Science.gov

Sample records for end-to-end prototype geographic

  1. End-to-end performance analysis using engineering confidence models and a ground processor prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruse, Klaus-Werner; Sauer, Maximilian; Jäger, Thomas; Herzog, Alexandra; Schmitt, Michael; Huchler, Markus; Wallace, Kotska; Eisinger, Michael; Heliere, Arnaud; Lefebvre, Alain; Maher, Mat; Chang, Mark; Phillips, Tracy; Knight, Steve; de Goeij, Bryan T. G.; van der Knaap, Frits; Van't Hof, Adriaan

    2015-10-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) are co-operating to develop the EarthCARE satellite mission with the fundamental objective of improving the understanding of the processes involving clouds, aerosols and radiation in the Earth's atmosphere. The EarthCARE Multispectral Imager (MSI) is relatively compact for a space borne imager. As a consequence, the immediate point-spread function (PSF) of the instrument will be mainly determined by the diffraction caused by the relatively small optical aperture. In order to still achieve a high contrast image, de-convolution processing is applied to remove the impact of diffraction on the PSF. A Lucy-Richardson algorithm has been chosen for this purpose. This paper will describe the system setup and the necessary data pre-processing and post-processing steps applied in order to compare the end-to-end image quality with the L1b performance required by the science community.

  2. An anthropomorphic multimodality (CT/MRI) head phantom prototype for end-to-end tests in ion radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Gallas, Raya R; Hünemohr, Nora; Runz, Armin; Niebuhr, Nina I; Jäkel, Oliver; Greilich, Steffen

    2015-12-01

    With the increasing complexity of external beam therapy "end-to-end" tests are intended to cover every step from therapy planning through to follow-up in order to fulfill the higher demands on quality assurance. As magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become an important part of the treatment process, established phantoms such as the Alderson head cannot fully be used for those tests and novel phantoms have to be developed. Here, we present a feasibility study of a customizable multimodality head phantom. It is initially intended for ion radiotherapy but may also be used in photon therapy. As basis for the anthropomorphic head shape we have used a set of patient computed tomography (CT) images. The phantom recipient consisting of epoxy resin was produced by using a 3D printer. It includes a nasal air cavity, a cranial bone surrogate (based on dipotassium phosphate), a brain surrogate (based on agarose gel), and a surrogate for cerebrospinal fluid (based on distilled water). Furthermore, a volume filled with normoxic dosimetric gel mimicked a tumor. The entire workflow of a proton therapy could be successfully applied to the phantom. CT measurements revealed CT numbers agreeing with reference values for all surrogates in the range from 2 HU to 978 HU (120 kV). MRI showed the desired contrasts between the different phantom materials especially in T2-weighted images (except for the bone surrogate). T2-weighted readout of the polymerization gel dosimeter allowed approximate range verification. PMID:26189015

  3. End-to-End Commitment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newcomb, John

    2004-01-01

    The end-to-end test would verify the complex sequence of events from lander separation to landing. Due to the large distances involved and the significant delay time in sending a command and receiving verification, the lander needed to operate autonomously after it separated from the orbiter. It had to sense conditions, make decisions, and act accordingly. We were flying into a relatively unknown set of conditions-a Martian atmosphere of unknown pressure, density, and consistency to land on a surface of unknown altitude, and one which had an unknown bearing strength.

  4. SU-E-T-508: End to End Testing of a Prototype Eclipse Module for Planning Modulated Arc Therapy On the Siemens Platform

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, L; Sarkar, V; Spiessens, S; Rassiah-Szegedi, P; Huang, Y; Salter, B; Zhao, H; Szegedi, M

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The latest clinical implementation of the Siemens Artiste linac allows for delivery of modulated arcs (mARC) using full-field flattening filter free (FFF) photon beams. The maximum doserate of 2000 MU/min is well suited for high dose treatments such as SBRT. We tested and report on the performance of a prototype Eclipse TPS module supporting mARC capability on the Artiste platform. Method: our spine SBRT patients originally treated with 12/13 field static-gantry IMRT (SGIMRT) were chosen for this study. These plans were designed to satisfy RTOG0631 guidelines with a prescription of 16Gy in a single fraction. The cases were re-planned as mARC plans in the prototype Eclipse module using the 7MV FFF beam and required to satisfy RTOG0631 requirements. All plans were transferred from Eclipse, delivered on a Siemens Artiste linac and dose-validated using the Delta4 system. Results: All treatment plans were straightforwardly developed, in timely fashion, without challenge or inefficiency using the prototype module. Due to the limited number of segments in a single arc, mARC plans required 2-3 full arcs to yield plan quality comparable to SGIMRT plans containing over 250 total segments. The average (3%/3mm) gamma pass-rate for all arcs was 98.5±1.1%, thus demonstrating both excellent dose prediction by the AAA dose algorithm and excellent delivery fidelity. Mean delivery times for the mARC plans(10.5±1.7min) were 50-70% lower than the SGIMRT plans(26±2min), with both delivered at 2000 MU/min. Conclusion: A prototype Eclipse module capable of planning for Burst Mode modulated arc delivery on the Artiste platform has been tested and found to perform efficiently and accurately for treatment plan development and delivered-dose prediction. Further investigation of more treatment sites is being carried out and data will be presented.

  5. End-to-End Radiographic Systems Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Mathews, A.; Kwan, T.; Buescher, K.; Snell, C.; Adams, K.

    1999-07-23

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective of this project was to develop a validated end-to-end radiographic model that could be applied to both x-rays and protons. The specific objectives were to link hydrodynamic, transport, and magneto-hydrodynamic simulation software for purposes of modeling radiographic systems. In addition, optimization and analysis algorithms were to be developed to validate physical models and optimize the design of radiographic facilities.

  6. End-to-end power beaming model

    SciTech Connect

    Ponikvar, D.R.; Bell, J.P.; Schor, M.J.

    1994-12-31

    W.J. Schafer Associates, Inc. has produced an interactive end-to-end model of a laser power beaming system designed to deliver electrical power from a ground based free electron laser (FEL) to a satellite. The model includes a description of pertinent FEL physics, realistic atmospheric propagation effects, photovoltaic interactions for various semiconductor materials, and satellite onboard power conditioning. A detailed orbital model with graphical output is available, which visualizes the effect of electric propulsion for orbital reboost or orbit transfer. This flexible tool has been applied to specific examples of satellite battery charging for geostationary communication satellites, as well as parametric studies of photovoltaic cell performance. Preliminary results of system wavelength/power/aperture diameter trades will be presented.

  7. Evaluating Internet End-to-end Performance

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Fred B.; Cid, Victor H.; Siegel, Elliot R.

    1998-01-01

    Abstract Objective: An evaluation of Internet end-to-end performance was conducted for the purpose of better understanding the overall performance of Internet pathways typical of those used to access information in National Library of Medicine (NLM) databases and, by extension, other Internet-based biomedical information resources. Design: The evaluation used a three-level test strategy: 1) user testing to collect empirical data on Internet performance as perceived by users when accessing NLM Web-based databases, 2) technical testing to analyze the Internet paths between the NLM and the user's desktop computer terminal, and 3) technical testing between the NLM and the World Wide Web (“Web”) server computer at the user's institution to help characterize the relative performance of Internet pathways. Measurements: Time to download the front pages of NLM Web sites and conduct standardized searches of NLM databases, data transmission capacity between NLM and remote locations (known as the bulk transfer capacity [BTC], “ping” round-trip time as an indication of the latency of the network pathways, and the network routing of the data transmissions (number and sequencing of hops). Results: Based on 347 user tests spread over 16 locations, the median time per location to download the main NLM home page ranged from 2 to 59 seconds, and 1 to 24 seconds for the other NLM Web sites tested. The median time to conduct standardized searches and get search results ranged from 2 to 14 seconds for PubMed and 4 to 18 seconds for Internet Grateful Med. The overall problem rate was about 1 percent; that is, on the average, users experienced a problem once every 100 test measurements. The user terminal tests at five locations and Web host tests at 13 locations provided profiles of BTC, RTT, and network routing for both dial-up and fixed Internet connections. Conclusion: The evaluation framework provided a profile of typical Internet performance and insights into network

  8. Applying Trustworthy Computing to End-to-End Electronic Voting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fink, Russell A.

    2010-01-01

    "End-to-End (E2E)" voting systems provide cryptographic proof that the voter's intention is captured, cast, and tallied correctly. While E2E systems guarantee integrity independent of software, most E2E systems rely on software to provide confidentiality, availability, authentication, and access control; thus, end-to-end integrity is not…

  9. Standardizing an End-to-end Accounting Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenberg, Edward; Kazz, Greg

    2006-01-01

    Currently there are no space system standards available for space agencies to accomplish end-to-end accounting. Such a standard does not exist for spacecraft operations nor for tracing the relationship between the mission planning activities, the command sequences designed to perform those activities, the commands formulated to initiate those activities and the mission data and specifically the mission data products created by those activities. In order for space agencies to cross-support one another for data accountability/data tracing and for inter agency spacecraft to interoperate with each other, an international CCSDS standard for end-to-end data accountability/tracing needs to be developed. We will first describe the end-to-end accounting service model and functionality that supports the service. This model will describe how science plans that are ultimately transformed into commands can be associated with the telemetry products generated as a result of their execution. Moreover, the interaction between end-to-end accounting and service management will be explored. Finally, we will show how the standard end-to-end accounting service can be applied to a real life flight project i.e., the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter project.

  10. Plastic end-to-end treatment of bulbar urethral stricture

    PubMed Central

    Hamza, Amir; Behrendt, Wolf; Tietze, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    For bulbar urethral strictures up to 2.5 cm in length, the one-stage urethral plastic surgery with stricture excision and direct end-to-end anastomosis remains the best procedure to guarantee a high success rate. This retrospective review shows the results of 21 patients who underwent bulbar end-to-end anastomosis from 2010–2013. In 20 cases (95.3%) good results were archived. The criteria of success were identified by pre- and postoperative radiological diagnostics and uroflowmetry. PMID:26504704

  11. Combining Simulation Tools for End-to-End Trajectory Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitley, Ryan; Gutkowski, Jeffrey; Craig, Scott; Dawn, Tim; Williams, Jacobs; Stein, William B.; Litton, Daniel; Lugo, Rafael; Qu, Min

    2015-01-01

    Trajectory simulations with advanced optimization algorithms are invaluable tools in the process of designing spacecraft. Due to the need for complex models, simulations are often highly tailored to the needs of the particular program or mission. NASA's Orion and SLS programs are no exception. While independent analyses are valuable to assess individual spacecraft capabilities, a complete end-to-end trajectory from launch to splashdown maximizes potential performance and ensures a continuous solution. In order to obtain end-to-end capability, Orion's in-space tool (Copernicus) was made to interface directly with the SLS's ascent tool (POST2) and a new tool to optimize the full problem by operating both simulations simultaneously was born.

  12. LWS/SET End-to-End Data System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giffin, Geoff; Sherman, Barry; Colon, Gilberto (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the concept for the End-to-End Data System that will support NASA's Living With a Star Space Environment Testbed missions. NASA has initiated the Living With a Star (LWS) Program to develop a better scientific understanding to address the aspects of the connected Sun-Earth system that affect life and society. A principal goal of the program is to bridge the gap.between science, engineering, and user application communities. The Space Environment Testbed (SET) Project is one element of LWS. The Project will enable future science, operational, and commercial objectives in space and atmospheric environments by improving engineering approaches to the accommodation and/or mitigation of the effects of solar variability on technological systems. The End-to-end data system allows investigators to access the SET control center, command their experiments, and receive data from their experiments back at their home facility, using the Internet. The logical functioning of major components of the end-to-end data system are described, including the GSFC Payload Operations Control Center (POCC), SET Payloads, the GSFC SET Simulation Lab, SET Experiment PI Facilities, and Host Systems. Host Spacecraft Operations Control Centers (SOCC) and the Host Spacecraft are essential links in the end-to-end data system, but are not directly under the control of the SET Project. Formal interfaces will be established between these entities and elements of the SET Project. The paper describes data flow through the system, from PI facilities connecting to the SET operations center via the Internet, communications to SET carriers and experiments via host systems, to telemetry returns to investigators from their flight experiments. It also outlines the techniques that will be used to meet mission requirements, while holding development and operational costs to a minimum. Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.

  13. Scalable end-to-end encryption technology for supra-gigabit/second networking

    SciTech Connect

    Pierson, L.G.; Tarman, T.D.; Witzke, E.L.

    1997-05-01

    End-to-end encryption can protect proprietary information as it passes through a complex inter-city computer network, even if the intermediate systems are untrusted. This technique involves encrypting the body of computer messages while leaving network addressing and control information unencrypted for processing by intermediate network nodes. Because high speed implementations of end-to-end encryption with easy key management for standard network protocols are unavailable, this technique is not widely used today. Specifically, no end-to-end encryptors exist to protect Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) traffic, nor to protect Switched Multi-megabit Data Service (SMDS), which is the first ``Broadband Integrated Services Digital Network`` (BISDN) service now being used by long distance telephone companies. This encryption technology is required for the protection of data in transit between industrial sites and central Massively Parallel Supercomputing Centers over high bandwidth, variable bit rate (BISDN) services. This research effort investigated techniques to scale end-to-end encryption technology from today`s state of the art ({approximately} 0.001 Gb/s) to 2.4 Gb/s and higher. A cryptosystem design has been developed which scales for implementation beyond SONET OC-48 (2.4Gb/s) data rates. A prototype for use with OC-3 (0.155 Gb/s) ATM variable bit rate services was developed.

  14. Measurements and analysis of end-to-end Internet dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Paxson, V

    1997-04-01

    Accurately characterizing end-to-end Internet dynamics - the performance that a user actually obtains from the lengthy series of network links that comprise a path through the Internet - is exceptionally difficult, due to the network`s immense heterogeneity. At the heart of this work is a `measurement framework` in which a number of sites around the Internet host a specialized measurement service. By coordinating `probes` between pairs of these sites one can measure end-to-end behavior along O(N{sup 2}) paths for a framework consisting of N sites. Consequently, one obtains a superlinear scaling that allows measuring a rich cross-section of Internet behavior without requiring huge numbers of observation points. 37 sites participated in this study, allowing the author to measure more than 1,000 distinct Internet paths. The first part of this work looks at the behavior of end-to-end routing: the series of routers over which a connection`s packets travel. Based on 40,000 measurements made using this framework, the author analyzes: routing `pathologies` such as loops, outages, and flutter; the stability of routes over time; and the symmetry of routing along the two directions of an end-to-end path. The author finds that pathologies increased significantly over the course of 1995 and that Internet paths are heavily dominated by a single route. The second part of this work studies end-to-end Internet packet dynamics. The author analyzes 20,000 TCP transfers of 100 Kbyte each to investigate the performance of both the TCP endpoints and the Internet paths. The measurements used for this part of the study are much richer than those for the first part, but require a great degree of attention to issues of calibration, which are addressed by applying self-consistency checks to the measurements whenever possible. The author finds that packet filters are capable of a wide range of measurement errors, some of which, if undetected, can significantly taint subsequent analysis.

  15. End-to-End Data System Architecture for the Space Station Biological Research Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mian, Arshad; Scimemi, Sam; Adeni, Kaiser; Picinich, Lou; Ramos, Rubin (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The Space Station Biological Research Project (SSBRP) Is developing hardware referred to as the "facility" for providing life sciences research capability on the International Space Station. This hardware includes several biological specimen habitats, habitat holding racks, a centrifuge and a glovebox. An SSBRP end to end data system architecture has been developed to allow command and control of the facility from the ground, either with crew assistance or autonomously. The data system will be capable of handling commands, sensor data, and video from multiple cameras. The data will traverse through several onboard and ground networks and processing entities including the SSBRP and Space Station onboard and ground data systems. A large number of onboard and ground (,entities of the data system are being developed by the Space Station Program, other NASA centers and the International Partners. The SSBRP part of the system which includes the habitats, holding racks, and the ground operations center, User Operations Facility (UOF) will be developed by a multitude of geographically distributed development organizations. The SSBRP has the responsibility to define the end to end data and communications systems to make the interfaces manageable and verifiable with multiple contractors with widely varying development constraints and schedules. This paper provides an overview of the SSBRP end-to-end data system. Specifically, it describes the hardware, software and functional interactions of individual systems, and interface requirements among various entities of the end-to-end system.

  16. Reconfigurable Protocol Sensing in an End-to-End Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okino, Clayton M.; Gray, Andrew; Schoolcraft, Joshua

    2006-01-01

    In this work, we present sensing performance using an architecture for a reconfigurable protocol chip for spacebased applications. Toward utilizing the IP packet architecture, utilizing data link layer framing structures for multiplexed data on a channel are the targeted application considered for demonstration purposes. Specifically, we examine three common framing standards and present the sensing performance of these standards and their relative de-correlation metrics. Some analysis is performed to investigate the impact of lossy links. Finally, we present results on a demonstration platform that integrated reconfigurable sensing technology into the Ground Station Interface Device (GRID) for End-to-End IP demonstrations in space.

  17. U Plant Geographic Zone Cleanup Prototype

    SciTech Connect

    Romine, L.D.; Leary, K.D.; Lackey, M.B.; Robertson, J.R.

    2006-07-01

    The U Plant geographic zone (UPZ) occupies 0.83 square kilometers on the Hanford Site Central Plateau (200 Area). It encompasses the U Plant canyon (221-U Facility), ancillary facilities that supported the canyon, soil waste sites, and underground pipelines. The UPZ cleanup initiative coordinates the cleanup of the major facilities, ancillary facilities, waste sites, and contaminated pipelines (collectively identified as 'cleanup items') within the geographic zone. The UPZ was selected as a geographic cleanup zone prototype for resolving regulatory, technical, and stakeholder issues and demonstrating cleanup methods for several reasons: most of the area is inactive, sufficient characterization information is available to support decisions, cleanup of the high-risk waste sites will help protect the groundwater, and the zone contains a representative cross-section of the types of cleanup actions that will be required in other geographic zones. The UPZ cleanup demonstrates the first of 22 integrated zone cleanup actions on the Hanford Site Central Plateau to address threats to groundwater, the environment, and human health. The UPZ contains more than 100 individual cleanup items. Cleanup actions in the zone will be undertaken using multiple regulatory processes and decision documents. Cleanup actions will include building demolition, waste site and pipeline excavation, and the construction of multiple, large engineered barriers. In some cases, different cleanup actions may be taken at item locations that are immediately adjacent to each other. The cleanup planning and field activities for each cleanup item must be undertaken in a coordinated and cohesive manner to ensure effective execution of the UPZ cleanup initiative. The UPZ zone cleanup implementation plan (ZCIP) [1] was developed to address the need for a fundamental integration tool for UPZ cleanup. As UPZ cleanup planning and implementation moves forward, the ZCIP is intended to be a living document that will

  18. U-PLANT GEOGRAPHIC ZONE CLEANUP PROTOTYPE

    SciTech Connect

    ROMINE, L.D.

    2006-02-01

    The U Plant geographic zone (UPZ) occupies 0.83 square kilometers on the Hanford Site Central Plateau (200 Area). It encompasses the U Plant canyon (221-U Facility), ancillary facilities that supported the canyon, soil waste sites, and underground pipelines. The UPZ cleanup initiative coordinates the cleanup of the major facilities, ancillary facilities, waste sites, and contaminated pipelines (collectively identified as ''cleanup items'') within the geographic zone. The UPZ was selected as a geographic cleanup zone prototype for resolving regulatory, technical, and stakeholder issues and demonstrating cleanup methods for several reasons: most of the area is inactive, sufficient characterization information is available to support decisions, cleanup of the high-risk waste sites will help protect the groundwater, and the zone contains a representative cross-section of the types of cleanup actions that will be required in other geographic zones. The UPZ cleanup demonstrates the first of 22 integrated zone cleanup actions on the Hanford Site Central Plateau to address threats to groundwater, the environment, and human health. The UPZ contains more than 100 individual cleanup items. Cleanup actions in the zone will be undertaken using multiple regulatory processes and decision documents. Cleanup actions will include building demolition, waste site and pipeline excavation, and the construction of multiple, large engineered barriers. In some cases, different cleanup actions may be taken at item locations that are immediately adjacent to each other. The cleanup planning and field activities for each cleanup item must be undertaken in a coordinated and cohesive manner to ensure effective execution of the UPZ cleanup initiative. The UPZ zone cleanup implementation plan (ZCIP) was developed to address the need for a fundamental integration tool for UPZ cleanup. As UPZ cleanup planning and implementation moves forward, the ZCIP is intended to be a living document that will

  19. On routing algorithms with end-to-end delay guarantees

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, N.S.V.; Batsell, S.G.

    1998-11-01

    The authors consider the transmission of a message of size r from a source to a destination with guarantees on the end-to-end delay over a computer network with n nodes and m links. There are three sources of delays: (a) propagation delays along the links, (b) delays due to bandwidth availability on the links, and (c) queuing delays at the intermediate nodes. First, the authors consider that delays on various links and nodes are given as functions of the message size. If the delay in (b) is a non-increasing function of the bandwidth, they propose O(m{sup 2} + mn log n) time algorithm to compute a path with the minimum end-to-end delay for any given message size r. They then consider that the queuing delay in (c) is a random variable correlated with the message size according to an unknown distribution. At each node, the measurements of queuing delays and message sizes are available. They propose two algorithms to compute paths whose delays are close to optimal delays with a high probability, irrespective of the distribution of the delays, and based entirely on the measurements of sufficient size.

  20. End-to-end network/application performance troubleshooting methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Wenji; Bobyshev, Andrey; Bowden, Mark; Crawford, Matt; Demar, Phil; Grigaliunas, Vyto; Grigoriev, Maxim; Petravick, Don; /Fermilab

    2007-09-01

    The computing models for HEP experiments are globally distributed and grid-based. Obstacles to good network performance arise from many causes and can be a major impediment to the success of the computing models for HEP experiments. Factors that affect overall network/application performance exist on the hosts themselves (application software, operating system, hardware), in the local area networks that support the end systems, and within the wide area networks. Since the computer and network systems are globally distributed, it can be very difficult to locate and identify the factors that are hurting application performance. In this paper, we present an end-to-end network/application performance troubleshooting methodology developed and in use at Fermilab. The core of our approach is to narrow down the problem scope with a divide and conquer strategy. The overall complex problem is split into two distinct sub-problems: host diagnosis and tuning, and network path analysis. After satisfactorily evaluating, and if necessary resolving, each sub-problem, we conduct end-to-end performance analysis and diagnosis. The paper will discuss tools we use as part of the methodology. The long term objective of the effort is to enable site administrators and end users to conduct much of the troubleshooting themselves, before (or instead of) calling upon network and operating system 'wizards,' who are always in short supply.

  1. Recirculating Linac Acceleration - End-to-End Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Alex Bogacz

    2010-03-01

    A conceptual design of a high-pass-number Recirculating Linear Accelerator (RLA) for muons is presented. The scheme involves three superconducting linacs (201 MHz): a single pass linear Pre-accelerator followed by a pair multi-pass (4.5-pass) 'Dogbone' RLAs. Acceleration starts after ionization cooling at 220 MeV/c and proceeds to 12.6 GeV. The Pre-accelerator captures a large muon phase space and accelerates muons to relativistic energies, while adiabatically decreasing the phase-space volume, so that effective acceleration in the RLA is possible. The RLA further compresses and shapes up the longitudinal and transverse phase-spaces, while increasing the energy. Appropriate choice of multi-pass linac optics based on FODO focusing assures large number of passes in the RLA. The proposed 'Dogbone' configuration facilitates simultaneous acceleration of both mu± species through the requirement of mirror symmetric optics of the return 'droplet' arcs. Finally, presented end-to-end simulation validates the efficiency and acceptance of the accelerator system.

  2. Key management for large scale end-to-end encryption

    SciTech Connect

    Witzke, E.L.

    1994-07-01

    Symmetric end-to-end encryption requires separate keys for each pair of communicating confidants. This is a problem of Order N{sup 2}. Other factors, such as multiple sessions per pair of confidants and multiple encryption points in the ISO Reference Model complicate key management by linear factors. Public-key encryption can reduce the number of keys managed to a linear problem which is good for scaleability of key management, but comes with complicating issues and performance penalties. Authenticity is the primary ingredient of key management. If each potential pair of communicating confidants can authenticate data from each other, then any number of public encryption keys of any type can be communicated with requisite integrity. These public encryption keys can be used with the corresponding private keys to exchange symmetric cryptovariables for high data rate privacy protection. The Digital Signature Standard (DSS), which has been adopted by the United States Government, has both public and private components, similar to a public-key cryptosystem. The Digital Signature Algorithm of the DSS is intended for authenticity but not for secrecy. In this paper, the authors will show how the use of the Digital Signature Algorithm combined with both symmetric and asymmetric (public-key) encryption techniques can provide a practical solution to key management scaleability problems, by reducing the key management complexity to a problem of order N, without sacrificing the encryption speed necessary to operate in high performance networks.

  3. Scalable end-to-end ATM encryption test results

    SciTech Connect

    Pierson, L.G.

    1995-10-01

    Customers of Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) services may need a variety of data authenticity and privacy assurances. Cryptographic methods can be used to assure authenticity and privacy, but are hard to scale for implementation at high speed. The incorporation of these methods into computer networks can severely impact functionality, reliability, and performance. To study these trade-offs, a prototype encryptor/decryptor was developed. This effort demonstrated the viability of implementing certain encryption techniques in high speed networks. The research prototype processes ATM cells in a SONET OC-3 payload. This paper describes the functionality, reliability, security, and performance design trade-offs investigated with the prototype.

  4. OGC standards for end-to-end sensor network integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Headley, K. L.; Broering, A.; O'Reilly, T. C.; Toma, D.; Del Rio, J.; Bermudez, L. E.; Zedlitz, J.; Johnson, G.; Edgington, D.

    2010-12-01

    technology, and can communicate with any sensor whose protocol can be described by a SID. The SID interpreter transfers retrieved sensor data to a Sensor Observation Service, and transforms tasks submitted to a Sensor Planning Service to actual sensor commands. The proposed SWE PUCK protocol complements SID by providing a standard way to associate a sensor with a SID, thereby completely automating the sensor integration process. PUCK protocol is implemented in sensor firmware, and provides a means to retrieve a universally unique identifer, metadata and other information from the device itself through its communication interface. Thus the SID interpreter can retrieve a SID directly from the sensor through PUCK protocol. Alternatively the interpreter can retrieve the sensor’s SID from an external source, based on the unique sensor ID provided by PUCK protocol. In this presentation, we describe the end-to-end integration of several commercial oceanographic instruments into a sensor network using PUCK, SID and SWE services. We also present a user-friendly, graphical tool to generate SIDs and tools to visualize sensor data.

  5. Experimental demonstration of software defined data center optical networks with Tbps end-to-end tunability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yongli; Zhang, Jie; Ji, Yuefeng; Li, Hui; Wang, Huitao; Ge, Chao

    2015-10-01

    The end-to-end tunability is important to provision elastic channel for the burst traffic of data center optical networks. Then, how to complete the end-to-end tunability based on elastic optical networks? Software defined networking (SDN) based end-to-end tunability solution is proposed for software defined data center optical networks, and the protocol extension and implementation procedure are designed accordingly. For the first time, the flexible grid all optical networks with Tbps end-to-end tunable transport and switch system have been online demonstrated for data center interconnection, which are controlled by OpenDayLight (ODL) based controller. The performance of the end-to-end tunable transport and switch system has been evaluated with wavelength number tuning, bit rate tuning, and transmit power tuning procedure.

  6. Semantic Complex Event Processing over End-to-End Data Flows

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Qunzhi; Simmhan, Yogesh; Prasanna, Viktor K.

    2012-04-01

    Emerging Complex Event Processing (CEP) applications in cyber physical systems like SmartPower Grids present novel challenges for end-to-end analysis over events, flowing from heterogeneous information sources to persistent knowledge repositories. CEP for these applications must support two distinctive features - easy specification patterns over diverse information streams, and integrated pattern detection over realtime and historical events. Existing work on CEP has been limited to relational query patterns, and engines that match events arriving after the query has been registered. We propose SCEPter, a semantic complex event processing framework which uniformly processes queries over continuous and archived events. SCEPteris built around an existing CEP engine with innovative support for semantic event pattern specification and allows their seamless detection over past, present and future events. Specifically, we describe a unified semantic query model that can operate over data flowing through event streams to event repositories. Compile-time and runtime semantic patterns are distinguished and addressed separately for efficiency. Query rewriting is examined and analyzed in the context of temporal boundaries that exist between event streams and their repository to avoid duplicate or missing results. The design and prototype implementation of SCEPterare analyzed using latency and throughput metrics for scenarios from the Smart Grid domain.

  7. Automated End-to-End Workflow for Precise and Geo-accurate Reconstructions using Fiducial Markers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumpler, M.; Daftry, S.; Tscharf, A.; Prettenthaler, R.; Hoppe, C.; Mayer, G.; Bischof, H.

    2014-08-01

    Photogrammetric computer vision systems have been well established in many scientific and commercial fields during the last decades. Recent developments in image-based 3D reconstruction systems in conjunction with the availability of affordable high quality digital consumer grade cameras have resulted in an easy way of creating visually appealing 3D models. However, many of these methods require manual steps in the processing chain and for many photogrammetric applications such as mapping, recurrent topographic surveys or architectural and archaeological 3D documentations, high accuracy in a geo-coordinate system is required which often cannot be guaranteed. Hence, in this paper we present and advocate a fully automated end-to-end workflow for precise and geoaccurate 3D reconstructions using fiducial markers. We integrate an automatic camera calibration and georeferencing method into our image-based reconstruction pipeline based on binary-coded fiducial markers as artificial, individually identifiable landmarks in the scene. Additionally, we facilitate the use of these markers in conjunction with known ground control points (GCP) in the bundle adjustment, and use an online feedback method that allows assessment of the final reconstruction quality in terms of image overlap, ground sampling distance (GSD) and completeness, and thus provides flexibility to adopt the image acquisition strategy already during image recording. An extensive set of experiments is presented which demonstrate the accuracy benefits to obtain a highly accurate and geographically aligned reconstruction with an absolute point position uncertainty of about 1.5 times the ground sampling distance.

  8. A Computer Program for the Distribution of End-to-End Distances in Polymer Molecules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doorne, William Van; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Describes a Fortran program that illustrates how the end-to-end distances in randomly coiled polymer molecules is affected by varying the number and lengths of chains and the angles between them. (MLH)

  9. An end-to-end communications architecture for condition-based maintenance applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroculick, Joseph

    2014-06-01

    This paper explores challenges in implementing an end-to-end communications architecture for Condition-Based Maintenance Plus (CBM+) data transmission which aligns with the Army's Network Modernization Strategy. The Army's Network Modernization strategy is based on rolling out network capabilities which connect the smallest unit and Soldier level to enterprise systems. CBM+ is a continuous improvement initiative over the life cycle of a weapon system or equipment to improve the reliability and maintenance effectiveness of Department of Defense (DoD) systems. CBM+ depends on the collection, processing and transport of large volumes of data. An important capability that enables CBM+ is an end-to-end network architecture that enables data to be uploaded from the platform at the tactical level to enterprise data analysis tools. To connect end-to-end maintenance processes in the Army's supply chain, a CBM+ network capability can be developed from available network capabilities.

  10. End-to-end Coronagraphic Modeling Including a Low-order Wavefront Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krist, John E.; Trauger, John T.; Unwin, Stephen C.; Traub, Wesley A.

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate space-based coronagraphic techniques, end-to-end modeling is necessary to simulate realistic fields containing speckles caused by wavefront errors. Real systems will suffer from pointing errors and thermal and motioninduced mechanical stresses that introduce time-variable wavefront aberrations that can reduce the field contrast. A loworder wavefront sensor (LOWFS) is needed to measure these changes at a sufficiently high rate to maintain the contrast level during observations. We implement here a LOWFS and corresponding low-order wavefront control subsystem (LOWFCS) in end-to-end models of a space-based coronagraph. Our goal is to be able to accurately duplicate the effect of the LOWFS+LOWFCS without explicitly evaluating the end-to-end model at numerous time steps.

  11. A Robust Method to Integrate End-to-End Mission Architecture Optimization Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lugo, Rafael; Litton, Daniel; Qu, Min; Shidner, Jeremy; Powell, Richard

    2016-01-01

    End-to-end mission simulations include multiple phases of flight. For example, an end-to-end Mars mission simulation may include launch from Earth, interplanetary transit to Mars and entry, descent and landing. Each phase of flight is optimized to meet specified constraints and often depend on and impact subsequent phases. The design and optimization tools and methodologies used to combine different aspects of end-to-end framework and their impact on mission planning are presented. This work focuses on a robust implementation of a Multidisciplinary Design Analysis and Optimization (MDAO) method that offers the flexibility to quickly adapt to changing mission design requirements. Different simulations tailored to the liftoff, ascent, and atmospheric entry phases of a trajectory are integrated and optimized in the MDAO program Isight, which provides the user a graphical interface to link simulation inputs and outputs. This approach provides many advantages to mission planners, as it is easily adapted to different mission scenarios and can improve the understanding of the integrated system performance within a particular mission configuration. A Mars direct entry mission using the Space Launch System (SLS) is presented as a generic end-to-end case study. For the given launch period, the SLS launch performance is traded for improved orbit geometry alignment, resulting in an optimized a net payload that is comparable to that in the SLS Mission Planner's Guide.

  12. End-to-end network models encompassing terrestrial, wireless, and satellite components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyarko, Chandler L.; Britton, John S.; Flores, Phil E.; Lambert, Charles B.; Pendzick, John M.; Ryan, Christopher M.; Shankman, Gordon L.; Williams, Ramon P.

    2004-08-01

    Development of network models that reflect true end-to-end architectures such as the Transformational Communications Architecture need to encompass terrestrial, wireless and satellite component to truly represent all of the complexities in a world wide communications network. Use of best-in-class tools including OPNET, Satellite Tool Kit (STK), Popkin System Architect and their well known XML-friendly definitions, such as OPNET Modeler's Data Type Description (DTD), or socket-based data transfer modules, such as STK/Connect, enable the sharing of data between applications for more rapid development of end-to-end system architectures and a more complete system design. By sharing the results of and integrating best-in-class tools we are able to (1) promote sharing of data, (2) enhance the fidelity of our results and (3) allow network and application performance to be viewed in the context of the entire enterprise and its processes.

  13. The International Space Station Alpha (ISSA) End-to-End On-Orbit Maintenance Process Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zingrebe, Kenneth W., II

    1995-01-01

    As a tool for construction and refinement of the on-orbit maintenance system to sustain the International Space Station Alpha (ISSA), the Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) developed an end to-end on-orbit maintenance process flow. This paper discusses and demonstrates that process flow. This tool is being used by MOD to identify areas which require further work in preparation for MOD's role in the conduct of on-orbit maintenance operations.

  14. Surgical Outcome of Excision and End-to-End Anastomosis for Bulbar Urethral Stricture

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Jun-Gyo; Choi, Woo Suk; Paick, Jae-Seung

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Although direct-vision internal urethrotomy can be performed for the management of short, bulbar urethral strictures, excision and end-to-end anastomosis remains the best procedure to guarantee a high success rate. We performed a retrospective evaluation of patients who underwent bulbar end-to-end anastomosis to assess the factors affecting surgical outcome. Materials and Methods We reviewed 33 patients with an average age of 55 years who underwent bulbar end-to-end anastomosis. Stricture etiology was blunt perineal trauma (54.6%), iatrogenic (24.2%), idiopathic (12.1%), and infection (9.1%). A total of 21 patients (63.6%) underwent urethrotomy, dilation, or multiple treatments before referral to our center. Clinical outcome was considered a treatment failure when any postoperative instrumentation was needed. Results Mean operation time was 151 minutes (range, 100 to 215 minutes) and mean excised stricture length was 1.5 cm (range, 0.8 to 2.3 cm). At a mean follow-up of 42.6 months (range, 8 to 96 months), 29 patients (87.9%) were symptom-free and required no further procedure. Strictures recurred in 4 patients (12.1%) within 5 months after surgery. Of four recurrences, one patient was managed successfully by urethrotomy, whereas the remaining three did not respond to urethrotomy or dilation and required additional urethroplasty. The recurrence rate was significantly higher in the patients with nontraumatic causes (iatrogenic in three, infection in one patient) than in the patients with traumatic etiology. Conclusions Excision and end-to-end anastomosis for short, bulbar urethral stricture has an acceptable success rate of 87.9%. However, careful consideration is needed to decide on the surgical procedure if the stricture etiology is nontraumatic. PMID:23878686

  15. End-to-end calculation of the radiation characteristics of VVER-1000 spent fuel assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linge, I. I.; Mitenkova, E. F.; Novikov, N. V.

    2012-12-01

    The results of end-to-end calculation of the radiation characteristics of VVER-1000 spent nuclear fuel are presented. Details of formation of neutron and gamma-radiation sources are analyzed. Distributed sources of different types of radiation are considered. A comparative analysis of calculated radiation characteristics is performed with the use of nuclear data from different ENDF/B and EAF files and ANSI/ANS and ICRP standards.

  16. CHEETAH: circuit-switched high-speed end-to-end transport architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veeraraghavan, Malathi; Zheng, Xuan; Lee, Hyuk; Gardner, M.; Feng, Wuchun

    2003-10-01

    Leveraging the dominance of Ethernet in LANs and SONET/SDH in MANs and WANs, we propose a service called CHEETAH (Circuit-switched High-speed End-to-End Transport ArcHitecture). The service concept is to provide end hosts with high-speed, end-to-end circuit connectivity on a call-by-call shared basis, where a "circuit" consists of Ethernet segments at the ends that are mapped into Ethernet-over-SONET long-distance circuits. This paper focuses on the file-transfer application for such circuits. For this application, the CHEETAH service is proposed as an add-on to the primary Internet access service already in place for enterprise hosts. This allows an end host that is sending a file to first attempt setting up an end-to-end Ethernet/EoS circuit, and if rejected, fall back to the TCP/IP path. If the circuit setup is successful, the end host will enjoy a much shorter file-transfer delay than on the TCP/IP path. To determine the conditions under which an end host with access to the CHEETAH service should attempt circuit setup, we analyze mean file-transfer delays as a function of call blocking probability in the circuit-switched network, probability of packet loss in the IP network, round-trip times, link rates, and so on.

  17. An end-to-end approach to developing biological and chemical detector requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teclemariam, Nerayo P.; Purvis, Liston K.; Foltz, Greg W.; West, Todd; Edwards, Donna M.; Fruetel, Julia A.; Gleason, Nathaniel J.

    2009-05-01

    Effective defense against chemical and biological threats requires an "end-to-end" strategy that encompasses the entire problem space, from threat assessment and target hardening to response planning and recovery. A key element of the strategy is the definition of appropriate system requirements for surveillance and detection of threat agents. Our end-to-end approach to venue chem/bio defense is captured in the Facilities Weapons of Mass Destruction Decision Analysis Capability (FacDAC), an integrated system-of-systems toolset that can be used to generate requirements across all stages of detector development. For example, in the early stage of detector development the approach can be used to develop performance targets (e.g., sensitivity, selectivity, false positive rate) to provide guidance on what technologies to pursue. In the development phase, after a detector technology has been selected, the approach can aid in determining performance trade-offs and down-selection of competing technologies. During the application stage, the approach can be employed to design optimal defensive architectures that make the best use of available technology to maximize system performance. This presentation will discuss the end-to-end approach to defining detector requirements and demonstrate the capabilities of the FacDAC toolset using examples from a number of studies for the Department of Homeland Security.

  18. End-to-end distribution for a wormlike chain in arbitrary dimensions.

    PubMed

    Mehraeen, Shafigh; Sudhanshu, Bariz; Koslover, Elena F; Spakowitz, Andrew J

    2008-06-01

    We construct an efficient methodology for calculating wormlike chain statistics in arbitrary D dimensions over all chain rigidities, from fully rigid to completely flexible. The structure of our exact analytical solution for the end-to-end distribution function for a wormlike chain in arbitrary D dimensions in Fourier-Laplace space (i.e., Fourier-transformed end position and Laplace-transformed chain length) adopts the form of an infinite continued fraction, which is advantageous for its compact structure and stability for numerical implementation. We then proceed to present a step-by-step methodology for performing the Fourier-Laplace inversion in order to make full use of our results in general applications. Asymptotic methods for evaluating the Laplace inversion (power-law expansion and Rayleigh-Schrödinger perturbation theory) are employed in order to improve the accuracy of the numerical inversions of the end-to-end distribution function in real space. We adapt our results to the evaluation of the single-chain structure factor, rendering simple, closed-form expressions that facilitate comparison with scattering experiments. Using our techniques, the accuracy of the end-to-end distribution function is enhanced up to the limit of the machine precision. We demonstrate the utility of our methodology with realizations of the chain statistics, giving a general methodology that can be applied to a wide range of biophysical problems. PMID:18643291

  19. End-to-end distribution for a wormlike chain in arbitrary dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehraeen, Shafigh; Sudhanshu, Bariz; Koslover, Elena F.; Spakowitz, Andrew J.

    2008-06-01

    We construct an efficient methodology for calculating wormlike chain statistics in arbitrary D dimensions over all chain rigidities, from fully rigid to completely flexible. The structure of our exact analytical solution for the end-to-end distribution function for a wormlike chain in arbitrary D dimensions in Fourier-Laplace space (i.e., Fourier-transformed end position and Laplace-transformed chain length) adopts the form of an infinite continued fraction, which is advantageous for its compact structure and stability for numerical implementation. We then proceed to present a step-by-step methodology for performing the Fourier-Laplace inversion in order to make full use of our results in general applications. Asymptotic methods for evaluating the Laplace inversion (power-law expansion and Rayleigh-Schrödinger perturbation theory) are employed in order to improve the accuracy of the numerical inversions of the end-to-end distribution function in real space. We adapt our results to the evaluation of the single-chain structure factor, rendering simple, closed-form expressions that facilitate comparison with scattering experiments. Using our techniques, the accuracy of the end-to-end distribution function is enhanced up to the limit of the machine precision. We demonstrate the utility of our methodology with realizations of the chain statistics, giving a general methodology that can be applied to a wide range of biophysical problems.

  20. End-to-end security in telemedical networks--a practical guideline.

    PubMed

    Wozak, Florian; Schabetsberger, Thomas; Ammmenwerth, Elske

    2007-01-01

    The interconnection of medical networks in different healthcare institutions will be constantly increasing over the next few years, which will require concepts for securing medical data during transfer, since transmitting patient related data via potentially insecure public networks is considered a violation of data privacy. The aim of our work was to develop a model-based approach towards end-to-end security which is defined as continuous security from point of origin to point of destination in a communication process. We show that end-to-end security must be seen as a holistic security concept, which comprises the following three major parts: authentication and access control, transport security, as well as system security. For integration into existing security infrastructures abuse case models were used, which extend UML use cases, by elements necessary to describe abusive interactions. Abuse case models can be constructed for each part mentioned above, allowing for potential security risks in communication from point of origin to point of destination to be identified and counteractive measures to be directly derived from the abuse case models. The model-based approach is a guideline to continuous risk assessment and improvement of end-to-end security in medical networks. Validity and relevance to practice will be systematically evaluated using close-to-reality test networks as well as in production environments. PMID:17097916

  1. A vision for end-to-end data services to foster international partnerships through data sharing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramamurthy, M.; Yoksas, T.

    2009-04-01

    Increasingly, the conduct of science requires scientific partnerships and sharing of knowledge, information, and other assets. This is particularly true in our field where the highly-coupled Earth system and its many linkages have heightened the importance of collaborations across geographic, disciplinary, and organizational boundaries. The climate system, for example, is far too complex a puzzle to be unraveled by individual investigators or nations. As articulated in the NSF Strategic Plan: FY 2006-2011, "…discovery increasingly requires expertise of individuals from different disciplines, with diverse perspectives, and often from different nations, working together to accommodate the extraordinary complexity of today's science and engineering challenges." The Nobel Prize winning IPCC assessments are a prime example of such an effort. Earth science education is also uniquely suited to drawing connections between the dynamic Earth system and societal issues. Events like the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami and Hurricane Katrina provide ample evidence of this relevance, as they underscore the importance of timely and interdisciplinary integration and synthesis of data. Our success in addressing such complex problems and advancing geosciences depends on the availability of a state-of-the-art and robust cyberinfrastructure, transparent and timely access to high-quality data from diverse sources, and requisite tools to integrate and use the data effectively, toward creating new knowledge. To that end, Unidata's vision calls for providing comprehensive, well-integrated, and end-to-end data services for the geosciences. These include an array of functions for collecting, finding, and accessing data; data management tools for generating, cataloging, and exchanging metadata; and submitting or publishing, sharing, analyzing, visualizing, and integrating data. When this vision is realized, users — no matter where they are, how they are connected to the Internet, or what

  2. End-to-end modeling of the ozone mapping and profiler suite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McComas, Brian K.; Seftor, Colin; Remund, Quinn; Larsen, Jack; Wright, Carter; Raine, Erica

    2004-09-01

    The Ozone and Mapping Profiler Suite (OMPS) is an instrument suite in the National Polar-orbiting Operation Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS). The OMPS instrument is designed to globally retrieve both total column ozone and ozone profiles. To do this, OMPS consists of three sensors, two Nadir Instruments and one Limb Instrument. Each OMPS sensor has an End-to-End Model (ETEM) developed using the Toolkit for Remote Sensing, Analysis, Design, Evaluation, and Simulation (TRADES), a Ball Aerospace proprietary set of software tools developed in Matlab. The end-to-end modeling activities, which includes a radiative transfer model, the ETEM, and retrieval algorithms, have three fundamental objectives: sensor performance validation, aid in algorithm development, and algorithm robustness validation. The end-to-end modeling activities are key to showing sensor performance meets the system level Environmental Data Record (EDR) requirements. To do this, the ETEM incorporates sensor data; including point spread functions, stray light, dispersion, bandpass, and focal plane array (FPA) noise parameters. The sensor model characteristics are first implemented with predictions and updated as component test data becomes available. To evaluate the system"s EDR performance, the input radiance derived from the radiative transfer model is entered into the ETEM, which outputs a simulated image. The retrieval algorithms process the simulated image to determine the ozone amount. The system level EDR performance is determined by comparing the retrieved ozone amount with the truth, which was entered into the forward model. Additionally, the ETEM aids the algorithm development by simulating the expected sensor and calibration data with the expected noise characteristics. Finally, the algorithm robustness can be validated against extreme conditions using the ETEM.

  3. End-to-End Assessment of a Large Aperture Segmented Ultraviolet Optical Infrared (UVOIR) Telescope Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feinberg, Lee; Bolcar, Matt; Liu, Alice; Guyon, Olivier; Stark,Chris; Arenberg, Jon

    2016-01-01

    Key challenges of a future large aperture, segmented Ultraviolet Optical Infrared (UVOIR) Telescope capable of performing a spectroscopic survey of hundreds of Exoplanets will be sufficient stability to achieve 10-10 contrast measurements and sufficient throughput and sensitivity for high yield Exo-Earth spectroscopic detection. Our team has collectively assessed an optimized end to end architecture including a high throughput coronagraph capable of working with a segmented telescope, a cost-effective and heritage based stable segmented telescope, a control architecture that minimizes the amount of new technologies, and an Exo-Earth yield assessment to evaluate potential performance.

  4. Screening California Current fishery management scenarios using the Atlantis end-to-end ecosystem model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, Isaac C.; Horne, Peter J.; Levin, Phillip S.

    2012-09-01

    End-to-end marine ecosystem models link climate and oceanography to the food web and human activities. These models can be used as forecasting tools, to strategically evaluate management options and to support ecosystem-based management. Here we report the results of such forecasts in the California Current, using an Atlantis end-to-end model. We worked collaboratively with fishery managers at NOAA’s regional offices and staff at the National Marine Sanctuaries (NMS) to explore the impact of fishery policies on management objectives at different spatial scales, from single Marine Sanctuaries to the entire Northern California Current. In addition to examining Status Quo management, we explored the consequences of several gear switching and spatial management scenarios. Of the scenarios that involved large scale management changes, no single scenario maximized all performance metrics. Any policy choice would involve trade-offs between stakeholder groups and policy goals. For example, a coast-wide 25% gear shift from trawl to pot or longline appeared to be one possible compromise between an increase in spatial management (which sacrificed revenue) and scenarios such as the one consolidating bottom impacts to deeper areas (which did not perform substantially differently from Status Quo). Judged on a coast-wide scale, most of the scenarios that involved minor or local management changes (e.g. within Monterey Bay NMS only) yielded results similar to Status Quo. When impacts did occur in these cases, they often involved local interactions that were difficult to predict a priori based solely on fishing patterns. However, judged on the local scale, deviation from Status Quo did emerge, particularly for metrics related to stationary species or variables (i.e. habitat and local metrics of landed value or bycatch). We also found that isolated management actions within Monterey Bay NMS would cause local fishers to pay a cost for conservation, in terms of reductions in landed

  5. End-to-end planning and scheduling systems technology for space operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moe, Karen L.

    1992-08-01

    Consideration is given to planning and scheduling operations concepts from an end-to-end perspective, through both mission operations and institutional support functions. An operations concept is proposed which is based on a flexible request language used to state resource requirements and mission constraints to a scheduling system. The language has the potential to evolve into an international standard for exchanging service request information on international space networks. The key benefit of the flexible scheduling request concept is the shift of a significant conflict resolution effort from humans to computers, reducing the time for generating a week's worth of schedules to hours instead of days.

  6. End-to-end planning and scheduling systems technology for space operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moe, Karen L.

    1992-01-01

    Consideration is given to planning and scheduling operations concepts from an end-to-end perspective, through both mission operations and institutional support functions. An operations concept is proposed which is based on a flexible request language used to state resource requirements and mission constraints to a scheduling system. The language has the potential to evolve into an international standard for exchanging service request information on international space networks. The key benefit of the flexible scheduling request concept is the shift of a significant conflict resolution effort from humans to computers, reducing the time for generating a week's worth of schedules to hours instead of days.

  7. Satellite/Terrestrial Networks: End-to-End Communication Interoperability Quality of Service Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivancic, William D.

    1998-01-01

    Various issues associated with satellite/terrestrial end-to-end communication interoperability are presented in viewgraph form. Specific topics include: 1) Quality of service; 2) ATM performance characteristics; 3) MPEG-2 transport stream mapping to AAL-5; 4) Observation and discussion of compressed video tests over ATM; 5) Digital video over satellites status; 6) Satellite link configurations; 7) MPEG-2 over ATM with binomial errors; 8) MPEG-2 over ATM channel characteristics; 8) MPEG-2 over ATM over emulated satellites; 9) MPEG-2 transport stream with errors; and a 10) Dual decoder test.

  8. Information adaptive system of NEEDS. [of NASA End to End Data System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howle, W. M., Jr.; Kelly, W. L.

    1979-01-01

    The NASA End-to-End Data System (NEEDS) program was initiated by NASA to improve significantly the state of the art in acquisition, processing, and distribution of space-acquired data for the mid-1980s and beyond. The information adaptive system (IAS) is a program element under NEEDS Phase II which addresses sensor specific processing on board the spacecraft. The IAS program is a logical first step toward smart sensors, and IAS developments - particularly the system components and key technology improvements - are applicable to future smart efforts. The paper describes the design goals and functional elements of the IAS. In addition, the schedule for IAS development and demonstration is discussed.

  9. EFFIS: and End-to-end Framework for Fusion Integrated Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Cummings, Julian; Schwan, Karsten; Sim, Alexander S; Shoshani, Arie; Docan, Ciprian; Parashar, Manish; Klasky, Scott A; Podhorszki, Norbert

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the Fusion Simulation Project is to develop a predictive capability for integrated modeling of magnetically confined burning plasmas. In support of this mission, the Center for Plasma Edge Simulation has developed an End-to-end Framework for Fusion Integrated Simulation (EFFIS) that combines critical computer science technologies in an effective manner to support leadership class computing and the coupling of complex plasma physics models. We describe here the main components of EFFIS and how they are being utilized to address our goal of integrated predictive plasma edge simulation.

  10. Quality metrics for measuring end-to-end distortion in packet-switched video communication systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisenberg, Yiftach; Zhai, Fan; Pappas, Thrasyvoulos N.; Berry, Randall; Katsaggelos, Aggelos K.

    2004-06-01

    A critical component of any video transmission system is an objective metric for evaluating the quality of the video signal as it is seen by the end-user. In packet-based communication systems, such as a wireless channel or the Internet, the quality of the received signal is affected by both signal compression and packet losses. Due to the probabilistic nature of the channel, the distortion in the reconstructed signal is a random variable. In addition, the quality of the reconstructed signal depends on the error concealment strategy. A common approach is to use the expected mean squared error of the end-to-end distortion as the performance metric. It can be shown that this approach leads to unpredictable perceptual artifacts. A better approach is to account for both the mean and the variance of the end-to-end distortion. We explore the perceptual benefits of this approach. By accounting for the variance of the distortion, the difference between the transmitted and the reconstructed signal can be decreased without a significant increase in the expected value of the distortion. Our experimental results indicate that for low to moderate probability of loss, the proposed approach offers significant advantages over strictly minimizing the expected distortion. We demonstrate that controlling the variance of the distortion limits perceptually annoying artifacts such as persistent errors.

  11. An End-To-End Test of A Simulated Nuclear Electric Propulsion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanDyke, Melissa; Hrbud, Ivana; Goddfellow, Keith; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Safe Affordable Fission Engine (SAFE) test series addresses Phase I Space Fission Systems issues in it particular non-nuclear testing and system integration issues leading to the testing and non-nuclear demonstration of a 400-kW fully integrated flight unit. The first part of the SAFE 30 test series demonstrated operation of the simulated nuclear core and heat pipe system. Experimental data acquired in a number of different test scenarios will validate existing computational models, demonstrated system flexibility (fast start-ups, multiple start-ups/shut downs), simulate predictable failure modes and operating environments. The objective of the second part is to demonstrate an integrated propulsion system consisting of a core, conversion system and a thruster where the system converts thermal heat into jet power. This end-to-end system demonstration sets a precedent for ground testing of nuclear electric propulsion systems. The paper describes the SAFE 30 end-to-end system demonstration and its subsystems.

  12. A Bottom-up Route to a Chemically End-to-End Assembly of Nanocellulose Fibers.

    PubMed

    Yang, Han; van de Ven, Theo G M

    2016-06-13

    In this work, we take advantage of the rod-like structure of electrosterically stabilized nanocrystalline cellulose (ENCC, with a width of about 7 nm and a length of about 130 nm), which has dicarboxylated cellulose (DCC) chains protruding from both ends, providing electrosterical stability for ENCC particles, to chemically end-to-end assemble these particles into nanocellulose fibers. ENCC with shorter DCC chains can be obtained by a mild hydrolysis of ENCC with HCl, and subsequently the hydrolyzed ENCC (HENCC, with a width of about 6 nm and a length of about 120 nm) is suitable to be assembled into high aspect ratio nanofibers by chemically cross-linking HENCC from one end to another. Two sets of HENCC were prepared by carbodiimide-mediated formation of an alkyne and an azide derivative, respectively. Cross-linking these two sets of HENCC was performed by a click reaction. HENCCs were also end-to-end cross-linked by a bioconjugation reaction, with a diamine. From atomic force microscopy (AFM) images, about ten HENCC nanoparticles were cross-linked and formed high aspect ratio nanofibers with a width of about 6 nm and a length of more than 1 μm. PMID:27211496

  13. A vision for end-to-end data services to foster international partnerships through data sharing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramamurthy, M.; Yoksas, T.

    2009-04-01

    Increasingly, the conduct of science requires scientific partnerships and sharing of knowledge, information, and other assets. This is particularly true in our field where the highly-coupled Earth system and its many linkages have heightened the importance of collaborations across geographic, disciplinary, and organizational boundaries. The climate system, for example, is far too complex a puzzle to be unraveled by individual investigators or nations. As articulated in the NSF Strategic Plan: FY 2006-2011, "…discovery increasingly requires expertise of individuals from different disciplines, with diverse perspectives, and often from different nations, working together to accommodate the extraordinary complexity of today's science and engineering challenges." The Nobel Prize winning IPCC assessments are a prime example of such an effort. Earth science education is also uniquely suited to drawing connections between the dynamic Earth system and societal issues. Events like the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami and Hurricane Katrina provide ample evidence of this relevance, as they underscore the importance of timely and interdisciplinary integration and synthesis of data. Our success in addressing such complex problems and advancing geosciences depends on the availability of a state-of-the-art and robust cyberinfrastructure, transparent and timely access to high-quality data from diverse sources, and requisite tools to integrate and use the data effectively, toward creating new knowledge. To that end, Unidata's vision calls for providing comprehensive, well-integrated, and end-to-end data services for the geosciences. These include an array of functions for collecting, finding, and accessing data; data management tools for generating, cataloging, and exchanging metadata; and submitting or publishing, sharing, analyzing, visualizing, and integrating data. When this vision is realized, users — no matter where they are, how they are connected to the Internet, or what

  14. End-to-end validation process for the INTA-Nanosat-1B Attitude Control System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polo, Óscar R.; Esteban, Segundo; Cercos, Lorenzo; Parra, Pablo; Angulo, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the end-to-end validation process for the Attitude Control Subsystem (ACS) of the satellite INTA-NanoSat-1B (NS-1B). This satellite was launched on July 2009 and it has been fully operative since then. The development of its ACS modules required an exhaustive integration and a system-level validation program. Some of the tests were centred on the validation of the drivers of sensors and actuators and were carried out over the flying model of the satellite. Others, more complex, constituted end-to-end tests where the concurrency of modules, the real-time control requirements and even the well-formedness of the telemetry data were verified. This work presents an incremental and highly automatised way for performing the ACS validation program based on two development suites and an end-to-end validation environment. The validation environment combines a Flat Satellite (FlatSat) configuration and a real-time emulator working in closed-loop. The FlatSat is built using the NS-1B Qualification Model (QM) hardware and it can run a complete version of the on-board software with the ACS modules fully integrated. The real-time emulator, running on an industrial PC, samples the actuation signals and emulates the sensors signals to close the control loop with the FlatSat. This validation environment constitutes a low-cost alternative to the classical three axes tilt table, with the advantage of being easily configured for working under specific orbit conditions, in accordance with any of the selected tests. The approach has been successfully applied to the NS-1B in order to verify different ACS modes under multiple orbit scenarios, providing an exhaustive coverage and reducing the risk of eventual errors during the satellite's lifetime. The strategy was applied also during the validation of the maintenance and reconfiguration procedures required once the satellite was launched. This paper describes in detail the complete ACS validation process that was

  15. Cyberinfrastructure to support Real-time, End-to-End, High Resolution, Localized Forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramamurthy, M. K.; Lindholm, D.; Baltzer, T.; Domenico, B.

    2004-12-01

    From natural disasters such as flooding and forest fires to man-made disasters such as toxic gas releases, the impact of weather-influenced severe events on society can be profound. Understanding, predicting, and mitigating such local, mesoscale events calls for a cyberinfrastructure to integrate multidisciplinary data, tools, and services as well as the capability to generate and use high resolution data (such as wind and precipitation) from localized models. The need for such end to end systems -- including data collection, distribution, integration, assimilation, regionalized mesoscale modeling, analysis, and visualization -- has been realized to some extent in many academic and quasi-operational environments, especially for atmospheric sciences data. However, many challenges still remain in the integration and synthesis of data from multiple sources and the development of interoperable data systems and services across those disciplines. Over the years, the Unidata Program Center has developed several tools that have either directly or indirectly facilitated these local modeling activities. For example, the community is using Unidata technologies such as the Internet Data Distribution (IDD) system, Local Data Manger (LDM), decoders, netCDF libraries, Thematic Realtime Environmental Distributed Data Services (THREDDS), and the Integrated Data Viewer (IDV) in their real-time prediction efforts. In essence, these technologies for data reception and processing, local and remote access, cataloging, and analysis and visualization coupled with technologies from others in the community are becoming the foundation of a cyberinfrastructure to support an end-to-end regional forecasting system. To build on these capabilities, the Unidata Program Center is pleased to be a significant contributor to the Linked Environments for Atmospheric Discovery (LEAD) project, a NSF-funded multi-institutional large Information Technology Research effort. The goal of LEAD is to create an

  16. End-to-End Network Simulation Using a Site-Specific Radio Wave Propagation Model

    SciTech Connect

    Djouadi, Seddik M; Kuruganti, Phani Teja; Nutaro, James J

    2013-01-01

    The performance of systems that rely on a wireless network depends on the propagation environment in which that network operates. To predict how these systems and their supporting networks will perform, simulations must take into consideration the propagation environment and how this effects the performance of the wireless network. Network simulators typically use empirical models of the propagation environment. However, these models are not intended for, and cannot be used, to predict a wireless system will perform in a specific location, e.g., in the center of a particular city or the interior of a specific manufacturing facility. In this paper, we demonstrate how a site-specific propagation model and the NS3 simulator can be used to predict the end-to-end performance of a wireless network.

  17. End-to-End Assessment of a Large Aperture Segmented Ultraviolet Optical Infrared (UVOIR) Telescope Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feinberg, Lee; Rioux, Norman; Bolcar, Matthew; Liu, Alice; Guyon, Oliver; Stark, Chris; Arenberg, Jon

    2016-01-01

    Key challenges of a future large aperture, segmented Ultraviolet Optical Infrared (UVOIR) Telescope capable of performing a spectroscopic survey of hundreds of Exoplanets will be sufficient stability to achieve 10^-10 contrast measurements and sufficient throughput and sensitivity for high yield Exo-Earth spectroscopic detection. Our team has collectively assessed an optimized end to end architecture including a high throughput coronagraph capable of working with a segmented telescope, a cost-effective and heritage based stable segmented telescope, a control architecture that minimizes the amount of new technologies, and an Exo-Earth yield assessment to evaluate potential performance. These efforts are combined through integrated modeling, coronagraph evaluations, and Exo-Earth yield calculations to assess the potential performance of the selected architecture. In addition, we discusses the scalability of this architecture to larger apertures and the technological tall poles to enabling it.

  18. Data analysis pipeline for EChO end-to-end simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waldmann, Ingo P.; Pascale, E.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric spectroscopy of extrasolar planets is an intricate business. Atmospheric signatures typically require a photometric precision of 1×10-4 in flux over several hours. Such precision demands high instrument stability as well as an understanding of stellar variability and an optimal data reduction and removal of systematic noise. In the context of the EChO mission concept, we here discuss the data reduction and analysis pipeline developed for the EChO end-to-end simulator EChOSim. We present and discuss the step by step procedures required in order to obtain the final exoplanetary spectrum from the EChOSim `raw data' using a simulated observation of the secondary eclipse of the hot-Neptune 55 Cnc e.

  19. End-to-end interoperability and workflows from building architecture design to one or more simulations

    DOEpatents

    Chao, Tian-Jy; Kim, Younghun

    2015-02-10

    An end-to-end interoperability and workflows from building architecture design to one or more simulations, in one aspect, may comprise establishing a BIM enablement platform architecture. A data model defines data entities and entity relationships for enabling the interoperability and workflows. A data definition language may be implemented that defines and creates a table schema of a database associated with the data model. Data management services and/or application programming interfaces may be implemented for interacting with the data model. Web services may also be provided for interacting with the data model via the Web. A user interface may be implemented that communicates with users and uses the BIM enablement platform architecture, the data model, the data definition language, data management services and application programming interfaces to provide functions to the users to perform work related to building information management.

  20. The Kepler End-to-End Data Pipeline: From Photons to Far Away Worlds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooke, Brian; Thompson, Richard; Standley, Shaun

    2012-01-01

    Launched by NASA on 6 March 2009, the Kepler Mission has been observing more than 100,000 targets in a single patch of sky between the constellations Cygnus and Lyra almost continuously for the last two years looking for planetary systems using the transit method. As of October 2011, the Kepler spacecraft has collected and returned to Earth just over 290 GB of data, identifying 1235 planet candidates with 25 of these candidates confirmed as planets via ground observation. Extracting the telltale signature of a planetary system from stellar photometry where valid signal transients can be small as a 40 ppm is a difficult and exacting task. The end-to end processing of determining planetary candidates from noisy, raw photometric measurements is discussed.

  1. End-to-end performance measurement of Internet based medical applications.

    PubMed Central

    Dev, P.; Harris, D.; Gutierrez, D.; Shah, A.; Senger, S.

    2002-01-01

    We present a method to obtain an end-to-end characterization of the performance of an application over a network. This method is not dependent on any specific application or type of network. The method requires characterization of network parameters, such as latency and packet loss, between the expected server or client endpoints, as well as characterization of the application's constraints on these parameters. A subjective metric is presented that integrates these characterizations and that operates over a wide range of applications and networks. We believe that this method may be of wide applicability as research and educational applications increasingly make use of computation and data servers that are distributed over the Internet. PMID:12463816

  2. Development of a Dynamic, End-to-End Free Piston Stirling Convertor Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Regan, Timothy F.; Gerber, Scott S.; Roth, Mary Ellen

    2004-01-01

    A dynamic model for a free-piston Stirling convertor is being developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The model is an end-to-end system model that includes the cycle thermodynamics, the dynamics, and electrical aspects of the system. The subsystems of interest are the heat source, the springs, the moving masses, the linear alternator, the controller, and the end-user load. The envisioned use of the model will be in evaluating how changes in a subsystem could affect the operation of the convertor. The model under development will speed the evaluation of improvements to a subsystem and aid in determining areas in which most significant improvements may be found. One of the first uses of the end-toend model will be in the development of controller architectures. Another related area is in evaluating changes to details in the linear alternator.

  3. End-to-End QoS for Differentiated Services and ATM Internetworking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, Hongjun; Atiquzzaman, Mohammed

    2001-01-01

    The Internet was initially design for non real-time data communications and hence does not provide any Quality of Service (QoS). The next generation Internet will be characterized by high speed and QoS guarantee. The aim of this paper is to develop a prioritized early packet discard (PEPD) scheme for ATM switches to provide service differentiation and QoS guarantee to end applications running over next generation Internet. The proposed PEPD scheme differs from previous schemes by taking into account the priority of packets generated from different application. We develop a Markov chain model for the proposed scheme and verify the model with simulation. Numerical results show that the results from the model and computer simulation are in close agreement. Our PEPD scheme provides service differentiation to the end-to-end applications.

  4. The End-to-End Pipeline for HST Slitless Spectra PHLAG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kümmel, M.; Albrecht, R.; Fosbury, R.; Freudling, W.; Haase, J.; Hook, R. N.; Kuntschner, H.; Micol, A.; Rosa, M. R.; Walsh, J. R.

    The Space Telescope-European Coordinating Facility (ST-ECF) is undertaking a joint project with the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre and the Space Telescope Science Institute to build a Hubble Legacy Archive (HLA) that contains science ready high level data products to be used in the Virtual Observatory (VO). The ST-ECF will provide extracted slitless spectra to the HLA, and for this purpose has developed the Pipeline for Hubble Legacy Archive Grism data (PHLAG). PHLAG is an end-to-end pipeline that performs an unsupervised reduction of slitless data taken with the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) or the Near Infrared Camera and Multi Object Spectrometer (NICMOS) and ingests the VO compatible spectra into the HLA. PHLAG is a modular pipeline, and the various modules and their roles are discussed. In a pilot study, PHLAG is applied to NICMOS data taken with the G141 grism, and the first results of a run on all available data are shown.

  5. Orion MPCV GN and C End-to-End Phasing Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neumann, Brian C.

    2013-01-01

    End-to-end integration tests are critical risk reduction efforts for any complex vehicle. Phasing tests are an end-to-end integrated test that validates system directional phasing (polarity) from sensor measurement through software algorithms to end effector response. Phasing tests are typically performed on a fully integrated and assembled flight vehicle where sensors are stimulated by moving the vehicle and the effectors are observed for proper polarity. Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) Pad Abort 1 (PA-1) Phasing Test was conducted from inertial measurement to Launch Abort System (LAS). Orion Exploration Flight Test 1 (EFT-1) has two end-to-end phasing tests planned. The first test from inertial measurement to Crew Module (CM) reaction control system thrusters uses navigation and flight control system software algorithms to process commands. The second test from inertial measurement to CM S-Band Phased Array Antenna (PAA) uses navigation and communication system software algorithms to process commands. Future Orion flights include Ascent Abort Flight Test 2 (AA-2) and Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1). These flights will include additional or updated sensors, software algorithms and effectors. This paper will explore the implementation of end-to-end phasing tests on a flight vehicle which has many constraints, trade-offs and compromises. Orion PA-1 Phasing Test was conducted at White Sands Missile Range (WSMR) from March 4-6, 2010. This test decreased the risk of mission failure by demonstrating proper flight control system polarity. Demonstration was achieved by stimulating the primary navigation sensor, processing sensor data to commands and viewing propulsion response. PA-1 primary navigation sensor was a Space Integrated Inertial Navigation System (INS) and Global Positioning System (GPS) (SIGI) which has onboard processing, INS (3 accelerometers and 3 rate gyros) and no GPS receiver. SIGI data was processed by GN&C software into thrust magnitude and

  6. The Consolidation of the End-to-End Avionics Systems Testbench

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijnands, Quirien; Torelli, Felice; Blommestijn, Robert; Kranz, Stephan; Koster, Jean-Paul

    2014-08-01

    Over the past years, the Avionics System Test Bench (ATB) has been used to support the demonstration and validation of upcoming space avionics related standards and technologies in a representative environment. Next to this another main use-case of the facility has been to support projects in their needs of assessing particular technology related issues. In doing so, it was necessary to add activity- and project specifics to different configurations of the ATB, leading to a proliferation of facilities and technologies. In some cases however the results and lessons-learned from these efforts and activities were considered valuable to the ATB-concept in general and therefore needed preservation in the ATB mainstream for future reuse. Currently activities are ongoing to consolidate the End-To-End Avionics Systems TestBench (E2E-ATB). In this paper the resulting details of these activities are described as enhancements and improvements per ATB configuration.

  7. Enhancing End-to-End Performance of Information Services Over Ka-Band Global Satellite Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhasin, Kul B.; Glover, Daniel R.; Ivancic, William D.; vonDeak, Thomas C.

    1997-01-01

    The Internet has been growing at a rapid rate as the key medium to provide information services such as e-mail, WWW and multimedia etc., however its global reach is limited. Ka-band communication satellite networks are being developed to increase the accessibility of information services via the Internet at global scale. There is need to assess satellite networks in their ability to provide these services and interconnect seamlessly with existing and proposed terrestrial telecommunication networks. In this paper the significant issues and requirements in providing end-to-end high performance for the delivery of information services over satellite networks based on various layers in the OSI reference model are identified. Key experiments have been performed to evaluate the performance of digital video and Internet over satellite-like testbeds. The results of the early developments in ATM and TCP protocols over satellite networks are summarized.

  8. End-to-end communication test on variable length packet structures utilizing AOS testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Warner H.; Sank, V.; Fong, Wai; Miko, J.; Powers, M.; Folk, John; Conaway, B.; Michael, K.; Yeh, Pen-Shu

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes a communication test, which successfully demonstrated the transfer of losslessly compressed images in an end-to-end system. These compressed images were first formatted into variable length Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) packets in the Advanced Orbiting System Testbed (AOST). The CCSDS data Structures were transferred from the AOST to the Radio Frequency Simulations Operations Center (RFSOC), via a fiber optic link, where data was then transmitted through the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS). The received data acquired at the White Sands Complex (WSC) was transferred back to the AOST where the data was captured and decompressed back to the original images. This paper describes the compression algorithm, the AOST configuration, key flight components, data formats, and the communication link characteristics and test results.

  9. End-to-end automated microfluidic platform for synthetic biology: from design to functional analysis

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Linshiz, Gregory; Jensen, Erik; Stawski, Nina; Bi, Changhao; Elsbree, Nick; Jiao, Hong; Kim, Jungkyu; Mathies, Richard; Keasling, Jay D.; Hillson, Nathan J.

    2016-02-02

    Synthetic biology aims to engineer biological systems for desired behaviors. The construction of these systems can be complex, often requiring genetic reprogramming, extensive de novo DNA synthesis, and functional screening. Here, we present a programmable, multipurpose microfluidic platform and associated software and apply the platform to major steps of the synthetic biology research cycle: design, construction, testing, and analysis. We show the platform’s capabilities for multiple automated DNA assembly methods, including a new method for Isothermal Hierarchical DNA Construction, and for Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae transformation. The platform enables the automated control of cellular growth, gene expression induction, andmore » proteogenic and metabolic output analysis. Finally, taken together, we demonstrate the microfluidic platform’s potential to provide end-to-end solutions for synthetic biology research, from design to functional analysis.« less

  10. Advances in POST2 End-to-End Descent and Landing Simulation for the ALHAT Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Jody L.; Striepe, Scott A.; Maddock, Robert W.; Hines, Glenn D.; Paschall, Stephen, II; Cohanim, Babak E.; Fill, Thomas; Johnson, Michael C.; Bishop, Robert H.; DeMars, Kyle J.; Sostaric, Ronald r.; Johnson, Andrew E.

    2008-01-01

    Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories II (POST2) is used as a basis for an end-to-end descent and landing trajectory simulation that is essential in determining design and integration capability and system performance of the lunar descent and landing system and environment models for the Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) project. The POST2 simulation provides a six degree-of-freedom capability necessary to test, design and operate a descent and landing system for successful lunar landing. This paper presents advances in the development and model-implementation of the POST2 simulation, as well as preliminary system performance analysis, used for the testing and evaluation of ALHAT project system models.

  11. Kinetics of end-to-end collision in short single-stranded nucleic acids.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaojuan; Nau, Werner M

    2004-01-28

    A novel fluorescence-based method, which entails contact quenching of the long-lived fluorescent state of 2,3-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]-oct-2-ene (DBO), was employed to measure the kinetics of end-to-end collision in short single-stranded oligodeoxyribonucleotides of the type 5'-DBO-(X)n-dG with X = dA, dC, dT, or dU and n = 2 or 4. The fluorophore was covalently attached to the 5' end and dG was introduced as an efficient intrinsic quencher at the 3' terminus. The end-to-end collision rates, which can be directly related to the efficiency of intramolecular fluorescence quenching, ranged from 0.1 to 9.0 x 10(6) s(-1). They were strongly dependent on the strand length, the base sequence, as well as the temperature. Oligonucleotides containing dA in the backbone displayed much slower collision rates and significantly higher positive activation energies than strands composed of pyrimidine bases, suggesting a higher intrinsic rigidity of oligoadenylate. Comparison of the measured collision rates in short single-stranded oligodeoxyribonucleotides with the previously reported kinetics of hairpin formation indicates that the intramolecular collision is significantly faster than the nucleation step of hairpin closing. This is consistent with the configurational diffusion model suggested by Ansari et al. (Ansari, A.; Kuznetsov, S. V.; Shen, Y. Proc.Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2001, 98, 7771-7776), in which the formation of misfolded loops is thought to slow hairpin formation. PMID:14733555

  12. Integrating end-to-end threads of control into object-oriented analysis and design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccandlish, Janet E.; Macdonald, James R.; Graves, Sara J.

    1993-01-01

    Current object-oriented analysis and design methodologies fall short in their use of mechanisms for identifying threads of control for the system being developed. The scenarios which typically describe a system are more global than looking at the individual objects and representing their behavior. Unlike conventional methodologies that use data flow and process-dependency diagrams, object-oriented methodologies do not provide a model for representing these global threads end-to-end. Tracing through threads of control is key to ensuring that a system is complete and timing constraints are addressed. The existence of multiple threads of control in a system necessitates a partitioning of the system into processes. This paper describes the application and representation of end-to-end threads of control to the object-oriented analysis and design process using object-oriented constructs. The issue of representation is viewed as a grouping problem, that is, how to group classes/objects at a higher level of abstraction so that the system may be viewed as a whole with both classes/objects and their associated dynamic behavior. Existing object-oriented development methodology techniques are extended by adding design-level constructs termed logical composite classes and process composite classes. Logical composite classes are design-level classes which group classes/objects both logically and by thread of control information. Process composite classes further refine the logical composite class groupings by using process partitioning criteria to produce optimum concurrent execution results. The goal of these design-level constructs is to ultimately provide the basis for a mechanism that can support the creation of process composite classes in an automated way. Using an automated mechanism makes it easier to partition a system into concurrently executing elements that can be run in parallel on multiple processors.

  13. End-to-end Cyberinfrastructure and Data Services for Earth System Science Education and Research: Unidata's Plans and Directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramamurthy, M.

    2005-12-01

    work together in a fundamentally different way. Likewise, the advent of digital libraries, grid computing platforms, interoperable frameworks, standards and protocols, open-source software, and community atmospheric models have been important drivers in shaping the use of a new generation of end-to-end cyberinfrastructure for solving some of the most challenging scientific and educational problems. In this talk, I will present an overview of the scientific, technological, and educational drivers and discuss recent developments in cyberinfrastructure and Unidata's role and directions in providing robust, end-to-end data services for solving geoscientific problems and advancing student learning.

  14. End-to-end Cyberinfrastructure and Data Services for Earth System Science Education and Research: A vision for the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramamurthy, M. K.

    2006-05-01

    yet revolutionary way of building applications and methods to connect and exchange information over the Web. This new approach, based on XML - a widely accepted format for exchanging data and corresponding semantics over the Internet - enables applications, computer systems, and information processes to work together in fundamentally different ways. Likewise, the advent of digital libraries, grid computing platforms, interoperable frameworks, standards and protocols, open-source software, and community atmospheric models have been important drivers in shaping the use of a new generation of end-to-end cyberinfrastructure for solving some of the most challenging scientific and educational problems. In this talk, I will present an overview of the scientific, technological, and educational landscape, discuss recent developments in cyberinfrastructure, and Unidata's role in and vision for providing easy-to use, robust, end-to-end data services for solving geoscientific problems and advancing student learning.

  15. End-to-end test of spatial accuracy in Gamma Knife treatments for trigeminal neuralgia

    SciTech Connect

    Brezovich, Ivan A. Wu, Xingen; Duan, Jun; Popple, Richard A.; Shen, Sui; Benhabib, Sidi; Huang, Mi; Christian Dobelbower, M.; Fisher III, Winfield S.

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: Spatial accuracy is most crucial when small targets like the trigeminal nerve are treated. Although current quality assurance procedures typically verify that individual apparatus, like the MRI scanner, CT scanner, Gamma Knife, etc., are meeting specifications, the cumulative error of all equipment and procedures combined may exceed safe margins. This study uses an end-to-end approach to assess the overall targeting errors that may have occurred in individual patients previously treated for trigeminal neuralgia. Methods: The trigeminal nerve is simulated by a 3 mm long, 3.175 mm (1/8 in.) diameter MRI-contrast filled cavity embedded within a PMMA plastic capsule. The capsule is positioned within the head frame such that the location of the cavity matches the Gamma Knife coordinates of an arbitrarily chosen, previously treated patient. Gafchromic EBT2 film is placed at the center of the cavity in coronal and sagittal orientations. The films are marked with a pinprick to identify the cavity center. Treatments are planned for radiation delivery with 4 mm collimators according to MRI and CT scans using the clinical localizer boxes and acquisition protocols. Shots are planned so that the 50% isodose surface encompasses the cavity. Following irradiation, the films are scanned and analyzed. Targeting errors are defined as the distance between the pinprick, which represents the intended target, and the centroid of the 50% isodose line, which is the center of the radiation field that was actually delivered. Results: Averaged over ten patient simulations, targeting errors along the x, y, and z coordinates (patient’s left-to-right, posterior-to-anterior, and head-to-foot) were, respectively, −0.060 ± 0.363, −0.350 ± 0.253, and 0.348 ± 0.204 mm when MRI was used for treatment planning. Planning according to CT exhibited generally smaller errors, namely, 0.109 ± 0.167, −0.191 ± 0.144, and 0.211 ± 0.094 mm. The largest errors along individual axes in MRI

  16. MRI simulation: end-to-end testing for prostate radiation therapy using geometric pelvic MRI phantoms.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jidi; Dowling, Jason; Pichler, Peter; Menk, Fred; Rivest-Henault, David; Lambert, Jonathan; Parker, Joel; Arm, Jameen; Best, Leah; Martin, Jarad; Denham, James W; Greer, Peter B

    2015-04-21

    To clinically implement MRI simulation or MRI-alone treatment planning requires comprehensive end-to-end testing to ensure an accurate process. The purpose of this study was to design and build a geometric phantom simulating a human male pelvis that is suitable for both CT and MRI scanning and use it to test geometric and dosimetric aspects of MRI simulation including treatment planning and digitally reconstructed radiograph (DRR) generation.A liquid filled pelvic shaped phantom with simulated pelvic organs was scanned in a 3T MRI simulator with dedicated radiotherapy couch-top, laser bridge and pelvic coil mounts. A second phantom with the same external shape but with an internal distortion grid was used to quantify the distortion of the MR image. Both phantoms were also CT scanned as the gold-standard for both geometry and dosimetry. Deformable image registration was used to quantify the MR distortion. Dose comparison was made using a seven-field IMRT plan developed on the CT scan with the fluences copied to the MR image and recalculated using bulk electron densities. Without correction the maximum distortion of the MR compared with the CT scan was 7.5 mm across the pelvis, while this was reduced to 2.6 and 1.7 mm by the vendor's 2D and 3D correction algorithms, respectively. Within the locations of the internal organs of interest, the distortion was <1.5 and <1 mm with 2D and 3D correction algorithms, respectively. The dose at the prostate isocentre calculated on CT and MRI images differed by 0.01% (1.1 cGy). Positioning shifts were within 1 mm when setup was performed using MRI generated DRRs compared to setup using CT DRRs.The MRI pelvic phantom allows end-to-end testing of the MRI simulation workflow with comparison to the gold-standard CT based process. MRI simulation was found to be geometrically accurate with organ dimensions, dose distributions and DRR based setup within acceptable limits compared to CT. PMID:25803177

  17. MRI simulation: end-to-end testing for prostate radiation therapy using geometric pelvic MRI phantoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jidi; Dowling, Jason; Pichler, Peter; Menk, Fred; Rivest-Henault, David; Lambert, Jonathan; Parker, Joel; Arm, Jameen; Best, Leah; Martin, Jarad; Denham, James W.; Greer, Peter B.

    2015-04-01

    To clinically implement MRI simulation or MRI-alone treatment planning requires comprehensive end-to-end testing to ensure an accurate process. The purpose of this study was to design and build a geometric phantom simulating a human male pelvis that is suitable for both CT and MRI scanning and use it to test geometric and dosimetric aspects of MRI simulation including treatment planning and digitally reconstructed radiograph (DRR) generation. A liquid filled pelvic shaped phantom with simulated pelvic organs was scanned in a 3T MRI simulator with dedicated radiotherapy couch-top, laser bridge and pelvic coil mounts. A second phantom with the same external shape but with an internal distortion grid was used to quantify the distortion of the MR image. Both phantoms were also CT scanned as the gold-standard for both geometry and dosimetry. Deformable image registration was used to quantify the MR distortion. Dose comparison was made using a seven-field IMRT plan developed on the CT scan with the fluences copied to the MR image and recalculated using bulk electron densities. Without correction the maximum distortion of the MR compared with the CT scan was 7.5 mm across the pelvis, while this was reduced to 2.6 and 1.7 mm by the vendor’s 2D and 3D correction algorithms, respectively. Within the locations of the internal organs of interest, the distortion was <1.5 and <1 mm with 2D and 3D correction algorithms, respectively. The dose at the prostate isocentre calculated on CT and MRI images differed by 0.01% (1.1 cGy). Positioning shifts were within 1 mm when setup was performed using MRI generated DRRs compared to setup using CT DRRs. The MRI pelvic phantom allows end-to-end testing of the MRI simulation workflow with comparison to the gold-standard CT based process. MRI simulation was found to be geometrically accurate with organ dimensions, dose distributions and DRR based setup within acceptable limits compared to CT.

  18. End-to-end simulation of bunch merging for a muon collider

    SciTech Connect

    Bao, Yu; Stratakis, Diktys; Hanson, Gail G.; Palmer, Robert B.

    2015-05-03

    Muon accelerator beams are commonly produced indirectly through pion decay by interaction of a charged particle beam with a target. Efficient muon capture requires the muons to be first phase-rotated by rf cavities into a train of 21 bunches with much reduced energy spread. Since luminosity is proportional to the square of the number of muons per bunch, it is crucial for a Muon Collider to use relatively few bunches with many muons per bunch. In this paper we will describe a bunch merging scheme that should achieve this goal. We present for the first time a complete end-to-end simulation of a 6D bunch merger for a Muon Collider. The 21 bunches arising from the phase-rotator, after some initial cooling, are merged in longitudinal phase space into seven bunches, which then go through seven paths with different lengths and reach the final collecting "funnel" at the same time. The final single bunch has a transverse and a longitudinal emittance that matches well with the subsequent 6D rectilinear cooling scheme.

  19. End-To-End performance test of the LINC-NIRVANA Wavefront-Sensor system.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berwein, Juergen; Bertram, Thomas; Conrad, Al; Briegel, Florian; Kittmann, Frank; Zhang, Xiangyu; Mohr, Lars

    2011-09-01

    LINC-NIRVANA is an imaging Fizeau interferometer, for use in near infrared wavelengths, being built for the Large Binocular Telescope. Multi-conjugate adaptive optics (MCAO) increases the sky coverage and the field of view over which diffraction limited images can be obtained. For its MCAO implementation, Linc-Nirvana utilizes four total wavefront sensors; each of the two beams is corrected by both a ground-layer wavefront sensor (GWS) and a high-layer wavefront sensor (HWS). The GWS controls the adaptive secondary deformable mirror (DM), which is based on an DSP slope computing unit. Whereas the HWS controls an internal DM via computations provided by an off-the-shelf multi-core Linux system. Using wavefront sensor data collected from a prior lab experiment, we have shown via simulation that the Linux based system is sufficient to operate at 1kHz, with jitter well below the needs of the final system. Based on that setup we tested the end-to-end performance and latency through all parts of the system which includes the camera, the wavefront controller, and the deformable mirror. We will present our loop control structure and the results of those performance tests.

  20. End to End Digitisation and Analysis of Three-Dimensional Coral Models, from Communities to Corallites.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez-Heredia, Luis; Benzoni, Francesca; Murphy, Emma; Reynaud, Emmanuel G

    2016-01-01

    Coral reefs hosts nearly 25% of all marine species and provide food sources for half a billion people worldwide while only a very small percentage have been surveyed. Advances in technology and processing along with affordable underwater cameras and Internet availability gives us the possibility to provide tools and softwares to survey entire coral reefs. Holistic ecological analyses of corals require not only the community view (10s to 100s of meters), but also the single colony analysis as well as corallite identification. As corals are three-dimensional, classical approaches to determine percent cover and structural complexity across spatial scales are inefficient, time-consuming and limited to experts. Here we propose an end-to-end approach to estimate these parameters using low-cost equipment (GoPro, Canon) and freeware (123D Catch, Meshmixer and Netfabb), allowing every community to participate in surveys and monitoring of their coral ecosystem. We demonstrate our approach on 9 species of underwater colonies in ranging size and morphology. 3D models of underwater colonies, fresh samples and bleached skeletons with high quality texture mapping and detailed topographic morphology were produced, and Surface Area and Volume measurements (parameters widely used for ecological and coral health studies) were calculated and analysed. Moreover, we integrated collected sample models with micro-photogrammetry models of individual corallites to aid identification and colony and polyp scale analysis. PMID:26901845

  1. Availability and End-to-end Reliability in Low Duty Cycle Multihop Wireless Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Suhonen, Jukka; Hämäläinen, Timo D; Hännikäinen, Marko

    2009-01-01

    A wireless sensor network (WSN) is an ad-hoc technology that may even consist of thousands of nodes, which necessitates autonomic, self-organizing and multihop operations. A typical WSN node is battery powered, which makes the network lifetime the primary concern. The highest energy efficiency is achieved with low duty cycle operation, however, this alone is not enough. WSNs are deployed for different uses, each requiring acceptable Quality of Service (QoS). Due to the unique characteristics of WSNs, such as dynamic wireless multihop routing and resource constraints, the legacy QoS metrics are not feasible as such. We give a new definition to measure and implement QoS in low duty cycle WSNs, namely availability and reliability. Then, we analyze the effect of duty cycling for reaching the availability and reliability. The results are obtained by simulations with ZigBee and proprietary TUTWSN protocols. Based on the results, we also propose a data forwarding algorithm suitable for resource constrained WSNs that guarantees end-to-end reliability while adding a small overhead that is relative to the packet error rate (PER). The forwarding algorithm guarantees reliability up to 30% PER. PMID:22574002

  2. SPOKES: An end-to-end simulation facility for spectroscopic cosmological surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nord, B.; Amara, A.; Réfrégier, A.; Gamper, La.; Gamper, Lu.; Hambrecht, B.; Chang, C.; Forero-Romero, J. E.; Serrano, S.; Cunha, C.; Coles, O.; Nicola, A.; Busha, M.; Bauer, A.; Saunders, W.; Jouvel, S.; Kirk, D.; Wechsler, R.

    2016-04-01

    The nature of dark matter, dark energy and large-scale gravity pose some of the most pressing questions in cosmology today. These fundamental questions require highly precise measurements, and a number of wide-field spectroscopic survey instruments are being designed to meet this requirement. A key component in these experiments is the development of a simulation tool to forecast science performance, define requirement flow-downs, optimize implementation, demonstrate feasibility, and prepare for exploitation. We present SPOKES (SPectrOscopic KEn Simulation), an end-to-end simulation facility for spectroscopic cosmological surveys designed to address this challenge. SPOKES is based on an integrated infrastructure, modular function organization, coherent data handling and fast data access. These key features allow reproducibility of pipeline runs, enable ease of use and provide flexibility to update functions within the pipeline. The cyclic nature of the pipeline offers the possibility to make the science output an efficient measure for design optimization and feasibility testing. We present the architecture, first science, and computational performance results of the simulation pipeline. The framework is general, but for the benchmark tests, we use the Dark Energy Spectrometer (DESpec), one of the early concepts for the upcoming project, the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI). We discuss how the SPOKES framework enables a rigorous process to optimize and exploit spectroscopic survey experiments in order to derive high-precision cosmological measurements optimally.

  3. End-to-end performance modeling of passive remote sensing systems

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, B.W.; Borel, C.C.; Clodius, W.B.; Theiler, J.; Laubscher, B.; Weber, P.G.

    1996-07-01

    The ultimate goal of end-to-end system modeling is to simulate all known physical effects which determine the content of the data, before flying an instrument system. In remote sensing, one begins with a scene, viewed either statistically or dynamically, computes the radiance in each spectral band, renders the scene, transfers it through representative atmospheres to create the radiance field at an aperture, and integrates over sensor pixels. We have simulated a comprehensive sequence of realistic instrument hardware elements and the transfer of simulated data to an analysis system. This analysis package is the same as that intended for use of data collections from the real system. By comparing the analyzed image to the original scene, the net effect of nonideal system components can be understood. Iteration yields the optimum values of system parameters to achieve performance targets. We have used simulation to develop and test improved multispectral algorithms for (1) the robust retrieval of water surface temperature, water vapor column, and other quantities; (2) the preservation of radiometric accuracy during atmospheric correction and pixel registration on the ground; and (3) exploitation of on-board multispectral measurements to assess the atmosphere between ground and aperture.

  4. End-To-End Simulation of Launch Vehicle Trajectories Including Stage Separation Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albertson, Cindy W.; Tartabini, Paul V.; Pamadi, Bandu N.

    2012-01-01

    The development of methodologies, techniques, and tools for analysis and simulation of stage separation dynamics is critically needed for successful design and operation of multistage reusable launch vehicles. As a part of this activity, the Constraint Force Equation (CFE) methodology was developed and implemented in the Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories II (POST2). The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the capability of POST2/CFE to simulate a complete end-to-end mission. The vehicle configuration selected was the Two-Stage-To-Orbit (TSTO) Langley Glide Back Booster (LGBB) bimese configuration, an in-house concept consisting of a reusable booster and an orbiter having identical outer mold lines. The proximity and isolated aerodynamic databases used for the simulation were assembled using wind-tunnel test data for this vehicle. POST2/CFE simulation results are presented for the entire mission, from lift-off, through stage separation, orbiter ascent to orbit, and booster glide back to the launch site. Additionally, POST2/CFE stage separation simulation results are compared with results from industry standard commercial software used for solving dynamics problems involving multiple bodies connected by joints.

  5. Availability and End-to-end Reliability in Low Duty Cycle Multihop Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Suhonen, Jukka; Hämäläinen, Timo D.; Hännikäinen, Marko

    2009-01-01

    A wireless sensor network (WSN) is an ad-hoc technology that may even consist of thousands of nodes, which necessitates autonomic, self-organizing and multihop operations. A typical WSN node is battery powered, which makes the network lifetime the primary concern. The highest energy efficiency is achieved with low duty cycle operation, however, this alone is not enough. WSNs are deployed for different uses, each requiring acceptable Quality of Service (QoS). Due to the unique characteristics of WSNs, such as dynamic wireless multihop routing and resource constraints, the legacy QoS metrics are not feasible as such. We give a new definition to measure and implement QoS in low duty cycle WSNs, namely availability and reliability. Then, we analyze the effect of duty cycling for reaching the availability and reliability. The results are obtained by simulations with ZigBee and proprietary TUTWSN protocols. Based on the results, we also propose a data forwarding algorithm suitable for resource constrained WSNs that guarantees end-to-end reliability while adding a small overhead that is relative to the packet error rate (PER). The forwarding algorithm guarantees reliability up to 30% PER. PMID:22574002

  6. End-to-end flood risk assessment: A coupled model cascade with uncertainty estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillan, Hilary K.; Brasington, James

    2008-03-01

    This paper presents the case for an `End-to-End' flood inundation modeling strategy: the creation of a coupled system of models to allow continuous simulation methodology to be used to predict the magnitude and simulate the effects of high return period flood events. The framework brings together the best in current thinking on reduced complexity modeling to formulate an efficient, process-based methodology which meets the needs of today's flood mitigation strategies. The model chain is subject to stochasticity and parameter uncertainty, and integral methods to allow the propagation and quantification of uncertainty are essential in order to produce robust estimates of flood risk. Results from an experimental application are considered in terms of their implications for successful floodplain management, and compared against the deterministic methodology more commonly in use for flood risk assessment applications. The provenance of predictive uncertainty is also considered in order to identify those areas where future effort in terms of data collection or model refinement might best be directed in order to narrow prediction bounds and produce a more precise forecast.

  7. Telecommunications end-to-end systems monitoring on TOPEX/Poseidon: Tools and techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calanche, Bruno J.

    1994-01-01

    The TOPEX/Poseidon Project Satellite Performance Analysis Team's (SPAT) roles and responsibilities have grown to include functions that are typically performed by other teams on JPL Flight Projects. In particular, SPAT Telecommunication's role has expanded beyond the nominal function of monitoring, assessing, characterizing, and trending the spacecraft (S/C) RF/Telecom subsystem to one of End-to-End Information Systems (EEIS) monitoring. This has been accomplished by taking advantage of the spacecraft and ground data system structures and protocols. By processing both the received spacecraft telemetry minor frame ground generated CRC flags and NASCOM block poly error flags, bit error rates (BER) for each link segment can be determined. This provides the capability to characterize the separate link segments, determine science data recovery, and perform fault/anomaly detection and isolation. By monitoring and managing the links, TOPEX has successfully recovered approximately 99.9 percent of the science data with an integrity (BER) of better than 1 x 10(exp 8). This paper presents the algorithms used to process the above flags and the techniques used for EEIS monitoring.

  8. Telemetry Ranging: Laboratory Validation Tests and End-to-End Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamkins, J.; Kinman, P.; Xie, H.; Vilnrotter, V.; Dolinar, S.; Adams, N.; Sanchez, E.; Millard, W.

    2016-08-01

    This article reports on a set of laboratory tests of telemetry ranging conducted at Development Test Facility 21 (DTF-21) in Monrovia, California. An uplink pseudorandom noise (PN) ranging signal was generated by DTF-21, acquired by the Frontier Radio designed and built at the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, and downlink telemetry frames from the radio were recorded by an open-loop receiver. In four of the tests, the data indicate that telemetry ranging can resolve the two-way time delay to a standard deviation of 2.1-3.4 ns, corresponding to about 30 to 51 cm in (one-way) range accuracy, when 30 s averaging of timing estimates is used. Other tests performed worse because of unsatisfactory receiver sampling rate, quantizer resolution, dc bias, improper configuration, or other reasons. The article also presents an analysis of the expected end-to-end performance of the telemetry ranging system. In one case considered, the theoretically-predicted performance matches the test results, within 10 percent, which provides a reasonable validation that the expected performance was achieved by the test. The analysis also shows that in one typical ranging scenario, one-way range accuracy of 1 m can be achieved with telemetry ranging when the data rate is above 2 kbps.

  9. Functional Partitioning to Optimize End-to-End Performance on Many-core Architectures

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Min; Vazhkudai, Sudharshan S; Butt, Ali R; Meng, Fei; Ma, Xiaosong; Kim, Youngjae; Engelmann, Christian; Shipman, Galen M

    2010-01-01

    Scaling computations on emerging massive-core supercomputers is a daunting task, which coupled with the significantly lagging system I/O capabilities exacerbates applications end-to-end performance. The I/O bottleneck often negates potential performance benefits of assigning additional compute cores to an application. In this paper, we address this issue via a novel functional partitioning (FP) runtime environment that allocates cores to specific application tasks - checkpointing, de-duplication, and scientific data format transformation - so that the deluge of cores can be brought to bear on the entire gamut of application activities. The focus is on utilizing the extra cores to support HPC application I/O activities and also leverage solid-state disks in this context. For example, our evaluation shows that dedicating 1 core on an oct-core machine for checkpointing and its assist tasks using FP can improve overall execution time of a FLASH benchmark on 80 and 160 cores by 43.95% and 41.34%, respectively.

  10. End to End Digitisation and Analysis of Three-Dimensional Coral Models, from Communities to Corallites

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez-Heredia, Luis; Benzoni, Francesca; Murphy, Emma; Reynaud, Emmanuel G.

    2016-01-01

    Coral reefs hosts nearly 25% of all marine species and provide food sources for half a billion people worldwide while only a very small percentage have been surveyed. Advances in technology and processing along with affordable underwater cameras and Internet availability gives us the possibility to provide tools and softwares to survey entire coral reefs. Holistic ecological analyses of corals require not only the community view (10s to 100s of meters), but also the single colony analysis as well as corallite identification. As corals are three-dimensional, classical approaches to determine percent cover and structural complexity across spatial scales are inefficient, time-consuming and limited to experts. Here we propose an end-to-end approach to estimate these parameters using low-cost equipment (GoPro, Canon) and freeware (123D Catch, Meshmixer and Netfabb), allowing every community to participate in surveys and monitoring of their coral ecosystem. We demonstrate our approach on 9 species of underwater colonies in ranging size and morphology. 3D models of underwater colonies, fresh samples and bleached skeletons with high quality texture mapping and detailed topographic morphology were produced, and Surface Area and Volume measurements (parameters widely used for ecological and coral health studies) were calculated and analysed. Moreover, we integrated collected sample models with micro-photogrammetry models of individual corallites to aid identification and colony and polyp scale analysis. PMID:26901845

  11. The X-IFU end-to-end simulations performed for the TES array optimization exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peille, Philippe; Wilms, J.; Brand, T.; Cobo, B.; Ceballos, M. T.; Dauser, T.; Smith, S. J.; Barret, D.; den Herder, J. W.; Piro, L.; Barcons, X.; Pointecouteau, E.; Bandler, S.; den Hartog, R.; de Plaa, J.

    2015-09-01

    The focal plane assembly of the Athena X-ray Integral Field Unit (X-IFU) includes as the baseline an array of ~4000 single size calorimeters based on Transition Edge Sensors (TES). Other sensor array configurations could however be considered, combining TES of different properties (e.g. size). In attempting to improve the X-IFU performance in terms of field of view, count rate performance, and even spectral resolution, two alternative TES array configurations to the baseline have been simulated, each combining a small and a large pixel array. With the X-IFU end-to-end simulator, a sub-sample of the Athena core science goals, selected by the X-IFU science team as potentially driving the optimal TES array configuration, has been simulated for the results to be scientifically assessed and compared. In this contribution, we will describe the simulation set-up for the various array configurations, and highlight some of the results of the test cases simulated.

  12. A Framework for End to End Simulations of the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, R. R.; Ahmad, Z.; Bankert, J.; Bard, D.; Connolly, A. J.; Chang, C.; Gilmore, K.; Grace, E.; Hannel, M.; Jernigan, J. G.; Jones, L.; Kahn, S. M.; Krughoff, K. S.; Lorenz, S.; Marshall, S.; Nagarajan, S.; Peterson, J. R.; Pizagno, J.; Rasmussen, A. P.; Shmakova, M.; Silvestri, N.; Todd, N.; Young, M.

    2011-07-01

    As observatories get bigger and more complicated to operate, risk mitigation techniques become increasingly important. Additionally, the size and complexity of data coming from the next generation of surveys will present enormous challenges in how we process, store, and analyze these data. End-to-end simulations of telescopes with the scope of LSST are essential to correct problems and verify science capabilities as early as possible. A simulator can also determine how defects and trade-offs in individual subsystems impact the overall design requirements. Here, we present the architecture, implementation, and results of the source simulation framework for the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST). The framework creates time-based realizations of astronomical objects and formats the output for use in many different survey contexts (i.e., image simulation, reference catalogs, calibration catalogs, and simulated science outputs). The simulations include Milky Way, cosmological, and solar system models as well as transient and variable objects. All model objects can be sampled with the LSST cadence from any operations simulator run. The result is a representative, full-sky simulation of LSST data that can be used to determine telescope performance, the feasibility of science goals, and strategies for processing LSST-scale data volumes.

  13. Advanced end-to-end fiber optic sensing systems for demanding environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, Richard J.; Moslehi, Behzad

    2010-09-01

    Optical fibers are small-in-diameter, light-in-weight, electromagnetic-interference immune, electrically passive, chemically inert, flexible, embeddable into different materials, and distributed-sensing enabling, and can be temperature and radiation tolerant. With appropriate processing and/or packaging, they can be very robust and well suited to demanding environments. In this paper, we review a range of complete end-to-end fiber optic sensor systems that IFOS has developed comprising not only (1) packaged sensors and mechanisms for integration with demanding environments, but (2) ruggedized sensor interrogators, and (3) intelligent decision aid algorithms software systems. We examine the following examples: " Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) optical sensors systems supporting arrays of environmentally conditioned multiplexed FBG point sensors on single or multiple optical fibers: In conjunction with advanced signal processing, decision aid algorithms and reasoners, FBG sensor based structural health monitoring (SHM) systems are expected to play an increasing role in extending the life and reducing costs of new generations of aerospace systems. Further, FBG based structural state sensing systems have the potential to considerably enhance the performance of dynamic structures interacting with their environment (including jet aircraft, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), and medical or extravehicular space robots). " Raman based distributed temperature sensing systems: The complete length of optical fiber acts as a very long distributed sensor which may be placed down an oil well or wrapped around a cryogenic tank.

  14. A Workflow-based Intelligent Network Data Movement Advisor with End-to-end Performance Optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Michelle M.; Wu, Chase Q.

    2013-11-07

    Next-generation eScience applications often generate large amounts of simulation, experimental, or observational data that must be shared and managed by collaborative organizations. Advanced networking technologies and services have been rapidly developed and deployed to facilitate such massive data transfer. However, these technologies and services have not been fully utilized mainly because their use typically requires significant domain knowledge and in many cases application users are even not aware of their existence. By leveraging the functionalities of an existing Network-Aware Data Movement Advisor (NADMA) utility, we propose a new Workflow-based Intelligent Network Data Movement Advisor (WINDMA) with end-to-end performance optimization for this DOE funded project. This WINDMA system integrates three major components: resource discovery, data movement, and status monitoring, and supports the sharing of common data movement workflows through account and database management. This system provides a web interface and interacts with existing data/space management and discovery services such as Storage Resource Management, transport methods such as GridFTP and GlobusOnline, and network resource provisioning brokers such as ION and OSCARS. We demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed transport-support workflow system in several use cases based on its implementation and deployment in DOE wide-area networks.

  15. An end-to-end analysis of drought from smallholder farms in southwest Jamaica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtis, W. R. S., III; Gamble, D. W.; Popke, J.

    2015-12-01

    Drought can be defined in many ways: meteorological, hydrological, agricultural, and socio-economic. Another way to approach drought is from a "perception" perspective, where individuals whose livelihood is highly dependent on precipitation take adaptive actions. In this study we use two-years of data collected from twelve smallholder farms in southern St. Elizabeth, Jamaica to undertake an end-to-end analysis of drought. At each farm, 6-hour temperature and soil moisture, and tipping-bucket rainfall were recorded from June 2013 to June 2015, and twice-monthly farmers indicated whether they were experiencing drought and if they irrigated (hand-watering, drip irrigation, or pipe and sprinkler). In many cases half of the farmers considered themselves in a drought, while the others not, even though the largest separation among farms was about 20 km. This study will use analysis of variance to test the following hypotheses: Drought perception is related to a) absolute amounts of precipitation at the time, b) other environmental cues at the time (soil moisture, temperature), or c) relative amounts of precipitation as compared to the same time last year. Irrigation actions and water use following the perception of drought will also be examined.

  16. An end-to-end architecture for distributing weather alerts to wireless handsets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Karen L.; Nguyen, Hung

    2005-06-01

    This paper describes the current National Weather Service's (NWS) system for providing weather alerts in the U.S. and will review how the existing end-to-end architecture is being leveraged to provide non-weather alerts, also known as "all-hazard alerts", to the general public. The paper then describes how a legacy system that transmits weather and all-hazard alerts can be extended via commercial wireless networks and protocols to reach 154 million Americans who carry cell phones. This approach uses commercial SATCOM and existing wireless carriers and services such as Short Messaging Service (SMS) for text and emerging Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS) protocol, which would allow for photos, maps, audio and video alerts to be sent to end users. This wireless broadcast alert delivery architecture is designed to be open and to embrace the National Weather Service's mandate to become an "" warning system for the general public. Examples of other public and private sector applications that require timely and intelligent push mechanisms using this alert dissemination approach are also given.

  17. End-to-end differential contactless conductivity sensor for microchip capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Fercher, Georg; Haller, Anna; Smetana, Walter; Vellekoop, Michael J

    2010-04-15

    In this contribution, a novel measurement approach for miniaturized capillary electrophoresis (CE) devices is presented: End-to-end differential capacitively coupled contactless conductivity measurement. This measurement technique is applied to a miniaturized CE device fabricated in low-temperature cofired ceramics (LTCC) multilayer technology. The working principle is based on the placement of two distinct detector areas near both ends of the fluid inlet and outlet of the separation channel. Both output signals are subtracted from each other, and the resulting differential signal is amplified and measured. This measurement approach has several advantages over established, single-end detectors: The high baseline level resulting from parasitic stray capacitance and buffer conductivity is reduced, leading to better signal-to-noise ratio and hence higher measurement sensitivity. Furthermore, temperature and, thus, baseline drift effects are diminished owing to the differentiating nature of the system. By comparing the peak widths measured with both detectors, valuable information about zone dispersion effects arising during the separation is obtained. Additionally, the novel measurement scheme allows the determination of dispersion effects that occur at the time of sample injection. Optical means of dispersion evaluation are ineffective because of the opaque LTCC substrate. Electrophoretic separation experiments of inorganic ions show sensitivity enhancements by about a factor of 30-60 compared to the single-end measurement scheme. PMID:20337422

  18. The efficacy of end-to-end and end-to-side nerve repair (neurorrhaphy) in the rat brachial plexus

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Wen-Chieh; Chen, Jeng-Rung; Wang, Yueh-Jan; Tseng, Guo-Fang

    2009-01-01

    Proximal nerve injury often requires nerve transfer to restore function. Here we evaluated the efficacy of end-to-end and end-to-side neurorrhaphy of rat musculocutaneous nerve, the recipient, to ulnar nerve, the donor. The donor was transected for end-to-end, while an epineurial window was exposed for end-to-side neurorrhaphy. Retrograde tracing showed that 70% donor motor and sensory neurons grew into the recipient 3 months following end-to-end neurorrhaphy compared to 40–50% at 6 months following end-to-side neurorrhaphy. In end-to-end neurorrhaphy, regenerating axons appeared as thick fibers which regained diameters comparable to those of controls in 3–4 months. However, end-to-side neurorrhaphy induced slow sprouting fibers of mostly thin collaterals that barely approached control diameters by 6 months. The motor end plates regained their control density at 4 months following end-to-end but remained low 6 months following end-to-side neurorrhaphy. The short-latency compound muscle action potential, typical of that of control, was readily restored following end-to-end neurorrhaphy. End-to-side neurorrhaphy had low amplitude and wide-ranging latency at 4 months and failed to regain control sizes by 6 months. Grooming test recovered successfully at 3 and 6 months following end-to-end and end-to-side neurorrhaphy, respectively, suggesting that powerful muscle was not required. In short, both neurorrhaphies resulted in functional recovery but end-to-end neurorrhaphy was quicker and better, albeit at the expense of donor function. End-to-side neurorrhaphy supplemented with factors to overcome the slow collateral sprouting and weak motor recovery may warrant further exploration. PMID:19682138

  19. End-to-End Models for Effects of System Noise on LIMS Analysis of Igneous Rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Clegg, Samuel M; Bender, Steven; Wiens, R. C.; Carmosino, Marco L; Speicher, Elly A; Dyar, M. D.

    2010-12-23

    The ChemCam instrument on the Mars Science Laboratory will be the first extraterrestial deployment of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (UBS) for remote geochemical analysis. LIBS instruments are also being proposed for future NASA missions. In quantitative LIBS applications using multivariate analysis techniques, it is essential to understand the effects of key instrument parameters and their variability on the elemental predictions. Baseline experiments were run on a laboratory instrument in conditions reproducing ChemCam performance on Mars. These experiments employed Nd:YAG laser producing 17 mJ/pulse on target and an with a 200 {micro}m FWHM spot size on the surface of a sample. The emission is collected by a telescope, imaged on a fiber optic and then interfaced to a demultiplexer capable of >40% transmission into each spectrometer. We report here on an integrated end-to-end system performance model that simulates the effects of output signal degradation that might result from the input signal chain and the impact on multivariate model predictions. There are two approaches to modifying signal to noise (SNR): degrade the signal and/or increase the noise. Ishibashi used a much smaller data set to show that the addition of noise had significant impact while degradation of spectral resolution had much less impact on accuracy and precision. Here, we specifically focus on aspects of remote LIBS instrument performance as they relate to various types of signal degradation. To assess the sensitivity of LIBS analysis to signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and spectral resolution, the signal in each spectrum from a suite of 50 laboratory spectra of igneous rocks was variably degraded by increasing the peak widths (simulating misalignment) and decreasing the spectral amplitude (simulating decreases in SNR).

  20. In vivo laser assisted end-to-end anastomosis with ICG-infused chitosan patches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Francesca; Matteini, Paolo; Esposito, Giuseppe; Scerrati, Alba; Albanese, Alessio; Puca, Alfredo; Maira, Giulio; Rossi, Giacomo; Pini, Roberto

    2011-07-01

    Laser assisted vascular repair is a new optimized technique based on the use of ICG-infused chitosan patch to close a vessel wound, with or even without few supporting single stitches. We present an in vivo experimental study on an innovative end-to-end laser assisted vascular anastomotic (LAVA) technique, performed with the application of ICGinfused chitosan patches. The photostability and the mechanical properties of ICG-infused chitosan films were preliminary measured. The in vivo study was performed in 10 New Zealand rabbits. After anesthesia, a 3-cm segment of the right common carotid artery was exposed, thus clamped proximally and distally. The artery was then interrupted by means of a full thickness cut. Three single microsutures were used to approximate the two vessel edges. The ICG-infused chitosan patch was rolled all over the anastomotic site and welded by the use of a diode laser emitting at 810 nm and equipped with a 300 μm diameter optical fiber. Welding was obtained by delivering single laser spots to induce local patch/tissue adhesion. The result was an immediate closure of the anastomosis, with no bleeding at clamps release. Thus animals underwent different follow-up periods, in order to evaluate the welded vessels over time. At follow-up examinations, all the anastomoses were patent and no bleeding signs were documented. Samples of welded vessels underwent histological examinations. Results showed that this technique offer several advantages over conventional suturing methods: simplification of the surgical procedure, shortening of the operative time, better re-endothelization and optimal vascular healing process.

  1. Advanced End-to-end Simulation for On-board Processing (AESOP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazer, Alan S.

    1994-01-01

    Developers of data compression algorithms typically use their own software together with commercial packages to implement, evaluate and demonstrate their work. While convenient for an individual developer, this approach makes it difficult to build on or use another's work without intimate knowledge of each component. When several people or groups work on different parts of the same problem, the larger view can be lost. What's needed is a simple piece of software to stand in the gap and link together the efforts of different people, enabling them to build on each other's work, and providing a base for engineers and scientists to evaluate the parts as a cohesive whole and make design decisions. AESOP (Advanced End-to-end Simulation for On-board Processing) attempts to meet this need by providing a graphical interface to a developer-selected set of algorithms, interfacing with compiled code and standalone programs, as well as procedures written in the IDL and PV-Wave command languages. As a proof of concept, AESOP is outfitted with several data compression algorithms integrating previous work on different processors (AT&T DSP32C, TI TMS320C30, SPARC). The user can specify at run-time the processor on which individual parts of the compression should run. Compressed data is then fed through simulated transmission and uncompression to evaluate the effects of compression parameters, noise and error correction algorithms. The following sections describe AESOP in detail. Section 2 describes fundamental goals for usability. Section 3 describes the implementation. Sections 4 through 5 describe how to add new functionality to the system and present the existing data compression algorithms. Sections 6 and 7 discuss portability and future work.

  2. A NASA Climate Model Data Services (CDS) End-to-End System to Support Reanalysis Intercomparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carriere, L.; Potter, G. L.; McInerney, M.; Nadeau, D.; Shen, Y.; Duffy, D.; Schnase, J. L.; Maxwell, T. P.; Huffer, E.

    2014-12-01

    The NASA Climate Model Data Service (CDS) and the NASA Center for Climate Simulation (NCCS) are collaborating to provide an end-to-end system for the comparative study of the major Reanalysis projects, currently, ECMWF ERA-Interim, NASA/GMAO MERRA, NOAA/NCEP CFSR, NOAA/ESRL 20CR, and JMA JRA25. Components of the system include the full spectrum of Climate Model Data Services; Data, Compute Services, Data Services, Analytic Services and Knowledge Services. The Data includes standard Reanalysis model output, and will be expanded to include gridded observations, and gridded Innovations (O-A and O-F). The NCCS High Performance Science Cloud provides the compute environment (storage, servers, and network). Data Services are provided through an Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF) data node complete with Live Access Server (LAS), Web Map Service (WMS) and Ultrascale Visualization Climate Data Analysis Tools (UV-CDAT) for visualization, as well as a collaborative interface through the Earth System CoG. Analytic Services include UV-CDAT for analysis and MERRA/AS, accessed via the CDS API, for computation services, both part of the CDS Climate Analytics as a Service (CAaaS). Knowledge Services include access to an Ontology browser, ODISEES, for metadata search and data retrieval. The result is a system that provides the ability for both reanalysis scientists and those scientists in need of reanalysis output to identify the data of interest, compare, compute, visualize, and research without the need for transferring large volumes of data, performing time consuming format conversions, and writing code for frequently run computations and visualizations.

  3. SME2EM: Smart mobile end-to-end monitoring architecture for life-long diseases.

    PubMed

    Serhani, Mohamed Adel; Menshawy, Mohamed El; Benharref, Abdelghani

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring life-long diseases requires continuous measurements and recording of physical vital signs. Most of these diseases are manifested through unexpected and non-uniform occurrences and behaviors. It is impractical to keep patients in hospitals, health-care institutions, or even at home for long periods of time. Monitoring solutions based on smartphones combined with mobile sensors and wireless communication technologies are a potential candidate to support complete mobility-freedom, not only for patients, but also for physicians. However, existing monitoring architectures based on smartphones and modern communication technologies are not suitable to address some challenging issues, such as intensive and big data, resource constraints, data integration, and context awareness in an integrated framework. This manuscript provides a novel mobile-based end-to-end architecture for live monitoring and visualization of life-long diseases. The proposed architecture provides smartness features to cope with continuous monitoring, data explosion, dynamic adaptation, unlimited mobility, and constrained devices resources. The integration of the architecture׳s components provides information about diseases׳ recurrences as soon as they occur to expedite taking necessary actions, and thus prevent severe consequences. Our architecture system is formally model-checked to automatically verify its correctness against designers׳ desirable properties at design time. Its components are fully implemented as Web services with respect to the SOA architecture to be easy to deploy and integrate, and supported by Cloud infrastructure and services to allow high scalability, availability of processes and data being stored and exchanged. The architecture׳s applicability is evaluated through concrete experimental scenarios on monitoring and visualizing states of epileptic diseases. The obtained theoretical and experimental results are very promising and efficiently satisfy the proposed

  4. End-To-END Performance of the Future MOMA Instrument Aboard the ExoMars Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinnick, V. T.; Buch, A.; Szopa, C.; Grand, N.; Danell, R.; Grubisic, A.; van Amerom, F. H. W.; Glavin, D. P.; Freissinet, C.; Coll, P. J.; Stalport, F.; Humeau, O.; Arevalo, R. D., Jr.; Brinckerhoff, W. B.; Steininger, H.; Goesmann, F.; Raulin, F.; Mahaffy, P. R.

    2015-12-01

    Following the SAM experiment aboard the Curiosity rover, the Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA) experiment aboard the 2018 ExoMars mission will be the continuation of the search for organic matter on the Mars surface. One advancement with the ExoMars mission is that the sample will be extracted as deep as 2 meters below the Martian surface to minimize effects of radiation and oxidation on organic materials. To analyze the wide range of organic composition (volatile and non-volatile compounds) of the Martian soil, MOMA is equipped with a dual ion source ion trap mass spectrometer utilizing UV laser desorption / ionization (LDI) and pyrolysis gas chromatography (pyr-GC). In order to analyze refractory organic compounds and chiral molecules during GC-ITMS analysis, samples may be submitted to a derivatization process, consisting of the reaction of the sample components with specific reactants (MTBSTFA [1], DMF-DMA [2] or TMAH [3]). Previous experimental reports have focused on coupling campaigns between the breadboard versions of the GC, provided by the French team (LISA, LATMOS, CentraleSupelec), and the MS, provided by the US team (NASA-GSFC). This work focuses on the performance verification and optimization of the GC-ITMS experiment using the Engineering Test Unit (ETU) models which are representative of the form, fit and function of the flight instrument including a flight-like pyrolysis oven and tapping station providing by the German team (MPS). The results obtained demonstrate the current status of the end-to-end performance of the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry mode of operation. References: [1] Buch, A. et al. (2009) J Chrom. A, 43, 143-151. [2] Freissinet et al. (2011) J Chrom A, 1306, 59-71. [3] Geffroy-Rodier, C. et al. (2009) JAAP, 85, 454-459.

  5. SPoRT - An End-to-End R2O Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jedlovec, Gary J.

    2009-01-01

    Established in 2002 to demonstrate the weather and forecasting application of real-time EOS measurements, the Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) program has grown to be an end-to-end research to operations activity focused on the use of advanced NASA modeling and data assimilation approaches, nowcasting techniques, and unique high-resolution multispectral observational data applications from EOS satellites to improve short-term weather forecasts on a regional and local scale. SPoRT currently partners with several universities and other government agencies for access to real-time data and products, and works collaboratively with them and operational end users at 13 WFOs to develop and test the new products and capabilities in a "test-bed" mode. The test-bed simulates key aspects of the operational environment without putting constraints on the forecaster workload. Products and capabilities which show utility in the test-bed environment are then transitioned experimentally into the operational environment for further evaluation and assessment. SPoRT focuses on a suite of data and products from MODIS, AMSR-E, and AIRS on the NASA Terra and Aqua satellites, and total lightning measurements from ground-based networks. Some of the observations are assimilated into or used with various versions of the WRF model to provide supplemental forecast guidance to operational end users. SPoRT is enhancing partnerships with NOAA / NESDIS for new product development and data access to exploit the remote sensing capabilities of instruments on the NPOESS satellites to address short term weather forecasting problems. The VIIRS and CrIS instruments on the NPP and follow-on NPOESS satellites provide similar observing capabilities to the MODIS and AIRS instruments on Terra and Aqua. SPoRT will be transitioning existing and new capabilities into the AWIIPS II environment to continue the continuity of its activities.

  6. Implementation and evaluation of an end-to-end IGRT test.

    PubMed

    Kry, Stephen F; Jones, Jimmy; Childress, Nathan L

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this work was to develop and evaluate an end-to-end test for determining and verifying image-guided radiation therapy setup accuracy relative to the radiation isocenter. This was done by placing a cube phantom with a central tungsten sphere directly on the treatment table and offset from isocenter either by 5.0 mm in the longitudinal, lateral, and vertical dimensions or by a random amount. A high-resolution cone-beam CT image was acquired and aligned with the tungsten sphere in the reference CT image. The table was shifted per this alignment, and megavoltage anterior-posterior and lateral images were acquired with the electronic portal imaging device. Agreement between the radiation isocenter (based on the MV field) and the center of the sphere (i.e., the alignment point based on kV imaging) was determined for each image via Winston-Lutz analysis. This procedure was repeated 10 times to determine short-term reproducibility, and then repeated daily for 51 days in a clinical setting. The short-term reproducibility test yielded a mean 3D vector displacement of 0.9 ± 0.15 mm between the imaging-based isocenter and the radiation isocenter, with a maximum displacement of 1.1 mm. The clinical reproducibility test yielded a mean displacement of1.1 ± 0.4 mm with a maximum of 2.0 mm when the cube was offset by 5.0 mm, and a mean displacement of 0.9 ± 0.3 mm with a maximum of 1.8 mm when the cube was offset by a random amount. These differences were observed in all directions and were independent of the magnitude of the couch shift. This test was quick and easy to implement clinically and highlighted setup inaccuracies in an image-guided radiation therapy environment. PMID:22955659

  7. Designing an End-to-End System for Data Storage, Analysis, and Visualization for an Urban Environmental Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuire, M. P.; Welty, C.; Gangopadhyay, A.; Karabatis, G.; Chen, Z.

    2006-05-01

    The urban environment is formed by complex interactions between natural and human dominated systems, the study of which requires the collection and analysis of very large datasets that span many disciplines. Recent advances in sensor technology and automated data collection have improved the ability to monitor urban environmental systems and are making the idea of an urban environmental observatory a reality. This in turn has created a number of potential challenges in data management and analysis. We present the design of an end-to-end system to store, analyze, and visualize data from a prototype urban environmental observatory based at the Baltimore Ecosystem Study, a National Science Foundation Long Term Ecological Research site (BES LTER). We first present an object-relational design of an operational database to store high resolution spatial datasets as well as data from sensor networks, archived data from the BES LTER, data from external sources such as USGS NWIS, EPA Storet, and metadata. The second component of the system design includes a spatiotemporal data warehouse consisting of a data staging plan and a multidimensional data model designed for the spatiotemporal analysis of monitoring data. The system design also includes applications for multi-resolution exploratory data analysis, multi-resolution data mining, and spatiotemporal visualization based on the spatiotemporal data warehouse. Also the system design includes interfaces with water quality models such as HSPF, SWMM, and SWAT, and applications for real-time sensor network visualization, data discovery, data download, QA/QC, and backup and recovery, all of which are based on the operational database. The system design includes both internet and workstation-based interfaces. Finally we present the design of a laboratory for spatiotemporal analysis and visualization as well as real-time monitoring of the sensor network.

  8. Astra: Interdisciplinary study on enhancement of the end-to-end accuracy for spacecraft tracking techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iess, Luciano; Di Benedetto, Mauro; James, Nick; Mercolino, Mattia; Simone, Lorenzo; Tortora, Paolo

    2014-02-01

    Navigation of deep-space probes is accomplished through a variety of different radio observables, namely Doppler, ranging and Delta-Differential One-Way Ranging (Delta-DOR). The particular mix of observations used for navigation mainly depends on the available on-board radio system, the mission phase and orbit determination requirements. The accuracy of current ESA and NASA tracking systems is at level of 0.1 mm/s at 60 s integration time for Doppler, 1-5 m for ranging and 6-15 nrad for Delta-DOR measurements in a wide range of operational conditions. The ASTRA study, funded under ESA's General Studies Programme (GSP), addresses the ways to improve the end-to-end accuracy of Doppler, ranging and Delta-DOR systems by roughly a factor of 10. The target accuracies were set to 0.01 mm/s at 60 s integration time for Doppler, 20 cm for ranging and 1 nrad for Delta-DOR. The companies and universities that took part in the study were the University of Rome Sapienza, ALMASpace, BAE Systems and Thales Alenia Space Italy. The analysis of an extensive data set of radio-metric observables and dedicated tests of the ground station allowed consolidating the error budget for each measurement technique. The radio-metric data set comprises X/X, X/Ka and Ka/Ka range and Doppler observables from the Cassini and Rosetta missions. It includes also measurements from the Advanced Media Calibration System (AMCS) developed by JPL for the radio science experiments of the Cassini mission. The error budget for the three radio-metric observables was consolidated by comparing the statistical properties of the data set with the expected error models. The analysis confirmed the contribution from some error sources, but revealed also some discrepancies and ultimately led to improved error models. The error budget reassessment provides adequate information for building guidelines and strategies to effectively improve the navigation accuracies of future deep space missions. We report both on updated

  9. Identifying Elusive Electromagnetic Counterparts to Gravitational Wave Mergers: An End-to-end Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nissanke, Samaya; Kasliwal, Mansi; Georgieva, Alexandra

    2013-04-01

    Combined gravitational wave (GW) and electromagnetic (EM) observations of compact binary mergers should enable detailed studies of astrophysical processes in the strong-field gravity regime. This decade, ground-based GW interferometers promise to routinely detect compact binary mergers. Unfortunately, networks of GW interferometers have poor angular resolution on the sky and their EM signatures are predicted to be faint. Therefore, a challenging goal will be to unambiguously pinpoint the EM counterparts of GW mergers. We perform the first comprehensive end-to-end simulation that focuses on: (1) GW sky localization, distance measures, and volume errors with two compact binary populations and four different GW networks; (2) subsequent EM detectability by a slew of multiwavelength telescopes; and (3) final identification of the merger counterpart amidst a sea of possible astrophysical false positives. First, we find that double neutron star binary mergers can be detected out to a maximum distance of 400 Mpc (or 750 Mpc) by three (or five) detector GW networks, respectively. Neutron-star-black-hole binary mergers can be detected a factor of 1.5 further out; their median to maximum sky localizations are 50-170 deg2 (or 6-65 deg2) for a three (or five) detector GW network. Second, by optimizing depth, cadence, and sky area, we quantify relative fractions of optical counterparts that are detectable by a suite of different aperture-size telescopes across the globe. Third, we present five case studies to illustrate the diversity of scenarios in secure identification of the EM counterpart. We discuss the case of a typical binary, neither beamed nor nearby, and the challenges associated with identifying an EM counterpart at both low and high Galactic latitudes. For the first time, we demonstrate how construction of low-latency GW volumes in conjunction with local universe galaxy catalogs can help solve the problem of false positives. We conclude with strategies that would

  10. SU-E-T-150: End to End Tests On the First Clinical EDGETM

    SciTech Connect

    Scheib, S; Schmelzer, P; Vieira, S; Greco, C

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To quantify the sub millimeter overall accuracy of EDGETM, the dedicated linac based SRS/SABR treatment platform from Varian, using a novel End-to-End (E2E) test phantom. Methods: The new E2E test phantom developed by Varian consists of a cube with an outer dimension of 15x15x15 cm3. The phantom is equipped with an exchangable inner cube (7×7×7 cm3) to hold radiochromic films or a tungsten ball (diameter = 5 mm) for Winston-Lutz tests. 16 ceramic balls (diameter = 5 mm) are embedded in the outer cube. Three embedded Calypso transponders allow for Calypso based monitoring. The outer surface of the phantom is tracked using the Optical Surface Monitoring System (OSMS). The phantom is positioned using kV, MV and CBCT images. A simCT of the phantom was acquired and SRS/SABR plans were treated using the new phantom on the first clinical installed EDGETM. As a first step a series of EPID based Winston-Lutz tests have been performed. As a second step the calculated dose distribution applied to the phantom was verified with radiochromic films in orthogonal planes. The measured dose distribution is compared with the calculated (Eclipse) one based on the known isocenter on both dose distributions. The geometrical shift needed to match both dose distributions is the overall accuracy and is determined using dose profiles, isodose lines or gamma pass rates (3%, 1 mm). Results: Winston-Lutz tests using the central tungsten BB demonstrated a targeting accuracy of 0.44±0.18mm for jaw (2cm × 2cm) defined 0.39±0.19mm for MLC (2cm × 2cm) defined and 0.37±0.15mm for cone (12.5 mm) defined fields. A treated patient plan (spinal metastases lesion with integrated boost) showed a dosimetric dose localization accuracy of 0.6mm. Conclusion: Geometric and dosimetric E2E tests on EDGETM, show sub-millimeter E2E targeting and dose localisation accuracy.

  11. An End-to-End System to Enable Quick, Easy and Inexpensive Deployment of Hydrometeorological Stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celicourt, P.; Piasecki, M.

    2014-12-01

    The high cost of hydro-meteorological data acquisition, communication and publication systems along with limited qualified human resources is considered as the main reason why hydro-meteorological data collection remains a challenge especially in developing countries. Despite significant advances in sensor network technologies which gave birth to open hardware and software, low-cost (less than $50) and low-power (in the order of a few miliWatts) sensor platforms in the last two decades, sensors and sensor network deployment remains a labor-intensive, time consuming, cumbersome, and thus expensive task. These factors give rise for the need to develop a affordable, simple to deploy, scalable and self-organizing end-to-end (from sensor to publication) system suitable for deployment in such countries. The design of the envisioned system will consist of a few Sensed-And-Programmed Arduino-based sensor nodes with low-cost sensors measuring parameters relevant to hydrological processes and a Raspberry Pi micro-computer hosting the in-the-field back-end data management. This latter comprises the Python/Django model of the CUAHSI Observations Data Model (ODM) namely DjangODM backed by a PostgreSQL Database Server. We are also developing a Python-based data processing script which will be paired with the data autoloading capability of Django to populate the DjangODM database with the incoming data. To publish the data, the WOFpy (WaterOneFlow Web Services in Python) developed by the Texas Water Development Board for 'Water Data for Texas' which can produce WaterML web services from a variety of back-end database installations such as SQLite, MySQL, and PostgreSQL will be used. A step further would be the development of an appealing online visualization tool using Python statistics and analytics tools (Scipy, Numpy, Pandas) showing the spatial distribution of variables across an entire watershed as a time variant layer on top of a basemap.

  12. IDENTIFYING ELUSIVE ELECTROMAGNETIC COUNTERPARTS TO GRAVITATIONAL WAVE MERGERS: AN END-TO-END SIMULATION

    SciTech Connect

    Nissanke, Samaya; Georgieva, Alexandra; Kasliwal, Mansi

    2013-04-20

    Combined gravitational wave (GW) and electromagnetic (EM) observations of compact binary mergers should enable detailed studies of astrophysical processes in the strong-field gravity regime. This decade, ground-based GW interferometers promise to routinely detect compact binary mergers. Unfortunately, networks of GW interferometers have poor angular resolution on the sky and their EM signatures are predicted to be faint. Therefore, a challenging goal will be to unambiguously pinpoint the EM counterparts of GW mergers. We perform the first comprehensive end-to-end simulation that focuses on: (1) GW sky localization, distance measures, and volume errors with two compact binary populations and four different GW networks; (2) subsequent EM detectability by a slew of multiwavelength telescopes; and (3) final identification of the merger counterpart amidst a sea of possible astrophysical false positives. First, we find that double neutron star binary mergers can be detected out to a maximum distance of 400 Mpc (or 750 Mpc) by three (or five) detector GW networks, respectively. Neutron-star-black-hole binary mergers can be detected a factor of 1.5 further out; their median to maximum sky localizations are 50-170 deg{sup 2} (or 6-65 deg{sup 2}) for a three (or five) detector GW network. Second, by optimizing depth, cadence, and sky area, we quantify relative fractions of optical counterparts that are detectable by a suite of different aperture-size telescopes across the globe. Third, we present five case studies to illustrate the diversity of scenarios in secure identification of the EM counterpart. We discuss the case of a typical binary, neither beamed nor nearby, and the challenges associated with identifying an EM counterpart at both low and high Galactic latitudes. For the first time, we demonstrate how construction of low-latency GW volumes in conjunction with local universe galaxy catalogs can help solve the problem of false positives. We conclude with strategies

  13. End-to-End Self-Assembly of Semiconductor Nanorods in Water by Using an Amphiphilic Surface Design.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Yuki; Takishita, Takao; Kawai, Tsuyoshi; Nakashima, Takuya

    2016-02-01

    One-dimensional (1D) self-assemblies of nanocrystals are of interest because of their vectorial and polymer-like dynamic properties. Herein, we report a simple method to prepare elongated assemblies of semiconductor nanorods (NRs) through end-to-end self-assembly. Short-chained water-soluble thiols were employed as surface ligands for CdSe NRs having a wurtzite crystal structure. The site-specific capping of NRs with these ligands rendered the surface of the NRs amphiphilic. The amphiphilic CdSe NRs self-assembled to form elongated wires by end-to-end attachment driven by the hydrophobic effect operating between uncapped NR ends. The end-to-end assembly technique was further applied to CdS NRs and CdSe tetrapods (TPs) with a wurtzite structure. PMID:26836341

  14. Mechanism of Shaft End-To-End Voltage Generation by Asymmetry in an Inverter-Driven Motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asakura, Yusuke; Akagi, Hirofumi

    This paper deals with the shaft end-to-end voltage resulting from asymmetric stray capacitances in an inverter-driven motor. The origin of the voltage can be any of the following: a ground leakage current, dielectric breakdown in bearings, and asymmetric stray capacitances on stator windings. The third origin seems to be related to the differential-mode current, but the details of the relationship have not been clarified. In this study, differential-mode tests are carried out on an ungrounded motor rated at 400V and 15kW, and the shaft end-to-end voltage generation by the asymmetric stray capacitances is theoretically discussed. Finaly, a winding model is presented for the purpose of understanding the mechanism responsible for the shaft end-to-end voltage.

  15. Achieving End-to-End QoS in the Next Generation Internet: Integrated Services over Differentiated Service Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bai, Haowei; Atiquzzaman, Mohammed; Ivancic, William

    2001-01-01

    Currently there are two approaches to provide Quality of Service (QoS) in the next generation Internet: An early one is the Integrated Services (IntServ) with the goal of allowing end-to-end QoS to be provided to applications; the other one is the Differentiated Services (DiffServ) architecture providing QoS in the backbone. In this context, a DiffServ network may be viewed as a network element in the total end-to-end path. The objective of this paper is to investigate the possibility of providing end-to-end QoS when IntServ runs over DiffServ backbone in the next generation Internet. Our results show that the QoS requirements of IntServ applications can be successfully achieved when IntServ traffic is mapped to the DiffServ domain in next generation Internet.

  16. Achieving End-to-End QoS in the Next Generation Internet: Integrated Services Over Differentiated Service Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bai, Haowei; Atiquzzaman, Mohammed; Ivancic, William

    2001-01-01

    Currently there are two approaches to provide Quality of Service (QoS) in the next generation Internet: An early one is the Integrated Services (IntServ) with the goal of allowing end-to-end QoS to be provided to applications; the other one is the Differentiated Services (DiffServ) architecture providing QoS in the backbone. In this context, a DiffServ network may be viewed as a network element in the total end-to-end path. The objective of this paper is to investigate the possibility of providing end-to-end QoS when IntServ runs over DiffServ backbone in the next generation Internet. Our results show that the QoS requirements of IntServ applications can be successfully achieved when IntServ traffic is mapped to the DiffServ domain in next generation Internet.

  17. Portable air quality sensor unit for participatory monitoring: an end-to-end VESNA-AQ based prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vucnik, Matevz; Robinson, Johanna; Smolnikar, Miha; Kocman, David; Horvat, Milena; Mohorcic, Mihael

    2015-04-01

    Key words: portable air quality sensor, CITI-SENSE, participatory monitoring, VESNA-AQ The emergence of low-cost easy to use portable air quality sensors units is opening new possibilities for individuals to assess their exposure to air pollutants at specific place and time, and share this information through the Internet connection. Such portable sensors units are being used in an ongoing citizen science project called CITI-SENSE, which enables citizens to measure and share the data. The project aims through creating citizens observatories' to empower citizens to contribute to and participate in environmental governance, enabling them to support and influence community and societal priorities as well as associated decision making. An air quality measurement system based on VESNA sensor platform was primarily designed within the project for the use as portable sensor unit in selected pilot cities (Belgrade, Ljubljana and Vienna) for monitoring outdoor exposure to pollutants. However, functionally the same unit with different set of sensors could be used for example as an indoor platform. The version designed for the pilot studies was equipped with the following sensors: NO2, O3, CO, temperature, relative humidity, pressure and accelerometer. The personal sensor unit is battery powered and housed in a plastic box. The VESNA-based air quality (AQ) monitoring system comprises the VESNA-AQ portable sensor unit, a smartphone app and the remote server. Personal sensor unit supports wireless connection to an Android smartphone via built-in Wi-Fi. The smartphone in turn serves also as the communication gateway towards the remote server using any of available data connections. Besides the gateway functionality the role of smartphone is to enrich data coming from the personal sensor unit with the GPS location, timestamps and user defined context. This, together with an accelerometer, enables the user to better estimate ones exposure in relation to physical activities, time and location. The end user can monitor the measured parameters through a smartphone application. The smartphone app implements a custom developed LCSP (Lightweight Client Server Protocol) protocol which is used to send requests to the VESNA-AQ unit and to exchange information. When the data is obtained from the VESNA-AQ unit, the mobile application visualizes the data. It also has an option to forward the data to the remote server in a custom JSON structure over a HTTP POST request. The server stores the data in the database and in parallel translates the data to WFS and forwards it to the main CITI-SENSE platform over WFS-T in a common XML format over HTTP POST request. From there data can be accessed through the Internet and visualised in different forms and web applications developed by the CITI-SENSE project. In the course of the project, the collected data will be made publicly available enabling the citizens to participate in environmental governance. Acknowledgements: CITI-SENSE is a Collaborative Project partly funded by the EU FP7-ENV-2012 under grant agreement no 308524 (www.citi-sense.eu).

  18. Metal-Metal and π-π Interactions Directed End-to-End Assembly of Gold Nanorods.

    PubMed

    Leung, Frankie Chi-Ming; Leung, Sammual Yu-Lut; Chung, Clive Yik-Sham; Yam, Vivian Wing-Wah

    2016-03-01

    The end-to-end aggregation of gold nanorods (GNRs) has been demonstrated to be directed by a thioacetate-containing alkynylplatinum(II) terpyridine complex. The in situ deprotected complex is preferentially attached at the ends of the gold nanorods (GNRs) and induce the aggregation of GNRs in an "end-to-end" manner by Pt···Pt and π-π interactions, which have been characterized by electron microscopy, energy dispersed X-ray (EDX) analysis, and UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. The assembly of the nanorods into chain-like nanostructures can be controlled by the concentration of the Pt(II) complexes. PMID:26914346

  19. Influence of end-to-end diffusion on intramolecular energy transfer as observed by frequency-domain fluorometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakowicz, Joseph R.; Wiczk, Wieslaw M.; Gryczynski, Ignacy; Szmacinski, Henryk; Johnson, Michael L.

    1990-05-01

    We investigated the influence of end-to-end diffusion on intramolecular energy transfer between a naphthalene donor and dansyl acceptor linked by polymethylene chain. A range of viscosities of 0.6 - 200cP were obtained using propylene glycol at different temperatures (0-80°C) and methanol at 20°C. The intensity decays of naphthalene were measured in frequency-domain. Several theoretical models, including distance distributions were used to fit the data. The results indicate that end-to-end diffusion of flexible donor - acceptor pairs can be readily detected and quantified using frequency-domain fluorometry.

  20. On the importance of risk knowledge for an end-to-end tsunami early warning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Post, Joachim; Strunz, Günter; Riedlinger, Torsten; Mück, Matthias; Wegscheider, Stephanie; Zosseder, Kai; Steinmetz, Tilmann; Gebert, Niklas; Anwar, Herryal

    2010-05-01

    context has been worked out. The generated results contribute significantly in the fields of (1) warning decision and warning levels, (2) warning dissemination and warning message content, (3) early warning chain planning, (4) increasing response capabilities and protective systems, (5) emergency relief and (6) enhancing communities' awareness and preparedness towards tsunami threats. Additionally examples will be given on the potentials of an operational use of risk information in early warning systems as first experiences exist for the tsunami early warning center in Jakarta, Indonesia. Beside this the importance of linking national level early warning information with tsunami risk information available at the local level (e.g. linking warning message information on expected intensity with respective tsunami hazard zone maps at community level for effective evacuation) will be demonstrated through experiences gained in three pilot areas in Indonesia. The presentation seeks to provide new insights on benefits using risk information in early warning and will provide further evidence that practical use of risk information is an important and indispensable component of end-to-end early warning.

  1. SensorKit: An End-to-End Solution for Environmental Sensor Networking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, F.; Graham, E.; Deschon, A.; Lam, Y.; Goldman, J.; Wroclawski, J.; Kaiser, W.; Benzel, T.

    2008-12-01

    Modern day sensor network technology has shown great promise to transform environmental data collection. However, despite the promise, these systems have remained the purview of the engineers and computer scientists who design them rather than a useful tool for the environmental scientists who need them. SensorKit is conceived of as a way to make wireless sensor networks accessible to The People: it is an advanced, powerful tool for sensor data collection that does not require advanced technological know-how. We are aiming to make wireless sensor networks for environmental science as simple as setting up a standard home computer network by providing simple, tested configurations of commercially-available hardware, free and easy-to-use software, and step-by-step tutorials. We designed and built SensorKit using a simplicity-through-sophistication approach, supplying users a powerful sensor to database end-to-end system with a simple and intuitive user interface. Our objective in building SensorKit was to make the prospect of using environmental sensor networks as simple as possible. We built SensorKit from off the shelf hardware components, using the Compact RIO platform from National Instruments for data acquisition due to its modular architecture and flexibility to support a large number of sensor types. In SensorKit, we support various types of analog, digital and networked sensors. Our modular software architecture allows us to abstract sensor details and provide users a common way to acquire data and to command different types of sensors. SensorKit is built on top of the Sensor Processing and Acquisition Network (SPAN), a modular framework for acquiring data in the field, moving it reliably to the scientist institution, and storing it in an easily-accessible database. SPAN allows real-time access to the data in the field by providing various options for long haul communication, such as cellular and satellite links. Our system also features reliable data storage

  2. Ocean Acidification Scientific Data Stewardship: An approach for end-to-end data management and integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arzayus, K. M.; Garcia, H. E.; Jiang, L.; Michael, P.

    2012-12-01

    As the designated Federal permanent oceanographic data center in the United States, NOAA's National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) has been providing scientific stewardship for national and international marine environmental and ecosystem data for over 50 years. NODC is supporting NOAA's Ocean Acidification Program and the science community by providing end-to-end scientific data management of ocean acidification (OA) data, dedicated online data discovery, and user-friendly access to a diverse range of historical and modern OA and other chemical, physical, and biological oceanographic data. This effort is being catalyzed by the NOAA Ocean Acidification Program, but the intended reach is for the broader scientific ocean acidification community. The first three years of the project will be focused on infrastructure building. A complete ocean acidification data content standard is being developed to ensure that a full spectrum of ocean acidification data and metadata can be stored and utilized for optimal data discovery and access in usable data formats. We plan to develop a data access interface capable of allowing users to constrain their search based on real-time and delayed mode measured variables, scientific data quality, their observation types, the temporal coverage, methods, instruments, standards, collecting institutions, and the spatial coverage. In addition, NODC seeks to utilize the existing suite of international standards (including ISO 19115-2 and CF-compliant netCDF) to help our data producers use those standards for their data, and help our data consumers make use of the well-standardized metadata-rich data sets. These tools will be available through our NODC Ocean Acidification Scientific Data Stewardship (OADS) web page at http://www.nodc.noaa.gov/oceanacidification. NODC also has a goal to provide each archived dataset with a unique ID, to ensure a means of providing credit to the data provider. Working with partner institutions, such as the

  3. Unidata's Vision for Providing Comprehensive and End-to-end Data Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramamurthy, M. K.

    2009-05-01

    This paper presents Unidata's vision for providing comprehensive, well-integrated, and end-to-end data services for the geosciences. These include an array of functions for collecting, finding, and accessing data; data management tools for generating, cataloging, and exchanging metadata; and submitting or publishing, sharing, analyzing, visualizing, and integrating data. When this vision is realized, users no matter where they are or how they are connected to the Internetwill be able to find and access a plethora of geosciences data and use Unidata-provided tools and services both productively and creatively in their research and education. What that vision means for the Unidata community is elucidated by drawing a simple analogy. Most of users are familiar with Amazon and eBay e-commerce sites and content sharing sites like YouTube and Flickr. On the eBay marketplace, people can sell practically anything at any time and buyers can share their experience of purchasing a product or the reputation of a seller. Likewise, at Amazon, thousands of merchants sell their goods and millions of customers not only buy those goods, but provide a review or opinion of the products they buy and share their experiences as purchasers. Similarly, YouTube and Flickr are sites tailored to video- and photo-sharing, respectively, where users can upload their own content and share it with millions of other users, including family and friends. What all these sites, together with social-networking applications like MySpace and Facebook, have enabled is a sense of a virtual community in which users can search and browse products or content, comment and rate those products from anywhere, at any time, and via any Internet- enabled device like an iPhone, laptop, or a desktop computer. In essence, these enterprises have fundamentally altered people's buying modes and behavior toward purchases. Unidata believes that similar approaches, appropriately tailored to meet the needs of the scientific

  4. Integration proposal through standard-based design of an end-to-end platform for p-Health environments.

    PubMed

    Martíínez, I; Trigo, J D; Martínez-Espronceda, M; Escayola, J; Muñoz, P; Serrano, L; García, J

    2009-01-01

    Interoperability among medical devices and compute engines in the personal environment of the patient, and with healthcare information systems in the remote monitoring and management process is a key need that requires developments supported on standard-based design. Even though there have been some international initiatives to combine different standards, the vision of an entire end-to-end standard-based system is the next challenge. This paper presents the implementation guidelines of a ubiquitous platform for Personal Health (p-Health). It is standard-based using the two main medical norms in this context: ISO/IEEE11073 in the patient environment for medical device interoperability, and EN13606 to allow the interoperable communication of the Electronic Healthcare Record of the patient. Furthermore, the proposal of a new protocol for End-to-End Standard Harmonization (E2ESHP) is presented in order to make possible the end-to-end standard integration. The platform has been designed to comply with the last ISO/IEEE11073 and EN13606 available versions, and tested in a laboratory environment as a proof-of-concept to illustrate its feasibility as an end-to-end standard-based solution. PMID:19963613

  5. Integrating end-to-end encryption and authentication technology into broadband networks

    SciTech Connect

    Pierson, L.G.

    1995-11-01

    BISDN services will involve the integration of high speed data, voice, and video functionality delivered via technology similar to Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) switching and SONET optical transmission systems. Customers of BISDN services may need a variety of data authenticity and privacy assurances, via Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) services Cryptographic methods can be used to assure authenticity and privacy, but are hard to scale for implementation at high speed. The incorporation of these methods into computer networks can severely impact functionality, reliability, and performance. While there are many design issues associated with the serving of public keys for authenticated signaling and for establishment of session cryptovariables, this paper is concerned with the impact of encryption itself on such communications once the signaling and setup have been completed. Network security protections should be carefully matched to the threats against which protection is desired. Even after eliminating unnecessary protections, the remaining customer-required network security protections can impose severe performance penalties. These penalties (further discussed below) usually involve increased communication processing for authentication or encryption, increased error rate, increased communication delay, and decreased reliability/availability. Protection measures involving encryption should be carefully engineered so as to impose the least performance, reliability, and functionality penalties, while achieving the required security protection. To study these trade-offs, a prototype encryptor/decryptor was developed. This effort demonstrated the viability of implementing certain encryption techniques in high speed networks. The research prototype processes ATM cells in a SONET OC-3 payload. This paper describes the functionality, reliability, security, and performance design trade-offs investigated with the prototype.

  6. Building an End-to-end System for Long Term Soil Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szlavecz, K.; Terzis, A.; Musaloiu-E., R.; Cogan, J.; Szalay, A.; Gray, J.

    2006-05-01

    We have developed and deployed an experimental soil monitoring system in an urban forest. Wireless sensor nodes collect data on soil temperature, soil moisture, air temperature, and light. Data are uploaded into a SQL Server database, where they are calibrated and reorganized into an OLAP data cube. The data are accessible on-line using a web services interface with various visual tools. Our prototype system of ten nodes has been live since Sep 2005, and in 5 months of operation over 6 million measurements have been collected. At a high level, our experiment was a success: we detected variations in soil condition corresponding to topography and external environmental parameters as expected. However, we encountered a number of challenging technical problems: need for low-level programming at multiple levels, calibration across space and time, and cross- reference of measurements with external sources. Based upon the experience with this system we are now deploying 200 mode nodes with close to a thousand sensors spread over multiple sites in the context of the Baltimore Ecosystem Study LTER. www

  7. End-to-End Data Movement Using MPI-IO Over Routed Terabots Infrastructures

    SciTech Connect

    Vallee, Geoffroy R; Atchley, Scott; Kim, Youngjae; Shipman, Galen M

    2013-01-01

    Scientific discovery is nowadays driven by large-scale simulations running on massively parallel high-performance computing (HPC) systems. These applications each generate a large amount of data, which then needs to be post-processed for example for data mining or visualization. Unfortunately, the computing platform used for post processing might be different from the one on which the data is initially generated, introducing the challenge of moving large amount of data between computing platforms. This is especially challenging when these two platforms are geographically separated since the data needs to be moved between computing facilities. This is even more critical when scientists tightly couple their domain specific applications with a post processing application. The paper presents a solution for the data transfer between MPI applications using a dedicated wide area network (WAN) terabit infrastructure. The proposed solution is based on parallel access to data files and the Message Passing Interface (MPI) over the Common Communication Infrastructure (CCI) for the data transfer over a routed infrastructure. In the context of this research, the Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is targeted for the transfer of data between DOE national laboratories.

  8. End-to-End Demonstrator of the Safe Affordable Fission Engine (SAFE) 30: Power Conversion and Ion Engine Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hrbud, Ivana; VanDyke, Melissa; Houts, Mike; Goodfellow, Keith; Schafer, Charles (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Safe Affordable Fission Engine (SAFE) test series addresses Phase 1 Space Fission Systems issues in particular non-nuclear testing and system integration issues leading to the testing and non-nuclear demonstration of a 400-kW fully integrated flight unit. The first part of the SAFE 30 test series demonstrated operation of the simulated nuclear core and heat pipe system. Experimental data acquired in a number of different test scenarios will validate existing computational models, demonstrated system flexibility (fast start-ups, multiple start-ups/shut downs), simulate predictable failure modes and operating environments. The objective of the second part is to demonstrate an integrated propulsion system consisting of a core, conversion system and a thruster where the system converts thermal heat into jet power. This end-to-end system demonstration sets a precedent for ground testing of nuclear electric propulsion systems. The paper describes the SAFE 30 end-to-end system demonstration and its subsystems.

  9. End-to-End demonstrator of the Safe Affordable Fission Engine (SAFE) 30: Power conversion and ion engine operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hrbud, Ivana; van Dyke, Melissa; Houts, Mike; Goodfellow, Keith

    2002-01-01

    The Safe Affordable Fission Engine (SAFE) test series addresses Phase 1 Space Fission Systems issues in particular non-nuclear testing and system integration issues leading to the testing and non-nuclear demonstration of a 400-kW fully integrated flight unit. The first part of the SAFE 30 test series demonstrated operation of the simulated nuclear core and heat pipe system. Experimental data acquired in a number of different test scenarios will validate existing computational models, demonstrated system flexibility (fast start-ups, multiple start-ups/shut downs), simulate predictable failure modes and operating environments. The objective of the second part is to demonstrate an integrated propulsion system consisting of a core, conversion system and a thruster where the system converts thermal heat into jet power. This end-to-end system demonstration sets a precedent for ground testing of nuclear electric propulsion systems. The paper describes the SAFE 30 end-to-end system demonstration and its subsystems. .

  10. POST2 End-To-End Descent and Landing Simulation for the Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Jody l.; Striepe, Scott A.

    2007-01-01

    The Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories II (POST2) is used as a basis for an end-to-end descent and landing trajectory simulation that is essential in determining the design and performance capability of lunar descent and landing system models and lunar environment models for the Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) project. This POST2-based ALHAT simulation provides descent and landing simulation capability by integrating lunar environment and lander system models (including terrain, sensor, guidance, navigation, and control models), along with the data necessary to design and operate a landing system for robotic, human, and cargo lunar-landing success. This paper presents the current and planned development and model validation of the POST2-based end-to-end trajectory simulation used for the testing, performance and evaluation of ALHAT project system and models.

  11. Modified end-to-end anastomosis for the treatment of congenital tracheal stenosis with a bridging bronchus.

    PubMed

    Stock, Cameron; Nathan, Meena; Murray, Ryan; Rahbar, Reza; Fynn-Thompson, Francis

    2015-01-01

    An infant with a ventricular septal defect; Vertebral anomalies, Anal atresia, Cardiac anomalies, Tracho Esophageal fistula (TEF), Renal anomalies, Limb anomalies syndrome; and tracheal stenosis with a bridging bronchus underwent repair of the ventricular septal defect and trachea-bronchial reconstruction at age 11 months. Herein we describe our surgical approach to resection of the bridging bronchus and a technique using a modified end-to-end tracheal anastomosis for the correction of this complex anomaly. PMID:25555968

  12. Minimizing End-to-End Interference in I/O Stacks Spanning Shared Multi-Level Buffer Caches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, Christina M.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis presents an end-to-end interference minimizing uniquely designed high performance I/O stack that spans multi-level shared buffer cache hierarchies accessing shared I/O servers to deliver a seamless high performance I/O stack. In this thesis, I show that I can build a superior I/O stack which minimizes the inter-application interference…

  13. Mechanical loading of peripheral nerves during remobilisation of the affected member after end-to-end anastomosis.

    PubMed

    Orf, G; Wüst, R

    1979-01-01

    Our study involved simulating end-to-end neurorrhaphy of the sciatic nerve in a number of rabbits and analysing in vivo the mechanical loads acting on the nerve while the affected member was being remobilised. We found both the suture and mobilisation loads to be related to the size of the nerve defect. In each case, traction force, strain, and stress were proportional. The effect which these experimental findings may have on the future use of flexing neighbouring joints as a "manipulative" measure to achieve a tension-free nerve suture will be discussed. PMID:525461

  14. End-to-end testing. [to verify electrical equipment failure due to carbon fibers released in aircraft-fuel fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pride, R. A.

    1979-01-01

    The principle objective of the kinds of demonstration tests that are discussed is to try to verify whether or not carbon fibers that are released by burning composite parts in an aircraft-fuel fires can produce failures in electrical equipment. A secondary objective discussed is to experimentally validate the analytical models for some of the key elements in the risk analysis. The approach to this demonstration testing is twofold: limited end-to-end test are to be conducted in a shock tube; and planning for some large outdoor burn tests is being done.

  15. End-to-End Study of the Transfer of Energy from Magnetosheath Ion Precipitation to the Cusp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffey, V. N.; Chandler, M. O.; Singh, Nagendra; Avanov, Levon

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a study of the effects of unstable magnetosheath distributions on the cusp ionosphere. An end-to-end numerical model was used to study, first, the evolved distributions from precipitation due to reconnection and, secondly, the energy transfer into the high latitude ionosphere based on these solar wind/magnetosheath inputs. Using inputs of several representative examples of magnetosheath injections, waves were generated at the lower hybrid frequency and energy transferred to the ionospheric electrons and ions. The resulting wave spectra and ion and electron particle heating was analyzed. Keywords: Ion heating: Magnetosheath/Ionosphere coupling: Particle/Wave Interactions. Simulations

  16. Automated Design of Propellant-Optimal, End-to-End, Low-Thrust Trajectories for Trojan Asteroid Tours

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuart, Jeffrey; Howell, Kathleen; Wilson, Roby

    2013-01-01

    The Sun-Jupiter Trojan asteroids are celestial bodies of great scientific interest as well as potential resources offering water and other mineral resources for longterm human exploration of the solar system. Previous investigations under this project have addressed the automated design of tours within the asteroid swarm. This investigation expands the current automation scheme by incorporating options for a complete trajectory design approach to the Trojan asteroids. Computational aspects of the design procedure are automated such that end-to-end trajectories are generated with a minimum of human interaction after key elements and constraints associated with a proposed mission concept are specified.

  17. The Kepler End-to-End Model: Creating High-Fidelity Simulations to Test Kepler Ground Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryson, Stephen T.; Jenkins, Jon M.; Peters, Dan J.; Tenenbaum, Peter P.; Klaus, Todd C.; Gunter, Jay P.; Cote, Miles T.; Caldwell, Douglas A.

    2010-01-01

    The Kepler mission is designed to detect the transit of Earth-like planets around Sun-like stars by observing 100,000 stellar targets. Developing and testing the Kepler ground-segment processing system, in particular the data analysis pipeline, requires high-fidelity simulated data. This simulated data is provided by the Kepler End-to-End Model (ETEM). ETEM simulates the astrophysics of planetary transits and other phenomena, properties of the Kepler spacecraft and the format of the downlinked data. Major challenges addressed by ETEM include the rapid production of large amounts of simulated data, extensibility and maintainability.

  18. Evaluation of the end-to-end distance of chains solubilized in a polymer Langmuir monolayer by atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumaki, Jiro

    Polymer chain packing in two-dimensional (2D) condense state is still not well understood. Direct observation of the chain packing in a monolayer should be the best way to understand this, however, it is still difficult even using atomic force microscopy (AFM) except for extraordinarily thick polymers. In this study, we successfully evaluate the end-to-end distance of the chains in a Langmuir-Blodgett monolayer composed of a conventional polymer by AFM. We successfully solubilized a small amount of a polystyrene-b-poly(methyl methacrylate)-b-polystyrene (PS-b-PMMA-b-PS) triblock copolymer in a PMMA Langmuir monolayer with the PS blocks being condensed as single-PS-block particles which could be used as a probe of the position of the chain ends. The evaluated end-to-end distance was 2.5 times longer than that of the 2D ideal chain, indicating the chains in the 2D monolayer are not strongly segregated but interpenetrates into other chains.

  19. Context-driven, prescription-based personal activity classification: methodology, architecture, and end-to-end implementation.

    PubMed

    Xu, James Y; Chang, Hua-I; Chien, Chieh; Kaiser, William J; Pottie, Gregory J

    2014-05-01

    Enabling large-scale monitoring and classification of a range of motion activities is of primary importance due to the need by healthcare and fitness professionals to monitor exercises for quality and compliance. Past work has not fully addressed the unique challenges that arise from scaling. This paper presents a novel end-to-end system solution to some of these challenges. The system is built on the prescription-based context-driven activity classification methodology. First, we show that by refining the definition of context, and introducing the concept of scenarios, a prescription model can provide personalized activity monitoring. Second, through a flexible architecture constructed from interface models, we demonstrate the concept of a context-driven classifier. Context classification is achieved through a classification committee approach, and activity classification follows by means of context specific activity models. Then, the architecture is implemented in an end-to-end system featuring an Android application running on a mobile device, and a number of classifiers as core classification components. Finally, we use a series of experimental field evaluations to confirm the expected benefits of the proposed system in terms of classification accuracy, rate, and sensor operating life. PMID:24107984

  20. Far-Infrared Therapy Promotes Nerve Repair following End-to-End Neurorrhaphy in Rat Models of Sciatic Nerve Injury

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Tai-Yuan; Yang, Yi-Chin; Sha, Ya-Na; Chou, Jiun-Rou

    2015-01-01

    This study employed a rat model of sciatic nerve injury to investigate the effects of postoperative low-power far-infrared (FIR) radiation therapy on nerve repair following end-to-end neurorrhaphy. The rat models were divided into the following 3 groups: (1) nerve injury without FIR biostimulation (NI/sham group); (2) nerve injury with FIR biostimulation (NI/FIR group); and (3) noninjured controls (normal group). Walking-track analysis results showed that the NI/FIR group exhibited significantly higher sciatic functional indices at 8 weeks after surgery (P < 0.05) compared with the NI/sham group. The decreased expression of CD4 and CD8 in the NI/FIR group indicated that FIR irradiation modulated the inflammatory process during recovery. Compared with the NI/sham group, the NI/FIR group exhibited a significant reduction in muscle atrophy (P < 0.05). Furthermore, histomorphometric assessment indicated that the nerves regenerated more rapidly in the NI/FIR group than in the NI/sham group; furthermore, the NI/FIR group regenerated neural tissue over a larger area, as well as nerve fibers of greater diameter and with thicker myelin sheaths. Functional recovery, inflammatory response, muscular reinnervation, and histomorphometric assessment all indicated that FIR radiation therapy can accelerate nerve repair following end-to-end neurorrhaphy of the sciatic nerve. PMID:25722734

  1. Effect of swirling flow on platelet concentration distribution in small-caliber artificial grafts and end-to-end anastomoses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Fan; Fan, Yu-Bo; Deng, Xiao-Yan

    2011-10-01

    Platelet concentration near the blood vessel wall is one of the major factors in the adhesion of platelets to the wall. In our previous studies, it was found that swirling flows could suppress platelet adhesion in small-caliber artificial grafts and end-to-end anastomoses. In order to better understand the beneficial effect of the swirling flow, we numerically analyzed the near-wall concentration distribution of platelets in a straight tube and a sudden tubular expansion tube under both swirling flow and normal flow conditions. The numerical models were created based on our previous experimental studies. The simulation results revealed that when compared with the normal flow, the swirling flow could significantly reduce the near-wall concentration of platelets in both the straight tube and the expansion tube. The present numerical study therefore indicates that the reduction in platelet adhesion under swirling flow conditions in small-caliber arterial grafts, or in end-to-end anastomoses as observed in our previous experimental study, was possibly through a mechanism of platelet transport, in which the swirling flow reduced the near-wall concentration of platelets.

  2. Image gathering, coding, and processing: End-to-end optimization for efficient and robust acquisition of visual information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huck, Friedrich O.; Fales, Carl L.

    1990-01-01

    Researchers are concerned with the end-to-end performance of image gathering, coding, and processing. The applications range from high-resolution television to vision-based robotics, wherever the resolution, efficiency and robustness of visual information acquisition and processing are critical. For the presentation at this workshop, it is convenient to divide research activities into the following two overlapping areas: The first is the development of focal-plane processing techniques and technology to effectively combine image gathering with coding, with an emphasis on low-level vision processing akin to the retinal processing in human vision. The approach includes the familiar Laplacian pyramid, the new intensity-dependent spatial summation, and parallel sensing/processing networks. Three-dimensional image gathering is attained by combining laser ranging with sensor-array imaging. The second is the rigorous extension of information theory and optimal filtering to visual information acquisition and processing. The goal is to provide a comprehensive methodology for quantitatively assessing the end-to-end performance of image gathering, coding, and processing.

  3. A GF-Matrix Approach to the End-to-End Coupling in Ethane-like Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dilauro, C.; Lattanzi, F.

    1993-12-01

    We examine the effect of end-to-end coupling on the degenerate vibrational deformations of ethane-like molecules by considering the form of the dependence of the elements of the G and F matrices on the internal rotation angle γ. This can be done by simple geometrical considerations, in a basis of internal vibrational coordinates. After transformation to symmetry coordinates belonging to different species of the G36(EM) extended molecular group, the product G(0)F(0) of the γ-independent parts of the G and F matrices is diagonalized. The resulting zero-order normal modes and their conjugate momenta are used in building up the vibration-torsion Hamiltonian, including the γ-dependent terms. We find that (i) in the case of a low barrier hindering the internal rotation the most convenient sets of degenerate normal coordinates are either Gs (in the case of a weak effect of the end-to-end coupling on the relative deformations) or E1d, E2d; (ii) degenerate vibrational coordinates whose top and frame components have at the least one common atom lead to E1d, E2d normal modes regardless of the barrier height; (iii) "unpaired" degenerate vibrational coordinates, such as the skeletal bending of dimethylzinc, always contribute an E1d normal mode; and (iv) in the case of high or moderate barriers, Gs normal modes are unlikely to occur, and the most probable normal mode symmetries are E1d, E2d.

  4. HITSZ_CDR: an end-to-end chemical and disease relation extraction system for BioCreative V

    PubMed Central

    Li, Haodi; Tang, Buzhou; Chen, Qingcai; Chen, Kai; Wang, Xiaolong; Wang, Baohua; Wang, Zhe

    2016-01-01

    In this article, an end-to-end system was proposed for the challenge task of disease named entity recognition (DNER) and chemical-induced disease (CID) relation extraction in BioCreative V, where DNER includes disease mention recognition (DMR) and normalization (DN). Evaluation on the challenge corpus showed that our system achieved the highest F1-scores 86.93% on DMR, 84.11% on DN, 43.04% on CID relation extraction, respectively. The F1-score on DMR is higher than our previous one reported by the challenge organizers (86.76%), the highest F1-score of the challenge. Database URL: http://database.oxfordjournals.org/content/2016/baw077 PMID:27270713

  5. End-To-End Risk Assesment: From Genes and Protein to Acceptable Radiation Risks for Mars Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Schimmerling, Walter

    2000-07-01

    The human exploration of Mars will impose unavoidable health risks from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and possibly solar particle events (SPE). It is the goal of NASA's Space Radiation Health Program to develop the capability to predict health risks with significant accuracy to ensure that risks are well below acceptable levels and to allow for mitigation approaches to be effective at reasonable costs. End-to-End risk assessment is the approach being followed to understand proton and heavy ion damage at the molecular, cellular, and tissue levels in order to predict the probability of the major health risk including cancer, neurological disorders, hereditary effects, cataracts, and acute radiation sickness and to develop countermeasures for mitigating risks.

  6. NASA End-to-End Data System /NEEDS/ information adaptive system - Performing image processing onboard the spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, W. L.; Howle, W. M.; Meredith, B. D.

    1980-01-01

    The Information Adaptive System (IAS) is an element of the NASA End-to-End Data System (NEEDS) Phase II and is focused toward onbaord image processing. Since the IAS is a data preprocessing system which is closely coupled to the sensor system, it serves as a first step in providing a 'Smart' imaging sensor. Some of the functions planned for the IAS include sensor response nonuniformity correction, geometric correction, data set selection, data formatting, packetization, and adaptive system control. The inclusion of these sensor data preprocessing functions onboard the spacecraft will significantly improve the extraction of information from the sensor data in a timely and cost effective manner and provide the opportunity to design sensor systems which can be reconfigured in near real time for optimum performance. The purpose of this paper is to present the preliminary design of the IAS and the plans for its development.

  7. End-to-End Trajectory for Conjunction Class Mars Missions Using Hybrid Solar-Electric/Chemical Transportation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chai, Patrick R.; Merrill, Raymond G.; Qu, Min

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Human Spaceflight Architecture Team is developing a reusable hybrid transportation architecture in which both chemical and solar-electric propulsion systems are used to deliver crew and cargo to exploration destinations. By combining chemical and solar-electric propulsion into a single spacecraft and applying each where it is most effective, the hybrid architecture enables a series of Mars trajectories that are more fuel efficient than an all chemical propulsion architecture without significant increases to trip time. The architecture calls for the aggregation of exploration assets in cislunar space prior to departure for Mars and utilizes high energy lunar-distant high Earth orbits for the final staging prior to departure. This paper presents the detailed analysis of various cislunar operations for the EMC Hybrid architecture as well as the result of the higher fidelity end-to-end trajectory analysis to understand the implications of the design choices on the Mars exploration campaign.

  8. Left Ventricular Assist Device End-to-End Connection to the Left Subclavian Artery: An Alternative Technique.

    PubMed

    Bortolussi, Giacomo; Lika, Alban; Bejko, Jonida; Gallo, Michele; Tarzia, Vincenzo; Gerosa, Gino; Bottio, Tomaso

    2015-10-01

    We describe a modified implantation technique for the HeartWare ventricular assist device. We access the apex through a left minithoracotomy. The outflow graft is tunneled through a small incision in the fourth intercostal space and then subcutaneously to the subclavian region. After division of the left axillary artery, an end-to-end anastomosis is performed to the proximal part, and the distal vessel is connected end-to-side through a fenestration in the outflow graft. We believe that this technique, particularly suitable for redo scenarios or severely calcified aorta, achieves a more direct blood flow into the aorta and reduces cerebrovascular events while avoiding excessive flow to the arm. PMID:26434488

  9. The MARS pathfinder end-to-end information system: A pathfinder for the development of future NASA planetary missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Richard A.; Kazz, Greg J.; Tai, Wallace S.

    1996-01-01

    The development of the Mars pathfinder is considered with emphasis on the End-to-End Information System (EEIS) development approach. The primary mission objective is to successfully develop and deliver a single flight system to the Martian surface, demonstrating entry, descent and landing. The EEIS is a set of functions distributed throughout the flight, ground and Mission Operation Systems (MOS) that inter-operate in order to control, collect, transport, process, store and analyze the uplink and downlink information flows of the mission. Coherence between the mission systems is achieved though the EEIS architecture. The key characteristics of the system are: a concurrent engineering approach for the development of flight, ground and mission operation systems; the fundamental EEIS architectural heuristics; a phased incremental EEIS development and test approach, and an EEIS design deploying flight, ground and MOS operability features, including integrated ground and flight based toolsets.

  10. HITSZ_CDR: an end-to-end chemical and disease relation extraction system for BioCreative V.

    PubMed

    Li, Haodi; Tang, Buzhou; Chen, Qingcai; Chen, Kai; Wang, Xiaolong; Wang, Baohua; Wang, Zhe

    2016-01-01

    In this article, an end-to-end system was proposed for the challenge task of disease named entity recognition (DNER) and chemical-induced disease (CID) relation extraction in BioCreative V, where DNER includes disease mention recognition (DMR) and normalization (DN). Evaluation on the challenge corpus showed that our system achieved the highest F1-scores 86.93% on DMR, 84.11% on DN, 43.04% on CID relation extraction, respectively. The F1-score on DMR is higher than our previous one reported by the challenge organizers (86.76%), the highest F1-score of the challenge.Database URL: http://database.oxfordjournals.org/content/2016/baw077. PMID:27270713

  11. End-To-End Risk Assesment: From Genes and Protein to Acceptable Radiation Risks for Mars Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Schimmerling, Walter

    2000-01-01

    The human exploration of Mars will impose unavoidable health risks from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and possibly solar particle events (SPE). It is the goal of NASA's Space Radiation Health Program to develop the capability to predict health risks with significant accuracy to ensure that risks are well below acceptable levels and to allow for mitigation approaches to be effective at reasonable costs. End-to-End risk assessment is the approach being followed to understand proton and heavy ion damage at the molecular, cellular, and tissue levels in order to predict the probability of the major health risk including cancer, neurological disorders, hereditary effects, cataracts, and acute radiation sickness and to develop countermeasures for mitigating risks.

  12. End-to-end stacking and liquid crystal condensation of 6- to 20-base pair DNA duplexes.

    SciTech Connect

    Nakata, M.; Zanchetta, G.; Chapman, B.D.; Christopher, D.; Jones, D.; Cross, J.O.; Pindak, R.; Bellini, T.; Noel, N.; X-Ray Science Division; Univ. of Colorado; Univ. di Milano; BNL

    2007-11-23

    Short complementary B-form DNA oligomers, 6 to 20 base pairs in length, are found to exhibit nematic and columnar liquid crystal phases, even though such duplexes lack the shape anisotropy required for liquid crystal ordering. Structural study shows that these phases are produced by the end-to-end adhesion and consequent stacking of the duplex oligomers into polydisperse anisotropic rod-shaped aggregates, which can order into liquid crystals. Upon cooling mixed solutions of short DNA oligomers, in which only a small fraction of the DNA present is complementary, the duplex-forming oligomers phase-separate into liquid crystal droplets, leaving the unpaired single strands in isotropic solution. In a chemical environment where oligomer ligation is possible, such ordering and condensation would provide an autocatalytic link whereby complementarity promotes the extended polymerization of complementary oligomers.

  13. The initial data products from the EUVE software - A photon's journey through the End-to-End System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antia, Behram

    1993-01-01

    The End-to-End System (EES) is a unique collection of software modules created for use at the Center for EUV Astrophysics. The 'pipeline' is a shell script which executes selected EES modules and creates initial data products: skymaps, data sets for individual sources (called 'pigeonholes') and catalogs of sources. This article emphasizes the data from the all-sky survey, conducted between July 22, 1992 and January 21, 1993. A description of each of the major data products will be given and, as an example of how the pipeline works, the reader will follow a photon's path through the software pipeline into a pigeonhole. These data products are the primary goal of the EUVE all-sky survey mission, and so their relative importance for the follow-up science will also be discussed.

  14. Evaluation of Techniques to Detect Significant Network Performance Problems using End-to-End Active Network Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Cottrell, R.Les; Logg, Connie; Chhaparia, Mahesh; Grigoriev, Maxim; Haro, Felipe; Nazir, Fawad; Sandford, Mark

    2006-01-25

    End-to-End fault and performance problems detection in wide area production networks is becoming increasingly hard as the complexity of the paths, the diversity of the performance, and dependency on the network increase. Several monitoring infrastructures are built to monitor different network metrics and collect monitoring information from thousands of hosts around the globe. Typically there are hundreds to thousands of time-series plots of network metrics which need to be looked at to identify network performance problems or anomalous variations in the traffic. Furthermore, most commercial products rely on a comparison with user configured static thresholds and often require access to SNMP-MIB information, to which a typical end-user does not usually have access. In our paper we propose new techniques to detect network performance problems proactively in close to realtime and we do not rely on static thresholds and SNMP-MIB information. We describe and compare the use of several different algorithms that we have implemented to detect persistent network problems using anomalous variations analysis in real end-to-end Internet performance measurements. We also provide methods and/or guidance for how to set the user settable parameters. The measurements are based on active probes running on 40 production network paths with bottlenecks varying from 0.5Mbits/s to 1000Mbit/s. For well behaved data (no missed measurements and no very large outliers) with small seasonal changes most algorithms identify similar events. We compare the algorithms' robustness with respect to false positives and missed events especially when there are large seasonal effects in the data. Our proposed techniques cover a wide variety of network paths and traffic patterns. We also discuss the applicability of the algorithms in terms of their intuitiveness, their speed of execution as implemented, and areas of applicability. Our encouraging results compare and evaluate the accuracy of our detection

  15. Overview of Non-nuclear Testing of the Safe, Affordable 30-kW Fission Engine, Including End-to-End Demonstrator Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanDyke, M. K.; Martin, J. J.; Houts, M. G.

    2003-01-01

    Successful development of space fission systems will require an extensive program of affordable and realistic testing. In addition to tests related to design/development of the fission system, realistic testing of the actual flight unit must also be performed. At the power levels under consideration (3-300 kW electric power), almost all technical issues are thermal or stress related and will not be strongly affected by the radiation environment. These issues can be resolved more thoroughly, less expensively, and in a more timely fashing with nonnuclear testing, provided it is prototypic of the system in question. This approach was used for the safe, affordable fission engine test article development program and accomplished viz cooperative efforts with Department of Energy labs, industry, universiites, and other NASA centers. This Technical Memorandum covers the analysis, testing, and data reduction of a 30-kW simulated reactor as well as an end-to-end demonstrator, including a power conversion system and an electric propulsion engine, the first of its kind in the United States.

  16. End-to-End Information System design at the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory. [data transmission between user and space-based sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooke, A. J.

    1978-01-01

    In recognition of a pressing need of the 1980s to optimize the two-way flow of information between a ground-based user and a remote-space-based sensor, an end-to-end approach to the design of information systems has been adopted at the JPL. This paper reviews End-to-End Information System (EEIS) activity at the JPL, with attention given to the scope of the EEIS transfer function, and functional and physical elements of the EEIS. The relationship between the EEIS and the NASA End-to-End Data System program is discussed.

  17. Towards end-to-end models for investigating the effects of climate and fishing in marine ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Travers, M.; Shin, Y.-J.; Jennings, S.; Cury, P.

    2007-12-01

    End-to-end models that represent ecosystem components from primary producers to top predators, linked through trophic interactions and affected by the abiotic environment, are expected to provide valuable tools for assessing the effects of climate change and fishing on ecosystem dynamics. Here, we review the main process-based approaches used for marine ecosystem modelling, focusing on the extent of the food web modelled, the forcing factors considered, the trophic processes represented, as well as the potential use and further development of the models. We consider models of a subset of the food web, models which represent the first attempts to couple low and high trophic levels, integrated models of the whole ecosystem, and size spectrum models. Comparisons within and among these groups of models highlight the preferential use of functional groups at low trophic levels and species at higher trophic levels and the different ways in which the models account for abiotic processes. The model comparisons also highlight the importance of choosing an appropriate spatial dimension for representing organism dynamics. Many of the reviewed models could be extended by adding components and by ensuring that the full life cycles of species components are represented, but end-to-end models should provide full coverage of ecosystem components, the integration of physical and biological processes at different scales and two-way interactions between ecosystem components. We suggest that this is best achieved by coupling models, but there are very few existing cases where the coupling supports true two-way interaction. The advantages of coupling models are that the extent of discretization and representation can be targeted to the part of the food web being considered, making their development time- and cost-effective. Processes such as predation can be coupled to allow the propagation of forcing factors effects up and down the food web. However, there needs to be a stronger focus

  18. Mapping Water Vapor Bands using AIRS Measurements for NPOESS/NPP VIIRS Pre-launch End-to-End Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, J. J.; Hao, X.; Hauss, B.; Wang, C.; Xiong, J.

    2005-12-01

    NPOESS/NPP pre-launch end to end testing is very important for establishing the long-term high quality Environmental Data Records (EDRs). In our early studies, we have developed spatial and spectral mapping technology and demonstrated the AIRS-MODIS-VIIRS band mapping approaches successfully. In this paper, we will focus on VIIRS water vapor band mapping for proxy dataset generating based on our recently established proxy database which includes the AIRS simulated MODIS, AIRS simulated VIIRS and aggregated MODIS radiances/ brightness temperatures. We demonstrate the efficacy of this approach by presenting results of the cross-comparison of water vapor band measurements from AIRS, MODIS and simulated VIIRS. We also investigate the dependence of the quality of water vapor band mapping as a function of the surface emissivity spectrum, phenomenology, and atmospheric conditions. The same approach can be used to map CrIS to VIIRS for post-launch calibration and validation. It is also valuable to keep the continuity between MODIS and VIIRS water vapor measurements. This approach can provide increased confidence in evaluating EDR retrieval algorithms performances. It also can be used to map 6.75 μm band using AIRS or CrIS measurements for water vapor algorithm testing.

  19. Hardware and Methods of the Optical End-to-End Test of the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conard, Steven J.; Redman, Kevin W.; Barkhouser, Robert H.; McGuffey, Doug B.; Smee, Stephen; Ohl, Raymond G.; Kushner, Gary

    1999-01-01

    The Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE), currently being tested and scheduled for a 1999 launch, is an astrophysics satellite designed to provide high spectral resolving power (Lambda/(Delta)Lambda = 24,000-30,000) over the interval 90.5-118.7 nm. The FUSE optical path consists of four co-aligned, normal incidence, off-axis parabolic, primary mirrors which illuminate separate Rowland circle spectrograph channels equipped with holographic gratings and delay line microchannel plate detectors. We describe the hardware and methods used for the optical end-to-end test of the FUSE instrument during satellite integration and test. Cost and schedule constraints forced us to devise a simplified version of the planned optical test which occurred in parallel with satellite thermal-vacuum testing. The optical test employed a collimator assembly which consisted of four co-aligned, 15" Cassegrain telescopes which were positioned above the FUSE instrument, providing a collimated beam for each optical channel. A windowed UV light source, remotely adjustable in three axes, was mounted at the focal plane of each collimator. Problems with the UV light sources, including high F-number and window failures, were the only major difficulties encountered during the test. The test succeeded in uncovering a significant problem with the secondary structure used for the instrument closeout cavity and, furthermore, showed that the mechanical solution was successful. The hardware was also used extensively for simulations of science observations, providing both UV light for spectra and visible light for the fine error sensor camera.

  20. A novel end-to-end fault detection and localization protocol for wavelength-routed WDM networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Hongqing; Vukovic, Alex; Huang, Changcheng

    2005-09-01

    Recently the wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) networks are becoming prevalent for telecommunication networks. However, even a very short disruption of service caused by network faults may lead to high data loss in such networks due to the high date rates, increased wavelength numbers and density. Therefore, the network survivability is critical and has been intensively studied, where fault detection and localization is the vital part but has received disproportional attentions. In this paper we describe and analyze an end-to-end lightpath fault detection scheme in data plane with the fault notification in control plane. The endeavor is focused on reducing the fault detection time. In this protocol, the source node of each lightpath keeps sending hello packets to the destination node exactly following the path for data traffic. The destination node generates an alarm once a certain number of consecutive hello packets are missed within a given time period. Then the network management unit collects all alarms and locates the faulty source based on the network topology, as well as sends fault notification messages via control plane to either the source node or all upstream nodes along the lightpath. The performance evaluation shows such a protocol can achieve fast fault detection, and at the same time, the overhead brought to the user data by hello packets is negligible.

  1. Objective end-to-end (mouth-to-ear) conversational speech quality tests for VoIP scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kettler, Frank; Gierlich, Hans W.

    2001-07-01

    From the speech quality point of view the differentiation between terminals and network in communications over IP is no longer possible. Consequently the overall speech quality assessment has to take this into account and requires end-to-end tests. Suitable test setups including the terminals acoustics using artificial head technology as a close to reality interface are introduced. In a second part the influence of various subjectively relevant parameters on speech quality is discussed. Correlated objec-tive parameters like delay, echo, double talk capability, listening speech quality and parameters determining background noise transmission quality are described. Appropriate analysis methods are given. The discussion points out the influence of delay on conversation dynamics impairments and its influence on echo perception, because the expected delay in VoIP sce-narios is probably higher than typically recommended for telephone conversations. Optimization criteria are introduced for implemented echo cancellers as well as test methods to assess the one-way speech sound quality, double talk performance and background noise transmission.

  2. End-to-end simulation of high-contrast imaging systems: methods and results for the PICTURE mission family

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglas, Ewan S.; Hewasawam, Kuravi; Mendillo, Christopher B.; Cahoy, Kerri L.; Cook, Timothy A.; Finn, Susanna C.; Howe, Glenn A.; Kuchner, Marc J.; Lewis, Nikole K.; Marinan, Anne D.; Mawet, Dimitri; Chakrabarti, Supriya

    2015-09-01

    We describe a set of numerical approaches to modeling the performance of space flight high-contrast imaging payloads. Mission design for high-contrast imaging requires numerical wavefront error propagation to ensure accurate component specifications. For constructed instruments, wavelength and angle-dependent throughput and contrast models allow detailed simulations of science observations, allowing mission planners to select the most productive science targets. The PICTURE family of missions seek to quantify the optical brightness of scattered light from extrasolar debris disks via several high-contrast imaging techniques: sounding rocket (the Planet Imaging Concept Testbed Using a Rocket Experiment) and balloon flights of a visible nulling coronagraph, as well as a balloon flight of a vector vortex coronagraph (the Planetary Imaging Concept Testbed Using a Recoverable Experiment - Coronagraph, PICTURE-C). The rocket mission employs an on-axis 0.5m Gregorian telescope, while the balloon flights will share an unobstructed off-axis 0.6m Gregorian. This work details the flexible approach to polychromatic, end-to-end physical optics simulations used for both the balloon vector vortex coronagraph and rocket visible nulling coronagraph missions. We show the preliminary PICTURE-C telescope and vector vortex coronagraph design will achieve 10-8 contrast without post-processing as limited by realistic optics, but not considering polarization or low-order errors. Simulated science observations of the predicted warm ring around Epsilon Eridani illustrate the performance of both missions.

  3. WARP (workflow for automated and rapid production): a framework for end-to-end automated digital print workflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Parag

    2006-02-01

    Publishing industry is experiencing a major paradigm shift with the advent of digital publishing technologies. A large number of components in the publishing and print production workflow are transformed in this shift. However, the process as a whole requires a great deal of human intervention for decision making and for resolving exceptions during job execution. Furthermore, a majority of the best-of-breed applications for publishing and print production are intrinsically designed and developed to be driven by humans. Thus, the human-intensive nature of the current prepress process accounts for a very significant amount of the overhead costs in fulfillment of jobs on press. It is a challenge to automate the functionality of applications built with the model of human driven exectution. Another challenge is to orchestrate various components in the publishing and print production pipeline such that they work in a seamless manner to enable the system to perform automatic detection of potential failures and take corrective actions in a proactive manner. Thus, there is a great need for a coherent and unifying workflow architecture that streamlines the process and automates it as a whole in order to create an end-to-end digital automated print production workflow that does not involve any human intervention. This paper describes an architecture and building blocks that lay the foundation for a plurality of automated print production workflows.

  4. Results from solar reflective band end-to-end testing for VIIRS F1 sensor using T-SIRCUS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIntire, Jeff; Moyer, David; McCarthy, James K.; Brown, Steven W.; Lykke, Keith R.; De Luccia, Frank; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Butler, James J.; Guenther, Bruce

    2011-10-01

    Verification of the Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) End-to-End (E2E) sensor calibration is highly recommended before launch, to identify any anomalies and to improve our understanding of the sensor onorbit calibration performance. E2E testing of the Reflective Solar Bands (RSB) calibration cycle was performed pre-launch for the VIIRS Flight 1 (F1) sensor at the Ball Aerospace facility in Boulder CO in March 2010. VIIRS reflective band calibration cycle is very similar to heritage sensor MODIS in that solar illumination, via a diffuser, is used to correct for temporal variations in the instrument responsivity. Monochromatic light from the NIST T-SIRCUS (Traveling Spectral Irradiance and Radiance Responsivity Calibrations using Uniform Sources) was used to illuminate both the Earth View (EV), via an integrating sphere, and the Solar Diffuser (SD) view, through a collimator. The collimator illumination was cycled through a series of angles intended to simulate the range of possible angles for which solar radiation will be incident on the solar attenuation screen on-orbit. Ideally, the measured instrument responsivity (defined here as the ratio of the detector response to the at-sensor radiance) should be the same whether the EV or SD view is illuminated. The ratio of the measured responsivities was determined at each collimator angle and wavelength. In addition, the Solar Diffuser Stability Monitor (SDSM), a ratioing radiometer designed to track the temporal variation in the SD Bidirectional Reflectance Factor (BRF) by direct comparison to solar radiation, was illuminated by the collimator. The measured SDSM ratio was compared to the predicted ratio. An uncertainty analysis was also performed on both the SD and SDSM calibrations.

  5. An unusual structural motif of antimicrobial peptides containing end-to-end macrocycle and cystine-knot disulfides.

    PubMed

    Tam, J P; Lu, Y A; Yang, J L; Chiu, K W

    1999-08-01

    Four macrocyclic cystine-knot peptides of 29-31 residues, kalata, circulin A and B (CirA and CirB), and cyclopsychotride, have been isolated from coffee plants but have undetermined physiological functions. These macrocycles and 10 of their analogs prepared by chemical synthesis were tested against nine strains of microbes. Kalata and CirA were specific for the Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus with a minimum inhibition concentration of approximately 0.2 microM. They were relatively ineffective against Gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. However, CirB and cyclopsychotride were active against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. In particular, CirB showed potent activity against E. coli with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 0.41 microM. All four cyclic peptides were moderately active against two strains of fungi, Candida kefyr and Candida tropicalis, but were inactive against Candida albicans. These macrocycles are cytotoxic and lysed human red blood cell with a lethal dose 50% of 400 microM. Modifying the Arg residue in kalata with a keto aldehyde significantly reduced its activity against S. aureus whereas blocking the arg in CirA produced no significant effect. The two-disulfide variants and their scrambled disulfide isomers exhibited antimicrobial profiles and potency similar to their native peptides. However, in high-salt assays (100 mM NaCl), few of these macrocyclic peptides, natives or analogs, retained antimicrobial activity. These results show that the macrocyclic peptides possess specific and potent antimicrobial activity that is salt-dependent and that their initial interactions with the microbial surfaces may be electrostatic, an effect commonly found in defensin antimicrobial peptides. Furthermore, their end-to-end cyclic structure with a cystine-knot motif represents a molecular structure of antimicrobials and may provide a useful template for the design of novel peptide antibiotics. PMID

  6. End-to-end gene fusions and their impact on the production of multifunctional biomass degrading enzymes

    SciTech Connect

    Rizk, Mazen; Antranikian, Garabed; Elleuche, Skander

    2012-11-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Multifunctional enzymes offer an interesting approach for biomass degradation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Size and conformation of separate constructs play a role in the effectiveness of chimeras. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A connecting linker allows for maximal flexibility and increased thermostability. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Genes with functional similarities are the best choice for fusion candidates. -- Abstract: The reduction of fossil fuels, coupled with its increase in price, has made the search for alternative energy resources more plausible. One of the topics gaining fast interest is the utilization of lignocellulose, the main component of plants. Its primary constituents, cellulose and hemicellulose, can be degraded by a series of enzymes present in microorganisms, into simple sugars, later used for bioethanol production. Thermophilic bacteria have proven to be an interesting source of enzymes required for hydrolysis since they can withstand high and denaturing temperatures, which are usually required for processes involving biomass degradation. However, the cost associated with the whole enzymatic process is staggering. A solution for cost effective and highly active production is through the construction of multifunctional enzyme complexes harboring the function of more than one enzyme needed for the hydrolysis process. There are various strategies for the degradation of complex biomass ranging from the regulation of the enzymes involved, to cellulosomes, and proteins harboring more than one enzymatic activity. In this review, the construction of multifunctional biomass degrading enzymes through end-to-end gene fusions, and its impact on production and activity by choosing the enzymes and linkers is assessed.

  7. End-to-end sensor simulation for spectral band selection and optimization with application to the Sentinel-2 mission.

    PubMed

    Segl, Karl; Richter, Rudolf; Küster, Theres; Kaufmann, Hermann

    2012-02-01

    An end-to-end sensor simulation is a proper tool for the prediction of the sensor's performance over a range of conditions that cannot be easily measured. In this study, such a tool has been developed that enables the assessment of the optimum spectral resolution configuration of a sensor based on key applications. It employs the spectral molecular absorption and scattering properties of materials that are used for the identification and determination of the abundances of surface and atmospheric constituents and their interdependence on spatial resolution and signal-to-noise ratio as a basis for the detailed design and consolidation of spectral bands for the future Sentinel-2 sensor. The developed tools allow the computation of synthetic Sentinel-2 spectra that form the frame for the subsequent twofold analysis of bands in the atmospheric absorption and window regions. One part of the study comprises the assessment of optimal spatial and spectral resolution configurations for those bands used for atmospheric correction, optimized with regard to the retrieval of aerosols, water vapor, and the detection of cirrus clouds. The second part of the study presents the optimization of thematic bands, mainly driven by the spectral characteristics of vegetation constituents and minerals. The investigation is performed for different wavelength ranges because most remote sensing applications require the use of specific band combinations rather than single bands. The results from the important "red-edge" and the "short-wave infrared" domains are presented. The recommended optimum spectral design predominantly confirms the sensor parameters given by the European Space Agency. The system is capable of retrieving atmospheric and geobiophysical parameters with enhanced quality compared to existing multispectral sensors. Minor spectral changes of single bands are discussed in the context of typical remote sensing applications, supplemented by the recommendation of a few new bands for

  8. Results from Solar Reflective Band End-to-End Testing for VIIRS F1 Sensor Using T-SIRCUS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McIntire, Jeff; Moyer, David; McCarthy, James K.; DeLuccia, Frank; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Butler, James J.; Guenther, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    Verification of the Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) End-to-End (E2E) sensor calibration is highly recommended before launch, to identify any anomalies and to improve our understanding of the sensor on-orbit calibration performance. E2E testing of the Reflective Solar Bands (RSB) calibration cycle was performed pre-launch for the VIIRS Fight 1 (F1) sensor at the Ball Aerospace facility in Boulder CO in March 2010. VIIRS reflective band calibration cycle is very similar to heritage sensor MODIS in that solar illumination, via a diffuser, is used to correct for temporal variations in the instrument responsivity. Monochromatic light from the NIST T-SIRCUS was used to illuminate both the Earth View (EV), via an integrating sphere, and the Solar Diffuser (SD) view, through a collimator. The collimator illumination was cycled through a series of angles intended to simulate the range of possible angles for which solar radiation will be incident on the solar attenuation screen on-orbit. Ideally, the measured instrument responsivity (defined here as the ratio of the detector response to the at-sensor radiance) should be the same whether the EV or SD view is illuminated. The ratio of the measured responsivities was determined at each collimator angle and wavelength. In addition, the Solar Diffuser Stability Monitor (SDSM), a ratioing radiometer designed to track the temporal variation in the SD BRF by direct comparison to solar radiation, was illuminated by the collimator. The measured SDSM ratio was compared to the predicted ratio. An uncertainty analysis was also performed on both the SD and SDSM calibrations.

  9. Computational simulation of flow in the end-to-end anastomosis of a rigid graft and a compliant artery.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Y; Tarbell, J M

    1996-01-01

    Implanted vascular grafts often fail because of the development of intimal hyperplasia in the anastomotic region, and compliance mismatch between the host artery and graft exacerbates the problem. This study focused on the effects of radial artery wall motion and phase angle between pressure and flow waves (impedance phase angle [IPA]) on the wall shear rate (WSR) behavior near end-to-end vascular graft anastomoses models connecting rigid grafts and compliant arteries. A finite element model with transient flow and moving boundaries was set up to simulate oscillatory flow through a 16% undersized (mean) diameter graft model. During the simulations, different artery diameter variations (DVs) over a cycle (DV) and IPAs were simulated in the physiologic range for an oscillatory flow (mean Re = 150, peak Re = 300, unsteadiness parameter alpha = 3.9). The results show that for normal physiologic conditions (DV = 6%, IPA = -45 degrees) in a 16% undersized graft, the minimum distal mean WSR is reduced by 60% compared to steady flow at the mean Re; the minimum distal WSR amplitude increases 50% when IPA changes from -5 degrees to -85 degrees, and increases 60% when DV changes from 2% to 10%. This indicates that compliance mismatch induces lower mean WSR and more oscillatory WSR in the distal anastomotic region, which may contribute to intimal hyperplasia. In addition, the convergent-divergent geometry of the 16% undersized graft model can significantly affect the force pattern applied to the local endothelial cell layer near the anastomosis by altering the local phase angle between the flow induced tangential force (synchronous with WSR) and the radial artery expansion induced cyclic hoop strain (synchronous with DV). This local phase angle is decreased by 65 degrees in the distal divergent geometry, while increased by 15 degrees in the proximal convergent geometry. PMID:8944971

  10. The Hurricane-Flood-Landslide Continuum: An Integrated, End-to-end Forecast and Warning System for Mountainous Islands in the Tropics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golden, J.; Updike, R. G.; Verdin, J. P.; Larsen, M. C.; Negri, A. J.; McGinley, J. A.

    2004-12-01

    In the 10 days of 21-30 September 1998, Hurricane Georges left a trail of destruction in the Caribbean region and U.S. Gulf Coast. Subsequently, in the same year, Hurricane Mitch caused widespread destruction and loss of life in four Central American nations, and in December,1999 a tropical disturbance impacted the north coast of Venezuela causing hundreds of deaths and several million dollars of property loss. More recently, an off-season disturbance in the Central Caribbean dumped nearly 250 mm rainfall over Hispaniola during the 24-hr period on May 23, 2004. Resultant flash floods and debris flows in the Dominican Republic and Haiti killed at least 1400 people. In each instance, the tropical system served as the catalyst for major flooding and landslides at landfall. Our goal is to develop and transfer an end-to-end warning system for a prototype region in the Central Caribbean, specifically the islands of Puerto Rico and Hispaniola, which experience frequent tropical cyclones and other disturbances. The envisioned system would include satellite and surface-based observations to track and nowcast dangerous levels of precipitation, atmospheric and hydrological models to predict short-term runoff and streamflow changes, geological models to warn when and where landslides and debris flows are imminent, and the capability to communicate forecast guidance products via satellite to vital government offices in Puerto Rico, Haiti, and the Dominican Republic. In this paper, we shall present a preliminary proof-of-concept study for the May 21-24, 2004 floods and debris-flows over Hispaniola to show that the envisaged flow of data, models and graphical products can produce the desired warning outputs. The multidisciplinary research and technology transfer effort will require blending the talents of hydrometeorologists, geologists, remote sensing and GIS experts, and social scientists to ensure timely delivery of tailored graphical products to both weather offices and local

  11. Pre-Launch End-to-End Testing Plans for the SPAce Readiness Coherent Lidar Experiment (SPARCLE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kavaya, Michael J.

    1999-01-01

    The SPAce Readiness Coherent Lidar Experiment (SPARCLE) mission was proposed as a low cost technology demonstration mission, using a 2-micron, 100-mJ, 6-Hz, 25-cm, coherent lidar system based on demonstrated technology. SPARCLE was selected in late October 1997 to be NASA's New Millennium Program (NMP) second earth-observing (EO-2) mission. To maximize the success probability of SPARCLE, NASA/MSFC desired expert guidance in the areas of coherent laser radar (CLR) theory, CLR wind measurement, fielding of CLR systems, CLR alignment validation, and space lidar experience. This led to the formation of the NASA/MSFC Coherent Lidar Technology Advisory Team (CLTAT) in December 1997. A threefold purpose for the advisory team was identified as: 1) guidance to the SPARCLE mission, 2) advice regarding the roadmap of post-SPARCLE coherent Doppler wind lidar (CDWL) space missions and the desired matching technology development plan 3, and 3) general coherent lidar theory, simulation, hardware, and experiment information exchange. The current membership of the CLTAT is shown. Membership does not result in any NASA or other funding at this time. We envision the business of the CLTAT to be conducted mostly by email, teleconference, and occasional meetings. The three meetings of the CLTAT to date, in Jan. 1998, July 1998, and Jan. 1999, have all been collocated with previously scheduled meetings of the Working Group on Space-Based Lidar Winds. The meetings have been very productive. Topics discussed include the SPARCLE technology validation plan including pre-launch end-to-end testing, the space-based wind mission roadmap beyond SPARCLE and its implications on the resultant technology development, the current values and proposed future advancement in lidar system efficiency, and the difference between using single-mode fiber optical mixing vs. the traditional free space optical mixing. attitude information from lidar and non-lidar sensors, and pointing knowledge algorithms will

  12. Volumetric-Modulated Arc Therapy: Effective and Efficient End-to-End Patient-Specific Quality Assurance

    SciTech Connect

    O'Daniel, Jennifer; Das, Shiva; Wu, Q. Jackie; Yin Fangfang

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: To explore an effective and efficient end-to-end patient-specific quality-assurance (QA) protocol for volumetric modulated arc radiotherapy (VMAT) and to evaluate the suitability of a stationary radiotherapy QA device (two-dimensional [2D] ion chamber array) for VMAT QA. Methods and Materials: Three methods were used to analyze 39 VMAT treatment plans for brain, spine, and prostate: ion chamber (one-dimensional absolute, n = 39), film (2D relative, coronal/sagittal, n = 8), and 2D ion chamber array (ICA, 2D absolute, coronal/sagittal, n = 39) measurements. All measurements were compared with the treatment planning system dose calculation either via gamma analysis (3%, 3- to 4-mm distance-to-agreement criteria) or absolute point dose comparison. The film and ion chamber results were similarly compared with the ICA measurements. Results: Absolute point dose measurements agreed well with treatment planning system computed doses (ion chamber: median deviation, 1.2%, range, -0.6% to 3.3%; ICA: median deviation, 0.6%, range, -1.8% to 2.9%). The relative 2D dose measurements also showed good agreement with computed doses (>93% of pixels in all films passing gamma, >90% of pixels in all ICA measurements passing gamma). The ICA relative dose results were highly similar to those of film (>90% of pixels passing gamma). The coronal and sagittal ICA measurements were statistically indistinguishable by the paired t test with a hypothesized mean difference of 0.1%. The ion chamber and ICA absolute dose measurements showed a similar trend but had disparities of 2-3% in 18% of plans. Conclusions: After validating the new VMAT implementation with ion chamber, film, and ICA, we were able to maintain an effective yet efficient patient-specific VMAT QA protocol by reducing from five (ion chamber, film, and ICA) to two measurements (ion chamber and single ICA) per plan. The ICA (Matrixx Registered-Sign , IBA Dosimetry) was validated for VMAT QA, but ion chamber measurements are

  13. The End-To-End Safety Verification Process Implemented to Ensure Safe Operations of the Columbus Research Module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arndt, J.; Kreimer, J.

    2010-09-01

    The European Space Laboratory COLUMBUS was launched in February 2008 with NASA Space Shuttle Atlantis. Since successful docking and activation this manned laboratory forms part of the International Space Station(ISS). Depending on the objectives of the Mission Increments the on-orbit configuration of the COLUMBUS Module varies with each increment. This paper describes the end-to-end verification which has been implemented to ensure safe operations under the condition of a changing on-orbit configuration. That verification process has to cover not only the configuration changes as foreseen by the Mission Increment planning but also those configuration changes on short notice which become necessary due to near real-time requests initiated by crew or Flight Control, and changes - most challenging since unpredictable - due to on-orbit anomalies. Subject of the safety verification is on one hand the on orbit configuration itself including the hardware and software products, on the other hand the related Ground facilities needed for commanding of and communication to the on-orbit System. But also the operational products, e.g. the procedures prepared for crew and ground control in accordance to increment planning, are subject of the overall safety verification. In order to analyse the on-orbit configuration for potential hazards and to verify the implementation of the related Safety required hazard controls, a hierarchical approach is applied. The key element of the analytical safety integration of the whole COLUMBUS Payload Complement including hardware owned by International Partners is the Integrated Experiment Hazard Assessment(IEHA). The IEHA especially identifies those hazardous scenarios which could potentially arise through physical and operational interaction of experiments. A major challenge is the implementation of a Safety process which owns quite some rigidity in order to provide reliable verification of on-board Safety and which likewise provides enough

  14. SBSS Demonstrator: A design for efficient demonstration of Space-based Space Surveillance end-to-end capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utzmann, Jens; Flohrer, Tim; Schildknecht, Thomas; Wagner, Axel; Silha, Jiri; Willemsen, Philip; Teston, Frederic

    This paper presents the capabilities of a Space-Based Space Surveillance (SBSS) demonstration mission for Space Surveillance and Tracking (SST) based on a micro-satellite platform. The results have been produced in the frame of ESA’s "Assessment Study for Space Based Space Surveillance Demonstration Mission" performed by the Airbus Defence and Space consortium. Space Surveillance and Tracking is part of Space Situational Awareness (SSA) and covers the detection, tracking and cataloguing of space debris and satellites. Derived SST services comprise a catalogue of these man-made objects, collision warning, detection and characterisation of in-orbit fragmentations, sub-catalogue debris characterisation, etc. The assessment of SBSS in a SST system architecture has shown that both an operational SBSS and also already a well-designed space-based demonstrator can provide substantial performance in terms of surveillance and tracking of beyond-LEO objects. Especially the early deployment of a demonstrator, possible by using standard equipment, could boost initial operating capability and create a self-maintained object catalogue. Furthermore, unique statistical information about small-size LEO debris (mm size) can be collected in-situ. Unlike classical technology demonstration missions, the primary goal is the demonstration and optimisation of the functional elements in a complex end-to-end chain (mission planning, observation strategies, data acquisition, processing and fusion, etc.) until the final products can be offered to the users. Also past and current missions by the US (SBV, SBSS) and Canada (Sapphire, NEOSSat) underline the advantages of space-based space surveillance. The presented SBSS system concept takes the ESA SST System Requirements (derived within the ESA SSA Preparatory Program) into account and aims at fulfilling SST core requirements in a stand-alone manner. Additionally, requirments for detection and characterisation of small-sized LEO debris are

  15. WE-G-BRD-08: End-To-End Targeting Accuracy of the Gamma Knife for Trigeminal Neuralgia

    SciTech Connect

    Brezovich, I; Wu, X; Duan, J; Benhabib, S; Huang, M; Shen, S; Cardan, R; Popple, R

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Current QA procedures verify accuracy of individual equipment parameters, but may not include CT and MRI localizers. This study uses an end-to-end approach to measure the overall targeting errors in individual patients previously treated for trigeminal neuralgia. Methods: The trigeminal nerve is simulated by a 3 mm long, 3.175 mm (1/8 inch) diameter MRI contrast-filled cavity embedded within a PMMA plastic capsule. The capsule is positioned within the head frame such that the cavity position matches the Gamma Knife coordinates of 10 previously treated patients. Gafchromic EBT2 film is placed at the center of the cavity in coronal and sagittal orientations. The films are marked with a pin prick to identify the cavity center. Treatments are planned for delivery with 4 mm collimators using MRI and CT scans acquired with the clinical localizer boxes and acquisition protocols. Coordinates of shots are chosen so that the cavity is centered within the 50% isodose volume. Following irradiation, the films are scanned and analyzed. Targeting errors are defined as the distance between the pin prick and the centroid of the 50% isodose line. Results: Averaged over 10 patient simulations, targeting errors along the x, y and z coordinates (patient left-to-right, posterior-anterior, head-to-foot) were, respectively, −0.060 +/− 0.363, −0.350 +/− 0.253, and 0.364 +/− 0.191 mm when MRI was used for treatment planning. Planning according to CT exhibited generally smaller errors, namely 0.109 +/− 0.167, −0.191 +/− 0.144, and 0.211 +/− 0.94 mm. The largest errors in MRI and CT planned treatments were, respectively, y = −0.761 and x = 0.428 mm. Conclusion: Unless patient motion or stronger MRI image distortion in actual treatments caused additional errors, all patients received the prescribed dose, i.e., the targeted section of the trig±eminal nerve was contained within the 50% isodose surface in all cases.

  16. END-TO-END VERSUS END-TO-SIDE ANASTOMOSIS IN THE TREATMENT OF ESOPHAGEAL ATRESIA OR TRACHEO-ESOPHAGEAL FISTULA

    PubMed Central

    ASKARPOUR, Shahnam; OSTADIAN, Nasrollah; PEYVASTEH, Mehran; ALAVI, Mostafa; JAVAHERIZADEH, Hazhir

    2016-01-01

    Background : Dehiscence of esophageal anastomosis is frequent and there are still controversies which type of anastomosis is preferred to diminish its incidence Aim : To compare end-to-end anastomosis versus end-to-side anastomosis in terms of anastomotic leakage, esophageal stricture and gastroesophageal reflux symptom. Methods : This study was carried out for two year starting from 2012. End-to-side and end-to-side anastomosis were compared in terms of anastomotic leakage, esophageal stricture, gastroesophageal reflux symptom, length of surgery and pack cell infusion. Results : Respectively to end-to-end and end-to-side anastomosis, duration of surgery was 127.63±13.393 minutes and 130.29±10.727 minutes (p=0.353); esophageal stricture was noted in two (5.9%) and eight (21.1%) cases (p=0.09); gastroesophageal reflux disease was detected in six (15.8%) and three (8.8%) cases (p=0.485); anastomotic leakage was found in five (13.2%) and one (2.9%) cases (p=0.203); duration of neonatal intensive care unit admission was significantly shorter in end-to-end (11.05±2.438 day) compared to end-to-side anastomosis (13.88±2.306 day) (p<0.0001). Conclusion : There were no significant differences between end-to-end and end-to-side anastomosis except for length of neonatal intensive care unit admission which was significantly shorter in end-to-end anastomosis group. PMID:27120740

  17. Development and evaluation of an end-to-end test for head and neck IMRT with a novel multiple-dosimetric modality phantom.

    PubMed

    Zakjevskii, Viatcheslav V; Knill, Cory S; Rakowski, Joseph T; Snyder, Michael G

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive end-to-end test for head and neck IMRT treatments was developed using a custom phantom designed to utilize multiple dosimetry devices. Initial end-to-end test and custom H&N phantom were designed to yield maximum informa-tion in anatomical regions significant to H&N plans with respect to: (i) geometric accuracy, (ii) dosimetric accuracy, and (iii) treatment reproducibility. The phantom was designed in collaboration with Integrated Medical Technologies. The phantom was imaged on a CT simulator and the CT was reconstructed with 1 mm slice thick-ness and imported into Varian's Eclipse treatment planning system. OARs and the PTV were contoured with the aid of Smart Segmentation. A clinical template was used to create an eight-field IMRT plan and dose was calculated with heterogeneity correction on. Plans were delivered with a TrueBeam equipped with a high definition MLC. Preliminary end-to-end results were measured using film, ion chambers, and optically stimulated luminescent dosimeters (OSLDs). Ion chamber dose measure-ments were compared to the treatment planning system. Films were analyzed with FilmQA Pro using composite gamma index. OSLDs were read with a MicroStar reader using a custom calibration curve. Final phantom design incorporated two axial and one coronal film planes with 18 OSLD locations adjacent to those planes as well as four locations for IMRT ionization chambers below inferior film plane. The end-to-end test was consistently reproducible, resulting in average gamma pass rate greater than 99% using 3%/3 mm analysis criteria, and average OSLD and ion chamber measurements within 1% of planned dose. After initial calibration of OSLD and film systems, the end-to-end test provides next-day results, allowing for integration in routine clinical QA. Preliminary trials have demonstrated that our end-to-end is a reproducible QA tool that enables the ongoing evaluation of dosimetric and geometric accuracy of clinical head and neck treatments

  18. Modelling and simulation of the mechanical response of a Dacron graft in the pressurization test and an end-to-end anastomosis.

    PubMed

    Bustos, Claudio A; García-Herrera, Claudio M; Celentano, Diego J

    2016-08-01

    This work presents the modeling and simulation of the mechanical response of a Dacron graft in the pressurization test and its clinical application in the analysis of an end-to-end anastomosis. Both problems are studied via an anisotropic constitutive model that was calibrated by means of previously reported uniaxial tensile tests. First, the simulation of the pressurization test allows the validation of the experimental material characterization that included tests carried out for different levels of axial stretching. Then, the analysis of an end-to-end anastomosis under an idealized geometry is proposed. This case consists in evaluating the mechanical performance of the graft together with the stresses and deformations in the neighborhood of the Dacron with the artery. This research contributes important data to understand the functioning of the graft and the possibility of extending the analysis to complex numerical cases like its insertion in the aortic arch. PMID:26826765

  19. Including 10-Gigabit-capable Passive Optical Network under End-to-End Generalized Multi-Protocol Label Switching Provisioned Quality of Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brewka, Lukasz; Gavler, Anders; Wessing, Henrik; Dittmann, Lars

    2012-04-01

    End-to-end quality of service provisioning is still a challenging task despite many years of research and development in this area. Considering a generalized multi-protocol label switching based core/metro network and resource reservation protocol capable home gateways, it is the access part of the network where quality of service signaling is bridged. This article proposes strategies for generalized multi-protocol label switching control over next emerging passive optical network standard, i.e., the 10-gigabit-capable passive optical network. Node management and resource allocation approaches are discussed, and possible issues are raised. The analysis shows that consideration of a 10-gigabit-capable passive optical network as a generalized multi-protocol label switching controlled domain is valid and may advance end-to-end quality of service provisioning for passive optical network based customers.

  20. End-to-end small bowel anastomosis by temperature controlled CO2 laser soldering and an albumin stent: a feasibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simhon, David; Kopelman, Doron; Hashmonai, Moshe; Vasserman, Irena; Dror, Michael; Vasilyev, Tamar; Halpern, Marissa; Kariv, Naam; Katzir, Abraham

    2004-07-01

    Introduction: A feasibility study of small intestinal end to end anastomosis was performed in a rabbit model using temperature controlled CO2 laser system and an albumin stent. Compared with standard suturing or clipping, this method does not introduce foreign materials to the repaired wound and therefore, may lead to better and faster wound healing of the anastomotic site. Methods: Transected rabbits small intestines were either laser soldered using 47% bovine serum albumin and intraluminal albumin stent or served as controls in which conventional continuous two-layer end to end anastomosis was performed manually. The integrity of the anastomosis was investigated at the 14th postoperative day. Results: Postoperative course in both treatments was uneventful. The sutured group presented signs of partial bowel obstruction. Macroscopically, no signs of intraluminal fluid leakage were observed in both treatments. Yet, laser soldered intestinal anastomoses demonstrated significant superiority with respect to adhesions and narrowing of the intestinal lumen. Serial histological examinations revealed better wound healing characteristics of the laser soldered anastomotic site. Conclusion: Laser soldering of intestinal end to end anastomosis provide a faster surgical procedure, compared to standard suture technique, with better wound healing results. It is expected that this technique may be adopted in the future for minimal invasive surgeries.

  1. A Vehicle Management End-to-End Testing and Analysis Platform for Validation of Mission and Fault Management Algorithms to Reduce Risk for NASA's Space Launch System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trevino, Luis; Johnson, Stephen B.; Patterson, Jonathan; Teare, David

    2015-01-01

    The development of the Space Launch System (SLS) launch vehicle requires cross discipline teams with extensive knowledge of launch vehicle subsystems, information theory, and autonomous algorithms dealing with all operations from pre-launch through on orbit operations. The characteristics of these systems must be matched with the autonomous algorithm monitoring and mitigation capabilities for accurate control and response to abnormal conditions throughout all vehicle mission flight phases, including precipitating safing actions and crew aborts. This presents a large complex systems engineering challenge being addressed in part by focusing on the specific subsystems handling of off-nominal mission and fault tolerance. Using traditional model based system and software engineering design principles from the Unified Modeling Language (UML), the Mission and Fault Management (M&FM) algorithms are crafted and vetted in specialized Integrated Development Teams composed of multiple development disciplines. NASA also has formed an M&FM team for addressing fault management early in the development lifecycle. This team has developed a dedicated Vehicle Management End-to-End Testbed (VMET) that integrates specific M&FM algorithms, specialized nominal and off-nominal test cases, and vendor-supplied physics-based launch vehicle subsystem models. The flexibility of VMET enables thorough testing of the M&FM algorithms by providing configurable suites of both nominal and off-nominal test cases to validate the algorithms utilizing actual subsystem models. The intent is to validate the algorithms and substantiate them with performance baselines for each of the vehicle subsystems in an independent platform exterior to flight software test processes. In any software development process there is inherent risk in the interpretation and implementation of concepts into software through requirements and test processes. Risk reduction is addressed by working with other organizations such as S

  2. Geographic Information Systems-Transportation ISTEA management systems server-net prototype pooled fund study: Phase B summary

    SciTech Connect

    Espinoza, J. Jr.; Dean, C.D.; Armstrong, H.M.

    1997-06-01

    The Geographic Information System-Transportation (GIS-T) ISTEA Management Systems Server Net Prototype Pooled Fund Study represents the first national cooperative effort in the transportation industry to address the management and monitoring systems as well as the statewide and metropolitan transportation planning requirements of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA). The Study was initiated in November 1993 through the Alliance for Transportation Research and under the leadership of the New Mexico State Highway and Transportation Department. Sandia National Laboratories, an Alliance partner, and Geographic Paradigm Computing. Inc. provided technical leadership for the project. In 1992, the Alliance for Transportation Research, the New Mexico State Highway and Transportation Department, Sandia National Laboratories, and Geographic Paradigm Computing, Inc., proposed a comprehensive research agenda for GIS-T. That program outlined a national effort to synthesize new transportation policy initiatives (e.g., management systems and Intelligent Transportation Systems) with the GIS-T server net ideas contained in the NCHRP project {open_quotes}Adaptation of GIS to Transportation{close_quotes}. After much consultation with state, federal, and private interests, a project proposal based on this agenda was prepared and resulted in this Study. The general objective of the Study was to develop GIS-T server net prototypes supporting the ISTEA requirements for transportation planning and management and monitoring systems. This objective can be further qualified to: (1) Create integrated information system architectures and design requirements encompassing transportation planning activities and data. (2) Encourage the development of functional GIS-T server net prototypes. (3) Demonstrate multiple information systems implemented in a server net environment.

  3. An end-to-end system in support of a broad scope of GOES-R sensor and data processing study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Hung-Lung

    2005-08-01

    The mission of NOAA's Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite System (GOES) R series satellites, in the 2012 time frame, is to provide continuous, near real-time meteorological, oceanographic, solar, and space environment data that supports NOAA's strategic mission goals. It presents an exciting opportunity to explore new instruments, satellite designs, and system architectures utilizing new communication and instrument technologies in order to meet the ever-increasing demands made of Earth observation systems by national agencies and end users alike. The GOES-R sensor suite includes a 16 spectral band Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI), an approximately 1500 high spectral resolution band Hyperspectral Environmental Suite (HES), plus other sensors designed to detect lightning and to explore the ocean, solar and space environment. The Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies (CIMSS) as part of the Space Science and Engineering Center (SSEC) of the University of Wisconsin-Madison, the long time partner of NOAA, has developed the first operational end-to-end processing system for GOES. Based on this heritage, and with recent support from the NASA/NOAA Geosynchrous Imaging FTS (GIFTS) project, the Navy's Multiple University Research Initiative (MURI), and NOAA's GOES-R Risk Reduction program, SSEC has built a near-complete end-to-end system that is capable of simulating sensor measurements from top of atmosphere radiances, raw sensor data (level 0) through calibrated and navigated sensor physical measurements (level 1) to the processed products (level 2). In this paper, the SSEC Hyperspectral Imaging and Sounding Simulator and Processor (HISSP) will be presented in detail. HISSP is capable of demonstrating most of the processing functions such as data compression/decompression, sensor calibration, data processing, algorithm development, and product generation. In summary, HISSP is an end-to-end system designed to support both government and

  4. On-Orbit Performance Verification and End-To-End Characterization of the TDRS-H Ka-band Communications Payload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toral, Marco; Wesdock, John; Kassa, Abby; Pogorelc, Patsy; Jenkens, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    In June 2000, NASA launched the first of three next generation Tracking and Data Relay Satellites (TDRS-H) equipped with a Ka-band forward and return service capability. This Ka-band service supports forward data rates of up to 25 Mb/sec using the 22.55-23.55 GHz space-to-space allocation. Return services are supported via channel bandwidths of 225 and 650 MHz for data rates up to at least 800 Mb/sec using the 25.25 - 27.5 GHz space-to-space allocation. As part of NASA's acceptance of the TDRS-H spacecraft, an extensive on-orbit calibration, verification and characterization effort was performed to ensure that on-orbit spacecraft performance is within specified limits. This process verified the compliance of the Ka-band communications payload with all performance specifications, and demonstrated an end-to-end Ka-band service capability. This paper summarizes the results of the TDRS-H Ka-band communications payload on-orbit performance verification and end-to-end service characterization. Performance parameters addressed include antenna gain pattern, antenna Gain-to-System Noise Temperature (G/T), Effective Isotropically Radiated Power (EIRP), antenna pointing accuracy, frequency tunability, channel magnitude response, and Ka-band service Bit-Error-Rate (BER) performance.

  5. On-Orbit Performance Verification and End-to-End Characterization of the TDRS-H Ka-Band Communications Payload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toral, Marco; Wesdock, John; Kassa, Abby; Pogorelc, Patsy; Jenkens, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    In June 2000, NASA launched the first of three next generation Tracking and Data Relay Satellites (TDRS-H) equipped with a Ka-band forward and return service capability. This Ka-band service supports forward data rates up to 25 Mb/sec using the 22.55 - 23.55 GHz space-to-space allocation. Return services are supported via channel bandwidths of 225 and 650 MHz for data rates up to 800 Mb/sec (QPSK) using the 25.25 - 27.5 GHz space-to-space allocation. As part of NASA's acceptance of the TDRS-H spacecraft, an extensive on-orbit calibration, verification and characterization effort was performed to ensure that on-orbit spacecraft performance is within specified limits. This process verified the compliance of the Ka-band communications payload with all performance specifications and demonstrated an end-to-end Ka-band service capability. This paper summarizes the results of the TDRS-H Ka-band communications payload on-orbit performance verification and end-to-end service characterization. Performance parameters addressed include Effective Isotropically Radiated Power (EIRP), antenna Gain-to-System Noise Temperature (G/T), antenna gain pattern, frequency tunability and accuracy, channel magnitude response, and Ka-band service Bit-Error-Rate (BER) performance.

  6. User-oriented end-to-end transport protocols for the real-time distribution of telemetry data from NASA spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooke, A. J.

    1979-01-01

    A set of standard telemetry protocols for downlink data flow facilitating the end-to-end transport of instrument data from the spacecraft to the user in real time is proposed. The direct switching of data by autonomous message 'packets' that are assembled by the source instrument on the spacecraft is discussed. The data system consists thus of a format on a message rather than word basis, and such packet telemetry would include standardized protocol headers. Standards are being developed within the NASA End-to-End Data System (NEEDS) program for the source packet and transport frame protocols. The source packet protocol contains identification of both the sequence number of the packet as it is generated by the source and the total length of the packet, while the transport frame protocol includes a sequence count defining the serial number of the frame as it is generated by the spacecraft data system, and a field specifying any 'options' selected in the format of the frame itself.

  7. A Vehicle Management End-to-End Testing and Analysis Platform for Validation of Mission and Fault Management Algorithms to Reduce Risk for NASA's Space Launch System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trevino, Luis; Patterson, Jonathan; Teare, David; Johnson, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    integrates specific M&FM algorithms, specialized nominal and off-nominal test cases, and vendor-supplied physics-based launch vehicle subsystem models. Additionally, the team has developed processes for implementing and validating these algorithms for concept validation and risk reduction for the SLS program. The flexibility of the Vehicle Management End-to-end Testbed (VMET) enables thorough testing of the M&FM algorithms by providing configurable suites of both nominal and off-nominal test cases to validate the developed algorithms utilizing actual subsystem models such as MPS. The intent of VMET is to validate the M&FM algorithms and substantiate them with performance baselines for each of the target vehicle subsystems in an independent platform exterior to the flight software development infrastructure and its related testing entities. In any software development process there is inherent risk in the interpretation and implementation of concepts into software through requirements and test cases into flight software compounded with potential human errors throughout the development lifecycle. Risk reduction is addressed by the M&FM analysis group working with other organizations such as S&MA, Structures and Environments, GNC, Orion, the Crew Office, Flight Operations, and Ground Operations by assessing performance of the M&FM algorithms in terms of their ability to reduce Loss of Mission and Loss of Crew probabilities. In addition, through state machine and diagnostic modeling, analysis efforts investigate a broader suite of failure effects and associated detection and responses that can be tested in VMET to ensure that failures can be detected, and confirm that responses do not create additional risks or cause undesired states through interactive dynamic effects with other algorithms and systems. VMET further contributes to risk reduction by prototyping and exercising the M&FM algorithms early in their implementation and without any inherent hindrances such as meeting FSW

  8. A Vehicle Management End-to-End Testing and Analysis Platform for Validation of Mission and Fault Management Algorithms to Reduce Risk for NASAs Space Launch System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trevino, Luis; Johnson, Stephen B.; Patterson, Jonathan; Teare, David

    2015-01-01

    The engineering development of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) new Space Launch System (SLS) requires cross discipline teams with extensive knowledge of launch vehicle subsystems, information theory, and autonomous algorithms dealing with all operations from pre-launch through on orbit operations. The nominal and off-nominal characteristics of SLS's elements and subsystems must be understood and matched with the autonomous algorithm monitoring and mitigation capabilities for accurate control and response to abnormal conditions throughout all vehicle mission flight phases, including precipitating safing actions and crew aborts. This presents a large and complex systems engineering challenge, which is being addressed in part by focusing on the specific subsystems involved in the handling of off-nominal mission and fault tolerance with response management. Using traditional model-based system and software engineering design principles from the Unified Modeling Language (UML) and Systems Modeling Language (SysML), the Mission and Fault Management (M&FM) algorithms for the vehicle are crafted and vetted in Integrated Development Teams (IDTs) composed of multiple development disciplines such as Systems Engineering (SE), Flight Software (FSW), Safety and Mission Assurance (S&MA) and the major subsystems and vehicle elements such as Main Propulsion Systems (MPS), boosters, avionics, Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GNC), Thrust Vector Control (TVC), and liquid engines. These model-based algorithms and their development lifecycle from inception through FSW certification are an important focus of SLS's development effort to further ensure reliable detection and response to off-nominal vehicle states during all phases of vehicle operation from pre-launch through end of flight. To test and validate these M&FM algorithms a dedicated test-bed was developed for full Vehicle Management End-to-End Testing (VMET). For addressing fault management (FM

  9. GeoMEx: Geographic Information System (GIS) Prototype for Mars Express Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manaud, N.; Frigeri, A.; Ivanov, A. B.

    2013-09-01

    As of today almost a decade of observational data have been returned by the multidisciplinary instruments on-board the ESA's Mars Express spacecraft. All data are archived into the ESA's Planetary Science Archive (PSA), which is the central repository for all ESA's Solar System missions [1]. Data users can perform advanced queries and retrieve data from the PSA using graphical and map-based search interfaces, or via direct FTP download [2]. However the PSA still offers limited geometrical search and visualisation capabilities that are essential for scientists to identify their data of interest. A former study has shown [3] that this limitation is mostly due to the fact that (1) only a subset of the instruments observations geometry information has been modeled and ingested into the PSA, and (2) that the access to that information from GIS software is impossible without going through a cumbersome and undocumented process. With the increasing number of Mars GIS data sets available to the community [4], GIS software have become invaluable tools for researchers to capture, manage, visualise, and analyse data from various sources. Although Mars Express surface imaging data are natural candidates for use in a GIS environment, other non-imaging instruments data (subsurface, atmosphere, plasma) integration is being investigated [5]. The objective of this work is to develop a GIS prototype that will integrate all the Mars Express instruments observations geometry information into a spatial database that can be accessed from external GIS software using standard WMS and WFS protocols. We will firstly focus on the integration of surface and subsurface instruments data (HRSC, OMEGA, MARSIS). In addition to the geometry information, base and context maps of Mars derived from surface mapping instruments data will also be ingested into the system. The system back-end architecture will be implemented using open-source GIS frameworks: PostgreSQL/PostGIS for the database, and Map

  10. Mixed integer nonlinear programming model of wireless pricing scheme with QoS attribute of bandwidth and end-to-end delay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irmeilyana, Puspita, Fitri Maya; Indrawati

    2016-02-01

    The pricing for wireless networks is developed by considering linearity factors, elasticity price and price factors. Mixed Integer Nonlinear Programming of wireless pricing model is proposed as the nonlinear programming problem that can be solved optimally using LINGO 13.0. The solutions are expected to give some information about the connections between the acceptance factor and the price. Previous model worked on the model that focuses on bandwidth as the QoS attribute. The models attempt to maximize the total price for a connection based on QoS parameter. The QoS attributes used will be the bandwidth and the end to end delay that affect the traffic. The maximum goal to maximum price is achieved when the provider determine the requirement for the increment or decrement of price change due to QoS change and amount of QoS value.

  11. Demonstration of a fully-coupled end-to-end model for small pelagic fish using sardine and anchovy in the California Current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, Kenneth A.; Fiechter, Jerome; Curchitser, Enrique N.; Hedstrom, Kate; Bernal, Miguel; Creekmore, Sean; Haynie, Alan; Ito, Shin-ichi; Lluch-Cota, Salvador; Megrey, Bernard A.; Edwards, Chris A.; Checkley, Dave; Koslow, Tony; McClatchie, Sam; Werner, Francisco; MacCall, Alec; Agostini, Vera

    2015-11-01

    We describe and document an end-to-end model of anchovy and sardine population dynamics in the California Current as a proof of principle that such coupled models can be developed and implemented. The end-to-end model is 3-dimensional, time-varying, and multispecies, and consists of four coupled submodels: hydrodynamics, Eulerian nutrient-phytoplankton-zooplankton (NPZ), an individual-based full life cycle anchovy and sardine submodel, and an agent-based fishing fleet submodel. A predator roughly mimicking albacore was included as individuals that consumed anchovy and sardine. All submodels were coded within the ROMS open-source community model, and used the same resolution spatial grid and were all solved simultaneously to allow for possible feedbacks among the submodels. We used a super-individual approach and solved the coupled models on a distributed memory parallel computer, both of which created challenging but resolvable bookkeeping challenges. The anchovy and sardine growth, mortality, reproduction, and movement, and the fishing fleet submodel, were each calibrated using simplified grids before being inserted into the full end-to-end model. An historical simulation of 1959-2008 was performed, and the latter 45 years analyzed. Sea surface height (SSH) and sea surface temperature (SST) for the historical simulation showed strong horizontal gradients and multi-year scale temporal oscillations related to various climate indices (PDO, NPGO), and both showed responses to ENSO variability. Simulated total phytoplankton was lower during strong El Nino events and higher for the strong 1999 La Nina event. The three zooplankton groups generally corresponded to the spatial and temporal variation in simulated total phytoplankton. Simulated biomasses of anchovy and sardine were within the historical range of observed biomasses but predicted biomasses showed much less inter-annual variation. Anomalies of annual biomasses of anchovy and sardine showed a switch in the mid

  12. End to end assembly of CaO and ZnO nanosheets to propeller-shaped architectures by orientation attachment approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yong; Liu, Fang

    2015-06-01

    Inspired by the agitation effect of propellers, heterogeneous propeller- shaped CaO/ZnO architectures were assembled in aqueous solution. Preferred nucleation and growth of CaO and ZnO nuclei resulted in their hexagonal nanosheets, and they were end to end combined into propeller-shaped architectures by oriented rotation and attachment reactions. When propeller-shaped CaO/ZnO product was used as solid base catalyst to synthesize biodiesel, a high biodiesel yield of 97.5% was achieved. The predominant exposure of active O2- on CaO(0 0 2) and ZnO(0 0 0 2) planes in propeller-shaped CaO/ZnO, led to good catalytic activity and high yield of biodiesel.

  13. Clinical evaluation of a closed, one-stage, stapled, functional, end-to-end jejuno-ileal anastomosis in 5 horses

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Stacy L.; Blackford, James T.; Kelmer, S. Gal

    2012-01-01

    This study describes the outcome and complications in horses that had a closed, one-stage, stapled, functional, end-to-end (COSFE) jejuno-ileal anastomosis (JIA) following resection of compromised small intestine. Medical records were reviewed to identify all horses that had a COSFE JIA performed during exploratory laparotomy and to determine post-operative complications and final outcome. All 5 horses that were identified had successful COSFE JIA with resection of various amounts of distal jejunum and proximal ileum. Post-operative ileus occurred in 1 of the 5 horses. All horses survived at least 1 year after surgery. The survival times and incidence of post-operative ileus compared favorably with published results for other types of small intestinal resection and anastomoses. A COSFE JIA is a viable surgical procedure to correct lesions of the distal jejunum and proximal ileum. PMID:23450864

  14. End-to-End Study of the Transfer of Energy from Magnetosheath Ion Precipitation to the Ionospheric Cusp and Resulting Ion Outflow to the Magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffey, Victoria; Chandler, Michael; Singh, Nagendra; Avanov, Levon

    2003-01-01

    We will show results from an end-to-end study of the energy transfer from injected magnetosheath plasmas to the near-Earth magnetospheric and ionospheric plasmas and the resulting ion outflow to the magnetosphere. This study includes modeling of the evolution of the magnetosheath precipitation in the cusp using a kinetic code with a realistic magnetic field configuration. These evolved, highly non-Maxwellian distributions are used as input to a 2D PIC code to analyze the resulting wave generation. The wave analysis is used in the kinetic code as input to the cold ionospheric ions to study the transfer of energy to these ions and their outflow to the magnetosphere. Observations from the Thermal Ion Dynamics Experiment (TIDE) and other instruments on the Polar Spacecraft will be compared to the modeling.

  15. An end-to-end approach to the EUCLID NISP on-board pre-processing operations: tests and latest results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonoli, Carlotta; Bortoletto, Favio; D'Alessandro, Maurizio; Corcione, Leonardo; Ligori, Sebastiano; Nicastro, Luciano; Trifoglio, Massimo; Valenziano, Luca; Zerbi, Filippo M.; Crouzet, Pierre-Elie; Jung, Andreas

    2012-09-01

    NISP is the near IR spectrophotometer instrument part of the Cosmic Vision Euclid mission. In this paper we describe an end-to-end simulation scheme developed in the framework of the NISP design study to cover the expected focal-plane on-board pre-processing operations. Non-destructive detector readouts are simulated for a number of different readout strategies, taking into account scientific and calibration observations; resulting frames are passed through a series of steps emulating the foreseen on-board pipeline, then compressed to give the final result. In order to verify final frame quality and resulting computational and memory load, we tested this architecture on a number of hardware platforms similar to those possible for the final NISP computing unit. Here we give the results of the latest tests. This paper mainly reports the technical status at the end of the Definition Phase and it is presented on behalf of the Euclid Consortium.

  16. Application of modified direct denitration to support the ORNL coupled-end-to-end demonstration in production of mixed oxides suitable for pellet fabrication

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, E.A.; Vedder, R.J.; Felker, L.K.; Marschman, S.C.

    2007-07-01

    The current and future development of the Modified Direct Denitration (MDD) process is in support of Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL) Coupled End-to-End (CETE) research, development, and demonstration (R and D) of proposed advanced fuel reprocessing and fuel fabrication processes. This work will involve the co-conversion of the U/Pu/Np product streams from the UREX+3 separation flow sheet utilizing the existing MDD glove-box setup and the in-cell co-conversion of the U/Pu/Np/Am/Cm product streams from the UREX+1a flow sheet. Characterization equipment is being procured and installed. Oxide powder studies are being done on calcination/reduction variables, as well as pressing and sintering of pellets to permit metallographic examinations. (authors)

  17. The role of environmental controls in determining sardine and anchovy population cycles in the California Current: Analysis of an end-to-end model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiechter, Jerome; Rose, Kenneth A.; Curchitser, Enrique N.; Hedstrom, Katherine S.

    2015-11-01

    Sardine and anchovy are two forage species of particular interest because of their low-frequency cycles in adult abundance in boundary current regions, combined with a commercially relevant contribution to the global marine food catch. While several hypotheses have been put forth to explain decadal shifts in sardine and anchovy populations, a mechanistic basis for how the physics, biogeochemistry, and biology combine to produce patterns of synchronous variability across widely separated systems has remained elusive. The present study uses a 50-year (1959-2008) simulation of a fully coupled end-to-end ecosystem model configured for sardine and anchovy in the California Current System to investigate how environmental processes control their population dynamics. The results illustrate that slightly different temperature and diet preferences can lead to significantly different responses to environmental variability. Simulated adult population fluctuations are associated with age-1 growth (via age-2 egg production) and prey availability for anchovy, while they depend primarily on age-0 survival and temperature for sardine. The analysis also hints at potential linkages to known modes of climate variability, whereby changes in adult abundance are related to ENSO for anchovy and to the PDO for sardine. The connection to the PDO and ENSO is consistent with modes of interannual and decadal variability that would alternatively favor anchovy during years of cooler temperatures and higher prey availability, and sardine during years of warmer temperatures and lower prey availability. While the end-to-end ecosystem model provides valuable insight on potential relationships between environmental conditions and sardine and anchovy population dynamics, understanding the complex interplay, and potential lags, between the full array of processes controlling their abundances in the California Current System remains an on-going challenge.

  18. Imaging and dosimetric errors in 4D PET/CT-guided radiotherapy from patient-specific respiratory patterns: a dynamic motion phantom end-to-end study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowen, S. R.; Nyflot, M. J.; Herrmann, C.; Groh, C. M.; Meyer, J.; Wollenweber, S. D.; Stearns, C. W.; Kinahan, P. E.; Sandison, G. A.

    2015-05-01

    Effective positron emission tomography / computed tomography (PET/CT) guidance in radiotherapy of lung cancer requires estimation and mitigation of errors due to respiratory motion. An end-to-end workflow was developed to measure patient-specific motion-induced uncertainties in imaging, treatment planning, and radiation delivery with respiratory motion phantoms and dosimeters. A custom torso phantom with inserts mimicking normal lung tissue and lung lesion was filled with [18F]FDG. The lung lesion insert was driven by six different patient-specific respiratory patterns or kept stationary. PET/CT images were acquired under motionless ground truth, tidal breathing motion-averaged (3D), and respiratory phase-correlated (4D) conditions. Target volumes were estimated by standardized uptake value (SUV) thresholds that accurately defined the ground-truth lesion volume. Non-uniform dose-painting plans using volumetrically modulated arc therapy were optimized for fixed normal lung and spinal cord objectives and variable PET-based target objectives. Resulting plans were delivered to a cylindrical diode array at rest, in motion on a platform driven by the same respiratory patterns (3D), or motion-compensated by a robotic couch with an infrared camera tracking system (4D). Errors were estimated relative to the static ground truth condition for mean target-to-background (T/Bmean) ratios, target volumes, planned equivalent uniform target doses, and 2%-2 mm gamma delivery passing rates. Relative to motionless ground truth conditions, PET/CT imaging errors were on the order of 10-20%, treatment planning errors were 5-10%, and treatment delivery errors were 5-30% without motion compensation. Errors from residual motion following compensation methods were reduced to 5-10% in PET/CT imaging, <5% in treatment planning, and <2% in treatment delivery. We have demonstrated that estimation of respiratory motion uncertainty and its propagation from PET/CT imaging to RT planning, and RT

  19. Imaging and dosimetric errors in 4D PET/CT-guided radiotherapy from patient-specific respiratory patterns: a dynamic motion phantom end-to-end study

    PubMed Central

    Bowen, S R; Nyflot, M J; Hermann, C; Groh, C; Meyer, J; Wollenweber, S D; Stearns, C W; Kinahan, P E; Sandison, G A

    2015-01-01

    Effective positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) guidance in radiotherapy of lung cancer requires estimation and mitigation of errors due to respiratory motion. An end-to-end workflow was developed to measure patient-specific motion-induced uncertainties in imaging, treatment planning, and radiation delivery with respiratory motion phantoms and dosimeters. A custom torso phantom with inserts mimicking normal lung tissue and lung lesion was filled with [18F]FDG. The lung lesion insert was driven by 6 different patient-specific respiratory patterns or kept stationary. PET/CT images were acquired under motionless ground truth, tidal breathing motion-averaged (3D), and respiratory phase-correlated (4D) conditions. Target volumes were estimated by standardized uptake value (SUV) thresholds that accurately defined the ground-truth lesion volume. Non-uniform dose-painting plans using volumetrically modulated arc therapy (VMAT) were optimized for fixed normal lung and spinal cord objectives and variable PET-based target objectives. Resulting plans were delivered to a cylindrical diode array at rest, in motion on a platform driven by the same respiratory patterns (3D), or motion-compensated by a robotic couch with an infrared camera tracking system (4D). Errors were estimated relative to the static ground truth condition for mean target-to-background (T/Bmean) ratios, target volumes, planned equivalent uniform target doses (EUD), and 2%-2mm gamma delivery passing rates. Relative to motionless ground truth conditions, PET/CT imaging errors were on the order of 10–20%, treatment planning errors were 5–10%, and treatment delivery errors were 5–30% without motion compensation. Errors from residual motion following compensation methods were reduced to 5–10% in PET/CT imaging, < 5% in treatment planning, and < 2% in treatment delivery. We have demonstrated that estimation of respiratory motion uncertainty and its propagation from PET/CT imaging to RT

  20. Performances of the fractal iterative method with an internal model control law on the ESO end-to-end ELT adaptive optics simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Béchet, C.; Le Louarn, M.; Tallon, M.; Thiébaut, É.

    2008-07-01

    Adaptive Optics systems under study for the Extremely Large Telescopes gave rise to a new generation of algorithms for both wavefront reconstruction and the control law. In the first place, the large number of controlled actuators impose the use of computationally efficient methods. Secondly, the performance criterion is no longer solely based on nulling residual measurements. Priors on turbulence must be inserted. In order to satisfy these two requirements, we suggested to associate the Fractal Iterative Method for the estimation step with an Internal Model Control. This combination has now been tested on an end-to-end adaptive optics numerical simulator at ESO, named Octopus. Results are presented here and performance of our method is compared to the classical Matrix-Vector Multiplication combined with a pure integrator. In the light of a theoretical analysis of our control algorithm, we investigate the influence of several errors contributions on our simulations. The reconstruction error varies with the signal-to-noise ratio but is limited by the use of priors. The ratio between the system loop delay and the wavefront coherence time also impacts on the reachable Strehl ratio. Whereas no instabilities are observed, correction quality is obviously affected at low flux, when subapertures extinctions are frequent. Last but not least, the simulations have demonstrated the robustness of the method with respect to sensor modeling errors and actuators misalignments.

  1. Ecosystem limits to food web fluxes and fisheries yields in the North Sea simulated with an end-to-end food web model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heath, Michael R.

    2012-09-01

    Equilibrium yields from an exploited fish stock represent the surplus production remaining after accounting for losses due to predation. However, most estimates of maximum sustainable yield, upon which fisheries management targets are partly based, assume that productivity and predation rates are constant in time or at least stationary. This means that there is no recognition of the potential for interaction between different fishing sectors. Here, an end-to-end ecosystem model is developed to explore the possible scale and mechanisms of interactions between pelagic and demersal fishing in the North Sea. The model simulates fluxes of nitrogen between detritus, inorganic nutrient and guilds of taxa spanning phytoplankton to mammals. The structure strikes a balance between graininess in space, taxonomy and demography, and the need to constrain the parameter-count sufficiently to enable automatic parameter optimization. Simulated annealing is used to locate the maximum likelihood parameter set, given the model structure and a suite of observations of annual rates of production and fluxes between guilds. Simulations of the impact of fishery harvesting rates showed that equilibrium yields of pelagic and demersal fish were strongly interrelated due to a variety of top-down and bottom-up food web interactions. The results clearly show that management goals based on simultaneously achieving maximum sustainable biomass yields from all commercial fish stocks is simply unattainable. Trade-offs between, for example, pelagic and demersal fishery sectors and other properties of the ecosystem have to be considered in devising an overall harvesting strategy.

  2. AFCI Coupled End-to-End Research,Development and Demonstration Project: Integrated Off-gas Treatment System Design and Initial Performance - 9226

    SciTech Connect

    Jubin, Robert Thomas; Patton, Bradley D; Ramey, Dan W; Spencer, Barry B

    2009-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory is conducting a complete, coupled end-to-end (CETE) demonstration of advanced nuclear fuel reprocessing to support the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative. This small-scale reprocessing operation provides a unique opportunity to test integrated off-gas treatment systems designed to recover the primary volatile fission and activation products (H-3, C-14, Kr-85, and I-139) released from the spent nuclear fuel (SNF). The CETE project will demonstrate an advanced head-end process, referred to as voloxidation, designed to condition the SNF, separate the SNF from the cladding, and release tritium contained in the fuel matrix. The off-gas from the dry voloxidation process as well as from the more traditional fuel dissolution process will be treated separately and the volatile components recovered. This paper provides descriptions of the off-gas treatment systems for both the voloxidation process and for the fuel dissolution process and provides preliminary results from the initial CETE processing runs. Impacts of processing parameters on the relative quantities of volatile components released and recovery efficiencies are evaluated.

  3. Morphological study of the healing process after diode laser-assisted end-to-end microanastomosis: comparison with conventional manual suture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Jing; Rouy, Simone; Prudhomme, Michel; Godlewski, Guilhem; Chambettaz, Francois; Delacretaz, Guy P.; Salathe, Rene-Paul

    1996-01-01

    A series of carotid end-to-end diode laser assisted microvascular anastomosis (LAMA) versus control ateral conventional suture microanastomosis (CMA) were performed in 120 Wistar rats (in the same animal, LAMA performed in the left side and CMA in the right). The optic and scanning electron microscopic examinations were assessed from day 0 to day 210. The results revealed that on day 0 LAMA gave rise to proteins deneturation and collagens fusion of the media and adventitia in the arterial wall. Re-endothelialization of anastomotic line began at day 3, as well as a large number of inflammatory aggregated in the adventitia. On day 10 the endothelial cells were restored on the anastomotic site and collagenous network developed in the media. On day 90 proliferation and disorientation of the elastic fibers appeared. A part of elastic laminae had been reconstructed on day 210. In the group CMA, the re- endothelialization developed later than LAMA, and the reconstruction of the elastic laminae failed to happen until day 210. These data suggest that the results of long term healing process after diode LAMA is better than that of CMA in normal artery repair.

  4. Land Mobile Satellite Service (LMSS) channel simulator: An end-to-end hardware simulation and study of the LMSS communications links

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salmasi, A. B. (Editor); Springett, J. C.; Sumida, J. T.; Richter, P. H.

    1984-01-01

    The design and implementation of the Land Mobile Satellite Service (LMSS) channel simulator as a facility for an end to end hardware simulation of the LMSS communications links, primarily with the mobile terminal is described. A number of studies are reported which show the applications of the channel simulator as a facility for validation and assessment of the LMSS design requirements and capabilities by performing quantitative measurements and qualitative audio evaluations for various link design parameters and channel impairments under simulated LMSS operating conditions. As a first application, the LMSS channel simulator was used in the evaluation of a system based on the voice processing and modulation (e.g., NBFM with 30 kHz of channel spacing and a 2 kHz rms frequency deviation for average talkers) selected for the Bell System's Advanced Mobile Phone Service (AMPS). The various details of the hardware design, qualitative audio evaluation techniques, signal to channel impairment measurement techniques, the justifications for criteria of different parameter selection in regards to the voice processing and modulation methods, and the results of a number of parametric studies are further described.

  5. Distributed Large Data-Object Environments: End-to-End Performance Analysis of High Speed Distributed Storage Systems in Wide Area ATM Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, William; Tierney, Brian; Lee, Jason; Hoo, Gary; Thompson, Mary

    1996-01-01

    We have developed and deployed a distributed-parallel storage system (DPSS) in several high speed asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) wide area networks (WAN) testbeds to support several different types of data-intensive applications. Architecturally, the DPSS is a network striped disk array, but is fairly unique in that its implementation allows applications complete freedom to determine optimal data layout, replication and/or coding redundancy strategy, security policy, and dynamic reconfiguration. In conjunction with the DPSS, we have developed a 'top-to-bottom, end-to-end' performance monitoring and analysis methodology that has allowed us to characterize all aspects of the DPSS operating in high speed ATM networks. In particular, we have run a variety of performance monitoring experiments involving the DPSS in the MAGIC testbed, which is a large scale, high speed, ATM network and we describe our experience using the monitoring methodology to identify and correct problems that limit the performance of high speed distributed applications. Finally, the DPSS is part of an overall architecture for using high speed, WAN's for enabling the routine, location independent use of large data-objects. Since this is part of the motivation for a distributed storage system, we describe this architecture.

  6. Design of a satellite end-to-end mission performance simulator for imaging spectrometers and its application to the ESA's FLEX/Sentinel-3 tandem mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vicent, Jorge; Sabater, Neus; Tenjo, Carolina; Acarreta, Juan R.; Manzano, María.; Rivera, Juan P.; Jurado, Pedro; Franco, Raffaella; Alonso, Luis; Moreno, Jose

    2015-09-01

    The performance analysis of a satellite mission requires specific tools that can simulate the behavior of the platform; its payload; and the acquisition of scientific data from synthetic scenes. These software tools, called End-to-End Mission Performance Simulators (E2ES), are promoted by the European Space Agency (ESA) with the goal of consolidating the instrument and mission requirements as well as optimizing the implemented data processing algorithms. Nevertheless, most developed E2ES are designed for a specific satellite mission and can hardly be adapted to other satellite missions. In the frame of ESA's FLEX mission activities, an E2ES is being developed based on a generic architecture for passive optical missions. FLEX E2ES implements a state-of-the-art synthetic scene generator that is coupled with dedicated algorithms that model the platform and instrument characteristics. This work will describe the flexibility of the FLEX E2ES to simulate complex synthetic scenes with a variety of land cover classes, topography and cloud cover that are observed separately by each instrument (FLORIS, OLCI and SLSTR). The implemented algorithms allows modelling the sensor behavior, i.e. the spectral/spatial resampling of the input scene; the geometry of acquisition; the sensor noises and non-uniformity effects (e.g. stray-light, spectral smile and radiometric noise); and the full retrieval scheme up to Level-2 products. It is expected that the design methodology implemented in FLEX E2ES can be used as baseline for other imaging spectrometer missions and will be further expanded towards a generic E2ES software tool.

  7. Assessing the value of seasonal climate forecast information through an end-to-end forecasting framework: Application to U.S. 2012 drought in central Illinois

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafiee-Jood, Majid; Cai, Ximing; Chen, Ligang; Liang, Xin-Zhong; Kumar, Praveen

    2014-08-01

    This study proposes an end-to-end forecasting framework to incorporate operational seasonal climate forecasts to help farmers improve their decisions prior to the crop growth season, which are vulnerable to unanticipated drought conditions. The framework couples a crop growth model with a decision-making model for rainfed agriculture and translates probabilistic seasonal forecasts into more user-related information that can be used to support farmers' decisions on crop type and some market choices (e.g., contracts with ethanol refinery). The regional Climate-Weather Research and Forecasting model (CWRF) driven by two operational general circulation models (GCMs) is used to provide the seasonal forecasts of weather parameters. To better assess the developed framework, CWRF is also driven by observational reanalysis data, which theoretically can be considered as the best seasonal forecast. The proposed framework is applied to the Salt Creek watershed in Illinois that experienced an extreme drought event during 2012 crop growth season. The results show that the forecasts cannot capture the 2012 drought condition in Salt Creek and therefore the suggested decisions can make farmers worse off if the suggestions are adopted. Alternatively, the optimal decisions based on reanalysis-based CWRF forecasts, which can capture the 2012 drought conditions, make farmers better off by suggesting "no-contract" with ethanol refineries. This study suggests that the conventional metric used for ex ante value assessment is not capable of providing meaningful information in the case of extreme drought. Also, it is observed that institutional interventions (e.g., crop insurance) highly influences farmers' decisions and, thereby, the assessment of forecast value.

  8. OpenCyto: an open source infrastructure for scalable, robust, reproducible, and automated, end-to-end flow cytometry data analysis.

    PubMed

    Finak, Greg; Frelinger, Jacob; Jiang, Wenxin; Newell, Evan W; Ramey, John; Davis, Mark M; Kalams, Spyros A; De Rosa, Stephen C; Gottardo, Raphael

    2014-08-01

    Flow cytometry is used increasingly in clinical research for cancer, immunology and vaccines. Technological advances in cytometry instrumentation are increasing the size and dimensionality of data sets, posing a challenge for traditional data management and analysis. Automated analysis methods, despite a general consensus of their importance to the future of the field, have been slow to gain widespread adoption. Here we present OpenCyto, a new BioConductor infrastructure and data analysis framework designed to lower the barrier of entry to automated flow data analysis algorithms by addressing key areas that we believe have held back wider adoption of automated approaches. OpenCyto supports end-to-end data analysis that is robust and reproducible while generating results that are easy to interpret. We have improved the existing, widely used core BioConductor flow cytometry infrastructure by allowing analysis to scale in a memory efficient manner to the large flow data sets that arise in clinical trials, and integrating domain-specific knowledge as part of the pipeline through the hierarchical relationships among cell populations. Pipelines are defined through a text-based csv file, limiting the need to write data-specific code, and are data agnostic to simplify repetitive analysis for core facilities. We demonstrate how to analyze two large cytometry data sets: an intracellular cytokine staining (ICS) data set from a published HIV vaccine trial focused on detecting rare, antigen-specific T-cell populations, where we identify a new subset of CD8 T-cells with a vaccine-regimen specific response that could not be identified through manual analysis, and a CyTOF T-cell phenotyping data set where a large staining panel and many cell populations are a challenge for traditional analysis. The substantial improvements to the core BioConductor flow cytometry packages give OpenCyto the potential for wide adoption. It can rapidly leverage new developments in computational

  9. RTEMP: Exploring an end-to-end, agnostic platform for multidisciplinary real-time analytics in the space physics community and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaddock, D.; Donovan, E.; Spanswick, E.; Jackel, B. J.

    2014-12-01

    Large-scale, real-time, sensor-driven analytics are a highly effective set of tools in many research environments; however, the barrier to entry is expensive and the learning curve is steep. These systems need to operate efficiently from end to end, with the key aspects being data transmission, acquisition, management and organization, and retrieval. When building a generic multidisciplinary platform, acquisition and data management needs to be designed with scalability and flexibility as the primary focus. Additionally, in order to leverage current sensor web technologies, the integration of common sensor data standards (ie. SensorML and SWE Services) should be supported. Perhaps most important, researchers should be able to get started and integrate the platform into their set of research tools as easily and quickly as possible. The largest issue with current platforms is that the sensor data must be formed and described using the previously mentioned standards. As useful as these standards are for organizing data, they are cumbersome to adopt, often restrictive, and are required to be geospatially-driven. Our solution, RTEMP (Real-time Environment Monitoring Platform), is a real-time analytics platform with over ten years and an estimated two million dollars of investment. It has been developed for our continuously expanding requirements of operating and building remote sensors and supporting equipment for space physics research. A key benefit of our approach is RTEMP's ability to manage agnostic data. This allows data that flows through the system to be structured in any way that best addresses the needs of the sensor operators and data users, enabling extensive flexibility and streamlined development and research. Here we begin with an overview of RTEMP and how it is structured. Additionally, we will showcase the ways that we are using RTEMP and how it is being adopted by researchers in an increasingly broad range of other research fields. We will lay out a

  10. A novel PON based UMTS broadband wireless access network architecture with an algorithm to guarantee end to end QoS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sana, Ajaz; Hussain, Shahab; Ali, Mohammed A.; Ahmed, Samir

    2007-09-01

    In this paper we proposes a novel Passive Optical Network (PON) based broadband wireless access network architecture to provide multimedia services (video telephony, video streaming, mobile TV, mobile emails etc) to mobile users. In the conventional wireless access networks, the base stations (Node B) and Radio Network Controllers (RNC) are connected by point to point T1/E1 lines (Iub interface). The T1/E1 lines are expensive and add up to operating costs. Also the resources (transceivers and T1/E1) are designed for peak hours traffic, so most of the time the dedicated resources are idle and wasted. Further more the T1/E1 lines are not capable of supporting bandwidth (BW) required by next generation wireless multimedia services proposed by High Speed Packet Access (HSPA, Rel.5) for Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) and Evolution Data only (EV-DO) for Code Division Multiple Access 2000 (CDMA2000). The proposed PON based back haul can provide Giga bit data rates and Iub interface can be dynamically shared by Node Bs. The BW is dynamically allocated and the unused BW from lightly loaded Node Bs is assigned to heavily loaded Node Bs. We also propose a novel algorithm to provide end to end Quality of Service (QoS) (between RNC and user equipment).The algorithm provides QoS bounds in the wired domain as well as in wireless domain with compensation for wireless link errors. Because of the air interface there can be certain times when the user equipment (UE) is unable to communicate with Node B (usually referred to as link error). Since the link errors are bursty and location dependent. For a proposed approach, the scheduler at the Node B maps priorities and weights for QoS into wireless MAC. The compensations for errored links is provided by the swapping of services between the active users and the user data is divided into flows, with flows allowed to lag or lead. The algorithm guarantees (1)delay and throughput for error-free flows,(2)short term fairness

  11. OpenCyto: An Open Source Infrastructure for Scalable, Robust, Reproducible, and Automated, End-to-End Flow Cytometry Data Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Finak, Greg; Frelinger, Jacob; Jiang, Wenxin; Newell, Evan W.; Ramey, John; Davis, Mark M.; Kalams, Spyros A.; De Rosa, Stephen C.; Gottardo, Raphael

    2014-01-01

    Flow cytometry is used increasingly in clinical research for cancer, immunology and vaccines. Technological advances in cytometry instrumentation are increasing the size and dimensionality of data sets, posing a challenge for traditional data management and analysis. Automated analysis methods, despite a general consensus of their importance to the future of the field, have been slow to gain widespread adoption. Here we present OpenCyto, a new BioConductor infrastructure and data analysis framework designed to lower the barrier of entry to automated flow data analysis algorithms by addressing key areas that we believe have held back wider adoption of automated approaches. OpenCyto supports end-to-end data analysis that is robust and reproducible while generating results that are easy to interpret. We have improved the existing, widely used core BioConductor flow cytometry infrastructure by allowing analysis to scale in a memory efficient manner to the large flow data sets that arise in clinical trials, and integrating domain-specific knowledge as part of the pipeline through the hierarchical relationships among cell populations. Pipelines are defined through a text-based csv file, limiting the need to write data-specific code, and are data agnostic to simplify repetitive analysis for core facilities. We demonstrate how to analyze two large cytometry data sets: an intracellular cytokine staining (ICS) data set from a published HIV vaccine trial focused on detecting rare, antigen-specific T-cell populations, where we identify a new subset of CD8 T-cells with a vaccine-regimen specific response that could not be identified through manual analysis, and a CyTOF T-cell phenotyping data set where a large staining panel and many cell populations are a challenge for traditional analysis. The substantial improvements to the core BioConductor flow cytometry packages give OpenCyto the potential for wide adoption. It can rapidly leverage new developments in computational

  12. SU-E-J-25: End-To-End (E2E) Testing On TomoHDA System Using a Real Pig Head for Intracranial Radiosurgery

    SciTech Connect

    Corradini, N; Leick, M; Bonetti, M; Negretti, L

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To determine the MVCT imaging uncertainty on the TomoHDA system for intracranial radiosurgery treatments. To determine the end-to-end (E2E) overall accuracy of the TomoHDA system for intracranial radiosurgery. Methods: A pig head was obtained from the butcher, cut coronally through the brain, and preserved in formaldehyde. The base of the head was fixed to a positioning plate allowing precise movement, i.e. translation and rotation, in all 6 axes. A repeatability test was performed on the pig head to determine uncertainty in the image bone registration algorithm. Furthermore, the test studied images with MVCT slice thicknesses of 1 and 3 mm in unison with differing scan lengths. A sensitivity test was performed to determine the registration algorithm’s ability to find the absolute position of known translations/rotations of the pig head. The algorithm’s ability to determine absolute position was compared against that of manual operators, i.e. a radiation therapist and radiation oncologist. Finally, E2E tests for intracranial radiosurgery were performed by measuring the delivered dose distributions within the pig head using Gafchromic films. Results: The repeatability test uncertainty was lowest for the MVCTs of 1-mm slice thickness, which measured less than 0.10 mm and 0.12 deg for all axes. For the sensitivity tests, the bone registration algorithm performed better than human eyes and a maximum difference of 0.3 mm and 0.4 deg was observed for the axes. E2E test results in absolute position difference measured 0.03 ± 0.21 mm in x-axis and 0.28 ± 0.18 mm in y-axis. A maximum difference of 0.32 and 0.66 mm was observed in x and y, respectively. The average peak dose difference between measured and calculated dose was 2.7 cGy or 0.4%. Conclusion: Our tests using a pig head phantom estimate the TomoHDA system to have a submillimeter overall accuracy for intracranial radiosurgery.

  13. Quantifying residual ionospheric errors in GNSS radio occultation bending angles based on ensembles of profiles from end-to-end simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, C. L.; Kirchengast, G.; Zhang, K.; Norman, R.; Li, Y.; Zhang, S. C.; Fritzer, J.; Schwaerz, M.; Wu, S. Q.; Tan, Z. X.

    2015-07-01

    The radio occultation (RO) technique using signals from the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), in particular from the Global Positioning System (GPS) so far, is currently widely used to observe the atmosphere for applications such as numerical weather prediction and global climate monitoring. The ionosphere is a major error source in RO measurements at stratospheric altitudes, and a linear ionospheric correction of dual-frequency RO bending angles is commonly used to remove the first-order ionospheric effect. However, the residual ionospheric error (RIE) can still be significant so that it needs to be further mitigated for high-accuracy applications, especially above about 30 km altitude where the RIE is most relevant compared to the magnitude of the neutral atmospheric bending angle. Quantification and careful analyses for better understanding of the RIE is therefore important for enabling benchmark-quality stratospheric RO retrievals. Here we present such an analysis of bending angle RIEs covering the stratosphere and mesosphere, using quasi-realistic end-to-end simulations for a full-day ensemble of RO events. Based on the ensemble simulations we assessed the variation of bending angle RIEs, both biases and standard deviations, with solar activity, latitudinal region and with or without the assumption of ionospheric spherical symmetry and co-existing observing system errors. We find that the bending angle RIE biases in the upper stratosphere and mesosphere, and in all latitudinal zones from low to high latitudes, have a clear negative tendency and a magnitude increasing with solar activity, which is in line with recent empirical studies based on real RO data although we find smaller bias magnitudes, deserving further study in the future. The maximum RIE biases are found at low latitudes during daytime, where they amount to within -0.03 to -0.05 μrad, the smallest at high latitudes (0 to -0.01 μrad; quiet space weather and winter conditions

  14. Quantifying residual ionospheric errors in GNSS radio occultation bending angles based on ensembles of profiles from end-to-end simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, C. L.; Kirchengast, G.; Zhang, K.; Norman, R.; Li, Y.; Zhang, S. C.; Fritzer, J.; Schwaerz, M.; Wu, S. Q.; Tan, Z. X.

    2015-01-01

    The radio occultation (RO) technique using signals from the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), in particular from the Global Positioning System (GPS) so far, is meanwhile widely used to observe the atmosphere for applications such as numerical weather prediction and global climate monitoring. The ionosphere is a major error source in RO measurements at stratospheric altitudes and a linear ionospheric correction of dual-frequency RO bending angles is commonly used to remove the first-order ionospheric effect. However, the residual ionopheric error (RIE) can still be significant so that it needs to be further mitigated for high accuracy applications, especially above about 30 km altitude where the RIE is most relevant compared to the magnitude of the neutral atmospheric bending angle. Quantification and careful analyses for better understanding of the RIE is therefore important towards enabling benchmark-quality stratospheric RO retrievals. Here we present such an analysis of bending angle RIEs covering the stratosphere and mesosphere, using quasi-realistic end-to-end simulations for a full-day ensemble of RO events. Based on the ensemble simulations we assessed the variation of bending angle RIEs, both biases and SDs, with solar activity, latitudinal region, and with or without the assumption of ionospheric spherical symmetry and of co-existing observing system errors. We find that the bending angle RIE biases in the upper stratosphere and mesosphere, and in all latitudinal zones from low- to high-latitudes, have a clear negative tendency and a magnitude increasing with solar activity, in line with recent empirical studies based on real RO data. The maximum RIE biases are found at low latitudes during daytime, where they amount to with in -0.03 to -0.05 μrad, the smallest at high latitudes (0 to -0.01 μrad; quiet space weather and winter conditions). Ionospheric spherical symmetry or asymmetries about the RO event location have only a minor influence on

  15. SU-E-J-194: Dynamic Tumor Tracking End-To-End Testing Using a 4D Thorax Phantom and EBT3 Films

    SciTech Connect

    Su, Z; Wu, J; Li, Z; Mamalui-Hunter, M

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To quantify the Vero linac dosimetric accuracy of the tumor dynamic tracking treatment using EBT3 film embedded in a 4D thorax phantom. Methods: A dynamic thorax phantom with tissue equivalent materials and a film insert were used in this study. The thorax phantom was scanned in 4DCT mode with a viscoil embedded in its film insert composed of lung equivalent material. Dynamic tracking planning was performed using the 50% phase CT set with 5 conformal beams at gantry angles of 330, 15, 60, 105 and 150 degrees. Each field is a 3cm by 3cm square centered at viscoil since there was no solid mass target. Total 3 different 1–2cos4 motion profiles were used with varied motion magnitude and cycle frequency. Before treatment plan irradiation, a 4D motion model of the target was established using a series of acquired fluoroscopic images and infrared markers motion positions. During irradiation, fluoroscopic image monitoring viscoil motion was performed to verify model validity. The irradiated films were scanned and the dose maps were compared to the planned Monte Carlo dose distributions. Gamma analyses using 3%–3mm, 2%–3mm, 3%–2mm, 2%–2mm criteria were performed and presented. Results: For each motion pattern, a 4D motion model was built successfully and the target tracking performance was verified with fluoroscopic monitoring of the viscoil motion and its model predicted locations. The film gamma analysis showed the average pass rates among the 3 motion profiles are 98.14%, 96.2%, 91.3% and 85.61% for 3%–3mm, 2%–3mm, 3%–2mm, 2%–2mm criteria. Conclusion: Target dynamic tracking was performed using patient-like breathing patterns in a 4D thorax phantom with EBT3 film insert and a viscoil. There was excellent agreement between acquired and planned dose distributions for all three target motion patterns. This study performed end-to-end testing and verified the treatment accuracy of tumor dynamic tracking.

  16. Micro-ARES, an electric-field sensor for ExoMars 2016: Electric fields modelling, sensitivity evaluations and end-to-end tests.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Déprez, Grégoire; Montmessin, Franck; Witasse, Olivier; Lapauw, Laurent; Vivat, Francis; Abbaki, Sadok; Granier, Philippe; Moirin, David; Trautner, Roland; Hassen-Khodja, Rafik; d'Almeida, Éric; Chardenal, Laurent; Berthelier, Jean-Jacques; Esposito, Francesca; Debei, Stefano; Rafkin, Scott; Barth, Erika

    2014-05-01

    Earth and transposed to the Martian atmospheric parameters. Knowing the expected electric fields and simulating them, the next step in order to evaluate the performance of the instrument is to determine its sensitivity by modelling the response of the instrument. The last step is to confront the model of the instrument, and the expected results for a given signal with the effective outputs of the electric board with the same signal as an input. To achieve this end-to-end test, we use a signal generator followed by an electrical circuit reproducing the electrode behaviour in the Martian environment, in order to inject a realistic electric signal in the processing board and finally compare the produced formatted data with the expected ones.

  17. Planning for Mars Sample Return: Results from the MEPAG Mars Sample Return End-to-End International Science Analysis Group (E2E-iSAG)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLennan, S. M.; Sephton, M.; Mepag E2E-Isag

    2011-12-01

    The National Research Council 2011 Planetary Decadal Survey (2013-2022) placed beginning a Mars sample return campaign (MSR) as the top priority for large Flagship missions in the coming decade. Recent developments in NASA-ESA collaborations and Decadal Survey recommendations indicate MSR likely will be an international effort. A joint ESA-NASA 2018 rover (combining the previously proposed ExoMars and MAX-C missions), designed, in part, to collect and cache samples, would thus represent the first of a 3-mission MSR campaign. The End-to-End International Science Analysis Group (E2E-iSAG) was chartered by MEPAG in August 2010 to develop and prioritize MSR science objectives and investigate implications of these objectives for defining the highest priority sample types, landing site selection criteria (and identification of reference landing sites to support engineering planning), requirements for in situ characterization on Mars to support sample selection, and priorities/strategies for returned sample analyses to determine sample sizes and numbers that would meet the objectives. MEPAG approved the E2E-iSAG report in June 2011. Science objectives, summarized in priority order, are: (1) critically assess any evidence for past life or its chemical precursors, and place constraints on past habitability and potential for preservation of signs of life, (2) quantitatively constrain age, context and processes of accretion, early differentiation and magmatic and magnetic history, (3) reconstruct history of surface and near-surface processes involving water, (4) constrain magnitude, nature, timing, and origin of past climate change, (5) assess potential environmental hazards to future human exploration, (6) assess history and significance of surface modifying processes, (7) constrain origin and evolution of the Martian atmosphere, (8) evaluate potential critical resources for future human explorers. All returned samples also would be fully evaluated for extant life as a

  18. SU-E-T-109: Development of An End-To-End Test for the Varian TrueBeamtm with a Novel Multiple-Dosimetric Modality H and N Phantom

    SciTech Connect

    Zakjevskii, V; Knill, C; Rakowski, J; Snyder, M

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To develop a comprehensive end-to-end test for Varian's TrueBeam linear accelerator for head and neck IMRT using a custom phantom designed to utilize multiple dosimetry devices. Methods: The initial end-to-end test and custom H and N phantom were designed to yield maximum information in anatomical regions significant to H and N plans with respect to: i) geometric accuracy, ii) dosimetric accuracy, and iii) treatment reproducibility. The phantom was designed in collaboration with Integrated Medical Technologies. A CT image was taken with a 1mm slice thickness. The CT was imported into Varian's Eclipse treatment planning system, where OARs and the PTV were contoured. A clinical template was used to create an eight field static gantry angle IMRT plan. After optimization, dose was calculated using the Analytic Anisotropic Algorithm with inhomogeneity correction. Plans were delivered with a TrueBeam equipped with a high definition MLC. Preliminary end-to-end results were measured using film and ion chambers. Ion chamber dose measurements were compared to the TPS. Films were analyzed with FilmQAPro using composite gamma index. Results: Film analysis for the initial end-to-end plan with a geometrically simple PTV showed average gamma pass rates >99% with a passing criterion of 3% / 3mm. Film analysis of a plan with a more realistic, ie. complex, PTV yielded pass rates >99% in clinically important regions containing the PTV, spinal cord and parotid glands. Ion chamber measurements were on average within 1.21% of calculated dose for both plans. Conclusion: trials have demonstrated that our end-to-end testing methods provide baseline values for the dosimetric and geometric accuracy of Varian's TrueBeam system.

  19. Design and implementation of a secure and user-friendly broker platform supporting the end-to-end provisioning of e-homecare services.

    PubMed

    Van Hoecke, Sofie; Steurbaut, Kristof; Taveirne, Kristof; De Turck, Filip; Dhoedt, Bart

    2010-01-01

    We designed a broker platform for e-homecare services using web service technology. The broker allows efficient data communication and guarantees quality requirements such as security, availability and cost-efficiency by dynamic selection of services, minimizing user interactions and simplifying authentication through a single user sign-on. A prototype was implemented, with several e-homecare services (alarm, telemonitoring, audio diary and video-chat). It was evaluated by patients with diabetes and multiple sclerosis. The patients found that the start-up time and overhead imposed by the platform was satisfactory. Having all e-homecare services integrated into a single application, which required only one login, resulted in a high quality of experience for the patients. PMID:20086267

  20. [A case of tracheo-bronchial stenosis after extended end-to-end aortic arch anastomosis for interrupted aortic arch treated with suspension of the ascending artery and pulmonary artery].

    PubMed

    Watanabe, T; Hoshino, S; Iwaya, F; Igari, T; Ono, T; Takahashi, K

    2001-02-01

    A 9-day-old boy had pulmonary artery banding and extended end-to-end aortic arch anastomosis for ventricular septal defect (VSD) and type A interrupted aortic arch. Severe dyspnea gradually developed. At 3 months of age, intracardiac repair of VSD was performed. Weaning from the ventilator was difficult. Endoscopic examination and chest CT revealed stenosis of the right and left main bronchi and compression of tracheal bifurcation and the right and left main bronchi by the ascending aorta and pulmonary artery. Suspension of the ascending aorta and pulmonary artery was performed 15 days after VSD closure. Nine days after this procedure, the patient was weaned from respirator. Postoperative course was uneventful. Bronchial stenosis may be caused from extended end-to-end aortic arch anastomosis. PMID:11211771

  1. Demonstration of end-to-end cloud-DSL with a PON-based fronthaul supporting 5.76-Gb/s throughput with 48 eCDMA-encoded 1024-QAM discrete multi-tone signals.

    PubMed

    Fang, Liming; Zhou, Lei; Liu, Xiang; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Sui, Meng; Effenberger, Frank; Zhou, Jun

    2015-05-18

    We experimentally demonstrate an end-to-end ultra-broadband cloud-DSL network using passive optical network (PON) based fronthaul with electronic code-division-multiple-access (eCDMA) encoding and decoding. Forty-eight signals that are compliant with the very-high-bit-rate digital subscriber line 2 (VDSL2) standard are transmitted with a record throughput of 5.76 Gb/s over a hybrid link consisting of a 20-km standard single-mode fiber and a 100-m twisted pair. PMID:26074597

  2. CASTOR end-to-end monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rekatsinas, Theodoros; Duellmann, Dirk; Pokorski, Witold; Ponce, Sébastien; Rabaçal, Bartolomeu; Waldron, Dennis; Wojcieszuk, Jacek

    2010-04-01

    With the start of Large Hadron Collider approaching, storage and management of raw event data, as well as reconstruction and analysis data, is of crucial importance for the researchers. The CERN Advanced STORage system (CASTOR) is a hierarchical system developed at CERN, used to store physics production files and user files. CASTOR, as one of the essential software tools used by the LHC experiments, has to provide reliable services for storing and managing data. Monitoring of this complicated system is mandatory in order to assure its stable operation and improve its future performance. This paper presents the new monitoring system of CASTOR which provides operation and user request specific metrics. This system is build around a dedicated, optimized database schema. The schema is populated by PL/SQL procedures, which process a stream of incoming raw metadata from different CASTOR components, initially collected by the Distributed Logging Facility (DLF). A web interface has been developed for the visualization of the monitoring data. The different histograms and plots are created using PHP scripts which query the monitoring database.

  3. End-to-end image quality assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raventos, Joaquin

    2012-05-01

    An innovative computerized benchmarking approach (US Patent pending Sep 2011) based on extensive application of photometry, geometrical optics, and digital media using a randomized target, for a standard observer to assess the image quality of video imaging systems, at different day time, and low-light luminance levels. It takes into account, the target's contrast and color characteristics, as well as the observer's visual acuity and dynamic response. This includes human vision as part of the "extended video imaging system" (EVIS), and allows image quality assessment by several standard observers simultaneously.

  4. Pilot End-to-End Calibration Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misawa, R.; Bernard, J.-Ph.; Ade, P.; Andre, Y.; de Bernardis, P.; Bautista, L.; Boulade, O.; Bousquet, F.; Bouzit, M.; Bray, N.; Brysbaert, C.; Buttice, V.; Caillat, A.; Chaigneau, M.; Charra, M.; Crane, B.; Douchin, F.; Doumayrou, E.; Dubois, J. P.; Engel, C.; Etcheto, P.; Evrard, J.; Gelot, P.; Gomes, A.; Grabarnik, S.; Griffin, M.; Hargrave, P.; Jonathan, A.; Laureijs, R.; Laurens, A.; Lepennec, Y.; Leriche, B.; Longval, Y.; Martignac, J.; Marty, C.; Marty, W.; Maestre, S.; Masi, S.; Mirc, F.; Montel, J.; Motier, L.; Mot, B.; Narbonne, J.; Nicot, J. M.; Otrio, G.; Pajot, F.; Perot, E.; Pisano, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rodriquez, L.; Roudil, G.; Saccoccio, M.; Salatino, M.; Savini, G.; Simonella, O.; Tauber, J.; Tapie, P.; Tucker, C.; Versepuech, G.

    2015-09-01

    The Polarized Instrument for Long-wavelength Observation of the Tenuous interstellar medium (PILOT) is a balloon-borne astronomy experiment designed to study the linear polarization of the Far Infra-Red emission, 240 ~im (1.2 THz) and 550 ~tm (545 GHz) with an angular resolution of a few minutes of arc, from dust grains present in the diffuse interstellar medium, in our Galaxy and nearby galaxies. The polarisation of light is measured using a half-wave plate (HWP). We performed the instrumental tests from 2012 to 2014 and are planning a first scientific flight in September 2015 from Timmins, Ontario, Canada. This paper describes the measurement principles of PILOT, the results of the laboratory tests and its sky coverage. These include defocus tests, transmission measurements using a Fourier Transform Spectrometer at various positions of the HWP, and identification of internal straylight.

  5. A comparative study of red and blue light-emitting diodes and low-level laser in regeneration of the transected sciatic nerve after an end to end neurorrhaphy in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Takhtfooladi, Mohammad Ashrafzadeh; Sharifi, Davood

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the effects of red and blue light-emitting diodes (LED) and low-level laser (LLL) on the regeneration of the transected sciatic nerve after an end-to-end neurorrhaphy in rabbits. Forty healthy mature male New Zealand rabbits were randomly assigned into four experimental groups: control, LLL (680 nm), red LED (650 nm), and blue LED (450 nm). All animals underwent the right sciatic nerve neurotmesis injury under general anesthesia and end-to-end anastomosis. The phototherapy was initiated on the first postoperative day and lasted for 14 consecutive days at the same time of the day. On the 30th day post-surgery, the animals whose sciatic nerves were harvested for histopathological analysis were euthanized. The nerves were analyzed and quantified the following findings: Schwann cells, large myelinic axons, and neurons. In the LLL group, as compared to other groups, an increase in the number of all analyzed aspects was observed with significance level (P < 0.05). This finding suggests that postoperative LLL irradiation was able to accelerate and potentialize the peripheral nerve regeneration process in rabbits within 14 days of irradiation. PMID:26415928

  6. Efficacy and safety of a NiTi CAR 27 compression ring for end-to-end anastomosis compared with conventional staplers: A real-world analysis in Chinese colorectal cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Zhenhai; Peng, Jianhong; Li, Cong; Wang, Fulong; Jiang, Wu; Fan, Wenhua; Lin, Junzhong; Wu, Xiaojun; Wan, Desen; Pan, Zhizhong

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a new nickel-titanium shape memory alloy compression anastomosis ring, NiTi CAR 27, in constructing an anastomosis for colorectal cancer resection compared with conventional staples. METHODS: In total, 234 consecutive patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer receiving sigmoidectomy and anterior resection for end-to-end anastomosis from May 2010 to June 2012 were retrospectively analyzed. The postoperative clinical parameters, postoperative complications and 3-year overall survival in 77 patients using a NiTi CAR 27 compression ring (CAR group) and 157 patients with conventional circular staplers (STA group) were compared. RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences between the patients in the two groups in terms of general demographics and tumor features. A clinically apparent anastomotic leak occurred in 2 patients (2.6%) in the CAR group and in 5 patients (3.2%) in the STA group (p=0.804). These eight patients received a temporary diverting ileostomy. One patient (1.3%) in the CAR group was diagnosed with anastomotic stricture through an electronic colonoscopy after 3 months postoperatively. The incidence of postoperative intestinal obstruction was comparable between the two groups (p=0.192). With a median follow-up duration of 39.6 months, the 3-year overall survival rate was 83.1% in the CAR group and 89.0% in the STA group (p=0.152). CONCLUSIONS: NiTi CAR 27 is safe and effective for colorectal end-to-end anastomosis. Its use is equivalent to that of the conventional circular staplers. This study suggests that NiTi CAR 27 may be a beneficial alternative in colorectal anastomosis in Chinese colorectal cancer patients. PMID:27276395

  7. Experimental demonstration of a record high 11.25Gb/s real-time optical OFDM transceiver supporting 25km SMF end-to-end transmission in simple IMDD systems.

    PubMed

    Giddings, R P; Jin, X Q; Hugues-Salas, E; Giacoumidis, E; Wei, J L; Tang, J M

    2010-03-15

    The fastest ever 11.25Gb/s real-time FPGA-based optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OOFDM) transceivers utilizing 64-QAM encoding/decoding and significantly improved variable power loading are experimentally demonstrated, for the first time, incorporating advanced functionalities of on-line performance monitoring, live system parameter optimization and channel estimation. Real-time end-to-end transmission of an 11.25Gb/s 64-QAM-encoded OOFDM signal with a high electrical spectral efficiency of 5.625bit/s/Hz over 25km of standard and MetroCor single-mode fibres is successfully achieved with respective power penalties of 0.3dB and -0.2dB at a BER of 1.0 x 10(-3) in a directly modulated DFB laser-based intensity modulation and direct detection system without in-line optical amplification and chromatic dispersion compensation. The impacts of variable power loading as well as electrical and optical components on the transmission performance of the demonstrated transceivers are experimentally explored in detail. In addition, numerical simulations also show that variable power loading is an extremely effective means of escalating system performance to its maximum potential. PMID:20389570

  8. Experimental demonstrations of record high REAM intensity modulator-enabled 19.25Gb/s real-time end-to-end dual-band optical OFDM colorless transmissions over 25km SSMF IMDD systems.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Q W; Hugues-Salas, E; Giddings, R P; Wang, M; Tang, J M

    2013-04-01

    Record-high 19.25Gb/s real-time end-to-end dual-band optical OFDM (OOFDM) colorless transmissions across the entire C-band are experimentally demonstrated, for the first time, in reflective electro-absorption modulator (REAM)-based 25km standard SMF systems using intensity modulation and direct detection. Adaptively modulated baseband (0-2GHz) and passband (6.125 ± 2GHz) OFDM RF sub-bands, supporting signal line rates of 9.75Gb/s and 9.5Gb/s respectively, are independently generated and detected with FPGA-based DSP clocked at only 100MHz as well as DACs/ADCs operating at sampling speeds as low as 4GS/s. The two OFDM sub-bands are electrically multiplexed for intensity modulation of a single optical carrier by an 8GHz REAM. The REAM colorlessness is experimentally characterized, based on which optimum REAM operating conditions are identified. To maximize and balance the signal transmission performance of each sub-band, on-line adaptive transceiver optimization functions and live performance monitoring are fully exploited to optimize key OOFDM transceiver and system parameters. For different wavelengths within the C-band, corresponding minimum received optical powers at the FEC limit vary in a range of <0.5dB and bit error rate performances for both baseband and passband signals are almost identical. Furthermore, detailed investigations are also undertaken of the maximum aggregated signal line rate sensitivity to electrical sub-band power variation. It is shown that the aforementioned system has approximately 3dB tolerance to RF sub-band power variation. PMID:23572005

  9. Study and Implementation of the End-to-End Data Pipeline for the Virtis Imaging Spectrometer Onbaord Venus Express: "From Science Operations Planning to Data Archiving and Higher Lever Processing"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardesín Moinelo, Alejandro

    2010-04-01

    This PhD Thesis describes the activities performed during the Research Program undertaken for two years at the Istituto Nazionale di AstroFisica in Rome, Italy, as active member of the VIRTIS Technical and Scientific Team, and one additional year at the European Space Astronomy Center in Madrid, Spain, as member of the Mars Express Science Ground Segment. This document will show a study of all sections of the Science Ground Segment of the Venus Express mission, from the planning of the scientific operations, to the generation, calibration and archiving of the science data, including the production of valuable high level products. We will present and discuss here the end-to-end diagram of the ground segment from the technical and scientific point of view, in order to describe the overall flow of information: from the original scientific requests of the principal investigator and interdisciplinary teams, up to the spacecraft, and down again for the analysis of the measurements and interpretation of the scientific results. These scientific results drive to new and more elaborated scientific requests, which are used as feedback to the planning cycle, closing the circle. Special attention is given here to describe the implementation and development of the data pipeline for the VIRTIS instrument onboard Venus Express. During the research program, both the raw data generation pipeline and the data calibration pipeline were developed and automated in order to produce the final raw and calibrated data products from the input telemetry of the instrument. The final raw and calibrated products presented in this work are currently being used by the VIRTIS Science team for data analysis and are distributed to the whole scientific community via the Planetary Science Archive. More than 20,000 raw data files and 10,000 calibrated products have already been generated after almost 4 years of mission. In the final part of the Thesis, we will also present some high level data

  10. TOWARD END-TO-END MODELING FOR NUCLEAR EXPLOSION MONITORING: SIMULATION OF UNDERGROUND NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS AND EARTHQUAKES USING HYDRODYNAMIC AND ANELASTIC SIMULATIONS, HIGH-PERFORMANCE COMPUTING AND THREE-DIMENSIONAL EARTH MODELS

    SciTech Connect

    Rodgers, A; Vorobiev, O; Petersson, A; Sjogreen, B

    2009-07-06

    This paper describes new research being performed to improve understanding of seismic waves generated by underground nuclear explosions (UNE) by using full waveform simulation, high-performance computing and three-dimensional (3D) earth models. The goal of this effort is to develop an end-to-end modeling capability to cover the range of wave propagation required for nuclear explosion monitoring (NEM) from the buried nuclear device to the seismic sensor. The goal of this work is to improve understanding of the physical basis and prediction capabilities of seismic observables for NEM including source and path-propagation effects. We are pursuing research along three main thrusts. Firstly, we are modeling the non-linear hydrodynamic response of geologic materials to underground explosions in order to better understand how source emplacement conditions impact the seismic waves that emerge from the source region and are ultimately observed hundreds or thousands of kilometers away. Empirical evidence shows that the amplitudes and frequency content of seismic waves at all distances are strongly impacted by the physical properties of the source region (e.g. density, strength, porosity). To model the near-source shock-wave motions of an UNE, we use GEODYN, an Eulerian Godunov (finite volume) code incorporating thermodynamically consistent non-linear constitutive relations, including cavity formation, yielding, porous compaction, tensile failure, bulking and damage. In order to propagate motions to seismic distances we are developing a one-way coupling method to pass motions to WPP (a Cartesian anelastic finite difference code). Preliminary investigations of UNE's in canonical materials (granite, tuff and alluvium) confirm that emplacement conditions have a strong effect on seismic amplitudes and the generation of shear waves. Specifically, we find that motions from an explosion in high-strength, low-porosity granite have high compressional wave amplitudes and weak shear

  11. The Dosimetric Importance of Six Degree of Freedom Couch End to End Quality Assurance for SRS/SBRT Treatments when Comparing Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy to Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulizio, Vincent Michael

    With the advancement of technology there is an increasing ability for lesions to be treated with higher radiation doses each fraction. This also allows for low fractionated treatments. Because the patient is receiving a higher dose of radiation per fraction and because of the fast dose falloff in these targets there must be extreme accuracy in the delivery. The 6 DOF couch allows for extra rotational corrections and for a more accurate set-up. The movement of the couch needs to be verified to be accurate and because of this, end to end quality assurance tests for the couch have been made. After the set-up is known to be accurate then different treatment techniques can be studied. SBRT of the Spine has a very fast dose falloff near the spinal cord and was typically treated with IMRT. Treatment plans generated using this technique tend to have streaks of low dose radiation, so VMAT is being studied to determine if this treatment technique can reduce the low dose radiation volume as well as improve OAR sparing. For the 6 DOF couch QA, graph paper is placed on the anterior and right lateral sides of the VisionRT OSMS Cube Phantom. Each rotational shift is then applied individually, with a 3 degree shift in the positive and negative directions for pitch and roll. A mark is drawn on the paper to record each shift. A CBCT is then taken of the Cube and known shifts are applied and then an additional CBCT is taken to return the Cube to isocenter. The original IMRT plans for SBRT of the Spine are evaluated and then a plan is made utilizing VMAT. These plans are then compared for low dose radiation, OAR sparing, and conformity. If the original IMRT plan is determined to be an inferior treatment to what is acceptable, then this will be re-planned and compared to the VMAT plan. The 6 DOF couch QA tests have proven to be accurate and reproducible. The average deviations in the 3 degree and -3 degree pitch and roll directions were 0.197, 0.068, 0.091, and 0.110 degrees

  12. Experiences with the AEROnet/PSCN ATM Prototype

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurak, Richard S.; Lisotta, Anthony J.; McCabe, James D.; Nothaft, Alfred E.; Russell, Kelly R.; Lasinski, T. A. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    This paper discusses the experience gained by the AEROnet/PSCN networking team in deploying a prototype Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) based network as part of the wide-area network for the Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation (NAS) Program at NASA Ames Research Center. The objectives of this prototype were to test concepts in using ATM over wide-area Internet Protocol (IP) networks and measure end-to-end system performance. This testbed showed that end-to-end ATM over a DS3 reaches approximately 80% of the throughput achieved from a FDDI to DS3 network. The 20% reduction in through-put can be attributed to the overhead associated with running ATM. As a result, we conclude that if the loss in capacity due to ATM overhead is balanced by the reduction in cost of ATM services, as compared to dedicated circuits, then ATM can be a viable alternative.

  13. End-to-End Performance Management for Large Distributed Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Almadena Chtchelkanova

    2012-03-18

    Storage systems for large distributed clusters of computer servers are themselves large and distributed. Their complexity and scale make it hard to ensure that applications using them get good, predictable performance. At the same time, shared access to the system from multiple applications, users, and internal system activities leads to a need for predictable performance. This research investigates mechanisms for improving storage system performance in large distributed storage systems through mechanisms that integrate the performance aspects of the path that I/O operations take through the system, from the application interface on the compute server, through the network, to the storate servers. The research focuses on five parts of the I/O path in a distributed storage system: I/O scheduling at the storage server, storage server cache management, client-to-server network flow control, client-to-server connection management, and client cache management.

  14. End-to-end experiment management in HPC

    SciTech Connect

    Bent, John M; Kroiss, Ryan R; Torrez, Alfred; Wingate, Meghan

    2010-01-01

    Experiment management in any domain is challenging. There is a perpetual feedback loop cycling through planning, execution, measurement, and analysis. The lifetime of a particular experiment can be limited to a single cycle although many require myriad more cycles before definite results can be obtained. Within each cycle, a large number of subexperiments may be executed in order to measure the effects of one or more independent variables. Experiment management in high performance computing (HPC) follows this general pattern but also has three unique characteristics. One, computational science applications running on large supercomputers must deal with frequent platform failures which can interrupt, perturb, or terminate running experiments. Two, these applications typically integrate in parallel using MPI as their communication medium. Three, there is typically a scheduling system (e.g. Condor, Moab, SGE, etc.) acting as a gate-keeper for the HPC resources. In this paper, we introduce LANL Experiment Management (LEM), an experimental management framework simplifying all four phases of experiment management. LEM simplifies experiment planning by allowing the user to describe their experimental goals without having to fully construct the individual parameters for each task. To simplify execution, LEM dispatches the subexperiments itself thereby freeing the user from remembering the often arcane methods for interacting with the various scheduling systems. LEM provides transducers for experiments that automatically measure and record important information about each subexperiment; these transducers can easily be extended to collect additional measurements specific to each experiment. Finally, experiment analysis is simplified by providing a general database visualization framework that allows users to quickly and easily interact with their measured data.

  15. Nursing studies laid end to end form a circle.

    PubMed

    Friss, L

    1994-01-01

    As early as 1915, leaders in the nursing profession were concerned with the "image problem of nurses," which they saw as needing improvement. Since then, countless studies, reports, and commissions have attempted to explain and solve perceived shortages of registered nurses, which have occurred regularly after brief periods of quiescence or oversupply. Usually, their recommendations have hinged on nurses changing their image. In fact, few of these studies have dealt with the real issues of nursing work, which are a narrow pay range, little extra pay for working on undesirable shifts, disincentives for full-time work, pay unrelated to education, and education unconnected to job level. The multiple studies and commissions do nothing more than recycle data and in the process obscure fundamental problems. Educational funding has been no more successful. Their ineffectiveness suggests the need for less "image enhancement" and more support from physicians and employers to bring about systemic reform. This includes licensing nurses according to their education, assigning them according to their competencies and education, and paying accordingly. These measures, and only these, will eventually curtail the cycles of nursing "shortages." PMID:7844324

  16. Kepler Mission: End-to-End System Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borucki, William; Koch, D.; Dunham, E.; Jenkins, J.; Witteborn, F.; Updike, T.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    A test facility has been constructed to demonstrate the capability of differential ensemble photometry to detect transits of Earth-size planets orbiting solar-like stars. The main objective is to determine the effects of various noise sources on the capability of a CCD photometer to maintain a system relative precision of 1 x $10^(-5)$ for mv = 12 stars in the presence of system-induced noise sources. The facility includes a simulated star field, fast optics to simulate the telescope, a thinned back-illuminated CCD similar to those to be used on the spacecraft and computers to perform the onboard control, data processing and extraction. The test structure is thermally and mechanically isolated so that each source of noise can be introduced in a controlled fashion and evaluated for its contribution to the total noise budget. The effects of pointing errors or a changing thermal environment are imposed by piezo-electric devices. Transits are injected by heating small wires crossing apertures in the star plate. Signals as small as those from terrestrial-size transits of solar-like stars are introduced to demonstrate that such planets can be detected under realistic noise conditions. Examples of imposing several noise sources and the resulting detectabilities are presented. These show that a differential ensemble photometric approach CCD photometer can readily detect signals associated with Earth-size transits.

  17. On Estimating End-to-End Network Path Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allman, Mark; Paxson, Vern

    1999-01-01

    The more information about current network conditions available to a transport protocol, the more efficiently it can use the network to transfer its data. In networks such as the Internet, the transport protocol must often form its own estimates of network properties based on measurements per-formed by the connection endpoints. We consider two basic transport estimation problems: determining the setting of the retransmission timer (RTO) for are reliable protocol, and estimating the bandwidth available to a connection as it begins. We look at both of these problems in the context of TCP, using a large TCP measurement set [Pax97b] for trace-driven simulations. For RTO estimation, we evaluate a number of different algorithms, finding that the performance of the estimators is dominated by their minimum values, and to a lesser extent, the timer granularity, while being virtually unaffected by how often round-trip time measurements are made or the settings of the parameters in the exponentially-weighted moving average estimators commonly used. For bandwidth estimation, we explore techniques previously sketched in the literature [Hoe96, AD98] and find that in practice they perform less well than anticipated. We then develop a receiver-side algorithm that performs significantly better.

  18. Proposal of an end-to-end emergency medical system.

    PubMed

    El-Masri, Samir; Saddik, Basema

    2011-01-01

    A new comprehensive emergency system has been proposed to facilitate and computerize all the processes involved in an emergency from the initial contact to the ambulance emergency system, to finding the right and nearest available ambulance, and through to accessing a Smart Online Electronic Health Record (SOEHR). The proposed system will critically assist in pre-hospital treatments, indentify availability of the nearest available specialized hospital and communicate with the Hospital Emergency Department System (HEDS) to provide early information about the incoming patient for preparation to receive and assist. PMID:21893771

  19. Going End to End to Deliver High-Speed Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    By the end of the 1990s, the optical fiber "backbone" of the telecommunication and data-communication networks had evolved from megabits-per-second transmission rates to gigabits-per-second transmission rates. Despite this boom in bandwidth, however, users at the end nodes were still not being reached on a consistent basis. (An end node is any device that does not behave like a router or a managed hub or switch. Examples of end node objects are computers, printers, serial interface processor phones, and unmanaged hubs and switches.) The primary reason that prevents bandwidth from reaching the end nodes is the complex local network topology that exists between the optical backbone and the end nodes. This complex network topology consists of several layers of routing and switch equipment which introduce potential congestion points and network latency. By breaking down the complex network topology, a true optical connection can be achieved. Access Optical Networks, Inc., is making this connection a reality with guidance from NASA s nondestructive evaluation experts.

  20. End-to-end modelling of He II flow systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mord, A. J.; Snyder, H. A.; Newell, D. A.

    1992-01-01

    A practical computer code has been developed which uses the accepted two-fluid model to simulate He II flow in complicated systems. The full set of equations are used, retaining the coupling between the pressure, temperature and velocity fields. This permits modeling He II flow over the full range of conditions, from strongly or weakly driven flow through large pipes, narrow channels and porous media. The system may include most of the components used in modern superfluid flow systems: non-ideal thermomechanical pumps, tapered sections, constrictions, lines with heated side walls and heat exchangers. The model is validated by comparison with published experimental data. It is applied to a complex system to show some of the non-intuitive feedback effects that can occur. This code is ready to be used as a design tool for practical applications of He II. It can also be used for the design of He II experiments and as a tool for comparison of experimental data with the standard two-fluid model.

  1. A prototype Infrastructure for Cloud-based distributed services in High Availability over WAN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulfon, C.; Carlino, G.; De Salvo, A.; Doria, A.; Graziosi, C.; Pardi, S.; Sanchez, A.; Carboni, M.; Bolletta, P.; Puccio, L.; Capone, V.; Merola, L.

    2015-12-01

    In this work we present the architectural and performance studies concerning a prototype of a distributed Tier2 infrastructure for HEP, instantiated between the two Italian sites of INFN-Romal and INFN-Napoli. The network infrastructure is based on a Layer-2 geographical link, provided by the Italian NREN (GARR), directly connecting the two remote LANs of the named sites. By exploiting the possibilities offered by the new distributed file systems, a shared storage area with synchronous copy has been set up. The computing infrastructure, based on an OpenStack facility, is using a set of distributed Hypervisors installed in both sites. The main parameter to be taken into account when managing two remote sites with a single framework is the effect of the latency, due to the distance and the end-to-end service overhead. In order to understand the capabilities and limits of our setup, the impact of latency has been investigated by means of a set of stress tests, including data I/O throughput, metadata access performance evaluation and network occupancy, during the life cycle of a Virtual Machine. A set of resilience tests has also been performed, in order to verify the stability of the system on the event of hardware or software faults. The results of this work show that the reliability and robustness of the chosen architecture are effective enough to build a production system and to provide common services. This prototype can also be extended to multiple sites with small changes of the network topology, thus creating a National Network of Cloud-based distributed services, in HA over WAN.

  2. Greenbrier Prototype

    SciTech Connect

    2010-06-18

    This case study describes a prototype home that is the model home for the Homes at Greenbrier in Oakdale, Connecticut, and demonstrates the builder's concept of “attainable sustainable” of offering high performance homes at mid-market prices.

  3. Performance Improvement in Geographic Routing for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    PubMed Central

    Kaiwartya, Omprakash; Kumar, Sushil; Lobiyal, D. K.; Abdullah, Abdul Hanan; Hassan, Ahmed Nazar

    2014-01-01

    Geographic routing is one of the most investigated themes by researchers for reliable and efficient dissemination of information in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs). Recently, different Geographic Distance Routing (GEDIR) protocols have been suggested in the literature. These protocols focus on reducing the forwarding region towards destination to select the Next Hop Vehicles (NHV). Most of these protocols suffer from the problem of elevated one-hop link disconnection, high end-to-end delay and low throughput even at normal vehicle speed in high vehicle density environment. This paper proposes a Geographic Distance Routing protocol based on Segment vehicle, Link quality and Degree of connectivity (SLD-GEDIR). The protocol selects a reliable NHV using the criteria segment vehicles, one-hop link quality and degree of connectivity. The proposed protocol has been simulated in NS-2 and its performance has been compared with the state-of-the-art protocols: P-GEDIR, J-GEDIR and V-GEDIR. The empirical results clearly reveal that SLD-GEDIR has lower link disconnection and end-to-end delay, and higher throughput as compared to the state-of-the-art protocols. It should be noted that the performance of the proposed protocol is preserved irrespective of vehicle density and speed. PMID:25429415

  4. Geographical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Norman J.

    1981-01-01

    This annual review discusses works relevant to geographical education published in Europe, North America, Australia, Japan, and Africa. The journal is available from Edward Arnold (publishers) Ltd., 41 Bedford Square, London WC1B 3DQ England. (RM)

  5. SMIILE Prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakić, Gordana; Budimac, Zoran

    2011-09-01

    In this paper the prototype of SMIILE tool (currently stands for: Software Metrics—Independent of Input LanguagE) will be described. Crucial characteristic of this tool is its independency of input programming language for supported software metrics. This characteristic is based on usage of newly introduced type of syntax trees—enriched Concrete Syntax Trees (eCST) for source code representation. MSCI: 68N30 Mathematical aspects of software engineering (specification, verification, metrics, requirements, etc.)

  6. Rapid Prototyping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Javelin, a Lone Peak Engineering Inc. Company has introduced the SteamRoller(TM) System as a commercial product. The system was designed by Javelin during a Phase II NASA funded small commercial product. The purpose of the invention was to allow automated-feed of flexible ceramic tapes to the Laminated Object Manufacturing rapid prototyping equipment. The ceramic material that Javelin was working with during the Phase II project is silicon nitride. This engineered ceramic material is of interest for space-based component.

  7. Electronic prototyping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopcroft, J.

    1987-01-01

    The potential benefits of automation in space are significant. The science base needed to support this automation not only will help control costs and reduce lead-time in the earth-based design and construction of space stations, but also will advance the nation's capability for computer design, simulation, testing, and debugging of sophisticated objects electronically. Progress in automation will require the ability to electronically represent, reason about, and manipulate objects. Discussed here is the development of representations, languages, editors, and model-driven simulation systems to support electronic prototyping. In particular, it identifies areas where basic research is needed before further progress can be made.

  8. Demonstrating a Realistic IP Mission Prototype

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rash, James; Ferrer, Arturo B.; Goodman, Nancy; Ghazi-Tehrani, Samira; Polk, Joe; Johnson, Lorin; Menke, Greg; Miller, Bill; Criscuolo, Ed; Hogie, Keith

    2003-01-01

    Flight software and hardware and realistic space communications environments were elements of recent demonstrations of the Internet Protocol (IP) mission concept in the lab. The Operating Missions as Nodes on the Internet (OMNI) Project and the Flight Software Branch at NASA/GSFC collaborated to build the prototype of a representative space mission that employed unmodified off-the-shelf Internet protocols and technologies for end-to-end communications between the spacecraft/instruments and the ground system/users. The realistic elements used in the prototype included an RF communications link simulator and components of the TRIANA mission flight software and ground support system. A web-enabled camera connected to the spacecraft computer via an Ethernet LAN represented an on-board instrument creating image data. In addition to the protocols at the link layer (HDLC), transport layer (UDP, TCP), and network (IP) layer, a reliable file delivery protocol (MDP) at the application layer enabled reliable data delivery both to and from the spacecraft. The standard Network Time Protocol (NTP) performed on-board clock synchronization with a ground time standard. The demonstrations of the prototype mission illustrated some of the advantages of using Internet standards and technologies for space missions, but also helped identify issues that must be addressed. These issues include applicability to embedded real-time systems on flight-qualified hardware, range of applicability of TCP, and liability for and maintenance of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) products. The NASA Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO) funded the collaboration to build and demonstrate the prototype IP mission.

  9. MITRE sensor layer prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duff, Francis; McGarry, Donald; Zasada, David; Foote, Scott

    2009-05-01

    The MITRE Sensor Layer Prototype is an initial design effort to enable every sensor to help create new capabilities through collaborative data sharing. By making both upstream (raw) and downstream (processed) sensor data visible, users can access the specific level, type, and quantities of data needed to create new data products that were never anticipated by the original designers of the individual sensors. The major characteristic that sets sensor data services apart from typical enterprise services is the volume (on the order of multiple terabytes) of raw data that can be generated by most sensors. Traditional tightly coupled processing approaches extract pre-determined information from the incoming raw sensor data, format it, and send it to predetermined users. The community is rapidly reaching the conclusion that tightly coupled sensor processing loses too much potentially critical information.1 Hence upstream (raw and partially processed) data must be extracted, rapidly archived, and advertised to the enterprise for unanticipated uses. The authors believe layered sensing net-centric integration can be achieved through a standardize-encapsulate-syndicateaggregate- manipulate-process paradigm. The Sensor Layer Prototype's technical approach focuses on implementing this proof of concept framework to make sensor data visible, accessible and useful to the enterprise. To achieve this, a "raw" data tap between physical transducers associated with sensor arrays and the embedded sensor signal processing hardware and software has been exploited. Second, we encapsulate and expose both raw and partially processed data to the enterprise within the context of a service-oriented architecture. Third, we advertise the presence of multiple types, and multiple layers of data through geographic-enabled Really Simple Syndication (GeoRSS) services. These GeoRSS feeds are aggregated, manipulated, and filtered by a feed aggregator. After filtering these feeds to bring just the type

  10. The Requirements and Design of the Rapid Prototyping Capabilities System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haupt, T. A.; Moorhead, R.; O'Hara, C.; Anantharaj, V.

    2006-12-01

    The Rapid Prototyping Capabilities (RPC) system will provide the capability to rapidly evaluate innovative methods of linking science observations. To this end, the RPC will provide the capability to integrate the software components and tools needed to evaluate the use of a wide variety of current and future NASA sensors, numerical models, and research results, model outputs, and knowledge, collectively referred to as "resources". It is assumed that the resources are geographically distributed, and thus RPC will provide the support for the location transparency of the resources. The RPC system requires providing support for: (1) discovery, semantic understanding, secure access and transport mechanisms for data products available from the known data provides; (2) data assimilation and geo- processing tools for all data transformations needed to match given data products to the model input requirements; (3) model management including catalogs of models and model metadata, and mechanisms for creation environments for model execution; and (4) tools for model output analysis and model benchmarking. The challenge involves developing a cyberinfrastructure for a coordinated aggregate of software, hardware and other technologies, necessary to facilitate RPC experiments, as well as human expertise to provide an integrated, "end-to-end" platform to support the RPC objectives. Such aggregation is to be achieved through a horizontal integration of loosely coupled services. The cyberinfrastructure comprises several software layers. At the bottom, the Grid fabric encompasses network protocols, optical networks, computational resources, storage devices, and sensors. At the top, applications use workload managers to coordinate their access to physical resources. Applications are not tightly bounded to a single physical resource. Instead, they bind dynamically to resources (i.e., they are provisioned) via a common grid infrastructure layer. For the RPC system, the

  11. Geographic Atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Bird, Alan C.; Phillips, Rachel L.; Hageman, Gregory S.

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Geographic atrophy (GA) is the major cause of blind registration in Western communities, although, with few exceptions, it is less common than choroidal neovascular disease. The variation of phenotype implies that age-related macular degeneration (AMD) does not follow the same course from one case to another and that phenotyping may be important before initiating a therapeutic trial. OBJECTIVE To document photoreceptor and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cell loss and other changes at the RPE-choroid interface in donated human eyes in which visual loss was deemed to be due to GA. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Histological study of a consecutive series of eyes donated by individuals previously diagnosed clinically as having GA. Donors were chosen on the basis of available clinical records (from MidAmerica Transplant Services, St Louis, Missouri; the Iowa Lions Eye Bank, Iowa City; and the Utah Lions Eye Bank, Salt Lake City) and selected were those considered to have GA due to AMD. Tissues in the regions of atrophy were examined with light, electron, and autofluorescence microscopy. RESULTS In most of the 37 donors examined, there was marked loss of photoreceptor cells for variable distances distal from the edge of the GA. Rod loss was greater than cone loss. An inverse relationship existed between the quantity of autofluorescent inclusions in the RPE and the thickness of sub-RPE basal laminar deposit. Integrity of the choroid varied from one eye to another and was not related strictly to photoreceptor survival. In some eyes, photoreceptor loss existed in the absence of obvious morphological changes in the Bruch membrane or RPE. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE The findings support the view that photoreceptor loss occurs early in AMD in a proportion of cases and imply that photoreceptor-cell loss may contribute to the functional loss recorded in early stages of AMD at least in part. The variation of changes from one eye to another implies that patients

  12. Validating a Geographical Image Retrieval System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Bin; Chen, Hsinchun

    2000-01-01

    Summarizes a prototype geographical image retrieval system that demonstrates how to integrate image processing and information analysis techniques to support large-scale content-based image retrieval. Describes an experiment to validate the performance of this image retrieval system against that of human subjects by examining similarity analysis…

  13. Rapid prototype and test

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory, D.L.; Hansche, B.D.

    1996-06-01

    In order to support advanced manufacturing, Sandia has acquired the capability to produce plastic prototypes using stereolithography. Currently, these prototypes are used mainly to verify part geometry and ``fit and form`` checks. This project investigates methods for rapidly testing these plastic prototypes, and inferring from prototype test data actual metal part performance and behavior. Performances examined include static load/stress response, and structural dynamic (modal) and vibration behavior. The integration of advanced non-contacting measurement techniques including scanning laser velocimetry, laser holography, and thermoelasticity into testing of these prototypes is described. Photoelastic properties of the epoxy prototypes to reveal full field stress/strain fields are also explored.

  14. A pilot biomedical engineering course in rapid prototyping for mobile health.

    PubMed

    Stokes, Todd H; Venugopalan, Janani; Hubbard, Elena N; Wang, May D

    2013-01-01

    Rapid prototyping of medically assistive mobile devices promises to fuel innovation and provides opportunity for hands-on engineering training in biomedical engineering curricula. This paper presents the design and outcomes of a course offered during a 16-week semester in Fall 2011 with 11 students enrolled. The syllabus covered a mobile health design process from end-to-end, including storyboarding, non-functional prototypes, integrated circuit programming, 3D modeling, 3D printing, cloud computing database programming, and developing patient engagement through animated videos describing the benefits of a new device. Most technologies presented in this class are open source and thus provide unlimited "hackability". They are also cost-effective and easily transferrable to other departments. PMID:24110238

  15. Thinking Like a Geographer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chernosky, Margaret Shaw

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an activity that engages the student in the geographic inquiry process, the student acquires geographic data and analyzes geographic information to answer a geographic question. The question is: "Do students in my class have place name mastery of the 50 states?" The activity assesses students' geo-literacy and shows the…

  16. Spatial relation query based on geographic ontology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Chong; Xu, Jun; Zhang, Jing; Si, Wangli; Liu, Bao; Zhang, Dapeng

    2010-11-01

    The description of a spatial relation is the reflection of human's cognition of spatial objects. It is not only affected by topology and metric, but also affected by geographic semantics, such as the categories of geographic entities and contexts. Currently, the researches about language aspects of spatial relations mostly focus on natural-language formalization, parsing of query sentences, and natural-language query interface. However, geographic objects are not simple geometric points, lines or polygons. In order to get a sound answer according with human cognition in spatial relation queries, we have to take geographic semantics into account. In this paper, the functions of natural-language spatial terms are designed based on previous work on natural-language formalization and human-subject tests. Then, the paper builds a geographic knowledge base based on geographic ontology using Protégé for discriminating geographic semantics. Finally, using the geographic knowledge in the knowledge base, a prototype of a query system is implemented on GIS platform.

  17. Integrating Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Applications into Business Courses Using Online Business Geographics Modules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Fred; Mangold, W. Glynn; Holmes, Terry

    2006-01-01

    Although the value of geographic information systems (GIS) technologies is recognized by practitioners and educators alike, GIS instruction has yet to make significant inroads into business curricula. In this article, the authors discuss the constraints of integrating GIS tools into business education. They develop a prototype module for…

  18. An end-to-end assessment of extreme weather impacts on food security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavez, Erik; Conway, Gordon; Ghil, Michael; Sadler, Marc

    2015-11-01

    Both governments and the private sector urgently require better estimates of the likely incidence of extreme weather events, their impacts on food crop production and the potential consequent social and economic losses. Current assessments of climate change impacts on agriculture mostly focus on average crop yield vulnerability to climate and adaptation scenarios. Also, although new-generation climate models have improved and there has been an exponential increase in available data, the uncertainties in their projections over years and decades, and at regional and local scale, have not decreased. We need to understand and quantify the non-stationary, annual and decadal climate impacts using simple and communicable risk metrics that will help public and private stakeholders manage the hazards to food security. Here we present an `end-to-end’ methodological construct based on weather indices and machine learning that integrates current understanding of the various interacting systems of climate, crops and the economy to determine short- to long-term risk estimates of crop production loss, in different climate and adaptation scenarios. For provinces north and south of the Yangtze River in China, we have found that risk profiles for crop yields that translate climate into economic variability follow marked regional patterns, shaped by drivers of continental-scale climate. We conclude that to be cost-effective, region-specific policies have to be tailored to optimally combine different categories of risk management instruments.

  19. SciBox, an end-to-end automated science planning and commanding system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choo, Teck H.; Murchie, Scott L.; Bedini, Peter D.; Steele, R. Josh; Skura, Joseph P.; Nguyen, Lillian; Nair, Hari; Lucks, Michael; Berman, Alice F.; McGovern, James A.; Turner, F. Scott

    2014-01-01

    SciBox is a new technology for planning and commanding science operations for Earth-orbital and planetary space missions. It has been incrementally developed since 2001 and demonstrated on several spaceflight projects. The technology has matured to the point that it is now being used to plan and command all orbital science operations for the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) mission to Mercury. SciBox encompasses the derivation of observing sequences from science objectives, the scheduling of those sequences, the generation of spacecraft and instrument commands, and the validation of those commands prior to uploading to the spacecraft. Although the process is automated, science and observing requirements are incorporated at each step by a series of rules and parameters to optimize observing opportunities, which are tested and validated through simulation and review. Except for limited special operations and tests, there is no manual scheduling of observations or construction of command sequences. SciBox reduces the lead time for operations planning by shortening the time-consuming coordination process, reduces cost by automating the labor-intensive processes of human-in-the-loop adjudication of observing priorities, reduces operations risk by systematically checking constraints, and maximizes science return by fully evaluating the trade space of observing opportunities to meet MESSENGER science priorities within spacecraft recorder, downlink, scheduling, and orbital-geometry constraints.

  20. Exploring Two Approaches for an End-to-End Scientific Analysis Workflow

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Dodelson, Scott; Kent, Steve; Kowalkowski, Jim; Paterno, Marc; Sehrish, Saba

    2015-01-01

    The advance of the scientific discovery process is accomplished by the integration of independently-developed programs run on disparate computing facilities into coherent workflows usable by scientists who are not experts in computing. For such advancement, we need a system which scientists can use to formulate analysis workflows, to integrate new components to these workflows, and to execute different components on resources that are best suited to run those components. In addition, we need to monitor the status of the workflow as components get scheduled and executed, and to access the intermediate and final output for visual exploration and analysis. Finally,more » it is important for scientists to be able to share their workflows with collaborators. Moreover we have explored two approaches for such an analysis framework for the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) Dark Energy Science Collaboration (DESC), the first one is based on the use and extension of Galaxy, a web-based portal for biomedical research, and the second one is based on a programming language, Python. In our paper, we present a brief description of the two approaches, describe the kinds of extensions to the Galaxy system we have found necessary in order to support the wide variety of scientific analysis in the cosmology community, and discuss how similar efforts might be of benefit to the HEP community.« less

  1. End-to-end quality measure for transmission of compressed imagery over a noisy coded channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korwar, V. N.; Lee, P. J.

    1981-01-01

    For the transmission of imagery at high data rates over large distances with limited power and system gain, it is usually necessary to compress the data before transmitting it over a noisy channel that uses channel coding to reduce the effect of noise introduced errors. Both compression and channel noise introduce distortion into the imagery. In order to design a communication link that provides adequate quality of received images, it is necessary first to define some suitable distortion measure that accounts for both these kinds of distortion and then to perform various tradeoffs to arrive at system parameter values that will provide a sufficiently low level of received image distortion. The overall mean square error is used as the distortion measure and a description of how to perform these tradeoffs are included.

  2. End-to-end design consideration of a radar altimeter for terrain-aided navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chun, Joohwan; Choi, Sanghyouk; Paek, Inchan; Park, Dongmin; Yoo, Kyungju

    2013-10-01

    We present a preliminary simulation study of an interferometric SAR altimeter for the terrain-aided navigation application. Our simulation includes raw SAR data generation, azimuth compression, leading edge detection of the echo signal, maximum likelihood angle estimation and the Bayesian state estimation. Sour results show that radar altimeter performance can be improved with the feedback loop from the rear-end navigation part.

  3. Data compression: The end-to-end information systems perspective for NASA space science missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tai, Wallace

    1991-01-01

    The unique characteristics of compressed data have important implications to the design of space science data systems, science applications, and data compression techniques. The sequential nature or data dependence between each of the sample values within a block of compressed data introduces an error multiplication or propagation factor which compounds the effects of communication errors. The data communication characteristics of the onboard data acquisition, storage, and telecommunication channels may influence the size of the compressed blocks and the frequency of included re-initialization points. The organization of the compressed data are continually changing depending on the entropy of the input data. This also results in a variable output rate from the instrument which may require buffering to interface with the spacecraft data system. On the ground, there exist key tradeoff issues associated with the distribution and management of the science data products when data compression techniques are applied in order to alleviate the constraints imposed by ground communication bandwidth and data storage capacity.

  4. Independent SCPS-TP development for fault-tolerant, end-to-end communication architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, E.; Lamorie, J.; Younghusband, D.; Brunet, C.; Hartman, L.

    2002-07-01

    A fully networked architecture provides for the distribution of computing elements, of all mission components, through the spacecraft. Each node is individually addressable through the network, and behaves as an independent entity. This level of communication also supports individualized Command and Data Handling (C&DH), as well as one-to-one transactions between spacecraft nodes and individual ground segment users. To be effective, fault-tolerance must be applied at the network data transport level, as well as the supporting layers below it. If the network provides fail-safe characteristics independent of the mission applications being executed, then developers need not build in their own systems to ensure network reliability. The Space Communications Protocol Standards (SCPS) were developed to provide robust communications in a space environment, while retaining compatibility with Internet data transport at the ground segment. Although SCPS is a standard of the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS), the adoption of SCPS was initially delayed by US export regulations that prevented the distribution of reference code. This paper describes the development and test of a fully independent implementation of the SCSP Transport Protocol, SCPS-TP, which has been derived directly from the CCSDS specification. The performance of the protocol is described for a set of geostationary satellite tests, and these results will be compared with those derived from network simulation and laboratory emulation. The work is placed in the context of a comprehensive, fault-tolerant network that potentially surpasses the failsafe performance of a traditional spacecraft control system under similar circumstances.

  5. EQUIP: end-to-end quantification of uncertainty for impacts prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morse, A. P.; Challinor, A. J.; Equip Consortium

    2010-12-01

    Inherent uncertainties in climate prediction present a serious challenge to attempts to assess future impacts and adaptation options. Such assessments are critical to any policy decisions regarding investment in resources to ensure human and environmental wellbeing in the face of environmental change and a growing population. Current methods for quantifying uncertainty in projections of climate and its impacts tend to focus first on taking full account of uncertainty, with a subsequent step assessing utility. We argue that a new approach is required, whereby climate and impacts models are used to develop risk-based prediction systems that focus on the information content of models and utility for decision-making. Preliminary steps in this direction are explored, principally using the example of climate-induced changes in crop yield. The relative contribution of uncertainty in crop and climate simulation to the total uncertainty in projected yield changes is examined. A focus on governing bio-physical processes across a number of crop models is used to characterise the robustness of the results. Further development of this approach relies on the development of decision-focussed techniques that analyse sources of uncertainty and assess and improve the information content of models of climate and its impacts. Such an approach is significantly different from tagging impacts models onto climate models. It implies substantial interaction with other organisations and stakeholders from development NGOs to the insurance sector and policy makers. These interactions should be aimed at ensuring that the principal lead-times, and formats, for the impact projections are those relevant to decision-making. The EQUIP project, and its associated open network of scientists, aims to develop the approach outlined above. The project is examining the cascade of uncertainty from climate to impacts by conducting integrated analyses of a range of sectors, principally crops, marine ecosystems, water management, heat waves and droughts. The research includes assessment of the information content of climate model projections, combination of climate models and data-driven models to support decisions, and evaluation of the quality of climate and impacts predictions.

  6. End-to-End Network QoS via Scheduling of Flexible Resource Reservation Requests

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, S.; Katramatos, D.; Yu, D.

    2011-11-14

    Modern data-intensive applications move vast amounts of data between multiple locations around the world. To enable predictable and reliable data transfer, next generation networks allow such applications to reserve network resources for exclusive use. In this paper, we solve an important problem (called SMR3) to accommodate multiple and concurrent network reservation requests between a pair of end-sites. Given the varying availability of bandwidth within the network, our goal is to accommodate as many reservation requests as possible while minimizing the total time needed to complete the data transfers. We first prove that SMR3 is an NP-hard problem. Then we solve it by developing a polynomial-time heuristic, called RRA. The RRA algorithm hinges on an efficient mechanism to accommodate large number of requests by minimizing the bandwidth wastage. Finally, via numerical results, we show that RRA constructs schedules that accommodate significantly larger number of requests compared to other, seemingly efficient, heuristics.

  7. An end-to-end data system for the Gamma-Ray Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hrastar, J.

    A data system, which includes parts in the orbiting Gamma-Ray Observatory and in its associated ground system, has been designed to rapidly deliver autonomous, packeted data to the science users. Data autonomy means all of the data, including auxiliary data, necessary for processing is included in the data packet that leaves the spacecraft. The data packets leaving the spacecraft remain unopened until they reach the user. Handling the data on a packet rather than a byte level allows simpler and generic software. The data goes through the system more quickly. This in turn reduces cost.

  8. Privacy in Pharmacogenetics: An End-to-End Case Study of Personalized Warfarin Dosing

    PubMed Central

    Fredrikson, Matthew; Lantz, Eric; Jha, Somesh; Lin, Simon; Page, David; Ristenpart, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    We initiate the study of privacy in pharmacogenetics, wherein machine learning models are used to guide medical treatments based on a patient’s genotype and background. Performing an in-depth case study on privacy in personalized warfarin dosing, we show that suggested models carry privacy risks, in particular because attackers can perform what we call model inversion: an attacker, given the model and some demographic information about a patient, can predict the patient’s genetic markers. As differential privacy (DP) is an oft-proposed solution for medical settings such as this, we evaluate its effectiveness for building private versions of pharmacogenetic models. We show that DP mechanisms prevent our model inversion attacks when the privacy budget is carefully selected. We go on to analyze the impact on utility by performing simulated clinical trials with DP dosing models. We find that for privacy budgets effective at preventing attacks, patients would be exposed to increased risk of stroke, bleeding events, and mortality. We conclude that current DP mechanisms do not simultaneously improve genomic privacy while retaining desirable clinical efficacy, highlighting the need for new mechanisms that should be evaluated in situ using the general methodology introduced by our work. PMID:27077138

  9. End-to-end information system concept for the Mars Telecommunications Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breidenthal, Julian C.; Edwards, Charles D.; Greenberg, Edward; Kazz, Greg J.; Noreen, Gary K.

    2006-01-01

    The Mars Telecommunications Orbiter (MTO) was intended to provide high-performance deep space relay links to landers, orbiters, sample-return missions, and approaching spacecraft in the vicinity of Mars, to demostrate interplanetary laser communications, to demonstrate autonomous navigation, and to carry out its own science investigations.

  10. End-to-end information system concept for the Mars Telecommunications Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridenthal, Julian C.; Edwards, Charles D.; Greenberg, Edward; Kazz, Greg J.; Noreen, Gary K.

    2006-01-01

    The Mars Telecommunications Orbiter (MTO) was intended to provide high-performance deep space relay links to landers, orbiters, sample-return, missions, and approaching spacecraft in the vicinity of Mars, to demonstrate interplanetary laser communications, to demonstrate autonomous navigation, and to carry out is own science investigations.

  11. An end-to-end pointing budget approach to planetary observing systems with application to EOS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Throckmorton, A.

    1993-01-01

    Previously published error budgets have focused on spacecraft error sources for pointing error and have tended to include only spacecraft pointing rather than the ultimate geolocation of each pixel of dam onto a well-defined spot on the surface of the Earth. A systematic approach to geolocation error budgeting, including all contributors in the geolocation process is presented. Its structure allows simultaneous expression of the needs of instrument teams as well as spacecraft design teams. It allows explicit acknowledgement of approximations made for on-board control as well as the ultimate geolocation accuracy achievable after ground processing and exploits the commonality inherent in the on-board and post-processing error budgets. It also includes the uncontrolled and unmeasured spacecraft jitter. This approach can be used to investigate the mission-wide benefit of a variety of design choices, (such as on-board sensing and ground correction of measurements contrasted with on-board correction of measurements). Additionally, in light of increasing accuracy requirements as sensor resolution improves, numerous non-spacecraft contributors to geolocation error are quantified.

  12. Wiener restoration of sampled image data - End-to-end analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fales, Carl L.; Huck, Friedrich O.; Mccormick, Judith A.; Park, Stephen K.

    1988-01-01

    The Wiener filter is formulated as a function of the basic image-gathering and image-reconstruction constraints, thereby providing a method for minimizing the mean-squared error between the (continuous-input) radiance field and its restored (continuous-output) representation. This formulation of the Wiener filter is further extended to the Wiener-characteristic filter, which provides a method for explicitly specifying the desired representation. Two specific examples of Wiener filters are presented.

  13. The Kepler End-to-End Data Pipeline: From Photons to Far Away Worlds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooke, Brian; Thompson, Richard; Standley, Shaun

    2012-01-01

    The Kepler mission is described in overview and the Kepler technique for discovering exoplanets is discussed. The design and implementation of the Kepler spacecraft, tracing the data path from photons entering the telescope aperture through raw observation data transmitted to the ground operations team is described. The technical challenges of operating a large aperture photometer with an unprecedented 95 million pixel detector are addressed as well as the onboard technique for processing and reducing the large volume of data produced by the Kepler photometer. The technique and challenge of day-to-day mission operations that result in a very high percentage of time on target is discussed. This includes the day to day process for monitoring and managing the health of the spacecraft, the annual process for maintaining sun on the solar arrays while still keeping the telescope pointed at the fixed science target, the process for safely but rapidly returning to science operations after a spacecraft initiated safing event and the long term anomaly resolution process.The ground data processing pipeline, from the point that science data is received on the ground to the presentation of preliminary planetary candidates and supporting data to the science team for further evaluation is discussed. Ground management, control, exchange and storage of Kepler's large and growing data set is discussed as well as the process and techniques for removing noise sources and applying calibrations to intermediate data products.

  14. An end-to-end workflow for engineering of biological networks from high-level specifications.

    PubMed

    Beal, Jacob; Weiss, Ron; Densmore, Douglas; Adler, Aaron; Appleton, Evan; Babb, Jonathan; Bhatia, Swapnil; Davidsohn, Noah; Haddock, Traci; Loyall, Joseph; Schantz, Richard; Vasilev, Viktor; Yaman, Fusun

    2012-08-17

    We present a workflow for the design and production of biological networks from high-level program specifications. The workflow is based on a sequence of intermediate models that incrementally translate high-level specifications into DNA samples that implement them. We identify algorithms for translating between adjacent models and implement them as a set of software tools, organized into a four-stage toolchain: Specification, Compilation, Part Assignment, and Assembly. The specification stage begins with a Boolean logic computation specified in the Proto programming language. The compilation stage uses a library of network motifs and cellular platforms, also specified in Proto, to transform the program into an optimized Abstract Genetic Regulatory Network (AGRN) that implements the programmed behavior. The part assignment stage assigns DNA parts to the AGRN, drawing the parts from a database for the target cellular platform, to create a DNA sequence implementing the AGRN. Finally, the assembly stage computes an optimized assembly plan to create the DNA sequence from available part samples, yielding a protocol for producing a sample of engineered plasmids with robotics assistance. Our workflow is the first to automate the production of biological networks from a high-level program specification. Furthermore, the workflow's modular design allows the same program to be realized on different cellular platforms simply by swapping workflow configurations. We validated our workflow by specifying a small-molecule sensor-reporter program and verifying the resulting plasmids in both HEK 293 mammalian cells and in E. coli bacterial cells. PMID:23651286

  15. End-to-end observatory software modeling using domain specific languages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filgueira, José M.; Bec, Matthieu; Liu, Ning; Peng, Chien; Soto, José

    2014-07-01

    The Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT) is a 25-meter extremely large telescope that is being built by an international consortium of universities and research institutions. Its software and control system is being developed using a set of Domain Specific Languages (DSL) that supports a model driven development methodology integrated with an Agile management process. This approach promotes the use of standardized models that capture the component architecture of the system, that facilitate the construction of technical specifications in a uniform way, that facilitate communication between developers and domain experts and that provide a framework to ensure the successful integration of the software subsystems developed by the GMT partner institutions.

  16. End-to-end wireless TCP with noncongestion packet loss detection and handling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jae-Joon; Liu, Fang; Kuo, C.-C. Jay

    2003-07-01

    Traditional TCP performance degrades over lossy links, as the TCP sender assumes that packet loss is caused by congestion in the network path and thus reduces the sending rate by cutting the congestion window multiplicatively, and a mechanism to overcome this limitation is investigated in this research. Our scheme identifies the network path condition to differentiate whether congestion happens or not, and responds differently. The basic idea of separating congestion and non-congestion caused losses is to compare the estimated current available bandwidth and the average available bandwidth. To minimize the effect of temporary fluctuation of measurements, we estimate the available bandwidth with a higher weight on stable measurements and a lower weight on unstable fluctuations. In our scheme, packet loss due to congestion invokes the TCP Newreno procedure. In cases of random loss that is not related to congestion, the multiplicative decrease of the sending rate is avoided to achieve higher throughput. In addition, each duplicate acknowledgement after a fast retransmission will increase the congestion window to fully recover its sending rate. Extensive simulation results show that our differentiation algorithm achieves high accuracy. Accordingly, the TCP connection over lossy link with the proposed scheme provides higher throughput than TCP Newreno.

  17. End-to-end Encryption for SMS Messages in the Health Care Domain.

    PubMed

    Hassinen, Marko; Laitinen, Pertti

    2005-01-01

    The health care domain has a high level of expectation on security and privacy of patient information. The security, privacy, and confidentiality issues are consistent all over the domain. Technical development and increasing use of mobile phones has led us to a situation in which SMS messages are used in the electronic interactions between health care professionals and patients. We will show that it is possible to send, receive and store text messages securely with a mobile phone with no additional hardware required. More importantly we will show that it is possible to obtain a reliable user authentication in systems using text message communication. Programming language Java is used for realization of our goals. This paper describes the general application structure, while details for the technical implementation and encryption methods are described in the referenced articles. We also propose some crucial areas where the implementation of encrypted SMS can solve previous lack of security. PMID:16160278

  18. Exploring Two Approaches for an End-to-End Scientific Analysis Workflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodelson, Scott; Kent, Steve; Kowalkowski, Jim; Paterno, Marc; Sehrish, Saba

    2015-12-01

    The scientific discovery process can be advanced by the integration of independently-developed programs run on disparate computing facilities into coherent workflows usable by scientists who are not experts in computing. For such advancement, we need a system which scientists can use to formulate analysis workflows, to integrate new components to these workflows, and to execute different components on resources that are best suited to run those components. In addition, we need to monitor the status of the workflow as components get scheduled and executed, and to access the intermediate and final output for visual exploration and analysis. Finally, it is important for scientists to be able to share their workflows with collaborators. We have explored two approaches for such an analysis framework for the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) Dark Energy Science Collaboration (DESC); the first one is based on the use and extension of Galaxy, a web-based portal for biomedical research, and the second one is based on a programming language, Python. In this paper, we present a brief description of the two approaches, describe the kinds of extensions to the Galaxy system we have found necessary in order to support the wide variety of scientific analysis in the cosmology community, and discuss how similar efforts might be of benefit to the HEP community.

  19. Building an advanced wireless end-to-end emergency medical system.

    PubMed

    Saddik, Basema; El-Masri, Samir

    2011-01-01

    Effective communication in healthcare is important and especially critical in emergency situations. In this paper we propose a new comprehensive emergency system which will facilitate the communication process in emergency cases from ambulance dispatch to the patient's arrival and handover in the hospital. The proposed system has been designed to facilitate and computerise all the processes involved in an accident from finding the nearest ambulance through to accessing a patient's online health record which can assist in pre-hospital treatments. The proposed system will also locate the nearest hospital specialising in the patient's condition and will communicate patient identification to the emergency department. The components of the proposed system and the technologies used in building this system are outlined in this paper as well as the challenges expected and proposed solutions to these challenges. PMID:21893922

  20. PICASSO: an end-to-end image simulation tool for space and airborne imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cota, Stephen A.; Bell, Jabin T.; Boucher, Richard H.; Dutton, Tracy E.; Florio, Christopher J.; Franz, Geoffrey A.; Grycewicz, Thomas J.; Kalman, Linda S.; Keller, Robert A.; Lomheim, Terrence S.; Paulson, Diane B.; Wilkinson, Timothy S.

    2010-06-01

    The design of any modern imaging system is the end result of many trade studies, each seeking to optimize image quality within real world constraints such as cost, schedule and overall risk. Image chain analysis - the prediction of image quality from fundamental design parameters - is an important part of this design process. At The Aerospace Corporation we have been using a variety of image chain analysis tools for many years, the Parameterized Image Chain Analysis & Simulation SOftware (PICASSO) among them. In this paper we describe our PICASSO tool, showing how, starting with a high quality input image and hypothetical design descriptions representative of the current state of the art in commercial imaging satellites, PICASSO can generate standard metrics of image quality in support of the decision processes of designers and program managers alike.

  1. Potential end-to-end imaging information rate advantages of various alternative communication systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, R. F.

    1978-01-01

    Various communication systems were considered which are required to transmit both imaging and a typically error sensitive, class of data called general science/engineering (gse) over a Gaussian channel. The approach jointly treats the imaging and gse transmission problems, allowing comparisons of systems which include various channel coding and data compression alternatives. Actual system comparisons include an Advanced Imaging Communication System (AICS) which exhibits the rather significant potential advantages of sophisticated data compression coupled with powerful yet practical channel coding.

  2. End-to-end imaging information rate advantages of various alternative communication systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, R. F.

    1982-01-01

    The efficiency of various deep space communication systems which are required to transmit both imaging and a typically error sensitive class of data called general science and engineering (gse) are compared. The approach jointly treats the imaging and gse transmission problems, allowing comparisons of systems which include various channel coding and data compression alternatives. Actual system comparisons include an advanced imaging communication system (AICS) which exhibits the rather significant advantages of sophisticated data compression coupled with powerful yet practical channel coding. For example, under certain conditions the improved AICS efficiency could provide as much as two orders of magnitude increase in imaging information rate compared to a single channel uncoded, uncompressed system while maintaining the same gse data rate in both systems. Additional details describing AICS compression and coding concepts as well as efforts to apply them are provided in support of the system analysis.

  3. A Novel Vascular Coupling System for End-to-End Anastomosis.

    PubMed

    Li, Huizhong; Gale, Bruce K; Sant, Himanshu; Shea, Jill; David Bell, E; Agarwal, Jay

    2015-09-01

    Vascular anastomosis is common during reconstructive surgeries. Traditional hand-suturing techniques are time consuming, subject to human error, and require high technical expertise and complex instruments. Prior attempts to replace hand-suturing technique, including staples, ring-pin devices, cuffing devices, and clips, are either more cumbersome, are unable to maintain a tight seal, or do not work for both arteries and veins. To provide a more efficient and reliable vessel anastomosis, a metal-free vascular coupling system that can be used for both arteries and veins was designed, fabricated and tested. A set of corresponding instruments were developed to facilitate the anastomosis process. Evaluation of the anastomosis by scanning electron microscopy and magnetic resonance imaging, demonstrated that the installation process does not cause damage to the vessel intima and the vascular coupling system is not exposed to the vessel lumen. Mechanical testing results showed that vessels reconnected with the vascular coupling system could withstand 12.7 ± 2.2 N tensile force and have superior leak profiles (0.049 ± 0.015, 0.078 ± 0.016, 0.089 ± 0.008 mL/s at 160, 260, 360 mmHg, respectively) compared to hand sutured vessels (0.310 ± 0.014, 1.123 ± 0.033, 2.092 ± 0.072 mL/s at 160, 260, 360 mmHg, respectively). The anastomotic process was successfully demonstrated on both arteries and veins in cadaver pigs. PMID:26577362

  4. Exploring Two Approaches for an End-to-End Scientific Analysis Workflow

    SciTech Connect

    Dodelson, Scott; Kent, Steve; Kowalkowski, Jim; Paterno, Marc; Sehrish, Saba

    2015-01-01

    The advance of the scientific discovery process is accomplished by the integration of independently-developed programs run on disparate computing facilities into coherent workflows usable by scientists who are not experts in computing. For such advancement, we need a system which scientists can use to formulate analysis workflows, to integrate new components to these workflows, and to execute different components on resources that are best suited to run those components. In addition, we need to monitor the status of the workflow as components get scheduled and executed, and to access the intermediate and final output for visual exploration and analysis. Finally, it is important for scientists to be able to share their workflows with collaborators. Moreover we have explored two approaches for such an analysis framework for the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) Dark Energy Science Collaboration (DESC), the first one is based on the use and extension of Galaxy, a web-based portal for biomedical research, and the second one is based on a programming language, Python. In our paper, we present a brief description of the two approaches, describe the kinds of extensions to the Galaxy system we have found necessary in order to support the wide variety of scientific analysis in the cosmology community, and discuss how similar efforts might be of benefit to the HEP community.

  5. An End-to-End Architecture for Science Goal Driven Observing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jeremy; Grosvenor, Sandy; Koratkar, Anuradha; Memarsadeghi, Nargess; Wolf, Karl; Obenschain, Arthur F. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    New observatories will have greater on-board storage capacity and on-board processing capabilities. The new bottleneck will be download capacity. The cost of downlink time and limitations of bandwidth will end the era where all exposure data is downloaded and all data processing is performed on the ground. In addition, observing campaigns involving inherently variable targets will need scheduling flexibility to focus observing time and data download on exposures that are scientifically interesting. The ability to quickly recognize and react to such events by re-prioritizing the observing schedule will be an essential characteristic for maximizing scientific returns. It will also be a step towards increasing spacecraft autonomy, a major goal of NASA's strategic plan. The science goal monitoring (SGM) system is a proof-of-concept effort to address these challenges. We are developing an interactive distributed system that will use on-board processing and storage combined with event-driven interfaces with ground-based processing and operations, to enable fast re-prioritization of observing schedules, and to minimize time spent on non-optimized observations. SGM is initially aimed towards time-tagged observing modes used frequently in spectroscopic studies of varying targets. In particular, the SGM is collaborating with the proposed MIDEX-class mission Kronos team. The variable targets that Kronos seeks to study make an adaptive system such as SGM particularly valuable for achieving mission goals. However, the architecture and interfaces will also be designed for easy adaptability to other observing platforms, including ground-based systems and to work with different scheduling and pipeline processing systems. This talk will focus on our strategy for developing SGM and the technical challenges that we have encountered. We will discuss the SGM architecture as it applies to the Kronos mission and explain how it is scalable to other missions.

  6. Experiments with Memory-to-Memory Coupling for End-to-End fusion Simulation Workflows

    SciTech Connect

    Docan, Ciprian; Zhang, Fan; Parashar, Manish; Cummings, Julian; Podhorszki, Norbert; Klasky, Scott A

    2010-01-01

    Scientific applications are striving to accurately simulate multiple interacting physical processes that comprise complex phenomena being modeled. Efficient and scalable parallel implementations of these coupled simulations present challenging interaction and coordination requirements, especially when the coupled physical processes are computationally heterogeneous and progress at different speeds. In this paper, we present the design, implementation and evaluation of a memory-to-memory coupling framework for coupled scientific simulations on high-performance parallel computing platforms. The framework is driven by the coupling requirements of the Center for Plasma Edge Simulation, and it provides simple coupling abstractions as well as efficient asynchronous (RDMA-based) memory-to-memory data transport mechanisms that complement existing parallel programming systems and data sharing frameworks. The framework enables flexible coupling behaviors that are asynchronous in time and space, and it supports dynamic coupling between heterogeneous simulation processes without enforcing any synchronization constraints. We evaluate the performance and scalability of the coupling framework using a specific coupling scenario, on the Jaguar Cray XT5 system at Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  7. An end-to-end data system for the Gamma-Ray Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hrastar, J.

    1983-01-01

    A data system, which includes parts in the orbiting Gamma-Ray Observatory and in its associated ground system, has been designed to rapidly deliver autonomous, packeted data to the science users. Data autonomy means all of the data, including auxiliary data, necessary for processing is included in the data packet that leaves the spacecraft. The data packets leaving the spacecraft remain unopened until they reach the user. Handling the data on a packet rather than a byte level allows simpler and generic software. The data goes through the system more quickly. This in turn reduces cost.

  8. Comparison of Reconstruction and Control algorithms on the ESO end-to-end simulator OCTOPUS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montilla, I.; Béchet, C.; Lelouarn, M.; Correia, C.; Tallon, M.; Reyes, M.; Thiébaut, É.

    Extremely Large Telescopes are very challenging concerning their Adaptive Optics requirements. Their diameters, the specifications demanded by the science for which they are being designed for, and the planned use of Extreme Adaptive Optics systems, imply a huge increment in the number of degrees of freedom in the deformable mirrors. It is necessary to study new reconstruction algorithms to implement the real time control in Adaptive Optics at the required speed. We have studied the performance, applied to the case of the European ELT, of three different algorithms: the matrix-vector multiplication (MVM) algorithm, considered as a reference; the Fractal Iterative Method (FrIM); and the Fourier Transform Reconstructor (FTR). The algorithms have been tested on ESO's OCTOPUS software, which simulates the atmosphere, the deformable mirror, the sensor and the closed-loop control. The MVM is the default reconstruction and control method implemented in OCTOPUS, but it scales in O(N2) operations per loop so it is not considered as a fast algorithm for wave-front reconstruction and control on an Extremely Large Telescope. The two other methods are the fast algorithms studied in the E-ELT Design Study. The performance, as well as their response in the presence of noise and with various atmospheric conditions, has been compared using a Single Conjugate Adaptive Optics configuration for a 42 m diameter ELT, with a total amount of 5402 actuators. Those comparisons made on a common simulator allow to enhance the pros and cons of the various methods, and give us a better understanding of the type of reconstruction algorithm that an ELT demands.

  9. Assessing Natural Product-Drug Interactions: An End-to-End Safety Framework.

    PubMed

    Roe, Amy L; Paine, Mary F; Gurley, Bill J; Brouwer, Kenneth R; Jordan, Scott; Griffiths, James C

    2016-04-01

    The use of natural products (NPs), including herbal medicines and other dietary supplements, by North Americans continues to increase across all age groups. This population has access to conventional medications, with significant polypharmacy observed in older adults. Thus, the safety of the interactions between multi-ingredient NPs and drugs is a topic of paramount importance. Considerations such as history of safe use, literature data from animal toxicity and human clinical studies, and NP constituent characterization would provide guidance on whether to assess NP-drug interactions experimentally. The literature is replete with reports of various NP extracts and constituents as potent inhibitors of drug metabolizing enzymes, and transporters. However, without standard methods for NP characterization or in vitro testing, extrapolating these reports to clinically-relevant NP-drug interactions is difficult. This lack of a clear definition of risk precludes clinicians and consumers from making informed decisions about the safety of taking NPs with conventional medications. A framework is needed that describes an integrated robust approach for assessing NP-drug interactions; and, translation of the data into formulation alterations, dose adjustment, labelling, and/or post-marketing surveillance strategies. A session was held at the 41st Annual Summer Meeting of the Toxicology Forum in Colorado Springs, CO, to highlight the challenges and critical components that should be included in a framework approach. PMID:26776752

  10. Assessing the Performance Limits of Internal Coronagraphs Through End-to-End Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krist, John E.; Belikov, Ruslan; Pueyo, Laurent; Mawet, Dimitri P.; Moody, Dwight; Trauger, John T.; Shaklan, Stuart B.

    2013-01-01

    As part of the NASA ROSES Technology Demonstrations for Exoplanet Missions (TDEM) program, we conducted a numerical modeling study of three internal coronagraphs (PIAA, vector vortex, hybrid bandlimited) to understand their behaviors in realistically-aberrated systems with wavefront control (deformable mirrors). This investigation consisted of two milestones: (1) develop wavefront propagation codes appropriate for each coronagraph that are accurate to 1% or better (compared to a reference algorithm) but are also time and memory efficient, and (2) use these codes to determine the wavefront control limits of each architecture. We discuss here how the milestones were met and identify some of the behaviors particular to each coronagraph. The codes developed in this study are being made available for community use. We discuss here results for the HBLC and VVC systems, with PIAA having been discussed in a previous proceeding.

  11. Science and Applications Space Platform (SASP) End-to-End Data System Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawford, P. R.; Kasulka, L. H.

    1981-01-01

    The capability of present technology and the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) to accommodate Science and Applications Space Platforms (SASP) payload user's requirements, maximum service to the user through optimization of the SASP Onboard Command and Data Management System, and the ability and availability of new technology to accommodate the evolution of SASP payloads were assessed. Key technology items identified to accommodate payloads on a SASP were onboard storage devices, multiplexers, and onboard data processors. The primary driver is the limited access to TDRSS for single access channels due to sharing with all the low Earth orbit spacecraft plus shuttle. Advantages of onboard data processing include long term storage of processed data until TRDSS is accessible, thus reducing the loss of data, eliminating large data processing tasks at the ground stations, and providing a more timely access to the data.

  12. Geographic Media Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukinbeal, Chris

    2014-01-01

    While the use of media permeates geographic research and pedagogic practice, the underlying literacies that link geography and media remain uncharted. This article argues that geographic media literacy incorporates visual literacy, information technology literacy, information literacy, and media literacy. Geographic media literacy is the ability…

  13. Auxiliary instruments for the absolute calibration of the ASTRI SST-2M prototype for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maccarone, Maria C.; Segreto, Alberto; Catalano, Osvaldo; La Rosa, Giovanni; Russo, Francesco; Sottile, Giuseppe; Gargano, Carmelo; Biondo, Benedetto; Fiorini, Mauro; Incorvaia, Salvatore; Toso, Giorgio

    2014-08-01

    ASTRI SST-2M is the end-to-end prototype telescope under development by the Italian National Institute of Astrophysics, INAF, proposed for the investigation of the highest-energy gamma-ray band in the framework of the Cherenkov Telescope Array, CTA. The ASTRI SST-2M prototype will be installed in Italy at the INAF station located at Serra La Nave on Mount Etna during Fall 2014. The calibration and scientific validation phase will start soon after. The calibration of a Cherenkov telescope includes several items and tools. The ASTRI SST- 2M camera is equipped with an internal fiber illumination system that allows to perform the relative calibration through monitoring of gain and efficiency variations of each pixel. The absolute calibration of the overall system, including optics, will take advantage from auxiliary instrumentation, namely UVscope and UVSiPM, two small-aperture multi-pixels photon detectors NIST calibrated in lab. During commissioning phase, to measure the main features of ASTRI SST-2M, as its overall spectral response, the main telescope and the auxiliary UVscope-UVSiPM will be illuminated simultaneously by a spatially uniform flux generated by a ground-based light source, named Illuminator, placed at a distance of few hundreds meters. Periodically, during clear nights, the flux profiles of a reference star tracked simultaneously by ASTRI SST-2M and UVscope-UVSiPM will allow to evaluate the total atmospheric attenuation and the absolute calibration constant of the ASTRI SST-2M prototype. In this contribution we describe the auxiliary UVscope-UVSiPM and Illuminator sub-system together with an overview of the end-to-end calibration procedure foreseen for the ASTRI SST-2M telescope prototype.

  14. Active optics system of the ASTRI SST-2M prototype for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardiol, Daniele; Capobianco, Gerardo; Fantinel, Daniela; Giro, Enrico; Lessio, Luigi; Loreggia, Davide; Rodeghiero, Gabriele; Russo, Federico; Volpicelli, Antonio C.

    2014-07-01

    ASTRI (Astrofisica con Specchi a Tecnologia Replicante Italiana) SST-2M is an end-to-end prototype of Small Size class of Telescope for the Cherenkov Telescope Array. It will apply a dual mirror configuration to Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes. The 18 segments composing the primary mirror (diameter 4.3 m) are equipped with an active optics system enabling optical re-alignment during telescope slew. The secondary mirror (diameter 1.8 m) can be moved along three degrees of freedom to perform focus and tilt corrections. We describe the kinematic model used to predict the system performance as well as the hardware and software design solution that will be implemented for optics control.

  15. Programmable immersive peripheral environmental system (PIPES): a prototype control system for environmental feedback devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frend, Chauncey; Boyles, Michael

    2015-03-01

    This paper describes an environmental feedback device (EFD) control system aimed at simplifying the VR development cycle. Programmable Immersive Peripheral Environmental System (PIPES) affords VR developers a custom approach to programming and controlling EFD behaviors while relaxing the required knowledge and expertise of electronic systems. PIPES has been implemented for the Unity engine and features EFD control using the Arduino integrated development environment. PIPES was installed and tested on two VR systems, a large format CAVE system and an Oculus Rift HMD system. A photocell based end-to-end latency experiment was conducted to measure latency within the system. This work extends previously unpublished prototypes of a similar design. Development and experiments described in this paper are part of the VR community goal to understand and apply environment effects to VEs that ultimately add to users' perceived presence.

  16. PRMS Data Warehousing Prototype

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guruvadoo, Eranna K.

    2002-01-01

    Project and Resource Management System (PRMS) is a web-based, mid-level management tool developed at KSC to provide a unified enterprise framework for Project and Mission management. The addition of a data warehouse as a strategic component to the PRMS is investigated through the analysis, design and implementation processes of a data warehouse prototype. As a proof of concept, a demonstration of the prototype with its OLAP's technology for multidimensional data analysis is made. The results of the data analysis and the design constraints are discussed. The prototype can be used to motivate interest and support for an operational data warehouse.

  17. PRMS Data Warehousing Prototype

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guruvadoo, Eranna K.

    2001-01-01

    Project and Resource Management System (PRMS) is a web-based, mid-level management tool developed at KSC to provide a unified enterprise framework for Project and Mission management. The addition of a data warehouse as a strategic component to the PRMS is investigated through the analysis design and implementation processes of a data warehouse prototype. As a proof of concept, a demonstration of the prototype with its OLAP's technology for multidimensional data analysis is made. The results of the data analysis and the design constraints are discussed. The prototype can be used to motivate interest and support for an operational data warehouse.

  18. ICI Showcase House Prototype

    SciTech Connect

    2009-02-16

    Building Science Corporation collaborated with ICI Homes in Daytona Beach, FL on a 2008 prototype Showcase House that demonstrates the energy efficiency and durability upgrades that ICI currently promotes through its in-house efficiency program called EFactor.

  19. Ceramic subsurface marker prototypes

    SciTech Connect

    Lukens, C.E.

    1985-05-02

    The client submitted 5 sets of porcelain and stoneware subsurface (radioactive site) marker prototypes (31 markers each set). The following were determined: compressive strength, thermal shock resistance, thermal crazing resistance, alkali resistance, color retention, and chemical resistance.

  20. LENS: Prototyping Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rountree, S. Derek

    2013-04-01

    The Low-Energy Neutrino Spectrometer (LENS) prototyping program is broken into two phases. The first of these is μLENS, a small prototype to study the light transmission in the as built LENS scintillation lattice--- a novel detector method of high segmentation in a large liquid scintillation detector. The μLENS prototype is currently deployed and taking data at the Kimballton Underground Research Facility (KURF) near Virginia Tech. I will discuss the Scintillation Lattice construction methods and schemes of the μLENS program for running with minimal channels instrumented to date ˜41 compared to full coverage 216). The second phase of prototyping is the miniLENS detector for which construction is under way. I will discuss the overall design from the miniLENS Scintillation Lattice to the shielding.

  1. Colleyville Eco House Prototype

    SciTech Connect

    2009-06-16

    This case study describes the construction of a prototype high-performance home that includes a high efficiency ground source heat pump, unvented roof with low density spray foam insulation, and supplemental dehumidification.

  2. Prototype resupply scheduler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanner, Steve; Hughes, Angi; Byrd, Jim

    1987-01-01

    Resupply scheduling for the Space Station presents some formidable logistics problems. One of the most basic problems is assigning supplies to a series of shuttle resupply missions. A prototype logistics expert system which constructs resupply schedules was developed. This prototype is able to reconstruct feasible resupply plans. In addition, analysts can use the system to evaluate the impact of adding, deleting or modifying launches, cargo space, experiments, etc.

  3. A Primer on Prototyping.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Dylan; Biron, David

    2015-01-01

    Standard mechanical components, such as adapters or mounts, are ubiquitous in research laboratories, C. elegans labs included. Recently, in-house prototyping and fabricating both standard and custom mechanical parts has become simple and cost effective. Here we describe the basic steps, equipment, and considerations required for rapid prototyping of a handful of simple yet useful designs. These examples were chosen for their simplicity, as well as for demonstrating specific practicalities. They are thus appropriate as training exercises. PMID:26423979

  4. Power API Prototype

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2014-12-04

    The software serves two purposes. The first purpose of the software is to prototype the Sandia High Performance Computing Power Application Programming Interface Specification effort. The specification can be found at http://powerapi.sandia.gov . Prototypes of the specification were developed in parallel with the development of the specification. Release of the prototype will be instructive to anyone who intends to implement the specification. More specifically, our vendor collaborators will benefit from the availability of the prototype.more » The second is in direct support of the PowerInsight power measurement device, which was co-developed with Penguin Computing. The software provides a cluster wide measurement capability enabled by the PowerInsight device. The software can be used by anyone who purchases a PowerInsight device. The software will allow the user to easily collect power and energy information of a node that is instrumented with PowerInsight. The software can also be used as an example prototype implementation of the High Performance Computing Power Application Programming Interface Specification.« less

  5. Power API Prototype

    SciTech Connect

    2014-12-04

    The software serves two purposes. The first purpose of the software is to prototype the Sandia High Performance Computing Power Application Programming Interface Specification effort. The specification can be found at http://powerapi.sandia.gov . Prototypes of the specification were developed in parallel with the development of the specification. Release of the prototype will be instructive to anyone who intends to implement the specification. More specifically, our vendor collaborators will benefit from the availability of the prototype. The second is in direct support of the PowerInsight power measurement device, which was co-developed with Penguin Computing. The software provides a cluster wide measurement capability enabled by the PowerInsight device. The software can be used by anyone who purchases a PowerInsight device. The software will allow the user to easily collect power and energy information of a node that is instrumented with PowerInsight. The software can also be used as an example prototype implementation of the High Performance Computing Power Application Programming Interface Specification.

  6. Environmental geographic information system.

    SciTech Connect

    Peek, Dennis; Helfrich, Donald Alan; Gorman, Susan

    2010-08-01

    This document describes how the Environmental Geographic Information System (EGIS) was used, along with externally received data, to create maps for the Site-Wide Environmental Impact Statement (SWEIS) Source Document project. Data quality among the various classes of geographic information system (GIS) data is addressed. A complete listing of map layers used is provided.

  7. Situating Economic Geographical Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Trevor J.

    2006-01-01

    This article makes an argument for an economic geographical pedagogy that is post-disciplinary, emphasizing non-hierarchical, student-based knowledge, disciplinary interconnectedness, epistemological plurality, and material embodiedness and embeddedness. Key to this conception of economic geographical pedagogy are recent writings of Timothy…

  8. The telescope control of the ASTRI SST-2M prototype for the Cherenkov telescope Array: hardware and software design architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antolini, Elisa; Cascone, Enrico; Schwarz, Joseph; Stringhetti, Luca; Tanci, Claudio; Tosti, Gino; Aisa, Damiano; Aisa, Simone; Bagaglia, Marco; Busatta, Andrea; Campeggi, Carlo; Cefala, Marco; Farnesini, Lucio; Giacomel, Stefano; Marchiori, Gianpiero; Marcuzzi, Enrico; Nucciarelli, Giuliano; Piluso, Antonfranco

    2014-07-01

    ASTRI (Astrofisica con Specchi a Tecnologia Replicante Italiana) is a flagship project of the Italian Ministry of Research and led by the Italian National Institute of Astrophysics (INAF). One of its aims is to develop, within the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) framework, an end-to-end small-sized telescope prototype in a dual-mirror configuration (SST-2M) in order to investigate the energy range E ~ 1-100 TeV. A long-term goal of the ASTRI program is the production of an ASTRI/CTA mini-array composed of seven SST-2M telescopes. The prototype, named ASTRI SST-2M, is seen as a standalone system that needs only network and power connections to work. The software system that is being developed to control the prototype is the base for the Mini-Array Software System (MASS), which has the task to make possible the operation of both the ASTRI SST-2M prototype and the ASTRI/CTA mini-array. The scope of this contribution is to give an overview of the hardware and software architecture adopted for the ASTRI SST- 2M prototype, showing how to apply state of the art industrial technologies to telescope control and monitoring systems.

  9. Laboratory prototype flash evaporator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaddis, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    A laboratory prototype flash evaporator that is being developed as a candidate for the space shuttle environmental control system expendable heat sink is described. The single evaporator configuration uses water as an evaporant to accommodate reentry and on-orbit peak heat loads, and Freon 22 for terrestrial flight phases below 120,000 feet altitude. The design features, fabrication techniques used for the prototype unit, redundancy considerations, and the fluid temperature control arrangement are reported in detail. The results of an extensive test program to determine the evaporator operational characteristics under a wide variety of conditions are presented.

  10. Prototyping the Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Advanced Ceramics Research (ACR) of Tucson, Arizona, researches transforming scientific concepts into technological achievement. Through the SBIR (Small Business Innovative Research) program, ACR developed a high pressure and temperature fused deposition system, a prototyping system that is known as extrusion freeform fabrication. This system is useful in manufacturing prosthetics. ACR also developed a three-dimensional rapid prototyping process in which physical models are quickly created directly from computer generated models. Marshall Space Flight Center also contracted ACR to fabricate a set of ceramic engines to be appraised for a solar thermal rocket engine test program.

  11. Prompt and Precise Prototyping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    For Sanders Design International, Inc., of Wilton, New Hampshire, every passing second between the concept and realization of a product is essential to succeed in the rapid prototyping industry where amongst heavy competition, faster time-to-market means more business. To separate itself from its rivals, Sanders Design aligned with NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center to develop what it considers to be the most accurate rapid prototyping machine for fabrication of extremely precise tooling prototypes. The company's Rapid ToolMaker System has revolutionized production of high quality, small-to-medium sized prototype patterns and tooling molds with an exactness that surpasses that of computer numerically-controlled (CNC) machining devices. Created with funding and support from Marshall under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract, the Rapid ToolMaker is a dual-use technology with applications in both commercial and military aerospace fields. The advanced technology provides cost savings in the design and manufacturing of automotive, electronic, and medical parts, as well as in other areas of consumer interest, such as jewelry and toys. For aerospace applications, the Rapid ToolMaker enables fabrication of high-quality turbine and compressor blades for jet engines on unmanned air vehicles, aircraft, and missiles.

  12. Prototype Facility Educational Specifications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idaho State Div. of Professional-Technical Education, Boise.

    This document presents prototypical educational specifications to guide the building and renovation of Idaho vocational schools so they can help communities meet the advanced, professional-technical programs of the future. The specifications start with points to consider when determining school site suitability. The document then sets forth…

  13. Rapid Prototyping in PVS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munoz, Cesar A.; Butler, Ricky (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    PVSio is a conservative extension to the PVS prelude library that provides basic input/output capabilities to the PVS ground evaluator. It supports rapid prototyping in PVS by enhancing the specification language with built-in constructs for string manipulation, floating point arithmetic, and input/output operations.

  14. Cost Effective Prototyping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wickman, Jerry L.; Kundu, Nikhil K.

    1996-01-01

    This laboratory exercise seeks to develop a cost effective prototype development. The exercise has the potential of linking part design, CAD, mold development, quality control, metrology, mold flow, materials testing, fixture design, automation, limited parts production and other issues as related to plastics manufacturing.

  15. MIND performance and prototyping

    SciTech Connect

    Cervera-Villanueva, A.

    2008-02-21

    The performance of MIND (Magnetised Iron Neutrino Detector) at a neutrino factory has been revisited in a new analysis. In particular, the low neutrino energy region is studied, obtaining an efficiency plateau around 5 GeV for a background level below 10{sup -3}. A first look has been given into the detector optimisation and prototyping.

  16. Advances in rapid prototyping

    SciTech Connect

    Atwood, C.L.; McCarty, G.D.; Pardo, B.T.; Bryce, E.A.

    1993-12-31

    Recent advances in stereolithography and selective laser sintering have had a significant impact on the overall quality of parts produced using these rapid prototyping processes. The development and implementation of 3D System`s QuickCast{trademark} resin and software for building investment casting patterns have proven to be major steps toward fabricating highly accurate patterns with very good surface finishes. Sandia uses patterns generated from rapid prototyping processes to reduce the cycle time and cost of fabricating prototype parts in support of a Sandia National Laboratories managed program called FASTCAST. As participants in the Beta test program for QuickCast{trademark} resin and software, they experienced a steep learning curve and were able to build accurate parts in a short period of time. It is now possible, using this technology, to produce highly accurate prototype parts as well as acceptable firs article and small lots size production parts. They use the Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) process to fabricate prototype wax patterns for investment casting. DTM Corporation recently introduced the use of their polycarbonate material for fabricating investment casting patterns. The polycarbonate material is processed significantly faster, with improved strength, dimensional stability, and without a support structure during the build process. Sandia is currently changing from investment casting wax to polycarbonate for the fabrication of investment casting patterns using the SLS process. This presentation will focus on the successes with these new materials from the standpoints of application, accuracy, surface finish, and post processing. Also presented will be examples of parts manufactured by these processes.

  17. A Model for Geographic Knowledge Extraction on Web Documents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campelo, Cláudio Elizio Calazans; de Souza Baptista, Cláudio

    There is an increasing interest on doing research in the field of information retrieval which aims to incorporate new dimensions, apart from text based retrieval, to the Web search engines. Geographical Information Retrieval (GIR) aims to index Web resources using a geographic context. The process of identifying the geographic context starts with the detection of different types of geographic references associated to the documents, as for example, the occurrence of place names. This paper presents a model for detecting geographic references in Web documents based on a set of heuristics. Moreover, new concepts and methods for disambiguation of many places with the same name are addressed. Finally, a prototype was built, called GeoSEn which aimed to validate the effectiveness of the proposed model.

  18. Geographic names of Antarctica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Board on Geographic Names; Department of the Interior; Burrill, Meredith F.; Bertrand, Kenneth J.; Alberts, Fred G.

    1956-01-01

    The geographic nomenclature of Antarctica was long in need of an overall systematic treatment, objective in approach and based upon thorough examination of all the evidence. The results of such treatment over a period of about three years were presented in Geographical Names of Antarctica, Special Publication No. 86 of the Board on Geographical Names, in May 1947, two supplements to which were issued in 1949 and 1951. The continuing program since that publication has now covered most of the geographic naming in Antarctica. As research has filled in many of the previous gaps in knowledge, a number of names have been modified and minor amendments have been made in the policies. This revised publication brings together the greatly enlarged body of names officially standardized for use by the United States Government, together with new pertinent background information.

  19. Geographic Names Information System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1984-01-01

    The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is an automated data system developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to standardize and disseminate information on geographic names. GNIS provides primary information for all known places, features, and areas in the United States identified by a proper name. The information in the system can be manipulated to meet varied needs. You can incorporate information from GNIS into your own data base for special applications.

  20. Mars Spark Source Prototype

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.; Lindamood, Glenn R.; Weiland, Karen J.; VanderWal, Randall L.

    1999-01-01

    The Mars Spark Source Prototype (MSSP) hardware has been developed as part of a proof of concept system for the detection of trace metals such as lead, cadmium, and arsenic in Martian dusts and soils. A spark discharge produces plasma from a soil sample and detectors measure the optical emission from metals in the plasma that will allow their identification and quantification. Trace metal measurements are vital for the assessment of the potential toxicity of the Martian environment for human exploration. The current method of X-ray fluorescence can yield concentrations only of major species. Other instruments are incompatible with the volume, weight, and power constraints for a Mars mission. The instrument will be developed primarily for use in the Martian environment, but would be adaptable for terrestrial use in environmental monitoring. This paper describes the Mars Spark Source Prototype hardware, the results of the characterization tests, and future plans for hardware development.

  1. Prototype Slide Stainer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The prototype slide staining system capable of performing both one-component Wright's staining of blood smears and eight-step Gram staining of heat fixed slides of microorganisms is described. Attention was given to liquid containment, waste handling, absence of contamination from previous staining, and stability of the staining reagents. The unit is self-contained, capable of independent operation under one- or zero-g conditions, and compatible with Skylab A.

  2. Wet chemistry instrument prototype

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A wet chemistry instrument prototype for detecting amino acids in planetary soil samples was developed. The importance of amino acids and their condensation products to the development of life forms is explained. The characteristics of the instrument and the tests which were conducted to determine the materials compatibility are described. Diagrams are provided to show the construction of the instrument. Data obtained from the performance tests are reported.

  3. Region-Based Collision Avoidance Beaconless Geographic Routing Protocol in Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Lee, JeongCheol; Park, HoSung; Kang, SeokYoon; Kim, Ki-Il

    2015-01-01

    Due to the lack of dependency on beacon messages for location exchange, the beaconless geographic routing protocol has attracted considerable attention from the research community. However, existing beaconless geographic routing protocols are likely to generate duplicated data packets when multiple winners in the greedy area are selected. Furthermore, these protocols are designed for a uniform sensor field, so they cannot be directly applied to practical irregular sensor fields with partial voids. To prevent the failure of finding a forwarding node and to remove unnecessary duplication, in this paper, we propose a region-based collision avoidance beaconless geographic routing protocol to increase forwarding opportunities for randomly-deployed sensor networks. By employing different contention priorities into the mutually-communicable nodes and the rest of the nodes in the greedy area, every neighbor node in the greedy area can be used for data forwarding without any packet duplication. Moreover, simulation results are given to demonstrate the increased packet delivery ratio and shorten end-to-end delay, rather than well-referred comparative protocols. PMID:26057037

  4. Majorana Thermosyphon Prototype Experimental Setup

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, Douglas J.; Guzman, Anthony D.; Munley, John T.

    2011-08-01

    This report presents the experimental setup of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR thermosyphon prototype cooling system. A nitrogen thermosyphon prototype of such a system has been built and tested at PNNL. This document presents the experimental setup of the prototype that successfully demonstrated the heat transfer performance of the system.

  5. Generation of geographical profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Zhi-Bin; Zhang, Yuan-Biao; Liang, Kai-Fa; Lu, Zhen-Xing

    2010-08-01

    To provide help for the police's investigation on serial criminals, we develop a mathematical model in the paper. First, we use Inherently Continuous Model and Improved Kinetic Model to generate the offender's geographical profile. However, there is a difference in two models' results. For better synthesizing the difference, we develop a Combination Model and generate a new geographical profile. As a result, we estimate the offender's location and carry on a series of analysis. What's more, the models created can be applied in other fields, such as market's investigation, military operations and so on.

  6. Control and Non-Payload Communications (CNPC) Prototype Radio - Generation 2 Security Flight Test Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iannicca, Dennis C.; Ishac, Joseph A.; Shalkhauser, Kurt A.

    2015-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), in cooperation with Rockwell Collins, is working to develop a prototype Control and Non-Payload Communications (CNPC) radio platform as part of NASA Integrated Systems Research Program's (ISRP) Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Integration in the National Airspace System (NAS) project. A primary focus of the project is to work with the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and industry standards bodies to build and demonstrate a safe, secure, and efficient CNPC architecture that can be used by industry to evaluate the feasibility of deploying a system using these technologies in an operational capacity. GRC has been working in conjunction with these groups to assess threats, identify security requirements, and to develop a system of standards-based security controls that can be applied to the GRC prototype CNPC architecture as a demonstration platform. The proposed security controls were integrated into the GRC flight test system aboard our S-3B Viking surrogate aircraft and several network tests were conducted during a flight on November 15th, 2014 to determine whether the controls were working properly within the flight environment. The flight test was also the first to integrate Robust Header Compression (ROHC) as a means of reducing the additional overhead introduced by the security controls and Mobile IPv6. The effort demonstrated the complete end-to-end secure CNPC link in a relevant flight environment.

  7. The ASTRI SST-2M prototype for the Cherenkov Telescope Array: primary mirror characterization by deflectometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sironi, Giorgia; Canestrari, Rodolfo

    2015-09-01

    In 2014 the ASTRI Collaboration, led by the Italian National Institute for Astrophysics, has constructed an end-to-end prototype of a dual-mirror imaging air Cherenkov telescope, proposed for the small size class of telescopes for the Cherenkov Telescope Array. The prototype, named ASTRI SST-2M, has been installed at the observing station located at Serra La Nave (Italy). In this project the Brera Astronomical Observatory was responsible for the production and the testing of the primary mirror. The ASTRI SST-2M telescope's primary mirror has an aperture of ~ 4 m, a polynomial design, and consists of 18 individual hexagonal facets. These characteristics require the production and testing of panels with a typical size of ~1 m vertex-to-vertex and with an aspheric component of up to several millimetres. The mirror segments were produced assembling a sandwich of thin glass foils bent at room temperature to reach the desired shape. For the characterization of the mirrors we developed an ad-hoc deflectometry facility that works as an inverse Ronchi test in combination with a ray-tracing code. In this contribution we report the results of the deflectometric measurements performed on the primary mirror segments of the ASTRI SST-2M dual mirror telescope. The expected point spread function and the contributions to the degradation of the image quality are studied.

  8. Research in Geographical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Peter, Ed.; And Others

    This publication contains 19 papers presented at the inaugural meeting of the Australian Geographical Education Research Association held in Brisbane, December 1980. The papers surveyed a wide and diverse range of research. The introductory group of papers present several new views on curriculum development, course content, and teaching methods…

  9. Making Geographical Futures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, John

    2015-01-01

    Although there are surprisingly few academic books about geography with the term "future" or "futures" in their titles, this paper indicates that for much of the twentieth century geographers contributed to important discussions about the shape of worlds to come. The paper offers a review of these debates within Anglo-American…

  10. Minimum variance geographic sampling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Terrell, G. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    Resource inventories require samples with geographical scatter, sometimes not as widely spaced as would be hoped. A simple model of correlation over distances is used to create a minimum variance unbiased estimate population means. The fitting procedure is illustrated from data used to estimate Missouri corn acreage.

  11. Geographic information systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1992-01-01

    Geographic information systems (GIS) technology can be used for scientific investigations, resource management, and developmental planning. For example, a GIS might allow emergency planners to easily calculate emergency response times in the event of a natural disaster, or a GIS might be used to find wetlands that need protection form pollution.

  12. Geographic Education in Louisiana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Anthony J.

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author analyzes and summarizes geographic education in Louisiana from a historical perspective with a specific emphasis on the degree to which geography was implemented into the state's standards. To accomplish that, he draws from the following three sources of information: active and retired social studies teachers from a…

  13. The ASTRI prototype and mini-array: precursor telescopes for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pareschi, Giovanni

    2016-07-01

    In the framework of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) Observatory, the Italian National Institute of Astrophysics (INAF) has recently inaugurated in Sicily (Italy), at the Serra La Nave astronomical site on the slopes of Mount Etna, a large field of view (9.6 degrees) dual-mirror prototype (ASTRI SST-2M) of the CTA small size class of telescopes. CTA plans to install about 70 small size telescopes in the southern site to allow the study of the gamma rays from a few TeV up to hundreds of TeV. The ASTRI SST-2M telescope prototype has been developed following an end-to-end approach, since it includes the entire system of structure, mirror's optics (primary and secondary mirrors), camera, and control/acquisition software. Although it is a technological prototype, the ASTRI SST-2M prototype will be able to perform systematic monitoring of bright TeV sources. A remarkable improvement in terms of performance could come from the operation of the ASTRI mini-array, led by INAF in synergy with the Universidade de Sao Paulo (Brazil) and the North-West University (South Africa) and with also a contribution by INFN. The ASTRI mini-array will be composed of at least nine ASTRI SST-2M units. It is proposed as one of the CTA mini-array of telescope precursors and initial seeds of CTA, to be installed at the final CTA southern site. Apart from the assessment of a number of technological aspects related to CTA, the ASTRI mini-array will extend and improve the sensitivity, similar to the H.E.S.S. one in the 1-10 TeV energy range, up to about 100 TeV.

  14. SXI prototype mirror mount

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-04-01

    The purpose of this contract was to provide optomechanical engineering and fabrication support to the Solar X-ray Imager (SXI) program in the areas of mirror, optical bench and camera assemblies of the telescope. The Center for Applied Optics (CAO) worked closely with the Optics and S&E technical staff of MSFC to develop and investigate the most viable and economical options for the design and fabrication of a number of parts for the various telescope assemblies. All the tasks under this delivery order have been successfully completed within budget and schedule. A number of development hardware parts have been designed and fabricated jointly by MSFC and UAH for the engineering model of SXI. The major parts include a nickel electroformed mirror and a mirror mount, plating and coating of the ceramic spacers, and gold plating of the contact rings and fingers for the camera assembly. An aluminum model of the high accuracy sun sensor (HASS) was also designed and fabricated. A number of fiber optic tapers for the camera assembly were also coated with indium tin oxide and phosphor for testing and evaluation by MSFC. A large number of the SXI optical bench parts were also redesigned and simplified for a prototype telescope. These parts include the forward and rear support flanges, front aperture plate, the graphite epoxy optical bench and a test fixture for the prototype telescope. More than fifty (50) drawings were generated for various components of the prototype telescope. Some of these parts were subsequently fabricated at UAH machine shop or at MSFC or by the outside contractors. UAH also provide technical support to MSFC staff for a number of preliminary and critical design reviews. These design reviews included PDR and CDR for the mirror assembly by United Technologies Optical Systems (UTOS), and the program quarterly reviews, and SXI PDR and CDR. UAH staff also regularly attended the monthly status reviews, and made a significant number of suggestions to improve

  15. SXI prototype mirror mount

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this contract was to provide optomechanical engineering and fabrication support to the Solar X-ray Imager (SXI) program in the areas of mirror, optical bench and camera assemblies of the telescope. The Center for Applied Optics (CAO) worked closely with the Optics and S&E technical staff of MSFC to develop and investigate the most viable and economical options for the design and fabrication of a number of parts for the various telescope assemblies. All the tasks under this delivery order have been successfully completed within budget and schedule. A number of development hardware parts have been designed and fabricated jointly by MSFC and UAH for the engineering model of SXI. The major parts include a nickel electroformed mirror and a mirror mount, plating and coating of the ceramic spacers, and gold plating of the contact rings and fingers for the camera assembly. An aluminum model of the high accuracy sun sensor (HASS) was also designed and fabricated. A number of fiber optic tapers for the camera assembly were also coated with indium tin oxide and phosphor for testing and evaluation by MSFC. A large number of the SXI optical bench parts were also redesigned and simplified for a prototype telescope. These parts include the forward and rear support flanges, front aperture plate, the graphite epoxy optical bench and a test fixture for the prototype telescope. More than fifty (50) drawings were generated for various components of the prototype telescope. Some of these parts were subsequently fabricated at UAH machine shop or at MSFC or by the outside contractors. UAH also provide technical support to MSFC staff for a number of preliminary and critical design reviews. These design reviews included PDR and CDR for the mirror assembly by United Technologies Optical Systems (UTOS), and the program quarterly reviews, and SXI PDR and CDR. UAH staff also regularly attended the monthly status reviews, and made a significant number of suggestions to improve

  16. Prototyping user displays using CLIPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosta, Charles P.; Miller, Ross; Krolak, Patrick; Vesty, Matt

    1990-01-01

    CLIPS is being used as an integral module of a rapid prototyping system. The prototyping system consists of a display manager for object browsing, a graph program for displaying line and bar charts, and a communications server for routing messages between modules. A CLIPS simulation of a physical model provides dynamic control of the user's display. Currently, a project is well underway to prototype the Advanced Automation System (AAS) for the Federal Aviation Administration.

  17. Geographic data from space

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alexander, Robert H.

    1964-01-01

    Space science has been called “the collection of scientific problems to which space vehicles can make some specific contributions not achievable by ground-based experiments.” Geography, the most spatial of the sciences, has now been marked as one of these “space sciences.” The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is sponsoring an investigation to identify the Potential geographic benefits from the nation’s space program. This is part of NASA’s long-range inquiry to determine the kinds of scientific activities which might profitably be carried out on future space missions. Among such future activities which are now being planned by NASA are a series of manned earth orbital missions, many of which would be devoted to research. Experiments in physics, astronomy, geophysics, meteorology, and biology are being discussed for these long-range missions. The question which is being put to geographers is, essentially, what would it mean to geographic research to have an observation satellite (or many such satellites) orbiting the earth, gathering data about earth-surface features and environments?

  18. Prototype for remotely shared textual workspaces

    SciTech Connect

    Abdel-Wahab, H.M.; Guan, S.U.; Nievergelt, J.

    1987-01-01

    Computer-based collaboration between geographically dispersed users is still limited primarily to electronic mail and file transfer, but there is increasing interest in computer support for real-time interaction between remote users. The problem of implementing remotely shared workspaces, which allow users to operate simultaneously on the same objects, is of broad interest. Our objective is to show textual workspaces that allow real-time collaboration can be implemented efficiently by using existing operating systems and communications primitives. This paper documents our experiences in implementing a prototype under Berkeley UNIX, using the programming language C, and Berkeley Interprocess Communication facilities. The authors describe design alternatives that take into account the communications bandwidth between the different sites of the network, and they introduce an efficient protocol that regulates user access to the shared workspace.

  19. Geographic Landscape of Place Names.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gritzner, Charles F.

    1988-01-01

    Explores the origins of many geographic place names. Suggests that using toponyms (place names) to study geographic conditions of an area offers rich diversity for the teaching of map skills and regional geography. (DH)

  20. A prototype feature system for feature retrieval using relationships

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Choi, J.; Usery, E.L.

    2009-01-01

    Using a feature data model, geographic phenomena can be represented effectively by integrating space, theme, and time. This paper extends and implements a feature data model that supports query and visualization of geographic features using their non-spatial and temporal relationships. A prototype feature-oriented geographic information system (FOGIS) is then developed and storage of features named Feature Database is designed. Buildings from the U.S. Marine Corps Base, Camp Lejeune, North Carolina and subways in Chicago, Illinois are used to test the developed system. The results of the applications show the strength of the feature data model and the developed system 'FOGIS' when they utilize non-spatial and temporal relationships in order to retrieve and visualize individual features.

  1. GEOGRAPHIC NAMES INFORMATION SYSTEM (GNIS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS), developed by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Board on Geographic Names (BGN), contains information about physical and cultural geographic features in the United States and associated areas, both current and h...

  2. Volunteered Geographic Information in Wikipedia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Darren

    2010-01-01

    Volunteered geographic information (VGI) refers to the geographic subset of online user-generated content. Through Geobrowsers and online mapping services, which use geovisualization and Web technologies to share and produce VGI, a global digital commons of geographic information has emerged. A notable example is Wikipedia, an online collaborative…

  3. The National Map - Geographic Names

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2002-01-01

    Governments depend on a common set of base geographic information as a tool for economic and community development, land and natural resource management, and health and safety services. Emergency management and homeland security applications rely on this information. Private industry, nongovernmental organizations, and individual citizens use the same geographic data. Geographic information underpins an increasingly large part of the Nation's economy.

  4. Prototype space fabrication platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bessel, James A.; Ceney, James M.; Crean, David M.; Ingham, Edward A.; Pabst, David J.

    1993-12-01

    Current plans for constructing large structures in space entail fabricating the primary components, such as truss segments, on the ground and assembling them in space. This process requires an exorbitant number of support missions, and methods to minimize the number must be considered. Whenever the space shuttle is launched, its external tank is jettisoned and destroyed prior to reaching orbit. This aerospace grade aluminum structure can be carried into orbit and utilized extrusively. The Prototype Space Fabrication Platform (SFP) fabricates aluminum materials, reduced from external tanks, into functional trusses. The trusses are strong and can be used as the primary components for future structures in space. The fabrication process produces a continuous truss allowing the end user to determine the length. The SFP can fabricate the same amount of truss from one external tank as four dedicated shuttle missions can deliver in the cargo bay. The SFP utilizes electrodynamic propulsion, via shielded coils, for maneuvering. The novel propulsion system facilitates a versatile payload transportation and delivery capability. The SFP can continuously track a target from all directions. The tracking system is ideal for docking since plume impingement is not a concern. With the assistance of remote manipulators, the SFP can deliver a payload in a wide variety of orientations. Under most conditions, the remote manipulator and maneuvering commands originate from ground workstations. Required manned presence is greatly reduced, and the time when the space shuttle is off station is effectively utilized. The logistical complications, currently inhibiting advancement in space, can be eliminated.

  5. Helios Prototype on Lakebed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The Helios Prototype is an enlarged version of the Centurion flying wing, which flew a series of test flights at Dryden in late 1998. The craft has a wingspan of 247 feet, 41 feet greater than the Centurion, 2 1/2 times that of its solar-powered Pathfinder flying wing and longer than either the Boeing 747 jetliner or Lockheed C-5 transport aircraft. It is one of several remotely-piloted aircraft-also known as uninhabited aerial vehicles or UAV's-being developed as technology demonstrators by several small airframe manufacturers under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. Developed by AeroVironment, Inc., of Monrovia, Calif., the unique craft is intended to demonstrate two key missions: the ability to reach and sustain horizontal flight at 100,000 feet altitude on a single-day flight, and to maintain flight above 50,000 feet altitude for at least four days, both on electrical power derived from non-polluting solar energy. During later flights, AeroVironment's flight test team will evaluate new motor-control software which may allow the pitch of the aircraft (the nose-up or nose-down attitude in relation to the horizon) to be controlled entirely by the motors. If successful, production versions of the Helios could eliminate the elevators on the wing's trailing edge now used for pitch control, saving weight and increasing the area of the wing available for installation of solar cells.

  6. Virtual Prototyping at CERN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gennaro, Silvano De

    The VENUS (Virtual Environment Navigation in the Underground Sites) project is probably the largest Virtual Reality application to Engineering design in the world. VENUS is just over one year old and offers a fully immersive and stereoscopic "flythru" of the LHC pits for the proposed experiments, including the experimental area equipment and the surface models that are being prepared for a territorial impact study. VENUS' Virtual Prototypes are an ideal replacement for the wooden models traditionally build for the past CERN machines, as they are generated directly from the EUCLID CAD files, therefore they are totally reliable, they can be updated in a matter of minutes, and they allow designers to explore them from inside, in a one-to-one scale. Navigation can be performed on the computer screen, on a stereoscopic large projection screen, or in immersive conditions, with an helmet and 3D mouse. By using specialised collision detection software, the computer can find optimal paths to lower each detector part into the pits and position it to destination, letting us visualize the whole assembly probess. During construction, these paths can be fed to a robot controller, which can operate the bridge cranes and build LHC almost without human intervention. VENUS is currently developing a multiplatform VR browser that will let the whole HEP community access LHC's Virtual Protoypes over the web. Many interesting things took place during the conference on Virtual Reality. For more information please refer to the Virtual Reality section.

  7. Geographic information systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, W. J.

    1982-01-01

    Information and activities are provided to: (1) enhance the ability to distinguish between a Geographic Information System (GIS) and a data management system; (2) develop understanding of spatial data handling by conventional methods versus the automated approach; (3) promote awareness of GIS design and capabilities; (4) foster understanding of the concepts and problems of data base development and management; (5) facilitate recognition of how a computerized GIS can model conditions in the present "real world" to project conditions in the future; and (6) appreciate the utility of integrating LANDSAT and other remotely sensed data into the GIS.

  8. Geographic science team

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, N.

    1982-01-01

    The rational for using remote sensing in land use/land cover, geomorphology, and cartography applications is stated as well as potential uses in each of these areas. The next step to be perfected is indicated. Spatial and spectral resolution requirements for photointerpretations and/or multispectral pattern recognition of geomorphic elements and of cultural surface cover are listed. Requirements for photographic/analog or digital photogrammetry from spaceborne multispectral linear array sensors are included. A prioritized summary of data gaps in the geographic sciences is included.

  9. Small Thermophotovoltaic Prototype Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durisch, Wilhelm; Bitnar, Bernd; von Roth, Fritz; Palfinger, Günther

    2003-01-01

    In an earlier paper [1], we reported on a small grid-connected thermophotovoltaic (TPV) system consisting of an ytterbia mantle emitter and silicon solar cells with 16 % efficiency (under solar irradiance at Standard Test Conditions, STC). The emitter was heated up using a butane burner with a rated thermal power of 1.35 kW (referring to the lower heating value). This system produced an electrical output of 15 W, which corresponds to a thermal to electric (direct current) conversion efficiency of 1.1 %. In the interim, further progress has been made, and significantly higher efficiencies have been achieved. The most important development steps are: 1) The infrared radiation-absorbing water filter between emitter and silicon cells (to protect the cells against overheating and against contact with flue gasses) has been replaced by a suitable glass tube. By doing this, it has been possible to prevent losses of convertible radiation in water. 2) Cell cooling has been significantly improved, in order to reduce cell temperature, and therefore increase conversion efficiency. 3) The shape of the emitter has been changed from spherical to a quasi-cylindrical geometry, in order to obtain a more homogeneous irradiation of the cells. 4) The metallic burner tube, on which the ytterbia emitter was fixed in the initial prototypes, has been replaced by a heat-resistant metallic rod, carrying ceramic discs as emitter holders. This has prevented the oxidation and clogging of the perforated burner tube. 5) Larger reflectors have been used to reduce losses in useful infrared radiation. 6) Smaller cells have been used, to reduce electrical series resistance losses. Applying all these improvements to the basic 1.35 kW prototype, we attained a system efficiency of 1.5 %. By using preheated air for combustion (at approximately 370 °C), 1.8 % was achieved. In a subsequent step, a photocell generator was constructed, consisting of high-efficiency silicon cells (21% STC efficiency). In this

  10. Foraging search: Prototypical intelligence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mobus, George

    2000-05-01

    We think because we eat. Or as Descartes might have said, on a little more reflection, "I need to eat, therefore I think." Animals that forage for a living repeatedly face the problem of searching for a sparsely distributed resource in a vast space. Furthermore, the resource may occur sporadically and episodically under conditions of true uncertainty (nonstationary, complex and non-linear dynamics). I assert that this problem is the canonical problem solved by intelligence. It's solution is the basis for the evolution of more advanced intelligence in which the space of search includes that of concepts (objects and relations) encoded in cortical structures. In humans the conscious experience of searching through concept space we call thinking. The foraging search model is based upon a higher-order autopoeitic system (the forager) employing anticipatory processing to enhance its success at finding food while avoiding becoming food or having accidents in a hostile world. I present a semi-formal description of the general foraging search problem and an approach to its solution. The latter is a brain-like structure employing dynamically adaptive neurons. A physical robot, MAVRIC, embodies some principles of foraging. It learns cues that lead to improvements in finding targets in a dynamic and nonstationary environment. This capability is based on a unique learning mechanism that encodes causal relations in the neural-like processing element. An argument is advanced that searching for resources in the physical world, as per the foraging model, is a prototype for generalized search for conceptual resources as when we think. A problem represents a conceptual disturbance in a homeostatic sense. The finding of a solution restores the homeostatic balance. The establishment of links between conceptual cues and solutions (resources) and the later use of those cues to think through to solutions of quasi-isomorphic problems is, essentially, foraging for ideas. It is a quite

  11. Comprehensive Monitoring for Heterogeneous Geographically Distributed Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratnikova, N.; Karavakis, E.; Lammel, S.; Wildish, T.

    2015-12-01

    Storage capacity at CMS Tier-1 and Tier-2 sites reached over 100 Petabytes in 2014, and will be substantially increased during Run 2 data taking. The allocation of storage for the individual users analysis data, which is not accounted as a centrally managed storage space, will be increased to up to 40%. For comprehensive tracking and monitoring of the storage utilization across all participating sites, CMS developed a space monitoring system, which provides a central view of the geographically dispersed heterogeneous storage systems. The first prototype was deployed at pilot sites in summer 2014, and has been substantially reworked since then. In this paper we discuss the functionality and our experience of system deployment and operation on the full CMS scale.

  12. Comprehensive Monitoring for Heterogeneous Geographically Distributed Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Ratnikova, N.; Karavakis, E.; Lammel, S.; Wildish, T.

    2015-12-23

    Storage capacity at CMS Tier-1 and Tier-2 sites reached over 100 Petabytes in 2014, and will be substantially increased during Run 2 data taking. The allocation of storage for the individual users analysis data, which is not accounted as a centrally managed storage space, will be increased to up to 40%. For comprehensive tracking and monitoring of the storage utilization across all participating sites, CMS developed a space monitoring system, which provides a central view of the geographically dispersed heterogeneous storage systems. The first prototype was deployed at pilot sites in summer 2014, and has been substantially reworked since then. In this paper we discuss the functionality and our experience of system deployment and operation on the full CMS scale.

  13. Update on ORNL TRANSFORM Tool: Simulating Multi-Module Advanced Reactor with End-to-End I&C

    SciTech Connect

    Hale, Richard Edward; Fugate, David L.; Cetiner, Sacit M.; Qualls, A. L.

    2015-05-01

    The Small Modular Reactor (SMR) Dynamic System Modeling Tool project is in the fourth year of development. The project is designed to support collaborative modeling and study of various advanced SMR (non-light water cooled reactor) concepts, including the use of multiple coupled reactors at a single site. The focus of this report is the development of a steam generator and drum system model that includes the complex dynamics of typical steam drum systems, the development of instrumentation and controls for the steam generator with drum system model, and the development of multi-reactor module models that reflect the full power reactor innovative small module design concept. The objective of the project is to provide a common simulation environment and baseline modeling resources to facilitate rapid development of dynamic advanced reactor models; ensure consistency among research products within the Instrumentation, Controls, and Human-Machine Interface technical area; and leverage cross-cutting capabilities while minimizing duplication of effort. The combined simulation environment and suite of models are identified as the TRANSFORM tool. The critical elements of this effort include (1) defining a standardized, common simulation environment that can be applied throughout the Advanced Reactors Technology program; (2) developing a library of baseline component modules that can be assembled into full plant models using available geometry, design, and thermal-hydraulic data; (3) defining modeling conventions for interconnecting component models; and (4) establishing user interfaces and support tools to facilitate simulation development (i.e., configuration and parameterization), execution, and results display and capture.

  14. ORNL IntelligentFreight Initiative:Enhanced End-to-End Supply Chain Visibility of Security Sensitive Hazardous Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Randy M.; Shankar, Mallikarjun; Gorman, Bryan L.

    2009-01-01

    In the post September 11, 2001 (9/11) world the federal government has increased its focus on the manufacturing, distributing, warehousing, and transporting of hazardous materials. In 2002, Congress mandated that the Transportation Security Agency (TSA) designate a subset of hazardous materials that could pose a threat to the American public when transported in sufficiently large quantities. This subset of hazardous materials, which could be weaponized or subjected to a nefarious terrorist act, was designated as Security Sensitive Hazardous Materials (SSHM). Radioactive materials (RAM) were of special concern because actionable intelligence had revealed that Al Qaeda desired to develop a homemade nuclear device or a dirty bomb to use against the United States (US) or its allies.1 Because of this clear and present danger, it is today a national priority to develop and deploy technologies that will provide for visibility and real-time exception notification of SSHM and Radioactive Materials in Quantities of Concern (RAMQC) in international commerce. Over the past eight years Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been developing, implementing, and deploying sensor-based technologies to enhance supply chain visibility. ORNL s research into creating a model for shipments, known as IntelligentFreight, has investigated sensors and sensor integration methods at numerous testbeds throughout the national supply chain. As a result of our research, ORNL believes that most of the information needed by supply chain partners to provide shipment visibility and exceptions-based reporting already exists but is trapped in numerous proprietary or agency-centric databases.

  15. End-to-end 9-D polarized bunch transport in eRHIC energy-recovery recirculator, some aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Meot, F.; Meot, F.; Brooks, S.; Ptitsyn, V.; Trbojevic, D.; Tsoupas, N.

    2015-05-03

    This paper is a brief overview of some of the numerous beam and spin dynamics investigations undertaken in the framework of the design of the FFAG based electron energy recovery re-circulator ring of the eRHIC electron-ion collider project

  16. Caching of a chameleon segment facilitates folding of a protein with end-to-end beta-sheet.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Sandipan; Hansmann, Ulrich H E

    2008-11-27

    We report results from all-atom simulations of a 49-residue C-terminal fragment of TOP7 in implicit solvent. Using parallel tempering simulations with high statistics, we probe the thermodynamic properties of the protein over a large range of temperatures and evaluate its free energy landscape at room temperature. Our results confirm that the protein folds by a caching mechanism that relies on a chameleon segment. This mechanism differs from the one seen in high-temperature unfolding simulations. Finally, we discuss a possible mechanism for dimerization of the protein. PMID:18956901

  17. Scalability Analysis and Use of Compression at the Goddard DAAC and End-to-End MODIS Transfers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menasce, Daniel A.

    1998-01-01

    The goal of this task is to analyze the performance of single and multiple FTP transfer between SCF's and the Goddard DAAC. We developed an analytic model to compute the performance of FTP sessions as a function of various key parameters, implemented the model as a program called FTP Analyzer, and carried out validations with real data obtained by running single and multiple FTP transfer between GSFC and the Miami SCF. The input parameters to the model include the mix to FTP sessions (scenario), and for each FTP session, the file size. The network parameters include the round trip time, packet loss rate, the limiting bandwidth of the network connecting the SCF to a DAAC, TCP's basic timeout, TCP's Maximum Segment Size, and TCP's Maximum Receiver's Window Size. The modeling approach used consisted of modeling TCP's overall throughput, computing TCP's delay per FTP transfer, and then solving a queuing network model that includes the FTP clients and servers.

  18. Parameterizations of truncated food web models from the perspective of an end-to-end model approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fennel, Wolfgang

    2009-02-01

    Modeling of marine ecosystems is broadly divided into two branches: biogeochemical processes and fish production. The biogeochemical models see the fish only implicitly by mortality rates, while fish production models see the lower food web basically through prescribed food, e.g., copepod biomass. The skill assessment of ecological models, which are usually truncated biogeochemical models, also involves the question of how the effects of the missing higher food web are parameterized. This paper contributes to the goal of bridging biogeochemical models and fish-production models by employing a recently developed coupled NPZDF-model, Fennel [Fennel, W., 2007. Towards bridging biogeochemical and fish production models. Journal of Marine Systems, doi:10.1016/j.jmarsys.2007.06.008]. Here we study parameterizations of truncated NPZD-models from the viewpoint of a complete model. The effects of the higher food web on the cycling of the state variables in a truncated NPZD-model cannot be unambiguously imitated. For example, one can mimic effects of fishery by export fluxes of one of the state variables. It is shown that the mass fluxes between the lower and upper part of the full model food web are significantly smaller than the fluxes within the NPZD-model. However, over longer time scales, relatively small changes can accumulate and eventually become important.

  19. End-to-end remote sensing at the Science and Technology Laboratory of John C. Stennis Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Patrick; Rickman, Douglas; Smith, Eric

    1991-01-01

    The Science and Technology Laboratory (STL) of Stennis Space Center (SSC) was developing an expertise in remote sensing for more than a decade. Capabilities at SSC/STL include all major areas of the field. STL includes the Sensor Development Laboratory (SDL), Image Processing Center, a Learjet 23 flight platform, and on-staff scientific investigators.

  20. SPAN: A Network Providing Integrated, End-to-End, Sensor-to-Database Solutions for Environmental Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benzel, T.; Cho, Y. H.; Deschon, A.; Gullapalli, S.; Silva, F.

    2009-12-01

    In recent years, advances in sensor network technology have shown great promise to revolutionize environmental data collection. Still, wide spread adoption of these systems by domain experts has been lacking, and these have remained the purview of the engineers who design them. While there are many data logging options for basic data collection in the field currently, scientists are often required to visit the deployment sites to retrieve their data and manually import it into spreadsheets. Some advanced commercial software systems do allow scientists to collect data remotely, but most of these systems only allow point-to-point access, and require proprietary hardware. Furthermore, these commercial solutions preclude the use of sensors from other manufacturers or integration with internet based database repositories and compute engines. Therefore, scientists often must download and manually reformat their data before uploading it to the repositories if they wish to share their data. We present an open-source, low-cost, extensible, turnkey solution called Sensor Processing and Acquisition Network (SPAN) which provides a robust and flexible sensor network service. At the deployment site, SPAN leverages low-power generic embedded processors to integrate variety of commercially available sensor hardware to the network of environmental observation systems. By bringing intelligence close to the sensed phenomena, we can remotely control configuration and re-use, establish rules to trigger sensor activity, manage power requirements, and control the two-way flow of sensed data as well as control information to the sensors. Key features of our design include (1) adoption of a hardware agnostic architecture: our solutions are compatible with several programmable platforms, sensor systems, communication devices and protocols. (2) information standardization: our system supports several popular communication protocols and data formats, and (3) extensible data support: our system works with several existing data storage systems, data models and web based services as needed by the domain experts; examples include standard MySQL databases, Sensorbase (from UCLA), as well as SPAN Cloud, a system built using Google's Application Engine that allows scientists to use Google's cloud computing cyber-infrastructure. We provide a simple, yet flexible data access control mechanism that allows groups of researchers to share their data in SPAN Cloud. In this talk, we will describe the SPAN architecture, its components, our development plans, our vision for the future and results from current deployments that continue to drive the design of our system.

  1. The NOAO Data Products Program: Developing an End-to-End Data Management System in Support of the Virtual Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, R. C.; Boroson, T.; Seaman, R.

    2007-10-01

    The NOAO Data Products Program (DPP) is responsible for the development and operation of the data management system for NOAO and affiliated observatories, and for the scientific support of users accessing our data holdings and using our tools and services. At the core of this mission is the capture of data from instruments at these observatories and the delivery of that content to both the Principle Investigators (PIs) who proposed for the observations and, after an appropriate proprietary period, to users worldwide who are interested in using the data for their own (often very different) scientific projects. However, delivery of raw and/or reduced images to users only scratches the surface of the extensive potential which the international Virtual Observatory (VO) initiative has to offer. By designing the whole NOAO/DPP program around not only VO standards, but more importantly around VO principles, the program becomes not an exercise in data management and NOAO user support, but rather a VO-centric program which serves the growing world-wide VO community. It is this more global aspect that drives NOAO/DPP planning, as well as more specifically the design, development, and operations of the various components of our system. In the following sections we discuss these components and how they work together to form our VO-centric program.

  2. An integrated healthcare information system for end-to-end standardized exchange and homogeneous management of digital ECG formats.

    PubMed

    Trigo, Jesús Daniel; Martínez, Ignacio; Alesanco, Alvaro; Kollmann, Alexander; Escayola, Javier; Hayn, Dieter; Schreier, Günter; García, José

    2012-07-01

    This paper investigates the application of the enterprise information system (EIS) paradigm to standardized cardiovascular condition monitoring. There are many specifications in cardiology, particularly in the ECG standardization arena. The existence of ECG formats, however, does not guarantee the implementation of homogeneous, standardized solutions for ECG management. In fact, hospital management services need to cope with various ECG formats and, moreover, several different visualization applications. This heterogeneity hampers the normalization of integrated, standardized healthcare information systems, hence the need for finding an appropriate combination of ECG formats and a suitable EIS-based software architecture that enables standardized exchange and homogeneous management of ECG formats. Determining such a combination is one objective of this paper. The second aim is to design and develop the integrated healthcare information system that satisfies the requirements posed by the previous determination. The ECG formats selected include ISO/IEEE11073, Standard Communications Protocol for Computer-Assisted Electrocardiography, and an ECG ontology. The EIS-enabling techniques and technologies selected include web services, simple object access protocol, extensible markup language, or business process execution language. Such a selection ensures the standardized exchange of ECGs within, or across, healthcare information systems while providing modularity and accessibility. PMID:22453644

  3. Towards a Software Framework to Support Deployment of Low Cost End-to-End Hydroclimatological Sensor Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celicourt, P.; Piasecki, M.

    2015-12-01

    Deployment of environmental sensors assemblies based on cheap platforms such as Raspberry Pi and Arduino have gained much attention over the past few years. While they are more attractive due to their ability to be controlled with a few programming language choices, the configuration task can become quite complex due to the need of having to learn several different proprietary data formats and protocols which constitute a bottleneck for the expansion of sensor network. In response to this rising complexity the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) has sponsored the development of the IEEE 1451 standard in an attempt to introduce a common standard. The most innovative concept of the standard is the Transducer Electronic Data Sheet (TEDS) which enables transducers to self-identify, self-describe, self-calibrate, to exhibit plug-and-play functionality, etc. We used Python to develop an IEEE 1451.0 platform-independent graphical user interface to generate and provide sufficient information about almost ANY sensor and sensor platforms for sensor programming purposes, automatic calibration of sensors data, incorporation of back-end demands on data management in TEDS for automatic standard-based data storage, search and discovery purposes. These features are paramount to make data management much less onerous in large scale sensor network. Along with the TEDS Creator, we developed a tool namely HydroUnits for three specific purposes: encoding of physical units in the TEDS, dimensional analysis, and on-the-fly conversion of time series allowing users to retrieve data in a desired equivalent unit while accommodating unforeseen and user-defined units. In addition, our back-end data management comprises the Python/Django equivalent of the CUAHSI Observations Data Model (ODM) namely DjangODM that will be hosted by a MongoDB Database Server which offers more convenience for our application. We are also developing a data which will be paired with the data autoloading capability of Django and a TEDS processing script to populate the database with the incoming data. The Python WaterOneFlow Web Services developed by the Texas Water Development Board will be used to publish the data. The software suite is being tested on the Raspberry Pi as end node and a laptop PC as the base station in a wireless setting.

  4. Investigating end-to-end security in the fifth generation wireless capabilities and IoT extensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uher, J.; Harper, J.; Mennecke, R. G.; Patton, P.; Farroha, B.

    2016-05-01

    The emerging 5th generation wireless network will be architected and specified to meet the vision of allowing the billions of devices and millions of human users to share spectrum to communicate and deliver services. The expansion of wireless networks from its current role to serve these diverse communities of interest introduces new paradigms that require multi-tiered approaches. The introduction of inherently low security components, like IoT devices, necessitates that critical data be better secured to protect the networks and users. Moreover high-speed communications that are meant to enable the autonomous vehicles require ultra reliable and low latency paths. This research explores security within the proposed new architectures and the cross interconnection of the highly protected assets with low cost/low security components forming the overarching 5th generation wireless infrastructure.

  5. SU-E-T-268: Proton Radiosurgery End-To-End Testing Using Lucy 3D QA Phantom

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, D; Gordon, I; Ghebremedhin, A; Wroe, A; Schulte, R; Bush, D; Slater, J; Patyal, B

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To check the overall accuracy of proton radiosurgery treatment delivery using ready-made circular collimator inserts and fixed thickness compensating boluses. Methods: Lucy 3D QA phantom (Standard Imaging Inc. WI, USA) inserted with GaFchromicTM film was irradiated with laterally scattered and longitudinally spread-out 126.8 MeV proton beams. The tests followed every step in the proton radiosurgery treatment delivery process: CT scan (GE Lightspeed VCT), target contouring, treatment planning (Odyssey 5.0, Optivus, CA), portal calibration, target localization using robotic couch with image guidance and dose delivery at planned gantry angles. A 2 cm diameter collimator insert in a 4 cm diameter radiosurgery cone and a 1.2 cm thick compensating flat bolus were used for all beams. Film dosimetry (RIT114 v5.0, Radiological Imaging Technology, CO, USA) was used to evaluate the accuracy of target localization and relative dose distributions compared to those calculated by the treatment planning system. Results: The localization accuracy was estimated by analyzing the GaFchromic films irradiated at gantry 0, 90 and 270 degrees. We observed 0.5 mm shift in lateral direction (patient left), ±0.9 mm shift in AP direction and ±1.0 mm shift in vertical direction (gantry dependent). The isodose overlays showed good agreement (<2mm, 50% isodose lines) between measured and calculated doses. Conclusion: Localization accuracy depends on gantry sag, CT resolution and distortion, DRRs from treatment planning computer, localization accuracy of image guidance system, fabrication of ready-made aperture and cone housing. The total deviation from the isocenter was 1.4 mm. Dose distribution uncertainty comes from distal end error due to bolus and CT density, in addition to localization error. The planned dose distribution was well matched (>90%) to the measured values 2%/2mm criteria. Our test showed the robustness of our proton radiosurgery treatment delivery system using ready-made collimator inserts and fixed thickness compensating boluses.

  6. Analyzing geographic clustered response

    SciTech Connect

    Merrill, D.W.; Selvin, S.; Mohr, M.S.

    1991-08-01

    In the study of geographic disease clusters, an alternative to traditional methods based on rates is to analyze case locations on a transformed map in which population density is everywhere equal. Although the analyst's task is thereby simplified, the specification of the density equalizing map projection (DEMP) itself is not simple and continues to be the subject of considerable research. Here a new DEMP algorithm is described, which avoids some of the difficulties of earlier approaches. The new algorithm (a) avoids illegal overlapping of transformed polygons; (b) finds the unique solution that minimizes map distortion; (c) provides constant magnification over each map polygon; (d) defines a continuous transformation over the entire map domain; (e) defines an inverse transformation; (f) can accept optional constraints such as fixed boundaries; and (g) can use commercially supported minimization software. Work is continuing to improve computing efficiency and improve the algorithm. 21 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Geographic names information system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1987-01-01

    of the data in each of the data elements of the four data bases of GNIS. The GNIS program, which includes the automated names system and the National Gazetteer program, is a coordinated effort under the direction of Donald J. Orth, Chief of the Branch of Geographic Names. The automated system was initially developed by Sam Stulberg and Roger L. Payne. System enhancement and software development is coordinated by Judy J. Stella, head programmer for GNIS, and special projects coordinator is Louis A. Yost IV. Coordination of the research and compilation of certain gazetteers is directed by Robin D. Worcester with research assistance and support from Jon Campbell, Linda S. Davis, and Nancy Engel.

  8. Energy saver prototype accelerating resonator

    SciTech Connect

    Kerns, Q.; May, M.; Miller, H.W.; Reid, J.; Turkot, F.; Webber, R.; Wildman, D.

    1981-06-01

    A fixed frequency rf accelerating resonator has been built and tested for the Fermilab Energy Saver. The design parameters and prototype resonator test results are given. The resonator features a high permeability nickel alloy resistor which damps unwanted modes and corona rolls designed with the aid of the computer code SUPERFISH. In bench measurements, the prototype resonator has achieved peak accelerating voltages of 500 kV for a 1% duty cycle and cw operation at 360 kV. 4 refs.

  9. The ASTRI SST-2M prototype for the Cherenkov Telescope Array: opto-mechanical test results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canestrari, Rodolfo; Giro, Enrico; Antolini, Elisa; Bonnoli, Giacomo; Cascone, Enrico; La Palombara, Nicola; Leto, Giuseppe; Pareschi, Giovanni; Scuderi, Salvo; Stringhetti, Luca; Tanci, Claudio; Tosti, Gino

    2015-09-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) observatory, with a combination of large-, medium-, and small-size telescopes (LST, MST and SST, respectively), will represent the next generation of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes. It will explore the very high-energy domain from a few tens of GeV up to few hundreds of TeV with unprecedented sensitivity, angular resolution and imaging resolution. In this framework, the Italian ASTRI program, led by the Italian National Institute of Astrophysics (INAF), is currently developing a scientific and technological SST dual-mirror end-to-end prototype named ASTRI SST-2M. It is a 4-meter class telescope; it adopts an aplanatic, wide-field, double-reflection optical layout in a Schwarzschild-Couder configuration. The ASTRI SST-2M telescope structure and mirrors have been already installed at the INAF observing station at Serra La Nave, on Mt. Etna (Sicily, Italy). In this contribution we report about the on-site deployment and the latest results on the opto-mechanical performance test conducted soon after the telescope installation

  10. Characterization of a Prototype Radio Frequency Space Environment Path Emulator for Evaluating Spacecraft Ranging Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Jason W.; Baldwin, Philip J.; Kurichh, Rishi; Naasz, Bo J.; Luquette, Richard J.

    2007-01-01

    The Formation Flying Testbed (FFTB) at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) provides a hardware-in-the-loop test environment for formation navigation and control. The facility is evolving as a modular, hybrid, dynamic simulation facility for end-to-end guidance, navigation and control (GN&C) design and analysis of formation flying spacecraft. The core capabilities of the FFTB, as a platform for testing critical hardware and software algorithms in-the-loop, have expanded to include S-band Radio Frequency (RF) modems for interspacecraft communication and ranging. To enable realistic simulations that require RF ranging sensors for relative navigation, a mechanism is needed to buffer the RF signals exchanged between spacecraft that accurately emulates the dynamic environment through which the RF signals travel, including the effects of the medium, moving platforms, and radiated power. The Path Emulator for Radio Frequency Signals (PERFS), currently under development at NASA GSFC, provides this capability. The function and performance of a prototype device are presented.

  11. Coloring geographical threshold graphs

    SciTech Connect

    Bradonjic, Milan; Percus, Allon; Muller, Tobias

    2008-01-01

    We propose a coloring algorithm for sparse random graphs generated by the geographical threshold graph (GTG) model, a generalization of random geometric graphs (RGG). In a GTG, nodes are distributed in a Euclidean space, and edges are assigned according to a threshold function involving the distance between nodes as well as randomly chosen node weights. The motivation for analyzing this model is that many real networks (e.g., wireless networks, the Internet, etc.) need to be studied by using a 'richer' stochastic model (which in this case includes both a distance between nodes and weights on the nodes). Here, we analyze the GTG coloring algorithm together with the graph's clique number, showing formally that in spite of the differences in structure between GTG and RGG, the asymptotic behavior of the chromatic number is identical: {chi}1n 1n n / 1n n (1 + {omicron}(1)). Finally, we consider the leading corrections to this expression, again using the coloring algorithm and clique number to provide bounds on the chromatic number. We show that the gap between the lower and upper bound is within C 1n n / (1n 1n n){sup 2}, and specify the constant C.

  12. Geographical Database Integrity Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, Derya; Kauffman, Paul; Blackstock, Dexter

    2000-01-01

    Airport Safety Modeling Data (ASMD) was developed at the request of a 1997 White House Conference on Aviation Safety and Security. Politicians, military personnel, commercial aircraft manufacturers and the airline industry attended the conference. The objective of the conference was to study the airline industry and make recommendations to improve safety and security. One of the topics discussed at the conference was the loss of situational awareness by aircraft pilots. Loss of situational awareness occurs when a pilot loses his geographic position during flight and can result in crashes into terrain and obstacles. It was recognized at the conference that aviation safety could be improved by reducing the loss of situational awareness. The conference advised that a system be placed in the airplane cockpit that would provide pilots with a visual representation of the terrain around airports. The system would prevent airline crashes during times of inclement weather and loss of situational awareness. The system must be based on accurate data that represents terrain around airports. The Department of Defense and the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) released ASMD to be used for the development of a visual system for aircraft pilots. ASMD was constructed from NIMA digital terrain elevation data (DTED).

  13. International Refugees: A Geographical Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demko, George J.; Wood, William B.

    1987-01-01

    Examines the problem of international refugees from a geographical perspective. Focuses on sub-saharan Africa, Afghanistan, Central America, and southeast Asia. Concludes that geographers can and should use their skills and intellectual tools to address and help resolve this global problem. (JDH)

  14. Adaptive Cartography and Geographical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konecny, Milan; Stanek, Karel

    2010-01-01

    The article focuses on adaptive cartography and its potential for geographical education. After briefly describing the wider context of adaptive cartography, it is suggested that this new cartographic approach establishes new demands and benefits for geographical education, especially in offering the possibility for broader individual…

  15. The ASTRI SST-2M telescope prototype for the Cherenkov Telescope Array: camera DAQ software architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conforti, Vito; Trifoglio, Massimo; Bulgarelli, Andrea; Gianotti, Fulvio; Fioretti, Valentina; Tacchini, Alessandro; Zoli, Andrea; Malaguti, Giuseppe; Capalbi, Milvia; Catalano, Osvaldo

    2014-07-01

    ASTRI (Astrofisica con Specchi a Tecnologia Replicante Italiana) is a Flagship Project financed by the Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research, and led by INAF, the Italian National Institute of Astrophysics. Within this framework, INAF is currently developing an end-to-end prototype of a Small Size dual-mirror Telescope. In a second phase the ASTRI project foresees the installation of the first elements of the array at CTA southern site, a mini-array of 7 telescopes. The ASTRI Camera DAQ Software is aimed at the Camera data acquisition, storage and display during Camera development as well as during commissioning and operations on the ASTRI SST-2M telescope prototype that will operate at the INAF observing station located at Serra La Nave on the Mount Etna (Sicily). The Camera DAQ configuration and operations will be sequenced either through local operator commands or through remote commands received from the Instrument Controller System that commands and controls the Camera. The Camera DAQ software will acquire data packets through a direct one-way socket connection with the Camera Back End Electronics. In near real time, the data will be stored in both raw and FITS format. The DAQ Quick Look component will allow the operator to display in near real time the Camera data packets. We are developing the DAQ software adopting the iterative and incremental model in order to maximize the software reuse and to implement a system which is easily adaptable to changes. This contribution presents the Camera DAQ Software architecture with particular emphasis on its potential reuse for the ASTRI/CTA mini-array.

  16. A prototype Upper Atmospheric Research Collaboratory (UARC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clauer, C. R.; Atkins, D. E; Weymouth, T. E.; Olson, G. M.; Niciejewski, R.; Finholt, T. A.; Prakash, A.; Rasmussen, C. E.; Killeen, T.; Rosenberg, T. J.

    1995-01-01

    The National Collaboratory concept has great potential for enabling 'critical mass' working groups and highly interdisciplinary research projects. We report here on a new program to build a prototype collaboratory using the Sondrestrom Upper Atmospheric Research Facility in Kangerlussuaq, Greenland and a group of associated scientists. The Upper Atmospheric Research Collaboratory (UARC) is a joint venture of researchers in upper atmospheric and space science, computer science, and behavioral science to develop a testbed for collaborative remote research. We define the 'collaboratory' as an advanced information technology environment which enables teams to work together over distance and time on a wide variety of intellectual tasks. It provides: (1) human-to-human communications using shared computer tools and work spaces; (2) group access and use of a network of information, data, and knowledge sources; and (3) remote access and control of instruments for data acquisition. The UARC testbed is being implemented to support a distributed community of space scientists so that they have network access to the remote instrument facility in Kangerlussuaq and are able to interact among geographically distributed locations. The goal is to enable them to use the UARC rather than physical travel to Greenland to conduct team research campaigns. Even on short notice through the collaboratory from their home institutions, participants will be able to meet together to operate a battery of remote interactive observations and to acquire, process, and interpret the data.

  17. GG high accuracy test of the equivalence principle: state of the art, laboratory prototype and new insights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobili, Anna M.; Pegna, Raffaello; Comandi, Gian Luca; Bramanti, Donato; Anselmi, Alberto; Catastini, Giuseppe

    The GG ("Galileo Galilei") satellite experiment aims to test the Equivalence Principle (EP) to 10-17 , an extremely ambitious goal (due to improve current best results by 4 orders of magnitude) that should tell us in a clear cut way whether we are in the presence of a new long-range physical interaction (violation) or not (confirmation). Either way, it would be a major result. An end-to-end space experiment simulator was constructed at TAS-I based on GOCE simulator and ASI (Agenzia Spaziale Italiana) funding. The resulting error budget is consistent with the mission goal, which can be realized in 4 years from the start of Phase B. In the lab, a full scale prototype has provided a 25 days continuous run with a sensitivity -in the field of the Sun, hence at diurnal frequency- of a few nanometers in the relative displacement of the proof masses, to be compared with the picometer level required in space for GG to achieve its goal. A passive suspended prototype is under completion in order to reduce ground platform noise by means of an appropriate cardanic suspension which has now been proved to be able to reduce diurnal terrain noise by a factor 104 . The crucial issue of thermal noise has been recently revisited and a major new insight has come thanks to M. Shao (JPL): in GG, by up-converting the frequency of an EP violation signal in the field of the Earth from its (low) orbital frequency of 1.7 · 10-4 Hz to the (high) rotation/modulation frequency of 1Hz -the highest ever in EP experiments- proof mass thermal noise is reduced by orders of magnitude, as the ratio of these frequencies squared. Instead, cooling the experiment to superfluid He temperature would only reduce thermal noise by a factor 10. This is a feature unique to GG. It now appears that, if equipped with an intrinsic differential transducer such as a SIM like laser gauge, GG may indeed aim to an EP test to 10-18 . The end-to-end GG simulator built at TAS-I in 2009 during GG Phase A-2 study is the

  18. Prototypes for the 80s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Instructor, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Presented are brief descriptions of the winning entries in this magazine's contest for existing programs to serve as prototypes for wide-scale use in elementary schools of the 1980s. Top prizes went to computer literacy, energy education, and nutrition projects. Twenty runners-up are also described. Project addresses are included. (SJL)

  19. Rapid Prototyping Enters Mainstream Manufacturing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winek, Gary

    1996-01-01

    Explains rapid prototyping, a process that uses computer-assisted design files to create a three-dimensional object automatically, speeding the industrial design process. Five commercially available systems and two emerging types--the 3-D printing process and repetitive masking and depositing--are described. (SK)

  20. EUSO-TA prototype telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisconti, Francesca

    2016-07-01

    EUSO-TA is one of the prototypes developed for the JEM-EUSO project, a space-based large field-of-view telescope to observe the fluorescence light emitted by cosmic ray air showers in the atmosphere. EUSO-TA is a ground-based prototype located at the Telescope Array (TA) site in Utah, USA, where an Electron Light Source and a Central Laser Facility are installed. The purpose of the EUSO-TA project is to calibrate the prototype with the TA fluorescence detector in presence of well-known light sources and cosmic ray air showers. In 2015, the detector started the first measurements and tests using the mentioned light sources have been performed successfully. A first cosmic ray candidate has been observed, as well as stars of different magnitude and color index. Since Silicon Photo-Multipliers (SiPMs) are very promising for fluorescence telescopes of next generation, they are under consideration for the realization of a new prototype of EUSO Photo Detector Module (PDM). The response of this sensor type is under investigation through simulations and laboratory experimentation.

  1. GM Prototype Moon Buggy Wheel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1967-01-01

    Under the direction of Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), the Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) was designed to allow Apollo astronauts a greater range of mobility during lunar exploration missions. During the development process, LRV prototype wheels underwent soil tests in building 4481 at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Pictured is the GM wheel design.

  2. OTF Mission Operations Prototype Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, Walter F.; Lucord, Steven A.; Stevens, John E.

    2009-01-01

    Reports on the progress of the JSC/OTF prototype of a CCSDS SM&C protocol based communications link between two space flight operations control centers. Varied implementations using software architectures from current web enterprise venues are presented. The AMS protocol (CCSDS Blue Book standard 735.1) was used for messaging and link communications.

  3. The National Map - geographic names

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yost, Lou; Carswell, William J., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS), developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the U.S. Board on Geographic Names (BGN), contains information about the official names for places, features, and areas in the 50 States, the District of Columbia, the territories and outlying areas of the United States, including Antarctica. It is the geographic names component of The National Map. The BGN maintains working relationships with State names authorities to cooperate in achieving the standardization of geographic names. The GNIS contains records on more than 2 million geographic names in the United States - from populated places, schools, reservoirs, and parks to streams, valleys, springs, ridges, and every feature type except roads and highways. Entries include information such as the federally-recognized name and variant names and spellings for the feature; former names; the status of the name as determined by the BGN; county or counties in which each named feature is located; geographic coordinates that locate the approximate center of an aerial feature or the mouth and source of a linear feature, such as a stream; name of the cell of the USGS topographic map or maps on which the feature may appear; elevation figures derived from the National Elevation Dataset; bibliographic code for the source of the name; BGN decision dates and historical information are available for some features. Data from the GNIS are used for emergency preparedness, mapmaking, local and regional planning, service delivery routing, marketing, site selection, environmental analysis, genealogical research, and other applications.

  4. Creation of geographic information database of subsatellite calibration test site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zyelyk, Ya. I.; Semeniv, O. V.

    2014-12-01

    The prototype of geographic information database (DB) of the sub-satellite calibration test site has been created, to which user can be accessed from the free open-source geographic information system Quantum GIS (QGIS) environment. QGIS is used as an integrator of all data and applications and visualizer of the satellite imagery and vector layers of test sites in the cartographic interface. Conversion of the database from the local representation in the MS Access to the server representation in the PostgreSQL environment has been performed. Dynamic application to QGIS for user interaction from QGIS environment with the object-relational database and to display information from the database has been created. Functional-algorithmic part of these application and the interface for user interaction with the database has been developed.

  5. A failure management prototype: DR/Rx

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammen, David G.; Baker, Carolyn G.; Kelly, Christine M.; Marsh, Christopher A.

    1991-01-01

    This failure management prototype performs failure diagnosis and recovery management of hierarchical, distributed systems. The prototype, which evolved from a series of previous prototypes following a spiral model for development, focuses on two functions: (1) the diagnostic reasoner (DR) performs integrated failure diagnosis in distributed systems; and (2) the recovery expert (Rx) develops plans to recover from the failure. Issues related to expert system prototype design and the previous history of this prototype are discussed. The architecture of the current prototype is described in terms of the knowledge representation and functionality of its components.

  6. A Spatial User Similarity Measure for Geographic Recommender Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matyas, Christian; Schlieder, Christoph

    Recommender systems solve an information filtering task. They suggest data objects that seem likely to be relevant to the user based upon previous choices that this user has made. A geographic recommender system recommends items from a library of georeferenced objects such as photographs of touristic sites. A widely-used approach to recommending consists in suggesting the most popular items within the user community. However, these approaches are not able to handle individual differences between users. We ask how to identify less popular geographic objects that are nevertheless of interest to a specific user. Our approach is based on user-based collaborative filtering in conjunction with an prototypical model of geographic places (heatmaps). We discuss four different measures of similarity between users that take into account the spatial semantic derived from the spatial behavior of a user community. We illustrate the method with a real-world use case: recommendations of georeferenced photographs from the public website Panoramio. The evaluation shows that our approach achieves a better recall and precision for the first ten items than recommendations based on the most popular geographic items.

  7. Prototyping the PANDA Barrel DIRC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarz, C.; Kalicy, G.; Dzhygadlo, R.; Gerhardt, A.; Götzen, K.; Hohler, R.; Kumawat, H.; Lehmann, D.; Lewandowski, B.; Patsyuk, M.; Peters, K.; Schepers, G.; Schmitt, L.; Schwiening, J.; Traxler, M.; Zühlsdorf, M.; Dodokhov, V. Kh.; Britting, A.; Eyrich, W.; Lehmann, A.; Uhlig, F.; Düren, M.; Föhl, K.; Hayrapetyan, A.; Kröck, B.; Merle, O.; Rieke, J.; Cowie, E.; Keri, T.; Montgomery, R.; Rosner, G.; Achenbach, P.; Cardinali, M.; Hoek, M.; Lauth, W.; Sfienti, C.; Thiel, M.; Bühler, P.; Gruber, L.; Marton, J.; Suzuki, K.

    2014-12-01

    The design of the Barrel DIRC detector for the future PANDA experiment at FAIR contains several important improvements compared to the successful BABAR DIRC, such as focusing and fast timing. To test those improvements as well as other design options a prototype was build and successfully tested in 2012 with particle beams at CERN. The prototype comprises a radiator bar, focusing lens, mirror, and a prism shaped expansion volume made of synthetic fused silica. An array of micro-channel plate photomultiplier tubes measures the location and arrival time of the Cherenkov photons with sub-nanosecond resolution. The development of a fast reconstruction algorithm allowed to tune construction details of the detector setup with test beam data and Monte-Carlo simulations.

  8. Customer-experienced rapid prototyping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lijuan; Zhang, Fu; Li, Anbo

    2008-12-01

    In order to describe accurately and comprehend quickly the perfect GIS requirements, this article will integrate the ideas of QFD (Quality Function Deployment) and UML (Unified Modeling Language), and analyze the deficiency of prototype development model, and will propose the idea of the Customer-Experienced Rapid Prototyping (CE-RP) and describe in detail the process and framework of the CE-RP, from the angle of the characteristics of Modern-GIS. The CE-RP is mainly composed of Customer Tool-Sets (CTS), Developer Tool-Sets (DTS) and Barrier-Free Semantic Interpreter (BF-SI) and performed by two roles of customer and developer. The main purpose of the CE-RP is to produce the unified and authorized requirements data models between customer and software developer.

  9. Geographic Information Systems and Web Page Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, Justin

    2004-01-01

    The Facilities Engineering and Architectural Branch is responsible for the design and maintenance of buildings, laboratories, and civil structures. In order to improve efficiency and quality, the FEAB has dedicated itself to establishing a data infrastructure based on Geographic Information Systems, GIs. The value of GIS was explained in an article dating back to 1980 entitled "Need for a Multipurpose Cadastre which stated, "There is a critical need for a better land-information system in the United States to improve land-conveyance procedures, furnish a basis for equitable taxation, and provide much-needed information for resource management and environmental planning." Scientists and engineers both point to GIS as the solution. What is GIS? According to most text books, Geographic Information Systems is a class of software that stores, manages, and analyzes mapable features on, above, or below the surface of the earth. GIS software is basically database management software to the management of spatial data and information. Simply put, Geographic Information Systems manage, analyze, chart, graph, and map spatial information. At the outset, I was given goals and expectations from my branch and from my mentor with regards to the further implementation of GIs. Those goals are as follows: (1) Continue the development of GIS for the underground structures. (2) Extract and export annotated data from AutoCAD drawing files and construct a database (to serve as a prototype for future work). (3) Examine existing underground record drawings to determine existing and non-existing underground tanks. Once this data was collected and analyzed, I set out on the task of creating a user-friendly database that could be assessed by all members of the branch. It was important that the database be built using programs that most employees already possess, ruling out most AutoCAD-based viewers. Therefore, I set out to create an Access database that translated onto the web using Internet

  10. Prototype Morphing Fan Nozzle Demonstrated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Ho-Jun; Song, Gang-Bing

    2004-01-01

    Ongoing research in NASA Glenn Research Center's Structural Mechanics and Dynamics Branch to develop smart materials technologies for aeropropulsion structural components has resulted in the design of the prototype morphing fan nozzle shown in the photograph. This prototype exploits the potential of smart materials to significantly improve the performance of existing aircraft engines by introducing new inherent capabilities for shape control, vibration damping, noise reduction, health monitoring, and flow manipulation. The novel design employs two different smart materials, a shape-memory alloy and magnetorheological fluids, to reduce the nozzle area by up to 30 percent. The prototype of the variable-area fan nozzle implements an overlapping spring leaf assembly to simplify the initial design and to provide ease of structural control. A single bundle of shape memory alloy wire actuators is used to reduce the nozzle geometry. The nozzle is subsequently held in the reduced-area configuration by using magnetorheological fluid brakes. This prototype uses the inherent advantages of shape memory alloys in providing large induced strains and of magnetorheological fluids in generating large resistive forces. In addition, the spring leaf design also functions as a return spring, once the magnetorheological fluid brakes are released, to help force the shape memory alloy wires to return to their original position. A computerized real-time control system uses the derivative-gain and proportional-gain algorithms to operate the system. This design represents a novel approach to the active control of high-bypass-ratio turbofan engines. Researchers have estimated that such engines will reduce thrust specific fuel consumption by 9 percent over that of fixed-geometry fan nozzles. This research was conducted under a cooperative agreement (NCC3-839) at the University of Akron.

  11. Results from the NEXT prototypes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, C. A. B.; NEXT Collaboration

    2013-10-01

    NEXT-100 is an electroluminescent high pressure Time Projection Chamber currently under construction. It will search for the neutrino-less double beta decay in 136Xe at the Canfranc Underground Laboratory. NEXT-100 aims to achieve nearly intrinsic energy resolution and to highly suppress background events by taking advantage of the unique properties of xenon in the gaseous phase as the detection medium. In order to prove the principle of operation and to study which are the best operational conditions, two prototypes were constructed: NEXT-DEMO and NEXT-DBDM. In this paper we present the latest results from both prototypes. We report the improvement in terms of light collection (~ 3×) achieved by coating the walls of NEXT-DEMO with tetraphenyl butadiene (TPB), the outstanding energy resolution of 1 % (Full Width Half Maximum) from NEXT-DBDM as well as the tracking capabilities of this prototype (2.1 mm RMS error for point-like depositions) achieved by using a square array of 8 × 8 SiPMs.

  12. Haptic device for virtual prototyping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morioka, Takashi; Sasaki, Ken; Miyatake, Hideki; Itoh, Michimasa

    2007-12-01

    In determining the quality of a car, switch feeling is one of the important factors. Designing switches is time consuming because the relationships between characteristics of a desired switch and design parameters such as spring stiffness or stroke are not very clear, and furthermore, physical evaluation requires prototypes. A haptic Virtual Prototyping Environment (VPE), in which CAE (Computer-Aided Engineering) and haptic interface work together to display virtual feelings of mechanisms designed by CAD (Computer-Aided Design) will enable designers to feel the motions of the designed switches without prototypes. This paper presents design and quantitative evaluation of a haptic VPE for power window switches. We compared relationship between displacement and static reaction force, and acceleration during clicking motion. The similarity in the force vs stroke curve (FS curve) suggests the overall similarity in the feeling of the whole switch stroke. The acceleration showed some differences, which was felt as somewhat softer clicking effect. The lower frequency of the residual vibration of the haptic device indicates that the equivalent inertia of the haptic device is larger than that of the real switch. Although the overall motion of the switch stroke felt similar, quality of reality needs further refinement. Introduction of acceleration feedback for reducing the equivalent inertia is discussed.

  13. Infrared eye: an operational prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chevrette, Paul C.; Fortin, Jean; St-Germain, Daniel; Delisle, Jean

    1998-09-01

    A new concept of surveillance system called Wide Area Coverage Infrared Surveillance System (WACISS), based on the human vision, was developed and a first laboratory prototype was demonstrated recently. A second prototype, more operational, is named the Infrared Eye is being built and will be tested in cooperation with the NRCC Flight Research Laboratory. The Infrared Eye will use the new pixel-less quantum well infrared photodetector sensors, coupled to light emitting diodes (QWIP/LED), currently being developed at NRCC Institute for Microstructural Science under DREV sponsorship. The multiple advantages of the pixel-less QWIP/LED over conventional sensors will considerably simplify the design of the system. As the WACISS, the IR Eye will integrate two cameras: the first, with a wide field-of- view, will be used for detection while the second camera, with a narrower field with higher resolution for identification, will be mobile within the WFOV and slaved to the operator's line-of-sight by means of an eye-tracking system. The images from both cameras will be fused and shown simultaneously on a standard high resolution CRT display unit, interfaced with the eye-tracking unit. The basic concepts pertaining to the project and the design constraints of this second prototype are presented.

  14. Majorana Thermosyphon Prototype Experimental Results

    SciTech Connect

    Fast, James E.; Reid, Douglas J.; Aguayo Navarrete, Estanislao

    2010-12-17

    Objective The Majorana demonstrator will operate at liquid Nitrogen temperatures to ensure optimal spectrometric performance of its High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector modules. In order to transfer the heat load of the detector module, the Majorana demonstrator requires a cooling system that will maintain a stable liquid nitrogen temperature. This cooling system is required to transport the heat from the detector chamber outside the shield. One approach is to use the two phase liquid-gas equilibrium to ensure constant temperature. This cooling technique is used in a thermosyphon. The thermosyphon can be designed so the vaporization/condensing process transfers heat through the shield while maintaining a stable operating temperature. A prototype of such system has been built at PNNL. This document presents the experimental results of the prototype and evaluates the heat transfer performance of the system. The cool down time, temperature gradient in the thermosyphon, and heat transfer analysis are studied in this document with different heat load applied to the prototype.

  15. Robotic Lander Prototype Completes Initial Tests

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's Robotic Lunar Lander Development Project at Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala., completed an initial series of integrated tests on a new lander prototype. The prototype lander ...

  16. An approach for assessing software prototypes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Church, V. E.; Card, D. N.; Agresti, W. W.; Jordan, Q. L.

    1986-01-01

    A procedure for evaluating a software prototype is presented. The need to assess the prototype itself arises from the use of prototyping to demonstrate the feasibility of a design or development stategy. The assessment procedure can also be of use in deciding whether to evolve a prototype into a complete system. The procedure consists of identifying evaluations criteria, defining alterative design approaches, and ranking the alternatives according to the criteria.

  17. NEON Citizen Science: Planning and Prototyping (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gram, W.

    2010-12-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) will be a national resource for ecological research and education. NEON citizen science projects are being designed to increase awareness and educate citizen scientists about the impacts of climate change, land-use change, and invasive species on continental-scale ecological processes as well as expand NEON data collection capacity by enabling laypersons to collect geographically distributed data. The citizen science area of the NEON web portal will enable citizen scientists to collect, contribute, interpret, and visualize scientific data, as well as access training modules, collection protocols and targeted learning experiences related to citizen science project topics. For NEON, citizen science projects are a means for interested people to interact with and contribute to NEON science. Investigations at vast spatial and temporal scales often require rapid acquisition of large amounts of data from a geographically distributed population of “human sensors.” As a continental-scale ecological observatory, NEON is uniquely positioned to develop strategies to effectively integrate data collected by non-scientists into scientific databases. Ultimately, we plan to work collaboratively to transform the practice of science to include “citizens” or non-scientists in the process. Doing science is not limited to scientists, and breaking down the barriers between scientists and citizens will help people better understand the power of using science in their own decision making. In preparation for fully developing the NEON citizen science program, we are partnering with Project BudBurst (PBB), a citizen science project focused on monitoring plant phenology. The educational goals of PBB are to: (1) increase awareness of climate change, (2) educate citizen scientists about the impacts of climate change on plants and the environment, and (3) increase science literacy by engaging participants in the scientific process

  18. NEON Citizen Science: Planning and Prototyping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, S. J.; Henderson, S.; Gardiner, L. S.; Ward, D.; Gram, W.

    2011-12-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) will be a national resource for ecological research and education. NEON citizen science projects are being designed to increase awareness and educate citizen scientists about the impacts of climate change, land-use change, and invasive species on continental-scale ecological processes as well as expand NEON data collection capacity by enabling laypersons to collect geographically distributed data. The citizen science area of the NEON web portal will enable citizen scientists to collect, contribute, interpret, and visualize scientific data, as well as access training modules, collection protocols and targeted learning experiences related to citizen science project topics. For NEON, citizen science projects are a means for interested people to interact with and contribute to NEON science. Investigations at vast spatial and temporal scales often require rapid acquisition of large amounts of data from a geographically distributed population of "human sensors." As a continental-scale ecological observatory, NEON is uniquely positioned to develop strategies to effectively integrate data collected by non-scientists into scientific databases. Ultimately, we plan to work collaboratively to transform the practice of science to include "citizens" or non-scientists in the process. Doing science is not limited to scientists, and breaking down the barriers between scientists and citizens will help people better understand the power of using science in their own decision making. In preparation for fully developing the NEON citizen science program, we are partnering with Project BudBurst (PBB), a citizen science project focused on monitoring plant phenology. The educational goals of PBB are to: (1) increase awareness of climate change, (2) educate citizen scientists about the impacts of climate change on plants and the environment, and (3) increase science literacy by engaging participants in the scientific process. Phenology was

  19. Prototype Abstraction by Monkeys ("Macaca Mulatta")

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, J. David; Redford, Joshua S.; Haas, Sarah M.

    2008-01-01

    The authors analyze the shape categorization of rhesus monkeys ("Macaca mulatta") and the role of prototype- and exemplar-based comparison processes in monkeys' category learning. Prototype and exemplar theories make contrasting predictions regarding performance on the Posner-Homa dot-distortion categorization task. Prototype theory--which…

  20. Evaluating geographic information systems technology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guptill, Stephen C.

    1989-01-01

    Computerized geographic information systems (GISs) are emerging as the spatial data handling tools of choice for solving complex geographical problems. However, few guidelines exist for assisting potential users in identifying suitable hardware and software. A process to be followed in evaluating the merits of GIS technology is presented. Related standards and guidelines, software functions, hardware components, and benchmarking are discussed. By making users aware of all aspects of adopting GIS technology, they can decide if GIS is an appropriate tool for their application and, if so, which GIS should be used.

  1. Geographic representation in spatial analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Harvey J.

    Spatial analysis mostly developed in an era when data was scarce and computational power was expensive. Consequently, traditional spatial analysis greatly simplifies its representations of geography. The rise of geographic information science (GISci) and the changing nature of scientific questions at the end of the 20th century suggest a comprehensive re-examination of geographic representation in spatial analysis. This paper reviews the potential for improved representations of geography in spatial analysis. Existing tools in spatial analysis and new tools available from GISci have tremendous potential for bringing more sophisticated representations of geography to the forefront of spatial analysis theory and application.

  2. Analysing surnames as geographic data.

    PubMed

    Cheshire, James

    2014-01-01

    With most surname research undertaken within the fields of anthropology and population genetics, geographers have overlooked surnames as a credible data source. In addition to providing a review of recent developments in surname analysis, this paper highlights areas where geographers can make important contributions to advancing surname research, both in terms of its quality and also its applications. The review discusses the emerging applications for surname research, not least in the mining of online data, and ends by suggesting three future research themes to ensure the building momentum of surname research continues to grow across disciplines. PMID:25020015

  3. Changes at the National Geographic Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwille, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    For more than 125 years, National Geographic has explored the planet, unlocking its secrets and sharing them with the world. For almost thirty of those years, National Geographic has been committed to K-12 educators and geographic education through its Network of Alliances. As National Geographic begins a new chapter, they remain committed to the…

  4. The SEOM Sentinel-3 Hydrologic Altimetry Processor prototypE project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabry, Pierre; Benveniste, Jérôme; Fernandes, Joana; Roca, Mònica; Ambrózio, Américo; Restano, Marco; Bercher, Nicolas; Gustafsson, David

    2016-07-01

    This communication deals with the SHAPE study that was kicked off on 14 September 2015. SHAPE stands for Sentinel-3 Hydrologic Altimetry Processor prototypE. The team, the objectives, the work breakdown structure, the methodology, the technical approaches, the first results as well as the status and the upcoming milestones of the project will be presented. This study is part of SEOM, Scientific Exploitation of Operational Missions, an ESA programme element which aims at expanding the international research community, strengthening the leadership of the European EO research community and addressing new scientific researches. This Research and Development study not only intends to make the best use of all recent improvements in altimetry but also clearly pushes for major breakthroughs that should boost the scientific use of the SAR altimetry data in hydrology. The stakes are high in the context of climate change, as scientists need to improve their analyses of water stocks and exchanges over wide geographical regions. The study focuses on three main variables of interest in hydrology: river stage, river discharge and lake level, which are part of the Terrestrial Essential Climate Variables (TECV) defined by GCOS. It also is the scientific step towards a future Inland Water dedicated processor on the Sentinel-3 ground segment. The main characteristics of the project will be summarized. Cooperation with the scientific community will be encouraged. Project documents available at the website (ATBD for example) will go through a critical review outside the project team so as to collect feedback. Valuable feedback will be taken into account so as to provide a new processing chain prototype that should be capable of providing high quality water heights, making it possible to couple it with the hydrological dynamic and semi-distributed model HYPE (Hydrological Predictions for the Environment). This model has been developed by SMHI and will be used to assimilate study's new

  5. The SEOM Sentinel-3 Hydrologic Altimetry Processor prototypE (SHAPE) Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabry, Pierre; Bercher, Nicolas; Roca, Mònica; Martinez, Bernat; Nilo, Pablo; Ray, Chris; Moyano, Gorka; Fernandes, Joana; Lázaro, Clara; Gustafsson, David; Arheimer, Berit; Ambrózio, Américo; Restano, Marco; Benveniste, Jérôme

    2016-04-01

    The SHAPE study was kicked off in September 2015. SHAPE stands for Sentinel-3 Hydrologic Altimetry Processor prototypE. The team, the objectives, the work breakdown structure, the methodology, the technical approaches, the first results as well as the status and the upcoming milestones of the project will be presented. This study is part of SEOM, Scientific Exploitation of Operational Missions, an ESA programme element which aims at expanding the international research community, strengthening the leadership of the European EO research community and addressing new scientific researches. This Research and Development study not only intends to make the best use of all recent improvements in altimetry but also clearly pushes for major breakthroughs that should boost the scientific use of the SAR altimetry data in hydrology. The stakes are high in the context of climate change, as scientists need to improve their analyses of water stocks and exchanges over wide geographical regions. The study focuses on three main variables of interest in hydrology: river stage, river discharge and lake level, which are part of the Terrestrial Essential Climate Variables (TECV) defined by GCOS. It also is the scientific step towards a future Inland Water dedicated processor on the Sentinel-3 ground segment. The main characteristics of the project will be summarized. Cooperation with the scientific community will be encouraged. Project documents available at the website (ATBD for example) will go through a critical review outside the project team so as to collect feedback. Valuable feedback will be taken into account so as to provide a new processing chain prototype that should be capable of providing high quality water heights, making it possible to couple it with the hydrological dynamic and semi-distributed model HYPE (Hydrological Predictions for the Environment). This model has been developed by SMHI and will be used to assimilate study's new "Alti-Hydro" Products to assess the

  6. The ASTRI project: Prototype status and future plans for a Cherenkov dual-mirror small-telescope array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vercellone, S.; ASTRI Collaboration

    2012-12-01

    ASTRI ("Astrofisica con Specchi a Tecnologia Replicante Italiana") is a flagship project of the Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research. Within this framework, INAF is currently developing a wide field of view (9.6° in diameter) end-to-end prototype of the CTA smallsize telescope (SST), devoted to the investigation of the energy range from a fraction of TeV up to (possibly) hundreds of TeV, and scheduled to start data acquisition in 2014. For the first time, a dualmirror Schwarzschild-Couder optical design will be adopted on a Cherenkov telescope, in order to obtain a compact (FNo. = 0.5) optical configuration. A second challenging, but innovative technical solution consists of a focal plane camera based on Silicon photo-multipliers with a logical pixel size of 0.17° (6.2mm × 6.2mm). We will describe the current status of the project, the results obtained so far, the expected performance, and its possible evolution in terms of a SST mini-array (composed of 5-7 SSTs and developed in collaboration with CTA international partners), which could peruse not only the adopted technological solutions, but also address a few scientific test cases.

  7. All Sky Camera, LIDAR and Electric Field Meter: Auxiliary instruments for the ASTRI SST-2M prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leto, Giuseppe; Zanmar Sanchez, Ricardo; Bellassai, Giancarlo; Bruno, Pietro; Maccarone, Maria Concetta; Martinetti, Eugenio

    2015-03-01

    ASTRI SST-2M is the end-to-end prototype telescope of the Italian National Institute of Astrophysics, INAF, designed to investigate the 10-100 TeV band in the framework of the Cherenkov Telescope Array, CTA. The ASTRI SST-2M telescope has been installed in Italy in September 2014, at the INAF observing station located at Serra La Nave on Mount Etna. The telescope is foreseen to be completed and fully operative in spring 2015 including auxiliary instrumentation needed to support both operations and data analysis. In this contribution we present the current status of a sub-set of the auxiliary instruments that are being used at the Serra La Nave site, namely an All Sky Camera, an Electric Field Meter and a Raman Lidar devoted, together with further instrumentation, to the monitoring of the atmospheric and environmental conditions. The data analysis techniques under development for these instruments could be applied at the CTA sites, where similar auxiliary instrumentation will be installed.

  8. Simulation of the ASTRI two-mirrors small-size telescope prototype for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigongiari, C.; Cusumano, G.; Di Pierro, F.; La Parola, V.; Stamerra, A.; Vallania, P.; ASTRI Collaboration; CTA Consortium, the

    2016-05-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is a world-wide project to build a new generation ground-based gamma-ray instrument operating in the energy range from some tens of GeV to above 100 TeV. To ensure full sky coverage CTA will consist of two arrays of Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (IACTs), one in the southern hemisphere and another one in the northern hemisphere. CTA has just completed the design phase and it is entering in the pre-production one that includes the development of telescope precursor mini-arrays. ASTRI is an ongoing project, to develop and install at the southern CTA site one of such mini-arrays composed by nine dual-mirror small size telescopes equipped with an innovative camera based on silicon photomultiplier sensors. The end-to-end telescope prototype, named ASTRI SST-2M, has been recently inaugurated at the Serra La Nave observing station, on Mount Etna, Italy. ASTRI SST-2M expected performance has been carefully studied using a full Monte Carlo simulation of the shower development in the atmosphere and detector response. Simulated data have been analyzed using the traditional Hillas moment analysis to obtain the expected angular and energy resolution. Simulation results, together with the comparison with the available experimental measurements, are shown.

  9. Mechanical Prototyping and Manufacturing Internship

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grenfell, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The internship was located at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) Innovation Design Center (IDC), which is a facility where the JSC workforce can meet and conduct hands-on innovative design, fabrication, evaluation, and testing of ideas and concepts relevant to NASA's mission. The tasks of the internship included mechanical prototyping design and manufacturing projects in service of research and development as well as assisting the users of the IDC in completing their manufacturing projects. The first project was to manufacture hatch mechanisms for a team in the Systems Engineering and Project Advancement Program (SETMAP) hexacopter competition. These mechanisms were intended to improve the performance of the servomotors and offer an access point that would also seal to prevent cross-contamination. I also assisted other teams as they were constructing and modifying their hexacopters. The success of this competition demonstrated a proof of concept for aerial reconnaissance and sample return to be potentially used in future NASA missions. I also worked with Dr. Kumar Krishen to prototype an improved thermos and a novel, portable solar array. Computer-aided design (CAD) software was used to model the parts for both of these projects. Then, 3D printing as well as conventional techniques were used to produce the parts. These prototypes were then subjected to trials to determine the success of the designs. The solar array is intended to work in a cluster that is easy to set up and take down and doesn't require powered servomechanisms. It could be used terrestrially in areas not serviced by power grids. Both projects improve planetary exploration capabilities to future astronauts. Other projects included manufacturing custom rail brackets for EG-2, assisting engineers working on underwater instrument and tool cases for the NEEMO project, and helping to create mock-up parts for Space Center Houston. The use of the IDC enabled efficient completion of these projects at

  10. A plastic scintillation counter prototype.

    PubMed

    Furuta, Etsuko; Kawano, Takao

    2015-10-01

    A new prototype device for beta-ray measurement, a plastic scintillation counter, was assembled as an alternative device to liquid scintillation counters. This device uses plastic scintillation sheets (PS sheets) as a sample applicator without the use of a liquid scintillator. The performance was evaluated using tritium labeled compounds, and good linearity was observed between the activity and net count rate. The calculated detection limit of the device was 0.01 Bq mL(-1) after 10 h measurement for 2 mL sample. PMID:26164628

  11. A prototype Distributed Audit System

    SciTech Connect

    Banning, D.L.

    1993-08-01

    Security auditing systems are used to detect and assess unauthorized or abusive system usage. Historically, security audits were confined to a single computer system. Recent work examines ways of extending auditing to include heterogeneous groups of computers (distributed system). This paper describes the design and prototype development of a Distributed Audit System (DAS) which was developed with funding received from Lawrence Livermore Laboratory and through the Master`s thesis effort performed by the author at California State University, Long Beach. The DAS is intended to provide collection, transfer, and control of audit data on distributed, heterogeneous hosts.

  12. Powerful Knowledge and Geographical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    Michael Young has argued that pupils should be given access to "powerful knowledge." This article examines the extent to which his concept of powerful knowledge is applicable to geographical education, in particular to the study of urban geography. It explores the distinction Young makes between everyday and school knowledge, how this…

  13. Geographic Proximity and Enrollment Competition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zammuto, Raymond F.

    The use of a measure of geographic proximity to help explain enrollment competition among postsecondary institutions was investigated. The measure, the number of miles between institutions, was obtained by determining the longitude and latitude coordinates for about 99% of the schools in the Higher Education General Information System universe.…

  14. Geographical Knowledge of University Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Robert W.; And Others

    In order to obtain information on the status of geographical knowledge possessed by University of South Dakota (Vermillion) students, a geography survey designed to determine specific knowledge about the locations of bodies of water, countries, and cities was conducted. One map was used for identifying cities, while the second was used for…

  15. Family Oriented Geographic Field Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Karen Ann Lalk

    This paper describes a program of geographic education through field experience trips for family groups. Developed at Delta College in Michigan, the approach is unique because it emphasizes learning experiences for families rather than for individual students. The family is interpreted to include nuclear families, single-parent families with…

  16. SOIL SURVEY GEOGRAPHIC DATABASE (SSURGO)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This data set is a digital soil survey and is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. This data set consists of georeferenced digital map data and computerized attribute data. The map data are in a 7.5 minute quadrangle ...

  17. Territorial Decentration and Geographic Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoltman, Joseph P.

    Territorial decentration is a question of major significance to geographic educators. This paper reports the findings of a research project designed to determine the territorial decentration of an American sample of children. The primary purpose of the research was to determine if Piaget's territorial decentration stages are appropriate for…

  18. Maryland Automated Geographic Information System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, E. L.

    1978-01-01

    A computer based system designed for storing geographic data in a consistent and coordinated manner is described. The data are stored, retrieved, and analyzed using a 400 km sq/acre cell. Stored information can be displayed on computer maps in a manner similar to standard map graphics. The data bank contains various information for performing land use analysis in a variety of areas.

  19. Gender Differences in Geographical Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beatty, William W.; Troster, Alexander I.

    1987-01-01

    Among college undergraduates, males consistently outperform females on tests of geographical knowledge. That difference may be caused by the fact that women have had less active control over distances and directions traveled in their lives, and thus less interest in learning about them. This may change as women's roles in society change. (PS)

  20. CALIFA Barrel prototype detector characterisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietras, B.; Gascón, M.; Álvarez-Pol, H.; Bendel, M.; Bloch, T.; Casarejos, E.; Cortina-Gil, D.; Durán, I.; Fiori, E.; Gernhäuser, R.; González, D.; Kröll, T.; Le Bleis, T.; Montes, N.; Nácher, E.; Robles, M.; Perea, A.; Vilán, J. A.; Winkel, M.

    2013-11-01

    Well established in the field of scintillator detection, Caesium Iodide remains at the forefront of scintillators for use in modern calorimeters. Recent developments in photosensor technology have lead to the production of Large Area Avalanche Photo Diodes (LAAPDs), a huge advancement on traditional photosensors in terms of high internal gain, dynamic range, magnetic field insensitivity, high quantum efficiency and fast recovery time. The R3B physics programme has a number of requirements for its calorimeter, one of the most challenging being the dual functionality as both a calorimeter and a spectrometer. This involves the simultaneous detection of ∼300 MeV protons and gamma rays ranging from 0.1 to 20 MeV. This scintillator - photosensor coupling provides an excellent solution in this capacity, in part due to the near perfect match of the LAAPD quantum efficiency peak to the light output wavelength of CsI(Tl). Modern detector development is guided by use of Monte Carlo simulations to predict detector performance, nonetheless it is essential to benchmark these simulations against real data taken with prototype detector arrays. Here follows an account of the performance of two such prototypes representing different polar regions of the Barrel section of the forthcoming CALIFA calorimeter. Measurements were taken for gamma-ray energies up to 15.1 MeV (Maier-Leibnitz Laboratory, Garching, Germany) and for direct irradiation with a 180 MeV proton beam (The Svedberg Laboratoriet, Uppsala, Sweden). Results are discussed in light of complementary GEANT4 simulations.

  1. Agile manufacturing prototyping system (AMPS)

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, P.

    1998-05-09

    The Agile Manufacturing Prototyping System (AMPS) is being integrated at Sandia National Laboratories. AMPS consists of state of the industry flexible manufacturing hardware and software enhanced with Sandia advancements in sensor and model based control; automated programming, assembly and task planning; flexible fixturing; and automated reconfiguration technology. AMPS is focused on the agile production of complex electromechanical parts. It currently includes 7 robots (4 Adept One, 2 Adept 505, 1 Staubli RX90), conveyance equipment, and a collection of process equipment to form a flexible production line capable of assembling a wide range of electromechanical products. This system became operational in September 1995. Additional smart manufacturing processes will be integrated in the future. An automated spray cleaning workcell capable of handling alcohol and similar solvents was added in 1996 as well as parts cleaning and encapsulation equipment, automated deburring, and automated vision inspection stations. Plans for 1997 and out years include adding manufacturing processes for the rapid prototyping of electronic components such as soldering, paste dispensing and pick-and-place hardware.

  2. The control, monitor, and alarm system for the ICT equipment of the ASTRI SST-2M telescope prototype for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gianotti, Fulvio; Fioretti, Valentina; Tanci, Claudio; Conforti, Vito; Tacchini, Alessandro; Leto, Giuseppe; Gallozzi, Stefano; Bulgarelli, Andrea; Trifoglio, Massimo; Malaguti, Giuseppe; Zoli, Andrea

    2014-07-01

    ASTRI is an Italian flagship project whose first goal is the realization of an end-to-end telescope prototype, named ASTRI SST-2M, for the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). The prototype will be installed in Italy during Fall 2014. A second goal will be the realization of the ASTRI/CTA mini-array which will be composed of seven SST-2M telescopes placed at the CTA Southern Site. The Information and Communication Technology (ICT) equipment necessary to drive the infrastructure for the ASTRI SST-2M prototype is being designed as a complete and stand-alone computer center. The design goal is to obtain basic ICT equipment that might be scaled, with a low level of redundancy, for the ASTRI/CTA mini-array, taking into account the necessary control, monitor and alarm system requirements. The ICT equipment envisaged at the Serra La Nave observing station in Italy, where the ASTRI SST-2M telescope prototype will operate, includes computers, servers and workstations, network devices, an uninterruptable power supply system, and air conditioning systems. Suitable hardware and software tools will allow the parameters related to the behavior and health of each item of equipment to be controlled and monitored. This paper presents the proposed architecture and technical solutions that integrate the ICT equipment in the framework of the Observatory Control System package of the ASTRI/CTA Mini- Array Software System, MASS, to allow their local and remote control and monitoring. An end-toend test case using an Internet Protocol thermometer is reported in detail.

  3. Geographical Applications of Remote Sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Weng, Qihao; Zhou, Yuyu; Quattrochi, Dale

    2013-02-28

    Data and Information derived through Earth observation technology have been extensively used in geographic studies, such as in the areas of natural and human environments, resources, land use and land cover, human-environment interactions, and socioeconomic issues. Land-use and land-cover change (LULCC), affecting biodiversity, climate change, watershed hydrology, and other surface processes, is one of the most important research topics in geography.

  4. Geographic Information System Data Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billings, Chad; Casad, Christopher; Floriano, Luis G.; Hill, Tracie; Johnson, Rashida K.; Locklear, J. Mark; Penn, Stephen; Rhoulac, Tori; Shay, Adam H.; Taylor, Antone; Thorpe, Karina

    1995-01-01

    Data was collected in order to further NASA Langley Research Center's Geographic Information System(GIS). Information on LaRC's communication, electrical, and facility configurations was collected. Existing data was corrected through verification, resulting in more accurate databases. In addition, Global Positioning System(GPS) points were used in order to accurately impose buildings on digitized images. Overall, this project will help the Imaging and CADD Technology Team (ICTT) prove GIS to be a valuable resource for LaRC.

  5. MMT adaptive secondary prototype development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biasi, Roberto; Gallieni, Daniele

    1998-09-01

    We designed and manufacture dan 'Adaptive Secondary Mirror 30 Actuators Prototype' that represents as much as possible the final MMT adaptive optics unit for what concerns mechanical, electronic and cooling system issues. Moreover, different actuator designs have been tested by using the same test bench. The adaptive secondary is based on a thin continuous facesheet mirror moved by electromagnetic actuators. Permanent magnets are glued on the mirror, while voice coils are connected to the support structure by cold fingers. A capacitive sensor co-located with each actuator measures the local gap between the mirror and a reference back plate. Voice coil motors allow to perform chopping and tip-tilt correction by using directly the deformable mirror. Actuators pitch is set to achieve high order correction in the visible wavelength.

  6. Hadron therapy information sharing prototype

    PubMed Central

    Roman, Faustin Laurentiu; Abler, Daniel; Kanellopoulos, Vassiliki; Amoros, Gabriel; Davies, Jim; Dosanjh, Manjit; Jena, Raj; Kirkby, Norman; Peach, Ken; Salt, Jose

    2013-01-01

    The European PARTNER project developed a prototypical system for sharing hadron therapy data. This system allows doctors and patients to record and report treatment-related events during and after hadron therapy. It presents doctors and statisticians with an integrated view of adverse events across institutions, using open-source components for data federation, semantics, and analysis. There is a particular emphasis upon semantic consistency, achieved through intelligent, annotated form designs. The system as presented is ready for use in a clinical setting, and amenable to further customization. The essential contribution of the work reported here lies in the novel data integration and reporting methods, as well as the approach to software sustainability achieved through the use of community-supported open-source components. PMID:23824127

  7. The EUROMEDIES EDI prototype system.

    PubMed

    Pramataris, K; Doukidis, G; Giaglis, G; Raptakis, J

    1996-01-01

    EDI is expected to be the dominant form of business communication between organisations moving to the Electronic Commerce era of 2000. The healthcare sector is already using EDI in the hospital supply function as well as in the clinical area and the reimbursement process. In this paper, we examine the use of EDI in the healthcare administration sector and move specifically its application to the Medical Devices Vigilance System. At a first place, the potential of this approach is examined, after an initial brief presentation of the EDI concept and its application in healthcare. This presentation is followed by an overall description of the EDI prototype system, which was developed in the context of the EUROMEDIES Concerted Action, in order to facilitate the requirements definition phase. PMID:10172831

  8. Geographic names of the Antarctic

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Board on Geographic Names; U.S. Geological Survey; Defense Mapping Agency; National Science Foundation

    1995-01-01

    This gazetteer contains 12,710 names approved by the United States Board on Geographic Names and the Secretary of the Interior for features in Antarctica and the area extending northward to the Antarctic Convergence. Included in this geographic area, the Antarctic region, are the off-lying South Shetland Islands, the South Orkney Islands, the South Sandwich Islands, South Georgia, Bouvetøya, Heard Island, and the Balleny Islands. These names have been approved for use by U.S. Government agencies. Their use by the Antarctic specialist and the public is highly recommended for the sake of accuracy and uniformity. This publication, which supersedes previous Board gazetteers or lists for the area, contains names approved as recently as December 1994. The basic name coverage of this gazetteer corresponds to that of maps at the scale of 1:250,000 or larger for coastal Antarctica, the off-lying islands, and isolated mountains and ranges of the continent. Much of the interior of Antarctica is a featureless ice plateau. That area has been mapped at a smaller scale and is nearly devoid of toponyms. All of the names are for natural features, such as mountains, glaciers, peninsulas, capes, bays, islands, and subglacial entities. The names of scientific stations have not been listed alphabetically, but they may appear in the texts of some decisions. For the names of submarine features, reference should be made to the Gazetteer of Undersea Features, 4th edition, U.S. Board on Geographic Names, 1990.

  9. Temporal uncertainty of geographical information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Hong; Qi, Cuihong

    2005-10-01

    Temporal uncertainty is a crossing point of temporal and error-aware geographical information systems. In Geoinformatics, temporal uncertainty is of the same importance as spatial and thematic uncertainty of geographical information. However, until very recently, the standard organizations of ISO/TC211 and FGDC subsequently claimed that temporal uncertainty is one of geospatial data quality elements. Over the past decades, temporal uncertainty of geographical information is modeled insufficiently. To lay down a foundation of logically or physically modeling temporal uncertainty, this paper is aimed to clarify the semantics of temporal uncertainty to some extent. The general uncertainty is conceptualized with a taxonomy of uncertainty. Semantically, temporal uncertainty is progressively classified into uncertainty of time coordinates, changes, and dynamics. Uncertainty of multidimensional time (valid time, database time, and conceptual time, etc.) has been emphasized. It is realized that time scale (granularity) transition may lead to temporal uncertainty because of missing transition details. It is dialectically concluded that temporal uncertainty is caused by the complexity of the human-machine-earth system.

  10. IMMR Phase 1 Prototyping Plan Inputs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vowell, C. W.; Johnson-Throop, Kathy; Smith, Bryon; Darcy, Jeannette

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the phase I plan of the prototype of the IMMR by the Multilateral Medical Operations Panel (MMOP) Medical Informatics & Technology (MIT) Working Group. It reviews the Purpose of IMMR Prototype Phase 1 (IPP1); the IPP1 Plan Overview, the IMMR Prototype Phase 1 Plan for PDDs and MIC and MIC-DDs, Plan for MICs, a nd the IPP1 objectives

  11. 33 CFR 165.8 - Geographic coordinates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 1983 (NAD 83), unless such geographic coordinates are expressly labeled NAD 83. Geographic coordinates without the NAD 83 reference may be plotted on maps or charts referenced to NAD 83 only after...

  12. 33 CFR 165.8 - Geographic coordinates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 1983 (NAD 83), unless such geographic coordinates are expressly labeled NAD 83. Geographic coordinates without the NAD 83 reference may be plotted on maps or charts referenced to NAD 83 only after...

  13. 33 CFR 165.8 - Geographic coordinates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 1983 (NAD 83), unless such geographic coordinates are expressly labeled NAD 83. Geographic coordinates without the NAD 83 reference may be plotted on maps or charts referenced to NAD 83 only after...

  14. 33 CFR 165.8 - Geographic coordinates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 1983 (NAD 83), unless such geographic coordinates are expressly labeled NAD 83. Geographic coordinates without the NAD 83 reference may be plotted on maps or charts referenced to NAD 83 only after...

  15. 33 CFR 165.8 - Geographic coordinates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 1983 (NAD 83), unless such geographic coordinates are expressly labeled NAD 83. Geographic coordinates without the NAD 83 reference may be plotted on maps or charts referenced to NAD 83 only after...

  16. Snippet Generation for Geographic Information Retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toda, Hiroyuki; Yasuda, Norihito; Okumura, Manabu; Matsuura, Yumiko; Kataoka, Ryoji

    Geographic information retrieval (GIR) aims at the retrieval of geographic-related documents based through the use of not only on keyword relevance but also on geographic relationships between the query and the geographic information in the texts. However, how to show search results in GIR has not been studied well, especially with regard to generating snippets that reflect the geographic part of the query. This paper proposes a novel snippet generation method. Our method first converts geographic phrases in the target text into geographic coordinates, then scores each of them according to their distance from the query using the coordinates. Next, it extracts fragments of the target text based on the distribution of the query keyword and geographic scores, and presents the combined fragments as a snippet. Evaluations are conducted with regard to two different aspects. Both attributes confirm the effectiveness of our method.

  17. The ASTRI SST-2M prototype for the next generation of Cherenkov telescopes: a single framework approach from requirement analysis to integration and verification strategy definition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorini, Mauro; La Palombara, Nicola; Stringhetti, Luca; Canestrari, Rodolfo; Catalano, Osvaldo; Giro, Enrico; Leto, Giuseppe; Maccarone, Maria Concetta; Pareschi, Giovanni; Tosti, Gino; Vercellone, Stefano

    2014-08-01

    ASTRI is a flagship project of the Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research, which aims to develop an endto- end prototype of one of the three types of telescopes to be part of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA), an observatory which will be the main representative of the next generation of Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes. The ASTRI project, led by the Italian National Institute of Astrophysics (INAF), has proposed an original design for the Small Size Telescope, which is aimed to explore the uppermost end of the Very High Energy domain up to about few hundreds of TeV with unprecedented sensitivity, angular resolution and imaging quality. It is characterized by challenging and innovative technological solutions which will be adopted for the first time in a Cherenkov telescope: a dual-mirror Schwarzschild-Couder configuration, a modular, light and compact camera based on silicon photomultipliers, and a front-end electronic based on a specifically designed ASIC. The end-to-end project is also including all the data-analysis software and the data archive. In this paper we describe the process followed to derive the ASTRI specifications from the CTA general requirements, a process which had to take into proper account the impact on the telescope design of the different types of the CTA requirements (performance, environment, reliability-availability-maintenance, etc.). We also describe the strategy adopted to perform the specification verification, which will be based on different methods (inspection, analysis, certification, and test) in order to demonstrate the telescope compliance with the CTA requirements. Finally we describe the integration planning of the prototype assemblies (structure, mirrors, camera, control software, auxiliary items) and the test planning of the end-to-end telescope. The approach followed by the ASTRI project is to have all the information needed to report the verification process along all project stages in a single

  18. ALICE electromagnetic calorimeter prototype test

    SciTech Connect

    Awes, Terry; /Oak Ridge

    2005-09-01

    This Memorandum of Understanding between the Test Beam collaborators and Fermilab is for the use of beam time at Fermilab during the Fall, 2005 Meson Test Beam Run. The experimenters plan to measure the energy, position, and time resolution of prototype modules of a large electromagnetic calorimeter proposed to be installed in the ALICE experiment at the LHC. The ALICE experiment is one of the three large approved LHC experiments, with ALICE placing special emphasis on the LHC heavy-ion program. The large electromagnetic calorimeter (EMCal) is a US initiative that is endorsed by the ALICE collaboration and is currently in the early stages of review by the Nuclear Physics Division of the DOE. The installation in the test beam at FNAL and test beam measurements will be carried out by the US members of the ALICE collaboration (ALICE-USA). The overall design of the ALICE EMCal is heavily influenced by its location within the ALICE L3 magnet. The EMCal is to be located inside the large room temperature magnet within a cylindrical integration volume approximately l12cm deep, by 5.6m in length, sandwiched between the ALICE TPC space frame and the L3 magnet coils. The chosen technology is a layered Pb-scintillator sampling calorimeter with a longitudinal pitch of 1.6mm Pb and 1.6mm scintillator. The full detector spans {eta} = -0.7 to {eta} = 0.7 with an azimuthal acceptance of {Delta}{phi} = 120{sup o}. The EMCal readout is of a ''Shish-Kabob'' type similar to the PHENIX Pb-scintillator sampling calorimeter in which the scintillation light is collected via wavelength shifting fibers running through the Pb-scintillator tiles perpendicular to the front surface. The detector is segmented into {approx}14000 towers. The basic structural units of the calorimeter are supermodules, each subtending approximately {approx}20{sup o} in {Delta}{phi} and 0.7 units in {Delta}{eta}. Supermodules are assembled from individual modules. The modules are further segmented into 2 x 2

  19. Reflective and antireflective coatings for the optical chain of the ASTRI SST-2M prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnoli, Giacomo; Canestrari, Rodolfo; Catalano, Osvaldo; Pareschi, Giovanni; Perri, Luca; Stringhetti, Luca

    2013-09-01

    ASTRI is a Flagship Project of the Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research, led by the Italian National Institute of Astrophysics, INAF. One of the main aims of the ASTRI Project is the design, construction and on-field verification of a dual mirror (2M) end-to-end prototype for the Small Size Telescope (SST) envisaged to become part of the Cherenkov Telescope Array. The ASTRI SST-2M prototype is designed according to the Schwarzschild-Couder optical scheme, and adopts a camera based on Silicon Photo Multipliers (SiPM); it will be assembled at the INAF astronomical site of Serra La Nave on mount Etna (Catania, Italy) in the second half of 2014, and will start scientific validation phase soon after. With its 4m wide primary dish, the telescope will be sensitive to multi-TeV Very High Energy (VHE) gamma rays up to 100 TeV and above, with a point spread function of ~2 arcminutes and a wide (semiaperture 4.8°) corrected field of view. The peculiarities of the optical design and of the SiPM bandpass pushed towards specifically optimized choices in terms of reflective coatings for both the primary and the secondary mirror. Fully dielectric multi-layer coatings have been developed and tested as an option for the primary mirror, aiming to filter out the large Night Sky Background contamination at wavelengths λ>~700 nm. On the other hand, for the large monolithic secondary mirror a simpler design with quartz-overcoated aluminium has been optimized for incidences far from normality. The conformation of the ASTRI camera in turn pushed towards the design of a reimaging system based on thin pyramidal light guides, that could be optionally integrated in the focal surface, aiming to increase the fill factor. An anti-reflective coating optimized for a wide range of incident angles faraway from normality was specifically developed to enhance the UV-optical transparency of these elements. The issues, strategy, simulations and experimental results are thoroughly

  20. Geographic Uncertainty in Environmental Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahlquist, Jon

    2008-06-01

    This volume contains 17 papers presented at the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Fuzziness and Uncertainty held in Kiev, Ukraine, 28 June to 1 July 2006. Eleven of the papers deal with fuzzy set concepts, while the other six (papers 5, 7, 13, 14, 15, and 16) are not fuzzy. A reader with no prior exposure to fuzzy set theory would benefit from having an introductory text at hand, but the papers are accessible to a wide audience. In general, the papers deal with broad issues of classification and uncertainty in geographic information.

  1. Construction of Prototype Lightweight Mirrors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, William G.

    1997-01-01

    This contract and the work described was in support of a Seven Segment Demonstrator (SSD) and demonstration of a different technology for construction of lightweight mirrors. The objectives of the SSD were to demonstrate functionality and performance of a seven segment prototype array of hexagonal mirrors and supporting electromechanical components which address design issues critical to space optics deployed in large space based telescopes for astronomy and for optics used in spaced based optical communications systems. The SSD was intended to demonstrate technologies which can support the following capabilities; Transportation in dense packaging to existing launcher payload envelopes, then deployable on orbit to form space telescope with large aperture. Provide very large (less than 10 meters) primary reflectors of low mass and cost. Demonstrate the capability to form a segmented primary or quaternary mirror into a quasi-continuous surface with individual subapertures phased so that near diffraction limited imaging in the visible wavelength region is achieved. Continuous compensation of optical wavefront due to perturbations caused by imperfections, natural disturbances, and equipment induced vibrations/deflections to provide near diffraction limited imaging performance in the visible wavelength region. Demonstrate the feasibility of fabricating such systems with reduced mass and cost compared to past approaches. While the SSD could not be expected to satisfy all of the above capabilities, the intent was to start identifying and understanding new technologies that might be applicable to these goals.

  2. Wireless Augmented Reality Prototype (WARP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devereaux, A. S.

    1999-01-01

    Initiated in January, 1997, under NASA's Office of Life and Microgravity Sciences and Applications, the Wireless Augmented Reality Prototype (WARP) is a means to leverage recent advances in communications, displays, imaging sensors, biosensors, voice recognition and microelectronics to develop a hands-free, tetherless system capable of real-time personal display and control of computer system resources. Using WARP, an astronaut may efficiently operate and monitor any computer-controllable activity inside or outside the vehicle or station. The WARP concept is a lightweight, unobtrusive heads-up display with a wireless wearable control unit. Connectivity to the external system is achieved through a high-rate radio link from the WARP personal unit to a base station unit installed into any system PC. The radio link has been specially engineered to operate within the high- interference, high-multipath environment of a space shuttle or space station module. Through this virtual terminal, the astronaut will be able to view and manipulate imagery, text or video, using voice commands to control the terminal operations. WARP's hands-free access to computer-based instruction texts, diagrams and checklists replaces juggling manuals and clipboards, and tetherless computer system access allows free motion throughout a cabin while monitoring and operating equipment.

  3. Dissipative Prototyping Methods: A Manifesto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beesley, P.

    Taking a designer's unique perspective using examples of practice in experimental installation and digital protoyping, this manifesto acts as provocation for change and unlocking new potential by encouraging changes of perspective about the material realm. Diffusive form-language is proposed as a paradigm for architectural design. This method of design is applied through 3D printing and related digital fabrication methods, offering new qualities that can be implemented in design of realms including present earth and future interplanetary environments. A paradigm shift is encouraged by questioning conventional notions of geometry that minimize interfaces and by proposing the alternatives of maximized interfaces formed by effusive kinds of formal composition. A series of projects from the Canadian research studio of the Hylozoic Architecture group are described, providing examples of component design methods employing diffusive forms within combinations of tension-integrity structural systems integrated with hybrid metabolisms employing synthetic biology. Cultural implications are also discussed, drawing from architectural theory and natural philosophy. The conclusion of this paper suggests that the practice of diffusive prototyping can offer formative strategies contributing to design of future living systems.

  4. Mars Spark Source Prototype Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.; Lindamood, Glenn R.; VanderWal, Randall L.; Weiland, Karen J.

    2000-01-01

    The Mars Spark Source Prototype (MSSP) hardware was developed as part of a proof of concept system for the detection of trace metals such as lead, cadmium, and arsenic in Martian dusts and soils. A spark discharge produces plasma from a soil sample, and detectors measure the optical emission from metals in the plasma to identify and quantify them. Trace metal measurements are vital in assessing whether or not the Martian environment will be toxic to human explorers. The current method of x-ray fluorescence can yield concentrations of major species only. Other instruments are incompatible with the volume, weight, and power constraints for a Mars mission. The new instrument will be developed primarily for use in the Martian environment, but it would be adaptable for terrestrial use in environmental monitoring. The NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field initiated the development of the MSSP as part of Glenn's Director's Discretionary Fund project for the Spark Analysis Detection of Trace Metal Species in Martian Dusts and Soils. The objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate a compact, sensitive optical instrument for the detection of trace hazardous metals in Martian dusts and soils.

  5. Sonification Prototype for Space Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candey, R. M.; Schertenleib, A. M.; Diaz Merced, W. L.

    2005-12-01

    As an alternative and adjunct to visual displays, auditory exploration of data via sonification (data controlled sound) and audification (audible playback of data samples) is promising for complex or rapidly/temporally changing visualizations, for data exploration of large datasets (particularly multi-dimensional datasets), and for exploring datasets in frequency rather than spatial dimensions (see also International Conferences on Auditory Display ). Besides improving data exploration and analysis for most researchers, the use of sound is especially valuable as an assistive technology for visually-impaired people and can make science and math more exciting for high school and college students. Only recently have the hardware and software come together to make a cross-platform open-source sonification tool feasible. We have developed a prototype sonification data analysis tool using the JavaSound API and NASA GSFC's ViSBARD software . Wanda Diaz Merced, a blind astrophysicist from Puerto Rico, is instrumental in advising on and testing the tool.

  6. Software Prototyping: Designing Systems for Users.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spies, Phyllis Bova

    1983-01-01

    Reports on major change in computer software development process--the prototype model, i.e., implementation of skeletal system that is enhanced during interaction with users. Expensive and unreliable software, software design errors, traditional development approach, resources required for prototyping, success stories, and systems designer's role…

  7. In Search of the Prototypical Fraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Vince

    2013-01-01

    Vince Wright makes a convincing argument for presenting children with a different "prototype" of a fraction to the typical one-half. Consider how the prototype that Wright mentions may be applied to a variety of fraction concepts. We are sure that you will never look at a doughnut in quite the same way.

  8. Rapid Prototyping of Mobile Learning Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federley, Maija; Sorsa, Timo; Paavilainen, Janne; Boissonnier, Kimo; Seisto, Anu

    2014-01-01

    This position paper presents the first results of an on-going project, in which we explore rapid prototyping method to efficiently produce digital learning solutions that are commercially viable. In this first phase, rapid game prototyping and an iterative approach was tested as a quick and efficient way to create learning games and to evaluate…

  9. dE/dx prototype test

    SciTech Connect

    Va'vra, J.; Rust, D.

    1980-10-01

    A small prototype of a multiwire dE/dx detector was tested in SLAC's test beam. The basic concept of the detector was similar to the JADE drift cell design. The purpose of the test was to decide on some design parameters for a full size prototype, which is now in construction.

  10. A prototype space flight intravenous injection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colombo, G. V.

    1985-01-01

    Medical emergencies, especially those resulting from accidents, frequently require the administration of intravenous fluids to replace lost body liquids. The development of a prototype space flight intravenous injection system is presented. The definition of requirements, injectable concentrates development, water polisher, reconstitution hardware development, administration hardware development, and prototype fabrication and testing are discussed.

  11. Prototype Formation in Autism: Can Individuals with Autism Abstract Facial Prototypes?

    PubMed Central

    Gastgeb, Holly Zajac; Rump, Keiran M.; Best, Catherine A.; Minshew, Nancy J.; Strauss, Mark S.

    2011-01-01

    Prototype formation is a critical skill for category learning. Research suggests that individuals with autism may have a deficit in prototype formation of some objects; however, results are mixed. The current study used a natural category, faces, to further examine prototype formation in high-functioning individuals with autism. High-functioning children (age 8–13 years) and adults with autism (age 17–53 years) and matched controls were tested in a facial prototype formation task that has been used to test prototype formation abilities in typically developing infants and adults (Strauss, 1979). Participants were familiarized to a series of faces depicting subtle variations in the spatial distance of facial features, and were then given a forced choice familiarity test between the mean prototype and the mode prototype. Overall, individuals in the autism group were significantly less likely to select the mean prototype face. Even though the children with autism showed this difference in prototype formation, this pattern was driven primarily by the adults, because the adults with autism were approximately 4 times less likely to select the mean prototype than were the control adults. These results provide further evidence that individuals with autism have difficulty abstracting subtle spatial information that is necessary not only for the formation of a mean prototype, but also for categorizing faces and objects. PMID:19877157

  12. A Geographic Information System Framework for the Management of Sensor Deployments

    PubMed Central

    Russomanno, David J.; Tritenko, Yury

    2010-01-01

    A prototype Geographic Information System (GIS) framework has been developed to map, manage, and monitor sensors with respect to other geographic features, including land base and in-plant features. The GIS framework supports geographic placement and subsequent discovery, query, and tasking of sensors in a network-centric environment using Web services. The framework couples the GIS feature placement logic of sensors with an extensible ontology which captures the capabilities, properties, protocols, integrity constraints, and other parameters of interest for a large variety of sensor types. The approach is significant in that custom, GIS-based interfaces can be rapidly developed via the integration of sensors and sensor networks into applications without having detailed knowledge of the sensors’ underlying device drivers by leveraging service-oriented computing infrastructure within the GIS framework. PMID:22399881

  13. A Geographic Information System framework for the management of sensor deployments.

    PubMed

    Russomanno, David J; Tritenko, Yury

    2010-01-01

    A prototype Geographic Information System (GIS) framework has been developed to map, manage, and monitor sensors with respect to other geographic features, including land base and in-plant features. The GIS framework supports geographic placement and subsequent discovery, query, and tasking of sensors in a network-centric environment using Web services. The framework couples the GIS feature placement logic of sensors with an extensible ontology which captures the capabilities, properties, protocols, integrity constraints, and other parameters of interest for a large variety of sensor types. The approach is significant in that custom, GIS-based interfaces can be rapidly developed via the integration of sensors and sensor networks into applications without having detailed knowledge of the sensors' underlying device drivers by leveraging service-oriented computing infrastructure within the GIS framework. PMID:22399881

  14. Review on CNC-Rapid Prototyping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Z, M. Nafis O.; Y, Nafrizuan M.; A, Munira M.; J, Kartina

    2012-09-01

    This article reviewed developments of Computerized Numerical Control (CNC) technology in rapid prototyping process. Rapid prototyping (RP) can be classified into three major groups; subtractive, additive and virtual. CNC rapid prototyping is grouped under the subtractive category which involves material removal from the workpiece that is larger than the final part. Richard Wysk established the use of CNC machines for rapid prototyping using sets of 2½-D tool paths from various orientations about a rotary axis to machine parts without refixturing. Since then, there are few developments on this process mainly aimed to optimized the operation and increase the process capabilities to stand equal with common additive type of RP. These developments include the integration between machining and deposition process (hybrid RP), adoption of RP to the conventional machine and optimization of the CNC rapid prototyping process based on controlled parameters. The article ended by concluding that the CNC rapid prototyping research area has a vast space for improvement as in the conventional machining processes. Further developments and findings will enhance the usage of this method and minimize the limitation of current approach in building a prototype.

  15. Rapid prototyping and stereolithography in dentistry

    PubMed Central

    Nayar, Sanjna; Bhuminathan, S.; Bhat, Wasim Manzoor

    2015-01-01

    The word rapid prototyping (RP) was first used in mechanical engineering field in the early 1980s to describe the act of producing a prototype, a unique product, the first product, or a reference model. In the past, prototypes were handmade by sculpting or casting, and their fabrication demanded a long time. Any and every prototype should undergo evaluation, correction of defects, and approval before the beginning of its mass or large scale production. Prototypes may also be used for specific or restricted purposes, in which case they are usually called a preseries model. With the development of information technology, three-dimensional models can be devised and built based on virtual prototypes. Computers can now be used to create accurately detailed projects that can be assessed from different perspectives in a process known as computer aided design (CAD). To materialize virtual objects using CAD, a computer aided manufacture (CAM) process has been developed. To transform a virtual file into a real object, CAM operates using a machine connected to a computer, similar to a printer or peripheral device. In 1987, Brix and Lambrecht used, for the first time, a prototype in health care. It was a three-dimensional model manufactured using a computer numerical control device, a type of machine that was the predecessor of RP. In 1991, human anatomy models produced with a technology called stereolithography were first used in a maxillofacial surgery clinic in Viena. PMID:26015715

  16. Rapid prototyping and stereolithography in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Nayar, Sanjna; Bhuminathan, S; Bhat, Wasim Manzoor

    2015-04-01

    The word rapid prototyping (RP) was first used in mechanical engineering field in the early 1980s to describe the act of producing a prototype, a unique product, the first product, or a reference model. In the past, prototypes were handmade by sculpting or casting, and their fabrication demanded a long time. Any and every prototype should undergo evaluation, correction of defects, and approval before the beginning of its mass or large scale production. Prototypes may also be used for specific or restricted purposes, in which case they are usually called a preseries model. With the development of information technology, three-dimensional models can be devised and built based on virtual prototypes. Computers can now be used to create accurately detailed projects that can be assessed from different perspectives in a process known as computer aided design (CAD). To materialize virtual objects using CAD, a computer aided manufacture (CAM) process has been developed. To transform a virtual file into a real object, CAM operates using a machine connected to a computer, similar to a printer or peripheral device. In 1987, Brix and Lambrecht used, for the first time, a prototype in health care. It was a three-dimensional model manufactured using a computer numerical control device, a type of machine that was the predecessor of RP. In 1991, human anatomy models produced with a technology called stereolithography were first used in a maxillofacial surgery clinic in Viena. PMID:26015715

  17. Geographic distribution of Bhanja virus.

    PubMed

    Hubálek, Z

    1987-01-01

    A review on the geographic distribution, vectors and hosts of Bhanja virus (Bunyaviridae) is based on reports about: isolations of the virus; antibody surveys. Bhanja virus has been isolated in 15 countries of Asia, Africa and Europe, and antibodies against it have been detected in 15 additional countries. Vector range includes ticks of the family Ixodidae (subfam. Amblyomminae; not subfam. Ixodinae): 13 species of 6 genera (Haemaphysalis, Dermacentor, Hyalomma, Amblyomma, Rhipicephalus and Boophilus) yielded the virus. Bhanja virus has only rarely been isolated from vertebrates (Atelerix, Xerus, Ovis, Bos; possibly bats), though antibodies have been detected frequently in a wide range of mammals (Ruminantia being the major hosts), in several species of birds (Passeriformes, Galliformes) and even reptiles (Ophisaurus apodus). Natural foci of the Bhanja virus infections are of the boskematic type (sensu Rosický), associated closely with pastures of domestic ruminants infested by ticks in the regions of tropical, subtropical and partly temperate climatic zones. PMID:3108117

  18. The four INTA-300 rocket prototypes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calero, J. S.

    1985-03-01

    A development history and performance capability assessment is presented for the INTA-300 'Flamenco' sounding rocket prototype specimens. The Flamenco is a two-stage solid fuel rocket, based on British sounding rocket technology, that can lift 50 km payloads to altitudes of about 300 km. The flight of the first two prototypes, in 1974 and 1975, pointed to vibration problems which reduced the achievable apogee, and the third prototype's flight was marred by a premature detonation that destroyed the rocket. The fourth Flamenco flight, however, yielded much reliable data.

  19. Cyberinfrastructure for Rapid Prototyping Capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haupt, T. A.; Kalyanasundaram, A.; Zhuk, I.; Goli, V.

    2007-12-01

    The overall goal of the NASA Rapid Prototyping Capability is to speed the evaluation of potential uses of NASA research products and technologies to improve future operational systems by reducing the time to access, configure, and assess the effectiveness of NASA products and technologies. The infrastructure to support the RPC is thus expected to provide the capability to rapidly evaluate innovative methods of linking science observations. The RPC infrastructure supports two major categories of experiments (and subsequent analysis): comparing results of a particular model as fed with data coming from different sources, and comparing different models using the data coming from the same source. In spite of being conceptually simple, two use cases in fact entail a significant technical challenge. Enabling RPC experiments requires thus a radical simplification of access to both actual and simulated data, as well as tools for data pre- and post-processing. The tools must be interoperable, allowing the user to create computational workflows with the data seamlessly transferred as needed, including third-party transfers to high-performance computing platforms. In addition, the provenance of the data must be preserved in order to document results of different what-if scenarios and to enable collaboration and data sharing between users. The functionality of the RPC splits into several independent modules such as interactive Web site, data server, tool's interfaces, or monitoring service. Each such module is implemented as an independent portlet. The RPC Portal aggregates the different contents provided by the portlets into a single interface employing a popular GridSphere portlet container. The RPC data access is based on Unidata's THREDDS Data server (TDS) extended to support, among others, interactive creation of containers for new data collections and uploading new data sets, downloading the data either to the user desktop or transferring it to a remote location using

  20. VO for Education: Archive Prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramella, M.; Iafrate, G.; De Marco, M.; Molinaro, M.; Knapic, C.; Smareglia, R.; Cepparo, F.

    2014-05-01

    The number of remote control telescopes dedicated to education is increasing in many countries, leading to correspondingly larger and larger amount of stored educational data that are usually available only to local observers. Here we present the project for a new infrastructure that will allow teachers using educational telescopes to archive their data and easily publish them within the Virtual Observatory (VO) avoiding the complexity of professional tools. Students and teachers anywhere will be able to access these data with obvious benefits for the realization of grander scale collaborative projects. Educational VO data will also be an important resource for teachers not having direct access to any educational telescopes. We will use the educational telescope at our observatory in Trieste as a prototype for the future VO educational data archive resource. The publishing infrastructure will include: user authentication, content and curation validation, data validation and ingestion, VO compliant resource generation. All of these parts will be performed by means of server side applications accessible through a web graphical user interface (web GUI). Apart from user registration, that will be validated by a natural person responsible for the archive (after having verified the reliability of the user and inspected one or more test files), all the subsequent steps will be automated. This means that at the very first data submission through the webGUI, a complete resource including archive and published VO service will be generated, ready to be registered to the VO. The efforts required to the registered user will consist only in describing herself/himself at registration step and submitting the data she/he selects for publishing after each observation sessions. The infrastructure will be file format independent and the underlying data model will use a minimal set of standard VO keywords, some of which will be specific for outreach and education, possibly including VO

  1. Characterization of Prototype LSST CCDs

    SciTech Connect

    OCONNOR,P.; FRANK, J.; GEARY, J.C.; GILMORE, D.K.; KOTOV, I.; RADEKA, V.; TAKACS, P.; TYSON, J.A.

    2008-06-23

    The ambitious science goals of the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will be achieved in part by a wide-field imager that will achieve a new level of performance in terms of area, speed, and sensitivity. The instrument performance is dominated by the focal plane sensors, which are now in development. These new-generation sensors will make use of advanced semiconductor technology and will be complemented by a highly integrated electronics package located inside the cryostat. A test laboratory has been set up at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to characterize prototype sensors and to develop test and assembly techniques for eventual integration of production sensors and electronics into modules that will form the final focal plane. As described in [1], the key requirements for LSST sensors are wideband quantum efficiency (QE) extending beyond lpm in the red, control of point spread function (PSF), and fast readout using multiple amplifiers per chip operated in parallel. In addition, LSST's fast optical system (f71.25) places severe constraints on focal plane flatness. At the chip level this involves packaging techniques to minimize warpage of the silicon die, and at the mosaic level careful assembly and metrology to achieve a high coplanarity of the sensor tiles. In view of the long lead time to develop the needed sensor technology, LSST undertook a study program with several vendors to fabricate and test devices which address the most critical performance features [2]. The remainder of this paper presents key results of this study program. Section 2 summarizes the sensor requirements and the results of design optimization studies, and Section 3 presents the sensor development plan. In Section 4 we describe the test bench at BNL. Section 5 reports measurement results obtained to date oh devices fabricated by several vendors. Section 6 presents a summary of the paper and an outlook for the future work. We present characterization methods and results on a

  2. SpaceX Test Fires Engine Prototype

    NASA Video Gallery

    One of NASA's industry partners, SpaceX, fires its new SuperDraco engine prototype in preparation for the ninth milestone to be completed under SpaceX's funded Space Act Agreement (SAA) with NASA's...

  3. GreenCraft Greenspoint House Prototype

    SciTech Connect

    2009-02-16

    This case study describes a prototype house demonstrating energy efficiency and durability upgrades including an unvented roof with low density spray foam insulation and supplemental dehumidification, along with high performance windows and HVAC system.

  4. Prototype solar-heating system - installation manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Manual for prototype solar-heating system gives detailed installation procedures for each of seven subsystems. Procedures for operation and maintenance are also included. It discusses architectural considerations, building construction considerations, and checkout-test procedures.

  5. Prototype solar heating and cooling systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Eight prototype systems were developed. The systems are 3, 25, and 75-ton size units. The manufacture, test, installation, maintenance, problem resolution, and performance evaluation of the systems is described. Size activities for the various systems are included.

  6. Rapid Production of Composite Prototype Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLay, T. K.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this research was to provide a mechanism to cost-effectively produce composite hardware prototypes. The task was to take a hands-on approach to developing new technologies that could benefit multiple future programs.

  7. Norcal Prototype LNG Truck Fleet: Final Results

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2004-07-01

    U.S. DOE and National Renewable Energy Laboratory evaluated Norcal Waste Systems liquefied natural gas (LNG) waste transfer trucks. Trucks had prototype Cummins Westport ISXG engines. Report gives final evaluation results.

  8. The Oklahoma Geographic Information Retrieval System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, W. A.

    1982-01-01

    The Oklahoma Geographic Information Retrieval System (OGIRS) is a highly interactive data entry, storage, manipulation, and display software system for use with geographically referenced data. Although originally developed for a project concerned with coal strip mine reclamation, OGIRS is capable of handling any geographically referenced data for a variety of natural resource management applications. A special effort has been made to integrate remotely sensed data into the information system. The timeliness and synoptic coverage of satellite data are particularly useful attributes for inclusion into the geographic information system.

  9. Geographic Information Retrieval for Just Your Surroundings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuda, Norihito; Toda, Hiroyuki

    Geographic information retrieval (GIR) is a new research area that aims at the retrieval of geographic-related documents based not only on keyword relevance but also on geographic relationships between the query and the geographic information in texts. It is natural for people to want information related to just their surroundings. Conventional GIR systems, however, have relatively poor granularity, such as city or province, because they use geographic information in restricted ways -- mostly just for filtering. To address this problem, we propose a geographic scoring method that considers extent implied by each geographic names appeared in texts to emphasize geographic names that focus specific areas, rather than broad geographic names. Furthermore, to improve robustness against errors in pre-processing such as geo-parsing and geo-coding, we also propose a noise elimination method based on clustering. Evaluation is conducted using standard TREC-style evaluation metrics including MAP, R-precision, and so on. The results show that our method outperforms two baseline approaches: full-text search and using the nearest point in the text.

  10. Summary Scientific Performance of EUCLID Detector Prototypes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rauscher, Bernard J.

    2011-01-01

    NASA and the European Space Agency (ESA) plan to partner to build the EUCLID mission. EUCLID is a mission concept for studying the Dark Energy that is hypothesized to account for the accelerating cosmic expansion. For the past year, NASA has been building detector prototypes at Teledyne Imaging Sensors. This talk will summarize the measured scientific performance of these detector prototypes for astrophysical and cosmological applications.

  11. Preliminary Component Integration Using Rapid Prototyping Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Ken; Salvail, Pat; Gordon, Gail (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Rapid prototyping is a very important tool that should be used by both design and manufacturing disciplines during the development of elements for the aerospace industry. It helps prevent lack of adequate communication between design and manufacturing engineers (which could lead to costly errors) through mutual consideration of functional models generated from drawings. Rapid prototyping techniques are used to test hardware for design and material compatibility at Marshall Space Flight Center.

  12. MPACT Fast Neutron Multiplicity System Prototype Development

    SciTech Connect

    D.L. Chichester; S.A. Pozzi; J.L. Dolan; M.T. Kinlaw; S.J. Thompson; A.C. Kaplan; M. Flaska; A. Enqvist; J.T. Johnson; S.M. Watson

    2013-09-01

    This document serves as both an FY2103 End-of-Year and End-of-Project report on efforts that resulted in the design of a prototype fast neutron multiplicity counter leveraged upon the findings of previous project efforts. The prototype design includes 32 liquid scintillator detectors with cubic volumes 7.62 cm in dimension configured into 4 stacked rings of 8 detectors. Detector signal collection for the system is handled with a pair of Struck Innovative Systeme 16-channel digitizers controlled by in-house developed software with built-in multiplicity analysis algorithms. Initial testing and familiarization of the currently obtained prototype components is underway, however full prototype construction is required for further optimization. Monte Carlo models of the prototype system were performed to estimate die-away and efficiency values. Analysis of these models resulted in the development of a software package capable of determining the effects of nearest-neighbor rejection methods for elimination of detector cross talk. A parameter study was performed using previously developed analytical methods for the estimation of assay mass variance for use as a figure-of-merit for system performance. A software package was developed to automate these calculations and ensure accuracy. The results of the parameter study show that the prototype fast neutron multiplicity counter design is very nearly optimized under the restraints of the parameter space.

  13. Field evaluation of prototype electrofibrous filters

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhl, W.D.; Bergman, W.; Biermann, A.H.; Lum, B.Y.

    1982-09-30

    New prototype electrofibrous filters were designed, built and evaluated in laboratory tests and in field installations. Two prototypes were designed for use in nuclear ventilation ducts as prefilters to HEPA filters. One prototype is designed to be a permanent component of the ventilation system while the other is a disposable unit. The disposable electrofibrous prefilter was installed in the exhaust stream of a glove box in which barrels of uranium turnings are burned. Preliminary tests show the disposal prefilter is effectively prolonging the HEPA filter life. An earlier prototype of the rolling prefilter was upgraded to meet the increased requirements for installation in a nuclear facility. This upgraded prototype was evaluated in the fire test facility at LLNL and shown to be effective in protecting HEPA filters from plugging under the most severe smoke conditions. The last prototype described in this report is a recirculating air filter. After demonstrating a high performance in laboratory tests the unit was shipped to Savannah River where it is awaiting installation in a Pu fuel fabrication facility. An analysis of the particulate problem in Savannah River indicates that four recirculating air filter will save $172,000 per year in maintenance costs.

  14. Geographical epidemiology, spatial analysis and geographical information systems: a multidisciplinary glossary

    PubMed Central

    Rezaeian, Mohsen; Dunn, Graham; Leger, Selwyn St; Appleby, Louis

    2007-01-01

    We provide a relatively non‐technical glossary of terms and a description of the tools used in spatial or geographical epidemiology and associated geographical information systems. Statistical topics included cover adjustment and standardisation to allow for demographic and other background differences, data structures, data smoothing, spatial autocorrelation and spatial regression. We also discuss the rationale for geographical epidemiology and specific techniques such as disease clustering, disease mapping, ecological analyses, geographical information systems and global positioning systems. PMID:17234866

  15. 33 CFR 166.103 - Geographic coordinates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... charts whose referenced horizontal datum is the North American Datum of 1983 (NAD 83), unless such geographic coordinates are expressly labeled NAD 83. Geographic coordinates without the NAD 83 reference may be plotted on maps or charts referenced to NAD 83 only after application of the...

  16. 33 CFR 166.103 - Geographic coordinates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... charts whose referenced horizontal datum is the North American Datum of 1983 (NAD 83), unless such geographic coordinates are expressly labeled NAD 83. Geographic coordinates without the NAD 83 reference may be plotted on maps or charts referenced to NAD 83 only after application of the...

  17. 33 CFR 166.103 - Geographic coordinates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... charts whose referenced horizontal datum is the North American Datum of 1983 (NAD 83), unless such geographic coordinates are expressly labeled NAD 83. Geographic coordinates without the NAD 83 reference may be plotted on maps or charts referenced to NAD 83 only after application of the...

  18. 33 CFR 166.103 - Geographic coordinates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... charts whose referenced horizontal datum is the North American Datum of 1983 (NAD 83), unless such geographic coordinates are expressly labeled NAD 83. Geographic coordinates without the NAD 83 reference may be plotted on maps or charts referenced to NAD 83 only after application of the...

  19. 33 CFR 166.103 - Geographic coordinates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... charts whose referenced horizontal datum is the North American Datum of 1983 (NAD 83), unless such geographic coordinates are expressly labeled NAD 83. Geographic coordinates without the NAD 83 reference may be plotted on maps or charts referenced to NAD 83 only after application of the...

  20. Treatment of geographic tongue with topical tacrolimus

    PubMed Central

    Purani, Jigar M; Purani, Hiral J

    2014-01-01

    Geographic tongue is an inflammatory condition of the dorsal surface and lateral border of the tongue, which may be asymptomatic. This article presents a case of geographic tongue in a 6-year-old child. Successful management was achieved with topical application of 0.1% tacrolimus. PMID:25085945

  1. 34 CFR 642.33 - Geographic distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Geographic distribution. 642.33 Section 642.33 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY... Grant? § 642.33 Geographic distribution. The Secretary, to the greatest extent possible, awards...

  2. 7 CFR 3565.213 - Geographic distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Geographic distribution. 3565.213 Section 3565.213 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUARANTEED RURAL RENTAL HOUSING PROGRAM Loan Requirements § 3565.213 Geographic distribution....

  3. 7 CFR 3565.213 - Geographic distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Geographic distribution. 3565.213 Section 3565.213 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUARANTEED RURAL RENTAL HOUSING PROGRAM Loan Requirements § 3565.213 Geographic distribution....

  4. 25 CFR 571.10 - Geographical location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Geographical location. 571.10 Section 571.10 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR COMPLIANCE AND ENFORCEMENT PROVISIONS MONITORING AND INVESTIGATIONS Subpoenas and Depositions § 571.10 Geographical location. The attendance...

  5. 25 CFR 571.10 - Geographical location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Geographical location. 571.10 Section 571.10 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR COMPLIANCE AND ENFORCEMENT PROVISIONS MONITORING AND INVESTIGATIONS Subpoenas and Depositions § 571.10 Geographical location. The attendance...

  6. 25 CFR 571.10 - Geographical location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Geographical location. 571.10 Section 571.10 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR COMPLIANCE AND ENFORCEMENT PROVISIONS MONITORING AND INVESTIGATIONS Subpoenas and Depositions § 571.10 Geographical location. The attendance...

  7. 25 CFR 571.10 - Geographical location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Geographical location. 571.10 Section 571.10 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR COMPLIANCE AND ENFORCEMENT PROVISIONS MONITORING AND INVESTIGATIONS Subpoenas and Depositions § 571.10 Geographical location. The attendance...

  8. 25 CFR 571.10 - Geographical location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Geographical location. 571.10 Section 571.10 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR COMPLIANCE AND ENFORCEMENT PROVISIONS MONITORING AND INVESTIGATIONS Subpoenas and Depositions § 571.10 Geographical location. The attendance...

  9. Suggested Geographic Information Literacy for K-12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Jason; Keller, C. Peter; Yore, Larry D.

    2005-01-01

    Geographic information literacy (GIL) is defined as the possession of concepts, abilities and habits of mind that allow an individual to understand and use geographic information properly. This paper reports the results of an online survey undertaken to get expert input into specifying the concepts and abilities associated with GIL that should be…

  10. Geographical Literacy and the Role of GIS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Bryan A.

    1999-01-01

    Demonstrates how Geographical Information Systems (GIS) can help develop student skills that enhance learning. Describes the application of GIS within secondary geography education, providing an example of its use at the Windaroo Valley State High School (Australia). Discusses GIS and geographic literacy. (CMK)

  11. 38 CFR 36.4523 - Geographical limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Geographical limits. 36.4523 Section 36.4523 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) LOAN GUARANTY Direct Loans § 36.4523 Geographical limits. Any real property purchased, constructed,...

  12. 38 CFR 36.4332 - Geographical limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Geographical limits. 36.4332 Section 36.4332 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED... Geographical limits. Any real property purchased, constructed, altered, improved, or repaired with the...

  13. 38 CFR 36.4411 - Geographical limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Geographical limits. 36.4411 Section 36.4411 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED... Geographical limits. Any real property purchased, constructed, altered, improved, repaired, or...

  14. 38 CFR 36.4214 - Geographical limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Geographical limits. 36.4214 Section 36.4214 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED... Preparation General Provisions § 36.4214 Geographical limits. The site for any manufactured home...

  15. Impact of Travel on Geographic Competency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bein, Frederick L.

    A geography skills test was administered to over 3,000 Indiana college students enrolled in introductory geography courses in 1987. The National Council for Geographic Education Competency-Based Geography Test, Secondary Level, Form D, was used to measure geographic ability in the area of map skills, place name location, physical geography, and…

  16. The Effect of Geographic Units of Analysis on Measuring Geographic Variation in Medical Services Utilization

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jong Heon; Hwang, Kyosang; Lee, Taesik

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: We aimed to evaluate the effect of geographic units of analysis on measuring geographic variation in medical services utilization. For this purpose, we compared geographic variations in the rates of eight major procedures in administrative units (districts) and new areal units organized based on the actual health care use of the population in Korea. Methods: To compare geographic variation in geographic units of analysis, we calculated the age–sex standardized rates of eight major procedures (coronary artery bypass graft surgery, percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty, surgery after hip fracture, knee-replacement surgery, caesarean section, hysterectomy, computed tomography scan, and magnetic resonance imaging scan) from the National Health Insurance database in Korea for the 2013 period. Using the coefficient of variation, the extremal quotient, and the systematic component of variation, we measured geographic variation for these eight procedures in districts and new areal units. Results: Compared with districts, new areal units showed a reduction in geographic variation. Extremal quotients and inter-decile ratios for the eight procedures were lower in new areal units. While the coefficient of variation was lower for most procedures in new areal units, the pattern of change of the systematic component of variation between districts and new areal units differed among procedures. Conclusions: Geographic variation in medical service utilization could vary according to the geographic unit of analysis. To determine how geographic characteristics such as population size and number of geographic units affect geographic variation, further studies are needed. PMID:27499165

  17. The energy performance of prototype holographic glazings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papamichael, K.; Beltran, L.; Furler, R.; Lee, E. S.; Selkowitz, S.; Rubin, M.

    1993-02-01

    We report on the simulation of the energy performance of prototype holographic glazings in commercial office buildings in a California climate. These prototype glazings, installed above conventional side windows, are designed to diffract the transmitted solar radiation and reflect it off the ceiling, providing adequate daylight illumination for typical office tasks up to 10m from the window. In this study, we experimentally determined a comprehensive set of solar-optical properties and characterized the contribution of the prototype holographic glazings to workplane illuminance in a scale model of a typical office space. We then used the scale model measurements to simulate the energy performance of the holographic glazings over the course of an entire year for four window orientations (North, East, South and West) for the inland Los Angeles climate, using the DOE-2.lD building energy analysis computer program. The results of our experimental analyses indicate that these prototype holographic glazings diffract only a small fraction of the incident light. The results of this study indicate that these prototype holographic glazings will not save energy in commercial office buildings. Their performance is very similar to that of clear glass, which, through side windows, cannot efficiently illuminate more than a 4-6 m depth of a building's perimeter, because the cooling penalties due to solar heat gain are greater than the electric lighting savings due to daylighting.

  18. A Prototype Land Information Sensor Web: Design, Implementation and Implication for the SMAP Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, H.; Houser, P.; Tian, Y.; Geiger, J. K.; Kumar, S. V.; Gates, L.

    2009-12-01

    developed and it is the very first sensor web framework developed especially for the land surface studies. Synthetic experiments based on the LISW-SOA and the virtual sensor web provide a controlled environment in which to examine the end-to-end performance of the prototype, the impact of various sensor web design trade-offs and the eventual value of sensor webs for a particular prediction or decision support. In this paper, the design, implementation of the LISW-SOA and the implication for the Soil Moisture Active and Passive (SMAP) mission is presented. Particular attention is focused on examining the relationship between the economic investment on a sensor web (space and air borne, ground based) and the accuracy of the model predicted soil moisture, which can be achieved by using such sensor observations. The Study of Virtual Land Information Sensor Web (LISW) is expected to provide some necessary a priori knowledge for designing and deploying the next generation Global Earth Observing System of systems (GEOSS).

  19. Optimizing end-to-end system performance for millimeter and submillimeter spectroscopy of protostars : wideband heterodyne receivers and sideband-deconvolution techniques for rapid molecular-line surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumner, Matthew Casey

    This thesis describes the construction, integration, and use of a new 230-GHz ultra-wideband heterodyne receiver, as well as the development and testing of a new sideband-deconvolution algorithm, both designed to enable rapid, sensitive molecular-line surveys. The 230-GHz receiver, known as Z-Rex, is the first of a new generation of wideband receivers to be installed at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO). Intended as a proof-of-concept device, it boasts an ultra-wide IF output range of sim 6 - 18 GHz, offering as much as a twelvefold increase in the spectral coverage that can be achieved with a single LO setting. A similarly wideband IF system has been designed to couple this receiver to an array of WASP2 spectrometers, allowing the full bandwidth of the receiver to be observed at low resolution, ideal for extra-galactic redshift surveys. A separate IF system feeds a high-resolution 4-GHz AOS array frequently used for performing unbiased line surveys of galactic objects, particularly star-forming regions. The design and construction of the wideband IF system are presented, as is the work done to integrate the receiver and the high-resolution spectrometers into a working system. The receiver is currently installed at the CSO where it is available for astronomers' use. In addition to demonstrating wideband design principles, the receiver also serves as a testbed for a synthesizer-driven, active LO chain that is under consideration for future receiver designs. Several lessons have been learned, including the importance of driving the final amplifier of the LO chain into saturation and the absolute necessity of including a high-Q filter to remove spurious signals from the synthesizer output. The on-telescope performance of the synthesizer-driven LO chain is compared to that of the Gunn-oscillator units currently in use at the CSO. Although the frequency agility of the synthesized LO chain gives it a significant advantage for unbiased line surveys, the cleaner signal and broader tuning range of the Gunn continue to make it the preferred choice. The receiver and high-resolution spectrometer system were brought into a fully operational state late in 2007, when they were used to perform unbiased molecular-line surveys of several galactic sources, including the Orion KL hot core and a position in the L1157 outflow. In order to analyze these data, a new data pipeline was needed to deconvolve the double-sideband signals from the receiver and to model the molecular spectra. A highly automated sideband-deconvolution system has been created, and spectral-analysis tools are currently being developed. The sideband deconvolution relies on chi-square minimization to determine the optimal single-sideband spectrum in the presence of unknown sideband-gain imbalances and spectral baselines. Analytic results are presented for several different methods of approaching the problem, including direct optimization, nonlinear root finding, and a hybrid approach that utilizes a two-stage process to separate out the relatively weak nonlinearities so that the majority of the parameters can be found with a fast linear solver. Analytic derivations of the Jacobian matrices for all three cases are presented, along with a new Mathematica utility that enables the calculation of arbitrary gradients. The direct-optimization method has been incorporated into software, along with a spectral simulation engine that allows different deconvolution scenarios to be tested. The software has been validated through the deconvolution of simulated data sets, and initial results from L1157 and Orion are presented. Both surveys demonstrate the power of the wideband receivers and improved data pipeline to enable exciting scientific studies. The L1157 survey was completed in only 20 hours of telescope time and offers moderate sensitivity over a > 50-GHz range, from 220 GHz to approximately 270 or 280 GHz. The speed with which this survey was completed implies that the new systems will permit unbiased line surveys to become a standard observational tool. The Orion survey is expected to offer sim 30 mK sensitivity over a similar frequency range, improving previous results by an order of magnitude. The new receiver's ability to cover such broad bandwidths permits very deep surveys to be completed in a reasonable time, and the sideband-deconvolution algorithm is capable of preserving these low noise levels. Combined, these tools can provide line spectra with the sensitivity required for constraining astrochemical models and investigating prebiotic molecules.

  20. Pinnacle3 modeling and end-to-end dosimetric testing of a Versa HD linear accelerator with the Agility head and flattening filter-free modes.

    PubMed

    Saenz, Daniel L; Narayanasamy, Ganesh; Cruz, Wilbert; Papanikolaou, Nikos; Stathakis, Sotirios

    2016-01-01

    The Elekta Versa HD incorporates a variety of upgrades to the line of Elekta linear accelerators, primarily including the Agility head and flattening filter-free (FFF) photon beam delivery. The completely distinct dosimetric output of the head from its predecessors, combined with the FFF beams, requires a new investigation of modeling in treatment planning systems. A model was created in Pinnacle3 v9.8 with the commissioned beam data. A phantom consisting of several plastic water and Styrofoam slabs was scanned and imported into Pinnacle3, where beams of different field sizes, source-to-surface distances (SSDs), wedges, and gantry angles were devised. Beams included all of the available photon energies (6, 10, 18, 6FFF, and 10 FFF MV), as well as the four electron energies commissioned for clinical use (6, 9, 12, and 15 MeV). The plans were verified at calculation points by measurement with a calibrated ionization chamber. Homogeneous and hetero-geneous point-dose measurements agreed within 2% relative to maximum dose for all photon and electron beams. AP photon open field measurements along the central axis at 100 cm SSD passed within 1%. In addition, IMRT testing was also performed with three standard plans (step and shoot IMRT, as well as a small- and large-field VMAT plan). The IMRT plans were delivered on the Delta4 IMRT QA phantom, for which a gamma passing rate was > 99.5% for all plans with a 3% dose deviation, 3 mm distance-to-agreement, and 10% dose threshold. The IMRT QA results for the first 23 patients yielded gamma passing rates of 97.4% ± 2.3%. Such testing ensures confidence in the ability of Pinnacle3 to model photon and electron beams with the Agility head. PMID:26894352