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Sample records for endcap muon system

  1. Commissioning of CMS Endcap Muon System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brownell, Elizabeth

    2009-05-01

    This talk is as an overview of the evolution and current state of commissioning work on the CMS endcap muon system. I intend to highlight the progress in operating the detector, some problems encountered and solutions developed, lessons learned in the process, points which still require action to be taken, and data taking results.

  2. Radiation testing of electronics for the CMS endcap muon system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bylsma, B.; Cady, D.; Celik, A.; Durkin, L. S.; Gilmore, J.; Haley, J.; Khotilovich, V.; Lakdawala, S.; Liu, J.; Matveev, M.; Padley, B. P.; Roberts, J.; Roe, J.; Safonov, A.; Suarez, I.; Wood, D.; Zawisza, I.

    2013-01-01

    The electronics used in the data readout and triggering system for the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) particle accelerator at CERN are exposed to high radiation levels. This radiation can cause permanent damage to the electronic circuitry, as well as temporary effects such as data corruption induced by Single Event Upsets. Once the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) accelerator upgrades are completed it will have five times higher instantaneous luminosity than LHC, allowing for detection of rare physics processes, new particles and interactions. Tests have been performed to determine the effects of radiation on the electronic components to be used for the Endcap Muon electronics project currently being designed for installation in the CMS experiment in 2013. During these tests the digital components on the test boards were operating with active data readout while being irradiated with 55 MeV protons. In reactor tests, components were exposed to 30 years equivalent levels of neutron radiation expected at the HL-LHC. The highest total ionizing dose (TID) for the muon system is expected at the innermost portion of the CMS detector, with 8900 rad over 10 years. Our results show that Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) components selected for the new electronics will operate reliably in the CMS radiation environment.

  3. Design and performance of the alignment system for the CMS muon endcaps

    SciTech Connect

    Hohlmann, Marcus; Baksay, Gyongyi; Browngold, Max; Dehmelt, Klaus; Guragain, Samir; Andreev, Valery; Yang, Xiaofeng; Bellinger, James; Carlsmith, Duncan; Feyzi, Farshid; Loveless, Richard J.; /Florida Inst. Tech. /UCLA /Wisconsin U., Madison /UC, Davis /Fermilab /St. Petersburg, INP /UC, Riverside

    2006-12-01

    The alignment system for the CMS Muon Endcap detector employs several hundred sensors such as optical 1-D CCD sensors illuminated by lasers and analog distance- and tilt-sensors to monitor the positions of one sixth of 468 large Cathode Strip Chambers. The chambers mounted on the endcap yoke disks undergo substantial deformation on the order of centimeters when the 4T field is switched on and off. The Muon Endcap alignment system is required to monitor chamber positions with 75-200 {micro}m accuracy in the R? plane, {approx}400 {micro}m in the radial direction, and {approx}1 mm in the z-direction along the beam axis. The complete alignment hardware for one of the two endcaps has been installed at CERN. A major system test was performed when the 4T solenoid magnet was ramped up to full field for the first time in August 2006. We present the overall system design and first results on disk deformations, which indicate that the measurements agree with expectations.

  4. Algorithm and implementation of muon trigger and data transmission system for barrel-endcap overlap region of the CMS detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabolotny, W. M.; Byszuk, A.

    2016-03-01

    The CMS experiment Level-1 trigger system is undergoing an upgrade. In the barrel-endcap transition region, it is necessary to merge data from 3 types of muon detectors—RPC, DT and CSC. The Overlap Muon Track Finder (OMTF) uses the novel approach to concentrate and process those data in a uniform manner to identify muons and their transversal momentum. The paper presents the algorithm and FPGA firmware implementation of the OMTF and its data transmission system in CMS. It is foreseen that the OMTF will be subject to significant changes resulting from optimization which will be done with the aid of physics simulations. Therefore, a special, high-level, parameterized HDL implementation is necessary.

  5. Performance of the Level-1 Muon Trigger for the CMS Endcap Muon System with Cosmic Rays and First LHC Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gartner, Joseph

    2008-10-01

    We report on the performance of the level-1 muon trigger for the cathode strip chambers (CSCs) comprising the endcaps of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment. CMS is a general-purpose experiment designed to capitalize on the rich physics program of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), which begins operation this autumn and which opens a window onto physics at the TeV energy scale. After many years of preparation, the CMS detectors and electronics have undergone a series of commissioning exercises involving the triggering and data acquisition of signals induced from cosmic ray muons, and most recently, first LHC beams. Here we report on the successful synchronization of signals from the 468 CSCs in the level-1 trigger path, and the successful triggering of the experiment based on those signals. The triggers that are provided by a specially built set of ``Track-Finder'' processors include triggers based on single CSC segments, tracks based on a coincidence of segments along a predefined road emanating from the beam collision point, and tracks parallel to the beam line that accept accelerator-induced halo muons. Evidence of the proper functioning of these triggers will be reported.

  6. The Design of an Upgrade to the Level-1 Trigger for the Endcap Muon System of the CMS Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carver, Matthew

    2014-03-01

    We present a description of a novel track finding algorithm and associated hardware to be implemented as an upgrade to the L1-Trigger of the endcap muon system of the CMS experiment at the LHC in Geneva, Switzerland. To handle the increased luminosity and pile-up expected from the LHC after the current shutdown, the algorithm uses predefined patterns to identify tracks left by muons in the detector at a rate of 40 MHz. If multiple tracks are found they are sorted on the quality of the muon, defined by the number of hit detectors and straightness of the pattern. The track finding logic is pipelined such that the trigger will operate with no deadtime and has an available latency on the order of 1 μs to make a decision. The electronics board housing this logic makes use of state-of-the-art field-programmable gate arrays and large memory lookup tables to accomplish its track finding purpose. Preliminary studies on simulated data show roughly 99.5% efficiency for both single and multiple muon tracks.

  7. Process of end-capping a polyimide system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stclair, T. L.; Burks, H. D. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A process of endcapping a polyimide system with an endcapping agent in order to achieve a controlled decrease in molecular weight and melt viscosity along with predictable fracture resistance of the molded products is disclosed. The uncapped system is formed by combining an equimolar ratio of 4,4'-bis (3,4-dicarboxyphenoxy) diphenylsulfide dianhydride (BDSDA) and 1,-bis (aminophenoxy) benzene (APB) dissolved in bis (2-methoxyethyl)ether. The endcapped system is formed by dissolving APB in bis-(2-methoxyethyl)ether, adding the BDSDA. By varying the amount of endcapping from 0 to 4%, molecular weight is decreased from 13,900 to 8660. At a processing temperature of 250 C, there is a linear relationship between molecular weight and viscosity, with the viscosity decreasing by two orders of magnitude as the molecular weight decreased from 13,900 to 8660.

  8. The CMS muon detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giacomelli, P.

    2002-02-01

    The muon detection system of the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment is described. It consists of three different detector technologies: drift tubes in the barrel region, cathode strip chambers in the endcap region and resistive plate chambers in both barrel and endcap regions. The CMS muon detection system ensures excellent muon detection and efficient triggering in the pseudorapidity range 0< η<2.4. The most recent developments and some results from the R&D program will also be discussed.

  9. Commissioning of the upgraded CSC Endcap Muon Port Cards at CMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ecklund, K.; Liu, J.; Madorsky, A.; Matveev, M.; Michlin, B.; Padley, P.; Rorie, J.

    2016-01-01

    There are 180 1.6 Gbps optical links from 60 Muon Port Cards (MPC) to the Cathode Strip Chamber Track Finder (CSCTF) in the original system. Before the upgrade each MPC was able to provide up to three trigger primitives from a cluster of nine CSC chambers to the Level 1 CSCTF. With an LHC luminosity increase to 1035 cm-2s-1 at full energy of 7 TeV/beam, the simulation studies suggest that we can expect two or three times more trigger primitives per bunch crossing from the front-end electronics. To comply with this requirement, the MPC, CSCTF, and optical cables need to be upgraded. The upgraded MPC allows transmission of up to 18 trigger primitives from the peripheral crate. This feature would allow searches for physics signatures of muon jets that require more trigger primitives per trigger sector. At the same time, it is very desirable to preserve all the old optical links for compatibility with the older Track Finder during transition period at the beginning of Run 2. Installation of the upgraded MPC boards and the new optical cables has been completed at the CMS detector in the summer of 2014. We describe the final design of the new MPC mezzanine FPGA, its firmware, and results of tests in laboratory and in situ with the old and new CSCTF boards.

  10. Performance of the Prototype Readout System for the CMS Endcap Hadron Calorimeter Upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaverin, Nate; Dittmann, Jay; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Pastika, Nathaniel; CMS Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will upgrade the photodetectors and readout systems of the endcap hadron calorimeter during the technical stop scheduled for late 2016 and early 2017. A major milestone for this project was a highly successful testbeam run at CERN in August 2015. The testbeam run served as a full integration test of the electronics, allowing a study of the response of the preproduction electronics to the true detector light profile, as well as a test of the light yield of various new plastic scintillator materials. We present implications for the performance of the hadron calorimeter front-end electronics based on testbeam data, and we report on the production status of various components of the system in preparation for the upgrade.

  11. The LHCb Muon System

    SciTech Connect

    Baldini, W.

    2005-10-12

    In this paper is described the design, the construction and the performances of several Multi Wire Proportional Chamber prototypes built for the LHCb Muon system. In particular we report results for detection efficiency, time resolution, high rate performances and ageing effect measured at the CERN T11 test beam area and at the high irradiation ENEA Casaccia Calliope Facility.

  12. Performance of the prototype readout system for the CMS endcap hadron calorimeter upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastika, N. J.

    2016-03-01

    The CMS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will upgrade the photon detection and readout systems of its barrel and endcap hadron calorimeters (HCAL) through the second long shutdown of the LHC in 2018. The upgrade includes new silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs), SiPM control electronics, signal digitization via the Fermilab QIE11 ASIC, data formatting and serialization via a Microsemi FPGA, and data transmission via CERN Versatile Link technology. The first prototype system for the endcap HCAL has been assembled and characterized on the bench and in a test beam. The design of this new system and prototype performance are described.

  13. Superconducting magnet system for muon beam cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Andreev, N.; Johnson, R.P.; Kashikhin, V.S.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Novitski, I.; Yonehara, K.; Zlobin, A.; /Fermilab

    2006-08-01

    A helical cooling channel has been proposed to quickly reduce the six-dimensional phase space of muon beams for muon colliders, neutrino factories, and intense muon sources. A novel superconducting magnet system for a muon beam cooling experiment is being designed at Fermilab. The inner volume of the cooling channel is filled with liquid helium where passing muon beam can be decelerated and cooled in a process of ionization energy loss. The magnet parameters are optimized to match the momentum of the beam as it slows down. The results of 3D magnetic analysis for two designs of magnet system, mechanical and quench protection considerations are discussed.

  14. Cooled turbine vane with endcaps

    DOEpatents

    Cunha, Frank J.; Schiavo, Jr., Anthony L.; Nordlund, Raymond Scott; Malow, Thomas; McKinley, Barry L.

    2002-01-01

    A turbine vane assembly which includes an outer endcap having a plurality of generally straight passages and passage segments therethrough, an inner endcap having a plurality of passages and passage segments therethrough, and a vane assembly having an outer shroud, an airfoil body, and an inner shroud. The outer shroud, airfoil body and inner shroud each have a plurality of generally straight passages and passage segments therethrough as well. The outer endcap is coupled to the outer shroud so that outer endcap passages and said outer shroud passages form a fluid circuit. The inner endcap is coupled to the inner shroud so that the inner end cap passages and the inner shroud passages from a fluid circuit. Passages in the vane casting are in fluid communication with both the outer shroud passages and the inner shroud passages. Passages in the outer endcap may be coupled to a cooling system that supplies a coolant and takes away the heated exhaust.

  15. Design and Performance of the ATLAS Muon Detector Control System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polini, Alessandro; ATLAS Muon Collaboration

    2011-12-01

    Muon detection plays a key role at the Large Hadron Collider. The ATLAS Muon Spectrometer includes Monitored Drift Tubes (MDT) and Cathode Strip Chambers (CSC) for precision momentum measurement in the toroidal magnetic field. Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC) in the barrel region, and Thin Gap Chambers (TGC) in the end-caps, provide the level-1 trigger and a second coordinate used for tracking in conjunction with the MDT. The Detector Control System of each subdetector is required to monitor and safely operate tens of thousand of channels, which are distributed on several subsystems, including low and high voltage power supplies, trigger and front-end electronics, currents and thresholds monitoring, alignment and environmental sensors, gas and electronic infrastructure. The system is also required to provide a level of abstraction for ease of operation as well as expert level actions and detailed analysis of archived data. The hardware architecture and software solutions adopted are shown along with results from the commissioning phase and the routine operation with colliding beams at 3.5 + 3.5 TeV. Design peculiarities of each subsystem and their use to monitor the detector and the accelerator performance are discussed along with the effort for a simple and coherent operation in a running experiment. The material presented can be a base to future test facilities and projects.

  16. Development of a Portable Muon Witness System

    SciTech Connect

    Aguayo Navarrete, Estanislao; Kouzes, Richard T.; Orrell, John L.

    2011-01-01

    Since understanding and quantifying cosmic ray induced radioactive backgrounds in copper and germanium are important to the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, methods are needed for monitoring the levels of such backgrounds produced in materials being transported and processed for the experiment. This report focuses on work conducted at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to develop a muon witness system as a one way of monitoring induced activities. The operational goal of this apparatus is to characterize cosmic ray exposure of materials. The cosmic ray flux at the Earth’s surface is composed of several types of particles, including neutrons, muons, gamma rays and protons. These particles induce nuclear reactions, generating isotopes that contribute to the radiological background. Underground, the main mechanism of activation is by muon produced spallation neutrons since the hadron component of cosmic rays is removed at depths greater than a few tens of meters. This is a sub-dominant contributor above ground, but muons become predominant in underground experiments. For low-background experiments cosmogenic production of certain isotopes, such as 68Ge and 60Co, must be accounted for in the background budgets. Muons act as minimum ionizing particles, depositing a fixed amount of energy per unit length in a material, and have a very high penetrating power. Using muon flux measurements as a “witness” for the hadron flux, the cosmogenic induced activity can be quantified by correlating the measured muon flux and known hadronic production rates. A publicly available coincident muon cosmic ray detector design, the Berkeley Lab Cosmic Ray Detector (BLCRD), assembled by Juniata College, is evaluated in this work. The performance of the prototype is characterized by assessing its muon flux measurements. This evaluation is done by comparing data taken in identical scenarios with other cosmic ray telescopes. The prototype is made of two plastic scintillator paddles with

  17. A plastic scintillator-based muon tomography system with an integrated muon spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anghel, V.; Armitage, J.; Baig, F.; Boniface, K.; Boudjemline, K.; Bueno, J.; Charles, E.; Drouin, P.-L.; Erlandson, A.; Gallant, G.; Gazit, R.; Godin, D.; Golovko, V. V.; Howard, C.; Hydomako, R.; Jewett, C.; Jonkmans, G.; Liu, Z.; Robichaud, A.; Stocki, T. J.; Thompson, M.; Waller, D.

    2015-10-01

    A muon scattering tomography system which uses extruded plastic scintillator bars for muon tracking and a dedicated muon spectrometer that measures scattering through steel slabs has been constructed and successfully tested. The atmospheric muon detection efficiency is measured to be 97% per plane on average and the average intrinsic hit resolution is 2.5 mm. In addition to creating a variety of three-dimensional images of objects of interest, a quantitative study has been carried out to investigate the impact of including muon momentum measurements when attempting to detect high-density, high-Z material. As expected, the addition of momentum information improves the performance of the system. For a fixed data-taking time of 60 s and a fixed false positive fraction, the probability to detect a target increases when momentum information is used. This is the first demonstration of the use of muon momentum information from dedicated spectrometer measurements in muon scattering tomography.

  18. The endcap Cherenkov ring imaging detector at SLD

    SciTech Connect

    Abe, K.; Hasegawa, K.; Hawegawa, Y.; Iwasaki, Y.; Suekane, F.; Yuta, H.; Antilogus, P.; Aston, D.; Bienz, T.; Bird, F.; Dolinsky, S.

    1995-05-01

    The authors present the Cherenkov Ring Imaging Detector in the endcap regions of the SLD detector and report initial performance. The endcap CRID was completed and commissioned in 1993 and is fully operational for the 1994 run. First Cherenkov rings have been observed. The endcap CRID detectors and fluid systems are described and initial operational experience is discussed.

  19. The Muon system of the run II D0 detector

    SciTech Connect

    Abazov, V.M.; Acharya, B.S.; Alexeev, G.D.; Alkhazov, G.; Anosov, V.A.; Baldin, B.; Banerjee, S.; Bardon, O.; Bartlett, J.F.; Baturitsky, M.A.; Beutel, D.; Bezzubov, V.A.; Bodyagin, V.; Butler, J.M.; Cease, H.; Chi, E.; Denisov, D.; Denisov, S.P.; Diehl, H.T.; Doulas, S.; Dugad, S.R.; /Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys. /Charles U. /Prague, Tech. U. /Prague, Inst. Phys. /San Francisco de Quito U. /Tata Inst. /Dubna, JINR /Moscow, ITEP /Moscow State U. /Serpukhov, IHEP /St. Petersburg, INP /Arizona U. /Florida State U. /Fermilab /Northern Illinois U. /Indiana U. /Boston U. /Northeastern U. /Brookhaven /Washington U., Seattle /Minsk, Inst. Nucl. Problems

    2005-03-01

    The authors describe the design, construction and performance of the upgraded D0 muon system for Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron collider. Significant improvements have been made to the major subsystems of the D0 muon detector: trigger scintillation counters, tracking detectors, and electronics. The Run II central muon detector has a new scintillation counter system inside the iron toroid and an improved scintillation counter system outside the iron toroid. In the forward region, new scintillation counter and tracking systems have been installed. Extensive shielding has been added in the forward region. A large fraction of the muon system electronics is also new.

  20. The muon system of the Run II DØ detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abazov, V. M.; Acharya, B. S.; Alexeev, G. D.; Alkhazov, G.; Anosov, V. A.; Baldin, B.; Banerjee, S.; Bardon, O.; Bartlett, J. F.; Baturitsky, M. A.; Beutel, D.; Bezzubov, V. A.; Bodyagin, V.; Butler, J. M.; Cease, H.; Chi, E.; Denisov, D.; Denisov, S. P.; Diehl, H. T.; Doulas, S.; Dugad, S. R.; Dvornikov, O. V.; Dyshkant, A.; Eads, M.; Evdokimov, A.; Evdokimov, V. N.; Fitzpatrick, T.; Fortner, M.; Gavrilov, V.; Gershtein, Y.; Golovtsov, V.; Gómez, B.; Goodwin, R.; Gornushkin, Yu. A.; Green, D. R.; Gupta, A.; Gurzhiev, S. N.; Gutierrez, G.; Haggerty, H.; Hanlet, P.; Hansen, S.; Hazen, E.; Hedin, D.; Hoeneisen, B.; Ito, A. S.; Jayanti, R.; Johns, K.; Jouravlev, N.; Kalinin, A. M.; Kalmani, S. D.; Kharzheev, Y. N.; Kirsch, N.; Komissarov, E. V.; Korablev, V. M.; Kostritsky, A.; Kozelov, A. V.; Kozlovsky, M.; Kravchuk, N. P.; Krishnaswamy, M. R.; Kuchinsky, N. A.; Kuleshov, S.; Kupco, A.; Larwill, M.; Leitner, R.; Lipaev, V. V.; Lobodenko, A.; Lokajicek, M.; Lubatti, H. J.; Machado, E.; Maity, M.; Malyshev, V. L.; Mao, H. S.; Marcus, M.; Marshall, T.; Mayorov, A. A.; McCroskey, R.; Merekov, Y. P.; Mikhailov, V. A.; Mokhov, N.; Mondal, N. K.; Nagaraj, P.; Narasimham, V. S.; Narayanan, A.; Negret, J. P.; Neustroev, P.; Nozdrin, A. A.; Oshinowo, B.; Parashar, N.; Parua, N.; Podstavkov, V. M.; Polozov, P.; Porokhovoi, S. Y.; Prokhorov, I. K.; Rao, M. V. S.; Raskowski, J.; Reddy, L. V.; Regan, T.; Rotolo, C.; Russakovich, N. A.; Sabirov, B. M.; Satyanarayana, B.; Scheglov, Y.; Schukin, A. A.; Shankar, H. C.; Shishkin, A. A.; Shpakov, D.; Shupe, M.; Simak, V.; Sirotenko, V.; Smith, G.; Smolek, K.; Soustruznik, K.; Stefanik, A.; Steinberg, J.; Stolin, V.; Stoyanova, D. A.; Stutte, L.; Temple, J.; Terentyev, N.; Teterin, V. V.; Tokmenin, V. V.; Tompkins, D.; Uvarov, L.; Uvarov, S.; Vasilyev, I. A.; Vertogradov, L. S.; Vishwanath, P. R.; Vorobyov, A.; Vysotsky, V. B.; Willutzki, H.; Wobisch, M.; Wood, D. R.; Yamada, R.; Yatsunenko, Y. A.; Yoffe, F.; Zanabria, M.; Zhao, T.; Zieminska, D.; Zieminski, A.; Zvyagintsev, S. A.

    2005-11-01

    We describe the design, construction, and performance of the upgraded DØ muon system for Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron collider. Significant improvements have been made to the major subsystems of the DØ muon detector: trigger scintillation counters, tracking detectors, and electronics. The Run II central muon detector has a new scintillation counter system inside the iron toroid and an improved scintillation counter system outside the iron toroid. In the forward region, new scintillation counter and tracking systems have been installed. Extensive shielding has been added in the forward region. A large fraction of the muon system electronics is also new.

  1. The MANX Muon Cooling Experiment Detection System

    SciTech Connect

    Kahn, S. A.; Abrams, R. J.; Ankenbrandt, C.; Cummings, M. A. C.; Johnson, R. P.; Robertsa, T. J.; Yoneharab, K.

    2010-03-30

    The MANX experiment is being proposed to demonstrate the reduction of 6D muon phase space emittance, using a continuous liquid absorber to provide ionization cooling in a helical solenoid magnetic channel. The experiment involves the construction of a two-period-long helical cooling channel (HCC) to reduce the muon invariant emittance by a factor of two. The HCC would replace the current cooling section of the MICE experiment now being set up at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory. The MANX experiment would use the existing MICE spectrometers and muon beam line. We discuss the placement of detection planes to optimize the muon track resolution.

  2. MICE: The International Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment: Diagnostic Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bross, Alan D.; Hart, Terrence Lee; /IIT, Chicago

    2008-06-24

    The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment will make detailed measurements of muon ionization cooling using a new constructed low-energy muon beam at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL). The experiment is a single-particle experiment and utilizes many detector techniques from high energy physics experiments. To characterize and monitor the muon beamline, newly developed scintillating fiber profile monitors and scintillator paddle rate monitors are employed. In order to monitor the purity of the beam and tag the arrival time of individual muons, a dual aerogel Cherenkov system is used, and a plastic scintillator time-of-flight system will be used. The phase-space vectors of the muons will be measured by two identical spectrometer systems (one before and one after the cooling apparatus) which employ a fiber tracker system, and electron and muon calorimeters are used to tag outgoing muons. We will discuss the design of the MICE diagnostic systems, the operation, and give the first results from beam measurements in the MICE experimental hall.

  3. Muon tracking system with Silicon Photomultipliers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arneodo, F.; Benabderrahmane, M. L.; Dahal, S.; Di Giovanni, A.; Pazos Clemens, L.; Candela, A.; D`Incecco, M.; Sablone, D.; Franchi, G.

    2015-11-01

    We report the characterisation and performance of a low cost muon tracking system consisting of plastic scintillator bars and Silicon Photomultipliers equipped with a customised front-end electronics based on a fast preamplifier network. This system can be used as a detector test bench for astroparticle physics and for educational and outreach purposes. We investigated the device behaviour in self-trigger and coincidence mode, without using LED and pulse generators, showing that with a relatively simple set up a complete characterisation work can be carried out. A high definition oscilloscope, which can easily be found in many university physics or engineering departments, has been used for triggering and data acquisition. Its capabilities have been exploited to discriminate real particles from the background.

  4. Design and characterization of a small muon tomography system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Woo Jin; An, Su Jung; Kim, Hyun-Il; Lee, Chae Young; Chung, Heejun; Chung, Yong Hyun

    2015-02-01

    Muon tomography is a useful method for monitoring special nuclear materials (SNMs) because it can provide effective information on the presence of high-Z materials, has a high enough energy to deeply penetrate large amounts of shielding, and does not lead to any health risks and danger above background. We developed a 2-D muon detector and designed a muon tomography system employing four detector modules. Two top and two bottom detectors are, respectively, employed to record the incident and the scattered muon trajectories. The detector module for the muon tomography system consists of a plastic scintillator, wavelength-shifting (WLS) fiber arrays placed orthogonally on the top and the bottom of the scintillator, and a position-sensitive photomultiplier (PSPMT). The WLS fiber arrays absorb light photons emitted by the plastic scintillator and re-emit green lights guided to the PSPMT. The light distribution among the WLS fiber arrays determines the position of the muon interaction; consequently, 3-D tomographic images can be obtained by extracting the crossing points of the individual muon trajectories by using a point-of-closest-approach algorithm. The goal of this study is to optimize the design parameters of a muon tomography system by using the Geant4 code and to experimentally evaluate the performance of the prototype detector. Images obtained by the prototype detector with a 420-nm laser light source showed good agreement with the simulation results. This indicates that the proposed detector is feasible for use in a muon tomography system and can be used to verify the Z-discrimination capability of the muon tomography system.

  5. Readout system of the ALICE Muon tracking detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousseau, Sylvain

    2010-11-01

    A Large Ion Collider Experiment (ALICE) will be aimed at studying heavy ion collisions at the extreme energy densities accessible at the CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC), where the formation of the Quark Gluon Plasma is expected. The ALICE muon forward spectrometer will identify muons with momentum above 4 GeV/c, allowing the study of quarkonia and heavy flavors in the pseudorapidity range -4.0< η<-2.5 with 2 π azimuthal coverage. The muon tracking system consists of 10 Cathode Pad Chambers (CPC) with 1.1 million of pads that represent the total number of acquisition channels to manage. In this article, we will give an overview of the ALICE Muon Spectrometer. Afterward, we will focus on tracking system Front end Electronics (FEE) and readout system. We will show that the Digital Signal Processor (DSP) architecture fulfills all the requirements, including radiation hardness against neutrons. Finally, real-time performances are discussed.

  6. The Monitor online system of the OPERA muon magnetic spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ugolino, U.; Ambrosio, M.; Acquafredda, R.; Masone, V.

    2008-06-01

    The OPERA muon magnetic spectrometer has been designed for muon detection, tracking and timing. The 44 bakelite Resistive Chambers (RPC) planes, imbibed inside the magnet iron slabs, must provide the tracking of the muon curved in the magnetic field to ease the momentum and charge measurement provided by the HPT. Furthermore, it provides the momentum for muons stopping in the iron. RPC signals will be also used as start of drift tube acquisition thanks to the very good time resolution of RPC detectors. Due to the required performances the tracking detector must be fully efficient and stable. In this conditions an online monitor is mandatory to continuously control stability of run conditions. We report the main characteristics and performances of the monitor system for the OPERA spectrometer and capabilities of the software developed for settings and data acquisition.

  7. Performance of the Majorana Demonstrator Muon Veto System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiseman, Clinton; Majorana Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    The Majorana Demonstrator is a neutrinoless double beta decay experiment operating at the 4850-ft. level of the Sanford Underground Research Facility in Lead, SD. The low-background goals of this Ge-based experiment require a muon veto system. The operation of the partial veto panel array (2/3 coverage) provides the first opportunity to study muon events during the commissioning of the Ge detectors. The Prototype Ge detector module operated in the Demonstrator shield for a total exposure of over 600 kg*day with the partial veto system. The operation of Module 1, consisting of 22.5 kg of Ge mass, in the shield with full veto panel coverage will provide a complete array to study muon-induced events in the experiment. The veto panels are synchronized with Ge detectors using a common 100MHz clock, presenting a unique opportunity to 1) study the flux and angular distribution of muons incident on the Demonstrator using the experiment's modular veto panel design, and 2) examine the effect of muon-related events on the Ge detectors. In this talk the performance of the muon veto system, including an analysis of the coincidence patterns of the incident muons and the corresponding spectra produced in the Ge detectors, is presented. This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics, the Particle Astrophysics Program of the National Science Foundation, and the Sanford Underground Research Facility.

  8. First Images from the Cript Muon Tomography System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armitage, J.; Botte, J.; Boudjemline, K.; Erlandson, A.; Robichaud, A.; Bueno, J.; Bryman, D.; Gazit, R.; Hydomako, R.; Liu, Z.; Anghel, V.; Golovko, V. V.; Jewett, C.; Jonkmans, G.; Thompson, M.; Charles, E.; Gallant, G.; Drouin, P.-L.; Waller, D.; Stocki, T. J.; Cousins, T.; Noel, S.

    2014-02-01

    The CRIPT Cosmic Ray Imaging and Passive Tomography system began data taking in September 2012. CRIPT is a “proof of principle” muon tomography system originally proposed to inspect cargo in shipping containers and to determine the presence of special nuclear materials. CRIPT uses 4 layers of 2 m x 2 m scintillation counter trackers, each layer measuring two coordinates. Two layers are used to track the incoming muon and two for the outgoing muon allowing the trajectories of the muon to be determined. The target volume is divided into voxels, and a Point of Closest Approach algorithm is used to determine the number of scattering events in each voxel, producing a 3D image. The system has been tested with various targets of depleted uranium, lead bricks, and tungsten rods. Data on the positional resolution has been taken and the intrinsic resolution is unfolded with the help of a simulation using GEANT4. The next steps include incorporation of data from the spectrometer section, which will assist in determining the muon's momentum and improve the determination of the density of the target.

  9. A drift chamber tracking system for muon scattering tomography applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, J.; Quillin, S.; Stapleton, M.; Steer, C.; Snow, S.

    2015-10-01

    Muon scattering tomography (MST) allows the identification of shielded high atomic number (high-Z) materials by measuring the scattering angle of cosmic ray muons passing through an inspection region. Cosmic ray muons scatter to a greater degree due to multiple Coulomb scattering in high-Z materials than low-Z materials, which can be measured as the angular difference between the incoming and outgoing trajectories of each muon. Measurements of trajectory are achieved by placing position sensitive particle tracking detectors above and below the inspection volume. By localising scattering information, the point at which a series of muons scatter can be used to reconstruct an image, differentiating high, medium and low density objects. MST is particularly useful for differentiating between materials of varying density in volumes that are difficult to inspect visually or by other means. This paper will outline the experimental work undertaken to develop a prototype MST system based on drift chamber technology. The planar drift chambers used in this prototype measure the longitudinal interaction position of an ionising particle from the time taken for elections, liberated in the argon (92.5%), carbon dioxide (5%), methane (2.5%) gas mixture, to reach a central anode wire. Such a system could be used to enhance the detection of shielded radiological material hidden within regular shipping cargo.

  10. The solenoid muon capture system for the MELC experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djilkibaev, Rashid M.; Lobashev, Vladimir M.

    1996-05-01

    A solenoid capture system for the MELC experiment in which the efficiency of soft muon generation from the primary proton (600 MeV) is 10-4 in comparison with 10-8 for ordinary schemes has been proposed. Both signs of muons with an intensity 1011 μ-/sec for negative and 2×1011 μ+/sec for positive component can be generated by a pulse proton beam with an average current up to ≂200 μA. A detail 3-D calculation of the magnetic field for the MELC setup are presented. Production of muon from pion decay in solenoid capture system is studied. The target life time and radiation condition of the superconducting coil are considered.

  11. Contribution of Round vs. Rectangular Expandable Cage Endcaps to Spinal Stability in a Cadaveric Corpectomy Model

    PubMed Central

    Mundis, Gregory M.; Moazzaz, Payam; Turner, Alexander W. L.; Cornwall, G. Bryan

    2015-01-01

    Background Expandable cages are gaining popularity in anterior reconstruction of the thoracolumbar spine following corpectomy as they can provide adjustable distraction and deformity correction. Rectangular, rather than circular, endcaps provide increased resistance to subsidence by spanning the apophyseal ring; however their impact on construct stability is not known. The objective of this study was to investigate the contribution of expandable corpectomy cage endcap shape (round vs. rectangular) and fixation method (anterior plate vs. posterior pedicle screws) to the stability of an L1 sub-total corpectomy construct. Methods Eight fresh-frozen cadaveric specimens (T11-L3) were subjected to multi-directional flexibility testing to 6 N·m with a custom spine simulator. Test conditions were: intact, L1 sub-total corpectomy defect, expandable cage (round endcap) alone, expandable cage (round endcap) with anterior plate, expandable cage (round endcap) with bilateral pedicle screws, expandable cage (rectangular endcap) alone, expandable cage (rectangular endcap) with anterior plate, expandable cage (rectangular endcap) with bilateral pedicle screws. Range-of-motion across T12-L2 was measured with an optoelectronic system. Results The expandable cage alone with either endcap provided significant stability to the corpectomy defect, reducing motion to intact levels in flexion-extension with both endcap types, and in lateral bending with rectangular endcaps. Round endcaps allowed greater motion than intact in lateral bending, and axial rotation ROM was greater than intact for both endcaps. Supplemental fixation provided the most rigid constructs, although there were no significant differences between instrumentation or endcap types. Conclusions These results suggest anterior-only fixation may be adequate when using an expandable cage in a sub-total corpectomy application and choice of endcap type may be driven by other factors such as subsidence resistance. PMID:26609508

  12. Radiation tests of real-sized prototype RPCs for the Phase-2 Upgrade of the CMS Muon System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, K. S.; Cho, S. W.; Choi, S. Y.; Hong, B.; Go, Y.; Kang, M. H.; Lim, J. H.; Park, S. K.; Cimmino, A.; Crucy, S.; Fagot, A.; Gul, M.; Rios, A. A. O.; Tytgat, M.; Zaganidis, N.; Aly, S.; Assran, Y.; Radi, A.; Sayed, A.; Singh, G.; Abbrescia, M.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, M.; Pugliese, G.; Verwilligen, P.; van Doninck, W.; Colafranceschi, S.; Sharma, A.; Benussi, L.; Bianco, S.; Piccolo, D.; Primavera, F.; Bhatnagar, V.; Kumarl, R.; Metha, A.; Singh, J.; Ahmad, A.; Ahmad, M.; Ahmed, W.; Asghar, M. I.; Awan, I. M.; Hassan, Q.; Hoorani, H.; Khan, W. A.; Khurshid, T.; Muhammad, S.; Shah, M. A.; Shahzad, H.; Kim, M. S.; Goutzvitz, M.; Grenier, G.; Lagarde, F.; Laktineh, I. B.; Carpinteyro Bernardino, S.; Uribe Estrada, C.; Pedraza, I.; Severiano, C. B.; Carrillo Moreno, S.; Vazquez Valencia, F.; Pant, L. M.; Buontempo, S.; Cavallo, N.; Esposito, M.; Fabozzi, F.; Lanza, G.; Lista, L.; Meola, S.; Merola, M.; Orso, I.; Paolucci, P.; Thyssen, F.; Braghieri, A.; Magnani, A.; Montagna, P.; Riccardi, C.; Salvini, P.; Vai, I.; Vitulo, P.; Ban, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Choi, M.; Choi, Y.; Goh, J.; Kim, D.; Aleksandrov, A.; Hadjiiska, R.; Iaydjiev, P.; Rodozov, M.; Stoykova, S.; Sultanov, G.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Lomidze, D.; Avila, C.; Cabrera, A.; Sanabria, J. C.; Crotty, I.; Vaitkus, J.

    2016-08-01

    We report on a systematic study of double-gap and four-gap phenolic resistive plate chambers (RPCs) for the Phase-2 upgrade of the CMS muon system at high η. In the present study, we constructed real-sized double-gap and four-gap RPCs with gap thicknesses of 1.6 and 0.8 mm, respectively, with 2-mm-thick phenolic high-pressure-laminated (HPL) plates. We examined the prototype RPCs with cosmic rays and with 100-GeV muons provided by the SPS H4 beam line at CERN. To examine the rate capability of the prototype RPCs both at Korea University and at the CERN GIF++ facility, the chambers were irradiated with 137Cs sources providing maximum gamma rates of about 1.5 kHz cm‑2. For the 1.6-mm-thick double-gap RPCs, we found the relatively high threshold on the produced detector charge was conducive to effectively suppressing the rapid increase of strip cluster sizes of muon hits with high voltage, especially when measuring the narrow-pitch strips. The gamma-induced currents drawn in the four-gap RPC were about one-fourth of those drawn in the double-gap RPC. The rate capabilities of both RPC types, proven through the present testing using gamma-ray sources, far exceeded the maximum rate expected in the new high-η endcap RPCs planned for future phase-II runs of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC).

  13. Fermilab Muon Campus g-2 Cryogenic Distribution Remote Control System

    SciTech Connect

    Pei, L.; Theilacker, J.; Klebaner, A.; Soyars, W.; Bossert, R.

    2015-11-05

    The Muon Campus (MC) is able to measure Muon g-2 with high precision and comparing its value to the theoretical prediction. The MC has four 300 KW screw compressors and four liquid helium refrigerators. The centerpiece of the Muon g-2 experiment at Fermilab is a large, 50-foot-diameter superconducting muon storage ring. This one-of-a-kind ring, made of steel, aluminum and superconducting wire, was built for the previous g-2 experiment at Brookhaven. Due to each subsystem has to be far away from each other and be placed in the distant location, therefore, Siemens Process Control System PCS7-400, Automation Direct DL205 & DL05 PLC, Synoptic and Fermilab ACNET HMI are the ideal choices as the MC g-2 cryogenic distribution real-time and on-Line remote control system. This paper presents a method which has been successfully used by many Fermilab distribution cryogenic real-time and On-Line remote control systems.

  14. Fermilab Muon Campus g-2 Cryogenic Distribution Remote Control System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, L.; Theilacker, J.; Klebaner, A.; Soyars, W.; Bossert, R.

    2015-12-01

    The Muon Campus (MC) is able to measure Muon g-2 with high precision and comparing its value to the theoretical prediction. The MC has four 300 KW screw compressors and four liquid helium refrigerators. The centerpiece of the Muon g-2 experiment at Fermilab is a large, 50-foot-diameter superconducting muon storage ring. This one-of-a-kind ring, made of steel, aluminum and superconducting wire, was built for the previous g-2 experiment at Brookhaven. Because each subsystem has to be far away from each other and be placed in the distant location, Siemens Process Control System PCS7-400, Automation Direct DL205 & DL05 PLC, Synoptic and Fermilab ACNET HMI are the ideal choices as the MC g-2 cryogenic distribution real-time and on-Line remote control system. This paper presents a method which has been successfully used by many Fermilab distribution cryogenic real-time and On-Line remote control systems.

  15. Correcting Aberrations in Complex Magnet Systems for Muon Cooling Channels

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Maloney, B. Erdelyi, A. Afanaciev, R.P. Johnson, Y.S. Derbenev, V.S. Morozov

    2011-03-01

    Designing and simulating complex magnet systems needed for cooling channels in both neutrino factories and muon colliders requires innovative techniques to correct for both chromatic and spherical aberrations. Optimizing complex systems, such as helical magnets for example, is also difficult but essential. By using COSY INFINITY, a differential algebra based code, the transfer and aberration maps can be examined to discover what critical terms have the greatest influence on these aberrations.

  16. A new muon-pion collection and transport system design using superconducting solenoids based on CSNS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Ran; Liu, Yan-Fen; Xu, Wen-Zhen; Ni, Xiao-Jie; Pan, Zi-Wen; Ye, Bang-Jiao

    2016-05-01

    A new muon and pion capture system is proposed for the China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS), currently under construction. Using about 4% of the pulsed proton beam (1.6 GeV, 4 kW and 1 Hz) of CSNS to bombard a cylindrical graphite target inside a superconducting solenoid, both surface muons and pions can be acquired. The acceptance of this novel capture system - a graphite target wrapped up by a superconducting solenoid - is larger than the normal muon beam lines using quadrupoles at one side of the separated muon target. The muon and pion production at different capture magnetic fields was calculated using Geant4. The bending angle of the capture solenoid with respect to the proton beam was also optimized in simulation to achieve more muons and pions. Based on the layout of the muon experimental area reserved at the CSNS project, a preliminary muon beam line was designed with multi-purpose muon spin rotation areas (surface, decay and low-energy muons). Finally, high-flux surface muons (108/s) and decay muons (109/s) simulated by G4beamline will be available at the end of the decay solenoid based on the first phase of CSNS. This collection and transport system will be a very effective beam line at a proton current of 2.5 μA. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11527811)

  17. Design of a muon tomography system with a plastic scintillator and wavelength-shifting fiber arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Woo Jin; Kim, Hyun-Il; An, Su Jung; Lee, Chae Young; Baek, Cheol-Ha; Chung, Yong Hyun

    2013-12-01

    Recently, monitoring nuclear materials to avoid nuclear terrorism has become an important area of national security. It can be difficult to detect gamma rays from nuclear material because they are easily shielded by shielding material. Muon tomography using multiple -Coulomb scattering derived from muons can be utilized to detect special nuclear materials (SNMs) such as uranium-235 and plutonium-239. We designed a muon tomography system composed of four detector modules. The incident and scattered muon tracks can be calculated by two top and two bottom detectors, respectively. 3D tomographic images are obtained by extracting the crossing points of muon tracks with a point-of-closest-approach algorithm. The purpose of this study was to optimize the muon tomography system using Monte Carlo simulation code. The effects of the geometric parameters of the muon tomography system on material Z-discrimination capability were simulated and evaluated.

  18. A compact muon tracking system for didactic and outreach activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antolini, R.; Candela, A.; Conicella, V.; De Deo, M.; D` Incecco, M.; Sablone, D.; Arneodo, F.; Benabderrahmane, M. L.; Di Giovanni, A.; Pazos Clemens, L.; Franchi, G.; d`Inzeo, M.

    2016-07-01

    We present a cosmic ray telescope based on the use of plastic scintillator bars coupled to ASD-RGB1S-M Advansid Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPM) through wavelength shifter fibers. The system is comprised of 200 electronic channels organized into 10 couples of orthogonal planes allowing the 3D reconstruction of crossing muons. Two monolithic PCB boards have been designed to bias, readout all the SiPMs enclosed in the system, to monitor the working parameters and to remotely connect the detector. To make easier the display of muon tracks to non-expert users, two LED matrices, triggered by particle interactions, have been implemented. To improve the usability of the muon telescope, a controller board unit permits to select different levels of trigger and allows data acquisition for refined analyses for the more proficient user. A first prototype, funded by INFN and deployed in collaboration with NYUAD, is operating at the Toledo Metro station of Naples, while two further detectors will be developed and installed in Abu Dhabi in the next few months.

  19. X-ray Production By Cosmic Muons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mrdja, D.; Bikit, I.; Aničin, I.; Vesković, M.; Forkapić, S.

    2007-04-01

    Muons have a small cross section for interactions and high energy, so they are very penetrating and give the significant contribution to the gamma spectra of Ge detectors, even in deep underground laboratories. One of the muon interaction effects with material is X-rays production. Having in mind that gold is often used as a detectors component, in this paper the production of X-rays in gold sample is analyzed by using an coincidence system based on plastic scintillation detector and Ge detector. The Au disc-shaped sample with mass of 40.6 g, radius 3.34 cm and 0.06 cm thickness was inside 12 cm thick lead shield of extended range HPGe detector. The plastic detector of 0.5 × 0.5 × 0.05 m dimensions was placed above the lead shield at the distance of 32 cm from detector endcap. The producing rate of Kα rays per Au mass unit from coincidence gamma spectrum is determined as R ~7.1 × 10-4 g-1s-1. Taking in account the measured muon flux of Φ=54 s-1m-2, the muon cross section σKα~ 43 Barn, for Au Kα X-rays production is calculated. Also, the cross sections of X-ray production by cosmic muons in lead and tungsten are measured. Unexpectedly, the results obtained did not reveal Z dependence in the Z= 74-82 region.

  20. Muon colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, R.B. |; Sessler, A.; Skrinsky, A.

    1996-01-01

    Muon Colliders have unique technical and physics advantages and disadvantages when compared with both hadron and electron machines. They should thus be regarded as complementary. Parameters are given of 4 TeV and 0.5 TeV high luminosity {micro}{sup +}{micro}{sup {minus}}colliders, and of a 0.5 TeV lower luminosity demonstration machine. We discuss the various systems in such muon colliders, starting from the proton accelerator needed to generate the muons and proceeding through muon cooling, acceleration and storage in a collider ring. Problems of detector background are also discussed.

  1. Polarized muon beams for muon collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skrinsky, A. N.

    1996-11-01

    An option for the production of intense and highly polarized muon beams, suitable for a high-luminosity muon collider, is described briefly. It is based on a multi-channel pion-collection system, narrow-band pion-to-muon decay channels, proper muon spin gymnastics, and ionization cooling to combine all of the muon beams into a single bunch of ultimately low emittance.

  2. SSC detector muon sub-system beam tests

    SciTech Connect

    Downing, R.; Errede, S.; Gauthier, A.; Haney, M.; Karliner, I.; Liss, T.; O`Halloran, T.; Sheldon, P.; Simiatis, V.; Thaler, J.; Wiss, J.; Green, D.; Martin, P.; Morfin, J.; Kunori, S.; Skuja, A.; Okusawa, T.; Takahashi, T.; Teramoto, Y.; Yoshida, T.; Asano, Y.; Mann, T.; Davisson, R.; Liang, G.; Lubatti, H.; Wilkes, R.; Zhao, T.; Carlsmith, D.

    1993-08-01

    We propose to start a test-beam experiment at Fermilab studying the problems associated with tracking extremely high energy muons through absorbers. We anticipate that in this energy range the observation of the muons will be complicated by associated electromagnetic radiation Monte Carlo simulations of this background need to be tuned by direct observations. These beam tests are essential to determine important design parameters of a SSC muon detector, such as the choice of the tracking, geometry, hardware triggering schemes, the number of measuring stations, the amount of iron between measuring stations, etc. We intend to begin the first phase of this program in November of 1990 utilizing the Tevatron muon beam. We plan to measure the multiplicity, direction, and separation of secondary particles associated with the primary muon track as it emerges from an absorber. The second phase of beam test in 1992 or later will be a full scale test for the final design chosen in our muon subsystem proposal.

  3. RF system concepts for a muon cooling experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, W.C.; Corlett, J.N.; Li, D.; Moretti, A.; Kirk, H.G.; Palmer, R.B.; Zhao, Y.

    1998-06-01

    The feasibility of muon colliders for high energy physics experiments has been under intensive study for the past few years and recent activity has focused on defining an R and D program that would answer the critical issues. An especially critical issue is developing practical means of cooling the phase space of the muons once they have been produced and captured in a solenoidal magnetic transport channel. Concepts for the rf accelerating cavities of a muon cooling experiment are discussed.

  4. Tests of Scintillator+WLS Strips for Muon System at Future Colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Denisov, Dmitri; Evdokimov, Valery; Lukić, Strahinja

    2015-10-11

    Prototype scintilator+WLS strips with SiPM readout for muon system at future colliders were tested for light yield, time resolution and position resolution. Depending on the configuration, light yield of up to 36 photoelectrons per muon per SiPM has been achieved, as well as time resolution of 0.5 ns and position resolution of ~ 7 cm.

  5. Mercury Handling for the Target System for a Muon Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Graves, Van B; Mcdonald, K; Kirk, H.; Weggel, Robert; Souchlas, Nicholas; Sayed, H; Ding, X

    2012-01-01

    The baseline target concept for a Muon Collider or Neutrino Factory is a free-stream mercury jet being impacted by an 8-GeV proton beam. The target is located within a 20-T magnetic field, which captures the generated pions that are conducted to a downstream decay channel. Both the mercury and the proton beam are introduced at slight downward angles to the magnetic axis. A pool of mercury serves as a receiving reservoir for the mercury and a dump for the unexpended proton beam. The impact energy of the remaining beam and jet are substantial, and it is required that splashes and waves be controlled in order to minimize the potential for interference of pion production at the target. Design issues discussed in this paper include the nozzle, splash mitigation in the mercury pool, the mercury containment vessel, and the mercury recirculation system.

  6. The Muon System of the Daya Bay Reactor Antineutrino Experiment

    DOE PAGESBeta

    An, F. P.; Hackenburg, R. W.; Brown, R. E.; Chasman, C.; Dale, E.; Diwan, M. V.; Gill, R.; Hans, S.; Isvan, Z.; Jaffe, D. E.; et al

    2014-10-05

    The Daya Bay experiment consists of functionally identical antineutrino detectors immersed in pools of ultrapure water in three well-separated underground experimental halls near two nuclear reactor complexes. These pools serve both as shields against natural, low-energy radiation, and as water Cherenkov detectors that efficiently detect cosmic muons using arrays of photomultiplier tubes. Each pool is covered by a plane of resistive plate chambers as an additional means of detecting muons. Design, construction, operation, and performance of these muon detectors are described. (auth)

  7. The muon system of the Daya Bay Reactor antineutrino experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, F. P.; Balantekin, A. B.; Band, H. R.; Beriguete, W.; Bishai, M.; Blyth, S.; Brown, R. E.; Butorov, I.; Cao, G. F.; Cao, J.; Carr, R.; Chan, Y. L.; Chang, J. F.; Chang, L.; Chang, Y.; Chasman, C.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, Q. Y.; Chen, S. J.; Chen, S. M.; Chen, X. C.; Chen, X. H.; Chen, Y.; Chen, Y. X.; Cheng, Y. P.; Cherwinka, J. J.; Chu, M. C.; Cummings, J. P.; Dale, E.; de Arcos, J.; Deng, Z. Y.; Ding, Y. Y.; Diwan, M. V.; Draeger, E.; Du, X. F.; Dwyer, D. A.; Edwards, W. R.; Ely, S. R.; Fu, J. Y.; Ge, L. Q.; Gill, R.; Goett, J.; Gonchar, M.; Gong, G. H.; Gong, H.; Gu, W. Q.; Guan, M. Y.; Guo, X. H.; Hackenburg, R. W.; Han, G. H.; Hans, S.; He, M.; He, Q.; Heeger, K. M.; Heng, Y. K.; Hinrichs, P.; Hor, Y. K.; Hsiung, Y. B.; Hu, B. Z.; Hu, L. J.; Hu, L. M.; Hu, T.; Hu, W.; Huang, E. C.; Huang, H. X.; Huang, H. Z.; Huang, X. T.; Huber, P.; Hussain, G.; Isvan, Z.; Jaffe, D. E.; Jaffke, P.; Jetter, S.; Ji, X. L.; Ji, X. P.; Jiang, H. J.; Jiao, J. B.; Johnson, R. A.; Kang, L.; Kebwaro, J. M.; Kettell, S. H.; Kramer, M.; Kwan, K. K.; Kwok, M. W.; Kwok, T.; Lai, W. C.; Lai, W. H.; Lau, K.; Lebanowski, L.; Lee, J.; Lei, R. T.; Leitner, R.; Leung, A.; Leung, J. K. C.; Lewis, C. A.; Li, D. J.; Li, F.; Li, G. S.; Li, Q. J.; Li, W. D.; Li, X. N.; Li, X. Q.; Li, Y. Z. B.; Liang, H.; Lin, C. J.; Lin, G. L.; Lin, P. Y.; Lin, S. K.; Link, J. M.; Littenberg, L.; Littlejohn, B. R.; Liu, D. W.; Liu, H.; Liu, J. C.; Liu, J. L.; Liu, S. S.; Liu, Y. B.; Lu, C.; Lu, H. Q.; Luk, K. B.; Ma, Q. M.; Ma, X. B.; Ma, X. Y.; Ma, Y. Q.; McDonald, K. T.; McFarlane, M. C.; McKeown, R. D.; Meng, Y.; Mitchell, I.; Mohapatra, D.; Morgan, J. E.; Nakajima, Y.; Napolitano, J.; Naumov, D.; Naumova, E.; Nemchenok, I.; Newsom, C.; Ngai, H. Y.; Ngai, W. K.; Ning, Z.; Ochoa-Ricoux, J. P.; Olshevski, A.; Patton, S.; Pec, V.; Pearson, C. E.; Peng, J. C.; Piilonen, L. E.; Pinsky, L.; Pun, C. S. J.; Qi, F. Z.; Qi, M.; Qian, X.; Raper, N.; Ren, B.; Ren, J.; Rosero, R.; Roskovec, B.; Ruan, X. C.; Shao, B. B.; Steiner, H.; Sun, G. X.; Sun, J. L.; Tam, Y. H.; Tang, X.; Themann, H.; Tsang, K. V.; Tsang, R. H. M.; Tull, C. E.; Tung, Y. C.; Viren, B.; Virostek, S.; Vorobel, V.; Wang, C. H.; Wang, L. S.; Wang, L. Y.; Wang, L. Z.; Wang, M.; Wang, N. Y.; Wang, R. G.; Wang, W.; Wang, W. W.; Wang, X.; Wang, Y. F.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z. M.; Webber, D. M.; Wei, H. Y.; Wei, Y. D.; Wen, L. J.; Whisnant, K.; White, C. G.; Whitehead, L.; Wilhelmi, J.; Wise, T.; Wong, H. L. H.; Wong, S. C. F.; Worcester, E.; Wu, Q.; Xia, D. M.; Xia, J. K.; Xia, X.; Xing, Z. Z.; Xu, G. H.; Xu, J.; Xu, J. L.; Xu, J. Y.; Xu, Y.; Xue, T.; Yan, J.; Yang, C. G.; Yang, L.; Yang, M. S.; Yang, M. T.; Ye, M.; Yeh, M.; Yeh, Y. S.; Young, B. L.; Yu, G. Y.; Yu, J. Y.; Yu, Z. Y.; Zang, S. L.; Zhan, L.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, F. H.; Zhang, J. W.; Zhang, K.; Zhang, Q. M.; Zhang, S. H.; Zhang, Y. H.; Zhang, Y. M.; Zhang, Y. X.; Zhang, Z. J.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Zhao, J.; Zhao, Q. W.; Zhao, Y.; Zhao, Y. B.; Zheng, L.; Zhong, W. L.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, Z. Y.; Zhuang, H. L.; Zou, J. H.

    2015-02-01

    The Daya Bay experiment consists of functionally identical antineutrino detectors immersed in pools of ultrapure water in three well-separated underground experimental halls near two nuclear reactor complexes. These pools serve both as shields against natural, low-energy radiation, and as water Cherenkov detectors that efficiently detect cosmic muons using arrays of photomultiplier tubes. Each pool is covered by a plane of resistive plate chambers as an additional means of detecting muons. Design, construction, operation, and performance of these muon detectors are described.

  8. The LHC Compact Muon Solenoid experiment Detector Control System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, G.; Beccati, B.; Behrens, U.; Biery, K.; Bouffet, O.; Branson, J.; Bukowiec, S.; Cano, E.; Cheung, H.; Ciganek, M.; Cittolin, S.; Coarasa, J. A.; Deldicque, C.; Dupont, A.; Erhan, S.; Gigi, D.; Glege, F.; Gomez-Reino, R.; Hatton, D.; Holzner, A.; Hwong, Y. L.; Masetti, L.; Meijers, F.; Meschi, E.; Mommsen, R. K.; Moser, R.; O'Dell, V.; Orsini, L.; Paus, C.; Petrucci, A.; Pieri, M.; Racz, A.; Raginel, O.; Sakulin, H.; Sani, M.; Schieferdecker, P.; Schwick, C.; Shpakov, D.; Simon, M.; Sumorok, K.

    2011-12-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at CERN is a multi-purpose experiment designed to exploit the physics of proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider collision energy (14TeV at centre of mass) over the full range of expected luminosities (up to 1034cm-2s-1). The CMS detector control system (DCS) ensures a safe, correct and efficient operation of the detector so that high quality physics data can be recorded. The system is also required to operate the detector with a small crew of experts who can take care of the maintenance of its software and hardware infrastructure. The subsystems size sum up to more than a million parameters that need to be supervised by the DCS. A cluster of roughly 100 servers is used to provide the required processing resources. A scalable approach has been chosen factorizing the DCS system as much as possible. CMS DCS has made clear a division between its computing resources and functionality by creating a computing framework allowing plugging in of functional components. DCS components are developed by the subsystems expert groups while the computing infrastructure is developed centrally. To ensure the correct operation of the detector, DCS organizes the communication between the accelerator and the experiment systems making sure that the detector is in a safe state during hazardous situations and is fully operational when stable conditions are present. This paper describes the current status of the CMS DCS focusing on operational aspects and the role of DCS in this communication.

  9. A Novel Technique for the Production of Large Area Z-coordinate Readout Planes for the BaBar Muon System

    SciTech Connect

    Convery, M.R.; Kim, P.C.; Paar, H.P.; Rogers, C.H.; Schindler, R.H.; Swain, S.K.; Young, C.C.; /SLAC

    2005-09-30

    The BABAR detector, at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center is a general purpose detector for the study of e{sup +}e{sup -} interactions at the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance. BABAR's muon detection system consists of two parts: a hexagonal barrel region and two planar endcap regions each containing 18 layers of iron ({approx} 3.6{lambda}), with resistive plate chambers within the inter-iron gaps. These chambers have suffered deterioration in performance over the past few years and are being replaced by limited streamer tube chambers in the barrel. Each layer of the system consists of a set of up to 10 streamer tube modules oriented parallel to the beamline providing the azimuthal coordinate ({Phi}) and a single ''Z-plane'' with strips oriented perpendicular the streamer tubes providing the coordinate (Z) along the beamline. The large area Z-planes (up to 12 m{sup 2}) are 1 mm thick and contain 96 strips that detect the induced charge from avalanches on the streamer tube wires. This paper reports on the novel construction technique of the Z-planes.

  10. Time and position resolution of the scintillator strips for a muon system at future colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denisov, Dmitri; Evdokimov, Valery; Lukić, Strahinja

    2016-07-01

    Prototype scintilator+WLS strips with SiPM readout for a muon system at future colliders were tested for light yield, time resolution and position resolution. Depending on the configuration, light yield of up to 36 photoelectrons per muon per SiPM has been observed, as well as time resolution of 0.45 ns and position resolution along the strip of 7.7 cm.

  11. Time and position resolution of the scintillator strips for a muon system at future colliders

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Denisov, Dmitri; Evdokimov, Valery; Lukic, Strahinja

    2016-03-31

    In this study, prototype scintilator+WLS strips with SiPM readout for a muon system at future colliders were tested for light yield, time resolution and position resolution. Depending on the configuration, light yield of up to 36 photoelectrons per muon per SiPM has been observed, as well as time resolution of 0.45 ns and position resolution along the strip of 7.7 cm.

  12. The D0 muon system and early results on its performance

    SciTech Connect

    Hedin, D. . Dept. of Physics)

    1992-10-01

    The D0 detector is a large, general-purpose detector designed to take full advantage of the 2 TeV energy of the Fermilab collider. The design of the experiment emphasizes accurate identification, complete angular acceptance, and precise measurement of the decay products of W and Z bosons: charged leptons (both electrons and muons), quarks and gluons, which emerge as collimated jets of particles, and noninteracting particles, such as neutrinos. The primary physics goals of D0 include searching for new phenomena, such as the top quark or particles outside the standard model, and high-precision studies of the W and Z bosons. In addition, the excellent muon identification will allow the study of b-quark production and decay. This report will describe D0's muon system, give preliminary measurements of chamber and trigger rates, and discuss muon identification.

  13. The D0 muon system and early results on its performance

    SciTech Connect

    Hedin, D.; The D0 Collaboration

    1992-10-01

    The D0 detector is a large, general-purpose detector designed to take full advantage of the 2 TeV energy of the Fermilab collider. The design of the experiment emphasizes accurate identification, complete angular acceptance, and precise measurement of the decay products of W and Z bosons: charged leptons (both electrons and muons), quarks and gluons, which emerge as collimated jets of particles, and noninteracting particles, such as neutrinos. The primary physics goals of D0 include searching for new phenomena, such as the top quark or particles outside the standard model, and high-precision studies of the W and Z bosons. In addition, the excellent muon identification will allow the study of b-quark production and decay. This report will describe D0`s muon system, give preliminary measurements of chamber and trigger rates, and discuss muon identification.

  14. Development of a muon radiographic imaging electronic board system for a stable solar power operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchida, T.; Tanaka, H. K. M.; Tanaka, M.

    2010-02-01

    Cosmic-ray muon radiography is a method that is used to study the internal structure of volcanoes. We have developed a muon radiographic imaging board with a power consumption low enough to be powered by a small solar power system. The imaging board generates an angular distribution of the muons. Used for real-time reading, the method may facilitate the prediction of eruptions. For real-time observations, the Ethernet is employed, and the board works as a web server for a remote operation. The angular distribution can be obtained from a remote PC via a network using a standard web browser. We have collected and analyzed data obtained from a 3-day field study of cosmic-ray muons at a Satsuma-Iwojima volcano. The data provided a clear image of the mountain ridge as a cosmic-ray muon shadow. The measured performance of the system is sufficient for a stand-alone cosmic-ray muon radiography experiment.

  15. The Muon Detector of Cms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Chunhua

    2005-04-01

    Muons are an unmistakable signature of most of the LHC physics is designed to explore. The ability to trigger on and reconstruct muons at highest luminorsities is central to the concept of CMS. CMS is characterized by simplicity of design, with one magnet whose solenoideal field facilitates precision racking in the central barrel region and triggering on muons through their bending in the tharnverse and side views. The CMS muon system has three purpose: muon identification, muon trigger and nuon momentum measurement.

  16. Status report of the upgrade of the CMS muon system with Triple-GEM detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbaneo, D.; Abbas, M.; Abbrescia, M.; Abdelalim, A. A.; Abi Akl, M.; Aboamer, O.; Acosta, D.; Ahmad, A.; Ahmed, W.; Ahmed, W.; Aleksandrov, A.; Aly, R.; Altieri, P.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Aspell, P.; Assran, Y.; Awan, I.; Bally, S.; Ban, Y.; Banerjee, S.; Barashko, V.; Barria, P.; Bencze, G.; Beni, N.; Benussi, L.; Bhopatkar, V.; Bianco, S.; Bos, J.; Bouhali, O.; Braghieri, A.; Braibant, S.; Buontempo, S.; Calabria, C.; Caponero, M.; Caputo, C.; Cassese, F.; Castaneda, A.; Cauwenbergh, S.; Cavallo, F. R.; Celik, A.; Choi, M.; Choi, S.; Christiansen, J.; Cimmino, A.; Colafranceschi, S.; Colaleo, A.; Conde Garcia, A.; Czellar, S.; Dabrowski, M. M.; De Lentdecker, G.; De Oliveira, R.; de Robertis, G.; Dildick, S.; Dorney, B.; Elmetenawee, W.; Endroczi, G.; Errico, F.; Fenyvesi, A.; Ferry, S.; Furic, I.; Giacomelli, P.; Gilmore, J.; Golovtsov, V.; Guiducci, L.; Guilloux, F.; Gutierrez, A.; Hadjiiska, R. M.; Hassan, A.; Hauser, J.; Hoepfner, K.; Hohlmann, M.; Hoorani, H.; Iaydjiev, P.; Jeng, Y. G.; Kamon, T.; Karchin, P.; Korytov, A.; Krutelyov, S.; Kumar, A.; Kim, H.; Lee, J.; Lenzi, T.; Litov, L.; Loddo, F.; Madorsky, A.; Maerschalk, T.; Maggi, M.; Magnani, A.; Mal, P. K.; Mandal, K.; Marchioro, A.; Marinov, A.; Masod, R.; Majumdar, N.; Merlin, J. A.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mohanty, A. K.; Mohamed, S.; Mohapatra, A.; Molnar, J.; Muhammad, S.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Naimuddin, M.; Nuzzo, S.; Oliveri, E.; Pant, L. M.; Paolucci, P.; Park, I.; Passeggio, G.; Pavlov, B.; Philipps, B.; Piccolo, D.; Postema, H.; Puig Baranac, A.; Radi, A.; Radogna, R.; Raffone, G.; Ranieri, A.; Rashevski, G.; Riccardi, C.; Rodozov, M.; Rodrigues, A.; Ropelewski, L.; RoyChowdhury, S.; Ryu, G.; Ryu, M. S.; Safonov, A.; Salva, S.; Saviano, G.; Sharma, A.; Sharma, A.; Sharma, R.; Shah, A. H.; Shopova, M.; Sturdy, J.; Sultanov, G.; Swain, S. K.; Szillasi, Z.; Talvitie, J.; Tatarinov, A.; Tuuva, T.; Tytgat, M.; Vai, I.; Van Stenis, M.; Venditti, R.; Verhagen, E.; Verwilligen, P.; Vitulo, P.; Volkov, S.; Vorobyev, A.; Wang, D.; Wang, M.; Yang, U.; Yang, Y.; Yonamine, R.; Zaganidis, N.; Zenoni, F.; Zhang, A.

    2016-07-01

    For the High Luminosity LHC CMS is planning to install new large size Triple-GEM detectors, equipped with a new readout system in the forward region of its muon system (1.5 < | η | < 2.2). In this note we report on the status of the project, the main achievements regarding the detectors as well as the electronics and readout system.

  17. Muon Reconstruction and Identification in CMS

    SciTech Connect

    Everett, A.

    2010-02-10

    We present the design strategies and status of the CMS muon reconstruction and identification identification software. Muon reconstruction and identification is accomplished through a variety of complementary algorithms. The CMS muon reconstruction software is based on a Kalman filter technique and reconstructs muons in the standalone muon system, using information from all three types of muon detectors, and links the resulting muon tracks with tracks reconstructed in the silicon tracker. In addition, a muon identification algorithm has been developed which tries to identify muons with high efficiency while maintaining a low probability of misidentification. The muon identification algorithm is complementary by design to the muon reconstruction algorithm that starts track reconstruction in the muon detectors. The identification algorithm accepts reconstructed tracks from the inner tracker and attempts to quantify the muon compatibility for each track using associated calorimeter and muon detector hit information. The performance status is based on detailed detector simulations as well as initial studies using cosmic muon data.

  18. Tests and developments of the PANDA Endcap Disc DIRC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etzelmüller, E.; Belias, A.; Dzhygadlo, R.; Gerhardt, A.; Götzen, K.; Kalicy, G.; Krebs, M.; Lehmann, D.; Nerling, F.; Patsyuk, M.; Peters, K.; Schepers, G.; Schmitt, L.; Schwarz, C.; Schwiening, J.; Traxler, M.; Zühlsdorf, M.; Britting, A.; Eyrich, W.; Lehmann, A.; Pfaffinger, M.; Uhlig, F.; Düren, M.; Föhl, K.; Hayrapetyan, A.; Kröck, B.; Merle, O.; Rieke, J.; Schmidt, M.; Cowie, E.; Keri, T.; Achenbach, P.; Cardinali, M.; Hoek, M.; Lauth, W.; Schlimme, S.; Sfienti, C.; Thiel, M.

    2016-04-01

    The PANDA experiment at the future Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) requires excellent particle identification. Two different DIRC detectors will utilize internally reflected Cherenkov light of charged particles to enable the separation of pions and kaons up to momenta of 4 GeV/c. The Endcap Disc DIRC will be placed in the forward endcap of PANDA's central spectrometer covering polar angles between 5° and 22°. Its final design is based on MCP-PMTs for the photon detection and an optical system made of fused silica. A new prototype has been investigated during a test beam at CERN in May 2015 and first results will be presented. In addition a new synthetic fused silica material by Nikon has been tested and was found to be radiation hard.

  19. D0 Silicon Upgrade: Measurements for Space in the A-Stub Muon System

    SciTech Connect

    Cease, H.; /Fermilab

    1995-09-25

    Measurements are given for the A layer Stub counters of the D-Zero Muon system. The purpose of the measurements is to determine the amount of space available for the A-stub muon counters. The counters will be positioned in between the central A layer PDTs and the cryostats. The given measurements are taken from the A layer PDTs towards the cryostat around the central portion of the detector. Drawings of the position and depth of the obstructions in a 5 inch clear zone are given.

  20. Muon spin relaxation studies of the interplay between magnetism and superconductivity in heavy fermion systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heffner, R. H.

    The interplay between magnetism and superconductivity in heavy fermion systems is discussed and the role of muon spin relaxation in elucidating these properties is emphasized. Relevant properties of all six heavy fermion superconductors are briefly surveyed and instances where superconductivity and magnetism compete, coexist, and couple with one another are pointed out. Current theoretical concepts underlying these phenomena are highlighted.

  1. Muon spin relaxation studies of the interplay between magnetism and superconductivity in heavy fermion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Heffner, R.H.

    1993-10-01

    The interplay between magnetism and superconductivity in heavy fermion systems is discussed and the role of muon spin relaxation in elucidating these properties is emphasized. Relevant properties of all six heavy fermion superconductors are briefly surveyed and instances where superconductivity and magnetism compete, coexist and couple with one another are pointed out. Current theoretical concepts underlying these phenomena are highlighted.

  2. Ceramic pressure housing with metal endcaps

    DOEpatents

    Downing, Jr., John P.; DeRoos, Bradley G.; Hackman, Donald J.

    1995-01-01

    A housing for the containment of instrumentation in a high pressure fluid environment that consists of a metallic endcap and ceramic cylinder bonded together. The improvement comprises a structure which results in the improved sealing of said housing as the fluid pressure increases. The cylindrical ceramic tube and endcap are dimensioned such that mechanical failure does not occur when exposed to the desired external operating pressures which includes up to 36,000 feet of water. The housing is designed to withstand the external operating pressures without being subject to mechanical failure or excessive deformation which results in the loss of pressure housing integrity via cracking or deformation of the ceramic tube, deformation of the endcap, or from failure of the bonding agent.

  3. Ceramic pressure housing with metal endcaps

    DOEpatents

    Downing, J.P. Jr.; DeRoos, B.G.; Hackman, D.J.

    1995-06-27

    A housing is disclosed for the containment of instrumentation in a high pressure fluid environment that consists of a metallic endcap and ceramic cylinder bonded together. The improvement comprises a structure which results in the improved sealing of said housing as the fluid pressure increases. The cylindrical ceramic tube and endcap are dimensioned such that mechanical failure does not occur when exposed to the desired external operating pressures which includes up to 36,000 feet of water. The housing is designed to withstand the external operating pressures without being subject to mechanical failure or excessive deformation which results in the loss of pressure housing integrity via cracking or deformation of the ceramic tube, deformation of the endcap, or from failure of the bonding agent. 9 figs.

  4. Muon-catalyzed fusion experiment target and detector system. Preliminary design report

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, S.E.; Watts, K.D.; Caffrey, A.J.; Walter, J.B.

    1982-03-01

    We present detailed plans for the target and particle detector systems for the muon-catalyzed fusion experiment. Requirements imposed on the target vessel by experimental conditions and safety considerations are delineated. Preliminary designs for the target vessel capsule and secondary containment vessel have been developed which meet these requirements. In addition, the particle detection system is outlined, including associated fast electronics and on-line data acquisition. Computer programs developed to study the target and detector system designs are described.

  5. Efficient end-capping synthesis of neutral donor-acceptor [2]rotaxanes under additive-free and mild conditions.

    PubMed

    Domoto, Yuya; Sase, Shohei; Goto, Kei

    2014-11-24

    Efficient end-capping synthesis of neutral donor-acceptor (D-A) [2]rotaxanes without loading any catalysts or activating agents was achieved by utilizing high reactivity of a pentacoordinated hydrosilane toward salicylic acid derivatives. As components of [2]rotaxanes, an electron-deficient naphthalenediimide-containing axle with a salicylic acid terminus and several electron-rich bis(naphthocrown) ether macrocycles were employed. End-capping reactions with the pentacoordinated hydrosilane underwent smoothly even at low temperature to afford the corresponding [2]rotaxanes in good yields. A [2]rotaxane containing bis-1,5-(dinaphtho)-38-crown-10 ether as a wheel molecule was synthesized and isolated in 84% yield by the end-capping at -10 °C, presenting the highest yield ever reported for the end-capping synthesis of a neutral D-A [2]rotaxane. It was found that the yields of the [2]rotaxanes in the end-capping reactions were almost parallel to the formation ratios of the corresponding pseudo[2]rotaxanes estimated by utilizing model systems. These results indicate that the end-capping reaction using the pentacoordinated hydrosilane proceeded without perturbing the threading process, and most of the pseudo[2]rotaxanes underwent efficient end-capping reaction even at low temperature. PMID:25284148

  6. The Slow Controls System of the New Muon g-2 Experiment at Fermilab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eads, Michael; New Muon g-2 Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    The goal of the new muon g-2 experiment (E-989), currently under construction at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, is to measure the anomalous gyromagnetic ratio of the muon with unprecedented precision. The uncertainty goal of the experiment, 0.14ppm, represents a four-fold improvement over the current best measurement of this value and has the potential to increase the current three standard deviation disagreement with the predicted standard model value to five standard deviations. Measuring the operating conditions of the experiment will be essential to achieving these uncertainty goals. This talk will describe the design and the current status of E-989's slow controls system. This system, based on the MIDAS Slow Control Bus, will be used to measure and record currents, voltages, temperatures, humidities, pressures, flows, and other data which is collected asynchronously with the injection of the muon beam. The system consists of a variety of sensors and front-end electronics which interface to back-end data acquisition, data storage, and data monitoring systems. Parts of the system are all already operational and the full system will be completed before beam commissioning begins in 2017.

  7. A proposal of a counting and recording system for cosmic ray muon detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braga, C. R.; Campos, A.; Schuch, N. J.; Dal Lago, A.

    2013-02-01

    A multidirecional high energy cosmic ray (muon) telescope is operational at the Southern Space Observatory, in Sao Martinho da Serra, RS, Brazil. This telescope is part of the Global Muon Detector Network (GMDN) and aims to study and forecast Space Weather. This paper proposes a new counting, correlation and recording solution based on an embedded system able to interface observational data by internet for remote monitoring. It is built around a Rabbit 3000 microcontroller with TCP/IP Ethernet 10Base-T connectivity. It is able to detect and count 200 ns pulses generated by the sensor system (scintillator plastics coupled with photomultipliers) during a specified period of time (generally one second). A preliminary version of a monitoring web page was developed and it is able to show the cosmic ray (muon) data of one detector in real time. The current system is an attempt to improve the reliability of the telescope when comparing to the recording system based on a personal computer, currently under operation. One advantage is the easy maintenance, since all the counting and correlation boards currently under operation can be replaced by an embedded system. Besides, as the hardware is off-the-shelf, it is only necessary to develop software routines, which is based on royalty-free libraries.

  8. A propose for a counting and recording system for cosmic ray (muon) telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braga, Carlos Roberto; Schuch, Nelson Jorge; Dal Lago, Alisson; Campos, Alexandre

    2012-07-01

    A multidirecional high energy cosmic ray (muon) telescope is operational at the Southern Space Observatory, in Sao Martinho da Serra, RS, Brazil. This telescope is part of the Global Muon Detector Network (GMDN) and aims to study and forecast Space Weather. This paper proposes a new counting, correlation and recording solution based on an embedded system able to interface observational data by internet for remote monitoring. It is built around a Rabbit 3000 microcontroller with TCP/IP Ethernet 10Base-T connectivity. It is able to detect and count the 200ns pulses generated by the sensor system (scintillator plastics coupled with photomultipliers) during a specified period of time (generally one second). A preliminary version of a monitoring web page was developed and it is able to show the cosmic ray (muon) data of one detector in real time. The current system is an attempt to improve the reliability of the telescope when comparing to the recording system based on a personal computer, currently under operation. One advantage is the easy maintenance, since all the counting and correlation boards currently under operation can be replaced by an embedded system. Besides, as the hardware is of-the-shelf, it is only necessary to develop software routines, which is based on royalty-free libraries.

  9. The upgrade of the CMS RPC system during the first LHC long shutdown

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tytgat, M.; Marinov, A.; Verwilligen, P.; Zaganidis, N.; Aleksandrov, A.; Genchev, V.; Iaydjiev, P.; Rodozov, M.; Shopova, M.; Sultanov, G.; Assran, Y.; Abbrescia, M.; Calabria, C.; Colaleo, A.; Iaselli, G.; Loddo, F.; Maggi, M.; Pugliese, G.; Benussi, L.; Bianco, S.; Caponero, M.; Colafranceschi, S.; Felli, F.; Piccolo, D.; Saviano, G.; Carrillo, C.; Berzano, U.; Gabusi, M.; Vitulo, P.; Kang, M.; Lee, K. S.; Park, S. K.; Shin, S.; Sharma, A.

    2013-02-01

    The CMS muon system includes in both the barrel and endcap region Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC). They mainly serve as trigger detectors and also improve the reconstruction of muon parameters. Over the years, the instantaneous luminosity of the Large Hadron Collider gradually increases. During the LHC Phase 1 ( ~ first 10 years of operation) an ultimate luminosity is expected above its design value of 1034 cm-2s-1 at 14 TeV. To prepare the machine and also the experiments for this, two long shutdown periods are scheduled for 2013-2014 and 2018-2019. The CMS Collaboration is planning several detector upgrades during these long shutdowns. In particular, the muon detection system should be able to maintain a low-pT threshold for an efficient Level-1 Muon Trigger at high particle rates. One of the measures to ensure this, is to extend the present RPC system with the addition of a 4th layer in both endcap regions. During the first long shutdown, these two new stations will be equipped in the region |η| < 1.6 with 144 High Pressure Laminate (HPL) double-layer RPCs operating in avalanche mode, with a similar design as the existing CMS endcap chambers. Here, we present the upgrade plans for the CMS RPC system for the fist long shutdown, including trigger simulation studies for the extended system, and details on the new HPL production, the chamber assembly and the quality control procedures.

  10. Calibration Telescope System of CWD NEVOD as a Detector of Electron and Muon Components of EAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amelchakov, M. B.; Bogdanov, A. G.; Zadeba, E. A.; Khokhlov, S. S.; Kokoulin, R. P.; Kompaniets, K. G.; Shulzhenko, I. A.; Shutenko, V. V.; Yashin, I. I.

    The paper describes the system of calibration telescopes as a part of the experimental complex NEVOD. The setup operation parameters were analysed during experimental series from 01/06/2013 to 21/01/2015. The technique of the charged particle local density spectrum reconstruction is described. The results of the local density spectrum measurements are presented for the EAS electron and muon components in different energy ranges of primary cosmic rays.

  11. The calorimeter system of the new muon g-2 experiment at Fermilab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonzi, L. P.; Anastasi, A.; Bjorkquist, R.; Cauz, D.; Cantatore, G.; Dabagov, S.; Sciascio, G. Di; Di Stefano, R.; Fatemi, R.; Ferrari, C.; Fienberg, A. T.; Fioretti, A.; Frankenthal, A.; Gabbanini, C.; Gibbons, L. K.; Giovanetti, K.; Goadhouse, S. D.; Gohn, W. P.; Gorringe, T. P.; Hampai, D.; Hertzog, D. W.; Iacovacci, M.; Kammel, P.; Karuza, M.; Kaspar, J.; Kiburg, B.; Li, L.; Marignetti, F.; Mastroianni, S.; Moricciani, D.; Pauletta, G.; Peterson, D. A.; Počanić, D.; Santi, L.; Smith, M. W.; Sweigart, D. A.; Tishchenko, V.; Van Wechel, T. D.; Venanzoni, G.; Wall, K. B.; Winter, P.; Yai, K.

    2016-07-01

    The electromagnetic calorimeter for the new muon (g-2) experiment at Fermilab will consist of arrays of PbF2 Čerenkov crystals read out by large-area silicon photo-multiplier (SiPM) sensors. We report here the requirements for this system, the achieved solution and the results obtained from a test beam using 2.0-4.5 GeV electrons with a 28-element prototype array.

  12. Mixture of cholesterol end-capped polyethylene glycol with DSPC liposomal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharifi, Soheil

    2015-07-01

    The dynamic of network of self-assembled liposome by end-capped polymer was investigated using dynamic light scattering. The liposome network, physically cross-linked by mixed liposome solutions with three different length scale of cholesterol end-capped polyethylene glycol. The network of liposome is dependent on both the polymer concentration and length scale. In the pure liposome, one motion at low time scale is observed by DLS. In the higher concentration of polymer in liposome, several motion is observed that the fast motion is alpha relaxation and other two slow motion are beta and gamma relaxations. The distance between diffusion coefficient of fast and slow relaxation is increased with increase of length scale of endcapped polymers. The SAXS data is fitted with a Percus-Yevick hard sphere model and it shows that the size of liposome increasing with increase of polymer length scale in the mixture system.

  13. Feasibility of Injection/Extraction Systems for Muon FFAG Rings in the Neutrino Factory

    SciTech Connect

    Pasternak, J.; Berg, J.; Aslaninejad, M.; Kelliher, D.; Machida, S.

    2010-12-01

    Non-scaling FFAG rings have been proposed for muon acceleration in a neutrino factory. In order to achieve small orbit excursion and small time of flight variation, lattices with a very compact cell structure and short straight sections are required. The resulting geometry places very challenging constraints on the injection/extraction systems. The feasibility of injection/extraction is discussed and various implementations focusing on minimization of kicker/septum strength are presented. The injection and extraction systems in the nonscaling FFAG for muon acceleration in a neutrino factory were studied in the ring based on FODO lattice. The vertical direction was found to be preferential for both injection and extraction, which allows for lower kicker strengths and facilitates the distribution of kickers due to a lower phase advance per cell in comparison with the horizontal plane. It is possible to design mirror-symmetric schemes in which the kickers can be reused for both signs of muons. The disadvantage of these solutions is a need for special magnets with large aperture in the injection/extraction region due to the large kicked beam oscillations. The strengths of the required kickers are still very challenging and the fields in the septum magnets dictates the need for a superconducting design.

  14. CONCEPTUAL DESIGN OF A CAPTURE RF SYSTEM FOR MUON COLLIDERS.

    SciTech Connect

    ROSE,J.

    2001-06-18

    A conceptual RF System design provides a basis for a more detailed engineering study to explore the technical issues involved in fabricating and testing a capture RF system in a proton-driver target experiment. A large-bore 71 MHz cavity design is detailed which is self-consistent with a proton-driver target experiment at BNL. Analysis of cell to cell coupling in a linac composed of a string of such cavitites is presented.

  15. A New ATLAS Muon CSC Readout System with System on Chip Technology on ATCA Platform

    SciTech Connect

    Claus, R.; /SLAC

    2015-10-27

    The ATLAS muon Cathode Strip Chamber (CSC) back-end readout system has been upgraded during the LHC 2013-2015 shutdown to be able to handle the higher Level-1 trigger rate of 100 kHz and the higher occupancy at Run 2 luminosity. The readout design is based on the Reconfiguration Cluster Element (RCE) concept for high bandwidth generic DAQ implemented on the ATCA platform. The RCE design is based on the new System on Chip Xilinx Zynq series with a processor-centric architecture with ARM processor embedded in FPGA fabric and high speed I/O resources together with auxiliary memories to form a versatile DAQ building block that can host applications tapping into both software and firmware resources. The Cluster on Board (COB) ATCA carrier hosts RCE mezzanines and an embedded Fulcrum network switch to form an online DAQ processing cluster. More compact firmware solutions on the Zynq for G-link, S-link and TTC allowed the full system of 320 G-links from the 32 chambers to be processed by 6 COBs in one ATCA shelf through software waveform feature extraction to output 32 S-links. The full system was installed in Sept. 2014. We will present the RCE/COB design concept, the firmware and software processing architecture, and the experience from the intense commissioning towards LHC Run 2.

  16. A new ATLAS muon CSC readout system with system on chip technology on ATCA platform

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Claus, R.

    2015-10-23

    The ATLAS muon Cathode Strip Chamber (CSC) back-end readout system has been upgraded during the LHC 2013-2015 shutdown to be able to handle the higher Level-1 trigger rate of 100 kHz and the higher occupancy at Run 2 luminosity. The readout design is based on the Reconfiguration Cluster Element (RCE) concept for high bandwidth generic DAQ implemented on the ATCA platform. The RCE design is based on the new System on Chip Xilinx Zynq series with a processor-centric architecture with ARM processor embedded in FPGA fabric and high speed I/O resources together with auxiliary memories to form a versatile DAQmore » building block that can host applications tapping into both software and firmware resources. The Cluster on Board (COB) ATCA carrier hosts RCE mezzanines and an embedded Fulcrum network switch to form an online DAQ processing cluster. More compact firmware solutions on the Zynq for G-link, S-link and TTC allowed the full system of 320 G-links from the 32 chambers to be processed by 6 COBs in one ATCA shelf through software waveform feature extraction to output 32 S-links. Furthermore, the full system was installed in Sept. 2014. We will present the RCE/COB design concept, the firmware and software processing architecture, and the experience from the intense commissioning towards LHC Run 2.« less

  17. A new ATLAS muon CSC readout system with system on chip technology on ATCA platform

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bartoldus, R.; Claus, R.; Garelli, N.; Herbst, R. T.; Huffer, M.; Iakovidis, G.; Iordanidou, K.; Kwan, K.; Kocian, M.; Lankford, A. J.; et al

    2016-01-25

    The ATLAS muon Cathode Strip Chamber (CSC) backend readout system has been upgraded during the LHC 2013-2015 shutdown to be able to handle the higher Level-1 trigger rate of 100 kHz and the higher occupancy at Run-2 luminosity. The readout design is based on the Reconfigurable Cluster Element (RCE) concept for high bandwidth generic DAQ implemented on the Advanced Telecommunication Computing Architecture (ATCA) platform. The RCE design is based on the new System on Chip XILINX ZYNQ series with a processor-centric architecture with ARM processor embedded in FPGA fabric and high speed I/O resources. Together with auxiliary memories, all ofmore » these components form a versatile DAQ building block that can host applications tapping into both software and firmware resources. The Cluster on Board (COB) ATCA carrier hosts RCE mezzanines and an embedded Fulcrum network switch to form an online DAQ processing cluster. More compact firmware solutions on the ZYNQ for high speed input and output fiberoptic links and TTC allowed the full system of 320 input links from the 32 chambers to be processed by 6 COBs in one ATCA shelf. The full system was installed in September 2014. In conclusion, we will present the RCE/COB design concept, the firmware and software processing architecture, and the experience from the intense commissioning for LHC Run 2.« less

  18. A new ATLAS muon CSC readout system with system on chip technology on ATCA platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claus, R.

    2016-07-01

    The ATLAS muon Cathode Strip Chamber (CSC) back-end readout system has been upgraded during the LHC 2013-2015 shutdown to be able to handle the higher Level-1 trigger rate of 100 kHz and the higher occupancy at Run 2 luminosity. The readout design is based on the Reconfiguration Cluster Element (RCE) concept for high bandwidth generic DAQ implemented on the ATCA platform. The RCE design is based on the new System on Chip Xilinx Zynq series with a processor-centric architecture with ARM processor embedded in FPGA fabric and high speed I/O resources together with auxiliary memories to form a versatile DAQ building block that can host applications tapping into both software and firmware resources. The Cluster on Board (COB) ATCA carrier hosts RCE mezzanines and an embedded Fulcrum network switch to form an online DAQ processing cluster. More compact firmware solutions on the Zynq for G-link, S-link and TTC allowed the full system of 320 G-links from the 32 chambers to be processed by 6 COBs in one ATCA shelf through software waveform feature extraction to output 32 S-links. The full system was installed in Sept. 2014. We will present the RCE/COB design concept, the firmware and software processing architecture, and the experience from the intense commissioning towards LHC Run 2.

  19. A new ATLAS muon CSC readout system with system on chip technology on ATCA platform

    SciTech Connect

    Claus, R.

    2015-10-23

    The ATLAS muon Cathode Strip Chamber (CSC) back-end readout system has been upgraded during the LHC 2013-2015 shutdown to be able to handle the higher Level-1 trigger rate of 100 kHz and the higher occupancy at Run 2 luminosity. The readout design is based on the Reconfiguration Cluster Element (RCE) concept for high bandwidth generic DAQ implemented on the ATCA platform. The RCE design is based on the new System on Chip Xilinx Zynq series with a processor-centric architecture with ARM processor embedded in FPGA fabric and high speed I/O resources together with auxiliary memories to form a versatile DAQ building block that can host applications tapping into both software and firmware resources. The Cluster on Board (COB) ATCA carrier hosts RCE mezzanines and an embedded Fulcrum network switch to form an online DAQ processing cluster. More compact firmware solutions on the Zynq for G-link, S-link and TTC allowed the full system of 320 G-links from the 32 chambers to be processed by 6 COBs in one ATCA shelf through software waveform feature extraction to output 32 S-links. Furthermore, the full system was installed in Sept. 2014. We will present the RCE/COB design concept, the firmware and software processing architecture, and the experience from the intense commissioning towards LHC Run 2.

  20. A new ATLAS muon CSC readout system with system on chip technology on ATCA platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartoldus, R.; Claus, R.; Garelli, N.; Herbst, R. T.; Huffer, M.; Iakovidis, G.; Iordanidou, K.; Kwan, K.; Kocian, M.; Lankford, A. J.; Moschovakos, P.; Nelson, A.; Ntekas, K.; Ruckman, L.; Russell, J.; Schernau, M.; Schlenker, S.; Su, D.; Valderanis, C.; Wittgen, M.; Yildiz, S. C.

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS muon Cathode Strip Chamber (CSC) backend readout system has been upgraded during the LHC 2013-2015 shutdown to be able to handle the higher Level-1 trigger rate of 100 kHz and the higher occupancy at Run-2 luminosity. The readout design is based on the Reconfigurable Cluster Element (RCE) concept for high bandwidth generic DAQ implemented on the Advanced Telecommunication Computing Architecture (ATCA) platform. The RCE design is based on the new System on Chip XILINX ZYNQ series with a processor-centric architecture with ARM processor embedded in FPGA fabric and high speed I/O resources. Together with auxiliary memories, all these components form a versatile DAQ building block that can host applications tapping into both software and firmware resources. The Cluster on Board (COB) ATCA carrier hosts RCE mezzanines and an embedded Fulcrum network switch to form an online DAQ processing cluster. More compact firmware solutions on the ZYNQ for high speed input and output fiberoptic links and TTC allowed the full system of 320 input links from the 32 chambers to be processed by 6 COBs in one ATCA shelf. The full system was installed in September 2014. We will present the RCE/COB design concept, the firmware and software processing architecture, and the experience from the intense commissioning for LHC Run 2.

  1. Database and interactive monitoring system for the photonics and electronics of RPC Muon Trigger in CMS experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiacek, Daniel; Kudla, Ignacy M.; Pozniak, Krzysztof T.; Bunkowski, Karol

    2005-02-01

    The main task of the RPC (Resistive Plate Chamber) Muon Trigger monitoring system design for the CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid) experiment (at LHC in CERN Geneva) is the visualization of data that includes the structure of electronic trigger system (e.g. geometry and imagery), the way of its processes and to generate automatically files with VHDL source code used for programming of the FPGA matrix. In the near future, the system will enable the analysis of condition, operation and efficiency of individual Muon Trigger elements, registration of information about some Muon Trigger devices and present previously obtained results in interactive presentation layer. A broad variety of different database and programming concepts for design of Muon Trigger monitoring system was presented in this article. The structure and architecture of the system and its principle of operation were described. One of ideas for building this system is use object-oriented programming and design techniques to describe real electronics systems through abstract object models stored in database and implement these models in Java language.

  2. Design and testing of the New Muon Lab cryogenic system at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, A.; Klebaner, A.L.; Theilacker, J.C.; DeGraff, B.D.; Leibfritz, J.; /Fermilab

    2009-11-01

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory is constructing a superconducting 1.3 GHz cryomodule test facility located at the New Muon Lab building. The facility will be used for testing and validating cryomodule designs as well as support systems. For the initial phase of the project, a single Type III plus 1.3 GHz cryomodule will be cooled and tested using a single Tevatron style standalone refrigerator. Subsequent phases involve testing as many as two full RF units consisting of up to six 1.3 GHz cryomodules with the addition of a new cryogenic plant. The cryogenic infrastructure consists of the refrigerator system, cryogenic distribution system as well as an ambient temperature pumping system to achieve 2 K operations with supporting purification systems. A discussion of the available capacity for the various phases versus the proposed heat loads is included as well as commissioning results and testing schedule. This paper describes the plans, status and challenges of this initial phase of the New Muon Lab cryogenic system.

  3. Real-Time Data Processing in the muon system of the D0 detector.

    SciTech Connect

    Neeti Parashar et al.

    2001-07-03

    This paper presents a real-time application of the 16-bit fixed point Digital Signal Processors (DSPs), in the Muon System of the D0 detector located at the Fermilab Tevatron, presently the world's highest-energy hadron collider. As part of the Upgrade for a run beginning in the year 2000, the system is required to process data at an input event rate of 10 KHz without incurring significant deadtime in readout. The ADSP21csp01 processor has high I/O bandwidth, single cycle instruction execution and fast task switching support to provide efficient multisignal processing. The processor's internal memory consists of 4K words of Program Memory and 4K words of Data Memory. In addition there is an external memory of 32K words for general event buffering and 16K words of Dual port Memory for input data queuing. This DSP fulfills the requirement of the Muon subdetector systems for data readout. All error handling, buffering, formatting and transferring of the data to the various trigger levels of the data acquisition system is done in software. The algorithms developed for the system complete these tasks in about 20 {micro}s per event.

  4. Performance of the ALICE muon trigger system in pp and Pb-Pb collisions at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fronzé, G. G.

    2016-06-01

    The ALICE muon spectrometer studies the production of quarkonia and open heavy-flavour particles. It is equipped with a trigger system composed of Resistive Plate Chambers which, by applying a transverse-momentum-based muon selection, minimises the background from light-hadron decays. The system has been continuously taking data throughout the LHC Run I; it has undergone maintenance and consolidation operations during the LHC shutdown period 1. In the first year of the LHC Run II, the system, fully recommissioned, has participated in data taking in pp and Pb-Pb collisions. The performance of the system throughout the last data-taking period is presented.

  5. Photomultiplier characteristics considerations for the deep underwater muon and neutrino detection system

    SciTech Connect

    Leskovar, B.

    1980-02-23

    The results of an investigation of the characteristics of photomultipliers for the Deep Underwater Muon and Neutrino Detection (DUMAND) System are discussed. The pulse-height resolution, the afterpulsing phenomena and the gain sensitivity to the ambient magnetic field have been determined for large photocathode area photomultipliers. Furthermore, the transient time difference, the single photoelectron time spread, and the collection and photocathode quantum efficiency uniformity as a function of the position of the photocathode sensing area have been reviewed. Finally, an attempt has been made to estimate the photomultiplier reliability and its lifetime.

  6. Reliability considerations of electronics components for the deep underwater muon and neutrino detection system

    SciTech Connect

    Leskovar, B.

    1980-02-01

    The reliability of some electronics components for the Deep Underwater Muon and Neutrino Detection (DUMAND) System is discussed. An introductory overview of engineering concepts and technique for reliability assessment is given. Component reliability is discussed in the contest of major factors causing failures, particularly with respect to physical and chemical causes, process technology and testing, and screening procedures. Failure rates are presented for discrete devices and for integrated circuits as well as for basic electronics components. Furthermore, the military reliability specifications and standards for semiconductor devices are reviewed.

  7. Better End-Cap Processing for Oxidation-Resistant Polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meador, Mary Ann B.; Frimer, Aryeh A.

    2004-01-01

    A class of end-cap compounds that increase the thermo-oxidative stab ility of polyimides of the polymerization of monomeric reactants (PM R) type has been extended. In addition, an improved processing proto col for this class of end-cap compounds has been invented.

  8. MAPMT H7546B anode current response study for ILC SiD muon system prototype

    SciTech Connect

    Dyshkant, A.; Blazey, G.; Francis, K.; Hedin, D.; Zutshi, V.; Fisk, H.; Milstene, C.; Abrams, R.; /Indiana U.

    2007-10-01

    The proposed Silicon Detector (SiD) concept for the ILC has barrel and end cap muon systems. An SiD scintillator based muon system prototype has 256 strips and was constructed from extruded strips, WLS fibers, clear fibers, and multianode photo multiplier tubes (MAPMT) Hamamatsu H7546B. Six MAPMTs were used. As a first step to understand strip output, the response of every anode to a given brightness of light and applied voltage must be measured. For the test, a custom made light source was used. Each MAPMT output was measured independently. The anode currents were measured at constant (green) input light brightness and the same photocathode to anode voltage (800V). The anode currents have a wide spread; for all tubes the maximum value is 5.23 times larger than the minimum value. The MAPMT cross talk was measured for one of the central inputs. The maximum cross talk value is about 4.9%. The average cross talk for the nearest four neighboring channels is 3.9%, for the farthest four is 1%. To assure the reproducibility and repeatability of the measurements, the double reference method was used.

  9. Performance of a Drift Chamber Candidate for a Cosmic Muon Tomography System

    SciTech Connect

    Anghel, V.; Jewett, C.; Jonkmans, G.; Thompson, M.; Armitage, J.; Botte, J.; Boudjemline, K.; Erlandson, A.; Oakham, G.; Bueno, J.; Bryman, D.; Liu, Z.; Charles, E.; Gallant, G.; Cousins, T.; Noel, S.; Drouin, P.-L.; Waller, D.; Stocki, T. J.

    2011-12-13

    In the last decade, many groups around the world have been exploring different ways to probe transport containers which may contain illicit Special Nuclear Materials such as uranium. The muon tomography technique has been proposed as a cost effective system with an acceptable accuracy. A group of Canadian institutions (see above), funded by Defence Research and Development Canada, is testing different technologies to track the cosmic muons. One candidate is the single wire Drift Chamber. With the capability of a 2D impact position measurement, two detectors will be placed above and two below the object to be probed. In order to achieve a good 3D image quality of the cargo content, a good angular resolution is required. The simulation showed that 1mrad was required implying the spatial resolution of the trackers must be in the range of 1 to 2 mm for 1 m separation. A tracking system using three prototypes has been built and tested. The spatial resolution obtained is 1.7 mm perpendicular to the wire and 3 mm along the wire.

  10. Design and performance simulation of a segmented-absorber based muon detection system for high energy heavy ion collision experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, S.; Bhaduri, P. P.; Jahan, H.; Senger, A.; Adak, R.; Samanta, S.; Prakash, A.; Dey, K.; Lebedev, A.; Kryshen, E.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Senger, P.; Bhattacharjee, B.; Ghosh, S. K.; Raha, S.; Irfan, M.; Ahmad, N.; Farooq, M.; Singh, B.

    2015-03-01

    A muon detection system (MUCH) based on a novel concept using a segmented and instrumented absorber has been designed for high-energy heavy-ion collision experiments. The system consists of 6 hadron absorber blocks and 6 tracking detector triplets. Behind each absorber block a detector triplet is located which measures the tracks of charged particles traversing the absorber. The performance of such a system has been simulated for the CBM experiment at FAIR (Germany) that is scheduled to start taking data in heavy ion collisions in the beam energy range of 6-45 A GeV from 2019. The muon detection system is mounted downstream to a Silicon Tracking System (STS) that is located in a large aperture dipole magnet which provides momentum information of the charged particle tracks. The reconstructed tracks from the STS are to be matched to the hits measured by the muon detector triplets behind the absorber segments. This method allows the identification of muon tracks over a broad range of momenta including tracks of soft muons which do not pass through all the absorber layers. Pairs of oppositely charged muons identified by MUCH could therefore be combined to measure the invariant masses in a wide range starting from low mass vector mesons (LMVM) up to charmonia. The properties of the absorber (material, thickness, position) and of the tracking chambers (granularity, geometry) have been varied in simulations of heavy-ion collision events generated with the UrQMD generator and propagated through the setup using the GEANT3, the particle transport code. The tracks are reconstructed by a Cellular Automaton algorithm followed by a Kalman Filter. The simulations demonstrate that low mass vector mesons and charmonia can be clearly identified in central Au+Au collisions at beam energies provided by the international Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR).

  11. Muon front end for the neutrino factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, C. T.; Stratakis, D.; Prior, G.; Gilardoni, S.; Neuffer, D.; Snopok, P.; Alekou, A.; Pasternak, J.

    2013-04-01

    In the neutrino factory, muons are produced by firing high-energy protons onto a target to produce pions. The pions decay to muons and pass through a capture channel known as the muon front end, before acceleration to 12.6 GeV. The muon front end comprises a variable frequency rf system for longitudinal capture and an ionization cooling channel. In this paper we detail recent improvements in the design of the muon front end.

  12. Corpectomy cage subsidence with rectangular versus round endcaps.

    PubMed

    Deukmedjian, Armen R; Manwaring, Jotham; Le, Tien V; Turner, Alexander W L; Uribe, Juan S

    2014-09-01

    Corpectomy cages with rectangular endcaps utilize the stronger peripheral part of the endplate, potentially decreasing subsidence risk. The authors evaluated cage subsidence during cyclic biomechanical testing, comparing rectangular versus round endcaps. Fourteen cadaveric spinal segments (T12-L2) were dissected and potted at T12 and L2, then assigned to a rectangular (n=7) or round (n=7) endcap group. An L1 corpectomy was performed and under uniform conditions a cage/plate construct was cyclically tested in a servo-hydraulic frame with increasing load magnitude. Testing was terminated if the test machine actuator displacement exceeded 6mm, or the specimen completed cyclic loading at 2400 N. Number of cycles, compressive force and force-cycles product at test completion were all greater in the rectangular endcap group compared with the round endcap group (cycles: 3027 versus 2092 cycles; force: 1943 N versus 1533 N; force-cycles product: 6162kN·cycles versus 3973 kN·cycles), however these differences were not statistically significant (p ⩾ 0.076). After normalizing for individual specimen bone mineral density, the same measures increased to a greater extent with the rectangular endcaps (cycles: 3014 versus 1855 cycles; force: 1944 N versus 1444 N; force-cycles product: 6040 kN·cycles versus 2980 kN·cycles), and all differences were significant (p⩽0.030). The rectangular endcap expandable corpectomy cage displayed increased resistance to subsidence over the round endcap cage under cyclic loading as demonstrated by the larger number of cycles, maximum load and force-cycles product at test completion. This suggests rectangular endcaps will be less susceptible to subsidence than the round endcap design. PMID:24831343

  13. Triple GEM detector sensitivity simulations with Geant4 for the CMS Forward Muon Upgrade at CERN LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zenoni, Florian; CMS GEM Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    Triple Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detectors are being developed for the forward muon upgrade of the CMS experiment in Phase 2 of the CERN LHC. After the second long LHC shutdown, their implementation will take place for the GE1/1 system in the 1 . 5 < | η | < 2 . 2 region of the muon endcap. This upgrade aims at controlling muon level-1 trigger rates, thanks to their high performance in extreme particle rates (~ MHz/cm2). Moreover, the GEM technology can improve the muon track reconstruction and identification capabilities of the forward detector. The Triple GEMs will work in a hostile radiation background (several hundreds of Hz/cm2) mostly made of photons, neutrons, electrons and positrons. To understand how this background could affect the detectors' functionality it is important to know the sensitivity to these kinds of radiation. The goal of this work is to estimate the sensitivity of Triple GEMs to background particles in the CMS cavern environment, thanks to the latest updates of GEANT4, a toolkit for the simulation of the passage of particles through matter.

  14. Muons in chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clayden, N. J.

    2013-12-01

    Positive muons have long been used as extrinsic probes in chemistry, offering unique properties for the investigation of local magnetism, dynamics, transport and radical kinetics. Exciting new developments in muon beam lines offer the opportunity of extending these studies selectively to surfaces permitting, for example, the detection of increased mobility of polymer chains at the surface of a polymer film. So called pump and probe methods, involving external perturbations by laser irradiation to manipulate vibrational and electronic states, can be followed by muon pulses allowing the probing of the properties of these states. Muoniated radical probes are finding greater use in soft matter. Selectivity is achieved in these complex systems through an appropriate target molecule giving the chance to measure partitioning and interfacial transfer in surfactant systems. Improvements in sample environments allow the observation of muons in increasingly extreme combinations of temperature and pressure, such as supercritical water, allowing the characterization of the chemistry in these systems.

  15. First measurements of muon production rate using a novel pion capture system at MuSIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, S.; D'Arcy, R.; Fukuda, M.; Hatanaka, K.; Hino, Y.; Kuno, Y.; Lancaster, M.; Mori, Y.; Nam, T. H.; Ogitsu, T.; Sakamoto, H.; Sato, A.; Truong, N. M.; Yamamoto, A.; Yoshida, M.; Wing, M.

    2013-02-01

    The MuSIC (Muon Science Innovative Channel) beam line at RCNP (Research Centre for Nuclear Physics), Osaka will be the most intense source of muons in the world. A proton beam is incident on a target and, by using a novel capture solenoid, guides the produced pions into the beam line where they subsequently decay to muons. This increased muon flux will allow more precise measurements of cLFV (charged Lepton Flavour Violation) as well as making muon beams more economically feasible. Currently the first 36° of solenoid beam pipe have been completed and installed for testing with low proton current of 1 nA. Measurements of the total particle flux and the muon life time were made. The measurements were taken using thin plastic scintillators coupled to MPPCs (Multi-Pixel Photon Counter) that surrounded a magnesium or copper stopping target. The scintillators were used to record which particles stopped and their subsequent decay times giving a muon yield of 8.5 × 105 muons W-1proton beam or 3 × 108 muons s-1 when using the RCNP's full power (400 W).

  16. Muon Collider Progress: Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Zisman, Michael S.

    2011-09-10

    A muon collider would be a powerful tool for exploring the energy-frontier with leptons, and would complement the studies now under way at the LHC. Such a device would offer several important benefits. Muons, like electrons, are point particles so the full center-of-mass energy is available for particle production. Moreover, on account of their higher mass, muons give rise to very little synchrotron radiation and produce very little beamstrahlung. The first feature permits the use of a circular collider that can make efficient use of the expensive rf system and whose footprint is compatible with an existing laboratory site. The second feature leads to a relatively narrow energy spread at the collision point. Designing an accelerator complex for a muon collider is a challenging task. Firstly, the muons are produced as a tertiary beam, so a high-power proton beam and a target that can withstand it are needed to provide the required luminosity of ~1 × 10{sup 34} cm{sup –2}s{sup –1}. Secondly, the beam is initially produced with a large 6D phase space, which necessitates a scheme for reducing the muon beam emittance (“cooling”). Finally, the muon has a short lifetime so all beam manipulations must be done very rapidly. The Muon Accelerator Program, led by Fermilab and including a number of U.S. national laboratories and universities, has undertaken design and R&D activities aimed toward the eventual construction of a muon collider. Design features of such a facility and the supporting R&D program are described.

  17. Gas gain uniformity tests performed on multiwire proportional chambers for the LHCb muon system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, A.; de Andrade Filho, L. M.; Barbosa, A. F.; Graulich, J. S.; Guerrer, G.; Lima, H. P.; Mair, K.; Polycarpo, E.; Reis, A.; Rodrigues, F.; Schmidt, B.; Schneider, T.; Schoch Vianna, C.

    2008-06-01

    We present the experimental setup and the results of the gas gain uniformity tests performed as part of the quality control of the multiwire proportional chambers produced at CERN for the LHCb muon system. The test provides a relative gas gain measurement over the whole chamber sensitive area. It is based on the analysis of the pulse height spectrum obtained when the chamber is exposed to a 241Am radioactive source. Since the measurement is normalized to the peak of a precise pulse generator, the gain uniformity can also be evaluated among different gas gaps and different chambers. In order to cope with the specific requirements related to the relatively high number of chambers and to their varying geometry, a standalone and compact data acquisition system has been developed which is programmable at the hardware level and may be applied to many other applications requiring precise time-to-digital and analog-to-digital conversion, in correlated or non-correlated mode.

  18. Phenylethynyl endcapping reagents and reactive diluents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, Brian J. (Inventor); Bryant, Robert G. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A phenylethynyl composition which can be used to endcap nucleophilic species is employed in the production of phenylethynyl terminated reactive oligomers exclusively. These phenylethynyl terminated reactive oligomers display unique thermal characteristics, as exemplified by the model compound, 4-phenoxy 4'-phenylethynylbenzophenone, which is relatively stable at 200 C, but reacts at 350 C. In addition, a reactive diluent was prepared which decreases the melt viscosity of the phenylethynyl terminated oligomers and subsequently reacts therewith to increase density of the resulting thermoset. The novelty of this invention resides in the phenylethynyl composition used to terminate a nucleophilic reagent, resulting in the exclusive production of phenylethynyl terminated reactive oligomers which display unique thermal characteristics. A reactive diluent was also employed to decrease the melt viscosity of a phenylethynyl terminated reactive oligomer and to subsequently react therewith to increase the crosslink density of the resulting thermoset. These materials have features which make them attractive candidates for use as composite matrices and adhesives.

  19. Muon Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, R.

    2009-10-19

    Parameters are given of muon colliders with center of mass energies of 1.5 and 3 TeV. Pion production is from protons on a mercury target. Capture, decay, and phase rotation yields bunch trains of both muon signs. Six dimensional cooling reduces the emittances until the trains are merged into single bunches, one of each sign. Further cooling in 6 dimensions is then applied, followed by final transverse cooling in 50 T solenoids. After acceleration the muons enter the collider ring. Ongoing R&D is discussed.

  20. Finite element analysis of the SDC barrel and endcap calorimeters

    SciTech Connect

    Guarino, V.; Hill, N.; Nasiakta, J.

    1992-03-11

    In designing the SCD barrel and endcap calorimeters, the inter-module connecting forces must be known in order to determine the required size and number of connecting links between modules, and in order to understand how individual modules will be affected by these forces when assembled to form a full barrel and endcap. The connecting forces were found by analyzing three-dimensional Finite Element Models of both the barrel and endcap. This paper is divided into two parts, the first part will describe in detail the results of the barrel analysis and the second part will describe the results obtained from the endcap analysis. A similar approach was used in constructing the models for both analysis.

  1. Muon muon collider: Feasibility study

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-18

    A feasibility study is presented of a 2 + 2 TeV muon collider with a luminosity of L = 10{sup 35} cm{sup {minus}2} s{sup {minus}1}. The resulting design is not optimized for performance, and certainly not for cost; however, it does suffice--the authors believe--to allow them to make a credible case, that a muon collider is a serious possibility for particle physics and, therefore, worthy of R and D support so that the reality of, and interest in, a muon collider can be better assayed. The goal of this support would be to completely assess the physics potential and to evaluate the cost and development of the necessary technology. The muon collider complex consists of components which first produce copious pions, then capture the pions and the resulting muons from their decay; this is followed by an ionization cooling channel to reduce the longitudinal and transverse emittance of the muon beam. The next stage is to accelerate the muons and, finally, inject them into a collider ring which has a small beta function at the colliding point. This is the first attempt at a point design and it will require further study and optimization. Experimental work will be needed to verify the validity of diverse crucial elements in the design.

  2. Molecular-Weight-Controlled, End-Capped Polybenzimidazoles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W.; Hergenrother, Paul M.; Smith, Joseph G., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Novel molecular-weight-controlled end-capped poly(arylene ether benzimidazole)s (PAEBI's) prepared by nucleophilic displacement reaction of di(hydroxyl)benzimidazole monomers with activated aromatic dihalides. Polymers prepared at various molecular weights by upsetting stoichiometry of monomers and end-capped with monohydroxybenzimidazole. Exhibit favorable physical and mechanical properties, improved solubility in polar aprotic solvents and better compression moldability. Potential applications as adhesives, coatings, films, fibers, membranes, moldings, and composite matrix resins.

  3. The ATLAS SCT endcap: From module production to commissioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrère, D.

    2007-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN is aiming for new physics at TeV scale energy and will be operational in 2007. The Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) is a part of the ATLAS Inner Detector (ID) and consists of 4088 silicon detector modules displayed on four concentric barrels and two endcaps on each side. Almost 2400 endcap modules have been produced in seven assembly sites including a 20% contingency. All the qualified modules have been shipped to the two macro-assembly sites where the modules are now mounted to the discs. A major organizational effort around the components and the logistics has been made to ensure that the project is running with a high yield and within the schedule. Well defined and strict quality assurance rules allowed the endcap community to achieve an average production yield of 92.9%. In order to complete the two endcaps, a major effort is made for finalizing the assembly of modules and services onto the discs and carbon fiber cylinder, respectively. After describing the organization of the endcap module assembly and the production results, a description and status of the endcap macro-assembly and services will be reported.

  4. Quasi-isochronous muon collection channels

    SciTech Connect

    Ankenbrandt, Charles M.; Neuffer, David; Johnson, Rolland P.

    2015-04-26

    Intense muon beams have many potential commercial and scientific applications, ranging from low-energy investigations of the basic properties of matter using spin resonance to large energy-frontier muon colliders. However, muons originate from a tertiary process that produces a diffuse swarm. To make useful beams, the swarm must be rapidly captured and cooled before the muons decay. In this STTR project a promising new concept for the collection and cooling of muon beams to increase their intensity and reduce their emittances was investigated, namely, the use of a nearly isochronous helical cooling channel (HCC) to facilitate capture of the muons into RF bunches. The muon beam can then be cooled quickly and coalesced efficiently to optimize the luminosity of a muon collider, or could provide compressed muon beams for other applications. Optimal ways to integrate such a subsystem into the rest of a muon collection and cooling system, for collider and other applications, were developed by analysis and simulation. The application of quasi-isochronous helical cooling channels (QIHCC) for RF capture of muon beams was developed. Innovative design concepts for a channel incorporating straight solenoids, a matching section, and an HCC, including RF and absorber, were developed, and its subsystems were simulated. Additionally, a procedure that uses an HCC to combine bunches for a muon collider was invented and simulated. Difficult design aspects such as matching sections between subsystems and intensity-dependent effects were addressed. The bunch recombination procedure was developed into a complete design with 3-D simulations. Bright muon beams are needed for many commercial and scientific reasons. Potential commercial applications include low-dose radiography, muon catalyzed fusion, and the use of muon beams to screen cargo containers for homeland security. Scientific uses include low energy beams for rare process searches, muon spin resonance applications, muon beams for

  5. Implementation of on-line data reduction algorithms in the CMS Endcap Preshower Data Concentrator Cards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barney, D.; Bialas, W.; Kokkas, P.; Manthos, N.; Reynaud, S.; Sidiropoulos, G.; Vichoudis, P.

    2007-03-01

    The CMS Endcap Preshower (ES) sub-detector comprises 4288 silicon sensors, each containing 32 strips. The data are transferred from the detector to the counting room via 1208 optical fibres running at 800Mbps. Each fibre carries data from two, three or four sensors. For the readout of the Preshower, a VME-based system, the Endcap Preshower Data Concentrator Card (ES-DCC), is currently under development. The main objective of each readout board is to acquire on-detector data from up to 36 optical links, perform on-line data reduction via zero suppression and pass the concentrated data to the CMS event builder. This document presents the conceptual design of the Reduction Algorithms as well as their implementation in the ES-DCC FPGAs. These algorithms, as implemented in the ES-DCC, result in a data-reduction factor of 20.

  6. Front-end readout electronics considerations for Silicon Tracking System and Muon Chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasinski, K.; Kleczek, R.; Szczygiel, R.

    2016-02-01

    Silicon Tracking System (STS) and Muon Chamber (MUCH) are components of the Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at FAIR, Germany. STS will be built from 8 detector stations located in the aperture of the magnet. Each station will be built from double-sided silicon strip detectors and connected via kapton microcables to the readout electronics at the perimeter of each station. The challenging physics program of the CBM experiment requires from the detector systems very high performance. Design of the readout ASIC requires finding an optimal solution for interaction time and input charge measurements in the presence of: tight area (channel pitch: 58 μ m), noise (< 1000 e- rms), power (< 10 mW/channel), radiation hardness and speed requirements (average hit rate: 250 khit/s/channel). This paper presents the front-end electronics' analysis towards prototype STS and MUCH readout ASIC implementation in the UMC 180 nm CMOS process and in-system performance with the emphasis on preferable detector and kapton microcable parameters and input amplifiers' architecture and design.

  7. Test beam and irradiation test results of Triple-GEM detector prototypes for the upgrade of the muon system of the CMS experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vai, I.

    2016-07-01

    The CMS Collaboration is developing GEM detectors for the upgrade of the CMS muon system. Their performance will be presented, analyzing the results of several test beams and an irradiation test performed in the last years.

  8. High luminosity muon collider design

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, R.; Gallardo, J.

    1996-10-01

    Muon Colliders have unique technical and physics advantages and disadvantages when compared with both hadron and electron machines. They should be regarded as complementary. Parameters are given of 4 TeV high luminosity {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup {minus}} collider, and of a 0.5 TeV lower luminosity demonstration machine. We discuss the various systems in such muon colliders.

  9. Muon Muon Collider: Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Gallardo, J.C.; Palmer, R.B.; Tollestrup, A.V.; Sessler, A.M.; Skrinsky, A.N.; Ankenbrandt, C.; Geer, S.; Griffin, J.; Johnstone, C.; Lebrun, P.; McInturff, A.; Mills, Frederick E.; Mokhov, N.; Moretti, A.; Neuffer, D.; Ng, K.Y.; Noble, R.; Novitski, I.; Popovic, M.; Qian, C.; Van Ginneken, A. /Fermilab /Brookhaven /Wisconsin U., Madison /Tel Aviv U. /Indiana U. /UCLA /LBL, Berkeley /SLAC /Argonne /Sobolev IM, Novosibirsk /UC, Davis /Munich, Tech. U. /Virginia U. /KEK, Tsukuba /DESY /Novosibirsk, IYF /Jefferson Lab /Mississippi U. /SUNY, Stony Brook /MIT /Columbia U. /Fairfield U. /UC, Berkeley

    2012-04-05

    A feasibility study is presented of a 2 + 2 TeV muon collider with a luminosity of L = 10{sup 35} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}. The resulting design is not optimized for performance, and certainly not for cost; however, it does suffice - we believe - to allow us to make a credible case, that a muon collider is a serious possibility for particle physics and, therefore, worthy of R and D support so that the reality of, and interest in, a muon collider can be better assayed. The goal of this support would be to completely assess the physics potential and to evaluate the cost and development of the necessary technology. The muon collider complex consists of components which first produce copious pions, then capture the pions and the resulting muons from their decay; this is followed by an ionization cooling channel to reduce the longitudinal and transverse emittance of the muon beam. The next stage is to accelerate the muons and, finally, inject them into a collider ring wich has a small beta function at the colliding point. This is the first attempt at a point design and it will require further study and optimization. Experimental work will be needed to verify the validity of diverse crucial elements in the design. Muons because of their large mass compared to an electron, do not produce significant synchrotron radiation. As a result there is negligible beamstrahlung and high energy collisions are not limited by this phenomena. In addition, muons can be accelerated in circular devices which will be considerably smaller than two full-energy linacs as required in an e{sup +} - e{sup -} collider. A hadron collider would require a CM energy 5 to 10 times higher than 4 TeV to have an equivalent energy reach. Since the accelerator size is limited by the strength of bending magnets, the hadron collider for the same physics reach would have to be much larger than the muon collider. In addition, muon collisions should be cleaner than hadron collisions. There are many detailed particle

  10. Seeking the Limits of Low-Temperature Nuclear Fusion: Sticking in Muon-Catalyzed Fusion, and Piezonuclear Fusion in Deuterium/condensed Matter Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Stuart F.

    Studies seeking an upper limit of two types of low temperature nuclear fusion is presented. The upper limit for muon catalyzed fusion is generally considered to be the number of fusions per muon obtainable. The limiting factor has been found to be how often the muon remains bound to the alpha produced by the fusion, known as the "sticking fraction." Experiments directly measuring the sticking and determining the sticking using high tritium fractions are presented. In deuterium/condensed matter systems the question is nearly whether nuclear fusion proceeds at all. Experiments where neutrons around deuterided titanium and palladium are measured are presented.

  11. Electron-muon ranger: performance in the MICE muon beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, D.; Alekou, A.; Apollonio, M.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Barber, G.; Barclay, P.; de Bari, A.; Bayes, R.; Bayliss, V.; Bene, P.; Bertoni, R.; Blackmore, V. J.; Blondel, A.; Blot, S.; Bogomilov, M.; Bonesini, M.; Booth, C. N.; Bowring, D.; Boyd, S.; Bradshaw, T. W.; Bravar, U.; Bross, A. D.; Cadoux, F.; Capponi, M.; Carlisle, T.; Cecchet, G.; Charnley, C.; Chignoli, F.; Cline, D.; Cobb, J. H.; Colling, G.; Collomb, N.; Coney, L.; Cooke, P.; Courthold, M.; Cremaldi, L. M.; Debieux, S.; DeMello, A.; Dick, A.; Dobbs, A.; Dornan, P.; Drielsma, F.; Filthaut, F.; Fitzpatrick, T.; Franchini, P.; Francis, V.; Fry, L.; Gallagher, A.; Gamet, R.; Gardener, R.; Gourlay, S.; Grant, A.; Graulich, J. S.; Greis, J.; Griffiths, S.; Hanlet, P.; Hansen, O. M.; Hanson, G. G.; Hart, T. L.; Hartnett, T.; Hayler, T.; Heidt, C.; Hills, M.; Hodgson, P.; Hunt, C.; Husi, C.; Iaciofano, A.; Ishimoto, S.; Kafka, G.; Kaplan, D. M.; Karadzhov, Y.; Kim, Y. K.; Kuno, Y.; Kyberd, P.; Lagrange, J.-B.; Langlands, J.; Lau, W.; Leonova, M.; Li, D.; Lintern, A.; Littlefield, M.; Long, K.; Luo, T.; Macwaters, C.; Martlew, B.; Martyniak, J.; Masciocchi, F.; Mazza, R.; Middleton, S.; Moretti, A.; Moss, A.; Muir, A.; Mullacrane, I.; Nebrensky, J. J.; Neuffer, D.; Nichols, A.; Nicholson, R.; Nicola, L.; Noah Messomo, E.; Nugent, J. C.; Oates, A.; Onel, Y.; Orestano, D.; Overton, E.; Owens, P.; Palladino, V.; Pasternak, J.; Pastore, F.; Pidcott, C.; Popovic, M.; Preece, R.; Prestemon, S.; Rajaram, D.; Ramberger, S.; Rayner, M. A.; Ricciardi, S.; Roberts, T. J.; Robinson, M.; Rogers, C.; Ronald, K.; Rothenfusser, K.; Rubinov, P.; Rucinski, P.; Sakamato, H.; Sanders, D. A.; Sandström, R.; Santos, E.; Savidge, T.; Smith, P. J.; Snopok, P.; Soler, F. J. P.; Speirs, D.; Stanley, T.; Stokes, G.; Summers, D. J.; Tarrant, J.; Taylor, I.; Tortora, L.; Torun, Y.; Tsenov, R.; Tunnell, C. D.; Uchida, M. A.; Vankova-Kirilova, G.; Virostek, S.; Vretenar, M.; Warburton, P.; Watson, S.; White, C.; Whyte, C. G.; Wilson, A.; Wisting, H.; Yang, X.; Young, A.; Zisman, M.

    2015-12-01

    The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) will perform a detailed study of ionization cooling to evaluate the feasibility of the technique. To carry out this program, MICE requires an efficient particle-identification (PID) system to identify muons. The Electron-Muon Ranger (EMR) is a fully-active tracking-calorimeter that forms part of the PID system and tags muons that traverse the cooling channel without decaying. The detector is capable of identifying electrons with an efficiency of 98.6%, providing a purity for the MICE beam that exceeds 99.8%. The EMR also proved to be a powerful tool for the reconstruction of muon momenta in the range 100-280 MeV/c.

  12. Electron-Muon Ranger: Performance in the MICE muon beam

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Adams, D.

    2015-12-16

    The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) will perform a detailed study of ionization cooling to evaluate the feasibility of the technique. To carry out this program, MICE requires an efficient particle-identification (PID) system to identify muons. The Electron-Muon Ranger (EMR) is a fully-active tracking-calorimeter that forms part of the PID system and tags muons that traverse the cooling channel without decaying. The detector is capable of identifying electrons with an efficiency of 98.6%, providing a purity for the MICE beam that exceeds 99.8%. Lastly, the EMR also proved to be a powerful tool for the reconstruction of muon momenta inmore » the range 100–280 MeV/c.« less

  13. Electron-Muon Ranger: Performance in the MICE muon beam

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, D.

    2015-12-16

    The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) will perform a detailed study of ionization cooling to evaluate the feasibility of the technique. To carry out this program, MICE requires an efficient particle-identification (PID) system to identify muons. The Electron-Muon Ranger (EMR) is a fully-active tracking-calorimeter that forms part of the PID system and tags muons that traverse the cooling channel without decaying. The detector is capable of identifying electrons with an efficiency of 98.6%, providing a purity for the MICE beam that exceeds 99.8%. Lastly, the EMR also proved to be a powerful tool for the reconstruction of muon momenta in the range 100–280 MeV/c.

  14. Micromegas detectors for the muon spectrometer upgrade of the ATLAS experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianco, M.

    2016-07-01

    Large area Micromegas (MM) detectors will be employed for the Muon Spectrometer upgrade of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. A total surface of about 150 m2of the forward regions of the Muon Spectrometer will be equipped with 8 layers of MM modules. Each module covers a surface area of approximately 2-3 m2 for a total active area of 1200 m2. Together with the small-strips Thin Gap Chambers, they will compose the two New Small Wheels, which will replace the innermost stations of the ATLAS Endcap Muon tracking system in the planned 2018/2019 shutdown. This upgrade will maintain a low pT threshold for single muons and provide excellent tracking capabilities for the HL-LHC phase. The New Small Wheel (NSW) project requires fully efficient MM chambers with spatial resolution down to 100 μm, at rate capability up to about 15 kHz/cm2 and operation in a moderate (highly inhomogeneous) magnetic field up to B=0.3 T. The required tracking capability is provided by the intrinsic spatial resolution combined with a challenging mechanical precision. The design, recent progress in the construction and results from the substantial R& D phase (with a focus on novel technical solutions) is presented. In the R& D phase, small and medium size single layer prototypes have been built, along with, more recently, the first two MM quadruplets in a configuration very close to the final one chosen for the NSW. Several tests have been performed on these prototypes at a high-energy test-beam at CERN, to demonstrate that the achieved performances fulfil the requirements. Recent tests applying various configuration and operating conditions are presented.

  15. Functional end-capped conducting poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabatini, V.; Farina, H.; Ortenzi, Marco A.

    2016-05-01

    Methacrylate-terminated Poly(3,4-Ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) polymers with controlled degree of polymerization were successfully prepared by direct oxidative polycondensation between Ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT) and a cross-linkable methacrylate end-capper monomer, obtained via Friedel Crafts acylation starting from EDOT and Methacryloyl chloride. The new polymer was synthesized in order to overcome the well-known technical problems of PEDOT, i.e. difficult processability and patterning, due to its poor solubility in common organic and inorganic solvents. The chemical structure and the degree of polymerization of the end-capped polymers were determined by 1H NMR spectra. A new synthesis of Methacrylate end-capped PEDOT with controlled degree of polymerization, soluble in common organic and chlorinated solvents and with improved conductivity, 210 S/cm, was performed. This method includes: direct oxidative polycondensation of 3,4-Ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT) in the presence of a cross-linkable end-capper, i.e. Methacrylate end-capped EDOT prepared via Friedel Crafts acylation with Methacryloyl chloride and oxidant species, i.e. ferric sulfate. Furthermore, the oxidative polycondensation of EDOT monomer and Methacrylate end-capped EDOT in the presence of Sulfonated Polyethersulfone (SPES)- characterized by different degree of Sulfonation (DS)- as dopant agent was performed, leading to functional end-capped conducting PEDOT, easy to process and pattern, with conductivity of 210 S/cm, 50 S/cm higher than the one of commercial PEDOT.

  16. Performance of a superconducting magnet system operated in the Super Omega Muon beam line at J-PARC

    SciTech Connect

    Makida, Yasuhiro; Ikedo, Yutaka; Ogitsu, Toru; Shimomura, Koichiro; Miyake, Yasuhiro; Yoshida, Makoto; Adachi, Taihei; Kadono, Ryosuke; Kawamura, Naritoshi; Strasser, Patric; Koda, Akihiro; Fujimori, Hiroshi; Nishiyama, Kusuo; Ohhata, Hirokatsu; Okamura, Takahiro; Okada, Ryutaro; Orikasa, Tomofumi

    2014-01-29

    A superconducting magnet system, which is composed of an 8 m long solenoid for transportation and 12 short solenoids for focusing, has been developed for Muon Science Establishment facility of J-PARC. The transport solenoid is composed of a 6 m straight section connected to a 45 degree curved section at each end. Muons of various momenta and of both electric charges are transported through the solenoid inner bore with an effective diameter of 0.3 m, where 2 T magnetic field is induced. There are 12 focusing solenoids with an effective bore diameter of 0.6 m and a length of 0.35 m arranged on a straight line at suitable intervals. The maximum central field of each focusing solenoid is 0.66 T. All solenoid coils are cooled by GM cryocoolers through their own conductions. The magnet system has been installed into the beam line in the summer of 2012, and its performance has been checked. Beam commissioning has been carried out since October 2012. During beam operation, temperature rise over 6 K in the transport solenoid due to a nuclear heating from the muon production target is observed at beam intensity of about 300 kW.

  17. Upgrade of the CMS muon system with triple-GEM detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbaneo, D.; Abbas, M.; Abbrescia, M.; Abdelalim, A. A.; Abi Akl, M.; Ahmed, W.; Ahmed, W.; Altieri, P.; Aly, R.; Ashfaq, A.; Aspell, P.; Assran, Y.; Awan, I.; Bally, S.; Ban, Y.; Banerjee, S.; Barria, P.; Benussi, L.; Bhopatkar, V.; Bianco, S.; Bos, J.; Bouhali, O.; Braibant, S.; Buontempo, S.; Cai, J.; Calabria, C.; Caputo, C.; Cassese, F.; Castaneda, A.; Cauwenbergh, S.; Cavallo, F. R.; Celik, A.; Choi, M.; Choi, K.; Choi, S.; Christiansen, J.; Cimmino, A.; Colafranceschi, S.; Colaleo, A.; Conde Garcia, A.; Dabrowski, M. M.; De Lentdecker, G.; De Oliveira, R.; de Robertis, G.; Dildick, S.; Dorney, B.; Elmetenawee, W.; Fabrice, G.; Ferry, S.; Giacomelli, P.; Gilmore, J.; Guiducci, L.; Gutierrez, A.; Hadjiiska, R. M.; Hassan, A.; Hauser, J.; Hoepfner, K.; Hohlmann, M.; Hoorani, H.; Jeng, Y. G.; Kamon, T.; Karchin, P. E.; Kim, H.; Krutelyov, S.; Kumar, A.; Lee, J.; Lee, J.; Lenzi, T.; Litov, L.; Loddo, F.; Maerschalk, T.; Magazzu, G.; Maggi, M.; Maghrbi, Y.; Magnani, A.; Majumdar, N.; Mal, P. K.; Mandal, K.; Marchioro, A.; Marinov, A.; Merlin, J. A.; Mohammed, N.; Mohanty, A. K.; Mohapatra, A.; Muhammad, S.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Oliveri, E.; Pant, L. M.; Paolucci, P.; Park, I.; Passeggio, G.; Pavlov, B.; Philipps, B.; Phipps, M.; Piccolo, D.; Postema, H.; Pugliese, G.; Baranac, A. Puig; Radi, A.; Radogna, R.; Raffone, G.; Ramkrishna, S.; Ranieri, A.; Riccardi, C.; Rodrigues, A.; Ropelewski, L.; Roychoddhury, S.; Ryu, M. S.; Ryu, G.; Safonov, A.; Sakharov, A.; Salva, S.; Saviano, G.; Sharma, A.; Swain, S. K.; Talvitie, J. P.; Tamma, C.; Tatarinov, A.; Turini, N.; Tuuva, T.; Twigger, J.; Tytgat, M.; Vai, I.; van Stenis, M.; Venditi, R.; Verhagen, E.; Verwilligen, P.; Vitulo, P.; Yang, U.; Yang, Y.; Yonamine, R.; Zaganidis, N.; Zenoni, F.; Zhang, A.

    2014-10-01

    The CMS collaboration considers upgrading the muon forward region which is particularly affected by the high-luminosity conditions at the LHC. The proposal involves Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) chambers, which are able to handle the extreme particle rates expected in this region along with a high spatial resolution. This allows to combine tracking and triggering capabilities, which will improve the CMS muon High Level Trigger, the muon identification and the track reconstruction. Intense R&D has been going on since 2009 and it has lead to the development of several GEM prototypes and associated detector electronics. These GEM prototypes have been subjected to extensive tests in the laboratory and in test beams at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS). This contribution will review the status of the CMS upgrade project with GEMs and its impact on the CMS performance.

  18. Toward a RPC-based muon tomography system for cargo containers.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baesso, P.; Cussans, D.; Thomay, C.; Velthuis, J.

    2014-10-01

    A large area scanner for cosmic muon tomography is currently being developed at University of Bristol. Thanks to their abundance and penetrating power, cosmic muons have been suggested as ideal candidates to scan large containers in search of special nuclear materials, which are characterized by high-Z and high density. The feasibility of such a scanner heavily depends on the detectors used to track the muons: for a typical container, the minimum required sensitive area is of the order of 100 2. The spatial resolution required depends on the geometrical configuration of the detectors. For practical purposes, a resolution of the order of 1 mm or better is desirable. A good time resolution can be exploited to provide momentum information: a resolution of the order of nanoseconds can be used to separate sub-GeV muons from muons with higher energies. Resistive plate chambers have a low cost per unit area and good spatial and time resolution; these features make them an excellent choice as detectors for muon tomography. In order to instrument a large area demonstrator we have produced 25 new readout boards and 30 glass RPCs. The RPCs measure 1800 mm× 600 mm and are read out using 1.68 mm pitch copper strips. The chambers were tested with a standardized procedure, i.e. without optimizing the working parameters to take into account differences in the manufacturing process, and the results show that the RPCs have an efficiency between 87% and 95%. The readout electronics show a signal to noise ratio greater than 20 for minimum ionizing particles. Spatial resolution better than 500 μm can easily be achieved using commercial read out ASICs. These results are better than the original minimum requirements to pass the tests and we are now ready to install the detectors.

  19. Combined Forward Calorimetry Option for Phase II CMS Endcap Upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akchurin, Nural

    2015-02-01

    Traditionally, EM and HAD compartments are thought to be separate and are often optimized individually. However, it is possible to optimize a robust and economical combined calorimeter system for myriad physics objectives. By employing event-by-event compensation afforded by the dual-readout technique, we have shown that excellent jet performance can be attained with a longitudinally un-segmented calorimeter that is calibrated only with electrons. In addition, the linear hadronic energy scale renders complex off-line correction schemes unnecessary. The proposed replacement of the CMS EE and HE calorimeters with a single Combined Forward Calorimeter (CFC) shows excellent jet performance complemented by good EM object detection. In this paper, we give brief snapshots on basic design criteria, timing characteristics of Cherenkov and scintillation pulses, trigger generation criteria and performance under high radiation fields. Although CMS has recently chosen different technologies for its endcap calorimetry in Phase II, the concepts developed here are likely to remain valuable for some time to come.

  20. Numerical study of a bucked-coil system for muon transport and cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Stratakis, Diktys; Alekou, Androula; Neuffer, David; Pasternak, Jaroslaw; Rogers, Chris T.

    2012-12-21

    A Neutrino Factory, which can deliver an intense flux of {approx}10{sup 21} neutrinos per year from a multi-GeV stored muon-beam is seemingly the ideal tool for studying neutrino oscillations and CP-violations for leptons. The front-end of this facility plays a critical role in determining the number of muons that can be accepted by the downstream accelerators. Delivering peak performance requires transporting the muon beams through long sections of a beam channel containing high-gradient rf cavities and strong focusing solenoids. Here, we propose a novel scheme to improve the performance of the cavities, thereby increasing the number of muons within the acceptance of the accelerator chain. The key element of our new scheme is to apply a set of bucked coils along the lattice, thus forcing the external magnetic field to drop substantially within the cavity. We incorporate this idea into a new lattice design for a Neutrino Factory, and detail its performance numerically.

  1. Pion contamination in the MICE muon beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, D.; Alekou, A.; Apollonio, M.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Barber, G.; Barclay, P.; de Bari, A.; Bayes, R.; Bayliss, V.; Bertoni, R.; Blackmore, V. J.; Blondel, A.; Blot, S.; Bogomilov, M.; Bonesini, M.; Booth, C. N.; Bowring, D.; Boyd, S.; Brashaw, T. W.; Bravar, U.; Bross, A. D.; Capponi, M.; Carlisle, T.; Cecchet, G.; Charnley, C.; Chignoli, F.; Cline, D.; Cobb, J. H.; Colling, G.; Collomb, N.; Coney, L.; Cooke, P.; Courthold, M.; Cremaldi, L. M.; DeMello, A.; Dick, A.; Dobbs, A.; Dornan, P.; Drews, M.; Drielsma, F.; Filthaut, F.; Fitzpatrick, T.; Franchini, P.; Francis, V.; Fry, L.; Gallagher, A.; Gamet, R.; Gardener, R.; Gourlay, S.; Grant, A.; Greis, J. R.; Griffiths, S.; Hanlet, P.; Hansen, O. M.; Hanson, G. G.; Hart, T. L.; Hartnett, T.; Hayler, T.; Heidt, C.; Hills, M.; Hodgson, P.; Hunt, C.; Iaciofano, A.; Ishimoto, S.; Kafka, G.; Kaplan, D. M.; Karadzhov, Y.; Kim, Y. K.; Kuno, Y.; Kyberd, P.; Lagrange, J.-B.; Langlands, J.; Lau, W.; Leonova, M.; Li, D.; Lintern, A.; Littlefield, M.; Long, K.; Luo, T.; Macwaters, C.; Martlew, B.; Martyniak, J.; Mazza, R.; Middleton, S.; Moretti, A.; Moss, A.; Muir, A.; Mullacrane, I.; Nebrensky, J. J.; Neuffer, D.; Nichols, A.; Nicholson, R.; Nugent, J. C.; Oates, A.; Onel, Y.; Orestano, D.; Overton, E.; Owens, P.; Palladino, V.; Pasternak, J.; Pastore, F.; Pidcott, C.; Popovic, M.; Preece, R.; Prestemon, S.; Rajaram, D.; Ramberger, S.; Rayner, M. A.; Ricciardi, S.; Roberts, T. J.; Robinson, M.; Rogers, C.; Ronald, K.; Rubinov, P.; Rucinski, P.; Sakamato, H.; Sanders, D. A.; Santos, E.; Savidge, T.; Smith, P. J.; Snopok, P.; Soler, F. J. P.; Speirs, D.; Stanley, T.; Stokes, G.; Summers, D. J.; Tarrant, J.; Taylor, I.; Tortora, L.; Torun, Y.; Tsenov, R.; Tunnell, C. D.; Uchida, M. A.; Vankova-Kirilova, G.; Virostek, S.; Vretenar, M.; Warburton, P.; Watson, S.; White, C.; Whyte, C. G.; Wilson, A.; Winter, M.; Yang, X.; Young, A.; Zisman, M.

    2016-03-01

    The international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) will perform a systematic investigation of ionization cooling with muon beams of momentum between 140 and 240 MeV/c at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory ISIS facility. The measurement of ionization cooling in MICE relies on the selection of a pure sample of muons that traverse the experiment. To make this selection, the MICE Muon Beam is designed to deliver a beam of muons with less than ~1% contamination. To make the final muon selection, MICE employs a particle-identification (PID) system upstream and downstream of the cooling cell. The PID system includes time-of-flight hodoscopes, threshold-Cherenkov counters and calorimetry. The upper limit for the pion contamination measured in this paper is fπ < 1.4% at 90% C.L., including systematic uncertainties. Therefore, the MICE Muon Beam is able to meet the stringent pion-contamination requirements of the study of ionization cooling.

  2. Design Concepts for Muon-Based Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Ryne, R. D.; Berg, J. S.; Kirk, H. G.; Palmer, R. B.; Stratkis, D.; Alexahin, Y.; Bross, A.; Gollwitzer, K.; Mokhov, N. V.; Neuffer, D.; Palmer, M. A.; Yonehara, K.; Snopok, P.; Bogacz, A.; Roberts, T. J.; Delahaye, J. -P.

    2015-05-01

    Muon-based accelerators have the potential to enable facilities at both the Intensity and the Energy Frontiers. Muon storage rings can serve as high precision neutrino sources, and a muon collider is an ideal technology for a TeV or multi-TeV collider. Progress in muon accelerator designs has advanced steadily in recent years. In regard to 6D muon cooling, detailed and realistic designs now exist that provide more than 5 order-of-magnitude emittance reduction. Furthermore, detector performance studies indicate that with suitable pixelation and timing resolution, backgrounds in the collider detectors can be significantly reduced, thus enabling high-quality physics results. Thanks to these and other advances in design & simulation of muon systems, technology development, and systems demonstrations, muon storage-ring-based neutrino sources and a muon collider appear more feasible than ever before. A muon collider is now arguably among the most compelling approaches to a multi-TeV lepton collider. This paper summarizes the current status of design concepts for muon-based accelerators for neutrino factories and a muon collider.

  3. Impact of the GE1/1 station on the performance of the muon system in CMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magnani, A.

    2016-07-01

    In 2018 a new muon station based on GEM detectors will be installed in the CMS experiment. The present work sums up the main results obtained to evaluate the impact of this upgrade on the muon trigger rate and on muon reconstruction.

  4. The first muon beam from a new highly-intense DC muon source, MuSIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Nam Hoai; MuSIC Collaboration

    2012-09-01

    A new DC muon source, MuSIC, is now under construction at Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP), Osaka University, Japan. The MuSIC adopts a new pion/muon collection system and a curved transport solenoid. These techniques are important in realization of future muon programs such as the muon to electron conversion experiments (COMET/Mu2e), neutrino factories, and muon colliders. The pion capture magnet and a part of the transport solenoid have been built and beam tests were carried out to assess the MuSIC's performance. Muon lifetime measurements and muonic X-ray measurements have been used for estimation of muon yield of the MuSIC. The result indicates that the MuSIC would be one of the most intense DC muon beams in the world.

  5. The synthesis, characterization and thermal chemistry of modified norbornenyl PMR endcaps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sukenik, C. N.; Ritchey, W. M.; Malhotra, V.; Varde, U.

    1985-01-01

    As part of a program to further the understanding of the polymerization of Nadic-Endcapped PMR systems, a series of model Norbornenyl-Imides has been synthesized and their thermal behavior explored. Their syntheses and characterizations as well as their rearrangement and polymerization chemistry are described. Monomer isomerization at temperatures as low as 125 C and oligomer formation at somewhat higher temperatures are observed. Approximate relative rates for competing isomerization pathways are established and some information is obtained about the details of oligomer formation. The relationship of this data to current PMR systems is briefly discussed.

  6. Muon spin rotation studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The bulk of the muon spin rotation research work centered around the development of the muon spin rotation facility at the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) of Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The collimation system was both designed and fabricated at Virginia State University. This improved collimation system, plus improvements in detectors and electronics enabled the acquisition of spectra free of background out to 15 microseconds. There were two runs at Brookhaven in 1984, one run was devoted primarily to beam development and the other run allowed several successful experiments to be performed. The effect of uniaxial strain on an Fe(Si) crystal at elevated temperature (360K) was measured and the results are incorporated herein. A complete analysis of Fe pulling data taken earlier is included.

  7. Muons in gamma showers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanev, T.; Vankov, C. P.; Halzen, F.

    1985-01-01

    Muon production in gamma-induced air showers, accounting for all major processes. For muon energies in the GeV region the photoproduction is by far the most important process, while the contribution of micron + micron pair creation is not negligible for TeV muons. The total rate of muons in gamma showers is, however, very low.

  8. Simulation of large acceptance LINAC for muons

    SciTech Connect

    Miyadera, H; Kurennoy, S; Jason, A J

    2010-01-01

    There has been a recent need for muon accelerators not only for future Neutrino Factories and Muon Colliders but also for other applications in industry and medical use. We carried out simulations on a large-acceptance muon linac with a new concept 'mixed buncher/acceleration'. The linac can accept pions/muons from a production target with large acceptance and accelerate muon without any beam cooling which makes the initial section of muon-linac system very compact. The linac has a high impact on Neutrino Factory and Muon Collider (NF/MC) scenario since the 300-m injector section can be replaced by the muon linac of only 10-m length. The current design of the linac consists of the following components: independent 805-MHz cavity structure with 6- or 8-cm-radius aperture window; injection of a broad range of pion/muon energies, 10-100 MeV, and acceleration to 150 - 200 MeV. Further acceleration of the muon beam are relatively easy since the beam is already bunched.

  9. Characterization of geometric isomers of Norbornene end-capped imides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, P. R.; Chang, A. C.

    1983-01-01

    Three geometric isomers from the thermal isomerization of methylene-4,4' bis(endo-N-phenylbicyclo/2.2.1/hept-2-ene-5,6-di carboximide) (I) were chromatographically separated and isolated in order to investigate the thermal cure of norbornene end-capped imide oligomers, which display considerable promise for use in various aerospace adhesive and composite applications. Endo-endo (I), endo-exo (II), and exo-exo (III) configurations were assigned to each compound based on the results of NMR spectroscopy. Several chromatographic, spectroscopic, and thermal techniques were then used to characterize these three isomers which serve as model compounds for norbornene end-capped polyimides. It was found that each compound thermally isomerized to an equilibrium mixture of all three compounds prior to cure. It is proposed that these compounds react by different mechanisms in air and nitrogen.

  10. Some studies of data using the STAR endcap electromagnetic calorimeter.

    SciTech Connect

    Krueger, K.; Spinka, H. M.; Underwood, D. G.; High Energy Physics

    2009-02-24

    A series of studies was performed using data from the STAR detector at the Brookhaven National Laboratory's RHIC accelerator from collisions of protons at {radical}s = 200 GeV. Many of these involved the shower maximum detector (SMD) of the STAR endcap electromagnetic calorimeter (EEMC). Detailed studies of photon candidates from {eta} {yields} {gamma}{gamma} decay, and of {gamma} + Jet inclusive data and simulated events were performed.

  11. Thin gap gas chambers for the DELPHI endcaps

    SciTech Connect

    Adam, W.; Hrubec, J.

    1996-12-31

    Thin Gap Gas Chambers have been proposed for an upgrade of the endcaps of the DELPHI detector at LEP. Two full size chambers have been built and a study of the optimal operating conditions has been carried out. In this paper the main construction parameters are discussed and test results will be given. Tests of the electronic readout were performed and the general feasibility of the detector is demonstrated.

  12. Laser rods with undoped, flanged end-caps for end-pumped laser applications

    DOEpatents

    Meissner, Helmuth E.; Beach, Raymond J.; Bibeau, Camille; Sutton, Steven B.; Mitchell, Scott; Bass, Isaac; Honea, Eric

    1999-01-01

    A method and apparatus for achieving improved performance in a solid state laser is provided. A flanged, at least partially undoped end-cap is attached to at least one end of a laserable medium. Preferably flanged, undoped end-caps are attached to both ends of the laserable medium. Due to the low scatter requirements for the interface between the end-caps and the laser rod, a non-adhesive method of bonding is utilized such as optical contacting combined with a subsequent heat treatment of the optically contacted composite. The non-bonded end surfaces of the flanged end-caps are coated with laser cavity coatings appropriate for the lasing wavelength of the laser rod. A cooling jacket, sealably coupled to the flanged end-caps, surrounds the entire length of the laserable medium. Radiation from a pump source is focussed by a lens duct and passed through at least one flanged end-cap into the laser rod.

  13. Key Role of End-Capping Groups in Optoelectronic Properties of Poly-p-phenylene Cation Radicals

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Poly-p-phenylenes (PPs) are prototype systems for understanding the charge transport in π-conjugated polymers. In a combined computational and experimental study, we demonstrate that the smooth evolution of redox and optoelectronic properties of PP cation radicals toward the polymeric limit can be significantly altered by electron-donating iso-alkyl and iso-alkoxy end-capping groups. A multiparabolic model (MPM) developed and validated here rationalizes this unexpected effect by interplay of the two modes of hole stabilization: due to the framework of equivalent p-phenylene units and due to the electron-donating end-capping groups. A symmetric, bell-shaped hole in unsubstituted PPs becomes either slightly skewed and shifted toward an end of the molecule in iso-alkyl-capped PPs or highly deformed and concentrated on a terminal unit in PPs with strongly electron-donating iso-alkoxy capping groups. The MPM shows that the observed linear 1/n evolution of the PP cation radical properties toward the polymer limit originates from the hole stabilization due to the growing chain of p-phenylene units, while shifting of the hole toward electron-donating end-capping groups leads to early breakdown of these 1/n dependencies. These insights, along with the readily applicable and flexible multistate parabolic model, can guide studies of complex donor–spacer–acceptor systems and doped molecular wires to aid the design of the next generation materials for long-range charge transport and photovoltaic applications. PMID:25264475

  14. Magnets for Muon 6D Cooling Channels

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Rolland; Flanagan, Gene

    2014-09-10

    The Helical Cooling Channel (HCC), an innovative technique for six-dimensional (6D) cooling of muon beams using a continuous absorber inside superconducting magnets, has shown considerable promise based on analytic and simulation studies. The implementation of this revolutionary method of muon cooling requires high field superconducting magnets that provide superimposed solenoid, helical dipole, and helical quadrupole fields. Novel magnet design concepts are required to provide HCC magnet systems with the desired fields for 6D muon beam cooling. New designs feature simple coil configurations that produce these complex fields with the required characteristics, where new high field conductor materials are particularly advantageous. The object of the program was to develop designs and construction methods for HCC magnets and design a magnet system for a 6D muon beam cooling channel. If successful the program would develop the magnet technologies needed to create bright muon beams for many applications ranging from scientific accelerators and storage rings to beams to study material properties and new sources of energy. Examples of these applications include energy frontier muon colliders, Higgs and neutrino factories, stopping muon beams for studies of rare fundamental interactions and muon catalyzed fusion, and muon sources for cargo screening for homeland security.

  15. Muon cherenkov telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malamova, E.; Angelov, I.; Kalapov, I.; Davidkov, K.; Stamenov, J.

    2001-08-01

    : The Muon Cerenkov Telescope is a system of water cerenkov detectors, using the coincidence technique to register cosmic ray muons. It is constructed in order to study the variations of cosmic rays and their correlation with solar activity and processes in the Earth magnetosphere. 1 Basic design of the Muon Cerenkov Telescope The telescope has 18 water cerenkov detectors / 0.25 m2 each /, situated in two parallel planes. / Fig. 1/ Each detector /fig. 2/ consists of a container with dimensions 50x50x12.5 cm made of 3mm thick glass with mirror cover of the outer side. The container is filled with distilled water to 10cm level. A photomultiplier is attached to a transparent circle at the floor of the container and the discriminator is placed in its housing. When a charged particle with energy greater than the threshold energy for cerenkov radiation generation passes the radiator, cerenkov photons are initiated and a part of them reach the PMT cathode after multiple reflections from the mirror sides of the container.

  16. The Common Cryogenic Test Facility for the ATLAS Barrel and End-Cap Toroid Magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delruelle, N.; Haug, F.; Junker, S.; Passardi, G.; Pengo, R.; Pirotte, O.

    2004-06-01

    The large ATLAS toroidal superconducting magnet made of the Barrel and two End-Caps needs extensive testing at the surface of the individual components prior to their final assembly into the underground cavern of LHC. A cryogenic test facility specifically designed for cooling sequentially the eight coils making the Barrel Toroid (BT) has been fully commissioned and is now ready for final acceptance of these magnets. This facility, originally designed for testing individually the 46 tons BT coils, will be upgraded to allow the acceptance tests of the two End-Caps, each of them having a 160 tons cold mass. The integrated system mainly comprises a 1.2 kW@4.5 K refrigerator, a 10 kW liquid-nitrogen precooler, two cryostats housing liquid helium centrifugal pumps of respectively 80 g/s and 600 g/s nominal flow and specific instrumentation to measure the thermal performances of the magnets. This paper describes the overall facility with particular emphasis to the cryogenic features adopted to match the specific requirements of the magnets in the various operating scenarios.

  17. The Common Cryogenic Test Facility for the ATLAS Barrel and End-Cap Toroid Magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Delruelle, N.; Haug, F.; Junker, S.; Passardi, G.; Pengo, R.; Pirotte, O.

    2004-06-23

    The large ATLAS toroidal superconducting magnet made of the Barrel and two End-Caps needs extensive testing at the surface of the individual components prior to their final assembly into the underground cavern of LHC. A cryogenic test facility specifically designed for cooling sequentially the eight coils making the Barrel Toroid (BT) has been fully commissioned and is now ready for final acceptance of these magnets. This facility, originally designed for testing individually the 46 tons BT coils, will be upgraded to allow the acceptance tests of the two End-Caps, each of them having a 160 tons cold mass. The integrated system mainly comprises a 1.2 kW at 4.5 K refrigerator, a 10 kW liquid-nitrogen precooler, two cryostats housing liquid helium centrifugal pumps of respectively 80 g/s and 600 g/s nominal flow and specific instrumentation to measure the thermal performances of the magnets. This paper describes the overall facility with particular emphasis to the cryogenic features adopted to match the specific requirements of the magnets in the various operating scenarios.

  18. Performance of the new small-strip Thin Gap Chamber for the ATLAS Muon System at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellerive, Alain; Atlas Nsw Stgc Group Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    The instantaneous luminosity of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN will be increased up to a factor of five with respect to the design value by undergoing an extensive upgrade program. The largest phase-1 upgrade project for the ATLAS Muon System is the replacement of the present first station in the forward region with the so-called New Small Wheel (NSW). The NSW consists of layers of Micromegas and small-strip Thin Gap Chambers (sTGC), both providing trigger and tracking capabilities. The precision reconstruction of tracks requires a spatial resolution of about 100 microns, and the trigger track segments have to be reconstructed with an angular resolution of approximately 1 mrad. The sTGC structure consists of a grid of gold-plated tungsten wires sandwiched between two resistive cathode planes. The precision cathode plane has strips with a 3.2mm pitch for precision readout and the cathode plane on the other side has pads for triggering. The pads are used to produce a 3-out-of-4 coincidence to identify muon tracks in an sTGC quadruplet. A full size sTGC quadruplet has been constructed and equipped with the first prototype of dedicated front-end electronics. The design of the sTGC will be described. The performance of the sTGC quadruplet has been characterized with data collected at the Fermilab and CERN test beam facilities. Spatial resolution and trigger efficiency results will be presented. An overview of the simulation and digitization model of the sTGC will also be summarized.

  19. ACCELERATION FOR A HIGH ENERGY MUON COLLIDER

    SciTech Connect

    BERG,J.S

    2000-04-07

    The authors describe a method for designing the acceleration systems for a muon collider, with particular application and examples for a high energy muon collider. This paper primarily concentrates on design considerations coming from longitudinal motion, but some transverse issues are briefly discussed.

  20. Muon Bunch Coalescing

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Rolland P; Ankenbrandt, Charles; Bhat, Chandra; Popovic, Milorad; Bogacz, Alex; Derbenev, Yaroslav

    2007-06-25

    The idea of coalescing multiple muon bunches at high energy to enhance the luminosity of a muon collider provides many advantages. It circumvents space-charge, beam loading, and wakefield problems of intense low energy bunches while restoring the synergy between muon colliders and neutrino factories based on muon storage rings. A sampling of initial conceptual design work for a coalescing ring is presented here.

  1. Preparation and properties of silane-endcapped polyimide adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maudgal, S.; St. Clair, T. L.

    1984-01-01

    Silane-endcapped polyimide high temperature adhesive formulations were prepared by reacting anhydride-terminated poly(amic acid), obtained from benzophenonetetracarboxylic dianhydride and a diamine (3,3'-, 3,4'- or 4,4'-diaminodiphenylmethane and 3,3', 3,4'- or 4,4'-diaminobenzophenone) with varying amounts of gama-aminopropyltriethoxysilane in dimethylacetamide. Resin properties were evaluated by torsional braid analysis and thermogravimetric analysis. Lap shear strengths of some of the adhesive bonds were determined at room temperature and at 177 C before and after ageing at 200 C for 2500 h and after boiling in water for 72 h.

  2. Substituted Cyclohexene Endcaps for Polymers with Thermal-Oxidative Stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This invention relates to polyimides having improved thermal-oxidative stability, to the process of preparing said polyimides, and the use of polyimide prepolymers in the preparation of prepregs and composites. The polyimides are particularly usefull in the preparation of fiber-reinforced, high-temperature composites for use in various engine parts including inlets, fan ducts, exit flaps and other parts of high speed aircraft. The polyimides are derived from the polymerization of effective amounts of at least one tetracarboxylic dianhydride, at least one polyamine and a novel dicarboxylic endcap having the formula presented.

  3. Overlap Technique for End-Cap Seals on Cylindrical Magnetic Shields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malkowski, S.; Adhikari, R. Y.; Boissevain, J.; Daurer, C.; Filippone, B. W.; Hona, B.; Plaster, B.; Woods, D.; Yan, H.

    2013-01-01

    We present results from studies of the effectiveness of an overlap technique for forming a magnetic seal across a gap at the boundary between a cylindrical magnetic shield and an end-cap. In this technique a thin foil of magnetic material overlaps the two surfaces, thereby spanning the gap across the cylinder and the end-cap, with the magnetic seal then formed by clamping the thin magnetic foil to the surfaces of the cylindrical shield and the end-cap on both sides of the gap. In studies with a prototype 31-cm diameter, 91-cm long, 0.16-cm thick cylindrical magnetic shield and flared end-cap, the magnetic shielding performance of our overlap technique is comparable to that obtained with the conventional method in which the end-cap is placed in direct lapped contact with the cylindrical shield via through bolts or screws.

  4. Muon beamline at ISIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eaton, G. H.; Clarke-Gayther, M. A.; Scott, C. A.; Cox, S. F. J.; Kilcoyne, S. H.

    1994-07-01

    The original pulsed surface muon facility was established at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory's ISIS in 1987. The facility was then upgraded in 1993 from a single beam line and spectrometer to a triple beam facility with three spectrometers working independently. The layout of ISIS is shown. A plan of the ISIS experimental hall is shown, indicating the respective locations of the neutron beams, the KARMEN neutrino facility and the muon beam line complex. Other topics shown in the report include the following: (1) Muon production; (2) Transport of muons to the experimental areas; (3) Positron elimination from the ISIS muon beam; (4) Creation of three independent beam lines.

  5. The backward end-cap for the PANDA electromagnetic calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capozza, L.; Maas, F. E.; Noll, O.; Rodriguez Pineiro, D.; Valente, R.

    2015-02-01

    The PANDA experiment at the new FAIR facility will cover a broad experimental programme in hadron structure and spectroscopy. As a multipurpose detector, the PANDA spectrometer needs to ensure almost 4π coverage of the scattering solid angle, full and accurate multiple-particle event reconstruction and very good particle identification capabilities. The electromagnetic calorimeter (EMC) will be a key item for many of these aspects. Particle energies ranging from some MeVs to several GeVs have to be measured with a relative resolution of 1% ⊕ 2%/√E/GeV . It will be a homogeneous calorimeter made of PbWO4 crystals and will be operated at -25°C, in order to improve the scintillation light yield. With the exception of the very forward section, the light will be detected by large area avalanche photodiodes (APDs). The current pulses from the APDs will be integrated, amplified and shaped by ASIC chips which were developed for this purpose. The whole calorimeter has been designed in three sections: a forward end-cap, a central barrel and a backward end-cap (BWEC). In this contribution, a status report on the development of the BWEC is presented.

  6. Imide Oligomers Endcapped with Phenylethynl Phthalic Anhydrides and Polymers Therefrom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    Controlled molecular weight phenylethynyl terminated imide oligomers (PETIs) have been prepared by the cyclodehydration of precursor phenylethynyl terminated amic acid oligomers. Amino terminated amic acid oligomers are prepared from the reaction of dianhydride(s) with an excess of diamine(s) and subsequently endcapped with phenylethynyl phthalic anhydride(s) (PEPA). The polymerizations are carried out in polar aprotic solvents such as N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone or N.N-dimethylacetamide under nitrogen at room temperature. The amic acid oligomers are subsequently cyclodehydrated either thermally or cheznicauy to the corresponding imide oligomers. Direct preparation of PETIs from the reaction of dianhydxide(s) with an excess of diamine(s) and endcapped with phenylethynyl phthalic anhydride(s) has been performed in m-cresol. Phenylethynyl phthalic anhydrides are synthesized by the palladium catalyzed reaction of phenylacetylene with bromo substituted phthalic anhydrides in triethylamine. These new materials exhibit excellent properties and are potentially useful as adhesives, coatings, films, moldings and composite matrices.

  7. Imide oligomers endcapped with phenylethynyl phthalic anhydrides and polymers therefrom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor); Smith, Jr., Joseph G. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    Controlled molecular weight phenylethynyl terminated imide oligomers (PETIs) have been prepared by the cyclodehydration of precursor phenylethynyl terminated amic acid oligomers. Amino terminated amic acid oligomers are prepared from the reaction of dianhydride(s) with an excess of diamine(s) and subsequently endcapped with phenylethynyl phthalic anhydride(s) (PEPA). The polymerizations are carried out in polar aprotic solvents such as N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone or N,N-dimethylacetamide under nitrogen at room temperature. The amic acid oligomers are subsequently cyclodehydrated either thermally or chemically to the corresponding imide oligomers. Direct preparation of PETIs from the reaction of dianhydride(s) with an excess of diamine(s) and endcapped with phenylethynyl phthalic anhydride(s) has been performed in m-cresol. Phenylethynyl phthalic anhydrides are synthesized by the palladium catalyzed reaction of phenylacetylene with bromo substituted phthalic anhydrides in triethylamine. These new materials exhibit excellent properties and are potentially useful as adhesives, coatings, films, moldings and composite matrices.

  8. NMR Guided Design of Endcaps With Improved Oxidation Resistance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meador, Mary Ann B.; Frimer, Aryeh A.

    2002-01-01

    A polyimide is a polymer composed of alternating units of diamine and dianhydride, linked to each other via an imide bond. PMR polyimides, commonly used in the aerospace industry, are generally capped at each end by a norbornene endcap which serves a double function: (1) It limits the number of repeating units and, hence, the average molecular weight of the various polymer chains (oligomers), thereby improving processibility; (2) Upon further treatment (curing), the endcap crosslinks the various oligomer strands into a tough heat-resistant piece. Norbornenyl-end capped PMR polyimide resins' are widely used as polymer matrix composite materials for aircraft engine applications,2 since they combine ease of processing with good oxidative stability up to 300 C. PMR resins are prepared by a twestep approach involving the initial formation of oligomeric pre-polymers capped at both ends by a latent reactive end cap. The end cap undergoes cross-linking during higher temperature processing, producing the desired low density, high specific strength materials, as shown for PMR-15.

  9. Muon Catalyzed Fusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armour, Edward A.G.

    2007-01-01

    Muon catalyzed fusion is a process in which a negatively charged muon combines with two nuclei of isotopes of hydrogen, e.g, a proton and a deuteron or a deuteron and a triton, to form a muonic molecular ion in which the binding is so tight that nuclear fusion occurs. The muon is normally released after fusion has taken place and so can catalyze further fusions. As the muon has a mean lifetime of 2.2 microseconds, this is the maximum period over which a muon can participate in this process. This article gives an outline of the history of muon catalyzed fusion from 1947, when it was first realised that such a process might occur, to the present day. It includes a description of the contribution that Drachrnan has made to the theory of muon catalyzed fusion and the influence this has had on the author's research.

  10. Drift Time Measurement in the ATLAS Liquid Argon Electromagnetic Calorimeter using Cosmic Muons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdelalim, A. A.; Abdesselam, A.; Abdinov, O.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Acharya, B. S.; Adams, D. L.; Addy, T. N.; Adelman, J.; Adorisio, C.; Adragna, P.; Adye, T.; Aefsky, S.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Aharrouche, M.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahles, F.; Ahmad, A.; Ahmed, H.; Ahsan, M.; Aielli, G.; Akdogan, T.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimoto, G.; Akimov, A. V.; Aktas, A.; Alam, M. S.; Alam, M. A.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alessandria, F.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexandre, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Aliev, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alison, J.; Aliyev, M.; Allport, P. P.; Allwood-Spiers, S. E.; Almond, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alon, R.; Alonso, A.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amako, K.; Amelung, C.; Ammosov, V. V.; Amorim, A.; Amorós, G.; Amram, N.; Anastopoulos, C.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Anduaga, X. S.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anjos, N.; Antonaki, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonelli, S.; Antos, J.; Antunovic, B.; Anulli, F.; Aoun, S.; Arabidze, G.; Aracena, I.; Arai, Y.; Arce, A. T. H.; Archambault, J. P.; Arfaoui, S.; Arguin, J.-F.; Argyropoulos, T.; Arik, E.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnault, C.; Artamonov, A.; Arutinov, D.; Asai, M.; Asai, S.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Ask, S.; Åsman, B.; Asner, D.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astbury, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Atoian, G.; Auerbach, B.; Auge, E.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Austin, N.; Avolio, G.; Avramidou, R.; Axen, D.; Ay, C.; Azuelos, G.; Azuma, Y.; Baak, M. A.; Bacci, C.; Bach, A.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Badescu, E.; Bagnaia, P.; Bai, Y.; Bailey, D. C.; Bain, T.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Baker, M. D.; Baker, S.; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, F.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, P.; Banerjee, S.; Banfi, D.; Bangert, A.; Bansal, V.; Baranov, S. P.; Baranov, S.; Barashkou, A.; Barber, T.; Barberio, E. 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R.; Benslama, K.; Bentvelsen, S.; Beretta, M.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Berglund, E.; Beringer, J.; Bernardet, K.; Bernat, P.; Bernhard, R.; Bernius, C.; Berry, T.; Bertin, A.; Besana, M. I.; Besson, N.; Bethke, S.; Bianchi, R. M.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Biesiada, J.; Biglietti, M.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Biscarat, C.; Bitenc, U.; Black, K. M.; Blair, R. E.; Blanchard, J.-B.; Blanchot, G.; Blocker, C.; Blocki, J.; Blondel, A.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bocci, A.; Boehler, M.; Boek, J.; Boelaert, N.; Böser, S.; Bogaerts, J. A.; Bogouch, A.; Bohm, C.; Bohm, J.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Boldyrev, A.; Bondarenko, V. G.; Bondioli, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Bordoni, S.; Borer, C.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Borjanovic, I.; Borroni, S.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Bosteels, M.; Boterenbrood, H.; Bouchami, J.; Boudreau, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E. V.; Boulahouache, C.; Bourdarios, C.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I. R.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Braem, A.; Branchini, P.; Brandenburg, G. W.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J. E.; Braun, H. M.; Brelier, B.; Bremer, J.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Breton, D.; Britton, D.; Brochu, F. M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Brodbeck, T. J.; Brodet, E.; Broggi, F.; Bromberg, C.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, W. K.; Brown, G.; Brubaker, E.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P. A.; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Brunet, S.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruschi, M.; Buanes, T.; Bucci, F.; Buchanan, J.; Buchholz, P.; Buckley, A. G.; Budagov, I. A.; Budick, B.; Büscher, V.; Bugge, L.; Bulekov, O.; Bunse, M.; Buran, T.; Burckhart, H.; Burdin, S.; Burgess, T.; Burke, S.; Busato, E.; Bussey, P.; Buszello, C. P.; Butin, F.; Butler, B.; Butler, J. M.; Buttar, C. M.; Butterworth, J. M.; Byatt, T.; Caballero, J.; Cabrera Urbán, S.; Caforio, D.; Cakir, O.; Calafiura, P.; Calderini, G.; Calfayan, P.; Calkins, R.; Caloba, L. P.; Caloi, R.; Calvet, D.; Camarri, P.; Cambiaghi, M.; Cameron, D.; Campabadal Segura, F.; Campana, S.; Campanelli, M.; Canale, V.; Canelli, F.; Canepa, A.; Cantero, J.; Capasso, L.; Capeans Garrido, M. D. M.; Caprini, I.; Caprini, M.; Capua, M.; Caputo, R.; Caracinha, D.; Caramarcu, C.; Cardarelli, R.; Carli, T.; Carlino, G.; Carminati, L.; Caron, B.; Caron, S.; Carrillo Montoya, G. D.; Carron Montero, S.; Carter, A. A.; Carter, J. R.; Carvalho, J.; Casadei, D.; Casado, M. P.; Cascella, M.; Caso, C.; Castaneda Hernadez, A. M.; Castaneda-Miranda, E.; Castillo Gimenez, V.; Castro, N.; Cataldi, G.; Catinaccio, A.; Catmore, J. R.; Cattai, A.; Cattani, G.; Caughron, S.; Cauz, D.; Cavalleri, P.; Cavalli, D.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cavasinni, V.; Ceradini, F.; Cerqueira, A. S.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Cerutti, F.; Cetin, S. A.; Cevenini, F.; Chafaq, A.; Chakraborty, D.; Chan, K.; Chapman, J. D.; Chapman, J. W.; Chareyre, E.; Charlton, D. G.; Chavda, V.; Cheatham, S.; Chekanov, S.; Chekulaev, S. V.; Chelkov, G. A.; Chen, H.; Chen, S.; Chen, T.; Chen, X.; Cheng, S.; Cheplakov, A.; Chepurnov, V. F.; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R.; Tcherniatine, V.; Chesneanu, D.; Cheu, E.; Cheung, S. L.; Chevalier, L.; Chevallier, F.; Chiarella, V.; Chiefari, G.; Chikovani, L.; Childers, J. T.; Chilingarov, A.; Chiodini, G.; Chizhov, M.; Choudalakis, G.; Chouridou, S.; Christidi, I. A.; Christov, A.; Chromek-Burckhart, D.; Chu, M. L.; Chudoba, J.; Ciapetti, G.; Ciftci, A. K.; Ciftci, R.; Cinca, D.; Cindro, V.; Ciobotaru, M. D.; Ciocca, C.; Ciocio, A.; Cirilli, M.; Citterio, M.; Clark, A.; Cleland, W.; Clemens, J. C.; Clement, B.; Clement, C.; Coadou, Y.; Cobal, M.; Coccaro, A.; Cochran, J.; Coelli, S.; Coggeshall, J.; Cogneras, E.; Cojocaru, C. D.; Colas, J.; Cole, B.; Colijn, A. P.; Collard, C.; Collins, N. J.; Collins-Tooth, C.; Collot, J.; Colon, G.; Conde Muiño, P.; Coniavitis, E.; Consonni, M.; Constantinescu, S.; Conta, C.; Conventi, F.; Cook, J.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, B. D.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Cooper-Smith, N. J.; Copic, K.; Cornelissen, T.; Corradi, M.; Corriveau, F.; Corso-Radu, A.; Cortes-Gonzalez, A.; Cortiana, G.; Costa, G.; Costa, M. J.; Costanzo, D.; Costin, T.; Côté, D.; Coura Torres, R.; Courneyea, L.; Cowan, G.; Cowden, C.; Cox, B. E.; Cranmer, K.; Cranshaw, J.; Cristinziani, M.; Crosetti, G.; Crupi, R.; Crépé-Renaudin, S.; Cuenca Almenar, C.; Cuhadar Donszelmann, T.; Curatolo, M.; Curtis, C. J.; Cwetanski, P.; Czyczula, Z.; D'Auria, S.; D'Onofrio, M.; D'Orazio, A.; da Silva, P. V. M.; da Via, C.; Dabrowski, W.; Dai, T.; Dallapiccola, C.; Dallison, S. J.; Daly, C. H.; Dam, M.; Danielsson, H. O.; Dannheim, D.; Dao, V.; Darbo, G.; Darlea, G. L.; Davey, W.; Davidek, T.; Davidson, N.; Davidson, R.; Davies, M.; Davison, A. R.; Dawson, I.; Dawson, J. W.; Daya, R. K.; de, K.; de Asmundis, R.; de Castro, S.; de Castro Faria Salgado, P. E.; de Cecco, S.; de Graat, J.; de Groot, N.; de Jong, P.; de La Cruz-Burelo, E.; de La Taille, C.; de Mora, L.; de Oliveira Branco, M.; de Pedis, D.; de Salvo, A.; de Sanctis, U.; de Santo, A.; de Vivie de Regie, J. B.; de Zorzi, G.; Dean, S.; Deberg, H.; Dedes, G.; Dedovich, D. V.; Defay, P. O.; Degenhardt, J.; Dehchar, M.; Del Papa, C.; Del Peso, J.; Del Prete, T.; Dell'Acqua, A.; Dell'Asta, L.; Della Pietra, M.; Della Volpe, D.; Delmastro, M.; Delruelle, N.; Delsart, P. A.; Deluca, C.; Demers, S.; Demichev, M.; Demirkoz, B.; Deng, J.; Deng, W.; Denisov, S. P.; Dennis, C.; Derkaoui, J. E.; Derue, F.; Dervan, P.; Desch, K.; Deviveiros, P. O.; Dewhurst, A.; Dewilde, B.; Dhaliwal, S.; Dhullipudi, R.; di Ciaccio, A.; di Ciaccio, L.; di Domenico, A.; di Girolamo, A.; di Girolamo, B.; di Luise, S.; di Mattia, A.; di Nardo, R.; di Simone, A.; di Sipio, R.; Diaz, M. A.; Diblen, F.; Diehl, E. B.; Dietrich, J.; Dietzsch, T. A.; Diglio, S.; Dindar Yagci, K.; Dingfelder, D. J.; Dionisi, C.; Dita, P.; Dita, S.; Dittus, F.; Djama, F.; Djilkibaev, R.; Djobava, T.; Do Vale, M. A. B.; Do Valle Wemans, A.; Doan, T. K. O.; Dobbs, M.; Dobos, D.; Dobson, E.; Dobson, M.; Dodd, J.; Doherty, T.; Doi, Y.; Dolejsi, J.; Dolenc, I.; Dolezal, Z.; Dolgoshein, B. A.; Dohmae, T.; Donega, M.; Donini, J.; Dopke, J.; Doria, A.; Dos Anjos, A.; Dotti, A.; Dova, M. T.; Doxiadis, A.; Doyle, A. T.; Drasal, Z.; Driouichi, C.; Dris, M.; Dubbert, J.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Dudarev, A.; Dudziak, F.; Dührssen, M.; Duflot, L.; Dufour, M.-A.; Dunford, M.; Duperrin, A.; Yildiz, H. Duran; Dushkin, A.; Duxfield, R.; Dwuznik, M.; Düren, M.; Ebenstein, W. L.; Ebke, J.; Eckert, S.; Eckweiler, S.; Edmonds, K.; Edwards, C. 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V.; Gallo, V.; Gallop, B. J.; Gallus, P.; Galyaev, E.; Gan, K. K.; Gao, Y. S.; Gaponenko, A.; Garcia-Sciveres, M.; García, C.; García Navarro, J. E.; Gardner, R. W.; Garelli, N.; Garitaonandia, H.; Garonne, V.; Gatti, C.; Gaudio, G.; Gaumer, O.; Gauzzi, P.; Gavrilenko, I. L.; Gay, C.; Gaycken, G.; Gayde, J.-C.; Gazis, E. N.; Ge, P.; Gee, C. N. P.; Geich-Gimbel, Ch.; Gellerstedt, K.; Gemme, C.; Genest, M. H.; Gentile, S.; Georgatos, F.; George, S.; Gerlach, P.; Gershon, A.; Geweniger, C.; Ghazlane, H.; Ghez, P.; Ghodbane, N.; Giacobbe, B.; Giagu, S.; Giakoumopoulou, V.; Giangiobbe, V.; Gianotti, F.; Gibbard, B.; Gibson, A.; Gibson, S. M.; Gilbert, L. M.; Gilchriese, M.; Gilewsky, V.; Gillman, A. R.; Gingrich, D. M.; Ginzburg, J.; Giokaris, N.; Giordani, M. P.; Giordano, R.; Giovannini, P.; Giraud, P. F.; Girtler, P.; Giugni, D.; Giusti, P.; Gjelsten, B. K.; Gladilin, L. K.; Glasman, C.; Glazov, A.; Glitza, K. W.; Glonti, G. 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W.; Jones, T. J.; Jonsson, O.; Joos, D.; Joram, C.; Jorge, P. M.; Juranek, V.; Jussel, P.; Kabachenko, V. V.; Kabana, S.; Kaci, M.; Kaczmarska, A.; Kado, M.; Kagan, H.; Kagan, M.; Kaiser, S.; Kajomovitz, E.; Kalinin, S.; Kalinovskaya, L. V.; Kalinowski, A.; Kama, S.; Kanaya, N.; Kaneda, M.; Kantserov, V. A.; Kanzaki, J.; Kaplan, B.; Kapliy, A.; Kaplon, J.; Karagounis, M.; Karagoz Unel, M.; Kartvelishvili, V.; Karyukhin, A. N.; Kashif, L.; Kasmi, A.; Kass, R. D.; Kastanas, A.; Kastoryano, M.; Kataoka, M.; Kataoka, Y.; Katsoufis, E.; Katzy, J.; Kaushik, V.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Kawamura, G.; Kayl, M. S.; Kayumov, F.; Kazanin, V. A.; Kazarinov, M. Y.; Kazi, S. I.; Keates, J. R.; Keeler, R.; Keener, P. T.; Kehoe, R.; Keil, M.; Kekelidze, G. D.; Kelly, M.; Kennedy, J.; Kenyon, M.; Kepka, O.; Kerschen, N.; Kerševan, B. P.; Kersten, S.; Kessoku, K.; Khakzad, M.; Khalil-Zada, F.; Khandanyan, H.; Khanov, A.; Kharchenko, D.; Khodinov, A.; Kholodenko, A. G.; Khomich, A.; Khoriauli, G.; Khovanskiy, N.; Khovanskiy, V.; Khramov, E.; Khubua, J.; Kilvington, G.; Kim, H.; Kim, M. S.; Kim, P. C.; Kim, S. H.; Kind, O.; Kind, P.; King, B. T.; Kirk, J.; Kirsch, G. P.; Kirsch, L. E.; Kiryunin, A. E.; Kisielewska, D.; Kittelmann, T.; Kiyamura, H.; Kladiva, E.; Klein, M.; Klein, U.; Kleinknecht, K.; Klemetti, M.; Klier, A.; Klimentov, A.; Klingenberg, R.; Klinkby, E. B.; Klioutchnikova, T.; Klok, P. F.; Klous, S.; Kluge, E.-E.; Kluge, T.; Kluit, P.; Klute, M.; Kluth, S.; Knecht, N. S.; Kneringer, E.; Ko, B. R.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobel, M.; Koblitz, B.; Kocian, M.; Kocnar, A.; Kodys, P.; Köneke, K.; König, A. C.; Köpke, L.; Koetsveld, F.; Koevesarki, P.; Koffas, T.; Koffeman, E.; Kohn, F.; Kohout, Z.; Kohriki, T.; Kokott, T.; Kolanoski, H.; Kolesnikov, V.; Koletsou, I.; Koll, J.; Kollar, D.; Kolos, S.; Kolya, S. D.; Komar, A. A.; Komaragiri, J. R.; Kondo, T.; Kono, T.; Kononov, A. I.; Konoplich, R.; Konovalov, S. P.; Konstantinidis, N.; Koperny, S.; Korcyl, K.; Kordas, K.; Koreshev, V.; Korn, A.; Korolkov, I.; Korolkova, E. V.; Korotkov, V. A.; Kortner, O.; Kostka, P.; Kostyukhin, V. V.; Kotamäki, M. J.; Kotov, S.; Kotov, V. M.; Kotov, K. Y.; Koupilova, Z.; Kourkoumelis, C.; Koutsman, A.; Kowalewski, R.; Kowalski, H.; Kowalski, T. Z.; Kozanecki, W.; Kozhin, A. S.; Kral, V.; Kramarenko, V. A.; Kramberger, G.; Krasny, M. W.; Krasznahorkay, A.; Kreisel, A.; Krejci, F.; Krepouri, A.; Kretzschmar, J.; Krieger, P.; Krobath, G.; Kroeninger, K.; Kroha, H.; Kroll, J.; Kroseberg, J.; Krstic, J.; Kruchonak, U.; Krüger, H.; Krumshteyn, Z. V.; Kubota, T.; Kuehn, S.; Kugel, A.; Kuhl, T.; Kuhn, D.; Kukhtin, V.; Kulchitsky, Y.; Kuleshov, S.; Kummer, C.; Kuna, M.; Kunkle, J.; Kupco, A.; Kurashige, H.; Kurata, M.; Kurchaninov, L. L.; Kurochkin, Y. A.; Kus, V.; Kuznetsova, E.; Kvasnicka, O.; Kwee, R.; La Rotonda, L.; Labarga, L.; Labbe, J.; Lacasta, C.; Lacava, F.; Lacker, H.; Lacour, D.; Lacuesta, V. R.; Ladygin, E.; Lafaye, R.; Laforge, B.; Lagouri, T.; Lai, S.; Lamanna, M.; Lampen, C. L.; Lampl, W.; Lancon, E.; Landgraf, U.; Landon, M. P. J.; Lane, J. L.; Lankford, A. J.; Lanni, F.; Lantzsch, K.; Lanza, A.; Laplace, S.; Lapoire, C.; Laporte, J. F.; Lari, T.; Larionov, A. V.; Larner, A.; Lasseur, C.; Lassnig, M.; Laurelli, P.; Lavrijsen, W.; Laycock, P.; Lazarev, A. B.; Lazzaro, A.; Le Dortz, O.; Le Guirriec, E.; Le Maner, C.; Le Menedeu, E.; Le Vine, M.; Leahu, M.; Lebedev, A.; Lebel, C.; Lecompte, T.; Ledroit-Guillon, F.; Lee, H.; Lee, J. S. H.; Lee, S. C.; Lefebvre, M.; Legendre, M.; Legeyt, B. C.; Legger, F.; Leggett, C.; Lehmacher, M.; Lehmann Miotto, G.; Lei, X.; Leitner, R.; Lelas, D.; Lellouch, D.; Lellouch, J.; Leltchouk, M.; Lendermann, V.; Leney, K. J. C.; Lenz, T.; Lenzen, G.; Lenzi, B.; Leonhardt, K.; Leroy, C.; Lessard, J.-R.; Lester, C. G.; Leung Fook Cheong, A.; Levêque, J.; Levin, D.; Levinson, L. J.; Levitski, M. S.; Levonian, S.; Lewandowska, M.; Leyton, M.; Li, H.; Li, J.; Li, S.; Li, X.; Liang, Z.; Liang, Z.; Liberti, B.; Lichard, P.; Lichtnecker, M.; Lie, K.; Liebig, W.; Liko, D.; Lilley, J. N.; Lim, H.; Limosani, A.; Limper, M.; Lin, S. C.; Lindsay, S. W.; Linhart, V.; Linnemann, J. T.; Liolios, A.; Lipeles, E.; Lipinsky, L.; Lipniacka, A.; Liss, T. M.; Lissauer, D.; Lister, A.; Litke, A. M.; Liu, C.; Liu, D.; Liu, H.; Liu, J. B.; Liu, M.; Liu, S.; Liu, T.; Liu, Y.; Livan, M.; Lleres, A.; Lloyd, S. L.; Lobodzinska, E.; Loch, P.; Lockman, W. S.; Lockwitz, S.; Loddenkoetter, T.; Loebinger, F. K.; Loginov, A.; Loh, C. W.; Lohse, T.; Lohwasser, K.; Lokajicek, M.; Loken, J.; Lopes, L.; Lopez Mateos, D.; Losada, M.; Loscutoff, P.; Losty, M. J.; Lou, X.; Lounis, A.; Loureiro, K. F.; Lovas, L.; Love, J.; Love, P.; Lowe, A. J.; Lu, F.; Lu, J.; Lubatti, H. J.; Luci, C.; Lucotte, A.; Ludwig, A.; Ludwig, D.; Ludwig, I.; Ludwig, J.; Luehring, F.; Luisa, L.; Lumb, D.; Luminari, L.; Lund, E.; Lund-Jensen, B.; Lundberg, B.; Lundberg, J.; Lundquist, J.; Lutz, G.; Lynn, D.; Lys, J.; Lytken, E.; Ma, H.; Ma, L. L.; Macana Goia, J. A.; Maccarrone, G.; Macchiolo, A.; Maček, B.; Machado Miguens, J.; Mackeprang, R.; Madaras, R. J.; Mader, W. F.; Maenner, R.; Maeno, T.; Mättig, P.; Mättig, S.; Magalhaes Martins, P. J.; Magradze, E.; Magrath, C. A.; Mahalalel, Y.; Mahboubi, K.; Mahmood, A.; Mahout, G.; Maiani, C.; Maidantchik, C.; Maio, A.; Majewski, S.; Makida, Y.; Makouski, M.; Makovec, N.; Malecki, Pa.; Malecki, P.; Maleev, V. P.; Malek, F.; Mallik, U.; Malon, D.; Maltezos, S.; Malyshev, V.; Malyukov, S.; Mambelli, M.; Mameghani, R.; Mamuzic, J.; Manabe, A.; Mandelli, L.; Mandić, I.; Mandrysch, R.; Maneira, J.; Mangeard, P. S.; Manjavidze, I. D.; Manning, P. M.; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A.; Mansoulie, B.; Mapelli, A.; Mapelli, L.; March, L.; Marchand, J. F.; Marchese, F.; Marchiori, G.; Marcisovsky, M.; Marino, C. P.; Marques, C. N.; Marroquim, F.; Marshall, R.; Marshall, Z.; Martens, F. K.; Marti I Garcia, S.; Martin, A. J.; Martin, A. J.; Martin, B.; Martin, B.; Martin, F. F.; Martin, J. P.; Martin, T. A.; Martin Dit Latour, B.; Martinez, M.; Martinez Outschoorn, V.; Martini, A.; Martyniuk, A. C.; Maruyama, T.; Marzano, F.; Marzin, A.; Masetti, L.; Mashimo, T.; Mashinistov, R.; Masik, J.; Maslennikov, A. L.; Massaro, G.; Massol, N.; Mastroberardino, A.; Masubuchi, T.; Mathes, M.; Matricon, P.; Matsunaga, H.; Matsushita, T.; Mattravers, C.; Maxfield, S. J.; May, E. N.; Mayne, A.; Mazini, R.; Mazur, M.; Mazzanti, M.; Mazzanti, P.; Mc Donald, J.; Mc Kee, S. P.; McCarn, A.; McCarthy, R. L.; McCubbin, N. A.; McFarlane, K. W.; McGlone, H.; McHedlidze, G.; McLaren, R. A.; McMahon, S. J.; McMahon, T. R.; McPherson, R. A.; Meade, A.; Mechnich, J.; Mechtel, M.; Medinnis, M.; Meera-Lebbai, R.; Meguro, T. M.; Mehdiyev, R.; Mehlhase, S.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Meirose, B.; Melachrinos, C.; Melamed-Katz, A.; Mellado Garcia, B. R.; Meng, Z.; Menke, S.; Meoni, E.; Merkl, D.; Mermod, P.; Merola, L.; Meroni, C.; Merritt, F. S.; Messina, A. M.; Messmer, I.; Metcalfe, J.; Mete, A. S.; Meyer, J.-P.; Meyer, J.; Meyer, J.; Meyer, T. C.; Meyer, W. T.; Miao, J.; Michal, S.; Micu, L.; Middleton, R. P.; Migas, S.; Mijović, L.; Mikenberg, G.; Mikuž, M.; Miller, D. W.; Mills, W. J.; Mills, C. M.; Milov, A.; Milstead, D. A.; Minaenko, A. A.; Miñano, M.; Minashvili, I. A.; Mincer, A. I.; Mindur, B.; Mineev, M.; Ming, Y.; Mir, L. M.; Mirabelli, G.; Misawa, S.; Miscetti, S.; Misiejuk, A.; Mitrevski, J.; Mitsou, V. A.; Miyagawa, P. S.; Mjörnmark, J. U.; Mladenov, D.; Moa, T.; Moed, S.; Moeller, V.; Mönig, K.; Möser, N.; Mohn, B.; Mohr, W.; Mohrdieck-Möck, S.; Moles-Valls, R.; Molina-Perez, J.; Moloney, G.; Monk, J.; Monnier, E.; Montesano, S.; Monticelli, F.; Moore, R. W.; Mora Herrera, C.; Moraes, A.; Morais, A.; Morel, J.; Morello, G.; Moreno, D.; Llácer, M. Moreno; Morettini, P.; Morii, M.; Morley, A. K.; Mornacchi, G.; Morozov, S. V.; Morris, J. D.; Moser, H. G.; Mosidze, M.; Moss, J.; Mount, R.; Mountricha, E.; Mouraviev, S. V.; Moyse, E. J. W.; Mudrinic, M.; Mueller, F.; Mueller, J.; Mueller, K.; Müller, T. A.; Muenstermann, D.; Muir, A.; Munwes, Y.; Murillo Garcia, R.; Murray, W. J.; Mussche, I.; Musto, E.; Myagkov, A. G.; Myska, M.; Nadal, J.; Nagai, K.; Nagano, K.; Nagasaka, Y.; Nairz, A. M.; Nakamura, K.; Nakano, I.; Nakatsuka, H.; Nanava, G.; Napier, A.; Nash, M.; Nation, N. R.; Nattermann, T.; Naumann, T.; Navarro, G.; Nderitu, S. K.; Neal, H. A.; Nebot, E.; Nechaeva, P.; Negri, A.; Negri, G.; Nelson, A.; Nelson, T. K.; Nemecek, S.; Nemethy, P.; Nepomuceno, A. A.; Nessi, M.; Neubauer, M. S.; Neusiedl, A.; Neves, R. N.; Nevski, P.; Newcomer, F. M.; Nickerson, R. B.; Nicolaidou, R.; Nicolas, L.; Nicoletti, G.; Niedercorn, F.; Nielsen, J.; Nikiforov, A.; Nikolaev, K.; Nikolic-Audit, I.; Nikolopoulos, K.; Nilsen, H.; Nilsson, P.; Nisati, A.; Nishiyama, T.; Nisius, R.; Nodulman, L.; Nomachi, M.; Nomidis, I.; Nordberg, M.; Nordkvist, B.; Notz, D.; Novakova, J.; Nozaki, M.; Nožička, M.; Nugent, I. M.; Nuncio-Quiroz, A.-E.; Nunes Hanninger, G.; Nunnemann, T.; Nurse, E.; O'Neil, D. C.; O'Shea, V.; Oakham, F. G.; Oberlack, H.; Ochi, A.; Oda, S.; Odaka, S.; Odier, J.; Odino, G. A.; Ogren, H.; Oh, A.; Oh, S. H.; Ohm, C. C.; Ohshima, T.; Ohshita, H.; Ohsugi, T.; Okada, S.; Okawa, H.; Okumura, Y.; Olcese, M.; Olchevski, A. G.; Oliveira, M.; Oliveira Damazio, D.; Oliver, J.; Oliver Garcia, E.; Olivito, D.; Olszewski, A.; Olszowska, J.; Omachi, C.; Onofre, A.; Onyisi, P. U. E.; Oram, C. J.; Ordonez, G.; Oreglia, M. J.; Oren, Y.; Orestano, D.; Orlov, I.; Oropeza Barrera, C.; Orr, R. S.; Ortega, E. O.; Osculati, B.; Ospanov, R.; Osuna, C.; Otec, R.; P Ottersbach, J.; Ould-Saada, F.; Ouraou, A.; Ouyang, Q.; Owen, M.; Owen, S.; Oyarzun, A.; Ozcan, V. E.; Ozone, K.; Ozturk, N.; Pacheco Pages, A.; Padhi, S.; Padilla Aranda, C.; Paganis, E.; Pahl, C.; Paige, F.; Pajchel, K.; Palestini, S.; Pallin, D.; Palma, A.; Palmer, J. D.; Pan, Y. B.; Panagiotopoulou, E.; Panes, B.; Panikashvili, N.; Panitkin, S.; Pantea, D.; Panuskova, M.; Paolone, V.; Papadopoulou, Th. D.; Park, S. J.; Park, W.; Parker, M. A.; Parker, S. I.; Parodi, F.; Parsons, J. A.; Parzefall, U.; Pasqualucci, E.; Passardi, G.; Passeri, A.; Pastore, F.; Pastore, Fr.; Pásztor, G.; Pataraia, S.; Pater, J. R.; Patricelli, S.; Patwa, A.; Pauly, T.; Peak, L. S.; Pecsy, M.; Pedraza Morales, M. I.; Peleganchuk, S. V.; Peng, H.; Penson, A.; Penwell, J.; Perantoni, M.; Perez, K.; Perez Codina, E.; Pérez García-Estañ, M. T.; Perez Reale, V.; Perini, L.; Pernegger, H.; Perrino, R.; Perrodo, P.; Persembe, S.; Perus, P.; Peshekhonov, V. D.; Petersen, B. A.; Petersen, J.; Petersen, T. C.; Petit, E.; Petridou, C.; Petrolo, E.; Petrucci, F.; Petschull, D.; Petteni, M.; Pezoa, R.; Pfeifer, B.; Phan, A.; Phillips, A. W.; Piacquadio, G.; Piccinini, M.; Piegaia, R.; Pilcher, J. E.; Pilkington, A. D.; Pina, J.; Pinamonti, M.; Pinfold, J. L.; Ping, J.; Pinto, B.; Pizio, C.; Placakyte, R.; Plamondon, M.; Plano, W. G.; Pleier, M.-A.; Poblaguev, A.; Poddar, S.; Podlyski, F.; Poffenberger, P.; Poggioli, L.; Pohl, M.; Polci, F.; Polesello, G.; Policicchio, A.; Polini, A.; Poll, J.; Polychronakos, V.; Pomarede, D. M.; Pomeroy, D.; Pommès, K.; Pontecorvo, L.; Pope, B. G.; Popovic, D. S.; Poppleton, A.; Popule, J.; Portell Bueso, X.; Porter, R.; Pospelov, G. E.; Pospichal, P.; Pospisil, S.; Potekhin, M.; Potrap, I. N.; Potter, C. J.; Potter, C. T.; Potter, K. P.; Poulard, G.; Poveda, J.; Prabhu, R.; Pralavorio, P.; Prasad, S.; Pravahan, R.; Preda, T.; Pretzl, K.; Pribyl, L.; Price, D.; Price, L. E.; Prichard, P. M.; Prieur, D.; Primavera, M.; Prokofiev, K.; Prokoshin, F.; Protopopescu, S.; Proudfoot, J.; Prudent, X.; Przysiezniak, H.; Psoroulas, S.; Ptacek, E.; Puigdengoles, C.; Purdham, J.; Purohit, M.; Puzo, P.; Pylypchenko, Y.; Qi, M.; Qian, J.; Qian, W.; Qian, Z.; Qin, Z.; Qing, D.; Quadt, A.; Quarrie, D. R.; Quayle, W. B.; Quinonez, F.; Raas, M.; Radeka, V.; Radescu, V.; Radics, B.; Rador, T.; Ragusa, F.; Rahal, G.; Rahimi, A. M.; Rahm, D.; Rajagopalan, S.; Rammes, M.; Ratoff, P. N.; Rauscher, F.; Rauter, E.; Raymond, M.; Read, A. L.; Rebuzzi, D. M.; Redelbach, A.; Redlinger, G.; Reece, R.; Reeves, K.; Reinherz-Aronis, E.; Reinsch, A.; Reisinger, I.; Reljic, D.; Rembser, C.; Ren, Z. L.; Renkel, P.; Rescia, S.; Rescigno, M.; Resconi, S.; Resende, B.; Reznicek, P.; Rezvani, R.; Richards, A.; Richards, R. A.; Richter, R.; Richter-Was, E.; Ridel, M.; Rieke, S.; Rijpstra, M.; Rijssenbeek, M.; Rimoldi, A.; Rinaldi, L.; Rios, R. R.; Riu, I.; Rivoltella, G.; Rizatdinova, F.; Rizvi, E. R.; Roa Romero, D. A.; Robertson, S. H.; Robichaud-Veronneau, A.; Robinson, D.; Robinson, J.; Robinson, M.; Robson, A.; Rocha de Lima, J. G.; Roda, C.; Roda Dos Santos, D.; Rodriguez, D.; Rodriguez Garcia, Y.; Roe, S.; Røhne, O.; Rojo, V.; Rolli, S.; Romaniouk, A.; Romanov, V. M.; Romeo, G.; Romero Maltrana, D.; Roos, L.; Ros, E.; Rosati, S.; Rosenbaum, G. A.; Rosenberg, E. I.; Rosselet, L.; Rossetti, V.; Rossi, L. P.; Rotaru, M.; Rothberg, J.; Rottländer, I.; Rousseau, D.; Royon, C. R.; Rozanov, A.; Rozen, Y.; Ruan, X.; Ruckert, B.; Ruckstuhl, N.; Rud, V. I.; Rudolph, G.; Rühr, F.; Ruggieri, F.; Ruiz-Martinez, A.; Rumyantsev, L.; Rusakovich, N. A.; Rutherfoord, J. P.; Ruwiedel, C.; Ruzicka, P.; Ryabov, Y. F.; Ryadovikov, V.; Ryan, P.; Rybkin, G.; Rzaeva, S.; Saavedra, A. F.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Sadykov, R.; Sakamoto, H.; Salamanna, G.; Salamon, A.; Saleem, M.; Salihagic, D.; Salnikov, A.; Salt, J.; Salvachua Ferrando, B. M.; Salvatore, D.; Salvatore, F.; Salvucci, A.; Salzburger, A.; Sampsonidis, D.; Samset, B. H.; Sanchis Lozano, M. A.; Sandaker, H.; Sander, H. G.; Sanders, M. P.; Sandhoff, M.; Sandstroem, R.; Sandvoss, S.; Sankey, D. P. C.; Sanny, B.; Sansoni, A.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Santi, L.; Santoni, C.; Santonico, R.; Santos, J.; Saraiva, J. G.; Sarangi, T.; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, E.; Sarri, F.; Sasaki, O.; Sasaki, T.; Sasao, N.; Satsounkevitch, I.; Sauvage, G.; Savard, P.; Savine, A. Y.; Savinov, V.; Sawyer, L.; Saxon, D. H.; Says, L. P.; Sbarra, C.; Sbrizzi, A.; Scannicchio, D. A.; Schaarschmidt, J.; Schacht, P.; Schäfer, U.; Schaetzel, S.; Schaffer, A. C.; Schaile, D.; Schamberger, R. D.; Schamov, A. G.; Schegelsky, V. A.; Scheirich, D.; Schernau, M.; Scherzer, M. I.; Schiavi, C.; Schieck, J.; Schioppa, M.; Schlenker, S.; Schlereth, J. L.; Schmid, P.; Schmieden, K.; Schmitt, C.; Schmitz, M.; Schott, M.; Schouten, D.; Schovancova, J.; Schram, M.; Schreiner, A.; Schroeder, C.; Schroer, N.; Schroers, M.; Schuler, G.; Schultes, J.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Schumacher, J. W.; Schumacher, M.; Schumm, B. A.; Schune, Ph.; Schwanenberger, C.; Schwartzman, A.; Schwemling, Ph.; Schwienhorst, R.; Schwierz, R.; Schwindling, J.; Scott, W. G.; Searcy, J.; Sedykh, E.; Segura, E.; Seidel, S. C.; Seiden, A.; Seifert, F.; Seixas, J. M.; Sekhniaidze, G.; Seliverstov, D. M.; Sellden, B.; Seman, M.; Semprini-Cesari, N.; Serfon, C.; Serin, L.; Seuster, R.; Severini, H.; Sevior, M. E.; Sfyrla, A.; Shabalina, E.; Shamim, M.; Shan, L. Y.; Shank, J. T.; Shao, Q. T.; Shapiro, M.; Shatalov, P. B.; Shaver, L.; Shaw, K.; Sherman, D.; Sherwood, P.; Shibata, A.; Shimojima, M.; Shin, T.; Shmeleva, A.; Shochet, M. J.; Shupe, M. A.; Sicho, P.; Sidoti, A.; Siebel, A.; Siegert, F.; Siegrist, J.; Sijacki, Dj.; Silbert, O.; Silva, J.; Silver, Y.; Silverstein, D.; Silverstein, S. B.; Simak, V.; Simic, Lj.; Simion, S.; Simmons, B.; Simonyan, M.; Sinervo, P.; Sinev, N. B.; Sipica, V.; Siragusa, G.; Sisakyan, A. N.; Sivoklokov, S. Yu.; Sjoelin, J.; Sjursen, T. B.; Skubic, P.; Skvorodnev, N.; Slater, M.; Slavicek, T.; Sliwa, K.; Sloper, J.; Sluka, T.; Smakhtin, V.; Smirnov, S. Yu.; Smirnov, Y.; Smirnova, L. N.; Smirnova, O.; Smith, B. C.; Smith, D.; Smith, K. M.; Smizanska, M.; Smolek, K.; Snesarev, A. A.; Snow, S. W.; Snow, J.; Snuverink, J.; Snyder, S.; Soares, M.; Sobie, R.; Sodomka, J.; Soffer, A.; Solans, C. A.; Solar, M.; Solc, J.; Solfaroli Camillocci, E.; Solodkov, A. A.; Solovyanov, O. V.; Soluk, R.; Sondericker, J.; Sopko, V.; Sopko, B.; Sosebee, M.; Sosnovtsev, V. V.; Sospedra Suay, L.; Soukharev, A.; Spagnolo, S.; Spanò, F.; Speckmayer, P.; Spencer, E.; Spighi, R.; Spigo, G.; Spila, F.; Spiwoks, R.; Spousta, M.; Spreitzer, T.; Spurlock, B.; Denis, R. D. St.; Stahl, T.; Stahlman, J.; Stamen, R.; Stancu, S. N.; Stanecka, E.; Stanek, R. W.; Stanescu, C.; Stapnes, S.; Starchenko, E. A.; Stark, J.; Staroba, P.; Starovoitov, P.; Stastny, J.; Staude, A.; Stavina, P.; Stavropoulos, G.; Steele, G.; Steinbach, P.; Steinberg, P.; Stekl, I.; Stelzer, B.; Stelzer, H. J.; Stelzer-Chilton, O.; Stenzel, H.; Stevenson, K.; Stewart, G.; Stockton, M. C.; Stoerig, K.; Stoicea, G.; Stonjek, S.; Strachota, P.; Stradling, A.; Straessner, A.; Strandberg, J.; Strandberg, S.; Strandlie, A.; Strauss, M.; Strizenec, P.; Ströhmer, R.; Strom, D. M.; Strong, J. A.; Stroynowski, R.; Strube, J.; Stugu, B.; Stumer, I.; Soh, D. A.; Su, D.; Suchkov, S. I.; Sugaya, Y.; Sugimoto, T.; Suhr, C.; Suk, M.; Sulin, V. V.; Sultansoy, S.; Sumida, T.; Sun, X.; Sundermann, J. E.; Suruliz, K.; Sushkov, S.; Susinno, G.; Sutton, M. R.; Suzuki, T.; Suzuki, Y.; Sviridov, Yu. M.; Sykora, I.; Sykora, T.; Szymocha, T.; Sánchez, J.; Ta, D.; Tackmann, K.; Taffard, A.; Tafirout, R.; Taga, A.; Takahashi, Y.; Takai, H.; Takashima, R.; Takeda, H.; Takeshita, T.; Talby, M.; Talyshev, A.; Tamsett, M. C.; Tanaka, J.; Tanaka, R.; Tanaka, S.; Tanaka, S.; Tappern, G. P.; Tapprogge, S.; Tardif, D.; Tarem, S.; Tarrade, F.; Tartarelli, G. F.; Tas, P.; Tasevsky, M.; Tassi, E.; Tatarkhanov, M.; Taylor, C.; Taylor, F. E.; Taylor, G. N.; Taylor, R. P.; Taylor, W.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Ten Kate, H.; Teng, P. K.; Tennenbaum-Katan, Y. D.; Terada, S.; Terashi, K.; Terron, J.; Terwort, M.; Testa, M.; Teuscher, R. J.; Tevlin, C. M.; Thadome, J.; Thananuwong, R.; Thioye, M.; Thoma, S.; Thomas, J. P.; Thomas, T. L.; Thompson, E. N.; Thompson, P. D.; Thompson, P. D.; Thompson, R. J.; Thompson, A. S.; Thomson, E.; Thun, R. P.; Tic, T.; Tikhomirov, V. O.; Tikhonov, Y. A.; Timmermans, C. J. W. P.; Tipton, P.; Tique Aires Viegas, F. J.; Tisserant, S.; Tobias, J.; Toczek, B.; Todorov, T.; Todorova-Nova, S.; Toggerson, B.; Tojo, J.; Tokár, S.; Tokushuku, K.; Tollefson, K.; Tomasek, L.; Tomasek, M.; Tomasz, F.; Tomoto, M.; Tompkins, D.; Tompkins, L.; Toms, K.; Tong, G.; Tonoyan, A.; Topfel, C.; Topilin, N. D.; Torrence, E.; Torró Pastor, E.; Toth, J.; Touchard, F.; Tovey, D. R.; Tovey, S. N.; Trefzger, T.; Tremblet, L.; Tricoli, A.; Trigger, I. M.; Trincaz-Duvoid, S.; Trinh, T. N.; Tripiana, M. F.; Triplett, N.; Trischuk, W.; Trivedi, A.; Trocmé, B.; Troncon, C.; Trzupek, A.; Tsarouchas, C.; Tseng, J. C.-L.; Tsiafis, I.; Tsiakiris, M.; Tsiareshka, P. V.; Tsionou, D.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsiskaridze, V.; Tskhadadze, E. G.; Tsukerman, I. I.; Tsulaia, V.; Tsung, J.-W.; Tsuno, S.; Tsybychev, D.; Turala, M.; Turecek, D.; Turk Cakir, I.; Turlay, E.; Tuts, P. M.; Twomey, M. S.; Tylmad, M.; Tyndel, M.; Tzanakos, G.; Uchida, K.; Ueda, I.; Ugland, M.; Uhlenbrock, M.; Uhrmacher, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Unal, G.; Underwood, D. G.; Undrus, A.; Unel, G.; Unno, Y.; Urbaniec, D.; Urkovsky, E.; Urquijo, P.; Urrejola, P.; Usai, G.; Uslenghi, M.; Vacavant, L.; Vacek, V.; Vachon, B.; Vahsen, S.; Valenta, J.; Valente, P.; Valentinetti, S.; Valkar, S.; Valladolid Gallego, E.; Vallecorsa, S.; Valls Ferrer, J. A.; van Berg, R.; van der Graaf, H.; van der Kraaij, E.; van der Poel, E.; van der Ster, D.; van Eldik, N.; van Gemmeren, P.; van Kesteren, Z.; van Vulpen, I.; Vandelli, W.; Vandoni, G.; Vaniachine, A.; Vankov, P.; Vannucci, F.; Varela Rodriguez, F.; Vari, R.; Varnes, E. W.; Varouchas, D.; Vartapetian, A.; Varvell, K. E.; Vasilyeva, L.; Vassilakopoulos, V. I.; Vazeille, F.; Vegni, G.; Veillet, J. J.; Vellidis, C.; Veloso, F.; Veness, R.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Ventura, D.; Venturi, M.; Venturi, N.; Vercesi, V.; Verducci, M.; Verkerke, W.; Vermeulen, J. C.; Vetterli, M. C.; Vichou, I.; Vickey, T.; Viehhauser, G. H. A.; Villa, M.; Villani, E. G.; Villaplana Perez, M.; Villate, J.; Vilucchi, E.; Vincter, M. G.; Vinek, E.; Vinogradov, V. B.; Viret, S.; Virzi, J.; Vitale, A.; Vitells, O. V.; Vivarelli, I.; Vives Vaques, F.; Vlachos, S.; Vlasak, M.; Vlasov, N.; Vogel, A.; Vokac, P.; Volpi, M.; Volpini, G.; von der Schmitt, H.; von Loeben, J.; von Radziewski, H.; von Toerne, E.; Vorobel, V.; Vorobiev, A. P.; Vorwerk, V.; Vos, M.; Voss, R.; Voss, T. T.; Vossebeld, J. H.; Vranjes, N.; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M.; Vrba, V.; Vreeswijk, M.; Vu Anh, T.; Vudragovic, D.; Vuillermet, R.; Vukotic, I.; Wagner, P.; Wahlen, H.; Walbersloh, J.; Walder, J.; Walker, R.; Walkowiak, W.; Wall, R.; Wang, C.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Wang, J. C.; Wang, S. M.; Ward, C. P.; Warsinsky, M.; Wastie, R.; Watkins, P. M.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, M. F.; Watts, G.; Watts, S.; Waugh, A. T.; Waugh, B. M.; Webel, M.; Weber, J.; Weber, M. D.; Weber, M.; Weber, M. S.; Weber, P.; Weidberg, A. R.; Weingarten, J.; Weiser, C.; Wellenstein, H.; Wells, P. S.; Wen, M.; Wenaus, T.; Wendler, S.; Wengler, T.; Wenig, S.; Wermes, N.; Werner, M.; Werner, P.; Werth, M.; Werthenbach, U.; Wessels, M.; Whalen, K.; Wheeler-Ellis, S. J.; Whitaker, S. P.; White, A.; White, M. J.; White, S.; Whiteson, D.; Whittington, D.; Wicek, F.; Wicke, D.; Wickens, F. J.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wielers, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wiglesworth, C.; Wiik, L. A. M.; Wildauer, A.; Wildt, M. A.; Wilhelm, I.; Wilkens, H. G.; Williams, E.; Williams, H. H.; Willis, W.; Willocq, S.; Wilson, J. A.; Wilson, M. G.; Wilson, A.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Winklmeier, F.; Wittgen, M.; Wolter, M. W.; Wolters, H.; Wosiek, B. K.; Wotschack, J.; Woudstra, M. J.; Wraight, K.; Wright, C.; Wright, D.; Wrona, B.; Wu, S. L.; Wu, X.; Wulf, E.; Xella, S.; Xie, S.; Xie, Y.; Xu, D.; Xu, N.; Yamada, M.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamamura, T.; Yamanaka, K.; Yamaoka, J.; Yamazaki, T.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yan, Z.; Yang, H.; Yang, U. K.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Z.; Yao, W.-M.; Yao, Y.; Yasu, Y.; Ye, J.; Ye, S.; Yilmaz, M.; Yoosoofmiya, R.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, R.; Young, C.; Youssef, S. P.; Yu, D.; Yu, J.; Yu, M.; Yu, X.; Yuan, J.; Yuan, L.; Yurkewicz, A.; Zaidan, R.; Zaitsev, A. M.; Zajacova, Z.; Zambrano, V.; Zanello, L.; Zarzhitsky, P.; Zaytsev, A.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeller, M.; Zema, P. F.; Zemla, A.; Zendler, C.; Zenin, O.; Zenis, T.; Zenonos, Z.; Zenz, S.; Zerwas, D.; Zevi Della Porta, G.; Zhan, Z.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, Q.; Zhang, X.; Zhao, L.; Zhao, T.; Zhao, Z.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, S.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, N.; Zhou, Y.; Zhu, C. G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zhuravlov, V.; Zimmermann, R.; Zimmermann, S.; Zimmermann, S.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zitoun, R.; Živković, L.; Zmouchko, V. V.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; Zur Nedden, M.; Zutshi, V.

    2010-12-01

    The ionization signals in the liquid argon of the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter are studied in detail using cosmic muons. In particular, the drift time of the ionization electrons is measured and used to assess the intrinsic uniformity of the calorimeter gaps and estimate its impact on the constant term of the energy resolution. The drift times of electrons in the cells of the second layer of the calorimeter are uniform at the level of 1.3% in the barrel and 2.8% in the endcaps. This leads to an estimated contribution to the constant term of (0.29^{+0.05}_{-0.04})% in the barrel and (0.54^{+0.06}_{-0.04})% in the endcaps. The same data are used to measure the drift velocity of ionization electrons in liquid argon, which is found to be 4.61±0.07 mm/μs at 88.5 K and 1 kV/mm.

  11. Superconducting magnets for muon capture and phase rotation

    SciTech Connect

    Green, M.A.; Weggel, R.J.

    1999-07-26

    There are two key systems that must operate efficiently, in order for a muon collider to be a viable option for high energy physics. These systems are the muon production and collection system and the muon cooling system. Both systems require the use of high field superconducting solenoid magnets. This paper describes the supcrconducting solenoid system used for the capture and phase rotation of the pions that are produced on a target in a high intensity proton beam.

  12. Design and commissioning of a high magnetic field muon spin relaxation spectrometer at the ISIS pulsed neutron and muon source.

    PubMed

    Lord, J S; McKenzie, I; Baker, P J; Blundell, S J; Cottrell, S P; Giblin, S R; Good, J; Hillier, A D; Holsman, B H; King, P J C; Lancaster, T; Mitchell, R; Nightingale, J B; Owczarkowski, M; Poli, S; Pratt, F L; Rhodes, N J; Scheuermann, R; Salman, Z

    2011-07-01

    The high magnetic field (HiFi) muon instrument at the ISIS pulsed neutron and muon source is a state-of-the-art spectrometer designed to provide applied magnetic fields up to 5 T for muon studies of condensed matter and molecular systems. The spectrometer is optimised for time-differential muon spin relaxation studies at a pulsed muon source. We describe the challenges involved in its design and construction, detailing, in particular, the magnet and detector performance. Commissioning experiments have been conducted and the results are presented to demonstrate the scientific capabilities of the new instrument. PMID:21806196

  13. Design and commissioning of a high magnetic field muon spin relaxation spectrometer at the ISIS pulsed neutron and muon source

    SciTech Connect

    Lord, J. S.; McKenzie, I.; Baker, P. J.; Cottrell, S. P.; Giblin, S. R.; Hillier, A. D.; Holsman, B. H.; King, P. J. C.; Nightingale, J. B.; Pratt, F. L.; Rhodes, N. J.; Blundell, S. J.; Lancaster, T.; Good, J.; Mitchell, R.; Owczarkowski, M.; Poli, S.; Scheuermann, R.; Salman, Z.

    2011-07-15

    The high magnetic field (HiFi) muon instrument at the ISIS pulsed neutron and muon source is a state-of-the-art spectrometer designed to provide applied magnetic fields up to 5 T for muon studies of condensed matter and molecular systems. The spectrometer is optimised for time-differential muon spin relaxation studies at a pulsed muon source. We describe the challenges involved in its design and construction, detailing, in particular, the magnet and detector performance. Commissioning experiments have been conducted and the results are presented to demonstrate the scientific capabilities of the new instrument.

  14. Recent Results From The ATLAS Endcap Combined Test Beam

    SciTech Connect

    Schacht, Peter

    2006-10-27

    The ATLAS detector at the LHC at CERN is entering the last phase of construction, with the ATLAS calorimeter passing already the first steps of commissioning. The endcap region in the range of pseudorapidity 2.4 < |{eta}| < 4.0 is a particular complex one, with the electromagnetic, hadronic and forward calorimeters. In a dedicated beam run this region has been studied using the individual calorimeter modules. The set-up was as close as possible to the real ATLAS calorimeter, including all details like inactive support material structures. The goal is to validate the MC simulation for the different regions and to cross check the intercalibration of the various calorimeters. Electron and pion data have been taken in an energy range 6 < E < 200 GeV with special emphasis on lateral and vertical scans to study the transition regions in detail.

  15. Steps towards the hyperfine splitting measurement of the muonic hydrogen ground state: pulsed muon beam and detection system characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamczak, A.; Baccolo, G.; Bakalov, D.; Baldazzi, G.; Bertoni, R.; Bonesini, M.; Bonvicini, V.; Campana, R.; Carbone, R.; Cervi, T.; Chignoli, F.; Clemenza, M.; Colace, L.; Curioni, A.; Danailov, M.; Danev, P.; D'Antone, I.; De Bari, A.; De Vecchi, C.; De Vincenzi, M.; Furini, M.; Fuschino, F.; Gadedjisso-Tossou, K. S.; Guffanti, D.; Iaciofano, A.; Ishida, K.; Iugovaz, D.; Labanti, C.; Maggi, V.; Margotti, A.; Marisaldi, M.; Mazza, R.; Meneghini, S.; Menegolli, A.; Mocchiutti, E.; Moretti, M.; Morgante, G.; Nardò, R.; Nastasi, M.; Niemela, J.; Previtali, E.; Ramponi, R.; Rachevski, A.; Rignanese, L. P.; Rossella, M.; Rossi, P. L.; Somma, F.; Stoilov, M.; Stoychev, L.; Tomaselli, A.; Tortora, L.; Vacchi, A.; Vallazza, E.; Zampa, G.; Zuffa, M.

    2016-05-01

    The high precision measurement of the hyperfine splitting of the muonic-hydrogen atom ground state with pulsed and intense muon beam requires careful technological choices both in the construction of a gas target and of the detectors. In June 2014, the pressurized gas target of the FAMU experiment was exposed to the low energy pulsed muon beam at the RIKEN RAL muon facility. The objectives of the test were the characterization of the target, the hodoscope and the X-ray detectors. The apparatus consisted of a beam hodoscope and X-rays detectors made with high purity Germanium and Lanthanum Bromide crystals. In this paper the experimental setup is described and the results of the detector characterization are presented.

  16. Pion contamination in the MICE muon beam

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Adams, D.; Alekou, A.; Apollonio, M.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Barber, G.; Barclay, P.; de Bari, A.; Bayes, R.; Bayliss, V.; Bertoni, R.; et al

    2016-03-01

    Here, the international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) will perform a systematic investigation of ionization cooling with muon beams of momentum between 140 and 240\\,MeV/c at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory ISIS facility. The measurement of ionization cooling in MICE relies on the selection of a pure sample of muons that traverse the experiment. To make this selection, the MICE Muon Beam is designed to deliver a beam of muons with less thanmore » $$\\sim$$1% contamination. To make the final muon selection, MICE employs a particle-identification (PID) system upstream and downstream of the cooling cell. The PID system includes time-of-flight hodoscopes, threshold-Cherenkov counters and calorimetry. The upper limit for the pion contamination measured in this paper is $$f_\\pi < 1.4\\%$$ at 90% C.L., including systematic uncertainties. Therefore, the MICE Muon Beam is able to meet the stringent pion-contamination requirements of the study of ionization cooling.« less

  17. Multiple muons in MACRO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinz, R.

    1985-01-01

    An analysis of the multiple muon events in the Monopole Astrophysics and Cosmic Ray Observatory detector was conducted to determine the cosmic ray composition. Particular emphasis is placed on the interesting primary cosmic ray energy region above 2000 TeV/nucleus. An extensive study of muon production in cosmic ray showers has been done. Results were used to parameterize the characteristics of muon penetration into the Earth to the location of a detector.

  18. SNM detection by active muon interrogation

    SciTech Connect

    Jason, Andrew J; Miyadera, Haruo; Turchi, Peter J

    2010-01-01

    Muons are charged particles with mass between the electron and proton and can be produced indirectly through pion decay by interaction of a charged-particle beam with a target. There are several distinct features of the muon interaction with matter attractive as a probe for detection of SNM at moderate ranges. These include muon penetration of virtually any amount of material without significant nuclear interaction until stopped by ionization loss in a short distance. When stopped, high-energy penetrating x-rays (in the range of 6 MeV for uranium,) unique to isotopic composition are emitted in the capture process. The subsequent interaction with the nucleus produces additional radiation useful in assessing SNM presence. A focused muon beam can be transported through the atmosphere, at a range limited mainly by beam-size growth through scattering. A muonbeam intensity of > 10{sup 9} /second is required for efficient interrogation and, as in any other technique, dose limits are to be respected. To produce sufficient muons a high-energy (threshold {approx}140 MeV) high-intensity (<1 mA) proton or electron beam is needed implying the use of a linear accelerator to bombard a refractory target. The muon yield is fractionally small, with large angle and energy dispersion, so that efficient collection is necessary in all dimensions of phase space. To accomplish this Los Alamos has proposed a magnetic collection system followed by a unique linear accelerator that provides the requisite phase-space bunching and allows an energy sweep to successively stop muons throughout a large structure such as a sea-going vessel. A possible maritime application would entail fitting the high-gradient accelerators on a large ship with a helicopter-borne detection system. We will describe our experimental results for muon effects and particle collection along with our current design and program for a muon detection system.

  19. Redox-responsive nanocarrier based on heparin end-capped mesoporous silica nanoparticles for targeted tumor therapy in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Dai, Liangliang; Li, Jinghua; Zhang, Beilu; Liu, Junjie; Luo, Zhong; Cai, Kaiyong

    2014-07-01

    This study reports a smart controlled drug release system based on mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) for targeted drug delivery. The system was fabricated by employing heparin as an end-capping agent to seal the mesopores of MSNs via disulfide bonds as intermediate linkers for intracellular glutathione triggered drug release. Lactobionic acid molecules were then coupled to heparin end-capped MSNs that serve as targeting motifs for facilitating the uptake of doxorubicin (DOX) loaded MSNs by HepG2 cells and tumors, respectively. Detailed investigations demonstrated that the fabricated drug delivery systems could deliver DOX to cancer cells to induce cell apoptosis in vitro and tumor tissue for the inhibition of tumor growth in vivo with minimal side effects. The study affords a promising nanocarrier for redox-responsive cargo delivery with high curative efficiency for cancer therapy. PMID:24933090

  20. The MEGA (Muon decays into an Electron and a GAmma ray) hardware trigger system

    SciTech Connect

    Szymanski, J.J.; Amann, J.F.; Black, J.K.; Cooper, M.D.; Wright, S.C.; Crocker, J.; Sanders, H.

    1988-01-01

    The MEGA experiment is designed to search for the rare decay ..mu.. ..-->.. e ..gamma.. with a branching ratio sensitivity of /approximately/10/sup -13/. As is typical of rare-decay experiments, extensive, online filtering of the data is required for MEGA. The MEGA experiment uses a hardware pattern-recognition system based on Programmable Array Logic (PAL) devices. Additional events are eliminated in an online ACP system before data are written to tape. The MEGA trigger system is generally applicable where high-rate, short-propagation-delay trigger systems are required. This report contains an introduction to the MEGA experiment, a discussion of the MEGA hardware trigger system and a discussion of the system's measured performance. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  1. Muon and neutrino fluxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, P. G.; Protheroe, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    The result of a new calculation of the atmospheric muon and neutrino fluxes and the energy spectrum of muon-neutrinos produced in individual extensive air showers (EAS) initiated by proton and gamma-ray primaries is reported. Also explained is the possibility of detecting atmospheric nu sub mu's due to gamma-rays from these sources.

  2. Telecommunication using muon beams

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, Richard C.

    1976-01-01

    Telecommunication is effected by generating a beam of mu mesons or muons, varying a property of the beam at a modulating rate to generate a modulated beam of muons, and detecting the information in the modulated beam at a remote location.

  3. Laser rods with undoped, flanged end-caps for end-pumped laser applications

    DOEpatents

    Meissner, H.E.; Beach, R.J.; Bibeau, C.; Sutton, S.B.; Mitchell, S.; Bass, I.; Honea, E.

    1999-08-10

    A method and apparatus for achieving improved performance in a solid state laser is provided. A flanged, at least partially undoped end-cap is attached to at least one end of a laserable medium. Preferably flanged, undoped end-caps are attached to both ends of the laserable medium. Due to the low scatter requirements for the interface between the end-caps and the laser rod, a non-adhesive method of bonding is utilized such as optical contacting combined with a subsequent heat treatment of the optically contacted composite. The non-bonded end surfaces of the flanged end-caps are coated with laser cavity coatings appropriate for the lasing wavelength of the laser rod. A cooling jacket, sealably coupled to the flanged end-caps, surrounds the entire length of the laserable medium. Radiation from a pump source is focused by a lens duct and passed through at least one flanged end-cap into the laser rod. 14 figs.

  4. Underwater measurements of muon intensity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fedorov, V. M.; Pustovetov, V. P.; Trubkin, Y. A.; Kirilenkov, A. V.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental measurements of cosmic ray muon intensity deep underwater aimed at determining a muon absorption curve are of considerable interest, as they allow to reproduce independently the muon energy spectrum at sea level. The comparison of the muon absorption curve in sea water with that in rock makes it possible to determine muon energy losses caused by nuclear interactions. The data available on muon absorption in water and that in rock are not equivalent. Underground measurements are numerous and have been carried out down to the depth of approx. 15km w.e., whereas underwater muon intensity have been measured twice and only down to approx. 3km deep.

  5. Super radiation hard vacuum phototriodes for the CMS endcap ECAL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusev, Yu. I.; Kovalev, A. I.; Levchenko, L. A.; Lukianov, V. N.; Moroz, F. V.; Mamaeva, G. A.; Seliverstov, D. M.; Trautman, V. Yu.; Yakorev, D. O.

    2004-12-01

    The energy resolution σ/E of the electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) in the energy range of 50-500 GeV is defined mainly by two terms: stochastic α/√E and constant C. The photoreadout of the CMS Endcap ECAL consists of vacuum phototriodes (VPT), which are broadening a signal from np photoelectrons characterized by the excess noise factor F=np(σ/E)2. The technical specification of the CMS ECAL requires the value of F to be smaller than 4 in the CMS LHC environment during 10 years of detector operation. In this paper we present results of the VPT performance study in a magnetic field up to 4 T, in a gamma radiation field of 0-50 kGy and in a neutron fluence of 7×1015 n/cm2. The standard phototriodes FEU-188 with faceplates from UV glass used in CMS ECAL as well as VPTs with super radiation hard cerium-doped glasses were investigated at the 60Co gamma facility, a neutron generator and a nuclear reactor in the Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (PNPI). The dependence of the VPT gain and the excess noise factor in magnetic fields on the fine-mesh plane orientation has also been studied.

  6. The Muon Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Zisman, Michael S.

    2011-01-05

    We describe the scientific motivation for a new type of accelerator, the muon collider. This accelerator would permit an energy-frontier scientific program and yet would fit on the site of an existing laboratory. Such a device is quite challenging, and requires a substantial R&D program. After describing the ingredients of the facility, the ongoing R&D activities of the Muon Accelerator Program are discussed. A possible U.S. scenario that could lead to a muon collider at Fermilab is briefly mentioned.

  7. Muons and neutrinos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanev, T.

    1986-01-01

    The first generation of large and precise detectors, some initially dedicated to search for nucleon decay has accumulated significant statistics on neutrinos and high-energy muons. A second generation of even better and bigger detectors are already in operation or in advanced construction stage. The present set of experimental data on muon groups and neutrinos is qualitatively better than several years ago and the expectations for the following years are high. Composition studies with underground muon groups, neutrino detection, and expected extraterrestrial neutrino fluxes are discussed.

  8. Neutrino physics at muon colliders

    SciTech Connect

    King, B.J.

    1998-03-01

    An overview is given of the neutrino physics potential of future muon storage rings that use muon collider technology to produce, accelerate and store large currents of muons. After a general characterization of the neutrino beam and its interactions, some crude quantitative estimates are given for the physics performance of a muon ring neutrino experiment (MURINE) consisting of a high rate, high performance neutrino detector at a 250 GeV muon collider storage ring.

  9. Toroidal magnetic detector for high resolution measurement of muon momenta

    DOEpatents

    Bonanos, Peter

    1992-01-01

    A muon detector system including central and end air-core superconducting toroids and muon detectors enclosing a central calorimeter/detector. Muon detectors are positioned outside of toroids and all muon trajectory measurements are made in a nonmagnetic environment. Internal support for each magnet structure is provided by sheets, located at frequent and regularly spaced azimuthal planes, which interconnect the structural walls of the toroidal magnets. In a preferred embodiment, the shape of the toroidal magnet volume is adjusted to provide constant resolution over a wide range of rapidity.

  10. Toroidal magnetic detector for high resolution measurement of muon momenta

    DOEpatents

    Bonanos, P.

    1992-01-07

    A muon detector system including central and end air-core superconducting toroids and muon detectors enclosing a central calorimeter/detector. Muon detectors are positioned outside of toroids and all muon trajectory measurements are made in a nonmagnetic environment. Internal support for each magnet structure is provided by sheets, located at frequent and regularly spaced azimuthal planes, which interconnect the structural walls of the toroidal magnets. In a preferred embodiment, the shape of the toroidal magnet volume is adjusted to provide constant resolution over a wide range of rapidity. 4 figs.

  11. Fast cooling, muon acceleration and the prospect of muon colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, Mark

    Facilities based on stored muons offer unique potential for future high-energy physics capabilities. Three key characteristics of the muon make this possible: * The muon is a lepton; * The muon is roughly 200 times as massive as the electron; * The muon decays to an electron and two neutrinos. As the next heavier members of the lepton family with respect to the electron and positron, μ+ and μ-. beams can be collided to provide a precision lepton probe of the electroweak couplings. This makes a muon collider a suitable option for a lepton collider companion to a hadron collider discovery machine...

  12. Lorentz angle studies for the SLD endcap Cerenkov Ring Imaging Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Coyle, P.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Coyne, D.; Schneider, M.; Spencer, E.; Williams, D.; Ashford, V.; Bienz, T.; Bird, F.; Gaillard, M.

    1987-11-01

    The design of the endcap Cerenkov Ring Imaging Detectors for SLD requires a detailed understanding of how electrons drift in gases under the influence of crossed electric and magnetic fields. In this report, we present recent measurements of Lorentz angles and drift velocities in gases suitable for the endcap CRID photon detectors. We compare these measurements to predictions from a theoretical model; good agreement is observed. Based on our results we present a design for detectors operating in a 0.6 Tesla transverse magnetic field. 14 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. Cementitious building material incorporating end-capped polyethylene glycol as a phase change material

    DOEpatents

    Salyer, Ival O.; Griffen, Charles W.

    1986-01-01

    A cementitious composition comprising a cementitious material and polyethylene glycol or end-capped polyethylene glycol as a phase change material, said polyethylene glycol and said end-capped polyethylene glycol having a molecular weight greater than about 400 and a heat of fusion greater than about 30 cal/g; the compositions are useful in making pre-formed building materials such as concrete blocks, brick, dry wall and the like or in making poured structures such as walls or floor pads; the glycols can be encapsulated to reduce their tendency to retard set.

  14. Precision muon physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorringe, T. P.; Hertzog, D. W.

    2015-09-01

    The muon is playing a unique role in sub-atomic physics. Studies of muon decay both determine the overall strength and establish the chiral structure of weak interactions, as well as setting extraordinary limits on charged-lepton-flavor-violating processes. Measurements of the muon's anomalous magnetic moment offer singular sensitivity to the completeness of the standard model and the predictions of many speculative theories. Spectroscopy of muonium and muonic atoms gives unmatched determinations of fundamental quantities including the magnetic moment ratio μμ /μp, lepton mass ratio mμ /me, and proton charge radius rp. Also, muon capture experiments are exploring elusive features of weak interactions involving nucleons and nuclei. We will review the experimental landscape of contemporary high-precision and high-sensitivity experiments with muons. One focus is the novel methods and ingenious techniques that achieve such precision and sensitivity in recent, present, and planned experiments. Another focus is the uncommonly broad and topical range of questions in atomic, nuclear and particle physics that such experiments explore.

  15. Fukushima Daiichi Muon Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyadera, Haruo

    2015-10-01

    Japanese government announced cold-shutdown condition of the reactors at Fukushima Daiichi by the end of 2011, and mid- and long-term roadmap towards decommissioning has been drawn. However, little is known for the conditions of the cores because access to the reactors has been limited by the high radiation environment. The debris removal from the Unit 1 - 3 is planned to start as early as 2020, but the dismantlement is not easy without any realistic information of the damage to the cores, and the locations and amounts of the fuel debris. Soon after the disaster of Fukushima Daiichi, several teams in the US and Japan proposed to apply muon transmission or scattering imagings to provide information of the Fukushima Daiichi reactors without accessing inside the reactor building. GEANT4 modeling studies of Fukushima Daiichi Unit 1 and 2 showed clear superiority of the muon scattering method over conventional transmission method. The scattering method was demonstrated with a research reactor, Toshiba Nuclear Critical Assembly (NCA), where a fuel assembly was imaged with 3-cm resolution. The muon scattering imaging of Fukushima Daiichi was approved as a national project and is aiming at installing muon trackers to Unit 2. A proposed plan includes installation of muon trackers on the 2nd floor (operation floor) of turbine building, and in front of the reactor building. Two 7mx7m detectors were assembled at Toshiba and tested.

  16. First-principles investigation of electronic structures and properties of impurities in molecular solids and semiconductors: I. Muon and muonium in organic ferromagnets. II. Erbium in silicon-optoelectronic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Junho

    The first-principles Hartree-Fock theory is used to obtain the electronic structures and properties of three different systems. For the TEMPO system, the trapping sites were obtained near NO group site for muonium singlet and near chlorine and bridge nitrogen for muon. The calculated hyperfine interactions including relaxation and vibrational effect were used to compare the observed zero field muSR frequency 3.2 MHz. It has been concluded that the two trapping centers that can best explain the observed muSR frequency is trapped singlet muonium near the radical oxygen and a trapped muon site near the chlorine. The direction for the easy axis is determined to be the b-axis of the monoclinic lattice and also is obtained using the magnetic moment distributions in the ferromagnetic state in the absence of muon and muonium. The nuclear quadrupole coupling constants and asymmetry parameters (eta) have studied for the 35Cl, 17O, and 14N nuclei in the TEMPO system for the bare system and systems with trapped muon and muonium. Substantial influence of the muon and muonium on the coupling constants and eta for the nuclei close to the trapping sites have been observed for the systems with trapped muon and muonium. For the beta-NPNN, the observed muSR signal at zero field with frequency 2.1 MHz is assigned to the singlet muonium sites near the two oxygens of the two NO groups and the high frequency signal ascribed to an isotropic hyperfine constant of 400MHz is assigned to the trapped muon sites near the oxygen atoms of the NO groups. Er3+-Si material which emits 1.54 mum wavelength has led to interest in optoelectronic system. Using first-principles HF procedure, the locations of Er3+ in silicon cluster without codopant were determined. Since covalent radius of Er3+ is bigger than that of silicon, the first nearest and second nearest silicon of Er3+ for Hi (Er3+Si14H18), Ti (Er3+ Si10H16, Er3+Si26H 48), and Substitutional site (Er3+Si18H 36) applied relaxation effect. The

  17. Screening of a positive muon by a semion gas

    SciTech Connect

    McMullen, T.; Jena, P.; Khanna, S.N. . Dept. of Physics)

    1991-06-01

    {mu}SR is one of the experimental techniques used to search for manifestation of the broken T and P symmetries predicted by some theories of highly correlated electron systems. When T and P are broken, the screening of the positively charged muon by the electron system generates a magnetic field in addition to any intrinsic magnetic field that may be present. The authors estimate the magnetic field that is induced at a muon site when the muon is screened by the fractional statistics gas. In this paper, the value depends on the distance between the muon and the anyon plane, and a simple theoretical approach to the calculation of the minimum energy muon sites is outlined and some results for Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8} and YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} are presented.

  18. The OPAL muon barrel detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akers, R. J.; Allison, J.; Ashton, P.; Bahan, G. A.; Baines, J. T. M.; Banks, J. N.; Barlow, R. J.; Barnett, S.; Beeston, C.; Chrin, J. T. M.; Clowes, S. G.; Davies, O. W.; Duerdoth, I. P.; Hinde, P. S.; Hughes-Jones, R. E.; Lafferty, G. D.; Loebinger, F. K.; Macbeth, A. A.; McGowan, R. F.; Moss, M. W.; Murphy, P. G.; Nijjhar, B.; O'Dowd, A. J. P.; Pawley, S. J.; Phillips, P. D.; Richards, G. E.; Skillman, A.; Stephens, K.; Tresillian, N. J.; Wood, N. C.; Wyatt, T. R.

    1995-02-01

    The barrel part of the OPAL muon detector consists of 110 drift chambers forming four layers outside the hadron absorber. Each chamber covers an area of 1.2 m by up to 10.4 m and has two cells with wires parallel to the beam and a drift distance of 297 mm. A detailed description of the design, construction, operation and performance of the sub-detector is given. The system has been operating successfully since the start of LEP in 1989.

  19. Ultra Slow Muon Project at J-PARC, MUSE

    SciTech Connect

    Miyake, Y.; Nakahara, K.; Shimomura, K.; Strasser, P.; Kawamura, N.; Koda, A.; Makimura, S.; Fujimori, H.; Nishiyama, K.; Matsuda, Y.; Bakule, P.; Adachi, T.; Ogitsu, T.

    2009-03-17

    The muon science facility (MUSE), along with the neutron, hadron, and neutrino facilities, is one of the experimental areas of the J-PARC project, which was approved for construction at the Tokai JAEA site. The MUSE facility is located in the Materials and Life Science Facility (MLF), which is a building integrated to include both neutron and muon science programs. Construction of the MLF building was started in the beginning of 2004, and first muon beam is expected in the autumn of 2008.As a next step, we are planning to install, a Super Omega muon channel with a large acceptance of 400 msr, to extract the world strongest pulsed surface muon beam. Its goal is to extract 4x10{sup 8} surface muons/s for the generation of the intense ultra slow muons, utilizing laser resonant ionization of Mu by applying an intense pulsed VUV laser system. As maximum 1x10{sup 6} ultra slow muons/s will be expected, which will allow for the extension of {mu}SR into the field of thin film and surface science.

  20. Self-Assembly of Telechelic Tyrosine End-Capped PEO and Poly(alanine) Polymers in Aqueous Solution.

    PubMed

    Kirkham, Steven; Castelletto, Valeria; Hamley, Ian William; Reza, Mehedi; Ruokolainen, Janne; Hermida-Merino, Daniel; Bilalis, Panayiotis; Iatrou, Hermis

    2016-03-14

    The self-assembly in aqueous solution of three novel telechelic conjugates comprising a central hydrophilic polymer and short (trimeric or pentameric) tyrosine end-caps has been investigated. Two of the conjugates have a central poly(oxyethylene) (polyethylene oxide, PEO) central block with different molar masses. The other conjugate has a central poly(L-alanine) (PAla) sequence in a purely amino-acid based conjugate. All three conjugates self-assemble into β-sheet based fibrillar structures, although the fibrillar morphology revealed by cryogenic-TEM is distinct for the three polymers--in particular the Tyr5-PEO6k-Tyr5 forms a population of short straight fibrils in contrast to the more diffuse fibril aggregates observed for Tyr5-PEO2k-Tyr5 and Tyr3-PAla-Tyr3. Hydrogel formation was not observed for these samples (in contrast to prior work on related systems) up to quite high concentrations, showing that it is possible to prepare solutions of peptide-polymer-peptide conjugates with hydrophobic end-caps without conformational constraints associated with hydrogelation. The Tyr5-PEO6k-Tyr5 shows significant PEO crystallization upon drying in contrast to the Tyr5-PEO2k-Tyr5 conjugate. Our findings point to the remarkable ability of short hydrophobic peptide end groups to modulate the self-assembly properties of polymers in solution in model peptide-capped "associative polymers". Retention of fluidity at high conjugate concentration may be valuable in potential future applications of these conjugates as bioresponsive or biocompatible materials, for example exploiting the enzyme-responsiveness of the tyrosine end-groups. PMID:26867986

  1. (Photo)physical Properties of New Molecular Glasses End-Capped with Thiophene Rings Composed of Diimide and Imine Units

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    New symmetrical arylene bisimide derivatives formed by using electron-donating–electron-accepting systems were synthesized. They consist of a phthalic diimide or naphthalenediimide core and imine linkages and are end-capped with thiophene, bithiophene, and (ethylenedioxy)thiophene units. Moreover, polymers were obtained from a new diamine, N,N′-bis(5-aminonaphthalenyl)naphthalene-1,4,5,8-dicarboximide and 2,5-thiophenedicarboxaldehyde or 2,2′-bithiophene-5,5′-dicarboxaldehyde. The prepared azomethine diimides exhibited glass-forming properties. The obtained compounds emitted blue light with the emission maximum at 470 nm. The value of the absorption coefficient was determined as a function of the photon energy using spectroscopic ellipsometry. All compounds are electrochemically active and undergo reversible electrochemical reduction and irreversible oxidation processes as was found in cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) studies. They exhibited a low electrochemically (DPV) calculated energy band gap (Eg) from 1.14 to 1.70 eV. The highest occupied molecular orbital and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital levels and Eg were additionally calculated theoretically by density functional theory at the B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) level. The photovoltaic properties of two model compounds as the active layer in organic solar cells in the configuration indium tin oxide/poly(3,4-(ethylenedioxy)thiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate)/active layer/Al under an illumination of 1.3 mW/cm2 were studied. The device comprising poly(3-hexylthiophene) with the compound end-capped with bithiophene rings showed the highest value of Voc (above 1 V). The conversion efficiency of the fabricated solar cell was in the range of 0.69–0.90%. PMID:24966893

  2. (Photo)physical Properties of New Molecular Glasses End-Capped with Thiophene Rings Composed of Diimide and Imine Units.

    PubMed

    Grucela-Zajac, Marzena; Bijak, Katarzyna; Kula, Slawomir; Filapek, Michal; Wiacek, Malgorzata; Janeczek, Henryk; Skorka, Lukasz; Gasiorowski, Jacek; Hingerl, Kurt; Sariciftci, Niyazi Serdar; Nosidlak, Natalia; Lewinska, Gabriela; Sanetra, Jerzy; Schab-Balcerzak, Ewa

    2014-06-19

    New symmetrical arylene bisimide derivatives formed by using electron-donating-electron-accepting systems were synthesized. They consist of a phthalic diimide or naphthalenediimide core and imine linkages and are end-capped with thiophene, bithiophene, and (ethylenedioxy)thiophene units. Moreover, polymers were obtained from a new diamine, N,N'-bis(5-aminonaphthalenyl)naphthalene-1,4,5,8-dicarboximide and 2,5-thiophenedicarboxaldehyde or 2,2'-bithiophene-5,5'-dicarboxaldehyde. The prepared azomethine diimides exhibited glass-forming properties. The obtained compounds emitted blue light with the emission maximum at 470 nm. The value of the absorption coefficient was determined as a function of the photon energy using spectroscopic ellipsometry. All compounds are electrochemically active and undergo reversible electrochemical reduction and irreversible oxidation processes as was found in cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) studies. They exhibited a low electrochemically (DPV) calculated energy band gap (E g) from 1.14 to 1.70 eV. The highest occupied molecular orbital and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital levels and E g were additionally calculated theoretically by density functional theory at the B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) level. The photovoltaic properties of two model compounds as the active layer in organic solar cells in the configuration indium tin oxide/poly(3,4-(ethylenedioxy)thiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate)/active layer/Al under an illumination of 1.3 mW/cm(2) were studied. The device comprising poly(3-hexylthiophene) with the compound end-capped with bithiophene rings showed the highest value of V oc (above 1 V). The conversion efficiency of the fabricated solar cell was in the range of 0.69-0.90%. PMID:24966893

  3. ICOOL: A TOOL FOR MUON COLLIDER SIMULATIONS.

    SciTech Connect

    FERNOW,R.C.

    2001-09-28

    Current ideas for designing neutrino factories [ 1,2] and muon colliders [3] require unique configurations of fields and materials to prepare the muon beam for acceleration. This so-called front end system must accomplish the goals of phase rotation, bunching and cooling. We have continued the development of a 3-D tracking code, ICOOL [4], for examining possible muon collider front end configurations. A system is described in terms of a series of longitudinal regions with associated material and field properties. The tracking takes place in a coordinate system that follows a reference orbit through the system. The code takes into account decays and interactions of {approx}50-500 MeV/c muons in matter. Material geometry regions include cylinders and wedges. A number of analytic models are provided for describing the field configurations. Simple diagnostics are built into the code, including calculation of emittances and correlations, longitudinal traces, histograms and scatter plots. A number of auxiliary codes can be used for pre-processing, post-processing and optimization.

  4. A Wire Position Monitor System for the 1.3 FHZ Tesla-Style Cryomodule at the Fermilab New-Muon-Lab Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Eddy, N.; Fellenz, B.; Prieto, P.; Semenov, A.; Voy, D.C.; Wendt, M.; /Fermilab

    2011-08-17

    The first cryomodule for the beam test facility at the Fermilab New-Muon-Lab building is currently under RF commissioning. Among other diagnostics systems, the transverse position of the helium gas return pipe with the connected 1.3 GHz SRF accelerating cavities is measured along the {approx}15 m long module using a stretched-wire position monitoring system. An overview of the wire position monitor system technology is given, along with preliminary results taken at the initial module cooldown, and during further testing. As the measurement system offers a high resolution, we also discuss options for use as a vibration detector. An electron beam test facility, based on superconducting RF (SRF) TESLA-style cryomodules is currently under construction at the Fermilab New-Muon-Lab (NML) building. The first, so-called type III+, cryomodule (CM-1), equipped with eight 1.3 GHz nine-cell accelerating cavities was recently cooled down to 2 K, and is currently under RF conditioning. The transverse alignment of the cavity string within the cryomodule is crucial for minimizing transverse kick and beam break-up effects, generated by the high-order dipole modes of misaligned accelerating structures. An optimum alignment can only be guaranteed during the assembly of the cavity string, i.e. at room temperatures. The final position of the cavities after cooldown is uncontrollable, and therefore unknown. A wire position monitoring system (WPM) can help to understand the transverse motion of the cavities during cooldown, their final location and the long term position stability after cryo-temperatures are settled, as well as the position reproducibility for several cold-warm cycles. It also may serve as vibration sensor, as the wire acts as a high-Q resonant detector for mechanical vibrations in the low-audio frequency range. The WPM system consists out of a stretched-wire position detection system, provided with help of INFN-Milano and DESY Hamburg, and RF generation and read

  5. On muon energy spectrum in muon groups underground

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bakatanov, V. N.; Chudakov, A. E.; Novoseltsev, Y. F.; Novoseltseva, M. V.; Stenkin, Y. V.

    1985-01-01

    A method is described which was used to measure muon energy spectrum characteristics in muon groups underground using mu-e decays recording. The Baksan Telescope's experimental data on mu-e decays intensity in muon groups of various multiplicities are analyzed. The experimental data indicating very flat spectrum does not however represent the total spectrum in muon groups. Obviously the muon energy spectrum depends strongly on a distance from the group axis. The core attraction effect makes a significant distortion, making the spectrum flatter. After taking this into account and making corrections for this effect the integral total spectrum index in groups has a very small depencence on muon multiplicity and agrees well with expected one: beta=beta (sub expected) = 1.75.

  6. PREFACE: Muon spin rotation, relaxation or resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heffner, Robert H.; Nagamine, Kanetada

    2004-10-01

    ), is currently being built to replace the current Japanese muSR capability at KEK. These muSR institutions provide scientists a variety of sample environments, including a range of temperatures, magnetic fields and applied pressure. In addition, very low-energy muon beams (< 1 keV) have been developed for studies of thin films and nano-materials. In 2002 this world-wide community founded the International Society of muSR Spectroscopy (http://musr.org/~isms/) in order to promote the health of this growing field of research. The 20 papers presented in this volume are intended to highlight some of the current muSR research activities of interest to condensed matter physicists. It is not an exhaustive review. In particular, the active and exciting area of muonium chemistry is left to a future volume. The group of papers in section I addresses the physics of strongly correlated electrons in solids, one of the most active fields of condensed matter research today. Strong electron correlations arise from (Coulomb) interactions which render Landau's theory of electron transport for weakly interacting systems invalid. Included in this category are unconventional heavy-fermion superconductors, high-temperature copper-oxide superconductors, non-Fermi liquid (NFL) systems and systems with strong electron-lattice-spin coupling, such as the colossal magnetoresistance manganites. Two key properties often make the muon a unique probe of these materials: (1) the muon's large magnetic moment (~3 mup) renders it extremely sensitive to the tiny magnetic fields (~1 Gauss) found, for example, in many NFL systems and in superconductors possessing time-reversal-violating order parameters, and (2) the muon's spin 1/2 creates a simple muSR lineshape (no quadrupolar coupling), ideal for measuring spin-lattice-relaxation, local susceptibilities and magnetic-field distributions in ordered magnets and superconductors. Section II contains studies which exploit the unique sensitivities of muSR just

  7. Muon capture for the front end of a muon collider

    SciTech Connect

    Neuffer, D.; Yoshikawa, C.; /MUONS Inc., Batavia

    2011-03-01

    We discuss the design of the muon capture front end for a {mu}{sup +}-{mu}{sup -} Collider. In the front end, a proton bunch on a target creates secondary pions that drift into a capture transport channel, decaying into muons. A sequence of rf cavities forms the resulting muon beams into strings of bunches of differing energies, aligns the bunches to (nearly) equal central energies, and initiates ionization cooling. The muons are then cooled and accelerated to high energy into a storage ring for high-energy high luminosity collisions. Our initial design is based on the somewhat similar front end of the International Design Study (IDS) neutrino factory.

  8. Muon collider progress

    SciTech Connect

    Noble, Robert J. FNAL

    1998-08-01

    Recent progress in the study of muon colliders is presented. An international collaboration consisting of over 100 individuals is involved in calculations and experiments to demonstrate the feasibility of this new type of lepton collider. Theoretical efforts are now concentrated on low-energy colliders in the 100 to 500 GeV center-of-mass energy range. Credible machine designs are emerging for much of a hypothetical complex from proton source to the final collider. Ionization cooling has been the most difficult part of the concept, and more powerful simulation tools are now in place to develop workable schemes. A collaboration proposal for a muon cooling experiment has been presented to the Fermilab Physics Advisory Committee, and a proposal for a targetry and pion collection channel experiment at Brookhaven National Laboratory is in preparation. Initial proton bunching and space-charge compensation experiments at existing hadron facilities have occurred to demonstrate proton driver feasibility.

  9. The US Muon Accelerator Program

    SciTech Connect

    Torun, Y.; Kirk, H.; Bross, A.; Geer, Steve; Shiltsev, Vladimir; Zisman, M.; /LBL, Berkeley

    2010-05-01

    An accelerator complex that can produce ultra-intense beams of muons presents many opportunities to explore new physics. A facility of this type is unique in that, in a relatively straightforward way, it can present a physics program that can be staged and thus move forward incrementally, addressing exciting new physics at each step. At the request of the US Department of Energy's Office of High Energy Physics, the Neutrino Factory and Muon Collider Collaboration (NFMCC) and the Fermilab Muon Collider Task Force (MCTF) have recently submitted a proposal to create a Muon Accelerator Program that will have, as a primary goal, to deliver a Design Feasibility Study for an energy-frontier Muon Collider by the end of a 7 year R&D program. This paper presents a description of a Muon Collider facility and gives an overview of the proposal.

  10. Muon Colliders and Neutrino Factories

    SciTech Connect

    Geer, Steve; /Fermilab

    2009-11-01

    Over the past decade, there has been significant progress in developing the concepts and technologies needed to produce, capture, and accelerate {Omicron}(10{sup 21}) muons per year. These developments have paved the way for a new type of neutrino source (neutrino factory) and a new type of very high energy lepton-antilepton collider (muon collider). This article reviews the motivation, design, and research and development for future neutrino factories and muon colliders.

  11. Muon colliders and neutrino factories

    SciTech Connect

    Geer, S.; /Fermilab

    2010-09-01

    Over the last decade there has been significant progress in developing the concepts and technologies needed to produce, capture and accelerate {Omicron}(10{sup 21}) muons/year. This development prepares the way for a new type of neutrino source (Neutrino Factory) and a new type of very high energy lepton-antilepton collider (Muon Collider). This article reviews the motivation, design and R&D for Neutrino Factories and Muon Colliders.

  12. Muon Colliders and Neutrino Factories *

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geer, Steve

    2009-11-01

    Over the past decade, there has been significant progress in developing the concepts and technologies needed to produce, capture, and accelerate O(1021) muons per year. These developments have paved the way for a new type of neutrino source (neutrino factory) and a new type of very high energy lepton-antilepton collider (muon collider). This article reviews the motivation, design, and research and development for future neutrino factories and muon colliders.

  13. A Compact and High Performance Muon Capture Channel for Muon Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Stratakis, D.; Gallardo, J.; Palmer, R.B.

    2011-03-28

    It is widely believed that a neutrino factory would deliver unparallel performance in studying neutrino mixing and would provide tremendous sensitivity to new physics in the neutrino sector. Here we will describe and simulate the front-end of the neutrino factory system, which plays critical role in determining the number of muons that can be accepted by the downstream accelerators. In this system, a proton bunch on a target creates secondaries that drift into a capture transport channel. A sequence of rf cavities forms the resulting muon beams into strings of bunches of differing energies, aligns the bunches to nearly equal central energies, and initiates ionization cooling. For this, the muon beams are transported through sections containing high-gradient cavities and strong focusing solenoids. In this paper we present results of optimization and variation studies toward obtaining the maximum number of muons for a neutrino factory by using a compact transport channel. It has been suggested computationally and experimentally that the maximum achievable gradient is enhanced by introducing an external magnetic field at right angles to the rf electric field since it suppresses field-emission processes. Here, we have discussed a possible scheme for extending the concept of magnetic insulation to capture, transport, and cool muons in a neutrino factory. We incorporated this idea into a new lattice design where the rf cavities are shaped so that their walls were tangential to the magnetic-field lines. We showed that, with magnetic insulation, the field-emitted electrons impact the cavity surface with energies four orders-of-magnitude less than in conventional pillbox cavities; consequently, damage from field-emission is suppressed significantly. While demanding in terms of power requirements, this neutrino factory lattice showed satisfactory performance in both cooling and collecting the accepted muons within the requirements for the IDSNF. Optimizations were also made

  14. Effect of the endcapping of reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography adsorbents on the adsorption isotherm

    SciTech Connect

    Gritti, Fabrice; Guiochon, Georges A

    2005-09-01

    The retention mechanisms of n-propylbenzoate, 4-t ert-butylphenol, and caffeine on the endcapped Symmetry-C{sub 18} and the non-endcapped Resolve-C{sub 18} are compared. The adsorption isotherms were measured by frontal analysis (FA), using as the mobile phase mixtures of methanol or acetonitrile and water of various compositions. The isotherm data were modeled and the adsorption energy distributions calculated. The surface heterogeneity increases faster with decreasing methanol concentration on the non-endcapped than on the endcapped adsorbent. For instance, for methanol concentrations exceeding 30% (v/v), the adsorption of caffeine is accounted for by assuming three and two different types of adsorption sites on Resolve-C{sub 18} and Symmetry-C{sub 18}, respectively. This is explained by the effect of the mobile phase composition on the structure of the C{sub 18}-bonded layer. The bare surface of bonded silica appears more accessible to solute molecules at high water contents in the mobile phase. On the other hand, replacing methanol by a stronger organic modifier like acetonitrile dampens the differences between non-endcapped and endcapped stationary phase and decreases the degree of surface heterogeneity of the adsorbent. For instance, at acetonitrile concentrations exceeding 20%, the surface appears nearly homogeneous for the adsorption of caffeine.

  15. 6D Cooling of a Circulating Muon Beam

    SciTech Connect

    Garren, A.; Cline, D.; Kahn, S.; Kirk, H.; Mills, F.

    2006-03-20

    We discuss the conceptual design of a system to reduce the 6D emittance of a circulating muon beam. This system utilizes ionization cooling to achieve 6D phase reduction of the beam. Our design is based on a hydrogen gas filled ring which incorporates optics consisting of weak-focusing dipoles and 200 MHz rf cavities which restore the ionization energy loss due to the muons traversing the hydrogen gas.

  16. From Neutrino Factory to Muon Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Geer, S.; /Fermilab

    2010-01-01

    Both Muon Colliders and Neutrino Factories require a muon source capable of producing and capturing {Omicron}(10{sup 21}) muons/year. This paper reviews the similarities and differences between Neutrino Factory and Muon Collider accelerator complexes, the ongoing R&D needed for a Muon Collider that goes beyond Neutrino Factory R&D, and some thoughts about how a Neutrino Factory on the CERN site might eventually be upgraded to a Muon Collider.

  17. Muonic alchemy: Transmuting elements with the inclusion of negative muons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moncada, Félix; Cruz, Daniel; Reyes, Andrés

    2012-06-01

    In this Letter we present a theoretical study of atoms in which one electron has been replaced by a negative muon. We have treated these muonic systems with the Any Particle Molecular Orbital (APMO) method. A comparison between the electronic and muonic radial distributions revealed that muons are much more localized than electrons. Therefore, the muonic cloud is screening effectively one positive charge of the nucleus. Our results have revealed that by replacing an electron in an atom by a muon there is a transmutation of the electronic properties of that atom to those of the element with atomic number Z - 1.

  18. Novel Muon Beam Facilities for Project X at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Neuffer, D.V.; Ankenbrandt, C.M.; Abrams, R.; Roberts, T.J.; Yoshikawa, C.Y.; /MUONS Inc., Batavia

    2012-05-01

    Innovative muon beam concepts for intensity-frontier experiments such as muon-to-electron conversion are described. Elaborating upon a previous single-beam idea, we have developed a design concept for a system to generate four high quality, low-energy muon beams (two of each sign) from a single beam of protons. As a first step, the production of pions by 1 and 3 GeV protons from the proposed Project X linac at Fermilab is being simulated and compared with the 8-GeV results from the previous study.

  19. Synthesis and evaluation of new spacers for use as dsDNA endcaps

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Pei-Sze; Laing, Brian M.; Balasundarum, Ganesan; Pingle, Maneesh; Friedman, Alan; Bergstrom, Donald E.

    2010-01-01

    A series of aliphatic and aromatic spacer molecules designed to cap the ends of DNA duplexes have been synthesized. The spacers were converted into dimethoxytrityl protected phosphoramidites as synthons for oligonucleotides synthesis. The effect of the spacers on the stability of short DNA duplexes was assessed by melting temperature studies. Endcaps containing amide groups were found to be less stabilizing than the hexaethylene glycol spacer. Endcaps containing either a terthiophene or a naphthalene tetracarboxylic acid dimide were found to be significantly more stabilizing. The former showed a preference for stacking above an A•T base pair. Spacers containing only methylene (-CH2-) and amide (-CONH-) groups interact weakly with DNA and consequently may be optimal for applications that require minimal influence on DNA structure but require a way to hold the ends of double-stranded DNA together. PMID:20715857

  20. Thin scintillating tiles (with fiber readout and high light-yield) for the OPAL endcaps

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, Austin H.

    1998-11-09

    Scintillating tiles with embedded wavelength-shifting fiber readout have recently been installed in the OPAL endcaps to improve trigger performance, time resolution and hermeticity for experiments at LEP II. The design is constrained to provide hermetic coverage of the available area with high single particle efficiency, uniform response and good time resolution, notwithstanding the limited space for the detector and its long readout cables, and despite the strong endcap magnetic field. A high light yield per embedded fiber is required. This paper motivates and describes the design, and demonstrates that the performance meets the required targets. A light yield of 14 photoelectrons/MIP and a time resolution of 3ns have been obtained during 1997 LEP operation.

  1. Thin scintillating tiles (with fiber readout and high light-yield) for the OPAL endcaps

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, A.H.

    1998-11-01

    Scintillating tiles with embedded wavelength-shifting fiber readout have recently been installed in the OPAL endcaps to improve trigger performance, time resolution and hermeticity for experiments at LEP II. The design is constrained to provide hermetic coverage of the available area with high single particle efficiency, uniform response and good time resolution, notwithstanding the limited space for the detector and its long readout cables, and despite the strong endcap magnetic field. A high light yield per embedded fiber is required. This paper motivates and describes the design, and demonstrates that the performance meets the required targets. A light yield of 14 photoelectrons/MIP and a time resolution of 3ns have been obtained during 1997 LEP operation. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  2. An experiment of muon radiography at Mt Etna (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbone, Daniele; Gibert, Dominique; Marteau, Jacques; Diament, Michel; Zuccarello, Luciano; Galichet, Emmanuelle

    2014-02-01

    Interactions of conduit geometry with gas-liquid flows control volcanic activity, implying that the evaluation of volcanic hazards requires quantitative understanding of the inner structure of the volcano. The more established geophysical imaging techniques suffer from inherent ambiguity, may require spatially dense measurements in active areas and may not provide sufficient spatial resolution in the uppermost part of the conduit system. It is thus desirable to develop new imaging techniques allowing a better spatial resolution of a volcano's upper feeding system, with reduced ambiguity and a low level of risk for operators. Muon particles can be utilized to image the internal density distribution of volcanic structures. The principle of muon radiography is essentially the same as X-ray radiography, except for substituting penetrating particles in place of photons. Muons are more attenuated by higher density parts inside the target and thus information about its inner structure are obtained from the differential muon absorption. We report on a muon-imaging experiment that was conducted at Mt Etna in 2010. The target structure was one of the summit craters of the volcano. This experiment was performed using a muon telescope suitably designed to withstand the harsh conditions in the summit zone of a high volcano. We found a marked difference between synthetic and observed attenuation of muons through the target. This discrepancy is likely due to the bias on the observed flux, arising from false muon tracks. They are caused by low-energy particles that, by chance, hit simultaneously the two matrixes of the telescope, leading to detection of a false positive. We separated the useful from the unwanted signal through a first-order model of the background noise. The resulting signal is compared with the corresponding synthetic flux. Eventually, we found regions of higher- and lower-than-expected muon flux, that are possibly related to inner features of the target crater.

  3. Hadronic Shower Validation Experience for the ATLAS End-Cap Calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Kiryunin, A. E.; Salihagic, D.

    2007-03-19

    Validation of GEANT4 hadronic physics models is carried out by comparing experimental data from beam tests of modules of the ATLAS end-cap calorimeters with GEANT4 based simulations. Two physics lists (LHEP and QGSP) for the simulation of hadronic showers are evaluated. Calorimeter performance parameters like the energy resolution and response for charged pions and shapes of showers are studied. Comparison with GEANT3 predictions is done as well.

  4. Physical applications of muon catalysis: Muon capture in hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filchenkov, V. V.

    2016-07-01

    Results of theoretical and experimental research on capture of negative muons in hydrogen are reported with an emphasis on the accompanying phenomenon of muon catalysis in hydrogen and subtleties of the experimental method. A conclusion is drawn that precise determination of the capture rate is important for refining the standard model.

  5. Muon Bunching and Phase-Energy Rotation for a Neutrino Factory and Muon Collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuffer, David; Yoshikawa, Cary

    2008-04-01

    We have developed scenarios for capture, bunching and phase-energy rotation of muons from a proton source, using high-frequency rf systems. The method captures a maximal number of muons into a string of rf bunches with initial application in the neutrino factory design studies. For a muon collider, these bunches must be recombined for maximal luminosity, and our initial design produced a relatively long bunch train. In this paper we present more compact scenarios that obtain a smaller number of bunches, and, after some optimization, obtain cases that are better for both neutrino-factory and collider scenarios. We also consider further modification by incorporating hydrogen gas-filled rf cavities for bunching and cooling. We describe these examples and consider variations toward an optimal factory + collider scenario.

  6. Muon Spin Rotation Spectroscopy - Utilizing Muons in Solid State Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Suter, Andreas

    2012-10-17

    Over the past decades muon spin rotation techniques (mSR) have established themselves as an invaluable tool to study a variety of static and dynamic phenomena in bulk solid state physics and chemistry. Common to all these approaches is that the muon is utilized as a spin microprobe and/or hydrogen-like probe, implanted in the material under investigation. Recent developments extend the range of application to near surface phenomena, thin film and super-lattice studies. After briefly summarizing the production of so called surface muons used for bulk studies, and discussing the principle differences between pulsed and continuous muon beams, the production of keV-energy muon sources will be discussed. A few topical examples from different active research fields will be presented to demonstrate the power of these techniques.

  7. An intense low energy muon source for the muon collider

    SciTech Connect

    Taqqu, D.

    1996-05-01

    A scheme for obtaining an intense source of low energy muons is described. It is based on the production of pions in a high field magnetic bottle trap. By ensuring efficient slowing down and extraction of the decay muons an intense intermediate energy muon beam is obtained. For the specific case of negative muons a novel technique called frictional accumulation provides efficient conversion into a 10 keV{mu}{sup {minus}} beam whose emittance is then reduced in a configuration providing extended frictional cooling. The result is a beam of very small transverse and longitudinal emittance that can be used together with an equivalent {mu}{sup +} beam as compact intense muon source for the {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup {minus}} collider. A final luminosity around 10{sup 34} cm{sup {minus}2}s{sup {minus}1} is expected to be obtained at 2 TeV. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  8. The MICE Muon Beam on ISIS and the beam-line instrumentation of the Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Bogomilov, M.; et al.

    2012-05-01

    The international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE), which is under construction at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL), will demonstrate the principle of ionization cooling as a technique for the reduction of the phase-space volume occupied by a muon beam. Ionization cooling channels are required for the Neutrino Factory and the Muon Collider. MICE will evaluate in detail the performance of a single lattice cell of the Feasibility Study 2 cooling channel. The MICE Muon Beam has been constructed at the ISIS synchrotron at RAL, and in MICE Step I, it has been characterized using the MICE beam-instrumentation system. In this paper, the MICE Muon Beam and beam-line instrumentation are described. The muon rate is presented as a function of the beam loss generated by the MICE target dipping into the ISIS proton beam. For a 1 V signal from the ISIS beam-loss monitors downstream of our target we obtain a 30 KHz instantaneous muon rate, with a neglible pion contamination in the beam.

  9. Muon Cooling—emittance exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsa, Zohreh

    2001-05-01

    Muon Cooling is the key factor in building of a Muon collider, (to a less degree) Muon storage ring, and a Neutrino Factory. Muon colliders potential to provide a probe for fundamental particle physics is very interesting, but may take a considerable time to realize, as much more work and study is needed. Utilizing high intensity Muon sources-Neutrino Factories, and other intermediate steps are very important and will greatly expand our abilities and confidence in the credibility of high energy muon colliders. To obtain the needed collider luminosity, the phase-space volume must be greatly reduced within the muon life time. The Ionization cooling is the preferred method used to compress the phase space and reduce the emittance to obtain high luminosity muon beams. We note that, the ionization losses results not only in damping, but also heating. The use of alternating solenoid lattices has been proposed, where the emittance are large. We present an overview of the cooling and discuss formalism, solenoid magnets and some beam dynamics.

  10. Muon collider design

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, R. |; Sessler, A.; Skrinsky, A.

    1996-03-01

    The possibility of muon colliders was introduced by Skrinsky et al., Neuffer, and others. More recently, several workshops and collaboration meetings have greatly increased the level of discussion. In this paper we present scenarios for 4 TeV and 0.5 TeV colliders based on an optimally designed proton source, and for a lower luminosity 0.5 TeV demonstration based on an upgraded version of the AGS. It is assumed that a demonstration version based on upgrades of the FERMILAB machines would also be possible. 53 refs., 25 figs., 8 tabs.

  11. MUON STORAGE RINGS - NEUTRINO FACTORIES

    SciTech Connect

    PARSA,Z.

    2000-05-30

    The concept of a muon storage ring based Neutrino Source (Neutrino Factory) has sparked considerable interest in the High Energy Physics community. Besides providing a first phase of a muon collider facility, it would generate more intense and well collimated neutrino beams than currently available. The BNL-AGS or some other proton driver would provide an intense proton beam that hits a target, produces pions that decay into muons. The muons must be cooled, accelerated and injected into a storage ring with a long straight section where they decay. The decays occurring in the straight sections of the ring would generate neutrino beams that could be directed to detectors located thousands of kilometers away, allowing studies of neutrino oscillations with precisions not currently accessible. For example, with the neutrino source at BNL, detectors at Soudan, Minnesota (1,715 km), and Gran Sasso, Italy (6,527 km) become very interesting possibilities. The feasibility of constructing and operating such a muon-storage-ring based Neutrino-Factory, including geotechnical questions related to building non-planar storage rings (e.g. at 8{degree} angle for BNL-Soudan, and 3{degree} angle for BNL-Gran Sasso) along with the design of the muon capture, cooling, acceleration, and storage ring for such a facility is being explored by the growing Neutrino Factory and Muon Collider Collaboration (NFMCC). The authors present overview of Neutrino Factory concept based on a muon storage ring, its components, physics opportunities, possible upgrade to a full muon collider, latest simulations of front-end, and a new bowtie-muon storage ring design.

  12. CMS Resistive Plate Chamber overview, from the present system to the upgrade phase I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paolucci, P.; Hadjiiska, R.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Dimitrov, A.; Beernaert, K.; Cimmino, A.; Costantini, S.; Guillaume, G.; Lellouch, J.; Marinov, A.; Ocampo, A.; Strobbe, N.; Thyssen, F.; Tytgat, M.; Verwilligen, P.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Aleksandrov, A.; Genchev, V.; Iaydjiev, P.; Rodozov, M.; Shopova, M.; Sultanov, G.; Ban, Y.; Cai, J.; Xue, Z.; Ge, Y.; Li, Q.; Qian, S.; Avila, C.; Chaparro, L. F.; Gomez, J. P.; Gomez Moreno, B.; Osorio Oliveros, A. F.; Sanabria, J. C.; Assran, Y.; Sharma, A.; Abbrescia, M.; Colaleo, A.; Pugliese, G.; Loddo, F.; Calabria, C.; Maggi, M.; Benussi, L.; Bianco, S.; Colafranceschi, S.; Piccolo, D.; Carrillo, C.; Iorio, O.; Buontempo, S.; Vitulo, P.; Berzano, U.; Gabusi, M.; Kang, M.; Lee, K. S.; Park, S. K.; Shin, S.; Kim, M. S.; Seo, H. K.; Goh, J.; Choi, Y.-I.

    2013-04-01

    Resistive Plate Chambers have been chosen as dedicated trigger muon detector for the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment [1] at the Large Hadron Collider [2] at CERN. The system consists of about 3000 m2 of double gap RPC chambers placed in both the barrel and endcap muon regions. About 5.6 fb-1 (2010-2011) of proton-proton collision data have been used to study the performance of the RPC detector and trigger. A full high voltage scan of all the RPC chambers has been done at beginning of 2011 data taking to evaluate the working point chamber by chamber and to eventually spot aging effects. The excellent behaviour of the RPC detector can be summarized with an average detector efficiency of about 97%, an average cluster size of 1.8 and an intrinsic noise rate of 0.1 Hz/cm2. This is a clear fulfilment of all the requirements decided 18 years ago in the CMS TDR document [3].

  13. A potential space- and power-effective muon sensor module for imaging a volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taira, H.; Tanaka, H. K. M.

    2010-02-01

    The application of muon radiography will be greatly enhanced by the use of two muon sensor modules that save electric power consumption and are easily transportable. Muon sensor modules used for a volcano observation must have a low electric power consumption requirement and be both waterproof and portable. In this article, we discuss two candidate sensor modules: (1) a portable muon sensor module with wavelength-shifting (WLS) fibers and a multi-anode photomultiplier tube (MAPMT), and (2) a regular scintillator telescope with PMT complemented by a low-power Cockcroft-Walton circuit (CWPMT). A realistic telescope system consisting of a muon sensor module with MAPMT has been tested and found to consume 76 W, most of which (72 W) is used by the redundant electronic circuit required for pulse shaping; this could be modified to drastically improve the power consumption. In comparison, a muon telescope system with a CWPMT was found to consume 7.57 W. We also calculated the muon stopping length in SiO2 by means of a Monte-Carlo simulation. This calculation provided the average density structure along the muon path in rock, where the muon path length was shorter than 1.5 km, with an accuracy of about 5% during a 90-day measurement period by assuming a 1-m2 muon detector with an angular resolution of 25 mrad.

  14. Muon tracking underground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battistoni, G.; Campana, P.; Chiarella, V.; Denni, U.; Iarocci, E.

    1986-04-01

    The design and performance of plastic streamer tubes for use in large underground particle-physics experiments such as the muon, astrophysics, and cosmic-ray observatory (MACRO) being developed for Gran Sasso Laboratory are reported. The large (1000 sq m or more) detector area required to achieve high-angular-resolution muon tracking in MACRO is covered by modules with eight 3 x 3-cm-cross section active streamer-tube cells each, similar to those used in the Mt. Blanc Laboratory detector. The MACRO modules have a maximum length of 12 m; and the cells have 60-micron-diameter wires, two conducting graphite sides, and two insulating sides (electrodeless electric-field shaping). The results of performance tests flowing 3:1 He:n-pentane through a tube module are presented graphically. Spatial resolution 1 cm and time resolution 100 ns are obtained, and the ability of the streamer tubes to detect large ionization losses with respect to the minimum is demonstrated.

  15. PREFACE: Muon spin rotation, relaxation or resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heffner, Robert H.; Nagamine, Kanetada

    2004-10-01

    ), is currently being built to replace the current Japanese muSR capability at KEK. These muSR institutions provide scientists a variety of sample environments, including a range of temperatures, magnetic fields and applied pressure. In addition, very low-energy muon beams (< 1 keV) have been developed for studies of thin films and nano-materials. In 2002 this world-wide community founded the International Society of muSR Spectroscopy (http://musr.org/~isms/) in order to promote the health of this growing field of research. The 20 papers presented in this volume are intended to highlight some of the current muSR research activities of interest to condensed matter physicists. It is not an exhaustive review. In particular, the active and exciting area of muonium chemistry is left to a future volume. The group of papers in section I addresses the physics of strongly correlated electrons in solids, one of the most active fields of condensed matter research today. Strong electron correlations arise from (Coulomb) interactions which render Landau's theory of electron transport for weakly interacting systems invalid. Included in this category are unconventional heavy-fermion superconductors, high-temperature copper-oxide superconductors, non-Fermi liquid (NFL) systems and systems with strong electron-lattice-spin coupling, such as the colossal magnetoresistance manganites. Two key properties often make the muon a unique probe of these materials: (1) the muon's large magnetic moment (~3 mup) renders it extremely sensitive to the tiny magnetic fields (~1 Gauss) found, for example, in many NFL systems and in superconductors possessing time-reversal-violating order parameters, and (2) the muon's spin 1/2 creates a simple muSR lineshape (no quadrupolar coupling), ideal for measuring spin-lattice-relaxation, local susceptibilities and magnetic-field distributions in ordered magnets and superconductors. Section II contains studies which exploit the unique sensitivities of muSR just

  16. Research and Development of Future Muon Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Yonehara, K.; /Fermilab

    2012-05-01

    Muon collider is a considerable candidate of the next generation high-energy lepton collider machine. A novel accelerator technology must be developed to overcome several intrinsic issues of muon acceleration. Recent research and development of critical beam elements for a muon accelerator, especially muon beam phase space ionization cooling channel, are reviewed in this paper.

  17. Quasi-isochronous Muon Collection Channels

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshikawa, C.; Ankenbrandt, C.; Neuffer, D.; /Fermilab

    2010-05-01

    Intense muon beams have many potential applications, including neutrino factories and muon colliders. However, muons are produced as tertiary beams, resulting in diffuse phase space distributions. To make useful beams, the muons must be rapidly cooled before they decay. An idea conceived recently for the collection and cooling of muon beams, namely, the use of a Quasi-Isochronous Helical Channel (QIHC) to facilitate capture of muons into RF buckets, has been developed further. The resulting distribution could be cooled quickly and coalesced into a single bunch to optimize the luminosity of a muon collider. After a brief elaboration of the QIHC concept, recent developments are described.

  18. Probing beyond the Standard Model with Muons

    SciTech Connect

    Hisano, Junji

    2008-02-21

    Muon's Properties are the most precisely studied among unstable particles. After discovery of muons in 40's, the studies of muons contributed to construction and establishment of the standard model in the particle physics. Now we are going to LHC era, however, precision frontier is still important in the particle physics. In this article, we review roles of muon physics in the particle physics. Muon g-2, lepton flavor violation (LFV) in muon decay, and electric dipole moment (EDM) of muon are mainly discussed.

  19. The ATLAS Level-1 Muon Topological Trigger Information for Run 2 of the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artz, S.; Bauss, B.; Boterenbrood, H.; Buescher, V.; Cerqueira, A. S.; Degele, R.; Dhaliwal, S.; Ellis, N.; Farthouat, P.; Galster, G.; Ghibaudi, M.; Glatzer, J.; Haas, S.; Igonkina, O.; Jakobi, K.; Jansweijer, P.; Kahra, C.; Kaluza, A.; Kaneda, M.; Marzin, A.; Ohm, C.; Silva Oliveira, M. V.; Pauly, T.; Poettgen, R.; Reiss, A.; Schaefer, U.; Schaeffer, J.; Schipper, J. D.; Schmieden, K.; Schreuder, F.; Simioni, E.; Simon, M.; Spiwoks, R.; Stelzer, J.; Tapprogge, S.; Vermeulen, J.; Vogel, A.; Zinser, M.

    2015-02-01

    For the next run of the LHC, the ATLAS Level-1 trigger system will include topological information on trigger objects from the calorimeters and muon detectors. In order to supply coarse grained muon topological information, the existing MUCTPI (Muon-to-Central-Trigger-Processor Interface) system has been upgraded. The MIOCT (Muon Octant) module firmware has been then modified to extract, encode and send topological information through the existing MUCTPI electrical trigger outputs. The topological information from the muon detectors will be sent to the Level-1 Topological Trigger Processor (L1Topo) through the MUCTPI-to-Level-1-Topological-Processor (MuCTPiToTopo) interface. Examples of physics searches involving muons are: search for Lepton Flavour Violation, Bs-physics, Beyond the Standard Model (BSM) physics and others. This paper describes the modifications to the MUCTPI and its integration with the full trigger chain.

  20. The Gran Sasso muon puzzle

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez-Martinez, Enrique; Mahbubani, Rakhi E-mail: rakhi@cern.ch

    2012-07-01

    We carry out a time-series analysis of the combined data from three experiments measuring the cosmic muon flux at the Gran Sasso laboratory, at a depth of 3800 m.w.e. These data, taken by the MACRO, LVD and Borexino experiments, span a period of over 20 years, and correspond to muons with a threshold energy, at sea level, of around 1.3 TeV. We compare the best-fit period and phase of the full muon data set with the combined DAMA/NaI and DAMA/LIBRA data, which spans the same time period, as a test of the hypothesis that the cosmic ray muon flux is responsible for the annual modulation detected by DAMA. We find in the muon data a large-amplitude fluctuation with a period of around one year, and a phase that is incompatible with that of the DAMA modulation at 5.2σ. Aside from this annual variation, the muon data also contains a further significant modulation with a period between 10 and 11 years and a power well above the 99.9% C.L threshold for noise, whose phase corresponds well with the solar cycle: a surprising observation for such high energy muons. We do not see this same period in the stratospheric temperature data.

  1. Muon Simulation at the Daya Bay SIte

    SciTech Connect

    Mengyun, Guan; Jun, Cao; Changgen, Yang; Yaxuan, Sun; Luk, Kam-Biu

    2006-05-23

    With a pretty good-resolution mountain profile, we simulated the underground muon background at the Daya Bay site. To get the sea-level muon flux parameterization, a modification to the standard Gaisser's formula was introduced according to the world muon data. MUSIC code was used to transport muon through the mountain rock. To deploy the simulation, first we generate a statistic sample of sea-level muon events according to the sea-level muon flux distribution formula; then calculate the slant depth of muon passing through the mountain using an interpolation method based on the digitized data of the mountain; finally transport muons through rock to get underground muon sample, from which we can get results of muon flux, mean energy, energy distribution and angular distribution.

  2. Muon Collider Task Force Report

    SciTech Connect

    Ankenbrandt, C.; Alexahin, Y.; Balbekov, V.; Barzi, E.; Bhat, C.; Broemmelsiek, D.; Bross, A.; Burov, A.; Drozhdin, A.; Finley, D.; Geer, S.; /Fermilab /Argonne /Brookhaven /Jefferson Lab /LBL, Berkeley /MUONS Inc., Batavia /UCLA /UC, Riverside /Mississippi U.

    2007-12-01

    Muon Colliders offer a possible long term path to lepton-lepton collisions at center-of-mass energies {radical}s {ge} 1 TeV. In October 2006 the Muon Collider Task Force (MCTF) proposed a program of advanced accelerator R&D aimed at developing the Muon Collider concept. The proposed R&D program was motivated by progress on Muon Collider design in general, and in particular, by new ideas that have emerged on muon cooling channel design. The scope of the proposed MCTF R&D program includes muon collider design studies, helical cooling channel design and simulation, high temperature superconducting solenoid studies, an experimental program using beams to test cooling channel RF cavities and a 6D cooling demonstration channel. The first year of MCTF activities are summarized in this report together with a brief description of the anticipated FY08 R&D activities. In its first year the MCTF has made progress on (1) Muon Collider ring studies, (2) 6D cooling channel design and simulation studies with an emphasis on the HCC scheme, (3) beam preparations for the first HPRF cavity beam test, (4) preparations for an HCC four-coil test, (5) further development of the MANX experiment ideas and studies of the muon beam possibilities at Fermilab, (6) studies of how to integrate RF into an HCC in preparation for a component development program, and (7) HTS conductor and magnet studies to prepare for an evaluation of the prospects for of an HTS high-field solenoid build for a muon cooling channel.

  3. Stopping Muons Study for Ultra-Low Background Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duncan, Daniel

    2014-09-01

    Stopping negative muons can be captured by nucleus in various materials in which neutrons and gamma rays can be produced. These energetic secondary particles can be background events for ultra-low background experiments in searching for dark matter and neutrinoless double-beta decay. The stopping negative muons captures rates in different materials have been mostly evaluated theoretically. The secondary particles in particular the energy of neutrons is not well understood for heavy elements. Experimental study of the capture rates and secondary particles is of interest of nuclear physics and rare event physics. Two plastic scintillation panels were used to create a muon detection system allowing study of stopping muons. These panels are each made of EJ200 scintillator measuring approximately 100 × 50 × 2.54 cm and attached on one side to EJ280 plastic strip measuring 2.54 × 2.54 × 50 cm. A 1'' Hamamatsu R1924A PMT is affixed to the end of each strip to collect light. The setup measures the lifetime of muons at earth's surface by detecting the time difference between stopped muons and muon decay. Data is collected for 21 hours and a mean muon lifetime of 2.02 +/- .06 microseconds is obtained. The setup will be used at Homestake to measure captures rates and secondary neutron energy spectrum. Stopping negative muons can be captured by nucleus in various materials in which neutrons and gamma rays can be produced. These energetic secondary particles can be background events for ultra-low background experiments in searching for dark matter and neutrinoless double-beta decay. The stopping negative muons captures rates in different materials have been mostly evaluated theoretically. The secondary particles in particular the energy of neutrons is not well understood for heavy elements. Experimental study of the capture rates and secondary particles is of interest of nuclear physics and rare event physics. Two plastic scintillation panels were used to create a muon

  4. Laser-Assisted Muon Decay

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Aihua; Li Shumin; Berakdar, Jamal

    2007-06-22

    We show theoretically that the muon lifetime can be changed dramatically by embedding the decaying muon in a strong linearly polarized laser field. Evaluating the S-matrix elements taking all electronic multiphoton processes into account we find that a CO{sub 2} laser with an electric field amplitude of 10{sup 6} V cm{sup -1} results in an order of magnitude shorter lifetime of the muon. We also analyze the dependencies of the decay rate on the laser frequency and intensity.

  5. Measurement of muon intensity by Cerenkov method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Z. H.; Li, G. J.; Bai, G. Z.; Liu, J. G.; Geng, Q. X.; Ling, J.

    1985-01-01

    Optical detection is an important technique in studies and observations of air showers, muons and relevant phenomena. The muon intensity is measured in a proper energy range and to study some problems about Cerenkov radiation of cosmic rays are studied, by a muon-telescope operated with Cerenkov detector. It is found that the measured muon intensity agrees with the integral energy spectrum of cosmic ray muons.

  6. Muon ID - taking care of lower momenta muons

    SciTech Connect

    Milstene, C.; Fisk, G.; Para, A.; /Fermilab

    2005-12-01

    In the Muon package under study, the tracks are extrapolated using an algorithm which accounts for the magnetic field and the ionization (dE/dx). We improved the calculation of the field dependent term to increase the muon detection efficiency at lower momenta using a Runge-Kutta method. The muon identification and hadron separation in b-bbar jets is reported with the improved software. In the same framework, the utilization of the Kalman filter is introduced. The principle of the Kalman filter is described in some detail with the propagation matrix, with the Runge-Kutta term included, and the effect on low momenta for low momenta single muons particles is described.

  7. Optimized capture section for a muon accelerator front end

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamal Sayed, Hisham; Berg, J. Scott

    2014-07-01

    In a muon accelerator complex, a target is bombarded by a multi-MW proton beam to produce pions, which decay into the muons which are thereafter bunched, cooled, and accelerated. The front end of the complex captures those pions, then manipulates their phase space, and that of the muons into which they decay, to maximize the number of muons within the acceptance of the downstream systems. The secondary pion beam produced at the target is captured by a high field target solenoid that tapers down to a constant field throughout the rest of the front end. In this study we enhance the useful muon flux by introducing a new design of the longitudinal profile of the solenoid field at, and downstream of, the target. We find that the useful muon flux exiting the front end is larger when the field at the target is higher, the distance over which the field tapers down is shorter, and the field at the end of the taper is higher. We describe how the solenoid field profile impacts the transverse and longitudinal phase space of the beam and thereby leads to these dependencies.

  8. Application of emulsion imaging system for cosmic-ray muon radiography to explore the internal structure of Teide and Cumbre Vieja volcanoes in the Canary Islands, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez Perez, P. A.; Tanaka, H.; Miyamoto, S.; Perez, N.; Barrancos, J.; Padron, E.; Hernandez, I.

    2012-12-01

    The internal structure of volcanoes, especially in their up per part, is product of past eruptions. Therefore, the knowledge of the internal structure of a volcano is of great importance for understanding its behaviour and to forecast the nature and style of the next eruptions. For these reasons, during past years scientists have made a big effort to investigate the internal structure of the volcanoes with different geophysical techniques, including deep drilling, passive and active seismic tomography, geoelectrics and magnetotellurics and gravimetry. One of the limits of conventional geophysical methods is the spatial resolution, which typically ranges between some tens of meters up to 1 km. In this sense, the radiography of active volcanoes based on natural muons, even if limited to the external part of the volcano, represents an important tool for investigating the internal structure of a volcano at higher spatial resolution (Macedonio and Martini, 2009). Moreover, muon radiography is able to resolve density contrasts of the order of 1-3%, significantly greater than the resolution obtained with conventional methods. As example, the experiment of muon radiography carried out at Mt. Asama volcano by Tanaka et al., 2007, allowed the reconstruction of the density map of the cone and detection of a dense region that corresponds to the position and shape of a lava deposit created during the last eruption in 2004. In the framework of a research project financed by the Canary Agency of Research, Innovation and Information Society, we will implement muon measurements at Teide volcano in Tenerife Island and Cumbre Vieja volcano in La Palma Island, Canary Islands, to radiographically image the subsurface structure of these two volcanic edifices. The data analysis will involve the study both of the shallow structure of both volcanoes and of the requirements for the implementation of the muon detectors. Both Cumbre Vieja and Teide are two active volcanoes that arouse great

  9. Application of emulsion imaging system for cosmic-ray muon radiography to explore the internal structure of Teide and Cumbre Vieja volcanoes in the Canary Islands, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández, Iñigo; Hernández, Pedro; Pérez, Nemesio; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Miyamoto, Seygo; Barrancos, José; Padrón, Eleazar

    2013-04-01

    The internal structure of volcanoes, especially in their up per part, is product of past eruptions. Therefore, the knowledge of the internal structure of a volcano is of great importance for understanding its behaviour and to forecast the nature and style of the next eruptions. For these reasons, during past years scientists have made a big effort to investigate the internal structure of the volcanoes with different geophysical techniques, including deep drilling, passive and active seismic tomography, geoelectrics and magnetotellurics and gravimetry. One of the limits of conventional geophysical methods is the spatial resolution, which typically ranges between some tens of meters up to 1 km. In this sense, the radiography of active volcanoes based on natural muons, even if limited to the external part of the volcano, represents an important tool for investigating the internal structure of a volcano at higher spatial resolution (Macedonio and Martini, 2009). Moreover, muon radiography is able to resolve density contrasts of the order of 1-3%, significantly greater than the resolution obtained with conventional methods. As example, the experiment of muon radiography carried out at Mt. Asama volcano by Tanaka et al., 2007, allowed the reconstruction of the density map of the cone and detection of a dense region that corresponds to the position and shape of a lava deposit created during the last eruption in 2004. In the framework of a research project financed by the Canary Agency of Research, Innovation and Information Society, we will implement muon measurements at Teide volcano in Tenerife Island and Cumbre Vieja volcano in La Palma Island, Canary Islands, to radiographically image the subsurface structure of these two volcanic edifices. The data analysis will involve the study both of the shallow structure of both volcanoes and of the requirements for the implementation of the muon detectors. Both Cumbre Vieja and Teide are two active volcanoes that arouse great

  10. LINACS FOR FUTURE MUON FACILITIES

    SciTech Connect

    Slawomir Bogacz, Rolland Johnson

    2008-10-01

    Future Muon Colliders (MC) and Neutrino Factories (NF) based on muon storage rings will require innovative linacs to: produce the muons, cool them, compress longi-tudinally and ‘shape’ them into a beam and finally to rap-idly accelerate them to multi-GeV (NF) and TeV (MC) energies. Each of these four linac applications has new requirements and opportunities that follow from the na-ture of the muon in that it has a short lifetime (τ = 2.2 μsec) in its own rest frame, it is produced in a tertiary process into a large emittance, and its electron, photon, and neutrino decay products can be more than an annoy-ance. As an example, for optimum performance, the linac repetition rates should scale inversely with the laboratory lifetime of the muon in its storage ring, something as high as 1 kHz for a 40 GeV Neutrino Factory or as low as 20 Hz for a 5 TeV Muon Collider. A superconducting 8 GeV Linac capable of CW operation is being studied as a ver-satile option for muon production [1] for colliders, facto-ries, and muon beams for diverse purposes. A linac filled with high pressure hydrogen gas and imbedded in strong magnetic fields has been proposed to rapidly cool muon beams [2]. Recirculating Linear Accelerators (RLA) are possible because muons do not generate significant syn-chrotron radiation even at extremely high energy and in strong magnetic fields. We will describe the present status of linacs for muon applications; in particular the longitu-dinal bunch compression in a single pass linac and multi-pass acceleration in the RLA, especially the optics and technical requirements for RLA designs, using supercon-ducting RF cavities capable of simultaneous acceleration of both μ+ and μ- species, with pulsed linac quadrupoles to allow the maximum number of passes. The design will include the optics for the multi-pass linac and droplet-shaped return arcs.

  11. CuOF: an electrical to optical interface for the upgrade of the CMS muon Drift Tubes system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dattola, D.; De Remigis, P.; Maselli, S.; Mazza, G.; Rotondo, F.; Wheadon, R.

    2013-02-01

    The upgrade of the Drift Tube system of the CMS experiment foresee the relocation of the electronics actually sitting on the racks beside the magnet from the cavern to the counting room. It is thus required to convert the signals from electrical to optical, for a total number of 3500 channels that run at up to 480 Mb/s. A Copper to Optical Fiber board is currently under design. The board is divided into a mother board, which hosts the slow control system based on Field Programmable Gate Array, and four mezzanine cards, each with 8 conversion channels. A prototype of the mezzanine board has been designed and tested under irradiation.

  12. Muon spin rotation in solids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stronach, C. E.

    1983-01-01

    The muon spin rotation (MuSR) technique is used to probe the microscopic electron density in materials. High temperature MuSR and magnetization measurements in nickel are in progress to allow an unambiguous determination of the muon impurity interaction and the impurity induced change in local spin density. The first results on uniaxial stress induced frequency shifts in an Fe single crystal are also reported.

  13. Muon Colliders: The Next Frontier

    ScienceCinema

    Tourun, Yagmur [Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, Illinois, United States

    2010-01-08

    Muon Colliders provide a path to the energy frontier in particle physics but have been regarded to be "at least 20 years away" for 20 years. I will review recent progress in design studies and hardware R&D and show that a Muon Collider can be established as a real option for the post-LHC era if the current vigorous R&D effort revitalized by the Muon Collider Task Force at Fermilab can be supported to its conclusion. All critical technologies are being addressed and no show-stoppers have emerged. Detector backgrounds have been studied in detail and appear to be manageable and the physics can be done with existing detector technology. A muon facility can be built through a staged scenario starting from a low-energy muon source with unprecedented intensity for exquisite reach for rare processes, followed by a Neutrino Factory with ultrapure neutrino beams with unparalleled sensitivity for disentangling neutrino mixing, leading to an energy frontier Muon Collider with excellent energy resolution.

  14. Muon Colliders: The Next Frontier

    SciTech Connect

    Tourun, Yagmur

    2009-07-29

    Muon Colliders provide a path to the energy frontier in particle physics but have been regarded to be 'at least 20 years away' for 20 years. I will review recent progress in design studies and hardware R&D and show that a Muon Collider can be established as a real option for the post-LHC era if the current vigorous R&D effort revitalized by the Muon Collider Task Force at Fermilab can be supported to its conclusion. All critical technologies are being addressed and no show-stoppers have emerged. Detector backgrounds have been studied in detail and appear to be manageable and the physics can be done with existing detector technology. A muon facility can be built through a staged scenario starting from a low-energy muon source with unprecedented intensity for exquisite reach for rare processes, followed by a Neutrino Factory with ultrapure neutrino beams with unparalleled sensitivity for disentangling neutrino mixing, leading to an energy frontier Muon Collider with excellent energy resolution.

  15. Muon Colliders: The Next Frontier

    SciTech Connect

    Tourun, Yagmur

    2009-07-29

    Muon Colliders provide a path to the energy frontier in particle physics but have been regarded to be "at least 20 years away" for 20 years. I will review recent progress in design studies and hardware R&D and show that a Muon Collider can be established as a real option for the post-LHC era if the current vigorous R&D effort revitalized by the Muon Collider Task Force at Fermilab can be supported to its conclusion. All critical technologies are being addressed and no show-stoppers have emerged. Detector backgrounds have been studied in detail and appear to be manageable and the physics can be done with existing detector technology. A muon facility can be built through a staged scenario starting from a low-energy muon source with unprecedented intensity for exquisite reach for rare processes, followed by a Neutrino Factory with ultrapure neutrino beams with unparalleled sensitivity for disentangling neutrino mixing, leading to an energy frontier Muon Collider with excellent energy resolution.

  16. A photon detector system for the search for the rare muon decay {mu} {yields} e{gamma}

    SciTech Connect

    Van Ausdeln, L.A.

    1993-11-01

    An innovative and state of the art pair spectrometer system to measure the photon component of {mu}{sup +} decay to obtain an improved branching ratio limit for the decay {mu} {yields} e{gamma} is investigated. Analysis algorithms are developed and an experimental inner bremsstrahlung spectrum is obtained and agrees well with Monte Carlo simulations. Background sources are investigated and found to be highly suppressed at various stages of acquisition and analysis.

  17. Muon g-2 Experiment at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, Frederick

    2015-10-01

    A new experiment at Fermilab will measure the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon with a precision of 140 parts per billion (ppb). This measurement is motivated by the results of the Brookhaven E821 experiment that were first released more than a decade ago, which reached a precision of 540 ppb. As the corresponding Standard Model predictions have been refined, the experimental and theoretical values have persistently differed by about 3 standard deviations. If the Brookhaven result is confirmed at Fermilab with this improved precision, it will constitute definitive evidence for physics beyond the Standard Model. The experiment observes the muon spin precession frequency in flight in a well-calibrated magnetic fi eld; the improvement in precision will require both 20 times as many recorded muon decay events as in E821 and a reduction by a factor of 3 in the systematic uncertainties. This paper describes the current experimental status as well as the plans for the upgraded magnet, detector and storage ring systems that are being prepared for the start of beam data collection in 2017.

  18. Next Generation Muon g-2 Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Hertzog, David W.

    2015-12-02

    I report on the progress of two new muon anomalous magnetic moment experiments, which are in advanced design and construction phases. The goal of Fermilab E989 is to reduce the experimental uncertainty of $a_\\mu$ from Brookhaven E821 by a factor of 4; that is, $\\delta a_\\mu \\sim 16 \\times 10^{-11}$, a relative uncertainty of 140~ppb. The method follows the same magic-momentum storage ring concept used at BNL, and pioneered previously at CERN, but muon beam preparation, storage ring internal hardware, field measuring equipment, and detector and electronics systems are all new or upgraded significantly. In contrast, J-PARC E34 will employ a novel approach based on injection of an ultra-cold, low-energy, muon beam injected into a small, but highly uniform magnet. Only a small magnetic focusing field is needed to maintain storage, which distinguishes it from CERN, BNL and Fermilab. E34 aims to roughly match the previous BNL precision in their Phase~1 installation.

  19. Next Generation Muon g - 2 Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hertzog, David W.

    2016-04-01

    I report on the progress of two new muon anomalous magnetic moment experiments, which are in advanced design and construction phases. The goal of Fermilab E989 is to reduce the experimental uncertainty of aμ from Brookhaven E821 by a factor of 4; that is, δaμ ˜ 16 × 10-11, a relative uncertainty of 140 ppb. The method follows the same magic-momentum storage ring concept used at BNL, and pioneered previously at CERN, but muon beam preparation, storage ring internal hardware, field measuring equipment, and detector and electronics systems are all new or upgraded significantly. In contrast, J-PARC E34 will employ a novel approach based on injection of an ultra-cold, low-energy, muon beam injected into a small, but highly uniform magnet. Only a small magnetic focusing field is needed to maintain storage, which distinguishes it from CERN, BNL and Fermilab. E34 aims to roughly match the previous BNL precision in their Phase 1 installation.

  20. Regenerative Amplification of Femtosecond Pulses: Design andConstruction of a sub-100fs, muon J Laser System

    SciTech Connect

    Schumacher, Andreas B.

    1996-10-01

    Femtosecond lasers are a powerful tool for a wealth of applications in physics, chemistry and biology. In most cases, however, their use is fundamentally restricted to a rather narrow spectral range. This thesis deals with the construction and characterization of a femtosecond light source for spectroscopic applications which overcomes that restriction. It is demonstrated how the output of a continuously pumped Ti:sapphire femtosecond oscillator is amplified to the {mu}J level,while the pulse duration remains below 100 fs. A combination of continuous pumping, acousto-optic switching and Ti:Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} as a gain medium allows amplification at high repetition rates. By focusing the high energy pulses into a sapphire crystal, a broad-band continuum can be generated, extended in wavelengths over several hundred nanometers. To accomplish amplification of three orders of magnitude while maintaining the pulse length, a regenerative multipass amplifier system was built. The thesis describes theoretical design, realization and characterization of the system. Theoretical calculations and preliminary measurements were carried out and allow a critical evaluation of the final performance.

  1. The Performance and Long Term Stability of the D0 Run II Forward Muon Scintillation Counters

    SciTech Connect

    Bezzubov, V.; Denisov, D.; Evdokimov, V.; Lipaev, V.; Shchukin, A.; Vasilyev, I.

    2014-07-21

    The performance of the D0 experiment forward muon scintillation counters system during Run II of the Tevatron from 2001 to 2011 is described. The system consists of 4214 scintillation counters in six layers. The long term stability of the counters amplitude response determined using LED calibration system and muons produced in proton-antiproton collisions is presented. The average signal amplitude for counters of all layers has gradually decreased over ten years by 11%. The reference timing, determined using LED calibration, was stable within 0.26 ns. Average value of muon timing peak position was used for periodic D0 clock signal adjustments to compensate seasonal drift caused by temperature variations. Counters occupancy for different triggers in physics data collection runs and for minimum bias triggers are presented. The single muon yields versus time and the luminosity dependence of yields were stable for the forward muon system within 1% over 10 years.

  2. ICOOL: A SIMULATION CODE FOR IONIZATION COOLING OF MUON BEAMS.

    SciTech Connect

    FERNOW,R.C.

    1999-03-25

    Current ideas [1,2] for designing a high luminosity muon collider require significant cooling of the phase space of the muon beams. The only known method that can cool the beams in a time comparable to the muon lifetime is ionization cooling [3,4]. This method requires directing the particles in the beam at a large angle through a low Z absorber material in a strong focusing magnetic channel and then restoring the longitudinal momentum with an rf cavity. We have developed a new 3-D tracking code ICOOL for examining possible configurations for muon cooling. A cooling system is described in terms of a series of longitudinal regions with associated material and field properties. The tracking takes place in a coordinate system that follows a reference orbit through the system. The code takes into account decays and interactions of {approx}50-500 MeV/c muons in matter. Material geometry regions include cylinders and wedges. A number of analytic models are provided for describing the field configurations. Simple diagnostics are built into the code, including calculation of emittances and correlations, longitudinal traces, histograms and scatter plots. A number of auxiliary files can be generated for post-processing analysis by the user.

  3. Muon Acceleration - RLA and FFAG

    SciTech Connect

    Bogacz, Alex

    2011-10-01

    Various acceleration schemes for muons are presented. The overall goal of the acceleration systems: large acceptance acceleration to 25 GeV and 'beam shaping' can be accomplished by various fixed field accelerators at different stages. They involve three superconducting linacs: a single pass linear Pre-accelerator followed by a pair of multi-pass Recirculating Linear Accelerators (RLA) and finally a non-scaling FFAG ring. The present baseline acceleration scenario has been optimized to take maximum advantage of appropriate acceleration scheme at a given stage. The solenoid based Pre-accelerator offers very large acceptance and facilitates correction of energy gain across the bunch and significant longitudinal compression trough induced synchrotron motion. However, far off-crest acceleration reduces the effective acceleration gradient and adds complexity through the requirement of individual RF phase control for each cavity. The RLAs offer very efficient usage of high gradient superconducting RF and ability to adjust path-length after each linac pass through individual return arcs with uniformly periodic FODO optics suitable for chromatic compensation of emittance dilution with sextupoles. However, they require spreaders/recombiners switchyards at both linac ends and significant total length of the arcs. The non-scaling Fixed Field Alternating Gradient (FFAG) ring combines compactness with very large chromatic acceptance (twice the injection energy) and it allows for large number of passes through the RF (at least eight, possibly as high as 15).

  4. Muon-muon and other high energy colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, R.B.; Gallardo, J.C.

    1997-02-01

    The first section looks at the high energy physics advantages, disadvantages and luminosity requirements of hadron, of lepton and photon-photon colliders for comparison. The second section discusses the physics considerations for the muon collider. The third section covers muon collider components. The fourth section is about the intersection region and detectors. In the fifth section, the authors discuss modifications to enhance the muon polarization`s operating parameters with very small momentum spreads, operations at energies other than the maximum for which the machine is designed, and designs of machines for different maximum energies. The final section discusses a Research and Development plan aimed at the operation of a 0.5 TeV demonstration machine by the year 2010, and of the 4 TeV machine by the year 2020.

  5. Muon motion in titanium hydride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kempton, J. R.; Petzinger, K. G.; Kossler, W. J.; Schone, H. E.; Hitti, B. S.; Stronach, C. E.; Adu, N.; Lankford, W. F.; Reilly, J. J.; Seymour, E. F. W.

    1988-01-01

    Motional narrowing of the transverse-field muon spin rotation signal was observed in gamma-TiH(x) for x = 1.83, 1.97, and 1.99. An analysis of the data for TiH1.99 near room temperature indicates that the mechanism responsible for the motion of the muon out of the octahedral site is thermally activated diffusion with an attempt frequency comparable to the optical vibrations of the lattice. Monte Carlo calculations to simulate the effect of muon and proton motion upon the muon field-correlation time were used to interpret the motional narrowing in TiH1.97 near 500 K. The interpretation is dependent upon whether the Bloembergen, Purcell, and Pound (BPP) theory or an independent spin-pair relaxation model is used to obtain the vacancy jump rate from proton NMR T1 measurements. Use of BPP theory shows that the field-correction time can be obtained if the rate of motion of the muon with respect to the rate of the motion for the protons is decreased. An independent spin-pair relaxation model indicates that the field-correlation time can be obtained if the rate of motion for the nearest-neighbor protons is decreased.

  6. Density tomography with cosmic muons: Applications in volcanology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibert, D.; Marteau, J.; Lesparre, N.; Sibilla, J.; Jourde, K.; Taisne, B.; Komorowski, J. C.; Carlus, B.; Gardien, S.; Girerd, C.; Ianigro, J.; Montorio, J.; de Bremond d'Ars, J.; Kergosien, B.; Rolland, P.; Carbone, D.

    2012-12-01

    Density tomography of rock with muons of cosmic origin uses the attenuation of the flux of muons crossing a volume of rock to derive its opacity, i.e. the quantity of matter encountered by the particles along their trajectories. Progress in micro-electronics and particle detectors now make field measurement in harsh environments possible and muon density tomography is becoming more and more popular. We present the telescopes constructed by our teams for the DIAPHANE project. These instruments may be equipped with a variable number of detection matrices, and they are portable autonomous devices able to operate in difficult field conditions encountered on tropical volcanoes. The telescope successfully operate on Mount Etna and on the Soufrière of Guadeloupe volcano. Muon radiographies of the Soufrière lava dome reveal its very heterogeneous density structure produced by an intense hydrothermal circulation of acid fluids which alters its mechanical integrity leading to a high risk level of destabilisation. Small-size features are visible on the images and provide precious informations on the structure of the upper hydrothermal systems. Density muon tomography of the internal structure of volcanoes like the Soufrière brings important informations for the hazard evaluation an is particularly adapted to brought constraints on flank destabilization and hydrothermal circulation models.iew of a cosmic muon telescope in operation on the Soufriere of Guadeloupe volcano. The particle detector matrices are contained in the yellow frames. ensity muon radiography of the Soufriere of Guadeloupe volcano taken in the North-South plane (South is on the left). The less dense areas appear in blue and correspond to hydrothermal reservoirs and altered material. Dense regions (in red) correspond to massive lava scarps.

  7. Muon-Pair Production by Atmospheric Muons in CosmoALEPH

    SciTech Connect

    Maciuc, F.; Grupen, C.; Hashim, N.O.; Luitz, S.; Mailov, A.; Muller, A.S.; Putzer, A.; Sander, H.G.; Schmeling, S.; Schmelling, M.; Tcaciuc, R.; Wachsmuth, H.; Ziegler, T.; Zuber, K.; /Heidelberg, Max Planck Inst. /Siegen U. /SLAC /Karlsruhe, Forschungszentrum /Heidelberg U. /Mainz U., Inst. Phys. /CERN /Princeton U. /Oxford U.

    2006-03-06

    Data from a dedicated cosmic ray run of the ALEPH detector were used in a study of muon trident production, i.e., muon pairs produced by muons. Here the overburden and the calorimeters are the target materials while the ALEPH time projection chamber provides the momentum measurements. A theoretical estimate of the muon trident cross section is obtained by developing a Monte Carlo simulation for muon propagation in the overburden and the detector. Two muon trident candidates were found to match the expected theoretical pattern. The observed production rate implies that the nuclear form factor cannot be neglected for muon tridents.

  8. Muon collider interaction region design

    SciTech Connect

    Alexahin, Y.I.; Gianfelice-Wendt, E.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Mokhov, N.V.; Zlobin, A.V.; Alexakhin, V.Y.; /Dubna, JINR

    2010-05-01

    Design of a muon collider interaction region (IR) presents a number of challenges arising from low {beta}* < 1 cm, correspondingly large beta-function values and beam sizes at IR magnets, as well as the necessity to protect superconducting magnets and collider detectors from muon decay products. As a consequence, the designs of the IR optics, magnets and machine-detector interface are strongly interlaced and iterative. A consistent solution for the 1.5 TeV c.o.m. muon collider IR is presented. It can provide an average luminosity of 10{sup 34} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} with an adequate protection of magnet and detector components.

  9. Law of Conservation of Muons

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Feinberg, G.; Weinberg, S.

    1961-02-01

    A multiplicative selection rule for mu meson-electron transitions is proposed. A "muon parity" = -1 is considered for the muon and its neutrino, while the "muon parity" for all other particles is +1. The selection rule then states that (-1) exp(no. of initial (-1) parity particles) = (-1) exp(no. of final (-1) parity particles). Several reactions that are forbidden by an additive law but allowed by the multiplicative law are suggested; these reactions include mu{sup +} .> e{sup +} + nu{sub mu} + {ovr nu}{sub e}, e{sup -} + e{sup -} .> mu{sup -} + mu{sup -}, and muonium .> antimuonium (mu{sup +} + e{sup -} .> mu{sup -} + e{sup +}). An intermediate-boson hypothesis is suggested. (T.F.H.)

  10. The MICE Muon Beam Line

    SciTech Connect

    Apollonio, Marco

    2011-10-06

    In the Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) at RAL, muons are produced and transported in a dedicated beam line connecting the production point (target) to the cooling channel. We discuss the main features of the beamline, meant to provide muons with momenta between 140 MeV/c and 240 MeV/c and emittances up to 10 mm rad, which is accomplished by means of a diffuser. Matching procedures to the MICE cooling channel are also described. In summer 2010 we performed an intense data taking campaign to finalize the calibration of the MICE Particle Identification (PID) detectors and the understanding of the beam line, which completes the STEPI phase of MICE. We highlight the main results from these data.

  11. MICE: The International Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, Daniel M.

    2006-03-20

    Ionization cooling of a muon beam is a key technique for a Neutrino Factory or Muon Collider. An international collaboration is mounting an experiment to demonstrate muon ionization cooling at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory. We aim to complete the experiment by 2010.

  12. A Highly intense DC muon source, MuSIC and muon CLFV search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hino, Y.; Kuno, Y.; Sato, A.; Sakamoto, H.; Matsumoto, Y.; Tran, N. H.; Hashim, I. H.; Fukuda, M.; Hayashida, Y.; Ogitsu, T.; Yamamoto, A.; Yoshida, M.

    2014-08-01

    MuSIC is a new muon facility, which provides the world's highest intense muon beam with continuous time structure at Research Center of Nuclear Physics (RCNP), Osaka University. It's intensity is designed to be 108 muons per second with only 0.4 kW proton beam. Such a high intense muon beam is very important for searches of rare decay processes, for example search for the muon to electron conversion.

  13. Optimising a muon spectrometer for measurements at the ISIS pulsed muon source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giblin, S. R.; Cottrell, S. P.; King, P. J. C.; Tomlinson, S.; Jago, S. J. S.; Randall, L. J.; Roberts, M. J.; Norris, J.; Howarth, S.; Mutamba, Q. B.; Rhodes, N. J.; Akeroyd, F. A.

    2014-07-01

    This work describes the development of a state-of-the-art muon spectrometer for the ISIS pulsed muon source. Conceived as a major upgrade of the highly successful EMU instrument, emphasis has been placed on making effective use of the enhanced flux now available at the ISIS source. This has been achieved both through the development of a highly segmented detector array and enhanced data acquisition electronics. The pulsed nature of the ISIS beam is particularly suited to the development of novel experiments involving external stimuli, and therefore the ability to sequence external equipment has been added to the acquisition system. Finally, the opportunity has also been taken to improve both the magnetic field and temperature range provided by the spectrometer, to better equip the instrument for running the future ISIS user programme.

  14. Stochastic processes in muon ionization cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Errede, D.; Makino, K.; Berz, M.; Johnstone, C. J.; Van Ginneken, A.

    2004-02-01

    A muon ionization cooling channel consists of three major components: the magnet optics, an acceleration cavity, and an energy absorber. The absorber of liquid hydrogen contained by thin aluminum windows is the only component which introduces stochastic processes into the otherwise deterministic acceleration system. The scattering dynamics of the transverse coordinates is described by Gaussian distributions. The asymmetric energy loss function is represented by the Vavilov distribution characterized by the minimum number of collisions necessary for a particle undergoing loss of the energy distribution average resulting from the Bethe-Bloch formula. Examples of the interplay between stochastic processes and deterministic beam dynamics are given.

  15. The forward muon detector of L3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, A.; Aguilar-Benitez, M.; Alarcon, J.; Alberdi, J.; Alexandrov, V.; Aloisio, A.; Alviggi, M. G.; Anderhub, H.; Ariza, M.; Azemoon, T.; Aziz, T.; Bakker, F.; Banerjee, S.; Banicz, K.; Barcala, J.; Becker, U.; Berdugo, J.; Berges, P.; Betev, B. L.; Biland, A.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bock, R.; Böhm, A.; Borissov, V.; Bosseler, K.; Bouvier, Ph.; Brambilla, E.; Burger, J. D.; Burgos, C.; Buskens, J.; Carlier, J. C.; Carlino, G.; Casaus, J.; Cavallo, N.; Cerjak, I.; Cerrada, M.; Chang, Y. H.; Chen, H. S.; Chendvankar, S. R.; Chvatchkine, V.; Daniel, M.; de Asmundis, R.; Decreuse, G.; Deiters, K.; Djambazov, L.; Duraffourg, P.; Erné, F. C.; Esser, H.; Ezekiev, S.; Faber, G.; Fabre, M.; Fernandez, G.; Freudenreich, K.; Fritschi, M.; Garcia-Abia, P.; Gonzalez, A.; Gurtu, A.; Gutay, L. J.; Haller, Ch.; Herold, W. D.; Herrmann, J.; Hervé, A.; Hofer, H.; Hofer, H.; Hofer, M.; Hofer, T.; Homma, J.; Horisberger, U.; Horvath, I.; Ingenito, P.; Innocente, V.; Ioudine, I.; Jaspers, M.; de Jong, P.; Kaestli, W.; Kaspar, H.; Kitov, V.; König, A. C.; Koutsenko, V.; Lanzano, S.; Lapoint, C.; Lebedev, A.; Lecomte, P.; Lista, L.; Lübelsmeyer, K.; Lustermann, W.; Ma, J. M.; Milesi, M.; Molinero, A.; Montero, A.; Moore, R.; Nahn, S.; Navarrete, J.; Okle, M.; Orlinov, I.; Ostojic, D.; Pandoulas, D.; Paolucci, P.; Parascandolo, P.; Passeggio, G.; Patricelli, S.; Peach, D.; Piccolo, D.; Pigni, L.; Postema, H.; Puras, C.; Ren, D.; Rewiersma, P.; Rietmeyer, A.; Riles, K.; Risco, J.; Robohm, A.; Rodin, J.; Roeser, U.; Romero, L.; van Rossum, W.; Rykaczewski, H.; Sarakinos, M. E.; Sassowsky, M.; Schegelsky, V.; Scholz, N.; Schultze, K.; Schuylenburg, H.; Sciacca, C.; Seiler, P. G.; Siedenburg, T.; Siedling, R.; Smith, B.; Soulimov, V.; Sudhakar, K.; Syben, O.; Tonutti, M.; Udovcic, A.; Ulbricht, J.; Veillet, L.; Vergain, M.; Viertel, G.; von Gunten, H. P.; Vorobyov, An. A.; Vrankovic, V.; de Waard, A.; Waldmeier-Wicki, S.; Wallraff, W.; Walter, H. C.; Wang, J. C.; Wei, Z. L.; Wetter, R.; Weverling, I.; Willmott, C.; Wittgenstein, F.; Wu, R. J.; Yang, K. S.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, Y.; Zuang, H. L.

    1996-02-01

    The forward-backward muon detector of the L3 experiment is presented. Intended to be used for LEP 200 physics, it consists of 96 self-calibrating drift chambers of a new design enclosing the magnet pole pieces of the L3 solenoid. The pole pieces are toroidally magnetized to form two independent analyzing spectrometers. A novel trigger is provided by resistive plate counters attached to the drift chambers. Details about the design, construction and performance of the whole system are given together with results obtained during the 1995 running at LEP.

  16. One-bead-one-compound library of end-capped dipeptides and deconvolution by microflow NMR.

    PubMed

    Simon, Rozalyn A; Schuresko, Laura; Dendukuri, Nagamani; Goers, Emily; Murphy, Brent; Lokey, R Scott

    2005-01-01

    As part of our program to identify novel small molecules with interesting biological activity, we have designed and synthesized a library of end-capped dipeptides with an emphasis on compound diversity, complexity, and membrane permeability. An approximately 1500-member library was synthesized manually on large polystyrene beads using the mix-and-split method. The final compounds were cleaved into 384-well plates to generate individual stock solutions for input into high-throughput biological screens. Individual compounds were decoded using a combination of mass spectrometry and microflow NMR spectroscopy. In principle, this approach to deconvolution obviates the need for complicated binary encoding-decoding strategies for one-bead-one-compound libraries. PMID:16153064

  17. Physics with a millimole of muons

    SciTech Connect

    Quigg, C.

    1998-03-01

    The eventual prospect of muon colliders reaching several TeV encourages us to consider the experimental opportunities presented by very copious stores of muons, approaching 10{sup 21} per year. I summarize and comment upon some highlights of the Fermilab Workshop on Physics at the First Muon Collider and at the Front End of a Muon Collider. Topics include various varieties of {mu}{mu} colliders, {mu}p colliders, and applications of the intense neutrino beams that can be generated in muon storage rings.

  18. Tail Catcher Muon Tracker For The CALICE Test Beam

    SciTech Connect

    Dyshkant, Alexander

    2006-10-27

    Results on the construction and commissioning of the CALICE Tail-catcher/Muon Tracker (TCMT) are presented. The {approx}1 m3 prototype uses extruded scintillating strips mated to silicon-photomultipliers and is located behind the CALICE hadron calorimeter. The TCMT will provide a snapshot of the tail end of hadron showers, which is crucial to the validation of hadronic Monte Carlo. It will also serve as a prototype muon system for any Linear Collider Detector (ILC) and will facilitate studies of muon tracking and identification within the particle flow reconstruction framework. Additionally, the TCMT will provide valuable practical experience with hadronic leakage and punch-through from thin calorimeters, as are envisaged for the ILC detector, and the impact of the coil in correcting for this leakage.

  19. Charge recombination in the muon collider cooling channel

    SciTech Connect

    Fernow, R. C.; Palmer, R. B.

    2012-12-21

    The final stage of the ionization cooling channel for the muon collider must transversely recombine the positively and negatively charged bunches into a single beam before the muons can be accelerated. It is particularly important to minimize any emittance growth in this system since no further cooling takes place before the bunches are collided. We have found that emittance growth could be minimized by using symmetric pairs of bent solenoids and careful matching. We show that a practical design can be found that has transmission {approx}99%, emittance growth less than 0.1%, and minimal dispersion in the recombined bunches.

  20. Neutrino Factory and Muon Collider Fellow

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, Gail G.; Snopak, Pavel; Bao, Yu

    2015-03-20

    Muons are fundamental particles like electrons but much more massive. Muon accelerators can provide physics opportunities similar to those of electron accelerators, but because of the larger mass muons lose less energy to radiation, allowing more compact facilities with lower operating costs. The way muon beams are produced makes them too large to fit into the vacuum chamber of a cost-effective accelerator, and the short muon lifetime means that the beams must be reduced in size rather quickly, without losing too many of the muons. This reduction in size is called "cooling." Ionization cooling is a new technique that can accomplish such cooling. Intense muon beams can then be accelerated and injected into a storage ring, where they can be used to produce neutrino beams through their decays or collided with muons of the opposite charge to produce a muon collider, similar to an electron-positron collider. We report on the research carried out at the University of California, Riverside, towards producing such muon accelerators, as part of the Muon Accelerator Program based at Fermilab. Since this research was carried out in a university environment, we were able to involve both undergraduate and graduate students.

  1. Muon g-2 Experiment Shimming

    ScienceCinema

    Kiburg, Brendan

    2016-06-28

    The Muon g-2 experiment at Fermilab will use as its primary instrument a 52-foot-wide electromagnet that creates a precise magnetic field. In this video, Fermilab's Brendan Kiburg explains the lengthy process of finely "shimming" that magnetic field into shape.

  2. Cosmic muons, as messengers from the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brancus, I. M.; Rebel, H.

    2015-02-01

    Penetrating from the outer space into the Earth atmosphere, primary cosmic rays are producing secondary radiation by the collisions with the air target subsequently decaying in hadrons, pions, muons, electrons and photons, phenomenon called Extensive air Shower (EAS). The muons, considered as the "penetrating" component, survive the propagation to the Earth and even they are no direct messenger of the Universe, they reflect the features of the primary particles. The talk gives a description of the development of the extensive air showers generating the secondary particles, especially the muon component. Results of the muon flux and of the muon charge ratio, (the ratio between the positive and the negative muons), obtained in different laboratories and in WILLI experiment, are shown. At the end, the contribution of the muons measured in EAS to the investigation of the nature of the primary cosmic rays is emphasized in KASCADE and WILLI-EAS experiments.

  3. Cosmic muons, as messengers from the Universe

    SciTech Connect

    Brancus, I. M.; Rebel, H.

    2015-02-24

    Penetrating from the outer space into the Earth atmosphere, primary cosmic rays are producing secondary radiation by the collisions with the air target subsequently decaying in hadrons, pions, muons, electrons and photons, phenomenon called Extensive air Shower (EAS). The muons, considered as the “penetrating” component, survive the propagation to the Earth and even they are no direct messenger of the Universe, they reflect the features of the primary particles. The talk gives a description of the development of the extensive air showers generating the secondary particles, especially the muon component. Results of the muon flux and of the muon charge ratio, (the ratio between the positive and the negative muons), obtained in different laboratories and in WILLI experiment, are shown. At the end, the contribution of the muons measured in EAS to the investigation of the nature of the primary cosmic rays is emphasized in KASCADE and WILLI-EAS experiments.

  4. NEUTRINO FACTORY BASED ON MUON-STORAGE-RINGS TO MUON COLLIDERS: PHYSICS AND FACILITIES.

    SciTech Connect

    PARSA,Z.

    2001-06-18

    Intense muon sources for the purpose of providing intense high energy neutrino beams ({nu} factory) represents very interesting possibilities. If successful, such efforts would significantly advance the state of muon technology and provides intermediate steps in technologies required for a future high energy muon collider complex. High intensity muon: production, capture, cooling, acceleration and multi-turn muon storage rings are some of the key technology issues that needs more studies and developments, and will briefly be discussed here. A muon collider requires basically the same number of muons as for the muon storage ring neutrino factory, but would require more cooling, and simultaneous capture of both {+-} {mu}. We present some physics possibilities, muon storage ring based neutrino facility concept, site specific examples including collaboration feasibility studies, and upgrades to a full collider.

  5. Muon and neutrino results from KGF experiment at a depth of 7000 hg/square cm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishnaswamy, M. R.; Menon, M. G. K.; Mondal, N. K.; Narasimham, V. S.; Streekantan, B. V.; Hayashi, Y.; Ito, N.; Kawakami, S.; Miyake, S.

    1985-01-01

    The KGF nucleon decay experiment at a depth of 7000 hg/sq cm has provided valuable data on muons and neutrinos. The detector comprised of 34 crossed layers of proportional counters (cross section 10 x 10 sq cm; lengths 4m and 6m) sandwiched between 1.2 cm thick iron plates can record tracks of charged particles to an accuracy of 1 deg from tracks that traverse the whole of the detector. A special two-fold coincidence system enables the detector to record charged particles that enter at very large zenith angles. In a live time of 3.6 years about 2600 events have been recorded. These events include atmospheric muons, neutrino induced muons from rock, stopping muons, showers and events which have their production vertex inside the detectors. The results on atmospheric muons and neutrino events are presented.

  6. A 10-GeV, 5-MW proton source for a muon-muon collider

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Y.; Chae, Y.; Crosbie, E.; Friedsam, H.; Harkay, K.; Horan, D.; Kustom, R.; Lessner, E.; McDowell, W.; McGhee, D.; Moe, H.; Nielsen, R.; Norek, G.; Peterson, K.; Qian, Y.; Thompson, K.; White, M.

    1996-05-01

    The performance parameters of a proton source which produces the required flux of muons for a 2-TeV on 2-TeV muon collider are: a beam energy of 10 GeV, a repetition rate of 30 Hz, two bunches per pulse with 5{times}10{sup 13} protons per bunch, and an rms bunch length of 3 nsec (1). Aside from the bunch length requirement, these parameters are identical to those of a 5-MW proton source for a spallation neutron source based on a 10-GeV rapid cycling synchrotron (RCS) (2). The 10-GeV synchrotron uses a 2-GeV accelerator system as its injector, and the 2-GeV RCS is an extension of a feasibility study for a 1-MW spallation source described elsewhere (3{endash}9). A study for the 5-MW spallation source was performed for ANL site-specific geometrical requirements. Details are presented for a site-independent proton source suitable for the muon collider utilizing the results of the 5-MW spallation source study. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  7. Design and performance of the upgrade of the CMS L1 muon trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bortignon, P.

    2016-07-01

    After the Long Shutdown 1 (LS1) LHC will run at a center of mass energy of 13 TeV, providing CMS with proton collisions at an expected luminosity which is almost double the LHC design value of 1034cm-2s-1, and almost three times the peak luminosity reached during Run1 of 7.7 ·1033cm-2s-1. The higher luminosity and center of mass energy of the LHC will raise the Level 1 (L1) muon trigger rate by almost a factor six for a given muon transverse momentum pT threshold. It is therefore necessary to increase the muon (pT) threshold to keep the trigger rate below 100 kHz, the maximum sustainable rate for the CMS detectors. An increase of the L1 trigger thresholds implies a lowering of the efficiency in detecting signals from new physics. The CMS muon trigger is upgraded using custom designed AMC boards, with more powerful FPGAs and larger memories. The upgraded CMS muon trigger system implements pattern recognition and MVA (Boosted Decision Tree) regression techniques in the trigger boards for muon pT assignment, drastically reducing the trigger rate and improving the trigger efficiency. The upgraded system design exploits the redundancy of the CMS muon detectors at a very early stage merging different muon detector information already at L1. The pileup subtracted information from the upgraded calorimeter trigger allows to require isolated muons already in the L1 algorithms. The upgrade trigger is also designed to include inputs from GEM, the phase 2 muon detector upgrade in the very high pseudorapidity region.

  8. Studies of high energy phenomena using muons. [Northern Illinois Univ

    SciTech Connect

    Hedin, D.; Kaplan, D.; Green, J.

    1993-02-01

    The NIU high energy physics group has three main efforts. The first is the D0 experiment at the Fermilab proton-antiproton collider, with major emphasis on its muon system. The second is the involvement of a portion of the group in Fermilab Experiment 789. Finally, members of the group participate in the SDC collaboration at the SSC.

  9. Muon Front-End for the Neutrino Factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernow, R. C.

    2006-05-01

    The front end at a neutrino factory includes all the systems necessary for capturing the pion beam produced at the target and for preparing the transverse and longitudinal phase space of the resulting muon beam for subsequent acceleration to high energies. We compare front end configurations for a number of neutrino factory designs.

  10. R&D Proposal for the National Muon Acccelerator Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-02-01

    This document contains a description of a multi-year national R&D program aimed at completing a Design Feasibility Study (DFS) for a Muon Collider and, with international participation, a Reference Design Report (RDR) for a muon-based Neutrino Factory. It also includes the supporting component development and experimental efforts that will inform the design studies and permit an initial down-selection of candidate technologies for the ionization cooling and acceleration systems. We intend to carry out this plan with participants from the host national laboratory (Fermilab), those from collaborating U.S. national laboratories (ANL, BNL, Jlab, LBNL, and SNAL), and those from a number of other U.S. laboratories, universities, and SBIR companies. The R&D program that we propose will provide the HEP community with detailed information on future facilities based on intense beams of muons - the Muon Collider and the Neutrino Factory. We believe that these facilities offer the promise of extraordinary physics capabilities. The Muon Collider presents a powerful option to explore the energy frontier and the Neutrino Factory gives the opportunity to perform the most sensitive neutrino oscillation experiments possible, while also opening expanded avenues for the study of new physics in the neutrino sector. The synergy between the two facilities presents the opportunity for an extremely broad physics program and a unique pathway in accelerator facilities. Our work will give clear answers to the questions of expected capabilities and performance of these muon-based facilities, and will provide defensible ranges for their cost. This information, together with the physics insights gained from the next-generation neutrino and LHC experiments, will allow the HEP community to make well-informed decisions regarding the optimal choice of new facilities. We believe that this work is a critical part of any broad strategic program in accelerator R&D and, as the P5 panel has recently

  11. R&D PROPOSAL FOR THE NATIONAL MUON ACCELERATOR PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    Muon Accelerator Program; Zisman, Michael S.; Geer, Stephen

    2010-02-24

    This document contains a description of a multi-year national R&D program aimed at completing a Design Feasibility Study (DFS) for a Muon Collider and, with international participation, a Reference Design Report (RDR) for a muon-based Neutrino Factory. It also includes the supporting component development and experimental efforts that will inform the design studies and permit an initial down-selection of candidate technologies for the ionization cooling and acceleration systems. We intend to carry out this plan with participants from the host national laboratory (Fermilab), those from collaborating U.S. national laboratories (ANL, BNL, Jlab, LBNL, and SNAL), and those from a number of other U.S. laboratories, universities, and SBIR companies. The R&D program that we propose will provide the HEP community with detailed information on future facilities based on intense beams of muons--the Muon Collider and the Neutrino Factory. We believe that these facilities offer the promise of extraordinary physics capabilities. The Muon Collider presents a powerful option to explore the energy frontier and the Neutrino Factory gives the opportunity to perform the most sensitive neutrino oscillation experiments possible, while also opening expanded avenues for the study of new physics in the neutrino sector. The synergy between the two facilities presents the opportunity for an extremely broad physics program and a unique pathway in accelerator facilities. Our work will give clear answers to the questions of expected capabilities and performance of these muon-based facilities, and will provide defensible ranges for their cost. This information, together with the physics insights gained from the next-generation neutrino and LHC experiments, will allow the HEP community to make well-informed decisions regarding the optimal choice of new facilities. We believe that this work is a critical part of any broad strategic program in accelerator R&D and, as the P5 panel has recently

  12. Performance of the ATLAS muon trigger in pp collisions at √s = 8 TeV

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Aad, G.

    2015-03-13

    The performance of the ATLAS muon trigger system is evaluated with proton–proton collision data collected in 2012 at the Large Hadron Collider at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV. It is primarily evaluated using events containing a pair of muons from the decay of Z bosons. The efficiency of the single-muon trigger is measured for muons with transverse momentum 25 < pT < 100 GeV, with a statistical uncertainty of less than 0.01 % and a systematic uncertainty of 0.6 %. The pT range for efficiency determination is extended by using muons from decays of J/ψ mesons, W bosons, andmore » top quarks. The muon trigger shows highly uniform and stable performance. Thus, the performance is compared to the prediction of a detailed simulation.« less

  13. Performance of the ATLAS muon trigger in pp collisions at √s = 8 TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Aad, G.

    2015-03-13

    The performance of the ATLAS muon trigger system is evaluated with proton–proton collision data collected in 2012 at the Large Hadron Collider at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV. It is primarily evaluated using events containing a pair of muons from the decay of Z bosons. The efficiency of the single-muon trigger is measured for muons with transverse momentum 25 < pT < 100 GeV, with a statistical uncertainty of less than 0.01 % and a systematic uncertainty of 0.6 %. The pT range for efficiency determination is extended by using muons from decays of J/ψ mesons, W bosons, and top quarks. The muon trigger shows highly uniform and stable performance. Thus, the performance is compared to the prediction of a detailed simulation.

  14. Directivity function of muon detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karapetyan, G. G.

    2015-02-01

    We introduce a new concept of directivity function (DF) to describe directional sensitivity of a particle detector. DF is a 3D function, describing the sensitivity of a detector to asymptotic directions of primary protons. It defines the contribution of primary protons, arriving from different asymptotic directions to the count rate of the detector. We develop the approach for computing the DF and derive it in particular case of SEVAN muon detector, located at mount Aragats, Armenia. Obtained data enable one to outline the region of solid angles, inside of which the arriving protons contribute a given percentage of count rate. In general, the DF can have the multi peak shape. It provides the most detailed and accurate description of directional sensitivity of a particle detector and we suggest that it is used in space research based on neutron and muon detectors.

  15. Muon data analysis program RUMDA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilcoyne, S. H.

    1994-07-01

    There are currently two data analysis programs available for muon users at ISIS. Both programs can be used for analyzing MuSR and EMU data and can be run on (MUSR01), (EMU01) or set-up to run on a user's account. RUMDA - 'Reading University Muon Data Analysis' was originally from Reading University and is now controlled at ISIS. At present (mid 1994) this suite of programs is run using VAX/VMS and the ISIS plotting package 'GENIE'. It is possible to fit data to any function with a maximum of 10 variables. UDA - 'mu Data Analysis' is a dashboard driven program which allows the user to plot and fit data files on the screen or as hard copies. It is possible to fit data to a combination of Gaussian and/or Lorentzian line shapes. A manual describing this program can be found in the back of the MuSR User Guide.

  16. Muon ID at the ILC

    SciTech Connect

    Milstene, C.; Fisk, G.; Para, A.; /Fermilab

    2006-09-01

    This paper describes a new way to reconstruct and identify muons with high efficiency and high pion rejection. Since muons at the ILC are often produced with or in jets, for many of the physics channels of interest [1], an efficient algorithm to deal with the identification and separation of particles within jets is important. The algorithm at the core of the method accounts for the effects of the magnetic field and for the loss of energy by charged particles due to ionization in the detector. We have chosen to develop the analysis within the setup of one of the Linear Collider Concept Detectors adopted by the US. Within b-pair production jets, particles cover a wide range in momenta; however {approx}80% of the particles have a momentum below 30 GeV[2]. Our study, focused on bbar-b jets, is preceded by a careful analysis of single energy particles between 2 and 50 GeV. As medium energy particles are a substantial component of the jets, many of the particles lose part of their energy in the calorimeters and the solenoid coil before reaching the muon detector where they may have energy below 2 GeV. To deal with this problem we have implemented a Runge-Kutta correction of the calculated trajectory to better handle these lower energy particles. The multiple scattering and other stochastic processes, more important at lower energy, is addressed by a Kalman-filter integrated into the reconstruction algorithm. The algorithm provides a unique and powerful separation of muons from pions. The 5 Tesla magnetic field from a solenoid surrounds the hadron calorimeter and allows the reconstruction and precision.

  17. Neutron densities from muon capture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huan Ching, Chiang; Oset, Eulogio

    1991-10-01

    We show that, because of Pauli blocking and renormalization of the weak currents in nuclei, the muon capture rates are rather sensitive to the neutron distributions. We also show that, because of intrinsic theoretical uncertainties, neutron radia cannot be determined with precision but some reasonable limits can be given. However, the ratio of capture rates in different isotopes serves to determine the neutron radii of the isotopes provided the neutron density distribution for one of them is known.

  18. Introduction to Mini Muon Tracker

    SciTech Connect

    Borozdin, Konstantin N.

    2012-08-13

    Using a mini muon tracker developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory we performed experiments of simple landscapes of various materials, including TNT, 9501, lead, tungsten, aluminium, and water. Most common scenes are four two inches thick step wedges of different dimensions: 12-inch x 12-inch, 12-inch x 9-inch, 12-inch x 6-inch, and 12-inch x 3-inch; and a one three inches thick hemisphere of lead with spherical hollow, and a similar full lead sphere.

  19. Information extraction from muon radiography data

    SciTech Connect

    Borozdin, K. N.; Asaki, T. J.; Chartrand, R.; Hengartner, N. W.; Hogan, G. E.; Morris, C. L.; Priedhorsky, W. C.; Schirato, R.C.; Schultz, L. J.; Sottile, M. J.; Vixie, K. R.; Wohlberg, B. E.; Blanpied, G.

    2004-01-01

    Scattering muon radiography was proposed recently as a technique of detection and 3-d imaging for dense high-Z objects. High-energy cosmic ray muons are deflected in matter in the process of multiple Coulomb scattering. By measuring the deflection angles we are able to reconstruct the configuration of high-Z material in the object. We discuss the methods for information extraction from muon radiography data. Tomographic methods widely used in medical images have been applied to a specific muon radiography information source. Alternative simple technique based on the counting of high-scattered muons in the voxels seems to be efficient in many simulated scenes. SVM-based classifiers and clustering algorithms may allow detection of compact high-Z object without full image reconstruction. The efficiency of muon radiography can be increased using additional informational sources, such as momentum estimation, stopping power measurement, and detection of muonic atom emission.

  20. Muon cooling in a quadrupole magnet channel

    SciTech Connect

    Neuffer, David; Poklonskiy, A.; /Michigan State U.

    2007-10-01

    As discussed before,[1] a cooling channel using quadrupole magnets in a FODO transport channel can be used for initial cooling of muons. In the present note we discuss this possibility of a FODO focusing channel for cooling, and we present ICOOL simulations of muon cooling within a FODO channel. We explore a 1.5m cell-length cooling channel that could be used for the initial transverse cooling stage of a muon collider or neutrino factory.

  1. Status of the MANX muon cooling experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Yonehara, K.; Broemmelsiek, D.; Hu, M.; Jansson, A.; Kashikhin, V.S.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Lamm, M.; Lopes, M.; Shiltsev, V.; Yarba, V.; Yu, M.; /Fermilab /Muons Inc., Batavia

    2008-06-01

    A demonstration experiment of six-dimensional (6D) phase space muon beam cooling is a key milestone on the roadmap toward to a real muon collider. In order to achieve this goal, they have designed the Muon Collider and Neutrino Factory Experiment (MANX) channel, which consists of the Helical Cooling Channel (HCC). They discuss the status of the simulation study of the MANX in this document.

  2. The US Muon Accelerator Program (MAP)

    SciTech Connect

    Bross, Alan D.; /Fermilab

    2010-12-01

    The US Department of Energy Office of High Energy Physics has recently approved a Muon Accelerator Program (MAP). The primary goal of this effort is to deliver a Design Feasibility Study for a Muon Collider after a 7 year R&D program. This paper presents a brief physics motivation for, and the description of, a Muon Collider facility and then gives an overview of the program. I will then describe in some detail the primary components of the effort.

  3. Materials science with muon spin rotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    During this reporting period, the focus of activity in the Materials Science with Muon Spin Rotation (MSMSR) program was muon spin rotation studies of superconducting materials, in particular the high critical temperature and heavy-fermion materials. Apart from these studies, work was continued on the analysis of muon motion in metal hydrides. Results of these experiments are described in six papers included as appendices.

  4. Neutrino induced muons in Soudan 2.

    SciTech Connect

    DeMuth, D. M.; Soudan 2 Collaboration

    1999-06-23

    The neutrino-induced muon rate underground has been measured at Soudan 2. To discriminate from the intense background of atmospheric muons we consider only the through-going muons which originate from horizontal direction ({minus}0.14 < cos{theta} < 0.14). We calculate the horizontal, neutrino-induced muon rate at Soudan 2 from an exposure of 1.23 x 10{sup 8} s as {Phi}{sub {nu}{mu}} = (3.45 {+-} 0.52 {+-} 0.61) x 10{sup {minus}13} (cm{sup 2} sr s){sup {minus}1}.

  5. Question of Lorentz violation in muon decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noordmans, J. P.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Wilschut, H. W.; Timmermans, R. G. E.

    2016-06-01

    Possibilities to test the Lorentz invariance of the weak interaction in muon decay are considered. We derive the direction-dependent muon-decay rate with a general Lorentz-violating addition to the W -boson propagator. We discuss measurements of the directional and boost dependence of the Michel parameters and of the muon lifetime as a function of absolute velocity. The total muon-decay rate in the Lorentz-violating standard model extension is addressed. Suggestions are made for dedicated (re)analyses of the pertinent data and for future experiments.

  6. D-Zero muon readout electronics design

    SciTech Connect

    Baldin, B.; Hansen, S.; Los, S.; Matveev, M.; Vaniev, V.

    1996-11-01

    The readout electronics designed for the D{null} Muon Upgrade are described. These electronics serve three detector subsystems and one trigger system. The front-ends and readout hardware are synchronized by means of timing signals broadcast from the D{null} Trigger Framework. The front-end electronics have continuously running digitizers and two levels of buffering resulting in nearly deadtimeless operation. The raw data is corrected and formatted by 16- bit fixed point DSP processors. These processors also perform control of the data buffering. The data transfer from the front-end electronics located on the detector platform is performed by serial links running at 160 Mbit/s. The design and test results of the subsystem readout electronics and system interface are discussed.

  7. Electronic properties of atoms and molecules containing one and two negative muons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moncada, Félix; Cruz, Daniel; Reyes, Andrés

    2013-05-01

    Any-Particle Molecular Orbital/Hartree-Fock (APMO/HF) calculations are performed for a variety of atoms and simple diatomic molecular systems containing one and two negative muons (μ). In these calculations electrons and muons are described quantum mechanically whereas nuclei are treated as point charges. Our results for atoms containing n = 1, 2 negative muons reveal that electronic properties such as electronic densities and ionization potentials shift to those of all-electron atoms with atomic numbers Z-n. In the case of diatomic molecules these muonic effects are more diverse ranging from transmutation of atomic properties to drastic changes in equilibrium geometries and energies.

  8. Photon-veto counters at the outer edge of the endcap calorimeter for the KOTO experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumura, T.; Shinkawa, T.; Yokota, H.; Iwai, E.; Komatsubara, T. K.; Lee, J. W.; Lim, G. Y.; Ma, J.; Masuda, T.; Nanjo, H.; Nomura, T.; Odani, Y.; Ri, Y. D.; Shiomi, K.; Sugiyama, Y.; Suzuki, S.; Togawa, M.; Wah, Y.; Watanabe, H.; Yamanaka, T.

    2015-09-01

    The Outer-Edge Veto (OEV) counter subsystem for extra-photon detection from the backgrounds for the KL0 →π0 ν ν bar decay is located at the outer edge of the endcap CsI calorimeter of the KOTO experiment at J-PARC. The subsystem is composed of 44 counters with different cross-sectional shapes. All counters are made of lead and scintillator plates and read out through wavelength-shifting fibers. In this paper, we discuss the design and performances of the OEV counters under heavy load (~ 8 tons /m2) in vacuum. For 1-MeV energy deposit, the average light yield and time resolution are 20.9 photo-electrons and 1.5 ns, respectively. Although no pronounced peak by minimum-ionizing particles is observed in the energy distributions, an energy calibration method with cosmic rays works well in monitoring the gain stability with an accuracy of a few percent.

  9. Surface reconstruction and hemocompatibility improvement of a phosphorylcholine end-capped poly(butylene succinate) coating.

    PubMed

    Hao, Ni; Wang, Yan-Bing; Zhang, Shi-Ping; Shi, Su-Qing; Nakashima, Kenichi; Gong, Yong-Kuan

    2014-09-01

    Control over cell-material surface interactions is the key to many new and improved biomedical devices. In this study, we present a simple yet effective surface modification method that allows for the surface reconstruction and formation of cell outer membrane mimetic structure on coatings that have significantly increased hemocompatibility. To achieve this, a phosphorylcholine end-capped poly(butylene succinate) (PBS-PC) was synthesized and dip-coated on coverslips. The surface structure of the amphiphilic PBS-PC film was reconstructed by heating in a vacuum oven to obtain the less hydrophilic surface and by immersing in hot water to obtain the more hydrophilic surface. Significant changes in the surface element concentration were observed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis and changes in surface wettability were measured by sensitive dynamic contact angle technique. Scanning electron microscope images showed different morphologies of the reconstructed surfaces. Interestingly, the reconstruction between the less hydrophilic and more hydrophilic surfaces is reversible. More importantly, both the reconstructed surfaces are stable in room condition for more than 6 months, and both the surfaces show significant improvement in hemocompatibility as revealed by protein adsorption and platelet adhesion measurements. This reversible surface reconstruction strategy and the interesting results may be significant for fabricating stable and hemocompatible surfaces on differently shaped biomedical devices. PMID:24115737

  10. The Forward Endcap of the Electromagnetic Calorimeter for the PANDA Detector at FAIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, Malte; PANDA Collaboration

    2015-02-01

    The versatile 4π-detector PANDA will be built at the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR), an accelerator complex, currently under construction near Darmstadt, Germany. A cooled antiproton beam in a momentum range of 1.5 - 15GeV/c will be provided by the High Energy Storage Ring (HESR). All measurements at PANDA rely on an excellent performance of the detector with respect to tracking, particle identification and energy measurement. The electromagnetic calorimeter (EMC) of the PANDA detector will be equipped with 15744 PbWO4 crystals (PWO-II), which will be operated at a temperature of - 25° C in order to increase the light output. The design of the forward endcap of the EMC has been finalized. The crystals will be read out with Large Area Avalanche Photo Diodes (LAAPDs) in the outer regions and with Vacuum Photo Tetrodes (VPTTs) in the innermost part. Production of photosensor units utilizing charge integrating preamplifiers has begun. A prototype comprised of 216 PbWO4 crystals has been built and tested at various accelerators (CERN SPS, ELSA/Bonn, MAMI/Mainz), where the crystals have been exposed to electron and photon beams of 25MeV up to 15GeV. The results of these test measurements regarding the energy and position resolution are presented.

  11. Characterization of the selenotrisulfide formed by reaction of selenite with end-capped phytochelatin-2.

    PubMed

    Spain, Stephen M; Rabenstein, Dallas L

    2004-03-01

    The phytochelatins are a family of peptides synthesized by plants in response to exposure to heavy metals and metalloids, including selenium in the form of selenite. The amino acid sequence of the phytochelatin (PC) peptides is (gamma-Glu-Cys)n-Gly, where n typically ranges from 2 to 5. In this paper, the products of the reaction of selenite with an end-capped analogue of PC2, Ac-(gamma-Glu-Cys)2-Gly-NH2, are characterized. Selenite reacts with Ac-(gamma-Glu-Cys)2-Gly-NH2 (Ac-PC2-NH2) to form a compound that contains an intramolecular selenotrisulfide (-SSeS-)-linkage (Se[Ac-PC2-NH2]) and oxidized Ac-PC2-NH2. Both Se[Ac-PC2-NH2] and oxidized Ac-PC2-NH2 were isolated by HPLC and were characterized by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, by two-dimensional 1H and 13C NMR and, in the case of Se[Ac-PC2-NH2], by 77Se NMR. Using dihedral angles determined from vicinal 1H-1H coupling constants as constraints for the conformations around the Cys(CalphaH)-Cys(CbetaH) bonds, structures were predicted for the most abundant form of both compounds by Monte Carlo molecular mechanics simulations. PMID:15214417

  12. CO2 - and O2 -sensitive fluorophenyl end-capped poly(ethylene glycol).

    PubMed

    Choi, Jung Yoon; Kim, Jin Young; Moon, Hyo Jung; Park, Min Hee; Jeong, Byeongmoon

    2014-01-01

    Pentafluorophenyl end-capped poly(ethylene glycol) (PF-PEG-PF) aqueous solution shows a lower critical solution temperature (LCST), which is sensitive to the type of gases dissolved in the solution. LCST increases from 24.5 to 26 °C when dissolved carbon dioxide is replaced by oxygen. The transparent-to-turbid transition is reversibly observed when the dissolved carbon dioxide in the PF-PEG-PF aqueous solution is exchanged with oxygen, and vice versa, at 24.5 °C. (19) F NMR and (1) H NMR spectra of the PF-PEG-PF in D2 O suggest that 1) dehydration of PEG is the main reason of developing LCST of the PF-PEG-PF aqueous solution, 2) minute differences in the intermolecular interactions, as demonstrated by changes in the chemical shift of the PF-PEG-PF peaks, induce such a difference in LCST. This paper provides a new insight in designing a stimuli-responsive polymer in that fine tuning of a phase transition can be controlled by the type of dissolved gas. PMID:24272990

  13. GEM Detectors for Muon Tomography of Nuclear Contraband

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quintero, Amilkar; Gnanvo, Kondo; Grasso, Leonard; Locke, Judson; Mitra, Debasis; Hohlmann, Marcus

    2010-02-01

    The construction of a Muon Tomography station is presented. Muon Tomography (MT), based on scattering of cosmic ray muons, is an improvement to actual portal monitors at borders, since the current techniques use regular radiation detection that are not very sensitive to nuclear contraband (U, Pu), if these materials are well shielded to absorb emanating radiation. We use a low mass, high spatial resolution (˜50 μm) Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detectors for MT to overcome the intrinsic limitations. The prototype MT station employs 6 tracking stations based on 33cm x 33cm triple-GEM detectors with 2D readout. The detectors are arranged into tracking superlayers at the top and bottom of the probed volume. Due to the excellent spatial resolution of GEM, it is sufficient to use few cm gap between tracking stations. We present details of the production and assembly of the GEM-based tracking stations in collaboration with CERN-GDD lab and RD51 experiment as well as the design of the corresponding front-end electronics and readout system. Discussion about GEM detectors in two sides of the probed volume for a complete muon tracking, and large-area (1m x 1m) GEM-based MT station prototype to be tested under realistic conditions, are made. )

  14. The ATLAS conditions database architecture for the Muon spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verducci, Monica; ATLAS Muon Collaboration

    2010-04-01

    The Muon System, facing the challenge requirement of the conditions data storage, has extensively started to use the conditions database project 'COOL' as the basis for all its conditions data storage both at CERN and throughout the worldwide collaboration as decided by the ATLAS Collaboration. The management of the Muon COOL conditions database will be one of the most challenging applications for Muon System, both in terms of data volumes and rates, but also in terms of the variety of data stored. The Muon conditions database is responsible for almost all of the 'non event' data and detector quality flags storage needed for debugging of the detector operations and for performing reconstruction and analysis. The COOL database allows database applications to be written independently of the underlying database technology and ensures long term compatibility with the entire ATLAS Software. COOL implements an interval of validity database, i.e. objects stored or referenced in COOL have an associated start and end time between which they are valid, the data is stored in folders, which are themselves arranged in a hierarchical structure of folder sets. The structure is simple and mainly optimized to store and retrieve object(s) associated with a particular time. In this work, an overview of the entire Muon conditions database architecture is given, including the different sources of the data and the storage model used. In addiction the software interfaces used to access to the conditions data are described, more emphasis is given to the Offline Reconstruction framework ATHENA and the services developed to provide the conditions data to the reconstruction.

  15. First results of the cosmic ray muon variation study by means of the scintillation muon hodoscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ampilogov, N. V.; Astapov, I. I.; Barbashina, N. S.; Borog, V. V.; Dmitrieva, A. N.; Kovylyaeva, A. A.; Kompaniets, K. G.; Petrukhin, A. A.; Shutenko, V. V.; Yashin, I. I.

    2016-02-01

    The new scintillation muon hodoscope to study cosmic ray muon flux variations was created in MEPhI. The basic characteristics of the hodoscope (sensitivity area, precision of the muon track reconstruction, ‘live’ time etc.) are comparable with other hodoscopes (TEMP and URAGAN) of MEPhI. Modular design is a distinctive feature of the detector, supplying relativity easy transportability, and low maintenance requirements give a possibility of a long-term autonomic operation. First results of the cosmic ray muon variation study by means of the scintillation muon hodoscope are presented and discussed.

  16. Hadronic interactions and EAS muon pseudorapidities investigated with the Muon Tracking Detector in KASCADE-Grande

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabierowski, J.; Apel, W. D.; Arteaga, J. C.; Badea, F.; Bekk, K.; Bertaina, M.; Blümer, H.; Bozdog, H.; Brancus, I. M.; Brüggemann, M.; Buchholz, P.; Cantoni, E.; Chiavassa, A.; Cossavella, F.; Daumiller, K.; de Souza, V.; di Pierro, F.; Doll, P.; Engel, R.; Engler, J.; Finger, M.; Fuhrmann, D.; Ghia, P. L.; Gils, H. J.; Glasstetter, R.; Grupen, C.; Haungs, A.; Heck, D.; Hörandel, J. R.; Huege, T.; Isar, P. G.; Kampert, K.-H.; Kang, D.; Kickelbick, D.; Klages, H. O.; Kolotaev, Y.; Łuczak, P.; Mathes, H. J.; Mayer, H. J.; Milke, J.; Mitrica, B.; Morello, C.; Navarra, G.; Nehls, S.; Oehlschläger, J.; Ostapchenko, S.; Petcu, M.; Pierog, T.; Rebel, H.; Roth, M.; Schieler, H.; Schröder, F.; Sima, O.; Stümpert, M.; Toma, G.; Trinchero, G. C.; Ulrich, H.; van Buren, J.; Walkowiak, W.; Weindl, A.; Wochele, J.; Wommer, M.; KASCADE-Grande Collaboration

    2009-12-01

    The Muon Tracking Detector in the KASCADE-Grande EAS experiment allows the precise measurement of shower muon directions up to 700 m distance from the shower center. This directional information is used to study the pseudorapidity of muons in EAS, closely related to the pseudorapidity of their parent mesons. Moreover, the mean value of muon pseudorapidity in a registered shower reflects the longitudinal development of its hadronic component. All of this makes it a good tool for testing hadronic interaction models. The possibilities of such tests given by the KASCADE-Grande experimental setup are discussed and an example of the obtained muon pseudorapidity spectrum is shown.

  17. Imaging the Subsurface with Upgoing Muons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonal, N.; Preston, L. A.; Schwellenbach, D.; Dreesen, W.; Green, A.

    2014-12-01

    We assess the feasibility of imaging the subsurface using upgoing muons. Traditional muon imaging focuses on more-prevalent downgoing muons. Muons are subatomic particles capable of penetrating the earth's crust several kilometers. Downgoing muons have been used to image the Pyramid of Khafre of Giza, various volcanoes, and smaller targets like cargo. Unfortunately, utilizing downgoing muons requires below-target detectors. For aboveground objects like a volcano, the detector is placed at the volcano's base and the top portion of the volcano is imaged. For underground targets like tunnels, the detector would have to be placed below the tunnel in a deeper tunnel or adjacent borehole, which can be costly and impractical for some locations. Additionally, detecting and characterizing subsurface features like voids from tunnels can be difficult. Typical characterization methods like sonar, seismic, and ground penetrating radar have shown mixed success. Voids have a marked density contrast with surrounding materials, so using methods sensitive to density variations would be ideal. High-energy cosmic ray muons are more sensitive to density variation than other phenomena, including gravity. Their absorption rate depends on the density of the materials through which they pass. Measurements of muon flux rate at differing directions provide density variations of the materials between the muon source (cosmic rays and neutrino interactions) and detector, much like a CAT scan. Currently, tomography using downgoing muons can resolve features to the sub-meter scale. We present results of exploratory work, which demonstrates that upgoing muon fluxes appear sufficient to achieve target detection within a few months. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  18. Preliminary frequency-domain analysis for the reconstructed spatial resolution of muon tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, B.; Zhao, Z.; Wang, X.; Wang, Y.; Wu, D.; Zeng, Z.; Zeng, M.; Yi, H.; Luo, Z.; Yue, X.; Cheng, J.

    2014-11-01

    Muon tomography is an advanced technology to non-destructively detect high atomic number materials. It exploits the multiple Coulomb scattering information of muon to reconstruct the scattering density image of the traversed object. Because of the statistics of muon scattering, the measurement error of system and the data incompleteness, the reconstruction is always accompanied with a certain level of interference, which will influence the reconstructed spatial resolution. While statistical noises can be reduced by extending the measuring time, system parameters determine the ultimate spatial resolution that one system can reach. In this paper, an effective frequency-domain model is proposed to analyze the reconstructed spatial resolution of muon tomography. The proposed method modifies the resolution analysis in conventional computed tomography (CT) to fit the different imaging mechanism in muon scattering tomography. The measured scattering information is described in frequency domain, then a relationship between the measurements and the original image is proposed in Fourier domain, which is named as "Muon Central Slice Theorem". Furthermore, a preliminary analytical expression of the ultimate reconstructed spatial is derived, and the simulations are performed for validation. While the method is able to predict the ultimate spatial resolution of a given system, it can also be utilized for the optimization of system design and construction.

  19. Effect of solvent strength and temperature on retention for a polar-endcapped, octadecylsiloxane-bonded silica stationary phase with methanol-water mobile phases.

    PubMed

    Kiridena, Waruna; Poole, Colin F; Koziol, Wladyslaw W

    2004-12-10

    Synergi Hydro-RP is a new type of polar-endcapped, octadecylsiloxane-bonded silica packing for reversed-phase liquid chromatography. Its retention properties as a function of solvent strength and temperature are evaluated from the change in retention factors over the composition range (0-70% v/v methanol) and temperature range (25-65 degrees C) using the solvation parameter model and response surface methodologies. The main factors that affect retention are solute size and hydrogen-bond basicity, with minor contributions from solute hydrogen-bond acidity, dipole-type and electron lone pair interactions. Within the easily accessible range for both temperature and solvent strength, the ability to change selectivity is much greater for solvent strength than temperature. Also, a significant portion of the effect of increasing temperature is to reduce retention without changing selectivity. Response surfaces for the system constants are smooth and non-linear, except for cavity formation and dispersion interactions (v system constant), which is linear. Modeling of the response surfaces suggests that solvent strength and temperature are not independent factors for the b, s and e system constants and for the model intercept (c term). PMID:15628160

  20. HIGH ENERGY PHYSICS POTENTIAL AT MUON COLLIDERS

    SciTech Connect

    PARSA,Z.

    2000-04-07

    In this paper, high energy physics possibilities and future colliders are discussed. The {mu}{sup +} {mu}{sup {minus}} collider and experiments with high intensity muon beams as the stepping phase towards building Higher Energy Muon Colliders (HEMC) are briefly reviewed and encouraged.

  1. Muon radiography for exploration of Mars geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kedar, S.; Tanaka, H. K. M.; Naudet, C. J.; Jones, C. E.; Plaut, J. P.; Webb, F. H.

    2013-06-01

    Muon radiography is a technique that uses naturally occurring showers of muons (penetrating particles generated by cosmic rays) to image the interior of large-scale geological structures in much the same way as standard X-ray radiography is used to image the interior of smaller objects. Recent developments and application of the technique to terrestrial volcanoes have demonstrated that a low-power, passive muon detector can peer deep into geological structures up to several kilometers in size, and provide crisp density profile images of their interior at ten meter scale resolution. Preliminary estimates of muon production on Mars indicate that the near horizontal Martian muon flux, which could be used for muon radiography, is as strong or stronger than that on Earth, making the technique suitable for exploration of numerous high priority geological targets on Mars. The high spatial resolution of muon radiography also makes the technique particularly suited for the discovery and delineation of Martian caverns, the most likely planetary environment for biological activity. As a passive imaging technique, muon radiography uses the perpetually present background cosmic ray radiation as the energy source for probing the interior of structures from the surface of the planet. The passive nature of the measurements provides an opportunity for a low power and low data rate instrument for planetary exploration that could operate as a scientifically valuable primary or secondary instrument in a variety of settings, with minimal impact on the mission's other instruments and operation.

  2. Polarization Effects at a Muon Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Parsa, Z.

    1998-11-01

    For Muon Colliders, Polarization will be a useful tool if high polarization is achievable with little luminosity loss. Formulation and effects of beam polarization and luminosity including polarization effects in Higgs resonance studies are discussed for improving precision measurements and Higgs resonance ''discovery'' capability e.g. at the First Muon Collider (FMC).

  3. Neutrino physics at a muon collider

    SciTech Connect

    King, B.J.

    1998-02-01

    This paper gives an overview of the neutrino physics possibilities at a future muon storage ring, which can be either a muon collider ring or a ring dedicated to neutrino physics that uses muon collider technology to store large muon currents. After a general characterization of the neutrino beam and its interactions, some crude quantitative estimates are given for the physics performance of a muon ring neutrino experiment (MURINE) consisting of a high rate, high performance neutrino detector at a 250 GeV muon collider storage ring. The paper is organized as follows. The next section describes neutrino production from a muon storage rings and gives expressions for event rates in general purpose and long baseline detectors. This is followed by a section outlining a serious design constraint for muon storage rings: the need to limit the radiation levels produced by the neutrino beam. The following two sections describe a general purpose detector and the experimental reconstruction of interactions in the neutrino target then, finally, the physics capabilities of a MURINE are surveyed.

  4. Detector Background at Muon Colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Mokhov, N.V.; Striganov, S.I.; /Fermilab

    2011-09-01

    Physics goals of a Muon Collider (MC) can only be reached with appropriate design of the ring, interaction region (IR), high-field superconducting magnets, machine-detector interface (MDI) and detector. Results of the most recent realistic simulation studies are presented for a 1.5-TeV MC. It is shown that appropriately designed IR and MDI with sophisticated shielding in the detector have a potential to substantially suppress the background rates in the MC detector. The main characteristics of backgrounds are studied.

  5. Recirculating Linac Accelerators For Future Muon Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Yves Roblin, Alex Bogacz, Vasiliy Morozov, Kevin Beard

    2012-04-01

    Neutrino Factories (NF) and Muon Colliders (MC) require rapid acceleration of shortlived muons to multi-GeV and TeV energies. A Recirculating Linear Accelerator (RLA) that uses superconducting RF structures can provide exceptionally fast and economical acceleration to the extent that the focusing range of the RLA quadrupoles allows each muon to pass several times through each high-gradient cavity. A new concept of rapidly changing the strength of the RLA focusing quadrupoles as the muons gain energy is being developed to increase the number of passes that each muon will make in the RF cavities, leading to greater cost effectiveness. We discuss the optics and technical requirements for RLA designs, using RF cavities capable of simultaneous acceleration of both m+ and m- species. The design will include the optics for the multi-pass linac and droplet-shaped return arcs.

  6. Can 250 fusions per muon be achieved

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, S.E.

    1987-01-01

    Nuclear fusion of hydrogen isotopes can be induced by negative muons ( ) in reactions such as: + d + t + n + . This reaction is analagous to the nuclear fusion reaction achieved in stars in which hydrogen isotopes (such as deuterium, d, and tritium, t) at very high temperatures first penetrate the Coulomb repulsive barrier and then fuse together to produce an alpha particle ( ) and a neutron (n), releasing energy. The muon in general reappears after inducing fusion so that the reaction can be repeated many (N) times. Thus, the muon may serve as an effective catalyst for nuclear fusion. Muon-catalozed fusion is unique in that it proceeds rapidly in deuterium-tritium mixtures at relatively cold temperatures, e.g., room temperature. The need for plasma temperatures to initiate fusion is overcome by the presence of the muon.

  7. Reverse Emittance Exchange for Muon Colliders

    SciTech Connect

    V. Ivanov, A. Afanasev, C.M. Ankenbrandt, R.P. Johnson, G.M. Wang, S.A. Bogacz, Y.S. Derbenev

    2009-05-01

    Muon collider luminosity depends on the number of muons in the storage ring and on the transverse size of the beams in collision. Ionization cooling as it is currently envisioned will not cool the beam sizes sufficiently well to provide adequate luminosity without large muon intensities. Six-dimensional cooling schemes will reduce the longitudinal emittance of a muon beam so that smaller high frequency RF cavities can be used for later stages of cooling and for acceleration. However, the bunch length at collision energy is then shorter than needed to match the interaction region beta function. New ideas to shrink transverse beam dimensions by lengthening each bunch will help achieve high luminosity in muon colliders. Analytic expressions for the reverse emittance exchange mechanism were derived, including a new resonant method of beam focusing.

  8. Cold fusion catalyzed by muons and electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Kulsrud, R.M.

    1990-10-01

    Two alternative methods have been suggested to produce fusion power at low temperature. The first, muon catalyzed fusion or MCF, uses muons to spontaneously catalyze fusion through the muon mesomolecule formation. Unfortunately, this method fails to generate enough fusion energy to supply the muons, by a factor of about ten. The physics of MCF is discussed, and a possible approach to increasing the number of MCF fusions generated by each muon is mentioned. The second method, which has become known as Cold Fusion,'' involves catalysis by electrons in electrolytic cells. The physics of this process, if it exists, is more mysterious than MCF. However, it now appears to be an artifact, the claims for its reality resting largely on experimental errors occurring in rather delicate experiments. However, a very low level of such fusion claimed by Jones may be real. Experiments in cold fusion will also be discussed.

  9. G4BEAMLINE Simulations of Parametric Resonance Ionization Cooling of Muon Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Beard, Kevin; Bogacz, S. Alex; Derbenev, Yaroslav; Yonehara, Katsuya; Johnson, Rolland P.; Paul, Kevin; Roberts, Thomas J.

    2006-03-20

    The technique of using a parametric resonance to allow better ionization cooling is being developed to create small emittance beams so that high collider luminosity can be achieved with fewer muons. While parametric resonance ionization cooling (PIC) of muons has been shown to work in matrix-based simulations using OptiM when the system is properly tuned, doing the same using a much more detailed GEANT-based g4beamline simulation has been more difficult.

  10. 20 years of cosmic muons research performed in IFIN-HH

    SciTech Connect

    Mitrica, Bogdan

    2012-11-20

    During the last two decades a modern direction in particle physics research has been developed in IFIN-HH Bucharest, Romania. The history started with the WILLI detector built in IFIN-HH Bucharest in collaboration with KIT Karlsruhe (formerly Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe). The detector was designed for measurements of the low energy muon charge ratio (< 1GeV) based on a delayed coincidence method, measuring the decay time of the muons stopped in the detector: the positive muons decay freely, but the negative muons are captured in the atom thus creating muonic atoms and decay depending on the nature of the host atom. In a first configuration, the WILLI detector was placed in a fixed position for measuring vertical muons. Further WILLI has been transformed in a rotatable device which allows directional measurements of muon charge ratio and muon flux. The results exhibit a pronounced azimuthal asymmetry (East-West effect) due to the different in fluence of the geomagnetic field on the trajectories of positive and negative muons in air. In parallel, flux measurement, taking into account muon events with nergies > 0.4GeV, show a diurnal modulation of the muon flux. The analysis of the muon events for energies < 0.6GeV reveals an aperiodic variation of the muon flux. A new detection system performing coincidence measurements between the WILLI calorimeter and a small array of 12 scintillators plates has been installed in IFIN-HH starting from the autumn of 2010. The aim of the system is to investigate muon charge ratio from individual EAS by using the mini-array as trigger for the WILLI calorimeter. Such experimental studies could provide detailed information on hadronic interaction models and primary cosmic ray composition at energies around 10{sup 15}eV. Simulation studies and preliminary experimental tests, regarding the performances of the mini-array, have been performed using H and Fe primaries, with energies in a range 10{sup 13}eV - 10{sup 15}eV. The results show

  11. 20 years of cosmic muons research performed in IFIN-HH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitrica, Bogdan

    2012-11-01

    During the last two decades a modern direction in particle physics research has been developed in IFIN-HH Bucharest, Romania. The history started with the WILLI detector built in IFIN-HH Bucharest in collaboration with KIT Karlsruhe (formerly Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe). The detector was designed for measurements of the low energy muon charge ratio (< 1GeV) based on a delayed coincidence method, measuring the decay time of the muons stopped in the detector: the positive muons decay freely, but the negative muons are captured in the atom thus creating muonic atoms and decay depending on the nature of the host atom. In a first configuration, the WILLI detector was placed in a fixed position for measuring vertical muons. Further WILLI has been transformed in a rotatable device which allows directional measurements of muon charge ratio and muon flux. The results exhibit a pronounced azimuthal asymmetry (East-West effect) due to the different in fluence of the geomagnetic field on the trajectories of positive and negative muons in air. In parallel, flux measurement, taking into account muon events with nergies > 0.4GeV, show a diurnal modulation of the muon flux. The analysis of the muon events for energies < 0.6GeV reveals an aperiodic variation of the muon flux. A new detection system performing coincidence measurements between the WILLI calorimeter and a small array of 12 scintillators plates has been installed in IFIN-HH starting from the autumn of 2010. The aim of the system is to investigate muon charge ratio from individual EAS by using the mini-array as trigger for the WILLI calorimeter. Such experimental studies could provide detailed information on hadronic interaction models and primary cosmic ray composition at energies around 1015eV. Simulation studies and preliminary experimental tests, regarding the performances of the mini-array, have been performed using H and Fe primaries, with energies in a range 1013eV - 1015eV. The results show detailed effects of

  12. Muon spin rotation research program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stronach, C. E.

    1980-01-01

    Data from cyclotron experiments and room temperature studies of dilute iron alloys and iron crystals under strain were analyzed. The Fe(Mo) data indicate that the effect upon the contact hyperfine field in Fe due to the introduction of Mo is considerably less than that expected from pure dilution, and the muon (+) are attracted to the Mo impurity sites. There is a significant change in the interstitial magnetic field with Nb concentration. The Fe(Ti) data, for which precession could clearly be observed early only at 468K and above, show that the Ti impurities are attractive to muon (+), and the magnitude of B(hf) is reduced far beyond the amount expected from pure dilution. Changes in the intersitital magnetic field with the introduction of Cr, W, Ge, and Si are also discussed. When strained to the elastic limit, the interstitial magnetic field in Fe crystals is reduced by 33 gauss, and the relaxation rate of the precession signal increases by 47%.

  13. The muon collider (Sandro's snake)

    SciTech Connect

    Ruggiero, A.G.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes a feasibility study for the design of a muon collider. Recognized the fact that the particle lifetime increases linearly with the energy, we have adopted a scheme where steps of cooling and acceleration are entwined. We have indeed found convenient to accelerate the beam as fast as possible to increase its chances of survival, and necessary to dilute the action of cooling throughout the entire accelerating process to make it more effective and affordable. All acceleration and cooling steps are executed in a single pass essentially along a curvilinear and open path. We do not believe it is possible to handle the beam otherwise in circular and closed rings, as it has been proposed in the past. The example shown in this paper describes a muon collider at the energy of 250 GeV per beam and a luminosity of 4 [times] 10[sup 28] cm[sup [minus]2]s[sup [minus]1]. We have adopted an extrapolation of the stochastic cooling method for the reduction of the beam emittance.

  14. Measurement of the muon beam direction and muon flux for the T2K neutrino experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, K.; Aoki, S.; Ariga, A.; Ariga, T.; Bay, F.; Bronner, C.; Ereditato, A.; Friend, M.; Hartz, M.; Hiraki, T.; Ichikawa, A. K.; Ishida, T.; Ishii, T.; Juget, F.; Kikawa, T.; Kobayashi, T.; Kubo, H.; Matsuoka, K.; Maruyama, T.; Minamino, A.; Murakami, A.; Nakadaira, T.; Nakaya, T.; Nakayoshi, K.; Otani, M.; Oyama, Y.; Patel, N.; Pistillo, C.; Sakashita, K.; Sekiguchi, T.; Suzuki, S. Y.; Tada, S.; Yamada, Y.; Yamamoto, K.; Yokoyama, M.

    2015-05-01

    The Tokai-to-Kamioka (T2K) neutrino experiment measures neutrino oscillations by using an almost pure muon neutrino beam produced at the J-PARC accelerator facility. The T2K muon monitor was installed to measure the direction and stability of the muon beam which is produced in conjunction with the muon neutrino beam. The systematic error in the muon beam direction measurement was estimated, using data and MC simulation, to be 0.28 mrad. During beam operation, the proton beam has been controlled using measurements from the muon monitor and the direction of the neutrino beam has been tuned to within 0.3 mrad with respect to the designed beam-axis. In order to understand the muon beam properties, measurement of the absolute muon yield at the muon monitor was conducted with an emulsion detector. The number of muon tracks was measured to be (4.06± 0.05± 0.10)× 10^4cm^{-2} normalized with 4× 10^{11} protons on target with 250 kA horn operation. The result is in agreement with the prediction, which is corrected based on hadron production data.

  15. The program in muon and neutrino physics: Superbeams, cold muon beams, neutrino factory and the muon collider

    SciTech Connect

    R. Raja et al.

    2001-08-08

    The concept of a Muon Collider was first proposed by Budker [10] and by Skrinsky [11] in the 60s and early 70s. However, there was little substance to the concept until the idea of ionization cooling was developed by Skrinsky and Parkhomchuk [12]. The ionization cooling approach was expanded by Neufer [13] and then by Palmer [14], whose work led to the formation of the Neutrino Factory and Muon Collider Collaboration (MC) [3] in 1995. The concept of a neutrino source based on a pion storage ring was originally considered by Koshkarev [18]. However, the intensity of the muons created within the ring from pion decay was too low to provide a useful neutrino source. The Muon Collider concept provided a way to produce a very intense muon source. The physics potential of neutrino beams produced by muon storage rings was investigated by Geer in 1997 at a Fermilab workshop [19, 20] where it became evident that the neutrino beams produced by muon storage rings needed for the muon collider were exciting on their own merit. The neutrino factory concept quickly captured the imagination of the particle physics community, driven in large part by the exciting atmospheric neutrino deficit results from the SuperKamiokande experiment. As a result, the MC realized that a Neutrino Factory could be an important first step toward a Muon Collider and the physics that could be addressed by a Neutrino Factory was interesting in its own right. With this in mind, the MC has shifted its primary emphasis toward the issues relevant to a Neutrino Factory. There is also considerable international activity on Neutrino Factories, with international conferences held at Lyon in 1999, Monterey in 2000 [21], Tsukuba in 2001 [22], and another planned for London in 2002.

  16. Status report of a high luminosity muon collider and future research and development plans

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, R.B.; Tollestrup, A.; Sessler, A.

    1996-11-01

    Muon Colliders have unique technical and physics advantages and disadvantages when compared with both hadron and electron machines. They should thus be regarded as complementary. Parameters are given of 4 TeV and 0.5 TeV (c-of-m) high luminosity {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} colliders, and of a 0.5 TeV lower luminosity demonstration machine. We discuss the various systems in such muon colliders, starting from the proton accelerator needed to generate the muons and proceeding through muon cooling, acceleration and storage in a collider ring. Detector background, polarization, and nonstandard operating conditions are analyzed. Finally, we present an R & D plan to determine whether such machines are practical, and, if they are, lead to the construction of a 0.5 TeV demonstration by 2010, and to a 4 TeV collider by the year 2020.

  17. 20 - 50 GeV muon storage rings for a neutrino factory

    SciTech Connect

    Rees, G.H.; Johnstone, C.; Meot, F.; /DAPNIA, Saclay

    2006-07-01

    Muon decay rings are under study as part of an International Scoping Study (ISS) for a future Neutrino Factory. Both isosceles triangle- and racetrack-shaped rings are being considered for a 20 GeV muon energy, but with upgrade potentials of 40 or 50 GeV. Both rings are designed with long straights to optimize directional muon decay. The neutrinos from muon decay pass to one or two distant detectors; the racetrack ring has one very long production straight aligned with one detector while the triangular ring has two straights which can be aligned with two detectors. Decay ring specifications and lattice studies are the primary topic of this paper. Injection, collimation, and the RF system are covered in a second contribution to these proceedings.

  18. Feasibility study of nuclear transmutation by negative muon capture reaction using the PHITS code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, Shin-ichiro; Sato, Tatsuhiko

    2016-06-01

    Feasibility of nuclear transmutation of fission products in high-level radioactive waste by negative muon capture reaction is investigated using the Particle and Heave Ion Transport code System (PHITS). It is found that about 80 % of stopped negative muons contribute to transmute target nuclide into stable or short-lived nuclide in the case of 135Cs, which is one of the most important nuclide in the transmutation. The simulation result also indicates that the position of transmutation is controllable by changing the energy of incident negative muon. Based on our simulation, it takes approximately 8.5 × 108years to transmute 500 g of 135Cs by negative muon beam with the highest intensity currently available.

  19. Syntheses, phase behavior, supramolecular chirality, and field-effect carrier mobility of asymmetrically end-capped mesogenic oligothiophenes.

    PubMed

    Meng, Qingwei; Sun, Xiao-Hua; Lu, Zhengyu; Xia, Ping-Fang; Shi, Zehua; Chen, Dongzhong; Wong, Man Shing; Wakim, Salem; Lu, Jianping; Baribeau, Jean-Marc; Tao, Ye

    2009-01-01

    A novel series of asymmetrically end-capped mesogenic oligothiophenes, with various oligothiophene core lengths, alkoxy tail lengths, and molecular polarities through introducing alkylsulfanyl or alkylsulfonyl functionalities as the terminal group, have been synthesized by palladium-catalyzed Suzuki cross-coupling and Kumada cross-coupling reactions as key steps. For the single end-capped oligothiophenes, C(m)O-Ar-OT(4)-H in which m=10, 12, 14, 16, and 18, all of these oligomers exhibited a broad temperature range of highly ordered smectic E and enantiotropic nematic phases, apart from the one with the longest octadecyloxy tail. For the double end-capped series C(10)O-Ar-OT(n)-R, R=Ph-SC(6) or Ph-SO(2)C(6) in which n=1, 2, 3, and 4, oligomers with more than one thiophene ring exhibited smectic A and smectic C phases, various crystal polymorphs and/or unusual low-temperature condensed phases. In the nonpolar, alkylsulfanylphenyl-substituted oligothiophene series, both the crystal/solid melting point and mesogenic clear point increased significantly with an increasing oligothiophene conjugation length. In the polar, alkylsulfonylphenyl-substituted oligothiophene series, all the oligomers showed increased melting points, but decreased mesogenic temperature intervals than those of their corresponding alkylsulfanyl counterparts. Remarkably, two different helical structures showing distinct striated textures or striped patterns were observed with a pitch of several to tens of micrometers under a polarized optical microscope upon cooling from their preceding fluidic smectic phases. The unusual twisted smectic layer structures in the thin solid films exhibiting distinct supramolecular chirality of both handednesses, revealed by circular dichroism measurements, were further confirmed by XRD analyses characterized by a sharp layer reflection together with its higher orders and diffuse wide-angle scatterings. In addition, initial studies showed that the highly ordered smectic

  20. Muons in minimum bias events from the first CMS data

    SciTech Connect

    Barbone, Lucia

    2010-12-22

    Muon signatures are extremely important in the challenging environment of collisions at the LHC. Understanding the observed muon yield from Standard Model processes is the first task for all analyses involving muons. Basic muon kinematical observables are presented for the first CMS data at {radical}(s) = 7 TeV and compared with Monte Carlo expectations. The muon sample composition is studied by using the MC truth in terms of muons from heavy flavours, muons from light hadron decays and hadron punch-through is studied from MC truth.

  1. Cosmic Ray Muons Timing in the ATLAS Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Meirose, Bernhard

    2009-12-17

    In this talk I discuss the use of calorimeter timing both for detector commissioning and in searches for new physics. In particular I present real and simulated cosmic ray muons data (2007) results for the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter system. The analysis shows that several detector errors such as imperfect calibrations can be uncovered. I also demonstrate the use of ATLAS Tile Calorimeter's excellent timing resolution in suppressing cosmic ray fake missing transverse energy (E{sub T}) in searches for supersymmetry.

  2. Cosmic muon detector using proportional chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varga, Dezső; Gál, Zoltán; Hamar, Gergő; Sára Molnár, Janka; Oláh, Éva; Pázmándi, Péter

    2015-11-01

    A set of classical multi-wire proportional chambers was designed and constructed with the main purpose of efficient cosmic muon detection. These detectors are relatively simple to construct, and at the same time are low cost, making them ideal for educational purposes. The detector layers have efficiencies above 99% for minimum ionizing cosmic muons, and their position resolution is about 1 cm, that is, particle trajectories are clearly observable. Visualization of straight tracks is possible using an LED array, with the discriminated and latched signal driving the display. Due to the exceptional operating stability of the chambers, the design can also be used for cosmic muon telescopes.

  3. Imaging Fukushima Daiichi reactors with muons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyadera, Haruo; Borozdin, Konstantin N.; Greene, Steve J.; Lukić, Zarija; Masuda, Koji; Milner, Edward C.; Morris, Christopher L.; Perry, John O.

    2013-05-01

    A study of imaging the Fukushima Daiichi reactors with cosmic-ray muons to assess the damage to the reactors is presented. Muon scattering imaging has high sensitivity for detecting uranium fuel and debris even through thick concrete walls and a reactor pressure vessel. Technical demonstrations using a reactor mockup, detector radiation test at Fukushima Daiichi, and simulation studies have been carried out. These studies establish feasibility for the reactor imaging. A few months of measurement will reveal the spatial distribution of the reactor fuel. The muon scattering technique would be the best and probably the only way for Fukushima Daiichi to make this determination in the near future.

  4. Imaging Fukushima Daiichi reactors with muons

    SciTech Connect

    Miyadera, Haruo; Borozdin, Konstantin N.; Greene, Steve J.; Milner, Edward C.; Morris, Christopher L.; Lukic, Zarija; Masuda, Koji; Perry, John O.

    2013-05-15

    A study of imaging the Fukushima Daiichi reactors with cosmic-ray muons to assess the damage to the reactors is presented. Muon scattering imaging has high sensitivity for detecting uranium fuel and debris even through thick concrete walls and a reactor pressure vessel. Technical demonstrations using a reactor mockup, detector radiation test at Fukushima Daiichi, and simulation studies have been carried out. These studies establish feasibility for the reactor imaging. A few months of measurement will reveal the spatial distribution of the reactor fuel. The muon scattering technique would be the best and probably the only way for Fukushima Daiichi to make this determination in the near future.

  5. Systematic muon capture rates in PQRPA

    SciTech Connect

    Samana, A. R.; Sande, D.; Krmpotić, F.

    2015-05-15

    In this work we performed a systematic study of the inclusive muon capture rates for several nuclei with A < 60 using the Projected Random Quasi-particle Phase Approximation (PQRPA) as nuclear model, because it is the only RPA model that treats the Pauli Principle correctly. We reckon that the comparison between theory and data for the inclusive muon capture is not a fully satisfactory test on the nuclear model that is used. The exclusive muon transitions are more robust for such a purpose.

  6. Radiative muon capture in nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Doebeli, M.; Doser, M.; van Elmbt, L.; Schaad, M.W.; Truoel, P.; Bay, A.; Perroud, J.P.; Imazato, J.; Ishikawa, T.

    1988-04-01

    The energy spectra of photons following negative muon absorption in /sup 12/C, /sup 16/O, /sup 27/Al, /sup 40/Ca, /sup nat/Fe, /sup 165/Ho, and /sup 209/Bi have been measured with two NaI spectrometers. The branching ratios for the emission of high energy photons give information on the induced pseudoscalar coupling constant g/sub P/ in nuclear matter. The data for light nuclei are in agreement with the theoretical calculations using the nucleonic value of g/sub P/approx. =7g/sub A/ predicted by the partially conserved axial vector current hypothesis, while significantly lower values of g/sub P/ are required to fit the data of the heavier elements with presently existing theoretical predictions. Disregarding the remaining theoretical uncertainties, these results can be interpreted as a further indication of the renormalization of the nucleonic form factors inside the nucleus.

  7. GPD physics with polarized muon beams at COMPASS-II

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrero, Andrea [CEA-Saclay, DSM Collaboration: COMPASS Collaboration

    2013-04-15

    A major part of the future COMPASS program is dedicated to the investigation of the nucleon structure through Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) and Deeply Virtual Meson Production (DVMP). COMPASS will measure DVCS and DVMP reactions with a high intensity muon beam of 160 GeV and a 2.5 m-long liquid hydrogen target surrounded by a new TOF system. The availability of muon beams with high energy and opposite charge and polarization will allow to access the Compton form factor related to the dominant GPD H and to study the x{sub B}-dependence of the t-slope of the pure DVCS cross section and to study nucleon tomography. Projections on the achievable accuracies and preliminary results of pilot measurements will be presented.

  8. Search for lepton-flavor-violating rare muon processes

    SciTech Connect

    Djilkibaev, R. M. Lobashev, V. M.

    2010-12-15

    A new approach to seeking three lepton-flavor-violating rare muon processes ({mu} {sup {yields}}e conversion, {mu} {sup {yields}}e + {gamma}, and {mu} {sup {yields}}3e) on the basis of a single experimental facility is proposed. This approach makes it possible to improve the sensitivity level of relevant experiments by factors of 10{sup 5}, 600, and 300 for, respectively, the first, the second, and the third of the above processes in relation to the existing experimental level. The approach is based on employing a pulsed proton beam and on combining a muon source and the detector part of the facility into a unified magnetic system featuring a nonuniform field. A new detector design involving separate units andmaking it possible to study all three muonic processes at a single facility that admits a simple rearrangement of the detectors used is discussed.

  9. EMPACT: Electrons Muons Partons with Air Core Toroids

    SciTech Connect

    Marx, M.D. )

    1990-05-25

    The EMPACT experiment utilizes a broad approach to maximize its discovery potential for new phenomena accessible at the SSC. The high resolution detector has a balances emphasis on, and large acceptance for, electrons, muons, jets, and noninteracting particles, and is capable of utilizing the ultimate luminosity of the SSC. The detector emphasizes excellent calorimetry augmented by TRD tracking, and employs an innovative system of superconducting air core toroids for muon measurements. Significant engineering effort has established the feasibility of a baseline detector concept and has addressed the related issues of support facilities, assembly, and detector integration. The design has been tested against the challenges of predicted phenomena, with the expectation that this will optimize the capacity for observing the unexpected. EMPACT's international collaboration has unprecedented support from major aerospace industries who are providing tools and expertise for project design and integration, which will assure that a detector optimized for performance and cost will be available for the first collisions at the new laboratory.

  10. Reducing backgrounds in the higgs factory muon collider detector

    SciTech Connect

    Mokhov, N. V.; Tropin, I. S.

    2014-06-01

    A preliminary design of the 125-GeV Higgs Factory (HF) Muon Collider (MC) has identified an enormous background loads on the HF detector. This is related to the twelve times higher muon decay probability at HF compared to that previously studied for the 1.5-TeV MC. As a result of MARS15 optimization studies, it is shown that with a carefully designed protection system in the interaction region, in the machine-detector interface and inside the detector one can reduce the background rates to a manageable level similar to that achieved for the optimized 1.5-TeV case. The main characteristics of the HF detector background are presented for the configuration found.

  11. Atmospheric muons and neutrinos, and the neutrino-induced muon flux underground

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liland, A.

    1985-01-01

    The diffusion equation for neutrino-induced cosmic ray muons underground was solved. The neutrino-induced muon flux and charge ratio underground have been calculated. The calculated horizontal neutrino-induced muon flux in the energy range 0.1 - 10000 GeV is in agreement with the measured horizontal flux. The calculated vertical flux above 2 GeV is in agreement with the measured vertical flux. The average charge ratio of neutrino-induced muons underground was found to be mu+/mu- = 0.40.

  12. Conceptual design and simulation of a water Cherenkov muon veto for the XENON1T experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aprile, E.; Agostini, F.; Alfonsi, M.; Arisaka, K.; Arneodo, F.; Auger, M.; Balan, C.; Barrow, P.; Baudis, L.; Bauermeister, B.; Behrens, A.; Beltrame, P.; Bokeloh, K.; Breskin, A.; Brown, A.; Brown, E.; Bruenner, S.; Bruno, G.; Budnik, R.; Cardoso, J. M. R.; Colijn, A. P.; Contreras, H.; Cussonneau, J. P.; Decowski, M. P.; Duchovni, E.; Fattori, S.; Ferella, A. D.; Fulgione, W.; Garbini, M.; Geis, C.; Goetzke, L. W.; Grignon, C.; Gross, E.; Hampel, W.; Itay, R.; Kaether, F.; Kessler, G.; Kish, A.; Landsman, H.; Lang, R. F.; Le Calloch, M.; Lellouch, D.; Levinson, L.; Levy, C.; Lindemann, S.; Lindner, M.; Lopes, J. A. M.; Lung, K.; Lyashenko, A.; MacMullin, S.; Marrodán Undagoitia, T.; Masbou, J.; Massoli, F. V.; Mayani Paras, D.; Melgarejo Fernandez, A. J.; Meng, Y.; Messina, M.; Miguez, B.; Molinario, A.; Morana, G.; Murra, M.; Naganoma, J.; Oberlack, U.; Orrigo, S. E. A.; Pantic, E.; Persiani, R.; Piastra, F.; Pienaar, J.; Plante, G.; Priel, N.; Reichard, S.; Reuter, C.; Rizzo, A.; Rosendahl, S.; dos Santos, J. M. F.; Sartorelli, G.; Schindler, S.; Schreiner, J.; Schumann, M.; Scotto Lavina, L.; Selvi, M.; Shagin, P.; Simgen, H.; Teymourian, A.; Thers, D.; Tiseni, A.; Trinchero, G.; Vitells, O.; Wang, H.; Weber, M.; Weinheimer, C.

    2014-11-01

    XENON is a dark matter direct detection project, consisting of a time projection chamber (TPC) filled with liquid xenon as detection medium. The construction of the next generation detector, XENON1T, is presently taking place at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS) in Italy. It aims at a sensitivity to spin-independent cross sections of 2 · 10-47 c 2 for WIMP masses around 50 GeV2, which requires a background reduction by two orders of magnitude compared to XENON100, the current generation detector. An active system that is able to tag muons and muon-induced backgrounds is critical for this goal. A water Cherenkov detector of ~ 10 m height and diameter has been therefore developed, equipped with 8 inch photomultipliers and cladded by a reflective foil. We present the design and optimization study for this detector, which has been carried out with a series of Monte Carlo simulations. The muon veto will reach very high detection efficiencies for muons (>99.5%) and showers of secondary particles from muon interactions in the rock (>70%). Similar efficiencies will be obtained for XENONnT, the upgrade of XENON1T, which will later improve the WIMP sensitivity by another order of magnitude. With the Cherenkov water shield studied here, the background from muon-induced neutrons in XENON1T is negligible.

  13. The performance of the Muon Veto of the G erda experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freund, K.; Falkenstein, R.; Grabmayr, P.; Hegai, A.; Jochum, J.; Knapp, M.; Lubsandorzhiev, B.; Ritter, F.; Schmitt, C.; Schütz, A.-K.; Jitnikov, I.; Shevchik, E.; Shirchenko, M.; Zinatulina, D.

    2016-05-01

    Low background experiments need a suppression of cosmogenically induced events. The Gerda experiment located at Lngs is searching for the 0ν β β decay of ^{76}Ge. It is equipped with an active muon veto the main part of which is a water Cherenkov veto with 66 PMTs in the water tank surrounding the Gerda cryostat. With this system 806 live days have been recorded, 491 days were combined muon-germanium data. A muon detection efficiency of \\varepsilon _\\upmu d=(99.935± 0.015) % was found in a Monte Carlo simulation for the muons depositing energy in the germanium detectors. By examining coincident muon-germanium events a rejection efficiency of \\varepsilon _{\\upmu r}=(99.2_{-0.4}^{+0.3}) % was found. Without veto condition the muons by themselves would cause a background index of {BI}_{μ }=(3.16 ± 0.85)× 10^{-3} cts/(keV\\cdot kg\\cdot year) at Q_{β β }.

  14. Muon calculations for the polarized proton beamline

    SciTech Connect

    Cossairt, J.D.

    1986-11-01

    Monte Carlo calculations of the muon intensities due to the new polarized proton beam using the program CASIM are reported. Results are reported in terms of tissue absorbed dose per incident proton. (LEW)

  15. Intense muon beams and neutrino factories

    SciTech Connect

    Parsa, Z.

    2000-10-05

    High intensity muon sources are needed in exploring neutrino factories, lepton flavor violating muon processes, and lower energy experiments as the stepping phase towards building higher energy {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup {minus}} colliders. We present a brief overview, sketch of a neutrino source, and an example of a muon storage ring at BNL with detector(s) at Fermilab, Sudan, etc. Physics with low energy neutrino beams based on muon storage rings ({mu}SR) and conventional Horn Facilities are described and compared. CP violation Asymmetries and a new Statistical Figure of Merit to be used for comparison is given. Improvements in the sensitivity of low energy experiments to study Flavor changing neutral currents are also included.

  16. Mapping Overburden and Cave Networks with Muons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prettyman, T. H.; Titus, T. N.; Boston, P. J.; Koontz, S. L.; Miller, R. S.

    2015-10-01

    We describe the use of highly-penetrating muons produced by cosmic ray showers to measure overburden and image the rock formation around terrestrial/extraterrestrial caves, and implications for cave science, exploration, and habitation.

  17. MUON ACCELERATION WITH THE RACETRACK FFAG

    SciTech Connect

    TRBOJEVIC,D.; EBERHARD, K.; SESSLER, A.

    2007-06-25

    Muon acceleration for muon collider or neutrino factory is still in a stage where further improvements are likely as a result of further study. This report presents a design of the racetrack non-scaling Fixed Field Alternating Gradient (NS-FFAG) accelerator to allow fast muon acceleration in small number of turns. The racetrack design is made of four arcs: two arcs at opposite sides have a smaller radius and are made of closely packed combined function magnets, while two additional arcs, with a very large radii, are used for muon extraction, injection, and RF accelerating cavities. The ends of the large radii arcs are geometrically matched at the connections to the arcs with smaller radii. The dispersion and both horizontal and vertical amplitude fictions are matched at the central energy.

  18. Topcolor and the First Muon Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, C.T.

    1998-04-01

    We describe a class of models of electroweak symmetry breaking that involve strong dynamics and top quark condensation. A new scheme based upon a seesaw mechanism appears particularly promising. Various implications for the first-stage muon collider are discussed.

  19. Muon dynamics in a toroidal sector magnet

    SciTech Connect

    Gallardo, J.C.; Fernow, R.; Palmer, R.B.

    1997-09-17

    The present scenario for the cooling channel in a high brightness muon collider calls for a quasi-continuous solenoidal focusing channel. The beam line consists of a periodic array of rf cavities and approximately 2 cm long LiH absorbers immersed in a solenoid with alternating focusing field (FOFO). The authors present a Hamiltonian formulation of muon dynamics in toroidal sector solenoids (bent solenoid).

  20. Preparations for Muon Experiments at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Syphers, M.J.; Popovic, M.; Prebys, E.; Ankenbrandt, C.; /Muons Inc., Batavia

    2009-05-01

    The use of existing Fermilab facilities to provide beams for two muon experiments--the Muon to Electron Conversion Experiment (Mu2e) and the New g-2 Experiment--is under consideration. Plans are being pursued to perform these experiments following the completion of the Tevatron Collider Run II, utilizing the beam lines and storage rings used today for antiproton accumulation without considerable reconfiguration.

  1. Muon Emittance Exchange with a Potato Slicer

    SciTech Connect

    Summers, D. J.; Hart, T. L.; Acosta, J. G.; Cremaldi, L. M.; Oliveros, S. J.; Perera, L. P.; Neuffer, D. V.

    2015-04-15

    We propose a novel scheme for final muon ionization cooling with quadrupole doublets followed by emittance exchange in vacuum to achieve the small beam sizes needed by a muon collider. A flat muon beam with a series of quadrupole doublet half cells appears to provide the strong focusing required for final cooling. Each quadrupole doublet has a low beta region occupied by a dense, low Z absorber. After final cooling, normalized transverse, longitudinal, and angular momentum emittances of 0.100, 2.5, and 0.200 mm-rad are exchanged into 0.025, 70, and 0.0 mm-rad. A skew quadrupole triplet transforms a round muon bunch with modest angular momentum into a flat bunch with no angular momentum. Thin electrostatic septa efficiently slice the flat bunch into 17 parts. The 17 bunches are interleaved into a 3.7 meter long train with RF deflector cavities. Snap bunch coalescence combines the muon bunch train longitudinally in a 21 GeV ring in 55 µs, one quarter of a synchrotron oscillation period. A linear long wavelength RF bucket gives each bunch a different energy causing the bunches to drift in the ring until they merge into one bunch and can be captured in a short wavelength RF bucket with a 13% muon decay loss and a packing fraction as high as 87 %.

  2. A Low-cost, Portable, Ruggedized Cosmic Muon Detector Prototype for Geological Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguayo Navarrete, E.; Bonneville, A.

    2012-12-01

    Muons, neutrons and protons observed at the Earth's surface are generated by cosmic ray primaries causing cascades in the atmosphere. Cosmic muon tomography is a cost effective real time monitoring technique that can be applied to determine large scale displacement of reservoir fluids induced by injection of liquid or gas. Such technique would need a detector array with an overall sensitivity tailored to the monitored volume and the expected density change in the target geological formation over the projected injection time. A scalable detector system, able to withstand the harsh conditions of underground deployment is a must for the evaluation of this promising technique. This paper presents the design and construction of a portable muon flux monitor, known as the μ-Witness. The detector is based on coincidence counts between two scintillator panels to be used as an indicator of density-dependent attenuation of cosmic muon flux. The Muon Witness detector (μ-Witness) has been designed to be able to measure cosmic muon flux for periods of time of up to 40 days, using battery power. The prototype has been mounted in a ruggedized case to enable measurements in underground environments. The purpose of this prototype is to evaluate the feasibility of using 3D density tomography in geological applications. The efficiency of the detector has been experimentally determined to be 57±3%. This measurement was performed by comparing the detector response to the response of a larger and more efficient muon counter in the same location. Using Monte Carlo simulations of the cosmic muon flux, and the measured efficiency, the projected sensitivities for density changes in large underground monitored volumes are presented as well as the results of a test run in a shallow underground facility. Along with a detector prototype, a model of the muon attenuation inversion must be developed in order to take into account the different energy and angular distribution of the cosmic muons

  3. High intensity muon beam source for neutrino beam experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamal Sayed, Hisham

    2015-09-01

    High intensity muon beams are essential for Muon accelerators like Neutrino Factories and Muon Colliders. In this study we report on a global optimization of the muon beam production and capture based on end-to-end simulations of the Muon Front End. The study includes the pion beam production target geometry, capture field profile, and forming muon beam into microbunches for further acceleration. The interplay between the transverse and longitudinal beam dynamics during the capture and transport of muon beam is evaluated and discussed. The goal of the optimization is to provide a set of design parameters that delivers high intensity muon beam that could be fit within the acceptance of a muon beam accelerator.

  4. Fast Electromagnetic Calorimeters for the New Muon g-2 Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hertzog, David

    2012-10-01

    The Intensity Frontier era brings a host of challenges for detector systems that must both accumulate data at very high rates while also maintaining an unusually high level of performance stability to suppress systematic uncertainties. The new muon g-2 experiment at Fermilab is typical of a group of next-generation measurements that also includes muon-to-electron conversion and rare kaon decay experiments. A common theme is detectors that must endure very high rates embedded in strong magnetic fields. I will focus on our design of the g-2 electromagnetic calorimeters, which must be compact, very fast, and be placed inside the highly uniform muon storage ring magnetic field. No magnetic materials can be used and stringent constraints exist on local current-generating electronics. We examined home-built W/SciFi detectors, PbF2 crystals and a custom undoped PbWO4 crystal using the Fermilab test beam facility. Very fast PMTs and on-board, large-area silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) were used for readout options. The leading design is based on PbF2, which produces very short pure Cherenkov light pulses that must be optimally coupled to SiPMs directly placed on the downstream surface. Custom electronics for the candidate SiPM arrays has been designed to preserve the intrinsic fast pulse signal. I will report on our test beam and lab results and our iterations with SiPM devices and electronics.

  5. Our Next Two Steps for Fukushima Daiichi Muon Tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Miyadera, Haruo

    2012-04-11

    After the vast disasters caused by the great earthquake and tsunami in eastern Japan, we proposed applying our Muon Tomography (MT) technique to help and improve the emergency situation at Fukushima Daiichi using cosmic-ray muons. A reactor-tomography team was formed at LANL which was supported by the Laboratory as a response to a request by the former Japanese Prime Minister, Naoto Kan. Our goal is to help the Japanese people and support remediation of the reactors. At LANL, we have carried out a proof-of-principle technical demonstration and simulation studies that established the feasibility of MT to image a reactor core. This proposal covers the next two critical steps for Fukushima Daiichi Muon Imaging: (1) undertake case study mock-up experiments of Fukushima Daiichi, and (2) system optimization. We requested funding to the US and Japanese government to assess damage of reactors at Fukushima Daiichi. The two steps will bring our project to the 'ready-to-go' level.

  6. Modular detector for deep underwater registration of muons and muon groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demianov, A. I.; Sarycheva, L. I.; Sinyov, N. B.; Varadanyan, I. N.; Yershov, A. A.

    1985-01-01

    Registration and identification of muons and muon groups penetrating into the ocean depth, can be performed using a modular multilayer detector with high resolution bidimensional readout - deep underwater calorimeter (project NADIR). Laboratory testing of a prototype sensor cell with liquid scintillator in light-tight casing, testifies to the practicability of the full-scale experiment within reasonable expences.

  7. Proceedings of the International Workshop on Low Energy Muon Science: LEMS`93

    SciTech Connect

    Leon, M.

    1994-01-01

    This report contains papers on research with low energy muons. Topics cover fundamental electroweak physics; muonic atoms and molecules, and muon catalyzed fusion; muon spin research; and muon facilities. These papers have been indexed and cataloged separately.

  8. R&D Toward a Neutrino Factory and Muon Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Zisman, Michael S

    2011-03-20

    Significant progress has been made in recent years in R&D towards a neutrino factory and muon collider. The U.S. Muon Accelerator Program (MAP) has been formed recently to expedite the R&D efforts. This paper will review the U.S. MAP R&D programs for a neutrino factory and muon collider. Muon ionization cooling research is the key element of the program. The first muon ionization cooling demonstration experiment, MICE (Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment), is under construction now at RAL (Rutherford Appleton Laboratory) in the UK. The current status of MICE will be described.

  9. Study of muon-induced neutron production using accelerator muon beam at CERN

    SciTech Connect

    Nakajima, Y.; Lin, C. J.; Ochoa-Ricoux, J. P.; Draeger, E.; White, C. G.; Luk, K. B.; Steiner, H.

    2015-08-17

    Cosmogenic muon-induced neutrons are one of the most problematic backgrounds for various underground experiments for rare event searches. In order to accurately understand such backgrounds, experimental data with high-statistics and well-controlled systematics is essential. We performed a test experiment to measure muon-induced neutron production yield and energy spectrum using a high-energy accelerator muon beam at CERN. We successfully observed neutrons from 160 GeV/c muon interaction on lead, and measured kinetic energy distributions for various production angles. Works towards evaluation of absolute neutron production yield is underway. This work also demonstrates that the setup is feasible for a future large-scale experiment for more comprehensive study of muon-induced neutron production.

  10. New Techniques: Muon Glaciology and Ultrasonic Logging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chirkin, D.; Allen, J.; Bay, R. C.; Bramall, N.; Price, P. B.

    2003-12-01

    The strain rate of cold glacial ice depends mainly on the stress tensor, temperature, grain size, and crystal habit. Lab measurements cannot be made at both the low stresses and low temperatures relevant to flow of cold glacial ice. Field studies with inclinometers measure only the horizontal components of flow. We have developed a new method for measuring the 3D strain-rate field at -40o to -15oC, using the AMANDA neutrino-detecting array frozen into deep ice at South Pole. Each strain detector consists of a photomultiplier tube (PMT) in its pressure vessel. AMANDA has ˜600 PMTs at depths 1500 to 2300 m in a ˜0.02 km3 volume. The coordinates of each PMT relative to a coordinate system moving down slope at 9 m yr-1 can be measured with s.d. <1 m in 1 day by mapping trajectories of down-going cosmic-ray muons that pass through the array. The PMTs record the arrival times of the Cherenkov light emitted along the muon trajectory. Use of maximum likelihood for 105 muon tracks allows PMT positions to be determined; their positions are then updated at six-month intervals. We will report results of strain-rate measurements in three dimensions, made in 2000, 2001, and 2002 at T ≈ -30oC. Applying the same technique to the future 1 km3 IceCube array, by averaging over subsets of the 5000 detectors, values of the strain-rate tensor as small as 3x 10-5 yr-1 can be measured as a function of temperature and lateral position. The vertical strain rate due to snow accumulation, estimated to be ˜ 3x 10-5 yr-1, can be measured and will serve as a check on the method. The second new method is designed to measure mean grain size in the ice surrounding a borehole. We will adapt an all-digital logging tool originally developed by Advanced Logic Technology (Luxembourg) for geophysics prospecting in rock boreholes. A 1.3 MHz transducer emits acoustic pulses horizontally into the ice in increments of 5o in azimuth and records the wave train back-scattered from grain boundaries. For

  11. Determination of W boson helicity fractions in top quark decays in p anti-p collisions at CDF Run II and production of endcap modules for the ATLAS Silicon Tracker

    SciTech Connect

    Moed, Shulamit; /Geneva U.

    2007-01-01

    The thesis presented here includes two parts. The first part discusses the production of endcap modules for the ATLAS SemiConductor Tracker at the University of Geneva. The ATLAS experiment is one of the two multi-purpose experiments being built at the LHC at CERN. The University of Geneva invested extensive efforts to create an excellent and efficient module production site, in which 655 endcap outer modules were constructed. The complexity and extreme requirements for 10 years of LHC operation with a high resolution, high efficiency, low noise tracking system resulted in an extremely careful, time consuming production and quality assurance of every single module. At design luminosity about 1000 particles will pass through the tracking system each 25 ns. In addition to requiring fast tracking techniques, the high particle flux causes significant radiation damage. Therefore, modules have to be constructed within tight and accurate mechanical and electrical specification. A description of the ATLAS experiment and the ATLAS Semiconductor tracker is presented, followed by a detailed overview of the module production at the University of Geneva. My personal contribution to the endcap module production at the University of Geneva was taking part, together with other physicists, in selecting components to be assembled to a module, including hybrid reception tests, measuring the I-V curve of the sensors and the modules at different stages of the production, thermal cycling the modules and performing electrical readout tests as an initial quality assurance of the modules before they were shipped to CERN. An elaborated description of all of these activities is given in this thesis. At the beginning of the production period the author developed a statistics package which enabled us to monitor the rate and quality of the module production. This package was then used widely by the ATLAS SCT institutes that built endcap modules of any type, and kept being improved and updated

  12. A chromatographic estimate of the degree of surface heterogeneity of reversed-phase liquid chromatography packing materials II-Endcapped monomeric C18-bonded stationary phase

    SciTech Connect

    Gritti, Fabrice; Guiochon, Georges A

    2006-01-01

    In a previous report, the heterogeneity of a non-endcapped C{sub 30}-bonded stationary phase was investigated, based on the results of the measurements of the adsorption isotherms of two neutral compounds (phenol and caffeine) and two ionizable compounds (sodium naphthalene sulfonate and propranololium chloride) by frontal analysis (FA). The same method is applied here for the characterization of the surface heterogeneity of two new brands of endcapped C{sub 18}-bonded stationary phases (Gemini and Sunfire). The adsorption isotherms of the same four chemicals were measured by FA and the results confirmed by the independent calculation of the adsorption energy distribution (AED), using the expectation-maximization (EM) method. The effect of the length of the bonded alkyl chain was investigated. Shorter alkyl-bonded-chains (C{sub 18} versus C{sub 30}) and the end-capping of the silica surface contribute to decrease the surface heterogeneity under the same experimental conditions (30% methanol, 25 mM NaCl). The AEDs of phenol and caffeine are bimodal with the C{sub 18}-bonded columns while they are trimodal and quadrimodal, respectively, with a non-endcapped C{sub 30}-bonded column. The 'supersites' (adsorption energy >20 kJ/mol) found on the C{sub 30}-Prontosil column and attributed to a cation exchange mechanism completely disappear on the C{sub 18}-Gemini and C{sub 18}-Sunfire, probably because the end-capping of the silica surface eliminates most if not all the ionic interactions.

  13. Designing and constructing of a two scintillator crystal rotatable telescope for muon flux variation studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alghamdi, Abdullrahman; Maghrabi, Abdullrahman H.; Almutari, Mohammed M.

    2014-07-01

    A rotatable muon detection telescope with two layers of scintillators was designed and constructed at the physics detector laboratory at KACST, Saudi Arabia. The objective of this system is to study the zenith angle dependence of high energy cosmic ray muons. The system has the flexibility to rotate in all directions to cover the zenith angle from 0- 900 for muon distribution studies, as well as the azimuth angle from 0-3590 to observe the geomagnetic field effects on it. In this paper, the designing and the construction works as well as the calibration procedures for the detection system will be given. Some of the preliminarily results and some of the future experiments and possible modifications will be outlined.

  14. Measurement of the atmospheric muon flux with the NEMO Phase-1 detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aiello, S.; Ameli, F.; Amore, I.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anzalone, A.; Barbarino, G.; Battaglieri, M.; Bazzotti, M.; Bersani, A.; Beverini, N.; Biagi, S.; Bonori, M.; Bouhadef, B.; Brunoldi, M.; Cacopardo, G.; Capone, A.; Caponetto, L.; Carminati, G.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Cocimano, R.; Coniglione, R.; Cordelli, M.; Costa, M.; D'Amico, A.; De Bonis, G.; De Marzo, C.; De Rosa, G.; De Ruvo, G.; De Vita, R.; Distefano, C.; Falchini, E.; Flaminio, V.; Fratini, K.; Gabrielli, A.; Galatà, S.; Gandolfi, E.; Giacomelli, G.; Giorgi, F.; Giovanetti, G.; Grimaldi, A.; Habel, R.; Imbesi, M.; Kulikovsky, V.; Lattuada, D.; Leonora, E.; Lonardo, A.; Lo Presti, D.; Lucarelli, F.; Marinelli, A.; Margiotta, A.; Martini, A.; Masullo, R.; Migneco, E.; Minutoli, S.; Morganti, M.; Musico, P.; Musumeci, M.; Nicolau, C. A.; Orlando, A.; Osipenko, M.; Papaleo, R.; Pappalardo, V.; Piattelli, P.; Piombo, D.; Raia, G.; Randazzo, N.; Reito, S.; Ricco, G.; Riccobene, G.; Ripani, M.; Rovelli, A.; Ruppi, M.; Russo, G. V.; Russo, S.; Sapienza, P.; Sciliberto, D.; Sedita, M.; Shirokov, E.; Simeone, F.; Sipala, V.; Spurio, M.; Taiuti, M.; Trasatti, L.; Urso, S.; Vecchi, M.; Vicini, P.; Wischnewski, R.

    2010-05-01

    The NEMO Collaboration installed and operated an underwater detector including prototypes of the critical elements of a possible underwater km 3 neutrino telescope: a four-floor tower (called Mini-Tower) and a Junction Box. The detector was developed to test some of the main systems of the km 3 detector, including the data transmission, the power distribution, the timing calibration and the acoustic positioning systems as well as to verify the capabilities of a single tridimensional detection structure to reconstruct muon tracks. We present results of the analysis of the data collected with the NEMO Mini-Tower. The position of photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) is determined through the acoustic position system. Signals detected with PMTs are used to reconstruct the tracks of atmospheric muons. The angular distribution of atmospheric muons was measured and results compared to Monte Carlo simulations.

  15. A chromatographic estimate of the degree of surface heterogeneity of RPLC packing materials. III. Endcapped amido-embedded reversed phase

    SciTech Connect

    Gritti, Fabrice; Guiochon, Georges A

    2006-01-01

    The difference in adsorption behavior between a conventional monomeric endcapped C{sub 18} stationary phase (3.43 {micro}mol/m{sup 2}) and an endcapped polymeric RP-Amide phase (3.31 {micro}mol/m{sup 2}) was investigated. The adsorption isotherms of four compounds (phenol, caffeine, sodium 2-naphthalene sulfonate, and propranololium chloride) were measured by frontal analysis (FA) and the degree of heterogeneity of each phase for each solute was characterized by their adsorption energy distributions (AED), derived using the Expectation-Maximization method. The results show that only certain analytes (phenol and 2-naphthalene sulfonate) are sensitive to the presence of the polar embedded amide groups within the RP phase. Their binding constants on the amide-bonded phase are significantly higher than on conventional RPLC phases. Furthermore, an additional type of adsorption sites was observed for these two compounds. However, these sites having a low density, their presence does not affect much the retention factors of the two analytes. On the other hand, the adsorption behavior of the other two analytes (caffeine and propranololium chloride) is almost unaffected by the presence of the amide group in the bonded layer. Strong selective interactions may explain these observations. For example, hydrogen-bond interactions between an analyte (e.g., phenol or naphthalene sulfonate) and the carbonyl group (acceptor) or the nitrogen (donor) of the amido-embedded group may take place. No such interactions may take place with either caffeine or the cation propranololium chloride. This study confirms the hypothesis that analytes have ready access to locations deep inside the bonded layer, where the amide groups are present.

  16. Strongest Pulsed Muon Source at J-PARC MUSE

    SciTech Connect

    Miyake, Y.; Shimomura, K.; Kawamura, N.; Strasser, P.; Koda, A.; Fujimori, H.; Makimura, S.; Nakahara, K.; Kato, M.; Takeshita, S.; Nishiyama, K.; Kobayashi, Y.; Kojima, K.; Kadono, R.; Higemoto, W.; Ito, T.; Ninomiya, K.; Hiraishi, M.; Miyazaki, M.; Kubo, K.

    2011-10-06

    The muon science facility (MUSE, abbreviation of MUon Science Establishment), along with the neutron, hadron, and neutrino facilities, is located in the Materials and Life Science Facility (MLF), which is a building integrated to include both neutron and muon science programs. On the November, 2009 beam cycle, we achieved extraction of the world's strongest pulsed muon beam at J-PARC MUSE by beam tuning at the Decay-Surface muon beam line (D-line). Surface muons ({mu}{sup +}) as much as 1.8x10{sup 6}/s were extracted with the use of 120 kW of protons from the Rapid Cycle Synchrotron (RCS), which corresponds to 1.5x10{sup 7}/s surface muons when a future proton beam reached at the intensity of 1MW. These intensities, at the future 1 MW operation, will correspond to more than ten times those at the RIKEN-RAL Muon facility.

  17. Showering cosmogenic muons in a large liquid scintillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grassi, Marco; Evslin, Jarah; Ciuffoli, Emilio; Zhang, Xinmin

    2014-09-01

    We present the results of FLUKA simulations of the propagation of cosmogenic muons in a 20 kton spherical liquid scintillator detector underneath 700 to 900 meters of rock. A showering muon is one which deposits at least 3 GeV in the detector in addition to ionization energy. We find that 20 percent of muons are showering and a further 11 percent of muon events are muon bundles, of which more than one muon enters the detector. In this range the showering and bundle fractions are robust against changes in the depth and topography, thus the total shower and bundle rate for a given experiment can be obtained by combining our results with an estimate for the total muon flux. One consequence is that a straightforward adaptation of the full detector showering muon cuts used by KamLAND to JUNO or RENO 50 would yield a nearly vanishing detector efficiency.

  18. Pion production for neutrino factories and muon colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Mokhov, N.V.; Guidman, K.K.; Strait, J.B.; Striganov, S.I.; /Fermilab

    2009-12-01

    Optimization of pion and muon production/collection for neutrino factories and muon colliders is described along with recent developments of the MARS15 code event generators and effects influencing the choice of the optimal beam energy.

  19. Studies of muon-induced radioactivity at NuMI

    SciTech Connect

    Boehnlein, David j.; Leveling, A.F.; Mokhov, N.V.; Vaziri, K.; Iwamoto, Y.; Kasugai, Y.; Matsuda, N.; Nakashima, H.; Sakamoto, Y.; Hagiwara, M.; Iwase, Hiroshi; /KEK, Tsukuba /Kyoto U., KURRI /Pohang Accelerator Lab. /Shimizu, Tokyo /Tohoku U.

    2009-12-01

    The JASMIN Collaboration has studied the production of radionuclides by muons in the muon alcoves of the NuMI beamline at Fermilab. Samples of aluminum and copper are exposed to the muon field and counted on HpGe detectors when removed to determine their content of radioactive isotopes. We compare the results to MARS simulations and discuss the radiological implications for neutrino factories and muon colliders.

  20. Design of an Intense Muon Source with a Carbon and Mercury Target

    SciTech Connect

    Stratakis, Diktys; Berg, J. Scott; Neuffer, David; Ding, Xiaoping

    2015-06-01

    In high-intensity sources, muons are produced by firing high energy protons onto a target to produce pions. The pions decay to muons which are captured and accelerated. In the present study, we examine the performance of the channel for two different target scenarios: one based on liquid mercury and another one based on a solid carbon target. We produce distributions with the two different target materials and discuss differences in particle spectrum near the sources. We then propagate the distributions through our capture system and compare the full system performance for the two target types.

  1. Design of an intense muon source with a carbon and mercury target

    SciTech Connect

    Stratakis, D.; Berg, J. S.; Neuffer, D.; Ding, X.

    2015-05-03

    In high-intensity sources, muons are produced by firing high energy protons onto a target to produce pions. The pions decay to muons which are captured and accelerated. In the present study, we examine the performance of the channel for two different target scenarios: one based on liquid mercury and another one based on a solid carbon target. We produce distributions with the two different target materials and discuss differences in particle spectrum near the sources. We then propagate the distributions through our capture system and compare the full system performance for the two target types.

  2. THE POTENTIAL FOR NEUTRINO PHYSICS AT MUON COLLIDERS AND DEDICATED HIGH CURRENT MUON STORAGE RINGS

    SciTech Connect

    BIGI,I.; BOLTON,T.; FORMAGGIO,J.; HARRIS,D.; MORFIN,J.; SPENTZOURIS,P.; YU,J.; KAYSER,B.; KING,B.J.; MCFARLAND,K.; PETROV,A.; SCHELLMAN,H.; VELASCO,M.; SHROCK,R.

    2000-05-11

    Conceptual design studies are underway for both muon colliders and high-current non-colliding muon storage rings that have the potential to become the first true neutrino factories. Muon decays in long straight sections of the storage rings would produce uniquely intense and precisely characterized two-component neutrino beams--muon neutrinos plus electron antineutrinos from negative muon decays and electron neutrinos plus muon antineutrinos from positive muons. This article presents a long-term overview of the prospects for these facilities to greatly extend the capabilities for accelerator-based neutrino physics studies for both high rate and long baseline neutrino experiments. As the first major physics topic, recent experimental results involving neutrino oscillations have motivated a vigorous design effort towards dedicated neutrino factories that would store muon beams of energies 50 GeV or below. These facilities hold the promise of neutrino oscillation experiments with baselines up to intercontinental distances and utilizing well understood beams that contain, for the first time, a substantial component of multi-GeV electron-flavored neutrinos. In deference to the active and fast-moving nature of neutrino oscillation studies, the discussion of long baseline physics at neutrino factories has been limited to a concise general overview of the relevant theory, detector technologies, beam properties, experimental goals and potential physics capabilities. The remainder of the article is devoted to the complementary high rate neutrino experiments that would study neutrino-nucleon and neutrino-electron scattering and would be performed at high performance detectors placed as close as is practical to the neutrino production straight section of muon storage rings in order to exploit beams with transverse dimensions as small as a few tens of centimeters.

  3. Muon (g-2) Technical Design Report

    SciTech Connect

    Grange, J.

    2015-01-27

    The Muon (g-2) Experiment, E989 at Fermilab, will measure the muon anomalous magnetic moment a factor-of-four more precisely than was done in E821 at the Brookhaven National Laboratory AGS. The E821 result appears to be greater than the Standard-Model prediction by more than three standard deviations. When combined with expected improvement in the Standard-Model hadronic contributions, E989 should be able to determine definitively whether or not the E821 result is evidence for physics beyond the Standard Model. After a review of the physics motivation and the basic technique, which will use the muon storage ring built at BNL and now relocated to Fermilab, the design of the new experiment is presented. This document was created in partial fulfillment of the requirements necessary to obtain DOE CD-2/3 approval.

  4. Muon Fluence Measurements for Homeland Security Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Ankney, Austin S.; Berguson, Timothy J.; Borgardt, James D.; Kouzes, Richard T.

    2010-08-10

    This report focuses on work conducted at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to better characterize aspects of backgrounds in RPMs deployed for homeland security purposes. Two polyvinyl toluene scintillators were utilized with supporting NIM electronics to measure the muon coincidence rate. Muon spallation is one mechanism by which background neutrons are produced. The measurements performed concentrated on a broad investigation of the dependence of the muon flux on a) variations in solid angle subtended by the detector; b) the detector inclination with the horizontal; c) depth underground; and d) diurnal effects. These tests were conducted inside at Building 318/133, outdoors at Building 331G, and underground at Building 3425 at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

  5. Muon Tracking to Detect Special Nuclear Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Schwellenbach, D.; Dreesen, W.; Green, J. A.; Tibbitts, A.; Schotik, G.; Borozdin, K.; Bacon, J.; Midera, H.; Milner, C.; Morris, C.; Perry, J.; Barrett, S.; Perry, K.; Scott, A.; Wright, C.; Aberle, D.

    2013-03-18

    Previous experiments have proven that nuclear assemblies can be imaged and identified inside of shipping containers using vertical trajectory cosmic-ray muons with two-sided imaging. These experiments have further demonstrated that nuclear assemblies can be identified by detecting fission products in coincidence with tracked muons. By developing these technologies, advanced sensors can be designed for a variety of warhead monitoring and detection applications. The focus of this project is to develop tomographic-mode imaging using near-horizontal trajectory muons in conjunction with secondary particle detectors. This will allow imaging in-situ without the need to relocate the objects and will enable differentiation of special nuclear material (SNM) from other high-Z materials.

  6. The possibilities of Cherenkov telescopes to perform cosmic-ray muon imaging of volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbone, Daniele; Catalano, Osvaldo; Cusumano, Giancarlo; Del Santo, Melania; Maccarone, Maria Concetta; Mineo, Teresa; Pareschi, Giovanni; Vercellone, Stefano; Zuccarello, Luciano

    2016-04-01

    Volcanic activity is regulated by the interaction of gas-liquid flow with conduit geometry. Hence, the quantitative understanding of the inner shallow structure of a volcano is mandatory to forecast the occurrence of dangerous stages of activity and mitigate volcanic hazards. Among the techniques used to investigate the underground structure of a volcano, muon imaging offers some advantages, as it provides a fine spatial resolution, and does not require neither spatially dense measurements in active zones, nor the implementation of cost demanding energizing systems, as when electric or active seismic sources are utilized. The principle of muon radiography is essentially the same as X-ray radiography: muons are more attenuated by higher density parts inside the target and thus information about its inner structure are obtained from the differential muon absorption. Up-to-date, muon imaging of volcanic structures has been mainly accomplished with detectors that employ planes of scintillator strips. These telescopes are exposed to different types of background noise (accidental coincidence of vertical shower particles, horizontal high-energy electrons, flux of upward going particles), whose amplitude is high relative to the tiny flux of interest. An alternative technique is based on the detection of the Cherenkov light produced by muons. The latter can be imaged as an annular pattern that contains the information needed to reconstruct both direction and energy of the particle. Cherenkov telescopes have never been utilized to perform muon imaging of volcanoes. Nonetheless, thanks to intrinsic features, they offer the possibility to detect the through-target muon flux with negligible levels of background noise. Under some circumstances, they would also provide a better spatial resolution and acceptance than scintillator-based telescopes. Furthermore, contrarily to the latter systems, Cherenkov detectors allow in-situ measurements of the open-sky energy spectrum of

  7. PROTON BEAM REQUIREMENTS FOR A NEUTRINO FACTORY AND MUON COLLIDER

    SciTech Connect

    Zisman, Michael S.

    2009-12-11

    Both a Neutrino Factory and a Muon Collider place stringent demands on the proton beam used to generate the desired beam of muons. Here we discuss the advantages and challenges of muon accelerators and the rationale behind the requirements on proton beam energy, intensity, bunch length, and repetition rate. Example proton driver configurations that have been considered in recent years are also briefly indicated.

  8. Noninvasive Reactor Imaging Using Cosmic-Ray Muons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyadera, H.; Fujita, K.; Karino, Y.; Kume, N.; Nakayama, K.; Sano, Y.; Sugita, T.; Yoshioka, K.; Morris, C. L.; Bacon, J. D.; Borozdin, K. N.; Perry, J. O.; Mizokami, S.; Otsuka, Y.; Yamada, D.

    2015-10-01

    Cosmic-ray-muon imaging is proposed to assess the damages to the Fukushima Daiichi reactors. Simulation studies showed capability of muon imaging to reveal the core conditions.The muon-imaging technique was demonstrated at Toshiba Nuclear Critical Assembly, where the uranium-dioxide fuel assembly was imaged with 3-cm spatial resolution after 1 month of measurement.

  9. Higgs boson and Z physics at the first muon collider

    SciTech Connect

    Demarteau, M.; Han, T.

    1998-01-01

    The potential for the Higgs boson and Z-pole physics at the first muon collider is summarized, based on the discussions at the ``Workshop on the Physics at the First Muon Collider and at the Front End of a Muon Collider``.

  10. Characterisation of the muon beams for the Muon Ionisation Cooling Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, D.; et al.,

    2013-10-01

    A novel single-particle technique to measure emittance has been developed and used to characterise seventeen different muon beams for the Muon Ionisation Cooling Experiment (MICE). The muon beams, whose mean momenta vary from 171 to 281 MeV/c, have emittances of approximately 1.5--2.3 \\pi mm-rad horizontally and 0.6--1.0 \\pi mm-rad vertically, a horizontal dispersion of 90--190 mm and momentum spreads of about 25 MeV/c. There is reasonable agreement between the measured parameters of the beams and the results of simulations. The beams are found to meet the requirements of MICE.

  11. Jet production in muon-proton and muon-nuclei scattering at Fermilab-E665

    SciTech Connect

    Salgado, C.W.; E665 Collaboration

    1993-08-01

    Measurements of multi-jet production rates from Muon-Proton Muon- Nuclei scattering at Fermilab-E665 are presented. Jet rates are defined by the JADE clustering algorithm. Rates in Muon-Proton deep-inelastic scattering are compared to perturbative Quantum Chromodynamics (PQCD) and Monte Carlo model predictions. We observe hadronic (2+1)-jet rates which are a factor of two higher than PQCD predictions at the partonic level. Preliminary results from jet production on heavy targets, in the shadowing region, show a suppression of the jet rates as compared to deuterium. The two- forward jet sample present higher suppression as compared to the one-forward jet sample.

  12. Constraints on muon-specific dark forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karshenboim, Savely G.; McKeen, David; Pospelov, Maxim

    2014-10-01

    The recent measurement of the Lamb shift in muonic hydrogen allows for the most precise extraction of the charge radius of the proton which is currently in conflict with other determinations based on e-p scattering and hydrogen spectroscopy. This discrepancy could be the result of some new muon-specific force with O(1-100) MeV force carrier—in this paper we concentrate on vector mediators. Such an explanation faces challenges from the constraints imposed by the g-2 of the muon and electron as well as precision spectroscopy of muonic atoms. In this work we complement the family of constraints by calculating the contribution of hypothetical forces to the muonium hyperfine structure. We also compute the two-loop contribution to the electron parity-violating amplitude due to a muon loop, which is sensitive to the muon axial-vector coupling. Overall, we find that the combination of low-energy constraints favors the mass of the mediator to be below 10 MeV and that a certain degree of tuning is required between vector and axial-vector couplings of new vector particles to muons in order to satisfy constraints from muon g-2. However, we also observe that in the absence of a consistent standard model embedding high-energy weak-charged processes accompanied by the emission of new vector particles are strongly enhanced by (E/mV)2, with E a characteristic energy scale and mV the mass of the mediator. In particular, leptonic W decays impose the strongest constraints on such models completely disfavoring the remainder of the parameter space.

  13. Muon production in extended air shower simulations.

    PubMed

    Pierog, T; Werner, K

    2008-10-24

    Whereas air shower simulations are very valuable tools for interpreting cosmic ray data, there is a long-standing problem: it is difficult to accommodate at the same time the longitudinal development of air showers and the number of muons measured on the ground. Using a new hadronic interaction model (EPOS) in air shower simulations produces much more muons, in agreement with results from the HiRes-MIA experiment. We find that this is mainly due to a better description of (anti) baryon production in hadronic interactions. This is an aspect of air shower physics which has been neglected so far. PMID:18999734

  14. Stochastic cooling requirements for a muon collider

    SciTech Connect

    Ruggiero, A.G.

    1993-12-31

    The most severe limitation to the muon production for a large-energy muon collider is the short time allowed for cooling the beam to dimensions small enough to provide reasonably high luminosity. The limitation is caused by the short lifetime of the particles. It appears to be desirable to accelerate the beam quickly in very short bunches. This paper describes the requirements of single-pass, fast stochastic cooling for very short bunches. Bandwidth, amplifier gain and Schottky power do not seem to be of major concern. Problems do arise with the ultimate low emittance that can be achieved, the value of which is seriously affected by the front-end noise.

  15. Rare kaon, muon, and pion decay

    SciTech Connect

    Littenberg, L.

    1998-12-01

    The author discusses the status of and prospects for the study of rare decays of kaons, muons, and pions. Studies of rare kaon decays are entering an interesting new phase wherein they can deliver important short-distance information. It should be possible to construct an alternative unitarity triangle to that determined in the B sector, and thus perform a critical check of the Standard Model by comparing the two. Rare muon decays are beginning to constrain supersymmetric models in a significant way, and future experiments should reach sensitivities which this kind of model must show effects, or become far less appealing.

  16. A COMPLETE SCHEME FOR A MUON COLLIDER.

    SciTech Connect

    PALMER,R.B.; BERG, J.S.; FERNOW, R.C.; GALLARDO, J.C.; KIRK, H.G.; ALEXAHIN, Y.; NEUFFER, D.; KAHN, S.A.; SUMMERS, D.

    2007-09-01

    A complete scheme for production, cooling, acceleration, and ring for a 1.5 TeV center of mass muon collider is presented, together with parameters for two higher energy machines. The schemes starts with the front end of a proposed neutrino factory that yields bunch trains of both muon signs. Six dimensional cooling in long-period helical lattices reduces the longitudinal emittance until it becomes possible to merge the trains into single bunches, one of each sign. Further cooling in all dimensions is applied to the single bunches in further helical lattices. Final transverse cooling to the required parameters is achieved in 50 T solenoids.

  17. Energy loss measurement of cosmic ray muons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unger, Joseph

    1993-02-01

    Measurements of energy losses of high energy cosmic ray muons in an ionization chamber are presented. The chamber consists of 16 single gap layers, and the liquid tetra methyl silane (TMS) was used as active medium. The absolute energy loss and the relativistic rise were measured and compared with theoretical calculations. The importance of the measurements within the framework of the cosmic ray experiment KASCADE (German acronym for Karlsruhe Shower Core and Array Detector) are discussed, especially with respect to energy calibration of hadrons and high energy muons above 1 TeV.

  18. Large muon electric dipole moment from flavor?

    SciTech Connect

    Hiller, Gudrun; Huitu, Katri; Rueppell, Timo; Laamanen, Jari

    2010-11-01

    We study the prospects and opportunities of a large muon electric dipole moment (EDM) of the order (10{sup -24}-10{sup -22}) ecm. We investigate how natural such a value is within the general minimal supersymmetric extension of the standard model with CP violation from lepton flavor violation in view of the experimental constraints. In models with hybrid gauge-gravity-mediated supersymmetry breaking, a large muon EDM is indicative for the structure of flavor breaking at the Planck scale, and points towards a high messenger scale.

  19. FFAG Designs for Muon Collider Acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, J. Scott

    2014-01-13

    I estimate FFAG parameters for a muon collider with a 70mm longitudinal emittance. I do not discuss the lower emittance beam for a Higgs factory. I produce some example designs, giving only parameters relevant to estimating cost and performance. The designs would not track well, but the parameters of a good design will be close to those described. I compare these cost estimates to those for a fast-ramping synchrotron and a recirculating linear accelerator. I conclude that FFAGs do not appear to be cost-effective for the large longitudinal emittance in a high-energy muon collider.

  20. A Muon Tomography Station with GEM Detectors for Nuclear Threat Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staib, Michael; Gnanvo, Kondo; Grasso, Leonard; Hohlmann, Marcus; Locke, Judson; Costa, Filippo; Martoiu, Sorin; Muller, Hans

    2011-10-01

    Muon tomography for homeland security aims at detecting well-shielded nuclear contraband in cargo and imaging it in 3D. The technique exploits multiple scattering of atmospheric cosmic ray muons, which is stronger in dense, high-Z nuclear materials, e.g. enriched uranium, than in low-Z and medium-Z shielding materials. We have constructed and operated a compact Muon Tomography Station (MTS) that tracks muons with six to ten 30 cm x 30 cm Triple Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detectors placed on the sides of a 27-liter cubic imaging volume. The 2D strip readouts of the GEMs achieve a spatial resolution of ˜130 μm in both dimensions and the station is operated at a muon trigger rate of ˜20 Hz. The 1,536 strips per GEM detector are read out with the first medium-size implementation of the Scalable Readout System (SRS) developed specifically for Micro-Pattern Gas Detectors by the RD51 collaboration at CERN. We discuss the performance of this MTS prototype and present experimental results on tomographic imaging of high-Z objects with and without shielding.

  1. Muon-Substituted Malonaldehyde: Transforming a Transition State into a Stable Structure by Isotope Substitution.

    PubMed

    Goli, Mohammad; Shahbazian, Shant

    2016-02-12

    Isotope substitutions are usually conceived to play a marginal role on the structure and bonding pattern of molecules. However, a recent study [Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2014, 53, 13706-13709; Angew. Chem. 2014, 126, 13925-13929] further demonstrates that upon replacing a proton with a positively charged muon, as the lightest radioisotope of hydrogen, radical changes in the nature of the structure and bonding of certain species may take place. The present report is a primary attempt to introduce another example of structural transformation on the basis of the malonaldehyde system. Accordingly, upon replacing the proton between the two oxygen atoms of malonaldehyde with the positively charged muon a serious structural transformation is observed. By using the ab initio nuclear-electronic orbital non-Born-Oppenheimer procedure, the nuclear configuration of the muon-substituted species is derived. The resulting nuclear configuration is much more similar to the transition state of the proton transfer in malonaldehyde rather than to the stable configuration of malonaldehyde. The comparison of the "atoms in molecules" (AIM) structure of the muon-substituted malonaldehyde and the AIM structure of the stable and the transition-state configurations of malonaldehyde also unequivocally demonstrates substantial similarities of the muon-substituted malonaldehyde to the transition state. PMID:26749489

  2. A Simple Cosmic Ray Muon Detector At High Cutoff Rigidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maghrabi, Abdullrahman; Alghamdi, Abdulrahman S.; Almoteri, MR. M.; Rakan Alotaibi, MR.; Garawi, M. S. Al

    A small cosmic ray detector (area of 0.5 m2),using plastic scintillator, was constructed and being in operation in Riyadh (Rc=13 GeV) since September 2013. The objective of this detector is to study high energy cosmic ray muons on different time scales and investigate their correlations with environmental parameters. In this study, the technical aspects, the construction works of the system, and some of the calibration procedures will be briefly given. Preliminarily results obtained by the detector will be summarized. This includes the observations of three Forbush decreases occurred during the study period.

  3. Cosmic ray sun shadow in Soudan 2 underground muon flux.

    SciTech Connect

    Allison, W. W. M.; Alner, G. J.; Ayres, D. S.; Barrett, W. L.; Bode, C.; Fields, T. H.; Goodman, M. C.; Joffe-Minor, T.; Price, L. E.; Seidlein, R.; Soudan 2 Collaboration; Thron, J. L.

    1999-06-23

    The absorption of cosmic rays by the sun produces a shadow at the earth. The angular offset and broadening of the shadow are determined by the magnitude and structure of the interplanetary magnetic field (IPMF) in the inner solar system. The authors report the first measurement of the solar cosmic ray shadow by detection of deep underground muon flux in observations made during the entire ten-year interval 1989 to 1998. The sun shadow varies significantly during this time, with a 3.3{sigma} shadow observed during the years 1995 to 1998.

  4. Search for muon EDM with ultra-cold muon beam at J-PARC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mibe, Tsutomu; J-PARC muon g-2/EDM Collaboration

    2014-09-01

    The J-PARC experiment E34 aims to measure the anomalous magnetic moment (g-2) and electric dipole moment (EDM) of the positive muon with a novel technique utilizing an ultra-cold muons accelerated to 300 MeV/ c and a 66 cm-diameter compact muon storage ring without focusing-electric field. This measurement will be complementary to the previous BNL E821 experiment and upcoming FNAL E989 experiment with the muon beam at the magic momentum 3.1 GeV/ c in a 14 m-diameter storage ring. The experiment aims to achieve the sensitivity down to 0.1 ppm for g-2, and 10-21 e . cm for EDM. In this presentation, I'd like to discuss the technical achievements and prospects for realization of the experiment.

  5. The International Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment: MICE and Neutrino Factories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freemire, Ben

    2010-03-01

    The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) is an accelerator and particle physics experiment aimed at demonstrating the technique of ionization cooling on a beam of muons. Ionization cooling is the process by which muons are sent through an absorbing material, thereby losing energy and decreasing their normalized emittance. The muons are then reaccelerated in the appropriate direction with radio frequency (RF) cavities. This produces an overall reduction in transverse emittance of the muon beam. Ionization cooling could be a key technique in the design of a high intensity Neutrino Factory.

  6. Low-energy negative muon interaction with matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danev, Petar; Adamczak, Andrzej; Bakalov, Dimitar; Mocchiutti, Emiliano; Stoilov, Mihail; Vacchi, Andrea

    2016-03-01

    Using simulated data, obtained with the FLUKA code, we derive empirical regularities about the propagation and stopping of low-energy negative muons in hydrogen and selected solid materials. The results are intended to help the preliminary stages of the set-up design for experimental studies of muon capture and muonic atom spectroscopy. Provided are approximate expressions for the parameters of the the momentum, spatial and angular distribution of the propagating muons. In comparison with the available data on the stopping power and range of muons (with which they agree in the considered energy range) these results have the advantage to also describe the statistical spread of the muon characteristics of interest.

  7. A facility for the test of large-area muon chambers at high rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agosteo, S.; Altieri, S.; Belli, G.; Bonifas, A.; Carabelli, V.; Gatignon, L.; Hessey, N.; Maggi, M.; Peigneux, J.-P.; Reithler, H.; Silari, M.; Vitulo, P.; Wegner, M.

    2000-09-01

    Operation of large-area muon detectors at the future Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will be characterized by large sustained hit rates over the whole area, reaching the range of kHz cm -2. We describe a dedicated test zone built at CERN to test the performance and the aging of the muon chambers currently under development. A radioactive source delivers photons causing the sustained rate of random hits, while a narrow beam of high-energy muons is used to directly calibrate the detector performance. A system of remotely controlled lead filters serves to vary the rate of photons over four orders of magnitude, to allow the study of performance as a function of rate.

  8. Preliminary limits on the flux of muon neutrinos from extraterrestrial point sources

    SciTech Connect

    Bionta, R.M.; Blewitt, G.; Bratton, C.B.; Casper, D.; Cortez, B.G.; Chrysicopoulou, P.; Claus, R.; Dye, S.T.; Errede, S.; Foster, G.W.

    1985-07-03

    We present the arrival directions of 117 upward-going muon events collected with the IMB proton lifetime detector during 317 days of live detector operation. The rate of upward-going muons observed in our detector was found to be consistent with the rate expected from atmospheric neutrino production. The upper limit on the total flux of extraterrestrial neutrinos >1 GeV is <0.06 neutrinos/cm/sup 2/-sec. Using our data and a Monte Carlo simulation of high energy muon production in the earth surrounding the detector, we place limits on the flux of neutrinos from a point source in the Vela X-2 system of <0.009 neutrinos/cm/sup 2/-sec with E > 1 GeV. 6 refs., 5 figs.

  9. Muon Collider Machine-Detector Interface

    SciTech Connect

    Mokhov, Nikolai V.; /Fermilab

    2011-08-01

    In order to realize the high physics potential of a Muon Collider (MC) a high luminosity of {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -}-collisions at the Interaction Point (IP) in the TeV range must be achieved ({approx}10{sup 34} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}). To reach this goal, a number of demanding requirements on the collider optics and the IR hardware - arising from the short muon lifetime and from relatively large values of the transverse emittance and momentum spread in muon beams that can realistically be obtained with ionization cooling should be satisfied. These requirements are aggravated by limitations on the quadrupole gradients as well as by the necessity to protect superconducting magnets and collider detectors from muon decay products. The overall detector performance in this domain is strongly dependent on the background particle rates in various sub-detectors. The deleterious effects of the background and radiation environment produced by the beam in the ring are very important issues in the Interaction Region (IR), detector and Machine-Detector Interface (MDI) designs. This report is based on studies presented very recently.

  10. Neutrino masses, Majorons, and muon decay

    SciTech Connect

    Santamaria, A.; Bernabeu, J.; Pich, A.

    1987-09-01

    The contributions to the parameters xi, delta, rho, and eta in muon decay coming from double Majoron emission, Majorana neutrino masses, and effects of charged scalars are evaluated in the scalar-triplet model. The relevance of these effects for planned experiments is discussed.

  11. Multi-muon events at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Ptochos, F.; /Cyprus U.

    2009-07-01

    We report a study of multi-muon events produced at the Fermilab Tevatron collider and recorded by the CDF II detector. In a data set acquired with a dedicated dimuon trigger and corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 2100 pb{sup -1}, we isolate a significant sample of events in which at least one of the identified muons has large impact parameter and is produced outside the beam pipe of radius 1.5 cm. We are unable to fully account for the number and properties of the events through standard model processes in conjunction with our current understanding of the CDF II detector, trigger and event reconstruction. Several topological and kinematic properties of these events are also presented. In contrast, the production cross section and kinematics of events in which both muon candidates are produced inside the beam pipe are successfully modeled by known QCD processes which include heavy flavor production. The presence of these anomalous multi-muon events offers a plausible resolution to long-standing inconsistencies related to b{bar b} production and decay.

  12. Target studies for surface muon production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, F.; Desorgher, L.; Fuchs, A.; Hajdas, W.; Hodge, Z.; Kettle, P.-R.; Knecht, A.; Lüscher, R.; Papa, A.; Rutar, G.; Wohlmuther, M.

    2016-02-01

    Meson factories are powerful drivers of diverse physics programs. With beam powers already in the MW-regime attention has to be turned to target and beam line design to further significantly increase surface muon rates available for experiments. For this reason we have explored the possibility of using a neutron spallation target as a source of surface muons by performing detailed Geant4 simulations with pion production cross sections based on a parametrization of existing data. While the spallation target outperforms standard targets in the backward direction by more than a factor 7 it is not more efficient than standard targets viewed under 90°. Not surprisingly, the geometry of the target plays a large role in the generation of surface muons. Through careful optimization, a gain in surface muon rate of between 30% and 60% over the standard "box-like" target used at the Paul Scherrer Institute could be achieved by employing a rotated slab target. An additional 10% gain could also be possible by utilizing novel target materials such as, e.g., boron carbide.

  13. Gamma rays from muons from WIMPs: Implementation of radiative muon decays for dark matter analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scaffidi, Andre; Freese, Katherine; Li, Jinmian; Savage, Christopher; White, Martin; Williams, Anthony G.

    2016-06-01

    Dark matter searches in gamma ray final states often make use of the fact that photons can be produced from final state muons. Modern Monte Carlo generators and dark matter codes include the effects of final state radiation from muons produced in the dark matter annihilation process itself, but neglect the O (1 %) radiative correction that arises from the subsequent muon decay. After implementing this correction we demonstrate the effect that it can have on dark matter phenomenology by considering the case of dark matter annihilation to four muons via scalar mediator production. We first show that the AMS-02 positron excess can no longer easily be made consistent with this final state once the Fermi-LAT dwarf limits are calculated with the inclusion of radiative muon decays, and we next show that the Fermi-LAT galactic center gamma excess can be improved with this final state after inclusion of the same effect. We provide code and tables for the implementation of this effect in the popular dark matter code micrOMEGAs, providing a solution for any model producing final state muons.

  14. Novel approach to imaging by cosmic-ray muons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bikit, Istvan; Mrdja, Dusan; Bikit, Kristina; Slivka, Jaroslav; Jovancevic, Nikola; Oláh, László; Hamar, Gergő; Varga, Dezső

    2016-03-01

    Cosmic-ray muons can be used for imaging of large structures, or high-density objects with high atomic number. The first task can be performed by measurement of muon absorption within very thick material layers, while the second approach is based on muon multiple scattering. However, the muon imaging of small structures with low atomic number and density was not yet solved appropriately. Here we show the first results of cosmic-ray muon imaging of small objects made of elements of low atomic number. This novel approach includes detection of secondary particles produced by muons, which were not used at all in previous muon imaging methods. Thus, the list of elements, as well as the range of dimensions of objects which can be imaged are significantly expanded.

  15. Identification of Low PT Muon with the Atlas Tile Calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usai, G.

    2005-02-01

    A method for the identification of muons with the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter is presented and its efficiency and mis-tagging fraction are discussed. It is demonstrated that the Tile Calorimeter can identify muons with good efficiency down to 2 GeV/c transverse momentum, where the stand-alone Muon Spectrometer has zero efficiency. This kinematic region is important for study of B meson physics and in the particular for the CP violating decay channels. The effectiveness of this method is tested, in particular, in the case of bbar {b} events at low LHC luminosity (1033cm-1s-2) with full simulation of experimental conditions. The muon identification with the Tile Calorimeter is fast and can be used for muon selection at the trigger level. A method of exploiting the information available in other ATLAS sub-detectors in order to reduce spurious muon-tag and measure the candidate muon momentum is discussed.

  16. Corrections for temperature effect for ground-based muon hodoscopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dmitrieva, A. N.; Kokoulin, R. P.; Petrukhin, A. A.; Timashkov, D. A.

    2011-01-01

    Influence of atmospheric temperature on muon flux at sea level is considered. Results of calculations of muon spectrum for normal atmospheric conditions, differential temperature coefficients (DTC) for muons at different zenith angles and threshold energies are presented. In calculations, a six-layer stationary spherical model of atmosphere is used, contributions of both pions and kaons as well as dependence of muon energy loss on muon energy are taken into account. Comparison of muon spectrum calculations and experimental data in a wide range of zenith angles and momentums shows a good agreement. Comparison of results of DTC calculations with results of earlier works exhibits only qualitative agreement; possible sources of differences are analyzed. Some practical questions of the use of DTC for muon hodoscope data analysis are discussed.

  17. Volcanoes muon imaging using Cherenkov telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catalano, O.; Del Santo, M.; Mineo, T.; Cusumano, G.; Maccarone, M. C.; Pareschi, G.

    2016-01-01

    A detailed understanding of a volcano inner structure is one of the key-points for the volcanic hazards evaluation. To this aim, in the last decade, geophysical radiography techniques using cosmic muon particles have been proposed. By measuring the differential attenuation of the muon flux as a function of the amount of rock crossed along different directions, it is possible to determine the density distribution of the interior of a volcano. Up to now, a number of experiments have been based on the detection of the muon tracks crossing hodoscopes, made up of scintillators or nuclear emulsion planes. Using telescopes based on the atmospheric Cherenkov imaging technique, we propose a new approach to study the interior of volcanoes detecting of the Cherenkov light produced by relativistic cosmic-ray muons that survive after crossing the volcano. The Cherenkov light produced along the muon path is imaged as a typical annular pattern containing all the essential information to reconstruct particle direction and energy. Our new approach offers the advantage of a negligible background and an improved spatial resolution. To test the feasibility of our new method, we have carried out simulations with a toy-model based on the geometrical parameters of ASTRI SST-2M, i.e. the imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescope currently under installation onto the Etna volcano. Comparing the results of our simulations with previous experiments based on particle detectors, we gain at least a factor of 10 in sensitivity. The result of this study shows that we resolve an empty cylinder with a radius of about 100 m located inside a volcano in less than 4 days, which implies a limit on the magma velocity of 5 m/h.

  18. Acceptor End-Capped Oligomeric Conjugated Molecules with Broadened Absorption and Enhanced Extinction Coefficients for High-Efficiency Organic Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Liu; Lu, Kun; Xia, Benzheng; Zhang, Jianqi; Wang, Zhen; Wang, Zaiyu; Deng, Dan; Fang, Jin; Zhu, Lingyun; Wei, Zhixiang

    2016-07-01

    Acceptor end-capping of oligomeric conjugated molecules is found to be an effective strategy for simultaneous spectral broadening, extinction coefficient enhancement, and energy level optimization, resulting in profoundly enhanced power conversion efficiencies (of 9.25% and 8.91%) compared to the original oligomers. This strategy is effective in overcoming the absorption disadvantage of oligomers and small molecules due to conjugation limitation. PMID:27172541

  19. High density cell culture system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spaulding, Glenn F. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    An annular culture vessel for growing mammalian cells is constructed in a one piece integral and annular configuration with an open end which is closed by an endcap. The culture vessel is rotatable about a horizontal axis by use of conventional roller systems commonly used in culture laboratories. The end wall of the endcap has tapered access ports to frictionally and sealingly receive the ends of hypodermic syringes. The syringes permit the introduction of fresh nutrient and withdrawal of spent nutrients. The walls are made of conventional polymeric cell culture material and are subjected to neutron bombardment to form minute gas permeable perforations in the walls.

  20. RF Integration into Helical Magnet for Muon 6-Dimensional Beam Cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Yonehara, K.; Kashikhin, V.; Lamm, M.; Lee, A.; Lopes, M.; Zlobin, A.; Johnson, R.P.; Kahn, S.; Neubauer, M.; /Muons Inc., Batavia

    2009-05-01

    The helical cooling channel is proposed to make a quick muon beam phase space cooling in a short channel length. The challenging part of the helical cooling channel magnet design is how to integrate the RF cavity into the compact helical cooling magnet. This report shows the possibility of the integration of the system.

  1. Studies of high energy phenomena using muons. Progress report, [March 1992--February 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Hedin, D.; Kaplan, D.; Green, J.

    1993-02-01

    The NIU high energy physics group has three main efforts. The first is the D0 experiment at the Fermilab proton-antiproton collider, with major emphasis on its muon system. The second is the involvement of a portion of the group in Fermilab Experiment 789. Finally, members of the group participate in the SDC collaboration at the SSC.

  2. STATUS OF THE INTERNATIONAL MUON IONIZATION COOLING EXPERIMENT(MICE)

    SciTech Connect

    Zisman, Michael S.

    2007-07-18

    An international experiment to demonstrate muon ionization cooling is scheduled for beam at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL) in 2007. The experiment comprises one cell of the Study II cooling channel [1], along with upstream and downstream detectors to identify individual muons and measure their initial and final 6D phase-space parameters to a precision of 0.1%. Magnetic design of the beam line and cooling channel are complete and portions are under construction. The experiment will be described, including cooling channel hardware designs, fabrication status, and running plans. Phase 1 of the experiment will prepare the beam line and provide detector systems, including time-of-flight, Cherenkov, scintillating-fiber trackers and their spectrometer solenoids, and an electromagnetic calorimeter. The Phase 2 system will add the cooling channel components, including liquid-hydrogen absorbers embedded in superconducting Focus Coil solenoids, 201-MHz normal-conducting RF cavities, and their surrounding Coupling Coil solenoids. The MICE Collaboration goal is to complete the experiment by 2010; progress toward this is discussed.

  3. Light Yield Measurements of Heavy Photon Search (HPS) Muon Scintillator Hodoscopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skolnik, Marianne; Stepanyan, Stepan

    2013-10-01

    The HPS is an experiment that will search for new heavy vector boson(s) in the mass range of 20 MeV/c2 to 1000 MeV/c2. One of the detectors used for this experiment is a muon hodoscope. We are interested in finding the light yield for the scintillator - wavelength-shifting fiber coupling that will be used in this muon hodoscope. The muon hodoscope will have background signals distorting the data. In order to reduce the background, a threshold cut will be made on the signal coming from the photo-detector. Precision of this cut depends on the average number of photoelectrons, Npe. Previous tests have shown that Npe with Wavelength Shifting (WLS) fibers placed through the holes that go lengthwise down the scintillator is ~12/MeV. In this new muon hodoscope the scintillators will have WLS fibers glued inside the holes. The optical epoxy allows more light, changing Npe. To find Npe, two scintillators with fibers will be used, one of which will have glued WLS fibers. Light will be readout out using photo multiplier tubes (PMTs). The system of two scintillator-fiber-PMTs and one trigger PMT with a scintillator are placed in a dark box. First, position of a single photoelectron peaks is found using an LED light, then using the signal from cosmic muons from trigger PMT light yield is measured. Data are analyzed using ROOT macros. Result of this measurement suggests that light yield form glued fibers is higher than from WLS fibers without glue by a factor of ~1.7, which is sufficient for operation of the HPS muon hodoscope.

  4. Frontiers of muon spectroscopy—25 years of muon science at ISIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cottrell, Stephen

    2013-12-01

    The ISIS muon source developed with support from the European Community (EC) and groups at Grenoble, Parma, Uppsala and Munich in the late 1980s, with a single instrument providing many scientists with their first opportunity to explore the unique capabilities of muon spectroscopy. The timing was opportune, as the muon technique was making an important contribution to the study of the then recently discovered cuprate high T c superconductors. The ISIS user community developed rapidly over subsequent years, with the technique finding a broad range of applications in condensed matter physics, materials science and chemistry. The single instrument was hugely oversubscribed, and the importance of the technique was recognized in 1993 with a further grant from the EC to develop the triple beamline facility that is currently available at ISIS. During 2009 the suite of spectrometers available at the facility received a major upgrade, with the Science and Technology Facilities Council funding the development of a 5 T high field instrument that has enabled entirely new applications of muon spectroscopy to be explored. The facility continues to flourish, with a strong user community exploiting the technique to support research across an increasingly broad range of subject areas. Condensed matter science continues to be a major area of interest, with applications including semiconductors and dielectrics, superconductors, magnetism, interstitial diffusion and charge transport. Recently, however, molecular science and radical chemistry have become prominent in the ISIS programme, applications where the availability of high magnetic fields is frequently vital to the success of the experiments. For ISIS, 23 March 2012 marked a significant milestone, it being 25 years since muons were first produced at the facility for research in condensed matter and molecular science. To celebrate, the ISIS muon group organized a science symposium with the theme 'Frontiers of Muon Spectroscopy

  5. Imaging a vertical shaft from a tunnel using muons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonal, N.; Preston, L. A.; Dorsey, D. J.; Schwellenbach, D.; Green, A.; Smalley, D.

    2015-12-01

    We use muon technology to image a vertical shaft from a tunnel. The density of the materials through which cosmic ray muons pass influences the flux of muons because muons are more attenuated by higher density material. Additionally, muons can travel several kilometers allowing measurements through deep rock. Density maps are generated from muon flux measurements to locate subsurface features like tunnel structures and ore bodies. Additionally, muon data can be jointly inverted with other data such as gravity and seismic to produce higher quality earth models than produced from a single method. We collected several weeks of data in a tunnel to image a vertical shaft. The minimum length of rock between the vertical shaft and the detector is 120 meters and the diameter of the vertical shaft is 4.6 meters. The rock the muons traveled through consists of Tertiary age volcanic tuff and steeply dipping, small-displacement faults. Results will be presented for muon flux in the tunnel and Monte-Carlo simulations of this experiment. Simulations from both GEANT4 (Geometry And Tracking version 4) and MCNP6 (Monte-Carlo N-Particle version 6) models will be compared. The tunnel overburden from muon measurements is also estimated and compared with actual the overburden. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  6. Studies on muon tomography for archaeological internal structures scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, H.; Carloganu, C.; Gibert, D.; Jacquemier, J.; Karyotakis, Y.; Marteau, J.; Niess, V.; Katsanevas, S.; Tonazzo, A.

    2016-05-01

    Muon tomography is a potential non-invasive technique for internal structure scanning. It has already interesting applications in geophysics and can be used for archaeological purposes. Muon tomography is based on the measurement of the muon flux after crossing the structure studied. Differences on the mean density of these structures imply differences on the detected muon rate for a given direction. Based on this principle, Monte Carlo simulations represent a useful tool to provide a model of the expected muon rate and angular distribution depending on the composition of the studied object, being useful to estimate the expected detected muons and to better understand the experimental results. These simulations are mainly dependent on the geometry and composition of the studied object and on the modelling of the initial muon flux at surface. In this work, the potential of muon tomography in archaeology is presented and evaluated with Monte Carlo simulations by estimating the differences on the muon rate due to the presence of internal structures and its composition. The influence of the chosen muon model at surface in terms of energy and angular distributions in the final result has been also studied.

  7. Muon Lifetime Measurement and Introduction to the use of FPGAs in Experimental Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villaseñor, L.

    2008-07-01

    During the laboratory sessions at the Workshop, the students used a simple experimental setup to measure the muon lifetime with a 10% statistical error. The muon detector consisted of a sealed container, filled with liquid scintillator, coupled to a 2.5″ photomultiplier (PMT). A personal computer (PC) was used to control a digital oscilloscope which directly measured the time interval between two consecutive PMT pulses in a time window of 20 μs. The students were also introduced to the use of root to analyze the muon data and to measure the muon lifetime. They were also presented with a basic introduction to the application of field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) in data acquisition (DAQ) systems by means of examples. We started with a brief introduction to the VHDL language and the software package used to program FPGAs and PROMs on a commercial FPGA development board. They learned to program FPGAs for handling data transfers using the RS-232 port of a PC. They were also introduced to the concepts of circular RAMs (Random Access Memory) and FIFO (First-In First-Out) memories in the context of fast and efficient DAQ systems. We emphasized the way in which inexpensive FPGA-based electronics replaces the use of traditionally used electronics modules, such as NIM, CAMAC, FASTBUS, VME, etc., to construct fast and powerful DAQ systems.

  8. Muon Lifetime Measurement and Introduction to the use of FPGAs in Experimental Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Villasenor, L.

    2008-07-02

    During the laboratory sessions at the Workshop, the students used a simple experimental setup to measure the muon lifetime with a 10% statistical error. The muon detector consisted of a sealed container, filled with liquid scintillator, coupled to a 2.5'' photomultiplier (PMT). A personal computer (PC) was used to control a digital oscilloscope which directly measured the time interval between two consecutive PMT pulses in a time window of 20 {mu}s. The students were also introduced to the use of root to analyze the muon data and to measure the muon lifetime. They were also presented with a basic introduction to the application of field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) in data acquisition (DAQ) systems by means of examples. We started with a brief introduction to the VHDL language and the software package used to program FPGAs and PROMs on a commercial FPGA development board. They learned to program FPGAs for handling data transfers using the RS-232 port of a PC. They were also introduced to the concepts of circular RAMs (Random Access Memory) and FIFO (First-In First-Out) memories in the context of fast and efficient DAQ systems. We emphasized the way in which inexpensive FPGA-based electronics replaces the use of traditionally used electronics modules, such as NIM, CAMAC, FASTBUS, VME, etc., to construct fast and powerful DAQ systems.

  9. Electronic structures and second hyperpolarizabilities of alkaline earth metal complexes end-capped with NA2 (A = H, Li, Na).

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Paramita; Nandi, Prasanta K

    2016-05-14

    The ground state structures and NLO properties of a number of alkaline earth metal complexes end-capped with NA2 groups (A = H, Li, Na) are calculated by employing the CAM-B3LYP, wB97XD and B2PLYP functionals along with MP2 and CCSD(T) for 6-311++G(d,p), 6-311++G(3df,3pd), aug-cc-pVTZ, aug-pc-2 and Hypol basis sets. The complexes are found to be significantly stable. The magnitude of second hyperpolarizability enhances appreciably with increase in the number of magnesium and calcium atoms in the chain, which has been indicated by the power law dependence γ = a + bn(c) with c values ranging from 2.4-4.3 for Mg and 2.4-3.7 for Ca complexes, respectively. The largest second-hyperpolarizability (10(9) au) is obtained for the complex Ca7(NNa2)2 at the CAM-B3LYP level. The two state model has been used to explain the variation of hyperpolarizabilities. PMID:27088138

  10. A precision measurement of the rate of muon capture on the deuteron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Xiao

    Because quantum chromodynamics (QCD) is non-perturbative at low energies, strong interactions at the ˜ GeV scale are very challenging to understand. Theoretical progress has been made recently using QCD-based effective field theories (EFT). The short-distance physics of the effective theory is absorbed into a limited number of low energy constants (LECs), which are determined by direct experimental measurement. The MuSun experiment is measuring the rate Lambdad for muon capture on the deuteron, which is the simplest weak interaction in a two nucleon system. Lambda d will be used, in turn, to better determine a fundamental LEC known as dR in the EFT. An improvement in the precision of this LEC will improve our understanding of several other processes in the two-nucleon sector: pp fusion, the main source of energy in the sun and other main-sequence stars and neutrino-deuteron scattering, as observed in the SNO experiment. The MuSun experiment determines Lambdad via a precision measurement of the negative muon lifetime in deuterium. The time difference between an incoming muon, which stops in deuterium, and the subsequent decay electron characterizes the muon disappearance rate. That disappearance rate is the sum of the ordinary muon decay rate and the nuclear capture rate. The ultimate goal of the MuSun experiment is to determine the nuclear capture rate (Lambdad) to a precision of 1.5 %, an order of magnitude improvement over previous efforts. The principal experimental development required to achieve this goal is a cryogenic (T ˜30K) time projection chamber, which not only serves as the deuterium gas target, but also provides an unambiguous measurement of muon stopping position - muons that stop in high Z materials outside the fiducial deuterium volume produce a very large systematic error. The low temperature helps minimize several other systematic errors. The MuSun experiment is taking place at the Paul Scherrer Institut in Villigen, Switzerland. Over the past

  11. Muon Collider interaction region and machine-detector interface design

    SciTech Connect

    Mokhov, N.V.; Alexahin, Y.I.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Striganov, S.I.; Zlobin, A.V.; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    One of the key systems of a Muon Collider (MC) - seen as the most exciting option for the energy frontier machine in the post-LHC era - is its interaction region (IR). Designs of its optics, magnets and machine-detector interface are strongly interlaced and iterative. As a result of recent comprehensive studies, consistent solutions for the 1.5-TeV c.o.m. MC IR have been found and are described here. To provide the required momentum acceptance, dynamic aperture and chromaticity, an innovative approach was used for the IR optics. Conceptual designs of large-aperture high-field dipole and high-gradient quadrupole magnets based on Nb{sub 3}Sn superconductor were developed and analyzed in terms of the operating margin, field quality, mechanics, coil cooling and quench protection. Shadow masks in the interconnect regions and liners inside the magnets are used to mitigate the unprecedented dynamic heat deposition due to muon decays ({approx}0.5 kW/m). It is shown that an appropriately designed machine-detector interface (MDI) with sophisticated shielding in the detector has a potential to substantially suppress the background rates in the MC detector.

  12. SuperB Muon Detector Prototype

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-11-01

    The test objective is to optimize the muon identification in an experiment at a Super B Factory. To accomplish this, experimenters will study the muon identification capability of a detector with different iron configurations at different beam energies. The detector is a full scale prototype, composed of a stack of iron tiles. The segmentation of the iron allows the study of different configurations. Between the tiles, one or two extruded scintillator slabs can be inserted to test two different readout options; a Binary Readout and a Time Readout. In the Binary Readout option the two coordinates are given by the two orthogonal scintillator bars, and the spatial resolution is driven by the bar width. In the Time Readout option one coordinate is determined by the scintillator position and the other by the arrival time of the signal read with a TDC.

  13. Muon acceleration in cosmic-ray sources

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, Spencer R.; Mikkelsen, Rune E.; Becker Tjus, Julia

    2013-12-20

    Many models of ultra-high energy cosmic-ray production involve acceleration in linear accelerators located in gamma-ray bursts, magnetars, or other sources. These transient sources have short lifetimes, which necessitate very high accelerating gradients, up to 10{sup 13} keV cm{sup –1}. At gradients above 1.6 keV cm{sup –1}, muons produced by hadronic interactions undergo significant acceleration before they decay. This muon acceleration hardens the neutrino energy spectrum and greatly increases the high-energy neutrino flux. Using the IceCube high-energy diffuse neutrino flux limits, we set two-dimensional limits on the source opacity and matter density, as a function of accelerating gradient. These limits put strong constraints on different models of particle acceleration, particularly those based on plasma wake-field acceleration, and limit models for sources like gamma-ray bursts and magnetars.

  14. High luminosity muon scattering at FNAL

    SciTech Connect

    Bazizi, K. ); Conrad, J.; Fang, G. ); Erdmann, M. ); Geesaman, D.; Jackson, H. ); Guyot, C.; Virchaux, M. ); Holmgren, H. ); Malensek, A.; Melanson, H.; Morfin

    1990-02-01

    The charge of this group was to evaluate the physics that can be done with a high luminosity {mu} scattering experiment at FNAL using the upgraded Tevatron muon beam, and consider the apparatus required. In this report, the physics that can be accomplished with a high luminosity {mu} scattering experiment is evaluated. The CERN and FNAL {mu} beams are compared in the context of such an experiment. The expected muon flux with the upgraded machine is estimated. Two possible detectors are compared: the air-core toroid experiment proposed by Guyot et al., and an upgraded version of the E665 double-diode apparatus now in place at FNAL. The relative costs of the detectors are considered. A list of detailed questions that need to be answered regarding the double-diode experiment has be compiled. 2 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Lithium lenses based muon cooling channel

    SciTech Connect

    Valeri I. Balbekov

    2003-05-28

    A linear ionization cooling channel for neutrino factory or muon collider is considered. It includes short Li lenses, matching solenoids, and 201 MHz RF cavities. The basic challenge is a suppression of chromatic effects in a wide energy range typical for muon beams. A special lattice is proposed to reach this, and methodic of an optimization is developed to minimize the chromatic aberrations by suppression of several betatron resonances. The most engineering constraint is a high field of matching solenoids. A channel with less of 10 T field is considered in detail. It is capable to cool transverse emittance of a beam from 2-3 mm to 0.5 mm at the channel length of about 130 m. Because there is no emittance exchange, longitudinal emittance increases in the process from 10 to 20 mm at transmission of about 90%.

  16. Muon RLA - design status and simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beard, K. B.; Bogacz, S. A.; Morozov, V. S.; Roblin, Y. R.

    2013-02-01

    The Neutrino Factory baseline design involves a complex chain of accelerators beginning with a linac. This first pre-linac follows the capture and bunching section and accelerates the muons from about 244 to 900 MeV and must accept a high emittance beam about 30 cm wide with a 10% energy spread. It uses counterwound, shielded superconducting solenoids and 201 MHz superconducting cavities, and currently consists of 24 3 m and 24 5 m long cryomodules. The next stage is a 1st dogbone-shaped RLA that takes the total energy from 900 MeV to 3.6 GeV in 4.5 passes, followed by a 2nd RLA that takes the energy from 3.6 to 12.6 GeV in 4.5 passes. Simulations are in progress to optimize the optics and determine the radiation loads from beam loss and muon decay.

  17. The muon g - 2 and degenerate supersymmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Debtosh; Patel, Ketan M.; Tata, Xerxes; Vempati, Sudhir K.

    2016-04-01

    A degenerate supersymmetric particle spectrum can escape constraints from flavor physics and at the same time evade limits from the direct searches. If such a spectrum is light enough, it can also account for the observed value of the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon. Inspired by this, we consider a scenario where all the soft terms have approximately a common mass scale while allowing for small splittings. We study this scenario considering the constraints from Higgs mass, various B meson decays and the dark matter relic density. We find that, with superpartners ~ 800 - 1000 GeV, it is still possible to escape the present limits from the first run of LHC and flavor physics and can account for muon g - 2 within 2σ.

  18. Helical Muon Beam Cooling Channel Engineering Design

    SciTech Connect

    Kashikhin, V.S.; Lopes, M.L.; Romanov, G.V.; Tartaglia, M.A.; Yonehara, K.; Yu, M.; Zlobin, A.V.; Flanagan, G.; Johnson, R.P.; Kazakevich, G.M.; Marhauser, F.; /MUONS Inc., Batavia

    2012-05-01

    The Helical Cooling Channel (HCC), a novel technique for six-dimensional (6D) ionization cooling of muon beams, has shown considerable promise based on analytic and simulation studies. However, the implementation of this revolutionary method of muon cooling requires new techniques for the integration of hydrogen-pressurized, high-power RF cavities into the low-temperature superconducting magnets of the HCC. We present the progress toward a conceptual design for the integration of 805 MHz RF cavities into a 10 T Nb{sub 3}Sn based HCC test section. We include discussions on the pressure and thermal barriers needed within the cryostat to maintain operation of the magnet at 4.2 K while operating the RF and energy absorber at a higher temperature. Additionally, we include progress on the Nb{sub 3}Sn helical solenoid design.

  19. Underground muons from Cygnus X-3

    SciTech Connect

    Price, L.E.

    1985-01-01

    Underground detectors, intended for searches for nucleon decay and other rare processes, have recently begun searching for evidence of astrophysical sources, particularly Cygnus X-3, in the cosmic ray muons they record. Some evidence for signals from Cygnus X-3 has been reported. The underground observations are reported here in the context of previous (surface) observations of the source at high energies. 25 refs., 8 figs.

  20. Recent results from COMPASS muon scattering measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Capozza, Luigi [Irfu Collaboration: COMPASS Collaboration

    2012-10-23

    A sample of recent results in muon scattering measurements from the COMPASS experiment at CERN will be reviewed. These include high energy processes with longitudinally polarised proton and deuteron targets. High energy polarised measurements provide important constraints for studying the nucleon spin structure and thus permit to test the applicability of the theoretical framework of factorisation theorems and perturbative QCD. Specifically, latest results on longitudinal quark polarisation, quark helicity densities and gluon polarisation will be reviewed.

  1. Analytical calculation of muon intensities under deep sea-water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Inazawa, H.; Kobayakawa, K.

    1985-01-01

    The study of the energy loss of high energy muons through different materials, such as rock and sea-water can cast light on characteristics of lepton interactions. There are less ambiguities for the values of atomic number (Z) and mass number (A) in sea-water than in rock. Muon intensities should be measured as fundamental data and as background data for searching the fluxes of neutrino. The average range energy relation in sea-water is derived. The correction factors due to the range fluctuation is also computed. By applying these results, the intensities deep under sea are converted from a given muon energy spectra at sea-level. The spectra of conventional muons from eta, K decays have sec theta enhancement. The spectrum of prompt muons from charmed particles is almost isotropic. The effect of prompt muons is examined.

  2. Seasonal modulations of the underground cosmic-ray muon energy

    SciTech Connect

    Malgin, A. S.

    2015-08-15

    The parameters of the seasonal modulations in the intensity of muons and cosmogenic neutrons generated by them at a mean muon energy of 280 GeV have been determined in the LVD (Large Volume Detector) experiment. The modulations of muons and neutrons are caused by a temperature effect, the seasonal temperature and density variations of the upper atmospheric layers. The analysis performed here leads to the conclusion that the variations in the mean energy of the muon flux are the main source of underground cosmogenic neutron variations, because the energy of muons is more sensitive to the temperature effect than their intensity. The parameters of the seasonal modulations in the mean energy of muons and the flux of cosmogenic neutrons at the LVD depth have been determined from the data obtained over seven years of LVD operation.

  3. Issues in Acceleration of A Muon Beam for a Neutrino Factory

    SciTech Connect

    J. Delayen; D. Douglas; L. Harwood; V. Lebedev; C. Leemann; L. Merminga

    2001-06-01

    We have developed a concept for acceleration of a large phase-space, pulsed muon beam from 190 MeV to 50 GeV as part of a collaborative study of the feasibility of a neutrino factory based on in-flight decay of muons. The muon beam's initial energy spread was {approximately}20% and each bunch has the physical size of a soccer ball. Production of the muons will be quite expensive, so prevention of loss due to scraping or decay is critical. The former drives the system to large apertures and the latter calls for high real-estate-average gradients. The solution to be presented utilizes a 3 GeV linac to capture the beam, a 4-pass recirculating linac to get the beam to 10 GeV, and then a 5-pass linac to get the beam to 50 GeV. Throughout the system, longitudinal dynamics issues far outweighed transverse dynamics issues. This paper focuses on the issues surrounding the choice of superconducting rf structures over copper structures.

  4. Methods to improve track fit parameters in the PHENIX muon arms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omiwade, Olusoji

    2003-10-01

    During the summer of 2003, several problems in the muon tracking chambers of the PHENIX experiment at Brookhaven National Lab needed to be fixed. This presentation discusses the needed software to help speed up the task of analyzing the data that were used to find broken cathode strips on one of the muon tracker stations. The inclusion of cathode strips that have been scratched or broken causes problems for chamber alignment issues and for correct track reconstruction. First we had to take the raw data obtained using the muon tracker calibration system, which sent pulses to selected anode wires through the high-voltage distributions system, and convert it into data that the CERN ROOT program could manipulate. Most of the work here will describe the set of software scripts that greatly reduced the amount of work required so that more time could be spent looking at the results of the analysis to improve other software. The ROOT macros and C++ programs written were essential for handling the job. This should result in more accurate tracking and better mass resolution for the muon arms in the PHENIX experiment.

  5. Tests of the MICE Electron Muon Ranger frontend electronics with a small scale prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolognini, D.; Bene, P.; Blondel, A.; Cadoux, F.; Debieux, S.; Giannini, G.; Graulich, J. S.; Lietti, D.; Masciocchi, F.; Prest, M.; Rothenfusser, K.; Vallazza, E.; Wisting, H.

    2011-08-01

    The MICE experiment is being commissioned at RAL to demonstrate the feasibility of the muon ionization cooling technique for future applications such as the Neutrino Factory and the Muon Collider. The cooling will be evaluated by measuring the emittance before and after the cooling channel with two 4 T spectrometers; to distinguish muons from the background, a multi-detector particle identification system is foreseen: three Time of Flight stations, two Cherenkov counters and a calorimetric system consisting of a pre-shower layer and a fully active scintillator detector (EMR) are used to discriminate muons from pions and electrons. EMR consists of 48 planes of triangular scintillating bars coupled to WLS fibers readout by single PMTs on one side and MAPMTs on the other; each plane sensible area is 1 m 2. This article deals with a small scale prototype of the EMR detector which has been used to test the MAPMT frontend electronics based on the MAROC ASIC; the tests with cosmic rays using both an analog mode and a digital readout mode are presented. A very preliminary study on the cross talk problem is also shown.

  6. Muon Beam Helical Cooling Channel Design

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Rolland; Ankenbrandt, Charles; Flanagan, G; Kazakevich, G M; Marhauser, Frank; Neubauer, Michael; Roberts, T; Yoshikawa, C; Derbenev, Yaroslav; Morozov, Vasiliy; Kashikhin, V S; Lopes, Mattlock; Tollestrup, A; Yonehara, Katsuya; Zloblin, A

    2013-06-01

    The Helical Cooling Channel (HCC) achieves effective ionization cooling of the six-dimensional (6d) phase space of a muon beam by means of a series of 21st century inventions. In the HCC, hydrogen-pressurized RF cavities enable high RF gradients in strong external magnetic fields. The theory of the HCC, which requires a magnetic field with solenoid, helical dipole, and helical quadrupole components, demonstrates that dispersion in the gaseous hydrogen energy absorber provides effective emittance exchange to enable longitudinal ionization cooling. The 10-year development of a practical implementation of a muon-beam cooling device has involved a series of technical innovations and experiments that imply that an HCC of less than 300 m length can cool the 6d emittance of a muon beam by six orders of magnitude. We describe the design and construction plans for a prototype HCC module based on oxygen-doped hydrogen-pressurized RF cavities that are loaded with dielectric, fed by magnetrons, and operate in a superconducting helical solenoid magnet.

  7. Recent Innovations in Muon Beam Cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Rolland P.; Alsharo'a, Mohammad; Hanlet, Pierrick M.; Hartline, Robert; Kuchnir, Moyses; Paul, Kevin; Roberts, Thomas J.; Ankenbrandt, Charles; Barzi, Emanuela; Del Frate, Licia; Gonin, Ivan; Moretti, Alfred; Neuffer, David; Popovic, Milorad; Romanov, Gennady; Turrioni, Daniele; Yarba, Victor; Beard, Kevin; Bogacz, S. Alex; Derbenev, Yaroslav

    2006-03-20

    Eight new ideas are being developed under SBIR/STTR grants to cool muon beams for colliders, neutrino factories, and muon experiments. Analytical and simulation studies have confirmed that a six-dimensional (6D) cooling channel based on helical magnets surrounding RF cavities filled with dense hydrogen gas can provide effective beam cooling. This helical cooling channel (HCC) has solenoidal, helical dipole, helical quadrupole, and helical sextupole magnetic fields to generate emittance exchange and achieve 6D emittance reduction of over 3 orders of magnitude in a 100 m segment. Four such sequential HCC segments, where the RF frequencies are increased and transverse physical dimensions reduced as the beams become cooler, implies a 6D emittance reduction of almost five orders of magnitude. Two new cooling ideas, Parametric-resonance Ionization Cooling and Reverse Emittance Exchange, then can be employed to reduce transverse emittances to a few mm-mr, which allows high luminosity with fewer muons than previously imagined. We describe these new ideas as well as a new precooling idea based on a HCC with z dependent fields that can be used as MANX, an exceptional 6D cooling demonstration experiment.

  8. Recent Innovations in Muon Beam Cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Rolland P. Johnson; Mohammad Alsharo'a; Charles Ankenbrandt; Emanuela Barzi; Kevin Beard; S. Alex Bogacz; Yaroslav Derbenev; Licia Del Frate; Ivan Gonin; Pierrick M. Hanlet; Robert Hartline; Daniel M. Kaplan; Moyses Kuchnir; Alfred Moretti; David Neuffer; Kevin Paul; Milorad Popovic; Thomas J. Roberts; Gennady Romanov; Daniele Turrioni; Victor Yarba; and Katsuya Yonehara

    2006-03-01

    Eight new ideas are being developed under SBIR/STTR grants to cool muon beams for colliders, neutrino factories, and muon experiments. Analytical and simulation studies have confirmed that a six-dimensional (6D) cooling channel based on helical magnets surrounding RF cavities filled with dense hydrogen gas can provide effective beam cooling. This helical cooling channel (HCC) has solenoidal, helical dipole, helical quadrupole, and helical sextupole magnetic fields to generate emittance exchange and achieve 6D emittance reduction of over 3 orders of magnitude in a 100 m segment. Four such sequential HCC segments, where the RF frequencies are increased and transverse physical dimensions reduced as the beams become cooler, implies a 6D emittance reduction of almost five orders of magnitude. Two new cooling ideas, Parametric-resonance Ionization Cooling and Reverse Emittance Exchange, then can be employed to reduce transverse emittances to a few mm-mr, which allows high luminosity with fewer muons than previously imagined. We describe these new ideas as well as a new precooling idea based on a HCC with z dependent fields that can be used as MANX, an exceptional 6D cooling demonstration experiment.

  9. Advances in Beam Cooling for Muon Colliders

    SciTech Connect

    R.P. Johnson, Y.S. Derbenev

    2006-09-01

    A six-dimensional (6D) ionization cooling channel based on helical magnets surrounding RF cavities filled with dense hydrogen gas is the basis for the latest plans for muon colliders. This helical cooling channel (HCC) has solenoidal, helical dipole, and helical quadrupole magnetic fields, where emittance exchange is achieved by using a continuous homogeneous absorber. Momentum-dependent path length differences in the dense hydrogen energy absorber provide the required correlation between momentum and ionization loss to accomplish longitudinal cooling. Recent studies of an 800 MHz RF cavity pressurized with hydrogen, as would be used in this application, show that the maximum gradient is not limited by a large external magnetic field, unlike vacuum cavities. Two new cooling ideas, Parametric-resonance Ionization Cooling and Reverse Emittance Exchange, will be employed to further reduce transverse emittances to a few mm-mr, which allows high luminosity with fewer muons than previously imagined. We describe these new ideas as well as a new precooling idea based on a HCC with z dependent fields that is being developed for an exceptional 6D cooling demonstration experiment. The status of the designs, simulations, and tests of the cooling components for a high luminosity, low emittance muon collider will be reviewed.

  10. Applications of Cosmic Ray Muon Radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guardincerri, E.; Durham, J. M.; Morris, C. L.; Rowe, C. A.; Poulson, D. C.; Bacon, J. D.; Plaud-Ramos, K.; Morley, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    The Dome of Santa Maria del Fiore, Florence Cathedral, was built between 1420 and 1436 by architect Filippo Brunelleschi and it is now cracking under its own weight. Engineering efforts are underway to model the dome's structure and reinforce it against further deterioration. According to some scholars, Brunelleschi might have built reinforcement structures into the dome itself; however, the only confirmed known subsurface reinforcement is a chain of iron and stone around the dome's base. Tomography with cosmic ray muons is a non-destructive imaging method that can be used to image the interior of the wall and therefore ascertain the layout and status of any iron substructure in the dome. We will show the results from a muon tomography measurement of iron hidden in a mockup of the dome's wall performed at Los Alamos National Lab in 2015. The sensitivity of this technique, and the status of this project will be also discussed. At last, we will show results on muon attenuation radiography of larger shallow targets.

  11. The Muon Detector at the HERA-B experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eiges, V.; Fominykh, B.; Khasanov, F.; Kvaratscheliia, T.; Laptin, L.; Tchoudakov, V.; Tichomirov, I.; Titov, M.; Zaitsev, Yu.; Buchler, M.; Harr, R. F.; Karchin, P. E.; Nam, S.; Shiu, J. G.; Gilitsky, Yu.; Takach, S. F.

    2001-04-01

    The HERA-B experiment is designed to study beauty particle production and decay using the HERA 920 GeV proton beam interactions with an internal target. The Muon detector provides identification for muons having momenta greater than 5 GeV/c and triggering on the muon pair from J/ ψ decay. Three different chamber types are employed for operation in a high-rate environment. The overall design, performance and current status are discussed.

  12. Muons in Air Showers at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unger, M.

    We present measurements of muons in air showers at ultra-high energies with the Pierre Auger Observatory. The number of muons at the ground in air showers detected at large zenith angles is determined as a function of energy and the results are compared to air shower simulations. Furthermore, using data collected at zenith angles smaller than 60°, rescaling factors are derived that quantify the deficit of muon production in air shower simulations.

  13. Jet production in muon scattering at Fermilab E665

    SciTech Connect

    Salgado, C.W.; E665 Collaboration

    1993-11-01

    Measurements of multi-jet production rates from Muon-Nucleon and Muon-Nuclei scattering at Fermilab-E665 are presented. Jet rates are defined by the JADE clustering algorithm. Rates in Muon-Nucleon deep-inelastic scattering are compared to Monte Carlo model predictions. Preliminary results from jet production on heavy targets, in the shadowing region, show a higher suppression of two-forward jets as compared to one-forward jet production.

  14. Muon Cooling R&D Progress in the US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Derun

    2008-02-01

    Muon ionization cooling R&D is important for a neutrino factory and future muon collider. In addition to theoretical studies, much progress has been made in muon cooling channel hardware R&D since NuFact-2006. This paper reports the progress on hardware R&D that includes experimental RF test programs using 805-MHz RF cavity, superconducting (SC) solenoids (coupling coils), 201-MHz RF cavity, liquid hydrogen absorber and MUCOOL Test Area (MTA) experiment preparation for beam tests.

  15. An OPERA-3D Model of Muon Injection in the Muon g - 2 Storage Ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallina, Lia

    2014-03-01

    The muon g - 2 experiment at Fermilab will measure the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon to 140 parts-per-billion. The modern experimental technique utilizes a superconducting storage ring to produce an extremely uniform magnetic field. Since the experimental systematic uncertainties scales with the non-uniformity of the magnetic field, care must be taken to minimize distortions to the field. The injection point of the muon beam into the storage ring requires special attention. In this talk, the experimental concept and the use of a superconducting inflector magnet at the injection point will be outlined. Our efforts to model this critical region in the electromagnetic simulation software, OPERA, will be described.

  16. Muons as a probe of magnetism in molecule-based low dimensional magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lancaster, Tom; Blundell, Stephen J.; Pratt, Francis L.; Brooks, Michael L.; Manson, Jamie L.; Brechin, Euan K.; Cadiou, Cyril; Low, David; McInnes, Eric J. L.; Winpenny, Richard E. P.

    2004-10-01

    We present the results of muon spin relaxation (mgr+SR) studies on low dimensional molecular magnet systems. mgr+SR measurements have been carried out on the Cu-based chain compounds CuX2(pyz) (where X = Br, Cl, NCS and pyz = pyrazine) as a function of temperature and applied longitudinal magnetic field. Oscillations in the time dependence of the muon polarization, characteristic of magnetic order at two distinct muon sites, are detected in both CuBr2(pyz) (below TN = 3.6(1) K) and CuCl2(pyz) (below TN = 3.2(2) K). No evidence of magnetic order is observed in Cu(NCS)2(pyz) down to 0.35 K. The results are discussed in terms of the estimated Cu-X-Cu and Cu-(pyz)-Cu exchange constants. The theory of mgr+SR in high spin molecule (HSM) systems, which are effectively zero-dimensional magnets, is discussed and results are presented on [Ni12(chp)12(O2CMe)12(H2O)6(THF)6] (S = 12), [Mn9O7(OAc)11(thme)(py)3(H2O)2] (S = 17/2) and [Fe14(bta)6(O)6(OMe)18 Cl6] (S \\geq 23 ). Measurements made in applied longitudinal magnetic fields on HSM materials at dilution refrigerator temperatures strongly suggest that dynamic local magnetic field fluctuations are responsible for the relaxation of the muon spin ensemble. Trends in temperature and field dependent behaviour in these systems, as probed by the muon, are discussed.

  17. Multiple muons of conventional and exotic origin in DUMAND

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grieder, K. F.

    1985-01-01

    A first summary of results from a theoretical analysis, based on hadron - muon cascade calculations, that yield relative intensities of very high energy multiple muons originating from ultra high energy interactions initiated by primary protons and iron nuclei in the atmosphere, under consideration of normal as well as direct and exotic production channels is presented. Lateral density distributions and target diagrams will be presented which show that only very large detectors, such as DUMAND, will be able to record multiple muons of conventional origin reliably. This, however, is a prerequisite for any primary mass determination based on multiple muon data.

  18. Asymmetry of Charge Ratio for Low Energetic Muons

    SciTech Connect

    Mitrica, Bogdan

    2008-01-24

    The WILLI calorimeter, installed in NIPNE Bucharest, is operated since several years for measuring charge ratio of atmospheric muons at low energies (E<1 GeV), particularly exploring its directional dependence. Measurements of the muon flux are compared with Monte-Carlo simulation with CORSIKA code. Recently WILLI detector is proposed to get extended with a by mini-array of 12 scintillators (WILLI-EAS) in order to measure muon charge ratio of the muon density of EAS lateral distributions. Experimental studies of this kind could provide detailed information on the shower development under the influence of the geomagnetic field and also on features of the hadronic interaction.

  19. Cosmic muon flux measurements at the Kimballton Underground Research Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalousis, L. N.; Guarnaccia, E.; Link, J. M.; Mariani, C.; Pelkey, R.

    2014-08-01

    In this article, the results from a series of muon flux measurements conducted at the Kimballton Underground Research Facility (KURF), Virginia, United States, are presented. The detector employed for these investigations, is made of plastic scintillator bars readout by wavelength shifting fibers and multianode photomultiplier tubes. Data was taken at several locations inside KURF, spanning rock overburden values from ~ 200 to 1450 m.w.e. From the extracted muon rates an empirical formula was devised, that estimates the muon flux inside the mine as a function of the overburden. The results are in good agreement with muon flux calculations based on analytical models and MUSIC.

  20. A COMPLETE SCHEME FOR IONIZATION COOLING FOR A MUON COLLIDER.

    SciTech Connect

    PALMER,R.B.; BERG, J.S.; FERNOW, R.C.; GALLARDO, J.C.; KIRK, H.G.; ALEXAHIN, Y.; NEUFFER, D.; KAHN, S.A.; SUMMERS, D.

    2007-06-25

    A complete scheme for production and cooling a muon beam for three specified muon colliders is presented. Parameters for these muon colliders are given. The scheme starts with the front end of a proposed neutrino factory that yields bunch trains of both muon signs. Emittance exchange cooling in slow helical lattices reduces the longitudinal emittance until it becomes possible to merge the trains into single bunches, one of each sign. Further cooling in all dimensions is applied to the single bunches in further slow helical lattices. Final transverse cooling to the required parameters is achieved in 50 T solenoids using high TC superconductor at 4 K. Preliminary simulations of each element are presented.

  1. Muon SR Newsletter, No. 29, April 5, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Crowe, K.M.; Portis, A.M.; Yamazaki, T.

    1984-04-05

    Muon SR stands for Muon Spin Relaxation, Rotation, Resonance, Research, or what have you. The intention of the mnemonic acronym is to draw attention to the analogy with NMR and ESR, the range of whose applications is well known. Any study of the interactions of the muon spin by virtue of the asymmetric decay is considered ..mu..SR, but this definition is not intended to exclude any peripherally related phenomena, especially if relevant to the use of the muon's mganetic moment as a delicate probe of matter. Abstracts of individual items from this issue were prepared separately for the data base.

  2. PREFACE: 13th International Conference on Muon Spin Rotation, Relaxation and Resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-12-01

    The 13th International Conference on Muon Spin Rotation, Relaxation and Resonance (μSR2014) organized by the Laboratory for Muon Spin Spectroscopy, Paul Scherrer Institute in collaboration with the University of Zurich and the University of Fribourg, was held in Grindelwald, Switzerland from 1st to 6th June 2014. The conference provided a forum for researchers from around the world with interests in the applications of μSR to study a wide range of topics including condensed matter physics, materials and molecular sciences, chemistry and biology. Polarized muons provide a unique and versatile probe of matter, enabling studies at the atomic level of electronic structure and dynamics in a wide range of systems. The conference was the thirteenth in a series, which began in Rorschach in 1978 and it took place for the third time in Switzerland. The previous conferences were held in Cancun, Mexico (2011), Tsukuba, Japan (2008), Oxford, UK (2005), Williamsburg, USA (2002), Les Diablerets, Switzerland (1999), Nikko, Japan (1996), Maui, USA (1993), Oxford, UK (1990), Uppsala, Sweden (1986), Shimoda, Japan (1983), Vancouver, Canada (1980), and Rorschach, Switzerland (1978). These conference proceedings contain 67 refereed publications from presentations covering magnetism, superconductivity, chemistry, semiconductors, biophysics and techniques. The conference logo, displayed in the front pages of these proceedings, represents both the location of μSR2014 in the Alps and the muon-spin rotation technique. The silhouette represents the famous local mountains Eiger, Mönch and Jungfrau as drawn by the Swiss painter Ferdinand Hodler and the apple with arrow is at the same time a citation of the Wilhelm Tell legend and a remembrance of the key role played by the muon spin and the asymmetric muon decay (which for the highest positron energy has an apple like shape). More than 160 participants (including 32 registered as students and 13 as accompanying persons) from 19 countries

  3. Measurement of cosmic-ray muons and muon-induced neutrons in the Aberdeen Tunnel Underground Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blyth, S. C.; Chan, Y. L.; Chen, X. C.; Chu, M. C.; Cui, K. X.; Hahn, R. L.; Ho, T. H.; Hsiung, Y. B.; Hu, B. Z.; Kwan, K. K.; Kwok, M. W.; Kwok, T.; Lau, Y. P.; Leung, J. K. C.; Leung, K. Y.; Lin, G. L.; Lin, Y. C.; Luk, K. B.; Luk, W. H.; Ngai, H. Y.; Ngan, S. Y.; Pun, C. S. J.; Shih, K.; Tam, Y. H.; Tsang, R. H. M.; Wang, C. H.; Wong, C. M.; Wong, H. L. H.; Wong, K. K.; Yeh, M.; Zhang, B. J.; Aberdeen Tunnel Experiment Collaboration

    2016-04-01

    We have measured the muon flux and production rate of muon-induced neutrons at a depth of 611 m water equivalent. Our apparatus comprises three layers of crossed plastic scintillator hodoscopes for tracking the incident cosmic-ray muons and 760 L of a gadolinium-doped liquid scintillator for producing and detecting neutrons. The vertical muon intensity was measured to be Iμ=(5.7 ±0.6 )×10-6 cm-2 s-1 sr-1 . The yield of muon-induced neutrons in the liquid scintillator was determined to be Yn=(1.19 ±0.08 (stat)±0.21 (syst))×10-4 neutrons /(μ .g .cm-2 ) . A fit to the recently measured neutron yields at different depths gave a mean muon energy dependence of ⟨Eμ⟩ 0.76 ±0.03 for liquid-scintillator targets.

  4. Measurement of cosmic-ray muons and muon-induced neutrons in the Aberdeen Tunnel Underground Laboratory

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Yeh, M.; Chan, Y. L.; Chen, X. C.; Chu, M. C.; Cui, K. X.; Hahn, R. L.; Ho, T. H.; Hsiung, Y. B.; Hu, B. Z.; Kwan, K. K.; et al

    2016-04-07

    In this study, we have measured the muon flux and production rate of muon-induced neutrons at a depth of 611 m water equivalent. Our apparatus comprises three layers of crossed plastic scintillator hodoscopes for tracking the incident cosmic-ray muons and 760 L of a gadolinium-doped liquid scintillator for producing and detecting neutrons. The vertical muon intensity was measured to be Iμ = (5.7±0.6)×10–6 cm–2 s–1 sr–1. The yield of muon-induced neutrons in the liquid scintillator was determined to be Yn = (1.19 ± 0.08(stat) ± 0.21(syst)) × 10–4 neutrons/(μ•g•cm–2). A fit to the recently measured neutron yields at different depthsmore » gave a mean muon energy dependence of < Eμ >0.76±0.03 for liquid-scintillator targets.« less

  5. Density dependent stopping power and muon sticking in muon catalyzed D-T fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Rafelski, H.E.; Mueller, B.

    1988-12-27

    The origin of the experimentally observed (1) density dependence of the muon alpha sticking fraction ..omega../sub s/ in muon catalyzed deuterium- tritium fusion is investigated. We show that the reactivation probability depends sensitively on the target stopping power at low ion velocities. The density dependence of the stopping power for a singly charged projectile in liquid heavy hydrogen is parametrized to simulate possible screening effects and a density dependent effective ionization potential. We find that, in principle, a description of the measured density dependence is possible, but the required parameters appear too large. Also, the discrepancy with observed (He..mu..) X-ray data widens.

  6. Studies on Muon Induction Acceleration and an Objective Lens Design for Transmission Muon Microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artikova, Sayyora; Yoshida, Mitsuhiro; Naito, Fujio

    Muon acceleration will be accomplished by a set of induction cells, where each increases the energy of the muon beam by an increment of up to 30 kV. The cells are arranged in a linear way resulting in total accelerating voltage of 300 kV. Acceleration time in the linac is about hundred nanoseconds. Induction field calculation is based on an electrostatic approximation. Beam dynamics in the induction accelerator is investigated and final beam focusing on specimen is realized by designing a pole piece lens.

  7. The Muon Portal Project: A large-area tracking detector for muon tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riggi, F.

    2016-05-01

    The Muon Portal Project [1] is a joint initiative between research and industrial partners, aimed at the construction of a real size detector protoype to search for hidden high-Z fissile materials inside containers by the muon scattering technique. The detector is based on a set of 48 detection modules (1 m × 3 m), so as to provide four X-Y detection planes, two placed above and two below the container to be inspected. After a research and development phase, which led to the choice and test of the individual components, the construction of the full size detector has already started and will be completed in a few months.

  8. Some options for the muon collider capture and decay solenoids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Michael A.

    1996-05-01

    This report discusses some of the problems associated with using solenoid magnets to capture the secondary particles that are created when an intense beam of 8 to 10 GeV protons interacts with the target at the center of the capture region. Hybrid capture solenoids with inductions of 28 T and a 22 T are described. The first 14 to 15 T of the solenoid induction will be generated by a superconducting magnet. The remainder of the field will be generated by a Bitter type of water cooled solenoid. The capture solenoids include a transition section from the high field solenoid to a 7 T decay channel where pions and kaons that come off of the target decay into muons. A short 7 T solenoidal decay channel between the capture solenoid system and the phase rotation system is described. A concept for separation of negative and positive pions and kaons is briefly discussed.

  9. Characterising encapsulated nuclear waste using cosmic-ray muon tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarkson, A.; Hamilton, D. J.; Hoek, M.; Ireland, D. G.; Johnstone, J. R.; Kaiser, R.; Keri, T.; Lumsden, S.; Mahon, D. F.; McKinnon, B.; Murray, M.; Nutbeam-Tuffs, S.; Shearer, C.; Yang, G.; Zimmerman, C.

    2015-03-01

    Tomographic imaging techniques using the Coulomb scattering of cosmic-ray muons have been shown previously to successfully identify and characterise low- and high-Z materials within an air matrix using a prototype scintillating-fibre tracker system. Those studies were performed as the first in a series to assess the feasibility of this technology and image reconstruction techniques in characterising the potential high-Z contents of legacy nuclear waste containers for the U.K. Nuclear Industry. The present work continues the feasibility study and presents the first images reconstructed from experimental data collected using this small-scale prototype system of low- and high-Z materials encapsulated within a concrete-filled stainless-steel container. Clear discrimination is observed between the thick steel casing, the concrete matrix and the sample materials assayed. These reconstructed objects are presented and discussed in detail alongside the implications for future industrial scenarios.

  10. Helical muon beam cooling channel engineering design

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Rolland

    2015-08-07

    The Helical Cooling Channel (HCC) achieves effective ionization cooling of the six-dimensional (6d) phase space of a muon beam by means of a series of 21st century inventions. In the HCC, hydrogen-pressurized RF cavities enable high RF gradients in strong external magnetic fields. The theory of the HCC, which requires a magnetic field with solenoid, helical dipole, and helical quadrupole components, demonstrates that dispersion in the gaseous hydrogen energy absorber provides effective emittance exchange to enable longitudinal ionization cooling. The 10-year development of a practical implementation of a muon-beam cooling device has involved a series of technical innovations and experiments that imply that an HCC of less than 300 m length can cool the 6d emittance of a muon beam by six orders of magnitude. We describe the design and construction plans for a prototype HCC module based on oxygen-doped hydrogen-pressurized RF cavities that are loaded with dielectric, fed by magnetrons, and operate in a superconducting helical solenoid magnet. The first phase of this project saw the development of a conceptual design for the integration of 805 MHz RF cavities into a 10 T Nb3Sn based HS test section. Two very novel ideas are required to realize the design. The first idea is the use of dielectric inserts in the RF cavities to make them smaller for a given frequency so that the cavities and associated plumbing easily fit inside the magnet cryostat. Calculations indicate that heat loads will be tolerable, while RF breakdown of the dielectric inserts will be suppressed by the pressurized hydrogen gas. The second new idea is the use of a multi-layer Nb3Sn helical solenoid. The technology demonstrations for the two aforementioned key components of a 10T, 805 MHz HCC were begun in this project. The work load in the Fermilab Technical Division made it difficult to test a multi-layer Nb3Sn solenoid as originally planned. Instead, a complementary project was approved by the DOE

  11. Prototype of a Muon Tomography Station with GEM detectors for Detection of Shielded Nuclear Contraband

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staib, Michael; Bhopatkar, Vallary; Bittner, William; Hohlmann, Marcus; Locke, Judson; Twigger, Jessie; Gnanvo, Kondo

    2012-03-01

    Muon tomography for homeland security aims at detecting well-shielded nuclear contraband in cargo and imaging it in 3D. The technique exploits multiple scattering of atmospheric cosmic ray muons, which is stronger in dense, high-Z materials, e.g. enriched uranium, than in low-Z and medium-Z shielding materials. We have constructed and are operating a compact Muon Tomography Station (MTS) that tracks muons with eight 30 cm x 30 cm Triple Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detectors placed on the sides of a cubic-foot imaging volume. A point-of-closest-approach algorithm applied to reconstructed incident and exiting tracks is used to create a tomographic reconstruction of the material within the active volume. We discuss the performance of this MTS prototype including characterization and commissioning of the GEM detectors and the data acquisition systems. We also present experimental tomographic images of small high-Z objects including depleted uranium with and without shielding and discuss the performance of material discrimination using this method.

  12. Isolated electrons and muons in events with missing transverse momentum at HERA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreev, V.; Andrieu, B.; Anthonis, T.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Babaev, A.; Bähr, J.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Baumgartner, S.; Becker, J.; Beckingham, M.; Beglarian, A.; Behnke, O.; Belousov, A.; Berger, Ch.; Berndt, T.; Bizot, J. C.; Böhme, J.; Boudry, V.; Bracinik, J.; Braunschweig, W.; Brisson, V.; Bröker, H.-B.; Brown, D. P.; Bruncko, D.; Büsser, F. W.; Bunyatyan, A.; Burrage, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A. J.; Caron, S.; Cassol-Brunner, F.; Chekelian, V.; Clarke, D.; Collard, C.; Contreras, J. G.; Coppens, Y. R.; Coughlan, J. A.; Cousinou, M.-C.; Cox, B. E.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J. B.; Dau, W. D.; Daum, K.; Davidsson, M.; Delcourt, B.; Delerue, N.; Demirchyan, R.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E. A.; Diaconu, C.; Dingfelder, J.; Dixon, P.; Dodonov, V.; Dowell, J. D.; Dubak, A.; Duprel, C.; Eckerlin, G.; Eckstein, D.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Ellerbrock, M.; Elsen, E.; Erdmann, M.; Erdmann, W.; Faulkner, P. J. W.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Ferencei, J.; Ferron, S.; Fleischer, M.; Fleischmann, P.; Fleming, Y. H.; Flucke, G.; Flügge, G.; Fomenko, A.; Foresti, I.; Formánek, J.; Franke, G.; Frising, G.; Gabathuler, E.; Gabathuler, K.; Garvey, J.; Gassner, J.; Gayler, J.; Gerhards, R.; Gerlich, C.; Ghazaryan, S.; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Gorbounov, S.; Grab, C.; Grabski, V.; Grässler, H.; Greenshaw, T.; Grindhammer, G.; Haidt, D.; Hajduk, L.; Haller, J.; Heinemann, B.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henderson, R. C. W.; Henschel, H.; Henshaw, O.; Heremans, R.; Herrera, G.; Herynek, I.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hilgers, M.; Hiller, K. H.; Hladký, J.; Höting, P.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hovhannisyan, A.; Ibbotson, M.; İşsever, Ç.; Jacquet, M.; Jaffre, M.; Janauschek, L.; Janssen, X.; Jemanov, V.; Jönsson, L.; Johnson, C.; Johnson, D. P.; Jones, M. A. S.; Jung, H.; Kant, D.; Kapichine, M.; Karlsson, M.; Karschnick, O.; Katzy, J.; Keil, F.; Keller, N.; Kennedy, J.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kiesling, C.; Kjellberg, P.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Kluge, T.; Knies, G.; Koblitz, B.; Kolya, S. D.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Koutouev, R.; Koutov, A.; Kroseberg, J.; Krüger, K.; Kueckens, J.; Kuhr, T.; Landon, M. P. J.; Lange, W.; Laštovička, T.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Leißner, B.; Lemrani, R.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; List, B.; Lobodzinska, E.; Lobodzinski, B.; Loktionova, N.; Lubimov, V.; Lüders, S.; Lüke, D.; Lytkin, L.; Malden, N.; Malinovski, E.; Mangano, S.; Marage, P.; Marks, J.; Marshall, R.; Martyn, H.-U.; Martyniak, J.; Maxfield, S. J.; Meer, D.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Meyer, A. B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Michine, S.; Mikocki, S.; Milstead, D.; Mohrdieck, S.; Mondragon, M. N.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J. V.; Müller, K.; Murín, P.; Nagovizin, V.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, J.; Naumann, Th.; Newman, P. R.; Niebergall, F.; Niebuhr, C.; Nowak, G.; Nozicka, M.; Olivier, B.; Olsson, J. E.; Ozerov, D.; Panassik, V.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G. D.; Peez, M.; Perez, E.; Petrukhin, A.; Phillips, J. P.; Pitzl, D.; Pöschl, R.; Potachnikova, I.; Povh, B.; Rauschenberger, J.; Reimer, P.; Reisert, B.; Risler, C.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rusakov, S.; Rybicki, K.; Sankey, D. P. C.; Sauvan, E.; Schätzel, S.; Scheins, J.; Schilling, F.-P.; Schleper, P.; Schmidt, D.; Schmidt, D.; Schmidt, S.; Schmitt, S.; Schneider, M.; Schoeffel, L.; Schöning, A.; Schörner-Sadenius, T.; Schröder, V.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Schwanenberger, C.; Sedlák, K.; Sefkow, F.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L. N.; Sirois, Y.; Sloan, T.; Smirnov, P.; Soloviev, Y.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, A.; Spitzer, H.; Stamen, R.; Stella, B.; Stiewe, J.; Strauch, I.; Straumann, U.; Tchetchelnitski, S.; Thompson, G.; Thompson, P. D.; Tomasz, F.; Traynor, D.; Truöl, P.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsurin, I.; Turnau, J.; Turney, J. E.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Uraev, A.; Urban, M.; Usik, A.; Valkár, S.; Valkárová, A.; Vallée, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vargas Trevino, A.; Vassiliev, S.; Vazdik, Y.; Veelken, C.; Vest, A.; Vichnevski, A.; Volchinski, V.; Wacker, K.; Wagner, J.; Wallny, R.; Waugh, B.; Weber, G.; Weber, R.; Wegener, D.; Werner, C.; Werner, N.; Wessels, M.; Wessling, B.; Winde, M.; Winter, G.-G.; Wissing, Ch.; Woehrling, E.-E.; Wünsch, E.; Wyatt, A. C.; Žáček, J.; Zálešák, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhokin, A.; Zomer, F.; zur Nedden, M.; H1 Collaboration

    2003-05-01

    A search for events with a high-energy isolated electron or muon and missing transverse momentum has been performed at the electron-proton collider HERA using an integrated luminosity of 13.6 pb-1 in e-p scattering and 104.7 pb-1 in e+p scattering. Within the Standard Model such events are expected to be mainly due to W boson production with subsequent leptonic decay. In e-p interactions one event is observed in the electron channel and none in the muon channel, consistent with the expectation of the Standard Model. In the e+p data a total of 18 events are seen in the electron and muon channels compared to an expectation of 12.4±1.7 dominated by W production (9.4±1.6). Whilst the overall observed number of events is broadly in agreement with the number predicted by the Standard Model, there is an excess of events with transverse momentum of the hadronic system greater than 25 GeV with 10 events found compared to 2.9±0.5 expected. The results are used to determine the cross-section for events with an isolated electron or muon and missing transverse momentum.

  13. Isolated electrons and muons in events with missing transverse momentum at HERA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    H1 Collaboration; Andreev, V.; Andrieu, B.; Anthonis, T.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Babaev, A.; Bähr, J.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Baumgartner, S.; Becker, J.; Beckingham, M.; Beglarian, A.; Behnke, O.; Belousov, A.; Berger, Ch.; Berndt, T.; Bizot, J. C.; Böhme, J.; Boudry, V.; Bracinik, J.; Braunschweig, W.; Brisson, V.; Bröker, H.-B.; Brown, D. P.; Bruncko, D.; Büsser, F. W.; Bunyatyan, A.; Burrage, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A. J.; Caron, S.; Cassol-Brunner, F.; Chekelian, V.; Clarke, D.; Collard, C.; Contreras, J. G.; Coppens, Y. R.; Coughlan, J. A.; Cousinou, M.-C.; Cox, B. E.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J. B.; Dau, W. D.; Daum, K.; Davidsson, M.; Delcourt, B.; Delerue, N.; Demirchyan, R.; de Roeck, A.; de Wolf, E. A.; Diaconu, C.; Dingfelder, J.; Dixon, P.; Dodonov, V.; Dowell, J. D.; Dubak, A.; Duprel, C.; Eckerlin, G.; Eckstein, D.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Ellerbrock, M.; Elsen, E.; Erdmann, M.; Erdmann, W.; Faulkner, P. J. W.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Ferencei, J.; Ferron, S.; Fleischer, M.; Fleischmann, P.; Fleming, Y. H.; Flucke, G.; Flügge, G.; Fomenko, A.; Foresti, I.; Formánek, J.; Franke, G.; Frising, G.; Gabathuler, E.; Gabathuler, K.; Garvey, J.; Gassner, J.; Gayler, J.; Gerhards, R.; Gerlich, C.; Ghazaryan, S.; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Gorbounov, S.; Grab, C.; Grabski, V.; Grässler, H.; Greenshaw, T.; Grindhammer, G.; Haidt, D.; Hajduk, L.; Haller, J.; Heinemann, B.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henderson, R. C. W.; Henschel, H.; Henshaw, O.; Heremans, R.; Herrera, G.; Herynek, I.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hilgers, M.; Hiller, K. H.; Hladký, J.; Höting, P.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hovhannisyan, A.; Ibbotson, M.; Işsever, Ç.; Jacquet, M.; Jaffre, M.; Janauschek, L.; Janssen, X.; Jemanov, V.; Jönsson, L.; Johnson, C.; Johnson, D. P.; Jones, M. A. S.; Jung, H.; Kant, D.; Kapichine, M.; Karlsson, M.; Karschnick, O.; Katzy, J.; Keil, F.; Keller, N.; Kennedy, J.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kiesling, C.; Kjellberg, P.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Kluge, T.; Knies, G.; Koblitz, B.; Kolya, S. D.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Koutouev, R.; Koutov, A.; Kroseberg, J.; Krüger, K.; Kueckens, J.; Kuhr, T.; Landon, M. P. J.; Lange, W.; Laštovička, T.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Leißner, B.; Lemrani, R.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; List, B.; Lobodzinska, E.; Lobodzinski, B.; Loktionova, N.; Lubimov, V.; Lüders, S.; Lüke, D.; Lytkin, L.; Malden, N.; Malinovski, E.; Mangano, S.; Marage, P.; Marks, J.; Marshall, R.; Martyn, H.-U.; Martyniak, J.; Maxfield, S. J.; Meer, D.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Meyer, A. B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Michine, S.; Mikocki, S.; Milstead, D.; Mohrdieck, S.; Mondragon, M. N.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J. V.; Müller, K.; Murín, P.; Nagovizin, V.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, J.; Naumann, Th.; Newman, P. R.; Niebergall, F.; Niebuhr, C.; Nowak, G.; Nozicka, M.; Olivier, B.; Olsson, J. E.; Ozerov, D.; Panassik, V.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G. D.; Peez, M.; Perez, E.; Petrukhin, A.; Phillips, J. P.; Pitzl, D.; Pöschl, R.; Potachnikova, I.; Povh, B.; Rauschenberger, J.; Reimer, P.; Reisert, B.; Risler, C.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rusakov, S.; Rybicki, K.; Sankey, D. P. C.; Sauvan, E.; Schätzel, S.; Scheins, J.; Schilling, F.-P.; Schleper, P.; Schmidt, D.; Schmidt, D.; Schmidt, S.; Schmitt, S.; Schneider, M.; Schoeffel, L.; Schöning, A.; Schörner-Sadenius, T.; Schröder, V.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Schwanenberger, C.; Sedlák, K.; Sefkow, F.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L. N.; Sirois, Y.; Sloan, T.; Smirnov, P.; Soloviev, Y.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, A.; Spitzer, H.; Stamen, R.; Stella, B.; Stiewe, J.; Strauch, I.; Straumann, U.; Tchetchelnitski, S.; Thompson, G.; Thompson, P. D.; Tomasz, F.; Traynor, D.; Truöl, P.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsurin, I.; Turnau, J.; Turney, J. E.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Uraev, A.; Urban, M.; Usik, A.; Valkár, S.; Valkárová, A.; Vallée, C.; van Mechelen, P.; Vargas Trevino, A.; Vassiliev, S.; Vazdik, Y.; Veelken, C.; Vest, A.; Vichnevski, A.; Volchinski, V.; Wacker, K.; Wagner, J.; Wallny, R.; Waugh, B.; Weber, G.; Weber, R.; Wegener, D.; Werner, C.; Werner, N.; Wessels, M.; Wessling, B.; Winde, M.; Winter, G.-G.; Wissing, Ch.; Woehrling, E.-E.; Wünsch, E.; Wyatt, A. C.; Žáček, J.; Zálešák, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhokin, A.; Zomer, F.; Zur Nedden, M.

    2003-05-01

    A search for events with a high-energy isolated electron or muon and missing transverse momentum has been performed at the electron-proton collider HERA using an integrated luminosity of 13.6 pb-1 in e-p scattering and 104.7 pb-1 in e+p scattering. Within the Standard Model such events are expected to be mainly due to /W boson production with subsequent leptonic decay. In e-p interactions one event is observed in the electron channel and none in the muon channel, consistent with the expectation of the Standard Model. In the e+p data a total of /18 events are seen in the electron and muon channels compared to an expectation of /12.4+/-1.7 dominated by /W production (/9.4+/-1.6). Whilst the overall observed number of events is broadly in agreement with the number predicted by the Standard Model, there is an excess of events with transverse momentum of the hadronic system greater than /25 GeV with /10 events found compared to /2.9+/-0.5 expected. The results are used to determine the cross-section for events with an isolated electron or muon and missing transverse momentum.

  14. Time calibration with atmospheric muon tracks in the ANTARES neutrino telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adrián-Martínez, S.; Albert, A.; André, M.; Anton, G.; Ardid, M.; Aubert, J.-J.; Baret, B.; Barrios-Martí, J.; Basa, S.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bogazzi, C.; Bormuth, R.; Bou-Cabo, M.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Bruijn, R.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Capone, A.; Caramete, L.; Carr, J.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Coniglione, R.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Creusot, A.; Dekeyser, I.; Deschamps, A.; De Bonis, G.; Distefano, C.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Drouhin, D.; Dumas, A.; Eberl, T.; Elsässer, D.; Enzenhöfer, A.; Fehn, K.; Felis, I.; Fermani, P.; Flaminio, V.; Folger, F.; Fusco, L. A.; Galatà, S.; Gay, P.; Geißelsöder, S.; Geyer, K.; Giordano, V.; Gleixner, A.; Gracia-Ruiz, R.; Gómez-González, J. P.; Graf, K.; van Haren, H.; Heijboer, A. J.; Hello, Y.; Hernández-Rey, J. J.; Herrero, A.; Hößl, J.; Hofestädt, J.; Hugon, C.; James, C. W.; de Jong, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Katz, U.; Kießling, D.; Kooijman, P.; Kouchner, A.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lahmann, R.; Lambard, G.; Lattuada, D.; Lefèvre, D.; Leonora, E.; Loucatos, S.; Mangano, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Marinelli, A.; Martínez-Mora, J. A.; Martini, S.; Mathieu, A.; Michael, T.; Migliozzi, P.; Moussa, A.; Mueller, C.; Neff, M.; Nezri, E.; Păvălaş, G. E.; Pellegrino, C.; Perrina, C.; Piattelli, P.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Racca, C.; Riccobene, G.; Richter, R.; Roensch, K.; Rostovtsev, A.; Saldaña, M.; Samtleben, D. F. E.; Sánchez-Losa, A.; Sanguineti, M.; Sapienza, P.; Schmid, J.; Schnabel, J.; Schulte, S.; Schüssler, F.; Seitz, T.; Sieger, C.; Spurio, M.; Steijger, J. J. M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Taiuti, M.; Tamburini, C.; Trovato, A.; Tselengidou, M.; Tönnis, C.; Turpin, D.; Vallage, B.; Vallée, C.; Van Elewyck, V.; Visser, E.; Vivolo, D.; Wagner, S.; Wilms, J.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zúñiga, J.

    2016-05-01

    The ANTARES experiment consists of an array of photomultipliers distributed along 12 lines and located deep underwater in the Mediterranean Sea. It searches for astrophysical neutrinos collecting the Cherenkov light induced by the charged particles, mainly muons, produced in neutrino interactions around the detector. Since at energies of ∼10 TeV the muon and the incident neutrino are almost collinear, it is possible to use the ANTARES detector as a neutrino telescope and identify a source of neutrinos in the sky starting from a precise reconstruction of the muon trajectory. To get this result, the arrival times of the Cherenkov photons must be accurately measured. A to perform time calibrations with the precision required to have optimal performances of the instrument is described. The reconstructed tracks of the atmospheric muons in the ANTARES detector are used to determine the relative time offsets between photomultipliers. Currently, this method is used to obtain the time calibration constants for photomultipliers on different lines at a precision level of 0.5 ns. It has also been validated for calibrating photomultipliers on the same line, using a system of LEDs and laser light devices.

  15. Constructing a High Density Cell Culture System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spaulding, Glenn F. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    An annular culture vessel for growing mammalian cells is constructed in a one piece integral and annular configuration with an open end which is closed by an endcap. The culture vessel is rotatable about a horizontal axis by use of conventional roller systems commonly used in culture laboratories. The end wall of the endcap has tapered access ports to frictionally and sealingly receive the ends of hypodermic syringes. The syringes permit the introduction of fresh nutrient and withdrawal of spent nutrients. The walls are made of conventional polymeric cell culture material and are subjected to neutron bombardment to form minute gas permeable perforations in the walls.

  16. Measurement of muon g-2 and EDM with an ultra-cold muon beam at J-PARC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mibe, Tsutomu; J-PARC g-2 Collaboration

    2011-09-01

    A new measurement of the anomalous magnetic moment ( g-2) and electric dipole moment (EDM) of the positive muon is proposed with a novel technique utilizing an ultra-cold muons accelerated to 300 MeV/c and a 66 cm-diameter compact muon storage ring without focusing-electric field. It requires an intense source of muonium to achieve the design intensity of the ultra-cold muon beam. Test experiments at TRIUMF aims to measure the muonium production rate as well as its space-time distribution in the vacuum for the development of the intense muonium source.

  17. The Nagoya cosmic-ray muon spectrometer 3, part 4: Track reconstruction method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shibata, S.; Kamiya, Y.; Iijima, K.; Iida, S.

    1985-01-01

    One of the greatest problems in measuring particle trajectories with an optical or visual detector system, is the reconstruction of trajectories in real space from their recorded images. In the Nagoya cosmic-ray muon spectrometer, muon tracks are detected by wide gap spark chambers and their images are recorded on the photographic film through an optical system of 10 mirrors and two cameras. For the spatial reconstruction, 42 parameters of the optical system should be known to determine the configuration of this system. It is almost impossible to measure this many parameters directly with usual techniques. In order to solve this problem, the inverse transformation method was applied. In this method, all the optical parameters are determined from the locations of fiducial marks in real space and the locations of their images on the photographic film by the non-linear least square fitting.

  18. Muon to electron conversion: how to find an electron in a muon haystack.

    PubMed

    Kurup, A

    2010-08-13

    The standard model (SM) of particle physics describes how the Universe works at a fundamental level. Even though this theory has proven to be very successful over the past 50 years, we know it is incomplete. Many theories that go beyond the SM predict the occurrence of certain processes that are forbidden by the SM, such as muon to electron conversion. This paper will briefly review the history of muon to electron conversion and focus on the high-precision experiments currently being proposed, COMET (Coherent Muon to Electron Transition) and Mu2e, and a next-generation experiment, PRISM. The PRISM experiment intends to use a novel type of accelerator called a fixed-field alternating-gradient (FFAG) accelerator. There has recently been renewed interest in FFAGs for the Neutrino Factory and the Muon Collider, and because they have applications in many areas outside of particle physics, such as energy production and cancer therapy. The synergies between these particle physics experiments and other applications will also be discussed. PMID:20603374

  19. The Compact Muon Solenoid Heavy Ion program

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Pablo Yepes

    2005-12-15

    The Pb-Pb center of mass energy at the LHC will exceed that of Au-Au collisions at RHIC (Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider) by nearly a factor of 30, providing exciting opportunities for addressing unique physics issues in a completely new energy domain. The interest of the Heavy Ion (HI) Physics at LHC is discussed in more detail in the LHC-USA white paper and the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) Heavy Ion proposal. A few highlights are presented in this document. Heavy ion collisions at LHC energies will explore regions of energy and particle density significantly beyond those reachable at RHIC. The energy density of the thermalized matter created at the LHC is estimated to be 20 times higher than at RHIC, implying an initial temperature, which is greater than at RHIC by more than a factor of two. The higher density of produced partons also allows a faster thermalization. As a consequence, the ratio of the quark-gluon plasma lifetime to the thermalization time increases by a factor of 10 over RHIC. Thus the hot, dense systems created in HI collisions at the LHC spend most of the time in a purely partonic state. The longer lifetime of the quark-gluon plasma state widens significantly the time window available to probe it experimentally. RHIC experiments have reported evidence for jet production in HI collisions and for suppression of high p{sub T} particle production. Those results open a new field of exploration of hot and dense nuclear matter. Even though RHIC has already broken ground, the production rates for jets with p{sub T} > 30 GeV are several orders of magnitude larger at the LHC than at RHIC, allowing for systematic studies with high statistics in a clean kinematic region. High p{sub T} quark and gluon jets can be used to study the hot hadronic medium produced in HI interactions. The larger Q{sup 2} causes jets to materialize very soon after the collision. They are thus embedded in and propagate through the dense environment as it forms and evolves. Through

  20. The g - 2 muon anomaly in di-muon production with the torsion in LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syromyatnikov, A. G.

    2016-06-01

    It was considered within the framework of the conformal gauge gravitational theory CGTG coupling of the standard model fermions to the axial torsion and preliminary discusses the impact of extra dimensions, in particular, in a five-dimensional space-time with Randall-Sundrum metric, where the fifth dimension is compactified on an S1/Z 2 orbifold, which as it turns out is conformally to the fifth dimension flat Euclidean space with permanent trace of torsion, with a compactification radius R in terms of the radius of a CGTG gravitational screening, through torsion in a process Z → μ+μ‑ and LHC data. In general, have come to the correct set of the conformal calibration curvature the Faddeev-Popov diagram technique type, that follows directly from dynamics. This leads to the effect of restrictions on neutral spin currents of gauge fields by helicity and the Regge’s form theory. The diagrams reveals the fact of opening of the fine spacetime structure in a process pp → γ/Z/T → μ+μ‑ with a center-of-mass energy of 14TeV, indicated by dotted lines and texture columns, as a result of p-p collision on 1.3 ṡ 10‑18cm scales from geometric shell gauge bosons of the SM continued by the heavy axial torsion resonance, and even by emerging from the inside into the outside of the ultra-light (freely-frozen in muon’s spin) axial torsion. We then evaluate the contribution of the torsion to the muon anomaly to derive new constraints on the torsion parameters. It was obtained that on the πN scattering through the exchange of axial torsion accounting, the nucleon anomalous magnetic moment in the eikonal phase leads to additive additives which is responsible for the spin-flip in the scattering process, the scattering amplitude is classical and characterized by a strong the torsion coupling ηT≅1. So the scattering of particles, occurs as on the Coulomb center with the charge fT This is the base model which is the g‑2 muon anomaly. The muon anomaly contribution

  1. Synthesis and self-assembly of terpyridine end-capped poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-block-poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) diblock copolymers.

    PubMed

    Brassinne, Jérémy; Poggi, Elio; Fustin, Charles-André; Gohy, Jean-François

    2015-04-01

    At the basis of smart self-assembled materials are lying small building blocks that can hierarchically assemble in response to stimuli, e.g., temperature or chemical species. In this context, the synthesis of terpyridine end-capped poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate)-block-poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) diblock copolymers via controlled radical copolymerization is reported here. The self-assembly of those copolymers is investigated in dilute aqueous solutions while varying temperature or adding transition metal ions, respectively, leading to the formation of micellar nanostructures or metallosupramolecular triblock copolymers. PMID:25491079

  2. Muon energy reconstruction in the Antarctic muon and neutrino detector array (AMANDA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miocinovic, Predrag

    AMANDA is an optical Cerenkov detector designed for observation of high-energy neutrinos (E ≳ 100 GeV) and is located deep inside the South Polar ice cap. The neutrinos that undergo charged-current interaction in or near the detector can be observed by the telltale Cerenkov light generated by the resulting lepton and its secondaries. The presence of insoluble particulates in the ice increases the light scattering, which in turn increases the light containment inside the detector. This enhances the light collection efficiency, allowing for a calorimetry-like measurement of energy deposited by the neutrino-induced leptons. In this work, I developed a probabilistic method for measuring the energy of non-contained muons detected by AMANDA-B10 (1997 configuration). The knowledge of muon energy opens a large window of discovery since it helps to determine whether the parent neutrino has a terrestrial or extraterrestrial origin. The method is based on finding the muon energy that will most likely produce the observed detector response. The energy likelihood is generated by combining the average light-emission profiles of muons with different energies and the models of light distribution in ice and detector response to light. Event reconstruction results in an energy resolution of ˜0.35 in log(E/GeV) over the 1 TeV--1 PeV range. Below 1 TeV, the light produced is insufficient to reliably determine the muon energy, while above 1 PeV, the AMANDA-B10 response to energy saturates, due to the finite detector size and limitations in its hardware. Stochastic variations in muon energy loss and photon propagation are the dominant sources that limit the reconstructed energy resolution. I showed that in such case, a Bayesian unfolding technique improves the reconstruction of the underlying muon energy spectrum. The unfolding also corrects for known systematic effects such as saturation, directional reconstruction bias, data "cleaning", and others. My analysis of 1997 data shows

  3. Investigation and simulation of muon cooling rings with tilted solenoids

    SciTech Connect

    Valeri I. Balbekov

    2003-05-28

    Alternating solenoid focused muon cooling ring without special bending magnets is considered and investigate in detail. Both fringe field between solenoid coils with opposite directed current, and an inclination of the coils in vertical plane are used to provide a bending and closing of the particle trajectories. Realistic (Maxwellian) magnetic field is calculated and used for a simulation. Methodic is developed and applied to find closed orbit at any energy, dispersion, region of stability, and other conventional accelerator characteristics. Earlier proposed RFOFO cooling ring with 200 MHz RF system and liquid hydrogen absorbers is investigated in detail. After an optimization, normalized 6D emittance about 20 mm{sup 3} and transmission 57% are obtained.

  4. Injection/Extraction Studies for the Muon FFAG

    SciTech Connect

    Pasternak, J.; Berg, J. Scott; Kelliher, D. J.; Machida, S.

    2010-03-30

    The non-scaling fixed field alternating gradient (NS-FFAG) ring is a candidate muon accelerator in the Neutrino Factory complex according to the present baseline, which is currently being addressed by the International Design Study (IDS-NF). In order to achieve small orbit excursion, motivated by magnet cost reduction, and small time of flight variation, dictated by the need to use high RF frequency, lattices with a very compact cell structure and short straight sections are required. The resulting geometry dictates very difficult constraints on the injection/extraction systems. Beam dynamics in the non-scaling FFAG is studied using codes capable of correctly tracking with large transverse amplitude and momentum spread. The feasibility of injection/extraction is studied and various implementations focusing on minimization of kicker/septum strength are presented. Finally the parameters of the resulting kicker magnets are estimated.

  5. 120 MW, 800 MHz Magnicon for a Future Muon Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Jay L. Hirshfield

    2005-12-15

    Development of a pulsed magnicon at 800 MHz was carried out for the muon collider application, based on experience with similar amplifiers in the frequency range between 915 MHz and 34.3 GHz. Numerical simulations using proven computer codes were employed for the conceptual design, while established design technologies were incorporated into the engineering design. A cohesive design for the 800 MHz magnicon amplifier was carried out, including design of a 200 MW diode electron gun, design of the magnet system, optimization of beam dynamics including space charge effects in the transient and steady-state regimes, design of the drive, gain, and output cavities including an rf choke in the beam exit aperture, analysis of parasitic oscillations and design means to eliminate them, and design of the beam collector capable of 20 kW average power operation.

  6. Chromaticity correction for a muon collider optics

    SciTech Connect

    Alexahin, Y.; Gianfelice-Wendt, E.; Kapin, V.; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    Muon Collider (MC) is a promising candidate for the next energy frontier machine. However, in order to obtain peak luminosity in the 10{sup 34} cm{sup 2}s{sup -1} range the collider lattice designmust satisfy a number of stringent requirements. In particular the expected large momentum spread of the muon beam and the very small {beta}* call for a careful correction of the chromatic effects. Here we present a particular solution for the interaction region (IR) optics whose distinctive feature is a three-sextupole local chromatic correction scheme. The scheme may be applied to other future machines where chromatic effects are expected to be large. The expected large muon energy spread requires the optics to be stable over a wide range of momenta whereas the required luminosity calls for {beta}* in the mm range. To avoid luminosity degradation due to hour-glass effect, the bunch length must be comparatively small. To keep the needed RF voltage within feasible limits the momentum compaction factor must be small over the wide range of momenta. A low {beta}* means high sensitivity to alignment and field errors of the Interaction Region (IR) quadrupoles and large chromatic effects which limit the momentum range of optics stability and require strong correction sextupoles, which eventually limit the Dynamic Aperture (DA). Finally, the ring circumference should be as small as possible, luminosity being inversely proportional to the collider length. A promising solution for a 1.5 TeV center of mass energy MC with {beta}* = 1 m in both planes has been proposed. This {beta}* value has been chosen as a compromise between luminosity and feasibility based on the magnet design and energy deposition considerations. The proposed solution for the IR optics together with a new flexible momentum compaction arc cell design allows to satisfy all requirements and is relatively insensitive to the beam-beam effect.

  7. Helical channel design and technology for cooling of muon beams

    SciTech Connect

    Yonehara, K; Derbenev, Y.S.; Johnson, R.P.; /MUONS Inc., Batavia

    2010-08-01

    Novel magnetic helical channel designs for capture and cooling of bright muon beams are being developed using numerical simulations based on new inventions such as helical solenoid (HS) magnets and hydrogen-pressurized RF (HPRF) cavities. We are close to the factor of a million six-dimensional phase space (6D) reduction needed for muon colliders. Recent experimental and simulation results are presented.

  8. Participation in Muon Collider/Neutrino Factory Research and Development

    SciTech Connect

    Torun, Yagmur

    2013-03-20

    Muon accelerators hold great promise for the future of high energy physics and their construction can be staged to support a broad physics program. Great progress was made over the past decade toward developing the technology for muon beam cooling which is one of the main challenges for building such facilities.

  9. Helical Channel Design and Technology for Cooling of Muon Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yonehara, K.; Derbenev, Y. S.; Johnson, R. P.

    2010-11-01

    Novel magnetic helical channel designs for capture and cooling of bright muon beams are being developed using numerical simulations based on new inventions such as helical solenoid (HS) magnets and hydrogen-pressurized RF (HPRF) cavities. We are close to the factor of a million six-dimensional phase space (6D) reduction needed for muon colliders. Recent experimental and simulation results are presented.

  10. Muon Production in Relativistic Cosmic-Ray Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Spencer R.

    2009-11-01

    Cosmic-rays with energies up to 3×1020eV have been observed. The nuclear composition of these cosmic rays is unknown but if the incident nuclei are protons then the corresponding center of mass energy is s=700TeV. High energy muons can be used to probe the composition of these incident nuclei. The energy spectra of high-energy (>1TeV) cosmic ray induced muons have been measured with deep underground or under-ice detectors. These muons come from pion and kaon decays and from charm production in the atmosphere. Terrestrial experiments are most sensitive to far-forward muons so the production rates are sensitive to high-x partons in the incident nucleus and low-x partons in the nitrogen/oxygen targets. Muon measurements can complement the central-particle data collected at colliders. This paper will review muon production data and discuss some non-perturbative (soft) models that have been used to interpret the data. I will show measurements of TeV muon transverse momentum (p) spectra in cosmic-ray air showers from MACRO, and describe how the IceCube neutrino observatory and the proposed Km3Net detector will extend these measurements to a higher p region where perturbative QCD should apply. With a 1 km2 surface area, the full IceCube detector should observe hundreds of muons/year with p in the pQCD regime.

  11. Helical Channel Design and Technology for Cooling of Muon Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Yonehara, K.; Derbenev, Y. S.; Johnson, R. P.

    2010-11-04

    Novel magnetic helical channel designs for capture and cooling of bright muon beams are being developed using numerical simulations based on new inventions such as helical solenoid (HS) magnets and hydrogen-pressurized RF (HPRF) cavities. We are close to the factor of a million six-dimensional phase space (6D) reduction needed for muon colliders. Recent experimental and simulation results are presented.

  12. Study of atmospheric muons using a cosmic ray telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdollahi, S.; Bahmanabadi, M.; Purmohammad, D.

    2013-02-01

    The charge ratio of cosmic muons holds important information for both the atmospheric neutrino anomaly and hadronic interaction models. In this paper we measured the muon charge ratio (R_{\\mu }=N_{\\mu ^{+}}/N_{\\mu ^{-}}) in the cosmic ray flux in the momenta range 0.76-1.60 GeV/c by using a cosmic ray telescope. The delayed coincidence method is used based on the reduced mean lifetime of negative muons due to nuclear capture in matter. The systematic time-dependent effects of the muon charge ratio are considered by grouping the decay data into different time intervals. We compared the experimental data with the predictions of CORSIKA simulations using a high energy interaction model (QGSJET-II) and two low energy interaction models (UrQMD and GHEISHA) in the energy range 1011-1016 eV for primary particles. In addition, by considering the muon flux in different zenithal and azimuthal angles, the muon angular distribution is obtained as I(θ) = I(0)cos nθ with average n = 1.91 ± 0.07. Dependence of the muon flux on the azimuth angle (the East-West effect) is also observed, due to the influence of the geomagnetic field in particular on low energy muons.

  13. Muon tomography of rock density using Micromegas-TPC telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hivert, Fanny; Busto, José; Gaffet, Stéphane; Ernenwein, Jean-Pierre; Brunner, Jurgen; Salin, Pierre; Decitre, Jean-Baptiste; Lázaro Roche, Ignacio; Martin, Xavier

    2014-05-01

    The knowledge of the subsurface properties is essentially obtained by geophysical methods, e.g., seismic imaging, electric prospection or gravimetry. The current work is based on a recently developed method to investigate in situ the density of rocks using a measurement of the muon flux, whose attenuation depends on the quantity of matter the particles travel through and hence on the rock density and thickness. The present project (T2DM2) aims at performing underground muon flux measurements in order to characterize spatial and temporal rock massif density variations above the LSBB underground research facility in Rustrel (France). The muon flux will be measured with a new muon telescope device using Micromegas-Time Projection Chamber (TPC) detectors. The first step of the work presented covers the muon flux simulation based on the Gaisser model (Gaisser T., 1990), for the muon flux at the ground level, and on the MUSIC code (Kudryavtsev V. A., 2008) for the propagation of muons through the rock. The results show that the muon flux distortion caused by density variations is enough significant to be observed at 500 m depth for measurement times of about one month. This time-scale is compatible with the duration of the water transfer processes within the unsaturated Karst zone where LSBB is located. The work now focuses on the optimization of the detector layout along the LSBB galleries in order to achieve the best sensitivity.

  14. Characteristics of neutrons produced by muons in a standard rock

    SciTech Connect

    Malgin, A. S.

    2015-10-15

    Characteristics of cosmogenic neutrons, such as the yield, production rate, and flux, were determined for a standard rock. The dependences of these quantities on the standard-rock depth and on the average muon energy were obtained. These properties and dependences make it possible to estimate easy the muon-induced neutron background in underground laboratories for various chemical compositions of rock.

  15. Densitometric tomography using the measurement of muon flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hivert, F.; Busto, J.; Brunner, J.; Salin, P.; Gaffet, S.

    2013-12-01

    The knowledge of the subsurface properties is essentially obtained by geophysical methods, e.g. seismic imaging, electric prospection or gravimetry. The present work develops a recent method to investigate the in situ density of rocks using atmospheric the muon flux measurement , its attenuation depending on the rock density and thickness. This new geophysical technique have been mainly applied in volcanology (Lesparre N., 2011) using scintillator detectors. The present project (T2DM2) aims to realize underground muons flux measurements in order to characterizing the rock massif density variations above the LSBB underground research facility in Rustrel (France). The muon flux will be measure with a new Muon telescope instrumentation using Micromegas detectors in Time Projection Chambers (TPC) configuration. The first step of the work presented considers the muon flux simulation using the Gaisser model, for the interactions between muons and atmospheric particles, and the MUSIC code (Kudryavtsev V. A., 2008) for the muons/rock interactions. The results show that the muon flux attenuation caused by density variations are enough significant to be observed until around 500 m depth and for period of time in the order of one month. Such a duration scale and depth of investigation is compatible with the duration of the water transfer processes involved within the Karst unsaturated zone where LSBB is located. Our work now concentrates on the optimization of the spatial distribution of detectors that will be deployed in future.

  16. Leptomeson contribution to the muon g -2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuridov, Dmitry

    2016-02-01

    Many models on the market allow for particles carrying both lepton number and color, e.g., leptoquarks and leptogluons. Some of the models with this feature can also accommodate color-singlet leptohadrons. We have found that the long-standing discrepancy between the experimental result and the Standard Model prediction for the muon anomalous magnetic moment can be explained by the effect of leptomesons with masses of a few hundred GeV and couplings to the leptons and mesons either of O (1 0-2) (vector-meson case) or of O (1 ) (scalar case). These new particles are testable at the current run of the LHC.

  17. Atmospheric effects on the underground muon intensity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fenton, A. G.; Fenton, K. B.; Humble, J. E.; Hyland, G. B.

    1985-01-01

    It has previously been reported that the barometric pressure coefficient observed for muons at Poatina (vertical absorber depth 357 hg/sq cm) appears to be appreciably higher than would be expected from atmospheric absorption alone. There is a possibility that the effect is due to an upper atmospheric temperature effect arising from an inverse correlation of surface pressure with stratospheric temperature. A new proportional telescope is discussed which has been operating at Poatina since about the beginning of 83 and which has a long term stability suitable for studying variations of atmospheric origin.

  18. RECENT PROGRESS IN SIX DIMENSIONAL IONIZATION COOLING TECHNIQUES FOR MUON BASED MACHINES.

    SciTech Connect

    KIM,K.J.; WANG,C.X.; BERG,J.S.; FERNOW,R.; KIRK,H.; PALMER,R.; BALBEKOV,V.; GARREN,A.A.

    2002-06-03

    Ionization cooling is an essential component of a neutrino factory or a muon collider. Ionization cooling in the transverse dimensions is reasonably straightforward, and has been incorporated in published neutrino factory studies. Achieving cooling in the longitudinal dimensions is more difficult, but has the potential to greatly improve the performance of neutrino factories, and is essential to muon colliders. Much progress has recently been made in describing ring cooling lattices which achieve cooling in all three phase space planes, and in the design of the required, but difficult, injection systems. Ring cooling lattices also have the potential of significantly reduced cost compared to single-pass cooling systems with comparable performance. We will present some recent lattice designs, describing their theory, features, and performance, including injection and extraction systems.

  19. Noise reduction in muon tomography for detecting high density objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benettoni, M.; Bettella, G.; Bonomi, G.; Calvagno, G.; Calvini, P.; Checchia, P.; Cortelazzo, G.; Cossutta, L.; Donzella, A.; Furlan, M.; Gonella, F.; Pegoraro, M.; Rigoni Garola, A.; Ronchese, P.; Squarcia, S.; Subieta, M.; Vanini, S.; Viesti, G.; Zanuttigh, P.; Zenoni, A.; Zumerle, G.

    2013-12-01

    The muon tomography technique, based on multiple Coulomb scattering of cosmic ray muons, has been proposed as a tool to detect the presence of high density objects inside closed volumes. In this paper a new and innovative method is presented to handle the density fluctuations (noise) of reconstructed images, a well known problem of this technique. The effectiveness of our method is evaluated using experimental data obtained with a muon tomography prototype located at the Legnaro National Laboratories (LNL) of the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN). The results reported in this paper, obtained with real cosmic ray data, show that with appropriate image filtering and muon momentum classification, the muon tomography technique can detect high density materials, such as lead, albeit surrounded by light or medium density material, in short times. A comparison with algorithms published in literature is also presented.

  20. Cosmic rays muon flux measurements at Belgrade shallow underground laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Veselinović, N. Dragić, A. Maletić, D. Joković, D. Savić, M. Banjanac, R. Udovičić, V. Aničin, I.

    2015-02-24

    The Belgrade underground laboratory is a shallow underground one, at 25 meters of water equivalent. It is dedicated to low-background spectroscopy and cosmic rays measurement. Its uniqueness is that it is composed of two parts, one above ground, the other bellow with identical sets of detectors and analyzing electronics thus creating opportunity to monitor simultaneously muon flux and ambient radiation. We investigate the possibility of utilizing measurements at the shallow depth for the study of muons, processes to which these muons are sensitive and processes induced by cosmic rays muons. For this purpose a series of simulations of muon generation and propagation is done, based on the CORSIKA air shower simulation package and GEANT4. Results show good agreement with other laboratories and cosmic rays stations.

  1. 6D Muon Ionization Cooling with an Inverse Cyclotron

    SciTech Connect

    Summers, D. J.; Bracker, S. B.; Cremaldi, L. M.; Godang, R.; Palmer, R. B.

    2006-03-20

    A large admittance sector cyclotron filled with LiH wedges surrounded by helium or hydrogen gas is explored. Muons are cooled as they spiral adiabatically into a central swarm. As momentum approaches zero, the momentum spread also approaches zero. Long bunch trains coalesce. Energy loss is used to inject the muons into the outer rim of the cyclotron. The density of material in the cyclotron decreases adiabatically with radius. The sector cyclotron magnetic fields are transformed into an azimuthally symmetric magnetic bottle in the center. Helium gas is used to inhibit muonium formation by positive muons. Deuterium gas is used to allow captured negative muons to escape via the muon catalyzed fusion process. The presence of ionized gas in the center may automatically neutralize space charge. When a bunch train has coalesced into a central swarm, it is ejected axially with an electric kicker pulse.

  2. Improved limit on the muon electric dipole moment

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, G. W.; Brown, H. N.; Bunce, G.; Danby, G. T.; Larsen, R.; Lee, Y. Y.; Meng, W.; Mi, J.; Morse, W. M.; Nikas, D.; Prigl, R.; Semertzidis, Y. K.; Warburton, D.; Bousquet, B.; Cushman, P.; Duong, L.; Giron, S.; Kindem, J.; Kronkvist, I.; Qian, T.

    2009-09-01

    Three independent searches for an electric dipole moment (EDM) of the positive and negative muons have been performed, using spin precession data from the muon g-2 storage ring at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Details on the experimental apparatus and the three analyses are presented. Since the individual results on the positive and negative muons, as well as the combined result, d{sub {mu}}=(0.0{+-}0.9)x10{sup -19}e cm, are all consistent with zero, we set a new muon EDM limit, |d{sub {mu}}|<1.8x10{sup -19}e cm (95% C.L.). This represents a factor of 5 improvement over the previous best limit on the muon EDM.

  3. Production of muons for fusion catalysis using a migma configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapline, George F.; Moir, Ralph W.

    1988-08-01

    Muon-catalyzed fusion requires a very efficient means of producing muons. We describe a muon-producing magnetic-mirror scheme with triton migma that may be more energy efficient than any heretofore proposed. If one could catalyze 200 fusions per muon and employ a uranium blanket that would multiply the neutron energy by a factor of 10, one might produce electricity with an overall plant efficiency (ratio of electric energy produced to nuclear energy released) approaching 30%. The self-colliding arrangement of triton orbits will result in many π-'s being produced near the axis of the magnetic mirror. The pions quickly decay into muons, which are transported into a small (few cm diameter) reactor chamber producing approximately 1 MW/m2 neutron flux on the chamber walls.

  4. Muon background studies for shallow depth Double - Chooz near detector

    SciTech Connect

    Gómez, H.

    2015-08-17

    Muon events are one of the main concerns regarding background in neutrino experiments. The placement of experimental set-ups in deep underground facilities reduce considerably their impact on the research of the expected signals. But in the cases where the detector is installed on surface or at shallow depth, muon flux remains high, being necessary their precise identification for further rejection. Total flux, mean energy or angular distributions are some of the parameters that can help to characterize the muons. Empirically, the muon rate can be measured in an experiment by a number of methods. Nevertheless, the capability to determine the muons angular distribution strongly depends on the detector features, while the measurement of the muon energy is quite difficult. Also considering that on-site measurements can not be extrapolated to other sites due to the difference on the overburden and its profile, it is necessary to find an adequate solution to perform the muon characterization. The method described in this work to obtain the main features of the muons reaching the experimental set-up, is based on the muon transport simulation by the MUSIC software, combined with a dedicated sampling algorithm for shallow depth installations based on a modified Gaisser parametrization. This method provides all the required information about the muons for any shallow depth installation if the corresponding overburden profile is implemented. In this work, the method has been applied for the recently commissioned Double - Chooz near detector, which will allow the cross-check between the simulation and the experimental data, as it has been done for the far detector.

  5. Muon background studies for shallow depth Double - Chooz near detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, H.

    2015-08-01

    Muon events are one of the main concerns regarding background in neutrino experiments. The placement of experimental set-ups in deep underground facilities reduce considerably their impact on the research of the expected signals. But in the cases where the detector is installed on surface or at shallow depth, muon flux remains high, being necessary their precise identification for further rejection. Total flux, mean energy or angular distributions are some of the parameters that can help to characterize the muons. Empirically, the muon rate can be measured in an experiment by a number of methods. Nevertheless, the capability to determine the muons angular distribution strongly depends on the detector features, while the measurement of the muon energy is quite difficult. Also considering that on-site measurements can not be extrapolated to other sites due to the difference on the overburden and its profile, it is necessary to find an adequate solution to perform the muon characterization. The method described in this work to obtain the main features of the muons reaching the experimental set-up, is based on the muon transport simulation by the MUSIC software, combined with a dedicated sampling algorithm for shallow depth installations based on a modified Gaisser parametrization. This method provides all the required information about the muons for any shallow depth installation if the corresponding overburden profile is implemented. In this work, the method has been applied for the recently commissioned Double - Chooz near detector, which will allow the cross-check between the simulation and the experimental data, as it has been done for the far detector.

  6. Neutrinos from STORed Muons - nuSTORM

    SciTech Connect

    Bross, Alan

    2013-02-27

    The results of LSND and MiniBooNE, along with the recent papers on a possible reactor neutrino flux anomaly, give tantalizing hints of new physics. Models beyond the nSM have been developed to explain these results and involve one or more additional neutrinos that are non-interacting or “sterile." Neutrino beams produced from the decay of muons in a racetrack-like decay ring provide a powerful way to study this potential new physics. In this talk, I will describe the facility, nuSTORM, and an appropriate far detector for neutrino oscillation searches at short baseline. I will present sensitivity plots that indicate that this experimental approach can provide well over 5 s confirmation or rejection of the LSND/MinBooNE results. In addition I will explain how the facility can be used to make neutrino interaction cross section measurements important to the next generation of long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments and, in general, add significantly to the study of neutrino interactions. The unique n beam available at the nuSTORM facility has the potential to be transformational in our approach to n interaction physics, offering a “n light source” to physicists from a number of disciplines. Finally, I will describe how nuSTORM can be used to facilitate accelerator R&D for future muon-based accelerator facilities.

  7. The muon collider (Sandro`s snake)

    SciTech Connect

    Ruggiero, A.G.

    1992-12-31

    This paper describes a feasibility study for the design of a muon collider. Recognized the fact that the particle lifetime increases linearly with the energy, we have adopted a scheme where steps of cooling and acceleration are entwined. We have indeed found convenient to accelerate the beam as fast as possible to increase its chances of survival, and necessary to dilute the action of cooling throughout the entire accelerating process to make it more effective and affordable. All acceleration and cooling steps are executed in a single pass essentially along a curvilinear and open path. We do not believe it is possible to handle the beam otherwise in circular and closed rings, as it has been proposed in the past. The example shown in this paper describes a muon collider at the energy of 250 GeV per beam and a luminosity of 4 {times} 10{sup 28} cm{sup {minus}2}s{sup {minus}1}. We have adopted an extrapolation of the stochastic cooling method for the reduction of the beam emittance.

  8. Exotic muon decays and the KARMEN anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gninenko, S. N.; Krasnikov, N. V.

    1998-08-01

    An anomaly in time distribution of neutrinos from the ISIS pulsed beam stop source observed by the KARMEN collaboration is discussed. We show that the anomaly can be interpreted as a superposition of two exponentials, both having time constants consistent with the μ+ lifetime of 2.2 μs. It is assumed that they both originate from muon decays at rest. One of them describes the time distribution of the prompt neutrino events, while the other describes the time distribution of events from delayed decays of slowly moving (β~=0.02) particles in the KARMEN calorimeter. We propose here that these particles are produced in exotic decays of positive muons μ+-->e++X, resulting in the second exponential time distribution shifted by the time of flight with respect to the time distribution of neutrino events. This model gives an acceptable fit to the KARMEN data if X has a mass of 103.9 MeV. The possible decay modes of this new massive neutral particle are discussed. This hypothesis can be experimentally tested in the near future by studying the low energy part of the e+ spectrum in the μ+ decays.

  9. In a muon's lifetime: From Fermi's constant to ``calibrating'' the sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, Peter

    2010-10-01

    This presentation will cover three experiments at the Paul Scherrer Institute, Switzerland, all measuring the muon lifetime with high precision. The MuLan experiment [2] uses a simple soccer-ball like scintillator array to detect the positrons from the decay of positive muons. We collected twice 10^12 muon decays in two different target materials to obtain the final precision of 1 ppm for the lifetime. This determines the Fermi constant GF to 0.5 ppm precision [1]. The muon capture experiment MuCap uses a negative muon beam stopped in a time projection chamber as an active target filled with ultra-pure hydrogen gas. The elementary capture process μ^-+p -> n+ν offers a rare (0.15%) additional disappearance channel. The measured difference of the positive and negative muon's lifetime determines the rate of the capture process to a final precision of 1%. This can be used to derive an improved value of the proton's pseudoscalar form factor gP to 7% precision. A first result gP = 7.3 ± 1.1 has been published [3]. This is a first precise, unambigous determination of gP and an important test of QCD symmetries. Recently, we started a new experiment, MuSun [4] to measure the μ^-+d -> n+n+ν doublet capture rate. This measurement will provide a benchmark of the understanding of weak processes in the two nucleon-system. It was shown, that other weak reactions involving the two nucleon system (pp -> de^+ν or ν+d reactions) are related to the same low-energy constant, characterizing the two nucleon system at short distances. This constant is not well constrained and therefore the MuSun experiment comes closest to calibrating these basic astrophysical reactions under terrestrial conditions. [4pt] [1] In preparation for publication[0pt] [2] Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 032001 (2007)[0pt] [3] Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 032002 (2007)[0pt] [4] http://www.npl.uiuc.edu/exp/musun/documents/prop07.pdf

  10. Measurement of the magnetic moment of the positive muon by a stroboscopic muon-spin-rotation technique

    SciTech Connect

    Klempt, E.; Schulze, R.; Wolf, H.; Camani, M.; Gygax, F.N.; Rueegg, W.; Schenck, A.; Schilling, H.

    1982-02-01

    A new determination of the magnetic moment of the positive muon in units of the magnetic moment of the proton is presented. The Larmor precession of positive muons in liquid bromine was observed by a stroboscopic technique in a field of 0.75 T and combined with concomitant proton NMR measurements in the same chemical environment. The stroboscopic method allows use of the full muon stopping rate available at the Schweizerisches Institut fuer Nuklearforschung (SIN) muon channel. Moreover, it permits an intrinsically precise determination of muon Larmor frequency and proton NMR frequency measuring the magnetic field by comparison with the stable reference frequency of the SIN accelerator (..delta cap omega../..cap omega..roughly-equal10/sup -8/). Two different bromine targets were used which allowed an unambiguous determination of the chemical field shift experienced by the muons. One target contained pure and water-free liquid bromine (Br/sub 2/), where stopped muons form (..mu../sup +/e/sup -/)Br molecules. The other target was slightly contaminated with water; there a chemical reaction chain places the muons into (..mu../sup +/e/sup -/)HO molecules. The diamagnetic shielding of protons in the analogous molecules HBr and H/sub 2/O in liquid bromine was measured by high-resolution NMR. Values for the isotopic shift of the diamagnetic shielding, when protons are replaced by muons, are available from quantum chemical calculations. After application of the chemical-shift corrections, the results from the two different bromine targets are consistent. The final result is ..mu../sub ..mu..//..mu../sub p/ = 3.183 344 1(17) (or +- 0.53 ppm). This value agrees with other recent precision determinations of ..mu../sub ..mu..//..mu../sub p/. For the muon mass the present result implies m/sub ..mu..//m/sub e/ = 206.768 35(11) ( +- 0.53 ppm).

  11. High energy muon induced radioactive nuclides in nickel plate and its use for 2-D muon-beam image profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurebayashi, Y.; Sakurai, H.; Takahashi, Y.; Doshita, N.; Kikuchi, S.; Tokanai, F.; Horiuchi, K.; Tajima, Y.; Oe, T.; Sato, T.; Gunji, S.; Inui, E.; Kondo, K.; Iwata, N.; Sasaki, N.; Matsuzaki, H.; Kunieda, S.

    2015-11-01

    Target materials were exposed to a muon beam with an energy of 160 GeV/c at the COMPASS experiment line in CERN-SPS to measure the production cross-sections for muon-induced radionuclides. A muon imager containing four nickel plates, each measuring 100 mm×100 mm, exposed to the IP plate successfully detected the muon beam image during an irradiation period of 33 days. The contrasting density rate of the nickel plate was (5.2±0.7)×10-9 PSL/muon per one-day exposure to IP. The image measured 122 mm and 174 mm in horizontal and vertical lengths, respectively, in relation to the surface of the base, indicating that 50±6% of the muon beam flux is confined to an area of 18% of the whole muon beam. The number of muons estimated from the PSL value in the total beam image area (0.81±0.1)×1013 was comparable to the total muon counts of the ion-chamber at the M2 beam line in the CERN-SPS. The production cross-sections of Cr-51, Mn-54, Co-56, Co-57, and Co-58 in nickel were 0.19±0.08, 0.34±0.06, 0.5±0.05, 3.44±0.07, 0.4±0.03 in the unit of mb, respectively, reducing muon associated particles effects. They are approximately 10 times smaller than that a proceeding study by Heisinger et al.

  12. Effects of end-capped acceptors subject to subtle structural changes on solution-processable small molecules for organic solar cells.

    PubMed

    Deng, Dan; Zhang, Yajie; Zhu, Lingyun; Zhang, Jianqi; Lu, Kun; Wei, Zhixiang

    2015-04-14

    Self-assembly is crucial for small molecular organic solar cells, which are extremely sensitive to the molecular structure. In this work, three subtle structural changed end-capped acceptors with increased electron withdrawing ability, named octyl 2-cyanoacetate (=CNCOOC8H17), 3-oxoundecanenitrile (=CNCOC8H17), and 2-(octylsulfonyl) acetonitrile (=CNSOOC8H17), were synthesized and introduced into a planar conjugated backbone using ethylhexyl-thiophene substituted benzodithiophene (TBDT) as a core and trithiophene as a π-bridge (labelled M1, M2 and M3, respectively). Their effects on absorption, thermal properties, and morphologies were studied and compared. In particular, the molecular packing of the three materials varied significantly, and the hole mobilities differed by orders of magnitude. As a result, the fill factors of devices varied from 52% to 72%. Combining the effects of electron-withdrawing capability and molecular packing, the power conversion efficiencies of the optimized devices increased from 3.0% for M3 to 6.4% for M1 and M2. The relationship between end-capped acceptors and photovoltaic properties would generate valuable insights into further producing more efficient solution-processable organic solar cells. PMID:25742902

  13. A simple method for the synthesis of a polar-embedded and polar-endcapped reversed-phase chromatographic packing with low activity of residue silanols.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hai-Yan; Li, Zhi-Yong; Liu, Dan; Xue, Ying-Wen; Shi, Zhi-Guo

    2016-04-22

    Octadecyl bonded silica (ODS) is the most popular packing for reversed-phase chromatography. However, it generally demonstrates bad resolution for polar analytes because of the residue silanols and its poor stability in aqueous mobile phase. To address the problem, a new reversed-phase packing containing both polar-embedded and polar-endcapped moieties was proposed. It was prepared by a very simple method, in which the epoxide addition reaction of 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane with 1-octadecanethiol proceeded simultaneously with the reaction of silane coupling onto silica particles. By controlling the molecular ratio of 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane to 1-octadecanethiol higher than 1.0 (1.56 for the present study), both polar-embedded and polar-endcapped moieties were achieved onto the packing. The performance of the packing was evaluated in detail. The results demonstrated that neutral, acidic and basic analytes were well separated on the packing. The column efficiency for phenanthrene was 34,200 theoretical plates per meter. In addition, four nucleotides can be separated in 100% phosphate buffered saline solution with good reproducibility, which indicates the packing has good stability in aqueous mobile phase. Amitriptyline, a typical basic analytes, was eluted out with relatively symmetric peak shape (asymmetry factor of 1.36), which implies that the packing has not suffered from the negative effect of residue silanols significantly. Good stability in buffer solution of pH ranging from 2.0 to 10.0 was also documented for the packing. PMID:27033982

  14. The Nagoya cosmic-ray muon spectrometer 3, part 1: Preliminary observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamiya, Y.; Shibata, S.; Iijima, K.; Iida, S.

    1985-01-01

    There are some discrepancies among the data of absolute muon intensities at large zenth angles. Through the analysis of the data obtained in the previous measurement by Nagoya Cosmic Ray Spectrometer, one of the sources of these discrepancies has been found to be the ambiguity induced by the selection criteria with which genuine muons are distinguished from the backgrounds. To remove the ambiguity of this kind, it is necessary to know the amount of the backgrounds and their characteristics in detail. Some features of the background events were reported from the observations by using this triggering system of Nagoya Cosmic Ray Spectrometer. In this paper, the results of extended observations using track detector together with this system are reported.

  15. Trigger algorithms and electronics for the ATLAS muon new small wheel upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, L.

    2016-01-01

    The New Small Wheel Upgrade for the ATLAS experiment will replace the innermost station of the Muon Spectrometer in the forward region in order to maintain its current performance during high luminosity data-taking after the LHC Phase-I upgrade. The New Small Wheel, comprising Micromegas and small Thin Gap Chambers, will reduce the rate of fake triggers coming from backgrounds in the forward region and significantly improve the Level-1 muon trigger selectivity by providing precise on-line segment measurements with ~ 1 mrad angular resolution. Such demanding precision, together with the short time (~ 1 μs) to prepare trigger data and perform on-line reconstruction, implies very stringent requirements on the design of trigger system and trigger electronics. This paper presents an overview of the design of the New Small Wheel trigger system, trigger algorithms and processor hardware.

  16. Muon simulations for Super-Kamiokande, KamLAND, and CHOOZ

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Alfred; Horton-Smith, Glenn; Kudryavtsev, Vitaly A.; Tonazzo, Alessandra

    2006-09-01

    Muon backgrounds at Super-Kamiokande, KamLAND, and CHOOZ are calculated using MUSIC. A modified version of the Gaisser sea-level muon distribution and a well-tested Monte Carlo integration method are introduced. Average muon energy, flux, and rate are tabulated. Plots of average energy and angular distributions are given. Implications for muon tracker design in future experiments are discussed.

  17. Coexisting static magnetic ordering and superconductivity in CeCu2.1Si2 found by muon spin relaxation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uemura, Y. J.; Kossler, W. J.; Yu, X. H.; Schone, H. E.; Kempton, J. R.; Stronach, C. E.; Barth, S.; Gygax, F. N.; Hitti, B.; Schenck, A.

    1988-01-01

    Zero- and longitudinal-field muon spin relaxation measurements on a heavy fermion system CeCu2.1 Si2 have revealed an onset of static magnetic ordering below T(M) approximately 0.8 K, which coexists with superconductivity below T(c) = 0.7 K. The line shapes of the observed muon spin depolarization functions suggest an ordering in either spin glass or incommensurate spin-density-wave state, with a small averaged static moment of the order of 0.1 micro-B per formula unit at T approaches 0.

  18. Test Experiments on Muon Radiography with Emulsion Track Detectors in Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksandrov, A. B.; Bagulya, A. V.; Chernyavsky, M. M.; Dedenko, L. G.; Fomenko, N. V.; Granich, G. M.; Galkin, V. I.; Konovalova, N. S.; Managadze, A. K.; Orurk, O. I.; Polukhina, N. G.; Roganova, T. M.; Shchedrina, T. V.; Starkov, N. I.; Tioukov, V. E.; Vladymyrov, M. S.; Zemskova, S. G.

    Lebedev Physical Institute (LPI RAS) and Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics MSU (SINP MSU) have started the series of test muon radiography experiments in Russia. These experiments are aimed at determination of the optimal conditions of the setup, elaboration of algorithms for data processing and the study of the method peculiarities. The final goal of the method development is drafting of monitoring systems for natural and technological objects which condition may be a threat for the population, infrastructure or environment.

  19. Towards a compensatable Muon Collider calorimeter with manageable backgrounds

    SciTech Connect

    Raja, R.; /Fermilab

    2012-04-01

    Muon Collider detectors pose very challenging problems in detector technology due to extremely large backgrounds present in the detector volume as a result of muon decays. Current designs of a 750 GeV/c per beam Muon Collider envisage 4.28 x 10{sup 5} muon decays per meter in the beam pipe close to the interaction region. The decay electrons after intense shielding still manage to produce large backgrounds in the detector volume of low energy photons, neutrons and higher energy Bethe Heitler muons. There are 170/184/6.8/177 TeVs energy entering the detector volume per crossing due to EM particles/Muons/Mesons/Baryons respectively. We investigate the capabilities of an iron calorimeter with pixelated readout where each pixel gives a yes/no answer as to whether a charged particle passed through it or not, to solve this problem. Each pixel is individually triggered by a 'travelling gate trigger' with a gate of 2 ns where the beginning of the gate is the time of arrival of a light signal from the interaction region to the pixel. We show that such a calorimeter is compensatable and propose two schemes to compensate the digital output in software to improve the resolution of the calorimeter. We show that such a calorimeter is capable of digitizing physics signals from the interaction region and as a result, the backgrounds from the muon decays are much reduced and under control.

  20. Feasibility of using backscattered muons for archeological imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonal, N.; Preston, L. A.

    2013-12-01

    Use of nondestructive methods to accurately locate and characterize underground objects such as rooms and tools found at archeological sites is ideal to preserve these historic sites. High-energy cosmic ray muons are very sensitive to density variation and have been used to image volcanoes and archeological sites such as the Egyptian and Mayan pyramids. Muons are subatomic particles produced in the upper atmosphere that penetrate the earth's crust up to few kilometers. Their absorption rate depends on the density of the materials through which they pass. Measurements of muon flux rate at differing directions provide density variations of the materials between the muon source (cosmic rays and neutrino interactions) and the detector, much like a CAT scan. Currently, muon tomography can resolve features to the sub-meter scale making it useful for this type of work. However, the muon detector must be placed below the target of interest. For imaging volcanoes, the upper portion is imaged when the detector is placed on the earth's surface at the volcano's base. For sites of interest beneath the ground surface, the muon detector would need to be placed below the site in a tunnel or borehole. Placing the detector underground can be costly and may disturb the historical site. We will assess the feasibility of imaging the subsurface using upward traveling muons, to eliminate the current constraint of positioning the detector below the target. This work consists of three parts 1) determine the backscattered flux rate from theory, 2) distinguish backscattered from forward scattered muons at the detector, and 3) validate the theoretical results with field experimentation. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.