisco Elohim
2014-05-01
Quantum state discrimination is a central task for quantum information and is a fundamental problem in quantum mechanics. Nonorthogonal states, such as coherent states which have intrinsic quantum noise, cannot be discriminated with total certainty because of their intrinsic overlap. This nonorthogonality is at the heart of quantum key distribution for ensuring absolute secure communications between a transmitter and a receiver, and can enable many quantum information protocols based on coherent states. At the same time, while coherent states are used for communications because of their robustness to loss and simplicity of generation and detection, their nonorthogonality inherently produces errors in the process of decoding the information. The minimum error probability in the discrimination of nonorthogonal coherent states measured by an ideal lossless and noiseless conventional receiver is given by the standard quantum limit (SQL). This limit sets strict bounds on the ultimate performance of coherent communications and many coherent-state-based quantum information protocols. However, measurement strategies based on the quantum properties of these states can allow for better measurements that surpass the SQL and approach the ultimate measurement limits allowed by quantum mechanics. These measurement strategies can allow for optimally extracting information encoded in these states for coherent and quantum communications. We present the demonstration of a receiver based on adaptive measurements and single-photon counting that unconditionally discriminates multiple nonorthogonal coherent states below the SQL. We also discuss the potential of photon-number-resolving detection to provide robustness and high sensitivity under realistic conditions for an adaptive coherent receiver with detectors with finite photon-number resolution.
Communication: Adiabatic and non-adiabatic electron-nuclear motion: Quantum and classical dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Albert, Julian; Kaiser, Dustin; Engel, Volker
2016-05-01
Using a model for coupled electronic-nuclear motion we investigate the range from negligible to strong non-adiabatic coupling. In the adiabatic case, the quantum dynamics proceeds in a single electronic state, whereas for strong coupling a complete transition between two adiabatic electronic states takes place. It is shown that in all coupling regimes the short-time wave-packet dynamics can be described using ensembles of classical trajectories in the phase space spanned by electronic and nuclear degrees of freedom. We thus provide an example which documents that the quantum concept of non-adiabatic transitions is not necessarily needed if electronic and nuclear motion is treated on the same footing.
Hele, Timothy J. H.; Willatt, Michael J.; Muolo, Andrea; Althorpe, Stuart C.
2015-05-21
We recently obtained a quantum-Boltzmann-conserving classical dynamics by making a single change to the derivation of the “Classical Wigner” approximation. Here, we show that the further approximation of this “Matsubara dynamics” gives rise to two popular heuristic methods for treating quantum Boltzmann time-correlation functions: centroid molecular dynamics (CMD) and ring-polymer molecular dynamics (RPMD). We show that CMD is a mean-field approximation to Matsubara dynamics, obtained by discarding (classical) fluctuations around the centroid, and that RPMD is the result of discarding a term in the Matsubara Liouvillian which shifts the frequencies of these fluctuations. These findings are consistent with previous numerical results and give explicit formulae for the terms that CMD and RPMD leave out.
Asymmetric coupled quantum wells for high speed optical modulators at communication wavelengths
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McGinnis, B. P.; Ten, Sergey; Peyghamberian, N.; Krol, Mark F.; Hayduk, Michael J.
1994-06-01
A novel design for electro-optic modulators operating at wavelengths compatible with fiber-based optical interconnects and networks is presented. This design uses InGaAs/InAlAs asymmetric coupled quantum wells (ACQWS) to enhance the electro-optic effect within the material and results in a low power modulator capable of high-speed operation. A device was fabricated which shows real charge transfer between the ACQW's. This device shows that without modulation doping and real charge transfer the quantum confined stark effect in InGaAs/InAlAs is insufficient to provide strong modulation at low drive voltages. Standard pump-probe techniques were also used to study the dynamics of charge transfer between the wells. Picosecond recovery times were exhibited by these devices and were found to be independent of the barrier width.
Hamiltonian of photons in a single-mode optical fiber for quantum communications protocols
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miroshnichenko, G. P.
2012-05-01
A phenomenological Hamiltonian of photons in a single-mode stochastic inhomogeneous optical fiber (OF) is derived. Quantization of radiation is performed in the basis of an ideal OF with proper calibration that ensures transversality of the electric-field-displacement vector. Stochastic parameters of the Hamiltonian are determined by using the reciprocal tensor of the dielectric permittivity averaged over the OF segment volume. The Hamiltonian is parametrized by three phenomenological parameters and preserves the number of photons. It is assumed that the segment of the OF is divided into random subsegments with optical parameters defined by the Wiener process with respect to the longitudinal coordinate. The temporal dynamics of the single-photon density matrix is analyzed in the basis of states with orthogonal polarizations. The relative quantum beat error rate in the sifted quantum key distributed according to the BB84 protocol with polarization coding of information averaged over the scatter of the OF parameters is calculated.
Rasch, Kevin M.; Hu, Shuming; Mitas, Lubos
2014-01-28
We elucidate the origin of large differences (two-fold or more) in the fixed-node errors between the first- vs second-row systems for single-configuration trial wave functions in quantum Monte Carlo calculations. This significant difference in the valence fixed-node biases is studied across a set of atoms, molecules, and also Si, C solid crystals. We show that the key features which affect the fixed-node errors are the differences in electron density and the degree of node nonlinearity. The findings reveal how the accuracy of the quantum Monte Carlo varies across a variety of systems, provide new perspectives on the origins of the fixed-node biases in calculations of molecular and condensed systems, and carry implications for pseudopotential constructions for heavy elements.
Large-scale quantum networks based on graphs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Epping, Michael; Kampermann, Hermann; Bruß, Dagmar
2016-05-01
Society relies and depends increasingly on information exchange and communication. In the quantum world, security and privacy is a built-in feature for information processing. The essential ingredient for exploiting these quantum advantages is the resource of entanglement, which can be shared between two or more parties. The distribution of entanglement over large distances constitutes a key challenge for current research and development. Due to losses of the transmitted quantum particles, which typically scale exponentially with the distance, intermediate quantum repeater stations are needed. Here we show how to generalise the quantum repeater concept to the multipartite case, by describing large-scale quantum networks, i.e. network nodes and their long-distance links, consistently in the language of graphs and graph states. This unifying approach comprises both the distribution of multipartite entanglement across the network, and the protection against errors via encoding. The correspondence to graph states also provides a tool for optimising the architecture of quantum networks.
Information-theoretical meaning of quantum-dynamical entropy
Alicki, Robert
2002-11-01
The theories of noncommutative dynamical entropy and quantum symbolic dynamics for quantum-dynamical systems are analyzed from the point of view of quantum information theory. Using a general quantum-dynamical system as a communication channel, one can define different classical capacities depending on the character of resources applied for encoding and decoding procedures and on the type of information sources. It is shown that for Bernoulli sources, the entanglement-assisted classical capacity, which is the largest one, is bounded from above by the quantum-dynamical entropy defined in terms of operational partitions of unity. Stronger results are proved for the particular class of quantum-dynamical systems--quantum Bernoulli shifts. Different classical capacities are exactly computed and the entanglement-assisted one is equal to the dynamical entropy in this case.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chang, Yan; Zhang, Shi-Bin; Yan, Li-Li; Han, Gui-Hua
2015-05-01
By using six-qubit decoherence-free (DF) states as quantum carriers and decoy states, a robust quantum secure direct communication and authentication (QSDCA) protocol against decoherence noise is proposed. Four six-qubit DF states are used in the process of secret transmission, however only the |0‧⟩ state is prepared. The other three six-qubit DF states can be obtained by permuting the outputs of the setup for |0‧⟩. By using the |0‧⟩ state as the decoy state, the detection rate and the qubit error rate reach 81.3%, and they will not change with the noise level. The stability and security are much higher than those of the ping-pong protocol both in an ideal scenario and a decoherence noise scenario. Even if the eavesdropper measures several qubits, exploiting the coherent relationship between these qubits, she can gain one bit of secret information with probability 0.042. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61402058), the Science and Technology Support Project of Sichuan Province of China (Grant No. 2013GZX0137), the Fund for Young Persons Project of Sichuan Province of China (Grant No. 12ZB017), and the Foundation of Cyberspace Security Key Laboratory of Sichuan Higher Education Institutions, China (Grant No. szjj2014-074).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chang, Yan; Zhang, Shi-Bin; Yan, Li-Li; Han, Gui-Hua
2015-03-01
A controlled deterministic secure quantum communication (CDSQC) protocol is proposed based on three-particle GHZ state in X-basis. Only X-basis and Z1Z2X3-basis (composed of Z-basis and X-basis) measurement are required, which makes the scheme more convenient than others in practical applications. By distributing a random key between both sides of the communication and performing classical XOR operation, we realize a one-time-pad scheme, therefore our protocol achieves unconditional secure. Because only user with legitimate identity string can decrypt the secret, our protocol can resist man-in-the middle attack. The three-particle GHZ state in X-basis is used as decoy photons to detect eavesdropping. The detection rate reaches 75% per qubit. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 61402058, Science and Technology, Sichuan Province of China under Grant No. 2013GZX0137, Fund for Young Persons Project of Sichuan Province of China under Grant No. 12ZB017, and the Foundation of Cyberspace Security Key Laboratory of Sichuan Higher Education Institutions under Grant No. szjj2014-074
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thapliyal, Ashish V.; Smolin, John A.
2003-12-01
Reversible state transformations under entanglement nonincreasing operations give rise to entanglement measures. It is well known that asymptotic local operations and classical communication (LOCC) are required to get a simple operational measure of bipartite pure state entanglement. For bipartite mixed states and multipartite pure states it is likely that a more powerful class of operations will be needed. To this end more powerful versions of state transformations (or reducibilities), namely, LOCCq (asymptotic LOCC with a sublinear amount of quantum communication) and CLOCC (asymptotic LOCC with catalysis) have been considered in the literature. In this paper we show that LOCCq state transformations are only as powerful as asymptotic LOCC state transformations for multipartite pure states. The basic tool we use is multipartite entanglement gambling: Any pure multipartite entangled state can be transformed to an Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen pair shared by some pair of parties and any irreducible m-party pure state (m⩾2) can be used to create any other state (pure or mixed) using LOCC. We consider applications of multipartite entanglement gambling to multipartite distillability and to characterizations of multipartite minimal entanglement generating sets. We briefly consider generalizations of this result to mixed states by defining the class of cat-distillable states, i.e., states from which cat states (|0⊗m>+|1⊗m>) may be distilled.
Teleporting photonic qudits using multimode quantum scissors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goyal, Sandeep K.; Konrad, Thomas
2013-12-01
Teleportation plays an important role in the communication of quantum information between the nodes of a quantum network and is viewed as an essential ingredient for long-distance Quantum Cryptography. We describe a method to teleport the quantum information carried by a photon in a superposition of a number d of light modes (a ``qudit'') by the help of d additional photons based on transcription. A qudit encoded into a single excitation of d light modes (in our case Laguerre-Gauss modes which carry orbital angular momentum) is transcribed to d single-rail photonic qubits, which are spatially separated. Each single-rail qubit consists of a superposition of vacuum and a single photon in each one of the modes. After successful teleportation of each of the d single-rail qubits by means of ``quantum scissors'' they are converted back into a qudit carried by a single photon which completes the teleportation scheme.
Teleporting photonic qudits using multimode quantum scissors.
Goyal, Sandeep K; Konrad, Thomas
2013-01-01
Teleportation plays an important role in the communication of quantum information between the nodes of a quantum network and is viewed as an essential ingredient for long-distance Quantum Cryptography. We describe a method to teleport the quantum information carried by a photon in a superposition of a number d of light modes (a "qudit") by the help of d additional photons based on transcription. A qudit encoded into a single excitation of d light modes (in our case Laguerre-Gauss modes which carry orbital angular momentum) is transcribed to d single-rail photonic qubits, which are spatially separated. Each single-rail qubit consists of a superposition of vacuum and a single photon in each one of the modes. After successful teleportation of each of the d single-rail qubits by means of "quantum scissors" they are converted back into a qudit carried by a single photon which completes the teleportation scheme. PMID:24352610
Asgari, Mehdi; Negreiros, Fabio R.; Sementa, Luca; Barcaro, Giovanni; Fortunelli, Alessandro; Behnejad, Hassan
2014-07-28
The kinetics of elemental inter-diffusion in Ag–Cu nanoalloys of 32–34 atoms around 80:20 composition is theoretically investigated by combining analytic-potential and first-principles calculations. An extremely varied behavior is found, with transformation times ranging from tens of nanoseconds to weeks at room temperature in a narrow interval of size and composition, also depending on quantum effects in magic clusters. Predictions are consistent with time-of-flight experiments and suggest their interpretation in a new light.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carlson, N. W.; Evans, G. A.; Liew, S. K.; Kaiser, C. J.
1990-01-01
The electro-optic switching properties of injection-coupled coherent 2-D grating-surface-emitting laser arrays with multiple gain sections and quantum well active layers are discussed and demonstrated. Within such an array of injection-coupled grating-surface-emitting lasers, a single gain section can be operated as intra-cavity saturable loss element that can modulate the output of the entire array. Experimental results demonstrate efficient sub-nanosecond switching of high power grading-surface-emitting laser arrays by using only one gain section as an intra-cavity loss modulator.
Communication: Nucleation of water on ice nanograins: Size, charge, and quantum effects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marciante, Mathieu; Calvo, Florent
2015-05-01
The sticking cross sections of water molecules on cold size-selected water clusters have been simulated using classical and quantum (path-integral) molecular dynamics trajectories under realistic conditions. The integrated cross sections for charged clusters show significant size effects with comparable trends as in experiments, as well as essentially no sign effect. Vibrational delocalization, although it contributes to enlarging the geometric cross sections, leads to a counter-intuitive decrease in the dynamical cross section obtained from the trajectories. These results are interpreted based on the apparent reduction in the effective interaction between the projectile and the target owing to zero-point effects.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yuen, H. P.; Shapiro, J. H.
1980-01-01
Homodyne detection is shown to achieve the same signal-to-noise ratio as the quantum field quadrature measurement, thus providing a receiver which realizes linear modulation TCS performance gain. The full equivalence of homodyne detection and single-quadrature field measurement is established. A heterodyne configuration which uses a TCS image-band oscillator in addition to the usual coherent state local oscillator is studied. Results are obtained by means of a representation theorem which shows that photoemissive detection realizes the photon flux density measurement.
Communication: Nucleation of water on ice nanograins: Size, charge, and quantum effects
Marciante, Mathieu; Calvo, Florent
2015-05-07
The sticking cross sections of water molecules on cold size-selected water clusters have been simulated using classical and quantum (path-integral) molecular dynamics trajectories under realistic conditions. The integrated cross sections for charged clusters show significant size effects with comparable trends as in experiments, as well as essentially no sign effect. Vibrational delocalization, although it contributes to enlarging the geometric cross sections, leads to a counter-intuitive decrease in the dynamical cross section obtained from the trajectories. These results are interpreted based on the apparent reduction in the effective interaction between the projectile and the target owing to zero-point effects.
Theory of quantum error-correcting codes
Knill, E.; Laflamme, R.
1997-02-01
Quantum error correction will be necessary for preserving coherent states against noise and other unwanted interactions in quantum computation and communication. We develop a general theory of quantum error correction based on encoding states into larger Hilbert spaces subject to known interactions. We obtain necessary and sufficient conditions for the perfect recovery of an encoded state after its degradation by an interaction. The conditions depend only on the behavior of the logical states. We use them to give a recovery-operator-independent definition of error-correcting codes. We relate this definition to four others: the existence of a left inverse of the interaction, an explicit representation of the error syndrome using tensor products, perfect recovery of the completely entangled state, and an information theoretic identity. Two notions of fidelity and error for imperfect recovery are introduced, one for pure and the other for entangled states. The latter is more appropriate when using codes in a quantum memory or in applications of quantum teleportation to communication. We show that the error for entangled states is bounded linearly by the error for pure states. A formal definition of independent interactions for qubits is given. This leads to lower bounds on the number of qubits required to correct e errors and a formal proof that the classical bounds on the probability of error of e-error-correcting codes applies to e-error-correcting quantum codes, provided that the interaction is dominated by an identity component. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}
Quantum networks reveal quantum nonlocality.
Cavalcanti, Daniel; Almeida, Mafalda L; Scarani, Valerio; Acín, Antonio
2011-01-01
The results of local measurements on some composite quantum systems cannot be reproduced classically. This impossibility, known as quantum nonlocality, represents a milestone in the foundations of quantum theory. Quantum nonlocality is also a valuable resource for information-processing tasks, for example, quantum communication, quantum key distribution, quantum state estimation or randomness extraction. Still, deciding whether a quantum state is nonlocal remains a challenging problem. Here, we introduce a novel approach to this question: we study the nonlocal properties of quantum states when distributed and measured in networks. We show, using our framework, how any one-way entanglement distillable state leads to nonlocal correlations and prove that quantum nonlocality is a non-additive resource, which can be activated. There exist states, local at the single-copy level, that become nonlocal when taking several copies of them. Our results imply that the nonlocality of quantum states strongly depends on the measurement context. PMID:21304513
Communication and the Emergence of Collective Behavior in Living Organisms: A Quantum Approach
Bischof, Marco; Del Giudice, Emilio
2013-01-01
Intermolecular interactions within living organisms have been found to occur not as individual independent events but as a part of a collective array of interconnected events. The problem of the emergence of this collective dynamics and of the correlated biocommunication therefore arises. In the present paper we review the proposals given within the paradigm of modern molecular biology and those given by some holistic approaches to biology. In recent times, the collective behavior of ensembles of microscopic units (atoms/molecules) has been addressed in the conceptual framework of Quantum Field Theory. The possibility of producing physical states where all the components of the ensemble move in unison has been recognized. In such cases, electromagnetic fields trapped within the ensemble appear. In the present paper we present a scheme based on Quantum Field Theory where molecules are able to move in phase-correlated unison among them and with a self-produced electromagnetic field. Experimental corroboration of this scheme is presented. Some consequences for future biological developments are discussed. PMID:24288611
Communication: Mode specific quantum dynamics of the F + CHD3 → HF + CD3 reaction.
Qi, Ji; Song, Hongwei; Yang, Minghui; Palma, Juliana; Manthe, Uwe; Guo, Hua
2016-05-01
The mode specific reactivity of the F + CHD3 → HF + CD3 reaction is investigated using an eight-dimensional quantum dynamical model on a recently developed ab initio based full-dimensional potential energy surface. Our results indicate prominent resonance structures at low collision energies and absence of an energy threshold in reaction probabilities. It was also found that excitation of the C-D stretching or CD3 umbrella mode has a relatively small impact on reactivity. On the other hand, the excitation of the C-H vibration (v1) in CHD3 is shown to significantly increase the reactivity, which, like several recent quasi-classical trajectory studies, is at odds with the available experimental data. Possible sources of the disagreement are discussed. PMID:27155615
Communication: Mode specific quantum dynamics of the F + CHD3 → HF + CD3 reaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qi, Ji; Song, Hongwei; Yang, Minghui; Palma, Juliana; Manthe, Uwe; Guo, Hua
2016-05-01
The mode specific reactivity of the F + CHD3 → HF + CD3 reaction is investigated using an eight-dimensional quantum dynamical model on a recently developed ab initio based full-dimensional potential energy surface. Our results indicate prominent resonance structures at low collision energies and absence of an energy threshold in reaction probabilities. It was also found that excitation of the C-D stretching or CD3 umbrella mode has a relatively small impact on reactivity. On the other hand, the excitation of the C-H vibration (v1) in CHD3 is shown to significantly increase the reactivity, which, like several recent quasi-classical trajectory studies, is at odds with the available experimental data. Possible sources of the disagreement are discussed.
Active and Passive Interferometric Fringe Stabilization for Quantum Communications in Space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chapman, Joseph; Graham, Trent; Kwiat, Paul
2015-05-01
In interferometry, the relative phase between the paths is liable to drift over time due to environmental factors, i.e., vibrations in the components and from turbulence and temperature fluctuations in the air. If time-bin encoded photons are received from a moving space platform, e.g., a satellite or the International Space Station, there would be an additional large relative temporal shift because of the movement of the source toward or away from the receiver. This shift would alter the temporal coherence of adjacent timebins-as measured by a suitable temporally-unbalanced interferometer-in addition to the relative phase errors from the environment. To achieve accurate measurements in this situation, the interferometer needs to be stabilized against phase drifts. We have employed an active and passive stabilization scheme for a double unbalanced Mach-Zehnder interferometer configuration; while passive damping reduces most of the phase drift due to vibrations and fluctuations from the air, we designed and implemented an active feedback correction system to stabilize the remaining phase drift and the simulated temporal drift.
Secured Optical Communications Using Quantum Entangled Two-Photon Transparency Modulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kojima, Jun (Inventor); Nguyen, Quang-Viet (Inventor); Lekki, John (Inventor)
2015-01-01
A system and method is disclosed wherein optical signals are coded in a transmitter by tuning or modulating the interbeam delay time (which modulates the fourth-order coherence) between pairs of entangled photons. The photon pairs are either absorbed or not absorbed (transparent) by an atomic or molecular fluorescer in a receiver, depending on the inter-beam delay that is introduced in the entangled photon pairs. Upon the absorption, corresponding fluorescent optical emissions follow at a certain wavelength, which are then detected by a photon detector. The advantage of the disclosed system is that it eliminates a need of a coincidence counter to realize the entanglement-based secure optical communications because the absorber acts as a coincidence counter for entangled photon pairs.
A quantum memory for orbital angular momentum photonic qubits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nicolas, A.; Veissier, L.; Giner, L.; Giacobino, E.; Maxein, D.; Laurat, J.
2014-03-01
Among the optical degrees of freedom, the orbital angular momentum of light provides unique properties, including mechanical torque action, which has applications for light manipulation, enhanced sensitivity in imaging techniques and potential high-density information coding for optical communication systems. Recent years have also seen a tremendous interest in exploiting orbital angular momentum at the single-photon level in quantum information technologies. In pursuing this endeavour, we demonstrate here the implementation of a quantum memory for quantum bits encoded in this optical degree of freedom. We generate various qubits with computer-controlled holograms, store and retrieve them on demand using a dynamic electromagnetically induced transparency protocol. We further analyse the retrieved states by quantum tomography and thereby demonstrate fidelities exceeding the classical benchmark, confirming the quantum functioning of our storage process. Our results provide an essential capability for future networks exploring the promises of orbital angular momentum of photons for quantum information applications.
Communication: Towards ab initio self-energy embedding theory in quantum chemistry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lan, Tran Nguyen; Kananenka, Alexei A.; Zgid, Dominika
2015-12-01
The self-energy embedding theory (SEET), in which the active space self-energy is embedded in the self-energy obtained from a perturbative method treating the non-local correlation effects, was recently developed in our group. In SEET, the double counting problem does not appear and the accuracy can be improved either by increasing the perturbation order or by enlarging the active space. This method was first calibrated for the 2D Hubbard lattice showing promising results. In this paper, we report an extension of SEET to quantum chemical ab initio Hamiltonians for applications to molecular systems. The self-consistent second-order Green's function method is used to describe the non-local correlations, while the full configuration interaction method is carried out to capture strong correlation within the active space. Using few proof-of-concept examples, we show that SEET yields results of comparable quality to n-electron valence state second-order perturbation theory with the same active space, and furthermore, the full active space can be split into smaller active spaces without further implementation. Moreover, SEET avoids intruder states and does not require any high-order reduced density matrices. These advantages show that SEET is a promising method to describe physical and chemical properties of challenging molecules requiring large active spaces.
Communication: Towards ab initio self-energy embedding theory in quantum chemistry.
Lan, Tran Nguyen; Kananenka, Alexei A; Zgid, Dominika
2015-12-28
The self-energy embedding theory (SEET), in which the active space self-energy is embedded in the self-energy obtained from a perturbative method treating the non-local correlation effects, was recently developed in our group. In SEET, the double counting problem does not appear and the accuracy can be improved either by increasing the perturbation order or by enlarging the active space. This method was first calibrated for the 2D Hubbard lattice showing promising results. In this paper, we report an extension of SEET to quantum chemical ab initio Hamiltonians for applications to molecular systems. The self-consistent second-order Green's function method is used to describe the non-local correlations, while the full configuration interaction method is carried out to capture strong correlation within the active space. Using few proof-of-concept examples, we show that SEET yields results of comparable quality to n-electron valence state second-order perturbation theory with the same active space, and furthermore, the full active space can be split into smaller active spaces without further implementation. Moreover, SEET avoids intruder states and does not require any high-order reduced density matrices. These advantages show that SEET is a promising method to describe physical and chemical properties of challenging molecules requiring large active spaces. PMID:26723581
Cleland, Deidre; Booth, George H; Alavi, Ali
2010-01-28
We provide a very simple adaptation of our recently published quantum Monte Carlo algorithm in full configuration-interaction (Slater determinant) spaces which dramatically reduces the number of walkers required to achieve convergence. A survival criterion is imposed for newly spawned walkers. We define a set of initiator determinants such that progeny of walkers spawned from such determinants onto unoccupied determinants are able to survive, while the progeny of walkers not in this set can survive only if they are spawned onto determinants which are already occupied. The set of initiators is originally defined to be all determinants constructable from a subset of orbitals, in analogy with complete-active spaces. This set is dynamically updated so that if a noninitiator determinant reaches an occupation larger than a preset limit, it becomes an initiator. The new algorithm allows sign-coherent sampling of the FCI space to be achieved with relatively few walkers. Using the N(2) molecule as an illustration, we show that rather small initiator spaces and numbers of walkers can converge with submilliHartree accuracy to the known full configuration-interaction (FCI) energy (in the cc-pVDZ basis), in both the equilibrium geometry and the multiconfigurational stretched case. We use the same method to compute the energy with cc-pVTZ and cc-pVQZ basis sets, the latter having an FCI space of over 10(15) with very modest computational resources. PMID:20113011
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cleland, Deidre; Booth, George H.; Alavi, Ali
2010-01-01
We provide a very simple adaptation of our recently published quantum Monte Carlo algorithm in full configuration-interaction (Slater determinant) spaces which dramatically reduces the number of walkers required to achieve convergence. A survival criterion is imposed for newly spawned walkers. We define a set of initiator determinants such that progeny of walkers spawned from such determinants onto unoccupied determinants are able to survive, while the progeny of walkers not in this set can survive only if they are spawned onto determinants which are already occupied. The set of initiators is originally defined to be all determinants constructable from a subset of orbitals, in analogy with complete-active spaces. This set is dynamically updated so that if a noninitiator determinant reaches an occupation larger than a preset limit, it becomes an initiator. The new algorithm allows sign-coherent sampling of the FCI space to be achieved with relatively few walkers. Using the N2 molecule as an illustration, we show that rather small initiator spaces and numbers of walkers can converge with submilliHartree accuracy to the known full configuration-interaction (FCI) energy (in the cc-pVDZ basis), in both the equilibrium geometry and the multiconfigurational stretched case. We use the same method to compute the energy with cc-pVTZ and cc-pVQZ basis sets, the latter having an FCI space of over 1015 with very modest computational resources.
Communication: Towards ab initio self-energy embedding theory in quantum chemistry
Lan, Tran Nguyen; Kananenka, Alexei A.; Zgid, Dominika
2015-12-28
The self-energy embedding theory (SEET), in which the active space self-energy is embedded in the self-energy obtained from a perturbative method treating the non-local correlation effects, was recently developed in our group. In SEET, the double counting problem does not appear and the accuracy can be improved either by increasing the perturbation order or by enlarging the active space. This method was first calibrated for the 2D Hubbard lattice showing promising results. In this paper, we report an extension of SEET to quantum chemical ab initio Hamiltonians for applications to molecular systems. The self-consistent second-order Green’s function method is used to describe the non-local correlations, while the full configuration interaction method is carried out to capture strong correlation within the active space. Using few proof-of-concept examples, we show that SEET yields results of comparable quality to n-electron valence state second-order perturbation theory with the same active space, and furthermore, the full active space can be split into smaller active spaces without further implementation. Moreover, SEET avoids intruder states and does not require any high-order reduced density matrices. These advantages show that SEET is a promising method to describe physical and chemical properties of challenging molecules requiring large active spaces.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yamamoto, Naokatsu; Akahane, Kouichi; Umezawa, Toshimasa; Matsumoto, Atsushi; Kawanishi, Tetsuya
2016-04-01
A monolithically integrated quantum dot (QD) optical gain modulator (OGM) with a QD semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) was successfully developed with T-band (1.0 µm waveband) and O-band (1.3 µm waveband) QD optical gain materials for Gbps-order, high-speed optical data generation. The insertion loss due to coupling between the device and the optical fiber was effectively compensated for by the SOA section. It was also confirmed that the monolithic QD-OGM/SOA device enabled >4.8 Gbps optical data generation with a clear eye opening in the T-band. Furthermore, we successfully demonstrated error-free 4.8 Gbps optical data transmissions in each of the six wavelength channels over a 10-km-long photonic crystal fiber using the monolithic QD-OGM/SOA device in multiple O-band wavelength channels, which were generated by the single QD gain chip. These results suggest that the monolithic QD-OGM/SOA device will be advantageous in ultra-broadband optical frequency systems that utilize the T+O-band for short- and medium-range optical communications.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Quesne, C.
2010-02-01
In a recent communication paper by Tremblay et al (2009 J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 42 205206), it has been conjectured that for any integer value of k, some novel exactly solvable and integrable quantum Hamiltonian Hk on a plane is superintegrable and that the additional integral of motion is a 2kth-order differential operator Y2k. Here we demonstrate the conjecture for the infinite family of Hamiltonians Hk with odd k >= 3, whose first member corresponds to the three-body Calogero-Marchioro-Wolfes model after elimination of the centre-of-mass motion. Our approach is based on the construction of some D2k-extended and invariant Hamiltonian {\\cal H}_k, which can be interpreted as a modified boson oscillator Hamiltonian. The latter is then shown to possess a D2k-invariant integral of motion {\\cal Y}_{2k}, from which Y2k can be obtained by projection in the D2k identity representation space.
Reconstruction of turbo-code encoders
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barbier, Johann
2005-06-01
Turbo-code encoders are one of the spreadest family of error correcting codes used in the communication's world, especially in space transmissions. This paper presents an efficient technique to reconstruct turbo-code encoders which allows a passive adversary, with only few bits of an intercepted message encoded by the target turbocode encoder, to determine the parameters of the turbo-code encoder used, and therefore to decode online the communications. Thereby, our results confirm that keeping secret the parameters of turbo-code encoders can not be considered as a cryptographically way to ensure confidentiality. The starting point of our work is algorithms due to Filiol which enable to find the parameters of each convolutional encoder in the turbo-code encoder. Then, we recover the interleaver with two new algorithms, the first one based on the dynamic trie structure and the second one on a first order statistical test. The first algorithm is dedicated to noiseless channels. The asymptotic complexity of the complete process is O(n4) when a n2-bit message is available to attack a n-bit turbo-code encoder. The second algorithm works for every kind of channel and the noise does not matter much. Additionally, we present experimental results which underline the right detection threshold to use to recover the interleaver with a high probability. Furthermore, this method also works for turbo-code encoders composed of punctured convolutional encoders.
Baslow, Morris H
2010-11-01
N-acetylaspartate (NAA), an acetylated derivative of L-aspartate (Asp), and N-acetylaspartylglutamate (NAAG), a derivative of NAA and L-glutamate (Glu), are synthesized by neurons in brain. However, neurons cannot catabolize either of these substances, and so their metabolism requires the participation of two other cell types. Neurons release both NAA and NAAG to extra-cellular fluid (ECF) upon stimulation, where astrocytes, the target cells for NAAG, hydrolyze it releasing NAA back into ECF, and oligodendrocytes, the target cells for NAA, hydrolyze it releasing Asp to ECF for recycling to neurons. This sequence is unique as it is the only known amino acid metabolic cycle in brain that requires three cell types for its completion. The results of this cycling are two-fold. First, neuronal metabolic water is transported to ECF for its removal from brain. Second, the rate of neuronal activity is coupled with focal hyperemia, providing stimulated neurons with the energy required for transmission of meaningful frequency-encoded messages. In this paper, it is proposed that the tri-cellular metabolism of NAA functions as the "operating system" of the brain, and is essential for normal cognitive and motor activities. Evidence in support of this hypothesis is provided by the outcomes of two human inborn errors in NAA metabolism. PMID:20563610
Encoding information using Laguerre Gaussian modes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Trichili, Abderrahmen; Dudley, Angela; Ben Salem, Amine; Ndagano, Bienvenu; Zghal, Mourad; Forbes, Andrew
2015-08-01
We experimentally demonstrate an information encoding protocol using the two degrees of freedom of Laguerre Gaussian modes having different radial and azimuthal components. A novel method, based on digital holography, for information encoding and decoding using different data transmission scenarios is presented. The effects of the atmospheric turbulence introduced in free space communication is discussed as well.
Fujii, K.; Yamamoto, T.; Imoto, N.; Koashi, M.
2014-12-04
We propose a scheme for distributed quantum computation with small local systems connected via noisy quantum channels. We show that the proposed scheme tolerates errors with probabilities ∼30% and ∼ 0.1% in quantum channels and local operations, respectively, both of which are improved substantially compared to the previous works.
Simple quantum password checking
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garcia-Escartin, Juan Carlos; Chamorro-Posada, Pedro
2015-06-01
We present a quantum password checking protocol where secrecy is protected by the laws of quantum mechanics. The passwords are encoded in quantum systems that can be compared but have a dimension too small to allow reading the encoded bits. We study the protocol under different replay attacks and show it is robust even for poorly chosen passwords. We also describe a possible implementation with conventional optical elements.
Authentication of quantum messages.
Barnum, Howard; Crépeau, Jean-Claude; Gottesman, D.; Smith, A.; Tapp, Alan
2001-01-01
Authentication is a well-studied area of classical cryptography: a sender A and a receiver B sharing a classical private key want to exchange a classical message with the guarantee that the message has not been modified or replaced by a dishonest party with control of the communication line. In this paper we study the authentication of messages composed of quantum states. We give a formal definition of authentication in the quantum setting. Assuming A and B have access to an insecure quantum channel and share a private, classical random key, we provide a non-interactive scheme that both enables A to encrypt and authenticate (with unconditional security) an m qubit message by encoding it into m + s qubits, where the probability decreases exponentially in the security parameter s. The scheme requires a private key of size 2m + O(s). To achieve this, we give a highly efficient protocol for testing the purity of shared EPR pairs. It has long been known that learning information about a general quantum state will necessarily disturb it. We refine this result to show that such a disturbance can be done with few side effects, allowing it to circumvent cryptographic protections. Consequently, any scheme to authenticate quantum messages must also encrypt them. In contrast, no such constraint exists classically: authentication and encryption are independent tasks, and one can authenticate a message while leaving it publicly readable. This reasoning has two important consequences: On one hand, it allows us to give a lower bound of 2m key bits for authenticating m qubits, which makes our protocol asymptotically optimal. On the other hand, we use it to show that digitally signing quantum states is impossible, even with only computational security.
Information security: from classical to quantum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barnett, Stephen M.; Brougham, Thomas
2012-09-01
Quantum cryptography was designed to provide a new approach to the problem of distributing keys for private-key cryptography. The principal idea is that security can be ensured by exploiting the laws of quantum physics and, in particular, by the fact that any attempt to measure a quantum state will change it uncontrollably. This change can be detected by the legitimate users of the communication channel and so reveal to them the presence of an eavesdropper. In this paper I explain (briefly) how quantum key distribution works and some of the progress that has been made towards making this a viable technology. With the principles of quantum communication and quantum key distribution firmly established, it is perhaps time to consider how efficient it can be made. It is interesting to ask, in particular, how many bits of information might reasonably be encoded securely on each photon. The use of photons entangled in their time of arrival might make it possible to achieve data rates in excess of 10 bits per photon.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Head-Marsden, Kade; Mazziotti, David A.
2015-02-01
For an open, time-dependent quantum system, Lindblad derived the most general modification of the quantum Liouville equation in the Markovian approximation that models environmental effects while preserving the non-negativity of the system's density matrix. While Lindblad's modification is correct for N-electron density matrices, solution of the Liouville equation with a Lindblad operator causes the one-electron reduced density matrix (1-RDM) to violate the Pauli exclusion principle. Consequently, after a short time, the 1-RDM is not representable by an ensemble N-electron density matrix (not ensemble N-representable). In this communication, we derive the necessary and sufficient constraints on the Lindbladian matrix within the Lindblad operator to ensure that the 1-RDM remains N-representable for all time. The theory is illustrated by considering the relaxation of an excitation in several molecules F2, N2, CO, and BeH2 subject to environmental noise.
Head-Marsden, Kade; Mazziotti, David A
2015-02-01
For an open, time-dependent quantum system, Lindblad derived the most general modification of the quantum Liouville equation in the Markovian approximation that models environmental effects while preserving the non-negativity of the system's density matrix. While Lindblad's modification is correct for N-electron density matrices, solution of the Liouville equation with a Lindblad operator causes the one-electron reduced density matrix (1-RDM) to violate the Pauli exclusion principle. Consequently, after a short time, the 1-RDM is not representable by an ensemble N-electron density matrix (not ensemble N-representable). In this communication, we derive the necessary and sufficient constraints on the Lindbladian matrix within the Lindblad operator to ensure that the 1-RDM remains N-representable for all time. The theory is illustrated by considering the relaxation of an excitation in several molecules F2, N2, CO, and BeH2 subject to environmental noise. PMID:25662627
Free-space quantum key distribution by rotation-invariant twisted photons.
Vallone, Giuseppe; D'Ambrosio, Vincenzo; Sponselli, Anna; Slussarenko, Sergei; Marrucci, Lorenzo; Sciarrino, Fabio; Villoresi, Paolo
2014-08-01
"Twisted photons" are photons carrying a well-defined nonzero value of orbital angular momentum (OAM). The associated optical wave exhibits a helical shape of the wavefront (hence the name) and an optical vortex at the beam axis. The OAM of light is attracting a growing interest for its potential in photonic applications ranging from particle manipulation, microscopy, and nanotechnologies to fundamental tests of quantum mechanics, classical data multiplexing, and quantum communication. Hitherto, however, all results obtained with optical OAM were limited to laboratory scale. Here, we report the experimental demonstration of a link for free-space quantum communication with OAM operating over a distance of 210 m. Our method exploits OAM in combination with optical polarization to encode the information in rotation-invariant photonic states, so as to guarantee full independence of the communication from the local reference frames of the transmitting and receiving units. In particular, we implement quantum key distribution, a protocol exploiting the features of quantum mechanics to guarantee unconditional security in cryptographic communication, demonstrating error-rate performances that are fully compatible with real-world application requirements. Our results extend previous achievements of OAM-based quantum communication by over 2 orders of magnitude in the link scale, providing an important step forward in achieving the vision of a worldwide quantum network. PMID:25148310
Relativistic quantum cryptography
Molotkov, S. N.
2011-03-15
A new protocol of quantum key distribution is proposed to transmit keys through free space. Along with quantum-mechanical restrictions on the discernibility of nonorthogonal quantum states, the protocol uses additional restrictions imposed by special relativity theory. Unlike all existing quantum key distribution protocols, this protocol ensures key secrecy for a not strictly one-photon source of quantum states and an arbitrary length of a quantum communication channel.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Cai; Situ, Haozhen
2016-06-01
Recently, Wang et al. presented a bidirectional quantum secure direct communication protocol with single photons in both polarization and spatial-mode degrees of freedom (Int. J. Theor. Phys. 54(10): 3443-3453, 2015). They claimed that their protocol was efficient and removed the drawback of information leakage. However, we found that the information leakage actually exists in their protocol. In this paper, we analyze Wang et al.'s protocol in detail. In addition, we propose an improvement to avoid the information leakage. The security of the improved protocol has also been discussed.
The broadcast classical-quantum capacity region of a two-phase bidirectional relaying channel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boche, Holger; Cai, Minglai; Deppe, Christian
2015-10-01
We studied a three-node quantum network that enables bidirectional communication between two nodes with a half-duplex relay node for transmitting classical messages. A decode-and-forward protocol is used to perform the communication in two phases. In the first phase, the messages of two nodes are transmitted to the relay node. The capacity of the first phase is well known by previous works. In the second phase, the relay node broadcasts a re-encoded composition to the two nodes. We determine the capacity region of the broadcast phase. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first paper analyzing quantum bidirectional relay networks.
Quantum information and computation
Bennett, C.H.
1995-10-01
A new quantum theory of communication and computation is emerging, in which the stuff transmitted or processed is not classical information, but arbitrary superpositions of quantum states. {copyright} 1995 {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jennewein, Thomas; Higgins, Brendon
2013-03-01
Sending satellites equipped with quantum technologies into space will be the first step towards a global quantum-communication network. As Thomas Jennewein and Brendon Higgins explain, these systems will also enable physicists to test fundamental physics in new regimes.
Implementation of a three-qubit quantum error-correction code in a cavity-QED setup
Ottaviani, Carlo; Vitali, David
2010-07-15
The correction of errors is of fundamental importance for the development of contemporary computing devices and robust communication protocols. In this paper we propose a scheme for the implementation of the three-qubit quantum repetition code, exploiting the interaction of Rydberg atoms with the quantized mode of a microwave cavity field. Quantum information is encoded within two circular Rydberg states of the atoms and encoding and decoding processes are realized within two separate microwave cavities. We show that errors due to phase-noise fluctuations could be efficiently corrected using a state-of-the-art apparatus.
Rossi, Mariana; Liu, Hanchao; Bowman, Joel; Paesani, Francesco; Ceriotti, Michele
2014-11-14
Including quantum mechanical effects on the dynamics of nuclei in the condensed phase is challenging, because the complexity of exact methods grows exponentially with the number of quantum degrees of freedom. Efforts to circumvent these limitations can be traced down to two approaches: methods that treat a small subset of the degrees of freedom with rigorous quantum mechanics, considering the rest of the system as a static or classical environment, and methods that treat the whole system quantum mechanically, but using approximate dynamics. Here, we perform a systematic comparison between these two philosophies for the description of quantum effects in vibrational spectroscopy, taking the Embedded Local Monomer model and a mixed quantum-classical model as representatives of the first family of methods, and centroid molecular dynamics and thermostatted ring polymer molecular dynamics as examples of the latter. We use as benchmarks D{sub 2}O doped with HOD and pure H{sub 2}O at three distinct thermodynamic state points (ice Ih at 150 K, and the liquid at 300 K and 600 K), modeled with the simple q-TIP4P/F potential energy and dipole moment surfaces. With few exceptions the different techniques yield IR absorption frequencies that are consistent with one another within a few tens of cm{sup −1}. Comparison with classical molecular dynamics demonstrates the importance of nuclear quantum effects up to the highest temperature, and a detailed discussion of the discrepancies between the various methods let us draw some (circumstantial) conclusions about the impact of the very different approximations that underlie them. Such cross validation between radically different approaches could indicate a way forward to further improve the state of the art in simulations of condensed-phase quantum dynamics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rossi, Mariana; Liu, Hanchao; Paesani, Francesco; Bowman, Joel; Ceriotti, Michele
2014-11-01
Including quantum mechanical effects on the dynamics of nuclei in the condensed phase is challenging, because the complexity of exact methods grows exponentially with the number of quantum degrees of freedom. Efforts to circumvent these limitations can be traced down to two approaches: methods that treat a small subset of the degrees of freedom with rigorous quantum mechanics, considering the rest of the system as a static or classical environment, and methods that treat the whole system quantum mechanically, but using approximate dynamics. Here, we perform a systematic comparison between these two philosophies for the description of quantum effects in vibrational spectroscopy, taking the Embedded Local Monomer model and a mixed quantum-classical model as representatives of the first family of methods, and centroid molecular dynamics and thermostatted ring polymer molecular dynamics as examples of the latter. We use as benchmarks D2O doped with HOD and pure H2O at three distinct thermodynamic state points (ice Ih at 150 K, and the liquid at 300 K and 600 K), modeled with the simple q-TIP4P/F potential energy and dipole moment surfaces. With few exceptions the different techniques yield IR absorption frequencies that are consistent with one another within a few tens of cm-1. Comparison with classical molecular dynamics demonstrates the importance of nuclear quantum effects up to the highest temperature, and a detailed discussion of the discrepancies between the various methods let us draw some (circumstantial) conclusions about the impact of the very different approximations that underlie them. Such cross validation between radically different approaches could indicate a way forward to further improve the state of the art in simulations of condensed-phase quantum dynamics.
Rossi, Mariana; Liu, Hanchao; Paesani, Francesco; Bowman, Joel; Ceriotti, Michele
2014-11-14
Including quantum mechanical effects on the dynamics of nuclei in the condensed phase is challenging, because the complexity of exact methods grows exponentially with the number of quantum degrees of freedom. Efforts to circumvent these limitations can be traced down to two approaches: methods that treat a small subset of the degrees of freedom with rigorous quantum mechanics, considering the rest of the system as a static or classical environment, and methods that treat the whole system quantum mechanically, but using approximate dynamics. Here, we perform a systematic comparison between these two philosophies for the description of quantum effects in vibrational spectroscopy, taking the Embedded Local Monomer model and a mixed quantum-classical model as representatives of the first family of methods, and centroid molecular dynamics and thermostatted ring polymer molecular dynamics as examples of the latter. We use as benchmarks D2O doped with HOD and pure H2O at three distinct thermodynamic state points (ice Ih at 150 K, and the liquid at 300 K and 600 K), modeled with the simple q-TIP4P/F potential energy and dipole moment surfaces. With few exceptions the different techniques yield IR absorption frequencies that are consistent with one another within a few tens of cm(-1). Comparison with classical molecular dynamics demonstrates the importance of nuclear quantum effects up to the highest temperature, and a detailed discussion of the discrepancies between the various methods let us draw some (circumstantial) conclusions about the impact of the very different approximations that underlie them. Such cross validation between radically different approaches could indicate a way forward to further improve the state of the art in simulations of condensed-phase quantum dynamics. PMID:25399122
All-photonic quantum repeaters
Azuma, Koji; Tamaki, Kiyoshi; Lo, Hoi-Kwong
2015-01-01
Quantum communication holds promise for unconditionally secure transmission of secret messages and faithful transfer of unknown quantum states. Photons appear to be the medium of choice for quantum communication. Owing to photon losses, robust quantum communication over long lossy channels requires quantum repeaters. It is widely believed that a necessary and highly demanding requirement for quantum repeaters is the existence of matter quantum memories. Here we show that such a requirement is, in fact, unnecessary by introducing the concept of all-photonic quantum repeaters based on flying qubits. In particular, we present a protocol based on photonic cluster-state machine guns and a loss-tolerant measurement equipped with local high-speed active feedforwards. We show that, with such all-photonic quantum repeaters, the communication efficiency scales polynomially with the channel distance. Our result paves a new route towards quantum repeaters with efficient single-photon sources rather than matter quantum memories. PMID:25873153
All-photonic quantum repeaters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Azuma, Koji; Tamaki, Kiyoshi; Lo, Hoi-Kwong
2015-04-01
Quantum communication holds promise for unconditionally secure transmission of secret messages and faithful transfer of unknown quantum states. Photons appear to be the medium of choice for quantum communication. Owing to photon losses, robust quantum communication over long lossy channels requires quantum repeaters. It is widely believed that a necessary and highly demanding requirement for quantum repeaters is the existence of matter quantum memories. Here we show that such a requirement is, in fact, unnecessary by introducing the concept of all-photonic quantum repeaters based on flying qubits. In particular, we present a protocol based on photonic cluster-state machine guns and a loss-tolerant measurement equipped with local high-speed active feedforwards. We show that, with such all-photonic quantum repeaters, the communication efficiency scales polynomially with the channel distance. Our result paves a new route towards quantum repeaters with efficient single-photon sources rather than matter quantum memories.
All-photonic quantum repeaters.
Azuma, Koji; Tamaki, Kiyoshi; Lo, Hoi-Kwong
2015-01-01
Quantum communication holds promise for unconditionally secure transmission of secret messages and faithful transfer of unknown quantum states. Photons appear to be the medium of choice for quantum communication. Owing to photon losses, robust quantum communication over long lossy channels requires quantum repeaters. It is widely believed that a necessary and highly demanding requirement for quantum repeaters is the existence of matter quantum memories. Here we show that such a requirement is, in fact, unnecessary by introducing the concept of all-photonic quantum repeaters based on flying qubits. In particular, we present a protocol based on photonic cluster-state machine guns and a loss-tolerant measurement equipped with local high-speed active feedforwards. We show that, with such all-photonic quantum repeaters, the communication efficiency scales polynomially with the channel distance. Our result paves a new route towards quantum repeaters with efficient single-photon sources rather than matter quantum memories. PMID:25873153
Quantum Cryptography Without Quantum Uncertainties
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Durt, Thomas
2002-06-01
Quantum cryptography aims at transmitting a random key in such a way that the presence of a spy eavesdropping the communication would be revealed by disturbances in the transmission of the message. In standard quantum cryptography, this unavoidable disturbance is a consequence of the uncertainty principle of Heisenberg. We propose in this paper to replace quantum uncertainties by generalised, technological uncertainties, and discuss the realisability of such an idea. The proposed protocol can be considered as a simplification, but also as a generalisation of the standard quantum cryptographic protocols.
Quantum information causality.
Pitalúa-García, Damián
2013-05-24
How much information can a transmitted physical system fundamentally communicate? We introduce the principle of quantum information causality, which states the maximum amount of quantum information that a quantum system can communicate as a function of its dimension, independently of any previously shared quantum physical resources. We present a new quantum information task, whose success probability is upper bounded by the new principle, and show that an optimal strategy to perform it combines the quantum teleportation and superdense coding protocols with a task that has classical inputs. PMID:23745844
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Le Gouët, Jean-Louis; Moiseev, Sergey
2012-06-01
Interaction of quantum radiation with multi-particle ensembles has sparked off intense research efforts during the past decade. Emblematic of this field is the quantum memory scheme, where a quantum state of light is mapped onto an ensemble of atoms and then recovered in its original shape. While opening new access to the basics of light-atom interaction, quantum memory also appears as a key element for information processing applications, such as linear optics quantum computation and long-distance quantum communication via quantum repeaters. Not surprisingly, it is far from trivial to practically recover a stored quantum state of light and, although impressive progress has already been accomplished, researchers are still struggling to reach this ambitious objective. This special issue provides an account of the state-of-the-art in a fast-moving research area that makes physicists, engineers and chemists work together at the forefront of their discipline, involving quantum fields and atoms in different media, magnetic resonance techniques and material science. Various strategies have been considered to store and retrieve quantum light. The explored designs belong to three main—while still overlapping—classes. In architectures derived from photon echo, information is mapped over the spectral components of inhomogeneously broadened absorption bands, such as those encountered in rare earth ion doped crystals and atomic gases in external gradient magnetic field. Protocols based on electromagnetic induced transparency also rely on resonant excitation and are ideally suited to the homogeneous absorption lines offered by laser cooled atomic clouds or ion Coulomb crystals. Finally off-resonance approaches are illustrated by Faraday and Raman processes. Coupling with an optical cavity may enhance the storage process, even for negligibly small atom number. Multiple scattering is also proposed as a way to enlarge the quantum interaction distance of light with matter. The
Programmable Pulse-Position-Modulation Encoder
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zhu, David; Farr, William
2006-01-01
A programmable pulse-position-modulation (PPM) encoder has been designed for use in testing an optical communication link. The encoder includes a programmable state machine and an electronic code book that can be updated to accommodate different PPM coding schemes. The encoder includes a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) that is programmed to step through the stored state machine and code book and that drives a custom high-speed serializer circuit board that is capable of generating subnanosecond pulses. The stored state machine and code book can be updated by means of a simple text interface through the serial port of a personal computer.
An attack aimed at active phase compensation in one-way phase-encoded QKD systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dong, Zhao-Yue; Yu, Ning-Na; Wei, Zheng-Jun; Wang, Jin-Dong; Zhang, Zhi-Ming
2014-08-01
Phase drift is an inherent problem in one-way phase-encoded quantum key distribution (QKD) systems. Although combining passive with active phase compensation (APC) processes can effectively compensate for the phase drift, the security problems brought about by these processes are rarely considered. In this paper, we point out a security hole in the APC process and put forward a corresponding attack scheme. Under our proposed attack, the quantum bit error rate (QBER) of the QKD can be close to zero for some conditions. However, under the same conditions the ratio r of the key "0" and the key "1" which Bob (the legal communicators Alice and Bob) gets is no longer 1:1 but 2:1, which may expose Eve (the eavesdropper). In order to solve this problem, we modify the resend strategy of the attack scheme, which can force r to reach 1 and the QBER to be lower than the tolerable QBER.
Continuous-Variable Quantum Computation of Oracle Decision Problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adcock, Mark R. A.
the relative performances of different choices of the encoding bases. We extend our formalism to include quantum algorithms in the continuously parameterized yet finite-dimensional Hilbert space of a coherent spin system. We show that the highest-squeezed spin state possible can be approximated by a superposition of two states thus transcending the usual model of using a single basis state as algorithm input. As a particular example, we show that the close Hadamard oracle-decision problem, which is related to the Hadamard codewords of digital communications theory, can be solved quantitatively more efficiently using this computational model than by any known classical algorithm.
Quantum Secure Dialogue with Quantum Encryption
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ye, Tian-Yu
2014-09-01
How to solve the information leakage problem has become the research focus of quantum dialogue. In this paper, in order to overcome the information leakage problem in quantum dialogue, a novel approach for sharing the initial quantum state privately between communicators, i.e., quantum encryption sharing, is proposed by utilizing the idea of quantum encryption. The proposed protocol uses EPR pairs as the private quantum key to encrypt and decrypt the traveling photons, which can be repeatedly used after rotation. Due to quantum encryption sharing, the public announcement on the state of the initial quantum state is omitted, thus the information leakage problem is overcome. The information-theoretical efficiency of the proposed protocol is nearly 100%, much higher than previous information leakage resistant quantum dialogue protocols. Moreover, the proposed protocol only needs single-photon measurements and nearly uses single photons as quantum resource so that it is convenient to implement in practice.
Quantum Dialogue with Authentication Based on Bell States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shen, Dongsu; Ma, Wenping; Yin, Xunru; Li, Xiaoping
2013-06-01
We propose an authenticated quantum dialogue protocol, which is based on a shared private quantum entangled channel. In this protocol, the EPR pairs are randomly prepared in one of the four Bell states for communication. By performing four Pauli operations on the shared EPR pairs to encode their shared authentication key and secret message, two legitimate users can implement mutual identity authentication and quantum dialogue without the help from the third party authenticator. Furthermore, due to the EPR pairs which are used for secure communication are utilized to implement authentication and the whole authentication process is included in the direct secure communication process, it does not require additional particles to realize authentication in this protocol. The updated authentication key provides the counterparts with a new authentication key for the next authentication and direct communication. Compared with other secure communication with authentication protocols, this one is more secure and efficient owing to the combination of authentication and direct communication. Security analysis shows that it is secure against the eavesdropping attack, the impersonation attack and the man-in-the-middle (MITM) attack.
Trevors, J T; Masson, L
2011-01-01
During his famous 1943 lecture series at Trinity College Dublin, the reknown physicist Erwin Schrodinger discussed the failure and challenges of interpreting life by classical physics alone and that a new approach, rooted in Quantum principles, must be involved. Quantum events are simply a level of organization below the molecular level. This includes the atomic and subatomic makeup of matter in microbial metabolism and structures, as well as the organic, genetic information code of DNA and RNA. Quantum events at this time do not elucidate, for example, how specific genetic instructions were first encoded in an organic genetic code in microbial cells capable of growth and division, and its subsequent evolution over 3.6 to 4 billion years. However, due to recent technological advances, biologists and physicists are starting to demonstrate linkages between various quantum principles like quantum tunneling, entanglement and coherence in biological processes illustrating that nature has exerted some level quantum control to optimize various processes in living organisms. In this article we explore the role of quantum events in microbial processes and endeavor to show that after nearly 67 years, Schrödinger was prophetic and visionary in his view of quantum theory and its connection with some of the fundamental mechanisms of life. PMID:21368338
Interpreting quantum discord through quantum state merging
Madhok, Vaibhav; Datta, Animesh
2011-03-15
We present an operational interpretation of quantum discord based on the quantum state merging protocol. Quantum discord is the markup in the cost of quantum communication in the process of quantum state merging, if one discards relevant prior information. Our interpretation has an intuitive explanation based on the strong subadditivity of von Neumann entropy. We use our result to provide operational interpretations of other quantities like the local purity and quantum deficit. Finally, we discuss in brief some instances where our interpretation is valid in the single-copy scenario.
ENCODE data at the ENCODE portal.
Sloan, Cricket A; Chan, Esther T; Davidson, Jean M; Malladi, Venkat S; Strattan, J Seth; Hitz, Benjamin C; Gabdank, Idan; Narayanan, Aditi K; Ho, Marcus; Lee, Brian T; Rowe, Laurence D; Dreszer, Timothy R; Roe, Greg; Podduturi, Nikhil R; Tanaka, Forrest; Hong, Eurie L; Cherry, J Michael
2016-01-01
The Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) Project is in its third phase of creating a comprehensive catalog of functional elements in the human genome. This phase of the project includes an expansion of assays that measure diverse RNA populations, identify proteins that interact with RNA and DNA, probe regions of DNA hypersensitivity, and measure levels of DNA methylation in a wide range of cell and tissue types to identify putative regulatory elements. To date, results for almost 5000 experiments have been released for use by the scientific community. These data are available for searching, visualization and download at the new ENCODE Portal (www.encodeproject.org). The revamped ENCODE Portal provides new ways to browse and search the ENCODE data based on the metadata that describe the assays as well as summaries of the assays that focus on data provenance. In addition, it is a flexible platform that allows integration of genomic data from multiple projects. The portal experience was designed to improve access to ENCODE data by relying on metadata that allow reusability and reproducibility of the experiments. PMID:26527727
ENCODE data at the ENCODE portal
Sloan, Cricket A.; Chan, Esther T.; Davidson, Jean M.; Malladi, Venkat S.; Strattan, J. Seth; Hitz, Benjamin C.; Gabdank, Idan; Narayanan, Aditi K.; Ho, Marcus; Lee, Brian T.; Rowe, Laurence D.; Dreszer, Timothy R.; Roe, Greg; Podduturi, Nikhil R.; Tanaka, Forrest; Hong, Eurie L.; Cherry, J. Michael
2016-01-01
The Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) Project is in its third phase of creating a comprehensive catalog of functional elements in the human genome. This phase of the project includes an expansion of assays that measure diverse RNA populations, identify proteins that interact with RNA and DNA, probe regions of DNA hypersensitivity, and measure levels of DNA methylation in a wide range of cell and tissue types to identify putative regulatory elements. To date, results for almost 5000 experiments have been released for use by the scientific community. These data are available for searching, visualization and download at the new ENCODE Portal (www.encodeproject.org). The revamped ENCODE Portal provides new ways to browse and search the ENCODE data based on the metadata that describe the assays as well as summaries of the assays that focus on data provenance. In addition, it is a flexible platform that allows integration of genomic data from multiple projects. The portal experience was designed to improve access to ENCODE data by relying on metadata that allow reusability and reproducibility of the experiments. PMID:26527727
Felker, Peter M; Bačić, Zlatko
2016-05-28
We report rigorous quantum calculations of the translation-rotation (TR) eigenstates of para- and ortho-H2O@C60. They provide a comprehensive description of the dynamical behavior of H2O inside the fullerene having icosahedral (Ih) symmetry. The TR eigenstates are assigned in terms of the irreducible representations of the proper symmetry group of H2O@C60, as well as the appropriate translational and rotational quantum numbers. The coupling between the orbital and the rotational angular momenta of the caged H2O gives rise to the total angular momentum λ, which additionally labels each TR level. The calculated TR levels allow tentative assignments of a number of transitions in the recent experimental INS spectra of H2O@C60 that have not been assigned previously. PMID:27250272
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Felker, Peter M.; Bačić, Zlatko
2016-05-01
We report rigorous quantum calculations of the translation-rotation (TR) eigenstates of para- and ortho-H2O@C60. They provide a comprehensive description of the dynamical behavior of H2O inside the fullerene having icosahedral (Ih) symmetry. The TR eigenstates are assigned in terms of the irreducible representations of the proper symmetry group of H2O@C60, as well as the appropriate translational and rotational quantum numbers. The coupling between the orbital and the rotational angular momenta of the caged H2O gives rise to the total angular momentum λ, which additionally labels each TR level. The calculated TR levels allow tentative assignments of a number of transitions in the recent experimental INS spectra of H2O@C60 that have not been assigned previously.
Avoiding irreversible dynamics in quantum systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karasik, Raisa Iosifovna
2009-10-01
Devices that exploit laws of quantum physics offer revolutionary advances in computation and communication. However, building such devices presents an enormous challenge, since it would require technologies that go far beyond current capabilities. One of the main obstacles to building a quantum computer and devices needed for quantum communication is decoherence or noise that originates from the interaction between a quantum system and its environment, and which leads to the destruction of the fragile quantum information. Encoding into decoherence-free subspaces (DFS) provides an important strategy for combating decoherence effects in quantum systems and constitutes the focus of my dissertation. The theory of DFS relies on the existence of certain symmetries in the decoherence process, which allow some states of a quantum system to be completely decoupled from the environment and thus to experience no decoherence. In this thesis I describe various approaches to DFS that are developed in the current literature. Although the general idea behind various approaches to DFS is the same, I show that different mathematical definitions of DFS actually have different physical meaning. I provide a rigorous definition of DFS for every approach, explaining its physical meaning and relation to other definitions. I also examine the theory of DFS for Markovian systems. These are systems for which the environment has no memory, i.e., any change in the environment affects the quantum system instantaneously. Examples of such systems include many systems in quantum optics that have been proposed for implementation of a quantum computer, such as atomic and molecular gases, trapped ions, and quantum dots. Here I develop a rigorous theory that provides necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of DFS. This theory allows us to identify a special new class of DFS that was not known before. Under particular circumstances, dynamics of a quantum system can connive together with
Surface code quantum computing by lattice surgery
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Horsman, Clare; Fowler, Austin G.; Devitt, Simon; Van Meter, Rodney
2012-12-01
In recent years, surface codes have become a leading method for quantum error correction in theoretical large-scale computational and communications architecture designs. Their comparatively high fault-tolerant thresholds and their natural two-dimensional nearest-neighbour (2DNN) structure make them an obvious choice for large scale designs in experimentally realistic systems. While fundamentally based on the toric code of Kitaev, there are many variants, two of which are the planar- and defect-based codes. Planar codes require fewer qubits to implement (for the same strength of error correction), but are restricted to encoding a single qubit of information. Interactions between encoded qubits are achieved via transversal operations, thus destroying the inherent 2DNN nature of the code. In this paper we introduce a new technique enabling the coupling of two planar codes without transversal operations, maintaining the 2DNN of the encoded computer. Our lattice surgery technique comprises splitting and merging planar code surfaces, and enables us to perform universal quantum computation (including magic state injection) while removing the need for braided logic in a strictly 2DNN design, and hence reduces the overall qubit resources for logic operations. Those resources are further reduced by the use of a rotated lattice for the planar encoding. We show how lattice surgery allows us to distribute encoded GHZ states in a more direct (and overhead friendly) manner, and how a demonstration of an encoded CNOT between two distance-3 logical states is possible with 53 physical qubits, half of that required in any other known construction in 2D.
Permutation-invariant codes encoding more than one qubit
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ouyang, Yingkai; Fitzsimons, Joseph
2016-04-01
A permutation-invariant code on m qubits is a subspace of the symmetric subspace of the m qubits. We derive permutation-invariant codes that can encode an increasing amount of quantum information while suppressing leading-order spontaneous decay errors. To prove the result, we use elementary number theory with prior theory on permutation-invariant codes and quantum error correction.
Head-Marsden, Kade; Mazziotti, David A.
2015-02-07
For an open, time-dependent quantum system, Lindblad derived the most general modification of the quantum Liouville equation in the Markovian approximation that models environmental effects while preserving the non-negativity of the system’s density matrix. While Lindblad’s modification is correct for N-electron density matrices, solution of the Liouville equation with a Lindblad operator causes the one-electron reduced density matrix (1-RDM) to violate the Pauli exclusion principle. Consequently, after a short time, the 1-RDM is not representable by an ensemble N-electron density matrix (not ensemble N-representable). In this communication, we derive the necessary and sufficient constraints on the Lindbladian matrix within the Lindblad operator to ensure that the 1-RDM remains N-representable for all time. The theory is illustrated by considering the relaxation of an excitation in several molecules F{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, CO, and BeH{sub 2} subject to environmental noise.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Luzhanskiy, Edward; Choa, Fow-Sen; Merritt, Scott; Yu, Anthony; Krainak, Michael
2015-01-01
The low complexity, low size, weight and power Mid-Wavelength Infra-Red optical communications transceiver concept presented, realized and tested in the laboratory environment. Resilience to atmospheric impairments analyzed with simulated turbulence. Performance compared to typical telecom based Short Wavelength Infra-Red transceiver.
Communicating with Transverse Modes of Light
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rodenburg, Brandon
Shannon's theory of communication created a set of tools for studying complex systems in an abstract and powerful way, providing the core foundations for the field of information theory. This thesis uses these ideas to provide a framework for studying the transverse degree of freedom of an optical field, appropriate for both classical and quantum states of light. This degree of freedom is in principle an unbounded space, providing a complex resource for encoding a large amount of information. This work focuses on studying the physical limits to the information of this space, both in terms of fundamental theoretical limitations as well as practical limitations due to experimental implementation and error. This thesis will pay particular interest to the design and implementation of a quantum key distribution system encoded using a particular set of transverse modes for encoding known as orbital angular momentum states, which represent normal modes of a typical free-space optical system. This specific technological implementation provides a motivation that acts to unify many of the themes in this work including quantum state preparation, state detection or discrimination, and state evolution or propagation. Additionally, such a setup gives a specific physical meaning to the abstract tools we will be utilizing as the information that we will be quantifying can be thought of as a measure of the possible complexity or information content of a single photon. Chapter 1 provides a brief introduction to information theory and the basic concepts and tools that are used throughout this work, as well as a basic introduction to quantum key distribution. Chapter 2 theoretically explores the fundamental limits of the information capacity of a channel due to diffraction, as well as computes the communication modes of a channel using a normal mode approach to propagation. Chapter 3 concerns the experimental implementation of a free-space quantum key distribution system including
Synchronizing Heavily Encoded Data in Bad Weather
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Swanson, L.
1985-01-01
Deep space missions choose a data rate to ensure reliable communication under most conditions. Certain critical data can be more heavily encoded, to be decoded under particularly bad atmospheric conditions. It is shown that, in such a system, finding and synchronizing critical data will not be a problem.
Faithful conditional quantum state transfer between weakly coupled qubits
Miková, M.; Straka, I.; Mičuda, M.; Krčmarský, V.; Dušek, M.; Ježek, M.; Fiurášek, J.; Filip, R.
2016-01-01
One of the strengths of quantum information theory is that it can treat quantum states without referring to their particular physical representation. In principle, quantum states can be therefore fully swapped between various quantum systems by their mutual interaction and this quantum state transfer is crucial for many quantum communication and information processing tasks. In practice, however, the achievable interaction time and strength are often limited by decoherence. Here we propose and experimentally demonstrate a procedure for faithful quantum state transfer between two weakly interacting qubits. Our scheme enables a probabilistic yet perfect unidirectional transfer of an arbitrary unknown state of a source qubit onto a target qubit prepared initially in a known state. The transfer is achieved by a combination of a suitable measurement of the source qubit and quantum filtering on the target qubit depending on the outcome of measurement on the source qubit. We experimentally verify feasibility and robustness of the transfer using a linear optical setup with qubits encoded into polarization states of single photons. PMID:27562544
Faithful conditional quantum state transfer between weakly coupled qubits.
Miková, M; Straka, I; Mičuda, M; Krčmarský, V; Dušek, M; Ježek, M; Fiurášek, J; Filip, R
2016-01-01
One of the strengths of quantum information theory is that it can treat quantum states without referring to their particular physical representation. In principle, quantum states can be therefore fully swapped between various quantum systems by their mutual interaction and this quantum state transfer is crucial for many quantum communication and information processing tasks. In practice, however, the achievable interaction time and strength are often limited by decoherence. Here we propose and experimentally demonstrate a procedure for faithful quantum state transfer between two weakly interacting qubits. Our scheme enables a probabilistic yet perfect unidirectional transfer of an arbitrary unknown state of a source qubit onto a target qubit prepared initially in a known state. The transfer is achieved by a combination of a suitable measurement of the source qubit and quantum filtering on the target qubit depending on the outcome of measurement on the source qubit. We experimentally verify feasibility and robustness of the transfer using a linear optical setup with qubits encoded into polarization states of single photons. PMID:27562544
Template based low data rate speech encoder
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fransen, Lawrence
1993-09-01
The 2400-b/s linear predictive coder (LPC) is currently being widely deployed to support tactical voice communication over narrowband channels. However, there is a need for lower-data-rate voice encoders for special applications: improved performance in high bit-error conditions, low-probability-of-intercept (LPI) voice communication, and narrowband integrated voice/data systems. An 800-b/s voice encoding algorithm is presented which is an extension of the 2400-b/s LPC. To construct template tables, speech samples of 420 speakers uttering 8 sentences each were excerpted from the Texas Instrument - Massachusetts Institute of Technology (TIMIT) Acoustic-Phonetic Speech Data Base. Speech intelligibility of the 800-b/s voice encoding algorithm measured by the diagnostic rhyme test (DRT) is 91.5 for three male speakers. This score compares favorably with the 2400-b/s LPC of a few years ago.
Robust Anti-Collective Noise Quantum Secure Direct Dialogue Using Logical Bell States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Di; Lv, Hong-Jun; Xie, Guang-Jun
2016-01-01
In this paper we propose two quantum secure direct dialogue (QSDD) schemes with logical Bell states which can resist collective noise. The two users Alice and Bob encode their secret messages with the help of unitary operations. Compared with many quantum secure direct communication (QSDC), there is no strict information sender and receiver in these schemes, one logical Bell state can be operated twice by Alice and Bob based on what messages they prefer to encode. As a result, the two users are able to share their messages mutually, so the efficiency of communication is improved. By rearranging the order of particles and inserting decoy photons, our protocols are able to avoid the information leakage and detect eavesdropping, and they can be proved to have unconditional security.
Efficient Quantum Information Processing via Quantum Compressions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deng, Y.; Luo, M. X.; Ma, S. Y.
2016-01-01
Our purpose is to improve the quantum transmission efficiency and reduce the resource cost by quantum compressions. The lossless quantum compression is accomplished using invertible quantum transformations and applied to the quantum teleportation and the simultaneous transmission over quantum butterfly networks. New schemes can greatly reduce the entanglement cost, and partially solve transmission conflictions over common links. Moreover, the local compression scheme is useful for approximate entanglement creations from pre-shared entanglements. This special task has not been addressed because of the quantum no-cloning theorem. Our scheme depends on the local quantum compression and the bipartite entanglement transfer. Simulations show the success probability is greatly dependent of the minimal entanglement coefficient. These results may be useful in general quantum network communication.
Quantum teleportation of multiple degrees of freedom of a single photon.
Wang, Xi-Lin; Cai, Xin-Dong; Su, Zu-En; Chen, Ming-Cheng; Wu, Dian; Li, Li; Liu, Nai-Le; Lu, Chao-Yang; Pan, Jian-Wei
2015-02-26
Quantum teleportation provides a 'disembodied' way to transfer quantum states from one object to another at a distant location, assisted by previously shared entangled states and a classical communication channel. As well as being of fundamental interest, teleportation has been recognized as an important element in long-distance quantum communication, distributed quantum networks and measurement-based quantum computation. There have been numerous demonstrations of teleportation in different physical systems such as photons, atoms, ions, electrons and superconducting circuits. All the previous experiments were limited to the teleportation of one degree of freedom only. However, a single quantum particle can naturally possess various degrees of freedom--internal and external--and with coherent coupling among them. A fundamental open challenge is to teleport multiple degrees of freedom simultaneously, which is necessary to describe a quantum particle fully and, therefore, to teleport it intact. Here we demonstrate quantum teleportation of the composite quantum states of a single photon encoded in both spin and orbital angular momentum. We use photon pairs entangled in both degrees of freedom (that is, hyper-entangled) as the quantum channel for teleportation, and develop a method to project and discriminate hyper-entangled Bell states by exploiting probabilistic quantum non-demolition measurement, which can be extended to more degrees of freedom. We verify the teleportation for both spin-orbit product states and hybrid entangled states, and achieve a teleportation fidelity ranging from 0.57 to 0.68, above the classical limit. Our work is a step towards the teleportation of more complex quantum systems, and demonstrates an increase in our technical control of scalable quantum technologies. PMID:25719668
Quantum teleportation of multiple degrees of freedom of a single photon
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Xi-Lin; Cai, Xin-Dong; Su, Zu-En; Chen, Ming-Cheng; Wu, Dian; Li, Li; Liu, Nai-Le; Lu, Chao-Yang; Pan, Jian-Wei
2015-02-01
Quantum teleportation provides a `disembodied' way to transfer quantum states from one object to another at a distant location, assisted by previously shared entangled states and a classical communication channel. As well as being of fundamental interest, teleportation has been recognized as an important element in long-distance quantum communication, distributed quantum networks and measurement-based quantum computation. There have been numerous demonstrations of teleportation in different physical systems such as photons, atoms, ions, electrons and superconducting circuits. All the previous experiments were limited to the teleportation of one degree of freedom only. However, a single quantum particle can naturally possess various degrees of freedom--internal and external--and with coherent coupling among them. A fundamental open challenge is to teleport multiple degrees of freedom simultaneously, which is necessary to describe a quantum particle fully and, therefore, to teleport it intact. Here we demonstrate quantum teleportation of the composite quantum states of a single photon encoded in both spin and orbital angular momentum. We use photon pairs entangled in both degrees of freedom (that is, hyper-entangled) as the quantum channel for teleportation, and develop a method to project and discriminate hyper-entangled Bell states by exploiting probabilistic quantum non-demolition measurement, which can be extended to more degrees of freedom. We verify the teleportation for both spin-orbit product states and hybrid entangled states, and achieve a teleportation fidelity ranging from 0.57 to 0.68, above the classical limit. Our work is a step towards the teleportation of more complex quantum systems, and demonstrates an increase in our technical control of scalable quantum technologies.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reilly, Neil J.; Changala, P. Bryan; Baraban, Joshua H.; Kokkin, Damian L.; Stanton, John F.; McCarthy, Michael C.
2015-06-01
We report the gas-phase optical detection of Si2C near 390 nm and the first experimental investigation of the rovibrational structure of its 1A1 ground electronic state using mass-resolved and fluorescence spectroscopy and variational calculations performed on a high-level ab initio potential. From this joint study, it is possible to assign all observed Ka = 1 vibrational levels up to 3800 cm-1 with confidence, as well as a number of levels in the Ka = 0, 2, and 3 manifolds. Dixon-dip plots for the bending coordinate (ν2) allow an experimental determination of a barrier to linearity of 783(48) cm-1 (2σ), in good agreement with theory (802(9) cm-1). The calculated (Ka, ν2) eigenvalue lattice shows an archetypal example of quantum monodromy (absence of a globally valid set of quantum numbers) that is reflected by the experimentally observed rovibrational levels. The present study provides a solid foundation for infrared and optical surveys of Si2C in astronomical objects, particularly in the photosphere of N- and J-type carbon stars where the isovalent SiC2 molecule is known to be abundant.
Reilly, Neil J; Changala, P Bryan; Baraban, Joshua H; Kokkin, Damian L; Stanton, John F; McCarthy, Michael C
2015-06-21
We report the gas-phase optical detection of Si2C near 390 nm and the first experimental investigation of the rovibrational structure of its (1)A1 ground electronic state using mass-resolved and fluorescence spectroscopy and variational calculations performed on a high-level ab initio potential. From this joint study, it is possible to assign all observed Ka = 1 vibrational levels up to 3800 cm(-1) with confidence, as well as a number of levels in the Ka = 0, 2, and 3 manifolds. Dixon-dip plots for the bending coordinate (ν2) allow an experimental determination of a barrier to linearity of 783(48) cm(-1) (2σ), in good agreement with theory (802(9) cm(-1)). The calculated (Ka, ν2) eigenvalue lattice shows an archetypal example of quantum monodromy (absence of a globally valid set of quantum numbers) that is reflected by the experimentally observed rovibrational levels. The present study provides a solid foundation for infrared and optical surveys of Si2C in astronomical objects, particularly in the photosphere of N- and J-type carbon stars where the isovalent SiC2 molecule is known to be abundant. PMID:26093543
Reilly, Neil J.; Kokkin, Damian L.; McCarthy, Michael C.; Changala, P. Bryan; Baraban, Joshua H.; Stanton, John F.
2015-06-21
We report the gas-phase optical detection of Si{sub 2}C near 390 nm and the first experimental investigation of the rovibrational structure of its {sup 1}A{sub 1} ground electronic state using mass-resolved and fluorescence spectroscopy and variational calculations performed on a high-level ab initio potential. From this joint study, it is possible to assign all observed K{sub a} = 1 vibrational levels up to 3800 cm{sup −1} with confidence, as well as a number of levels in the K{sub a} = 0, 2, and 3 manifolds. Dixon-dip plots for the bending coordinate (ν{sub 2}) allow an experimental determination of a barrier to linearity of 783(48) cm{sup −1} (2σ), in good agreement with theory (802(9) cm{sup −1}). The calculated (K{sub a}, ν{sub 2}) eigenvalue lattice shows an archetypal example of quantum monodromy (absence of a globally valid set of quantum numbers) that is reflected by the experimentally observed rovibrational levels. The present study provides a solid foundation for infrared and optical surveys of Si{sub 2}C in astronomical objects, particularly in the photosphere of N- and J-type carbon stars where the isovalent SiC{sub 2} molecule is known to be abundant.
Quantum Kolmogorov complexity and bounded quantum memory
Miyadera, Takayuki
2011-04-15
The effect of bounded quantum memory in a primitive information protocol has been examined using the quantum Kolmogorov complexity as a measure of information. We employed a toy two-party protocol in which Bob, by using a bounded quantum memory and an unbounded classical memory, estimates a message that was encoded in qubits by Alice in one of the bases X or Z. Our theorem gave a nontrivial effect of the memory boundedness. In addition, a generalization of the uncertainty principle in the presence of quantum memory has been obtained.
Secure quantum network coding for controlled repeater networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shang, Tao; Li, Jiao; Liu, Jian-wei
2016-04-01
To realize efficient quantum communication based on quantum repeater, we propose a secure quantum network coding scheme for controlled repeater networks, which adds a controller as a trusted party and is able to control the process of EPR-pair distribution. As the key operations of quantum repeater, local operations and quantum communication are designed to adopt quantum one-time pad to enhance the function of identity authentication instead of local operations and classical communication. Scheme analysis shows that the proposed scheme can defend against active attacks for quantum communication and realize long-distance quantum communication with minimal resource consumption.
Secure quantum network coding for controlled repeater networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shang, Tao; Li, Jiao; Liu, Jian-wei
2016-07-01
To realize efficient quantum communication based on quantum repeater, we propose a secure quantum network coding scheme for controlled repeater networks, which adds a controller as a trusted party and is able to control the process of EPR-pair distribution. As the key operations of quantum repeater, local operations and quantum communication are designed to adopt quantum one-time pad to enhance the function of identity authentication instead of local operations and classical communication. Scheme analysis shows that the proposed scheme can defend against active attacks for quantum communication and realize long-distance quantum communication with minimal resource consumption.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bruß, D.; Meyer, T.
The Greek words "kryptos" ≡ "hidden" and "logos" ≡ "word" are the etymological sources for "cryptology," the science of secure communication. Within cryptology, one distinguishes cryptography (or "code-making") and cryptanalysis (or "code-breaking"). The aim of cryptography is to ensure secret or "secure" communication between a sender, traditionally called Alice, and a receiver, called Bob. The encryption and decryption of a so-called plain text into a cipher text and back is achieved using a certain key (not necessarily the same for Alice and Bob), as illustrated in Fig. 1. Here, "secure" means that an eavesdropper, called Eve, has no information on the message. In this chapter we will show that in classical cryptography (using classical signals), security relies on the assumed difficulty to solve certain mathematical tasks, whereas in quantum cryptography (using quantum signals), security arises from the laws of quantum physics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grimsmo, Arne L.; Still, Susanne
2016-07-01
How can relevant information be extracted from a quantum information source? In many situations, only some part of the total information content produced by an information source is useful. Can one then find an efficient encoding, in the sense of retaining the largest fraction of relevant information? This paper offers one possible solution by giving a generalization of a classical method designed to retain as much relevant information as possible in a lossy data compression. A key feature of the method is to introduce a second information source to define relevance. We quantify the advantage a quantum encoding has over the best classical encoding in general, and we demonstrate using examples that a substantial quantum advantage is possible. We show analytically, however, that if the relevant information is purely classical, then a classical encoding is optimal.
Navascués, Miguel; Guryanova, Yelena; Hoban, Matty J; Acín, Antonio
2015-01-01
Quantum theory is not only successfully tested in laboratories every day but also constitutes a robust theoretical framework: small variations usually lead to implausible consequences, such as faster-than-light communication. It has even been argued that quantum theory may be special among possible theories. Here we report that, at the level of correlations among different systems, quantum theory is not so special. We define a set of correlations, dubbed 'almost quantum', and prove that it strictly contains the set of quantum correlations but satisfies all-but-one of the proposed principles to capture quantum correlations. We present numerical evidence that the remaining principle is satisfied too. PMID:25697645
Lan, S-Y; Radnaev, A G; Collins, O A; Matsukevich, D N; Kennedy, T A; Kuzmich, A
2009-08-01
A quantum repeater is a system for long-distance quantum communication that employs quantum memory elements to mitigate optical fiber transmission losses. The multiplexed quantum memory (O. A. Collins, S. D. Jenkins, A. Kuzmich, and T. A. B. Kennedy, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 060502 (2007)) has been shown theoretically to reduce quantum memory time requirements. We present an initial implementation of a multiplexed quantum memory element in a cold rubidium gas. We show that it is possible to create atomic excitations in arbitrary memory element pairs and demonstrate the violation of Bell's inequality for light fields generated during the write and read processes. PMID:19654771
Five-wave-packet quantum error correction based on continuous-variable cluster entanglement
Hao, Shuhong; Su, Xiaolong; Tian, Caixing; Xie, Changde; Peng, Kunchi
2015-01-01
Quantum error correction protects the quantum state against noise and decoherence in quantum communication and quantum computation, which enables one to perform fault-torrent quantum information processing. We experimentally demonstrate a quantum error correction scheme with a five-wave-packet code against a single stochastic error, the original theoretical model of which was firstly proposed by S. L. Braunstein and T. A. Walker. Five submodes of a continuous variable cluster entangled state of light are used for five encoding channels. Especially, in our encoding scheme the information of the input state is only distributed on three of the five channels and thus any error appearing in the remained two channels never affects the output state, i.e. the output quantum state is immune from the error in the two channels. The stochastic error on a single channel is corrected for both vacuum and squeezed input states and the achieved fidelities of the output states are beyond the corresponding classical limit. PMID:26498395
Five-wave-packet quantum error correction based on continuous-variable cluster entanglement.
Hao, Shuhong; Su, Xiaolong; Tian, Caixing; Xie, Changde; Peng, Kunchi
2015-01-01
Quantum error correction protects the quantum state against noise and decoherence in quantum communication and quantum computation, which enables one to perform fault-torrent quantum information processing. We experimentally demonstrate a quantum error correction scheme with a five-wave-packet code against a single stochastic error, the original theoretical model of which was firstly proposed by S. L. Braunstein and T. A. Walker. Five submodes of a continuous variable cluster entangled state of light are used for five encoding channels. Especially, in our encoding scheme the information of the input state is only distributed on three of the five channels and thus any error appearing in the remained two channels never affects the output state, i.e. the output quantum state is immune from the error in the two channels. The stochastic error on a single channel is corrected for both vacuum and squeezed input states and the achieved fidelities of the output states are beyond the corresponding classical limit. PMID:26498395
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mitin, Vladimir; Kochelap, Viacheslav; Stroscio, Michael A.
1999-07-01
Quantum Heterostructures provides a detailed description of the key physical and engineering principles of quantum semiconductor heterostructures. Blending important concepts from physics, materials science, and electrical engineering, it also explains clearly the behavior and operating features of modern microelectronic and optoelectronic devices. The authors begin by outlining the trends that have driven development in this field, most importantly the need for high-performance devices in computer, information, and communications technologies. They then describe the basics of quantum nanoelectronics, including various transport mechanisms. In the latter part of the book, they cover novel microelectronic devices, and optical devices based on quantum heterostructures. The book contains many homework problems and is suitable as a textbook for undergraduate and graduate courses in electrical engineering, physics, or materials science. It will also be of great interest to those involved in research or development in microelectronic or optoelectronic devices.
Quantum hyperbolic geometry in loop quantum gravity with cosmological constant
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dupuis, Maïté; Girelli, Florian
2013-06-01
Loop quantum gravity (LQG) is an attempt to describe the quantum gravity regime. Introducing a nonzero cosmological constant Λ in this context has been a standing problem. Other approaches, such as Chern-Simons gravity, suggest that quantum groups can be used to introduce Λ into the game. Not much is known when defining LQG with a quantum group. Tensor operators can be used to construct observables in any type of discrete quantum gauge theory with a classical/quantum gauge group. We illustrate this by constructing explicitly geometric observables for LQG defined with a quantum group and show for the first time that they encode a quantized hyperbolic geometry. This is a novel argument pointing out the usefulness of quantum groups as encoding a nonzero cosmological constant. We conclude by discussing how tensor operators provide the right formalism to unlock the LQG formulation with a nonzero cosmological constant.
A Multi-Encoding Approach for LTL Symbolic Satisfiability Checking
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rozier, Kristin Y.; Vardi, Moshe Y.
2011-01-01
Formal behavioral specifications written early in the system-design process and communicated across all design phases have been shown to increase the efficiency, consistency, and quality of the system under development. To prevent introducing design or verification errors, it is crucial to test specifications for satisfiability. Our focus here is on specifications expressed in linear temporal logic (LTL). We introduce a novel encoding of symbolic transition-based Buchi automata and a novel, "sloppy," transition encoding, both of which result in improved scalability. We also define novel BDD variable orders based on tree decomposition of formula parse trees. We describe and extensively test a new multi-encoding approach utilizing these novel encoding techniques to create 30 encoding variations. We show that our novel encodings translate to significant, sometimes exponential, improvement over the current standard encoding for symbolic LTL satisfiability checking.
Quantum money with classical verification
Gavinsky, Dmitry
2014-12-04
We propose and construct a quantum money scheme that allows verification through classical communication with a bank. This is the first demonstration that a secure quantum money scheme exists that does not require quantum communication for coin verification. Our scheme is secure against adaptive adversaries - this property is not directly related to the possibility of classical verification, nevertheless none of the earlier quantum money constructions is known to possess it.
Quantum money with classical verification
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gavinsky, Dmitry
2014-12-01
We propose and construct a quantum money scheme that allows verification through classical communication with a bank. This is the first demonstration that a secure quantum money scheme exists that does not require quantum communication for coin verification. Our scheme is secure against adaptive adversaries - this property is not directly related to the possibility of classical verification, nevertheless none of the earlier quantum money constructions is known to possess it.
Advances in quantum teleportation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pirandola, S.; Eisert, J.; Weedbrook, C.; Furusawa, A.; Braunstein, S. L.
2015-10-01
Quantum teleportation is one of the most important protocols in quantum information. By exploiting the physical resource of entanglement, quantum teleportation serves as a key primitive across a variety of quantum information tasks and represents an important building block for quantum technologies, with a pivotal role in the continuing progress of quantum communication, quantum computing and quantum networks. Here we summarize the basic theoretical ideas behind quantum teleportation and its variant protocols. We focus on the main experiments, together with the technical advantages and disadvantages associated with the use of the various technologies, from photonic qubits and optical modes to atomic ensembles, trapped atoms and solid-state systems. After analysing the current state-of-the-art, we finish by discussing open issues, challenges and potential future implementations.
Quantum Discord Bounds the Amount of Distributed Entanglement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Piani, Marco; Kok Chuan, Tan; Maillard, Jean; Modi, Kavan; Paterek, Tomasz; Paternostro, Mauro
2013-03-01
The ability to distribute quantum entanglement is a prerequisite for many fundamental tests of quantum theory and numerous quantum information protocols. Two distant parties can increase the amount of entanglement between them by means of quantum communication encoded in a carrier that is sent from one party to the other. Intriguingly, entanglement can be increased even when the exchanged carrier is not entangled with the parties. However, in light of the defining property of entanglement stating that it cannot increase under classical communication, the carrier must be quantum. Here we show that, in general, the increase of relative entropy of entanglement between two remote parties is bounded by the amount of nonclassical correlations of the carrier with the parties as quantified by the relative entropy of discord. We study implications of this bound, provide new examples of entanglement distribution via unentangled states, and put further limits on this phenomenon. We thank the National Research Foundation and Ministry of Education in Singapore (T. K. Chuan, K. Modi, and T. Paterek), the John Templeton Foundation (K. Modi), the UK EPSRC (M. Paternostro), NSERC, CIFAR, and the Ontario Centres of Excellence (M. Piani)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shibutani, Hideki; Tomomatsu, Yasunori; Sawado, Yoshinori; Yoshizawa, Katsumi; Asakura, Hideaki; Idris, Nazirul Afham; Tsuda, Hiroyuki
2015-02-01
Utilizing T-band (1000 nm to 1260 nm) for optical communications is promising for short reach, and large capacity networks, such as data centers or access networks. It is feasible to use this with low-cost coarse wavelength division multiplexing (WDM). However, a tunable wavelength light source is necessary for such applications. In this paper, we propose a new configuration for an external cavity laser, which uses a silica-based arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) for the wavelength selecting element. The external cavity laser consists of a gain chip with high reflection (HR) and anti-reflection (AR) coated facets, coupling lenses, an AWG with AR/HR coatings, and an output fiber. The AWG has 17 connection ports, which correspond to 17 wavelengths with a channel spacing of 1.67 nm. The width of the connection port waveguides was optimized to achieve high coupling efficiency. The AWG chip size is 15 mm x 30 mm. The active layer in the gain chip has InAs quantum dots. The spontaneous emission 3-dB bandwidth was 48 nm (1108 nm to 1156 nm) when a current of 150 mA was injected into the gain chip. The lasing wavelength of the external cavity laser was successfully tuned from 1129.9 nm to 1154.4 nm by selecting the connection ports of the AWG. The typical threshold current was about 130 mA.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghosh, Joydip
2014-12-01
Spin-1 systems, in comparison to spin-1/2 systems, offer a better security for encoding and transferring quantum information, primarily due to their larger Hilbert spaces. Superconducting artificial atoms possess multiple energy levels, thereby being capable of emulating higher-spin systems. Here I consider a one-dimensional lattice of nearest-neighbor-coupled superconducting transmon systems, and devise a scheme to transfer an arbitrary qutrit state (a state encoded in a three-level quantum system) across the chain. I assume adjustable couplings between adjacent transmons, derive an analytic constraint for the control pulse, and show how to satisfy the constraint to achieve a high-fidelity state transfer under current experimental conditions. My protocol thus enables enhanced quantum communication and information processing with promising superconducting qutrits.
The Search for Communication Skills.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Baird, Leonard L.
A review of communication models and research reveals four areas of communications skill: listening, empathy, non-verbal communication, and expressive abilities. Models of listening behavior suggest that, rather than being a passive activity, listening involves sorting stimuli and encoding messages, analyzing listener needs, and assessing speaker…
Phase space dynamics and control of the quantum particles associated to hypergraph states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berec, Vesna
2015-05-01
As today's nanotechnology focus becomes primarily oriented toward production and manipulation of materials at the subatomic level, allowing the performance and complexity of interconnects where the device density accepts more than hundreds devices on a single chip, the manipulation of semiconductor nanostructures at the subatomic level sets its prime tasks on preserving and adequate transmission of information encoded in specified (quantum) states. The presented study employs the quantum communication protocol based on the hypergraph network model where the numerical solutions of equations of motion of quantum particles are associated to vertices (assembled with device chip), which follow specific controllable paths in the phase space. We address these findings towards ultimate quest for prediction and selective control of quantum particle trajectories. In addition, presented protocols could represent valuable tool for reducing background noise and uncertainty in low-dimensional and operationally meaningful, scalable complex systems.
Efficient transfer of an arbitrary qutrit state in circuit quantum electrodynamics.
Liu, Tong; Xiong, Shao-Jie; Cao, Xiao-Zhi; Su, Qi-Ping; Yang, Chui-Ping
2015-12-01
Compared with a qubit, a qutrit (i.e., three-level quantum system) has a larger Hilbert space and thus can be used to encode more information in quantum information processing and communication. Here, we propose a method to transfer an arbitrary quantum state between two flux qutrits coupled to two resonators. This scheme is simple because it only requires two basic operations. The state-transfer operation can be performed fast because only resonant interactions are used. Numerical simulations show that the high-fidelity transfer of quantum states between the two qutrits is feasible with current circuit-QED technology. This scheme is quite general and can be applied to accomplish the same task for other solid-state qutrits coupled to resonators. PMID:26625061
Adiabatic topological quantum computing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cesare, Chris; Landahl, Andrew J.; Bacon, Dave; Flammia, Steven T.; Neels, Alice
2015-07-01
Topological quantum computing promises error-resistant quantum computation without active error correction. However, there is a worry that during the process of executing quantum gates by braiding anyons around each other, extra anyonic excitations will be created that will disorder the encoded quantum information. Here, we explore this question in detail by studying adiabatic code deformations on Hamiltonians based on topological codes, notably Kitaev's surface codes and the more recently discovered color codes. We develop protocols that enable universal quantum computing by adiabatic evolution in a way that keeps the energy gap of the system constant with respect to the computation size and introduces only simple local Hamiltonian interactions. This allows one to perform holonomic quantum computing with these topological quantum computing systems. The tools we develop allow one to go beyond numerical simulations and understand these processes analytically.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lance, Andrew M.; Symul, Thomas; Bowen, Warwick P.; Sanders, Barry C.; Lam, Ping Koy
2004-05-01
We demonstrate a multipartite protocol that utilizes entanglement to securely distribute and reconstruct a quantum state. A secret quantum state is encoded into a tripartite entangled state and distributed to three players. By collaborating together, a majority of the players can reconstruct the state, whilst the remaining player obtains nothing. This (2,3) threshold quantum state sharing scheme is characterized in terms of fidelity (F), signal transfer (T) and reconstruction noise (V). We demonstrate a fidelity averaged over all reconstruction permutations of 0.73 +/- 0.04, a level achievable only using quantum resources.
Tripartite quantum state sharing.
Lance, Andrew M; Symul, Thomas; Bowen, Warwick P; Sanders, Barry C; Lam, Ping Koy
2004-04-30
We demonstrate a multipartite protocol to securely distribute and reconstruct a quantum state. A secret quantum state is encoded into a tripartite entangled state and distributed to three players. By collaborating, any two of the three players can reconstruct the state, while individual players obtain nothing. We characterize this (2,3) threshold quantum state sharing scheme in terms of fidelity, signal transfer, and reconstruction noise. We demonstrate a fidelity averaged over all reconstruction permutations of 0.73+/-0.04, a level achievable only using quantum resources. PMID:15169193
Tripartite Quantum State Sharing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lance, Andrew M.; Symul, Thomas; Bowen, Warwick P.; Sanders, Barry C.; Lam, Ping Koy
2004-04-01
We demonstrate a multipartite protocol to securely distribute and reconstruct a quantum state. A secret quantum state is encoded into a tripartite entangled state and distributed to three players. By collaborating, any two of the three players can reconstruct the state, while individual players obtain nothing. We characterize this (2,3) threshold quantum state sharing scheme in terms of fidelity, signal transfer, and reconstruction noise. We demonstrate a fidelity averaged over all reconstruction permutations of 0.73±0.04, a level achievable only using quantum resources.
Secure quantum signatures using insecure quantum channels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Amiri, Ryan; Wallden, Petros; Kent, Adrian; Andersson, Erika
2016-03-01
Digital signatures are widely used in modern communication to guarantee authenticity and transferability of messages. The security of currently used classical schemes relies on computational assumptions. We present a quantum signature scheme that does not require trusted quantum channels. We prove that it is unconditionally secure against the most general coherent attacks, and show that it requires the transmission of significantly fewer quantum states than previous schemes. We also show that the quantum channel noise threshold for our scheme is less strict than for distilling a secure key using quantum key distribution. This shows that "direct" quantum signature schemes can be preferable to signature schemes relying on secret shared keys generated using quantum key distribution.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Villani, Daniel D. (Inventor)
1988-01-01
An improved encoder alignment system is disclosed which provides an indication of the extent of misalignment and a measure of the rate at which the misalignment may be changing. The invention is adapted for use with a conventional encoder which provides a digital coarse word having at least significant bit and a digital fine word having a least significant bit and a most significant bit. The invention generates the exclusive or of the least significant bit of the coarse digital signal and the least significant bit of the fine digital signal to provide a first signal. The invention then generates the exclusive or of the first signal and the complement of the most significant bit of the fine digital signal to provide an output signal which represents the misalignment of the encoder.