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Sample records for encoding ten leading

  1. Comparative assessment of vaccine vectors encoding ten malaria antigens identifies two protective liver-stage candidates

    PubMed Central

    Longley, Rhea J.; Salman, Ahmed M.; Cottingham, Matthew G.; Ewer, Katie; Janse, Chris J.; Khan, Shahid M.; Spencer, Alexandra J.; Hill, Adrian V. S.

    2015-01-01

    The development of an efficacious Plasmodium falciparum malaria vaccine remains a top priority for global health. Vaccination with irradiated sporozoites is able to provide complete sterile protection through the action of CD8+ T cells at the liver-stage of infection. However, this method is currently unsuitable for large-scale deployment and focus has instead turned to the development of sub-unit vaccines. Sub-unit vaccine efforts have traditionally focused on two well-known pre-erythrocytic antigens, CSP and TRAP, yet thousands of genes are expressed in the liver-stage. We sought to assess the ability of eight alternative P. falciparum pre-erythrocytic antigens to induce a high proportion of CD8+ T cells. We show that all antigens, when expressed individually in the non-replicating viral vectors ChAd63 and MVA, are capable of inducing an immune response in mice. Furthermore, we also developed chimeric P. berghei parasites expressing the cognate P. falciparum antigen to enable assessment of efficacy in mice. Our preliminary results indicate that vectors encoding either PfLSA1 or PfLSAP2 are capable of inducing sterile protection dependent on the presence of CD8+ T cells. This work has identified two promising P. falciparum liver-stage candidate antigens that will now undergo further testing in humans. PMID:26139288

  2. Ten minutes-rechargeable, valve-regulated lead/acid battery after deep discharge and stand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasaki, T.; Ehara, Y.; Asai, K.; Takahashi, J.; Matsumoto, K.; Kubotani, S.

    1993-10-01

    Ten minutes-rechargeable, valve-regulated batteries for headphone stereos were released on the market in 1990. These were very thin batteries, i.e., the PF2V0.28 (2 V, 0.28 Ah) unit was 6 mm thick and the PF2V0.55 (2V, 0.55 Ah) unit was 8.5 mm thick. The systems were well accepted for normal operation, but the batteries could not be recharged rapidly after over discharge and long stand. Therefore, batteries have been developed that can be recharged quickly, even after being subjected to the most severe operating conditions experienced with portable electronic appliances. The batteries have been improved to accept charge current in a few minutes, even under the most severe of overdischarge conditions.

  3. Identification of ten mevalonate enzyme-encoding genes and their expression in response to juvenile hormone levels in Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say).

    PubMed

    Li, Qian; Meng, Qing-Wei; Lü, Feng-Gong; Guo, Wen-Chao; Li, Guo-Qing

    2016-06-15

    The mevalonate pathway is responsible for the biosynthesis of many essential molecules important in insect development, reproduction, chemical communication and defense. Based on Leptinotarsa decemlineata transcriptome and genome data, we identified ten genes that encoded acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase (LdAACT1 and LdAACT2), hydroxymethylglutaryl (HMA)-CoA synthase (LdHMGS), HMG-CoA reductase (LdHMGR1 and LdHMGR2), mevalonate kinase (LdMevK), phospho-mevalonate kinase (LdPMK), mevalonate diphosphate decarboxylase (LdMDD), isopentenyl-diphosphate isomerase (LdIDI) and farnesyl pyrophosphate synthetase (LdFPPS). Nine of these genes (except for LdAACT1) were mainly expressed in the larval brain-corpora cardiaca-corpora allata complex, and adult ovary and testis. The 9 genes were transcribed at high levels right after each ecdysis, and at low levels in the mid instar. Therefore, the 9 genes were indicated to be involved in JH biosynthesis. Moreover, knockdown of a JH biosynthesis gene LdJHAMT to lower JH titer significantly downregulated the transcription of the 9 genes. Ingestion of JH to activate JH signaling also significantly suppressed the expression of the 9 genes. It appears that the accumulation of JH precursors in LdJHAMT RNAi larvae and a high JH titer in JH-fed specimens may cause negative feedbacks to repress the expression of the 9 mevalonate enzyme-encoding genes (excluding LdAACT1) to balance the enzyme quantity in L. decemlineata. PMID:26899871

  4. When overlap leads to competition: Effects of phonological encoding on word duration.

    PubMed

    Yiu, Loretta K; Watson, Duane G

    2015-12-01

    Some accounts of acoustic reduction propose that variation in word duration is a reflection of the speaker's internal production processes, but it is unclear why lengthening within a word benefits planning. The present study examines whether variability in word length is partly attributable to phonological encoding. In an event-description task, speakers produced words with longer durations when the word shared part of its phonology with a previously articulated word than when it did not. More importantly, lengthening was greater when the overlap was word-initial than when it was word-final. These differences in duration are in line with predictions of serial phonological competition models, which claim that words that overlap in onsets create more competition than words that overlap in offsets and are thus more difficult to produce. That word duration is sensitive to differences in production difficulty suggests a link between speakers' duration choices and phonological encoding. We propose that lengthening provides the production system with the necessary processing time to produce a word's sounds. PMID:25855202

  5. Comparative effects of ten dithiocarbamate and thiuram compounds on tissue distribution and excretion of lead in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Oskarsson, A.

    1987-10-01

    The dithiocarbamate and thiuram compounds, including disulfiram, were compared for their efficacies in influencing tissue distribution of a trace dose of intravenously injected lead plus /sup 203/Pb in rats. The tested compounds were sodium diethyldithiocarbamate (DEDTC), sodium dimethyldithiocarbamate (DMDTC), tetraethylthiuram disulfide (disulfiram), a complex of zinc and manganese ethylenebisdithiocarbamate (mancozeb), manganese ethylenebisdithiocarbamate (maneb), sodium monomethyldithiocarbamate (metham), zinc propylene bisdithiocarbamate (propineb), tetramethylthiuram disulfide (thiram), zinc ethylenebisdithiocarbamate (zineb), and zinc dimethyldithiocarbamate (ziram). The results of this study show that interactions can occur between lead and DEDTC, DMDTC, disulfiram, metham, thiram, and ziram, resulting in increased levels of lead in brain and probably potentiation of the neurotoxic effects of lead.

  6. A ten-year review of lower extremity burns in diabetics: small burns that lead to major problems.

    PubMed

    Barsun, Alura; Sen, Soman; Palmieri, Tina L; Greenhalgh, David G

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus with its resulting neurovascular changes may lead to an increased risk of burns and impaired wound healing. The purpose of this article is to review 10 years of experience with foot and lower leg burns in patients with diabetes at a single adult burn center. Patients with lower extremity burns and diabetes mellitus, between May 1999 and December 2009, were identified in the Trauma Registry of the American College of Surgeons database, and their charts were reviewed for data related to their outcomes. Sixty-eight diabetic patients, 87% male, with a mean age of 54 years, sustained foot or lower extremity burns with 37 having burns resulting from insensate feet. The pathogenesis included walking on a hot or very cold surface (8), soaking feet in hot water (22), warming feet on or near something hot such as a heater (13), or spilling hot water (7). The majority of patients were taking insulin (59.6%) or oral hyperglycemic medications (34.6%). Blood sugar levels were not well controlled (mean glucose, 215.8 mg/dl; mean hemoglobin A1c, 9.08%). Renal disease was common with admission serum blood urea nitrogen (27.5 mg/dl) and creatinine (2.21 mg/dl), and 13 were on dialysis preinjury. Cardiovascular problems were common with 39 (57%) having hypertension or cardiac disease, 3 having peripheral vascular disease, and 9, previous amputations. The mean burn size was 4.2% TBSA (range, 0.5-15%) with 57% being full thickness. Despite the small burn, the mean length of stay was 15.2 days (range, 1-95), with 5.65 days per 1% TBSA. Inability to heal these wounds was evident in 19 patients requiring readmission (one required 10 operative procedures). At least one patient sustained more than one burn. There were 62 complications with 30 episodes of infection (cellulitis, 28; osteomyelitis, 4; deep plantar infections, 2; ruptured Achilles tendon, 1) and 3 deaths. Eleven patients needed amputations (7 below-knee amputations, 4 transmetatarsal amputations, and 20 toe

  7. PABPN1 overexpression leads to upregulation of genes encoding nuclear proteins that are sequestered in oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy nuclear inclusions.

    PubMed

    Corbeil-Girard, Louis-Philippe; Klein, Arnaud F; Sasseville, A Marie-Josée; Lavoie, Hugo; Dicaire, Marie-Josée; Saint-Denis, Anik; Pagé, Martin; Duranceau, André; Codère, François; Bouchard, Jean-Pierre; Karpati, George; Rouleau, Guy A; Massie, Bernard; Langelier, Yves; Brais, Bernard

    2005-04-01

    Oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD) is an adult-onset disease caused by expanded (GCN)12-17 stretches encoding the N-terminal polyalanine domain of the poly(A) binding protein nuclear 1 (PABPN1). OPMD is characterized by intranuclear inclusions (INIs) in skeletal muscle fibers, which contain PABPN1, molecular chaperones, ubiquitin, proteasome subunits, and poly(A)-mRNA. We describe an adenoviral model of PABPN1 expression that produces INIs in most cells. Microarray analysis revealed that PABPN1 overexpression reproducibly changed the expression of 202 genes. Sixty percent of upregulated genes encode nuclear proteins, including many RNA and DNA binding proteins. Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that all tested nuclear proteins encoded by eight upregulated genes colocalize with PABPN1 within the INIs: CUGBP1, SFRS3, FKBP1A, HMG2, HNRPA1, PRC1, S100P, and HSP70. In addition, CUGBP1, SFRS3, and FKBP1A were also found in OPMD muscle INIs. This study demonstrates that a large number of nuclear proteins are sequestered in OPMD INIs, which may compromise cellular function. PMID:15755682

  8. Lead

    MedlinePlus

    ... Lead Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us Lead Poisoning is Preventable If your home was built before ... of the RRP rule. Read more . Learn about Lead Poisoning Prevention Week . Report Uncertified Contractors and Environmental Violations ...

  9. Lead

    MedlinePlus

    ... obvious symptoms, it frequently goes unrecognized. CDC’s Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Program is committed to the Healthy People ... Lead Levels Information for Parents Tips for preventing lead poisoning About Us Overview of CDC’s Childhood Lead Poisoning ...

  10. Deciphering ENCODE.

    PubMed

    Diehl, Adam G; Boyle, Alan P

    2016-04-01

    The ENCODE project represents a major leap from merely describing and comparing genomic sequences to surveying them for direct indicators of function. The astounding quantity of data produced by the ENCODE consortium can serve as a map to locate specific landmarks, guide hypothesis generation, and lead us to principles and mechanisms underlying genome biology. Despite its broad appeal, the size and complexity of the repository can be intimidating to prospective users. We present here some background about the ENCODE data, survey the resources available for accessing them, and describe a few simple principles to help prospective users choose the data type(s) that best suit their needs, where to get them, and how to use them to their best advantage. PMID:26962025

  11. Mutations in DNAH1, which Encodes an Inner Arm Heavy Chain Dynein, Lead to Male Infertility from Multiple Morphological Abnormalities of the Sperm Flagella

    PubMed Central

    Ben Khelifa, Mariem; Coutton, Charles; Zouari, Raoudha; Karaouzène, Thomas; Rendu, John; Bidart, Marie; Yassine, Sandra; Pierre, Virginie; Delaroche, Julie; Hennebicq, Sylviane; Grunwald, Didier; Escalier, Denise; Pernet-Gallay, Karine; Jouk, Pierre-Simon; Thierry-Mieg, Nicolas; Touré, Aminata; Arnoult, Christophe; Ray, Pierre F.

    2014-01-01

    Ten to fifteen percent of couples are confronted with infertility and a male factor is involved in approximately half the cases. A genetic etiology is likely in most cases yet only few genes have been formally correlated with male infertility. Homozygosity mapping was carried out on a cohort of 20 North African individuals, including 18 index cases, presenting with primary infertility resulting from impaired sperm motility caused by a mosaic of multiple morphological abnormalities of the flagella (MMAF) including absent, short, coiled, bent, and irregular flagella. Five unrelated subjects out of 18 (28%) carried a homozygous variant in DNAH1, which encodes an inner dynein heavy chain and is expressed in testis. RT-PCR, immunostaining, and electronic microscopy were carried out on samples from one of the subjects with a mutation located on a donor splice site. Neither the transcript nor the protein was observed in this individual, confirming the pathogenicity of this variant. A general axonemal disorganization including mislocalization of the microtubule doublets and loss of the inner dynein arms was observed. Although DNAH1 is also expressed in other ciliated cells, infertility was the only symptom of primary ciliary dyskinesia observed in affected subjects, suggesting that DNAH1 function in cilium is not as critical as in sperm flagellum. PMID:24360805

  12. Mutations in DNAH1, which encodes an inner arm heavy chain dynein, lead to male infertility from multiple morphological abnormalities of the sperm flagella.

    PubMed

    Ben Khelifa, Mariem; Coutton, Charles; Zouari, Raoudha; Karaouzène, Thomas; Rendu, John; Bidart, Marie; Yassine, Sandra; Pierre, Virginie; Delaroche, Julie; Hennebicq, Sylviane; Grunwald, Didier; Escalier, Denise; Pernet-Gallay, Karine; Jouk, Pierre-Simon; Thierry-Mieg, Nicolas; Touré, Aminata; Arnoult, Christophe; Ray, Pierre F

    2014-01-01

    Ten to fifteen percent of couples are confronted with infertility and a male factor is involved in approximately half the cases. A genetic etiology is likely in most cases yet only few genes have been formally correlated with male infertility. Homozygosity mapping was carried out on a cohort of 20 North African individuals, including 18 index cases, presenting with primary infertility resulting from impaired sperm motility caused by a mosaic of multiple morphological abnormalities of the flagella (MMAF) including absent, short, coiled, bent, and irregular flagella. Five unrelated subjects out of 18 (28%) carried a homozygous variant in DNAH1, which encodes an inner dynein heavy chain and is expressed in testis. RT-PCR, immunostaining, and electronic microscopy were carried out on samples from one of the subjects with a mutation located on a donor splice site. Neither the transcript nor the protein was observed in this individual, confirming the pathogenicity of this variant. A general axonemal disorganization including mislocalization of the microtubule doublets and loss of the inner dynein arms was observed. Although DNAH1 is also expressed in other ciliated cells, infertility was the only symptom of primary ciliary dyskinesia observed in affected subjects, suggesting that DNAH1 function in cilium is not as critical as in sperm flagellum. PMID:24360805

  13. Deficiencies of effectiveness of intervention studies in veterinary medicine: a cross-sectional survey of ten leading veterinary and medical journals.

    PubMed

    Di Girolamo, Nicola; Meursinge Reynders, Reint

    2016-01-01

    The validity of studies that assess the effectiveness of an intervention (EoI) depends on variables such as the type of study design, the quality of their methodology, and the participants enrolled. Five leading veterinary journals and 5 leading human medical journals were hand-searched for EoI studies for the year 2013. We assessed (1) the prevalence of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) among EoI studies, (2) the type of participants enrolled, and (3) the methodological quality of the selected studies. Of 1707 eligible articles, 590 were EoI articles and 435 RCTs. Random allocation to the intervention was performed in 52% (114/219; 95%CI:45.2-58.8%) of veterinary EoI articles, against 87% (321/371; 82.5-89.7%) of human EoI articles (adjusted OR:9.2; 3.4-24.8). Veterinary RCTs were smaller (median: 26 animals versus 465 humans) and less likely to enroll real patients, compared with human RCTs (OR:331; 45-2441). Only 2% of the veterinary RCTs, versus 77% of the human RCTs, reported power calculations, primary outcomes, random sequence generation, allocation concealment and estimation methods. Currently, internal and external validity of veterinary EoI studies is limited compared to human medical ones. To address these issues, veterinary interventional research needs to improve its methodology, increase the number of published RCTs and enroll real clinical patients. PMID:26835187

  14. Deficiencies of effectiveness of intervention studies in veterinary medicine: a cross-sectional survey of ten leading veterinary and medical journals

    PubMed Central

    Meursinge Reynders, Reint

    2016-01-01

    The validity of studies that assess the effectiveness of an intervention (EoI) depends on variables such as the type of study design, the quality of their methodology, and the participants enrolled. Five leading veterinary journals and 5 leading human medical journals were hand-searched for EoI studies for the year 2013. We assessed (1) the prevalence of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) among EoI studies, (2) the type of participants enrolled, and (3) the methodological quality of the selected studies. Of 1707 eligible articles, 590 were EoI articles and 435 RCTs. Random allocation to the intervention was performed in 52% (114/219; 95%CI:45.2–58.8%) of veterinary EoI articles, against 87% (321/371; 82.5–89.7%) of human EoI articles (adjusted OR:9.2; 3.4–24.8). Veterinary RCTs were smaller (median: 26 animals versus 465 humans) and less likely to enroll real patients, compared with human RCTs (OR:331; 45–2441). Only 2% of the veterinary RCTs, versus 77% of the human RCTs, reported power calculations, primary outcomes, random sequence generation, allocation concealment and estimation methods. Currently, internal and external validity of veterinary EoI studies is limited compared to human medical ones. To address these issues, veterinary interventional research needs to improve its methodology, increase the number of published RCTs and enroll real clinical patients. PMID:26835187

  15. Learning to Lead: Ten Stories for Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chirichello, Michael; Richmond, Nancy

    2006-01-01

    Principals must be knowledgeable about students, curriculum, teacher performance, and the community that they serve while at the same time, able to manage a myriad of daily activities. Often times, management activities predominate and take time away from leadership leaving little time for principals to engage in reflective thinking and proactive…

  16. Ten Leading Causes of Death and Injury

    MedlinePlus

    ... and JPEG format Causes of Injury Death: Highlighting Violence 2014 [PDF 90KB] (color) 2013 [PDF 135KB] (color) ... Vehicle Safety Prescription Drug Overdose Traumatic Brain Injury Violence Prevention File Formats Help: How do I view ...

  17. Drosophila Ten-m and Filamin Affect Motor Neuron Growth Cone Guidance

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Lihua; Michelson, Yehudit; Freger, Vita; Avraham, Ziva; Venken, Koen J. T.; Bellen, Hugo J.; Justice, Monica J.; Wides, Ron

    2011-01-01

    The Drosophila Ten-m (also called Tenascin-major, or odd Oz (odz)) gene has been associated with a pair-rule phenotype. We identified and characterized new alleles of Drosophila Ten-m to establish that this gene is not responsible for segmentation defects but rather causes defects in motor neuron axon routing. In Ten-m mutants the inter-segmental nerve (ISN) often crosses segment boundaries and fasciculates with the ISN in the adjacent segment. Ten-m is expressed in the central nervous system and epidermal stripes during the stages when the growth cones of the neurons that form the ISN navigate to their targets. Over-expression of Ten-m in epidermal cells also leads to ISN misrouting. We also found that Filamin, an actin binding protein, physically interacts with the Ten-m protein. Mutations in cheerio, which encodes Filamin, cause defects in motor neuron axon routing like those of Ten-m. During embryonic development, the expression of Filamin and Ten-m partially overlap in ectodermal cells. These results suggest that Ten-m and Filamin in epidermal cells might together influence growth cone progression. PMID:21857973

  18. Encoding Dictionaries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ide, Nancy

    1995-01-01

    Describes problems in devising a Text Encoding Initiative (TEI) encoding format for dictionaries. Asserts that the high degree of structuring and compression of information are among the most complex text types treated in the TEI. Concludes that the source of some TEI problems lies in the design of Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML). (CFR)

  19. RPC53 encodes a subunit of Saccharomyces cerevisiae RNA polymerase C (III) whose inactivation leads to a predominantly G1 arrest.

    PubMed Central

    Mann, C; Micouin, J Y; Chiannilkulchai, N; Treich, I; Buhler, J M; Sentenac, A

    1992-01-01

    RPC53 is shown to be an essential gene encoding the C53 subunit specifically associated with yeast RNA polymerase C (III). Temperature-sensitive rpc53 mutants were generated and showed a rapid inhibition of tRNA synthesis after transfer to the restrictive temperature. Unexpectedly, the rpc53 mutants preferentially arrested their cell division in the G1 phase as large, round, unbudded cells. The RPC53 DNA sequence is predicted to code for a hydrophilic M(r)-46,916 protein enriched in charged amino acid residues. The carboxy-terminal 136 amino acids of C53 are significantly similar (25% identical amino acid residues) to the same region of the human BN51 protein. The BN51 cDNA was originally isolated by its ability to complement a temperature-sensitive hamster cell mutant that undergoes a G1 cell division arrest, as is true for the rpc53 mutants. Images PMID:1406624

  20. An adenoviral cancer vaccine co-encoding a tumor associated antigen together with secreted 4-1BBL leads to delayed tumor progression.

    PubMed

    Ragonnaud, Emeline; Andersson, Anne-Marie C; Pedersen, Anders Elm; Laursen, Henriette; Holst, Peter J

    2016-04-19

    Previous studies have shown promising results when using an agonistic anti-4-1BB antibody treatment against established tumors. While this is promising, this type of treatment can induce severe side effects. Therefore, we decided to incorporate the membrane form of 4-1BB ligand (4-1BBL) in a replicative deficient adenovirus vaccine expressing the invariant chain (Ii) adjuvant fused to a tumor associated antigen (TAA). The Ii adjuvant increases and prolongs TAA specific CD8+ T cells as previously shown and local expression of 4-1BBL was chosen to avoid the toxicity associated with systemic antibody administration. Furthermore, adenovirus encoded 4-1BBL expression has previously been successfully used to enhance responses toward Plasmodium falciparum and Influenza A antigens. We showed that the incorporation of 4-1BBL in the adenovirus vector led to surface expression of 4-1BBL on antigen presenting cells, but it did not enhance T cell responses in mice towards the Ii linked antigen. In tumor-bearing mice, our vaccine was found to decrease the frequency of TAA specific CD8+ T cells, but this difference did not alter the therapeutic efficacy. In order to reconcile our findings with the previous reports of increased anti-cancer efficacy using systemically delivered 4-1BB agonists, we incorporated a secreted version of 4-1BBL (Fc-4-1BBL) in our vaccine and co-expressed it with the Ii linked to TAA. In tumor bearing mice, this vaccine initially delayed tumor growth and slightly increased survival compared to the vaccine expressing the membrane form of 4-1BBL. Accordingly, secreted 4-1BBL co-encoded with the Ii linked antigen may offer a simplification compared to administration of drug and vaccine separately. PMID:27004934

  1. Deletion of the gene encoding the adenovirus 5 early region 1b 21,000-molecular-weight polypeptide leads to degradation of viral and host cell DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Pilder, S; Logan, J; Shenk, T

    1984-01-01

    The adenovirus 5 mutant H5dl337 lacks 146 base pairs within early region 1B. The deletion removes a portion of the region encoding the E1B 21,000-molecular-weight (21K) polypeptide, but does not disturb the E1B-55K/17K coding region. The virus is slightly defective for growth in cultured HeLa cells, in which its final yield is reduced ca. 10-fold compared with wild-type virus. The mutant displays a striking phenotype in HeLa cells. The onset of cytopathic effect is dramatically accelerated, and both host cell and viral DNAs are extensively degraded late after infection. This defect has been described previously for a variety of adenovirus mutants and has been termed a cytocidal (cyt) phenotype. H5dl337 serves to map this defect to the loss of E1B-21K polypeptide function. In addition to its defect in the productive growth cycle, H5dl337 is unable to transform rat cells at normal efficiency. Images PMID:6492257

  2. Ten Tips for Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Eleanor B.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses ten attributes of leadership and offers suggestions for school librarians to implement them. Highlights include communicating vision and ideas; ethical values and integrity; self-awareness and self-knowledge; context; cooperation; diverse skills and flexibility; organizational development; personal growth; and taking action. (LRW)

  3. The Ten Information Commandments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, Michael D.

    1986-01-01

    In response to fears that current institutions and laws may not adapt to rapid technological change with the necessary alacrity, a justice of the Supreme Court of New South Wales presents and briefly discusses ten information commandmants, summarized as follows: (1) contemporary technological developments endanger human rights and civil liberties…

  4. Ten Minute Writing Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markus, Sharyn

    Designed with junior high school students in mind, the activities in this booklet are offered as ways to stimulate interest in writing using as little as ten minutes of class time. The activities are arranged in six sections: (1) developing observation skills and paying attention to details; (2) word play, descriptive words, and word collections…

  5. Ten Top Tech Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLester, Susan

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the major technical issues, products, and practices of the day. The top ten tech trends are listed and discussed. These include: (1) data mining; (2) cyberbullying; (3) 21st century skills; (4) digital content; (5) learning at leisure; (6) personal responders; (7) mobile tools; (8) bandwidth; (9) open-source…

  6. Caenorhabditis elegans Teneurin, ten-1, Is Required for Gonadal and Pharyngeal Basement Membrane Integrity and Acts Redundantly with Integrin ina-1 and Dystroglycan dgn-1

    PubMed Central

    Trzebiatowska, Agnieszka; Topf, Ulrike; Sauder, Ursula; Drabikowski, Krzysztof

    2008-01-01

    The Caenorhabditis elegans teneurin ortholog, ten-1, plays an important role in gonad and pharynx development. We found that lack of TEN-1 does not affect germline proliferation but leads to local basement membrane deficiency and early gonad disruption. Teneurin is expressed in the somatic precursor cells of the gonad that appear to be crucial for gonad epithelialization and basement membrane integrity. Ten-1 null mutants also arrest as L1 larvae with malformed pharynges and disorganized pharyngeal basement membranes. The pleiotropic phenotype of ten-1 mutant worms is similar to defects found in basement membrane receptor mutants ina-1 and dgn-1 as well as in the mutants of the extracellular matrix component laminin, epi-1. We show that the ten-1 mutation is synthetic lethal with mutations of genes encoding basement membrane components and receptors due to pharyngeal or hypodermal defects. This indicates that TEN-1 could act redundantly with integrin INA-1, dystroglycan DGN-1, and laminin EPI-1 in C. elegans development. Moreover, ten-1 deletion sensitizes worms to loss of nidogen nid-1 causing a pharynx unattached phenotype in ten-1;nid-1 double mutants. We conclude that TEN-1 is important for basement membrane maintenance and/or adhesion in particular organs and affects the function of somatic gonad precursor cells. PMID:18632986

  7. Peri-encoding predictors of memory encoding and consolidation.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Noga; Pell, Liat; Edelson, Micah G; Ben-Yakov, Aya; Pine, Alex; Dudai, Yadin

    2015-03-01

    We review reports of brain activations that occur immediately prior to the onset or following the offset of to-be-remembered information and can predict subsequent mnemonic success. Memory-predictive pre-encoding processes, occurring from fractions of a second to minutes prior to event onset, are mainly associated with activations in the medial temporal lobe (MTL), amygdala and midbrain, and with enhanced theta oscillations. These activations may be considered as the neural correlates of one or more cognitive operations, including contextual processing, attention, and the engagement of distinct computational modes associated with prior encoding or retrieval. Post-encoding activations that correlate with subsequent memory performance are mainly observed in the MTL, sensory cortices and frontal regions. These activations may reflect binding of elements of the encoded information and initiation of memory consolidation. In all, the findings reviewed here illustrate the importance of brain states in the immediate peri-encoding time windows in determining encoding success. Understanding these brain states and their specific effects on memory may lead to optimization of the encoding of desired memories and mitigation of undesired ones. PMID:25446944

  8. Ten years of PAMELA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spillantini, Piero

    2016-07-01

    Pamela experiment has been designed as a cosmic ray observatory at 1 AU, dedicated to the precise and high statistics study of CR fluxes on a three decades energy range, form a few tens MeV up to several hundred GeV region. It is the last step of the 'Russian-Italian Mission' (RIM) program born in 1992 between several Italian and Russian institutes and with the participation of the Royal Institute of Technology of Stockholm (Sweden) and the Siegen University (German). Launched the 16 June 2006 from Baikonur cosmodrome on board of the Resurs-DK1 Russian satellite by a Soyuz rocket in an elliptical (350-610 km) quasi polar orbit (70° inclination) it was activated on 21 June 2006, afterword has been in a continuous data taking mode for ten years. The Pamela program pays particular attention to the study of particles (protons and electrons) and antiparticles (antiprotons and positrons) energy spectra. It also includes search for possible signals of dark matter annihilation, search for primordial antimatter (antihelium), search for new Matter in the Universe (Strangelets?), study of cosmic-ray propagation, solar physics and solar modulation, terrestrial magnetosphere. This program is made possible thanks to the outstanding performance of the instrument, the low energy threshold, the quasi-polar orbit, the 10 years duration of the observation. Protons and helium nuclei are the most abundant components of the cosmic radiation and the precise measurements of their fluxes allow understanding the acceleration and propagation of cosmic rays in the Galaxy. Their spectral shapes cannot be well described by a single power law: at 230-240 GV they exhibit an abrupt spectral hardening. They challenge the current paradigm of cosmic-ray acceleration in supernova remnants followed by diffusive propagation in the Galaxy. Of paramount importance is the discover of the anomalous increase of the positron flux at energies higher that 50 GeV (the so called 'Pamela anomaly'). The review of

  9. The ten thousand Kims

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Seung Ki; Minnhagen, Petter; Kim, Beom Jun

    2011-07-01

    In Korean culture, the names of family members are recorded in special family books. This makes it possible to follow the distribution of Korean family names far back in history. It is shown here that these name distributions are well described by a simple null model, the random group formation (RGF) model. This model makes it possible to predict how the name distributions change and these predictions are shown to be borne out. In particular, the RGF model predicts that for married women entering a collection of family books in a certain year, the occurrence of the most common family name 'Kim' should be directly proportional to the total number of married women with the same proportionality constant for all the years. This prediction is also borne out to a high degree. We speculate that it reflects some inherent social stability in the Korean culture. In addition, we obtain an estimate of the total population of the Korean culture down to the year 500 AD, based on the RGF model, and find about ten thousand Kims.

  10. Gunshot residue, ten years later.

    PubMed

    Wilber, C G; Lantz, R K; Sulik, P L

    1991-09-01

    Gunshot residues may be central to a competent reconstruction of a shooting incident. When a young boy was shot in the neck by a playmate using a .22-caliber single-action revolver, permanent paralysis from mid-thorax downward ensued. Ten years later the victim sued the importer, the vendor, the German manufacturer, and the shooter's family. Investigative reports indicated "horseplay" and questionable emergency medical team care. Depositions were contradictory. The entry wound, removed at surgery, was fixed and processed for slides. The histopathologist referred to "black pigment granules" in the wound track. The 10-year-old slides and block were retrieved. The coverslip was removed from a representative slide that was examined under the scanning, x-ray dispersive microscope. The black granules contained amounts of lead, barium, and antimony far beyond any normal range. The firing range had to have been no greater than 6-12 in (15.24-30.48 cm). The case was promptly settled out of court. PMID:1750390

  11. Ten questions about systems biology

    PubMed Central

    Joyner, Michael J; Pedersen, Bente K

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we raise ‘ten questions’ broadly related to ‘omics’, the term systems biology, and why the new biology has failed to deliver major therapeutic advances for many common diseases, especially diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We argue that a fundamentally narrow and reductionist perspective about the contribution of genes and genetic variants to disease is a key reason ‘omics’ has failed to deliver the anticipated breakthroughs. We then point out the critical utility of key concepts from physiology like homeostasis, regulated systems and redundancy as major intellectual tools to understand how whole animals adapt to the real world. We argue that a lack of fluency in these concepts is a major stumbling block for what has been narrowly defined as ‘systems biology’ by some of its leading advocates. We also point out that it is a failure of regulation at multiple levels that causes many common diseases. Finally, we attempt to integrate our critique of reductionism into a broader social framework about so-called translational research in specific and the root causes of common diseases in general. Throughout we offer ideas and suggestions that might be incorporated into the current biomedical environment to advance the understanding of disease through the perspective of physiology in conjunction with epidemiology as opposed to bottom-up reductionism alone. PMID:21224238

  12. Ten Myths about Spanking Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Straus, Murray A.

    One of a series of studies on corporal punishment of children, this paper argues that the reasons provided for the strong support of spanking are myths. Ten myths about spanking children are discussed by offering arguments that support the action and by quoting findings from studies that refute the arguments. The ten myths are: (1) spanking works…

  13. Virtual Round Table on ten leading questions for network research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-03-01

    The following discussion is an edited summary of the public debate started during the conference “Growing Networks and Graphs in Statistical Physics, Finance, Biology and Social Systems” held in Rome in September 2003. Drafts documents were circulated electronically among experts in the field and additions and follow-up to the original discussion have been included. Among the scientists participating to the discussion L.A.N. Amaral, A. Barrat, A.L. Barabasi, G. Caldarelli, P. De Los Rios, A. Erzan, B. Kahng, R. Mantegna, J.F.F. Mendes, R. Pastor-Satorras, A. Vespignani are acknowledged for their contributions and editing.

  14. Ten Problems in Experimental Mathematics

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, David H.; Borwein, Jonathan M.; Kapoor, Vishaal; Weisstein, Eric

    2004-09-30

    This article was stimulated by the recent SIAM ''100 DigitChallenge'' of Nick Trefethen, beautifully described in a recent book. Indeed, these ten numeric challenge problems are also listed in a recent book by two of present authors, where they are followed by the ten symbolic/numeric challenge problems that are discussed in this article. Our intent was to present ten problems that are characteristic of the sorts of problems that commonly arise in ''experimental mathematics''. The challenge in each case is to obtain a high precision numeric evaluation of the quantity, and then, if possible, to obtain a symbolic answer, ideally one with proof. Our goal in this article is to provide solutions to these ten problems, and in the process present a concise account of how one combines symbolic and numeric computation, which may be termed ''hybrid computation'', in the process of mathematical discovery.

  15. Ten new primitive binary trinomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brent, Richard P.; Zimmermann, Paul

    2009-06-01

    We exhibit ten new primitive trinomials over GF(2) of record degrees 24 036 583 , 25 964 951 , 30 402 457 , and 32 582 657 . This completes the search for the currently known Mersenne prime exponents.

  16. ENCODE data at the ENCODE portal.

    PubMed

    Sloan, Cricket A; Chan, Esther T; Davidson, Jean M; Malladi, Venkat S; Strattan, J Seth; Hitz, Benjamin C; Gabdank, Idan; Narayanan, Aditi K; Ho, Marcus; Lee, Brian T; Rowe, Laurence D; Dreszer, Timothy R; Roe, Greg; Podduturi, Nikhil R; Tanaka, Forrest; Hong, Eurie L; Cherry, J Michael

    2016-01-01

    The Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) Project is in its third phase of creating a comprehensive catalog of functional elements in the human genome. This phase of the project includes an expansion of assays that measure diverse RNA populations, identify proteins that interact with RNA and DNA, probe regions of DNA hypersensitivity, and measure levels of DNA methylation in a wide range of cell and tissue types to identify putative regulatory elements. To date, results for almost 5000 experiments have been released for use by the scientific community. These data are available for searching, visualization and download at the new ENCODE Portal (www.encodeproject.org). The revamped ENCODE Portal provides new ways to browse and search the ENCODE data based on the metadata that describe the assays as well as summaries of the assays that focus on data provenance. In addition, it is a flexible platform that allows integration of genomic data from multiple projects. The portal experience was designed to improve access to ENCODE data by relying on metadata that allow reusability and reproducibility of the experiments. PMID:26527727

  17. ENCODE data at the ENCODE portal

    PubMed Central

    Sloan, Cricket A.; Chan, Esther T.; Davidson, Jean M.; Malladi, Venkat S.; Strattan, J. Seth; Hitz, Benjamin C.; Gabdank, Idan; Narayanan, Aditi K.; Ho, Marcus; Lee, Brian T.; Rowe, Laurence D.; Dreszer, Timothy R.; Roe, Greg; Podduturi, Nikhil R.; Tanaka, Forrest; Hong, Eurie L.; Cherry, J. Michael

    2016-01-01

    The Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) Project is in its third phase of creating a comprehensive catalog of functional elements in the human genome. This phase of the project includes an expansion of assays that measure diverse RNA populations, identify proteins that interact with RNA and DNA, probe regions of DNA hypersensitivity, and measure levels of DNA methylation in a wide range of cell and tissue types to identify putative regulatory elements. To date, results for almost 5000 experiments have been released for use by the scientific community. These data are available for searching, visualization and download at the new ENCODE Portal (www.encodeproject.org). The revamped ENCODE Portal provides new ways to browse and search the ENCODE data based on the metadata that describe the assays as well as summaries of the assays that focus on data provenance. In addition, it is a flexible platform that allows integration of genomic data from multiple projects. The portal experience was designed to improve access to ENCODE data by relying on metadata that allow reusability and reproducibility of the experiments. PMID:26527727

  18. Top Ten List for 2016.

    PubMed

    Mulaik, Melody W

    2016-01-01

    These ten items should cover many of the key issues impacting imaging. Every organization should create their own list on an annual basis and update it quarterly. Ensuring compliance with the myriad coding, reimbursement, and regulatory requirements is ongoing. Embrace the challenge, don't get discouraged and know that your efforts make a difference! PMID:26939296

  19. Ten past and ten future GAS/MAUS-payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staniek, S.; Otto, G.; Doepkess, J.

    1988-01-01

    MAUS (materials science autonomous experiments) is one out of a series of flight opportunities which the Space Program of West Germany offers to scientists from the disciplines of materials research and processing for performing materials science investigations under microgravity conditions. Up to now, ten MAUS experiments were flown which were dealing with the following scientific topics: decomposition of binary alloys with miscibility gap in the liquid state, interaction of a solidification front with dispersed particles, critical Marangoni number, investigation of the magnetic compound MnBi, shrinkage of gas bubbles in glass melts and slip casting. The ten future experiments are partly reflights with modification of the scientific objectives as well as new experiments in the fields of chemical reactions, heat transfer, glass technology and Ostwald ripening. Looking to ten flown payloads, the peculiarities of instrument technology in GAS-cans and its evolution is discussed with emphasis on structure, electronics and thermal design. A typical modern payload using 100 percent of the resource is presented.

  20. A case of autism with an interstitial deletion on 4q leading to hemizygosity for genes encoding for glutamine and glycine neurotransmitter receptor sub-units (AMPA 2, GLRA3, GLRB) and neuropeptide receptors NPY1R, NPY5R

    PubMed Central

    Ramanathan, Subhadra; Woodroffe, Abigail; Flodman, Pamela L; Mays, Lee Z; Hanouni, Mona; Modahl, Charlotte B; Steinberg-Epstein, Robin; Bocian, Maureen E; Spence, M Anne; Smith, Moyra

    2004-01-01

    Background Autism is a pervasive developmental disorder characterized by a triad of deficits: qualitative impairments in social interactions, communication deficits, and repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior. Although autism is etiologically heterogeneous, family and twin studies have established a definite genetic basis. The inheritance of idiopathic autism is presumed to be complex, with many genes involved; environmental factors are also possibly contributory. The analysis of chromosome abnormalities associated with autism contributes greatly to the identification of autism candidate genes. Case presentation We describe a child with autistic disorder and an interstitial deletion on chromosome 4q. This child first presented at 12 months of age with developmental delay and minor dysmorphic features. At 4 years of age a diagnosis of Pervasive Developmental Disorder was made. At 11 years of age he met diagnostic criteria for autism. Cytogenetic studies revealed a chromosome 4q deletion. The karyotype was 46, XY del 4 (q31.3-q33). Here we report the clinical phenotype of the child and the molecular characterization of the deletion using molecular cytogenetic techniques and analysis of polymorphic markers. These studies revealed a 19 megabase deletion spanning 4q32 to 4q34. Analysis of existing polymorphic markers and new markers developed in this study revealed that the deletion arose on a paternally derived chromosome. To date 33 genes of known or inferred function are deleted as a consequence of the deletion. Among these are the AMPA 2 gene that encodes the glutamate receptor GluR2 sub-unit, GLRA3 and GLRB genes that encode glycine receptor subunits and neuropeptide Y receptor genes NPY1R and NPY5R. Conclusions The deletion in this autistic subject serves to highlight specific autism candidate genes. He is hemizygous for AMPA 2, GLRA3, GLRB, NPY1R and NPY5R. GluR2 is the major determinant of AMPA receptor structure. Glutamate receptors maintain structural

  1. A single cytosine deletion in the OsPLS1 gene encoding vacuolar-type H+-ATPase subunit A1 leads to premature leaf senescence and seed dormancy in rice

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xi; Gong, Pan; Li, Kunyu; Huang, Fudeng; Cheng, Fangmin; Pan, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Leaf senescence is a programmed developmental process orchestrated by many factors, but its molecular regulation is not yet fully understood. In this study, a novel Oryza sativa premature leaf senescence mutant (ospls1) was examined. Despite normal development in early seedlings, the ospls1 mutant leaves displayed lesion-mimics and early senescence, and a high transpiration rate after tillering. The mutant also showed seed dormancy attributable to physical (defect of micropyle structure) and physiological (abscisic acid sensitivity) factors. Using a map-based cloning approach, we determined that a cytosine deletion in the OsPLS1 gene encoding vacuolar H+-ATPase subunit A1 (VHA-A1) underlies the phenotypic abnormalities in the ospls1 mutant. The OsPSL1/VHA-A1 transcript levels progressively declined with the age-dependent leaf senescence in both the ospls1 mutant and its wild type. The significant decrease in both OsPSL1/VHA-A1 gene expression and VHA enzyme activity in the ospls1 mutant strongly suggests a negative regulatory role for the normal OsPLS1/VHA-A1 gene in the onset of rice leaf senescence. The ospls1 mutant featured higher salicylic acid (SA) levels and reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, and activation of signal transduction by up-regulation of WRKY genes in leaves. Consistent with this, the ospls1 mutant exhibited hypersensitivity to exogenous SA and/or H2O2. Collectively, these results indicated that the OsPSL1/VAH-A1 mutation played a causal role in premature leaf senescence through a combination of ROS and SA signals. To conclude, OsPLS1 is implicated in leaf senescence and seed dormancy in rice. PMID:26994476

  2. A single cytosine deletion in the OsPLS1 gene encoding vacuolar-type H+-ATPase subunit A1 leads to premature leaf senescence and seed dormancy in rice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xi; Gong, Pan; Li, Kunyu; Huang, Fudeng; Cheng, Fangmin; Pan, Gang

    2016-04-01

    Leaf senescence is a programmed developmental process orchestrated by many factors, but its molecular regulation is not yet fully understood. In this study, a novel Oryza sativa premature leaf senescence mutant (ospls1) was examined. Despite normal development in early seedlings, the ospls1 mutant leaves displayed lesion-mimics and early senescence, and a high transpiration rate after tillering. The mutant also showed seed dormancy attributable to physical (defect of micropyle structure) and physiological (abscisic acid sensitivity) factors. Using a map-based cloning approach, we determined that a cytosine deletion in the OsPLS1 gene encoding vacuolar H(+)-ATPase subunit A1 (VHA-A1) underlies the phenotypic abnormalities in the ospls1 mutant. The OsPSL1/VHA-A1 transcript levels progressively declined with the age-dependent leaf senescence in both the ospls1 mutant and its wild type. The significant decrease in both OsPSL1/VHA-A1 gene expression and VHA enzyme activity in the ospls1 mutant strongly suggests a negative regulatory role for the normal OsPLS1/VHA-A1 gene in the onset of rice leaf senescence. The ospls1 mutant featured higher salicylic acid (SA) levels and reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, and activation of signal transduction by up-regulation of WRKY genes in leaves. Consistent with this, the ospls1 mutant exhibited hypersensitivity to exogenous SA and/or H2O2 Collectively, these results indicated that the OsPSL1/VAH-A1 mutation played a causal role in premature leaf senescence through a combination of ROS and SA signals. To conclude, OsPLS1 is implicated in leaf senescence and seed dormancy in rice. PMID:26994476

  3. Genetic interaction between Caenorhabditis elegans teneurin ten-1 and prolyl 4-hydroxylase phy-1 and their function in collagen IV–mediated basement membrane integrity during late elongation of the embryo

    PubMed Central

    Topf, Ulrike; Chiquet-Ehrismann, Ruth

    2011-01-01

    Teneurins are a family of phylogenetically conserved proteins implicated in pattern formation and morphogenesis. The sole orthologue in Caenorhabditis elegans, ten-1, is important for hypodermal cell migration, neuronal migration, path finding and fasciculation, gonad development, and basement membrane integrity of some tissues. However, the mechanisms of TEN-1 action remain to be elucidated. Using a genome-wide RNA interference approach, we identified phy-1 as a novel interaction partner of ten-1. phy-1 codes for the catalytic domain of collagen prolyl 4-hydroxylase. Loss of phy-1 significantly enhanced the embryonic lethality of ten-1 null mutants. Double-mutant embryos arrested during late elongation with epidermal defects, disruption of basement membranes, and detachment of body wall muscles. We found that deletion of phy-1 caused aggregation of collagen IV in body wall muscles in elongated embryos and triggered the loss of tissue integrity in ten-1 mutants. In addition, phy-1 and ten-1 each genetically interact with genes encoding collagen IV. These findings support a functional mechanism in which loss of ten-1, together with a reduction of assembled and secreted basement membrane collagen IV protein, leads to detachment of the epidermis from muscle cells during late elongation of the embryo when mechanical stress is generated by muscle contractions. PMID:21795395

  4. Ten Thousand Years of Solitude

    SciTech Connect

    Benford, G. California Univ., Irvine, CA . Dept. of Physics); Kirkwood, C.W. Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ . Coll. of Business Administration); Harry, O. ); Pasqualetti, M.J. Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ )

    1991-03-01

    This report documents the authors work as an expert team advising the US Department of Energy on modes of inadvertent intrusion over the next 10,000 years into the Waste Isolation Pilot Project (WIPP) nuclear waste repository. Credible types of potential future accidental intrusion into the WIPP are estimated as a basis for creating warning markers to prevent inadvertent intrusion. A six-step process is used to structure possible scenarios for such intrusion, and it is concluded that the probability of inadvertent intrusion into the WIPP repository over the next ten thousand years lies between one and twenty-five percent. 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. Atrial Fibrillation in Ten Cows

    PubMed Central

    Brightling, P.; Townsend, H. G. G.

    1983-01-01

    An irregular cardiac rhythm was identified in ten adult cows during auscultation of the heart and was subsequently characterized as atrial fibrillation by electrocardiography. The occurrence of the arrhythmia was associated with primary, organic disease of the heart in two animals which had valvular endocarditis. In seven of the other cows secondary or “functional” atrial fibrillation occurred in association with disorders of abdominal origin, six gastrointestinal disorders and one uterine torsion. Spontaneous conversion to normal sinus rhythm occurred in six cows after elimination of the primary disease. ImagesFigure 1b.Figure 3a.Figure 3b. PMID:17422324

  6. Alignment system for encoders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Villani, Daniel D. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    An improved encoder alignment system is disclosed which provides an indication of the extent of misalignment and a measure of the rate at which the misalignment may be changing. The invention is adapted for use with a conventional encoder which provides a digital coarse word having at least significant bit and a digital fine word having a least significant bit and a most significant bit. The invention generates the exclusive or of the least significant bit of the coarse digital signal and the least significant bit of the fine digital signal to provide a first signal. The invention then generates the exclusive or of the first signal and the complement of the most significant bit of the fine digital signal to provide an output signal which represents the misalignment of the encoder.

  7. Polarization encoded color camera.

    PubMed

    Schonbrun, Ethan; Möller, Guðfríður; Di Caprio, Giuseppe

    2014-03-15

    Digital cameras would be colorblind if they did not have pixelated color filters integrated into their image sensors. Integration of conventional fixed filters, however, comes at the expense of an inability to modify the camera's spectral properties. Instead, we demonstrate a micropolarizer-based camera that can reconfigure its spectral response. Color is encoded into a linear polarization state by a chiral dispersive element and then read out in a single exposure. The polarization encoded color camera is capable of capturing three-color images at wavelengths spanning the visible to the near infrared. PMID:24690806

  8. Where Will LEAD Lead?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wildman, Louis

    After setting forth eight assumptions concerning the education of educational administrators, findings about the Leadership in Educational Administration Development (LEAD) program are discussed. The analysis is based on the first-year applications, telephone conversations with staff at a majority of the project sites, and additional material…

  9. Time-Encoded Imagers.

    SciTech Connect

    Marleau, Peter; Brubaker, Erik

    2014-11-01

    This report provides a short overview of the DNN R&D funded project, Time-Encoded Imagers. The project began in FY11 and concluded in FY14. The Project Description below provides the overall motivation and objectives for the project as well as a summary of programmatic direction. It is followed by a short description of each task and the resulting deliverables.

  10. Video Time Encoding Machines

    PubMed Central

    Lazar, Aurel A.; Pnevmatikakis, Eftychios A.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate architectures for time encoding and time decoding of visual stimuli such as natural and synthetic video streams (movies, animation). The architecture for time encoding is akin to models of the early visual system. It consists of a bank of filters in cascade with single-input multi-output neural circuits. Neuron firing is based on either a threshold-and-fire or an integrate-and-fire spiking mechanism with feedback. We show that analog information is represented by the neural circuits as projections on a set of band-limited functions determined by the spike sequence. Under Nyquist-type and frame conditions, the encoded signal can be recovered from these projections with arbitrary precision. For the video time encoding machine architecture, we demonstrate that band-limited video streams of finite energy can be faithfully recovered from the spike trains and provide a stable algorithm for perfect recovery. The key condition for recovery calls for the number of neurons in the population to be above a threshold value. PMID:21296708

  11. Plasmids encoding therapeutic agents

    DOEpatents

    Keener, William K.

    2007-08-07

    Plasmids encoding anti-HIV and anti-anthrax therapeutic agents are disclosed. Plasmid pWKK-500 encodes a fusion protein containing DP178 as a targeting moiety, the ricin A chain, an HIV protease cleavable linker, and a truncated ricin B chain. N-terminal extensions of the fusion protein include the maltose binding protein and a Factor Xa protease site. C-terminal extensions include a hydrophobic linker, an L domain motif peptide, a KDEL ER retention signal, another Factor Xa protease site, an out-of-frame buforin II coding sequence, the lacZ.alpha. peptide, and a polyhistidine tag. More than twenty derivatives of plasmid pWKK-500 are described. Plasmids pWKK-700 and pWKK-800 are similar to pWKK-500 wherein the DP178-encoding sequence is substituted by RANTES- and SDF-1-encoding sequences, respectively. Plasmid pWKK-900 is similar to pWKK-500 wherein the HIV protease cleavable linker is substituted by a lethal factor (LF) peptide-cleavable linker.

  12. Reed-Solomon Encoder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Troung, T. K.; Reed, I. S.; Deutsch, L. J.; Hsu, I. S.; Wang, K.; Yeh, C. S.

    1985-01-01

    Report presents mathematical principles of Berlekamp bit serial multiplier algorithm and its application to design of very-large-scale integrated (VLSI) encoders for Reed-Solomon error-correcting codes. Structure made readily on single chip of negatively doped channel metal oxide semiconductor.

  13. LEADING WITH LEADING INDICATORS

    SciTech Connect

    PREVETTE, S.S.

    2005-01-27

    This paper documents Fluor Hanford's use of Leading Indicators, management leadership, and statistical methodology in order to improve safe performance of work. By applying these methods, Fluor Hanford achieved a significant reduction in injury rates in 2003 and 2004, and the improvement continues today. The integration of data, leadership, and teamwork pays off with improved safety performance and credibility with the customer. The use of Statistical Process Control, Pareto Charts, and Systems Thinking and their effect on management decisions and employee involvement are discussed. Included are practical examples of choosing leading indicators. A statistically based color coded dashboard presentation system methodology is provided. These tools, management theories and methods, coupled with involved leadership and employee efforts, directly led to significant improvements in worker safety and health, and environmental protection and restoration at one of the nation's largest nuclear cleanup sites.

  14. Primary hypoadrenocorticism in ten cats.

    PubMed

    Peterson, M E; Greco, D S; Orth, D N

    1989-01-01

    Primary hypoadrenocorticism was diagnosed in ten young to middle-aged cats of mixed breeding. Five of the cats were male, and five were female. Historic signs included lethargy (n = 10), anorexia (n = 10), weight loss (n = 9), vomiting (n = 4), and polyuria (n = 3). Dehydration (n = 9), hypothermia (n = 8), prolonged capillary refill time (n = 5), weak pulse (n = 5), collapse (n = 3), and sinus bradycardia (n = 2) were found on physical examination. Results of initial laboratory tests revealed anemia (n = 3), absolute lymphocytosis (n = 2), absolute eosinophilia (n = 1), and azotemia and hyperphosphatemia (n = 10). Serum electrolyte changes included hyponatremia (n = 10), hyperkalemia (n = 9), hypochloremia (n = 9), and hypercalcemia (n = 1). The diagnosis of primary adrenocortical insufficiency was established on the basis of results of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation tests (n = 10) and endogenous plasma ACTH determinations (n = 7). Initial therapy for hypoadrenocorticism included intravenous administration of 0.9% saline and dexamethasone and intramuscular administration of desoxycorticosterone acetate in oil. Three cats were euthanatized shortly after diagnosis because of poor clinical response. Results of necropsy examination were unremarkable except for complete destruction of both adrenal cortices. Seven cats were treated chronically with oral prednisone or intramuscular methylprednisolone acetate for glucocorticoid supplementation and with oral fludrocortisone acetate or intramuscular injections of repository desoxycorticosterone pivalate for mineralocorticoid replacement. One cat died after 47 days of therapy from unknown causes; the other six cats are still alive and well after 3 to 70 months of treatment. PMID:2469793

  15. Design and application of genetically encoded biosensors

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Amy E.; Qin, Yan; Park, Jungwon Genevieve; McCombs, Janet E.

    2012-01-01

    In the past 5–10 years, the power of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) and its numerous derivatives has been harnessed toward the development of genetically encoded fluorescent biosensors. These sensors are incorporated into cells or organisms as plasmid DNA, which leads the transcriptional and translational machinery of the cell to express a functional sensor. To date, over 100 different genetically encoded biosensors have been developed for targets as diverse as ions, molecules and enzymes. Such sensors are instrumental in providing a window into the real-time biochemistry of living cells and whole organisms, and are providing unprecedented insight into the inner workings of a cell. PMID:21251723

  16. The Text Encoding Initiative: Flexible and Extensible Document Encoding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnard, David T.; Ide, Nancy M.

    1997-01-01

    The Text Encoding Initiative (TEI), an international collaboration aimed at producing a common encoding scheme for complex texts, examines the requirement for generality versus the requirement to handle specialized text types. Discusses how documents and users tax the limits of fixed schemes requiring flexible extensible encoding to support…

  17. Lead Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... Experiments Stories Lessons Topics Games Activities Lessons MENU Lead Poisoning Kids Homepage Topics Pollution Lead Poisoning What is ... you can avoid contact with it! Sources of Lead Poisoning HOUSE PAINTS: Before1950, lead-based paint was used ...

  18. Lead Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... to determine lead sources, educating family members about lead poisoning , and instituting follow-up testing to monitor the ... high levels of lead, see the article on Lead Poisoning . The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has ...

  19. Lead Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Lead Poisoning What is it and who is affected? Lead is a highly toxic substance, exposure to which ... and children can suffer from the effects of lead poisoning, but childhood lead poisoning is much more frequent. ...

  20. VLSI Reed-Solomon Encoder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, K. Y.

    1983-01-01

    Modular Reed-solomon encoder uses identical custom VLSI chips called "symbol slices." By cascading and properly interconnecting group of these chips, encoder is made for any desired error-correcting capability and interleaving level. VLSI encoder requires only one-tenth the number of chips required by conventional Reed-Solomon Circuit implemented with discrete IC's.

  1. C. elegans ten-1 is synthetic lethal with mutations in cytoskeleton regulators, and enhances many axon guidance defective mutants

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Teneurins are transmembrane proteins that assist morphogenetic processes in many organisms. ten-1 is the C. elegans teneurin homolog with two transcripts, ten-1a and ten-1b, that respectively encode a long (TEN-1L) and short (TEN-1S) form of the protein. We previously isolated a C. elegans mutant where one pharyngeal neuron was frequently misplaced, and now show that it corresponds to a novel allele of ten-1. Results The novel ten-1(et5) allele is a hypomorph since its post-embryonic phenotype is weaker than the null alleles ten-1(ok641) and ten-1(tm651). ten-1 mutants have defects in all pharyngeal neurons that we examined, and in vivo reporters show that only the long form of the ten-1 gene is expressed in the pharynx, specifically in six marginal cells and the M2 neurons. Defects in the pharyngeal M2 neurons were enhanced when the ten-1(ok641) mutation was combined with mutations in the following genes: mig-14, unc-5, unc-51, unc-52 and unc-129. None of the body neurons examined show any defects in the ten-1(ok641) mutant, but genetic interaction studies reveal that ten-1(ok641) is synthetic lethal with sax-3, unc-34 and unc-73, and examination of the hypodermal cells in embryos of the ten-1(ok641) mutant point to a role of ten-1 during hypodermal cell morphogenesis. Conclusions Our results are consistent with ten-1 normally providing a function complementary to the cytoskeletal remodeling processes that occur in migrating cells or cells undergoing morphogenesis. It is possible that ten-1 influences the composition/distribution of extracellular matrix. PMID:20497576

  2. Ten inch Planar Optic Display

    SciTech Connect

    Beiser, L.; Veligdan, J.

    1996-04-01

    A Planar Optic Display (POD) is being built and tested for suitability as a high brightness replacement for the cathode ray tube, (CRT). The POD display technology utilizes a laminated optical waveguide structure which allows a projection type of display to be constructed in a thin (I to 2 inch) housing. Inherent in the optical waveguide is a black cladding matrix which gives the display a black appearance leading to very high contrast. A Digital Micromirror Device, (DMD) from Texas Instruments is used to create video images in conjunction with a 100 milliwatt green solid state laser. An anamorphic optical system is used to inject light into the POD to form a stigmatic image. In addition to the design of the POD screen, we discuss: image formation, image projection, and optical design constraints.

  3. Time encoded radiation imaging

    DOEpatents

    Marleau, Peter; Brubaker, Erik; Kiff, Scott

    2014-10-21

    The various technologies presented herein relate to detecting nuclear material at a large stand-off distance. An imaging system is presented which can detect nuclear material by utilizing time encoded imaging relating to maximum and minimum radiation particle counts rates. The imaging system is integrated with a data acquisition system that can utilize variations in photon pulse shape to discriminate between neutron and gamma-ray interactions. Modulation in the detected neutron count rates as a function of the angular orientation of the detector due to attenuation of neighboring detectors is utilized to reconstruct the neutron source distribution over 360 degrees around the imaging system. Neutrons (e.g., fast neutrons) and/or gamma-rays are incident upon scintillation material in the imager, the photons generated by the scintillation material are converted to electrical energy from which the respective neutrons/gamma rays can be determined and, accordingly, a direction to, and the location of, a radiation source identified.

  4. Rotary encoding device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leviton, Douglas B. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A device for position encoding of a rotating shaft in which a polygonal mirror having a number of facets is mounted to the shaft and a light beam is directed towards the facets is presented. The facets of the polygonal mirror reflect the light beam such that a light spot is created on a linear array detector. An analog-to-digital converter is connected to the linear array detector for reading the position of the spot on the linear array detector. A microprocessor with memory is connected to the analog-to-digital converter to hold and manipulate the data provided by the analog-to-digital converter on the position of the spot and to compute the position of the shaft based upon the data from the analog-to-digital converter.

  5. Linear encoding device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leviton, Douglas B. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A Linear Motion Encoding device for measuring the linear motion of a moving object is disclosed in which a light source is mounted on the moving object and a position sensitive detector such as an array photodetector is mounted on a nearby stationary object. The light source emits a light beam directed towards the array photodetector such that a light spot is created on the array. An analog-to-digital converter, connected to the array photodetector is used for reading the position of the spot on the array photodetector. A microprocessor and memory is connected to the analog-to-digital converter to hold and manipulate data provided by the analog-to-digital converter on the position of the spot and to compute the linear displacement of the moving object based upon the data from the analog-to-digital converter.

  6. Lead Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Lead is a metal that occurs naturally in the earth's crust. Lead can be found in all parts of our ... from human activities such as mining and manufacturing. Lead used to be in paint; older houses may ...

  7. Lead poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... swallows a lead object or breathes in lead dust, some of the poison can stay in the ... a health problem. Lead is everywhere, including dirt, dust, new toys, and old house paint. Unfortunately, you ...

  8. Lead Toxicity

    MedlinePlus

    ... homes. • Most people, especially children, who suffer from lead poisoning are exposed through lead-contaminated household dust or ... and six if they are at risk of lead poisoning (see: ). Who can I call to get more ...

  9. Clinical experience with TENS and TENS combined with nitrous oxide-oxygen. Report of 371 patients.

    PubMed Central

    Quarnstrom, F. C.; Milgrom, P.

    1989-01-01

    Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) alone or TENS combined with nitrous oxide-oxygen (N2O) was administered for restorative dentistry without local anesthesia to 371 adult patients. A total of 55% of TENS alone and 84% of TENS/N2O visits were rated successful. A total of 53% of TENS alone and 82% of TENS/N2O patients reported slight or no pain. In multivariable analyses, pain reports were related to the anesthesia technique and patient fear and unrelated to sex, race, age, tooth, or depth of preparation. PMID:2604059

  10. Ten microsatellite loci from Zamia integrifolia (Zamiaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ten microsatellite loci isolated from Zamia integrifolia are described. All 10 are polymorphic, with three to ten alleles across 36 members of a single population from South Florida. Heterozygosity ranged from 0.067 to 1. Two loci depart significantly from Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium, and exhibit het...

  11. Top-Ten IT Issues, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingerman, Bret L.; Yang, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    The eleventh annual EDUCAUSE Current Issues Survey shows some very familiar themes among the top-ten IT issues of strategic importance to technology leaders in higher education. Indeed, all ten of the issues from the 2009 survey are back, albeit in a slightly different order. In addition, Strategic Planning returns as an issue of renewed…

  12. Ten Steps to Making Evaluation Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sridharan, Sanjeev; Nakaima, April

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes ten steps to make evaluations matter. The ten steps are a combination of the usual recommended practice such as developing program theory and implementing rigorous evaluation designs with a stronger focus on more unconventional steps including developing learning frameworks, exploring pathways of evaluation influence, and…

  13. Ten steps to successful software process improvement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kandt, R. K.

    2003-01-01

    This paper identifies ten steps for managing change that address organizational and cultural issues. Four of these steps are critical, that if not done, will almost guarantee failure. This ten-step program emphasizes the alignment of business goals, change process goals, and the work performed by the employees of an organization.

  14. Space vehicle onboard command encoder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A flexible onboard encoder system was designed for the space shuttle. The following areas were covered: (1) implementation of the encoder design into hardware to demonstrate the various encoding algorithms/code formats, (2) modulation techniques in a single hardware package to maintain comparable reliability and link integrity of the existing link systems and to integrate the various techniques into a single design using current technology. The primary function of the command encoder is to accept input commands, generated either locally onboard the space shuttle or remotely from the ground, format and encode the commands in accordance with the payload input requirements and appropriately modulate a subcarrier for transmission by the baseband RF modulator. The following information was provided: command encoder system design, brassboard hardware design, test set hardware and system packaging, and software.

  15. Lead Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... our environment. Much of it comes from human activities such as mining and manufacturing. Lead used to be in paint; older houses may still have lead paint. You could be exposed to lead by Eating food or drinking water that contains lead. Water pipes in older homes ...

  16. Lead poisoning

    SciTech Connect

    Rekus, J.F.

    1992-08-01

    Construction workers who weld, cut or blast structural steel coated with lead-based paint are at significant risk of lead poisoning. Although technology to control these exposures may not have existed when the lead standard was promulgated, it is available today. Employers who do not take steps to protect their employees from lead exposure may be cited and fined severely for their failure.

  17. N-Consecutive-Phase Encoder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Lee, Ho-Kyoung; Weber, Charles

    1995-01-01

    N-consecutive-phase encoder (NCPE) is conceptual encoder for generating alphabet of N consecutive full-response continuous-phase-modulation (CPM) signals. Enables use of binary preencoder of higher rate than used with simple continuous-phase encoder (CPE). NCPE makes possible to achieve power efficiencies and bandwidth efficiencies greater than conventional trellis coders with continuous-phase frequency-shift keying (CPFSK).

  18. Apoferritin-Templated Synthesis of Encoded Metallic Phosphate Nanoparticle Tags

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Guodong; Wu, Hong; Dohnalkova, Alice; Lin, Yuehe

    2007-07-31

    Encoded metallic-phosphate nanoparticle tags, with distinct encoding patterns, have been prepared using an apoferritin template. A center-cavity structure as well as the disassociation and reconstructive characteristics of apoferritin at different pH environments provide a facile route for preparing such encoded nanoparticle tags. Encapsulation and diffusion approaches have been investigated during the preparation. The encapsulation approach, which is based on the dissociation and reconstruction of apoferritin at different pHs, exhibits an effective route to prepare such encoded metallic-phosphate nanoparticle tags. The compositionally encoded nanoparticle tag leads to a high coding capacity with a large number of distinguishable voltammetric signals, reflecting the predetermined composition of the metal mixture solution (and hence the nanoparticle composition). Releasing the metal components from the nanoparticle tags at pH 4.6 acetate buffer avoids harsh dissolution conditions, such as strong acids. Such a synthesis of encoded nanoparticle tags, including single-component and compositionally encoded nanoparticle tags, is substantially simple, fast, and convenient compared to that of encoded metal nanowires and semiconductor nanoparticle (CdS, PbS, and ZnS) incorporated polystyrene beads. The encoded metallic-phosphate nanoparticle tags thus show great promise for bioanalytical or product-tracking/identification/protection applications.

  19. Ultrasonically Encoded Photoacoustic Flowgraphy in Biological Tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lidai; Xia, Jun; Yao, Junjie; Maslov, Konstantin I.; Wang, Lihong V.

    2013-11-01

    Blood flow speed is an important functional parameter. Doppler ultrasound flowmetry lacks sufficient sensitivity to slow blood flow (several to tens of millimeters per second) in deep tissue. To address this challenge, we developed ultrasonically encoded photoacoustic flowgraphy combining ultrasonic thermal tagging with photoacoustic imaging. Focused ultrasound generates a confined heat source in acoustically absorptive fluid. Thermal waves propagate with the flow and are directly visualized in pseudo color using photoacoustic computed tomography. The Doppler shift is employed to calculate the flow speed. This method requires only acoustic and optical absorption, and thus is applicable to continuous fluid. A blood flow speed as low as 0.24mm·s-1 was successfully measured. Deep blood flow imaging was experimentally demonstrated under 5-mm-thick chicken breast tissue.

  20. The ten-ecosystem study investigation plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kan, E. P.

    1976-01-01

    With the continental United States divided into ten forest and grassland ecosystems, the Ten Ecosystem Study (TES) is designed to investigate the feasibility and applicability of state-of-the-art automatic data processing remote sensing technology to inventory forest, grassland, and water resources by using Land Satellite data. The study will serve as a prelude to a possible future nationwide remote sensing application to inventory forest and rangeland renewable resources. This plan describes project design and phases, the ten ecosystem, data utilization and output, personnel organization, resource requirements, and schedules and milestones.

  1. Top Ten Technology Breakthroughs for Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bateman, Bill; Crystal, Jerry; Davidson, Hall; Holzberg, Carol S.; McIntire, Todd; McLester, Susan; Ohler, Jason; Rose, Ray; Shields, Jean; Warlick, David

    2001-01-01

    Contributors discuss the top ten technologies that allow for thinking in new and innovative ways about the concept of "school": virtual learning; wireless networking; collaboration tools; digital video; Application Service Providers; handheld devices; optical networking; videoconferencing; XML; and simulations. (AEF)

  2. Prosodic Encoding in Silent Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkenfeld, Deborah

    In silent reading, short-memory tasks, such as semantic and syntactic processing, require a stage of phonetic encoding between visual representation and the actual extraction of meaning, and this encoding includes prosodic as well as segmental features. To test for this suprasegmental coding, an experiment was conducted in which subjects were…

  3. Lead poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... lead is still found in some modern faucets. Soil contaminated by decades of car exhaust or years ... house paint scrapings. Lead is more common in soil near highways and houses. Hobbies involving soldering, stained ...

  4. Ten-dimensional anthropomorphic arm control in a human brain-machine interface: difficulties, solutions, and limitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wodlinger, B.; Downey, J. E.; Tyler-Kabara, E. C.; Schwartz, A. B.; Boninger, M. L.; Collinger, J. L.

    2015-02-01

    Objective. In a previous study we demonstrated continuous translation, orientation and one-dimensional grasping control of a prosthetic limb (seven degrees of freedom) by a human subject with tetraplegia using a brain-machine interface (BMI). The current study, in the same subject, immediately followed the previous work and expanded the scope of the control signal by also extracting hand-shape commands from the two 96-channel intracortical electrode arrays implanted in the subject’s left motor cortex. Approach. Four new control signals, dictating prosthetic hand shape, replaced the one-dimensional grasping in the previous study, allowing the subject to control the prosthetic limb with ten degrees of freedom (three-dimensional (3D) translation, 3D orientation, four-dimensional hand shaping) simultaneously. Main results. Robust neural tuning to hand shaping was found, leading to ten-dimensional (10D) performance well above chance levels in all tests. Neural unit preferred directions were broadly distributed through the 10D space, with the majority of units significantly tuned to all ten dimensions, instead of being restricted to isolated domains (e.g. translation, orientation or hand shape). The addition of hand shaping emphasized object-interaction behavior. A fundamental component of BMIs is the calibration used to associate neural activity to intended movement. We found that the presence of an object during calibration enhanced successful shaping of the prosthetic hand as it closed around the object during grasping. Significance. Our results show that individual motor cortical neurons encode many parameters of movement, that object interaction is an important factor when extracting these signals, and that high-dimensional operation of prosthetic devices can be achieved with simple decoding algorithms. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01364480.

  5. Information encoder/decoder using chaotic systems

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Samuel Lee; Miller, William Michael; McWhorter, Paul Jackson

    1997-01-01

    The present invention discloses a chaotic system-based information encoder and decoder that operates according to a relationship defining a chaotic system. Encoder input signals modify the dynamics of the chaotic system comprising the encoder. The modifications result in chaotic, encoder output signals that contain the encoder input signals encoded within them. The encoder output signals are then capable of secure transmissions using conventional transmission techniques. A decoder receives the encoder output signals (i.e., decoder input signals) and inverts the dynamics of the encoding system to directly reconstruct the original encoder input signals.

  6. Information encoder/decoder using chaotic systems

    DOEpatents

    Miller, S.L.; Miller, W.M.; McWhorter, P.J.

    1997-10-21

    The present invention discloses a chaotic system-based information encoder and decoder that operates according to a relationship defining a chaotic system. Encoder input signals modify the dynamics of the chaotic system comprising the encoder. The modifications result in chaotic, encoder output signals that contain the encoder input signals encoded within them. The encoder output signals are then capable of secure transmissions using conventional transmission techniques. A decoder receives the encoder output signals (i.e., decoder input signals) and inverts the dynamics of the encoding system to directly reconstruct the original encoder input signals. 32 figs.

  7. CODAS Syndrome Is Associated with Mutations of LONP1, Encoding Mitochondrial AAA+ Lon Protease

    PubMed Central

    Strauss, Kevin A.; Jinks, Robert N.; Puffenberger, Erik G.; Venkatesh, Sundararajan; Singh, Kamalendra; Cheng, Iteen; Mikita, Natalie; Thilagavathi, Jayapalraja; Lee, Jae; Sarafianos, Stefan; Benkert, Abigail; Koehler, Alanna; Zhu, Anni; Trovillion, Victoria; McGlincy, Madeleine; Morlet, Thierry; Deardorff, Matthew; Innes, A. Micheil; Prasad, Chitra; Chudley, Albert E.; Lee, Irene Nga Wing; Suzuki, Carolyn K.

    2015-01-01

    CODAS syndrome is a multi-system developmental disorder characterized by cerebral, ocular, dental, auricular, and skeletal anomalies. Using whole-exome and Sanger sequencing, we identified four LONP1 mutations inherited as homozygous or compound-heterozygous combinations among ten individuals with CODAS syndrome. The individuals come from three different ancestral backgrounds (Amish-Swiss from United States, n = 8; Mennonite-German from Canada, n = 1; mixed European from Canada, n = 1). LONP1 encodes Lon protease, a homohexameric enzyme that mediates protein quality control, respiratory-complex assembly, gene expression, and stress responses in mitochondria. All four pathogenic amino acid substitutions cluster within the AAA+ domain at residues near the ATP-binding pocket. In biochemical assays, pathogenic Lon proteins show substrate-specific defects in ATP-dependent proteolysis. When expressed recombinantly in cells, all altered Lon proteins localize to mitochondria. The Old Order Amish Lon variant (LONP1 c.2161C>G[p.Arg721Gly]) homo-oligomerizes poorly in vitro. Lymphoblastoid cell lines generated from affected children have (1) swollen mitochondria with electron-dense inclusions and abnormal inner-membrane morphology; (2) aggregated MT-CO2, the mtDNA-encoded subunit II of cytochrome c oxidase; and (3) reduced spare respiratory capacity, leading to impaired mitochondrial proteostasis and function. CODAS syndrome is a distinct, autosomal-recessive, developmental disorder associated with dysfunction of the mitochondrial Lon protease. PMID:25574826

  8. Two digital video encoder circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eldon, John A.

    1992-11-01

    Central to `multimedia' image processing is the desire to encode computer graphics data into a standard television signal, complete with line, field, and color subcarrier synchronizing information. The numerous incompatibilities between television and computer display standards render this operation far less trivial than it sounds to anyone who hasn't worked with both types of signals. To simplify the task of encoding computer graphics signals into standard NTSC (North America and Japan) or PAL (most of Europe) television format for display, broadcast, or recording, TRW LSI Products Inc. has introduced the two newest members of it multimedia integrated circuit family, the TMC22090 and TMC22190 digital video encoders.

  9. Lead Pencils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, L. B.

    1971-01-01

    A study, undertaken to determine the lead content of paint on various pencils in the Goddard supply system, is reported. The survey found that lead content varied from .04 mg per pencil for carmine colored pencils to approximately 43 mg per pencil for yellow colored pencils. Results also show that yellow pencils had higher lead content than other colors analyzed. More detailed results are given in tabular form.

  10. Leading Democratically

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookfield, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Democracy is the most venerated of American ideas, the one for which wars are fought and people die. So most people would probably agree that leaders should be able to lead well in a democratic society. Yet, genuinely democratic leadership is a relative rarity. Leading democratically means viewing leadership as a function or process, rather than…

  11. Serial position encoding of signs.

    PubMed

    Miozzo, Michele; Petrova, Anna; Fischer-Baum, Simon; Peressotti, Francesca

    2016-09-01

    Reduced short-term memory (STM) capacity has been reported for sign as compared to speech when items have to be recalled in a specific order. This difference has been attributed to a more precise and efficient serial position encoding in verbal STM (used for speech) than visuo-spatial STM (used for sign). We tested in the present investigation whether the reduced STM capacity with signs stems from a lack of positional encoding available in verbal STM. Error analyses reported in prior studies have revealed that positions are defined in verbal STM by distance from both the start and the end of the sequence (both-edges positional encoding scheme). Our analyses of the errors made by deaf participants with finger-spelled letters revealed that the both-edges positional encoding scheme underlies the STM representation of signs. These results indicate that the cause of the STM disadvantage is not the type of positional encoding but rather the difficulties in binding an item in visuo-spatial STM to its specific position in the sequence. Both-edges positional encoding scheme could be specific of sign, since it has not been found in visuo-spatial STM tasks conducted with hearing participants. PMID:27244095

  12. The Currie Report: Ten Years Later.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewing, John L.

    1972-01-01

    The Currie Report, or the Report of the Commission on Education in New Zealand, which appeared in 1962, has been generating changes on a broad front within the New Zealand educational system throughout the last ten years. Eight areas of concern were identified by that Commission. The "most clamant" was the recruitment and training of teachers.…

  13. Top-Ten IT Issues: 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agee, Anne Scrivener; Yang, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the top-ten IT-related issues in terms of strategic importance to the institution, as revealed by the tenth annual EDUCAUSE Current Issues Survey. These IT-related issues include: (1) Funding IT; (2) Administrative/ERP Information Systems; (3) Security; (4) Infrastructure/Cyberinfrastructure; (5) Teaching and Learning with…

  14. Ten recommendations for software engineering in research.

    PubMed

    Hastings, Janna; Haug, Kenneth; Steinbeck, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Research in the context of data-driven science requires a backbone of well-written software, but scientific researchers are typically not trained at length in software engineering, the principles for creating better software products. To address this gap, in particular for young researchers new to programming, we give ten recommendations to ensure the usability, sustainability and practicality of research software. PMID:25685331

  15. Preparing Future Faculty: Ten Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Sean P.; Aiossa, Elizabeth; Winter, Mary Mugica

    2010-01-01

    When Sean Murphy designed the Graduate Student Internship Program at the College of Lake County (CLC), his 2001 TETYC article about the then two-year-old program detailed his programmatic response to the job market. Ten years later, the CLC-DePaul University partnership remains the strongest of the original dozen cross-sector relationships CLC…

  16. The AJAE: Preoccupations through Ten Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Peter

    1983-01-01

    This survey is a retrospective analysis of ten years of articles published in the Australian Journal of Adult Education. The years 1970-1979 were chosen to cover the decade of the seventies: a decade that was significant for adult education in a number of ways. (SSH)

  17. [The "top ten" of Finnish medicine].

    PubMed

    Leikola, A

    1998-01-01

    In the early 1980s the Wellcome Institute was planning a biographical dictionary on the world's most eminent physicians. The quota reserved for Finland was ten names, and having been asked by Dr. Karin Johannisson, Uppsala, to participate in the project, I undertook the task of choosing them and providing a short biography of each. For this, I asked the advice of ten experts on the history of Finnish medicine, and a "top ten" list was then compiled. The list extended from Johan Haartman, "the father of Finnish medicine", till the Nobel Prize winner Ragnar Granit and the famous pediatrist Arvo Ylppo, who were still alive in the 1980s. The biographies were sent to the editor of the dictionary, but it seems that the work was never published. As I had saved all my correspondence about the matter, it seemed now, fifteen years afterwards, interesting to publish a short report of the project, including an account of how the "top ten" list had been achieved. PMID:11625413

  18. TEN MASTER TEACHER AND PROGRAM AWARD PROGRAMS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KOVACH, EDITH M.A.

    IN 1966 THE AMERICAN CLASSICAL LEAGUE HONORED THREE TEACHERS WITH ITS MASTER SECONDARY SCHOOL LATIN TEACHER AND PROGRAM AWARD. AMONG THE 32 PROGRAMS CITED FOR RECOGNITION, TEN (INCLUDING THOSE OF THE AWARD WINNERS) POSSESS CLEARLY INNOVATIVE FEATURES. IN BRIEF THEY FEATURE (1) A FIFTH YEAR ADVANCED PLACEMENT PROGRAM, LATIN AS INTRODUCTORY TO…

  19. Intonation Comprehension in Ten-Year-Olds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cruttenden, Alan

    1985-01-01

    Investigates the comprehension of nine intonational contrasts in ten-year-olds and adults. Overall performance on the tasks was much lower among the children than among the adults. Results indicate that hypotheses concerning the chronological order of development of meanings dependent on groupings, nucleus placements, and tones are too simplistic.…

  20. Ten Great Low-Cost Teaching Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCaughey, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes ten of his favorite tools and explains how they can be employed in various ways: (1) to manage the classroom better; (2) to jump into fun activities with little or no preparation; or (3) to promote student-created art and materials. All of these teaching tools are affordable--even cheap. In the event that some…

  1. Ideas from Ten North American Curriculum Thinkers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Short, Edmund C.

    The views and attitudes of ten North American educational policy-makers concerning curriculum development and design are presented. The theories and research of Herbert M. Kliebard, Fenwick W. English, Walter Werner, John I. Goodlad, Decker F. Walker, William A. Reid, Norman E. Gleadow, Neil Postman, Elliot W. Eisner, and Michael W. Apple are…

  2. Top Ten Concerns for Trustees in 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyerson, Joel W.

    1988-01-01

    Ten issues most likely to influence institutions this year include tuition policy and financing, capital renewal and replacement, charitable giving, scientific equipment and laboratories, endowment management and spending policy, research funding, corporate contributions, minority enrollment and hiring, debt financing and debt capacity, and cost…

  3. High resolution planar encoder by retro-reflection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kao, Ching-Fen; Lu, Sheng-Hua; Lu, Mao-Hong

    2005-08-01

    This investigation presents a planar diffractive laser encoder system (PDLENS), which serves as a two-dimensional (2D) position detection apparatus for precision machine applications. Traditional 2D position detection utilizes a pair of linear encoders in crossed construction and so maintaining the perpendicularity between this pair of encoders is difficult. Besides, the rigorous alignment requirements among various components of the encoder system impose a serious user adaptation bottleneck. Of all alignment tolerances, the head-to-scale alignment tolerance is the most important problem for applications. In this work, a 2D grating is employed as the scale and the PDLENS is based on the retro-reflection configuration. Therefore the new encoder can provide good perpendicularity and tolerate larger alignment errors than the conventional encoder does. The grating pitch is 1.6μm and the period of the output signal is 0.4μm due to the double diffraction. Electronic interpolation with a factor of 400 leads to a readout resolution of 1 nm. The new encoder and a capacitive sensor were employed to simultaneously measure a circular motion with a radius of 1μm generated by a piezo stage. Comparing the measured positions, the deviation is less than 30 nm and the repeatability is better than 8 nm.

  4. Detail view of the Ten Mile Creek Bridge, view looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of the Ten Mile Creek Bridge, view looking northeast at the modified "X" bracing and concrete hangers. - Ten Mile Creek Bridge, Spanning Ten Mile Creek on Oregon Coast Highway, Yachats, Lincoln County, OR

  5. Detail view of the Ten Mile Creek Bridge decorative concrete ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of the Ten Mile Creek Bridge decorative concrete arched balustrade at southeast corner of bridge, view looking east. - Ten Mile Creek Bridge, Spanning Ten Mile Creek on Oregon Coast Highway, Yachats, Lincoln County, OR

  6. Detail perspective view of the Ten Mile Creek Bridge arch, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail perspective view of the Ten Mile Creek Bridge arch, decorative cantilevered balustrade, and floor beams. - Ten Mile Creek Bridge, Spanning Ten Mile Creek on Oregon Coast Highway, Yachats, Lincoln County, OR

  7. Gravity referenced elevation encoder development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goddard, R. E.

    1993-05-01

    Recent progress in the development of a gravity-sensor-based instrument for determining the elevation angle of DSN antennas is described. The benefits of such a system include the capability to locate the Gravity Referenced Elevation Encoder (GREE) directly on the primary reflector (thus bypassing structural flexure and deformation error sources), anticipated lower maintenance costs compared to the present gimbal encoders, direct replaceability, or supplementation of the present gimbal encoders and the utilization of off-the-shelf components to construct the GREE. This article includes a description of the nominal GREE design. Test results on a laboratory breadboard model are given. Rigid-body dynamics of the GREE are derived and the simulated performance in response to measured antenna vibrations is given.

  8. Gravity referenced elevation encoder development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goddard, R. E.

    1993-01-01

    Recent progress in the development of a gravity-sensor-based instrument for determining the elevation angle of DSN antennas is described. The benefits of such a system include the capability to locate the Gravity Referenced Elevation Encoder (GREE) directly on the primary reflector (thus bypassing structural flexure and deformation error sources), anticipated lower maintenance costs compared to the present gimbal encoders, direct replaceability, or supplementation of the present gimbal encoders and the utilization of off-the-shelf components to construct the GREE. This article includes a description of the nominal GREE design. Test results on a laboratory breadboard model are given. Rigid-body dynamics of the GREE are derived and the simulated performance in response to measured antenna vibrations is given.

  9. Fly Photoreceptors Encode Phase Congruency

    PubMed Central

    Friederich, Uwe; Billings, Stephen A.; Hardie, Roger C.; Juusola, Mikko; Coca, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    More than five decades ago it was postulated that sensory neurons detect and selectively enhance behaviourally relevant features of natural signals. Although we now know that sensory neurons are tuned to efficiently encode natural stimuli, until now it was not clear what statistical features of the stimuli they encode and how. Here we reverse-engineer the neural code of Drosophila photoreceptors and show for the first time that photoreceptors exploit nonlinear dynamics to selectively enhance and encode phase-related features of temporal stimuli, such as local phase congruency, which are invariant to changes in illumination and contrast. We demonstrate that to mitigate for the inherent sensitivity to noise of the local phase congruency measure, the nonlinear coding mechanisms of the fly photoreceptors are tuned to suppress random phase signals, which explains why photoreceptor responses to naturalistic stimuli are significantly different from their responses to white noise stimuli. PMID:27336733

  10. Fly Photoreceptors Encode Phase Congruency.

    PubMed

    Friederich, Uwe; Billings, Stephen A; Hardie, Roger C; Juusola, Mikko; Coca, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    More than five decades ago it was postulated that sensory neurons detect and selectively enhance behaviourally relevant features of natural signals. Although we now know that sensory neurons are tuned to efficiently encode natural stimuli, until now it was not clear what statistical features of the stimuli they encode and how. Here we reverse-engineer the neural code of Drosophila photoreceptors and show for the first time that photoreceptors exploit nonlinear dynamics to selectively enhance and encode phase-related features of temporal stimuli, such as local phase congruency, which are invariant to changes in illumination and contrast. We demonstrate that to mitigate for the inherent sensitivity to noise of the local phase congruency measure, the nonlinear coding mechanisms of the fly photoreceptors are tuned to suppress random phase signals, which explains why photoreceptor responses to naturalistic stimuli are significantly different from their responses to white noise stimuli. PMID:27336733

  11. Ecotoxicology: Lead

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scheuhammer, A.M.; Beyer, W.N.; Schmitt, C.J.

    2008-01-01

    Lead (Pb) is a naturally occurring metallic element; trace concentrations are found in all environmental media and in all living things. However, certain human activities, especially base metal mining and smelting; combustion of leaded gasoline; the use of Pb in hunting, target shooting, and recreational angling; the use of Pb-based paints; and the uncontrolled disposal of Pb-containing products such as old vehicle batteries and electronic devices have resulted in increased environmental levels of Pb, and have created risks for Pb exposure and toxicity in invertebrates, fish, and wildlife in some ecosystems.

  12. Design of a CAN bus interface for photoelectric encoder in the spaceflight camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Ying; Wan, Qiu-hua; She, Rong-hong; Zhao, Chang-hai; Jiang, Yong

    2009-05-01

    In order to make photoelectric encoder usable in a spaceflight camera which adopts CAN bus as the communication method, CAN bus interface of the photoelectric encoder is designed in this paper. CAN bus interface hardware circuit of photoelectric encoder consists of CAN bus controller SJA 1000, CAN bus transceiver TJA1050 and singlechip. CAN bus interface controlling software program is completed in C language. A ten-meter shield twisted pair line is used as the transmission medium in the spaceflight camera, and speed rate is 600kbps.The experiments show that: the photoelectric encoder with CAN bus interface which has the advantages of more reliability, real-time, transfer rate and transfer distance overcomes communication line's shortcomings of classical photoelectric encoder system. The system works well in automatic measuring and controlling system.

  13. Ten year planetary ephemeris: 1986-1995

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Espenak, F.

    1986-01-01

    Accurate geocentric positions are tabulated at five day intervals for the Sun, Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune during the ten year period 1986 through 1995. The apparent angular diameters, radial velocities, declinations and mean times of meridian transit of the seven planets and the Sun are graphically depicted for each year in the interval. Appendices are included which discuss the theory of planetary orbits and a FORTRAN program for calculating planetary ephemerides.

  14. Tetraethyl lead

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Tetraethyl lead ; CASRN 78 - 00 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  15. 47 CFR 11.32 - EAS Encoder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false EAS Encoder. 11.32 Section 11.32 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL EMERGENCY ALERT SYSTEM (EAS) Equipment Requirements § 11.32 EAS Encoder. (a) EAS Encoders must at a minimum be capable of encoding the EAS protocol described in § 11.31 and providing the EAS...

  16. 47 CFR 11.32 - EAS Encoder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false EAS Encoder. 11.32 Section 11.32 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL EMERGENCY ALERT SYSTEM (EAS) Equipment Requirements § 11.32 EAS Encoder. (a) EAS Encoders must at a minimum be capable of encoding the EAS protocol described in § 11.31 and providing the EAS...

  17. 47 CFR 11.32 - EAS Encoder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false EAS Encoder. 11.32 Section 11.32 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL EMERGENCY ALERT SYSTEM (EAS) Equipment Requirements § 11.32 EAS Encoder. (a) EAS Encoders must at a minimum be capable of encoding the EAS protocol described in § 11.31 and providing the EAS...

  18. Ten Commandments Revisited: A Ten-Year Perspective on the Industrial Application of Formal Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Jonathan P.; Hinchey, Michael G.

    2005-01-01

    Ten years ago, our 1995 paper Ten Commandments of Formal Methods suggested some guidelines to help ensure the success of a formal methods project. It proposed ten important requirements (or "commandments") for formal developers to consider and follow, based on our knowledge of several industrial application success stories, most of which have been reported in more detail in two books. The paper was surprisingly popular, is still widely referenced, and used as required reading in a number of formal methods courses. However, not all have agreed with some of our commandments, feeling that they may not be valid in the long-term. We re-examine the original commandments ten years on, and consider their validity in the light of a further decade of industrial best practice and experiences.

  19. How Infants Encode Spatial Extent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Sean; Huttenlocher, Janellen; Levine, Susan; Duffy, Renee

    2005-01-01

    This study explores how infants encode an object's spatial extent. We habituated 6.5-month-old infants to a dowel inside a container and then tested whether they dishabituate to a change in absolute size when the relation between dowel and container is held constant (by altering the size of both container and dowel) and when the relation changes…

  20. Shaft encoder presents digital output

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hillis, D. A.

    1966-01-01

    Circuits that include compensation circuitry time a capacitance relative to a reference voltage so that a digital presentation occurs that is representative of the positional condition of the mechanical shaft being monitored. This circuitry may be employed in multiples to furnish binary encoding of a number of rotating devices simultaneously.

  1. Encoding Standards for Linguistic Corpora.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ide, Nancy

    The demand for extensive reusability of large language text collections for natural languages processing research requires development of standardized encoding formats. Such formats must be capable of representing different kinds of information across the spectrum of text types and languages, capable of representing different levels of…

  2. Permutation-invariant codes encoding more than one qubit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouyang, Yingkai; Fitzsimons, Joseph

    2016-04-01

    A permutation-invariant code on m qubits is a subspace of the symmetric subspace of the m qubits. We derive permutation-invariant codes that can encode an increasing amount of quantum information while suppressing leading-order spontaneous decay errors. To prove the result, we use elementary number theory with prior theory on permutation-invariant codes and quantum error correction.

  3. The Human Brain Encodes Event Frequencies While Forming Subjective Beliefs

    PubMed Central

    d’Acremont, Mathieu; Schultz, Wolfram; Bossaerts, Peter

    2015-01-01

    To make adaptive choices, humans need to estimate the probability of future events. Based on a Bayesian approach, it is assumed that probabilities are inferred by combining a priori, potentially subjective, knowledge with factual observations, but the precise neurobiological mechanism remains unknown. Here, we study whether neural encoding centers on subjective posterior probabilities, and data merely lead to updates of posteriors, or whether objective data are encoded separately alongside subjective knowledge. During fMRI, young adults acquired prior knowledge regarding uncertain events, repeatedly observed evidence in the form of stimuli, and estimated event probabilities. Participants combined prior knowledge with factual evidence using Bayesian principles. Expected reward inferred from prior knowledge was encoded in striatum. BOLD response in specific nodes of the default mode network (angular gyri, posterior cingulate, and medial prefrontal cortex) encoded the actual frequency of stimuli, unaffected by prior knowledge. In this network, activity increased with frequencies and thus reflected the accumulation of evidence. In contrast, Bayesian posterior probabilities, computed from prior knowledge and stimulus frequencies, were encoded in bilateral inferior frontal gyrus. Here activity increased for improbable events and thus signaled the violation of Bayesian predictions. Thus, subjective beliefs and stimulus frequencies were encoded in separate cortical regions. The advantage of such a separation is that objective evidence can be recombined with newly acquired knowledge when a reinterpretation of the evidence is called for. Overall this study reveals the coexistence in the brain of an experience-based system of inference and a knowledge-based system of inference. PMID:23804108

  4. Ten Take Home Lessons from the First Ten Years of the CTN and Ten Recommendations for the Future

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Kathleen M.; Ball, Samuel A.; Jackson, Ron; Martino, Steve; Petry, Nancy M.; Stitzer, Maxine L.; Wells, Elizabeth A.; Weiss, Roger D.

    2011-01-01

    The first ten years of the National Institute on Drug Abuse’s Clinical Trials Network (CTN) yielded a wealth of data on the effectiveness of a number of behavioral, pharmacologic, and combined approaches in community based settings. As an introduction to this Special Issue on the CTN, we summarize some of the methodological contributions and lessons learned from the behavioral trials conducted during its first ten years, including the capacity and enormous potential of this national research infrastructure; contributions to the methodology of effectiveness research; new insights from secondary analyses; the extent to which approaches with strong evidence bases, such as contingency management, extend their effectiveness to real world clinical settings; new data on ‘standard treatment’ as actually practiced in community programs, the extent to which retention remains a major issue in the field; important data on the safety of specific behavioral therapies for addiction; and heightened the importance of continued sustained attention to bridging the gap between treatment and research. Possible areas of focus for the CTN’s future include defining common outcome measures to be used in treatment outcome studies for illicit drugs; incorporating performance indicators and measures of clinical significance; conducting comparative outcome studies; contributing to the understanding of effective treatments of comorbidity; reaching underserved populations; building implementation science; understanding long-term outcomes of current treatments and sustaining treatment effects; and conducting future trials more efficiently. PMID:21854269

  5. A new string in ten dimensions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sethi, Savdeep

    2013-09-01

    I suggest the possibility of a new string in ten dimensions. Evidence for this string is presented both from orientifold physics and from K-theory, along with a mystery concerning the M-theory description. Motivated by this possibility, some novel aspects of decoupling limits in heterotic/type I theories are described; specifically, the decoupled theory on type I D-strings is argued to be three-dimensional rather than two-dimensional. These decoupled theories provide the matrix model definitions of the heterotic/type I strings.

  6. Ten new withanolides from Physalis peruviana.

    PubMed

    Fang, Sheng-Tao; Liu, Ji-Kai; Li, Bo

    2012-01-01

    Ten new withanolides, including four perulactone-type withanolides, perulactones E-H (1-4), three 28-hydroxy-withanolides, withaperuvins I-K (5-7), and three other withanolides, withaperuvins L-N (8-10), together with six known compounds (11-16) were isolated from the aerial parts of Physalis peruviana. The structures of these compounds were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses (1D and 2D NMR, IR, HR-MS) and chemical methods. PMID:22037277

  7. Ten principles of good interdisciplinary team work

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Interdisciplinary team work is increasingly prevalent, supported by policies and practices that bring care closer to the patient and challenge traditional professional boundaries. To date, there has been a great deal of emphasis on the processes of team work, and in some cases, outcomes. Method This study draws on two sources of knowledge to identify the attributes of a good interdisciplinary team; a published systematic review of the literature on interdisciplinary team work, and the perceptions of over 253 staff from 11 community rehabilitation and intermediate care teams in the UK. These data sources were merged using qualitative content analysis to arrive at a framework that identifies characteristics and proposes ten competencies that support effective interdisciplinary team work. Results Ten characteristics underpinning effective interdisciplinary team work were identified: positive leadership and management attributes; communication strategies and structures; personal rewards, training and development; appropriate resources and procedures; appropriate skill mix; supportive team climate; individual characteristics that support interdisciplinary team work; clarity of vision; quality and outcomes of care; and respecting and understanding roles. Conclusions We propose competency statements that an effective interdisciplinary team functioning at a high level should demonstrate. PMID:23663329

  8. Ten Years of Infrasound Observation in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hee-Il; Che, Il-Young; Kim, Tae Sung

    2010-05-01

    Over the ten years after the installation of our first seismo-acoustic array station (CHNAR) in September 1999, Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM) has been continuously observing infrasound with an infrasound array network, named KIN (Korean Infrasound Network) in Korea. This network consists of seven seismo-acoustic arrays (BRDAR, KMPAR, CHNAR, YAGAR, KSGAR, ULDAR and TJIAR). The aperture size of the smallest array (KMPAR and TJIAR) is about 300m and the largest is about 1.4km. The number of acoustic gauges are between 4 (TJIAR) and 18 (YAGAR), and 1 or 5 seismometers are collocated at the center of the acoustic array. All seismic and infrasonic signals of the arrays are digitized at 40 samples/sec and transmitted to KIGAM in real time. Many interesting infrasound signals associated with different kind of anthropogenic source as well as natural one are detected by KIN. Ten years of seismo-acoustic data are analyzed by using PMCC program, and identified more than five thousand of infrasonic events and catalogued in our infrasound database. This database is used to study characteristics of seasonally dependent propagation of the infrasound wave in local scale, as well as to better understand how atmospheric condition affects the detection ratio at a specific station throughout the year. It also played a valuable role in discriminating the anthropogenic events such as the second nuclear test on 25 May 2009 in North Korea, from natural earthquakes, which is important in estimating the seismicity in Korea.

  9. Monolithic-integrated microlaser encoder.

    PubMed

    Sawada, R; Higurashi, E; Ito, T; Ohguchi, O; Tsubamoto, M

    1999-11-20

    We have developed an extremely small integrated microencoder whose sides are less than 1 mm long. It is 1/100 the size of conventional encoders. This microencoder consists of a laser diode, monolithic photodiodes, and fluorinated polyimide waveguides with total internal reflection mirrors. The instrument can measure the relative displacement between a grating scale and the encoder with a resolution of the order of 0.01 microm; it can also determine the direction in which the scale is moving. By using the two beams that were emitted from the two etched mirrors of the laser diode, by monolithic integration of the waveguide and photodiodes, and by fabrication of a step at the edge of the waveguide, we were able to eliminate conventional bulky optical components such as the beam splitter, the quarter-wavelength plate, bulky mirrors, and bulky photodetectors. PMID:18324228

  10. The PsychENCODE project

    PubMed Central

    Akbarian, Schahram; Liu, Chunyu; Knowles, James A; Vaccarino, Flora M; Farnham, Peggy J; Crawford, Gregory E; Jaffe, Andrew E; Pinto, Dalila; Dracheva, Stella; Geschwind, Daniel H; Mill, Jonathan; Nairn, Angus C; Abyzov, Alexej; Pochareddy, Sirisha; Prabhakar, Shyam; Weissman, Sherman; Sullivan, Patrick F; State, Matthew W; Weng, Zhiping; Peters, Mette A; White, Kevin P; Gerstein, Mark B; Senthil, Geetha; Lehner, Thomas; Sklar, Pamela; Sestan, Nenad

    2015-01-01

    Recent research on disparate psychiatric disorders has implicated rare variants in genes involved in global gene regulation and chromatin modification, as well as many common variants located primarily in regulatory regions of the genome. Understanding precisely how these variants contribute to disease will require a deeper appreciation for the mechanisms of gene regulation in the developing and adult human brain. The PsychENCODE project aims to produce a public resource of multidimensional genomic data using tissue- and cell type–specific samples from approximately 1,000 phenotypically well-characterized, high-quality healthy and disease-affected human post-mortem brains, as well as functionally characterize disease-associated regulatory elements and variants in model systems. We are beginning with a focus on autism spectrum disorder, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, and expect that this knowledge will apply to a wide variety of psychiatric disorders. This paper outlines the motivation and design of PsychENCODE. PMID:26605881

  11. Nonconjugative Plasmids Encoding Sulfanilamide Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Mitsuhashi, Susumu; Inoue, Kunio; Inoue, Matsuhisa

    1977-01-01

    Nonconjugative plasmids encoding sulfanilamide (Sa) resistance were demonstrated at a high frequency in Shigella and Escherichia coli strains resistant to sulfanilamide. These Sa plasmids were all compatible with the standard plasmids used in compatibility testing. The sizes of seven Sa plasmids were measured by electron microscopy and ranged from 1.79 to 2.08 μm, corresponding to 3.5 to 3.9 megadaltons. Images PMID:334067

  12. Lessons from modENCODE.

    PubMed

    Brown, James B; Celniker, Susan E

    2015-01-01

    The modENCODE (Model Organism Encyclopedia of DNA Elements) Consortium aimed to map functional elements-including transcripts, chromatin marks, regulatory factor binding sites, and origins of DNA replication-in the model organisms Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans. During its five-year span, the consortium conducted more than 2,000 genome-wide assays in developmentally staged animals, dissected tissues, and homogeneous cell lines. Analysis of these data sets provided foundational insights into genome, epigenome, and transcriptome structure and the evolutionary turnover of regulatory pathways. These studies facilitated a comparative analysis with similar data types produced by the ENCODE Consortium for human cells. Genome organization differs drastically in these distant species, and yet quantitative relationships among chromatin state, transcription, and cotranscriptional RNA processing are deeply conserved. Of the many biological discoveries of the modENCODE Consortium, we highlight insights that emerged from integrative studies. We focus on operational and scientific lessons that may aid future projects of similar scale or aims in other, emerging model systems. PMID:26133010

  13. Vector Encoding in Biochemical Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potter, Garrett; Sun, Bo

    Encoding of environmental cues via biochemical signaling pathways is of vital importance in the transmission of information for cells in a network. The current literature assumes a single cell state is used to encode information, however, recent research suggests the optimal strategy utilizes a vector of cell states sampled at various time points. To elucidate the optimal sampling strategy for vector encoding, we take an information theoretic approach and determine the mutual information of the calcium signaling dynamics obtained from fibroblast cells perturbed with different concentrations of ATP. Specifically, we analyze the sampling strategies under the cases of fixed and non-fixed vector dimension as well as the efficiency of these strategies. Our results show that sampling with greater frequency is optimal in the case of non-fixed vector dimension but that, in general, a lower sampling frequency is best from both a fixed vector dimension and efficiency standpoint. Further, we find the use of a simple modified Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process as a model qualitatively captures many of our experimental results suggesting that sampling in biochemical networks is based on a few basic components.

  14. Cortical Reinstatement Mediates the Relationship Between Content-Specific Encoding Activity and Subsequent Recollection Decisions

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Alan M.; Rissman, Jesse; Kiani, Roozbeh; Wagner, Anthony D.

    2014-01-01

    Episodic recollection entails the conscious remembrance of event details associated with previously encountered stimuli. Recollection depends on both the establishment of cortical representations of event features during stimulus encoding and the cortical reinstatement of these representations at retrieval. Here, we used multivoxel pattern analyses of functional magnetic resonance imaging data to examine how cortical and hippocampal activity at encoding and retrieval drive recollective memory decisions. During encoding, words were associated with face or scene source contexts. At retrieval, subjects were cued to recollect the source associate of each presented word. Neurally derived estimates of encoding strength and pattern reinstatement in occipitotemporal cortex were computed for each encoding and retrieval trial, respectively. Analyses demonstrated that (1) cortical encoding strength predicted subsequent memory accuracy and reaction time, (2) encoding strength predicted encoding-phase hippocampal activity, and (3) encoding strength and retrieval-phase hippocampal activity predicted the magnitude of cortical reinstatement. Path analyses further indicated that cortical reinstatement partially mediated both the effect of cortical encoding strength and the effect of retrieval-phase hippocampal activity on subsequent source memory performance. Taken together, these results indicate that memory-guided decisions are driven in part by a pathway leading from hippocampally linked cortical encoding of event attributes to hippocampally linked cortical reinstatement at retrieval. PMID:23921785

  15. Ten proofs of the generalized second law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wall, Aron C.

    2009-06-01

    Ten attempts to prove the Generalized Second Law of Thermodyanmics (GSL) are described and critiqued. Each proof provides valuable insights which should be useful for constructing future, more complete proofs. Rather than merely summarizing previous research, this review offers new perspectives, and strategies for overcoming limitations of the existing proofs. A long introductory section addresses some choices that must be made in any formulation the GSL: Should one use the Gibbs or the Boltzmann entropy? Should one use the global or the apparent horizon? Is it necessary to assume any entropy bounds? If the area has quantum fluctuations, should the GSL apply to the average area? The definition and implications of the classical, hydrodynamic, semiclassical and full quantum gravity regimes are also discussed. A lack of agreement regarding how to define the ``quasi-stationary'' regime is addressed by distinguishing it from the ``quasi-steady'' regime.

  16. Ten thousand revolutions: conjectures about civilizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denning, Kathryn

    2011-02-01

    Ten thousand years ago, no-one on Earth was living a "civilized" life. What has happened since is remarkable and impossible to fully comprehend; yet, everyone has ideas about civilization, and how the world came to be as it is. Such understandings of civilizations on Earth inevitably influence speculation about extraterrestrial civilizations, in two ways. First, sometimes a specific Earth civilization or historical experience is explicitly used as a basis for inferences about extraterrestrial civilizations. Second, more general assumptions about the development and functioning of Earth's societies shape conjectures about alien societies. This paper focuses on the latter, general assumptions, with the aim of considering how we can use multidisciplinary approaches, and our knowledge of Earth's civilizations, to our best advantage in SETI.

  17. Ten years of the Spanish Virtual Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solano, E.

    2015-05-01

    The main objective of the Virtual Observatory (VO) is to guarantee an easy and efficient access and analysis of the information hosted in astronomical archives. The Spanish Virtual Observatory (SVO) is a project that was born in 2004 with the goal of promoting and coordinating the VO-related activities at national level. SVO is also the national contact point for the international VO initiatives, in particular the International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA) and the Euro-VO project. The project, led by Centro de Astrobiología (INTA-CSIC), is structured around four major topics: a) VO compliance of astronomical archives, b) VO-science, c) VO- and data mining-tools, and d) Education and outreach. In this paper I will describe the most important results obtained by the Spanish Virtual Observatory in its first ten years of life as well as the future lines of work.

  18. Women in Astronomy II: Ten Years After

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sargent, Wallace

    2004-01-01

    The meeting "Women in Astronomy II: Ten Years After" took place at the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, CA June 27-28, 2003. The meeting was sponsored by the Committee on the Status of Women of the American Astronomical Society and was attended by about 155 participants. The purpose of the meeting was: "To review the current status of women in astronomy, understand their work environment, assess development since the 1992 Baltimore conference, and recommend future actions that will improve the environment for all astronomers." A description of the meeting and its background can be found at http://www.aas.org/%7Ecswa/WIA2003.html. The proceedings are being edited by Profs. Meg Urry (Yale University) and Ran Bagenal (University of Colorado). The principal outcome of WIAII was a series of recommendations, "The Pasadena Recommendations", which have been approved by the AAS Council and which can be found at http://www.aas.org/%7Ecswa/.

  19. The ecotoxicology of lead shot and lead fishing weights.

    PubMed

    Scheuhammer, A M; Norris, S L

    1996-10-01

    : Lead shot ingestion is the primary source of elevated lead exposure and poisoning in waterfowl and most other bird species. For some species (e.g. Common Loons, Gavia immer), lead sinker ingestion is a more frequent cause of lead poisoning. In freshwater environments where recreational angling activity and loon populations co-occur, lead poisoning from ingestion of small (<50 gram) lead sinkers or jigs accounts for 10-50% of recorded adult loon mortality, depending on the locations studied. Lead shot ingestion occurs in waterfowl, and in a wide variety of non-waterfowl species, including upland game birds, shorebirds, raptors, and scavengers. Where it has been explicitly studied in Canada and the US, lead poisoning mortality of bald (Haliacetus leucocephalus) and golden eagles (Aquila chrysactos) from eating prey animals with lead shot embedded in their tissues accounts for an estimated 10-15% of the recorded post-fledging mortality in these raptorial species. In addition to environments that experience hunting with lead shot, clay target shooting ranges, especially those in which the shotfall zones include ponds, marshes, lakes, rivers, beaches, or other aquatic-type environments, create a significant risk of shot ingestion and poisoning for waterbirds. Metallic lead pellets deposited onto soils and aquatic sediments are not chemically or environmentally inert, although tens or hundreds of years may be required for total breakdown and dissolution of pellets. Functional, affordable non-toxic alternatives to lead shot and sinkers are being currently produced, and additional such products are being developed. Several countries have successfully banned the use of small lead sinkers, and of lead shot for waterfowl and other hunting, also for clay target shooting, using a phasing-out process that gives manufactures, sellers, and users adequate time to adjust to the regulations. PMID:24193869

  20. Subversion of cytokine networks by virally encoded decoy receptors

    PubMed Central

    Epperson, Megan L.; Lee, Chung A.; Fremont, Daved H.

    2012-01-01

    Summary During the course of evolution, viruses have captured or created a diverse array of open reading frames that encode for proteins that serve to evade and sabotage the host innate and adaptive immune responses, which would otherwise lead to their elimination. These viral genomes are some of the best textbooks of immunology ever written. The established arsenal of immunomodulatory proteins encoded by viruses is large and growing and includes specificities for virtually all known inflammatory pathways and targets. The focus of this review is on herpes and poxvirus-encoded cytokine and chemokine binding proteins that serve to undermine the coordination of host immune surveillance. Structural and mechanistic studies of these decoy receptors have provided a wealth of information, not only about viral pathogenesis but also about the inner workings of cytokine signaling networks. PMID:23046131

  1. Subversion of cytokine networks by virally encoded decoy receptors.

    PubMed

    Epperson, Megan L; Lee, Chung A; Fremont, Daved H

    2012-11-01

    During the course of evolution, viruses have captured or created a diverse array of open reading frames, which encode for proteins that serve to evade and sabotage the host innate and adaptive immune responses that would otherwise lead to their elimination. These viral genomes are some of the best textbooks of immunology ever written. The established arsenal of immunomodulatory proteins encoded by viruses is large and growing, and includes specificities for virtually all known inflammatory pathways and targets. The focus of this review is on herpes and poxvirus-encoded cytokine and chemokine-binding proteins that serve to undermine the coordination of host immune surveillance. Structural and mechanistic studies of these decoy receptors have provided a wealth of information, not only about viral pathogenesis but also about the inner workings of cytokine signaling networks. PMID:23046131

  2. Hall effect encoding of brushless dc motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berard, C. A.; Furia, T. J.; Goldberg, E. A.; Greene, R. C.

    1970-01-01

    Encoding mechanism integral to the motor and using the permanent magnets embedded in the rotor eliminates the need for external devices to encode information relating the position and velocity of the rotating member.

  3. Novel optical encoder for harsh environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kress, Bernard; Mueller, Ulrich; Brac-de-la-Perriere, Vincent

    2014-09-01

    We are presenting a new optical encoder architecture for shaft encoding, both in incremental and absolute modes. This encoder is based on a diffractive optics technology platform. We have developed various disk based rotary diffractive encoders previously. This encoder is different in the way it is not a disk composed of successive gratings or computer generated holograms, but rather composed of a single element placed on the shaft. It is thus best suited for hollow shaft or end of shaft applications such as in encoder controlled electrical motors. This new architecture aims at solving some of the problems encountered with previous implementations of diffractive encoders such as disk wobble, disk to shaft centering and also encoding in harsh environments.

  4. The VLSI design of a single chip Reed-Solomon encoder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truong, T. K.; Deutsch, L. J.; Reed, I. S.

    1982-01-01

    A design for a single chip implementation of a Reed-Solomon encoder is presented. The architecture that leads to this single VLSI chip design makes use of a bit serial finite field multiplication algorithm.

  5. Forgetting from working memory: does novelty encoding matter?

    PubMed

    Plancher, Gaën; Barrouillet, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    The sources of forgetting in working memory remain the matter of intense debate. According to the SOB model (serial order in a box; Farrell & Lewandowsky, 2002), forgetting in complex span tasks does not result from temporal decay but from interference produced by the encoding of distractors that are superimposed over memory items onto a composite memory. The main tenet of the model is that the encoding strength of a distractor is a function of its novelty, with novel distractors being encoded with a large encoding weight that interferes with other memories, whereas repeated distractors would result in negligible encoding weight and no further forgetting. In the present study, we tested the 2 main predictions issuing from this model. First, recall performance should be better in complex span tasks in which distractors are repeated than in tasks in which every distractor is novel. Second, increasing the number of novel distractors should lead to more interference and poorer recall. In 5 experiments in which we controlled for attentional demand and temporal factors, none of these predictions were verified, whereas a strong effect of the pace at which distracting tasks were performed testified that they involved forgetting. We conclude that, contrary to the SOB model, the novelty of distractors plays no role per se in forgetting. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:22563635

  6. Jam-resistant speech encoding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poole, M. A.; Rifkin, R.

    1983-06-01

    This report describes techniques that provide increased jam resistance for digitized speech. Methods for increasing the jam resistance of pulse code modulated data are analyzed and evaluated in listener tests. Special emphasis is placed on new voice encoding approaches that take advantage of a spread spectrum system with a variable (or multiple)-data-rate/variable (or multiple)-AJ capability. Methods for matching a source to a channel in a jamming environment are investigated. Several techniques that provide about a 4 dB increase in jam resistance have been identified.

  7. Humanities and Social Sciences Books of Ten National Disciplinary Associations, 2000-2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiberley, Stephen E., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    Books are the most important medium of communication in the humanities, a major medium in the social sciences, and a central component of academic library collections. This study examined humanities and social sciences books that won prizes from ten leading United States disciplinary associations between 2000 and 2009. The study extends earlier…

  8. Time Course of Grammatical Encoding in Agrammatism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jiyeon

    2011-01-01

    Producing a sentence involves encoding a preverbal message into a grammatical structure by retrieving lexical items and integrating them into a functional (semantic-to-grammatical) structure. Individuals with agrammatism are impaired in this grammatical encoding process. However, it is unclear what aspect of grammatical encoding is impaired and…

  9. Schematic driven layout of Reed Solomon encoders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arave, Kari; Canaris, John; Miles, Lowell; Whitaker, Sterling

    1992-01-01

    Two Reed Solomon error correcting encoders are presented. Schematic driven layout tools were used to create the encoder layouts. Special consideration had to be given to the architecture and logic to provide scalability of the encoder designs. Knowledge gained from these projects was used to create a more flexible schematic driven layout system.

  10. Kallmann Syndrome: Mutations in the Genes Encoding Prokineticin-2 and Prokineticin Receptor-2

    PubMed Central

    Dodé, Catherine; Teixeira, Luis; Levilliers, Jacqueline; Fouveaut, Corinne; Bouchard, Philippe; Kottler, Marie-Laure; Lespinasse, James; Lienhardt-Roussie, Anne; Mathieu, Michèle; Moerman, Alexandre; Morgan, Graeme; Murat, Arnaud; Toublanc, Jean-Edmont; Wolczynski, Slawomir; Delpech, Marc; Petit, Christine; Young, Jacques; Hardelin, Jean-Pierre

    2006-01-01

    Kallmann syndrome combines anosmia, related to defective olfactory bulb morphogenesis, and hypogonadism due to gonadotropin-releasing hormone deficiency. Loss-of-function mutations in KAL1 and FGFR1 underlie the X chromosome-linked form and an autosomal dominant form of the disease, respectively. Mutations in these genes, however, only account for approximately 20% of all Kallmann syndrome cases. In a cohort of 192 patients we took a candidate gene strategy and identified ten and four different point mutations in the genes encoding the G protein-coupled prokineticin receptor-2 (PROKR2) and one of its ligands, prokineticin-2 (PROK2), respectively. The mutations in PROK2 were detected in the heterozygous state, whereas PROKR2 mutations were found in the heterozygous, homozygous, or compound heterozygous state. In addition, one of the patients heterozygous for a PROKR2 mutation was also carrying a missense mutation in KAL1, thus indicating a possible digenic inheritance of the disease in this individual. These findings reveal that insufficient prokineticin-signaling through PROKR2 leads to abnormal development of the olfactory system and reproductive axis in man. They also shed new light on the complex genetic transmission of Kallmann syndrome. PMID:17054399

  11. Assembly of NADH: ubiquinone reductase (complex I) in Neurospora mitochondria. Independent pathways of nuclear-encoded and mitochondrially encoded subunits.

    PubMed

    Tuschen, G; Sackmann, U; Nehls, U; Haiker, H; Buse, G; Weiss, H

    1990-06-20

    NADH:ubiquinone reductase, the respiratory chain complex I of mitochondria, consists of some 25 nuclear-encoded and seven mitochondrially encoded subunits, and contains as redox groups one FMN, probably one internal ubiquinone and at least four iron-sulphur clusters. We are studying the assembly of the enzyme in Neurospora crassa. The flux of radioactivity in cells that were pulse-labelled with [35S]methionine was followed through immunoprecipitable assembly intermediates into the holoenzyme. Labelled polypeptides were observed to accumulate transiently in a Mr 350,000 intermediate complex. This complex contains all mitochondrially encoded subunits of the enzyme as well as subunits encoded in the nucleus that have no homologous counterparts in a small, merely nuclear-encoded form of the NADH:ubiquinone reductase made by Neurospora crassa cells poisoned with chloramphenicol. With regard to their subunit compositions, the assembly intermediate and small NADH:ubiquinone reductase complement each other almost perfectly to give the subunit composition of the large complex I. These results suggest that two pathways exist in the assembly of complex I that independently lead to the preassembly of two major parts, which subsequently join to form the complex. One preassembled part is related to the small form of NADH:ubiquinone reductase and contributes most of the nuclear-encoded subunits, FMN, three iron-sulphur clusters and the site for the internal ubiquinone. The other part is the assembly intermediate and contributes all mitochondrially encoded subunits, one iron-sulphur cluster and the catalytic site for the substrate ubiquinone. We discuss the results with regard to the evolution of the electron pathway through complex I. PMID:2141652

  12. Ten Years of ENA Imaging from Cassini

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, Pontus; Mitchell, Donald; Westlake, Joseph; Carbary, James; Paranicas, Christopher; Mauk, Barry; Krimigis, Stamatios

    2014-05-01

    In this presentation we will provide a detailed review of the science highlights of the ENA observations obtained by The Ion Neutral Camera (INCA) on board Cassini. Since the launch of Cassini, INCA has unveiled an invisible world of hot plasma and neutral gas of the two biggest objects of our solar system: the giant magnetosphere of Jupiter and Saturn. Although more than ten years ago, INCA captured the first ENA images of the Jovian system revealing magnetospheric dynamics and an asymmetric Europa neutral gas torus. Approaching Saturn, INCA observed variability of Saturn's magnetospheric activity in response to changes in solar wind dynamic pressure, which was contrary to expectations and current theories. In orbit around Saturn, INCA continued the surprises including the first imaging and global characterization of Titan's exosphere extended out to its gravitational Hill sphere; recurring injections correlating with periodic Saturn Kilometric Radiation (SKR) bursts and magnetic field perturbations; and the discovery of energetic ionospheric outflow. Perhaps most significant, and the focal point of this presentation, is INCA's contribution to the understanding of global magnetospheric particle acceleration and transport, where the combination between ENA imaging and in-situ measurements have demonstrated that transport and acceleration of plasma is likely to occur in a two-step process. First, large-scale injections in the post-midnight sector accelerate and transport plasma in to about 12 RS up to energies of several hundreds of keV. Second, centrifugal interchange acts on the plasma inside of this region and provides further heating and transport in to about 6RS. We discuss this finding in the context of the two fundamental types of injections (or ENA intensifications) that INCA has revealed during its ten years of imaging. The first type is large-scale injections appearing beyond 12 RS in the post-midnight sector that have in many cases had an inward component

  13. Angular encoding in attosecond recollision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitzler, Markus; Xie, Xinhua; Roither, Stefan; Scrinzi, Armin; Baltuska, Andrius

    2008-02-01

    We describe a general concept of using the spatial information encoded in the time-dependent polarization of high harmonic radiation generated by orthogonally polarized two-color laser fields. The main properties of recolliding electron wave packets driven by such fields are reviewed. It is shown that in addition to the recollision energy the angle of recollision of such wave packets, which is directly mapped onto the polarization direction of the emitted high harmonic radiation, varies on a sub-laser-cycle time-scale. Thus, a mapping between the polarization angle and the frequency of the emitted radiation is established on an attosecond time scale. While the polarization angle encodes the spatial properties of the recollision process, the frequency is linked to time via the well-known dispersion relations of high harmonic generation. Based on these principles, we show that in combination with polarization selective detection the use of orthogonally polarized drive pulses for high harmonic generation permit one to construct spatially resolved attosecond measurements. Here, we present two examples of possible applications: (i) a method for isolating a single attosecond pulse from an attosecond pulse train which is more efficient than the cut-off selection method, and (ii) a technique for orbital tomography of molecules with attosecond resolution.

  14. Detail view of the Ten Mile Creek Bridge joint between ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of the Ten Mile Creek Bridge joint between the tied arch span and the approach span, view looking east at southwest corner of bridge. - Ten Mile Creek Bridge, Spanning Ten Mile Creek on Oregon Coast Highway, Yachats, Lincoln County, OR

  15. The first ten years of Swift supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Peter J.; Roming, Peter W. A.; Milne, Peter A.

    2015-09-01

    The Swift Gamma Ray Burst Explorer has proven to be an incredible platform for studying the multiwavelength properties of supernova explosions. In its first ten years, Swift has observed over three hundred supernovae. The ultraviolet observations reveal a complex diversity of behavior across supernova types and classes. Even amongst the standard candle type Ia supernovae, ultraviolet observations reveal distinct groups. When the UVOT data is combined with higher redshift optical data, the relative populations of these groups appear to change with redshift. Among core-collapse supernovae, Swift discovered the shock breakout of two supernovae and the Swift data show a diversity in the cooling phase of the shock breakout of supernovae discovered from the ground and promptly followed up with Swift. Swift observations have resulted in an incredible dataset of UV and X-ray data for comparison with high-redshift supernova observations and theoretical models. Swift's supernova program has the potential to dramatically improve our understanding of stellar life and death as well as the history of our universe.

  16. Ten-kilogram vehicle autonomous operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, John R.; Korpela, Christopher; Quigley, Kevin

    2009-05-01

    A low-cost unmanned ground vehicle designed to benchmark high-speed performance is presented. The E-Maxx four-wheel-drive radio-controlled vehicle equipped with a Robostix controller is proposed as a low-cost, high-speed robotic platform useful for military operations. The vehicle weighs less than ten kilograms making it easily portable by one person. Keeping cost low is a major consideration in the design with the aim of providing a disposable military robot. The suitability of the platform was evaluated and results are presented. Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS) upgrades to the basic vehicle are recommended for durability. A procedure was established for bird's-eye-view video recording to document vehicle dynamics. Driver/vehicle performance is quantified by entry velocity, exit velocity and total time through a 90° turn on low-friction terrain. A setup for measuring these values is presented. Expert drivers use controlled skidding to minimize time through turns and the long term goal of the project is to automate such expert behaviors. Results of vehicle performance under human control are presented and stand as a reference for future autonomy.

  17. Comparative genomics of ten solanaceous plastomes.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Harpreet; Singh, Bhupinder Pal; Singh, Harpreet; Nagpal, Avinash Kaur

    2014-01-01

    Availability of complete plastid genomes of ten solanaceous species, Atropa belladonna, Capsicum annuum, Datura stramonium, Nicotiana sylvestris, Nicotiana tabacum, Nicotiana tomentosiformis, Nicotiana undulata, Solanum bulbocastanum, Solanum lycopersicum, and Solanum tuberosum provided us with an opportunity to conduct their in silico comparative analysis in depth. The size of complete chloroplast genomes and LSC and SSC regions of three species of Solanum is comparatively smaller than that of any other species studied till date (exception: SSC region of A. belladonna). AT content of coding regions was found to be less than noncoding regions. A duplicate copy of trnH gene in C. annuum and two alternative tRNA genes for proline in D. stramonium were observed for the first time in this analysis. Further, homology search revealed the presence of rps19 pseudogene and infA genes in A. belladonna and D. stramonium, a region identical to rps19 pseudogene in C. annum and orthologues of sprA gene in another six species. Among the eighteen intron-containing genes, 3 genes have two introns and 15 genes have one intron. The longest insertion was found in accD gene in C. annuum. Phylogenetic analysis using concatenated protein coding sequences gave two clades, one for Nicotiana species and another for Solanum, Capsicum, Atropa, and Datura. PMID:25477958

  18. Comparative Genomics of Ten Solanaceous Plastomes

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Harpreet; Singh, Bhupinder Pal; Singh, Harpreet; Nagpal, Avinash Kaur

    2014-01-01

    Availability of complete plastid genomes of ten solanaceous species, Atropa belladonna, Capsicum annuum, Datura stramonium, Nicotiana sylvestris, Nicotiana tabacum, Nicotiana tomentosiformis, Nicotiana undulata, Solanum bulbocastanum, Solanum lycopersicum, and Solanum tuberosum provided us with an opportunity to conduct their in silico comparative analysis in depth. The size of complete chloroplast genomes and LSC and SSC regions of three species of Solanum is comparatively smaller than that of any other species studied till date (exception: SSC region of A. belladonna). AT content of coding regions was found to be less than noncoding regions. A duplicate copy of trnH gene in C. annuum and two alternative tRNA genes for proline in D. stramonium were observed for the first time in this analysis. Further, homology search revealed the presence of rps19 pseudogene and infA genes in A. belladonna and D. stramonium, a region identical to rps19 pseudogene in C. annum and orthologues of sprA gene in another six species. Among the eighteen intron-containing genes, 3 genes have two introns and 15 genes have one intron. The longest insertion was found in accD gene in C. annuum. Phylogenetic analysis using concatenated protein coding sequences gave two clades, one for Nicotiana species and another for Solanum, Capsicum, Atropa, and Datura. PMID:25477958

  19. Ten years of Lusi: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Stephen A.

    2016-04-01

    The Lusi mud eruption has continued uninterrupted for ten years, settling into its current steady-state as a quasi-periodic geyser system. Many past, current, and future studies aim to quantify this system, which increasing evidence suggests is a new-born, tectonic scale hydrothermal system linked to the nearby volcano complex. The debate about whether the triggering of Lusi was a natural event of rather caused by drilling continues, but evidence mounts from the behavior of this system that an anthropogenic cause is highly unlikely. Understanding this system is very important because of its social and economic impact on the surrounding communities, and whether it poses future geohazards in the region from future eruptions. A large effort of infrastructures and constant maintenance activity has been and is being conducted inside the 7km2 mud flooded area. This region is framed by a tall embankment that contains the erupted mud and protects the surrounding settlements. This system is also very important for understanding at a larger scale volcanic hydrothermal systems, and to determine whether this new geothermal resource might be exploited. A large effort is underway from an EU-grant supporting the Lusi-Lab project (CEED, University of Oslo) and an SNF grant supporting the University of Neuchatel to study this system from geochemical, geophysical, and modeling perspectives. This review talk summarizes what is known, what is still unclear, and will revisit the behavior of Lusi since its inception.

  20. Ten tips for authors of scientific articles.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sung-Tae

    2014-08-01

    Writing a good quality scientific article takes experience and skill. I propose 'Ten Tips' that may help to improve the quality of manuscripts for scholarly journals. It is advisable to draft first version of manuscript and revise it repeatedly for consistency and accuracy of the writing. During the drafting and revising the following tips can be considered: 1) focus on design to have proper content, conclusion, points compliant with scope of the target journal, appropriate authors and contributors list, and relevant references from widely visible sources; 2) format the manuscript in accordance with instructions to authors of the target journal; 3) ensure consistency and logical flow of ideas and scientific facts; 4) provide scientific confidence; 5) make your story interesting for your readers; 6) write up short, simple and attractive sentences; 7) bear in mind that properly composed and reflective titles increase chances of attracting more readers; 8) do not forget that well-structured and readable abstracts improve citability of your publications; 9) when revising adhere to the rule of 'First and Last' - open your text with topic paragraph and close it with resolution paragraph; 10) use connecting words linking sentences within a paragraph by repeating relevant keywords. PMID:25120310

  1. Chern-Simons gauge theory: Ten years after

    SciTech Connect

    Labastida, J. M. F.

    1999-07-13

    A brief review on the progress made in the study of Chern-Simons gauge theory since its relation to knot theory was discovered ten years ago is presented. Emphasis is made on the analysis of the perturbative study of the theory and its connection to the theory of Vassiliev invariants. It is described how the study of the quantum field theory for three different gauge fixings leads to three different representations for Vassiliev invariants. Two of these gauge fixings lead to well known representations: the covariant Landau gauge corresponds to the configuration space integrals while the non-covariant light-cone gauge to the Kontsevich integral. The progress made in the analysis of the third gauge fixing, the non-covariant temporal gauge, is described in detail. In this case one obtains combinatorial expressions, instead of integral ones, for Vassiliev invariants. The approach based on this last gauge fixing seems very promising to obtain a full combinatorial formula. We collect the combinatorial expressions for all the Vassiliev invariants up to order four which have been obtained in this approach.

  2. Reconstruction of turbo-code encoders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbier, Johann

    2005-06-01

    Turbo-code encoders are one of the spreadest family of error correcting codes used in the communication's world, especially in space transmissions. This paper presents an efficient technique to reconstruct turbo-code encoders which allows a passive adversary, with only few bits of an intercepted message encoded by the target turbocode encoder, to determine the parameters of the turbo-code encoder used, and therefore to decode online the communications. Thereby, our results confirm that keeping secret the parameters of turbo-code encoders can not be considered as a cryptographically way to ensure confidentiality. The starting point of our work is algorithms due to Filiol which enable to find the parameters of each convolutional encoder in the turbo-code encoder. Then, we recover the interleaver with two new algorithms, the first one based on the dynamic trie structure and the second one on a first order statistical test. The first algorithm is dedicated to noiseless channels. The asymptotic complexity of the complete process is O(n4) when a n2-bit message is available to attack a n-bit turbo-code encoder. The second algorithm works for every kind of channel and the noise does not matter much. Additionally, we present experimental results which underline the right detection threshold to use to recover the interleaver with a high probability. Furthermore, this method also works for turbo-code encoders composed of punctured convolutional encoders.

  3. Molecular mechanisms for protein-encoded inheritance

    SciTech Connect

    Wiltzius, Jed J.W.; Landau, Meytal; Nelson, Rebecca; Sawaya, Michael R.; Apostol, Marcin I.; Goldschmidt, Lukasz; Soriaga, Angela B.; Cascio, Duilio; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta; Eisenberg, David

    2009-12-01

    In prion inheritance and transmission, strains are phenotypic variants encoded by protein 'conformations'. However, it is unclear how a protein conformation can be stable enough to endure transmission between cells or organisms. Here we describe new polymorphic crystal structures of segments of prion and other amyloid proteins, which offer two structural mechanisms for the encoding of prion strains. In packing polymorphism, prion strains are encoded by alternative packing arrangements (polymorphs) of {beta}-sheets formed by the same segment of a protein; in segmental polymorphism, prion strains are encoded by distinct {beta}-sheets built from different segments of a protein. Both forms of polymorphism can produce enduring conformations capable of encoding strains. These molecular mechanisms for transfer of protein-encoded information into prion strains share features with the familiar mechanism for transfer of nucleic acid-encoded information into microbial strains, including sequence specificity and recognition by noncovalent bonds.

  4. "Take ten minutes": a dedicated ten minute medication review reduces polypharmacy in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Walsh, E K; Cussen, K

    2010-09-01

    Multiple and inappropriate medications are often the cause for poor health status in the elderly. Medication reviews can improve prescribing. This study aimed to determine if a ten minute medication review by a general practitioner could reduce polypharmacy and inappropriate prescribing in elderly patients. A prospective, randomised study was conducted. Patients over the age of 65 (n = 50) underwent a 10-minute medication review. Inappropriate medications, dosage errors, and discrepancies between prescribed versus actual medication being consumed were recorded. A questionnaire to assess satisfaction was completed following review. The mean number of medications taken by patients was reduced (p < 0.001). A medication was stopped in 35 (70%) patients. Inappropriate medications were detected in 27 (54%) patients and reduced (p < 0.001). Dose errors were detected in 16 (32%). A high level of patient satisfaction was reported. A ten minute medication review reduces polypharmacy, improves prescribing and is associated with high levels of patient satisfaction. PMID:21046863

  5. Returning to school: ten considerations in choosing a BSN program.

    PubMed

    Krawczyk, R

    1997-01-01

    Ten factors, accreditation, cost, flexibility, location, method of earning credit, student profile, quality, progression to master's degree, resources and time, should be investigated before selecting a baccalaureate nursing program. A sample of 361 RNs enrolled in ten baccalaureate nursing programs identified and prioritized the ten factors. The most important factor was cost, followed by accreditation and flexibility. Asking questions in each of these areas enables the RN to make an informed decision before investing time, energy and money in a specific program. These ten factors can be guidelines used for assessing various program objectives. The subjective data are how each RN prioritizes the ten factors. PMID:9204816

  6. Novelty's effect on memory encoding.

    PubMed

    Rangel-Gomez, Mauricio; Janenaite, Sigita; Meeter, Martijn

    2015-07-01

    It is often thought that novelty benefits memory formation. However, support for this idea mostly comes from paradigms that are open to alternative explanations. In the present study we manipulated novelty in a word-learning task through task-irrelevant background images. These background images were either standard (presented repeatedly), or novel (presented only once). Two types of background images were used: Landscape pictures and fractals. EEG was also recorded during encoding. Contrary to the idea that novelty aids memory formation, memory performance was not affected by the novelty of the background. In the evoked response potentials, we found evidence of distracting effects of novelty: both the N1 and P3b components were smaller to words studied with novel backgrounds, and the amplitude of the N2b component correlated negatively with subsequent retrieval. We conclude that although evidence from other studies does suggest benefits on a longer time scale, novelty has no instantaneous benefits for learning. PMID:26005196

  7. Digital plus analog output encoder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hafle, R. S. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    The disclosed encoder is adapted to produce both digital and analog output signals corresponding to the angular position of a rotary shaft, or the position of any other movable member. The digital signals comprise a series of binary signals constituting a multidigit code word which defines the angular position of the shaft with a degree of resolution which depends upon the number of digits in the code word. The basic binary signals are produced by photocells actuated by a series of binary tracks on a code disc or member. The analog signals are in the form of a series of ramp signals which are related in length to the least significant bit of the digital code word. The analog signals are derived from sine and cosine tracks on the code disc.

  8. Engineering Genetically Encoded FRET Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Lindenburg, Laurens; Merkx, Maarten

    2014-01-01

    Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) between two fluorescent proteins can be exploited to create fully genetically encoded and thus subcellularly targetable sensors. FRET sensors report changes in energy transfer between a donor and an acceptor fluorescent protein that occur when an attached sensor domain undergoes a change in conformation in response to ligand binding. The design of sensitive FRET sensors remains challenging as there are few generally applicable design rules and each sensor must be optimized anew. In this review we discuss various strategies that address this shortcoming, including rational design approaches that exploit self-associating fluorescent domains and the directed evolution of FRET sensors using high-throughput screening. PMID:24991940

  9. The lead and lead-acid battery industries during 2002 and 2007 in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, H. Y.; Li, A. J.; Finlow, D. E.

    In the past 15 years, the center of the international lead market has shifted to China. China has become the largest producer of raw and refined lead, plus the largest consumer. This paper reviews the status of the lead and lead-acid battery industries in China, including lead mining, lead refining, secondary lead production, the lead-acid battery industry, new opportunities for lead-acid batteries, and the environmental problems associated with lead and lead-acid batteries. The output of raw and refined lead has increased annually in China, and now accounts for more than 30% of the world total. As a result of a change in the Chinese government's policy regarding the export of lead, plus an increase in the price of lead, the profits of Chinese lead manufacturers were significantly reduced, the trade deficit of the Chinese lead industry increased, the operating rates of lead smelter enterprises greatly reduced, and some small enterprises were forced to shut down. At the present time, an increasing number of enterprises have begun to produce secondary lead, and the scale of production has expanded from tens of tons to tens of thousands of tons. In 2006, the output of secondary lead in China reached 700,000 tons, but outdated technology and equipment limited development of the secondary lead industry. Because of serious pollution problems, raw material shortages, and fierce price competition in the battery market, changes in the development of the lead-acid battery industry have been dramatic; approximately one thousand medium-sized and small lead-acid battery producers have been closed in the past 3 years. The output of large lead-acid battery enterprises has not been reduced, however, as a result of their manufacturing technology and equipment being comparable to those in other advanced industrial countries. In China, the flourishing development of electric bicycles, electric tricycles, and photovoltaic energy systems should provide ongoing opportunities for the

  10. Photodiodes for ten micrometer laser communication systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, S. C.

    1972-01-01

    The performance is discussed of 10-micron mercury-cadmiumtelluride and lead-tin-telluride photodiodes in laser heterodyne communication systems. The dependence of detector quantum efficiency, resistance, frequency response, and signal-to-noise ratio on temperature, bias, and local oscillator power are examined. Included in the discussion is an analysis of the feasibility of high temperature operation, and ability of the detector to dissipate power to a heat sink is explored. Some aspects of direct detection response are considered and figures showing flux levels from a blackbody presented.

  11. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) for pain management in labour

    PubMed Central

    Dowswell, Therese; Bedwell, Carol; Lavender, Tina; Neilson, James P

    2014-01-01

    Background Transcutaneous nerve stimulation (TENS) has been proposed as a means of reducing pain in labour. The TENS unit emits low-voltage electrical impulses which vary in frequency and intensity. During labour, TENS electrodes are generally placed on the lower back, although TENS may be used to stimulate acupuncture points or other parts of the body. The physiological mechanisms whereby TENS relieves pain are uncertain. TENS machines are frequently operated by women, which may increase a sense of control in labour. Objectives To assess the effects of TENS on pain in labour. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (30 April 2011) and reference lists of retrieved papers. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials comparing women receiving TENS for pain management in labour versus routine care, alternative non-pharmacological methods of pain relief, or placebo devices. We included all types of TENS machines. Data collection and analysis Two review authors assessed for inclusion all trials identified by the search strategy, carried out data extraction and assessed risk of bias. We have recorded reasons for excluding studies. Main results Seventeen trials with 1466 women contribute data to the review. Thirteen examined TENS applied to the back, two to acupuncture points, and two to the cranium. Overall, there was little difference in pain ratings between TENS and control groups, although women receiving TENS to acupuncture points were less likely to report severe pain (average risk ratio 0.41, 95% confidence interval 0.31 to 0.54; measured in two studies). The majority of women using TENS said they would be willing to use it again in a future labour. Where TENS was used as an adjunct to epidural analgesia there was no evidence that it reduced pain. There was no consistent evidence that TENS had any impact on interventions and outcomes in labour. There was little information on outcomes for mothers and babies. No

  12. Control Circuit For Reed-Solomon Encoder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Douglas

    1992-01-01

    Control circuit designed for use with commercially available AHA4610 Reed-Solomon encoder. Needed to select depth of interleaving and to synchronize input and output blocks of data and parity bits with suitable clock signals. Circuit provides synchronizing and control signals for Reed-Solomon encoder. Encoder can operate with asynchronous input and output data streams at rates up to 80 Mb/s. Interleaving depth selectable, and accommodation to input data rate automatic.

  13. Enactment versus conceptual encoding: Equivalent item memory but different source memory

    PubMed Central

    Senkfor, Ava J.; Van Petten, Cyma; Kutas, Marta

    2008-01-01

    It has been suggested that performing a physical action (enactment) is an optimally effective encoding task, due to the incorporation of motoric information in the episodic memory trace, and later retrieval of that information. The current study contrasts old/new recognition of objects after enactment to a conceptual encoding task of cost estimation. Both encoding tasks yielded high accuracy, and robust differences in brain activity as compared to new objects, but no differences between encoding tasks. These results are not supportive of the idea that encoding by enactment leads to the spontaneous retrieval of motoric information. When participants were asked to discriminate between the two classes of studied objects during a source memory task, perform-encoded objects elicited higher accuracy and different brain activity than cost-encoded objects. The extent and nature of what was retrieved from memory thus depended on its utility for the assigned memory test: object information during the old/new recognition test, but additional information about the encoding task when necessary for a source memory test. Event-related potentials (ERPs) recorded during the two memory tests showed two orthogonal effects during an early (300-800 ms) time window: a differentiation between studied and unstudied objects, and a test-type (retrieval orientation) effect that was equivalent for old and new objects. Later brain activity (800-1300 ms) differentiated perform- from cost-encoded objects, but only during the source memory test, suggesting temporally distinct phases of retrieval. PMID:18472035

  14. NMDA receptors and memory encoding.

    PubMed

    Morris, Richard G M

    2013-11-01

    It is humbling to think that 30 years have passed since the paper by Collingridge, Kehl and McLennan showing that one of Jeff Watkins most interesting compounds, R-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoate (d-AP5), blocked the induction of long-term potentiation in vitro at synapses from area CA3 of the hippocampus to CA1 without apparent effect on baseline synaptic transmission (Collingridge et al., 1983). This dissociation was one of the key triggers for an explosion of interest in glutamate receptors, and much has been discovered since that collectively contributes to our contemporary understanding of glutamatergic synapses - their biophysics and subunit composition, of the agonists and antagonists acting on them, and their diverse functions in different networks of the brain and spinal cord. It can be fairly said that Collingridge et al.'s (1983) observation was the stimulus that has led, on the one hand, to structural biological work at the atomic scale describing the key features of NMDA receptors that enables their coincidence function to happen; and, on the other, to work with whole animals investigating the contributions that calcium signalling via this receptor can have on rhythmical activities controlled by spinal circuits, memory encoding in the hippocampus (the topic of this article), visual cortical plasticity, sensitization in pain, and other functions. In this article, I lay out how my then interest in long-term potentiation (LTP) as a model of memory enabled me to recognise the importance of Collingridge et al.'s discovery - and how I and my colleagues endeavoured to take things forward in the area of learning and memory. This is in some respects a personal story, and I tell it as such. The idea that NMDA receptor activation is essential for memory encoding, though not for storage, took time to develop and to be accepted. Along the way, there have been confusions, challenges, and surprises surrounding the idea that activation of NMDA receptors can

  15. Encoders for block-circulant LDPC codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, Kenneth; Dolinar, Sam; Thorpe, Jeremy

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we present two encoding methods for block-circulant LDPC codes. The first is an iterative encoding method based on the erasure decoding algorithm, and the computations required are well organized due to the block-circulant structure of the parity check matrix. The second method uses block-circulant generator matrices, and the encoders are very similar to those for recursive convolutional codes. Some encoders of the second type have been implemented in a small Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) and operate at 100 Msymbols/second.

  16. Unconscious relational encoding depends on hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Duss, Simone B.; Reber, Thomas P.; Hänggi, Jürgen; Schwab, Simon; Wiest, Roland; Müri, René M.; Brugger, Peter; Gutbrod, Klemens

    2014-01-01

    Textbooks divide between human memory systems based on consciousness. Hippocampus is thought to support only conscious encoding, while neocortex supports both conscious and unconscious encoding. We tested whether processing modes, not consciousness, divide between memory systems in three neuroimaging experiments with 11 amnesic patients (mean age = 45.55 years, standard deviation = 8.74, range = 23–60) and 11 matched healthy control subjects. Examined processing modes were single item versus relational encoding with only relational encoding hypothesized to depend on hippocampus. Participants encoded and later retrieved either single words or new relations between words. Consciousness of encoding was excluded by subliminal (invisible) word presentation. Amnesic patients and controls performed equally well on the single item task activating prefrontal cortex. But only the controls succeeded on the relational task activating the hippocampus, while amnesic patients failed as a group. Hence, unconscious relational encoding, but not unconscious single item encoding, depended on hippocampus. Yet, three patients performed normally on unconscious relational encoding in spite of amnesia capitalizing on spared hippocampal tissue and connections to language cortex. This pattern of results suggests that processing modes divide between memory systems, while consciousness divides between levels of function within a memory system. PMID:25273998

  17. Transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS) in dentistry- A review

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Aditi; Ladda, Ruchi; Kathariya, Mitesh; Saluja, Harish; Farooqui, Anjum-Ara

    2014-01-01

    Transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS) is a non-pharmacological method which is widely used by medical and paramedical professionals for the management of acute and chronic pain in a variety of conditions. Similarly, it can be utilized for the management of pain during various dental procedures as well as pain due to various conditions affecting maxillofacial region. This review aims to provide an insight into clinical research evidence available for the analgesic and non analgesic uses of TENS in pediatric as well as adult patients related to the field of dentistry. Also, an attempt is made to briefly discuss history of therapeutic electricity, mechanism of action of TENS, components of TENs equipment, types, techniques of administration, advantages and contradictions of TENS. With this we hope to raise awareness among dental fraternity regarding its dental applications thereby increasing its use in dentistry. Key words:Dentistry, pain, TENS. PMID:25674327

  18. Perceptually adapted MPEG video encoding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordes, Philippe; Guillotel, Philippe

    2000-06-01

    In picture quality assessment, the amount of distortion perceived by a human observer differs from one region to another according to its particular local content. This subjective perception can be explained/predicted by considering some simple psychovisual properties (masking) of the Human Visual System (HVS). We have implemented a HVS model based on a pyramid decomposition for extracting the spatial frequencies, associated with a multi-resolution motion representation. Then the visibility of the decoded errors is computed by exploiting the Kelly's contrast sensitivity spatio-velocity model. The resulting data is called a 'Quality-map.' Special attention has been paid to temporal/moving effects since, in the case of video sequences, motion strongly influences the subjective quality assessment. The quality of the motion information is thus preponderant. In the second part, two possible uses of these psychovisual properties for improving MPEG video encoding performances are depicted: (1) The pre-processing of the pictures to remove non-visible information using a motion adapted filtering. This process is efficient in term of bits saved and degradation is not significant especially on consumer electronic TV sets. (2) A perceptual quantizer based on a local adaptation scheme in order to obtain Quality-maps as uniform as possible (homogeneous perceived distortion), at constant bit-rate. Further improvements have been considered, especially when the viewer is tracking a moving object in the scene.

  19. Evaluation of GOES encoder lamps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viehmann, W.; Helmold, N.

    1983-01-01

    Aging characteristics and life expectancies of flight quality, tungsten filament, encoder lamps are similar to those of 'commercial' grade gas filled lamps of similar construction, filament material and filament temperature. The aging and final failure by filament burnout are caused by single crystal growth over large portions of the filament with the concomitant development of facets and notches resulting in reduction of cross section and mechanical weakening of the filament. The life expectancy of presently produced lamps is about one year at their nominal operating voltage of five volts dc. At 4.5 volts, it is about two years. These life times are considerably shorter, and the degradation rates of lamp current and light flux are considerably higher, than were observed in the laboratory and in orbit on lamps of the same type manufactured more than a decade ago. It is speculated that the filaments of these earlier lamps contained a crystallization retarding dopant, possibly thorium oxide. To obtain the desired life expectancy of or = to four years in present lamps, operating voltages of or = to four volts dc would be required.

  20. Anticholinesterase and Antityrosinase Activities of Ten Piper Species from Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Salleh, Wan Mohd Nuzul Hakimi Wan; Hashim, Nur Athirah; Ahmad, Farediah; Heng Yen, Khong

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) and antityrosinase activities of extracts from ten Piper species namely; P. caninum, P. lanatum, P. abbreviatum, P. aborescens, P. porphyrophyllum, P. erecticaule, P. ribesioides, P. miniatum, P. stylosum, and P. majusculum. Methods: Anticholinesterase and antityrosinase activities were evaluated against in vitro Ellman spectroscopy method and mushroom tyrosinase, respectively. Results: The EtOAc extract of P. erecticaule showed the highest AChE and BChE inhibitory with 22.9% and 70.9% inhibition, respectively. In antityrosinase activity, all extracts of P. porphyrophyllum showed the highest inhibitory effects against mushroom tyrosinase, compared to standard, kojic acid. Conclusion: This study showed that P. erecticaule and P. porphyrophyllum have potential AChE/BChE and tyrosinase inhibition activities. The respective extracts can be explored further for the development of novel lead as AChE/BChE and tyrosinase inhibitors in therapeutic management of Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:25671185

  1. Encoding and decoding in fMRI

    PubMed Central

    Naselaris, Thomas; Kay, Kendrick N.; Nishimoto, Shinji; Gallant, Jack L.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade fMRI researchers have developed increasingly sensitive techniques for analyzing the information represented in BOLD activity. The most popular of these techniques is linear classification, a simple technique for decoding information about experimental stimuli or tasks from patterns of activity across an array of voxels. A more recent development is the voxel-based encoding model, which describes the information about the stimulus or task that is represented in the activity of single voxels. Encoding and decoding are complementary operations: encoding uses stimuli to predict activity while decoding uses activity to predict information about stimuli. However, in practice these two operations are often confused, and their respective strengths and weaknesses have not been made clear. Here we use the concept of a linearizing feature space to clarify the relationship between encoding and decoding. We show that encoding and decoding operations can both be used to investigate some of the most common questions about how information is represented in the brain. However, focusing on encoding models offers two important advantages over decoding. First, an encoding model can in principle provide a complete functional description of a region of interest, while a decoding model can provide only a partial description. Second, while it is straightforward to derive an optimal decoding model from an encoding model it is much more difficult to derive an encoding model from a decoding model. We propose a systematic modeling approach that begins by estimating an encoding model for every voxel in a scan and ends by using the estimated encoding models to perform decoding. PMID:20691790

  2. Dual role of medial A10 dopamine neurons in affective encoding.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhong-Hua; Shin, Rick; Ikemoto, Satoshi

    2008-11-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that the activation of medial A10 neurons mediates positive affective encoding. However, little is known about the functions of the inhibition of midbrain dopamine neurons. Here we show evidence suggesting that the inhibition of medial A10 neurons mediates a negative affective state, leading to negative affective encoding, whereas blunting the activation of medial A10 neurons disrupts positive affective encoding involving food reward. We used a microinjection procedure, in which the D(2) dopamine receptor agonist quinpirole was administered into the cell body region of the dopamine neurons, a procedure that reduces dopamine cell firing. Microinjections of quinpirole into the posteromedial ventral tegmental area, but not its more lateral counterparts, led to conditioned place aversion. Quinpirole administration to this site also decreased food intake and basal dopamine concentration in the ventromedial striatum, a major projection area of medial A10 neurons. In addition, moderate quinpirole doses that did not lead to conditioned place aversion or disrupt food intake abolished food-conditioned place preference, suggesting that blunting dopamine impulse activity in response to food reward disrupts positive affective encoding in associated external stimuli. Our data support the hypothesis that activation of medial A10 dopamine neurons mediates a positive affective state, leading to positive affective encoding, while their inhibition mediates a negative affective state, leading to negative affective encoding. Together with previous findings, we propose that medial A10 neurons are an important component of the mechanism via which animals learn to avoid negative incentive stimuli. PMID:18256592

  3. Ten Putative Contributors to the Obesity Epidemic

    PubMed Central

    McAllister, Emily J.; Dhurandhar, Nikhil V.; Keith, Scott W.; Aronne, Louis J.; Barger, Jamie; Baskin, Monica; Benca, Ruth M.; Biggio, Joseph; Boggiano, Mary M.; Eisenmann, Joe C.; Elobeid, Mai; Fontaine, Kevin R.; Gluckman, Peter; Hanlon, Erin C.; Katzmarzyk, Peter; Pietrobelli, Angelo; Redden, David T.; Ruden, Douglas M.; Wang, Chenxi; Waterland, Robert A.; Wright, Suzanne M.; Allison, David B.

    2010-01-01

    The obesity epidemic is a global issue and shows no signs of abating, while the cause of this epidemic remains unclear. Marketing practices of energy-dense foods and institutionally-driven declines in physical activity are the alleged perpetrators for the epidemic, despite a lack of solid evidence to demonstrate their causal role. While both may contribute to obesity, we call attention to their unquestioned dominance in program funding and public efforts to reduce obesity, and propose several alternative putative contributors that would benefit from equal consideration and attention. Evidence for microorganisms, epigenetics, increasing maternal age, greater fecundity among people with higher adiposity, assortative mating, sleep debt, endocrine disruptors, pharmaceutical iatrogenesis, reduction in variability of ambient temperatures, and intrauterine and intergenerational effects, as contributing factors to the obesity epidemic are reviewed herein. While the evidence is strong for some contributors such as pharmaceutical-induced weight gain, it is still emerging for other reviewed factors. Considering the role of such putative etiological factors of obesity may lead to comprehensive, cause specific, and effective strategies for prevention and treatment of this global epidemic. PMID:19960394

  4. Congruity of Encoding in Children's Redintegrative Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Donald M.; Geis, Mary Fulcher

    The mnemonic consequences of semantic, acoustic, and orthographic encoding and the relationships between encoding and retrieval cues were investigated in an incidental-learning experiment involving 24 first-, third-, and fifth-grade pupils. Each child was asked one orienting question for each of 18 words; the questions differed in the type of…

  5. 47 CFR 11.32 - EAS Encoder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... for either manual or automatic operation. (2) Inputs. The encoder shall have two inputs, one for audio... encoder shall have two outputs, one audio port and one data port (RS-232C with standard protocol and 1200... frequency components outside 200 to 4000 Hz shall be attenuated by 40 dB or more with respect to the...

  6. Experiments in encoding multilevel images as quadtrees

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lansing, Donald L.

    1987-01-01

    Image storage requirements for several encoding methods are investigated and the use of quadtrees with multigray level or multicolor images are explored. The results of encoding a variety of images having up to 256 gray levels using three schemes (full raster, runlength and quadtree) are presented. Although there is considerable literature on the use of quadtrees to store and manipulate binary images, their application to multilevel images is relatively undeveloped. The potential advantage of quadtree encoding is that an entire area with a uniform gray level may be encoded as a unit. A pointerless quadtree encoding scheme is described. Data are presented on the size of the quadtree required to encode selected images and on the relative storage requirements of the three encoding schemes. A segmentation scheme based on the statistical variation of gray levels within a quadtree quadrant is described. This parametric scheme may be used to control the storage required by an encoded image and to preprocess a scene for feature identification. Several sets of black and white and pseudocolor images obtained by varying the segmentation parameter are shown.

  7. Encoding information using Laguerre Gaussian modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trichili, Abderrahmen; Dudley, Angela; Ben Salem, Amine; Ndagano, Bienvenu; Zghal, Mourad; Forbes, Andrew

    2015-08-01

    We experimentally demonstrate an information encoding protocol using the two degrees of freedom of Laguerre Gaussian modes having different radial and azimuthal components. A novel method, based on digital holography, for information encoding and decoding using different data transmission scenarios is presented. The effects of the atmospheric turbulence introduced in free space communication is discussed as well.

  8. The Acquisition of Syntactically Encoded Evidentiality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rett, Jessica; Hyams, Nina

    2014-01-01

    This article presents several empirical studies of syntactically encoded evidentiality in English. The first part of our study consists of an adult online experiment that confirms claims in Asudeh & Toivonen (2012) that raised Perception Verb Similatives (PVSs; e.g. "John looks like he is sick") encode direct evidentiality. We then…

  9. DNA encoding a DNA repair protein

    DOEpatents

    Petrini, John H.; Morgan, William Francis; Maser, Richard Scott; Carney, James Patrick

    2006-08-15

    An isolated and purified DNA molecule encoding a DNA repair protein, p95, is provided, as is isolated and purified p95. Also provided are methods of detecting p95 and DNA encoding p95. The invention further provides p95 knock-out mice.

  10. The Chernobyl accident ten years later

    SciTech Connect

    Squires, D.J.

    1996-12-31

    On April 26, 1986 at 1:23 AM a fire and explosion occurred at the fourth unit of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Complex, located in the Ukraine, that resulted in the destruction of the reactor core and most of the building in which it was housed. Several environmental impacts resulting from the accident will be discussed in this paper, which will include the effects on plant and wild life, radioactive waste generated and stored or disposed of, effects of evacuations relating to residents within the subsequently established 10km and 30km control zones, impacts of the emergency containment structure (sarcophagus), and potential effects on world opinion and future development of nuclear power. As an immediate result of the fire, 31 people died (2 from the fire & smoke, and 29 from excessive radiation); 237 cases of acute radiation sickness occurred; the total fatalities based upon induced chronic diseases as a result of the accident is unknown: more than 100,000 people were evacuated from within the subsequently established 30 km control zone; in excess of 50 million curies of radionuclides that included finely dispersed nuclear fuel, fragments of graphite, concrete and other building materials were released from the reactor into the environment; an estimated one million cubic meters of radioactive waste were generated (LLW, ILW, HLW); more than 5000 tons of materials (sand, boron, dolomite, cement, and lead) were used to put the fire out by helicopter; shutdown of the adjacent power plants were performed; and other environmental impacts occurred. The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Unit No 4 is an RBMK-1000. It initiated operations in 1983, it was a 1000 MWe with a power output of 3200 MW(th), the reactor core contained 190 MT of fuel, with 1659 assemblies (plus 211 control rods), the average burnup rate was 10.3 MWd/kg, and the reactor operated on a continuous basis with maintenance and fuel reload performed during operations.

  11. Industrial Applications Of Optical Shaft Encoders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edmister, Brian W.

    1980-11-01

    The development of the microprocessor and mini-computer for industrial process control has made the optical shaft angle encoder a natural choice for a position feedback transducer. Many of these applications, however, require the encoder to operate reliably in extremely hostile environments. In response to this, the encoder manufacturer has been faced with reliability problems which fall into the following general categories: 1. Exposure to weather 2. Wide operating and storage temperature range 3. Exposure to corrosive chemicals 4. Severe shock and vibration 5. High electrical noise levels 6. Severe blows to encoder housing 7. Operation in explosive atmospheres Three of these applications expose the encoder to most of these environmental conditions: 1. A jack-up control position feedback for an offshore oil well drilling rig 2. A depth measurement system for oil well logging instrumentation 3. Elevation and azimuth feedback for a solar power plant heliostat

  12. A deeper analysis of the spacing effect after "deep" encoding.

    PubMed

    Delaney, Peter F; Spirgel, Arie S; Toppino, Thomas C

    2012-10-01

    The most common encoding strategies used by participants in word list studies include rehearsal and using the story mnemonic. Previous studies have suggested that with a rote-rehearsal strategy, mixed lists lead people to borrow rehearsal time from massed items and to give it to spaced items. Using rehearse-aloud methodologies, we demonstrated in Experiment 1 that the borrowing effect does not occur in the story mnemonic. However, the rates of rehearsal of individual items provided a good prediction of their subsequent recall rates, with spaced items being rehearsed more often in both mixed and pure lists. In experiment 2, we demonstrated that creating "story links" between items enhanced recall, but it did not affect the magnitude of the spacing effect. These results suggest that a massed-item deficit in encoding may underlie the spacing effect in the story mnemonic. PMID:22477147

  13. Novel selection methods for DNA-encoded chemical libraries

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Alix I.; McGregor, Lynn M.; Liu, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Driven by the need for new compounds to serve as biological probes and leads for therapeutic development and the growing accessibility of DNA technologies including high-throughput sequencing, many academic and industrial groups have begun to use DNA-encoded chemical libraries as a source of bioactive small molecules. In this review, we describe the technologies that have enabled the selection of compounds with desired activities from these libraries. These methods exploit the sensitivity of in vitro selection coupled with DNA amplification to overcome some of the limitations and costs associated with conventional screening methods. In addition, we highlight newer techniques with the potential to be applied to the high-throughput evaluation of DNA-encoded chemical libraries. PMID:25723146

  14. Redefining Assessment? The First Ten Years of Assessment in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broadfoot, Patricia; Black, Paul

    2004-01-01

    The completion of the first ten years of this journal is an occasion for review and reflection. The main issues that have been addressed over the ten years are summarized in four main sections: Purposes, International Trends, Quality Concerns and Assessment for Learning. Each of these illustrates the underlying significance of the themes of…

  15. 28 CFR 5.800 - Ten-day filing requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ten-day filing requirement. 5.800 Section 5.800 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ADMINISTRATION AND ENFORCEMENT OF FOREIGN AGENTS REGISTRATION ACT OF 1938, AS AMENDED § 5.800 Ten-day filing requirement. The 10-day filing requirement...

  16. 28 CFR 5.800 - Ten-day filing requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ten-day filing requirement. 5.800 Section 5.800 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ADMINISTRATION AND ENFORCEMENT OF FOREIGN AGENTS REGISTRATION ACT OF 1938, AS AMENDED § 5.800 Ten-day filing requirement. The 10-day filing requirement...

  17. Higher Education's Top-Ten Strategic Technologies for 2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grajek, Susan

    2014-01-01

    The annual "EDUCAUSE" top-ten IT issues in higher education receives a great deal of interest and attention. IT and higher education leaders use it to calibrate their IT-related activities and inform their strategic planning. This year "EDUCAUSE" is introducing a complementary list: the top-ten strategic technologies in higher…

  18. 28 CFR 5.800 - Ten-day filing requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ten-day filing requirement. 5.800 Section 5.800 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ADMINISTRATION AND ENFORCEMENT OF FOREIGN AGENTS REGISTRATION ACT OF 1938, AS AMENDED § 5.800 Ten-day filing requirement. The 10-day filing requirement...

  19. Ten Things Every Professor Should Know about Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Kenneth; Dunlap, Joanna; Stevens, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    This article describes ten key assessment practices for advancing student learning that all professors should be familiar with and strategically incorporate in their classrooms and programs. Each practice or concept is explained with examples and guidance for putting it into practice. The ten are: learning outcomes, performance assessments,…

  20. 28 CFR 5.800 - Ten-day filing requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ten-day filing requirement. 5.800 Section 5.800 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ADMINISTRATION AND ENFORCEMENT OF FOREIGN AGENTS REGISTRATION ACT OF 1938, AS AMENDED § 5.800 Ten-day filing requirement. The 10-day filing requirement...

  1. Benchmark Dose Software Development and Maintenance Ten Berge Cxt Models

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report is intended to provide an overview of beta version 1.0 of the implementation of a concentration-time (CxT) model originally programmed and provided by Wil ten Berge (referred to hereafter as the ten Berge model). The recoding and development described here represent ...

  2. Top Ten List for Choosing to Become a Mentor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowden, Shelly

    2004-01-01

    In true David Letterman style, this article presents a Top Ten List for why and how it's important to get to know the beginning teacher next door or just down the hall and listen for call signals. What follows is the Top Ten List for becoming a mentor: (1) establish reciprocal collaboration through trust; (2) offer a shoulder of support; (3) share…

  3. Firework injuries: a ten-year study.

    PubMed

    Puri, Vinita; Mahendru, Sanjay; Rana, Roshani; Deshpande, Manish

    2009-09-01

    Fireworks are used worldwide to celebrate popular events (e.g. festivals, official celebrations, weddings). The festival of lights (Diwali) is celebrated with fireworks in India. During this period, many patients from all age groups present to hospital with injuries due to fireworks. Prevalence, period of occurrence, sex and age variation, adult supervision, causative fireworks, mode of lighting, age groups prone to injury, patterns of injury caused by individual fireworks, and the body parts injured were studied. One hundred and fifty-seven cases (92 retrospective, 65 prospective) with injury due to fireworks presenting to the Department of Plastic Surgery at KEM Hospital between 1997 and 2006 were studied. The prevalence of injuries has decreased steadily over the last 10 years (41 cases in 1997, 3 cases in 2006). The maximum number of injuries (35%) was seen in the age group 5-14 years; 92% of these children were unsupervised. The commonest cause of injury was firework misuse (41% of cases), followed by device failure (35%). Device failure was commonest with flares/fountains (ground firework emitting sparks upwards) and aerial devices. Flare/fountains caused most injury (39%), sparklers the least (0.6%). Flare/fountains, ground spinners, sparklers, and gunpowder (explosive material from cracker, obtained by tearing paper wrapper and obtaining chemicals) caused only soft tissue burns; stringbombs (high-intensity fire cracker made by wrapping chemicals with jute strings/coir in layers) and rockets (aerial device that zooms upwards and bursts) caused blast injuries, leading to soft tissue disruption and bony injuries. Emergency surgery was done if indicated: tendon and/or neurovascular repair, fracture fixation, flap cover or amputation. Superficial burns were treated with dressings. Certain wounds needed only thorough cleansing of the wound and primary suturing. We concluded that, over a 10-year period, the prevalence of firework injury decreased due to increased

  4. Evaluation of the effect of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) on whole salivary flow rate

    PubMed Central

    Pal-Singh, Mohit; Mathur, Hemant; Astekar, Sowmya; Gulati, Pranay; Lakhani, Shruta

    2015-01-01

    Background: Saliva plays a critical role in maintaining oral homeostasis; it modulates the ecosystem through lubrication of the alimentary bolus, protection against microorganisms, buffer and repair of the oral mucosa, and helps in dental re-mineralization. Various local and systemic factors such as medications, radiation therapy, systemic conditions, etc. can lead to reduction in salivary flow. A decrease in salivary function, known as Xerostomia, increases a patient’s risk for caries and other oral infections. Palliative management of Xerostomia includes wetting agents such as ice chips, drugs and saliva substitutes. Systemic agents stimulate salivary flow but often have unfavorable side effects. Newer modalities like transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS), which has fewer side effects, have been used to stimulate salivary flow. The aim of the present study was to assess and evaluate the effect of TENS on whole salivary flow rates in healthy adult subjects. Study design: A total of 80 healthy adult subjects were enrolled in the study. Unstimulated and stimulated saliva (using TENS) was collected for 5 minutes and the mean salivary flow rates were calculated. Data obtained was analyzed using the SPSS (Statistical package for social sciences) version 15. Students ‘t’ test was employed for comparative analysis. Results: Sixty-five of the 80 subjects demonstrated an increase in the salivary flow rate on application of TENS. Twelve subjects demonstrated a mild reduction in the salivary flow rates. Seven subjects experienced transient mild twitching of facial musculature as side effects. Conclusion: Significant increase in salivary flow rates was observed on application of TENS with minimal or no side effects. Key words:Stimulated saliva, whole salivary flow, TENS. PMID:25810824

  5. Lead-acid cell

    SciTech Connect

    Hradcovsky, R.J.; Kozak, O.R.

    1980-12-09

    A lead-acid storage battery is described that has a lead negative electrode, a lead dioxide positive electrode and a sulfuric acid electrolyte having an organic catalyst dissolved therein which prevents dissolution of the electrodes into lead sulfate whereby in the course of discharge, the lead dioxide is reduced to lead oxide and the lead is oxidized.

  6. Lead Poisoning Prevention Tips

    MedlinePlus

    ... CDC.gov . Lead Home Calendar of Events National Lead Poisoning Prevention Week Archived Materials CDC's Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Program Advisory Committee (ACCLPP) Current Activities Blood ...

  7. Source encoding for orbiter communications links

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The feasibility of using data compression to improve link efficiency as an alternative to increased transmitter power, reducing receiver noise figures, increasing antenna gain through more stringent orbiter attitude constraints, etc. is studied. A method of encoding digital data is developed which permits low band-width encoding as well as a unique system of adaptive run length encoding. The effectiveness of these techniques for the air-to-ground link and for the bandwidth-limited ground-to-ground data link used for the orbiter downlink data is evaluated. Results are presented.

  8. Pulse Vector-Excitation Speech Encoder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, Grant; Gersho, Allen

    1989-01-01

    Proposed pulse vector-excitation speech encoder (PVXC) encodes analog speech signals into digital representation for transmission or storage at rates below 5 kilobits per second. Produces high quality of reconstructed speech, but with less computation than required by comparable speech-encoding systems. Has some characteristics of multipulse linear predictive coding (MPLPC) and of code-excited linear prediction (CELP). System uses mathematical model of vocal tract in conjunction with set of excitation vectors and perceptually-based error criterion to synthesize natural-sounding speech.

  9. Programmable Pulse-Position-Modulation Encoder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, David; Farr, William

    2006-01-01

    A programmable pulse-position-modulation (PPM) encoder has been designed for use in testing an optical communication link. The encoder includes a programmable state machine and an electronic code book that can be updated to accommodate different PPM coding schemes. The encoder includes a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) that is programmed to step through the stored state machine and code book and that drives a custom high-speed serializer circuit board that is capable of generating subnanosecond pulses. The stored state machine and code book can be updated by means of a simple text interface through the serial port of a personal computer.

  10. VLSI Reed-Solomon Encoder With Interleaver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, In-Shek; Deutsch, L. J.; Truong, Trieu-Kie; Reed, I. S.

    1990-01-01

    Size, weight, and susceptibility to burst errors reduced. Encoding system built on single very-large-scale integrated (VLSI) circuit chip produces (255,223) Reed-Solomon (RS) code with programmable interleaving up to depth of 5. (225,223) RS encoder includes new remainder-and-interleaver unit providing programmable interleaving of code words. Remainder-and-interleaver unit contains shift registers and modulo-2 adders. Signals on "turn" and "no-turn" lines control depth of interleaving. Based on E. R. Berlekamp's bit-serial multiplication algorithm for (225,223) RS encoder over Galois Field (2 to the 8th power).

  11. A Ten Year Record of Space Based Lightning Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conover, H.; Hardin, D. M.; Goodman, M.; Blakeslee, R.; Graves, S.; Jones, S.; Harrison, S.; Drewry, M.; Nair, M.

    2009-12-01

    The Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) is a space based instrument used to detect the distribution and variability of total lightning (cloud-to-cloud, intracloud, and cloud-to-ground lightning) that occurs in the tropical regions of the globe. LIS was launched in November 1997 aboard NASA’s Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). The LIS sensor contains a staring imager which is optimized to locate and detect lightning with storm-scale resolution of 3-6 km (3 at nadir, 6 at limb) over a large region (550-550 km) of the Earth's surface. The field of view (FOV) is sufficient to observe a point on the Earth or a cloud for 80 seconds, adequate to estimate the flashing rate of many storms. The instrument records the time of occurrence of a lightning event, measures the radiant energy, and estimates the location. The excellent performance of LIS has lead to numerous scientific discoveries such as: The global lightning flash rate is on the order of 40 flashes per second as compared to the commonly accepted value of 100, an estimate that dates back to 1925. Seventy percent of all lightning activity occurs in the tropics, with the global distribution dominated by the summertime lightning activity over the N. Hemisphere land masses. A new understanding on the interplay among the intensification of updraft, lightning bursts, and the onset of severe weather lead to establishment of a validation campaign that further explored relationships between lightning and severe weather. Findings to date indicate that high flash rate storms have a high probability of becoming severe. A ten year global lightning data archive has been developed from the Lightning Imaging Sensor. This archive is maintained at the Global Hydrology Resource Center (GHRC) in Huntsville Alabama, one of NASA’s Earth science data centers, managed by the Information Technology and Systems Center of UAHuntsville. This is the most comprehensive global lightning data archive ever produced and is noteworthy for its

  12. Global expression analysis of nucleotide binding site-leucine rich repeat-encoding and related genes in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Xiaoping; Meyers, Blake C; Kozik, Alexander; West, Marilyn AL; Morgante, Michele; St Clair, Dina A; Bent, Andrew F; Michelmore, Richard W

    2007-01-01

    Background Nucleotide binding site-leucine rich repeat (NBS-LRR)-encoding genes comprise the largest class of plant disease resistance genes. The 149 NBS-LRR-encoding genes and the 58 related genes that do not encode LRRs represent approximately 0.8% of all ORFs so far annotated in Arabidopsis ecotype Col-0. Despite their prevalence in the genome and functional importance, there was little information regarding expression of these genes. Results We analyzed the expression patterns of ~170 NBS-LRR-encoding and related genes in Arabidopsis Col-0 using multiple analytical approaches: expressed sequenced tag (EST) representation, massively parallel signature sequencing (MPSS), microarray analysis, rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) PCR, and gene trap lines. Most of these genes were expressed at low levels with a variety of tissue specificities. Expression was detected by at least one approach for all but 10 of these genes. The expression of some but not the majority of NBS-LRR-encoding and related genes was affected by salicylic acid (SA) treatment; the response to SA varied among different accessions. An analysis of previously published microarray data indicated that ten NBS-LRR-encoding and related genes exhibited increased expression in wild-type Landsberg erecta (Ler) after flagellin treatment. Several of these ten genes also showed altered expression after SA treatment, consistent with the regulation of R gene expression during defense responses and overlap between the basal defense response and salicylic acid signaling pathways. Enhancer trap analysis indicated that neither jasmonic acid nor benzothiadiazole (BTH), a salicylic acid analog, induced detectable expression of the five NBS-LRR-encoding genes and one TIR-NBS-encoding gene tested; however, BTH did induce detectable expression of the other TIR-NBS-encoding gene analyzed. Evidence for alternative mRNA polyadenylation sites was observed for many of the tested genes. Evidence for alternative splicing

  13. Orbits of the ten small satellites of Uranus

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, W.M. Jr.; Synnott, S.P.

    1987-05-01

    Orbital elements are presented for the ten small satellites discovered by Voyager 2 at Uranus. These ten new satellites, whose provisional IAU designations are 1985UI and 1986UI through 1986U9, lie for the most part in equatorial, circular orbits; the most notable exception is 1986U8, the outer epsilon-ring shepherd, whose eccentricity e = 0.0101. Unlike the Voyager discoveries at Saturn, which included two co-orbiting satellites and three librators, the ten small Uranian satellites all have quite different semimajor axes. 11 references.

  14. Cellobiohydrolase variants and polynucleotides encoding same

    SciTech Connect

    Wogulis, Mark

    2014-10-14

    The present invention relates to variants of a parent cellobiohydrolase II. The present invention also relates to polynucleotides encoding the variants; nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides; and methods of using the variants.

  15. Phase function encoding of diffractive structures.

    PubMed

    Schilling, A; Herzig, H P

    2000-10-10

    We analyzed the direct sampling (DS) method for diffractive lens encoding, using exact electromagnetic diffraction theory. In addition to previously published research [Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 565 (1998)] we present what we believe to be new results for TM polarization. We found that the validity of the scalar-based DS method is even more extended for TM than for TE polarization. Additionally, we fabricated and characterized DS-encoded blazed gratings and found good agreement between the experimental and theoretical diffraction efficiencies. We analyzed quantitatively the influence of the encoding schemes DS and analytic quantization (AQ) on the quality of the focal spot. We also investigated the focal spot sizes (FWHM) and the Strehl ratios of the DS- and the AQ-encoded cylindrical lenses. PMID:18354523

  16. Cellobiohydrolase variants and polynucleotides encoding same

    DOEpatents

    Wogulis, Mark

    2013-09-24

    The present invention relates to variants of a parent cellobiohydrolase II. The present invention also relates to polynucleotides encoding the variants; nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides; and methods of using the variants.

  17. Cellobiohydrolase variants and polynucleotides encoding the same

    DOEpatents

    Wogulis, Mark

    2014-09-09

    The present invention relates to variants of a parent cellobiohydrolase. The present invention also relates to polynucleotides encoding the cellobiohydrolase variants; nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides; and methods of using the cellobiohydrolase variants.

  18. Nucleotide sequences encoding a thermostable alkaline protease

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, David B.; Lao, Guifang

    1998-01-01

    Nucleotide sequences, derived from a thermophilic actinomycete microorganism, which encode a thermostable alkaline protease are disclosed. Also disclosed are variants of the nucleotide sequences which encode a polypeptide having thermostable alkaline proteolytic activity. Recombinant thermostable alkaline protease or recombinant polypeptide may be obtained by culturing in a medium a host cell genetically engineered to contain and express a nucleotide sequence according to the present invention, and recovering the recombinant thermostable alkaline protease or recombinant polypeptide from the culture medium.

  19. Nucleotide sequences encoding a thermostable alkaline protease

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, D.B.; Lao, G.

    1998-01-06

    Nucleotide sequences, derived from a thermophilic actinomycete microorganism, which encode a thermostable alkaline protease are disclosed. Also disclosed are variants of the nucleotide sequences which encode a polypeptide having thermostable alkaline proteolytic activity. Recombinant thermostable alkaline protease or recombinant polypeptide may be obtained by culturing in a medium a host cell genetically engineered to contain and express a nucleotide sequence according to the present invention, and recovering the recombinant thermostable alkaline protease or recombinant polypeptide from the culture medium. 3 figs.

  20. Encoding and decoding of femtosecond pulses.

    PubMed

    Weiner, A M; Heritage, J P; Salehi, J A

    1988-04-01

    We demonstrate the spreading of femtosecond optical pulses into picosecond-duration pseudonoise bursts. Spreading is accomplished by encoding pseudorandom binary phase codes onto the optical frequency spectrum. Subsequent decoding of the spectral phases restores the original pulse. We propose that frequency-domain encoding and decoding of coherent ultrashort pulses could form the basis for a rapidly reconfigurable, code-division multiple-access optical telecommunications network. PMID:19745879

  1. Navigating and Mining modENCODE Data

    PubMed Central

    Boley, Nathan; Wan, Kenneth H.; Bickel, Peter J.; Celniker, Susan E.

    2014-01-01

    modENCODE was a 5 yr NHGRI funded project (2007– 2012) to map the function of every base in the genomes of worms and flies characterizing positions of modified histones and other chromatin marks, origins of DNA replication, RNA transcripts and the transcription factor binding sites that control gene expression. Here we describe the Drosophila modENCODE datasets and how best to access and use them for genome wide and individual gene studies. PMID:24636835

  2. Distinctiveness and encoding effects in online sentence comprehension.

    PubMed

    Hofmeister, Philip; Vasishth, Shravan

    2014-01-01

    In explicit memory recall and recognition tasks, elaboration and contextual isolation both facilitate memory performance. Here, we investigate these effects in the context of sentence processing: targets for retrieval during online sentence processing of English object relative clause constructions differ in the amount of elaboration associated with the target noun phrase, or the homogeneity of superficial features (text color). Experiment 1 shows that greater elaboration for targets during the encoding phase reduces reading times at retrieval sites, but elaboration of non-targets has considerably weaker effects. Experiment 2 illustrates that processing isolated superficial features of target noun phrases-here, a green word in a sentence with words colored white-does not lead to enhanced memory performance, despite triggering longer encoding times. These results are interpreted in the light of the memory models of Nairne, 1990, 2001, 2006, which state that encoding remnants contribute to the set of retrieval cues that provide the basis for similarity-based interference effects. PMID:25566105

  3. Mixed noise removal by weighted encoding with sparse nonlocal regularization.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jielin; Zhang, Lei; Yang, Jian

    2014-06-01

    Mixed noise removal from natural images is a challenging task since the noise distribution usually does not have a parametric model and has a heavy tail. One typical kind of mixed noise is additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) coupled with impulse noise (IN). Many mixed noise removal methods are detection based methods. They first detect the locations of IN pixels and then remove the mixed noise. However, such methods tend to generate many artifacts when the mixed noise is strong. In this paper, we propose a simple yet effective method, namely weighted encoding with sparse nonlocal regularization (WESNR), for mixed noise removal. In WESNR, there is not an explicit step of impulse pixel detection; instead, soft impulse pixel detection via weighted encoding is used to deal with IN and AWGN simultaneously. Meanwhile, the image sparsity prior and nonlocal self-similarity prior are integrated into a regularization term and introduced into the variational encoding framework. Experimental results show that the proposed WESNR method achieves leading mixed noise removal performance in terms of both quantitative measures and visual quality. PMID:24760906

  4. Adaptive Spike Threshold Enables Robust and Temporally Precise Neuronal Encoding

    PubMed Central

    Resnik, Andrey; Celikel, Tansu; Englitz, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    Neural processing rests on the intracellular transformation of information as synaptic inputs are translated into action potentials. This transformation is governed by the spike threshold, which depends on the history of the membrane potential on many temporal scales. While the adaptation of the threshold after spiking activity has been addressed before both theoretically and experimentally, it has only recently been demonstrated that the subthreshold membrane state also influences the effective spike threshold. The consequences for neural computation are not well understood yet. We address this question here using neural simulations and whole cell intracellular recordings in combination with information theoretic analysis. We show that an adaptive spike threshold leads to better stimulus discrimination for tight input correlations than would be achieved otherwise, independent from whether the stimulus is encoded in the rate or pattern of action potentials. The time scales of input selectivity are jointly governed by membrane and threshold dynamics. Encoding information using adaptive thresholds further ensures robust information transmission across cortical states i.e. decoding from different states is less state dependent in the adaptive threshold case, if the decoding is performed in reference to the timing of the population response. Results from in vitro neural recordings were consistent with simulations from adaptive threshold neurons. In summary, the adaptive spike threshold reduces information loss during intracellular information transfer, improves stimulus discriminability and ensures robust decoding across membrane states in a regime of highly correlated inputs, similar to those seen in sensory nuclei during the encoding of sensory information. PMID:27304526

  5. Distinctiveness and encoding effects in online sentence comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Hofmeister, Philip; Vasishth, Shravan

    2014-01-01

    In explicit memory recall and recognition tasks, elaboration and contextual isolation both facilitate memory performance. Here, we investigate these effects in the context of sentence processing: targets for retrieval during online sentence processing of English object relative clause constructions differ in the amount of elaboration associated with the target noun phrase, or the homogeneity of superficial features (text color). Experiment 1 shows that greater elaboration for targets during the encoding phase reduces reading times at retrieval sites, but elaboration of non-targets has considerably weaker effects. Experiment 2 illustrates that processing isolated superficial features of target noun phrases—here, a green word in a sentence with words colored white—does not lead to enhanced memory performance, despite triggering longer encoding times. These results are interpreted in the light of the memory models of Nairne, 1990, 2001, 2006, which state that encoding remnants contribute to the set of retrieval cues that provide the basis for similarity-based interference effects. PMID:25566105

  6. Neurally Encoding Time for Olfactory Navigation

    PubMed Central

    Park, In Jun; Hein, Andrew M.; Bobkov, Yuriy V.; Reidenbach, Matthew A.; Ache, Barry W.; Principe, Jose C.

    2016-01-01

    Accurately encoding time is one of the fundamental challenges faced by the nervous system in mediating behavior. We recently reported that some animals have a specialized population of rhythmically active neurons in their olfactory organs with the potential to peripherally encode temporal information about odor encounters. If these neurons do indeed encode the timing of odor arrivals, it should be possible to demonstrate that this capacity has some functional significance. Here we show how this sensory input can profoundly influence an animal’s ability to locate the source of odor cues in realistic turbulent environments—a common task faced by species that rely on olfactory cues for navigation. Using detailed data from a turbulent plume created in the laboratory, we reconstruct the spatiotemporal behavior of a real odor field. We use recurrence theory to show that information about position relative to the source of the odor plume is embedded in the timing between odor pulses. Then, using a parameterized computational model, we show how an animal can use populations of rhythmically active neurons to capture and encode this temporal information in real time, and use it to efficiently navigate to an odor source. Our results demonstrate that the capacity to accurately encode temporal information about sensory cues may be crucial for efficient olfactory navigation. More generally, our results suggest a mechanism for extracting and encoding temporal information from the sensory environment that could have broad utility for neural information processing. PMID:26730727

  7. Neurally Encoding Time for Olfactory Navigation.

    PubMed

    Park, In Jun; Hein, Andrew M; Bobkov, Yuriy V; Reidenbach, Matthew A; Ache, Barry W; Principe, Jose C

    2016-01-01

    Accurately encoding time is one of the fundamental challenges faced by the nervous system in mediating behavior. We recently reported that some animals have a specialized population of rhythmically active neurons in their olfactory organs with the potential to peripherally encode temporal information about odor encounters. If these neurons do indeed encode the timing of odor arrivals, it should be possible to demonstrate that this capacity has some functional significance. Here we show how this sensory input can profoundly influence an animal's ability to locate the source of odor cues in realistic turbulent environments-a common task faced by species that rely on olfactory cues for navigation. Using detailed data from a turbulent plume created in the laboratory, we reconstruct the spatiotemporal behavior of a real odor field. We use recurrence theory to show that information about position relative to the source of the odor plume is embedded in the timing between odor pulses. Then, using a parameterized computational model, we show how an animal can use populations of rhythmically active neurons to capture and encode this temporal information in real time, and use it to efficiently navigate to an odor source. Our results demonstrate that the capacity to accurately encode temporal information about sensory cues may be crucial for efficient olfactory navigation. More generally, our results suggest a mechanism for extracting and encoding temporal information from the sensory environment that could have broad utility for neural information processing. PMID:26730727

  8. Where Will LEAD Lead? An Update on My LEAD Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wildman, Louis

    Issues in the future of a federal collaborative program, Leadership in Educational Administration Development (LEAD), are discussed in this paper. Problems attributed to LEAD are its antagonistic posture to educational administration programs in higher education and political conflicts of interest. Methodology involved analysis of successful LEAD…

  9. 2. TEN MILE RIVER CULVERT WITH DODGEVILLE MILL IN BACKGROUND. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. TEN MILE RIVER CULVERT WITH DODGEVILLE MILL IN BACKGROUND. DODGEVILLE, BRISTOL CO., MA. Sec. 4116, MP 195.55. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between RI/MA State Line & South Station, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  10. Ten Years of Tamoxifen Reduces Breast Cancer Recurrences, Improves Survival

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer Screening Research Ten Years of Tamoxifen Reduces Breast Cancer Recurrences, Improves Survival For some women with breast ... took it for 5 years. (See the table.) Breast Cancer Recurrence and Death 5 to 14 Years after ...

  11. Lightcurve Analysis of Ten Main-belt Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fauerbach, Michael; Marks, Scott A.; Lucas, Michael P.

    2008-06-01

    We report lightcurve periods for ten main-belt asteroids observed at the Evelyn L. Egan Observatory: 26 Proserpina, 78 Diana, 242 Kriemhild, 287 Nephthys, 348 May, 368 Haidea, 446 Aeternitas, 872 Holda, 905 Universitas, and 1013 Tombecka.

  12. Ten new species of Daidalotarsonemus (Prostigmata: Tarsonemidae) from Costa Rica

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ten new tarsonemid species of the genus Daidalotarsonemus found on native plants in Costa Rica are described herein: Daidalotarsonemus alas sp. n. Ochoa, Rezende & Lofego; Daidalotarsonemus azofeifai sp. n. Ochoa, Rezende & Lofego; Daidalotarsonemus bauchani sp. n. Rezende, Ochoa & Lofego; Daidalota...

  13. 6. View northeast of Ten Acre Lot with Joseph Fry ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. View northeast of Ten Acre Lot with Joseph Fry Farm complex (center) and Beehive House (right)in the background - Joseph Fry Farm Landscape, 2153 South County Trail Road (U.S. Route 2), East Greenwich, Kent County, RI

  14. COMPARATIVE TOXICITY OF TEN ORGANIC CHEMICALS TO FOUR EARTHWORM SPECIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ten organic chemicals were tested for toxicity to four earthworm species: Allolobophora tuberculata, Eisenia fetida, Eudrilus eugeniae and Perionyx excavatus, using the European Economic Community's (EEC) earthworm artificial soil and contact testing procedure. The phenols were t...

  15. Detail of decorative panel featuring a monkey at Ten Mile ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of decorative panel featuring a monkey at Ten Mile River Playground comfort station, looking northwest. - Henry Hudson Parkway, Extending 11.2 miles from West 72nd Street to Bronx-Westchester border, New York County, NY

  16. William Styron and His Ten Black Critics: A Belated Mediation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Ernest P.

    1976-01-01

    Discusses William Styron's novel "The Confessions of Nat Turner." Comments on the principal charges made against William Styron by the contributors to "William Styron's Nat Turner: Ten Black Writers Respond." (Author/AM)

  17. Lead in petrol. The isotopic lead experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Facchetti, S. )

    1989-10-01

    Many studies were dedicated to the evaluation of the impact of automotive lead on the environment and to the assessment of its absorption in the human population. They can be subdivided into two groups, those based on changes of air and blood lead concentrations and those based on changes of air and blood lead isotopic compositions. According to various authors, 50-66% of the lead added to petrol is mobilized in the atmosphere, while most of the remainder adheres to the walls of the exhaust system from which it is expelled by mechanical and thermal shocks in the forms of easily sedimented particles. The fraction directly emitted by engine exhaust fumes is found in the form of fine particles, which can be transferred a long way from the emitting sources. However important the contribution of petrol lead to the total airborne lead may be, our knowledge does not permit a straightforward calculation of the percentage of petrol lead in total blood lead, which of course can also originate from other sources (e.g., industrial, natural). To evaluate this percentage in 1973, the idea of the Isotopic Lead Experiment (ILE project) was conceived to label, on a regional scale, petrol with a nonradioactive lead of an isotopic composition sufficiently different from that of background lead and sufficiently stable in time. This Account summarizes the main results obtained by the ILE project.

  18. 12 CFR 329.104 - Ten-day grace period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ten-day grace period. 329.104 Section 329.104... INTEREST ON DEPOSITS § 329.104 Ten-day grace period. This interpretive rule provides for 10-day grace periods during which interest may be paid on a deposit without violating § 329.2. (a) During the...

  19. 12 CFR 329.104 - Ten-day grace period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ten-day grace period. 329.104 Section 329.104... INTEREST ON DEPOSITS § 329.104 Ten-day grace period. This interpretive rule provides for 10-day grace periods during which interest may be paid on a deposit without violating § 329.2. (a) During the...

  20. O-Space Imaging: Highly Efficient Parallel Imaging Using Second-Order Nonlinear Fields as Encoding Gradients with No Phase Encoding

    PubMed Central

    Stockmann, Jason P.; Ciris, Pelin Aksit; Galiana, Gigi; Tam, Leo; Constable, R. Todd

    2011-01-01

    Recent improvements in parallel imaging have been driven by the use of greater numbers of independent surface coils placed so as to minimize aliasing along the phase encode direction(s). However, gains from increasing the number of coils diminish as coil coupling problems begin to dominate and the ratio of acceleration gain to expense for multiple receiver chains becomes prohibitive. In this work we redesign the spatial encoding strategy in order to gain efficiency, achieving a gradient encoding scheme that is complementary to the spatial encoding provided by the receiver coils. This approach leads to “O-Space” imaging, wherein the gradient shapes are tailored to an existing surface coil array, making more efficient use of the spatial information contained in the coil profiles. In its simplest form, for each acquired echo the Z2 spherical harmonic is used to project the object onto sets of concentric rings, while the X and Y-gradients are used to offset this projection within the imaging plane. The theory is presented, an algorithm is introduced for image reconstruction, and simulations reveal that O-Space encoding achieves high encoding efficiency compared to SENSE, radial projection imaging, and PatLoc imaging, suggesting that O-Space imaging holds great potential for accelerated scanning. PMID:20665789

  1. Novel Insights into the Diversity of Catabolic Metabolism from Ten Haloarchaeal Genomes

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Iain; Scheuner, Carmen; Goker, Markus; Mavromatis, Kostas; Hooper, Sean D.; Porat, Iris; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Ivanova, Natalia; Kyrpides, Nikos

    2011-05-03

    The extremely halophilic archaea are present worldwide in saline environments and have important biotechnological applications. Ten complete genomes of haloarchaea are now available, providing an opportunity for comparative analysis. We report here the comparative analysis of five newly sequenced haloarchaeal genomes with five previously published ones. Whole genome trees based on protein sequences provide strong support for deep relationships between the ten organisms. Using a soft clustering approach, we identified 887 protein clusters present in all halophiles. Of these core clusters, 112 are not found in any other archaea and therefore constitute the haloarchaeal signature. Four of the halophiles were isolated from water, and four were isolated from soil or sediment. Although there are few habitat-specific clusters, the soil/sediment halophiles tend to have greater capacity for polysaccharide degradation, siderophore synthesis, and cell wall modification. Halorhabdus utahensis and Haloterrigena turkmenica encode over forty glycosyl hydrolases each, and may be capable of breaking down naturally occurring complex carbohydrates. H. utahensis is specialized for growth on carbohydrates and has few amino acid degradation pathways. It uses the non-oxidative pentose phosphate pathway instead of the oxidative pathway, giving it more flexibility in the metabolism of pentoses. These new genomes expand our understanding of haloarchaeal catabolic pathways, providing a basis for further experimental analysis, especially with regard to carbohydrate metabolism. Halophilic glycosyl hydrolases for use in biofuel production are more likely to be found in halophiles isolated from soil or sediment.

  2. Novel Insights into the Diversity of Catabolic Metabolism from Ten Haloarchaeal Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Iain; Scheuner, Carmen; Göker, Markus; Mavromatis, Kostas; Hooper, Sean D.; Porat, Iris; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Ivanova, Natalia; Kyrpides, Nikos

    2011-01-01

    Background The extremely halophilic archaea are present worldwide in saline environments and have important biotechnological applications. Ten complete genomes of haloarchaea are now available, providing an opportunity for comparative analysis. Methodology/Principal Findings We report here the comparative analysis of five newly sequenced haloarchaeal genomes with five previously published ones. Whole genome trees based on protein sequences provide strong support for deep relationships between the ten organisms. Using a soft clustering approach, we identified 887 protein clusters present in all halophiles. Of these core clusters, 112 are not found in any other archaea and therefore constitute the haloarchaeal signature. Four of the halophiles were isolated from water, and four were isolated from soil or sediment. Although there are few habitat-specific clusters, the soil/sediment halophiles tend to have greater capacity for polysaccharide degradation, siderophore synthesis, and cell wall modification. Halorhabdus utahensis and Haloterrigena turkmenica encode over forty glycosyl hydrolases each, and may be capable of breaking down naturally occurring complex carbohydrates. H. utahensis is specialized for growth on carbohydrates and has few amino acid degradation pathways. It uses the non-oxidative pentose phosphate pathway instead of the oxidative pathway, giving it more flexibility in the metabolism of pentoses. Conclusions These new genomes expand our understanding of haloarchaeal catabolic pathways, providing a basis for further experimental analysis, especially with regard to carbohydrate metabolism. Halophilic glycosyl hydrolases for use in biofuel production are more likely to be found in halophiles isolated from soil or sediment. PMID:21633497

  3. Direct screening of solution phase combinatorial libraries encoded with externally sensitized photolabile tags

    PubMed Central

    Kottani, Rudresha; Valiulin, Roman A.; Kutateladze, Andrei G.

    2006-01-01

    Solution phase combinatorial chemistry holds an enormous promise for modern drug discovery. Much needed are direct methods to assay such libraries for binding of biological targets. An approach to encoding and screening of solution phase libraries has been developed based on the conditional photorelease of externally sensitized photolabile tags. The encoding tags are released into solution only when a sought-for binding event occurs between the ligand and the receptor, outfitted with an electron-transfer sensitizer. The released tags are analyzed in solution revealing the identity of the lead ligand or narrowing the range of potential leads. PMID:16956977

  4. Optical delay encoding for fast timing and detector signal multiplexing in PET

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Alexander M.; Levin, Craig S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The large number of detector channels in modern positron emission tomography (PET) scanners poses a challenge in terms of readout electronics complexity. Multiplexing schemes are typically implemented to reduce the number of physical readout channels, but often result in performance degradation. Novel methods of multiplexing in PET must be developed to avoid this data degradation. The preservation of fast timing information is especially important for time-of-flight PET. Methods: A new multiplexing scheme based on encoding detector interaction events with a series of extremely fast overlapping optical pulses with precise delays is demonstrated in this work. Encoding events in this way potentially allows many detector channels to be simultaneously encoded onto a single optical fiber that is then read out by a single digitizer. A two channel silicon photomultiplier-based prototype utilizing this optical delay encoding technique along with dual threshold time-over-threshold is demonstrated. Results: The optical encoding and multiplexing prototype achieves a coincidence time resolution of 160 ps full width at half maximum (FWHM) and an energy resolution of 13.1% FWHM at 511 keV with 3 × 3 × 5 mm3 LYSO crystals. All interaction information for both detectors, including timing, energy, and channel identification, is encoded onto a single optical fiber with little degradation. Conclusions: Optical delay encoding and multiplexing technology could lead to time-of-flight PET scanners with fewer readout channels and simplified data acquisition systems. PMID:26233181

  5. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) as compared to placebo TENS for the relief of acute oro-facial pain.

    PubMed

    Hansson, P; Ekblom, A

    1983-02-01

    The present paper describes the effect of high frequency, low frequency and placebo TENS on acute oro-facial pain in 62 patients, attending to an emergency clinic for dental surgery; they had all suffered pain for 1-4 days. The patients were randomly assigned to one of three groups receiving either high frequency (100 Hz), low frequency (2 Hz) or placebo TENS. In the two groups receiving TENS (42 patients) 16 patients reported a reduction in pain intensity exceeding 50%; out of these 16 patients, 4 patients reported complete relief of pain. In the placebo group (20 patients) 2 patients reported a pain reduction of more than 50%; out of these 2 patients, none reported a complete pain relief. Mechanical vibratory stimulation augmented the pain reduction obtained by TENS in 5 out of 10 patients. PMID:6601789

  6. Multichannel Compressive Sensing MRI Using Noiselet Encoding

    PubMed Central

    Pawar, Kamlesh; Egan, Gary; Zhang, Jingxin

    2015-01-01

    The incoherence between measurement and sparsifying transform matrices and the restricted isometry property (RIP) of measurement matrix are two of the key factors in determining the performance of compressive sensing (CS). In CS-MRI, the randomly under-sampled Fourier matrix is used as the measurement matrix and the wavelet transform is usually used as sparsifying transform matrix. However, the incoherence between the randomly under-sampled Fourier matrix and the wavelet matrix is not optimal, which can deteriorate the performance of CS-MRI. Using the mathematical result that noiselets are maximally incoherent with wavelets, this paper introduces the noiselet unitary bases as the measurement matrix to improve the incoherence and RIP in CS-MRI. Based on an empirical RIP analysis that compares the multichannel noiselet and multichannel Fourier measurement matrices in CS-MRI, we propose a multichannel compressive sensing (MCS) framework to take the advantage of multichannel data acquisition used in MRI scanners. Simulations are presented in the MCS framework to compare the performance of noiselet encoding reconstructions and Fourier encoding reconstructions at different acceleration factors. The comparisons indicate that multichannel noiselet measurement matrix has better RIP than that of its Fourier counterpart, and that noiselet encoded MCS-MRI outperforms Fourier encoded MCS-MRI in preserving image resolution and can achieve higher acceleration factors. To demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed noiselet encoding scheme, a pulse sequences with tailored spatially selective RF excitation pulses was designed and implemented on a 3T scanner to acquire the data in the noiselet domain from a phantom and a human brain. The results indicate that noislet encoding preserves image resolution better than Fouirer encoding. PMID:25965548

  7. Occupational lead exposure aboard a tall ship

    SciTech Connect

    Landrigan, P.J.; Straub, W.E.

    1985-01-01

    To evaluate occupational exposures to lead in shipfitters cutting and riveting lead-painted iron plates aboard an iron-hulled sailing vessel, the authors conducted an environmental and medical survey. Lead exposures in seven personal (breathing zone) air samples ranged from 108 to 500 micrograms/mT (mean 257 micrograms/mT); all were above the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standard of 50 micrograms/mT. In two short-term air samples obtained while exhaust ventilation was temporarily disconnected, mean lead exposure rose to 547 micrograms/mT. Blood lead levels in ten shipfitters ranged from 25 to 53 micrograms/dl. Blood lead levels in shipfitters were significantly higher than in other shipyard workers. Smoking shipfitters had significantly higher lead levels than nonsmokers. Lead levels in shipfitters who wore respirators were not lower than in those who wore no protective gear. Four shipfitters had erythrocyte protoporphyrin (EP) concentrations above the adult upper normal limit of 50 micrograms/dl. A close correlation was found between blood lead and EP levels. Prevalence of lead-related symptoms was no higher in shipfitters than in other workers. These data indicate that serious occupational exposure to lead can occur in a relatively small boatyard.

  8. Lead and the Romans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reddy, Aravind; Braun, Charles L.

    2010-01-01

    Lead poisoning has been a problem since early history and continues into modern times. An appealing characteristic of lead is that many lead salts are sweet. In the absence of cane and beet sugars, early Romans used "sugar of lead" (lead acetate) to sweeten desserts, fruits, and sour wine. People most at risk would have been those who consumed the…

  9. Hydroquinone Increases 5-Hydroxymethylcytosine Formation through Ten Eleven Translocation 1 (TET1) 5-Methylcytosine Dioxygenase*

    PubMed Central

    Coulter, Jonathan B.; O'Driscoll, Cliona M.; Bressler, Joseph P.

    2013-01-01

    DNA methylation regulates gene expression throughout development and in a wide range of pathologies such as cancer and neurological disorders. Pathways controlling the dynamic levels and targets of methylation are known to be disrupted by chemicals and are therefore of great interest in both prevention and clinical contexts. Benzene and its metabolite hydroquinone have been shown to lead to decreased levels of DNA methylation, although the mechanism is not known. This study employs a cell culture model to investigate the mechanism of hydroquinone-mediated changes in DNA methylation. Exposures that do not affect HEK293 cell viability led to genomic and methylated reporter DNA demethylation. Hydroquinone caused reactivation of a methylated reporter plasmid that was prevented by the addition of N-acetylcysteine. Hydroquinone also caused an increase in Ten Eleven Translocation 1 activity and global levels of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine. 5-Hydroxymethylcytosine was found enriched at LINE-1 prior to a decrease in both 5-hydroxymethylcytosine and 5-methylcytosine. Ten Eleven Translocation-1 knockdown decreased 5-hydroxymethylcytosine formation following hydroquinone exposure as well as the induction of glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit and 14-3-3σ. Finally, Ten Eleven Translocation 1 knockdown decreased the percentage of cells accumulating in G2+M following hydroquinone exposure, indicating that it may have a role in cell cycle changes in response to toxicants. This work demonstrates that hydroquinone exposure leads to active and functional DNA demethylation in HEK293 cells in a mechanism involving reactive oxygen species and Ten Eleven Translocation 1 5-methylcytosine dioxygenase. PMID:23940045

  10. Multi-dimensionally encoded magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Fa-Hsuan

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging typically achieves spatial encoding by measuring the projection of a q-dimensional object over q-dimensional spatial bases created by linear spatial encoding magnetic fields (SEMs). Recently, imaging strategies using nonlinear SEMs have demonstrated potential advantages for reconstructing images with higher spatiotemporal resolution and reducing peripheral nerve stimulation. In practice, nonlinear SEMs and linear SEMs can be used jointly to further improve the image reconstruction performance. Here we propose the multi-dimensionally encoded (MDE) MRI to map a q-dimensional object onto a p-dimensional encoding space where p > q. MDE MRI is a theoretical framework linking imaging strategies using linear and nonlinear SEMs. Using a system of eight surface SEM coils with an eight-channel RF coil array, we demonstrate the five-dimensional MDE MRI for a two-dimensional object as a further generalization of PatLoc imaging and O-space imaging. We also present a method of optimizing spatial bases in MDE MRI. Results show that MDE MRI with a higher dimensional encoding space can reconstruct images more efficiently and with a smaller reconstruction error when the k-space sampling distribution and the number of samples are controlled. PMID:22926830

  11. Lead levels - blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to screen people at risk for lead poisoning. This may include industrial workers and children who ... also used to measure how well treatment for lead poisoning is working. Lead is common in the environment, ...

  12. Stevens-Johnson Syndrome and Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis (SJS/TEN): Could Retinoids Play a Causative Role?

    PubMed Central

    Mawson, Anthony R.; Eriator, Ike; Karre, Sridhar

    2015-01-01

    Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis (SJS/TEN) are overlapping manifestations on a spectrum of acute drug-induced conditions associated with severe blistering, skin peeling, and multi-organ damage. TEN is an eruption resembling severe scalding, with ≥30% skin detachment. SJS is a mild form of TEN, characterized histologically by epidermal keratinocyte apoptosis with dermo-epidermal separation and extensive small blisters with <10% body surface skin detachment. The syndrome can be induced by numerous medications and typically occurs 1–4 weeks after the initiation of therapy. Granulysin is found in the lesions of patients with SJS/TEN and plays a significant pathogenic role in the condition, but the overall mechanisms linking medications, granulysin, and disease manifestations remain obscure. This paper reviews evidence suggesting that the different medications implicated in SJS/TEN have the common property of interacting and synergizing with endogenous retinoids (vitamin A and its congeners), in many instances causing the latter to accumulate in and damage the liver, the main storage organ for vitamin A. It is hypothesized that liver damage leads to the spillage of toxic retinoid compounds into the circulation, resulting in an endogenous form of hypervitaminosis A and cytotoxicity with widespread apoptosis, mediated by granulysin and recognized as SJS/TEN. Subject to testing, the model suggests that symptom worsening could be arrested at onset by lowering the concentration of circulating retinoids and/or granulysin via phlebotomy or plasmapheresis or by pharmacological measures to limit their expression. PMID:25579087

  13. Glutamine Flux Imaging Using Genetically Encoded Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Besnard, Julien; Okumoto, Sakiko

    2014-01-01

    Genetically encoded sensors allow real-time monitoring of biological molecules at a subcellular resolution. A tremendous variety of such sensors for biological molecules became available in the past 15 years, some of which became indispensable tools that are used routinely in many laboratories. One of the exciting applications of genetically encoded sensors is the use of these sensors in investigating cellular transport processes. Properties of transporters such as kinetics and substrate specificities can be investigated at a cellular level, providing possibilities for cell-type specific analyses of transport activities. In this article, we will demonstrate how transporter dynamics can be observed using genetically encoded glutamine sensor as an example. Experimental design, technical details of the experimental settings, and considerations for post-experimental analyses will be discussed. PMID:25146898

  14. Galileo high-resolution encoder system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mancini, Dario; Cascone, Enrico; Schipani, Pietro

    1997-09-01

    The Galileo National Telescope (TNG) is a 3.6 meter Alt-Az telescope installed at the Astronomical Observatory of the Roque de Los Muchachos in La Palma, Canary Islands (Spain). The TNG motion control system, designed and realized by the Technology Working Group (TWG), is completely digital because of the versatility of this system topology. In a digital control system using an encoder as transducer means to have a digital feedback signal, therefore directly comparable with the reference without any conversion that is essential with other kinds of transducers. In the following the Galileo telescope (TNG) encoder system with its control electronics and the management software are described. It has been realized by a collaboration between the Heidenhain Company and the TWG. The TNG encoder system, at the state of the art, has one of the highest performances in the telescopes field, in terms of resolution, accuracy, readout time, reliability.

  15. Interoperability in encoded quantum repeater networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagayama, Shota; Choi, Byung-Soo; Devitt, Simon; Suzuki, Shigeya; Van Meter, Rodney

    2016-04-01

    The future of quantum repeater networking will require interoperability between various error-correcting codes. A few specific code conversions and even a generalized method are known, however, no detailed analysis of these techniques in the context of quantum networking has been performed. In this paper we analyze a generalized procedure to create Bell pairs encoded heterogeneously between two separate codes used often in error-corrected quantum repeater network designs. We begin with a physical Bell pair and then encode each qubit in a different error-correcting code, using entanglement purification to increase the fidelity. We investigate three separate protocols for preparing the purified encoded Bell pair. We calculate the error probability of those schemes between the Steane [[7,1,3

  16. Quantum repeater with continuous variable encoding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Linshu; Albert, Victor V.; Michael, Marios; Muralidharan, Sreraman; Zou, Changling; Jiang, Liang

    2016-05-01

    Quantum communication enables faithful quantum state transfer between different parties and protocols for cryptographic purposes. However, quantum communication over long distances (>1000km) remains challenging due to optical channel attenuation. This calls for investigation on developing novel encoding schemes that correct photon loss errors efficiently. In this talk, we introduce the generalization of multi-component Schrödinger cat states and propose to encode quantum information in these cat states for ultrafast quantum repeaters. We detail the quantum error correction procedures at each repeater station and characterize the performance of this novel encoding scheme given practical imperfections, such as coupling loss. A comparison with other quantum error correcting codes for bosonic modes will be discussed.

  17. Structure and strategy in encoding simplified graphs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schiano, Diane J.; Tversky, Barbara

    1992-01-01

    Tversky and Schiano (1989) found a systematic bias toward the 45-deg line in memory for the slopes of identical lines when embedded in graphs, but not in maps, suggesting the use of a cognitive reference frame specifically for encoding meaningful graphs. The present experiments explore this issue further using the linear configurations alone as stimuli. Experiments 1 and 2 demonstrate that perception and immediate memory for the slope of a test line within orthogonal 'axes' are predictable from purely structural considerations. In Experiments 3 and 4, subjects were instructed to use a diagonal-reference strategy in viewing the stimuli, which were described as 'graphs' only in Experiment 3. Results for both studies showed the diagonal bias previously found only for graphs. This pattern provides converging evidence for the diagonal as a cognitive reference frame in encoding linear graphs, and demonstrates that even in highly simplified displays, strategic factors can produce encoding biases not predictable solely from stimulus structure alone.

  18. A Metric Encoding for Bounded Model Checking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradella, Matteo; Morzenti, Angelo; San Pietro, Pierluigi

    In Bounded Model Checking, both the system model and the checked property are translated into a Boolean formula to be analyzed by a SAT-solver. We introduce a new encoding technique which is particularly optimized for managing quantitative future and past metric temporal operators, typically found in properties of hard real time systems. The encoding is simple and intuitive in principle, but it is made more complex by the presence, typical of the Bounded Model Checking technique, of backward and forward loops used to represent an ultimately periodic infinite domain by a finite structure. We report and comment on the new encoding technique and on an extensive set of experiments carried out to assess its feasibility and effectiveness.

  19. Noise level and MPEG-2 encoder statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jungwoo

    1997-01-01

    Most software in the movie and broadcasting industries are still in analog film or tape format, which typically contains random noise that originated from film, CCD camera, and tape recording. The performance of the MPEG-2 encoder may be significantly degraded by the noise. It is also affected by the scene type that includes spatial and temporal activity. The statistical property of noise originating from camera and tape player is analyzed and the models for the two types of noise are developed. The relationship between the noise, the scene type, and encoder statistics of a number of MPEG-2 parameters such as motion vector magnitude, prediction error, and quant scale are discussed. This analysis is intended to be a tool for designing robust MPEG encoding algorithms such as preprocessing and rate control.

  20. Prediction in Annotation Based Guideline Encoding

    PubMed Central

    Hagerty, C. Greg; Pickens, David S.; Chang, Jaime; Kulikowski, Casimir A.; Sonnenberg, Frank A.

    2006-01-01

    The encoding of clinical practice guidelines into machine operable representations poses numerous challenges and will require considerable human intervention for the foreseeable future. To assist and potentially speed up this process, we have developed an incremental approach to guideline encoding which begins with the annotation of the original guideline text using markup techniques. A modular and flexible sequence of subtasks results in increasingly inter-operable representations while maintaining the connections to all prior source representations and supporting knowledge. To reduce the encoding bottleneck we also employ a number of machine-assisted learning and prediction techniques within a knowledge-based software environment. Promising results with a straightforward incremental learning algorithm illustrate the feasibility of such an approach. PMID:17238354

  1. Template based low data rate speech encoder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fransen, Lawrence

    1993-09-01

    The 2400-b/s linear predictive coder (LPC) is currently being widely deployed to support tactical voice communication over narrowband channels. However, there is a need for lower-data-rate voice encoders for special applications: improved performance in high bit-error conditions, low-probability-of-intercept (LPI) voice communication, and narrowband integrated voice/data systems. An 800-b/s voice encoding algorithm is presented which is an extension of the 2400-b/s LPC. To construct template tables, speech samples of 420 speakers uttering 8 sentences each were excerpted from the Texas Instrument - Massachusetts Institute of Technology (TIMIT) Acoustic-Phonetic Speech Data Base. Speech intelligibility of the 800-b/s voice encoding algorithm measured by the diagnostic rhyme test (DRT) is 91.5 for three male speakers. This score compares favorably with the 2400-b/s LPC of a few years ago.

  2. An Information Theoretic Characterisation of Auditory Encoding

    PubMed Central

    Overath, Tobias; Cusack, Rhodri; Kumar, Sukhbinder; von Kriegstein, Katharina; Warren, Jason D; Grube, Manon; Carlyon, Robert P; Griffiths, Timothy D

    2007-01-01

    The entropy metric derived from information theory provides a means to quantify the amount of information transmitted in acoustic streams like speech or music. By systematically varying the entropy of pitch sequences, we sought brain areas where neural activity and energetic demands increase as a function of entropy. Such a relationship is predicted to occur in an efficient encoding mechanism that uses less computational resource when less information is present in the signal: we specifically tested the hypothesis that such a relationship is present in the planum temporale (PT). In two convergent functional MRI studies, we demonstrated this relationship in PT for encoding, while furthermore showing that a distributed fronto-parietal network for retrieval of acoustic information is independent of entropy. The results establish PT as an efficient neural engine that demands less computational resource to encode redundant signals than those with high information content. PMID:17958472

  3. Single echo acquisition MRI using RF encoding.

    PubMed

    Wright, Steven M; McDougall, Mary Preston

    2009-11-01

    Encoding of spatial information in magnetic resonance imaging is conventionally accomplished by using magnetic field gradients. During gradient encoding, the position in k-space is determined by a time-integral of the gradient field, resulting in a limitation in imaging speed due to either gradient power or secondary effects such as peripheral nerve stimulation. Partial encoding of spatial information through the sensitivity patterns of an array of coils, known as parallel imaging, is widely used to accelerate the imaging, and is complementary to gradient encoding. This paper describes the one-dimensional limit of parallel imaging in which all spatial localization in one dimension is performed through encoding by the radiofrequency (RF) coil. Using a one-dimensional array of long and narrow parallel elements to localize the image information in one direction, an entire image is obtained from a single line of k-space, avoiding rapid or repeated manipulation of gradients. The technique, called single echo acquisition (SEA) imaging, is described, along with the need for a phase compensation gradient pulse to counteract the phase variation contained in the RF coil pattern which would otherwise cause signal cancellation in each imaging voxel. Image reconstruction and resolution enhancement methods compatible with the speed of the technique are discussed. MR movies at frame rates of 125 frames per second are demonstrated, illustrating the ability to monitor the evolution of transverse magnetization to steady state during an MR experiment as well as demonstrating the ability to image rapid motion. Because this technique, like all RF encoding approaches, relies on the inherent spatially varying pattern of the coil and is not a time-integral, it should enable new applications for MRI that were previously inaccessible due to speed constraints, and should be of interest as an approach to extending the limits of detection in MR imaging. PMID:19441080

  4. Optical encoder based on a nondiffractive beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutenberg, A.; Perez Quintián, F.; Rebollo, M. A.

    2007-09-01

    Nowadays most industrial and laboratory motion measuring equipment makes use of optical encoders to measure rotation and linear displacements with sub-micrometrical resolution. In this work we introduce a new design of an optical encoder based on a non diffractive beam, a binary amplitude grating and a monolithic photodetector. Two theoretical models of the system are proposed and implemented to obtain numerical results. The performance of the design is also investigated through experimental measurements. Finally, the experimental results are compared with the models predictions.

  5. Vector Adaptive/Predictive Encoding Of Speech

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Juin-Hwey; Gersho, Allen

    1989-01-01

    Vector adaptive/predictive technique for digital encoding of speech signals yields decoded speech of very good quality after transmission at coding rate of 9.6 kb/s and of reasonably good quality at 4.8 kb/s. Requires 3 to 4 million multiplications and additions per second. Combines advantages of adaptive/predictive coding, and code-excited linear prediction, yielding speech of high quality but requires 600 million multiplications and additions per second at encoding rate of 4.8 kb/s. Vector adaptive/predictive coding technique bridges gaps in performance and complexity between adaptive/predictive coding and code-excited linear prediction.

  6. Optical encoder based on a nondiffractive beam

    SciTech Connect

    Lutenberg, Ariel; Perez-Quintian, Fernando; Rebollo, Maria A

    2008-05-01

    Optical encoders are used in industrial and laboratory motion equipment to measure rotations and linear displacements. We introduce a design of an optical encoder based on a nondiffractive beam. We expect that the invariant profile and radial symmetry of the nondiffractive beam provide the design with remarkable tolerance to mechanical perturbations. We experimentally demonstrate that the proposed design generates a suitable output sinusoidal signal with low harmonic distortion. Moreover, we present a numerical model of the system based on the angular spectrum approximation whose predictions are in excellent agreement with the experimental results.

  7. Polarization-multiplexed encoding at nanometer scales.

    PubMed

    Macias-Romero, C; Munro, P R T; Török, P

    2014-10-20

    Optical data storage was developed using binary encoding primarily due to signal to noise ratio considerations. We report on a multiplexing method that allows a seven fold storage increase, per storage layer, per side, and propose one that can yield theoretically a 20+ fold increase. Multiplexing is achieved by encoding information in polarization via appropriately oriented nanostructures that emit strongly polarized light when excited by unpolarized light. The storage increase is possible due to the significantly reduced crosstalk that results form using unpolarized light. PMID:25401656

  8. Nonresponse Error in Mail Surveys: Top Ten Problems

    PubMed Central

    Daly, Jeanette M.; Jones, Julie K.; Gereau, Patricia L.; Levy, Barcey T.

    2011-01-01

    Conducting mail surveys can result in nonresponse error, which occurs when the potential participant is unwilling to participate or impossible to contact. Nonresponse can result in a reduction in precision of the study and may bias results. The purpose of this paper is to describe and make readers aware of a top ten list of mailed survey problems affecting the response rate encountered over time with different research projects, while utilizing the Dillman Total Design Method. Ten nonresponse error problems were identified, such as inserter machine gets sequence out of order, capitalization in databases, and mailing discarded by postal service. These ten mishaps can potentiate nonresponse errors, but there are ways to minimize their frequency. Suggestions offered stem from our own experiences during research projects. Our goal is to increase researchers' knowledge of nonresponse error problems and to offer solutions which can decrease nonresponse error in future projects. PMID:21994846

  9. Performance analysis of ten brands of batteries for hearing aids

    PubMed Central

    Penteado, Silvio Pires; Bento, Ricardo Ferreira

    2013-01-01

    Summary Introduction: Comparison of the performance of hearing instrument batteries from various manufacturers can enable otologists, audiologists, or final consumers to select the best products, maximizing the use of these materials. Aim: To analyze the performance of ten brands of batteries for hearing aids available in the Brazilian marketplace. Methods: Hearing aid batteries in four sizes were acquired from ten manufacturers and subjected to the same test conditions in an acoustic laboratory. Results: The results obtained in the laboratory contrasted with the values reported by manufacturers highlighted significant discrepancies, besides the fact that certain brands in certain sizes perform better on some tests, but does not indicate which brand is the best in all sizes. Conclusions: It was possible to investigate the performance of ten brands of hearing aid batteries and describe the procedures to be followed for leakage, accidental intake, and disposal. PMID:25992026

  10. Fabrication of ten-fold photonic quasicrystalline structures

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, XiaoHong Wu, YuLong; Liu, Wen; Liu, Wei; Han, Juan; Jiang, Lei

    2015-05-15

    Compared to periodic crystals, quasicrystals have higher point group symmetry and are more favorable in achieving complete band-gaps. In this report, a top-cut prism interferometer is designed to fabricate ten-fold photonic quasicrystalline structures. By optimizing the exposing conditions and material characteristics, appropriate quasicrystals have been obtained in the SU8 photoresist films. Atomic Force Microscopy and laser diffraction are used to characterize the fabricated structures. The measurement results show the consistence between the theoretical design and experiments. This will provide guidance for the large-area and fast production of ten-fold quasicrystalline structures with high quality.

  11. [THE TEN MOST CITED ARTICLES OF THE JOURNAL "NUTRICION HOSPITALARIA"].

    PubMed

    Franco-López, Ángeles; González-Gallego, Javier; Sanz-Valero, Javier; Tuñón, María Jesús; García-De-Lorenzo, Abelardo; Culebras, Jesús M

    2015-01-01

    After 36 years of continued publication of the journal Nutrición Hospitalaria, a list with the ten most cited articles published in it is elaborated. The top ten most cited articles in the world literature and stratification according to language, English or Spanish, subject, or period of time published are also analyzed. Nutr Hosp is the most important Ibero latin American nutrition journal. Nutr Hosp published 369 items in 2014 gaining the fourth position among all the world's journals devoted to nutrition. Article publication in English, or simultaneously in Spanish and English and Open Access policy probably benefit the number of citations. PMID:26667680

  12. Lead Surveillance Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Background on lead exposure is presented including forms of lead, sources, hematologic effects, neurologic effects, endocrine effects, renal effects, and reproductive and developmental effects. The purpose of the Lead Surveillance Program at LeRC is outlined, and the specifics of the Medical Surveillance Program for Lead Exposure at LeRC are discussed.

  13. Haplotypes of the steroid 21-hydroxylase gene region encoding mild steroid 21-hydroxylase deficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Haglund-Stengler, B; Martin Ritzén, E; Gustafsson, J; Luthman, H

    1991-01-01

    Haplotypes of the complement 4 (C4) and steroid 21-hydroxylase [21-OHase; steroid hydrogen-donor: oxygen oxidoreductase (21-hydroxylating), EC 1.14.99.10] repeated gene complex were studied in nine families with at least one member affected with a mild form of 21-OHase deficiency. DNA probes from different parts of the repeated C4/21-OHase unit were used to follow the segregation of hybridization patterns in the families. Ten structurally distinct haplotypes of the C4/21-OHase gene region were identified, and the encoded phenotype was assigned to 34 of the 36 C4/21-OHase haplotypes. Four structurally different haplotypes with three C4/21-OHase repeat units were found. Eight of the nine haplotypes found with triplications of the C4/21-OHase repeat unit encoded the mild form of 21-OHase deficiency, whereas one particular triplicated haplotype encoded a severe form of the disease. In one case the mild form of 21-OHase deficiency was encoded by a haplotype with a single C4/21-OHase repeat unit. Mild 21-OHase deficiency was predicted in a patient by the presence of a triplicated haplotype. The finding of deranged 21-OHase genes on all triplicated C4/21-OHase haplotypes indicate that most of these common haplotypes carry mutated 21-OHase genes, and thus may cause functional polymorphism of general importance in the population. PMID:1924294

  14. Encoding Specificity for Sentences in Connected Discourse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christiaansen, Robert E.; Dooling, D. James

    The encoding specificity principle predicts that a change in context between input and test will adversely affect recognition memory. Experiment I tested this with sentences from a prose passage and no context effects were obtained. Experiments II, III, and IV compared context effects for words in random sentences versus connected discourse. In…

  15. Encoding of Others' Beliefs without Overt Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Adam S.; German, Tamsin C.

    2009-01-01

    Under what conditions do people automatically encode and track the mental states of others? A recent investigation showed that when subjects are instructed to track the location of an object but are not instructed to track a belief about that location in a non-verbal false-belief task, they respond more slowly to questions about an agent's belief,…

  16. Young Children's Automatic Encoding of Social Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisman, Kara; Johnson, Marissa V.; Shutts, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    The present research investigated young children's automatic encoding of two social categories that are highly relevant to adults: gender and race. Three- to 6-year-old participants learned facts about unfamiliar target children who varied in either gender or race and were asked to remember which facts went with which targets. When participants…

  17. Encoders for block-circulant LDPC codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, Dariush (Inventor); Abbasfar, Aliazam (Inventor); Jones, Christopher R. (Inventor); Dolinar, Samuel J. (Inventor); Thorpe, Jeremy C. (Inventor); Andrews, Kenneth S. (Inventor); Yao, Kung (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Methods and apparatus to encode message input symbols in accordance with an accumulate-repeat-accumulate code with repetition three or four are disclosed. Block circulant matrices are used. A first method and apparatus make use of the block-circulant structure of the parity check matrix. A second method and apparatus use block-circulant generator matrices.

  18. Encode/Decode facility for FORTRAN 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohn, C. E.

    1969-01-01

    An ENCODE and DECODE facility, a subroutine added to a FORTRAN 4 library, allows alphanumeric data to be transfered to or from an area in memory rather than to or from external input/output devices. A buffer storage array allows the operations on the data prior to writing.

  19. Retrieval during Learning Facilitates Subsequent Memory Encoding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pastotter, Bernhard; Schicker, Sabine; Niedernhuber, Julia; Bauml, Karl-Heinz T.

    2011-01-01

    In multiple-list learning, retrieval during learning has been suggested to improve recall of the single lists by enhancing list discrimination and, at test, reducing interference. Using electrophysiological, oscillatory measures of brain activity, we examined to what extent retrieval during learning facilitates list encoding. Subjects studied 5…

  20. Encoded Archival Description as a Halfway Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dow, Elizabeth H.

    2009-01-01

    In the mid 1990s, Encoded Archival Description (EAD) appeared as a revolutionary technology for publishing archival finding aids on the Web. The author explores whether or not, given the advent of Web 2.0, the archival community should abandon EAD and look for something to replace it. (Contains 18 notes.)

  1. 47 CFR 11.32 - EAS Encoder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... used for audio messages and at least one input port used for data messages. (3) Outputs. The encoder shall have at least one audio output port and at least one data output port. (4) Calibration. EAS... sent and deactivated at the End of Message code. (8) Spurious Response. All frequency...

  2. Gene encoding acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase

    DOEpatents

    Roessler, P.G.; Ohlrogge, J.B.

    1996-09-24

    A DNA encoding an acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACCase) from a photosynthetic organism and functional derivatives are disclosed which are resistant to inhibition from certain herbicides. This gene can be placed in organisms to increase their fatty acid content or to render them resistant to certain herbicides. 5 figs.

  3. Encoding and Retrieval During Bimanual Rhythmic Coordination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shockley, Kevin; Turvey, Michael T.

    2005-01-01

    In 2 experiments, bimanual 1:1 rhythmic coordination was performed concurrently with encoding or retrieval of word lists. Effects of divided attention (DA) on coordination were indexed by changes in mean relative phase and recurrence measures of shared activity between the 2 limbs. Effects of DA on memory were indexed by deficits in recall…

  4. Encoding attentional states during visuomotor adaptation.

    PubMed

    Im, Hee Yeon; Bédard, Patrick; Song, Joo-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    We recently showed that visuomotor adaptation acquired under attentional distraction is better recalled under a similar level of distraction compared to no distraction. This paradoxical effect suggests that attentional state (e.g., divided or undivided) is encoded as an internal context during visuomotor learning and should be reinstated for successful recall (Song & Bédard, 2015). To investigate if there is a critical temporal window for encoding attentional state in visuomotor memory, we manipulated whether participants performed the secondary attention-demanding task concurrently in the early or late phase of visuomotor learning. Recall performance was enhanced when the attentional states between recall and the early phase of visuomotor learning were consistent. However, it reverted to untrained levels when tested under the attentional state of the late-phase learning. This suggests that attentional state is primarily encoded during the early phase of learning before motor errors decrease and reach an asymptote. Furthermore, we demonstrate that when divided and undivided attentional states were mixed during visuomotor adaptation, only divided attention was encoded as an internal cue for memory retrieval. Therefore, a single attentional state appears to be primarily integrated with visuomotor memory while motor error reduction is in progress during learning. PMID:26114683

  5. Synchronizing Heavily Encoded Data in Bad Weather

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, L.

    1985-01-01

    Deep space missions choose a data rate to ensure reliable communication under most conditions. Certain critical data can be more heavily encoded, to be decoded under particularly bad atmospheric conditions. It is shown that, in such a system, finding and synchronizing critical data will not be a problem.

  6. Design Primer for Reed-Solomon Encoders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perlman, M.; Lee, J. J.

    1985-01-01

    Design and operation of Reed-Solomon (RS) encoders discussed in document prepared as instruction manual for computer designers and others in dataprocessing field. Conventional and Berlekamp architectures compared. Engineers who equip computer memory chips with burst-error and dropout detection and correction find report especially useful.

  7. Recombinant DNA encoding a desulfurization biocatalyst

    DOEpatents

    Rambosek, J.; Piddington, C.S.; Kovacevich, B.R.; Young, K.D.; Denome, S.A.

    1994-10-18

    This invention relates to a recombinant DNA molecule containing a gene or genes which encode a biocatalyst capable of desulfurizing a fossil fuel which contains organic sulfur molecules. For example, the present invention encompasses a recombinant DNA molecule containing a gene or genes of a strain of Rhodococcus rhodochrous. 13 figs.

  8. [Development genes encoding transcription factors and dysmorphology].

    PubMed

    Lacombe, Didier

    2009-04-01

    Studies of children with developmental abnormalities of genetic origin are necessary for accurate diagnosis, prognostication, patient management, and genetic counseling. Such studies can also help to identify genes involved in normal and abnormal morphogenesis, which often act as patterning genes and are also potential oncogenes. Many encode transcription factors that regulate other genes during embryonic development. PMID:20120282

  9. Gene encoding acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase

    DOEpatents

    Roessler, Paul G.; Ohlrogge, John B.

    1996-01-01

    A DNA encoding an acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACCase) from a photosynthetic organism and functional derivatives thereof which are resistant to inhibition from certain herbicides. This gene can be placed in organisms to increase their fatty acid content or to render them resistant to certain herbicides.

  10. Recombinant DNA encoding a desulfurization biocatalyst

    DOEpatents

    Rambosek, John; Piddington, Chris S.; Kovacevich, Brian R.; Young, Kevin D.; Denome, Sylvia A.

    1994-01-01

    This invention relates to a recombinant DNA molecule containing a gene or genes which encode a biocatalyst capable of desulfurizing a fossil fuel which contains organic sulfur molecules. For example, the present invention encompasses a recombinant DNA molecule containing a gene or genes of a strain of Rhodococcus rhodochrous.

  11. A VLSI single chip (255,223) Reed-Solomon encoder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deutsch, L. J.; Reed, I. S.; Hsu, I. S.; Truong, T. K.

    1985-01-01

    A description of a working single chip implementation of a Reed-Solomon encoder. The code used is the Consultative Committee on Space Data Systems (CCSDS) standard (255,223) code. The architecture that leads to this single very large scale integration chip design makes use of a bit-serial finite field multiplication algorithm of E. R. Berlekamp.

  12. JPEG 2000 Encoding with Perceptual Distortion Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Andrew B.; Liu, Zhen; Karam, Lina J.

    2008-01-01

    An alternative approach has been devised for encoding image data in compliance with JPEG 2000, the most recent still-image data-compression standard of the Joint Photographic Experts Group. Heretofore, JPEG 2000 encoding has been implemented by several related schemes classified as rate-based distortion-minimization encoding. In each of these schemes, the end user specifies a desired bit rate and the encoding algorithm strives to attain that rate while minimizing a mean squared error (MSE). While rate-based distortion minimization is appropriate for transmitting data over a limited-bandwidth channel, it is not the best approach for applications in which the perceptual quality of reconstructed images is a major consideration. A better approach for such applications is the present alternative one, denoted perceptual distortion control, in which the encoding algorithm strives to compress data to the lowest bit rate that yields at least a specified level of perceptual image quality. Some additional background information on JPEG 2000 is prerequisite to a meaningful summary of JPEG encoding with perceptual distortion control. The JPEG 2000 encoding process includes two subprocesses known as tier-1 and tier-2 coding. In order to minimize the MSE for the desired bit rate, a rate-distortion- optimization subprocess is introduced between the tier-1 and tier-2 subprocesses. In tier-1 coding, each coding block is independently bit-plane coded from the most-significant-bit (MSB) plane to the least-significant-bit (LSB) plane, using three coding passes (except for the MSB plane, which is coded using only one "clean up" coding pass). For M bit planes, this subprocess involves a total number of (3M - 2) coding passes. An embedded bit stream is then generated for each coding block. Information on the reduction in distortion and the increase in the bit rate associated with each coding pass is collected. This information is then used in a rate-control procedure to determine the

  13. Effortful retrieval reduces hippocampal activity and impairs incidental encoding.

    PubMed

    Reas, Emilie T; Brewer, James B

    2013-05-01

    Functional imaging studies frequently report that the hippocampus is engaged by successful episodic memory retrieval. However, considering that concurrent encoding of the background environment occurs during retrieval and influences medial temporal lobe activity, it is plausible that hippocampal encoding functions are reduced with increased attentional engagement during effortful retrieval. Expanding upon evidence that retrieval efforts suppress activity in hippocampal regions implicated in encoding, this study examines the influence of retrieval effort on encoding performance and the interactive effects of encoding and retrieval on hippocampal and neocortical activity. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was conducted while subjects performed a word recognition task with incidental picture encoding. Both lower memory strength and increased search duration were associated with encoding failure and reduced hippocampal and default network activity. Activity in the anterior hippocampus tracked encoding, which was more strongly deactivated when incidental encoding was unsuccessful. These findings highlight potential contributions from background encoding processes to hippocampal activations during neuroimaging studies of episodic memory retrieval. PMID:23378272

  14. Implementing the Ten Steps for Successful Breastfeeding in Hospitals Serving Low-Wealth Patients

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Emily C.; Nickel, Nathan C.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. The Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding is a proven approach to support breastfeeding in maternity settings; however, scant literature exists on the relative impact and interpretation of each step on breastfeeding. We assessed the Ten Steps and their relationship with in-hospital breastfeeding rates at facilities serving low-wealth populations and explored the outcomes to identify step-specific actions. Methods. We present descriptive and nonparametric comparisons and qualitative findings to examine the relationship between the Ten Steps and breastfeeding rates from each hospital using baseline data collection. Results. Some steps (1-policy, 2-training, 4-skin-to-skin, 6-no supplements, and 9-no artificial nipples, followed by 3-prenatal counseling, 7-rooming-in) reflected differences in relative baseline breastfeeding rates between settings. Key informant interviews revealed misunderstanding of some steps. Conclusions. Self-appraisal may be less valid when not all elements of the criteria for evaluating Step implementation may be fully understood. Limited exposure and understanding may lead to self-appraisal errors, resulting in scores that are not reflective of actual practices. Nonetheless, the indication that breastfeeding rates may be better mirrored by a defined subset of steps may provide some constructive insight toward prioritizing implementation activities and simplifying assessment. These issues will be further explored in the next phase of this study. PMID:23078473

  15. Saturnine curse: a history of lead poisoning

    SciTech Connect

    Green, D.W.

    1985-01-01

    Over the past ten years there has been increasing recognition of subacute and chronic lead poisoning and a growing awareness of its pathophysiology and clinical effects. Besides the classic manifestations of abdominal colic, seizures, and anemia progressing to gout, renal disease, and neuropathy, more subtle manifestations are now being increasingly recognized, such as the development of hypertension, neurobehavioral changes, reproductive and endocrine abnormalities, a possible role in carcinogenesis, and an overall increase in morbidity and mortality. Lead was one of the seven metals of antiquity, and it has accompanied the Eurasian and American civilizations since their beginnings. Lead is an extremely pernicious metal with a multitude of adverse effects. The recurring nature of lead poisoning throughout the development of civilization can truly be referred to as the saturnine curse. 16 references.

  16. OVERVIEW OF AERIAL TRAM SUPPORT TOWERS NINE, TEN, AND DEEP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERVIEW OF AERIAL TRAM SUPPORT TOWERS NINE, TEN, AND DEEP RAVINE,LOOKING SOUTH FROM BREAK OVER TOWER LOCATION. A SINGLE ORE BUCKET HANGS FROM THE CABLE AT CENTER. DEATH VALLEY'S FLOOR IS IN THE DISTANCE (TOP). - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  17. Designing an Educational Game with Ten Steps to Complex Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enfield, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Few instructional design (ID) models exist which are specific for developing educational games. Moreover, those extant ID models have not been rigorously evaluated. No ID models were found which focus on educational games with complex learning objectives. "Ten Steps to Complex Learning" (TSCL) is based on the four component instructional…

  18. A Snapshot of Ten Pre-Service Secondary Mathematics Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latterell, Carmen M.

    2008-01-01

    Reform in secondary mathematics education has created changes regarding how to educate teachers. It is time to check the result of such changes. This study provides a snapshot look at the commonalities of ten pre-service teachers in regards to their mathematics knowledge and their attitudes about mathematics and mathematics education. Four themes…

  19. Reference Success: What Has Changed over the Past Ten Years?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Lynda M.; Field, Judith J.

    2000-01-01

    Describes a study that replicated two earlier studies to determine whether environmental factors of reference departments and behavioral characteristics of references staff members had changed over the past ten years. Results emphasize the need for more and better education and training in conducting reference interviews and providing client…

  20. The First Ten Years. National Sea Grant College Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hull, E. W. Seabrook

    Detailed are the first ten years of the Sea Grant Program through 1976. The review is divided into three parts. Part I, Sea Grant Origin and Process, traces the historical development of the program and cites the program's philosophy. Part II, Sea Grant in Action, discusses marine resource development, marine technology, research and development,…

  1. The Reality of Comenius Projects in Ten Catalan Educational Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutiérrez Colón-Plana, Mar

    2012-01-01

    This paper submits a qualitative study on different aspects of Comenius projects undertaken in ten educational centres in Catalonia during the academic year 07- 08. The objectives of this paper are to present these projects within the realities of particular school contexts, to emphasize the strengths and weaknesses of the projects, the…

  2. Literacy Teacher Preparation: Ten Truths Teacher Educators Need to Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis Lenski, Susan, Ed.; Grisham, Dana L., Ed.; Wold, Linda S., Ed.

    2005-01-01

    The quality of teacher preparation is frequently under public scrutiny. In this collection, experts in literacy teacher preparation offer ten truths--based on evidence, not ideology-- that support the ongoing positive efforts of teacher educators. In this book, the reader will find: A review of the existing knowledge base; Evidence of the improved…

  3. Ten-color Gegenschein-zodiacal light photometer. [onboard Skylab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sparrow, J. G.; Weinberg, J. L.; Hahn, R. C.

    1977-01-01

    A ten-color Fabry photometer was used during Skylab missions SL-2 and SL-3 to measure sky brightness and polarization associated with zodiacal light, background starlight, F region airglow, and spacecraft corona. A brief description is given of the design, calibration, and performance of the instrument.

  4. Technical descriptions of ten irrigation technologies for conserving energy

    SciTech Connect

    Harrer, B.J.; Wilfert, G.L.

    1983-05-01

    Technical description of ten technologies which were researched to save energy in irrigated agriculture are presented. These technologies are: well design and development ground water supply system optimization, column and pump redesign, variable-speed pumping, pipe network optimization, reduced-pressure center-pivot systems, low-energy precision application, automated gated-pipe system, computerized irrigation scheduling, and instrumented irrigation scheduling. (MHR)

  5. Ten Nonfiction Books (for Adults) to Fall in Love with

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Genco, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes ten nonfiction books she recommends for adults: (1) "My Reading Life" (Pat Conroy); (2) "Nothing to Envy: Ordinary Lives in North Korea" (Barbara Demick); (3) "Learning to Die in Miami: Confessions of a Refuge Boy" (Carlos Eire); (4) "The Perfect Shape + The Perfect Sauce = The Geometry of Pasta" (Jacob…

  6. Ten Years after Columbine: The Tragedy of Youth Deepens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giroux, Henry A.

    2009-01-01

    For young people it just gets worse. Ten years after the Columbine tragedy, the debate over school safety has clearly shown that educators, parents, politicians, and the mainstream media have created the conditions in which young people have increasingly become the victims of adult mistreatment, indifference, neglect, even violence. The tragic…

  7. Ten Steps to a More Productive Choral Rehearsal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Christina

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author provides ten strategies to help make choral rehearsals more productive. The strategies, that are described in detail in this article, include: (1) Start on time; (2) Make taking attendance the students' responsibility; (3) Take time to warm up; (4) Include sight-singing; (5) Post the order of music before each…

  8. A Survey of Ten Money and Banking Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amsler, Christine E.

    1985-01-01

    Ten college-level money and banking textbooks were arrayed along six continua representing professors' major preferences when choosing a text. The continua topics are theoretical approach, complexity of presentation, theory/institution mix, nuts and bolts explanations, organizational approach, and writing style. (RM)

  9. A Design Taxonomy Utilizing Ten Major Evaluation Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Barry

    This paper discusses ten evaluation strategies selected on the basis of their general acceptance and their relatively unique approach to the field: (1) State, "Countenance of Evaluation"; (2) Stufflebeam, "Decision Centered Evaluation (CIPP)"; (3) Provus, "Discrepancy Evaluation"; (4) Scriven, "Goal Free Evaluation"; (5) Scriven, "Formative and…

  10. Inclusive Education in Australia Ten Years after Salamanca

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forlin, Chris

    2006-01-01

    While many states and territories in Australia were initially a little slow to develop a strong momentum towards inclusive educational practices, this has been addressed quite dramatically in the past ten years. Acknowledging that each jurisdiction in Australia has its own department of education and determines its own educational directions this…

  11. The Teenage Expertise Network (TEN): An Online Ethnographic Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Nicola F.; Humphry, Nicoli

    2012-01-01

    The take-up of digital technology by young people is a well-known phenomenon and has been subject to socio-cultural analysis in areas such as youth studies and cultural studies. The Teenage Expertise Network (TEN) research project investigates how teenagers develop technological expertise in techno-cultural contexts via the use of a purposefully…

  12. 14. UNIDENTIFIED CABLESTAYED SUSPENSION BRIDGE WITH TIMBER RAILING OF TEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. UNIDENTIFIED CABLE-STAYED SUSPENSION BRIDGE WITH TIMBER RAILING OF TEN PANELS AND STONE PIER, SHOWING ELEMENTS SIMILAR TO E.E. RUNYON'S SUSPENSION BRIDGE PATENTS, BUT ALTERNATE CABLE PATTERN. 3/4 VIEW FROM BELOW. - Bluff Dale Suspension Bridge, Spanning Paluxy River at County Route 149, Bluff Dale, Erath County, TX

  13. Ten Design Points for the Human Interface to Instructional Multimedia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFarland, Ronald D.

    1995-01-01

    Ten ways to design an effective Human-Computer Interface are explained. Highlights include material delivery that relates to user knowledge; appropriate screen presentations; attention value versus learning and recall; the relationship of packaging and message; the effectiveness of visuals and text; the use of color to enhance communication; the…

  14. Ten Pillars of a Good Childhood: A Finnish Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pulkkinen, Lea

    2012-01-01

    The organizers of the Decade for Childhood have formulated Ten Pillars of a Good Childhood as basic requirements for an optimal childhood. The pillars can be used to analyze the quality of childhood in homes and nations, and to guide policies and practices related to the experience of childhood. In this article, the author shall illustrate, pillar…

  15. FMOE-MR: content-driven multiresolution MPEG-4 fine grained scalable layered video encoding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chattopadhyay, S.; Luo, X.; Bhandarkar, S. M.; Li, K.

    2007-01-01

    The MPEG-4 Fine Grained Scalability (FGS) profile aims at scalable layered video encoding, in order to ensure efficient video streaming in networks with fluctuating bandwidths. In this paper, we propose a novel technique, termed as FMOEMR, which delivers significantly improved rate distortion performance compared to existing MPEG-4 Base Layer encoding techniques. The video frames are re-encoded at high resolution at semantically and visually important regions of the video (termed as Features, Motion and Objects) that are defined using a mask (FMO-Mask) and at low resolution in the remaining regions. The multiple-resolution re-rendering step is implemented such that further MPEG-4 compression leads to low bit rate Base Layer video encoding. The Features, Motion and Objects Encoded-Multi- Resolution (FMOE-MR) scheme is an integrated approach that requires only encoder-side modifications, and is transparent to the decoder. Further, since the FMOE-MR scheme incorporates "smart" video preprocessing, it requires no change in existing MPEG-4 codecs. As a result, it is straightforward to use the proposed FMOE-MR scheme with any existing MPEG codec, thus allowing great flexibility in implementation. In this paper, we have described, and implemented, unsupervised and semi-supervised algorithms to create the FMO-Mask from a given video sequence, using state-of-the-art computer vision algorithms.

  16. An Unusual Phage Repressor Encoded by Mycobacteriophage BPs

    PubMed Central

    Villanueva, Valerie M.; Oldfield, Lauren M.; Hatfull, Graham F.

    2015-01-01

    Temperate bacteriophages express transcription repressors that maintain lysogeny by down-regulating lytic promoters and confer superinfection immunity. Repressor regulation is critical to the outcome of infection—lysogenic or lytic growth—as well as prophage induction into lytic replication. Mycobacteriophage BPs and its relatives use an unusual integration-dependent immunity system in which the phage attachment site (attP) is located within the repressor gene (33) such that site-specific integration leads to synthesis of a prophage-encoded product (gp33103) that is 33 residues shorter at its C-terminus than the virally-encoded protein (gp33136). However, the shorter form of the repressor (gp33103) is stable and active in repression of the early lytic promoter PR, whereas the longer virally-encoded form (gp33136) is inactive due to targeted degradation via a C-terminal ssrA-like tag. We show here that both forms of the repressor bind similarly to the 33–34 intergenic regulatory region, and that BPs gp33103 is a tetramer in solution. The BPs gp33103 repressor binds to five regulatory regions spanning the BPs genome, and regulates four promoters including the early lytic promoter, PR. BPs gp33103 has a complex pattern of DNA recognition in which a full operator binding site contains two half sites separated by a variable spacer, and BPs gp33103 induces a DNA bend at the full operator site but not a half site. The operator site structure is unusual in that one half site corresponds to a 12 bp palindrome identified previously, but the other half site is a highly variable variant of the palindrome. PMID:26332854

  17. An Unusual Phage Repressor Encoded by Mycobacteriophage BPs.

    PubMed

    Villanueva, Valerie M; Oldfield, Lauren M; Hatfull, Graham F

    2015-01-01

    Temperate bacteriophages express transcription repressors that maintain lysogeny by down-regulating lytic promoters and confer superinfection immunity. Repressor regulation is critical to the outcome of infection-lysogenic or lytic growth-as well as prophage induction into lytic replication. Mycobacteriophage BPs and its relatives use an unusual integration-dependent immunity system in which the phage attachment site (attP) is located within the repressor gene (33) such that site-specific integration leads to synthesis of a prophage-encoded product (gp33103) that is 33 residues shorter at its C-terminus than the virally-encoded protein (gp33136). However, the shorter form of the repressor (gp33103) is stable and active in repression of the early lytic promoter PR, whereas the longer virally-encoded form (gp33136) is inactive due to targeted degradation via a C-terminal ssrA-like tag. We show here that both forms of the repressor bind similarly to the 33-34 intergenic regulatory region, and that BPs gp33103 is a tetramer in solution. The BPs gp33103 repressor binds to five regulatory regions spanning the BPs genome, and regulates four promoters including the early lytic promoter, PR. BPs gp33103 has a complex pattern of DNA recognition in which a full operator binding site contains two half sites separated by a variable spacer, and BPs gp33103 induces a DNA bend at the full operator site but not a half site. The operator site structure is unusual in that one half site corresponds to a 12 bp palindrome identified previously, but the other half site is a highly variable variant of the palindrome. PMID:26332854

  18. Toxicokinetics of bone lead.

    PubMed Central

    Rabinowitz, M B

    1991-01-01

    This article discusses bone as a source of lead to the rest of the body and as a record of past lead exposure. Bone lead levels generally increase with age at rates dependent on the skeletal site and lead exposure. After occupational exposure, the slow decline in blood lead, a 5- to 19-year half-life, reflects the long skeletal half-life. Repeated measurements of bone lead demonstrate the slow elimination of lead from bone. Stable isotope ratios have revealed many details of skeletal uptake and subsequent release. The bulk turnover rates for compact bone are about 2% per year and 8% for spine. Turnover activity varies with age and health. Even though lead approximates calcium, radium, strontium, barium, fluorine, and other bone seekers, the rates for each are different. A simple, two-pool (bone and blood) kinetic model is presented with proposed numerical values for the changes in blood lead levels that occur with changes in turnover rates. Two approaches are offered to further quantify lead turnover. One involves a study of subjects with known past exposure. Changes in the ratio of blood lead to bone lead with time would reflect the course of bone lead availability. Also, stable isotopes and subjects who move from one geographical area to another offer opportunities. Sequential isotope measurements would indicate how much of the lead in blood is from current exposure or bone stores, distinct from changes in absorption or excretion. PMID:2040248

  19. Coronary Sinus Lead Extraction.

    PubMed

    Cronin, Edmond M; Wilkoff, Bruce L

    2015-12-01

    Expanded indications for cardiac resynchronization therapy and the increasing incidence of cardiac implantable electronic device infection have led to an increased need for coronary sinus (CS) lead extraction. The CS presents unique anatomical obstacles to successful lead extraction. Training and facility requirements for CS lead extraction should mirror those for other leads. Here we review the indications, technique, and results of CS lead extraction. Published success rates and complications are similar to those reported for other leads, although multiple techniques may be required. Re-implantation options may be limited, which should be incorporated into pre-procedural decision making. PMID:26596810

  20. Asia Wise, Issues One-Ten, 1990 [and] Asia Wise, Teachers' Section, Issues One-Ten 1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asia Wise, 1990

    1990-01-01

    Student volumes and teacher guides for 10 issues of an Australian magazine devoted to the study of Asia comprise this document. The subjects of the ten issues are: (1) Trading for Our Future; (2) Korea: Two Nations--One People; (3) Women in Asia--A Confusing Picture; (4) Australia--Indonesia: A Developing Relationship; (5) The Land on the Roof of…

  1. The Dopaminergic Midbrain Encodes the Expected Certainty about Desired Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Schwartenbeck, Philipp; FitzGerald, Thomas H. B.; Mathys, Christoph; Dolan, Ray; Friston, Karl

    2015-01-01

    Dopamine plays a key role in learning; however, its exact function in decision making and choice remains unclear. Recently, we proposed a generic model based on active (Bayesian) inference wherein dopamine encodes the precision of beliefs about optimal policies. Put simply, dopamine discharges reflect the confidence that a chosen policy will lead to desired outcomes. We designed a novel task to test this hypothesis, where subjects played a “limited offer” game in a functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment. Subjects had to decide how long to wait for a high offer before accepting a low offer, with the risk of losing everything if they waited too long. Bayesian model comparison showed that behavior strongly supported active inference, based on surprise minimization, over classical utility maximization schemes. Furthermore, midbrain activity, encompassing dopamine projection neurons, was accurately predicted by trial-by-trial variations in model-based estimates of precision. Our findings demonstrate that human subjects infer both optimal policies and the precision of those inferences, and thus support the notion that humans perform hierarchical probabilistic Bayesian inference. In other words, subjects have to infer both what they should do as well as how confident they are in their choices, where confidence may be encoded by dopaminergic firing. PMID:25056572

  2. Lead and tap water

    MedlinePlus

    Water contaminated with lead ... The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) monitors drinking water in the United States. It requires water suppliers to produce annual water quality reports. These reports include information about lead amounts, and they ...

  3. VOLUMETRIC LEAD ASSAY

    SciTech Connect

    M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.; S.K. Dua; David Roelant; Sachin Kumar

    2001-01-01

    This report describes a system for handling and radioassay of lead, consisting of a robot, a conveyor, and a gamma spectrometer. The report also presents a cost-benefit analysis of options: radioassay and recycling lead vs. disposal as waste.

  4. Lead - nutritional considerations

    MedlinePlus

    ... lead soldered cans goes into effect. If imported wine containers have a lead foil wrapper, wipe the ... a towel moistened with lemon juice, vinegar, or wine before using. DO NOT store wine, spirits, or ...

  5. Lead - nutritional considerations

    MedlinePlus

    ... found in some containers and cooking utensils . Old paint poses the greatest danger for lead poisoning , especially ... leach out into the liquid. Other important recommendations: Paint over old leaded paint if it is in ...

  6. Lead and tap water

    MedlinePlus

    Water contaminated with lead ... The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) monitors drinking water and requires water suppliers to produce annual water quality reports. These reports, which include information about lead amounts, are available to consumers. For ...

  7. Transplacental transport of lead

    SciTech Connect

    Goyer, R.A. )

    1990-11-01

    Neurotoxicity is the major health effect from exposure to lead for infants and young children, and there is current concern regarding possible toxic effects of lead on the child while in utero. there is no placental-fetal barrier to lead transport. Maternal and fetal blood lead levels are nearly identical, so lead passes through the placenta unencumbered. Lead has been measured in the fetal brain as early as the end of the first trimester (13 weeks). There is a similar rate of increase in brain size and lead content throughout pregnancy in the fetus of mothers in the general population, so concentration of lead probably does not differ greatly during gestation unless exposure of the mother changes. Cell-specific sensitivity to the toxic effects of lead, however, may be greater the younger the fetus. Lead toxicity to the nervous system is characterized by edema or swelling of the brain due to altered permeability of capillary endothelial cells. Experimental studies suggest that immature endothelial cells forming the capillaries of the developing brain are less resistant to the effects of lead, permitting fluid and cations including lead to reach newly formed components of the brain, particularly astrocytes and neurons. Also, the ability of astrocytes and neurons to sequester lead in the form of lead protein complexes occurs only in the later stages of fetal development, permitting lead in maturing brain cells to interact with vital subcellular organelles, particularly mitochondria, which are the major cellular energy source. Intracellular lead also affects binding sites for calcium which, in turn, may affect numerous cell functions including neurotransmitter release.

  8. Solving the lead dilemma

    SciTech Connect

    Pollack, S. )

    1989-10-01

    This paper discusses the widespread problem of lead poisoning among children. The perils of deleading are addressed and several methods of deleading currently in use are detailed and analyzed. These include the traditional method of burning or sanding off leaded paint, the Baltimore Model involving extensive refabrication of infected dwellings, and encapsulation by which leaded surfaces in the home are covered to prevent the escape of lead dust.

  9. PHOTOEMISSION PROPERTIES OF LEAD.

    SciTech Connect

    SMEDLEY,J.; RAO,T.; WARREN,J.; SEKUTOWICZ,J.; LEFFERTS,R.; LIPSKI,A.

    2004-07-05

    In this paper we present a study of the photoemission properties of lead at several UV wavelengths, including a study of the damage threshold of electroplated lead under laser cleaning. A quantum efficiency in excess of 0.1% has been achieved for a laser cleaned, electroplated lead sample with a laser wavelength of 193 nm. Niobium cathodes have been measured for comparison, and lead is found to be a superior photoemitter for all measured wavelengths.

  10. Lead Poisoning in Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pueschel, Siegfried M., Ed.; Linakis, James G., Ed.; Anderson, Angela C., Ed.

    The magnitude of childhood lead poisoning has been inexplicably neglected by modern medicine and by legislators. However, since the 1970s, increased attention has been focused on lead poisoning, and advances have been made in several areas, including understanding of the neurodevelopmental and behavioral ramifications of lead poisoning, and…

  11. Lead Poisoning (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Lead Poisoning KidsHealth > For Parents > Lead Poisoning Print A A ... Family en español La intoxicación por plomo About Lead Poisoning If you have young kids, it's important to ...

  12. Lead Poisoning in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boeckx, Roger L.

    1986-01-01

    Urban children are exposed to lead through the air they breathe, the water they drink, and the food and nonfood substances they ingest. The history, diagnosis, and treatment of lead poisoning in these children are discussed. Includes information on the toxicology of lead and the various risk classes. (JN)

  13. Lead Poisoning in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drummond, A. H., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Early symptoms of lead poisoning in children are often overlooked. Lead poisoning has its greatest effects on the brain and nervous system. The obvious long-term solution to the lead poisoning problem is removal of harmful forms of the metal from the environment. (JN)

  14. Learn about Lead

    MedlinePlus

    ... Determine if your family is at risk for lead poisoning with the Lead Poisoning Home Checklist (PDF) . Top of page What do I do if I think my child or I have been exposed to lead? Talk to your pediatrician, general physician, or local ...

  15. Lead and children

    PubMed Central

    Abelsohn, Alan R.; Sanborn, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    Abstract OBJECTIVE To provide family physicians with a practical, evidence-based approach to screening for and preventing children’s exposure to lead. SOURCES OF INFORMATION MEDLINE was searched using terms relevant to lead exposure and poisoning. We reviewed English-language articles published in 2003 to 2008. Most cited studies provide level 2 or 3 evidence. MAIN MESSAGE Lead is a developmental neurotoxin. Children are most commonly exposed and they are most vulnerable. Lead exposure has been associated with many cognitive and motor deficits, as well as distractibility and other characteristics of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Although children’s blood lead levels have declined considerably over the past 3 decades with removal of lead from gasoline and paint, children can still be exposed to lead from lead paint in older homes, toys, and other sources. Because post-exposure treatment cannot reverse the cognitive effects of lead exposure, preventing lead exposure is essential. CONCLUSION Family physicians have an important role in screening for children at high risk of lead exposure, and in educating families to prevent the exposure of children to lead. PMID:20547517

  16. Lead poisoning: An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gendel, Neil

    1993-01-01

    A problem that should be of great concern to all of us is the lead poisoning of children. First, I would like to present a short overview concerning the reasons everyone should care about lead poisoning, then discuss the history of lead poisoning, what is happening today across the country, and the future.

  17. Lead Poisoning in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guyaux, Susan

    1990-01-01

    Overexposure to lead can permanently impair a child's mental and physical development. This article discusses sources of lead paint, survey and testing methods, management and abatement plans, drinking water contamination, and associated federal standards. Although lead is present in soil and in art, theater, and vocational programs, no federal…

  18. High-diffraction-efficiency pseudorandom encoding.

    PubMed

    Yang, Y; Stark, H; Gurkan, D; Lawson, C L; Cohn, R W

    2000-02-01

    Pseudorandom encoding (PRE) is a statistics-based procedure in which a pure-phase spatial light modulator (SLM) can yield, on the average, the prescribed diffraction pattern specified by the user. We seek to combine PRE with the optimization of an aperture-based target function. The target function is a fully complex input transmittance, unrealizable by a phase-only SLM, that generates a prescribed light intensity. The optimization is done to increase the diffraction efficiency of the overall process. We compare three optimization methods-Monte Carlo simulation, a genetic algorithm, and a gradient search-for maximizing the diffraction efficiency of a spot-array generator. Calculated solutions are then encoded by PRE, and the resulting diffraction patterns are computer simulated. Details on the complexity of each procedure are furnished, as well as comparisons on the quality, such as uniformity of the output spot array. PMID:10680630

  19. Temporal information encoding in dynamic memristive devices

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Wen; Chen, Lin; Du, Chao; Lu, Wei D.

    2015-11-09

    We show temporal and frequency information can be effectively encoded in memristive devices with inherent short-term dynamics. Ag/Ag{sub 2}S/Pd based memristive devices with low programming voltage (∼100 mV) were fabricated and tested. At weak programming conditions, the devices exhibit inherent decay due to spontaneous diffusion of the Ag atoms. When the devices were subjected to pulse train inputs emulating different spiking patterns, the switching probability distribution function diverges from the standard Poisson distribution and evolves according to the input pattern. The experimentally observed switching probability distributions and the associated cumulative probability functions can be well-explained using a model accounting for the short-term decay effects. Such devices offer an intriguing opportunity to directly encode neural signals for neural information storage and analysis.

  20. Asymmetric synthesis using chiral-encoded metal

    PubMed Central

    Yutthalekha, Thittaya; Wattanakit, Chularat; Lapeyre, Veronique; Nokbin, Somkiat; Warakulwit, Chompunuch; Limtrakul, Jumras; Kuhn, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The synthesis of chiral compounds is of crucial importance in many areas of society and science, including medicine, biology, chemistry, biotechnology and agriculture. Thus, there is a fundamental interest in developing new approaches for the selective production of enantiomers. Here we report the use of mesoporous metal structures with encoded geometric chiral information for inducing asymmetry in the electrochemical synthesis of mandelic acid as a model molecule. The chiral-encoded mesoporous metal, obtained by the electrochemical reduction of platinum salts in the presence of a liquid crystal phase and the chiral template molecule, perfectly retains the chiral information after removal of the template. Starting from a prochiral compound we demonstrate enantiomeric excess of the (R)-enantiomer when using (R)-imprinted electrodes and vice versa for the (S)-imprinted ones. Moreover, changing the amount of chiral cavities in the material allows tuning the enantioselectivity. PMID:27562028

  1. Genetically encoded fluorescent sensors of membrane potential

    PubMed Central

    Baker, B. J.; Mutoh, H.; Dimitrov, D.; Akemann, W.; Perron, A.; Iwamoto, Y.; Jin, L.; Cohen, L. B.; Isacoff, E. Y.; Pieribone, V. A.; Hughes, T.; Knöpfel, T.

    2009-01-01

    Imaging activity of neurons in intact brain tissue was conceived several decades ago and, after many years of development, voltage-sensitive dyes now offer the highest spatial and temporal resolution for imaging neuronal functions in the living brain. Further progress in this field is expected from the emergent development of genetically encoded fluorescent sensors of membrane potential. These fluorescent protein (FP) voltage sensors overcome the drawbacks of organic voltage sensitive dyes such as non-specificity of cell staining and the low accessibility of the dye to some cell types. In a transgenic animal, a genetically encoded sensor could in principle be expressed specifically in any cell type and would have the advantage of staining only the cell population determined by the specificity of the promoter used to drive expression. Here we critically review the current status of these developments. PMID:18679801

  2. Nucleic acid compositions and the encoding proteins

    DOEpatents

    Preston, III, James F.; Chow, Virginia; Nong, Guang; Rice, John D.; St. John, Franz J.

    2014-09-02

    The subject invention provides at least one nucleic acid sequence encoding an aldouronate-utilization regulon isolated from Paenibacillus sp. strain JDR-2, a bacterium which efficiently utilizes xylan and metabolizes aldouronates (methylglucuronoxylosaccharides). The subject invention also provides a means for providing a coordinately regulated process in which xylan depolymerization and product assimilation are coupled in Paenibacillus sp. strain JDR-2 to provide a favorable system for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to biobased products. Additionally, the nucleic acid sequences encoding the aldouronate-utilization regulon can be used to transform other bacteria to form organisms capable of producing a desired product (e.g., ethanol, 1-butanol, acetoin, 2,3-butanediol, 1,3-propanediol, succinate, lactate, acetate, malate or alanine) from lignocellulosic biomass.

  3. Genetically Encoded Voltage Indicators in Circulation Research

    PubMed Central

    Kaestner, Lars; Tian, Qinghai; Kaiser, Elisabeth; Xian, Wenying; Müller, Andreas; Oberhofer, Martin; Ruppenthal, Sandra; Sinnecker, Daniel; Tsutsui, Hidekazu; Miyawaki, Atsushi; Moretti, Alessandra; Lipp, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Membrane potentials display the cellular status of non-excitable cells and mediate communication between excitable cells via action potentials. The use of genetically encoded biosensors employing fluorescent proteins allows a non-invasive biocompatible way to read out the membrane potential in cardiac myocytes and other cells of the circulation system. Although the approaches to design such biosensors date back to the time when the first fluorescent-protein based Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) sensors were constructed, it took 15 years before reliable sensors became readily available. Here, we review different developments of genetically encoded membrane potential sensors. Furthermore, it is shown how such sensors can be used in pharmacological screening applications as well as in circulation related basic biomedical research. Potentials and limitations will be discussed and perspectives of possible future developments will be provided. PMID:26370981

  4. Asymmetric synthesis using chiral-encoded metal.

    PubMed

    Yutthalekha, Thittaya; Wattanakit, Chularat; Lapeyre, Veronique; Nokbin, Somkiat; Warakulwit, Chompunuch; Limtrakul, Jumras; Kuhn, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The synthesis of chiral compounds is of crucial importance in many areas of society and science, including medicine, biology, chemistry, biotechnology and agriculture. Thus, there is a fundamental interest in developing new approaches for the selective production of enantiomers. Here we report the use of mesoporous metal structures with encoded geometric chiral information for inducing asymmetry in the electrochemical synthesis of mandelic acid as a model molecule. The chiral-encoded mesoporous metal, obtained by the electrochemical reduction of platinum salts in the presence of a liquid crystal phase and the chiral template molecule, perfectly retains the chiral information after removal of the template. Starting from a prochiral compound we demonstrate enantiomeric excess of the (R)-enantiomer when using (R)-imprinted electrodes and vice versa for the (S)-imprinted ones. Moreover, changing the amount of chiral cavities in the material allows tuning the enantioselectivity. PMID:27562028

  5. DNA-Encoded Dynamic Combinatorial Chemical Libraries.

    PubMed

    Reddavide, Francesco V; Lin, Weilin; Lehnert, Sarah; Zhang, Yixin

    2015-06-26

    Dynamic combinatorial chemistry (DCC) explores the thermodynamic equilibrium of reversible reactions. Its application in the discovery of protein binders is largely limited by difficulties in the analysis of complex reaction mixtures. DNA-encoded chemical library (DECL) technology allows the selection of binders from a mixture of up to billions of different compounds; however, experimental results often show low a signal-to-noise ratio and poor correlation between enrichment factor and binding affinity. Herein we describe the design and application of DNA-encoded dynamic combinatorial chemical libraries (EDCCLs). Our experiments have shown that the EDCCL approach can be used not only to convert monovalent binders into high-affinity bivalent binders, but also to cause remarkably enhanced enrichment of potent bivalent binders by driving their in situ synthesis. We also demonstrate the application of EDCCLs in DNA-templated chemical reactions. PMID:26014116

  6. DNA encoding for an efficient 'Omics processing.

    PubMed

    Murovec, Bostjan; Tiedje, James M; Stres, Blaz

    2010-11-01

    The exponential growth of available DNA sequences and the increased interoperability of biological information is triggering intergovernmental efforts aimed at increasing the access, dissemination, and analysis of sequence data. Achieving the efficient storage and processing of DNA material is an important goal that parallels well with the foreseen coding standardization on the horizon. This paper proposes novel coding approaches, for both the dissemination and processing of sequences, where the speed of the DNA processing is shown to be boosted by exploring more than the normally utilized eight bits for encoding a single nucleotide. Further gains are achieved by encoding the nucleotides together with their trailing alignment information as a single 64-bit data structure. The paper also proposes a slight modification to the established FASTA scheme in order to improve on its representation of alignment information. The significance of the propositions is confirmed by the encouraging results from empirical tests. PMID:20444519

  7. Storing data encoded DNA in living organisms

    DOEpatents

    Wong; Pak C. , Wong; Kwong K. , Foote; Harlan P.

    2006-06-06

    Current technologies allow the generation of artificial DNA molecules and/or the ability to alter the DNA sequences of existing DNA molecules. With a careful coding scheme and arrangement, it is possible to encode important information as an artificial DNA strand and store it in a living host safely and permanently. This inventive technology can be used to identify origins and protect R&D investments. It can also be used in environmental research to track generations of organisms and observe the ecological impact of pollutants. Today, there are microorganisms that can survive under extreme conditions. As well, it is advantageous to consider multicellular organisms as hosts for stored information. These living organisms can provide as memory housing and protection for stored data or information. The present invention provides well for data storage in a living organism wherein at least one DNA sequence is encoded to represent data and incorporated into a living organism.

  8. A single gene encodes a selective toxin causal to the development of tan spot of wheat.

    PubMed Central

    Ciuffetti, L M; Tuori, R P; Gaventa, J M

    1997-01-01

    The identification and characterization of pathogenicity factors are essential to an understanding of the molecular events that regulate the interaction of plant-pathogenic microbes with their hosts. We have isolated the gene that encodes a host-selective toxic protein produced by the fungus Pyrenophora tritici-repentis and confirmed that this gene functions in the plant as the primary determinant of pathogenicity in the Pyrenophora-wheat interaction. These results demonstrate that a single gene encodes the production of a host-selective toxin and that transformation of this gene into a non-toxin-producing isolate of P. tritici-repentis leads to both toxin production and pathogenicity. PMID:9061946

  9. Gene encoding herbicide safener binding protein

    SciTech Connect

    Walton, J.D.; Scott-Craig, J.S.

    1999-10-26

    The cDNA encoding safener binding protein (SafBP), also referred to as SBP1, is presented. The deduced amino acid sequence is provided. Methods of making and using SBP1 and SafBP to alter a plant's sensitivity to certain herbicides or a plant's responsiveness to certain safeners are also provided, as well as expression vectors, transgenic plants or other organisms transfected with vectors and seeds from the plants.

  10. Virus-encoded microRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Grundhoff, Adam; Sullivan, Christopher S.

    2011-01-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs) are the subject of enormous interest. They are small non-coding RNAs that play a regulatory role in numerous and diverse cellular processes such as immune function, apoptosis and tumorigenesis. Several virus families have been shown to encode miRNAs, and an appreciation for their roles in the viral infectious cycle continues to grow. Despite the identification of numerous (>225) viral miRNAs, an in depth functional understanding of most virus-encoded miRNAs is lacking. Here we focus on a few viral miRNAs with well-defined functions. We use these examples to extrapolate general themes of viral miRNA activities including autoregulation of gene expression, avoidance of host defenses, and a likely important role in maintaining latent and persistent infections. We hypothesize that although the molecular mechanisms and machinery are similar, the majority of viral miRNAs may utilize a target strategy that differs from host miRNAs. That is, many viral miRNAs may have evolved to regulate viral-encoded transcripts or networks of host genes that are unique to viral miRNAs. Included in this latter category are a likely abundant class of viral miRNAs that may regulate only one or a few principal host genes. Key steps forward for the field are discussed, including the need for additional functional studies that utilize surgical viral miRNA mutants combined with relevant models of infection. PMID:21277611

  11. Neural signals encoding shifts in beliefs.

    PubMed

    Schwartenbeck, Philipp; FitzGerald, Thomas H B; Dolan, Ray

    2016-01-15

    Dopamine is implicated in a diverse range of cognitive functions including cognitive flexibility, task switching, signalling novel or unexpected stimuli as well as advance information. There is also longstanding line of thought that links dopamine with belief formation and, crucially, aberrant belief formation in psychosis. Integrating these strands of evidence would suggest that dopamine plays a central role in belief updating and more specifically in encoding of meaningful information content in observations. The precise nature of this relationship has remained unclear. To directly address this question we developed a paradigm that allowed us to decompose two distinct types of information content, information-theoretic surprise that reflects the unexpectedness of an observation, and epistemic value that induces shifts in beliefs or, more formally, Bayesian surprise. Using functional magnetic-resonance imaging in humans we show that dopamine-rich midbrain regions encode shifts in beliefs whereas surprise is encoded in prefrontal regions, including the pre-supplementary motor area and dorsal cingulate cortex. By linking putative dopaminergic activity to belief updating these data provide a link to false belief formation that characterises hyperdopaminergic states associated with idiopathic and drug induced psychosis. PMID:26520774

  12. Absolute Position Encoders With Vertical Image Binning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leviton, Douglas B.

    2005-01-01

    Improved optoelectronic patternrecognition encoders that measure rotary and linear 1-dimensional positions at conversion rates (numbers of readings per unit time) exceeding 20 kHz have been invented. Heretofore, optoelectronic pattern-recognition absoluteposition encoders have been limited to conversion rates <15 Hz -- too low for emerging industrial applications in which conversion rates ranging from 1 kHz to as much as 100 kHz are required. The high conversion rates of the improved encoders are made possible, in part, by use of vertically compressible or binnable (as described below) scale patterns in combination with modified readout sequences of the image sensors [charge-coupled devices (CCDs)] used to read the scale patterns. The modified readout sequences and the processing of the images thus read out are amenable to implementation by use of modern, high-speed, ultra-compact microprocessors and digital signal processors or field-programmable gate arrays. This combination of improvements makes it possible to greatly increase conversion rates through substantial reductions in all three components of conversion time: exposure time, image-readout time, and image-processing time.

  13. Nucleic acids encoding human trithorax protein

    DOEpatents

    Evans, Glen A.; Djabali, Malek; Selleri, Licia; Parry, Pauline

    2001-01-01

    In accordance with the present invention, there is provided an isolated peptide having the characteristics of human trithorax protein (as well as DNA encoding same, antisense DNA derived therefrom and antagonists therefor). The invention peptide is characterized by having a DNA binding domain comprising multiple zinc fingers and at least 40% amino acid identity with respect to the DNA binding domain of Drosophila trithorax protein and at least 70% conserved sequence with respect to the DNA binding domain of Drosophila trithorax protein, and wherein said peptide is encoded by a gene located at chromosome 11 of the human genome at q23. Also provided are methods for the treatment of subject(s) suffering from immunodeficiency, developmental abnormality, inherited disease, or cancer by administering to said subject a therapeutically effective amount of one of the above-described agents (i.e., peptide, antagonist therefor, DNA encoding said peptide or antisense DNA derived therefrom). Also provided is a method for the diagnosis, in a subject, of immunodeficiency, developmental abnormality, inherited disease, or cancer associated with disruption of chromosome 11 at q23.

  14. Dual-channel spectrally encoded endoscopic probe

    PubMed Central

    Engel, Guy; Genish, Hadar; Rosenbluh, Michael; Yelin, Dvir

    2012-01-01

    High quality imaging through sub-millimeter endoscopic probes provides clinicians with valuable diagnostics capabilities in hard to reach locations within the body. Spectrally encoded endoscopy (SEE) has been shown promising for such task; however, challenging probe fabrication and high speckle noise had prevented its testing in in vivo studies. Here we demonstrate a novel miniature SEE probe which incorporates some of the recent progress in spectrally encoded technology into a compact and robust endoscopic system. A high-quality miniature diffraction grating was fabricated using automated femtosecond laser cutting from a large bulk grating. Using one spectrally encoded channel for imaging and a separate channel for incoherent illumination, the new system has large depth of field, negligible back reflections and well controlled speckle noise which depends on the core diameter of the illumination fiber. Moreover, by using a larger imaging channel, higher groove density grating, shorter wavelength and broader spectrum, the new endoscopic system now allow significant improvements in almost all imaging parameter compared to previous systems, through an ultra-miniature endoscopic probe. PMID:22876349

  15. Neural signals encoding shifts in beliefs

    PubMed Central

    Schwartenbeck, Philipp; FitzGerald, Thomas H.B.; Dolan, Ray

    2016-01-01

    Dopamine is implicated in a diverse range of cognitive functions including cognitive flexibility, task switching, signalling novel or unexpected stimuli as well as advance information. There is also longstanding line of thought that links dopamine with belief formation and, crucially, aberrant belief formation in psychosis. Integrating these strands of evidence would suggest that dopamine plays a central role in belief updating and more specifically in encoding of meaningful information content in observations. The precise nature of this relationship has remained unclear. To directly address this question we developed a paradigm that allowed us to decompose two distinct types of information content, information-theoretic surprise that reflects the unexpectedness of an observation, and epistemic value that induces shifts in beliefs or, more formally, Bayesian surprise. Using functional magnetic-resonance imaging in humans we show that dopamine-rich midbrain regions encode shifts in beliefs whereas surprise is encoded in prefrontal regions, including the pre-supplementary motor area and dorsal cingulate cortex. By linking putative dopaminergic activity to belief updating these data provide a link to false belief formation that characterises hyperdopaminergic states associated with idiopathic and drug induced psychosis. PMID:26520774

  16. Blind Identification of Convolutional Encoder Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Su, Shaojing; Zhou, Jing; Huang, Zhiping; Liu, Chunwu; Zhang, Yimeng

    2014-01-01

    This paper gives a solution to the blind parameter identification of a convolutional encoder. The problem can be addressed in the context of the noncooperative communications or adaptive coding and modulations (ACM) for cognitive radio networks. We consider an intelligent communication receiver which can blindly recognize the coding parameters of the received data stream. The only knowledge is that the stream is encoded using binary convolutional codes, while the coding parameters are unknown. Some previous literatures have significant contributions for the recognition of convolutional encoder parameters in hard-decision situations. However, soft-decision systems are applied more and more as the improvement of signal processing techniques. In this paper we propose a method to utilize the soft information to improve the recognition performances in soft-decision communication systems. Besides, we propose a new recognition method based on correlation attack to meet low signal-to-noise ratio situations. Finally we give the simulation results to show the efficiency of the proposed methods. PMID:24982997

  17. Top Ten Interaction Challenges in Extreme-Scale Visual Analytics

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Pak C.; Shen, Han-Wei; Chen, Chaomei

    2012-05-31

    The chapter presents ten selected user interfaces and interaction challenges in extreme-scale visual analytics. The study of visual analytics is often referred to as 'the science of analytical reasoning facilitated by interactive visual interfaces' in the literature. The discussion focuses on the issues of applying visual analytics technologies to extreme-scale scientific and non-scientific data ranging from petabyte to exabyte in sizes. The ten challenges are: in situ interactive analysis, user-driven data reduction, scalability and multi-level hierarchy, representation of evidence and uncertainty, heterogeneous data fusion, data summarization and triage for interactive query, analytics of temporally evolving features, the human bottleneck, design and engineering development, and the Renaissance of conventional wisdom. The discussion addresses concerns that arise from different areas of hardware, software, computation, algorithms, and human factors. The chapter also evaluates the likelihood of success in meeting these challenges in the near future.

  18. Water use efficiency variability and controls across ten California ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, A. E.; Goulden, M.

    2014-12-01

    Intensification of the hydrologic cycle is predicted with future climate change, and the consequences for ecosystem carbon cycling is a critical question in predicting ecohydrological feedbacks. We analyzed eddy covariance measurements to understand how interannual and inter-site variability in precipitation affects gross primary production, evapotranspiration, and ecosystem water use efficiency (WUE) across diverse ecosystems. Measurements came from ten California sites and spanned a mean annual temperature range of 5 to 23°C and mean annual precipitation range of 100 to 1400 mm, from Mojave Desert scrub to subalpine lodgepole forest. All ten ecosystems exhibited similar patterns in water use efficiency: ecosystem WUE declined sharply as annual precipitation dropped below 500 mm, and WUE plateaued with annual precipitation greater than 500 mm. Surface evaporation and flexible plant physiology contributed to sensitive WUE with low annual precipitation, while limited surface evaporation and "ecosystem inertia" diminished sensitivity of WUE with high annual precipitation.

  19. Discovery of a Potent Class of PI3Kα Inhibitors with Unique Binding Mode via Encoded Library Technology (ELT)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    In the search of PI3K p110α wild type and H1047R mutant selective small molecule leads, an encoded library technology (ELT) campaign against the desired target proteins was performed which led to the discovery of a selective chemotype for PI3K isoforms from a three-cycle DNA encoded library. An X-ray crystal structure of a representative inhibitor from this chemotype demonstrated a unique binding mode in the p110α protein. PMID:26005528

  20. Architecture for VLSI design of Reed-Solomon encoders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, K. Y.

    1981-01-01

    The logic structure of a universal VLSI chip called the symbol-slice Reed-Solomon (RS) encoder chip is discussed. An RS encoder can be constructed by cascading and properly interconnecting a group of such VLSI chips. As a design example, it is shown that a (255,223) RD encoder requiring around 40 discrete CMOS ICs may be replaced by an RS encoder consisting of four identical interconnected VLSI RS encoder chips. Besides the size advantage, the VLSI RS encoder also has the potential advantages of requiring less power and having a higher reliability.

  1. Lead in the environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pattee, O.H.; Pain, D.J.

    2003-01-01

    Anthropogenic uses of lead have probably altered its availability and environmental distribution more than any other toxic element. Consequently, lead concentrations in many living organisms may be approaching thresholds of toxicity for the adverse effects of lead. Such thresholds are difficult to define, as they vary with the chemical and physical form of lead, exposure regime, other elements present and also vary both within and between species. The technological capability to accurately quantify low lead concentrations has increased over the last decade, and physiological and behavioral effects have been measured in wildlife with tissue lead concentrations below those previously considered safe for humans.s.236 Consequently. lead criteria for the protection of wildlife and human health are frequently under review, and 'thresholds' of lead toxicity are being reconsidered. Proposed lead criteria for the protection of natural resources have been reviewed by Eisler. Uptake of lead by plants is limited by its generally low availability in soils and sediments, and toxicity may be limited by storage mechanisms and its apparently limited translocation within most plants. Lead does not generally accumulate within the foliar parts of plants, which limits its transfer to higher trophic levels. Although lead may concentrate in plant and animal tissues, no evidence of biomagnification exists. Acid deposition onto surface waters and soils with low buffering capacity may influence the availability of lead for uptake by plants and animals, and this may merit investigation at susceptible sites. The biological significance of chronic low-level lead exposure to wildlife is sometimes difficult to quantify. Animals living in urban environments or near point sources of lead emission are inevitably subject to greater exposure to lead and enhanced risk of lead poisoning. Increasingly strict controls on lead emissions in many countries have reduced exposure to lead from some sources

  2. Effective dose span of ten different cone beam CT devices

    PubMed Central

    Rottke, D; Patzelt, S; Poxleitner, P; Schulze, D

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Evaluation and reduction of dose are important issues. Since cone beam CT (CBCT) has been established now not just in dentistry, the number of acquired examinations continues to rise. Unfortunately, it is very difficult to compare the doses of available devices on the market owing to different exposition parameters, volumes and geometries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the spans of effective doses (EDs) of ten different CBCT devices. Methods: 48 thermoluminescent dosemeters were placed in 24 sites in a RANDO® head phantom. Protocols with lowest exposition parameters and protocols with highest exposition parameters were performed for each of the ten devices. The ED was calculated from the measured energy doses according to the International Commission on Radiological Protection 2007 recommendations for each protocol and device, and the statistical values were evaluated afterwards. Results: The calculation of the ED resulted in values between 17.2 µSv and 396 µSv for the ten devices. The mean values for protocols with lowest and highest exposition parameters were 31.6 µSv and 209 µSv, respectively. Conclusions: It was not the aim of this study to evaluate the image quality depending on different exposition parameters but to define the spans of EDs in which different CBCT devices work. There is a wide span of ED for different CBCT devices depending on the selected exposition parameters, required spatial resolution and many other factors. PMID:23584925

  3. The Ten-Rotation Quasi-periodicity in Sunspot Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Getko, R.

    2014-06-01

    Sunspot-area fluctuations over an epoch of 12 solar cycles (12 - 23) are investigated in detail using wavelets. Getko ( Universal Heliophysical Processes, IAU Symp. 257, 169, 2009) found three significant quasi-periodicities at 10, 17, and 23 solar rotations, but two longer periods could be treated as subharmonics of the ten-rotation quasi-periodicity. Therefore we focused the analysis on the occurrence of this quasi-periodicity during the low- and high-activity periods of each solar cycle. Because of the N - S asymmetry, each solar hemisphere was considered separately. The skewness of each fluctuation-probability distribution suggests that the positive and negative fluctuations could be examined separately. To avoid the problem that occurs when a few strong fluctuations create a wavelet peak, we applied fluctuation transformations for which the amplitudes at the high- and the low-activity periods are almost the same. The wavelet analyses show that the ten-rotation quasi-periodicity is mainly detected during the high-activity periods, but it also exists during a few low-activity periods. The division of each solar hemisphere into 30∘-wide longitude bins and the wavelet calculations for the areas of sunspot clusters belonging to these 30∘ bins enable one to detect longitude zones in which the ten-rotation quasi-periodicity exists. These zones are present during the whole high-activity periods and dominate the integrated spectra.

  4. The Large Binocular Telescope azimuth and elevation encoder system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashby, David S.; Sargent, Tom; Cox, Dan; Rosato, Jerry; Brynnel, Joar G.

    2008-08-01

    A typical high-resolution encoder interpolator relies on careful mechanical alignment of the encoder read-heads and tight electrical tolerances of the signal processing electronics to ensure linearity. As the interpolation factor increases, maintaining these tight mechanical and electrical tolerances becomes impractical. The Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) is designed to utilize strip-type encoders on the main axes. Because of the very large scale of the telescope, the accumulative length of the azimuth and elevation encoder strips exceeds 80 meters, making optical tape prohibitively expensive. Consequently, the designers of the LBT incorporated the far less expensive Farrand Controls Inductosyn® linear strip encoder to encode the positions of the main axes and the instrument rotators. Since the cycle pitch of these encoders is very large compared to that of optical strip encoders, the interpolation factor must also be large in order to achieve the 0.005 arcsecond encoder resolution as specified. The authors present a description of the innovative DSP-based hardware / software solution that adaptively characterizes and removes common systematic cycle-to-cycle encoder interpolation errors. These errors can be caused by mechanical misalignment, encoder manufacturing flaws, variations in electrical gain, signal offset or cross-coupling of the encoder signals. Simulation data are presented to illustrate the performance of the interpolation algorithm, and telemetry data are presented to demonstrate the actual performance of the LBT main-axis encoder system.

  5. The Collaborative Encoding Deficit is Attenuated with Specific Warnings

    PubMed Central

    Barber, Sarah J.; Rajaram, Suparna; Paneerselvam, Bavani

    2012-01-01

    Individuals learning together do so less effectively than individuals learning alone, an effect known as the collaborative encoding deficit (Barber, Rajaram, & Aron, 2010). In the present studies we examined whether providing participants with a warning about the collaborative encoding deficit would increase their encoding task performance, and reduce subsequent memory deficits. Across two experiments, specific warnings were beneficial for memory. Collaborating participants who were told about the collaborative encoding deficit, and who received suggestions for how to complete the encoding task, had superior memory than participants who received no warning. This benefit was not due to qualitative changes in encoding task performance, was unrelated to the type of collaboration utilized, was absent when a more general warning was utilized, and was unrelated to self-reported task motivation. Rather, specific warnings appear to protect against the collaborative encoding deficit by increasing time spent on, and attention directed to, the encoding task. PMID:23296389

  6. Lead Poison Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    With NASA contracts, Whittaker Corporations Space Science division has developed an electro-optical instrument to mass screen for lead poisoning. Device is portable and detects protoporphyrin in whole blood. Free corpuscular porphyrins occur as an early effect of lead ingestion. Also detects lead in urine used to confirm blood tests. Test is inexpensive and can be applied by relatively unskilled personnel. Similar Whittaker fluorometry device called "drug screen" can measure morphine and quinine in urine much faster and cheaper than other methods.

  7. ChIP-seq guidelines and practices of the ENCODE and modENCODE consortia

    PubMed Central

    Landt, Stephen G.; Marinov, Georgi K.; Kundaje, Anshul; Kheradpour, Pouya; Pauli, Florencia; Batzoglou, Serafim; Bernstein, Bradley E.; Bickel, Peter; Brown, James B.; Cayting, Philip; Chen, Yiwen; DeSalvo, Gilberto; Epstein, Charles; Fisher-Aylor, Katherine I.; Euskirchen, Ghia; Gerstein, Mark; Gertz, Jason; Hartemink, Alexander J.; Hoffman, Michael M.; Iyer, Vishwanath R.; Jung, Youngsook L.; Karmakar, Subhradip; Kellis, Manolis; Kharchenko, Peter V.; Li, Qunhua; Liu, Tao; Liu, X. Shirley; Ma, Lijia; Milosavljevic, Aleksandar; Myers, Richard M.; Park, Peter J.; Pazin, Michael J.; Perry, Marc D.; Raha, Debasish; Reddy, Timothy E.; Rozowsky, Joel; Shoresh, Noam; Sidow, Arend; Slattery, Matthew; Stamatoyannopoulos, John A.; Tolstorukov, Michael Y.; White, Kevin P.; Xi, Simon; Farnham, Peggy J.; Lieb, Jason D.; Wold, Barbara J.; Snyder, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) followed by high-throughput DNA sequencing (ChIP-seq) has become a valuable and widely used approach for mapping the genomic location of transcription-factor binding and histone modifications in living cells. Despite its widespread use, there are considerable differences in how these experiments are conducted, how the results are scored and evaluated for quality, and how the data and metadata are archived for public use. These practices affect the quality and utility of any global ChIP experiment. Through our experience in performing ChIP-seq experiments, the ENCODE and modENCODE consortia have developed a set of working standards and guidelines for ChIP experiments that are updated routinely. The current guidelines address antibody validation, experimental replication, sequencing depth, data and metadata reporting, and data quality assessment. We discuss how ChIP quality, assessed in these ways, affects different uses of ChIP-seq data. All data sets used in the analysis have been deposited for public viewing and downloading at the ENCODE (http://encodeproject.org/ENCODE/) and modENCODE (http://www.modencode.org/) portals. PMID:22955991

  8. Lead poisoning: case studies.

    PubMed

    Gordon, J N; Taylor, A; Bennett, P N

    2002-05-01

    Early clinical features of lead toxicity are non-specific and an occupational history is particularly valuable. Lead in the body comprises 2% in the blood (t1/2 35 days) and 95% in bone and dentine (t1/2 20-30 years). Blood lead may remain elevated for years after cessation from long exposure, due to redistribution from bone. Blood lead concentration is the most widely used marker for inorganic lead exposure. Zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) concentration in blood usefully reflects lead exposure over the prior 3 months. Symptomatic patients with blood lead concentration >2.4 micromol l-1 (50 microg dl-1) or in any event >3.8 micromol l-1 (80 microg dl-1) should receive sodium calciumedetate i.v., followed by succimer by mouth for 19 days. Asymptomatic patients with blood lead concentration >2.4 micromol l-1 (50 microg dl-1) may be treated with succimer alone. Sodium calciumedetate should be given with dimercaprol to treat lead encephalopathy. PMID:11994050

  9. Inhibition-Induced Forgetting Results from Resource Competition between Response Inhibition and Memory Encoding Processes

    PubMed Central

    Egner, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Response inhibition is a key component of executive control, but its relation to other cognitive processes is not well understood. We recently documented the “inhibition-induced forgetting effect”: no-go cues are remembered more poorly than go cues. We attributed this effect to central-resource competition, whereby response inhibition saps attention away from memory encoding. However, this proposal is difficult to test with behavioral means alone. We therefore used fMRI in humans to test two neural predictions of the “common resource hypothesis”: (1) brain regions associated with response inhibition should exhibit greater resource demands during encoding of subsequently forgotten than remembered no-go cues; and (2) this higher inhibitory resource demand should lead to memory encoding regions having less resources available during encoding of subsequently forgotten no-go cues. Participants categorized face stimuli by gender in a go/no-go task and, following a delay, performed a surprise recognition memory test for those faces. Replicating previous findings, memory was worse for no-go than for go stimuli. Crucially, forgetting of no-go cues was predicted by high inhibitory resource demand, as quantified by the trial-by-trial ratio of activity in neural “no-go” versus “go” networks. Moreover, this index of inhibitory demand exhibited an inverse trial-by-trial relationship with activity in brain regions responsible for the encoding of no-go cues into memory, notably the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex. This seesaw pattern between the neural resource demand of response inhibition and activity related to memory encoding directly supports the hypothesis that response inhibition temporarily saps attentional resources away from stimulus processing. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Recent behavioral experiments showed that inhibiting a motor response to a stimulus (a “no-go cue”) impairs subsequent memory for that cue. Here, we used fMRI to test whether this

  10. Analysis of lead toxicity in human cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Lead is a metal with many recognized adverse health side effects, and yet the molecular processes underlying lead toxicity are still poorly understood. Quantifying the injurious effects of lead is also difficult because of the diagnostic limitations that exist when analyzing human blood and urine specimens for lead toxicity. Results We analyzed the deleterious impact of lead on human cells by measuring its effects on cytokine production and gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Lead activates the secretion of the chemokine IL-8 and impacts mitogen-dependent activation by increasing the secretion of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α and of the chemokines IL-8 and MIP1-α in the presence of phytohemagglutinin. The recorded changes in gene expression affected major cellular functions, including metallothionein expression, and the expression of cellular metabolic enzymes and protein kinase activity. The expression of 31 genes remained elevated after the removal of lead from the testing medium thereby allowing for the measurement of adverse health effects of lead poisoning. These included thirteen metallothionein transcripts, three endothelial receptor B transcripts and a number of transcripts which encode cellular metabolic enzymes. Cellular responses to lead correlated with blood lead levels and were significantly altered in individuals with higher lead content resultantly affecting the nervous system, the negative regulation of transcription and the induction of apoptosis. In addition, we identified changes in gene expression in individuals with elevated zinc protoporphyrin blood levels and found that genes regulating the transmission of nerve impulses were affected in these individuals. The affected pathways were G-protein mediated signaling, gap junction signaling, synaptic long-term potentiation, neuropathic pain signaling as well as CREB signaling in neurons. Cellular responses to lead were altered in subjects with high

  11. Evaluating standard terminologies for encoding allergy information

    PubMed Central

    Goss, Foster R; Zhou, Li; Plasek, Joseph M; Broverman, Carol; Robinson, George; Middleton, Blackford; Rocha, Roberto A

    2013-01-01

    Objective Allergy documentation and exchange are vital to ensuring patient safety. This study aims to analyze and compare various existing standard terminologies for representing allergy information. Methods Five terminologies were identified, including the Systemized Nomenclature of Medical Clinical Terms (SNOMED CT), National Drug File–Reference Terminology (NDF-RT), Medication Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA), Unique Ingredient Identifier (UNII), and RxNorm. A qualitative analysis was conducted to compare desirable characteristics of each terminology, including content coverage, concept orientation, formal definitions, multiple granularities, vocabulary structure, subset capability, and maintainability. A quantitative analysis was also performed to compare the content coverage of each terminology for (1) common food, drug, and environmental allergens and (2) descriptive concepts for common drug allergies, adverse reactions (AR), and no known allergies. Results Our qualitative results show that SNOMED CT fulfilled the greatest number of desirable characteristics, followed by NDF-RT, RxNorm, UNII, and MedDRA. Our quantitative results demonstrate that RxNorm had the highest concept coverage for representing drug allergens, followed by UNII, SNOMED CT, NDF-RT, and MedDRA. For food and environmental allergens, UNII demonstrated the highest concept coverage, followed by SNOMED CT. For representing descriptive allergy concepts and adverse reactions, SNOMED CT and NDF-RT showed the highest coverage. Only SNOMED CT was capable of representing unique concepts for encoding no known allergies. Conclusions The proper terminology for encoding a patient's allergy is complex, as multiple elements need to be captured to form a fully structured clinical finding. Our results suggest that while gaps still exist, a combination of SNOMED CT and RxNorm can satisfy most criteria for encoding common allergies and provide sufficient content coverage. PMID:23396542

  12. Encoding the core electrons with graph concepts.

    PubMed

    Pogliani, Lionello

    2004-01-01

    The core electron problem of atoms in chemical graph studies has always been considered as a minor problem. Usually, chemical graphs had to encode just a small set of second row atoms, i.e., C, N, O, and F, thus, graph and, in some cases, pseudograph concepts were enough to "graph" encode the molecules at hand. Molecular connectivity theory, together with its side-branch the electrotopological state, introduced two "ad hoc" algorithms for the core electrons of higher-row atoms based, mainly, on quantum concepts alike. Recently, complete graphs, and, especially, odd complete graphs have been introduced to encode the core electrons of higher-row atoms. By the aid of these types of graphs a double-valued algorithm has been proposed for the valence delta, deltav, of any type of atoms of the periodic table with a principal quantum number n > or =2. The new algorithm is centered on an invariant suggested by the hand-shaking theorem, and the values it gives rise to parallel in some way the values derived by the aid of the two old "quantum" algorithms. A thorough comparative analysis of the newly proposed algorithms has been undertaken for atoms of the group 1A-7A of the periodic table. This comparative study includes the electronegativity, the size of the atoms, the first ionization energy, and the electron affinity. The given algorithm has also been tested with sequential complete graphs, while the even complete graphs give rise to conceptual difficulties. QSAR/QSPR studies do not show a clear-cut preference for any of the two values the algorithm gives rise to, even if recent results seem to prefer one of the two values. PMID:14741009

  13. Improved visual performance in letter perception through edge orientation encoding in a retinal prosthesis simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isabell Kiral-Kornek, F.; OʼSullivan-Greene, Elma; Savage, Craig O.; McCarthy, Chris; Grayden, David B.; Burkitt, Anthony N.

    2014-12-01

    Objective. Stimulation strategies for retinal prostheses predominately seek to directly encode image brightness values rather than edge orientations. Recent work suggests that the generation of oriented elliptical phosphenes may be possible by controlling interactions between neighboring electrodes. Based on this, we propose a novel stimulation strategy for prosthetic vision that extracts edge orientation information from the intensity image and encodes it as oriented elliptical phosphenes. We test the hypothesis that encoding edge orientation via oriented elliptical phosphenes leads to better alphabetic letter recognition than standard intensity-based encoding. Approach. We conduct a psychophysical study with simulated phosphene vision with 12 normal-sighted volunteers. The two stimulation strategies were compared with variations of letter size, electrode drop-out and spatial offsets of phosphenes. Main results. Mean letter recognition accuracy was significantly better with the new proposed stimulation strategy (65%) compared to direct grayscale encoding (47%). All examined parameters—stimulus size, phosphene dropout, and location shift—were found to influence the performance, with significant two-way interactions between phosphene dropout and stimulus size as well as between phosphene dropout and phosphene location shift. The analysis delivers a model of perception performance. Significance. Displaying available directional information to an implant user may improve their visual performance. We present a model for designing a stimulation strategy under the constraints of existing retinal prostheses that can be exploited by retinal implant developers to strategically employ oriented phosphenes.

  14. Wavelet encoding and variable resolution progressive transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanford, Ronald P.

    1993-01-01

    Progressive transmission is a method of transmitting and displaying imagery in stages of successively improving quality. The subsampled lowpass image representations generated by a wavelet transformation suit this purpose well, but for best results the order of presentation is critical. Candidate data for transmission are best selected using dynamic prioritization criteria generated from image contents and viewer guidance. We show that wavelets are not only suitable but superior when used to encode data for progressive transmission at non-uniform resolutions. This application does not preclude additional compression using quantization of highpass coefficients, which to the contrary results in superior image approximations at low data rates.

  15. Spatially encoded multiple-quantum excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridge, Clark D.; Borvayeh, Leila; Walls, Jamie D.

    2013-05-01

    In this work, we present a simple method to spatially encode the transition frequencies of nuclear spin transitions and to read out these frequencies within a single scan. The experiment works by combining pulsed field gradients with an excitation sequence that selectively excites spin transitions within certain sample regions. After the initial excitation, imaging the resulting widehat{z}-magnetization is used to determine the locations where the excitations occurred, from which the corresponding transition frequencies are determined. Simple experimental demonstrations of this technique on one- and two-spin systems are presented.

  16. A space-compatible angular contact encoder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flew, A. R.

    1985-12-01

    An electromechanical digital position encoder, based on existing commercial technology, for spacecraft applications is described. The device contains electrical wiping contacts, a gear mechanism, and plain and rolling-element bearings all operating without wet lubrication. Designed to function continuously for 10 years, certain contacts will perform in excess of 20 million cycles. To investigate the performance of these contacts, automatic test equipment was designed to monitor the accuracy of 8192 separate output conditions on a regular basis throughout an accelerated-life thermal vacuum test. The equipment also checks for missing bits and edge noise and logs any errors that are found.

  17. Gene encoding herbicide safener binding protein

    SciTech Connect

    Walton, Jonathan D.; Scott-Craig, John S.

    1999-01-01

    The cDNA encoding safener binding protein (SafBP), also referred to as SBP1, is set forth in FIG. 5 and SEQ ID No. 1. The deduced amino acid sequence is provided in FIG. 5 and SEQ ID No. 2. Methods of making and using SBP1 and SafBP to alter a plant's sensitivity to certain herbicides or a plant's responsiveness to certain safeners are also provided, as well as expression vectors, transgenic plants or other organisms transfected with said vectors and seeds from said plants.

  18. Polynucleotides encoding TRF1 binding proteins

    DOEpatents

    Campisi, Judith; Kim, Sahn-Ho

    2002-01-01

    The present invention provides a novel telomere associated protein (Trf1-interacting nuclear protein 2 "Tin2") that hinders the binding of Trf1 to its specific telomere repeat sequence and mediates the formation of a Tin2-Trf1-telomeric DNA complex that limits telomerase access to the telomere. Also included are the corresponding nucleic acids that encode the Tin2 of the present invention, as well as mutants of Tin2. Methods of making, purifying and using Tin2 of the present invention are described. In addition, drug screening assays to identify drugs that mimic and/or complement the effect of Tin2 are presented.

  19. Space Qualified High Speed Reed Solomon Encoder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gambles, Jody W.; Winkert, Tom

    1993-01-01

    This paper reports a Class S CCSDS recommendation Reed Solomon encoder circuit baselined for several NASA programs. The chip is fabricated using United Technologies Microelectronics Center's UTE-R radiation-hardened gate array family, contains 64,000 p-n transistor pairs, and operates at a sustained output data rate of 200 MBits/s. The chip features a pin selectable message interleave depth of from 1 to 8 and supports output block lengths of 33 to 255 bytes. The UTE-R process is reported to produce parts that are radiation hardened to 16 Rads (Si) total dose and 1.0(exp -10) errors/bit-day.

  20. Visual Encoding Mechanisms and Their Relationship to Text Presentation Preference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pammer, Kristen; Lavis, Ruth; Cornelissen, Piers

    2004-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the importance of spatial encoding in reading, with particular emphasis on visuo-spatial encoding mechanisms. Thirty one school children participated in the first study in which they were measured on their ability to solve a centrally presented spatial encoding task, as well as their sensitivity to the…

  1. Shape-encoded silica microparticles for multiplexed bioassays.

    PubMed

    Kim, Lily Nari; Kim, Mira; Jung, Keumsim; Bae, Hyung Jong; Jang, Jisung; Jung, Yushin; Kim, Jiyun; Kwon, Sunghoon

    2015-08-01

    Shape-encoded silica microparticles for use in multiplexed bioassays were fabricated by using optofluidic maskless lithography (OFML) and tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) polymerization. These encoded silica microparticles exhibit excellent bioconjugation properties and negligible non-specific analyte adsorption. Encoded silica microparticles could be useful in a wide variety of applications, including DNA- and protein-based diagnostics. PMID:26125980

  2. Optical Pseudocolor Encoding Of Gray-Scale Image

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin; Liu, Hua-Kuang

    1990-01-01

    Optical encoding much faster than digital electronic encoding. In optical pseudocolor-encoding apparatus brightness modulation in image from television camera transformed into polarization modulation in LCTV, and then into pseudocolor modulation in image on projection screen. Advantageous for such purposes as thermography, inspection of circuit boards, mammography, and mapping.

  3. Quantum holographic encoding in a two-dimensional electron gas

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, Christopher

    2010-05-26

    The advent of bottom-up atomic manipulation heralded a new horizon for attainable information density, as it allowed a bit of information to be represented by a single atom. The discrete spacing between atoms in condensed matter has thus set a rigid limit on the maximum possible information density. While modern technologies are still far from this scale, all theoretical downscaling of devices terminates at this spatial limit. Here, however, we break this barrier with electronic quantum encoding scaled to subatomic densities. We use atomic manipulation to first construct open nanostructures - 'molecular holograms' - which in turn concentrate information into a medium free of lattice constraints: the quantum states of a two-dimensional degenerate Fermi gas of electrons. The information embedded in the holograms is transcoded at even smaller length scales into an atomically uniform area of a copper surface, where it is densely projected into both two spatial degrees of freedom and a third holographic dimension mapped to energy. In analogy to optical volume holography, this requires precise amplitude and phase engineering of electron wavefunctions to assemble pages of information volumetrically. This data is read out by mapping the energy-resolved electron density of states with a scanning tunnelling microscope. As the projection and readout are both extremely near-field, and because we use native quantum states rather than an external beam, we are not limited by lensing or collimation and can create electronically projected objects with features as small as {approx}0.3 nm. These techniques reach unprecedented densities exceeding 20 bits/nm{sup 2} and place tens of bits into a single fermionic state.

  4. Ten questions for evolutionary studies of disease vulnerability

    PubMed Central

    Nesse, Randolph M

    2011-01-01

    Many evolutionary applications in medicine rely on well-established methods, such as population genetics, phylogenetic analysis, and observing pathogen evolution. Approaches to evolutionary questions about traits that leave bodies vulnerable to disease are less well developed. Strategies for formulating questions and hypotheses remain unsettled, and methods for testing evolutionary hypotheses are unfamiliar to many in medicine. This article uses recent examples to illustrate successful strategies and some common challenges. Ten questions arise in the course of considering hypotheses about traits that leave bodies vulnerable to disease. Addressing them systematically can help minimize confusion and errors. PMID:25567972

  5. Nonimmunologic hydrops fetalis. A study of ten cases.

    PubMed

    Moerman, P; Fryns, J P; Goddeeris, P; Lauweryns, J M

    1982-11-01

    Ten cases of hydrops fetalis not associated with serologic incompatibility between mother and infant were studied by autopsy. Classic trisomy 21 was present in two, and in six others the postmortem examination revealed major congenital abnormalities (hydrometrocolpos-polydactyly syndrome, achondrogenesis type 2, congenital adenomatoid malformation of the lung, and aortic valvular dysplasia with left ventricular endocardial fibroelastosis). In two instances, anasarca was associated with a congenital tumor: a sacrococcygeal teratoma and an adrenal neuroblastoma. In six fetuses, prenatal diagnosis of hydrops fetalis or severe congenital malformations was established by ultrasonography. PMID:6897172

  6. Lessons learned from ten years of distance learning outreach*

    PubMed Central

    Locatis, Craig; Gaines, Cynthia; Liu, Wei-Li; Gill, Michael; Ackerman, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The study tested the efficacy of providing distance learning with real-time videoconferencing to broaden high school student knowledge of health careers. Methods: A pilot program was tried out and extended over ten years to include other schools in four different time zones and the National Library of Medicine. Survey results, site visits, and continued school participation were used as effectiveness indicators. Student ratings, site visits, and ongoing discussions were used to evaluate critical factors in the program. Results: Nine program factors contributed to success. Conclusions: Synchronous communication can be effective for outreach to special populations given appropriate infrastructure, technology, program design, and implementation. PMID:25918486

  7. Antioxidant capacities of ten edible North American plants.

    PubMed

    Acuña, Ulyana Muñoz; Atha, Daniel E; Ma, Jun; Nee, Michael H; Kennelly, Edward J

    2002-02-01

    The EtOAc extract obtained from ten edible North American plants, Acorus calamus, Clintonia borealis, Gaultheria shallon, Juniperus osteosperma, Opuntia polyacantha, Prunus americana, Prunus virginiana, Sambucus cerulea, Sorbus americana and Vaccinium parvifolium, were tested in the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical assay. High antioxidant activity was obtained from the extracts of three fruits, Gaultheria shallon, Sambucus cerulea and Prunus americana and one extracted rhizome, Acorus calamus. Catechin and epicatechin, potent polyphenolic antioxidants, were identified in the EtOAc extracts of Gaultheria shallon and Sambucus cerulea by reversed-phase thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). PMID:11807968

  8. The International Heat Pipe Experiment. [ten experiments in zero gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcintosh, R.; Ollendorf, S.; Harwell, W.

    1975-01-01

    On October 4, 1974 the International Heat Pipe Experiment was launched aboard a Black Brant Sounding Rocket from White Sands, New Mexico. The flight provided six minutes of near zero gravity during which a total of ten separate heat pipe experiments were performed. The fifteen heat pipes which were tested represent some of the latest American and European technology. This flight provided the first reported zero gravity data on cryogenic and flat plate vapor chamber heat pipes. Additionally, valuable design and engineering data was obtained on several other heat pipe configurations. This paper will discuss the payload and four of the individual experiments.

  9. Dark matter candidates: a ten-point test

    SciTech Connect

    Taoso, Marco; Masiero, Antonio; Bertone, Gianfranco E-mail: bertone@iap.fr

    2008-03-15

    An extraordinarily rich zoo of non-baryonic dark matter candidates has been proposed over the last three decades. Here we present a ten-point test that a new particle has to pass in order to be considered a viable DM candidate. (I) Does it match the appropriate relic density? (II) Is it cold? (III) Is it neutral? (IV) Is it consistent with BBN? (V) Does it leave stellar evolution unchanged? (VI) Is it compatible with constraints on self-interactions? (VII) Is it consistent with direct DM searches? (VIII) Is it compatible with gamma-ray constraints? (IX) Is it compatible with other astrophysical bounds? (X) Can it be probed experimentally?.

  10. Ten Years of GLAPHI Method Developing Scientific Research Abilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vega-Carrillo, Hector R.

    2006-12-01

    During the past ten years we had applied our method, GLAPHI, to teach how to do scientific research. The method has been applied from freshman students up to PhD professionals. The method is based in the search and analysis of scientific literature, the scientific question or problem, the approach of hypothesis and objetive, the estimation of the project cost and the timetable. It also includes statistics for research, author rights, ethics in research, publication of scientific papers, writting scientific reports and meeting presentations. In this work success and fails of GLAPHI methods will be discussed. Work partially supported by CONACyT (Mexico) under contract: SEP-2004-C01-46893

  11. LEAD IN CANDLE EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The candle-using public should be made aware that the core of candle wicks may contain lead. Used as a stiffening agent to keep the wick out of the molten wax, lead can be emitted as particulate to the air and then deposited on indoor surfaces. To define the problem, 100 sets of ...

  12. Lead Poisoning in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin-Fu, Jane S.

    This publication is a guide to help social and health workers plan a preventive campaign against lead poisoning, a cause of mental retardation other neurological handicaps, and death among children. The main victims are 1- to 6-year-olds living in areas where deteriorating housing prevails. Among the causes of lead poisoning are: ingestion of…

  13. Rapid Lead Screening Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... and treated earlier before the damaging effects of lead poisoning occur. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services ... exceed 10μg/dL, the threshold used to indicate lead poisoning. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) estimates one ...

  14. Leading Educational Change Wisely

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forrester, Gillian

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author reviews Christopher Branson's book entitled "Leading Educational Change Wisely". The book provides an alternative and engaging perspective on leading educational change. Branson utilises "wisdom" as its central conceptual device to present a thought-provoking and philosophical account on how leaders are able to build a…

  15. Supersonic Leading Edge Receptivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maslov, Anatoly A.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes experimental studies of leading edge boundary layer receptivity for imposed stream disturbances. Studies were conducted in the supersonic T-325 facility at ITAM and include data for both sharp and blunt leading edges. The data are in agreement with existing theory and should provide guidance for the development of more complete theories and numerical computations of this phenomena.

  16. Lead carbonate scintillator materials

    DOEpatents

    Derenzo, Stephen E.; Moses, William W.

    1991-01-01

    Improved radiation detectors containing lead carbonate or basic lead carbonate as the scintillator element are disclosed. Both of these scintillators have been found to provide a balance of good stopping power, high light yield and short decay constant that is superior to other known scintillator materials. The radiation detectors disclosed are favorably suited for use in general purpose detection and in medical uses.

  17. Lead toxicity: a review

    PubMed Central

    Ara, Anjum; Usmani, Jawed Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Lead toxicity is an important environmental disease and its effects on the human body are devastating. There is almost no function in the human body which is not affected by lead toxicity. Though in countries like US and Canada the use of lead has been controlled up to a certain extent, it is still used vehemently in the developing countries. This is primarily because lead bears unique physical and chemical properties that make it suitable for a large number of applications for which humans have exploited its benefits from historical times and thus it has become a common environmental pollutant. Lead is highly persistent in the environment and because of its continuous use its levels rise in almost every country, posing serious threats. This article reviews the works listed in the literature with recent updates regarding the toxicity of lead. Focus is also on toxic effects of lead on the renal, reproductive and nervous system. Finally the techniques available for treating lead toxicity are presented with some recent updates. PMID:27486361

  18. Leading Education Reference Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Michael D.

    This annotated bibliography focuses on, but is not limited to, reference sources on education found in the library at St. Bonaventure University, New York. The ERIC database leads the list of leading education reference sources. Also mentioned are the "Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors" and the Academic Index (InfoTrak) computer system. Other…

  19. Recovering lead from batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David Prengaman, R.

    1995-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, a significant number of processes have been developed to recover lead from scrap batteries. These processes recover lead via hydrometallurgical processing of the paste component of the battery followed by electrowinning. A number of pilot plant operations have been conducted, but thus far none of the processes have become operational.

  20. Hypertension`s lead connection: Does low-level exposure to lead cause high blood pressure?

    SciTech Connect

    Fackelmann, K.

    1996-06-15

    {open_quotes}Paying for the sins of the past.{close_quotes} is how researcher Howard Hu describes a proposed disease process in which lead stored for decades in the skeleton puts people at risk of high blood pressure. Previous research has linked this silvery white, poisonous metal to a host of ill effects in children, including learning disabilities, behavior problems, and brain damage. Now, Hu`s study indicates that past exposure may be causing today`s high blood pressure. If he`s right, the public health impact would be significant. {open_quotes}Tens of millions of Americans have been exposed over the years to lead,{close_quotes} says Philip J. Landrigan of Mount Sinai Medical Center in New York. {open_quotes}Adults today grew up at a time when we were still putting several hundred thousand tons of lead into gasoline each year.{close_quotes} Indeed, the men who developed high blood pressure during the recent study had in their bones lead concentrations, or lead burdens, that came from decades of everyday exposure. Such exposures resulted principally from breathing in fumes from leaded gasoline, drinking tap water from lead pipes or pipes soldered with lead, and inhaling or ingesting lead-laced paint dust or chips. This article goes on to discuss other studies and questions which still need to be answered.

  1. Lead polluters get punished

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-09

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Department of Justice last week cracked down on 36 US companies for polluting the environment with lead. EPA slapped fines totaling more than $10 million on 12 of the offending companies, and Justice filed 24 civil complaints. Hank Habicht, deputy administrator of the EPA, said that his agency's initiative comes after 8 months of intense - and presumably successful - efforts at locating and documenting lead pollution in the soil, air, and water supply. Most feared has been lead's ability to damage the intellectual development of children. This caused the agency, Habicht said, to look beyond the usual suspect - lead in the water supply - to lead-laced dirt in residential areas. Meanwhile, the Department of Justice is using the EPA contamination data as well. Twenty US attorneys have been assigned to pore over the federal environmental statutes, including the Clean Water Act and the Superfund Law, in order to file civil complaints.

  2. HPLC Method for the Simultaneous Determination of Ten Annonaceous Acetogenins after Supercritical Fluid CO2 Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Haijun; Zhang, Ning; Zeng, Qingqi; Yu, Qiping; Ke, Shihuai; Li, Xiang

    2010-01-01

    Annonaceous acetogenins (ACGs) isolated from Annonaceae plants exhibited a broad range of biological bioactivities such as cytotoxic, antitumoral, antiparasitic, pesticidal and immunosuppresive activities. However, their structures were liable to change at more than 60°C and their extraction yields were low using traditional organic solvent extraction. In the present study, all samples from Annona genus plant seeds were extracted by supercritical carbon dioxide under optimized conditions and a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was established for simultaneously determining ten ACGs. All of the ten compounds were simultaneously separated on reversed-phase C18 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) with the column temperature at 30°C. The mobile phase was composed of (A) methanol and (B) distilled water, the flow rate was 1.0 ml/min and the detection wavelength was set at 220 nm. All calibration curves showed good linear regression (γ>0.9995) within the test range. The established method showed good precision and accuracy with overall intra-day and inter-day variations of 0.99-2.56% and 1.93-3.65%, respectively, and overall recoveries of 95.16-105.01% for the ten compounds analyzed. The established method can be applied to evaluate the intrinsic quality of Annonaceae plant seeds. The determination results recover the content-variation regularities of various ACGs in different species, which are helpful to choose the good-quality Annonaceae plant seeds for anticancer lead compound discovery. PMID:23675194

  3. Lead toxicity: Current concerns

    SciTech Connect

    Goyer, R.A. )

    1993-04-01

    Over the 20-year period since the first issue of Environmental Health Perspectives was published, there has been considerable progress in the understanding of the potential toxicity of exposure to lead. Many of these advances have been reviewed in published symposia, conferences, and review papers in EHP. This brief review identifies major advances as well as a number of current concerns that present opportunities for prevention and intervention strategies. The major scientific advance has been the demonstration that blood lead (PbB) levels of 10-15 micrograms/dL in newborn and very young infants result in cognitive and behavioral deficits. Further support for this observation is being obtained by prospective or longitudinal studies presently in progress. The mechanism(s) for the central nervous system effects of lead is unclear but involve lead interactions within calcium-mediated intracellular messenger systems and neurotransmission. Effects of low-level lead exposure on blood pressure, particularly in adult men, may be related to the effect of lead on calcium-mediated control of vascular smooth muscle contraction and on the renin-angiotensin system. Reproductive effects of lead have long been suspected, but low-level effects have not been well studied. Whether lead is a carcinogen or its association with renal adenocarcinoma is a consequence of cystic nephropathy is uncertain. Major risk factors for lead toxicity in children in the United States include nutrition, particularly deficiencies of essential metals, calcium, iron, and zinc, and housing and socioeconomic status. A goal for the year 2000 is to reduce prevalence of blood lead levels exceeding 15 micrograms/dL. 97 refs.

  4. The Behavior of Conventional Airplanes in Situations Thought to Lead to Most Crashes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weick, Fred E

    1931-01-01

    Simple flight tests were made on ten conventional airplanes for the purpose of determining their action in the following two situations, which are generally thought to precede and lead to a large proportion of airplane crashes.

  5. Multiple-encoding retrieval for optical security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrera, John Fredy; Henao, Rodrigo; Tebaldi, Myrian; Torroba, Roberto; Bolognini, Néstor

    2007-08-01

    We propose a method for image encryption by multiple-step random phase encoding with an undercover multiplexing operation. The true image is stored in a multiple record we call encodegram; and then we can reconstruct it by the use of the appropriate random phase masks and a retrieval protocol. To increase the security of the true hidden image and confuse unauthorized receivers, we add to the encodegram an encoded fake image with different content. This fake image has only a small effect on the retrieval of the true hidden image, owing to the specific property of this protocol. In the decryption step, we can reveal the true image by applying the inverse protocol to two cyphertexts, one the encodegram containing the true image along with the fake image; and the other helping to get the random phase key to achieve the true image. Computer simulations verify the validity of this method for image encryption. Digital implementation of the method makes it particularly suitable for the remote transmission of information.

  6. Spike encoding of olfactory receptor cells.

    PubMed

    Narusuye, Kenji; Kawai, Fusao; Miyachi, Ei-ichi

    2003-08-01

    Olfaction begins with the transduction of the information carried by odorants into electrical signals in olfactory receptor cells (ORCs). The binding of odor molecules to specific receptor proteins on the ciliary surface of ORCs induces the receptor potentials. This initial excitation causes a slow and graded depolarizing voltage change, which is encoded into a train of action potentials. Action potentials of ORCs are generated by voltage-gated Na+ currents and T-type Ca2+ currents in the somatic membrane. Isolated ORCs, which have lost their cilia during the dissociation procedure, are known to exhibit spike frequency accommodation by injecting the steady current. This raises the possibility that somatic ionic channels in ORCs may serve for odor adaptation at the level of spike encoding, although odor adaptation is mainly accomplished by the ciliary transduction machinery. This review discusses current knowledge concerning the mechanisms of spike generation in ORCs. It also reviews how neurotransmitters and hormones modulate ionic currents and action potentials in ORCs. PMID:12871762

  7. Light manipulation with encoded plasmonic nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Chenglong; Zhang, Jiasen; Liu, Yongmin

    2014-12-01

    Plasmonics, which allows for manipulation of light field beyond the fundamental diffraction limit, has recently attracted tremendous research efforts. The propagating surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) confined on a metal-dielectric interface provide an ideal two-dimensional (2D) platform to develop subwavelength optical circuits for on-chip information processing and communication. The surface plasmon resonance of rationally designed metallic nanostructures, on the other hand, enables pronounced phase and polarization modulation for light beams travelling in three-dimensional (3D) free space. Flexible 2D and free-space propagating light manipulation can be achieved by encoding plasmonic nanostructures on a 2D surface, promising the design, fabrication and integration of the next-generation optical architectures with substantially reduced footprint. It is envisioned that the encoded plasmonic nanostructures can significantly expand available toolboxes for novel light manipulation. In this review, we presents the fundamentals, recent developments and future perspectives in this emerging field, aiming to open up new avenues to developing revolutionary photonic devices.

  8. V123 BEAM SYNCHRONOUS ENCODER MODULE.

    SciTech Connect

    KERNER,T.; CONKLING,C.R.; OERTER,B.

    1999-03-29

    The V123 Synchronous Encoder Module transmits events to distributed trigger modules and embedded decoders around the RHIC rings where they are used to provide beam instrumentation triggers [1,2,3]. The RHIC beam synchronous event link hardware is mainly comprised of three VMEbus board designs, the central input modules (V201), and encoder modules (V123), and the distributed trigger modules (V124). Two beam synchronous links, one for each ring, are distributed via fiber optics and fanned out via twisted wire pair cables. The V123 synchronizes with the RF system clock derived from the beam bucket frequency and a revolution fiducial pulse. The RF system clock is used to create the beam synchronous event link carrier and events are synchronized with the rotation fiducial. A low jitter RF clock is later recovered from this carrier by phase lock loops in the trigger modules. Prioritized hardware and software triggers fill up to 15 beam event code transmission slots per revolution while tracking the ramping RF acceleration frequency and storage frequency. The revolution fiducial event is always the first event transmitted which is used to synchronize the firing of the abort kicker and to locate the first bucket for decoders distributed about the ring.

  9. Encoded multisite two-photon microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Ducros, Mathieu; Houssen, Yannick Goulam; Bradley, Jonathan; de Sars, Vincent; Charpak, Serge

    2013-01-01

    The advent of scanning two-photon microscopy (2PM) has created a fertile new avenue for noninvasive investigation of brain activity in depth. One principal weakness of this method, however, lies with the limit of scanning speed, which makes optical interrogation of action potential-like activity in a neuronal network problematic. Encoded multisite two-photon microscopy (eMS2PM), a scanless method that allows simultaneous imaging of multiple targets in depth with high temporal resolution, addresses this drawback. eMS2PM uses a liquid crystal spatial light modulator to split a high-power femto-laser beam into multiple subbeams. To distinguish them, a digital micromirror device encodes each subbeam with a specific binary amplitude modulation sequence. Fluorescence signals from all independently targeted sites are then collected simultaneously onto a single photodetector and site-specifically decoded. We demonstrate that eMS2PM can be used to image spike-like voltage transients in cultured cells and fluorescence transients (calcium signals in neurons and red blood cells in capillaries from the cortex) in depth in vivo. These results establish eMS2PM as a unique method for simultaneous acquisition of neuronal network activity. PMID:23798397

  10. Spectrally encoded confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Yuankai K.; Izatt, Joseph A.

    2010-02-01

    Fundus imaging has become an essential clinical diagnostic tool in ophthalmology. Current generation scanning laser ophthalmoscopes (SLO) offer advantages over conventional fundus photography and indirect ophthalmoscopy in terms of light efficiency and contrast. As a result of the ability of SLO to provide rapid, continuous imaging of retinal structures and its versatility in accommodating a variety of illumination wavelengths, allowing for imaging of both endogenous and exogenous fluorescent contrast agents, SLO has become a powerful tool for the characterization of retinal pathologies. However, common implementations of SLO, such as the confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope (CSLO) and line-scanning laser ophthalmoscope (LSLO), require imaging or multidimensional scanning elements which are typically implemented in bulk optics placed close to the subject eye. Here, we apply a spectral encoding technique in one dimension combined with single-axis lateral scanning to create a spectrally encoded confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope (SECSLO) which is fully confocal. This novel implementation of the SLO allows for high contrast, high resolution in vivo human retinal imaging with image transmission through a single-mode optical fiber. Furthermore, the scanning optics are similar and the detection engine is identical to that of current-generation spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT) systems, potentially allowing for a simplistic implementation of a joint SECSLO-SDOCT imaging system.

  11. Optical Security System with Fourier Plane encoding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javidi, Bahram; Ahouzi, Esmail

    1998-09-01

    We propose a new technique for security verification of personal documents and other forms of personal identifications such as ID cards, passports, or credit cards. In this technique a primary pattern that might be a phase-encoded image is convolved by a random code. The information is phase encoded on the personal document. Therefore the information cannot be reproduced by an intensity detector such as a CCD camera. An optical processor based on the nonlinear joint transform correlator is used to perform the verification and the validation of documents with this technique. By verification of the biometrics information and the random code simultaneously, the proposed optical system determines whether a card is authentic or is being used by an authorized person. We tested the performance of the optical system for security and validation in the presence of input noise and in the presence of distortion of the information on the card. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated by use of a number of metrics. Statistical analysis of the system is performed to investigate the noise tolerance and the discrimination against false inputs for security verification.

  12. Optical Security System with Fourier Plane encoding.

    PubMed

    Javidi, B; Ahouzi, E

    1998-09-10

    We propose a new technique for security verification of personal documents and other forms of personal identifications such as ID cards, passports, or credit cards. In this technique a primary pattern that might be a phase-encoded image is convolved by a random code. The information is phase encoded on the personal document. Therefore the information cannot be reproduced by an intensity detector such as a CCD camera. An optical processor based on the nonlinear joint transform correlator is used to perform the verification and the validation of documents with this technique. By verification of the biometrics information and the random code simultaneously, the proposed optical system determines whether a card is authentic or is being used by an authorized person. We tested the performance of the optical system for security and validation in the presence of input noise and in the presence of distortion of the information on the card. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated by use of a number of metrics. Statistical analysis of the system is performed to investigate the noise tolerance and the discrimination against false inputs for security verification. PMID:18286124

  13. Fast Huffman encoding algorithms in MPEG-4 advanced audio coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brzuchalski, Grzegorz

    2014-11-01

    This paper addresses the optimisation problem of Huffman encoding in MPEG-4 Advanced Audio Coding stan- dard. At first, the Huffman encoding problem and the need of encoding two side info parameters scale factor and Huffman codebook are presented. Next, Two Loop Search, Maximum Noise Mask Ratio and Trellis Based algorithms of bit allocation are briefly described. Further, Huffman encoding optimisation are shown. New methods try to check and change scale factor bands as little as possible to estimate bitrate cost or its change. Finally, the complexity of old and new methods is calculated, compared and measured time of encoding is given.

  14. On the detection of differentially encoded polyphase signals.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindsey, W. C.; Simon, M. K.

    1972-01-01

    Consideration of the transmission and detection of differentially encoded multiple phase-shift-keyed (MPSK) signals, paying particular attention to the ambiguity resolution problem resulting from suppression of the transmitted carrier. A study is made of the coherent detection of differentially encoded MPSK signals, and the performance of a differentially encoded MPSK system is compared with that of a system which transmits absolutely encoded polyphase signals and performs perfect ambiguity resolution. Both the perfect and noisy reference signal cases are treated. Also, the performance of coherent detection of differentially encoded MPSK signals is compared with that of differentially coherent reception of the same signal set.

  15. Architecture for VLSI design of Reed-Solomon encoders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, K. Y.

    1982-01-01

    A description is given of the logic structure of the universal VLSI symbol-slice Reed-Solomon (RS) encoder chip, from a group of which an RS encoder may be constructed through cascading and proper interconnection. As a design example, it is shown that an RS encoder presently requiring approximately 40 discrete CMOS ICs may be replaced by an RS encoder consisting of four identical, interconnected VLSI RS encoder chips, offering in addition to greater compactness both a lower power requirement and greater reliability.

  16. Negative base encoding in optical linear algebra processors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perlee, C.; Casasent, D.

    1986-01-01

    In the digital multiplication by analog convolution algorithm, the bits of two encoded numbers are convolved to form the product of the two numbers in mixed binary representation; this output can be easily converted to binary. Attention is presently given to negative base encoding, treating base -2 initially, and then showing that the negative base system can be readily extended to any radix. In general, negative base encoding in optical linear algebra processors represents a more efficient technique than either sign magnitude or 2's complement encoding, when the additions of digitally encoded products are performed in parallel.

  17. A Review of Microgravity Levels on Ten OARE Shuttle Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McPherson, Kevin M.

    1998-01-01

    The Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE) is an accelerometer package with nano-g sensitivity and on-orbit bias calibration capabilities. The OARE consists of a three axis miniature electrostatic accelerometer (MESA), a full in-flight bias and scale factor calibration station, and an on-board microprocessor for experiment control and data storage. Originally designed to measure and record the aerodynamic acceleration environment of the NASA Space Shuttles during re-entry, the OARE has been used on ten shuttle missions to measure the quasi-steady acceleration environment (<1 Hz) of the Orbiter while in low-Earth orbit. The effects on the quasi-steady acceleration environment from Orbiter systems, Orbiter attitude, Orbiter altitude, and crew activity are well understood as a result of these ten shuttle missions. This knowledge of the quasi-steady acceleration realm has direct application to understanding the quasi-steady acceleration environment expected for the International Space Station (ISS). This paper will summarize the more salient aspects of this quasi-steady acceleration knowledge base.

  18. Writing implementation research grant proposals: ten key ingredients

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background All investigators seeking funding to conduct implementation research face the challenges of preparing a high-quality proposal and demonstrating their capacity to conduct the proposed study. Applicants need to demonstrate the progressive nature of their research agenda and their ability to build cumulatively upon the literature and their own preliminary studies. Because implementation science is an emerging field involving complex and multilevel processes, many investigators may not feel equipped to write competitive proposals, and this concern is pronounced among early stage implementation researchers. Discussion This article addresses the challenges of preparing grant applications that succeed in the emerging field of dissemination and implementation. We summarize ten ingredients that are important in implementation research grants. For each, we provide examples of how preliminary data, background literature, and narrative detail in the application can strengthen the application. Summary Every investigator struggles with the challenge of fitting into a page-limited application the research background, methodological detail, and information that can convey the project’s feasibility and likelihood of success. While no application can include a high level of detail about every ingredient, addressing the ten ingredients summarized in this article can help assure reviewers of the significance, feasibility, and impact of the proposed research. PMID:23062065

  19. Keys to success: Ten case studies of effective weatherization programs

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, M.A.; Berry, L.G.; Kolb, J.O.; White, D.L.; Kinney, L.F.; Wilson, T.

    1993-11-01

    In 1990, DOE initiated a nationwide evaluation of its Weatherization Program, with assistance from Oak Ridge National Laboratory and an advisory group of 40 weatherization professionals, program managers, and researchers. The evaluation is comprised of three impact studies covering the Program`s major market segments: Single-family homes, mobile homes, and dwellings in small (2 to 4-unit) multifamily buildings (the Single-Family Study), Single-family homes heated primarily with fuel oil (the Fuel-Oil Study), and Dwellings in buildings with five or more units (the Multifamily Study). The Single-Family Study, the subject of this report, is a critical part of this coordinated evaluation effort. Its focus on single-family dwellings, mobile homes, and dwellings in small multifamily buildings covers 83% of the income-eligible population and 96% of the dwellings weatherized during Program Year 1989. The first phase of the Single-Family Study involved the analysis of a massive data base of information collected from 368 local weatherization agencies and 543 electric and gas utilities. This analysis resulted in energy-saving and cost-effectiveness estimates for the Weatherization Program and the identification of a set of ten high-performing agencies located throughout the country. The second phase, which is the subject of this report, involves a ``process`` evaluation of these ten high performers, aimed at identifying those weatherization practices that explain their documented success.

  20. Lead-free piezoceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Yasuyoshi; Takao, Hisaaki; Tani, Toshihiko; Nonoyama, Tatsuhiko; Takatori, Kazumasa; Homma, Takahiko; Nagaya, Toshiatsu; Nakamura, Masaya

    2004-11-01

    Lead has recently been expelled from many commercial applications and materials (for example, from solder, glass and pottery glaze) owing to concerns regarding its toxicity. Lead zirconium titanate (PZT) ceramics are high-performance piezoelectric materials, which are widely used in sensors, actuators and other electronic devices; they contain more than 60 weight per cent lead. Although there has been a concerted effort to develop lead-free piezoelectric ceramics, no effective alternative to PZT has yet been found. Here we report a lead-free piezoelectric ceramic with an electric-field-induced strain comparable to typical actuator-grade PZT. We achieved this through the combination of the discovery of a morphotropic phase boundary in an alkaline niobate-based perovskite solid solution, and the development of a processing route leading to highly <001> textured polycrystals. The ceramic exhibits a piezoelectric constant d33 (the induced charge per unit force applied in the same direction) of above 300picocoulombs per newton (pCN-1), and texturing the material leads to a peak d33 of 416pCN-1. The textured material also exhibits temperature-independent field-induced strain characteristics.

  1. Lead in calcium supplements.

    PubMed

    Scelfo, G M; Flegal, A R

    2000-04-01

    Intercalibrated measurements of lead in calcium supplements indicate the importance of rigorous analytical techniques to accurately quantify contaminant exposures in complex matrices. Without such techniques, measurements of lead concentrations in calcium supplements may be either erroneously low, by as much as 50%, or below the detection limit needed for new public health criteria. In this study, we determined the lead content of 136 brands of supplements that were purchased in 1996. The calcium in the products was derived from natural sources (bonemeal, dolomite, or oyster shell) or was synthesized and/or refined (chelated and nonchelated calcium). The dried products were acid digested and analyzed for lead by high resolution-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The method's limit of quantitation averaged 0.06 microg/g, with a coefficient of variation of 1.7% and a 90-100% lead recovery of a bonemeal standard reference material. Two-thirds of those calcium supplements failed to meet the 1999 California criteria for acceptable lead levels (1.5 microg/daily dose of calcium) in consumer products. The nonchelated synthesized and/or refined calcium products, specifically antacids and infant formulas, had the lowest lead concentrations, ranging from nondetectable to 2.9 microg Pb/g calcium, and had the largest proportion of brands meeting the new criteria (85% of the antacids and 100% of the infant formulas). PMID:10753088

  2. Lead in calcium supplements.

    PubMed Central

    Scelfo, G M; Flegal, A R

    2000-01-01

    Intercalibrated measurements of lead in calcium supplements indicate the importance of rigorous analytical techniques to accurately quantify contaminant exposures in complex matrices. Without such techniques, measurements of lead concentrations in calcium supplements may be either erroneously low, by as much as 50%, or below the detection limit needed for new public health criteria. In this study, we determined the lead content of 136 brands of supplements that were purchased in 1996. The calcium in the products was derived from natural sources (bonemeal, dolomite, or oyster shell) or was synthesized and/or refined (chelated and nonchelated calcium). The dried products were acid digested and analyzed for lead by high resolution-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The method's limit of quantitation averaged 0.06 microg/g, with a coefficient of variation of 1.7% and a 90-100% lead recovery of a bonemeal standard reference material. Two-thirds of those calcium supplements failed to meet the 1999 California criteria for acceptable lead levels (1.5 microg/daily dose of calcium) in consumer products. The nonchelated synthesized and/or refined calcium products, specifically antacids and infant formulas, had the lowest lead concentrations, ranging from nondetectable to 2.9 microg Pb/g calcium, and had the largest proportion of brands meeting the new criteria (85% of the antacids and 100% of the infant formulas). Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:10753088

  3. Reconstruction of Oomycete Genome Evolution Identifies Differences in Evolutionary Trajectories Leading to Present-Day Large Gene Families

    PubMed Central

    Seidl, Michael F.; Van den Ackerveken, Guido; Govers, Francine; Snel, Berend

    2012-01-01

    The taxonomic class of oomycetes contains numerous pathogens of plants and animals but is related to nonpathogenic diatoms and brown algae. Oomycetes have flexible genomes comprising large gene families that play roles in pathogenicity. The evolutionary processes that shaped the gene content have not yet been studied by applying systematic tree reconciliation of the phylome of these species. We analyzed evolutionary dynamics of ten Stramenopiles. Gene gains, duplications, and losses were inferred by tree reconciliation of 18,459 gene trees constituting the phylome with a highly supported species phylogeny. We reconstructed a strikingly large last common ancestor of the Stramenopiles that contained ∼10,000 genes. Throughout evolution, the genomes of pathogenic oomycetes have constantly gained and lost genes, though gene gains through duplications outnumber the losses. The branch leading to the plant pathogenic Phytophthora genus was identified as a major transition point characterized by increased frequency of duplication events that has likely driven the speciation within this genus. Large gene families encoding different classes of enzymes associated with pathogenicity such as glycoside hydrolases are formed by complex and distinct patterns of duplications and losses leading to their expansion in extant oomycetes. This study unveils the large-scale evolutionary dynamics that shaped the genomes of pathogenic oomycetes. By the application of phylogenetic based analyses methods, it provides additional insights that shed light on the complex history of oomycete genome evolution and the emergence of large gene families characteristic for this important class of pathogens. PMID:22230142

  4. Monolacunary Keggin polyoxometalates connected to ten 4d or 4f metal atoms.

    PubMed

    Pang, Haijun; Gómez-García, Carlos J; Peng, Jun; Ma, Huiyuan; Zhang, Chunjing; Wu, Qingyin

    2013-12-21

    The rational self-assembly of mono-lacunary Keggin clusters with 4d and 4f metal salts via a conventional method has yielded two novel polyoxometalate-based 4d-4f heterometallic compounds containing lacunary Keggin anions connected to ten metal atoms: {[Ag{Ag2(H2O)4}{Ln(H2O)6}2H ⊂ {SiW11Ln(H2O)4O39}2]·nH2O (Ln = Ce and n = 7 for 1, Ln = Pr and n = 3 for 2). Their structures were determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction analyses and further characterized by elemental analyses, IR spectra, and thermogravimetric (TG) analyses. A structural feature in 1 and 2 is that each [SiW11O39](8-) cluster (SiW11) is connected to ten metals (five Ag(+) and five Ln(3+) cations), representing the highest number of connected metal atoms to any mono-lacunary Keggin anion to date. This large connectivity leads to a structure with a purely inorganic 3D framework with two kinds of channels along the [100] and [010] directions. The magnetic properties of both compounds show the expected magnetic moments (0.8 and 1.6 amu K mol(-1) per Ce(3+) and Pr(3+) ion, respectively) and confirm the presence of isolated Ce(3+) and Pr(3+) ions. PMID:24067933

  5. A Multi-Encoding Approach for LTL Symbolic Satisfiability Checking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rozier, Kristin Y.; Vardi, Moshe Y.

    2011-01-01

    Formal behavioral specifications written early in the system-design process and communicated across all design phases have been shown to increase the efficiency, consistency, and quality of the system under development. To prevent introducing design or verification errors, it is crucial to test specifications for satisfiability. Our focus here is on specifications expressed in linear temporal logic (LTL). We introduce a novel encoding of symbolic transition-based Buchi automata and a novel, "sloppy," transition encoding, both of which result in improved scalability. We also define novel BDD variable orders based on tree decomposition of formula parse trees. We describe and extensively test a new multi-encoding approach utilizing these novel encoding techniques to create 30 encoding variations. We show that our novel encodings translate to significant, sometimes exponential, improvement over the current standard encoding for symbolic LTL satisfiability checking.

  6. When two is too many: Collaborative encoding impairs memory.

    PubMed

    Barber, Sarah J; Rajaram, Suparna; Aron, Arthur

    2010-04-01

    Humans routinely encode and retrieve experiences in interactive, collaborative contexts. Yet much of what we know about human memory comes from research on individuals working in isolation. Some recent research has examined collaboration during retrieval, but not much is known about how collaboration during encoding affects memory. We examined this issue. Participants created episodes by elaborating on study materials alone or collaboratively, and they later performed a cued-recall task alone, with the study partner, or with a different partner (Experiment 1). Collaborative encoding impaired recall. This counterintuitive outcome was found for both individual and group recall, even when the same partners collaborated across encoding and retrieval. This impairment was significantly reduced, but persisted, when the encoding instructions encouraged free-flowing collaboration (Experiment 2). Thus, the collaborative-encoding deficit is robust in nature and likely occurs because collaborative encoding produces less effective cues for later retrieval. PMID:20234016

  7. High-resolution encoding using redundant edge detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saddlemyer, Leslie K.; McLean, Gerard F.

    1995-06-01

    Encoding the angular position of large telescopes is typically achieved through the use of friction driven rotary encoders, tape style encoders mounted on the circumference of each telescope axis or co-axially mounted high precision rotary encoders. These forms of encoding have very stringent mounting requirements, are expensive, adversely affected by contaminating particles and often difficult to retrofit to existing telescopes. The advent of long CCDs presents the opportunity to develop accurate position encoding for telescope control using digital image metrology. In this paper we present the design of a high precision non- contact encoding system which uses the detection of multiple redundant visual edge features to develop sub-pixel edge position measurements to a precision of 1/50th pixel. The method is described in detail and is validated with both simulation trials and experimental results from a testbed setup.

  8. Digital information encrypted in an image using binary encoding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Kuang Tsan

    2008-07-01

    This paper proposes a new type of encoding methods to encrypt hidden (covert) information in host images. The encrypted information can be plot, fax, word, or network data, and it must be encoded with binary codes. All the pixels in an encoded (overt) image modulated from a host image are classified into three groups. The first group of pixels is called identification codes, used to judge whether the overt image is encoded by a method proposed in this paper or not. The second group of pixels is called type codes, used to judge the encoding type. The third group of pixels is called information codes, used to decode the encoded information. Applying the proposed encoding methods is quite convenient, and host images are not needed for decoding. Decoding covert information from overt images is rather difficult for un-authorized persons, whereas it is very easy for designers or authorized persons. Therefore, the proposed methods are very useful.

  9. Optically coupled digital altitude encoder for general aviation altimeters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, F. R.

    1975-01-01

    An optically coupled pressure altitude encoder which can be incorporated into commercially available inexpensive general aviation altimeters was successfully developed. The encoding of pressure altitude is accomplished in 100-ft (30.48-m) increments from -1000 to 20,000ft (-304.8 to 6096 m). The prototype encoders were retrofitted into two different internal altimeter configurations. A prototype encoder was checked for accuracy of transition points and environmental effects. Each altimeter configuration, with the encoder incorporated, was laboratory tested for performance and was subsequently flight-tested over the specified altitude range. With few exceptions, the assembled altimeter-encoder met aeronautical standards for altimeters and encoders. Design changes are suggested to improve performance to meet required standards consistently.

  10. Non-Fourier-encoded parallel MRI using multiple receiver coils.

    PubMed

    Mitsouras, Dimitris; Hoge, W Scott; Rybicki, Frank J; Kyriakos, Walid E; Edelman, Alan; Zientara, Gary P

    2004-08-01

    This paper describes a general theoretical framework that combines non-Fourier (NF) spatially-encoded MRI with multichannel acquisition parallel MRI. The two spatial-encoding mechanisms are physically and analytically separable, which allows NF encoding to be expressed as complementary to the inherent encoding imposed by RF receiver coil sensitivities. Consequently, the number of NF spatial-encoding steps necessary to fully encode an FOV is reduced. Furthermore, by casting the FOV reduction of parallel imaging techniques as a dimensionality reduction of the k-space that is NF-encoded, one can obtain a speed-up of each digital NF spatial excitation in addition to accelerated imaging. Images acquired at speed-up factors of 2x to 8x with a four-element RF receiver coil array demonstrate the utility of this framework and the efficiency afforded by it. PMID:15282814

  11. Leading Causes of Blindness

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Vision Leading Causes of Blindness Past Issues / Winter 2012 ... of the lenses in your eyes. They affect vision and are very common in older people. More ...

  12. Lead levels - blood

    MedlinePlus

    Blood lead levels ... A blood sample is needed. Most of the time blood is drawn from a vein located on the inside ... may be used to puncture the skin. The blood collects in a small glass tube called a ...

  13. Leading Causes of Blindness

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Feature: Vision Leading Causes of Blindness Past Issues / Summer 2008 ... of the lenses in your eyes. They affect vision and are very common in older people. More ...

  14. Lead carbonate scintillator materials

    DOEpatents

    Derenzo, S.E.; Moses, W.W.

    1991-05-14

    Improved radiation detectors containing lead carbonate or basic lead carbonate as the scintillator element are disclosed. Both of these scintillators have been found to provide a balance of good stopping power, high light yield and short decay constant that is superior to other known scintillator materials. The radiation detectors disclosed are favorably suited for use in general purpose detection and in medical uses. 3 figures.

  15. Ten case history studies of energy efficiency improvements in pulp and paper mills. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    The ten technologies chosen for case history development are: sonic sootblowing in boilers, boiler operation on oil-water emulsified fuel, energy efficient motors, computerized control of excess air for boilers, boiler control and load allocation, driving of waste-activated sludge by multiple effect evaporation, pre-drying of hog fuel, lime kiln computerization, heat wheel for process heat recovery, and organic Rankine bottoming cycle for thermomechanical pulping heat recovery. For each case study, there is given: the company name, employee contact, plant summary, a description of the energy consuming process and of the energy-saving action, an assessment of energy savings, and the decision process leading to the adoption of the measure. A data summary for discounted cash flow analysis is tabulated for each case. (LEW)

  16. DNA-Encoded Solid-Phase Synthesis: Encoding Language Design and Complex Oligomer Library Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The promise of exploiting combinatorial synthesis for small molecule discovery remains unfulfilled due primarily to the “structure elucidation problem”: the back-end mass spectrometric analysis that significantly restricts one-bead-one-compound (OBOC) library complexity. The very molecular features that confer binding potency and specificity, such as stereochemistry, regiochemistry, and scaffold rigidity, are conspicuously absent from most libraries because isomerism introduces mass redundancy and diverse scaffolds yield uninterpretable MS fragmentation. Here we present DNA-encoded solid-phase synthesis (DESPS), comprising parallel compound synthesis in organic solvent and aqueous enzymatic ligation of unprotected encoding dsDNA oligonucleotides. Computational encoding language design yielded 148 thermodynamically optimized sequences with Hamming string distance ≥ 3 and total read length <100 bases for facile sequencing. Ligation is efficient (70% yield), specific, and directional over 6 encoding positions. A series of isomers served as a testbed for DESPS’s utility in split-and-pool diversification. Single-bead quantitative PCR detected 9 × 104 molecules/bead and sequencing allowed for elucidation of each compound’s synthetic history. We applied DESPS to the combinatorial synthesis of a 75 645-member OBOC library containing scaffold, stereochemical and regiochemical diversity using mixed-scale resin (160-μm quality control beads and 10-μm screening beads). Tandem DNA sequencing/MALDI-TOF MS analysis of 19 quality control beads showed excellent agreement (<1 ppt) between DNA sequence-predicted mass and the observed mass. DESPS synergistically unites the advantages of solid-phase synthesis and DNA encoding, enabling single-bead structural elucidation of complex compounds and synthesis using reactions normally considered incompatible with unprotected DNA. The widespread availability of inexpensive oligonucleotide synthesis, enzymes, DNA sequencing, and

  17. A VLSI single chip (255,223) Reed-Solomon encoder with interleaver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, I. S.; Deutsch, L. J.; Truong, T. K.; Reed, I. S.

    1987-01-01

    A single-chip implementation of a Reed-Solomon encoder with interleaving capability is described. The code used was adapted by the CCSDS (Consulative Committee on Space Data Systems). It forms the outer code of the NASA standard concatenated coding system which includes a convolutional inner code of rate 1/2 and constraint length 7. The architecture, leading to this single VLSI chip design, makes use of a bit-serial finite field multiplication algorithm due to E.R. Berlekamp.

  18. An implementation framework for GEM encoded guidelines.

    PubMed Central

    Gershkovich, P.; Shiffman, R. N.

    2001-01-01

    Access to timely decision support information is critical for delivery of high-quality medical care. Transformation of clinical knowledge that is originally expressed in the form of a guideline to a computable format is one of the main obstacles to the integration of knowledge sharing functionality into computerized clinical systems. The Guideline Element Model (GEM) provides a methodology for such a transformation. Although the model has been used to store heterogeneous guideline knowledge, it is important to demonstrate that GEM markup facilitates guideline implementation. This report demonstrates the feasibility of implementation of GEM-encoded guideline recommendations using Apache Group s Cocoon Web Publishing Framework. We further demonstrate how XML-based programming allows for maintaining the separation of guideline content from processing logic and from presentation format. Finally, we analyze whether the guideline authors original intent has been sufficiently captured and conveyed to the end user. PMID:11825181

  19. Brain Circuits Encoding Reward from Pain Relief.

    PubMed

    Navratilova, Edita; Atcherley, Christopher W; Porreca, Frank

    2015-11-01

    Relief from pain in humans is rewarding and pleasurable. Primary rewards, or reward-predictive cues, are encoded in brain reward/motivational circuits. While considerable advances have been made in our understanding of reward circuits underlying positive reinforcement, less is known about the circuits underlying the hedonic and reinforcing actions of pain relief. We review findings from electrophysiological, neuroimaging, and behavioral studies supporting the concept that the rewarding effect of pain relief requires opioid signaling in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), activation of midbrain dopamine neurons, and the release of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Understanding of circuits that govern the reward of pain relief may allow the discovery of more effective and satisfying therapies for patients with acute or chronic pain. PMID:26603560

  20. Measurement strategy for spatially encoded photonic qubits

    SciTech Connect

    Solis-Prosser, M. A.; Neves, L.

    2010-11-15

    We propose a measurement strategy which can, probabilistically, reproduce the statistics of any observable for spatially encoded photonic qubits. It comprises the implementation of a two-outcome positive operator-valued measure followed by a detection in a fixed transverse position, making the displacement of the detection system unnecessary, unlike previous methods. This strategy generalizes a scheme recently demonstrated by one of us and co-workers, restricted to measurement of observables with equatorial eigenvectors only. The method presented here can be implemented with the current technology of programmable multipixel liquid-crystal displays. In addition, it can be straightforwardly extended to high-dimensional qudits and may be a valuable tool in optical implementations of quantum information protocols with spatial qubits and qudits.

  1. Premotor and Motor Cortices Encode Reward

    PubMed Central

    Ramkumar, Pavan; Dekleva, Brian; Cooler, Sam; Miller, Lee; Kording, Konrad

    2016-01-01

    Rewards associated with actions are critical for motivation and learning about the consequences of one’s actions on the world. The motor cortices are involved in planning and executing movements, but it is unclear whether they encode reward over and above limb kinematics and dynamics. Here, we report a categorical reward signal in dorsal premotor (PMd) and primary motor (M1) neurons that corresponds to an increase in firing rates when a trial was not rewarded regardless of whether or not a reward was expected. We show that this signal is unrelated to error magnitude, reward prediction error, or other task confounds such as reward consumption, return reach plan, or kinematic differences across rewarded and unrewarded trials. The availability of reward information in motor cortex is crucial for theories of reward-based learning and motivational influences on actions. PMID:27564707

  2. Premotor and Motor Cortices Encode Reward.

    PubMed

    Ramkumar, Pavan; Dekleva, Brian; Cooler, Sam; Miller, Lee; Kording, Konrad

    2016-01-01

    Rewards associated with actions are critical for motivation and learning about the consequences of one's actions on the world. The motor cortices are involved in planning and executing movements, but it is unclear whether they encode reward over and above limb kinematics and dynamics. Here, we report a categorical reward signal in dorsal premotor (PMd) and primary motor (M1) neurons that corresponds to an increase in firing rates when a trial was not rewarded regardless of whether or not a reward was expected. We show that this signal is unrelated to error magnitude, reward prediction error, or other task confounds such as reward consumption, return reach plan, or kinematic differences across rewarded and unrewarded trials. The availability of reward information in motor cortex is crucial for theories of reward-based learning and motivational influences on actions. PMID:27564707

  3. Encoding and decoding time in neural development.

    PubMed

    Toma, Kenichi; Wang, Tien-Cheng; Hanashima, Carina

    2016-01-01

    The development of a multicellular organism involves time-dependent changes in molecular and cellular states; therefore 'time' is an indispensable mathematical parameter of ontogenesis. Regardless of their inextricable relationship, there is a limited number of events for which the output of developmental phenomena primarily uses temporal cues that are generated through multilevel interactions between molecules, cells, and tissues. In this review, we focus on neural stem cells, which serve as a faithful decoder of temporal cues to transmit biological information and generate specific output in the developing nervous system. We further explore the identity of the temporal information that is encoded in neural development, and how this information is decoded into various cellular fate decisions. PMID:26748623

  4. Adaptive encoding in the visual pathway.

    PubMed

    Lesica, Nicholas A; Boloori, Alireza S; Stanley, Garrett B

    2003-02-01

    In a natural setting, the mean luminance and contrast of the light within a visual neuron's receptive field are constantly changing as the eyes saccade across complex scenes. Adaptive mechanisms modulate filtering properties of the early visual pathway in response to these variations, allowing the system to maintain differential sensitivity to nonstationary stimuli. An adaptive variant of the reverse correlation technique is used to characterize these changes during single trials. Properties of the adaptive reverse correlation algorithm were investigated via simulation. Analysis of data collected from the mammalian visual system demonstrates the ability to continuously track adaptive changes in the encoding scheme. The adaptive estimation approach provides a framework for characterizing the role of adaptation in natural scene viewing. PMID:12613554

  5. Designing and encoding models for synthetic biology

    PubMed Central

    Endler, Lukas; Rodriguez, Nicolas; Juty, Nick; Chelliah, Vijayalakshmi; Laibe, Camille; Li, Chen; Le Novère, Nicolas

    2009-01-01

    A key component of any synthetic biology effort is the use of quantitative models. These models and their corresponding simulations allow optimization of a system design, as well as guiding their subsequent analysis. Once a domain mostly reserved for experts, dynamical modelling of gene regulatory and reaction networks has been an area of growth over the last decade. There has been a concomitant increase in the number of software tools and standards, thereby facilitating model exchange and reuse. We give here an overview of the model creation and analysis processes as well as some software tools in common use. Using markup language to encode the model and associated annotation, we describe the mining of components, their integration in relational models, formularization and parametrization. Evaluation of simulation results and validation of the model close the systems biology ‘loop’. PMID:19364720

  6. Magnesium Diboride Current Leads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panek, John

    2010-01-01

    A recently discovered superconductor, magnesium diboride (MgB2), can be used to fabricate conducting leads used in cryogenic applications. Dis covered to be superconducting in 2001, MgB2 has the advantage of remaining superconducting at higher temperatures than the previously used material, NbTi. The purpose of these leads is to provide 2 A of electricity to motors located in a 1.3 K environment. The providing environment is a relatively warm 17 K. Requirements for these leads are to survive temperature fluctuations in the 5 K and 11 K heat sinks, and not conduct excessive heat into the 1.3 K environment. Test data showed that each lead in the assembly could conduct 5 A at 4 K, which, when scaled to 17 K, still provided more than the required 2 A. The lead assembly consists of 12 steelclad MgB2 wires, a tensioned Kevlar support, a thermal heat sink interface at 4 K, and base plates. The wires are soldered to heavy copper leads at the 17 K end, and to thin copper-clad NbTi leads at the 1.3 K end. The leads were designed, fabricated, and tested at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe - Institut foer Technische Physik before inclusion in Goddard's XRS (X-Ray Spectrometer) instrument onboard the Astro-E2 spacecraft. A key factor is that MgB2 remains superconducting up to 30 K, which means that it does not introduce joule heating as a resistive wire would. Because the required temperature ranges are 1.3-17 K, this provides a large margin of safety. Previous designs lost superconductivity at around 8 K. The disadvantage to MgB2 is that it is a brittle ceramic, and making thin wires from it is challenging. The solution was to encase the leads in thin steel tubes for strength. Previous designs were so brittle as to risk instrument survival. MgB2 leads can be used in any cryogenic application where small currents need to be conducted at below 30 K. Because previous designs would superconduct only at up to 8 K, this new design would be ideal for the 8-30 K range.

  7. MPEG-1 low-cost encoder solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grueger, Klaus; Schirrmeister, Frank; Filor, Lutz; von Reventlow, Christian; Schneider, Ulrich; Mueller, Gerriet; Sefzik, Nicolai; Fiedrich, Sven

    1995-02-01

    A solution for real-time compression of digital YCRCB video data to an MPEG-1 video data stream has been developed. As an additional option, motion JPEG and video telephone streams (H.261) can be generated. For MPEG-1, up to two bidirectional predicted images are supported. The required computational power for motion estimation and DCT/IDCT, memory size and memory bandwidth have been the main challenges. The design uses fast-page-mode memory accesses and requires only one single 80 ns EDO-DRAM with 256 X 16 organization for video encoding. This can be achieved only by using adequate access and coding strategies. The architecture consists of an input processing and filter unit, a memory interface, a motion estimation unit, a motion compensation unit, a DCT unit, a quantization control, a VLC unit and a bus interface. For using the available memory bandwidth by the processing tasks, a fixed schedule for memory accesses has been applied, that can be interrupted for asynchronous events. The motion estimation unit implements a highly sophisticated hierarchical search strategy based on block matching. The DCT unit uses a separated fast-DCT flowgraph realized by a switchable hardware unit for both DCT and IDCT operation. By appropriate multiplexing, only one multiplier is required for: DCT, quantization, inverse quantization, and IDCT. The VLC unit generates the video-stream up to the video sequence layer and is directly coupled with an intelligent bus-interface. Thus, the assembly of video, audio and system data can easily be performed by the host computer. Having a relatively low complexity and only small requirements for DRAM circuits, the developed solution can be applied to low-cost encoding products for consumer electronics.

  8. Encoding by synchronization in the primate striatum.

    PubMed

    Adler, Avital; Finkes, Inna; Katabi, Shiran; Prut, Yifat; Bergman, Hagai

    2013-03-13

    Information is encoded in the nervous system through the discharge and synchronization of single neurons. The striatum, the input stage of the basal ganglia, is divided into three territories: the putamen, the caudate, and the ventral striatum, all of which converge onto the same motor pathway. This parallel organization suggests that there are multiple and competing systems in the basal ganglia network controlling behavior. To explore which mechanism(s) enables the different striatal domains to encode behavioral events and to control behavior, we compared the neural activity of phasically active neurons [medium spiny neurons (MSNs), presumed projection neurons] and tonically active neurons (presumed cholinergic interneurons) across striatal territories from monkeys during the performance of a well practiced task. Although neurons in all striatal territories displayed similar spontaneous discharge properties and similar temporal modulations of their discharge rates to the behavioral events, their correlation structure was profoundly different. The distributions of signal and noise correlation of pairs of putamen MSNs were strongly shifted toward positive correlations and these two measures were correlated. In contrast, MSN pairs in the caudate and ventral striatum displayed symmetrical, near-zero signal and noise correlation distributions. Furthermore, only putamen MSN pairs displayed different noise correlation dynamics to rewarding versus neutral/aversive cues. Similarly, the noise correlation between tonically active neuron pairs was stronger in the putamen than in the caudate. We suggest that the level of synchronization of the neuronal activity and its temporal dynamics differentiate the striatal territories and may thus account for the different roles that striatal domains play in behavioral control. PMID:23486956

  9. The making of meaning: comments on Hofstee and Ten Berge.

    PubMed

    McGrath, Robert E

    2004-10-01

    Hofstee and Ten Berge (2004/this issue) outline a method of scale transformation that places scores on a common absolute scale. This contrasts with traditional relative methods of transformation, which involve scaling in relation to a sample mean. Their primary intention seems to be to produce a scale that is intrinsically meaningful. This issue of scale meaning is discussed in some detail, including reference to an alternate approach to absolute scaling offered by Cohen, Cohen, Aiken, and West (1999). Ultimately, neither approach to absolute scaling seems completely satisfactory as a resolution to this problem. It is suggested that the lack of meaning inherent to many psychosocial measures is a natural product of traditional aggregative practices in scale development and may be invulnerable to statistical correction. PMID:15456647

  10. Past ten years of noise control in the electric utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Teplitzky, A.M.

    1982-01-01

    During the past ten years, electric utility industry noise abatement activities have focused on quantifying noise emissons from proposed facilities and on abating noise from new facilities. Several studies have been undertaken in order to achieve these goals by the following electric utility organizations: The Edison Electric Institute (EEI), the principal association of investor owned American utilities; Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), an organization founded by American electric utilities to develop and manage a technology program for improving electric power production, distribution and utilization; and the Empire State Electric Energy Research Corporation (ESEERCO), a research organization sponsored by the investor owned utilities in New York State. Presented in this paper are summaries of several studies sponsored by electric utility industry groups that have contributed to increasing the available information on electric utility noise emissions and the abatement of those emissions.

  11. Instability Rules: The Ten Most Amazing Ideas of Modern Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flowers, Charles

    2002-03-01

    World-altering discoveries that reveal a universe of uncertainty and constant change Whether probing the farthest reaches of the vast universe or exploring the microscopic world of genetics and the subatomic world of quantum mechanics, Instability Rules is a remarkably informative and engaging look at ten milestone discoveries and their discoverers-a wide range of very human personalities whose insights have dramatically altered our most basic assumptions about human existence during the last century. The stories include Edwin Hubble and the expanding universe, Alfred Wegener and continental drift, Neils Bohr and quantum mechanics, Alan Turing and artificial intelligence, and James Watson and Francis Crick and DNA. Also covering discoveries of the twenty-first century that are already refining these and other ideas, Instability Rules is an exhilarating, sometimes amusing encounter with the defining scientific discoveries of our age.

  12. Breast Cancer in Transgender Veterans: A Ten-Case Series.

    PubMed

    Brown, George R

    2015-03-01

    All known cases of breast cancer in patients with a diagnosis consistent with transgender identification were identified in the Veterans Health Administration (1996-2013). Ten cases were confirmed: seven birth sex females and three birth sex males. Of the three birth sex males, two identified as gender dysphoric male-to-female and one identified as transgender with transvestic fetishism. The birth sex males all presented with late-stage disease that proved fatal, whereas most of the birth sex female transgender veterans presented with earlier stage disease that could be treated. These cases support the importance of screening for breast cancer using standard guidelines in birth sex males and females. Family history of breast cancer should be obtained from transgender people as part of routine care. This report expands the known cases of breast cancer in transgender persons from 5 to 12 (female-to-male) and from 10 to 13 (male-to-female). PMID:26790021

  13. Possible climate change evidence in ten Mexican watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mateos, Efrain; Santana, Julio-Sergio; Montero-Martínez, Martin J.; Deeb, Alejandro; Grunwaldt, Alfred

    2016-02-01

    This paper suggests possible evidence of climate change in Mexico at the watershed level, based solely on historical data. The official Mexican climate dataset was used to find the best set of stations for each watershed. Maximum and minimum temperatures and rainfall in ten watersheds are analyzed from 1970 to 2009. Maximum temperature trends show a significant increment in most of these watersheds. Furthermore, Daily Temperature Range (DTR) exhibits a positive trend (increments), thus implying an increase in temperature extremes. This study also shows that the difference between maximum and minimum monthly temperature trends is negatively correlated with monthly precipitation trends. As a result, land-use and land-cover changes could be the main drivers of climate change in the region.

  14. Top ten list of user-hostile interface design

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, D.P.

    1994-10-01

    This report describes ten of the most frequent ergonomic problems found in human-computer interfaces (HCIs) associated with complex industrial machines. In contrast with being thought of as ``user friendly,`` many of these machines are seen as exhibiting ``user-hostile`` attributes by the author. The historical lack of consistent application of ergonomic principles in the HCIs has led to a breed of very sophisticated, complex manufacturing equipment that few people can operate without extensive orientation, training, or experience. This design oversight has produced the need for extensive training programs and help documentation, unnecessary machine downtime, and reduced productivity resulting from operator stress and confusion. Ergonomic considerations affect industrial machines in at least three important areas: (1) the physical package including CRT and keyboard, maintenance access areas, and dedicated hardware selection, layout, and labeling; (2) the software by which the user interacts with the computer that controls the equipment; and (3) the supporting documentation.

  15. Ten principles from evolutionary ecology essential for effective marine conservation.

    PubMed

    Kindsvater, Holly K; Mangel, Marc; Reynolds, John D; Dulvy, Nicholas K

    2016-04-01

    Sustainably managing marine species is crucial for the future health of the human population. Yet there are diverse perspectives concerning which species can be exploited sustainably, and how best to do so. Motivated by recent debates in the published literature over marine conservation challenges, we review ten principles connecting life-history traits, population growth rate, and density-dependent population regulation. We introduce a framework for categorizing life histories, POSE (Precocial-Opportunistic-Survivor-Episodic), which illustrates how a species' life-history traits determine a population's compensatory capacity. We show why considering the evolutionary context that has shaped life histories is crucial to sustainable management. We then review recent work that connects our framework to specific opportunities where the life-history traits of marine species can be used to improve current conservation practices. PMID:27069573

  16. Ten years of progress in the Superfund Program

    SciTech Connect

    Clay, D.R. )

    1991-02-01

    Superfund celebrated its tenth anniversary in December 1990. The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) - popularly known as Superfund - was passed into law in December 1980 in the wake of such incidents as Love Canal and the Valley of the Drums. The program was designed to clean up uncontrolled hazardous waste sites and, during the past ten years, thousands of actions have been taken to protect human health and the environment from the hazards posed by those sites. EPA believes that goal is best met by its strategy: make sites safer - control immediate threats; enforce aggressively; make sites cleaner - worst problems at worst sites first; bring new technology to bear on the problem.

  17. To Interpret the Earth: Ten Ways to Be Wrong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Grand, Homer

    The Scientist Likes Contemplation: Do Senior Scientists Contemplate Everything Methodically? Thus runs one mnemonic suggested by Stanley Schumm to epitomize the central thesis of the slim but provocative book, To Interpret the Earth: Ten Ways to Be Wrong. No, the author warns us, neither is this a discourse on some presumed “scientific method” nor is it a treatise on either the philosophy of science in general or its application to the Earth sciences. Extensive references are given to those literatures. “For example, Schumm gives an insightful account of the method of multiple working hypotheses (or, as one wag termed it, “the method of multiple prejudices”) which has numbered among its proponents several influential Earth scientists.”

  18. Comparison of radiology residency programs in ten countries.

    PubMed

    Willatt, J M G; Mason, A C

    2006-02-01

    The purpose of our study was to compare various aspects of radiology training schemes in ten countries. A questionnaire was sent to senior residents in the UK, USA, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Italy, Egypt, India, Malaysia and Greece. The questions concerned length of training, required pre-training experience, the organization of the training scheme, teaching, resources, stages at which residents can independently perform and report examinations, fellowships, and progression to jobs. A wide variety of training, ranging from highly scheduled programs with detailed aims and objectives, to self-learning occurs across the world. Examinations and assessments are also variable. There are lessons to be learned from varying practices; more exchanges of ideas should be encouraged. In view of the "internationalization" of radiology services and the variation in training styles an international qualification for quality assurance purposes may be desirable. PMID:15702337

  19. Ten per cent polarized optical emission from GRB090102

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steele, I. A.; Mundell, C. G.; Smith, R. J.; Kobayashi, S.; Guidorzi, C.

    2009-12-01

    The nature of the jets and the role of magnetic fields in gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) remains unclear. In a baryon-dominated jet only weak, tangled fields generated in situ through shocks would be present. In an alternative model, jets are threaded with large-scale magnetic fields that originate at the central engine and that accelerate and collimate the material. To distinguish between the models the degree of polarization in early-time emission must be measured; however, previous claims of gamma-ray polarization have been controversial. Here we report that the early optical emission from GRB090102 was polarized at 10+/-1 per cent, indicating the presence of large-scale fields originating in the expanding fireball. If the degree of polarization and its position angle were variable on timescales shorter than our 60-second exposure, then the peak polarization may have been larger than ten per cent.

  20. Killing superalgebra deformations of ten-dimensional supergravity backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueroa-O'Farrill, José; Vercnocke, Bert

    2007-12-01

    We explore Lie superalgebra deformations of the Killing superalgebras of some ten-dimensional supergravity backgrounds. We prove the rigidity of the Poincaré superalgebras in types I, IIA and IIB, as well as of the Killing superalgebra of the Freund Rubin vacuum of type IIB supergravity. We also prove rigidity of the Killing superalgebras of the NS5-, D0-, D3-, D4- and D5-branes, whereas we exhibit the possible deformations of the D1-, D2-, D6- and D7-brane Killing superalgebras, as well as of that of the type II fundamental string solutions. We relate the superalgebra deformations of the D2- and D6-branes to those of the (delocalized) M2-brane and the Kaluza Klein monopole, respectively. The good behaviour under Kaluza Klein reduction suggests that the deformed superalgebras ought to have a geometric interpretation.

  1. Straelensiosis in two cats and ten dogs from Israel.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, R; Bourdeau, P; Waldman, L; Amiel, S; Zur, G

    2015-12-01

    Straelensiosis is uncommonly described outside Europe. This report describes straelensiosis in two cats and in ten dogs diagnosed with the disease outside Europe. Both cats displayed erythematous macules or nodules on the abdominal skin. One cat was extremely pruritic, while in the other the lesions were incidental findings when the cat was presented for neutering. The mites were noted in skin scrapings in both cats and histopathologically in one cat. All dogs showed a general distribution of papules, and intense pruritus was noted in six dogs. The diagnosis in all dogs was based on histopathology. Treatment of the animals in this study varied, and among the various administrated treatments, amitraz showed promising results. PMID:26735777

  2. Ten per cent polarized optical emission from GRB 090102.

    PubMed

    Steele, I A; Mundell, C G; Smith, R J; Kobayashi, S; Guidorzi, C

    2009-12-10

    The nature of the jets and the role of magnetic fields in gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) remains unclear. In a baryon-dominated jet only weak, tangled fields generated in situ through shocks would be present. In an alternative model, jets are threaded with large-scale magnetic fields that originate at the central engine and that accelerate and collimate the material. To distinguish between the models the degree of polarization in early-time emission must be measured; however, previous claims of gamma-ray polarization have been controversial. Here we report that the early optical emission from GRB 090102 was polarized at 10 +/- 1 per cent, indicating the presence of large-scale fields originating in the expanding fireball. If the degree of polarization and its position angle were variable on timescales shorter than our 60-second exposure, then the peak polarization may have been larger than ten per cent. PMID:20010682

  3. A synopsis of Harperocallis (Tofieldiaceae, Alismatales) with ten new combinations

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Lisa M.; Dorr, Laurence J.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Ten new combinations from Asagraea, Isidrogaliva, and Tofieldia are proposed in the previously monospecific genus Harperocallis (Tofieldiaceae, Alismatales). As circumscribed here, the genus is restricted to the Americas. The majority of species occur in the Andes or the Guayana region of northern South America; more than half have restricted distributions, and Harperocallis flava is narrowly endemic in the Coastal Plain of the southeastern United States. A key to species, synonymies, distributions, representative specimens, and salient notes are presented. Populations of the species are mapped and Harperocallis robustior is illustrated. A neotype is selected for Tofieldia frigida, here considered a synonym of Harperocallis falcata. Several recent records of Harperocallis longiflora, previously known only from the type collected in 1902, are reported. PMID:23794935

  4. Encoding continuous spatial phenomena in GML

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vries, M. E.; Ledoux, H.

    2009-04-01

    In the discussion about how to model and encode geographic information two meta-models of space exist: the 'object' view and the 'field' view. This difference in conceptual view is also reflected in different data models and encoding formats. Among GIS practitioners, ‘fields' (or ‘coverages') are being used almost exclusively in 2D, while in the geoscience community 3D and higher-dimensional fields are widely used. (Note that the dimensions in oceanographic/atmospheric coverages are not necessarily spatial dimensions, as any parameters (e.g. temperature of the air, or density of water) can be considered a dimension.) While standardisation work in ISO and OGC has led to agreement on how to best encode discrete spatial objects, for the modelling and encoding of continuous ‘fields' there are still a number of open issues. In the presentation we will shortly discuss the current standards related to fields, and look at their shortcomings and potential. In ISO 19123 for example a distinction is made between discrete and continuous coverages, but the difference is not very clear and hard to capture for implementers. As far as encoding is concerned: GML 3.x (ISO 19136) has a discrete coverage data type, but no continuous coverage type. We will then present an alternative solution to model fields, and show how it can be implemented using some parts of GML, but not the ISO/GML coverage type. This alternative data model for fields permits us to represent fields in 2D and 3D, although conceptually it can be easily extended to higher dimensions. Unlike current standards where there is a distinction between discrete and continuous fields/coverages, we argue that a field should always have one - and only one! - value for a given attribute at every location in the spatial domain (be this domain the surface of the Earth, a 3D volume, or even a 4D spatio-temporal hypercube). The principal idea behind the proposed model is that two things are needed to have a coverage: 1. a set

  5. Ten Years of Tamoxifen Reduces Breast Cancer Recurrences, Improves Survival

    Cancer.gov

    Taking adjuvant tamoxifen for 10 years after primary treatment leads to a greater reduction in breast cancer recurrences and deaths than taking the drug for only 5 years, according to the results of a large international clinical trial.

  6. Ten years of Nature Physics: Numerical models come of age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gull, E.; Millis, A. J.

    2015-10-01

    When Nature Physics celebrated 20 years of high-temperature superconductors, numerical approaches were on the periphery. Since then, new ideas implemented in new algorithms are leading to new insights.

  7. Urethral duplication in males: our experience in ten cases.

    PubMed

    Arena, Salvatore; Arena, Carmela; Scuderi, Maria Grazia; Sanges, Giuseppe; Arena, Francesco; Di Benedetto, Vincenzo

    2007-08-01

    Urethral duplication is a rare congenital anomaly, affecting mainly boys. Clinical presentation varies because of the different anatomical patterns of this abnormality. We report our experience in ten males affected by urethral duplication. We retrospectively reviewed the records of ten males affected by urethral duplication. Mild cases of distal type I duplications as well as "Y-type" duplication associated to anorectal malformation were excluded. Evaluation included voiding cystourethrography, retrograde urethrography, intravenous urography and urethrocystoscopy. Mean age at diagnosis was 46.7 +/- 32.3 months A blind ending duplicated urethra (type I) was present in three patients, two urethras originating from a common bladder neck (type II A2) in three, an "Y-type" duplication in three and a complete bladder with incomplete urethral duplication in one. Surgical management included excision of the duplicated urethra in four patients while a displacement of the ventral urethra (in "Y-type" duplication) in perineal-scrotal or scrotal position was performed in two patients as first stage of urethral reconstruction. Good cosmetical and functional results were achieved in all six treated boys while surgical management was not required in four. Urethral duplication is often associated with genito-urinary and gastro-intestinal abnormalities. Embryology is unclear and a lot of hypotheses have been proposed. We believe that the same embryological explanation cannot be applied to all subtypes of urethral duplication. Management must be evaluated for each case. The overall prognosis is good, in spite of the presence of other severe associate congenital anomalies. PMID:17576574

  8. Multiple Functions of Ten-eleven Translocation 1 during Tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Yi-Ping; Zhu, Yi-Min; Sun, Xiao-Hui; Lai, Mao-De

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Aberrant expression of ten-eleven translocation 1 (TET1) plays a critical role in tumor development and progression. We systematically summarized the latest research progress on the role and mechanisms of TET1 in cancer biology. Data Sources: Relevant articles published in English from 1980 to April 2016 were selected from the PubMed database. The terms “ten-eleven translocation 1,” “5mC,” “5hmC,” “microRNA,” “hypoxia,” and “embryonic stem cell” were used for the search. Study Selection: Articles focusing on the role and mechanism of TET1 in tumor were reviewed, including clinical and basic research articles. Results: TET proteins, the key enzymes converting 5-methylcytosine to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine, play vital roles in DNA demethylation regulation. Recent studies have shown that loss of TET1 is associated with tumorigenesis and can be used as a potential biomarker for cancer therapy, which indicates that TET1 serves as tumor suppressor gene. Moreover, besides its dioxygenase activity, TET1 could induce epithelial-mesenchymal transition and act as a coactivator to regulate gene transcription, such as developmental regulator in embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and hypoxia-responsive gene in cancer. The regulation of TET1 is also correlated with microRNA in a posttranscriptional modification process. Hence, it is complex but critical to comprehend the mechanisms of TET1 in the biology of ESCs and cancer. Conclusions: TET1 not only serves as a demethylation enzyme but also plays multiple roles during tumorigenesis and progression. More studies should be carried out to elucidate the exact mechanisms of TET1 and its associations with cancer before considering it as a therapeutic tool. PMID:27411465

  9. Characterization of Ten Heterotetrameric NDP-Dependent Acyl-CoA Synthetases of the Hyperthermophilic Archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Scott, Joseph W.; Poole, Farris L.; Adams, Michael W. W.

    2014-01-01

    Tmore » he hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus grows by fermenting peptides and carbohydrates to organic acids. In the terminal step, acyl-CoA synthetase (ACS) isoenzymes convert acyl-CoA derivatives to the corresponding acid and conserve energy in the form of ATP. ACS1 and ACS2 were previously purified from P. furiosus and have α 2 β 2 structures but the genome contains genes encoding three additional α -subunits.he ten possible combinations of α and β genes were expressed in E. coli and each resulted in stable and active α 2 β 2 isoenzymes.he α -subunit of each isoenzyme determined CoA-based substrate specificity and between them they accounted for the CoA derivatives of fourteen amino acids.he β -subunit determined preference for adenine or guanine nucleotides.he GTP-generating isoenzymes are proposed to play a role in gluconeogenesis by producing GTP for GTP-dependent phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and for other GTP-dependent processes.ranscriptional and proteomic data showed that all ten isoenzymes are constitutively expressed indicating that both ATP and GTP are generated from the metabolism of most of the amino acids. A phylogenetic analysis showed that the ACSs of P. furiosus and other members of thehermococcales are evolutionarily distinct from those found throughout the rest of biology, including those of other hyperthermophilic archaea.« less

  10. Massively parallel neural circuits for stereoscopic color vision: encoding, decoding and identification.

    PubMed

    Lazar, Aurel A; Slutskiy, Yevgeniy B; Zhou, Yiyin

    2015-03-01

    Past work demonstrated how monochromatic visual stimuli could be faithfully encoded and decoded under Nyquist-type rate conditions. Color visual stimuli were then traditionally encoded and decoded in multiple separate monochromatic channels. The brain, however, appears to mix information about color channels at the earliest stages of the visual system, including the retina itself. If information about color is mixed and encoded by a common pool of neurons, how can colors be demixed and perceived? We present Color Video Time Encoding Machines (Color Video TEMs) for encoding color visual stimuli that take into account a variety of color representations within a single neural circuit. We then derive a Color Video Time Decoding Machine (Color Video TDM) algorithm for color demixing and reconstruction of color visual scenes from spikes produced by a population of visual neurons. In addition, we formulate Color Video Channel Identification Machines (Color Video CIMs) for functionally identifying color visual processing performed by a spiking neural circuit. Furthermore, we derive a duality between TDMs and CIMs that unifies the two and leads to a general theory of neural information representation for stereoscopic color vision. We provide examples demonstrating that a massively parallel color visual neural circuit can be first identified with arbitrary precision and its spike trains can be subsequently used to reconstruct the encoded stimuli. We argue that evaluation of the functional identification methodology can be effectively and intuitively performed in the stimulus space. In this space, a signal reconstructed from spike trains generated by the identified neural circuit can be compared to the original stimulus. PMID:25594573

  11. Separate encoding of identity and similarity of complex familiar odors in piriform cortex

    PubMed Central

    Kadohisa, Mikiko; Wilson, Donald A.

    2006-01-01

    Piriform cortical circuits are hypothesized to form perceptions from responses to specific odorant features, but the anterior piriform cortex (aPCX) and posterior piriform cortex (pPCX) differ markedly in their anatomical organization, differences that could lead to distinct roles in odor encoding. Here, we tested whether experience with a complex odorant mixture would modify encoding of the mixture and its components in aPCX and pPCX. Rats were exposed to an odorant mixture and its components in a go/no-go rewarded odor discrimination task. After reaching behavioral performance criterion, single-unit recordings were made from the aPCX and pPCX in these rats and in odor-naïve, control, urethane-anesthetized rats. After odor experience, aPCX neurons were more narrowly tuned to the test odorants, and there was a decorrelation in aPCX population responses to the mixture and its components, suggesting a more distinct encoding of the familiar mixture from its components. In contrast, pPCX neurons were more broadly tuned to the familiar odorants, and pPCX population responses to the mixture and its components became more highly correlated, suggesting a pPCX encoding of similarity between familiar stimuli. The results suggest aPCX and pPCX play different roles in the processing of familiar odors and are consistent with an experience-dependent encoding (perceptual learning) of synthetic odorant identity in aPCX and an experience-dependent encoding of odor similarity or odor quality in pPCX. PMID:17005727

  12. Using The ENCODE Resource For Functional Annotation Of Genetic Variants

    PubMed Central

    Pazin, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary This article illustrates the use of the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) resource to generate or refine hypotheses from genomic data on disease and other phenotypic traits. First, the goals and history of ENCODE and related epigenomics projects are reviewed. Second, the rationale for ENCODE and the major data types used by ENCODE are briefly described, as are some standard heuristics for their interpretation. Third, the use of the ENCODE resource is examined. Standard use cases for ENCODE, accessing the ENCODE resource, and accessing data from related projects are discussed. Finally, access to resources from ENCODE and related epigenomics projects are reviewed. (Although the focus of this article is the use of ENCODE data, some of the same approaches can be used with the data from other projects.) While this article is focused on the case of interpreting genetic variation data, essentially the same approaches can be used with the ENCODE resource, or with data from other projects, to interpret epigenomic and gene regulation data, with appropriate modification (Rakyan et al. 2011; Ng et al. 2012). Such approaches could allow investigators to use genomic methods to study environmental and stochastic processes, in addition to genetic processes. PMID:25762420

  13. Advantages and limitations of the use of optogenetic approach in studying fast-scale spike encoding.

    PubMed

    Malyshev, Aleksey; Goz, Roman; LoTurco, Joseph J; Volgushev, Maxim

    2015-01-01

    Understanding single-neuron computations and encoding performed by spike-generation mechanisms of cortical neurons is one of the central challenges for cell electrophysiology and computational neuroscience. An established paradigm to study spike encoding in controlled conditions in vitro uses intracellular injection of a mixture of signals with fluctuating currents that mimic in vivo-like background activity. However this technique has two serious limitations: it uses current injection, while synaptic activation leads to changes of conductance, and current injection is technically most feasible in the soma, while the vast majority of synaptic inputs are located on the dendrites. Recent progress in optogenetics provides an opportunity to circumvent these limitations. Transgenic expression of light-activated ionic channels, such as Channelrhodopsin2 (ChR2), allows induction of controlled conductance changes even in thin distant dendrites. Here we show that photostimulation provides a useful extension of the tools to study neuronal encoding, but it has its own limitations. Optically induced fluctuating currents have a low cutoff (~70 Hz), thus limiting the dynamic range of frequency response of cortical neurons. This leads to severe underestimation of the ability of neurons to phase-lock their firing to high frequency components of the input. This limitation could be worked around by using short (2 ms) light stimuli which produce membrane potential responses resembling EPSPs by their fast onset and prolonged decay kinetics. We show that combining application of short light stimuli to different parts of dendritic tree for mimicking distant EPSCs with somatic injection of fluctuating current that mimics fluctuations of membrane potential in vivo, allowed us to study fast encoding of artificial EPSPs photoinduced at different distances from the soma. We conclude that dendritic photostimulation of ChR2 with short light pulses provides a powerful tool to investigate

  14. Leading healthcare in complexity.

    PubMed

    Cohn, Jeffrey

    2014-12-01

    Healthcare institutions and providers are in complexity. Networks of interconnections from relationships and technology create conditions in which interdependencies and non-linear dynamics lead to surprising, unpredictable outcomes. Previous effective approaches to leadership, focusing on top-down bureaucratic methods, are no longer effective. Leading in complexity requires leaders to accept the complexity, create an adaptive space in which innovation and creativity can flourish and then integrate the successful practices that emerge into the formal organizational structure. Several methods for doing adaptive space work will be discussed. Readers will be able to contrast traditional leadership approaches with leading in complexity. They will learn new behaviours that are required of complexity leaders, along with challenges they will face, often from other leaders within the organization. PMID:25815410

  15. Lead zirconate titanate ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, B.E. Jr.

    1986-12-02

    This patent describes a lead zirconate titanate (PZT) piezoelectric ceramic composition which, based on total composition weight, consists essentially of a solid solution of lead zirconate and lead titanate in a PbZrO/sub 3/:PbTiO/sub 3/ ratio from about 0.505:0.495 to about 0.54:0.46; a halide salt selected from the group consisting of fluorides and chlorides of alkali metal and alkaline earth elements and mixtures thereof except for francium and radium in an amount from about 0.5 to 2 weight percent; and an oxide selected from the group consisting of magnesium, barium, scandium, aluminum, lanthanum, praesodynium, neodymium, samarium, and mixtures thereof in an amount from about 0.5 to about 6 weight percent, the relative amount of oxide being from about 1 to about 4 times that of the halide.

  16. Ten novel mutations in VMD2 associated with Best macular dystrophy (BMD).

    PubMed

    Krämer, Franziska; Mohr, Nicole; Kellner, Ulrich; Rudolph, Günther; Weber, Bernhard H F

    2003-11-01

    Mutations in the vitelliform macular dystrophy 2 (VMD2) gene encoding besrtophin are responsible for Best macular dystrophy (BMD), a juvenile-onset autosomal dominant disorder of the central retina. Here, we report ten novel VMD2 mutations identified in clinically diagnosed BMD patients. The heterozygous alterations include nine missense mutations (c.32A>T, c.76G>C, c.85T>C, c.122T>C, c.122T>C, c.310G>C, c.722C>A, c.880C>G, c.893T>C) resulting in amino acid changes (respectively: Asn11Ile, Gly26Arg, Tyr29His, Leu41Pro, Trp102Arg, Asp104His, Thr241Asn, Leu294Val and Phe298Ser) located within four previously defined hotspot regions of the gene. In addition, a silent exonic mutation (c.624G>A) was identified in a two generation BMD pedigree. To determine a possible pathogenic effect of this variant, the consequences on splicing behaviour and potential exonic splice enhancer (ESE) motifs were analyzed. Finally, a 1-bp deletion (c.779delC) resulting in a frameshift mutation (Pro260fsX288) was found in exon 7, representing the first case of a potential frameshift mutation that affects the N-terminal half of the VMD2 protein. Besides a dominant negative effect which is likely attributable to the identified missense mutations, the deletion mutation suggests haploinsufficiency as an infrequent disease-causing mechanism in BMD. PMID:14517959

  17. Peak velocity determination using fast Fourier velocity encoding with minimal spatial encoding.

    PubMed

    Galea, Daniela; Lauzon, M Louis; Drangova, Maria

    2002-08-01

    For quantitative peak velocity determination, a technique was developed that uses Fourier velocity encoding (FVE) for the fast acquisition of images of velocity with no spatial encoding other than slice selection. The technique produces images of velocity versus temporal frequency. In applications where the quantity of interest is the peak velocity and in-plane spatial localization is not required, high SNR images are produced with reduced sensitivity to errors due to slice thickness and motion. The technique was validated using steady and pulsatile flow in a straight tube, and compared to both phase contrast measurements and numerical models using steady flow in a 50% and a 75% cosinusoidal stenosis phantom. Results show that for slices as large as 2 cm and/or undergoing periodic motion, FVE can accurately measure the peak velocity in cases where a distribution of velocities exist. PMID:12201419

  18. Total contribution of airborne lead to blood lead.

    PubMed Central

    Manton, W I

    1985-01-01

    A nine year study of blood lead concentrations and isotope ratios carried out on a married couple shows that pulmonary deposition cannot account for all the airborne lead in blood; that lead from bone may comprise 70% of blood lead; and that during pregnancy blood lead may double due to mobilisation of lead from bone. PMID:3970881

  19. Teachers Take the Lead

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corder, Gregory W.; Marshall, Ian; Lineweaver, Lori; McIntyre, Peggy

    2008-01-01

    Classroom teachers can serve as instructional leaders to plan, execute, and assess staff development. Such responsibility can lead to successful outcomes, as evidenced by one school's teacher-led technology training. This article illustrates how sharing instructional leadership responsibilities helps develop collegiality among faculty members.

  20. Leading for Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yazzie-Mintz, Ethan

    2010-01-01

    As the dropout problem has grown--and as increasing numbers of students have started to see dropping out as a viable option for expressing their disaffection with school--practitioners, policymakers, and researchers have looked more closely at the factors that lead students to disengage from school and have attempted to find ways to create…

  1. Lead Poisoning in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin-Fu, Jane S.

    Designed as a public information pamphlet, the text discusses the problem of lead poisoning in children. The preventable nature of the problem is stressed as well as needed action on the part of the public, physicians and other health workers, and the legislators. The pamphlet emphasizes that each of these areas is essential in preventing death or…

  2. Leading by Interviewing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorenson, Richard D.

    2007-01-01

    While the interview remains the most relevant process by which information about an applicant can be obtained, the effective school administrator must recognize that the interview process is much more than exploring an applicant's qualifications, skills, and experiences. The interview must also be utilized as a means of leading. In other words,…

  3. Change, Lead, Succeed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munger, Linda; von Frank, Valerie

    2010-01-01

    Redefine leadership in your school, and create capacity through school leadership teams that successfully coordinate professional learning. "Change, Lead, Succeed" shows school leaders and teachers in leadership roles what they need to know to effectively create a culture for change. Find out what distinguishes a school leadership team from other…

  4. Lead Thickness Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Rucinski, R.; /Fermilab

    1998-02-16

    The preshower lead thickness applied to the outside of D-Zero's superconducting solenoid vacuum shell was measured at the time of application. This engineering documents those thickness measurements. The lead was ordered in sheets 0.09375-inch and 0.0625-inch thick. The tolerance on thickness was specified to be +/- 0.003-inch. The sheets all were within that thickness tolerance. The nomenclature for each sheet was designated 1T, 1B, 2T, 2B where the numeral designates it's location in the wrap and 'T' or 'B' is short for 'top' or 'bottom' half of the solenoid. Micrometer measurements were taken at six locations around the perimeter of each sheet. The width,length, and weight of each piece was then measured. Using an assumed pure lead density of 0.40974 lb/in{sup 3}, an average sheet thickness was calculated and compared to the perimeter thickness measurements. In every case, the calculated average thickness was a few mils thinner than the perimeter measurements. The ratio was constant, 0.98. This discrepancy is likely due to the assumed pure lead density. It is not felt that the perimeter is thicker than the center regions. The data suggests that the physical thickness of the sheets is uniform to +/- 0.0015-inch.

  5. Leading through Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerzon, Mark

    2006-01-01

    This article talks about leading significant learning opportunities through conflict of ideas in a school system. Catalyzing school change can turn emotional differences of opinion into learning opportunities. Leaders who want to deal effectively with these challenging, often tense situations need to be more than good managers. They need to be…

  6. ALL AGES LEAD MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic (IEUBK) Model for Lead in Children (version 0.99d) was released in March 1994, and has been widely accepted in the risk assessment community as a tool for implementing the site specific risk assessment process when the issue is childhood...

  7. Leading the Way.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slevin, James F.

    1994-01-01

    Claims that the field of rhetoric and composition is leading the way in the increase in attention to the preparation of graduate students as future teachers. Explains how composition programs encourage the development of teacherly attributes. Suggests priorities for further thought and research. (HB)

  8. Lead and compounds (inorganic)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Lead and compounds ( inorganic ) ; CASRN 7439 - 92 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for

  9. Girls Leading Outward

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamed, Heather; Reyes, Jazmin; Moceri, Dominic C.; Morana, Laura; Elias, Maurice J.

    2011-01-01

    The authors describe a program implemented in Red Bank Middle School in New Jersey to help at-risk, minority middle school girls realize their leadership potential. The GLO (Girls Leading Outward) program was developed by the Developing Safe and Civil Schools Project at Rutgers University and is facilitated by university students. Selected middle…

  10. Machining lead wafers

    SciTech Connect

    Schamaun, R.T.

    1987-09-01

    Recently, MEC-6 machined some 4-inch-diameter lead wafers to precision tolerances. The tolerance on the wafer thickness was +-0.000080 inch. A diamond tool was used to machine the wafers on a Moore No. 3 lathe. This report discusses the methods used to machine the wafers, the fixtures used to hold the wafers, and the inspection methods and results.

  11. Device and method for encoding data in multiple media

    SciTech Connect

    Battelle Memorial Institute K1-53

    2006-06-06

    A system and related device for converting encoded data from one format into one or more formats, including barcode and radio frequency identification tag formats, the system including a programmer configured to read a barcode and using the barcode data encoded thereon automatically write the data to a radio frequency (RF) tag and to read the contents of a RF tag and automatically generate a barcode with the information contained in the tag or information related thereto, preferably without decoding the encoded data.

  12. Neutron-encoded mass signatures for multiplexed proteome quantification.

    PubMed

    Hebert, Alexander S; Merrill, Anna E; Bailey, Derek J; Still, Amelia J; Westphall, Michael S; Strieter, Eric R; Pagliarini, David J; Coon, Joshua J

    2013-04-01

    We describe a protein quantification method called neutron encoding that exploits the subtle mass differences caused by nuclear binding energy variation in stable isotopes. These mass differences are synthetically encoded into amino acids and incorporated into yeast and mouse proteins via metabolic labeling. Mass spectrometry analysis with high mass resolution (>200,000) reveals the isotopologue-embedded peptide signals, permitting quantification. Neutron encoding will enable highly multiplexed proteome analysis with excellent dynamic range and accuracy. PMID:23435260

  13. Blood lead--tooth lead relationship among Boston children

    SciTech Connect

    Rabinowitz, M.B.; Leviton, A.; Bellinger, D.C. )

    1989-10-01

    The amount of lead in deciduous teeth has been used extensively as a marker for infant lead exposure and body burden. Elevated tooth lead levels have been seen in children who had lead poisoning. Also, on a population wide basis tooth lead levels appear to vary according to housing status and presumably lead exposure. This exposure index has been applied using varying techniques in Denmark, and the United Kingdom. Because of the neurotoxicity of lead, the tooth lead levels of retarded and normal children have been compared. Most recently, in research of lead and child development, tooth lead levels have been used as markers of past lead exposure. Despite the widespread use of tooth lead values, very little is known about the exact time course of lead deposition in tooth from blood. This report compares blood lead levels at different ages to tooth lead levels in a group of Boston children.

  14. Ten good reasons to practice ultrasound in critical care.

    PubMed

    Lichtenstein, Daniel; van Hooland, Simon; Elbers, Paul; Malbrain, Manu L N G

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, critical care ultrasound has gained its place in the armamentarium of monitoring tools. A greater understanding of lung, abdominal, and vascular ultrasound plus easier access to portable machines have revolutionised the bedside assessment of our ICU patients. Because ultrasound is not only a diagnostic test, but can also be seen as a component of the physical exam, it has the potential to become the stethoscope of the 21st century. Critical care ultrasound is a combination of simple protocols, with lung ultrasound being a basic application, allowing assessment of urgent diagnoses in combination with therapeutic decisions. The LUCI (Lung Ultrasound in the Critically Ill) consists of the identification of ten signs: the bat sign (pleural line); lung sliding (seashore sign); the A-lines (horizontal artefact); the quad sign and sinusoid sign indicating pleural effusion; the fractal and tissue-like sign indicating lung consolidation; the B-lines and lung rockets indicating interstitial syndromes; abolished lung sliding with the stratosphere sign suggesting pneumothorax; and the lung point indicating pneumothorax. Two more signs, the lung pulse and the dynamic air bronchogram, are used to distinguish atelectasis from pneumonia. The BLUE protocol (Bedside Lung Ultrasound in Emergency) is a fast protocol (< 3 minutes), also including a vascular (venous) analysis allowing differential diagnosis in patients with acute respiratory failure. With this protocol, it becomes possible to differentiate between pulmonary oedema, pulmonary embolism, pneumonia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, and pneumothorax, each showing specific ultrasound patterns and profiles. The FALLS protocol (Fluid Administration Limited by Lung Sonography) adapts the BLUE protocol to be used in patients with acute circulatory failure. It makes a sequential search for obstructive, cardiogenic, hypovolemic, and distributive shock using simple real-time echocardiography in

  15. Nucleotide sequence and expression in Escherichia coli of cDNAs encoding papaya proteinase omega from Carica papaya.

    PubMed

    Revell, D F; Cummings, N J; Baker, K C; Collins, M E; Taylor, M A; Sumner, I G; Pickersgill, R W; Connerton, I F; Goodenough, P W

    1993-05-30

    We have cloned and sequenced two similar, but distinct, cDNAs from both fruit and leaf tissues of Carica papaya. The C-terminal portion of the predicted amino acid (aa) sequence of one of the clones has complete identity with the mature enzyme sequence of the cysteine proteinase papaya proteinase omega (Pp omega). The second clone contains ten individual bp changes compared with the first and encodes a protein with three single-aa substitutions, only one of which is located in the mature sequence, but most noticeably carries an additional 19-aa C-terminal extension. The clones encode pre-pro precursor isoforms of Pp omega. The former of these clones has been expressed in Escherichia coli using a T7 polymerase expression system to produce insoluble pro-enzyme which has been solubilized and refolded to yield auto-activable pro-Pp omega. PMID:7684720

  16. Improved reader for magnetically-encoded ID cards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, T. T.

    1979-01-01

    Hybrid demodulator in electronic card reader for magnetically encoded identification cards, accommodates variations in insertion speeds, yet is simpler and less expensive than equivalent all-digital circuits.

  17. Terahertz encoding approach for secured chipless radio frequency identification.

    PubMed

    Bernier, Maxime; Garet, Frederic; Perret, Etienne; Duvillaret, Lionel; Tedjini, Smail

    2011-08-10

    In this article, we present a new family of chipless tags, which permit encoding of digital data in the terahertz domain. These devices consist of stacked dielectric media whose thicknesses are of the same order as terahertz wavelengths. Since the information is encoded in the volume of these multilayer terahertz tags, they can easily be associated with classical identification techniques (e.g., barcode, radio frequency identification), where information is encoded at the surface of the tag, to provide higher data security. The principle of this encoding approach is studied and experimentally demonstrated in this paper. A 2 bit tag prototype has been realized and measured for validation purposes. PMID:21833143

  18. Failure to benefit from target novelty during encoding contributes to working memory deficits in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, Jutta S.; Kim, Jejoong; Park, Sohee

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Although working memory (WM) impairments are well documented in schizophrenic patients (PSZ), the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of target salience during encoding to determine whether impaired visual attention in PSZ leads to poor WM. Methods 31 PSZ and 28 demographically matched healthy controls (HC) performed a spatial delayed-response task. Attentional demands were manipulated during WM encoding by presenting high salient (novel) or low salient (familiar) targets. Participants also rated their level of response confidence at the end of each trial, allowing us to analyse different response types. Results WM was impaired in PSZ. Increasing target salience by increasing novelty improved WM performance in HC but not in PSZ. Poor WM performance in PSZ was largely due to an increase in the proportion of incorrect but high confident responses most likely reflecting a failure to encode the correct target. Conclusions Our findings suggest that dysfunctions of non-mnemonic attentional processes during encoding contribute to WM impairments in schizophrenia and may represent an important target for cognitive remediation strategies. PMID:24215367

  19. Optimisation of artificial neural network structure using Direct Encoding Graph Syntax (DEGS)

    SciTech Connect

    Kothari, B.; Esat, I.

    1996-12-31

    An artificial neural network (ANN) is intended to represent usually a complex non-linear mapping between the two data sets that can then be able to generalize on unseen data for the solution of a particular task. The evaluation of the correct ANN structure (and hence the mapping) is very often, solely a ANN and error procedure which may not lead to the required solution. The Genetic algorithm (GA) has been perceived by researchers as a effective systematic technique for the design of ANNs. However the GA can be hampered by the difficulty of generating a variety of ANN structures. In addition there is the problem of a significant increase of the search space for network architectures as the network size increases (scalability problem). Even if these problems are addressed, the ANN structures produced by the GA must be viable and then efficiently trainable by a competent training algorithm. A network is not viable if it is incomplete with isolated processing units. Also the possibility of encountering the permutation problem which refers to the creation of ANNs that are different in structure but are equivalent geometrically also has to be reduced as this significantly reduces the efficiency of the GA. The above characteristics are indicative of other encoding schemes that poorly encode the ANN. This paper describes a direct encoding scheme, Direct Encoding Graph Syntax (DEGS), that endeavors to overcome these flaws. Its successful implementation in conjunction with the GA, for the design of ANNs to evaluate the 9-bit parity problem is also discussed.

  20. Brain signature of working memory for sentence structure: enriched encoding and facilitated maintenance.

    PubMed

    Bonhage, Corinna E; Fiebach, Christian J; Bahlmann, Jörg; Mueller, Jutta L

    2014-08-01

    Sentences are easier to memorize than ungrammatical word strings, a phenomenon known as the sentence superiority effect. Yet, it is unclear how higher-order linguistic information facilitates verbal working memory and how this is implemented in the neural system. The goal of the current fMRI study was to specify the brain mechanisms underlying the sentence superiority effect during encoding and during maintenance in working memory by manipulating syntactic structure and working memory load. The encoding of sentence material, as compared with the encoding of ungrammatical word strings, recruited not only inferior frontal (BA 47) and anterior temporal language-related areas but also the medial-temporal lobe, which is not classically reported for language tasks. During maintenance, it was sentence structure as contrasted with ungrammatical word strings that led to activation decrease in Broca's area, SMA, and parietal regions. Furthermore, in Broca's area, an interaction effect revealed a load effect for ungrammatical word strings but not for sentences. The sentence superiority effect, thus, is neurally reflected in a twofold pattern, consisting of increased activation in classical language as well as memory areas during the encoding phase and decreased maintenance-related activation. This pattern reflects how chunking, based on sentential syntactic and semantic information, alleviates rehearsal demands and thus leads to improved working memory performance. PMID:24405186