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Sample records for endemic plant species

  1. [Traightened on Chinese endemic seed plant species of medicine plants used in Tibetan medicine].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hua-rong; Mu, Ze-jing; Du, Xiao-lang; He, Jun-wei; Cao, Lan; Zhong, Guo-yue

    2015-09-01

    This paper is in order to discussion with the composition and characteristics of Tibetan medicine plant resources, and promote the reasonable protection and utilization of the resources of Tibetan materia medica. Statistical analysis of species, distributions, and others of Chinese endemic seed plant from Tibetan medicine plants and usually used in the clinic of Tibetan medicine. The results showed that there are 523 species (25%) of Chinese endemic seed plant, belonging to 65 families and 162 genera, in about 2 000 varieties of Tibetan medicine plants recorded in relevant literatures. There are 180 Chinese endemic seed plant species (28%) belonging to 42 families and 72 genera from 625 medicine plants usually used in the clinic of Tibetan medicine. Specifically, the most of these Chinese endemic seed plant species are characteristic crude drug used in Tibetan medicine, and mainly or only distributed in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. And a few species of them were intersected with traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) and other ethnic medicines. In addition, about 10% are listed in China Species Red List. The Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is the most abundant areas of Areal-types of the Chinese endemic seed plant. This is the biological and ecological reason formation the characteristics of Tibetan medicine plant resources. Therefore, strengthen the research of Chinese endemic seed plants used in Tibetan medicine is great significance for the reasonable protection and utilization of Tibetan medicine plant resources. PMID:26978990

  2. Mycorrhizal dependency of some endemic and endangered Hawaiian plant species.

    PubMed

    Gemma, J N; Koske, R E; Habte, M

    2002-02-01

    Four endemic species of Hawaiian plants were tested for their response to inoculation with a Hawaiian isolate of Glomus aggregatum (an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus [AMF]) when grown in a native soil with or without P added to achieve different soil-solution P levels. The endangered species (Sesbania tomentosa [Fabaceae] and Colubrina oppositifolia [Rhamnaceae]) and two nonendangered species (Bidens sandvicensis and B. asymmetrica × sandvicensis [Asteraceae]) were tested. When soil-solution P levels in greenhouse trials were similar to unfertilized field soils (e.g., 0.005-0.020 mg P/L), shoots of inoculated plants were 2.1 to 7.0 times larger than noninoculated plants. Leaf tissue P levels and root biomass in these species showed similar responses to inoculation. Mycorrhizal dependencies ranging from 44 to 88% were measured when plants were grown in low-P soils and were -4-42% in soil with P levels typical of highly productive agricultural soils. A survey of P levels in a variety of native (nonagricultural) Hawaiian soils indicated the widespread occurrence of P-limited sites (mean = 0.010 mg P/L, range = <0.001-0.030 mg P/L; N = 41). The terms "ecological mycorrhizal dependency" (EMD) and "agricultural mycorrhizal dependency" (AMD) are introduced to refine the concept of mycorrhizal dependency. PMID:21669742

  3. Imperfect replacement of native species by non-native species as pollinators of endemic Hawaiian plants.

    PubMed

    Aslan, Clare E; Zavaleta, Erika S; Tershy, Bernie; Croll, Don; Robichaux, Robert H

    2014-04-01

    Native plant species that have lost their mutualist partners may require non-native pollinators or seed dispersers to maintain reproduction. When natives are highly specialized, however, it appears doubtful that introduced generalists will partner effectively with them. We used visitation observations and pollination treatments (experimental manipulations of pollen transfer) to examine relationships between the introduced, generalist Japanese White-eye (Zosterops japonicus) and 3 endemic Hawaiian plant species (Clermontia parviflora, C. montis-loa, and C. hawaiiensis). These plants are characterized by curved, tubular flowers, apparently adapted for pollination by curve-billed Hawaiian honeycreepers. Z. japonicus were responsible for over 80% of visits to flowers of the small-flowered C. parviflora and the midsize-flowered C. montis-loa. Z. japonicus-visited flowers set significantly more seed than did bagged flowers. Z. japonicus also demonstrated the potential to act as an occasional Clermontia seed disperser, although ground-based frugivory by non-native mammals likely dominates seed dispersal. The large-flowered C. hawaiiensis received no visitation by any birds during observations. Unmanipulated and bagged C. hawaiiensis flowers set similar numbers of seeds. Direct examination of Z. japonicus and Clermontia morphologies suggests a mismatch between Z. japonicus bill morphology and C. hawaiiensis flower morphology. In combination, our results suggest that Z. japonicus has established an effective pollination relationship with C. parviflora and C. montis-loa and that the large flowers of C. hawaiiensis preclude effective visitation by Z. japonicus. PMID:24372761

  4. Conservation priorities in a biodiversity hotspot: analysis of narrow endemic plant species in New Caledonia.

    PubMed

    Wulff, Adrien S; Hollingsworth, Peter M; Ahrends, Antje; Jaffré, Tanguy; Veillon, Jean-Marie; L'Huillier, Laurent; Fogliani, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    New Caledonia is a global biodiversity hotspot facing extreme environmental degradation. Given the urgent need for conservation prioritisation, we have made a first-pass quantitative assessment of the distribution of Narrow Endemic Species (NES) in the flora to identify species and sites that are potentially important for conservation action. We assessed the distributional status of all angiosperm and gymnosperm species using data from taxonomic descriptions and herbarium samples. We characterised species as being NES if they occurred in 3 or fewer locations. In total, 635 of the 2930 assessed species were classed as NES, of which only 150 have been subjected to the IUCN conservation assessment. As the distributional patterns of un-assessed species from one or two locations correspond well with assessed species which have been classified as Critically Endangered or Endangered respectively, we suggest that our distributional data can be used to prioritise species for IUCN assessment. We also used the distributional data to produce a map of "Hotspots of Plant Narrow Endemism" (HPNE). Combined, we used these data to evaluate the coincidence of NES with mining activities (a major source of threat on New Caledonia) and also areas of conservation protection. This is to identify species and locations in most urgent need of further conservation assessment and subsequent action. Finally, we grouped the NES based on the environments they occurred in and modelled the habitat distribution of these groups with a Maximum Entropy Species Distribution Model (MaxEnt). The NES were separable into three different groups based primarily on geological differences. The distribution of the habitat types for each group coincide partially with the HPNE described above and also indicates some areas which have high habitat suitability but few recorded NES. Some of these areas may represent under-sampled hotspots of narrow endemism and are priorities for further field work. PMID:24058470

  5. Transcriptome sequencing and simple sequence repeat marker development for three Macaronesian endemic plant species1

    PubMed Central

    White, Oliver W.; Doo, Bethany; Carine, Mark A.; Chapman, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: Oceanic islands offer unparalleled opportunities to investigate evolutionary processes such as adaptation and speciation. However, few genomic resources are available for oceanic island endemics. In this study, we publish transcriptome sequences from three Macaronesian endemic plant species (Argyranthemum broussonetii [Asteraceae], Descurainia bourgaeana [Brassicaceae], and Echium wildpretii [Boraginaceae]) that are representative of lineages that have radiated in the region. In addition, the utility of transcriptome data for marker development is demonstrated. Methods and Results: Transcriptomes from the three plant species were sequenced, assembled, and annotated. Between 1972 and 2282 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were identified for each taxon. Primers were designed and tested for 30 of the candidate SSRs identified in Argyranthemum, of which 12 amplified well across three species and eight were polymorphic. Conclusions: We demonstrate here that a single transcriptome sequence is sufficient to identify hundreds of polymorphic SSR markers. The SSRs are applicable to a wide range of questions relating to the evolution of island lineages. PMID:27610280

  6. Conservation Priorities in a Biodiversity Hotspot: Analysis of Narrow Endemic Plant Species in New Caledonia

    PubMed Central

    Wulff, Adrien S.; Hollingsworth, Peter M.; Ahrends, Antje; Jaffré, Tanguy; Veillon, Jean-Marie; L’Huillier, Laurent; Fogliani, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    New Caledonia is a global biodiversity hotspot facing extreme environmental degradation. Given the urgent need for conservation prioritisation, we have made a first-pass quantitative assessment of the distribution of Narrow Endemic Species (NES) in the flora to identify species and sites that are potentially important for conservation action. We assessed the distributional status of all angiosperm and gymnosperm species using data from taxonomic descriptions and herbarium samples. We characterised species as being NES if they occurred in 3 or fewer locations. In total, 635 of the 2930 assessed species were classed as NES, of which only 150 have been subjected to the IUCN conservation assessment. As the distributional patterns of un-assessed species from one or two locations correspond well with assessed species which have been classified as Critically Endangered or Endangered respectively, we suggest that our distributional data can be used to prioritise species for IUCN assessment. We also used the distributional data to produce a map of “Hotspots of Plant Narrow Endemism” (HPNE). Combined, we used these data to evaluate the coincidence of NES with mining activities (a major source of threat on New Caledonia) and also areas of conservation protection. This is to identify species and locations in most urgent need of further conservation assessment and subsequent action. Finally, we grouped the NES based on the environments they occurred in and modelled the habitat distribution of these groups with a Maximum Entropy Species Distribution Model (MaxEnt). The NES were separable into three different groups based primarily on geological differences. The distribution of the habitat types for each group coincide partially with the HPNE described above and also indicates some areas which have high habitat suitability but few recorded NES. Some of these areas may represent under-sampled hotspots of narrow endemism and are priorities for further field work. PMID:24058470

  7. Molecular Systematics of Threatened Seed Plant Species Endemic in the Caribbean Islands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A review of available Caribbean Island red-lists species (CR and EN categories based on the IUCN guidelines from 2001, and E category established according to the IUCN guidelines from 1980) is presented. A database of at least 1,300 endemic species that are either Critically Endangered or Endangered...

  8. Environmental impact of Mt. Etna's degassing: volcanogenic trace elements bioaccumulation in two endemic plant species (Senecio aethnensis and Rumex aethnensis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Alessandro, Walter; Calabrese, Sergio; Bellomo, Sergio; Brusca, Lorenzo; di Maio, Giuseppe; Parello, Francesco; Saiano, Filippo

    2010-05-01

    A biomonitoring survey, above tree line level, using two endemic species (Senecio aethnensis and Rumex aethnensis) was performed on Mt. Etna, in order to evaluate the dispersion and the impact of volcanic atmospheric emissions. Samples of leaves were collected in summer 2008 from 30 sites in the upper part of the volcano (1500-3000 m a.s.l). Acid digestion of samples was carried out with a microwave oven, and 44 elements were analyzed by using plasma spectrometry (ICP-MS and ICP-OES). The highest concentrations of all investigated elements were found in the samples collected closest to the degassing craters, and in the downwind sector, confirming that the eastern flank of Mt. Etna is the most impacted by volcanic emissions. Leaves collected along two radial transects from the active vents on the eastern flank, highlight that the levels of metals decrease one or two orders of magnitude with increasing distance from the source. This variability is higher for volatile elements (As, Bi, Cd, Cs, Pb, Sb, Tl) than for more refractory elements (Al, Ba, Sc, Si, Sr, Th, U). The two different species of plants do not show significant differences in the bioaccumulation of most of the analyzed elements, except for lanthanides, which are systematically enriched in Rumex leaves. The high concentrations of many toxic elements in the leaves allow us to consider these plants as highly tolerant species to the volcanic emissions, and suitable for biomonitoring researches in the Mt. Etna area.

  9. Interpretation of patterns of genetic variation in endemic plant species of oceanic islands

    PubMed Central

    Stuessy, Tod F; Takayama, Koji; López-Sepúlveda, Patricio; Crawford, Daniel J

    2014-01-01

    Oceanic islands offer special opportunities for understanding the patterns and processes of evolution. The availability of molecular markers in recent decades has enhanced these opportunities, facilitating the use of population genetics to reveal divergence and speciation in island systems. A common pattern seen in taxa on oceanic islands is a decreased level of genetic variation within and among populations, and the founder effect has often been invoked to explain this observation. Founder effects have a major impact on immigrant populations, but, over millions of years, the original genetic signature will normally be erased as a result of mutation, recombination, drift and selection. Therefore, the types and degrees of genetic modifications that occur must often be caused by other factors, which should be considered when explaining the patterns of genetic variation. The age of the island is extremely important because oceanic islands subside on their submarine plates over time. Erosion caused by wind, rain and wave action combine to grind down soft volcanic substrates. These geomorphological events can have a dramatic impact on population number and size, and hence levels of genetic diversity. The mode of speciation is also of significance. With anagenesis, genetic variation accumulates through time, whereas, with cladogenenesis, the gene pool splits into populations of adaptively radiating species. Breeding systems, population sizes and generation times are also important, as is hybridization between closely related taxa. Human disturbance has affected plant population number and size through the harvesting of forests and the introduction of invasive plants and animals. Therefore, the explanation of the observed levels of genetic variation in species of oceanic islands requires the consideration of many interconnected physical, biological and anthropomorphic factors. PMID:26074627

  10. Elevational Gradient of Vascular Plant Species Richness and Endemism in Crete – The Effect of Post-Isolation Mountain Uplift on a Continental Island System

    PubMed Central

    Trigas, Panayiotis; Panitsa, Maria; Tsiftsis, Spyros

    2013-01-01

    Understanding diversity patterns along environmental gradients and their underlying mechanisms is a major topic in current biodiversity research. In this study, we investigate for the first time elevational patterns of vascular plant species richness and endemism on a long-isolated continental island (Crete) that has experienced extensive post-isolation mountain uplift. We used all available data on distribution and elevational ranges of the Cretan plants to interpolate their presence between minimum and maximum elevations in 100-m elevational intervals, along the entire elevational gradient of Crete (0–2400 m). We evaluate the influence of elevation, area, mid-domain effect, elevational Rapoport effect and the post-isolation mountain uplift on plant species richness and endemism elevational patterns. Furthermore, we test the influence of the island condition and the post-isolation mountain uplift to the elevational range sizes of the Cretan plants, using the Peloponnese as a continental control area. Total species richness monotonically decreases with increasing elevation, while endemic species richness has a unimodal response to elevation showing a peak at mid-elevation intervals. Area alone explains a significant amount of variation in species richness along the elevational gradient. Mid-domain effect is not the underlying mechanism of the elevational gradient of plant species richness in Crete, and Rapoport's rule only partly explains the observed patterns. Our results are largely congruent with the post-isolation uplift of the Cretan mountains and their colonization mainly by the available lowland vascular plant species, as high-elevation specialists are almost lacking from the Cretan flora. The increase in the proportion of Cretan endemics with increasing elevation can only be regarded as a result of diversification processes towards Cretan mountains (especially mid-elevation areas), supported by elevation-driven ecological isolation. Cretan plants have

  11. Genetic diversity of an Azorean endemic and endangered plant species inferred from inter-simple sequence repeat markers.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Maria S; Mendonça, Duarte; Bettencourt, Sílvia X; Borba, Ana R; Melo, Catarina; Baptista, Cláudio; da Câmara Machado, Artur

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of the levels and distribution of genetic diversity is important for designing conservation strategies for threatened and endangered species so as to guarantee sustainable survival of populations and to preserve their evolutionary potential. Picconia azorica is a valuable Azorean endemic species recently classified as endangered. To contribute with information useful for the establishment of conservation programmes, the genetic variability and differentiation among 230 samples from 11 populations collected in three Azorean islands was accessed with eight inter-simple sequence repeat markers. A total of 64 polymorphic loci were detected. The majority of genetic variability was found within populations and no genetic structure was detected between populations and between islands. Also the coefficient of genetic differentiation and the level of gene flow indicate that geographical distances do not act as barriers for gene flow. In order to ensure the survival of populations in situ and ex situ management practices should be considered, including artificial propagation through the use of plant tissue culture techniques, not only for the restoration of habitat but also for the sustainable use of its valuable wood. PMID:24969504

  12. Shifts in Species Interactions Due to the Evolution of Functional Differences between Endemics and Non-Endemics: An Endemic Syndrome Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Gorman, Courtney E.; Potts, Brad M.; Schweitzer, Jennifer A.; Bailey, Joseph K.

    2014-01-01

    Species ranges have been shifting since the Pleistocene, whereby fragmentation, isolation, and the subsequent reduction in gene flow have resulted in local adaptation of novel genotypes and the repeated evolution of endemic species. While there is a wide body of literature focused on understanding endemic species, very few studies empirically test whether or not the evolution of endemics results in unique function or ecological differences relative to their widespread congeners; in particular while controlling for environmental variation. Using a common garden composed of 15 Eucalyptus species within the subgenus Symphyomyrtus (9 endemic to Tasmania, 6 non-endemic), here we hypothesize and show that endemic species are functionally and ecologically different from non-endemics. Compared to non-endemics, endemic Eucalyptus species have a unique suite of functional plant traits that have extended effects on herbivores. We found that while endemics occupy many diverse habitats, they share similar functional traits potentially resulting in an endemic syndrome of traits. This study provides one of the first empirical datasets analyzing the functional differences between endemics and non-endemics in a common garden setting, and establishes a foundation for additional studies of endemic/non-endemic dynamics that will be essential for understanding global biodiversity in the midst of rapid species extinctions and range shifts as a consequence of global change. PMID:25340402

  13. Shifts in species interactions due to the evolution of functional differences between endemics and non-endemics: an endemic syndrome hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Gorman, Courtney E; Potts, Brad M; Schweitzer, Jennifer A; Bailey, Joseph K

    2014-01-01

    Species ranges have been shifting since the Pleistocene, whereby fragmentation, isolation, and the subsequent reduction in gene flow have resulted in local adaptation of novel genotypes and the repeated evolution of endemic species. While there is a wide body of literature focused on understanding endemic species, very few studies empirically test whether or not the evolution of endemics results in unique function or ecological differences relative to their widespread congeners; in particular while controlling for environmental variation. Using a common garden composed of 15 Eucalyptus species within the subgenus Symphyomyrtus (9 endemic to Tasmania, 6 non-endemic), here we hypothesize and show that endemic species are functionally and ecologically different from non-endemics. Compared to non-endemics, endemic Eucalyptus species have a unique suite of functional plant traits that have extended effects on herbivores. We found that while endemics occupy many diverse habitats, they share similar functional traits potentially resulting in an endemic syndrome of traits. This study provides one of the first empirical datasets analyzing the functional differences between endemics and non-endemics in a common garden setting, and establishes a foundation for additional studies of endemic/non-endemic dynamics that will be essential for understanding global biodiversity in the midst of rapid species extinctions and range shifts as a consequence of global change. PMID:25340402

  14. Relationship between Maximum Leaf Photosynthesis, Nitrogen Content and Specific Leaf Area in Balearic Endemic and Non‐endemic Mediterranean Species

    PubMed Central

    GULÍAS, JAVIER; FLEXAS, JAUME; MUS, MAURICI; CIFRE, JOSEP; LEFI, ELKADRI; MEDRANO, HIPÓLITO

    2003-01-01

    Gas exchange parameters, leaf nitrogen content and specific leaf area (SLA) were measured in situ on 73 C3 and five C4 plant species in Mallorca, west Mediterranean, to test whether species endemic to the Balearic Islands differed from widespread, non‐endemic Mediterranean species and crops in their leaf traits and trait inter‐relationships. Endemic species differed significantly from widespread species and crops in several parameters; in particular, photosynthetic capacity, on an area basis (A), was 20 % less in endemics than in non‐endemics. Similar differences between endemics and non‐endemics were found in parameters such as SLA and leaf nitrogen content per area (Na). Nevertheless, most of the observed differences were found only within the herbaceous deciduous species. These could be due to the fact that most of the non‐endemic species within this group have adapted to ruderal areas, while none of the endemics occupies this kind of habitat. All the species—including the crops—showed a positive, highly significant correlation between photosynthetic capacity on a mass basis (Am), leaf nitrogen content on a mass basis (Nm) and SLA. However, endemic species had a lower Am for any given SLA and Nm. Hypotheses are presented to explain these differences, and their possible role in reducing the distribution of many endemic Balearic species is discussed. PMID:12805082

  15. Research into microscopic structure and essential oils of endemic medicinal plant species Satureja subspicata Bartl. ex Vis. (Lamiaceae).

    PubMed

    Redzić, Sulejman; Tuka, Mijat; Pajević, Anisa

    2006-05-01

    In this study we looked into the cells and histological organization of leaves (Saturejae folium) as well as a phyto-chemical composition of overground parts (Saturejae herba) of endemic species Satureja subspicata Bartl. ex Vis. (Lamiaceae) collected during year 2003 on south slopes of mountain Velez in Herzegovina. Microscopic organization was analyzed in wet slides using light microscope. Estimation of stomata index was done according to Ph. Yug. IV. Chemical composition of overground material extracts was determined by thin layer chromatography (TLC) using thymol as a reference. In our research we found the following: Leaf structure of the analyzed species Satureja subspicata points at numerous specificities in anatomical and histological sense. In histological sense, leaf is of ventral type, with differentiated upper and lower epidermis and palisade and spongy tissue in between. Stoma index assigned according to Ph. Yug. IV leads to a conclusion that it is the case of diastitic stomata, which is common feature of most species from Lamiaceae family. Comparative qualitative analysis of essential oils in species Satureja subspicata showed similarities with other species from Lamiaceae family such as Thymus L. (thymol). In fact, we found more common substances that are part of the species Satureja montana L. extract, but in different concentrations. PMID:16879109

  16. Evaluation of three endemic Mediterranean plant species Atriplex halimus, Medicago lupulina and Portulaca oleracea for Phytoremediation of Ni, Pb and Zn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chami, Ziad Al; Amer, Nasser; Bitar, Lina Al; Mondelli, Donato; Dumontet, Stefano

    2013-04-01

    The success of phytoremediation depends upon the identification of suitable plants species that hyperaccumulate/tolerate heavy metals and produce large amounts of biomass. In this study, three endemic Mediterranean plant species Atriplex halimus, Medicago lupulina and Portulaca oleracea, were grown hydroponically to assess their potential use in phytoremediation of Ni, Pb and Zn and biomass production. The objective of this research is to improve phytoremediation procedures by searching for a new endemic Mediterranean plant species which can be used for phytoremediation of low/moderate contamination in the Mediterranean arid and semiarid conditions and bioenergy production. The hydroponics experiment was carried out in a growth chamber using half strength Hoagland's solution as control (CTR) and 5 concentrations for Pb and Zn (5, 10, 25, 50 and 100 mg L-1) and 3 concentrations for Ni (1, 2, and 5 mg L-1). Complete randomized design with five replications was adopted. Main growth parameters (shoot and root dry weight, shoot and root length and chlorophyll content) were determined. Shoots and roots were analyzed for their metals contents. Some interesting contributions of this research are: (i) plant metal uptake efficiency ranked as follows: A. halimus > M. lupulina > P. oleracea, whereas heavy metal toxicity ranked as follows: Ni > Zn > Pb, (ii) none of the plant species was identified as hyperaccumulator, (iii) Atriplex halimus and Medicago lupulina can accumulate Ni, Pb and Zn in their roots, (iv) translocate small fraction to their above ground biomass, and (v) indicate moderate pollution levels of the environment. In addition, as they are a good biomass producer, they can be used in phytostabilisation of marginal lands and their above ground biomass can be used for livestock feeding as well for bioenergy production.

  17. Species delimitation in plants using the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau endemic Orinus (Poaceae: Tridentinae) as an example

    PubMed Central

    Su, Xu; Wu, Guili; Li, Lili; Liu, Jianquan

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Accurate identification of species is essential for the majority of biological studies. However, defining species objectively and consistently remains a challenge, especially for plants distributed in remote regions where there is often a lack of sufficient previous specimens. In this study, multiple approaches and lines of evidence were used to determine species boundaries for plants occurring in the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau, using the genus Orinus (Poaceae) as a model system for an integrative approach to delimiting species. Methods A total of 786 individuals from 102 populations of six previously recognized species were collected for niche, morphological and genetic analyses. Three plastid DNA regions (matK, rbcL and trnH-psbA) and one nuclear DNA region [internal transcribed space (ITS)] were sequenced. Key Results Whereas six species had been previously recognized, statistical analyses based on character variation, molecular data and niche differentiation identified only two well-delimited clusters, together with a third possibly originating from relatively recent hybridization between, or historical introgression from, the other two. Conclusions Based on a principle of integrative species delimitation to reconcile different sources of data, the results provide compelling evidence that the six previously recognized species of the genus Orinus that were examined should be reduced to two, with new circumscriptions, and a third, identified in this study, should be described as a new species. This empirical study highlights the value of applying genetic differentiation, morphometric statistics and ecological niche modelling in an integrative approach to re-circumscribing species boundaries. The results produce relatively objective, operational and unbiased taxonomic classifications of plants occurring in remote regions. PMID:25987712

  18. Screening of traditionally used endemic Soqotraen plants for cytotoxic activity.

    PubMed

    Ali, Nasser A Awadh; Mothana, Ramzi; Ghaleb, Nasr Abdo; Lindequist, Ulrike

    2007-01-01

    Thirty extracts obtained from 10 endemic plant species belonging to 8 plant families used in the traditional medicine in Socotra have been tested for cytotoxic activity against FL-cells. Extracts of Eureiandra balfourii and Commiphora ornifolia showed the strongest activity against FL-cells with IC(50) < 10 microg/ml and 39.3 microg/ml respectively. PMID:20161922

  19. Secondary Metabolites of Hypericum leptophyllum Hochst., an Endemic Turkish Species

    PubMed Central

    Camas, Necdet; Radusiene, Jolita; Stanius, Zydrunas; Caliskan, Omer; Cirak, Cuneyt

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, the presence of the phloroglucinol derivative hyperforin, the naphthodianthrones hypericin and pseudohypericin, the phenylpropane chlorogenic acid and the flavonoids rutin, hyperoside, kaempferol, isoquercetine, quercitrine, and quercetine was investigated in Hypericum leptophyllum Hochst., an endemic Turkish species for the first time. The aerial parts representing a total of 30 individuals were collected at full flowering and dissected into floral, leaf, and stem tissues. After being dried at room temperature, the plant materials were assayed for secondary metabolite concentrations by HPLC. Aerial plant parts accumulated chlorogenic acid, hyperoside, isoquercetine, quercitrine, and quercetine, but they did not accumulate hyperforin, hypericin, pseudohypericin, rutin, and kaempferol. Accumulation levels of the detected compounds varied with plant tissues. Such kind of data could be useful for elucidation of the chemotaxonomical significance of the corresponding compounds and phytochemical evaluation of this endemic species. PMID:22649295

  20. Secondary metabolites of Hypericum leptophyllum Hochst., an endemic Turkish species.

    PubMed

    Camas, Necdet; Radusiene, Jolita; Stanius, Zydrunas; Caliskan, Omer; Cirak, Cuneyt

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, the presence of the phloroglucinol derivative hyperforin, the naphthodianthrones hypericin and pseudohypericin, the phenylpropane chlorogenic acid and the flavonoids rutin, hyperoside, kaempferol, isoquercetine, quercitrine, and quercetine was investigated in Hypericum leptophyllum Hochst., an endemic Turkish species for the first time. The aerial parts representing a total of 30 individuals were collected at full flowering and dissected into floral, leaf, and stem tissues. After being dried at room temperature, the plant materials were assayed for secondary metabolite concentrations by HPLC. Aerial plant parts accumulated chlorogenic acid, hyperoside, isoquercetine, quercitrine, and quercetine, but they did not accumulate hyperforin, hypericin, pseudohypericin, rutin, and kaempferol. Accumulation levels of the detected compounds varied with plant tissues. Such kind of data could be useful for elucidation of the chemotaxonomical significance of the corresponding compounds and phytochemical evaluation of this endemic species. PMID:22649295

  1. Bird pollination of Canary Island endemic plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ollerton, Jeff; Cranmer, Louise; Stelzer, Ralph J.; Sullivan, Steve; Chittka, Lars

    2009-02-01

    The Canary Islands are home to a guild of endemic, threatened bird-pollinated plants. Previous work has suggested that these plants evolved floral traits as adaptations to pollination by flower specialist sunbirds, but subsequently, they appear to have co-opted generalist passerine birds as sub-optimal pollinators. To test this idea, we carried out a quantitative study of the pollination biology of three of the bird-pollinated plants, Canarina canariensis (Campanulaceae), Isoplexis canariensis (Veronicaceae) and Lotus berthelotii (Fabaceae), on the island of Tenerife. Using colour vision models, we predicted the detectability of flowers to bird and bee pollinators. We measured pollinator visitation rates, nectar standing crops as well as seed-set and pollen removal and deposition. These data showed that the plants are effectively pollinated by non-flower specialist passerine birds that only occasionally visit flowers. The large nectar standing crops and extended flower longevities (>10 days) of Canarina and Isoplexis suggests that they have evolved a bird pollination system that effectively exploits these low frequency non-specialist pollen vectors and is in no way sub-optimal. Seed set in two of the three species was high and was significantly reduced or zero in flowers where pollinator access was restricted. In L. berthelotii, however, no fruit set was observed, probably because the plants were self-incompatible horticultural clones of a single genet. We also show that, while all three species are easily detectable for birds, the orange Canarina and the red Lotus (but less so the yellow-orange Isoplexis) should be difficult to detect for insect pollinators without specialised red receptors, such as bumblebees. Contrary to expectations if we accept that the flowers are primarily adapted to sunbird pollination, the chiffchaff ( Phylloscopus canariensis) was an effective pollinator of these species.

  2. Patterns of Freshwater Species Richness, Endemism, and Vulnerability in California.

    PubMed

    Howard, Jeanette K; Klausmeyer, Kirk R; Fesenmyer, Kurt A; Furnish, Joseph; Gardali, Thomas; Grantham, Ted; Katz, Jacob V E; Kupferberg, Sarah; McIntyre, Patrick; Moyle, Peter B; Ode, Peter R; Peek, Ryan; Quiñones, Rebecca M; Rehn, Andrew C; Santos, Nick; Schoenig, Steve; Serpa, Larry; Shedd, Jackson D; Slusark, Joe; Viers, Joshua H; Wright, Amber; Morrison, Scott A

    2015-01-01

    The ranges and abundances of species that depend on freshwater habitats are declining worldwide. Efforts to counteract those trends are often hampered by a lack of information about species distribution and conservation status and are often strongly biased toward a few well-studied groups. We identified the 3,906 vascular plants, macroinvertebrates, and vertebrates native to California, USA, that depend on fresh water for at least one stage of their life history. We evaluated the conservation status for these taxa using existing government and non-governmental organization assessments (e.g., endangered species act, NatureServe), created a spatial database of locality observations or distribution information from ~400 data sources, and mapped patterns of richness, endemism, and vulnerability. Although nearly half of all taxa with conservation status (n = 1,939) are vulnerable to extinction, only 114 (6%) of those vulnerable taxa have a legal mandate for protection in the form of formal inclusion on a state or federal endangered species list. Endemic taxa are at greater risk than non-endemics, with 90% of the 927 endemic taxa vulnerable to extinction. Records with spatial data were available for a total of 2,276 species (61%). The patterns of species richness differ depending on the taxonomic group analyzed, but are similar across taxonomic level. No particular taxonomic group represents an umbrella for all species, but hotspots of high richness for listed species cover 40% of the hotspots for all other species and 58% of the hotspots for vulnerable freshwater species. By mapping freshwater species hotspots we show locations that represent the top priority for conservation action in the state. This study identifies opportunities to fill gaps in the evaluation of conservation status for freshwater taxa in California, to address the lack of occurrence information for nearly 40% of freshwater taxa and nearly 40% of watersheds in the state, and to implement adequate

  3. Patterns of Freshwater Species Richness, Endemism, and Vulnerability in California

    PubMed Central

    Furnish, Joseph; Gardali, Thomas; Grantham, Ted; Katz, Jacob V. E.; Kupferberg, Sarah; McIntyre, Patrick; Moyle, Peter B.; Ode, Peter R.; Peek, Ryan; Quiñones, Rebecca M.; Rehn, Andrew C.; Santos, Nick; Schoenig, Steve; Serpa, Larry; Shedd, Jackson D.; Slusark, Joe; Viers, Joshua H.; Wright, Amber; Morrison, Scott A.

    2015-01-01

    The ranges and abundances of species that depend on freshwater habitats are declining worldwide. Efforts to counteract those trends are often hampered by a lack of information about species distribution and conservation status and are often strongly biased toward a few well-studied groups. We identified the 3,906 vascular plants, macroinvertebrates, and vertebrates native to California, USA, that depend on fresh water for at least one stage of their life history. We evaluated the conservation status for these taxa using existing government and non-governmental organization assessments (e.g., endangered species act, NatureServe), created a spatial database of locality observations or distribution information from ~400 data sources, and mapped patterns of richness, endemism, and vulnerability. Although nearly half of all taxa with conservation status (n = 1,939) are vulnerable to extinction, only 114 (6%) of those vulnerable taxa have a legal mandate for protection in the form of formal inclusion on a state or federal endangered species list. Endemic taxa are at greater risk than non-endemics, with 90% of the 927 endemic taxa vulnerable to extinction. Records with spatial data were available for a total of 2,276 species (61%). The patterns of species richness differ depending on the taxonomic group analyzed, but are similar across taxonomic level. No particular taxonomic group represents an umbrella for all species, but hotspots of high richness for listed species cover 40% of the hotspots for all other species and 58% of the hotspots for vulnerable freshwater species. By mapping freshwater species hotspots we show locations that represent the top priority for conservation action in the state. This study identifies opportunities to fill gaps in the evaluation of conservation status for freshwater taxa in California, to address the lack of occurrence information for nearly 40% of freshwater taxa and nearly 40% of watersheds in the state, and to implement adequate

  4. Plant and animal endemism in the eastern Andean slope: challenges to conservation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Andes-Amazon basin of Peru and Bolivia is one of the most data-poor, biologically rich, and rapidly changing areas of the world. Conservation scientists agree that this area hosts extremely high endemism, perhaps the highest in the world, yet we know little about the geographic distributions of these species and ecosystems within country boundaries. To address this need, we have developed conservation data on endemic biodiversity (~800 species of birds, mammals, amphibians, and plants) and terrestrial ecological systems (~90; groups of vegetation communities resulting from the action of ecological processes, substrates, and/or environmental gradients) with which we conduct a fine scale conservation prioritization across the Amazon watershed of Peru and Bolivia. We modelled the geographic distributions of 435 endemic plants and all 347 endemic vertebrate species, from existing museum and herbaria specimens at a regional conservation practitioner's scale (1:250,000-1:1,000,000), based on the best available tools and geographic data. We mapped ecological systems, endemic species concentrations, and irreplaceable areas with respect to national level protected areas. Results We found that sizes of endemic species distributions ranged widely (< 20 km2 to > 200,000 km2) across the study area. Bird and mammal endemic species richness was greatest within a narrow 2500-3000 m elevation band along the length of the Andes Mountains. Endemic amphibian richness was highest at 1000-1500 m elevation and concentrated in the southern half of the study area. Geographical distribution of plant endemism was highly taxon-dependent. Irreplaceable areas, defined as locations with the highest number of species with narrow ranges, overlapped slightly with areas of high endemism, yet generally exhibited unique patterns across the study area by species group. We found that many endemic species and ecological systems are lacking national-level protection; a third of endemic

  5. Kenyan endemic bird species at home in novel ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Habel, Jan Christian; Teucher, Mike; Rödder, Dennis; Bleicher, Marie-Therese; Dieckow, Claudia; Wiese, Anja; Fischer, Christina

    2016-04-01

    Riparian thickets of East Africa harbor a large number of endemic animal and plant species, but also provide important ecosystem services for the human being settling along streams. This creates a conflicting situation between nature conservation and land-use activities. Today, most of this former pristine vegetation is highly degraded and became replaced by the invasive exotic Lantana camara shrub species. In this study, we analyze the movement behavior and habitat use of a diverse range of riparian bird species and model the habitat availability of each of these species. We selected the following four riparian bird species: Bare-eyed Thrush Turdus tephronotus, Rufous Chatterer Turdoides rubiginosus, Zanzibar Sombre Greenbul Andropadus importunus insularis, and the Kenyan endemic Hinde's Babbler Turdoides hindei. We collected telemetric data of 14 individuals during a 2 months radio-tracking campaign along the Nzeeu River in southeast Kenya. We found that (1) all four species had similar home-range sizes, all geographically restricted and nearby the river; (2) all species mainly use dense thicket, in particular the invasive L. camara; (3) human settlements were avoided by the bird individuals observed; (4) the birds' movement, indicating foraging behavior, was comparatively slow within thickets, but significantly faster over open, agricultural areas; and (5) habitat suitability models underline the relevance of L. camara as suitable surrogate habitat for all understoreyed bird species, but also show that the clearance of thickets has led to a vanishing of large and interconnected thickets and thus might have negative effects on the population viability in the long run. PMID:27066236

  6. Among-species differences in pollen quality and quantity limitation: implications for endemics in biodiverse hotspots

    PubMed Central

    Alonso, Conchita; Navarro-Fernández, Carmen M.; Arceo-Gómez, Gerardo; Meindl, George A.; Parra-Tabla, Víctor; Ashman, Tia-Lynn

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Insufficient pollination is a function of quantity and quality of pollen receipt, and the relative contribution of each to pollen limitation may vary with intrinsic plant traits and extrinsic ecological properties. Community-level studies are essential to evaluate variation across species in quality limitation under common ecological conditions. This study examined whether endemic species are more limited by pollen quantity or quality than non-endemic co-flowering species in three endemic-rich plant communities located in biodiversity hotspots of different continents (Andalusia, California and Yucatan). Methods Natural variations in pollen receipt and pollen tube formation were analysed for 20 insect-pollinated plants. Endemic and non-endemic species that co-flowered were paired in order to estimate and compare the quantity and quality components of pre-zygotic pollination success, obtained through piecewise regression analysis of the relationship between pollen grains and pollen tubes of naturally pollinated wilted flowers. Key Results Pollen tubes did not frequently exceed the number of ovules per flower. Only the combination of abundant and good quality pollen and a low number of ovules per flower conferred relief from pre-zygotic pollen limitation in the three stochastic pollination environments studied. Quality of pollen receipt was found to be as variable as quantity among study species. The relative pollination success of endemic and non-endemic species, and its quantity and quality components, was community dependent. Conclusions Assessing both quality and quantity of pollen receipt is key to determining the ovule fertilization potential of both endemic and widespread plants in biodiverse hotspot regions. Large natural variation among flowers of the same species in the two components and pollen tube formation deserves further analysis in order to estimate the environmental, phenotypic and intraindividual sources of variation that may

  7. A database on endemic plants at Tirumala hills in India

    PubMed Central

    Latheef, Shaik Abdul; Prasad, Beerkam; Bavaji, Middi; Subramanyam, Gangapatnam

    2008-01-01

    Medicinal plants play an important role in health care. The use of medicinal plants for treatment is growing in view of cost and non-compliance of modern medicine as in case of non-communicable diseases. Plants such as Boswellia, ovalifoliolata, Cycas beddomei, Pimpinella tirupatiensis, Pterocarpus santalinus, Shorea thumbuggaia, Syzygium alternifolium, Terminalia pallida are endemic to Tirumala hills of seshachalam range falling under the Eastern Ghats of India. These plants species have medicinal properties such as anti-tumorogenic, anti-microbial, purgative, hypoglycemic, abortificient, analgesic, anti-septic, anti-pyretic and anti-inflammatory. We created a database named DEPTH in an attempt to communicate data of these plants to the scientific community. DEPTH contains data on scientific name, vernacular name, family name, morphological description, economic importance, known medicinal compounds and medicinal importance. Availability http://svimstpt.ap.nic.in/MedicinalPlants/mainpage.htm PMID:18317578

  8. A global assessment of endemism and species richness across island and mainland regions

    PubMed Central

    Kier, Gerold; Kreft, Holger; Lee, Tien Ming; Jetz, Walter; Ibisch, Pierre L.; Nowicki, Christoph; Mutke, Jens; Barthlott, Wilhelm

    2009-01-01

    Endemism and species richness are highly relevant to the global prioritization of conservation efforts in which oceanic islands have remained relatively neglected. When compared to mainland areas, oceanic islands in general are known for their high percentage of endemic species but only moderate levels of species richness, prompting the question of their relative conservation value. Here we quantify geographic patterns of endemism-scaled richness (“endemism richness”) of vascular plants across 90 terrestrial biogeographic regions, including islands, worldwide and evaluate their congruence with terrestrial vertebrates. Endemism richness of plants and vertebrates is strongly related, and values on islands exceed those of mainland regions by a factor of 9.5 and 8.1 for plants and vertebrates, respectively. Comparisons of different measures of past and future human impact and land cover change further reveal marked differences between mainland and island regions. While island and mainland regions suffered equally from past habitat loss, we find the human impact index, a measure of current threat, to be significantly higher on islands. Projected land-cover changes for the year 2100 indicate that land-use-driven changes on islands might strongly increase in the future. Given their conservation risks, smaller land areas, and high levels of endemism richness, islands may offer particularly high returns for species conservation efforts and therefore warrant a high priority in global biodiversity conservation in this century. PMID:19470638

  9. A new species of Amphitecna (Bignoniaceae) endemic to Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Rodriguez, Andres Ernesto; Burelo Ramos, Carlos Manuel; Gomez-Dominguez, Héctor

    2016-01-01

    Amphitecna loreae Ortiz-Rodr. & Burelo, sp. nov. (Bignoniaceae), a new species endemic to the karst rainforest in southern Mexico, is described and illustrated. The new species differs from the other species of Amphitecna by the combination of cauliflorous inflorescences, larger flowers, buds rounded at apex, and globose-ellipsoid rather than acuminate fruits. A key to the Mexican species of Amphitecna is presented. PMID:27489485

  10. A new species of Amphitecna (Bignoniaceae) endemic to Chiapas, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz-Rodriguez, Andres Ernesto; Burelo Ramos, Carlos Manuel; Gomez-Dominguez, Héctor

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Amphitecna loreae Ortiz-Rodr. & Burelo, sp. nov. (Bignoniaceae), a new species endemic to the karst rainforest in southern Mexico, is described and illustrated. The new species differs from the other species of Amphitecna by the combination of cauliflorous inflorescences, larger flowers, buds rounded at apex, and globose-ellipsoid rather than acuminate fruits. A key to the Mexican species of Amphitecna is presented. PMID:27489485

  11. Species distribution modelling for conservation of an endangered endemic orchid

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hsiao-Hsuan; Wonkka, Carissa L.; Treglia, Michael L.; Grant, William E.; Smeins, Fred E.; Rogers, William E.

    2015-01-01

    Concerns regarding the long-term viability of threatened and endangered plant species are increasingly warranted given the potential impacts of climate change and habitat fragmentation on unstable and isolated populations. Orchidaceae is the largest and most diverse family of flowering plants, but it is currently facing unprecedented risks of extinction. Despite substantial conservation emphasis on rare orchids, populations continue to decline. Spiranthes parksii (Navasota ladies' tresses) is a federally and state-listed endangered terrestrial orchid endemic to central Texas. Hence, we aimed to identify potential factors influencing the distribution of the species, quantify the relative importance of each factor and determine suitable habitat for future surveys and targeted conservation efforts. We analysed several geo-referenced variables describing climatic conditions and landscape features to identify potential factors influencing the likelihood of occurrence of S. parksii using boosted regression trees. Our model classified 97 % of the cells correctly with regard to species presence and absence, and indicated that probability of existence was correlated with climatic conditions and landscape features. The most influential variables were mean annual precipitation, mean elevation, mean annual minimum temperature and mean annual maximum temperature. The most likely suitable range for S. parksii was the eastern portions of Leon and Madison Counties, the southern portion of Brazos County, a portion of northern Grimes County and along the borders between Burleson and Washington Counties. Our model can assist in the development of an integrated conservation strategy through: (i) focussing future survey and research efforts on areas with a high likelihood of occurrence, (ii) aiding in selection of areas for conservation and restoration and (iii) framing future research questions including those necessary for predicting responses to climate change. Our model could also

  12. Endemic Mimosa species from Mexico prefer alphaproteobacterial rhizobial symbionts.

    PubMed

    Bontemps, Cyril; Rogel, Marco Antonio; Wiechmann, Anja; Mussabekova, Assel; Moody, Sarah; Simon, Marcelo F; Moulin, Lionel; Elliott, Geoffrey N; Lacercat-Didier, Laurence; Dasilva, Cindy; Grether, Rosaura; Camargo-Ricalde, Sara L; Chen, Weimin; Sprent, Janet I; Martínez-Romero, Esperanza; Young, J Peter W; James, Euan K

    2016-01-01

    The legume genus Mimosa has > 500 species, with two major centres of diversity, Brazil (c. 350 spp.) and Mexico (c. 100 spp.). In Brazil most species are nodulated by Burkholderia. Here we asked whether this is also true of native and endemic Mexican species. We have tested this apparent affinity for betaproteobacteria by examining the symbionts of native and endemic species of Mimosa in Mexico, especially from the central highlands where Mimosa spp. have diversified. Nodules were tested for betaproteobacteria using in situ immunolocalization. Rhizobia isolated from the nodules were genetically characterized and tested for their ability to nodulate Mimosa spp. Immunological analysis of 25 host taxa suggested that most (including all the highland endemics) were not nodulated by betaproteobacteria. Phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA, recA, nodA, nodC and nifH genes from 87 strains isolated from 20 taxa confirmed that the endemic Mexican Mimosa species favoured alphaproteobacteria in the genera Rhizobium and Ensifer: this was confirmed by nodulation tests. Host phylogeny, geographic isolation and coevolution with symbionts derived from very different soils have potentially contributed to the striking difference in the choice of symbiotic partners by Mexican and Brazilian Mimosa species. PMID:26214613

  13. Cytotoxicity screening of endemic plants from Guayana highlands.

    PubMed

    Guil-Guerrero, José Luis; Campra, Pablo

    2009-08-01

    A chemical-ecology approach has been used to screen plants growing in Guyana Highlands as an indicator of production of biologically active secondary metabolites. Extracts of leaves from 19 species, most of them endemic in this area, and collected at the top of Roraima Tepui (2,723 m) were screened in vitro at different concentrations for their potential cytotoxic activity against three tumour cell lines: HT29 (colon), A549 (lung) and MDA-MB-231 (breast). MTT (tetrazolium blue) colorimetric assay was employed as cytotoxicity test. Extracts of nine species caused less than 30% growth in at least one cell line. From these species, high cytotoxic activity was detected in Casearia sylvestris var. lingua and Ledotamnus sessiliflorus extracts; medium activity was found in Cyathea sp. Two other species, Cyrilla racemiflora and Heliamphora minor showed lower but significant cytotoxicity. Further cytotoxicity-directed fractionation of these extracts would be advisable to isolate and identify the active principles of these plants. PMID:19901901

  14. Plant growth inhibitory activity of p-hydroxyacetophenones and tremetones from Chilean endemic Baccharis species and some analogous: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Céspedes, Carlos L; Uchoa, Adjaci; Salazar, Juan R; Perich, Fernando; Pardo, Fernando

    2002-04-10

    Plant growth inhibitory effects of acetophenones 1-6, tremetones 7-12, and MeOH and CH(2)Cl(2) extracts from the aerial parts of Baccharis linnearis, Baccharis magellanica, and Baccharis umbelliformis collected in Chile were assayed as growth inhibitory activity in ranges of 10-500 microM and 0.1-150 ppm, respectively. The effects on seedling growth, germination, and respiration of ryegrass, lettuce, green tomato, and red clover weedy target species were measured. In addition to the inhibitory activity on bleaching of crocin induced by alkoxyl radicals, these compounds also demonstrated scavenging properties toward 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl in thin-layer chromatography autographic and spectrophotometric assays. In addition, acetophenones and tremetones also showed inhibition of H(+) uptake and oxygen uptake respiration in isolated chloroplasts and mitochondria, respectively. Our results indicate that 1, 4, 7-12, and CH(2)Cl(2) extracts interfere with the dicot preemergence properties, mainly energy metabolism of the seeds at the level of respiration. These compounds appear to have selective effects on the radicle more than shoot growth of dicot seeds. Also, the levels of radicle inhibition obtained with some compounds on Physalis ixocarpa and Trifolium pratense are totally comparable to those of ovatifolin, a known natural growth inhibitor. This behavior might be responsible for its plant growth inhibitory properties and its possible role as an allelopathic agent. PMID:11929285

  15. Global patterns of freshwater species diversity, threat and endemism

    PubMed Central

    Collen, Ben; Whitton, Felix; Dyer, Ellie E; Baillie, Jonathan E M; Cumberlidge, Neil; Darwall, William R T; Pollock, Caroline; Richman, Nadia I; Soulsby, Anne-Marie; Böhm, Monika

    2014-01-01

    Aim Global-scale studies are required to identify broad-scale patterns in the distributions of species, to evaluate the processes that determine diversity and to determine how similar or different these patterns and processes are among different groups of freshwater species. Broad-scale patterns of spatial variation in species distribution are central to many fundamental questions in macroecology and conservation biology. We aimed to evaluate how congruent three commonly used metrics of diversity were among taxa for six groups of freshwater species. Location Global. Methods We compiled geographical range data on 7083 freshwater species of mammals, amphibians, reptiles, fishes, crabs and crayfish to evaluate how species richness, richness of threatened species and endemism are distributed across freshwater ecosystems. We evaluated how congruent these measures of diversity were among taxa at a global level for a grid cell size of just under 1°. Results We showed that although the risk of extinction faced by freshwater decapods is quite similar to that of freshwater vertebrates, there is a distinct lack of spatial congruence in geographical range between different taxonomic groups at this spatial scale, and a lack of congruence among three commonly used metrics of biodiversity. The risk of extinction for freshwater species was consistently higher than for their terrestrial counterparts. Main conclusions We demonstrate that broad-scale patterns of species richness, threatened-species richness and endemism lack congruence among the six freshwater taxonomic groups examined. Invertebrate species are seldom taken into account in conservation planning. Our study suggests that both the metric of biodiversity and the identity of the taxa on which conservation decisions are based require careful consideration. As geographical range information becomes available for further sets of species, further testing will be warranted into the extent to which geographical variation in

  16. Climatic Factors Drive Population Divergence and Demography: Insights Based on the Phylogeography of a Riparian Plant Species Endemic to the Hengduan Mountains and Adjacent Regions

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhi-Wei; Chen, Shao-Tian; Nie, Ze-Long; Zhang, Jian-Wen; Zhou, Zhuo; Deng, Tao; Sun, Hang

    2015-01-01

    Quaternary climatic factors have played a significant role in population divergence and demography. Here we investigated the phylogeography of Osteomeles schwerinae, a dominant riparian plant species of the hot/warm-dry river valleys of the Hengduan Mountains (HDM), Qinling Mountains (QLM) and Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau (YGP). Three chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) regions (trnD-trnT, psbD-trnT, petL-psbE), one single copy nuclear gene (glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase; G3pdh), and climatic data during the Last Interglacial (LIG; c. 120–140 ka), Last Glacial Maximum (LGM; c. 21 ka), and Current (c. 1950–2000) periods were used in this study. Six cpDNA haplotypes and 15 nuclear DNA (nDNA) haplotypes were identified in the 40 populations of O. schwerinae. Spatial Analysis of Molecular Variance, median-joining networks, and Bayesian phylogenetic trees based on the cpDNA and nDNA datasets, all suggested population divergence between the QLM and HDM-YGP regions. Our climatic analysis identified significant heterogeneity of the climatic factors in the QLM and HDM-YGP regions during the aforementioned three periods. The divergence times based on cpDNA and nDNA haplotypes were estimated to be 466.4–159.4 ka and 315.8–160.3 ka, respectively, which coincide with the time of the weakening of the Asian monsoons in these regions. In addition, unimodal pairwise mismatch distribution curves, expansion times, and Ecological Niche Modeling suggested a history of population expansion (rather than contraction) during the last glaciation. Interestingly, the expansion times were found being well consistent with the intensification of the Asian monsoons during this period. We inferred that the divergence between the two main lineages is probably caused by disruption of more continuous distribution because of weakening of monsoons/less precipitation, whilst subsequent intensification of the Asian monsoons during the last glaciation facilitated the expansion of O. schwerinae

  17. Endemicity and evolutionary value: a study of Chilean endemic vascular plant genera

    PubMed Central

    Scherson, Rosa A; Albornoz, Abraham A; Moreira-Muñoz, Andrés S; Urbina-Casanova, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    This study uses phylogeny-based measures of evolutionary potential (phylogenetic diversity and community structure) to evaluate the evolutionary value of vascular plant genera endemic to Chile. Endemicity is regarded as a very important consideration for conservation purposes. Taxa that are endemic to a single country are valuable conservation targets, as their protection depends upon a single government policy. This is especially relevant in developing countries in which conservation is not always a high resource allocation priority. Phylogeny-based measures of evolutionary potential such as phylogenetic diversity (PD) have been regarded as meaningful measures of the “value” of taxa and ecosystems, as they are able to account for the attributes that could allow taxa to recover from environmental changes. Chile is an area of remarkable endemism, harboring a flora that shows the highest number of endemic genera in South America. We studied PD and community structure of this flora using a previously available supertree at the genus level, to which we added DNA sequences of 53 genera endemic to Chile. Using discrepancy values and a null model approach, we decoupled PD from taxon richness, in order to compare their geographic distribution over a one-degree grid. An interesting pattern was observed in which areas to the southwest appear to harbor more PD than expected by their generic richness than those areas to the north of the country. In addition, some southern areas showed more PD than expected by chance, as calculated with the null model approach. Geological history as documented by the study of ancient floras as well as glacial refuges in the coastal range of southern Chile during the quaternary seem to be consistent with the observed pattern, highlighting the importance of this area for conservation purposes. PMID:24683462

  18. Endemicity and evolutionary value: a study of Chilean endemic vascular plant genera.

    PubMed

    Scherson, Rosa A; Albornoz, Abraham A; Moreira-Muñoz, Andrés S; Urbina-Casanova, Rafael

    2014-03-01

    This study uses phylogeny-based measures of evolutionary potential (phylogenetic diversity and community structure) to evaluate the evolutionary value of vascular plant genera endemic to Chile. Endemicity is regarded as a very important consideration for conservation purposes. Taxa that are endemic to a single country are valuable conservation targets, as their protection depends upon a single government policy. This is especially relevant in developing countries in which conservation is not always a high resource allocation priority. Phylogeny-based measures of evolutionary potential such as phylogenetic diversity (PD) have been regarded as meaningful measures of the "value" of taxa and ecosystems, as they are able to account for the attributes that could allow taxa to recover from environmental changes. Chile is an area of remarkable endemism, harboring a flora that shows the highest number of endemic genera in South America. We studied PD and community structure of this flora using a previously available supertree at the genus level, to which we added DNA sequences of 53 genera endemic to Chile. Using discrepancy values and a null model approach, we decoupled PD from taxon richness, in order to compare their geographic distribution over a one-degree grid. An interesting pattern was observed in which areas to the southwest appear to harbor more PD than expected by their generic richness than those areas to the north of the country. In addition, some southern areas showed more PD than expected by chance, as calculated with the null model approach. Geological history as documented by the study of ancient floras as well as glacial refuges in the coastal range of southern Chile during the quaternary seem to be consistent with the observed pattern, highlighting the importance of this area for conservation purposes. PMID:24683462

  19. Lignans from the Australian Endemic Plant Austrobaileya scandens.

    PubMed

    Tran, Trong D; Pham, Ngoc B; Booth, Ron; Forster, Paul I; Quinn, Ronald J

    2016-06-24

    The sole species of the vascular plant family Austrobaileyaceae, Austrobaileya scandens, is endemic to the tropical rainforest of northeastern Queensland, Australia. A single lead-like enhanced fraction of A. scandens showed potent inhibition against human prostate cancer PC3 cells. Chemical investigation of this plant resulted in the isolation of two new aryltetralin lignans, austrobailignans 8 and 9 (1 and 2), and the synthetic compound nicotlactone B (3), newly identified as a natural product together with nine known lignans (4-12). Their structures were established on the basis of spectroscopic analyses. Absolute configurations of the new compounds were determined by quantum chemical electronic circular dichroism (ECD) calculations employing time-dependent density functional theory. The ECD calculations were also used to assign the absolute configuration of marphenol K (4) and revise the absolute configuration of kadsurindutin C (20). Ten out of the 12 isolated compounds inhibited the growth of PC3 cells with IC50 values ranging from micromolar to nanomolar. Marphenol A (5) was found for the first time to induce apoptosis and arrest the S cell cycle phase of PC3 cells. PMID:27214307

  20. The Scirtothrips dorsalis Species Complex: Endemism and Invasion in a Global Pest

    PubMed Central

    Dickey, Aaron M.; Kumar, Vivek; Hoddle, Mark S.; Funderburk, Joe E.; Morgan, J. Kent; Jara-Cavieres, Antonella; Shatters, Robert G. Jr.; Osborne, Lance S.; McKenzie, Cindy L.

    2015-01-01

    Invasive arthropods pose unique management challenges in various environments, the first of which is correct identification. This apparently mundane task is particularly difficult if multiple species are morphologically indistinguishable but accurate identification can be determined with DNA barcoding provided an adequate reference set is available. Scirtothrips dorsalis is a highly polyphagous plant pest with a rapidly expanding global distribution and this species, as currently recognized, may be comprised of cryptic species. Here we report the development of a comprehensive DNA barcode library for S. dorsalis and seven nuclear markers via next-generation sequencing for identification use within the complex. We also report the delimitation of nine cryptic species and two morphologically distinguishable species comprising the S. dorsalis species complex using histogram analysis of DNA barcodes, Bayesian phylogenetics, and the multi-species coalescent. One member of the complex, here designated the South Asia 1 cryptic species, is highly invasive, polyphagous, and likely the species implicated in tospovirus transmission. Two other species, South Asia 2, and East Asia 1 are also highly polyphagous and appear to be at an earlier stage of global invasion. The remaining members of the complex are regionally endemic, varying in their pest status and degree of polyphagy. In addition to patterns of invasion and endemism, our results provide a framework both for identifying members of the complex based on their DNA barcode, and for future species delimiting efforts. PMID:25893251

  1. The Scirtothrips dorsalis Species Complex: Endemism and Invasion in a Global Pest.

    PubMed

    Dickey, Aaron M; Kumar, Vivek; Hoddle, Mark S; Funderburk, Joe E; Morgan, J Kent; Jara-Cavieres, Antonella; Shatters, Robert G; Osborne, Lance S; McKenzie, Cindy L

    2015-01-01

    Invasive arthropods pose unique management challenges in various environments, the first of which is correct identification. This apparently mundane task is particularly difficult if multiple species are morphologically indistinguishable but accurate identification can be determined with DNA barcoding provided an adequate reference set is available. Scirtothrips dorsalis is a highly polyphagous plant pest with a rapidly expanding global distribution and this species, as currently recognized, may be comprised of cryptic species. Here we report the development of a comprehensive DNA barcode library for S. dorsalis and seven nuclear markers via next-generation sequencing for identification use within the complex. We also report the delimitation of nine cryptic species and two morphologically distinguishable species comprising the S. dorsalis species complex using histogram analysis of DNA barcodes, Bayesian phylogenetics, and the multi-species coalescent. One member of the complex, here designated the South Asia 1 cryptic species, is highly invasive, polyphagous, and likely the species implicated in tospovirus transmission. Two other species, South Asia 2, and East Asia 1 are also highly polyphagous and appear to be at an earlier stage of global invasion. The remaining members of the complex are regionally endemic, varying in their pest status and degree of polyphagy. In addition to patterns of invasion and endemism, our results provide a framework both for identifying members of the complex based on their DNA barcode, and for future species delimiting efforts. PMID:25893251

  2. Managing Conservation Reliant Species: Hawai'i's Endangered Endemic Waterbirds

    PubMed Central

    Underwood, Jared G.; Silbernagle, Mike; Nishimoto, Mike; Uyehara, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Hawai'I's coastal plain wetlands are inhabited by five endangered endemic waterbird species. These include the Hawaiian Coot ('alae ke'oke'o), Hawaiian Duck (koloa maoli), Hawaiian Stilt (ae'o), Hawaiian Gallinule (Moorhen) ('alae 'ula), and Hawaiian Goose (nēnē). All five species are categorized as being “conservation reliant.” The current strategy to recover these endangered birds includes land protection and active management of wetlands. To assess the effectiveness of the current management paradigm, we compared species population trends across the state to those on six actively managed wetland national wildlife refuges (Refuges) thought to be critical for the survival of these endangered species. To perform the evaluation we relied on systematic semiannual population counts that have been conducted across most wetlands in the state and monthly population counts that have occurred on Refuges during the same time period. We found that statewide and Refuge populations of the Hawaiian Coot, Stilt and Gallinule have rebounded from historic lows and over the last 20 years have slowly increased or remained stable. We also documented that Refuges are important to each species year-round and that a disproportionately larger percentage of the population for each species is found on them. Understanding of why Refuges successfully house a disproportionate percentage of these “conservation reliant” species can inform current and future conservation efforts as well as ensure long-term population viability for these species. PMID:23825687

  3. Managing conservation reliant species: Hawai'i's endangered endemic waterbirds.

    PubMed

    Underwood, Jared G; Silbernagle, Mike; Nishimoto, Mike; Uyehara, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Hawai'I's coastal plain wetlands are inhabited by five endangered endemic waterbird species. These include the Hawaiian Coot ('alae ke'oke'o), Hawaiian Duck (koloa maoli), Hawaiian Stilt (ae'o), Hawaiian Gallinule (Moorhen) ('alae 'ula), and Hawaiian Goose (nēnē). All five species are categorized as being "conservation reliant." The current strategy to recover these endangered birds includes land protection and active management of wetlands. To assess the effectiveness of the current management paradigm, we compared species population trends across the state to those on six actively managed wetland national wildlife refuges (Refuges) thought to be critical for the survival of these endangered species. To perform the evaluation we relied on systematic semiannual population counts that have been conducted across most wetlands in the state and monthly population counts that have occurred on Refuges during the same time period. We found that statewide and Refuge populations of the Hawaiian Coot, Stilt and Gallinule have rebounded from historic lows and over the last 20 years have slowly increased or remained stable. We also documented that Refuges are important to each species year-round and that a disproportionately larger percentage of the population for each species is found on them. Understanding of why Refuges successfully house a disproportionate percentage of these "conservation reliant" species can inform current and future conservation efforts as well as ensure long-term population viability for these species. PMID:23825687

  4. Patterns of genetic diversity in three plant lineages endemic to the Cape Verde Islands.

    PubMed

    Romeiras, Maria M; Monteiro, Filipa; Duarte, M Cristina; Schaefer, Hanno; Carine, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Conservation of plant diversity on islands relies on a good knowledge of the taxonomy, distribution and genetic diversity of species. In recent decades, a combination of morphology- and DNA-based approaches has become the standard for investigating island plant lineages and this has led, in some cases, to the discovery of previously overlooked diversity, including 'cryptic species'. The flora of the Cape Verde archipelago in the North Atlantic is currently thought to comprise ∼740 vascular plant species, 92 of them endemics. Despite the fact that it is considered relatively well known, there has been a 12 % increase in the number of endemics in the last two decades. Relatively few of the Cape Verde plant lineages have been included in genetic studies so far and little is known about the patterns of diversification in the archipelago. Here we present an updated list for the endemic Cape Verde flora and analyse diversity patterns for three endemic plant lineages (Cynanchum, Globularia and Umbilicus) based on one nuclear (ITS) and four plastid DNA regions. In all three lineages, we find genetic variation. In Cynanchum, we find two distinct haplotypes with no clear geographical pattern, possibly reflecting different ploidy levels. In Globularia and Umbilicus, differentiation is evident between populations from northern and southern islands. Isolation and drift resulting from the small and fragmented distributions, coupled with the significant distances separating the northern and southern islands, could explain this pattern. Overall, our study suggests that the diversity in the endemic vascular flora of Cape Verde is higher than previously thought and further work is necessary to characterize the flora. PMID:25979965

  5. Genetic differentiation and karyotype variation in Hedysarum chaiyrakanicum, an endemic species of Tuva Republic, Russia.

    PubMed

    Zvyagina, Natalia S; Dorogina, Olga V; Krasnikov, Alexander A

    2016-05-01

    Overgrazing and mining affect vegetation, particularly in mountains. At times, it goes to such an extent that the plant species become vulnerable and slowly extinct from its habitat. Such endemic species need to be protected. One such endemic species Hedysarum chaiyrakanicum Kurbatsky, a vulnerable steppe vegetation of Tuva Republic, Russia was evaluated for its genetic diversity and taxonomic definition using molecular technique and chromosome number adjustment. The genetic differentiation among H. chaiyrakanicum, H. setigerum Turcz. and H. gmelinii Ledeb. genotypes was determined using five inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers and then examined with Nei's genetic distance coefficient (D) and Shannon's information index (H). A total of 134 reproducible bands were detected with polymorphism percentage of 98%. The genetic diversity of H. chaiyrakanicum was found to be 0.343 while the Shannon index H(sp) was determined as 8 06. The chromosome number 2n = 16 is newly observed within the H. chaiyrakanicum. The genetic relationship based on ISSR data supported the taxonomic distinction of H. chaiyrakanicum from H. setigerum and H. gmelinii. We recommend both in situ and ex situ conservation strategies, specially germplasm sampling, to save this endemic species. PMID:27319053

  6. Population Genetics of the Endemic Hawaiian Species Chrysodracon hawaiiensis and Chrysodracon auwahiensis (Asparagaceae): Insights from RAPD and ISSR Variation

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Pei-Luen; Yorkson, Mitsuko; Morden, Clifford W.

    2016-01-01

    The genus Chrysodracon has six endemic species in the Hawaii Islands. Chrysodracon hawaiiensis is endemic to Hawaii Island and was described as a distinct species in 1980. It was listed as an endangered species on the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) Red List in 1997. This woody plant species was, at one time, common in exposed dry forests, but it became very rare due to grazing pressure and human development. The tree species Chrysodracon auwahiensis (C. auwahiensis), endemic to Maui and Molokai, still has large adult populations in dry lands of the islands, but unfortunately no regeneration from seed has been reported in those areas for many years. The two endemic species were examined using the molecular technique of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and inter simple sequence repeats (ISSR) to determine the genetic structure of the populations and the amount of variation. Both species possess similar genetic structure. Larger and smaller populations of both species contain similar levels of genetic diversity as determined by the number of polymorphic loci, estimated heterozygosity, and Shannon’s index of genetic diversity. Although population diversity of Chrysodracon hawaiiensis (C. hawaiiensis) is thought to have remained near pre-disturbance levels, population size continues to decline as recruitment is either absent or does not keep pace with senescence of mature plants. Conservation recommendations for both species are suggested. PMID:27537876

  7. Population Genetics of the Endemic Hawaiian Species Chrysodracon hawaiiensis and Chrysodracon auwahiensis (Asparagaceae): Insights from RAPD and ISSR Variation.

    PubMed

    Lu, Pei-Luen; Yorkson, Mitsuko; Morden, Clifford W

    2016-01-01

    The genus Chrysodracon has six endemic species in the Hawaii Islands. Chrysodracon hawaiiensis is endemic to Hawaii Island and was described as a distinct species in 1980. It was listed as an endangered species on the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) Red List in 1997. This woody plant species was, at one time, common in exposed dry forests, but it became very rare due to grazing pressure and human development. The tree species Chrysodracon auwahiensis (C. auwahiensis), endemic to Maui and Molokai, still has large adult populations in dry lands of the islands, but unfortunately no regeneration from seed has been reported in those areas for many years. The two endemic species were examined using the molecular technique of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and inter simple sequence repeats (ISSR) to determine the genetic structure of the populations and the amount of variation. Both species possess similar genetic structure. Larger and smaller populations of both species contain similar levels of genetic diversity as determined by the number of polymorphic loci, estimated heterozygosity, and Shannon's index of genetic diversity. Although population diversity of Chrysodracon hawaiiensis (C. hawaiiensis) is thought to have remained near pre-disturbance levels, population size continues to decline as recruitment is either absent or does not keep pace with senescence of mature plants. Conservation recommendations for both species are suggested. PMID:27537876

  8. Potential ecosystem service delivery by endemic plants in New Zealand vineyards: successes and prospects.

    PubMed

    Shields, Morgan W; Tompkins, Jean-Marie; Saville, David J; Meurk, Colin D; Wratten, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Vineyards worldwide occupy over 7 million hectares and are typically virtual monocultures, with high and costly inputs of water and agro-chemicals. Understanding and enhancing ecosystem services can reduce inputs and their costs and help satisfy market demands for evidence of more sustainable practices. In this New Zealand work, low-growing, endemic plant species were evaluated for their potential benefits as Service Providing Units (SPUs) or Ecosystem Service Providers (ESPs). The services provided were weed suppression, conservation of beneficial invertebrates, soil moisture retention and microbial activity. The potential Ecosystem Dis-services (EDS) from the selected plant species by hosting the larvae of a key vine moth pest, the light-brown apple moth (Epiphyas postvittana), was also quantified. Questionnaires were used to evaluate winegrowers' perceptions of the value of and problems associated with such endemic plant species in their vineyards. Growth and survival rates of the 14 plant species, in eight families, were evaluated, with Leptinella dioica (Asteraceae) and Acaena inermis 'purpurea' (Rosaceae) having the highest growth rates in terms of area covered and the highest survival rate after 12 months. All 14 plant species suppressed weeds, with Leptinella squalida, Geranium sessiliforum (Geraniaceae), Hebe chathamica (Plantaginaceae), Scleranthus uniflorus (Caryophyllaceae) and L. dioica, each reducing weed cover by >95%. Plant species also differed in the diversity of arthropods that they supported, with the Shannon Wiener diversity index (H') for these taxa ranging from 0 to 1.3. G. sessiliforum and Muehlenbeckia axillaris (Polygonaceae) had the highest invertebrate diversity. Density of spiders was correlated with arthropod diversity and G. sessiliflorum and H. chathamica had the highest densities of these arthropods. Several plant species associated with higher soil moisture content than in control plots. The best performing species in this context

  9. Potential ecosystem service delivery by endemic plants in New Zealand vineyards: successes and prospects

    PubMed Central

    Saville, David J.; Meurk, Colin D.; Wratten, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Vineyards worldwide occupy over 7 million hectares and are typically virtual monocultures, with high and costly inputs of water and agro-chemicals. Understanding and enhancing ecosystem services can reduce inputs and their costs and help satisfy market demands for evidence of more sustainable practices. In this New Zealand work, low-growing, endemic plant species were evaluated for their potential benefits as Service Providing Units (SPUs) or Ecosystem Service Providers (ESPs). The services provided were weed suppression, conservation of beneficial invertebrates, soil moisture retention and microbial activity. The potential Ecosystem Dis-services (EDS) from the selected plant species by hosting the larvae of a key vine moth pest, the light-brown apple moth (Epiphyas postvittana), was also quantified. Questionnaires were used to evaluate winegrowers’ perceptions of the value of and problems associated with such endemic plant species in their vineyards. Growth and survival rates of the 14 plant species, in eight families, were evaluated, with Leptinella dioica (Asteraceae) and Acaena inermis ‘purpurea’ (Rosaceae) having the highest growth rates in terms of area covered and the highest survival rate after 12 months. All 14 plant species suppressed weeds, with Leptinella squalida, Geranium sessiliforum (Geraniaceae), Hebe chathamica (Plantaginaceae), Scleranthus uniflorus (Caryophyllaceae) and L. dioica, each reducing weed cover by >95%. Plant species also differed in the diversity of arthropods that they supported, with the Shannon Wiener diversity index (H′) for these taxa ranging from 0 to 1.3. G. sessiliforum and Muehlenbeckia axillaris (Polygonaceae) had the highest invertebrate diversity. Density of spiders was correlated with arthropod diversity and G. sessiliflorum and H. chathamica had the highest densities of these arthropods. Several plant species associated with higher soil moisture content than in control plots. The best performing species in this

  10. Fungal root endophyte associations of plants endemic to the Pamir Alay Mountains of Central Asia.

    PubMed

    Zubek, Szymon; Nobis, Marcin; Błaszkowski, Janusz; Mleczko, Piotr; Nowak, Arkadiusz

    2011-06-01

    The fungal root endophyte associations of 16 species from 12 families of plants endemic to the Pamir Alay Mountains of Central Asia are presented. The plants and soil samples were collected in Zeravshan and Hissar ranges within the central Pamir Alay mountain system. Colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) was found in 15 plant species; in 8 species it was of the Arum type and in 4 of the Paris type, while 3 taxa revealed intermediate arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) morphology. AMF colonization was found to be absent only in Matthiola integrifolia, the representative of the Brassicaceae family. The AM status and morphology are reported for the first time for all the species analyzed and for the genera Asyneuma, Clementsia, and Eremostachys. Mycelia of dark septate endophytes (DSE) accompanied the AMF colonization in ten plant species. The frequency of DSE occurrence in the roots was low in all the plants, with the exception of Spiraea baldschuanica. However, in the case of both low and higher occurrence, the percentage of DSE root colonization was low. Moreover, the sporangia of Olpidium spp. were sporadically found inside the root epidermal cells of three plant species. Seven AMF species (Glomeromycota) found in the trap cultures established with soils surrounding roots of the plants being studied were reported for the first time from this region of Asia. Our results provide information that might well be of use to the conservation and restoration programmes of these valuable plant species. The potential application of beneficial root-inhabiting fungi in active plant protection projects of rare, endemic and endangered plants is discussed. PMID:22207783

  11. Patterns of genetic diversity in three plant lineages endemic to the Cape Verde Islands

    PubMed Central

    Romeiras, Maria M.; Monteiro, Filipa; Duarte, M. Cristina; Schaefer, Hanno; Carine, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Conservation of plant diversity on islands relies on a good knowledge of the taxonomy, distribution and genetic diversity of species. In recent decades, a combination of morphology- and DNA-based approaches has become the standard for investigating island plant lineages and this has led, in some cases, to the discovery of previously overlooked diversity, including ‘cryptic species’. The flora of the Cape Verde archipelago in the North Atlantic is currently thought to comprise ∼740 vascular plant species, 92 of them endemics. Despite the fact that it is considered relatively well known, there has been a 12 % increase in the number of endemics in the last two decades. Relatively few of the Cape Verde plant lineages have been included in genetic studies so far and little is known about the patterns of diversification in the archipelago. Here we present an updated list for the endemic Cape Verde flora and analyse diversity patterns for three endemic plant lineages (Cynanchum, Globularia and Umbilicus) based on one nuclear (ITS) and four plastid DNA regions. In all three lineages, we find genetic variation. In Cynanchum, we find two distinct haplotypes with no clear geographical pattern, possibly reflecting different ploidy levels. In Globularia and Umbilicus, differentiation is evident between populations from northern and southern islands. Isolation and drift resulting from the small and fragmented distributions, coupled with the significant distances separating the northern and southern islands, could explain this pattern. Overall, our study suggests that the diversity in the endemic vascular flora of Cape Verde is higher than previously thought and further work is necessary to characterize the flora. PMID:25979965

  12. Phenolic Profile and In vitro Antioxidant Activity of Endemic Bulgarian Carduus Species

    PubMed Central

    Dimitrova-Dyulgerova, Ivanka; Zhelev, Iliya; Mihaylova, Dasha

    2015-01-01

    Background: Plant species from genus Carduus are widely distributed in the world and represented in Bulgaria by 14 species. Previous investigations on this genus demonstrated a strong antioxidant potential of extract from some Bulgarian Carduus species. Objective: The present study investigates the phenolic profile and the antioxidant potential of different extracts obtained from four endemic Compositae herbs, growing wild in Bulgaria: Carduus armatus Boiss and Heldr., Carduus candicans Waldst. et Kit ssp. globifer (Velen.) Kazmi., Carduus rhodopaeus Velen. and Carduus thracicus (Velen.) Hayek. Materials and Methods: Antioxidant capacity of the obtained extracts was estimated with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, 2,2’-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid), and ferric reducing antioxidant power and copper reduction antioxidant assays. Phenolic profile was estimated by high performance liquid chromatography. Results: Eleven phenolic acids and eight flavonoids were quantified in the inflorescences. Sinapic (2760.72 ± 15.68 μg/g dry weight [dw]), chlorogenic (2564.50 ± 19.73 μg/g dw) and ferulic acids (1648.71 ± 19.57 μg/g dw), as well as luteolin (2345.45 ± 18.61 μg/g dw) and apigenin (1332.75 ± 12.05 μg/g dw) were found to be the predominant compounds. The above contents are the highest values found in C. candicans ssp. globifer. The highest established antioxidant activity (AOA) was in favor of the ethanolic extracts, and the extract of C. rhodopaeus affirmed with the highest AOA among the investigated plant species. Conclusion: All identified phenolic compounds were reported for the 1st time in the studied endemic Carduus species, as well as their antioxidant capacities. The present study revealed that these plant species could be used as sources of antioxidants with potential medicinal properties. SUMMARY Phenolic acids and flavonoid profiles of four endemic compositae herbs, growing wild in Bulgaria: Carduus armatus, Carduus candicans ssp

  13. A review of the endemic Hawaiian Drosophilidae and their host plants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Magnacca, K.N.; Foote, D.; O'Grady, P. M.

    2008-01-01

    The Hawaiian Drosophilidae is one of the best examples of rapid speciation in nature. Nearly 1,000 species of endemic drosophilids have evolved in situ in Hawaii since a single colonist arrived over 25 million years ago. A number of mechanisms, including ecological adaptation, sexual selection, and geographic isolation, have been proposed to explain the evolution of this hyperdiverse group of species. Here, we examine the known ecological associations of 326 species of endemic Hawaiian Drosophilidae in light of the phylogenetic relationships of these species. Our analysis suggests that the long-accepted belief of strict ecological specialization in this group does not hold for all taxa. While many species have a primary host plant family, females will also oviposit on non-preferred host plant taxa. Host shifting is fairly common in some groups, especially the grimshawi and modified mouthparts species groups of Drosophila, and the Scaptomyza subgenus Elmomyza. Associations with types of substrates (bark, leaves, flowers) are more evolutionarily conserved than associations with host plant families. These data not only give us insight into the role ecology has played in the evolution of this large group, but can help in making decisions about the management of rare and endangered host plants and the insects that rely upon them for survival. Copyright ?? 2008 Magnolia Press.

  14. Systematic revision and phylogeny of the endemic southeastern Asiatic Pristaulacus comptipennis species group (Hymenoptera: Aulacidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    TThe endemic southeastern Asiatic Pristaulacus comptipennis species group is revised and illustrated. Twenty species are recognized: P. asiaticus Turrisi & Smith, sp. nov. (China), P. boninensis Konishi (Japan), P. comptipennis Enderlein (Japan, China, Taiwan, Laos), P. corellianus Turrisi & Smith, ...

  15. [Research advance in rare and endemic plant Tetraena mongolica Maxim].

    PubMed

    Zhen, Jiang-Hong; Liu, Guo-Hou

    2008-02-01

    In this paper, the research advance in rare and endemic plant Tetraena mongolica Maxim. was summarized from the aspects of morphology, anatomy, palynology, cytology, seed-coat micro-morphology, embryology, physiology, biology, ecology, genetic diversity, chemical constituents, endangered causes, and conservation approaches, and the further research directions were prospected. It was considered that population viability, idioplasm conservation and artificial renewal, molecular biology of ecological adaptability, and assessment of habitat suitability should be the main aspects for the future study of T. mongolica. PMID:18464654

  16. Microsatellite markers for the New Zealand endemic Myosotis pygmaea species group (Boraginaceae) amplify across species1

    PubMed Central

    Prebble, Jessica M.; Tate, Jennifer A.; Meudt, Heidi M.; Symonds, V. Vaughan

    2015-01-01

    Premise of the study: Microsatellite loci were developed as polymorphic markers for the New Zealand endemic Myosotis pygmaea species group (Boraginaceae) for use in species delimitation and population and conservation genetic studies. Methods and Results: Illumina MiSeq sequencing was performed on genomic DNA from seedlings of M. drucei. From trimmed paired-end sequences >400 bp, 484 microsatellite loci were identified. Twelve of 48 microsatellite loci tested were found to be polymorphic and consistently scorable when screened on 53 individuals from four populations representing the geographic range of M. drucei. They also amplify in all other species in the M. pygmaea species group, i.e., M. antarctica, M. brevis, M. glauca, and M. pygmaea, as well as 18 other Myosotis species. Conclusions: These 12 polymorphic microsatellite markers establish an important resource for research and conservation of the M. pygmaea species group and potentially other Southern Hemisphere Myosotis. PMID:26082880

  17. Genetic consequences of cladogenetic vs. anagenetic speciation in endemic plants of oceanic islands.

    PubMed

    Takayama, Koji; López-Sepúlveda, Patricio; Greimler, Josef; Crawford, Daniel J; Peñailillo, Patricio; Baeza, Marcelo; Ruiz, Eduardo; Kohl, Gudrun; Tremetsberger, Karin; Gatica, Alejandro; Letelier, Luis; Novoa, Patricio; Novak, Johannes; Stuessy, Tod F

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive radiation is a common mode of speciation among plants endemic to oceanic islands. This pattern is one of cladogenesis, or splitting of the founder population, into diverse lineages in divergent habitats. In contrast, endemic species have also evolved primarily by simple transformations from progenitors in source regions. This is anagenesis, whereby the founding population changes genetically and morphologically over time primarily through mutation and recombination. Gene flow among populations is maintained in a homogeneous environment with no splitting events. Genetic consequences of these modes of speciation have been examined in the Juan Fernández Archipelago, which contains two principal islands of differing geological ages. This article summarizes population genetic results (nearly 4000 analyses) from examination of 15 endemic species, involving 1716 and 1870 individuals in 162 and 163 populations (with amplified fragment length polymorphisms and simple sequence repeats, respectively) in the following genera: Drimys (Winteraceae), Myrceugenia (Myrtaceae), Rhaphithamnus (Verbenaceae), Robinsonia (Asteraceae, Senecioneae) and Erigeron (Asteraceae, Astereae). The results indicate that species originating anagenetically show high levels of genetic variation within the island population and no geographic genetic partitioning. This contrasts with cladogenetic species that show less genetic diversity within and among populations. Species that have been derived anagenetically on the younger island (1-2 Ma) contain less genetic variation than those that have anagenetically speciated on the older island (4 Ma). Genetic distinctness among cladogenetically derived species on the older island is greater than among similarly derived species on the younger island. An important point is that the total genetic variation within each genus analysed is comparable, regardless of whether adaptive divergence occurs. PMID:26311732

  18. Genetic consequences of cladogenetic vs. anagenetic speciation in endemic plants of oceanic islands

    PubMed Central

    Takayama, Koji; López-Sepúlveda, Patricio; Greimler, Josef; Crawford, Daniel J.; Peñailillo, Patricio; Baeza, Marcelo; Ruiz, Eduardo; Kohl, Gudrun; Tremetsberger, Karin; Gatica, Alejandro; Letelier, Luis; Novoa, Patricio; Novak, Johannes; Stuessy, Tod F.

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive radiation is a common mode of speciation among plants endemic to oceanic islands. This pattern is one of cladogenesis, or splitting of the founder population, into diverse lineages in divergent habitats. In contrast, endemic species have also evolved primarily by simple transformations from progenitors in source regions. This is anagenesis, whereby the founding population changes genetically and morphologically over time primarily through mutation and recombination. Gene flow among populations is maintained in a homogeneous environment with no splitting events. Genetic consequences of these modes of speciation have been examined in the Juan Fernández Archipelago, which contains two principal islands of differing geological ages. This article summarizes population genetic results (nearly 4000 analyses) from examination of 15 endemic species, involving 1716 and 1870 individuals in 162 and 163 populations (with amplified fragment length polymorphisms and simple sequence repeats, respectively) in the following genera: Drimys (Winteraceae), Myrceugenia (Myrtaceae), Rhaphithamnus (Verbenaceae), Robinsonia (Asteraceae, Senecioneae) and Erigeron (Asteraceae, Astereae). The results indicate that species originating anagenetically show high levels of genetic variation within the island population and no geographic genetic partitioning. This contrasts with cladogenetic species that show less genetic diversity within and among populations. Species that have been derived anagenetically on the younger island (1–2 Ma) contain less genetic variation than those that have anagenetically speciated on the older island (4 Ma). Genetic distinctness among cladogenetically derived species on the older island is greater than among similarly derived species on the younger island. An important point is that the total genetic variation within each genus analysed is comparable, regardless of whether adaptive divergence occurs. PMID:26311732

  19. Anticholinesterase activity of endemic plant extracts from Soqotra.

    PubMed

    Bakthira, Hussein; Awadh Ali, Nasser A; Arnold, Norbert; Teichert, Axel; Wessjohann, Ludger

    2011-01-01

    A total of 30 chloroform and methanol extracts from the following endemic Soqotran plants Acridocarpus socotranus Olive, Boswellia socotranao Balf.fil, Boswellia elongata Balf. fil., Caralluma socotrana N. Br, Cephalocroton socotranus Balf.f, Croton socotranus Balf. fil.., Dendrosicycos socotrana Balf.f., Dorstenia gigas Schweinf. ex Balf. fil., Eureiandra balfourii Cogn. & Balf. fil., Kalanchoe farinaceae Balf.f, Limonium sokotranum (Vierh) Radcl. Sm), Oldenlandia pulvinata, Pulicaria diversifolia (Balf. and Pulicaria stephanocarpa Balf. were screened for their acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity by using in vitro Ellman method at 50 and 200 µg/ml concentrations. Chloroform extracts of Croton socotranus, Boswellia socotrana, Dorstenia gigas, and Pulicaria stephanocarpa as well as methanol extracts of Eureiandra balfourii exhibited inhibitory activities higher than 50 % at concentration of 200 µg. At a concentrations of 50 µg, the chloroform extract of Croton socotranus exhibited an inhibition of 40.6 %. PMID:22468008

  20. Chloroplast Genome Sequence of Lagerstroemia guilinensis (Lythraceae, Myrtales), a Species Endemic to the Guilin Limestone Area in Guangxi Province, China.

    PubMed

    Gu, Cuihua; Tembrock, Luke R; Wu, Zhiqiang

    2016-01-01

    We announce here the first complete chloroplast genome sequence of Lagerstroemia guilinensis (Lythraceae, Myrtales), a species endemic to the Guilin limestone area, along with its genome structure and functional gene annotations. The plant was collected from Guilin, Guangxi, China, and deposited as a germplasm accession of the Zhejiang Agriculture and Forestry University Collection (ZAFU 1507144). This genome will provide valuable information for future research of the Lagerstroemia genus and its relatives. PMID:27198012

  1. Chloroplast Genome Sequence of Lagerstroemia guilinensis (Lythraceae, Myrtales), a Species Endemic to the Guilin Limestone Area in Guangxi Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Cuihua; Tembrock, Luke R.

    2016-01-01

    We announce here the first complete chloroplast genome sequence of Lagerstroemia guilinensis (Lythraceae, Myrtales), a species endemic to the Guilin limestone area, along with its genome structure and functional gene annotations. The plant was collected from Guilin, Guangxi, China, and deposited as a germplasm accession of the Zhejiang Agriculture and Forestry University Collection (ZAFU 1507144). This genome will provide valuable information for future research of the Lagerstroemia genus and its relatives. PMID:27198012

  2. Divergent selection along climatic gradients in a rare central European endemic species, Saxifraga sponhemica

    PubMed Central

    Walisch, Tania J.; Colling, Guy; Bodenseh, Melanie; Matthies, Diethart

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims The effects of habitat fragmentation on quantitative genetic variation in plant populations are still poorly known. Saxifraga sponhemica is a rare endemic of Central Europe with a disjunct distribution, and a stable and specialized habitat of treeless screes and cliffs. This study therefore used S. sponhemica as a model species to compare quantitative and molecular variation in order to explore (1) the relative importance of drift and selection in shaping the distribution of quantitative genetic variation along climatic gradients; (2) the relationship between plant fitness, quantitative genetic variation, molecular genetic variation and population size; and (3) the relationship between the differentiation of a trait among populations and its evolvability. Methods Genetic variation within and among 22 populations from the whole distribution area of S. sponhemica was studied using RAPD (random amplified polymorphic DNA) markers, and climatic variables were obtained for each site. Seeds were collected from each population and germinated, and seedlings were transplanted into a common garden for determination of variation in plant traits. Key Results In contrast to previous results from rare plant species, strong evidence was found for divergent selection. Most population trait means of S. sponhemica were significantly related to climate gradients, indicating adaptation. Quantitative genetic differentiation increased with geographical distance, even when neutral molecular divergence was controlled for, and QST exceeded FST for some traits. The evolvability of traits was negatively correlated with the degree of differentiation among populations (QST), i.e. traits under strong selection showed little genetic variation within populations. The evolutionary potential of a population was not related to its size, the performance of the population or its neutral genetic diversity. However, performance in the common garden was lower for plants from

  3. Molluskan species richness and endemism on New Caledonian seamounts: Are they enhanced compared to adjacent slopes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelin, Magalie; Puillandre, Nicolas; Lozouet, Pierre; Sysoev, Alexander; de Forges, Bertrand Richer; Samadi, Sarah

    2011-06-01

    Seamounts were often considered as 'hotspots of diversity' and 'centers of endemism', but recently this opinion has been challenged. After 25 years of exploration and the work of numerous taxonomists, the Norfolk Ridge (Southwest Pacific) is probably one of the best-studied seamount chains worldwide. However, even in this intensively explored area, the richness and the geographic patterns of diversity are still poorly characterized. Among the benthic organisms, the post-mortem remains of mollusks can supplement live records to comprehensively document geographical distributions. Moreover, the accretionary growth of mollusk shells informs us about the life span of the pelagic larva. To compare diversity and level of endemism between the Norfolk Ridge seamounts and the continental slopes of New Caledonia we used species occurrence data drawn from (i) the taxonomic literature on mollusks and (ii) a raw dataset of mainly undescribed deep-sea species of the hyperdiverse Turridae. Patterns of endemism and species richness were analyzed through quantitative indices of endemism and species richness estimator metrics. To date, 403 gastropods and bivalves species have been recorded on the Norfolk Ridge seamounts. Of these, at least 38 species (˜10%) are potentially endemic to the seamounts and nearly all of 38 species have protoconchs indicating lecithotrophic larval development. Overall, our results suggest that estimates of species richness and endemism, when sampling effort is taken into account, were not significantly different between slopes and seamounts. By including in our analyses 347 undescribed morphospecies from the Norfolk Ridge, our results also demonstrate the influence of taxonomic bias on our estimates of species richness and endemism.

  4. Additions to the ichthyofauna of the Bahama Islands, with comments on endemic species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith-Vaniz, William F.; Bohlke, Eugenia B.

    1991-01-01

    Literature records or other documentation are given for 57 species of shorefishes added to the Bahaman ichthyofauna since publication of Fishes of the Bahamas; included are 32 new species described or discovered since 1967. Known distribution is specified for each species, including extralimital ranges of non-endemics. Fourteen species are listed as known only from the Bahamas although some likely occur elsewhere. It is concluded that the Bahamas has played a minor role in the evolution of Atlantic tropical marine fishes. [Bahaman ichthyofauna, endemism, new records

  5. Genetically Altered Plant Species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Researchers in Robert Ferl's lab at the University of Florida in Gainesville, genetically altered this Arabdopsis Thaliana (a brassica species) plant to learn how extreme environments, such as the low atmospheric pressure on Mars, affect plant genes. They inserted green fluorescent protein (GFP) near the on/off switches for anoxia and drought genes. When those genes were turned on after exposure to reduced atmospheric pressure, GFP was turned on as well, causing cells expressing those genes to glow green under a blue light. The natural fluorescence of chlorophyll accounts for the red glow.

  6. Spatial variation in the climatic predictors of species compositional turnover and endemism.

    PubMed

    Di Virgilio, Giovanni; Laffan, Shawn W; Ebach, Malte C; Chapple, David G

    2014-08-01

    Previous research focusing on broad-scale or geographically invariant species-environment dependencies suggest that temperature-related variables explain more of the variation in reptile distributions than precipitation. However, species-environment relationships may exhibit considerable spatial variation contingent upon the geographic nuances that vary between locations. Broad-scale, geographically invariant analyses may mask this local variation and their findings may not generalize to different locations at local scales. We assess how reptile-climatic relationships change with varying spatial scale, location, and direction. Since the spatial distributions of diversity and endemism hotspots differ for other species groups, we also assess whether reptile species turnover and endemism hotspots are influenced differently by climatic predictors. Using New Zealand reptiles as an example, the variation in species turnover, endemism and turnover in climatic variables was measured using directional moving window analyses, rotated through 360°. Correlations between the species turnover, endemism and climatic turnover results generated by each rotation of the moving window were analysed using multivariate generalized linear models applied at national, regional, and local scales. At national-scale, temperature turnover consistently exhibited the greatest influence on species turnover and endemism, but model predictive capacity was low (typically r (2) = 0.05, P < 0.001). At regional scales the relative influence of temperature and precipitation turnover varied between regions, although model predictive capacity was also generally low. Climatic turnover was considerably more predictive of species turnover and endemism at local scales (e.g., r (2) = 0.65, P < 0.001). While temperature turnover had the greatest effect in one locale (the northern North Island), there was substantial variation in the relative influence of temperature and precipitation predictors in the

  7. Spatial variation in the climatic predictors of species compositional turnover and endemism

    PubMed Central

    Di Virgilio, Giovanni; Laffan, Shawn W; Ebach, Malte C; Chapple, David G

    2014-01-01

    Previous research focusing on broad-scale or geographically invariant species-environment dependencies suggest that temperature-related variables explain more of the variation in reptile distributions than precipitation. However, species–environment relationships may exhibit considerable spatial variation contingent upon the geographic nuances that vary between locations. Broad-scale, geographically invariant analyses may mask this local variation and their findings may not generalize to different locations at local scales. We assess how reptile–climatic relationships change with varying spatial scale, location, and direction. Since the spatial distributions of diversity and endemism hotspots differ for other species groups, we also assess whether reptile species turnover and endemism hotspots are influenced differently by climatic predictors. Using New Zealand reptiles as an example, the variation in species turnover, endemism and turnover in climatic variables was measured using directional moving window analyses, rotated through 360°. Correlations between the species turnover, endemism and climatic turnover results generated by each rotation of the moving window were analysed using multivariate generalized linear models applied at national, regional, and local scales. At national-scale, temperature turnover consistently exhibited the greatest influence on species turnover and endemism, but model predictive capacity was low (typically r2 = 0.05, P < 0.001). At regional scales the relative influence of temperature and precipitation turnover varied between regions, although model predictive capacity was also generally low. Climatic turnover was considerably more predictive of species turnover and endemism at local scales (e.g., r2 = 0.65, P < 0.001). While temperature turnover had the greatest effect in one locale (the northern North Island), there was substantial variation in the relative influence of temperature and precipitation predictors in the remaining

  8. Two new species of endemic Ecuadorean Amaryllidaceae (Asparagales, Amaryllidaceae, Amarylloideae, Eucharideae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Technical Abstract New species of the genera Stenomesson and Eucharis (Amaryllidaceae) are described from Ecuador. Stenomesson ecuadorense is the second species of the genus reported from that country, and the only endemic one. It is related to S. miniatum and S. campanulatum, both from Peru, with...

  9. Population genetics of Phaedranassa cuencana Minga, C. Ulloa & Oleas (Amaryllidaceae), an endemic species of Southern Ecuador

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phaedranassa is a genus of Amaryllidaceae mostly endemic to the Northern Andes. Six out of the eight species described in Ecuador are endangered or vulnerable to extinction. Phaedranassa cuencana was first described in 2015. This species is restricted to the southern part of Ecuador, around the city...

  10. Population genetics of Phaedranassa cuencana Minga, C. Ulloa & Oleas (Amaryllidaceae), an endemic species of southern Ecuador

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phaedranassa is a genus of Amaryllidaceae mostly endemic to the Northern Andes. Six out of the eight species described in Ecuador are endangered or vulnerable to extinction. Phaedranassa cuencana was first described in 2015. This species is restricted to the southern part of Ecuador, around the city...

  11. Antileishmanial activity of medicinal plants used in endemic areas in northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    De Queiroz, Aline Cavalcanti; Dias, Thays de Lima Matos Freire; Da Matta, Carolina Barbosa Brito; Cavalcante Silva, Luiz Henrique Agra; de Araújo-Júnior, João Xavier; de Araújo, Givanildo Bernardino; Moura, Flávia de Barros Prado; Alexandre-Moreira, Magna Suzana

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the leishmanicidal activity of five species of plants used in folk medicine in endemic areas of the state of Alagoas, Brazil. Data were collected in the cities of Colonia Leopoldina, Novo Lino, and União dos Palmares, Alagoas state, from patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis (Leishmania amazonensis) who use medicinal plants to treat this disease. Plants extracts were tested at a concentration of 1-100 μg/mL in all experiments, except in an assay to evaluate activity against amastigotes, when 10 μg/mL was used. All plants extracts did not show deleterious activity to the host cell evidenced by LDH assay at 100, 10, and 1 μg/mL after 48 h of incubation. The plants extracts Hyptis pectinata (L.) Poit, Aloe vera L., Ruta graveolens L., Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng.) Pedersen, and Chenopodium ambrosioides L. exhibited direct activity against extracellular forms at 100 μg/mL; these extracts inhibited growth by 81.9%, 82.9%, 74.4%, 88.7%, and 87.4%, respectively, when compared with promastigotes. The plants extracts H. pectinata, A. vera, and R. graveolens also significantly diminished the number of amastigotes at 10 μg/mL, inhibiting growth by 85.0%, 40.4%, 94.2%, and 97.4%, respectively, when compared with control. Based on these data, we conclude that the five plants exhibited considerable leishmanicidal activity. PMID:25126099

  12. Antileishmanial Activity of Medicinal Plants Used in Endemic Areas in Northeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    De Queiroz, Aline Cavalcanti; Dias, Thays de Lima Matos Freire; Da Matta, Carolina Barbosa Brito; Cavalcante Silva, Luiz Henrique Agra; de Araújo-Júnior, João Xavier; de Araújo, Givanildo Bernardino; Moura, Flávia de Barros Prado; Alexandre-Moreira, Magna Suzana

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the leishmanicidal activity of five species of plants used in folk medicine in endemic areas of the state of Alagoas, Brazil. Data were collected in the cities of Colonia Leopoldina, Novo Lino, and União dos Palmares, Alagoas state, from patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis (Leishmania amazonensis) who use medicinal plants to treat this disease. Plants extracts were tested at a concentration of 1–100 μg/mL in all experiments, except in an assay to evaluate activity against amastigotes, when 10 μg/mL was used. All plants extracts did not show deleterious activity to the host cell evidenced by LDH assay at 100, 10, and 1 μg/mL after 48 h of incubation. The plants extracts Hyptis pectinata (L.) Poit, Aloe vera L., Ruta graveolens L., Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng.) Pedersen, and Chenopodium ambrosioides L. exhibited direct activity against extracellular forms at 100 μg/mL; these extracts inhibited growth by 81.9%, 82.9%, 74.4%, 88.7%, and 87.4%, respectively, when compared with promastigotes. The plants extracts H. pectinata, A. vera, and R. graveolens also significantly diminished the number of amastigotes at 10 μg/mL, inhibiting growth by 85.0%, 40.4%, 94.2%, and 97.4%, respectively, when compared with control. Based on these data, we conclude that the five plants exhibited considerable leishmanicidal activity. PMID:25126099

  13. A parasitic plant increases native and exotic plant species richness in vernal pools

    PubMed Central

    Graffis, Andrea M.; Kneitel, Jamie M.

    2015-01-01

    Species interactions are well known to affect species diversity in communities, but the effects of parasites have been less studied. Previous studies on parasitic plants have found both positive and negative effects on plant community diversity. Cuscuta howelliana is an abundant endemic parasitic plant that inhabits California vernal pools. We tested the hypothesis that C. howelliana acts as a keystone species to increase plant species richness in vernal pools through a C. howelliana removal experiment at Beale Air Force Base in north-central California. Vernal pool endemic plants were parasitized more frequently, and Eryngium castrense and Navarretia leucocephala were the most frequently parasitized host plant species of C. howelliana. Cuscuta howelliana caused higher plant species richness, both natives and exotics, compared with removal plots. However, there was no single plant species that significantly increased with C. howelliana removal. Decreases in Eryngium castrense percent cover plots with C. howelliana is a plausible explanation for differences in species richness. In conclusion, C. howelliana led to changes in species composition and increases in plant species richness, consistent with what is expected from the effects of a keystone species. This research provides support for a shift in management strategies that focus on species-specific targets to strategies that target maintenance of complex species interactions and therefore maximize biodiversity and resilience of ecosystems. PMID:26307042

  14. Single origin and subsequent diversification of central Andean endemic Umbilicaria species.

    PubMed

    Hestmark, Geir; Miadlikowska, Jolanta; Kauff, Frank; Fraker, Emily; Molnar, Katalin; Lutzoni, François

    2011-01-01

    We studied an Andean endemic group of species of the lichen-forming fungal genus Umbilicaria from the subalpine and low-alpine zone, with their biogeographic center in Bolivia and Peru. A number of species and varieties have been described from this element, but apparent instability in several morphological traits has made it difficult to precisely delimit taxa. Based on DNA sequences of nuclear ITS, LSU and mitochondrial SSU from extensive collections from Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru, we present here a molecular phylogenetic analysis of this Andean endemic element within genus Umbilicaria. All analyses (MP, ML and Bayesian) support a single origin for the element and a division into two major groups characterized by different apothecium types: the Umbilicaria dichroa group and U. calvescens group. Taxa U. krempelhuberi, U. peruviana and U. subcalvescens are nested withinn U. calvescens and are treated as conspecific with the latter species. The endemic element shares a most recent common ancestor with the Umbilicaria vellea group, which has a worldwide distribution and contains several asexually reproducing (sorediate) species. Independent reversals to sexual reproduction might explain the evolution of two types of apothecia in this monophyletic endemic lineage. A number of cosmopolitan, mostly high-alpine, species of Umbilicaria also present in the central Andes are related only remotely to the endemic element and do not exhibit speciation into endemics. Because the An-dean element dominates the Umbilicaria habitats of the low- and subalpine zones we propose that the founder colonized the Andes at a time when the mountains had not yet reached their current elevation while the high-alpine species arrived more recently. PMID:20943548

  15. Anagenetic speciation in Ullung Island, Korea: genetic diversity and structure in the island endemic species, Acer takesimense (Sapindaceae).

    PubMed

    Takayama, Koji; Sun, Byung-Yun; Stuessy, Tod F

    2013-05-01

    Anagenetic speciation is an important mode of speciation in oceanic islands; one-fourth of the endemic plants are estimated to have been derived via this process. Few studies, however, have critically examined the genetic consequences of anagenesis in comparison with cladogenesis (involved with adaptive radiation). We hypothesize that endemic species originating via anagenetic speciation in a relatively uniform environment should accumulate genetic variation with limited populational differentiation. We undertook a population genetic analysis using nine nuclear microsatellite loci of Acer takesimense, an anagenetically derived species endemic to Ullung Island, Korea, and its continental progenitor A. pseudosieboldianum on the Korean Peninsula. Microsatellite data reveal a clear genetic distinction between the two species. A high F value in the cluster of A. takesimense was found by Bayesian clustering analysis, suggesting a strong episode of genetic drift during colonization and speciation. In comparison with A. pseudosieboldianum, A. takesimense has slightly lower genetic diversity and possesses less than half the number of private and rare alleles. Consistent with predictions, weak geographical genetic structure within the island was found in A. takesimense. These results imply that anagenetic speciation leads to a different pattern of specific and genetic diversity than often seen with cladogenesis. PMID:23090156

  16. Uncertainty in predicting range dynamics of endemic alpine plants under climate warming.

    PubMed

    Hülber, Karl; Wessely, Johannes; Gattringer, Andreas; Moser, Dietmar; Kuttner, Michael; Essl, Franz; Leitner, Michael; Winkler, Manuela; Ertl, Siegrun; Willner, Wolfgang; Kleinbauer, Ingrid; Sauberer, Norbert; Mang, Thomas; Zimmermann, Niklaus E; Dullinger, Stefan

    2016-07-01

    Correlative species distribution models have long been the predominant approach to predict species' range responses to climate change. Recently, the use of dynamic models is increasingly advocated for because these models better represent the main processes involved in range shifts and also simulate transient dynamics. A well-known problem with the application of these models is the lack of data for estimating necessary parameters of demographic and dispersal processes. However, what has been hardly considered so far is the fact that simulating transient dynamics potentially implies additional uncertainty arising from our ignorance of short-term climate variability in future climatic trends. Here, we use endemic mountain plants of Austria as a case study to assess how the integration of decadal variability in future climate affects outcomes of dynamic range models as compared to projected long-term trends and uncertainty in demographic and dispersal parameters. We do so by contrasting simulations of a so-called hybrid model run under fluctuating climatic conditions with those based on a linear interpolation of climatic conditions between current values and those predicted for the end of the 21st century. We find that accounting for short-term climate variability modifies model results nearly as differences in projected long-term trends and much more than uncertainty in demographic/dispersal parameters. In particular, range loss and extinction rates are much higher when simulations are run under fluctuating conditions. These results highlight the importance of considering the appropriate temporal resolution when parameterizing and applying range-dynamic models, and hybrid models in particular. In case of our endemic mountain plants, we hypothesize that smoothed linear time series deliver more reliable results because these long-lived species are primarily responsive to long-term climate averages. PMID:27061825

  17. Antiphytoviral activity of essential oil from endemic species Teucrium arduini.

    PubMed

    Dunkić, Valerija; Bezić, Nada; Vuko, Elma

    2011-09-01

    The essential oil of Teucrium arduini L. was characterized by a high concentration of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (43.8%) of which beta-caryophyllene (19.9%) being the major compound, followed by oxygenated sesquiterpenes (19.6%) of which caryophyllene-oxide (14.6%) was dominant. When applied to plants of Chenopodium amaranticolor and Ch. quinoa for two successive days prior inoculation, the oil was effective in reducing lesion numbers on plants infected with Tobacco mosaic virus (25.7%) and Cucumber mosaic virus (21.9%). The main components of oil, beta-caryophyllene and caryophyllene oxide showed potent antiviral activity against CMV, but weak activity against TMV infection. PMID:21941920

  18. Distribution of endemic and introduced tick species in Free State Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Horak, Ivan G; Jordaan, Adri J; Nel, Pierre J; van Heerden, Joseph; Heyne, Heloise; van Dalen, Ellie M

    2015-01-01

    The distributions of endemic tick vector species as well as the presence of species not endemic to Free State Province, South Africa, were determined during surveys or opportunistic collections from livestock, wildlife and vegetation. Amongst endemic ticks, the presence of Rhipicephalus appendiculatus was confirmed in the north of the province, whilst Rhipicephalus decoloratus was collected at 31 localities mostly in the centre and east, and Ixodes rubicundus at 11 localities in the south, south-west and centre of the province. Amongst the non-endemic species adult Amblyomma hebraeum were collected from white rhinoceroses (Ceratotherium simum) on four privately owned farms, whilst the adults of Rhipicephalus microplus were collected from cattle and a larva from vegetation at four localities in the east of the province. The collection of Rhipicephalus evertsi mimeticus from a sheep in the west of the province is the second record of its presence in the Free State, whereas the presence of Haemaphysalis silacea on helmeted guineafowl (Numida meleagris) and vegetation in the centre of the province represents a first record for this species in the Free State. The first collection of the argasid tick, Ornithodoros savignyi, in the Free State was made from a domestic cow and from soil in the west of the province. The localities at which the ticks were collected have been plotted and the ticks' role in the transmission or cause of disease in domestic livestock and wildlife is discussed. PMID:26244582

  19. Demographic variation and conservation of the narrow endemic plant Ranunculus weyleri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cursach, Joana; Besnard, Aurélien; Rita, Juan; Fréville, Hélène

    2013-11-01

    Ranunculus weyleri is a narrow endemic protected plant from Majorca Island. It is known from only five populations located in two mountain areas 48 km apart. Using demographic data collected from 2007 to 2010, we assessed the demographic status of two populations - font des Coloms (FC) and talaia Moreia (TM) - using Integral Projection Models (IPMs). We showed that none of the two populations were declining under a deterministic model. Population FC was stable (λ = 1.026, CI95% = 0.965-1.093), while population TM showed sign of demographic expansion (λ = 1.113, CI95% = 1.032-1.219). Plant survival, flowering probability and the mean number of seedlings per floral peduncle were lower in TM, whereas growth and the number of floral peduncles per reproductive plant were lower in FC. Elasticity analyses showed that management strategies increasing plant survival and growth would be the most efficient to increase λ for both populations. Herbivory pressure by goats has been shown to be high in TM, resulting in high predation rate on floral peduncles. Controlling goat pressure may thus represent a promising management option, provided that we can demonstrate a negative impact of herbivory by goats on survival and growth which are the most critical parts of the life cycle in this species. Meanwhile, initiating a long-term monitoring is of crucial importance to get more insights into the relationships between environmental variation, plant performance and population dynamics.

  20. Universal species-area and endemics-area relationships at continental scales.

    PubMed

    Storch, David; Keil, Petr; Jetz, Walter

    2012-08-01

    Despite the broad conceptual and applied relevance of how the number of species or endemics changes with area (the species-area and endemics-area relationships (SAR and EAR)), our understanding of universality and pervasiveness of these patterns across taxa and regions has remained limited. The SAR has traditionally been approximated by a power law, but recent theories predict a triphasic SAR in logarithmic space, characterized by steeper increases in species richness at both small and large spatial scales. Here we uncover such universally upward accelerating SARs for amphibians, birds and mammals across the world’s major landmasses. Although apparently taxon-specific and continent-specific, all curves collapse into one universal function after the area is rescaled by using the mean range sizes of taxa within continents. In addition, all EARs approximately follow a power law with a slope close to 1, indicating that for most spatial scales there is roughly proportional species extinction with area loss. These patterns can be predicted by a simulation model based on the random placement of contiguous ranges within a domain. The universality of SARs and EARs after rescaling implies that both total and endemic species richness within an area, and also their rate of change with area, can be estimated by using only the knowledge of mean geographic range size in the region and mean species richness at one spatial scale. PMID:22722856

  1. Collembola of Rapa Nui (Easter Island) with descriptions of five endemic cave-restricted species.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Ernest C; Soto-Adames, Felipe N; Wynne, J Judson

    2015-01-01

    Eight species of Collembola are reported from recent collections made in caves on the Polynesian island of Rapa Nui (Easter Island). Five of these species are new to science and apparently endemic to the island: Coecobrya aitorererere n. sp., Cyphoderus manuneru n. sp., Entomobrya manuhoko n. sp., Pseudosinella hahoteana n. sp. and Seira manukio n. sp. The Hawaiian species Lepidocyrtus olena Christiansen & Bellinger and the cosmopolitan species Folsomia candida Willem also were collected from one or more caves. Coecobrya kennethi Jordana & Baquero, recently described from Rapa Nui and identified as endemic, was collected in sympatric association with C. aitorererere n.sp. With the exception of F. candida, all species are endemic to Rapa Nui or greater Polynesia and appear to be restricted to the cave environment on Rapa Nui. A key is provided to separate Collembola species reported from Rapa Nui. We provide recommendations to aid in the conservation and management of these new Collembola, as well as the other presumed cave-restricted arthropods. PMID:25947805

  2. In vitro antitumor actions of extracts from endemic plant Helichrysum zivojinii

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this research was to determine the intensity and mechanisms of the cytotoxic actions of five extracts isolated from the endemic plant species Helichrysum zivojinii Černjavski & Soška (family Asteraceae) against specific cancer cell lines. In order to evaluate the sensitivity of normal immunocompetent cells implicated in the antitumor immune response, the cytotoxicity of extracts was also tested against healthy peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Methods The aerial parts of the plants were air-dried, powdered, and successively extracted with solvents of increasing polarity to obtain hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl-acetate, n-butanol and methanol extracts. The cytotoxic activities of the extracts against human cervix adenocarcinoma HeLa, human melanoma Fem-x, human myelogenous leukemia K562, human breast adenocarcinoma MDA-MB-361 cells and PBMC were evaluated by the MTT test. The mode of HeLa cell death was investigated by morphological analysis. Changes in the cell cycle of HeLa cells treated with the extracts were analyzed by flow cytometry. The apoptotic mechanisms induced by the tested extracts were determined using specific caspase inhibitors. Results The investigated Helichrysum zivojinii extracts exerted selective dose-dependent cytotoxic actions against selected cancer cell lines and healthy immunocompetent PBMC stimulated to proliferate, while the cytotoxic actions exerted on unstimulated PBMC were less pronounced. The tested extracts exhibited considerably stronger cytotoxic activities towards HeLa, Fem-x and K562 cells in comparison to resting and stimulated PBMC. It is worth noting that the cytotoxicity of the extracts was weaker against unstimulated PBMC in comparison to stimulated PBMC. Furthermore, each of the five extracts induced apoptosis in HeLa cells, through the activation of both intrinsic and extrinsic signaling pathways. Conclusion Extracts obtained from the endemic plant Helichrysum zivojinii may represent an

  3. Predicting assemblages and species richness of endemic fish in the upper Yangtze River.

    PubMed

    He, Yongfeng; Wang, Jianwei; Lek-Ang, Sithan; Lek, Sovan

    2010-09-01

    The present work describes the ability of two modeling methods, Classification and Regression Tree (CART) and Random Forest (RF), to predict endemic fish assemblages and species richness in the upper Yangtze River, and then to identify the determinant environmental factors contributing to the models. The models included 24 predictor variables and 2 response variables (fish assemblage and species richness) for a total of 46 site units. The predictive quality of the modeling approaches was judged with a leave-one-out validation procedure. There was an average success of 60.9% and 71.7% to assign each site unit to the correct assemblage of fish, and 73% and 84% to explain the variance in species richness, by using CART and RF models, respectively. RF proved to be better than CART in terms of accuracy and efficiency in ecological applications. In any case, the mixed models including both land cover and river characteristic variables were more powerful than either individual one in explaining the endemic fish distribution pattern in the upper Yangtze River. For instance, altitude, slope, length, discharge, runoff, farmland and alpine and sub-alpine meadow played important roles in driving the observed endemic fish assemblage structure, while farmland, slope grassland, discharge, runoff, altitude and drainage area in explaining the observed patterns of endemic species richness. Therefore, the various effects of human activity on natural aquatic ecosystems, in particular, the flow modification of the river and the land use changes may have a considerable effect on the endemic fish distribution patterns on a regional scale. PMID:20541238

  4. Complete mitochondrial genome of the endemic South Korean species Odontobutis interrupta (Perciformes, Odontobutidae).

    PubMed

    Jun, Jumin; Choi, Seong-Ho; Kum, Ji-Don

    2016-07-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Odontobutis interrupta (Perciformes, Odontobutidae), a species endemic to South Korea, is reported here for the first time. The O. interrupta mitogenome is 16 802 base pairs in total length and includes 13 PCGs, small and large rRNAs, a control region and 22 tRNAs. Nine genes are encoded on the light strand and 29 on the heavy strand. The O. interrupta mitochondrial genome has a conserved gene order compared to four other Odontobutis species and Micropercops swinhonis, a closely related species. The data will provide useful molecular information for phylogenetic studies concerning Odontobutidae and its related species. PMID:26122340

  5. Comparative analysis of midgut bacterial communities in three aedine mosquito species from dengue-endemic and non-endemic areas of Rajasthan, India.

    PubMed

    Charan, S S; Pawar, K D; Gavhale, S D; Tikhe, C V; Charan, N S; Angel, B; Joshi, V; Patole, M S; Shouche, Y S

    2016-09-01

    Dengue viruses are transmitted to humans through the bites of infected female aedine mosquitoes. Differences in the composition and structure of bacterial communities in the midguts of mosquitoes may affect the vector's ability to transmit the disease. To investigate and analyse the role of midgut bacterial communities in viral transmission, midgut bacteria from three species, namely Stegomyia aegypti (= Aedes aegypti), Fredwardsius vittatus (= Aedes vittatus) and Stegomyia albopicta (= Aedes albopictus) (all: Diptera: Culicidae), from dengue-endemic and non-endemic areas of Rajasthan, India were compared. Construction and analyses of six 16S rRNA gene libraries indicated that Serratia spp.-related phylotypes dominated all clone libraries of the three mosquito species from areas in which dengue is not endemic. In dengue-endemic areas, phylotypes related to Aeromonas, Enhydrobacter spp. and uncultivated bacterium dominated the clone libraries of S. aegypti, F. vittatus and S. albopicta, respectively. Diversity indices analysis and real-time TaqMan polymerase chain reaction assays showed bacterial diversity and abundance in the midguts of S. aegypti to be higher than in the other two species. Significant differences observed among midgut bacterial communities of the three mosquito species from areas in which dengue is and is not endemic, respectively, may be related to the vectorial capacity of mosquitoes to carry dengue viruses and, hence, to the prevalence of disease in some areas. PMID:27094337

  6. Plant endemism in the Sierras of Córdoba and San Luis (Argentina): understanding links between phylogeny and regional biogeographical patterns1

    PubMed Central

    Chiapella, Jorge O.; Demaio, Pablo H.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We compiled a checklist with all known endemic plants occurring in the Sierras of Córdoba and San Luis, an isolated mountainous range located in central Argentina. In order to obtain a better understanding of the evolutionary history, relationships and age of the regional flora, we gathered basic information on the biogeographical and floristic affinities of the endemics, and documented the inclusion of each taxon in molecular phylogenies. We listed 89 taxa (including 69 species and 20 infraspecific taxa) belonging to 53 genera and 29 families. The endemics are not distributed evenly, being more abundant in the lower than in the middle and upper vegetation belts. Thirty-two genera (60.3%) have been included in phylogenetic analyses, but only ten (18.8%) included local endemic taxa. A total of 28 endemic taxa of the Sierras CSL have a clear relationship with a widespread species of the same genus, or with one found close to the area. Available phylogenies for some taxa show divergence times between 7.0 – 1.8 Ma; all endemic taxa are most probably neoendemics sensu Stebbins and Major. Our analysis was specifically aimed at a particular geographic area, but the approach of analyzing phylogenetic patterns together with floristic or biogeographical relationships of the endemic taxa of an area, delimited by clear geomorphological features, could reveal evolutionary trends shaping the area. PMID:25878555

  7. Decalepisarayalpathra (J. Joseph & V. Chandras.) Venter, an endemic and endangered ethno medicinal plant from Western Ghats, India.

    PubMed

    Verma, Sunil K; Sarkar, Manoj K

    2015-01-01

    Decalepis arayalpatra is an endemic and critically endangered plant of India. May 2014 issue of Natural Products Research publishes the findings of R. S. Verma et al. on the chemical composition of D. arayalpatra. This study was conducted to characterise the root aroma of this plant for possible industrial applications. The authors suggest that due to its peculiar vanilla flavour, the plant could be explored as a potential substitute of vanillin-aroma in the flavour industry. Owing to the fact that D. arayalpatra is a critically endangered plant species, and its habitat is now limited to only the protected areas and reserve forest in southern part of India, and that collecting any plant from such reserve forests for commercial activities is illegal as per the law of the country, this specific conclusion of the authors is totally un-substantiated by the law of land, hence, calls for further review. PMID:25133451

  8. Phytophthora Species, New Threats to the Plant Health in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Hyun, Ik-Hwa; Choi, Woobong

    2014-01-01

    Given the lack of a resistant genetic pool in host plants, the introduction of exotic invasive pathogens can result in epidemics that affect a specific ecosystem and economy. Plant quarantine, which is designed to protect endemic plant resources, is a highly invaluable safeguard that should keep biosecurity with increasing international trade and global transportation. A total of 34 species of plant pathogens including Phytophthora infestans were documented as introduced from other countries into Korea from 1900 to 2010. The genus Phytophthora, classified in oomycetes, includes more than 120 species that are mostly recognized worldwide as highly invasive plant pathogens. After 2000, over 50 new species of Phytophthora were identified internationally as plant pathogens occurring in crops and forest trees. In Korea, Phytophthora is also one of the most serious plant pathogens. To date, 22 species (about one-fifth of known species) of the genus have been identified and reported as plant pathogens in the country. The likelihood of new exotic Phytophthora species being introduced into Korea continues to increase, thus necessitating intensive plant quarantine inspections. As new potential threats to plant health in Korea, six Phytophthora species, namely, P. alni, P. inundata, P. kernoviae, P. pinifolia, P. quercina, and P. ramorum, are discussed in this review with focus on history, disease, biology, management, and plant quarantine issues. PMID:25506298

  9. Old fossils–young species: evolutionary history of an endemic gastropod assemblage in Lake Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Schultheiß, Roland; Van Bocxlaer, Bert; Wilke, Thomas; Albrecht, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Studies on environmental changes provide important insights into modes of speciation, into the (adaptive) reoccupation of ecological niches and into species turnover. Against this background, we here examine the history of the gastropod genus Lanistes in the African Rift Lake Malawi, guided by four general evolutionary scenarios, and compare it with patterns reported from other endemic Malawian rift taxa. Based on an integrated approach using a mitochondrial DNA phylogeny and a trait-specific molecular clock in combination with insights from the fossil record and palaeoenvironmental data, we demonstrate that the accumulation of extant molecular diversity in the endemic group did not start before approximately 600 000 years ago from a single lineage. Fossils of the genus from the Malawi Rift, however, are over one million years older. We argue that severe drops in the lake level of Lake Malawi in the Pleistocene offer a potential explanation for this pattern. Our results also challenge previously established phylogenetic relationships within the genus by revealing parallel evolution and providing evidence that the endemic Lanistes species are not restricted to the lake proper but are present throughout the Malawi Rift. PMID:19439440

  10. Sweet drinks are made of this: conservation genetics of an endemic palm species from the Dominican Republic.

    PubMed

    Namoff, Sandra; Veloz, Alberto; Jiménez, Francisco; Rodríguez-Peña, Rosa A; Peguero, Brígido; Lewis, Carl; Moynihan, Jeremy; Abdo, Melissa; Maunder, Mike; Von Wettberg, Eric; Meerow, Alan W; Griffith, M Patrick; Francisco-Ortega, Javier

    2011-01-01

    Pseudophoenix ekmanii is a threatened palm species endemic to the Dominican Republic. Sap from trees is extracted to make a local drink; once they are tapped the individual usually dies. Plants are also illegally harvested for the nursery trade and destroyed by poachers hunting the endemic and threatened Hispaniolan parrot. We used 7 DNA microsatellite markers to assist land managers in developing conservation strategies for this palm. We sampled 4 populations along the known distribution range of this species (3 populations from the mainland and 1 from the small island of Isla Beata), for a total sample of n = 104. We found strong evidence for genetic drift, inbreeding, and moderate gene flow (i.e., all populations had at least 4 loci that were not in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, at least 9 loci pairs were in linkage disequilibrium, the pairwise F(ST) values ranged from 0.069 to 0.266, and had positive F(IS) values). Data supported an isolation-by-distance model, and cluster analyses based on genetic distances resolved 2 groups that match a north-south split. The population from Isla Beata had the lowest levels of genetic diversity and was the only one in which we found pairs of individuals with identical shared multilocus genotypes. PMID:21172825

  11. A preliminary study on the distribution patterns of endemic species of Fulgoromorpha (Hemiptera, Auchenorrhyncha) in Iran.

    PubMed

    Mozaffarian, Fariba

    2013-01-01

    Iran is known as the most complex and varied country in southwest Asia, in terms of geography, vegetation, climate and consequently biological diversity. The rather high number of recorded endemic species of Fulgoromorpha in Iran indicates a high potential for speciation in some areas. In this study, in order to identify the endemic zones for Fulgoromorpha of Iran, three main biogeographic regions of the country were divided into 13 primary zones, mainly according to the distribution of published and unpublished locality records of endemic species. Using Venn diagrams and cluster analyses on the primary zones, 6 final endemic zones were recognized: Caspian zone, southern slopes of Alborz, Zagros Mountains, Kerman Mountains, Khorasan Mountains, and Baluchestan and Persian Gulf coasts. Then a similarity map was produced for endemic zones using a Multidimensional analysis (Alscal) and the differences between the positions of the same zones in the similarity and geographic maps were discussed. PMID:24039521

  12. A preliminary study on the distribution patterns of endemic species of Fulgoromorpha (Hemiptera, Auchenorrhyncha) in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Mozaffarian, Fariba

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Iran is known as the most complex and varied country in southwest Asia, in terms of geography, vegetation, climate and consequently biological diversity. The rather high number of recorded endemic species of Fulgoromorpha in Iran indicates a high potential for speciation in some areas. In this study, in order to identify the endemic zones for Fulgoromorpha of Iran, three main biogeographic regions of the country were divided into 13 primary zones, mainly according to the distribution of published and unpublished locality records of endemic species. Using Venn diagrams and cluster analyses on the primary zones, 6 final endemic zones were recognized: Caspian zone, southern slopes of Alborz, Zagros Mountains, Kerman Mountains, Khorasan Mountains, and Baluchestan and Persian Gulf coasts. Then a similarity map was produced for endemic zones using a Multidimensional analysis (Alscal) and the differences between the positions of the same zones in the similarity and geographic maps were discussed. PMID:24039521

  13. Climate alters response of an endemic island plant to removal of invasive herbivores

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kathryn, Mceachern A.; Thomson, D.M.; Chess, K.A.

    2009-01-01

    Islands experience higher rates of species extinction than mainland ecosystems, with biological invasions among the leading causes; they also serve as important model systems for testing ideas in basic and applied ecology. Invasive removal programs on islands are conservation efforts that can also be viewed as powerful manipulative experiments, but few data are available to evaluate their effects. We collected demographic and herbivore damage data for Castilleja mollis Pennell, an endangered plant endemic to Santa Rosa Island, California, over a 12-year period before, during, and after the implementation of control for introduced cattle, deer, and elk. We used these long-term data to explore mechanisms underlying herbivore effects, assess the results of herbivore reduction at the scales of both individual plants and populations, and determine how temporal variability in herbivory and plant demography influenced responses to herbivore removals. For individual plants, herbivore effects mediated by disturbance were greater than those of grazing. Deer and elk scraping of the ground substantially increased plant mortality and dormancy and reduced flowering and growth. Stem damage from browsing did not affect survivorship but significantly reduced plant growth and flower production. Herbivore control successfully lowered damage rates, which declined steeply between 1997 and 2000 and have remained relatively low. Castilleja mollis abundances rose sharply after 1997, suggesting a positive effect of herbivore control, but then began to decline steadily again after 2003. The recent decline appears to be driven by higher mean growing season temperatures; interestingly, not only reductions in scraping damage but a period of cooler conditions were significant in explaining increases in C. mollis populations between 1997 and 2002. Our results demonstrate strong effects of introduced herbivores on both plant demography and population dynamics and show that climate

  14. Unravelling the evolutionary history and future prospects of endemic species restricted to former glacial refugia.

    PubMed

    Razgour, Orly; Salicini, Irene; Ibáñez, Carlos; Randi, Ettore; Juste, Javier

    2015-10-01

    The contemporary distribution and genetic composition of biodiversity bear a signature of species' evolutionary histories and the effects of past climatic oscillations. For many European species, the Mediterranean peninsulas of Iberia, Italy and the Balkans acted as glacial refugia and the source of range recolonization, and as a result, they contain disproportionately high levels of diversity. As these areas are particularly threatened by future climate change, it is important to understand how past climatic changes affected their biodiversity. We use an integrated approach, combining markers with different evolutionary rates and combining phylogenetic analysis with approximate Bayesian computation and species distribution modelling across temporal scales. We relate phylogeographic processes to patterns of genetic variation in Myotis escalerai, a bat species endemic to the Iberian Peninsula. We found a distinct population structure at the mitochondrial level with a strong geographic signature, indicating lineage divergence into separate glacial refugia within the Iberian refugium. However, microsatellite markers suggest higher levels of gene flow resulting in more limited structure at recent time frames. The evolutionary history of M. escalerai was shaped by the effects of climatic oscillations and changes in forest cover and composition, while its future is threatened by climatically induced range contractions and the role of ecological barriers due to competition interactions in restricting its distribution. This study warns that Mediterranean peninsulas, which provided refuge for European biodiversity during past glaciation events, may become a trap for limited dispersal and ecologically limited endemic species under future climate change, resulting in loss of entire lineages. PMID:26346923

  15. The history of endemic Iberian ground beetle description (Insecta, Coleoptera, Carabidae): which species were described first?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez-Valverde, Alberto; Ortuño, Vicente M.

    2007-01-01

    iological correlates of species description dates can be used to predict the characteristics of yet-to-be-described species. Such information can be useful in the planning of biodiversity field surveys. This paper explores the influence of five factors—body size, geographic range size, geographic location, habitat and number of congeners—on the probability of description of endemic Iberian ground-beetles, and attempts to identify the effects of each factor, alone or in combination, through variation partitioning. Small-bodied and hypogean species were found to have been described later, as were those with smaller geographic ranges, while the number of congeners did not significantly affect description date. Additionally, Eastern hypogean species were described earlier than Western ones because of major lithology differences from east to west in the Iberian Peninsula, and concomitant geographic taxonomic bias. However, effects of each factor alone are quite small in comparison with effects of the combination of factors, due to their considerable correlation. Thus, "rarity", in its broadest sense, has been the determining factor of date of description of endemic Iberian ground-beetles. Previously, the technical difficulty encountered in the study of rare species retarded their description, whereas now they have become a "fashionable" object of study among carabidologists, due to the possibility of rapid publication. In order to improve the incomplete checklist of Iberian ground beetles it would be necessary to focus sampling efforts on marginal habitats and hypogean fauna.

  16. Endemic hydrothermal vent species identified in the open ocean seed bank.

    PubMed

    Gonnella, Giorgio; Böhnke, Stefanie; Indenbirken, Daniela; Garbe-Schönberg, Dieter; Seifert, Richard; Mertens, Christian; Kurtz, Stefan; Perner, Mirjam

    2016-01-01

    Hydrothermal vent systems host microbial communities among which several microorganisms have been considered endemic to this type of habitat. It is still unclear how these organisms colonize geographically distant hydrothermal environments. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, we compare the bacterial communities of sixteen Atlantic hydrothermal vent samples with our own and publicly available global open ocean samples. Analysing sequences obtained from 63 million 16S rRNA genes, the genera we could identify in the open ocean waters contained 99.9% of the vent reads. This suggests that previously observed vent exclusiveness is, in most cases, probably an artefact of lower sequencing depth. These findings are a further step towards elucidating the role of the open ocean as a seed bank. They can explain the predicament of how species expected to be endemic to vent systems are able to colonize geographically distant hydrothermal habitats and contribute to our understanding of whether 'everything is really everywhere'. PMID:27573109

  17. Conservation of tropical plant species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book is designed to provide a review of the methods and current status of conservation of many tropical plant species. Future perspectives of conservation of tropical species will also be discussed. The section on methods covers the range of conservation techniques, in situ, seed banking, in vi...

  18. Phylogeography sheds light on the central–marginal hypothesis in a Mediterranean narrow endemic plant

    PubMed Central

    Pouget, Marine; Youssef, Sami; Migliore, Jérémy; Juin, Marianick; Médail, Frédéric; Baumel, Alex

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Understanding the factors that shape variation in genetic diversity across the geographic ranges of species is an important challenge in the effort to conserve evolutionary processes sustaining biodiversity. The historical influences leading to a central–marginal organization of genetic diversity have been explored for species whose range is known to have expanded from refugia after glacial events. However, this question has rarely been addressed for Mediterranean endemic plants of azonal habitats such as rocky slopes or screes. In this context, this comprehensive study examined molecular and field data from Arenaria provincialis (Caryophyllaceae), a narrow endemic plant of south-eastern France. Methods Across the whole geographic range, an investigation was made of whether high levels of abundance and genetic diversity (estimated from amplified fragment length polymorphism markers) are centrally distributed, to evaluate the relevance of the central–marginal hypothesis. Phylogeographic patterns inferred from chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) were used, applying Bayesian methods to test the influence of past biogeographic events. Multivariate analysis combining phylogeographic and ecological data was used to reveal the historical and ecological distinctiveness of populations. Key Results Despite the narrow distribution of A. provincialis, a high level of nucleotide variation is found within cpDNA loci, supporting its persistence throughout the Pleistocene period. The area characterized by the highest genetic diversity is centrally located. Structured phylogeography and Bayesian factor analysis supported the hypothesis that the central area of the distribution was the source of both westward and eastward migrations, probably during arid periods of the Pleistocene, and more recently was a crossroads of backward migrations. By contrast, the two areas located today at the range limits are younger, have reduced genetic diversity and are marginal in the

  19. Spatial and ecological population genetic structures within two island-endemic Aeonium species of different niche width.

    PubMed

    Harter, David E V; Thiv, Mike; Weig, Alfons; Jentsch, Anke; Beierkuhnlein, Carl

    2015-10-01

    The Crassulacean genus Aeonium is a well-known example for plant species radiation on oceanic archipelagos. However, while allopatric speciation among islands is documented for this genus, the role of intra-island speciation due to population divergence by topographical isolation or ecological heterogeneity has not yet been addressed. The aim of this study was to investigate intraspecific genetic structures and to identify spatial and ecological drivers of genetic population differentiation on the island scale. We analyzed inter simple sequence repeat variation within two island-endemic Aeonium species of La Palma: one widespread generalist that covers a large variety of different habitat types (Ae. davidbramwellii) and one narrow ecological specialist (Ae. nobile), in order to assess evolutionary potentials on this island. Gene pool differentiation and genetic diversity patterns were associated with major landscape structures in both species, with phylogeographic implications. However, overall levels of genetic differentiation were low. For the generalist species, outlier loci detection and loci-environment correlation approaches indicated moderate signatures of divergent selection pressures linked to temperature and precipitation variables, while the specialist species missed such patterns. Our data point to incipient differentiation among populations, emphasizing that ecological heterogeneity and topographical structuring within the small scales of an island can foster evolutionary processes. Very likely, such processes have contributed to the radiation of Aeonium on the Canary Islands. There is also support for different evolutionary mechanisms between generalist and specialist species. PMID:26664682

  20. Photosynthetic responses to water deficit in six Mediterranean sclerophyll species: possible factors explaining the declining distribution of Rhamnus ludovici-salvatoris, an endemic Balearic species.

    PubMed

    Gulías, J; Flexas, J; Abadía, A; Madrano, H

    2002-07-01

    We sought to explain the declining distribution in the Balearic Islands of the endemic shrub Rhamnus ludovici-salvatoris R. Chodat, by comparing its photosynthetic response to drought with that of several widely distributed, competing Mediterranean species (R. alaternus L., Quercus ilex L., Pistacia lentiscus L., Q. humilis Mill. and P. terebinthus L.). All of the study species, except for the two Rhamnus species, avoided desiccation by rapidly adjusting their stomatal conductance at the onset of drought, and maintaining constant leaf relative water content. The two Rhamnus species showed desiccation-tolerant behavior; i.e., as drought progressed, their predawn leaf relative water content decreased simultaneously with stomatal closure. All four desiccation-avoiding species showed a significant positive correlation between leaf thermal dissipation (estimated by the fluorescence parameter NPQ (non-photochemical quenching)) and the de-epoxidation state of the xanthophyll cycle (DPS). The two Rhamnus species exhibited maximum DPS regardless of treatment, but only R. alaternus increased NPQ in response to drought. Rhamnus ludovici-salvatoris had a high ratio of photorespiration to photosynthesis and a low intrinsic water-use efficiency; traits that are likely to be unfavorable for plant productivity under arid conditions. It also had the lowest DPS and thermal dissipation among the six species. We conclude that the photosynthetic traits of R. ludovici-salvatoris account for its limited ability to compete with other species in the Mediterranean region. PMID:12091150

  1. Genetic diversity and structure in the rare Colorado endemic plant Physaria bellii Mulligan (Brassicaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Physaria bellii (Brassicaceae) is a rare, outcrossing perennial endemic to shale and sandstone outcrops along the Front Range of northern Colorado, USA. This species is locally abundant, but ranked G2/S2 - imperiled because of threats to its habitat and a small number of populations – according to N...

  2. The nature of serpentine endemism.

    PubMed

    Anacker, Brian L

    2014-02-01

    Serpentine soils are a model system for the study of plant adaptation, speciation, and species interactions. Serpentine soil is an edaphically stressful, low productivity soil type that hosts stunted vegetation and a spectacular level of plant endemism. One of the first papers on serpentine plant endemism was by Arthur Kruckeberg, titled "Intraspecific variability in the response of certain native plant species to serpentine soil." Published in the American Journal of Botany in 1951, it has been cited over 100 times. Here, I review the context and content of the paper, as well as its impact. On the basis of the results of reciprocal transplant experiments in the greenhouse, Kruckeberg made three important conclusions on the nature of serpentine plant endemism: (1) Plants are locally adapted to serpentine soils, forming distinct soil ecotypes; (2) soil ecotypes are the first stage in the evolutionary progression toward serpentine endemism; and (3) serpentine endemics are restricted from more fertile nonserpentine soils by competition. Kruckeberg's paper inspired a substantial amount of research, especially in the three areas reviewed here: local adaptation and plant traits, speciation, and the interaction of climate and soil in plant endemism. In documenting soil ecotypes, Kruckeberg identified serpentine soils as a potent selective factor in plant evolution and helped establish serpentine soils as a model system in evolution and ecology. PMID:24509800

  3. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Korean endemic species Microphysogobio yaluensis (Teleostei, Cypriniformes, Cyprinidae).

    PubMed

    Park, Chang Eon; Park, Gun-Seok; Kim, Min-Chul; Kim, Kgu-Hwan; Park, Hee Cheon; Lee, In-Jung; Shin, Jae-Ho

    2016-09-01

    In this study, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of the Korean endemic species Microphysogobio yaluensis (Teleostei, Cypriniformes, Cyprinidae). The mitogenome, consisted of 16 601 base pairs (bp), encoding 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2 ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs), 22 transfer RNAs (tRNAs) and 2 non-coding regions. The overall base composition of M. yaluensis was G + C: 43.8%, A + T: 56.2%, apparently with a slight AT bias. Phylogenetic analysis showed that M. yaluensis was close to Hemibarbus mylodon. PMID:26260172

  4. Complete mitochondrial genome of the endemic species Korean aucha perch Coreoperca herzi (Teleostei, Centrarchiformes, Sinipercidae).

    PubMed

    Park, Chang Eon; Park, Gun-Seok; Kwak, Yunyoung; Hong, Sung-Jun; Khan, Abdur Rahim; Jung, Byung Kwon; Park, Yeong-Jun; Kim, Min-Chul; Kim, Kgu-Hwan; Park, Hee Cheon; Lee, In-Jung; Shin, Jae-Ho

    2016-09-01

    In this study, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of the endemic species Korean aucha perch Coreoperca herzi (Teleostei, Centrarchiformes, Sinipercidae). The mitogenome, consisting of 16 495 base pairs (bp), encoded 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2 ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs), 22 transfer RNAs (tRNAs) and 2 non-coding region. The overall base composition of C. herzi is G + C: 46.3%, A + T: 53.7%, apparently with a slight AT bias. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the C. herzi was closed to Coreoperca kawamebari. PMID:26181210

  5. Chemical composition of essential oil of Senecio coincyi, an endemic species of the Central Iberian Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Arrabal, Carlos; Martínez García, Felipe; Paz Arraiza, María; Guerrero García, Silvia

    2011-01-01

    The essential oil has been studied of leaves of Senecio coincyi Rouy, an endemic species of Spain restricted to a very small area of the Central Iberian Peninsula. Samples from five locations were obtained by hydrodistillation and extraction and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The main compound was 1-tridecene (28.1 +/- 8.5%). The presence of unsaturated hydrocarbons (1-undecene, 1-dodecene and 1-tridecene) seems to indicate a chemotaxonomic relationship between Senecio coincyi and S. congestus. PMID:21366061

  6. Paeonicluside, a new salicylic glycoside from the Greek endemic species Paeonia clusii.

    PubMed

    Papandreou, Vasiliki; Magiatis, Prokopios; Kalpoutzakis, Eleftherios; Skaltsounis, Alexios-Leandros; Harvala, Catherine

    2002-01-01

    A new glycoside of salicylic aldehyde, paeonicluside, was isolated from the roots of the Greek endemic species Paeonia clusii subsp. clusii and identified as alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1-->6)-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside of salicylic aldehyde (1). In addition, one characteristic monoterpene and two monoterpene glycosides were identified as paeoniflorigenone, paeoniflorin and benzoyl paeoniflorin, respectively. The structure of 1 was elucidated on the basis of its spectroscopic data and chemical correlation. It is the first time that a derivative of salicylic aldehyde is isolated from the well-studied Paeonia genus. PMID:12064719

  7. Description of three new troglobiontic species of Cybaeodes (Araneae, Liocranidae) endemic to the Iberian Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Ribera, Carles; De Mas, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Three new troglobiontic species of the spider genus Cybaeodes Simon endemic to caves in the southeastern Iberian Peninsula are described and illustrated: Cybaeodes indalo sp. n. from Almería, C. dosaguas sp. n. from València and C. magnus sp. n. from Alacant. The new species confirm the presence of Cybaeodes on the Iberian Peninsula and its wide distribution throughout the Western Mediterranean including Algeria, Tunisia, Italy, France, Spain and the islands of Sardinia, Sicily and Mallorca. A record of C. liocraninus (Simon), from an Iberian cave was probably based on misidentified specimens of C. magnus sp. n. C. liocraninus is known only from Algeria and should be removed from lists of the Iberian fauna. In addition, the three new species are clear candidates for protection: they have highly restricted ranges and show a high degree of adaptation to the subterranean environment. PMID:26249078

  8. The ancient Balkan lakes harbor a new endemic species of Diaphanosoma Fischer, 1850 (Crustacea: Branchiopoda: Cladocera).

    PubMed

    Korovchinsky, Nikolai M; Petkovski, Trajan K

    2014-01-01

    Diaphanosoma macedonicum sp. nov. is described from material collected from the ancient Lakes Dojran and Prespa, located in the central part of the Balkan Peninsula. It can be regarded as a member of the "D. mongolianum" species group. It is characterized by specific, but not readily visible features, such as the absence of a thorn near the posterior valve margins, as well as setules between setae of the ventral valve inflection, and the presence of more chitinized integument. The discovery of this new species previously identified as "Diaphanosoma brachyurum (Liévin)" highlights the necessity of more detailed investigations of the zooplankton of Balkan lakes potentially populated by greater numbers of endemic cladoceran species. A short overview of the ancient lakes in the Central Balkans is provided. PMID:24872071

  9. Species interactions and plant polyploidy.

    PubMed

    Segraves, Kari A; Anneberg, Thomas J

    2016-07-01

    Polyploidy is a common mode of speciation that can have far-reaching consequences for plant ecology and evolution. Because polyploidy can induce an array of phenotypic changes, there can be cascading effects on interactions with other species. These interactions, in turn, can have reciprocal effects on polyploid plants, potentially impacting their establishment and persistence. Although there is a wealth of information on the genetic and phenotypic effects of polyploidy, the study of species interactions in polyploid plants remains a comparatively young field. Here we reviewed the available evidence for how polyploidy may impact many types of species interactions that range from mutualism to antagonism. Specifically, we focused on three main questions: (1) Does polyploidy directly cause the formation of novel interactions not experienced by diploids, or does it create an opportunity for natural selection to then form novel interactions? (2) Does polyploidy cause consistent, predictable changes in species interactions vs. the evolution of idiosyncratic differences? (3) Does polyploidy lead to greater evolvability in species interactions? From the scarce evidence available, we found that novel interactions are rare but that polyploidy can induce changes in pollinator, herbivore, and pathogen interactions. Although further tests are needed, it is likely that selection following whole-genome duplication is important in all types of species interaction and that there are circumstances in which polyploidy can enhance the evolvability of interactions with other species. PMID:27370313

  10. The complete chloroplast genome of Gentiana straminea (Gentianaceae), an endemic species to the Sino-Himalayan subregion.

    PubMed

    Ni, Lianghong; Zhao, Zhili; Xu, Hongxi; Chen, Shilin; Dorje, Gaawe

    2016-02-15

    Endemic to the Sino-Himalayan subregion, the medicinal alpine plant Gentiana straminea is a threatened species. The genetic and molecular data about it is deficient. Here we report the complete chloroplast (cp) genome sequence of G. straminea, as the first sequenced member of the family Gentianaceae. The cp genome is 148,991bp in length, including a large single copy (LSC) region of 81,240bp, a small single copy (SSC) region of 17,085bp and a pair of inverted repeats (IRs) of 25,333bp. It contains 112 unique genes, including 78 protein-coding genes, 30 tRNAs and 4 rRNAs. The rps16 gene lacks exon2 between trnK-UUU and trnQ-UUG, which is the first rps16 pseudogene found in the nonparasitic plants of Asterids clade. Sequence analysis revealed the presence of 13 forward repeats, 13 palindrome repeats and 39 simple sequence repeats (SSRs). An entire cp genome comparison study of G. straminea and four other species in Gentianales was carried out. Phylogenetic analyses using maximum likelihood (ML) and maximum parsimony (MP) were performed based on 69 protein-coding genes from 36 species of Asterids. The results strongly supported the position of Gentianaceae as one member of the order Gentianales. The complete chloroplast genome sequence will provide intragenic information for its conservation and contribute to research on the genetic and phylogenetic analyses of Gentianales and Asterids. PMID:26680100

  11. De Novo Transcriptome Assembly in Firmiana danxiaensis, a Tree Species Endemic to the Danxia Landform

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Su-Fang; Li, Ming-Wan; Jing, Hui-Juan; Zhou, Ren-Chao; Yang, Gui-Li; Wu, Wei; Fan, Qiang; Liao, Wen-Bo

    2015-01-01

    Many Firmiana species are locally endemic, providing an interesting system for studying adaptation and speciation. Among these species, F. danxiaensis is a tree species endemic to Mount Danxia in Guangdong, China, which is an area known for presenting the Danxia landform. How F. danxiaensis could have adapted to the stressful environment of rocky cliffs covered with barren soils in the Danxia landform is still unknown. In this study, we performed de novo assembly of the transcriptome of F. danxiaensis, obtaining 47,221 unigenes with an N50 value of 987 bp. Homology analysis showed that 32,318 of the unigenes presented hits in the NCBI non-redundant database, and 31,857 exhibited significant matches with the protein database of Theobroma cacao. Gene Ontology (GO) annotation showed that hundreds of unigenes participated in responses to various stresses or nutritional starvation, which may help us to understand the adaptation of F. danxiaensis to Danxia landform. Additionally, we found 263 genes related to responses to Cd, partially explaining the high accumulation of Cd observed in Firmiana species. The EuKaryotic Orthologous Groups (KOG) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) annotations revealed many genes playing roles in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites and environmental adaptation, which may also contribute to the survivor and success of Firmiana species in extreme environments. Based on the obtained transcriptome, we further identified a Firmiana-specific whole-genome duplication event that occurred approximately 20 Mya, which may have provided raw materials for the diversification of Firmiana species. PMID:26427005

  12. Parasitism of a Hawaiian endemic moth by invasive and purposely introduced Hymenoptera species.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Leyla V; Wright, Mark G

    2010-04-01

    The impact of invasive alien species on native organisms is a cause for serious concern. This concern is especially relevant in the Hawaiian archipelago because of its high level of endemicity, severe impacts of accidental introductions of invasive species, and long history of purposeful biological control introductions. Results from a previous study showed that the parasitoid assemblage associated with an endemic moth Udea stellata (Butler) comprised seven species: three adventive species, two purposely introduced species, and two of unknown origin. The objectives of this study were to assess the parasitism levels of alien wasps on populations of U. stellata at different sites and to determine the specific stages that were used by the spectrum of parasitoid species that attack U. stellata. Standardized collections of wild larvae were conducted at eight sites located on the islands of Kauai, Oahu, and Hawaii. In total, 3,531 larvae were collected in a 2-yr survey. Of these, 8.0% were collected as first instar, 23.0% as second instar, 39.0% as third instar, 21.0% as fourth instar, 7.1% as fifth instar, and 1.8% as sixth instar. Of the larvae that survived laboratory rearing, 43.0% were parasitized. Information collected in the surveys was complemented with data from life-table studies to determine stage-specific parasitism. All larval stages were susceptible to parasitism by at least one parasitoid species; second and third instars were susceptible to attack by all seven parasitoid species. Adventive parasitoids rather than purposely introduced ones were responsible for the greater part of the apparent mortality observed. At low and low-medium elevations, the parasitoid assemblage was dominated by adventive species. The two purposely introduced parasitoids were present in remote relatively undisturbed sites on the islands Kauai and Hawaii. The sometimes high parasitism rates by adventive species found in this study were shown to have minimal effect at the population

  13. Lotus endemic to the Canary Islands are nodulated by diverse and novel rhizobial species and symbiotypes.

    PubMed

    Lorite, Ma José; Donate-Correa, Javier; del Arco-Aguilar, Marcelino; Pérez Galdona, Ricardo; Sanjuán, Juan; León-Barrios, Milagros

    2010-08-01

    Genetic and symbiotic characterization of 34 isolates from several Lotus species endemic to the Canary Islands showed extraordinary diversity, with bacteria belonging to different species of the genera Mesorhizobium (17 isolates), Sinorhizobium (12 isolates) and Rhizobium/Agrobacterium (5 isolates). In a previous report, we showed that the Sinorhizobium isolates mostly belonged to S. meliloti. Here, we focused on the remaining isolates. The Lotus mesorhizobial strains were distributed in the rrs tree within six poorly resolved branches. Partial sequences from atpD and recA genes produced much better resolved phylogenies that were, with some exceptions, congruent with the ribosomal phylogeny. Thus, up to six different mesorhizobial species were detected, which matched with or were sister species of M. ciceri, M. alhagi, M. plurifarium or M. caraganae, and two represented new lineages that did not correspond to any of the currently recognized species. Neither M. loti nor Bradyrhizobium sp. (Lotus), recognized as the typical Lotus-symbionts, were identified among the Canarian Lotus isolates, although their nodulation genes were closely related to M. loti. However, several subbranches of mesorhizobia nodulating Lotus spp. could be differentiated in a nodC tree, with the isolates from the islands distributed in two of them (A1 and A3). Subbranch A1 included reference strains of M. loti and a group of isolates with a host range compatible with biovar loti, whereas A3 represented a more divergent exclusive subbranch of isolates with a host range almost restricted to endemic Lotus and it could represent a new biovar among the Lotus rhizobia. PMID:20447791

  14. Four cases of fatal toxoplasmosis in three species of endemic New Zealand birds.

    PubMed

    Howe, Laryssa; Hunter, Stuart; Burrows, Elizabeth; Roe, Wendi

    2014-03-01

    Four cases of fatal toxoplasmosis in three endemic New Zealand avian species are reported. Between 2009 and 2012, two kereru (Hemiphaga novaeseelandiae), one North Island brown kiwi (Apteryx mantelli), and one North Island kaka (Nestor meridionalis) were submitted for necropsy examination. On gross postmortem, the kiwi had marked hepatosplenomegaly while the kaka and two kereru had swollen, slightly firm, deep-red lungs. Histologically there was extensive hepatocellular necrosis in the liver of the kiwi while the kaka and kereru showed severe fibrinous bronchointerstitial pneumonia. In the kiwi, protozoal organisms were present within both hepatocytes and Kupffer cells of the liver and within the epithelial cells and macrophages of the interstitium of the lungs in the kaka and two kereru. The diagnosis of toxoplasmosis was confirmed with immunohistochemistry and PCR of paraffin-embedded formalin-fixed tissue of the liver, lungs, or both. Genotyping of up to seven markers revealed that an atypical Type II isolate of Toxoplasma gondii was present in at least three of the cases. This study provides evidence that T. gondii can cause mortality in these endemic species and suggests further research is needed to determine the full extent of morbidity and mortality caused by this parasite in New Zealand's unique avifauna. PMID:24758132

  15. Trichinella infections in different host species of an endemic district of Serbia.

    PubMed

    Zivojinovic, M; Sofronic-Milosavljevic, Lj; Cvetkovic, J; Pozio, E; Interisano, M; Plavsic, B; Radojicic, S; Kulisic, Z

    2013-05-20

    Trichinella infections are endemic in the Balkan region of Europe. Though trichinellosis and agents thereof are serious problems for human health and animal husbandry, only a limited number of Trichinella isolates from Serbia have been identified at the species level so far. The aim of the present study was the surveillance and monitoring of Trichinella in domestic pigs and wild animals from the endemic district of Branicevo. Investigations performed during the 2009-2010 period revealed Trichinella infections in 344 out of 282,960 (0.12%) domestic pigs. Among wildlife, Trichinella infections were detected in 11 out of 94 (11.7%) wild boars (Sus scrofa), 7 out of 57 (12.3%) red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), 7 out of 13 (53.8%) golden jackals (Canis aureus), and in all three examined wolves (Canis lupus). Trichinella spiralis and Trichinella britovi were the only two species identified. T. britovi was identified in 31% of isolates from wildlife of the Branicevo district and T. spiralis was found in 53% of wild animals; mixed infections were observed in 16% of the animals examined. Findings form the basis of an information campaign for veterinary services, pig owners and the hunter's associations about the risk of the transmission of these zoonotic agents. The application of control programs as established at the Veterinary Specialist Institute of Pozarevac resulted in a decline in Trichinella infections among domestic pigs and the absence of human trichinellosis in the last three years in the Branicevo district. PMID:23453823

  16. Two new species of endemic Ecuadorean Amaryllidaceae (Asparagales, Amaryllidaceae, Amarylloideae, Eucharideae).

    PubMed

    Meerow, Alan W; Jost, Lou; Oleas, Nora

    2015-01-01

    New species of the genera Stenomesson and Eucharis (Amaryllidaceae) are described from Ecuador. Stenomessonecuadorense is the second species of the genus reported from that country, and the only endemic one. It is related to Stenomessonminiatum and Stenomessoncampanulatum, both from Peru, with which it shares orange flower color and the fusion of the staminal corona to the perianth tube. It differs from Stenomessonminiatum by the non-urceolate perianth, from Stenomessoncampanulatum by its shorter stamens and longer perianth, and from both by its lower montane, cloud forest habitat. Eucharisruthiana, found in the vicinity of Zamora, is related to Eucharismoorei from which it differs by the narrower leaves and tepals; short, deeply cleft staminal corona; the long teeth on either side of the free filaments; the narrowly subulate, incurved free filaments; and the shorter style. The green mature fruit and campanulate floral morphology place it in Eucharissubg.Heterocharis. PMID:25931969

  17. Two new species of endemic Ecuadorean Amaryllidaceae (Asparagales, Amaryllidaceae, Amarylloideae, Eucharideae)

    PubMed Central

    Meerow, Alan W.; Jost, Lou; Oleas, Nora

    2015-01-01

    Abstract New species of the genera Stenomesson and Eucharis (Amaryllidaceae) are described from Ecuador. Stenomesson ecuadorense is the second species of the genus reported from that country, and the only endemic one. It is related to Stenomesson miniatum and Stenomesson campanulatum, both from Peru, with which it shares orange flower color and the fusion of the staminal corona to the perianth tube. It differs from Stenomesson miniatum by the non-urceolate perianth, from Stenomesson campanulatum by its shorter stamens and longer perianth, and from both by its lower montane, cloud forest habitat. Eucharis ruthiana, found in the vicinity of Zamora, is related to Eucharis moorei from which it differs by the narrower leaves and tepals; short, deeply cleft staminal corona; the long teeth on either side of the free filaments; the narrowly subulate, incurved free filaments; and the shorter style. The green mature fruit and campanulate floral morphology place it in Eucharis subg. Heterocharis. PMID:25931969

  18. A novel third species of the Western Ghats endemic genus Ghatixalus (Anura: Rhacophoridae), with description of its tadpole.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Robin Kurian; Mathew, Jobin K; Cyriac, Vivek Philip; Zachariah, Arun; Raju, David V; Zachariah, Anil

    2015-01-01

    The Western Ghats biodiversity hotspot is a recognized center of rhacophorid diversity as demonstrated by several recent studies. The endemic genus Ghatixalus is represented by two species from two separate high-elevation regions within the Ghats. Here, we describe a third species that can be distinguished by morphological and larval characters, as well as by its phylogenetic placement. PMID:26624739

  19. Genetic Variation in Rheum palmatum and Rheum tanguticum (Polygonaceae), Two Medicinally and Endemic Species in China Using ISSR Markers

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xumei; Yang, Rui; Feng, Shifang; Hou, Xiaoqi; Zhang, Yuqu; Li, Yan; Ren, Yi

    2012-01-01

    Aims Both Rheum palmatum and R. tanguticum are important but endangered medicinal plants endemic to China. In this study, we aimed to (i) investigate the level and pattern of genetic variability within/among populations of those species; (ii) evaluate genetic differentiation between both species and its relationships and ascertain whether both species are consistent with their current taxonomical treatment as separate species; and (iii) discuss the implications for the effective conservation of two species. Methods Total 574 individuals from 30 populations of R. palmatum and R. tanguticum were collected, covering the entire distribution range of two species in China. The genetic variation within and among 30 populations was evaluated using inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers. Important Findings Twelve selected ISSR primers generated a total of 175 fragments, 173 (98.86%) of which were polymorphic. The Nei's gene diversity (H) and Shannon's index (I) of both species were high at species level (H = 0.3107, I = 0.4677 for R. palmatum; H = 0.2848, I = 0.4333 for R. tanguticum). But for both species, the genetic diversity was low at population level, and average within-population diversity of R. palmatum was H = 0.1438, I = 0.2151, and that of R. tanguticum was H = 0.1415, I = 0.2126. The hierarchical AMOVA revealed high levels of among-population genetic differentiation in both species, in line with the gene differentiation coefficient and the limited among-population gene flow (R. palmatum: Φst = 0.592, Gst = 0.537, Nm = 0.432; R. tanguticum: Φst = 0.567, Gst = 0.497, Nm = 0.507). By contrast, only 6.52% of the total genetic variance was partitioned between R. palmatum and R. tanguticum. Bayesian analysis, UPGMA cluster analysis, and PCoA analysis all demonstrated the similar results. A significant isolation-by-distance pattern was revealed in R. palmatum (r = 0.547, P = 0.010), but not in R

  20. First description of leaf-mining Nepticulidae and Tischeriidae (Insecta, Lepidoptera) feeding on the Chilean endemic plant genus Podanthus Lag. (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Stonis, Jonas R; Diškus, Arūnas; Remeikis, Andrius; Torres, Nixon Cumbicus

    2016-01-01

    Despite taxonomic and conservation interest in the Chilean endemic plant genus Podanthus Lag. (Asteraceae: subfamily Asteroideae, tribe Heliantheae), no Podanthus-feeding Nepticulidae or Tischeriidae have ever been recorded. Here, on the basis of material reared from Podanthus from central Mediterranean Chile, we present the description of Stigmella podanthae sp. nov. (Nepticulidae) and a re-description of Astrotischeria chilei Puplesis & Diškus, 2003. Females and host-plant of the latter species were previously unknown. Both treated species are illustrated with numerous photographs of the leaf-mines, adults of both sexes, and male and female genitalia. PMID:27395486

  1. The complete chloroplast genome of Armand pine Pinus armandii, an endemic conifer tree species to China.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhong-Hu; Qian, Zeng-Qiang; Liu, Zhan-Lin; Deng, Tuan-Tuan; Zu, Yu-Meng; Zhao, Peng; Zhao, Gui-Fang

    2016-07-01

    The complete chloroplast genome (cpDNA) sequence of an endemic conifer species, Armand pine Pinus armandii Franch., is determined in this study. The cpDNA was 117,265 bp in length, containing a pair of 475 bp inverted repeat (IR) regions those distinguished in large and small single copy (LSC and SSC) regions of 64,548 and 51,767 bp in length, respectively. The cpDNA contained 114 genes, including 74 protein-coding genes (74 PCG species), 4 ribosomal RNA genes (four rRNA species) and 36 transfer RNA genes (33 tRNA species). Out of these genes, 12 harbor a single intron and most of the genes occurred in a single copy. The overall AT content of the Armand pine cpDNA was 61.2%, while the corresponding values of the LSC, SSC and IR regions were 62.0%, 60.2% and 62.7%, respectively. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that P. armandii chloroplast genome is closely related to that of the P. koraiensis within the genus Pinus. PMID:26024147

  2. Alpine endemic spiders shed light on the origin and evolution of subterranean species.

    PubMed

    Mammola, Stefano; Isaia, Marco; Arnedo, Miquel A

    2015-01-01

    We designed a comparative study to unravel the phylogeography of two Alpine endemic spiders characterized by a different degree of adaptation to subterranean life: Troglohyphantes vignai (Araneae, Linyphiidae) and Pimoa rupicola (Araneae, Pimoidae), the latter showing minor adaptation to hypogean life. We sampled populations of the model species in caves and other subterranean habitats across their known geographical range in the Western Alps. By combining phylogeographic inferences and Ecological Niche Modeling techniques, we inferred the biogeographic scenario that led to the present day population structure of the two species. According to our divergent time estimates and relative uncertainties, the isolation of T. vignai and P. rupicola from their northern sister groups was tracked back to Middle-Late Miocene. Furthermore, the fingerprint left by Pleistocene glaciations on the population structure revealed by the genetic data, led to the hypothesis that a progressive adaptation to subterranean habitats occurred in T. vignai, followed by strong population isolation. On the other hand, P. rupicola underwent a remarkable genetic bottleneck during the Pleistocene glaciations, that shaped its present population structure. It seems likely that such shallow population structure is both the result of the minor degree of specialization to hypogean life and the higher dispersal ability characterizing this species. The simultaneous study of overlapping spider species showing different levels of adaptation to hypogean life, disclosed a new way to clarify patterns of biological diversification and to understand the effects of past climatic shift on the subterranean biodiversity. PMID:26734503

  3. Odorant Receptors of the New Zealand Endemic Leafroller Moth Species Planotortrix octo and P. excessana

    PubMed Central

    Steinwender, Bernd; Thrimawithana, Amali H.; Crowhurst, Ross; Newcomb, Richard D.

    2016-01-01

    Moths use their sense of smell to find food sources, mating partners and oviposition sites. For this they possess a family of odorant receptors (ORs). Some ORs are used by both sexes whereas others have sex-specific roles. For example, male moths possess ORs specifically tuned to sex pheromones produced by conspecific females. Here we identify sets of ORs from the antennae of New Zealand endemic leafroller moths Planotortrix octo (48 ORs) and P. excessana (47 ORs) using an RNA-Seq approach. Two orthologous ORs show male-biased expression in the adult antennae of both species (OR7 and OR30) and one other OR in each species was female-biased in its expression (PoctOR25, PexcOR14) by qPCR. PAML analysis conducted on male-biased ORs indicated positive selection acting on the male-biased OR7. The fact that OR7 is likely under positive selection, that it is male-biased in its expression and that its orthologue in C. obliquana, CoblOR7, responds to sex pheromone components also utilised by Planotortrix species, suggests that this receptor may also be important in sex pheromone reception in Planotortrix species. PMID:27003722

  4. Odorant Receptors of the New Zealand Endemic Leafroller Moth Species Planotortrix octo and P. excessana.

    PubMed

    Steinwender, Bernd; Thrimawithana, Amali H; Crowhurst, Ross; Newcomb, Richard D

    2016-01-01

    Moths use their sense of smell to find food sources, mating partners and oviposition sites. For this they possess a family of odorant receptors (ORs). Some ORs are used by both sexes whereas others have sex-specific roles. For example, male moths possess ORs specifically tuned to sex pheromones produced by conspecific females. Here we identify sets of ORs from the antennae of New Zealand endemic leafroller moths Planotortrix octo (48 ORs) and P. excessana (47 ORs) using an RNA-Seq approach. Two orthologous ORs show male-biased expression in the adult antennae of both species (OR7 and OR30) and one other OR in each species was female-biased in its expression (PoctOR25, PexcOR14) by qPCR. PAML analysis conducted on male-biased ORs indicated positive selection acting on the male-biased OR7. The fact that OR7 is likely under positive selection, that it is male-biased in its expression and that its orthologue in C. obliquana, CoblOR7, responds to sex pheromone components also utilised by Planotortrix species, suggests that this receptor may also be important in sex pheromone reception in Planotortrix species. PMID:27003722

  5. Alpine endemic spiders shed light on the origin and evolution of subterranean species

    PubMed Central

    Mammola, Stefano; Arnedo, Miquel A.

    2015-01-01

    We designed a comparative study to unravel the phylogeography of two Alpine endemic spiders characterized by a different degree of adaptation to subterranean life: Troglohyphantes vignai (Araneae, Linyphiidae) and Pimoa rupicola (Araneae, Pimoidae), the latter showing minor adaptation to hypogean life. We sampled populations of the model species in caves and other subterranean habitats across their known geographical range in the Western Alps. By combining phylogeographic inferences and Ecological Niche Modeling techniques, we inferred the biogeographic scenario that led to the present day population structure of the two species. According to our divergent time estimates and relative uncertainties, the isolation of T. vignai and P. rupicola from their northern sister groups was tracked back to Middle–Late Miocene. Furthermore, the fingerprint left by Pleistocene glaciations on the population structure revealed by the genetic data, led to the hypothesis that a progressive adaptation to subterranean habitats occurred in T. vignai, followed by strong population isolation. On the other hand, P. rupicola underwent a remarkable genetic bottleneck during the Pleistocene glaciations, that shaped its present population structure. It seems likely that such shallow population structure is both the result of the minor degree of specialization to hypogean life and the higher dispersal ability characterizing this species. The simultaneous study of overlapping spider species showing different levels of adaptation to hypogean life, disclosed a new way to clarify patterns of biological diversification and to understand the effects of past climatic shift on the subterranean biodiversity. PMID:26734503

  6. Chemical composition of the essential oil from Croton kimosorum, an endemic species to Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Rabehaja, Delphin J R; Ihandriharison, Harilala; Ramanoelina, Panja A R; Benja, Rakotonirina; Ratsimamanga-Urverg, Suzanne; Bighelli, Ange; Casanova, Joseph; Tomi, Félix

    2014-01-01

    Croton kimosorum Leandri is an endemic species to Madagascar. The chemical composition of aerial parts, leaf and stem oils is reported for the first time. Analysis was carried out by combination of chromatographic (CC, GC), spectroscopic and spectrometric (MS, 13C NMR) techniques. In total, 76 compounds have been identified. Essential oil isolated from aerial parts contained mainly linalool (21.6%), sabinene (10.4%), 1,8-cineole (6.3%), beta-pinene (6.2%), (E)-beta-caryophyllene (5.9%), terpinen-4-ol (4.8%), geraniol (4,5%) and germacrene D (2.3%). In comparison with the first sample, the composition of leaf and stem oils varied slightly, while essential oil isolated by vapor distillation from a semi-industrial still exhibited similar composition. PMID:24660481

  7. Using a network modularity analysis to inform management of a rare endemic plant in the northern Great Plains, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, Diane L.; Droege, Sam; Rabie, Paul A.; Larson, Jennifer L.; Devalez, Jelle; Haar, Milton; McDermott-Kubeczko, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    1. Analyses of flower-visitor interaction networks allow application of community-level information to conservation problems, but management recommendations that ensue from such analyses are not well characterized. Results of modularity analyses, which detect groups of species (modules) that interact more with each other than with species outside their module, may be particularly applicable to management concerns. 2. We conducted modularity analyses of networks surrounding a rare endemic annual plant, Eriogonum visheri, at Badlands National Park, USA, in 2010 and 2011. Plant species visited were determined by pollen on insect bodies and by flower species upon which insects were captured. Roles within modules (network hub, module hub, connector and peripheral, in decreasing order of network structural importance) were determined for each species. 3. Relationships demonstrated by the modularity analysis, in concert with knowledge of pollen species carried by insects, allowed us to infer effects of two invasive species on E. visheri. Sharing a module increased risk of interspecific pollen transfer to E. visheri. Control of invasive Salsola tragus, which shared a module with E. visheri, is therefore a prudent management objective, but lack of control of invasive Melilotus officinalis, which occupied a different module, is unlikely to negatively affect pollination of E. visheri. Eriogonum pauciflorum may occupy a key position in this network, supporting insects from the E. visheri module when E. visheri is less abundant. 4. Year-to-year variation in species' roles suggests management decisions must be based on observations over several years. Information on pollen deposition on stigmas would greatly strengthen inferences made from the modularity analysis. 5. Synthesis and applications: Assessing the consequences of pollination, whether at the community or individual level, is inherently time-consuming. A trade-off exists: rather than an estimate of fitness effects, the

  8. Hybridization may facilitate in situ survival of endemic species through periods of climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Matthias; Gruenheit, Nicole; Steel, Mike; Voelckel, Claudia; Deusch, Oliver; Heenan, Peter B.; McLenachan, Patricia A.; Kardailsky, Olga; Leigh, Jessica W.; Lockhart, Peter J.

    2013-12-01

    Predicting survival and extinction scenarios for climate change requires an understanding of the present day ecological characteristics of species and future available habitats, but also the adaptive potential of species to cope with environmental change. Hybridization is one mechanism that could facilitate this. Here we report statistical evidence that the transfer of genetic information through hybridization is a feature of species from the plant genus Pachycladon that survived the Last Glacial Maximum in geographically separated alpine refugia in New Zealand's South Island. We show that transferred glucosinolate hydrolysis genes also exhibit evidence of intra-locus recombination. Such gene exchange and recombination has the potential to alter the chemical defence in the offspring of hybridizing species. We use a mathematical model to show that when hybridization increases the adaptive potential of species, future biodiversity will be best protected by preserving closely related species that hybridize rather than by conserving distantly related species that are genetically isolated.

  9. Proactive conservation management of an island-endemic bird species in the face of global change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morrison, S.A.; Sillett, T. Scott; Ghalambor, Cameron K.; Fitzpatrick, J.W.; Graber, D.M.; Bakker, V.J.; Bowman, R.; Collins, C.T.; Collins, P.W.; Delaney, K.S.; Doak, D.F.; Koenig, W.D.; Laughrin, L.; Lieberman, A.A.; Marzluff, J.M.; Reynolds, M.D.; Scott, J.M.; Stallcup, J.A.; Vickers, W.; Boyce, W.M.

    2011-01-01

    Biodiversity conservation in an era of global change and scarce funding benefits from approaches that simultaneously solve multiple problems. Here, we discuss conservation management of the island scrub-jay (Aphelocoma insularis), the only island-endemic passerine species in the continental United States, which is currently restricted to 250-square-kilometer Santa Cruz Island, California. Although the species is not listed as threatened by state or federal agencies, its viability is nonetheless threatened on multiple fronts. We discuss management actions that could reduce extinction risk, including vaccination, captive propagation, biosecurity measures, and establishing a second free-living population on a neighboring island. Establishing a second population on Santa Rosa Island may have the added benefit of accelerating the restoration and enhancing the resilience of that island's currently highly degraded ecosystem. The proactive management framework for island scrub-jays presented here illustrates how strategies for species protection, ecosystem restoration, and adaptation to and mitigation of climate change can converge into an integrated solution. ?? 2011 by American Institute of Biological Sciences. All rights reserved.

  10. The Endemic Insular and Peninsular Species Chaetodipus spinatus (Mammalia, Heteromyidae) Breaks Patterns for Baja California

    PubMed Central

    Álvarez-Castañeda, Sergio Ticul; Murphy, Robert W.

    2014-01-01

    The Baja California peninsula is the second longest, most geographically isolated peninsula on Earth. Its physiography and the presence of many surrounding islands has facilitated studies of the underlying patterns and drivers of genetic structuring for a wide spectrum of organisms. Chaetodipus spinatus is endemic to the region and occurs on 12 associated islands, including 10 in the Gulf of California and two in the Pacific Ocean. This distribution makes it a model species for evaluating natural historical barriers. We test hypotheses associated with the relationship between the range of the species, patterns in other species, and its relationship to Pleistocene-Holocene climatic changes. We analyzed sequence data from mtDNA genes encoding cytochrome b (Cytb) and cytochrome c oxidase subunits I (COI) and III (COIII) in 26 populations including all 12 islands. The matrilineal genealogy, statistical parsimony network and Bayesian skyline plot indicated an origin of C. spinatus in the southern part of the peninsula. Our analyses detected several differences from the common pattern of peninsular animals: no mid-peninsula break exists, Isla Carmen hosts the most divergent population, the population on an ancient southern Midriff island does not differ from peninsular populations, and a mtDNA peninsular discordance occurs near Loreto. PMID:25542029

  11. The endemic insular and peninsular species Chaetodipus spinatus (Mammalia, Heteromyidae) breaks patterns for Baja California.

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Castañeda, Sergio Ticul; Murphy, Robert W

    2014-01-01

    The Baja California peninsula is the second longest, most geographically isolated peninsula on Earth. Its physiography and the presence of many surrounding islands has facilitated studies of the underlying patterns and drivers of genetic structuring for a wide spectrum of organisms. Chaetodipus spinatus is endemic to the region and occurs on 12 associated islands, including 10 in the Gulf of California and two in the Pacific Ocean. This distribution makes it a model species for evaluating natural historical barriers. We test hypotheses associated with the relationship between the range of the species, patterns in other species, and its relationship to Pleistocene-Holocene climatic changes. We analyzed sequence data from mtDNA genes encoding cytochrome b (Cytb) and cytochrome c oxidase subunits I (COI) and III (COIII) in 26 populations including all 12 islands. The matrilineal genealogy, statistical parsimony network and Bayesian skyline plot indicated an origin of C. spinatus in the southern part of the peninsula. Our analyses detected several differences from the common pattern of peninsular animals: no mid-peninsula break exists, Isla Carmen hosts the most divergent population, the population on an ancient southern Midriff island does not differ from peninsular populations, and a mtDNA peninsular discordance occurs near Loreto. PMID:25542029

  12. Extensive cryptic species diversity and fine-scale endemism in the marine red alga Portieria in the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Payo, Dioli Ann; Leliaert, Frederik; Verbruggen, Heroen; D'hondt, Sofie; Calumpong, Hilconida P.; De Clerck, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    We investigated species diversity and distribution patterns of the marine red alga Portieria in the Philippine archipelago. Species boundaries were tested based on mitochondrial, plastid and nuclear encoded loci, using a general mixed Yule-coalescent (GMYC) model-based approach and a Bayesian multilocus species delimitation method. The outcome of the GMYC analysis of the mitochondrial encoded cox2-3 dataset was highly congruent with the multilocus analysis. In stark contrast with the current morphology-based assumption that the genus includes a single, widely distributed species in the Indo-West Pacific (Portieria hornemannii), DNA-based species delimitation resulted in the recognition of 21 species within the Philippines. Species distributions were found to be highly structured with most species restricted to island groups within the archipelago. These extremely narrow species ranges and high levels of intra-archipelagic endemism contrast with the wide-held belief that marine organisms generally have large geographical ranges and that endemism is at most restricted to the archipelagic level. Our results indicate that speciation in the marine environment may occur at spatial scales smaller than 100 km, comparable with some terrestrial systems. Our finding of fine-scale endemism has important consequences for marine conservation and management. PMID:23269854

  13. Positive indirect interactions between neighboring plant species via a lizard pollinator.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Dennis M; Kiesbüy, Heine C; Jones, Carl G; Müller, Christine B

    2007-04-01

    In natural communities, species are embedded in networks of direct and indirect interactions. Most studies on indirect interactions have focused on how they affect predator-prey or competitive relationships. However, it is equally likely that indirect interactions play an important structuring role in mutualistic relationships in a natural community. We demonstrate experimentally that on a small spatial scale, dense thickets of endemic Pandanus plants have a strong positive trait-mediated indirect effect on the reproduction of the declining endemic Mauritian plant Trochetia blackburniana. This effect is mediated by the endemic gecko Phelsuma cepediana moving between Pandanus thickets, a preferred microhabitat, and nearby T. blackburniana plants, where it feeds on nectar and pollinates the plants. Our findings emphasize the importance of considering plant-animal interactions such as pollination at relatively small spatial scales in both basic ecological studies and applied conservation management. PMID:17262697

  14. Cryptic diversity in the Western Balkan endemic copepod: Four species in one?

    PubMed

    Previšić, Ana; Gelemanović, Andrea; Urbanič, Gorazd; Ternjej, Ivančica

    2016-07-01

    We use mitochondrial (mtCOI) and nuclear (nH3) sequence data to investigate differentiation of Eudiaptomus hadzici, a freshwater copepod endemic to the Western Balkans. E. hadzici has a disjunct distribution and morphological differences were observed at regional scale. In the current study 6 out of 7 known populations are included. We applied several species delimiting approaches, distance based methods (K2P p-distance and Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery, ABGD) using the mtCOI, Bayesian phylogeny and the Bayesian method implemented in bPTP and BPP programs using the concatenated sequences of both genes. Phylogenetic and species delimitation analyses all suggest that the nominal species E. hadzici consists of four isolated, cryptic evolutionary lineages in the Western Balkans. Each of the four lineages inhabits a single lake or a group of lakes in close proximity. They exhibit major differences in secondary sexual characters, e.g. right antennule in males. Denticulation of spine on 13th segment is substantially distinct among the four lineages, having different number and shape of tooth-like protrusions. Gene flow and dispersal are restricted to very small spatial scale, but with local differences, implying that diverse historical and contemporary processes are operating at small spatial scales in E. hadzici. In order to further examine spatial and temporal diversification patterns, we constructed a dated species tree analysis using (*)BEAST. Due to lack of reliable calibration points and taxa specific evolutionary rates, two evolutionary rates were applied and the faster one (2.6% myr) seems more plausible considering the geological history of the region. The divergence of E. hadzici lineages is dated from Early Miocene onwards with geographically close lineages diverging more recently, Late Miocene to Pleistocene and Pleistocene, respectively. Overall, our findings shed light on cryptic genetic complexity of endemics in one of European biodiversity hotspots

  15. Amplification and transport of an endemic fish disease by an introduced species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hershberger, Paul; Leeuw, Bjorn; Jacob, Gregg; Grady, Courtney; Lujan, Kenneth; Gutenberger, Susan; Purcell, Maureen K.; Woodson, James; Winton, James; Parsley, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The introduction of American shad from the Atlantic to the Pacific coast of North America in the late 1800’s and the subsequent population expansion in the 1980’s resulted in the amplification of Ichthyophonus sp., a Mesomycetozoean parasite of wild marine fishes. Sequence analysis of the ribosomal DNA gene complex (small subunit and internal transcribed spacer regions) and Ichthyophonus epidemiological characteristics indicate a low probability that Ichthyophonus was co-introduced with American shad from the Atlantic; rather, Ichthyophonus was likely endemic to marine areas of the Pacific region and amplified by the expanding population of a highly susceptible host species. The migratory life history of shad resulted in the transport of amplified Ichthyophonus from its endemic region in the NE Pacific to the Columbia River watershed. An Ichthyophonus epizootic occurred among American shad in the Columbia River during 2007, when infection prevalence was 72%, and 57% of the infections were scored as moderate or heavy intensities. The epizootic occurred near the record peak of shad biomass in the Columbia River, and corresponded to an influx of 1,595 mt of infected shad tissues into the Columbia River. A high potential for parasite spillback and the establishment of a freshwater Ichthyophonus life cycle in the Columbia River results from currently elevated infection pressures, broad host range, plasticity in Ichthyophonus life history stages, and precedents for establishment of the parasite in other freshwater systems. The results raise questions regarding the risk for sympatric salmonids and the role of Ichthyophonus as a population-limiting factor affecting American shad in the Columbia River.

  16. Evaluation of biochemical responses in Palearctic and Lake Baikal endemic amphipod species exposed to CdCl2.

    PubMed

    Timofeyev, M A; Shatilina, Z M; Bedulina, D S; Protopopova, M V; Pavlichenko, V V; Grabelnych, O I; Kolesnichenko, A V

    2008-05-01

    This study evaluated small heat shock proteins (sHSP) (related to alpha-crystallin) and antioxidant enzymes (POD, peroxidase and CAT, catalase) as possible biomarkers for use in toxicological studies. Biochemical responses to cadmium chloride in two Lake Baikal endemic amphipods (Eulimnogammarus verrucosus, Eulimnogammarus cyaneus) and Palearctic species (Gammarus lacustris) were compared. Our findings showed that cadmium chloride toxicity directly influenced POD activity and sHSP synthesis in all amphipod species. The Baikalean endemic and the Palearctic amphipod species responded by decreasing activity of POD and they exhibited a dose-dependent activation of sHSP synthesis. All measured parameters differed among species and depended on the species' ability to resist cadmium chloride toxicity. CAT activity in the Palearctic species responded significantly to cadmium chloride exposure; however, responses were negligible for both Baikalean species. We suggest that synthesis of sHSP, together with changes in POD activity, could be used as biomarkers for further studies of amphipod species including endemics from Lake Baikal. PMID:17920682

  17. Identification of a putatively multixenobiotic resistance related Abcb1 transporter in amphipod species endemic to the highly pristine Lake Baikal.

    PubMed

    Pavlichenko, Vasiliy V; Protopopova, Marina V; Timofeyev, Maxim; Luckenbach, Till

    2015-04-01

    The fauna of Lake Baikal in Eastern Siberia, the largest freshwater body on Earth, is characterized by high degrees of biodiversity and endemism. Amphipods, a prominent taxon within the indigenous fauna, occur in an exceptionally high number of endemic species. Considering the specific water chemistry of Lake Baikal with extremely low levels of potentially toxic natural organic compounds, it seems conceivable that certain adaptions to adverse environmental factors are missing in endemic species, such as cellular defense mechanisms mitigating toxic effects of chemicals. The degree to which the endemic fauna is affected by the recently occurring anthropogenic water pollution of Lake Baikal may depend on the existence of such cellular defense mechanisms in those species. We here show that endemic amphipods express transcripts for Abcb1, a major component of the cellular multixenobiotic resistance (MXR) defense against toxic chemicals. Based on a partial abcb1 cDNA sequence from Gammarus lacustris, an amphipod species common across Northern Eurasia but only rarely found in Lake Baikal, respective homologous sequences were cloned from five amphipods endemic to Lake Baikal, Eulimnogammarus verrucosus, E. vittatus, E. cyaneus, E. marituji, and Gmelinoides fasciatus, confirming that abcb1 is transcribed in those species. The effects of thermal (25 °C) and chemical stress (1-2 mg L(-1) phenanthrene) in short-term exposures (up to 24 h) on transcript levels of abcb1 and heat shock protein 70 (hsp70), used as a proxy for cellular stress in the experiments, were exemplarily examined in E. verrucosus, E. cyaneus, and Gammarus lacustris. Whereas increases of abcb1 transcripts upon treatments occurred only in the Baikalian species E. verrucosus and E. cyaneus but not in Gammarus lacustris, changes of hsp70 transcript levels were seen in all three species. At least for species endemic to Lake Baikal, the data thus indicate that regulation of the identified amphipod abcb1 is

  18. Peripatric speciation of an endemic species driven by Pleistocene climate change: The case of the Mexican prairie dog (Cynomys mexicanus).

    PubMed

    Castellanos-Morales, Gabriela; Gámez, Niza; Castillo-Gámez, Reyna A; Eguiarte, Luis E

    2016-01-01

    The hypothesis that endemic species could have originated by the isolation and divergence of peripheral populations of widespread species can be tested through the use of ecological niche models (ENMs) and statistical phylogeography. The joint use of these tools provides complementary perspectives on historical dynamics and allows testing hypotheses regarding the origin of endemic taxa. We used this approach to infer the historical processes that have influenced the origin of a species endemic to the Mexican Plateau (Cynomys mexicanus) and its divergence from a widespread ancestor (Cynomys ludovicianus), and to test whether this endemic species originated through peripatric speciation. We obtained genetic data for 295 individuals for two species of black-tailed prairie dogs (C. ludovicianus and C. mexicanus). Genetic data consisted of mitochondrial DNA sequences (cytochrome b and control region), and 10 nuclear microsatellite loci. We estimated dates of divergence between species and between lineages within each species and performed ecological niche modelling (Present, Last Glacial Maximum and Last Interglacial) to determine changes in the distribution range of both species during the Pleistocene. Finally, we used Bayesian inference methods (DIYABC) to test different hypotheses regarding the divergence and demographic history of these species. Data supported the hypothesis of the origin of C. mexicanus from a peripheral population isolated during the Pleistocene [∼230,000 years ago (0.1-0.43 Ma 95% HPD)], with a Pleistocene-Holocene (∼9,000-11,000 years ago) population expansion (∼10-fold increase in population size). We identified the presence of two possible refugia in the southern area of the distribution range of C. ludovicianus and another, consistent with the distribution range of C. mexicanus. Our analyses suggest that Pleistocene climate change had a strong impact in the distribution of these species, promoting peripatric speciation for the origin of

  19. Development and characterization of microsatellite loci for the Moroccan endemic endangered species Argania spinosa (Sapotaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    El Bahloul, Yasmina; Dauchot, Nicolas; Machtoun, Ikrame; Gaboun, Fatima; Van Cutsem, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Microsatellite loci were developed for the Moroccan endemic endangered species Argania spinosa with a combination of a typical library enrichment procedure and a 454 GS FLX Titanium–based high-throughput sequencing approach. • Methods and Results: A genomic DNA library was enriched and further screened using (GA)15, (GTA)8, and (TTC)8 biotin-labeled probes coupled with chemi-luminescence detection. To increase simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci number, an ultra-high-throughput sequencing-based approach was used. Evaluation of all primer pairs was performed with labeled dUTP on an ABI 3130xl sequencer. Eleven polymorphic SSR loci were selected out of 79 SSR regions and extensively characterized on 150 individuals from eight populations. Total alleles ranged from six to 19 alleles per locus while expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.618 to 0.869. • Conclusions: The SSRs developed here will be used to further characterize the genetic diversity of A. spinosa across its distribution range, mainly in the southern part of Morocco and southwestern Algeria. They may also be transferable to other Sapotaceae species. PMID:25202614

  20. Genetic Characterization of Allium Tuncelianum: An Endemic Edible Allium Species With Garlic Odor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A. tuncelianum is a native species to the Eastern Anatolia. Its plant architecture resembles garlic (A. sativum) and it has mild garlic odor and flavor. Because of these similarities, it has been locally called “garlic”. In addition, it has 16 chromosomes number in its diploid genome like garlic. ...

  1. Recent evolutionary history of Lost World endemics: population genetics, species delimitation, and phylogeography of sky-island treefrogs.

    PubMed

    Salerno, P E; Señaris, J C; Rojas-Runjaic, F J M; Cannatella, D C

    2015-01-01

    The tepuis of South America are massive flattop mountains with cliffs up to 1000m and summits up to 3100m. Tepuis hold enormous endemicity levels, but little is known about the origins of the endemic flora and fauna. Recently diverged lineages offer the possibility of understanding the origins of summit endemicity by examining population dynamics and dispersal. We examine species delimitation, clade relationships, and demographic patterns of three recently diverged lineages of Tepuihyla, an endemic treefrog clade. These three lineages represent two currently recognized species, T. edelcae and T. rodriguezi. Given the low divergences in both nuclear and mitochondrial genes among lineages, we find unexpectedly high numbers of unique nuclear haplotypes and moderate levels of lineage sorting. We also find support from multiple analyses for a cryptic, undescribed summit species within T. edelcae. We suggest that the genetic and distribution patterns of the four most recently diverged Tepuihyla lineages support a concurrent speciation event during the Pliocene, and suggest a biogeographic hypothesis in which a widespread climatic change made mid- and low-elevation habitat unsuitable for the common ancestor within the timeframe of their divergence. PMID:25450102

  2. Hotspots of species richness, threat and endemism for terrestrial vertebrates in SW Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascual, López-López; Luigi, Maiorano; Alessandra, Falcucci; Emilio, Barba; Luigi, Boitani

    2011-09-01

    The Mediterranean basin, and the Iberian Peninsula in particular, represent an outstanding "hotspot" of biological diversity with a long history of integration between natural ecosystems and human activities. Using deductive distribution models, and considering both Spain and Portugal, we downscaled traditional range maps for terrestrial vertebrates (amphibians, breeding birds, mammals and reptiles) to the finest possible resolution with the data at hand, and we identified hotspots based on three criteria: i) species richness; ii) vulnerability, and iii) endemism. We also provided a first evaluation of the conservation status of biodiversity hotspots based on these three criteria considering both existing and proposed protected areas (i.e., Natura 2000). For the identification of hotspots, we used a method based on the cumulative distribution functions of species richness values. We found no clear surrogacy among the different types of hotspots in the Iberian Peninsula. The most important hotspots (considering all criteria) are located in the western and southwestern portions of the study area, in the Mediterranean biogeographical region. Existing protected areas are not specifically concentrated in areas of high species richness, with only 5.2% of the hotspots of total richness being currently protected. The Natura 2000 network can potentially constitute an important baseline for protecting vertebrate diversity in the Iberian Peninsula although further improvements are needed. We suggest taking a step forward in conservation planning in the Mediterranean basin, explicitly considering the history of the region as well as its present environmental context. This would allow moving from traditional reserve networks (conservation focused on "patterns") to considerations about the "processes" that generated present biodiversity.

  3. Ecological effects of the invasive giant madagascar day gecko on endemic mauritian geckos: applications of binomial-mixture and species distribution models.

    PubMed

    Buckland, Steeves; Cole, Nik C; Aguirre-Gutiérrez, Jesús; Gallagher, Laura E; Henshaw, Sion M; Besnard, Aurélien; Tucker, Rachel M; Bachraz, Vishnu; Ruhomaun, Kevin; Harris, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    The invasion of the giant Madagascar day gecko Phelsuma grandis has increased the threats to the four endemic Mauritian day geckos (Phelsuma spp.) that have survived on mainland Mauritius. We had two main aims: (i) to predict the spatial distribution and overlap of P. grandis and the endemic geckos at a landscape level; and (ii) to investigate the effects of P. grandis on the abundance and risks of extinction of the endemic geckos at a local scale. An ensemble forecasting approach was used to predict the spatial distribution and overlap of P. grandis and the endemic geckos. We used hierarchical binomial mixture models and repeated visual estimate surveys to calculate the abundance of the endemic geckos in sites with and without P. grandis. The predicted range of each species varied from 85 km2 to 376 km2. Sixty percent of the predicted range of P. grandis overlapped with the combined predicted ranges of the four endemic geckos; 15% of the combined predicted ranges of the four endemic geckos overlapped with P. grandis. Levin's niche breadth varied from 0.140 to 0.652 between P. grandis and the four endemic geckos. The abundance of endemic geckos was 89% lower in sites with P. grandis compared to sites without P. grandis, and the endemic geckos had been extirpated at four of ten sites we surveyed with P. grandis. Species Distribution Modelling, together with the breadth metrics, predicted that P. grandis can partly share the equivalent niche with endemic species and survive in a range of environmental conditions. We provide strong evidence that smaller endemic geckos are unlikely to survive in sympatry with P. grandis. This is a cause of concern in both Mauritius and other countries with endemic species of Phelsuma. PMID:24785293

  4. Ecological Effects of the Invasive Giant Madagascar Day Gecko on Endemic Mauritian Geckos: Applications of Binomial-Mixture and Species Distribution Models

    PubMed Central

    Buckland, Steeves; Cole, Nik C.; Aguirre-Gutiérrez, Jesús; Gallagher, Laura E.; Henshaw, Sion M.; Besnard, Aurélien; Tucker, Rachel M.; Bachraz, Vishnu; Ruhomaun, Kevin; Harris, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    The invasion of the giant Madagascar day gecko Phelsuma grandis has increased the threats to the four endemic Mauritian day geckos (Phelsuma spp.) that have survived on mainland Mauritius. We had two main aims: (i) to predict the spatial distribution and overlap of P. grandis and the endemic geckos at a landscape level; and (ii) to investigate the effects of P. grandis on the abundance and risks of extinction of the endemic geckos at a local scale. An ensemble forecasting approach was used to predict the spatial distribution and overlap of P. grandis and the endemic geckos. We used hierarchical binomial mixture models and repeated visual estimate surveys to calculate the abundance of the endemic geckos in sites with and without P. grandis. The predicted range of each species varied from 85 km2 to 376 km2. Sixty percent of the predicted range of P. grandis overlapped with the combined predicted ranges of the four endemic geckos; 15% of the combined predicted ranges of the four endemic geckos overlapped with P. grandis. Levin's niche breadth varied from 0.140 to 0.652 between P. grandis and the four endemic geckos. The abundance of endemic geckos was 89% lower in sites with P. grandis compared to sites without P. grandis, and the endemic geckos had been extirpated at four of ten sites we surveyed with P. grandis. Species Distribution Modelling, together with the breadth metrics, predicted that P. grandis can partly share the equivalent niche with endemic species and survive in a range of environmental conditions. We provide strong evidence that smaller endemic geckos are unlikely to survive in sympatry with P. grandis. This is a cause of concern in both Mauritius and other countries with endemic species of Phelsuma. PMID:24785293

  5. Antibacterial and antifungal activities of the endemic species Glaucium vitellinum Boiss. and Buhse

    PubMed Central

    Mehrara, Mina; Halakoo, Mehri; Hakemi-Vala, Mojdeh; Hashemi, Seyyde Jamal; Asgarpanah, Jinous

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Belonging to Papaveraceae family, Glaucium vitellinum is one of the Persian endemic plants which has not been investigated biologically. The present paper focused on the assessment of the antibacterial and antifungal activities of the total methanol extract and alkaloid sub-fraction of the flowering aerial parts of G. vitellinum. Materials and Methods: The antibacterial and antifungal activities were investigated using cup plate method and disc diffusion assay, respectively. The MIC values of the active samples were determined using micro plate dilution method. Results: The crude extract and alkaloid sub-fraction of G. vitellinum had significant inhibition activity on the growth of S. aureus and S. typhi. From antifungal assay, it is concluded that only the yeast C. albicans, showed a high sensitivity to the extract and especially to the related alkaloid sub-fraction. Conclusions: Regarding the results, G. vitellinum could be employed as a natural antibacterial and antifungal agent against S. aureus, S. typhi, and C. albicans, respectively. Moreover, based on the results of this study, further in vivo and ex vivo confirmatory tests for total methanol extract and alkaloid sub-fraction are recommended. PMID:25767757

  6. Phytochemical analysis of the essential oils of 10 endemic Cephalaria species from Turkey.

    PubMed

    Sarıkahya, N Böke; Kayce, P; Halay, E; Göktürk, R S; Sümbül, H; Kırmızıgül, S

    2013-01-01

    The volatile composition of 10 endemic Cephalaria (Dipsacaceae) species (Cephalaria gazipashensis, Cephalaria lycica, Cephalaria paphlagonica, Cephalaria elmaliensis, Cephalaria stellipilis, Cephalaria scoparia, Cephalaria isaurica, Cephalaria cilicica, Cephalaria elazigensis var. purpurea and Cephalaria davisiana) was investigated. The essential oil mixtures were obtained by steam distillation in a Clevenger-type apparatus. Twenty-eight components were identified by GC-FID and GC-MS techniques. While total volatile percentages ranged from 68.99% to 84.57%, the total essential oil yields ranged between 38.15% and 64.05%. Geraniol, α-cedrene and p-cymene were determined as the main components. Geraniol was detected as a major component in C. cilicica (14.64%), and α-cedrene was detected as a major component with 26.03% for C. lycica, 16.93% for C. scoparia, 13.01% for C. davisiana and 10.94% for C. paphlagonica. Cephalaria scoparia, C. davisiana and C. gazipashensis have considerable amount of p-cymene as 12.86%, 12.70% and 11.16%, respectively. This was the first essential oil report concerning the Cephalaria genus. PMID:22757667

  7. Chlamydia gallinacea, not C. psittaci, is the endemic chlamydial species in chicken (Gallus gallus)

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Weina; Li, Jing; Kaltenboeck, Bernhard; Gong, Jiansen; Fan, Weixing; Wang, Chengming

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence and diversity of Chlamydia spp. in domestic birds in China, oral and cloacal swabs of healthy chickens, ducks, geese and pigeons were collected nationwide from live-animal markets and examined by Chlamydia spp. 23 S rRNA gene FRET-PCR followed by high-resolution melting curve analysis and confirmatory sequencing. Overall, 26.2% of the birds (602/2,300) were positive for Chlamydia spp. and five Chlamydia spp. were identified. While occasional detection of C. suis and C. muridarum in poultry is reported here for the first time, the predominant chlamydial agent was C. gallinacea representing 63.8% of all positives (384/602) and 81.2% of positive chickens (359/442). Analysis of the C. gallinacea ompA phylogeny revealed at least 13 well segregated variants (serovars). Seven-month monitoring of C. gallinacea-infected chickens indicated that the infection was persistent. C. gallinacea-infected chickens remained without overt clinical disease, but showed body weight gains significantly reduced by 6.5–11.4% beginning in week 3 post-infection. This study indicates that C. gallinacea is the endemic chlamydial species in chickens, whereas C. psittaci dominates only in pigeons. Further studies are required to address the specific conditions under which C. gallinacea could act as an avian pathogen and possibly also a zoonotic agent. PMID:26778053

  8. Strong reproductive isolation despite occasional hybridization between a widely distributed and a narrow endemic Rhododendron species

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yong-Peng; Xie, Wei-Jia; Sun, Wei-Bang; Marczewski, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    Reproductive isolation (RI) plays an important role for speciation, but assessing reproductive barriers at all life-cycle stages remains challenging. In plants, most studies addressing the topic have been focusing on herbs with short generation times. The present study attempted to quantify several reproductive barriers between a hybridizing species pair of long-lived woody rhododendrons. Consistent with findings of previous studies, pre-zygotic reproductive barriers contributed more to total RI than post-zygotic reproductive barriers. Especially in the more widespread species geographic isolation was an important barrier, and pollinator constancy contributed exceptionally to RI in both species. Additionally to strong pre-zygotic reproductive barriers, post-zygotic reproductive barriers were considerable, and had asymmetric tendencies favoring one of the species as maternal parent. Overall, despite occasional hybridization, the present study provides evidence for strong RI between R. cyanocarpum and R. delavayi. PMID:26751844

  9. Testing the suitability of some endemic and exotic species for eco-engineering applications to control slope processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cammeraat, L. H.; van Beek, L. P. H.

    2009-04-01

    including the vetiver grass slopes. In the second spring after the start of the experiment however, a large rainfall event occurred and one of the test slopes planted with vetiver grass, slumped downwards over a slide plane at 30-40 cm depth, whereas the other vetiver slope remained in position. The other test slopes did not show any downward movement or erosion phenomena. The disappointing effectiveness of vetiver might be attributed to 1) hot and dry summer conditions when root growth is reduced or stops, to 2) low winter temperature conditions, which also hampers biomass production or creating frost damage, 3) the relative dense subsoil, which is difficult to penetrate by roots. Although Spanish cane showed good effectiveness, it spreads very fast and uncontrolled to other places, and is then difficult to remove. The conclusion can be made that despite the wide application of vetiver, also in the Mediterranean, it is not suitable for Mediterranean areas with either too dry conditions or that are too cold in winter. Spanish cane is also not suitable for its uncontrolled expansion. The remaining conclusion is that endemic species that are adapted to the local conditions are more favorable for application in eco-engineering applications, given that the species selected have potential for capturing sediment and increasing infiltration under overland flow conditions, or have well developed deep root systems that increase slope stability.

  10. Chemical analysis and biological activity of the essential oils of two endemic Soqotri Commiphora species.

    PubMed

    Mothana, Ramzi A; Al-Rehaily, Adnan J; Schultze, Wulf

    2010-02-01

    The barks of two endemic Commiphora species namely, Commiphora ornifolia (Balf.f.) Gillett and Commiphora parvifolia Engl., were collected from Soqotra Island in Yemen and their essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation. The chemical composition of both oils was investigated by GC and GC-MS. Moreover, the essential oils were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity against two Gram-positive bacteria, two Gram-negative bacteria and one yeast species by using a broth micro-dilution assay for minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and for their antioxidant activity by measuring the DPPH radical scavenging activity. A total of 45 constituents of C. ornifolia (85.6%) and 44 constituents of C. parvifolia (87.1%) were identified. The oil of C. ornifolia was characterized by a high content of oxygenated monoterpenes (56.3%), of which camphor (27.3%), alpha-fenchol (15.5%), fenchone (4.4%) and borneol (2.9%) were identified as the main components. High contents of oxygenated sesquiterpenes (36.1%) and aliphatic acids (22.8%) were found in C. parvifolia oil, in which caryophyllene oxide (14.2%), beta-eudesmol (7.7%), bulnesol (5.7%), T-cadinol (3.7%) and hexadecanoic acid (18.4%) predominated. The results of the antimicrobial assay showed that both oils exhibited moderate to high antibacterial activity especially against Gram-positive bacteria. C. ornifolia oil was the most active. In addition, the DPPH-radical scavenging assay exhibited only weak antioxidant activities for both oils at the high concentration tested. PMID:20335939

  11. Assessment of chemical element migration in soil-plant complex of Urov endemic localities of East Transbaikalia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vadim V., Ermakov; Valentina, Danilova; Sabsbakhor, Khushvakhtova; Aklexander, Degtyarev; Sergey, Tyutikov; Victor, Berezkin; Elena, Karpova

    2014-05-01

    The comparative evaluation of the levels of biologically active chemical elements and their migration in the soil-plant complex of two Urov endemic locations in East Transbaikalia (Zolinsky and Uryumkansky) and background areas (Western Baikal region and the western area of the Trans-Baikal region) was conducted. The predominant soil-forming rocks in East Transbaikalia are weathering products of Proterozoic carbonated granitoids PR2. The surface rocks consist from granite, granodiorite, diorite quartz diorite, gabbro, norite, gabbro-norite and other. Soils - mountain and cryogenic meadow forests, mountain permafrost taiga podzolised, meadow alluvial, peaty meadow [2]. The paludification of narrow valleys and thermokarst phenomena are typical in Urov endemic localities. It reflects on the spotted of soil and differentiation of chemical composition of soils and plants. Most of the chemical elements in soils were determined by means of X-ray fluorescence, and trace elements in soils and plants - by atomic absorption spectrometry. The selenium content was measured by spectrofluorimetric method [3]. The research processed by methods of variation statistics. It was found that the soils of two locations of the Urov subregion of the biosphere were more enriched with iron, barium, calcium, uranium, thorium, phosphorus, and to a lesser extent strontium compared to background soils. The ratio of Ca: P was significantly higher in the soil of background areas, and Ca: Sr, on the contrary, in endemic soils. In assessing the migration of trace elements in soil-plant complex by means of the total content of trace elements and biological absorption coefficient found a marked accumulation by plants manganese, chromium, arsenic and weak plants accumulation of cobalt and nickel. Soil landscape is not much different in content of selenium, but its migration in plants was reduced in places of spread of Urov disease [1]. The concentrators of cadmium (leaves of different species of willow

  12. SELECTING PLANT SPECIES FOR PESTICIDE REGISTRATION TESTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Current test protocols used by the US EPA for the registration of pesticides examines plant responses of 10 crop species but may not examine regionally important native plants or crops. In order to test the efficiency of current test protocols we selected six native plant species...

  13. Ultrastructure of Oryza glumaepatula, a wild rice species endemic of tropical America.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Ethel; Espinoza, Ana M

    2005-01-01

    Orv'za gluniaepatula is a perennial wild rice species, endemic to tropical America, previously known as the Latin American race of Orrza rufipogon. In Costa Rica, it is found in the northern region of the country, mainly in the wetland of the Medio Queso River, Los Chiles, Alajuela. It is diploid, of AA type genome and because of its genetic relatedness to cultivated rice it is included in the O. saliva complex. We describe the ultrastructure of leaf blade, spikelet, ligule and auricles. Special emphasis is given to those traits of major taxonomic value for O. glumaepatula and to those characters that distinguish this species from O. rufipogon and O. sativa. O. glumaepatula has a leaf blade covered with tombstone-shaped, oblong and spheroid epicuticular wax papillae. It has diamond-shaped stomata surrounded by spherical papillae, rows of zipper-like silica cells, bulky prickle trichomes of ca. 40 microm in length and small hirsute trichomes of ca. 32 tpm in length. The central vein is covered with large, globular papillae of ca. 146 microm in length, a characteristic that distinguishes this species from O. rufipogon and O. sativa. The border of the leaf blade exhibits a row of even-sized bulky prickle trichomes of ca. 42.5 microm in length. Auricles have attenuated trichomes of ca. 5.5 mm in length on the edges and small bicellular trichomes of 120 microm in length on the surface. The ligule has a large number of short attenuated trichomes on its surface of 100 microm in length. These latter two traits have important taxonomic value since they were found in O. glumaepatula but not found in O. sativa or in O. rufipogon. The spikelet has the typical morphology of the Oryza genus. Fertile lemmas have abundant spines, a trait shared with O. rufipogon but not with O. sativa. The sterile lemmas are wing-shaped with serrated borders, a characteristic that distinguishes this species from O. rufipogon and O. sativa. All the ultrastructure characters observed in O

  14. Antioxidant Capacities and Analysis of Phenolic Compounds in Three Endemic Nolana Species by HPLC-PDA-ESI-MS.

    PubMed

    Simirgiotis, Mario J; Benites, Julio; Areche, Carlos; Sepúlveda, Beatriz

    2015-01-01

    The antioxidant features, polyphenolic composition and chromatographic fingerprints of the aerial parts from three Chilean endemic plants from the Paposo Valley located on the cost of the Atacama Desert were investigated for the first time using high pressure liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detector and electrospray ionization mass analysis (HPLC-PDA-ESI-MS) and spectroscopic methods. The phenolic fingerprints obtained for the plants were compared and correlated with the antioxidant capacities measured by the bleaching of the DPPH radical, the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and quantification of the total content of phenolics and flavonoids measured by spectroscopic methods. Thirty phenolics were identified for the first time for these species, mostly phenolic acids, flavanones, flavonols and some of their glycoside derivatives, together with three saturated fatty acids (stearic, palmitic and arachidic acids). Nolana ramosissima showed the highest antioxidant activity (26.35 ± 1.02 μg/mL, 116.07 ± 3.42 μM Trolox equivalents/g dry weight and 81.23% ± 3.77% of inhibition in the DPPH, FRAP and scavenging activity (SA) assays, respectively), followed by  N. aplocaryoides (85.19 ± 1.64 μg/mL, 65.87 ± 2.33 μM TE/g DW and 53.27% ± 3.07%) and N. leptophylla (124.71 ± 3.01, 44.23 ± 5.18 μM TE/g DW and 38.63% ± 1.85%). PMID:26111178

  15. Discriminative feeding behaviour of Anopheles gambiae s.s. on endemic plants in western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Manda, H.; Gouagna, L. C.; Nyandat, E.; Kabiru, E. W.; Jackson, R. R.; Foster, W. A.; Githure, J. I.; Beier, J. C.; Hassanali, A.

    2009-01-01

    Anopheles gambiae Giles s.s. (Diptera: Culicidae) is known to feed on plant sugars, but this is the first experimental study to consider whether it discriminates between plant species. Thirteen perennial plant species were selected on the basis of their local availability within the vicinity of human dwellings and larval habitats of An. gambiae s.s. in western Kenya. Groups of 100 or 200 mosquitoes were released into cages either with a cutting of one plant type at a time (single-plant assay) or with cuttings of all 13 plants simultaneously (choice assay), respectively, and left overnight. In the choice assay, direct observations of the percentages of mosquitoes perching or feeding on each plant were recorded over four 1-h periods each night. For both types of assay, mosquitoes were recaptured and the percentage that had fed on plants was assessed by testing them individually for the presence of fructose. To identify which plants the choice-assay mosquitoes had fed on, gas chromatography (GC) profiles of samples of mosquito homogenates were compared with GC profiles of extracts from relevant parts of each plant. Four of the plants that were observed to have been fed on most frequently in the choice assay (Parthenium hysterophorus L., Tecoma stans L., Ricinus communis L., and Senna didymobotrya Fresen) were also shown to have been ingested most often by mosquitoes in both types of assay, suggesting that An. gambiae is differentially responsive to this range of plants, regardless of whether the plants were presented singly or mixed together. Significantly more females than males fed on plants, with the exception of P. hysterophorus L., one of the plants most frequently fed on. For most plant species (ten of 13), GC profiles indicated that An. gambiae obtained sugars primarily from flowers. The exceptions were P. hysterophorus L., Lantana camara L. and R. communis L., on which An. gambiae fed more often from leaves and stems than from flowers. PMID:17373953

  16. Yet another new species from one of the best-studied neotropical areas: Plantago humboldtiana (Plantaginaceae), an extremely narrow endemic new species from a waterfall in southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Rønsted, Nina

    2016-01-01

    This article presents and describes Plantago humboldtiana, an extremely narrow endemic rheophytic new species from a waterfall in Corupá, Santa Catarina state, southern Brazil. The new species is unique in presenting a combination of type-G antrorse trichomes on scapes, pendulous inflorescences and 1-seeded pyxidia. Only one population is known to exist, despite intensive search efforts in nearby, similar environments. Its conservation status is assessed as critically endangered (CR) as the only known population is restricted to a dramatically small area, and is subject to extreme fluctuation due to occasional floods, and also to intense visitation by tourists, which can disturb its fragile habitat. We also present an updated identification key to the species of Plantago that occur in Santa Catarina. The recent description of three narrow endemic, threatened new species of Plantago in Santa Catarina, which is the Brazilian state with its flora best studied, highlights the need for more taxonomic research, especially in the neotropics. PMID:27231665

  17. Yet another new species from one of the best-studied neotropical areas: Plantago humboldtiana (Plantaginaceae), an extremely narrow endemic new species from a waterfall in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Hassemer, Gustavo; Rønsted, Nina

    2016-01-01

    This article presents and describes Plantago humboldtiana, an extremely narrow endemic rheophytic new species from a waterfall in Corupá, Santa Catarina state, southern Brazil. The new species is unique in presenting a combination of type-G antrorse trichomes on scapes, pendulous inflorescences and 1-seeded pyxidia. Only one population is known to exist, despite intensive search efforts in nearby, similar environments. Its conservation status is assessed as critically endangered (CR) as the only known population is restricted to a dramatically small area, and is subject to extreme fluctuation due to occasional floods, and also to intense visitation by tourists, which can disturb its fragile habitat. We also present an updated identification key to the species of Plantago that occur in Santa Catarina. The recent description of three narrow endemic, threatened new species of Plantago in Santa Catarina, which is the Brazilian state with its flora best studied, highlights the need for more taxonomic research, especially in the neotropics. PMID:27231665

  18. Psoralea margaretiflora (Psoraleeae, Fabaceae): A new species from the Sneeuberg Centre of Floristic Endemism, Eastern Cape, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Stirton, Charles H.; Clark, V. Ralph; Barker, Nigel P.; Muasya, A. Muthama

    2011-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Psoralea is described. Psoralea margaretiflora C.H. Stirton & V.R. Clark is endemic to the Sneeuberg Centre of Floristic Endemism, Eastern Cape, South Africa. This resprouter is characterised by its small greenish-white flowers with a small trifid purple nectar patch and translucent veins; 5(–7)-pinnate leaflets; multi-branching erect short seasonal flowering shoots; and tall habit of many stiff bare stems with the seasonal shoots massed at the apex. It is most similar to Psoralea oligophylla Eckl. & Zeyh., a widespread species found in the Eastern Cape. The reseeder Psoralea oligophylla differs in its lax virgate spreading habit with numerous long glaucous seasonal shoots; single stem, 1(–3)- glaucous leaflets; more numerous white flowers; and standard petals with a purple ring surrounding a bright yellow nectar patch. PMID:22171191

  19. Chilades pandava mothers discriminate among Cycas species during oviposition choice tests, but only in an endemic naïve population.

    PubMed

    Marler, Thomas E; Lindström, Anders J; Marler, Paris N

    2016-08-01

    Host and non-host plant species communicate with insect herbivores to influence oviposition decisions. We studied if Chilades pandava female adults expressed oviposition preferences among host Cycas species in 2 choice tests, counting 39,420 eggs among assays from 4 butterfly populations. A naïve butterfly population from Cycas nongnoochiae habitat oviposited 2.2-fold more eggs on leaves of Cycas species that are susceptible to butterfly herbivory than on leaves of its native host Cycas nongnoochiae. In contrast, Chilades pandava populations experienced with novel Cycas species in Thailand, Philippines, and Guam exhibited no preference in choice tests between leaves of susceptible versus leaves of minimally damaged Cycas species. The results indicated that oviposition deterrents and/or stimulants partly mediate the sustainable relationship between an endemic Cycas species and the naïve Chilades pandava population from its habitat. Alternatively, differences in infochemicals among Cycas species do not enable discrimination in oviposition choices for Chilades pandava populations that have experienced Cycas species exhibiting no evolutionary history with Chilades pandava. PMID:27391307

  20. Population dynamics of Agriophyllum squarrosum, a pioneer annual plant endemic to mobile sand dunes, in response to global climate change

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Chaoju; Yin, Hengxia; Shi, Yong; Zhao, Jiecai; Yin, Chengliang; Luo, Wanyin; Dong, Zhibao; Chen, Guoxiong; Yan, Xia; Wang, Xiao-Ru; Ma, Xiao-Fei

    2016-01-01

    Climate change plays an important role in the transition of ecosystems. Stratigraphic investigations have suggested that the Asian interior experienced frequent transitions between grassland and desert ecosystems as a consequence of global climate change. Using maternally and bi-parentally inherited markers, we investigated the population dynamics of Agriophyllum squarrosum (Chenopodiaceae), an annual pioneer plant endemic to mobile sand dunes. Phylogeographic analysis revealed that A. squarrosum could originate from Gurbantunggut desert since ~1.6 Ma, and subsequently underwent three waves of colonisation into other deserts and sandy lands corresponding to several glaciations. The rapid population expansion and distribution range shifts of A. squarrosum from monsoonal climate zones suggested that the development of the monsoonal climate significantly enhanced the population growth and gene flow of A. squarrosum. These data also suggested that desertification of the fragile grassland ecosystems in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau was more ancient than previously suggested and will be aggravated under global warming in the future. This study provides new molecular phylogeographic insights into how pioneer annual plant species in desert ecosystems respond to global climate change, and facilitates evaluation of the ecological potential and genetic resources of future crops for non-arable dry lands to mitigate climate change. PMID:27210568

  1. Population dynamics of Agriophyllum squarrosum, a pioneer annual plant endemic to mobile sand dunes, in response to global climate change.

    PubMed

    Qian, Chaoju; Yin, Hengxia; Shi, Yong; Zhao, Jiecai; Yin, Chengliang; Luo, Wanyin; Dong, Zhibao; Chen, Guoxiong; Yan, Xia; Wang, Xiao-Ru; Ma, Xiao-Fei

    2016-01-01

    Climate change plays an important role in the transition of ecosystems. Stratigraphic investigations have suggested that the Asian interior experienced frequent transitions between grassland and desert ecosystems as a consequence of global climate change. Using maternally and bi-parentally inherited markers, we investigated the population dynamics of Agriophyllum squarrosum (Chenopodiaceae), an annual pioneer plant endemic to mobile sand dunes. Phylogeographic analysis revealed that A. squarrosum could originate from Gurbantunggut desert since ~1.6 Ma, and subsequently underwent three waves of colonisation into other deserts and sandy lands corresponding to several glaciations. The rapid population expansion and distribution range shifts of A. squarrosum from monsoonal climate zones suggested that the development of the monsoonal climate significantly enhanced the population growth and gene flow of A. squarrosum. These data also suggested that desertification of the fragile grassland ecosystems in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau was more ancient than previously suggested and will be aggravated under global warming in the future. This study provides new molecular phylogeographic insights into how pioneer annual plant species in desert ecosystems respond to global climate change, and facilitates evaluation of the ecological potential and genetic resources of future crops for non-arable dry lands to mitigate climate change. PMID:27210568

  2. Phytochemical analysis of non-volatile fraction of Artemisia caerulescens subsp. densiflora (Viv.) (Asteraceae), an endemic species of La Maddalena Archipelago (Sardinia - Italy).

    PubMed

    Ornano, Luigi; Venditti, Alessandro; Donno, Yuri; Sanna, Cinzia; Ballero, Mauro; Bianco, Armandodoriano

    2016-04-01

    Artemisia caerulescens subsp. densiflora Viv. is a rare endemic species from Corsica and Sardinia. We studied a sample collected from Razzoli, an island of the La Maddalena Archipelago. The polar secondary metabolites content of this species was investigated for the first time in this study showing the presence of sesquiterpenoids, flavonoids, caffeoylquinic acids and a coumarin, with the presence of several compounds already recognised in this genus. The metabolites composition was analysed in two different phenological stages, post blooming and flowering. During the blooming stage, the plant showed a molecular pattern mainly represented by sesquiterpenes and sterols with a minor amount of phenolics, while in flowering stage the molecular pattern was more rich in flavonoids and phenylpropanoids. PMID:26327252

  3. Genetic and clonal diversity of the endemic ant-plant Humboldtia brunonis (Fabaceae) in the Western Ghats of India.

    PubMed

    Dev, Suma A; Shenoy, Megha; Borges, Renee M

    2010-06-01

    Humboldtia brunonis (Fabaceae, Caesalpinioideae) is a dominant self-incompatible ant-plant or myrmecophyte, growing as an understorey tree in high-density patches. It is endemic to the biodiversity hotspot of the southern Western Ghats of India and, besides ants, harbours many endemic invertebrate taxa, such as bees that pollinate it as well as arboreal earthworms, within swollen hollow stem internodes called domatia. Using inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers, three geographically separated populations were found to be multiclonal, characterized by high levels of clonal diversity. Values for the Simpson diversity index ranged between 0.764 and 0.964, and for Fager's evenness index between 0.00 and 0.036 for neighbourhoods within populations. This myrmecophyte was found to combine sexual recruitment (66.7%) and clonal production (33.3%) as methods of reproduction. Moderate amounts of genetic diversity at the species level were observed, with 52.63% polymorphism, and moderate values of Shannon's diversity index (0.1895) as well as of Nei's gene diversity (0.1186). In each population, observed genotypic diversity was significantly lower than expected, indicating significant genetic structure. Neighbour-joining trees demonstrated that Agumbe, which is the most northern population examined and geographically twice as far away from the other two populations, grouped separately and with larger bootstrap support from a larger cluster consisting of the Sampaji and Solaikolli populations, which are closer to each other geographically. Some neighbourhoods within each population showed spatial genetic structure even at small spatial scales of less than 5 m. A combination of clonality and short-distance pollen movement by small pollinating bees (Braunsapis puangensis) coupled with primary ballistic seed dispersal, and possible secondary seed dispersal by rodents, may contribute to spatial genetic structure at such small scales. The clonality of H. brunonis may be a

  4. Three new species of Solanum (Brevantherum Clade) endemic to the Brazilian Atlantic Forest

    PubMed Central

    Giacomin, Leandro L.; Stehmann, João R.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Three new Brazilian species of the Brevantherum clade of Solanum (Solanaceae) are described, all closely related to the poorly known Solanum inornatum Witasek. Solanum bradei Giacomin & Stehmann, sp. nov., and Solanum kriegeri Giacomin & Stehmann, sp. nov., differ from S. inornatum in having very small deltate calyx lobes that are not accrescent in fruit. Solanum bradei is a shrub up to 1.8 m with generally pedunculate inflorescences and tiny translucent fruits, whereas Solanum kriegeri is a dwarf glabrescent plant growing on sandy soils in cloud forests, with larger fruits and sessile to subsessile inflorescence. Solanum friburgense Giacomin & Stehmann, sp. nov., has linear calyx lobes like S. inornatum, and is characterized by its 2-foliate sympodia and leaf pubescence, with trichomes concentrated on leaf veins. The species here described and illustrated are restricted to the mountain ranges of Mantiqueira and Serra do Mar in the Atlantic forests of southeastern Brazil and are all of considerable conservation concern. PMID:25009438

  5. Antioxidant Capacity, Cytotoxicity and Antimycobacterial Activity of Madeira Archipelago Endemic Helichrysum Dietary and Medicinal Plants

    PubMed Central

    Gouveia-Figueira, Sandra C.; Gouveia, Carla A.; Carvalho, Maria J.; Rodrigues, Ana I.; Nording, Malin L.; Castilho, Paula C.

    2014-01-01

    The potential bioactivity of dietary and medicinal endemic Helichrysum plants from Madeira Archipelago was explored, for the first time, in order to supply new information for the general consumer. In vitro antioxidant properties were investigated using DPPH, ABTS•+, FRAP and β-Carotene assays, and the total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) were also determined. Although the results generally showed a large variation among the three analyzed plants, the methanolic extracts showed the highest antioxidant capacity. Exception is made for H. devium n-hexane extract that showed good radical scavenger capacity associated to compounds with good reducing properties. In the Artemia salina toxicity assay and antimycobaterial activity, H. devium was the most potent plant with the lowest LD50 at 216.7 ± 10.4 and MIC ≤ 50 μg·mL−1. Chemometric evaluation (Principal Component Analysis—PCA) showed close interdependence between the ABTS, TPC and TFC methods and allowed to group H. devium samples. PMID:26785236

  6. Endangered Species (Plants). LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niskern, Diana, Comp.

    This guide is intended for those who wish to study the literature dealing with various aspects of endangered plant species. This document includes the following sections, some of which are bibliographies: (1) "Introductions to the Topic"; (2) "Subject Headings" (for endangered species of plants used by the Library of Congress); (3) "General…

  7. The Invasive Plant Species Education Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Kevin; James, Krista; Carlson, Kitrina; D'Angelo, Jean

    2010-01-01

    To help high school students gain a solid understanding of invasive plant species, university faculty and students from the University of Wisconsin-Stout (UW-Stout) and a local high school teacher worked together to develop the Invasive Plant Species (IPS) Education Guide. The IPS Education Guide includes nine lessons that give students an…

  8. Copper phytotoxicity in native and agronomical plant species.

    PubMed

    Lamb, Dane T; Naidu, Ravi; Ming, Hui; Megharaj, Mallavarapu

    2012-11-01

    Copper (Cu) is a widespread soil contaminant that is known to be highly toxic to soil biota. Limited information is available on the response of wild endemic species to Cu in the literature, which hinders ecological risk assessments and revegetation. In the present study, the phytotoxicity of Cu in nutrient solution was studied in five Australian endemic plant species (Acacia decurrens, Austrodanthonia richardsonii (Wallaby Grass), Bothriochloa macra (Redgrass), Eucalyptus camaldulensis var. camaldulensis (River Red-Gum) and Dichanthium sericeum (Bluegrass) and two vegetable plants species (Lactuca sativa L. 'Great lakes' and Raphanus sativa L.). Vegetable species were grown in a more concentrated nutrient solution. The response of B. macra was also compared between the two nutrient solutions (dilute and concentrated nutrient solution). In the first experiment, D. sericeum and E. camaldulensis were found to be highly sensitive to Cu exposure in nutrient culture. Critical exogenous Cu concentrations (50 percent reduction in roots) for E. camaldulensis, D. sericeum, A. richardsonii, B. macra (dilute), L. sativa, B. macra (concentrated), R. sativa and A. decurrens were, respectively, (μg/L) 16, 35, 83, 88, 97, 105, 128 and 186. Copper tolerance in B. macra was observed to be higher in the more concentrated nutrient solution despite the estimated Cu(2+) concentration being very similar in treatment solutions. Additional short-term rhizo-accumulation studies showed that neither Ca(2+) not K(+) was responsible for reduced uptake at the roots. However, the estimated maximum shoot Cu was reduced from 41 to 24mg/kg in the more concentrated solution. PMID:22995781

  9. Seed plant genera endemic to the Caribbean Island biodiversity hotspot: A review and a molecular phylogentic perspective

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Caribbean Island Biodiversity Hotspot is composed primarily by the Bahamas and Greater and Lesser Antilles. A total of 178 genera (722 spp., ca. 9% of the species endemic to the Antilles) are restricted to this hotspot. Most of these genera are unispecific (53%), a pattern that is also found o...

  10. Rapid evolution of sessility in an endemic species flock of the freshwater bivalve Corbicula from ancient lakes on Sulawesi, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    von Rintelen, Thomas; Glaubrecht, Matthias

    2005-01-01

    The fauna of ancient lakes frequently contains taxa with highly derived morphologies that resulted from in situ radiation of lacustrine lineages with high antiquity. We employed a molecular mtDNA phylogeny to investigate this claim for corbiculid freshwater bivalves in two ancient lake systems on the Indonesian island Sulawesi. Among the otherwise mobile corbiculid species flock, only one taxon, Posostrea anomioides, in the ancient Lake Poso exhibits a unique habit, i.e. cementing one valve to the substrate. Our data show that Corbicula on Sulawesi is polyphyletic, with the endemic riverine taxa in terminal position, and the lacustrine species flock being paraphyletic. Surprisingly, Posostrea is not confirmed as a genus distinct from Corbicula and genetic distances suggest a rather recent origin from the only other corbiculid species endemic to Lake Poso, the non-cementing Corbicula possoensis. While the cementing anomioides, despite its unique behavioural and morphological characteristics, clusters together with non-sessile Corbicula species, the latter exhibit strong genetic distances in the absence of morphological disparity and fall into several genetically rather distinct clades. These findings suggest that developmental plasticity of animals in ancient lakes rather than the antiquity of lineages might account for the unique morphology of some species. PMID:17148330

  11. High levels of genetic diversity and population structure in an endemic and rare species: implications for conservation.

    PubMed

    Turchetto, Caroline; Segatto, Ana Lúcia A; Mäder, Geraldo; Rodrigues, Daniele M; Bonatto, Sandro L; Freitas, Loreta B

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of genetic structure and variability of isolated species is of critical importance in evaluating whether stochastic or human-caused factors are affecting rare species. Low genetic diversity compromises the ability of populations to evolve and reduces their chances of survival under environmental changes. Petunia secreta, a rare and endemic species, is an annual and heliophilous herb that is bee-pollinated and easily recognizable by its purple and salverform corolla. It was described as a new species of the Petunia genus in 2005. Few individuals of P. secreta have been observed in nature and little is known about this species. All the natural populations of P. secreta that were found were studied using 15 microsatellite loci, two intergenic plastid sequences and morphological traits. Statistical analysis was performed to describe the genetic diversity of this rare species and the results compared with those of more widespread and frequent Petunia species from the same geographic area to understand whether factors associated with population size could affect rare species of this genus. The results showed that despite its rarity, P. secreta presented high genetic diversity that was equivalent to or even higher than that of widespread Petunia species. It was shown that this species is divided into two evolutionary lineages, and the genetic differentiation indices between them and other congeneric species presented different patterns. The major risk to P. secreta maintenance is its rarity, suggesting the necessity of a preservation programme and more biological and evolutionary studies that handle the two evolutionary lineages independently. PMID:26768602

  12. High levels of genetic diversity and population structure in an endemic and rare species: implications for conservation

    PubMed Central

    Turchetto, Caroline; Segatto, Ana Lúcia A.; Mäder, Geraldo; Rodrigues, Daniele M.; Bonatto, Sandro L.; Freitas, Loreta B.

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of genetic structure and variability of isolated species is of critical importance in evaluating whether stochastic or human-caused factors are affecting rare species. Low genetic diversity compromises the ability of populations to evolve and reduces their chances of survival under environmental changes. Petunia secreta, a rare and endemic species, is an annual and heliophilous herb that is bee-pollinated and easily recognizable by its purple and salverform corolla. It was described as a new species of the Petunia genus in 2005. Few individuals of P. secreta have been observed in nature and little is known about this species. All the natural populations of P. secreta that were found were studied using 15 microsatellite loci, two intergenic plastid sequences and morphological traits. Statistical analysis was performed to describe the genetic diversity of this rare species and the results compared with those of more widespread and frequent Petunia species from the same geographic area to understand whether factors associated with population size could affect rare species of this genus. The results showed that despite its rarity, P. secreta presented high genetic diversity that was equivalent to or even higher than that of widespread Petunia species. It was shown that this species is divided into two evolutionary lineages, and the genetic differentiation indices between them and other congeneric species presented different patterns. The major risk to P. secreta maintenance is its rarity, suggesting the necessity of a preservation programme and more biological and evolutionary studies that handle the two evolutionary lineages independently. PMID:26768602

  13. A New Dolphin Species, the Burrunan Dolphin Tursiops australis sp. nov., Endemic to Southern Australian Coastal Waters

    PubMed Central

    Charlton-Robb, Kate; Gershwin, Lisa-ann; Thompson, Ross; Austin, Jeremy; Owen, Kylie; McKechnie, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Small coastal dolphins endemic to south-eastern Australia have variously been assigned to described species Tursiops truncatus, T. aduncus or T. maugeanus; however the specific affinities of these animals is controversial and have recently been questioned. Historically ‘the southern Australian Tursiops’ was identified as unique and was formally named Tursiops maugeanus but was later synonymised with T. truncatus. Morphologically, these coastal dolphins share some characters with both aforementioned recognised Tursiops species, but they also possess unique characters not found in either. Recent mtDNA and microsatellite genetic evidence indicates deep evolutionary divergence between this dolphin and the two currently recognised Tursiops species. However, in accordance with the recommendations of the Workshop on Cetacean Systematics, and the Unified Species Concept the use of molecular evidence alone is inadequate for describing new species. Here we describe the macro-morphological, colouration and cranial characters of these animals, assess the available and new genetic data, and conclude that multiple lines of evidence clearly indicate a new species of dolphin. We demonstrate that the syntype material of T. maugeanus comprises two different species, one of which is the historical ‘southern form of Tursiops’ most similar to T. truncatus, and the other is representative of the new species and requires formal classification. These dolphins are here described as Tursiops australis sp. nov., with the common name of ‘Burrunan Dolphin’ following Australian aboriginal narrative. The recognition of T. australis sp. nov. is particularly significant given the endemism of this new species to a small geographic region of southern and south-eastern Australia, where only two small resident populations in close proximity to a major urban and agricultural centre are known, giving them a high conservation value and making them susceptible to numerous anthropogenic threats

  14. A new species of Dactylogyrus (Monogenea: Dactylogyridae) parasitic on an endangered freshwater fish, Rhodeus atremius atremius, endemic to Japan.

    PubMed

    Nitta, Masato; Nagasawa, Kazuya

    2016-10-01

    A new dactylogyrid monogenean Dactylogyrus bicorniculus sp. nov. is described from the gills of the kazetoge bitterling, Rhodeus atremius atremius (Jordan and Thompson, 1914), an endemic species in Japan, from Saga Prefecture, northern Kyūshū. D. bicorniculus sp. nov. resembles Dactylogyrus bicornis Malevitskaja, 1941 and Dactylogyrus lophogonus Zhang and Ji, 1980 because they have two common features, a large V-shaped ventral bar and well-developed second marginal hooks. However, the new species is distinguished from these congeners by a shorter penis and an accessory piece. A phylogenetic analysis of 28S rDNA shows that D. bicorniculus sp. nov. is a basal species with the T-shaped ventral bar in the genus. The new species has strict host-specificity to R. a. atremius, one of the endangered freshwater fishes in Japan, and may face the danger of co-extinction with its host. PMID:27377236

  15. Cryptic diversity within the narrowly endemic Lerista wilkinsi group of north Queensland-two new species (Reptilia: Scincidae).

    PubMed

    Couper, Patrick J; Amey, Andrew P; Wilmer, Jessica Worthington

    2016-01-01

    Herein we describe two new species of the skink genus Lerista from north-eastern Queensland, based on morphological and genetic data.  Additionally, we redescribe L. cinerea as this species is morphologically more variable than previously suggested.  We allocate these three species to the L. wilkinsi group (Greer et al. 1983) which is here identified as an endemic Queensland radiation, comprising L. ameles, L. cinerea, L. hobsoni sp. nov., L. storri, L. vanderduysi sp. nov., L. vittata and L. wilkinsi.  A number of these species have strong associations with semi-evergreen vine thickets, listed as an endangered habitat under the Australian Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act (1999). PMID:27615959

  16. Two new endemic genera and a new species of toad (Anura: Bufonidae) from the Western Ghats of India

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Bufonidae are a large family of toads with a subcosmopolitan distribution. Recent molecular phylogenetic analyses have revealed a radiation of toads (Adenominae) with distinct adult and larval ecomorphs on the Southern parts of the Indian subcontinent. The Indian torrential species "Ansonia" ornata has a basal position in this clade and does not group with South-East Asian Ansonia. Additionally, the nested position of "Bufo" koynayensis and an undescribed sister species, and their distinct ecologies including a non-typical egg-laying strategy within bufonids, support the recognition of a second distinct genus. In this paper we describe two new genera and one new species from the Adenominae clade. Findings Ansonia ornata Günther, 1876 "1875" is transferred to Ghatophryne gen. nov., a genus of torrentially adapted toads that are endemic to the Western Ghats of India. On the basis of close morphological resemblance and distribution, Ansonia rubigina Pillai and Pattabiraman, 1981 is provisionally transferred to this new genus. The Western Ghats endemic toad Bufo koynayensis Soman, 1963 is transferred to a new genus Xanthophryne gen. nov. Based on molecular and morphological evidence, we additionally describe a new species, Xanthophryne tigerinus sp. nov., from Amboli in the Western Ghats. Conclusion The descriptions and subsequent taxonomic changes we propose result in three genera of bufonids recognised as being endemic to the Western Ghats (Ghatophryne gen. nov., Xanthophryne gen. nov. and Pedostibes), and one to Sri Lanka (Adenomus). The spatial distribution, and arrangement of these lineages at the base of Adenominae diversification, reflects their Early Neogene isolation in the Western Ghats-Sri Lanka hotspot. PMID:19968866

  17. Exotic plant species invade hot spots of native plant diversity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stohlgren, T.J.; Binkley, D.; Chong, G.W.; Kalkhan, M.A.; Schell, L.D.; Bull, K.A.; Otsuki, Y.; Newman, G.; Bashkin, M.; Yowhan, S.

    1999-01-01

    Some theories and experimental studies suggest that areas of low plant species richness may be invaded more easily than areas of high plant species richness. We gathered nested-scale vegetation data on plant species richness, foliar cover, and frequency from 200 1-m2 subplots (20 1000-m2 modified-Whittaker plots) in the Colorado Rockies (USA), and 160 1-m2 subplots (16 1000-m2 plots) in the Central Grasslands in Colorado, Wyoming, South Dakota, and Minnesota (USA) to test the generality of this paradigm. At the 1-m2 scale, the paradigm was supported in four prairie types in the Central Grasslands, where exotic species richness declined with increasing plant species richness and cover. At the 1-m2 scale, five forest and meadow vegetation types in the Colorado Rockies contradicted the paradigm; exotic species richness increased with native-plant species richness and foliar cover. At the 1000-m2 plot scale (among vegetation types), 83% of the variance in exotic species richness in the Central Grasslands was explained by the total percentage of nitrogen in the soil and the cover of native plant species. In the Colorado Rockies, 69% of the variance in exotic species richness in 1000-m2 plots was explained by the number of native plant species and the total percentage of soil carbon. At landscape and biome scales, exotic species primarily invaded areas of high species richness in the four Central Grasslands sites and in the five Colorado Rockies vegetation types. For the nine vegetation types in both biomes, exotic species cover was positively correlated with mean foliar cover, mean soil percentage N, and the total number of exotic species. These patterns of invasibility depend on spatial scale, biome and vegetation type, spatial autocorrelation effects, availability of resources, and species-specific responses to grazing and other disturbances. We conclude that: (1) sites high in herbaceous foliar cover and soil fertility, and hot spots of plant diversity (and

  18. Genetic Diversity in Nothofagus alessandrii (Fagaceae), an Endangered Endemic Tree Species of the Coastal Maulino Forest of Central Chile

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Díaz, Cristian; Ruiz, Eduardo; González, Fidelina; Fuentes, Glenda; Cavieres, Lohengrin A.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims The endemic tree Nothofagus alessandrii (Fagaceae) has been historically restricted to the coastal range of Region VII of central Chile, and its forests have been increasingly destroyed and fragmented since the end of the 19th century. In this study, the patterns of within- and among-population genetic diversity in seven fragments of this endangered narrowly endemic tree were examined. Methods Allozyme electrophoresis of seven loci of N. alessandrii was used to estimate genetic diversity, genetic structure and gene flow. Key Results High levels of genetic diversity were found as shown by mean expected heterozygosity (He = 0·182 ± 0·034), percentage of polymorphic loci (Pp = 61·2 %), mean number of alleles per locus (A = 1·8) and mean number of alleles per polymorphic locus (Ap = 2·3). Genetic differentiation was also high (GST = 0·257 and Nm = 0·7). These values are high compared with more widespread congeneric species. Conclusions Despite its endemic status and restricted geographical range N. alessandrii showed high levels of genetic diversity. The observed patterns of diversity are explained in part by historical processes and more recent human fragmentation. PMID:17513870

  19. Testing for endemism, genotypic diversity and species concepts in Antarctic terrestrial microalgae of the Tribonemataceae (Stramenopiles, Xanthophyceae).

    PubMed

    Rybalka, Nataliya; Andersen, Robert A; Kostikov, Igor; Mohr, Kathrin I; Massalski, Andrzej; Olech, Maria; Friedl, Thomas

    2009-03-01

    The genetic diversity of all available culture strains of the Tribonemataceae (Stramenopiles, Xanthophyceae) from Antarctica was assessed using the chloroplast-encoded psbA /rbcL spacer region sequences, a highly variable molecular marker, to test for endemism when compared with their closest temperate relatives. There was no species endemic for Antarctica, and no phylogenetic clade corresponded to a limited geographical region. However, species of the Tribonemataceae may have Antarctic populations that are distinct from those of other regions because the Antarctic strain spacer sequences were not identical to sequences from temperate regions. Spacer sequences from five new Antarctic isolates were identical to one or more previously available Antarctic strains, indicating that the Tribonemataceae diversity in Antarctic may be rather limited. Direct comparisons of the spacer sequences and phylogenetic analyses of the more conserved rbcL gene revealed that current morphospecies were inadequate to describe the actual biodiversity of the group. For example, the genus Xanthonema, as currently circumscribed, was paraphyletic. Fortunately, the presence of distinctive sequence regions within the psbA/rbcL spacer, together with differences in the rbcL phylogeny, provided significant autoapomorphic criteria to re-define the Tribonemataceae species. PMID:19278444

  20. DNA barcoding for identification of sand fly species (Diptera: Psychodidae) from leishmaniasis-endemic areas of Peru.

    PubMed

    Nzelu, Chukwunonso O; Cáceres, Abraham G; Arrunátegui-Jiménez, Martín J; Lañas-Rosas, Máximo F; Yañez-Trujillano, Henrry H; Luna-Caipo, Deysi V; Holguín-Mauricci, Carlos E; Katakura, Ken; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa; Kato, Hirotomo

    2015-05-01

    Phlebotomine sand flies are the only proven vectors of leishmaniases, a group of human and animal diseases. Accurate knowledge of sand fly species identification is essential in understanding the epidemiology of leishmaniasis and vector control in endemic areas. Classical identification of sand fly species based on morphological characteristics often remains difficult and requires taxonomic expertise. Here, we generated DNA barcodes of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI) gene using 159 adult specimens morphologically identified to be 19 species of sand flies, belonging to 6 subgenera/species groups circulating in Peru, including the vector species. Neighbor-joining (NJ) analysis based on Kimura 2-Parameter genetic distances formed non-overlapping clusters for all species. The levels of intraspecific genetic divergence ranged from 0 to 5.96%, whereas interspecific genetic divergence among different species ranged from 8.39 to 19.08%. The generated COI barcodes could discriminate between all the sand fly taxa. Besides its success in separating known species, we found that DNA barcoding is useful in revealing population differentiation and cryptic diversity, and thus promises to be a valuable tool for epidemiological studies of leishmaniasis. PMID:25697864

  1. Multilocus sequence data reveal dozens of putative cryptic species in a radiation of endemic Californian mygalomorph spiders (Araneae, Mygalomorphae, Nemesiidae).

    PubMed

    Leavitt, Dean H; Starrett, James; Westphal, Michael F; Hedin, Marshal

    2015-10-01

    We use mitochondrial and multi-locus nuclear DNA sequence data to infer both species boundaries and species relationships within California nemesiid spiders. Higher-level phylogenetic data show that the California radiation is monophyletic and distantly related to European members of the genus Brachythele. As such, we consider all California nemesiid taxa to belong to the genus Calisoga Chamberlin, 1937. Rather than find support for one or two taxa as previously hypothesized, genetic data reveal Calisoga to be a species-rich radiation of spiders, including perhaps dozens of species. This conclusion is supported by multiple mitochondrial barcoding analyses, and also independent analyses of nuclear data that reveal general genealogical congruence. We discovered three instances of sympatry, and genetic data indicate reproductive isolation when in sympatry. An examination of female reproductive morphology does not reveal species-specific characters, and observed male morphological differences for a subset of putative species are subtle. Our coalescent species tree analysis of putative species lays the groundwork for future research on the taxonomy and biogeographic history of this remarkable endemic radiation. PMID:26025426

  2. Determinants of bird species richness, endemism, and island network roles in Wallacea and the West Indies: is geography sufficient or does current and historical climate matter?

    PubMed Central

    Dalsgaard, Bo; Carstensen, Daniel W; Fjeldså, Jon; Maruyama, Pietro K; Rahbek, Carsten; Sandel, Brody; Sonne, Jesper; Svenning, Jens-Christian; Wang, Zhiheng; Sutherland, William J

    2014-01-01

    Island biogeography has greatly contributed to our understanding of the processes determining species' distributions. Previous research has focused on the effects of island geography (i.e., island area, elevation, and isolation) and current climate as drivers of island species richness and endemism. Here, we evaluate the potential additional effects of historical climate on breeding land bird richness and endemism in Wallacea and the West Indies. Furthermore, on the basis of species distributions, we identify island biogeographical network roles and examine their association with geography, current and historical climate, and bird richness/endemism. We found that island geography, especially island area but also isolation and elevation, largely explained the variation in island species richness and endemism. Current and historical climate only added marginally to our understanding of the distribution of species on islands, and this was idiosyncratic to each archipelago. In the West Indies, endemic richness was slightly reduced on islands with historically unstable climates; weak support for the opposite was found in Wallacea. In both archipelagos, large islands with many endemics and situated far from other large islands had high importance for the linkage within modules, indicating that these islands potentially act as speciation pumps and source islands for surrounding smaller islands within the module and, thus, define the biogeographical modules. Large islands situated far from the mainland and/or with a high number of nonendemics acted as links between modules. Additionally, in Wallacea, but not in the West Indies, climatically unstable islands tended to interlink biogeographical modules. The weak and idiosyncratic effect of historical climate on island richness, endemism, and network roles indicates that historical climate had little effects on extinction-immigration dynamics. This is in contrast to the strong effect of historical climate observed on the

  3. Conservation genetics of Annamocarya sinensis (Dode) Leroy, an endangered endemic species.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Z Y; Pang, X M; Han, J W; Wang, Y; Li, Y Y

    2013-01-01

    The endangered perennial plant Annamocarya sinensis (Dode) Leroy is a tertiary relict tree restricted to southeastern China and northern Vietnam. To explore endangerment mechanisms, develop protection strategies, and guide reintroduction efforts for this species, we investigated genetic diversity and population structure by surveying 70 individuals from three distinct populations using 12 polymorphic microsatellite markers. We found high genetic diversity for A. sinensis as indicated by high allelic diversity (allelic number = 4.667 ± 0.436, effective number of alleles = 2.913 ± 0.249), excess heterozygosity (observed heterozygosity = 0.586 ± 0.039, expected heterozygosity = 0.582 ± 0.029), and low fixation index (-0.028 ± 0.057). Our research revealed low genetic differentiation (FST = 0.066 ± 0.011) and no correlation between genetic distance and geographic distance. Analysis of molecular variance attributed 87% of the variance to differences within the population, whereas 13% was distributed among populations. The protection strategy should aim to protect as many populations as possible. Promoting sexual reproduction among various genotypes and establishing an outcrossing program are advisable for A. sinensis. PMID:23546978

  4. Extinction risks of Amazonian plant species.

    PubMed

    Feeley, Kenneth J; Silman, Miles R

    2009-07-28

    Estimates of the number, and preferably the identity, of species that will be threatened by land-use change and habitat loss are an invaluable tool for setting conservation priorities. Here, we use collections data and ecoregion maps to generate spatially explicit distributions for more than 40,000 vascular plant species from the Amazon basin (representing more than 80% of the estimated Amazonian plant diversity). Using the distribution maps, we then estimate the rates of habitat loss and associated extinction probabilities due to land-use changes as modeled under 2 disturbance scenarios. We predict that by 2050, human land-use practices will have reduced the habitat available to Amazonian plant species by approximately 12-24%, resulting in 5-9% of species becoming "committed to extinction," significantly fewer than other recent estimates. Contrary to previous studies, we find that the primary determinant of habitat loss and extinction risk is not the size of a species' range, but rather its location. The resulting extinction risk estimates are a valuable conservation tool because they indicate not only the total percentage of Amazonian plant species threatened with extinction but also the degree to which individual species and habitats will be affected by current and future land-use changes. PMID:19617552

  5. The Role of Australian Mosquito Species in the Transmission of Endemic and Exotic West Nile Virus Strains

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Cassie C.; Ritchie, Scott A.; van den Hurk, Andrew F.

    2013-01-01

    Recent epidemic activity and its introduction into the Western Hemisphere have drawn attention to West Nile virus (WNV) as an international public health problem. Of particular concern has been the ability for the virus to cause outbreaks of disease in highly populated urban centers. Incrimination of Australian mosquito species is an essential component in determining the receptivity of Australia to the introduction and/or establishment of an exotic strain of WNV and can guide potential management strategies. Based on vector competence experiments and ecological studies, we suggest candidate Australian mosquito species that would most likely be involved in urban transmission of WNV, along with consideration of the endemic WNV subtype, Kunjin. We then examine the interaction of entomological factors with virological and vertebrate host factors, as well as likely mode of introduction, which may influence the potential for exotic WNV to become established and be maintained in urban transmission cycles in Australia. PMID:23965926

  6. New species of Austropurcellia, cryptic short-range endemic mite harvestmen (Arachnida, Opiliones, Cyphophthalmi) from Australia's Wet Tropics biodiversity hotspot.

    PubMed

    Jay, Katya R; Popkin-Hall, Zachary R; Coblens, Michelle J; Oberski, Jill T; Sharma, Prashant P; Boyer, Sarah L

    2016-01-01

    The genus Austropurcellia is a lineage of tiny leaf-litter arachnids that inhabit tropical rainforests throughout the eastern coast of Queensland, Australia. The majority of their diversity is found within the Wet Tropics rainforests of northeast Queensland, an area known for its exceptionally high levels of biodiversity and endemism. Studying the biogeographic history of limited-dispersal invertebrates in the Wet Tropics can provide insight into the role of climatic changes such as rainforest contraction in shaping rainforest biodiversity patterns. Here we describe six new species of mite harvestmen from the Wet Tropics rainforests, identified using morphological data, and discuss the biogeography of Austropurcellia with distributions of all known species. With this taxonomic contribution, the majority of the known diversity of the genus has been documented. PMID:27199608

  7. Spatial and temporal population genetic variation and structure of Nothotsuga longibracteata (Pinaceae), a relic conifer species endemic to subtropical China

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Yingjun; Liu, Yifei; Kang, Ming; Yi, Guanmei; Huang, Hongwen

    2013-01-01

    Nothotsuga longibracteata, a relic and endangered conifer species endemic to subtropical China, was studied for examining the spatial-temporal population genetic variation and structure to understand the historical biogeographical processes underlying the present geographical distribution. Ten populations were sampled over the entire natural range of the species for spatial analysis, while three key populations with large population sizes and varied age structure were selected for temporal analyses using both nuclear microsatellites (nSSR) and chloroplast microsatellites (cpSSR). A recent bottleneck was detected in the natural populations of N. longibracteata. The spatial genetic analysis showed significant population genetic differentiation across its total geographical range. Notwithstanding, the temporal genetic analysis revealed that the level of genetic diversity between different age class subpopulations remained constant over time. Eleven refugia of the Last Glacial Maximum were identified, which deserve particular attention for conservation management. PMID:24385864

  8. Endemic Lake Baikal sponges from deep water. 1: Potential cryptic speciation and discovery of living species known only from fossils.

    PubMed

    Itskovich, Valeria B; Kaluzhnaya, Oxana V; Veynberg, Elena; Erpenbeck, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    We revealed new deep-water species and cryptic speciation within freshwater sponges of the endemic family Lubomirskiidae (Porifera; Demospongiae; Spongillina) based on molecular and spicule morphology analyses of ITS and CO1 mtDNA. Lubomirskiidae contains a group of closely related species which are a dominant component of the benthos in Lake Baikal, the world's deepest and most ancient lake. Spicule morphology was similar between two Recent samples and species only known previously from fossils in Late Pliocene (3.2-2.8 mya) sediments. Despite the morphological similarity with the cosmopolitan family Spongillidae, molecular analysis of ITS sequences has reliably assigned these species to Lubomirskiidae. This not only indicates that species identification of freshwater fossil sponge spicules should be made with caution, but also suggests that the structure of megascleres may not be a reliable character for interpretations of paleoclimatic reconstructions for the Baikal region. Our results do not support the current classification of Lubomirskiidae into its morphologically defined genera and species, suggesting a strong discrepancy between molecular and morphological variation in Baikalian sponges. This present contribution is the first part of a study on the phylogenetic relationships of the Lake Baikal deep water sponge fauna. PMID:26250223

  9. Species interaction mechanisms maintain grassland plant species diversity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Theory has outpaced empirical research in pursuit of identifying mechanisms maintaining species diversity. Here we demonstrate how data from diversity-ecosystem functioning experiments can be used to test maintenance of diversity theory. We predict that grassland plant diversity can be maintained by...

  10. Competition with wind-pollinated plant species alters floral traits of insect-pollinated plant species

    PubMed Central

    Flacher, Floriane; Raynaud, Xavier; Hansart, Amandine; Motard, Eric; Dajoz, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Plant traits related to attractiveness to pollinators (e.g. flowers and nectar) can be sensitive to abiotic or biotic conditions. Soil nutrient availability, as well as interactions among insect-pollinated plants species, can induce changes in flower and nectar production. However, further investigations are needed to determine the impact of interactions between insect-pollinated species and abiotically pollinated species on such floral traits, especially floral rewards. We carried out a pot experiment in which three insect-pollinated plant species were grown in binary mixtures with four wind-pollinated plant species, differing in their competitive ability. Along the flowering period, we measured floral traits of the insect-pollinated species involved in attractiveness to pollinators (i.e. floral display size, flower size, daily and total 1) flower production, 2) nectar volume, 3) amount of sucrose allocated to nectar). Final plant biomass was measured to quantify competitive interactions. For two out of three insect-pollinated species, we found that the presence of a wind-pollinated species can negatively impact floral traits involved in attractiveness to pollinators. This effect was stronger with wind-pollinated species that induced stronger competitive interactions. These results stress the importance of studying the whole plant community (and not just the insect-pollinated plant community) when working on plant-pollinator interactions. PMID:26335409

  11. Cytotoxic C20 Diterpenoid Alkaloids from the Australian Endemic Rainforest Plant Anopterus macleayanus.

    PubMed

    Levrier, Claire; Sadowski, Martin C; Nelson, Colleen C; Davis, Rohan A

    2015-12-24

    In order to identify new anticancer compounds from nature, a prefractionated library derived from Australian endemic plants was generated and screened against the prostate cancer cell line LNCaP using a metabolic assay. Fractions from the seeds, leaves, and wood of Anopterus macleayanus showed cytotoxic activity and were subsequently investigated using a combination of bioassay-guided fractionation and mass-directed isolation. This led to the identification of four new diterpenoid alkaloids, 6α-acetoxyanopterine (1), 4'-hydroxy-6α-acetoxyanopterine (2), 4'-hydroxyanopterine (3), and 11α-benzoylanopterine (4), along with four known compounds, anopterine (5), 7β-hydroxyanopterine (6), 7β,4'-dihydroxyanopterine (7), and 7β-hydroxy-11α-benzoylanopterine (8); all compounds were purified as their trifluoroacetate salt. The chemical structures of 1-8 were elucidated after analysis of 1D/2D NMR and MS data. Compounds 1-8 were evaluated for cytotoxic activity against a panel of human prostate cancer cells (LNCaP, C4-2B, and DuCaP) and nonmalignant cell lines (BPH-1 and WPMY-1), using a live-cell imaging system and a metabolic assay. All compounds showed potent cytotoxicity with IC50 values of <400 nM; compound 1 was the most active natural product from this series, with an IC50 value of 3.1 nM toward the LNCaP cell line. The live-cell imaging assay on 1-8 showed a concentration- and time-dependent effect on the cell morphology and proliferation of LNCaP cells. PMID:26600001

  12. A new species of Isoperla (Insecta, Plecoptera) from the Karawanken, with considerations on the Southern Limestone Alps as centers of endemism

    PubMed Central

    Graf, Wolfram; Konar, Martin; Murányi, Dávid; Orci, Kirill Márk; Vitecek, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A new species of the genus Isoperla (Plecoptera, Perlodidae), belonging to the oxylepis species-group is described, and the male mating call is characterized. Its range falls within a small region of the Southern Limestone Alps which is well known to be one endemism-centre of aquatic insects. PMID:25408608

  13. The Fleas of Endemic and Introduced Small Mammals in Central Highland Forests of Madagascar: Faunistics, Species Diversity, and Absence of Host Specificity.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Steven M; Randrenjarison Andriniaina, H Rico; Soarimalala, Voahangy; Beaucournu, Jean-Claude

    2015-09-01

    Data are presented on the flea species of the genera Paractenopsyllus (Ceratophyllidae, Leptopsyllinae) and Synopsyllus (Pulicidae, Xenopsyllinae) obtained from small mammals during two 2014 seasonal surveys at a montane humid forest site (Ambohitantely) in the Central Highlands of Madagascar. The mammal groups included the endemic family Tenrecidae (tenrecs) and subfamily Nesomyinae (rodents) and two introduced families Muridae (rodents) and Soricidae (shrews); no fleas were recovered from the latter family. The surveys were conducted at the end of the wet and dry seasons with 288 individual small mammals captured, including 12 endemic and four introduced species. These animals yielded 344 fleas, representing nine species endemic to Madagascar; no introduced species was collected. Some seasonal variation was found in the number of trapped small mammals, but no marked difference was found in species richness. For flea species represented by sufficient samples, no parasite-host specificity was found, and there is evidence for considerable lateral exchange in the local flea fauna between species of tenrecs and the two rodent families (endemic and introduced). The implications of these results are discussed with regards to small mammal species richness and community structure, as well as a possible mechanism for the maintenance of sylvatic cycles of bubonic plague in the montane forests of Madagascar. PMID:26336252

  14. Additions to the checklist of Scoliidae, Sphecidae, Pompilidae and Vespidae of Peru, with notes on the endemic status of some species (Hymenoptera, Aculeata)

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Eduardo Fernando; Grandinete, Yuri Campanholo; Noll, Fernando Barbosa

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The first checklist of the Peruvian Hymenoptera listed 1169 species and subspecies of aculeate wasps, including 173 species of Pompilidae, seven of Scoliidae, 39 of Sphecidae and 403 of Vespidae. Herein are reported 32 species as new for Peru based mainly on the collection of the Natural History Museum, London. The loss of the endemic status of two species is also reported: Entypus peruvianus (Rohwer) (Pompilidae: Pepsinae) and Omicron ruficolle schunkei Giordani Soika (Vespidae: Eumeninae). PMID:26448706

  15. Chemical characterization and antimicrobial activity of rhizome essential oils of very closely allied Zingiberaceae species endemic to Borneo: Alpinia ligulata K. Schum. and Alpinia nieuwenhuizii Val.

    PubMed

    Yusoff, Mashitah M; Ibrahim, Halijah; Hamid, Nurulhusna A

    2011-05-01

    Two poorly studied, morphologically allied Alpinia species endemic to Borneo, viz., A. ligulata and A. nieuwenhuizii, were investigated here for their rhizome essential oil. The oil compositions and antimicrobial activities were compared with those of A. galanga, a better known plant. A fair number of compounds were identified in the oils by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses, with large differences in the oil composition between the three species. The rhizome oil of A. galanga was rich in 1,8-cineole (29.8%), while those of A. ligulata and A. nieuwenhuizii were both found to be extremely rich in (E)-methyl cinnamate (36.4 and 67.8%, resp.). The three oils were screened for their antimicrobial activity against three Gram-positive and three Gram-negative bacteria and two fungal species. The efficiency of growth inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus var. aureus was found to decline in the order of A. nieuwenhuizii>A. ligulata ∼ A. galanga, while that of Escherichia coli decreased in the order of A. galanga>A. nieuwenhuzii ∼ A. ligulata. Only the A. galanga oil inhibited the other bacteria and the fungi tested. PMID:21560240

  16. Mapping National Plant Biodiversity Patterns in South Korea with the MARS Species Distribution Model.

    PubMed

    Choe, Hyeyeong; Thorne, James H; Seo, Changwan

    2016-01-01

    Accurate information on the distribution of existing species is crucial to assess regional biodiversity. However, data inventories are insufficient in many areas. We examine the ability of Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS) multi-response species distribution model to overcome species' data limitations and portray plant species distribution patterns for 199 South Korean plant species. The study models species with two or more observations, examines their contribution to national patterns of species richness, provides a sensitivity analysis of different range threshold cutoff approaches for modeling species' ranges, and presents considerations for species modeling at fine spatial resolution. We ran MARS models for each species and tested four threshold methods to transform occurrence probabilities into presence or absence range maps. Modeled occurrence probabilities were extracted at each species' presence points, and the mean, median, and one standard deviation (SD) calculated to define data-driven thresholds. A maximum sum of sensitivity and specificity threshold was also calculated, and the range maps from the four cutoffs were tested using independent plant survey data. The single SD values were the best threshold tested for minimizing omission errors and limiting species ranges to areas where the associated occurrence data were correctly classed. Eight individual species range maps for rare plant species were identified that are potentially affected by resampling predictor variables to fine spatial scales. We portray spatial patterns of high species richness by assessing the combined range maps from three classes of species: all species, endangered and endemic species, and range-size rarity of all species, which could be used in conservation planning for South Korea. The MARS model is promising for addressing the common problem of few species occurrence records. However, projected species ranges are highly dependent on the threshold and scale

  17. DNA barcode analysis of butterfly species from Pakistan points towards regional endemism

    PubMed Central

    Ashfaq, Muhammad; Akhtar, Saleem; Khan, Arif M; Adamowicz, Sarah J; Hebert, Paul D N

    2013-01-01

    DNA barcodes were obtained for 81 butterfly species belonging to 52 genera from sites in north-central Pakistan to test the utility of barcoding for their identification and to gain a better understanding of regional barcode variation. These species represent 25% of the butterfly fauna of Pakistan and belong to five families, although the Nymphalidae were dominant, comprising 38% of the total specimens. Barcode analysis showed that maximum conspecific divergence was 1.6%, while there was 1.7–14.3% divergence from the nearest neighbour species. Barcode records for 55 species showed <2% sequence divergence to records in the Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD), but only 26 of these cases involved specimens from neighbouring India and Central Asia. Analysis revealed that most species showed little incremental sequence variation when specimens from other regions were considered, but a threefold increase was noted in a few cases. There was a clear gap between maximum intraspecific and minimum nearest neighbour distance for all 81 species. Neighbour-joining cluster analysis showed that members of each species formed a monophyletic cluster with strong bootstrap support. The barcode results revealed two provisional species that could not be clearly linked to known taxa, while 24 other species gained their first coverage. Future work should extend the barcode reference library to include all butterfly species from Pakistan as well as neighbouring countries to gain a better understanding of regional variation in barcode sequences in this topographically and climatically complex region. PMID:23789612

  18. Sweet drinks are made of this: Conservation genetics of an endemic palm species from the Dominican Republic

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pseudophoenix ekmanii is a threatened palm species restricted to the Parque Nacional of Jaragua in the southernmost region of Hispaniola. Sap from individual trees is commonly extracted to make a local drink; once they are tapped the plant usually dies. Additionally, adult plants are harvested for...

  19. Ensemble habitat mapping of invasive plant species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stohlgren, T.J.; Ma, P.; Kumar, S.; Rocca, M.; Morisette, J.T.; Jarnevich, C.S.; Benson, N.

    2010-01-01

    Ensemble species distribution models combine the strengths of several species environmental matching models, while minimizing the weakness of any one model. Ensemble models may be particularly useful in risk analysis of recently arrived, harmful invasive species because species may not yet have spread to all suitable habitats, leaving species-environment relationships difficult to determine. We tested five individual models (logistic regression, boosted regression trees, random forest, multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS), and maximum entropy model or Maxent) and ensemble modeling for selected nonnative plant species in Yellowstone and Grand Teton National Parks, Wyoming; Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks, California, and areas of interior Alaska. The models are based on field data provided by the park staffs, combined with topographic, climatic, and vegetation predictors derived from satellite data. For the four invasive plant species tested, ensemble models were the only models that ranked in the top three models for both field validation and test data. Ensemble models may be more robust than individual species-environment matching models for risk analysis. ?? 2010 Society for Risk Analysis.

  20. Ensemble habitat mapping of invasive plant species.

    PubMed

    Stohlgren, Thomas J; Ma, Peter; Kumar, Sunil; Rocca, Monique; Morisette, Jeffrey T; Jarnevich, Catherine S; Benson, Nate

    2010-02-01

    Ensemble species distribution models combine the strengths of several species environmental matching models, while minimizing the weakness of any one model. Ensemble models may be particularly useful in risk analysis of recently arrived, harmful invasive species because species may not yet have spread to all suitable habitats, leaving species-environment relationships difficult to determine. We tested five individual models (logistic regression, boosted regression trees, random forest, multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS), and maximum entropy model or Maxent) and ensemble modeling for selected nonnative plant species in Yellowstone and Grand Teton National Parks, Wyoming; Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks, California, and areas of interior Alaska. The models are based on field data provided by the park staffs, combined with topographic, climatic, and vegetation predictors derived from satellite data. For the four invasive plant species tested, ensemble models were the only models that ranked in the top three models for both field validation and test data. Ensemble models may be more robust than individual species-environment matching models for risk analysis. PMID:20136746

  1. Evidence for electrotropism in some plant species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorgolewski, S.; Rożej, B.

    2001-01-01

    The ever-present global Atmospheric Electrical Field (AEF) is used by many plant species. There are many natural habitats with electrotropic plants and habitats with no AEF. The plants growing there are not electrotropic, like the plants growing under the canopies of the trees or the Arecibo radio telescope. Examples are given of different plants which belong to one or the other class, and the criteria how to distinguish them. In addition to natural habitat observations, laboratory experiments were run in search of the sensitivity of electrotropic effect to different electric field intensities. During a few years, it was established that in very strong fields (of the order of 1 MV/m) all plants respond immediately to the field. This type of reaction is due to the Coulomb forces, but electrotropism depends on electric field interaction with ions. The "reference field" (130 V/m) was always used with stronger fields in the several kV/m range which enhance plant growth rate and size similar to plant growth hormones. Surprising effects were also observed with reversed and horizontal field polarity. In conclusion electrotropic plants deprived of the electrical field do not develop as expected, as can be seen in Biosphere 2. This is an instructive example of what happens when we forget to provide the plants with this vital natural environmental factor. Electrical fields of different intensity, directions and configurations are cheap and easy to generate.

  2. Phylogeny and biogeography of pacific Rubus subgenus Idaeobatus (Rosaceae) species: Investigating the origin of the endemic Hawaiian raspberry R. macraei

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morden, C.W.; Gardner, D.E.; Weniger, D.A.

    2003-01-01

    The endemic Hawaiian raspberries Rubus hawaiensis and R. macraei (both subgenus Idaeobatus) had been thought to be closely related species until recent molecular studies demonstrated otherwise. These studies suggest that they are the products of separate colonizations to the Hawaiian Islands. Affinities of R. hawaiensis to R. spectabilis of western North America were clearly confirmed. However, no clear relation to R. macraei has been published. This study was initiated to examine species of subg. Idaeobatus from the surrounding Pacific region as well as species from other subgenera to better evaluate biogeographic and phylogenetic affinities of R. macraei by means of chromosome analysis and molecular data using the chloroplast gene ndbF. Results show that R. macraei clusters in a clade with species of blackberries, subg. Rubus, and of these it is most closely linked to R. ursinus. Chromosomally, R. macraei is 2n = 6x = 42, a number that would be a new report for subg. Idaeobatus. However, polyploidy is common in subg. Rubus. Analyses indicate that R. macraei and R. hawaiensis are derived from separate colonizations from North America and that similarities between them are due to convergent evolution in the Hawaiian environment.

  3. Radix dolgini: The integrative taxonomic approach supports the species status of a Siberian endemic snail (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Lymnaeidae).

    PubMed

    Vinarski, Maxim V; Aksenova, Olga V; Bespalaya, Yulia V; Bolotov, Ivan N; Schniebs, Katrin; Gofarov, Mikhail Yu; Kondakov, Alexander V

    2016-01-01

    The molecular techniques are the standard tool for the study of the taxonomic position and phylogenetic affinities of the lymnaeid genus Radix Montfort, 1810, and the majority of the European representatives of this taxon have been studied in this respect. However, a plethora of nominal species of Radix described from Northern Asia (Siberia and the Russian Far East) are still characterized only morphologically, raising some doubts concerning their validity. In this paper, we present the triple (morphological, molecular, and zoogeographical) evidence that there is at least one endemic species of Radix, Radix dolgini (Gundrizer and Starobogatov, 1979), widely distributed in Siberia and Western Mongolia. Phylogenetically, it is a sister species to the European R. labiata (Rossmaessler, 1835) [=R. peregra auct.], and their common ancestor most probably lived in the Pliocene, nearly 3.25Myr ago. Our results assume the existence of an extended dispersal barrier for freshwater hydrobionts between Europe and Siberia in the Late Pliocene that may be important for biogeographical explanations. Three other nominal Siberian species of Radix: R. kurejkae (Gundrizer and Starobogatov, 1979), R. gundrizeri (Kruglov and Starobogatov, 1983), and R. ulaganica (Kruglov and Starobogatov, 1983) proved to be the junior synonyms of R. dolgini. PMID:26705968

  4. Coalescence patterns of endemic Tibetan species of stream salamanders (Hynobiidae: Batrachuperus).

    PubMed

    Lu, Bin; Zheng, Yuchi; Murphy, Robert W; Zeng, Xiaomao

    2012-07-01

    Orogenesis of topographically diverse montane regions often drives complex evolutionary histories of species. The extensive biodiversity of the eastern edge of the Tibetan Plateau, which gradually decreases eastwardly, facilitates a comparison of historical patterns. We use coalescence methods to compare species of stream salamanders (Batrachuperus) that occur at high and low elevations. Coalescent simulations reveal that closely related species are likely to have been influenced by different drivers of diversification. Species living in the western high-elevation region with its northsouth extending mountains appear to have experienced colonization via dispersal followed by isolation and divergence. In contrast, species on the eastern low-elevation region, which has many discontinuous mountain ranges, appear to have experienced fragmentation, sometimes staged, of wide-ranging ancestral populations. The two groups of species appear to have been affected differently by glaciation. High-elevation species, which are more resistant to cooler temperatures, appear to have experienced population declines as recently as the last glaciation (0.016-0.032Ma). In contrast, salamanders dwelling in the warmer and wetter habitats at low-elevation environs appear to have been affected less by the relatively recent, milder glaciation, and more so by harsher, extensive glaciations (0.5-0.175 Ma). Thus, elevation, topography and cold tolerance appear to drive evolutionary patterns of diversification and demography even among closely related taxa. The comparison of multiple species in genealogical analyses can lead to an understanding of the evolutionary drivers. PMID:22571598

  5. Egg Development and Early Life History of Korean Endemic Species Korean Spotted Sleeper, Odontobutis interrupta (Pisces: Odontobutidae).

    PubMed

    Park, Jae-Min; Han, Kyeong-Ho; Kim, Na-Ri; Yoo, Dong-Jae; Yun, Seong-Min; Han, Ji-Hyeong

    2014-12-01

    The egg development and early life history of Korean spotted sleeper, Odontobutis interrupta which is Korean endemic species from Sora-choen was investigated. The Korean spotted sleeper were caught at Sora-myeon, Yeosu-si, Jeollanamdo, from Korea at May in 2014. The fertilized eggs were 4.23 ± 0.05 mm in long diameter and had oil globules. Hatching time of the embryo began about 442 hr 14 min after fertilization under water temperature of 19.5°C. The newly hatched larvae were 4.27 ± 0.35 mm in total length and their anus were not yet opened. 3 days after hatching postlarvae was measured 6.20 ± 0.11 mm in total length. 10 days after hatching postlarvae was measured 6.69 ± 0.14 mm in total length. PMID:25949196

  6. Karyological study of Amphisbaena ridleyi (Squamata, Amphisbaenidae), an endemic species of the Archipelago of Fernando de Noronha, Pernambuco, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The karyotype of Amphisbaena ridleyi, an endemic species of the archipelago of Fernando de Noronha, in State of Pernambuco, Brazil, is described after conventional staining, Ag-NOR impregnation and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with a telomeric probe. The diploid number is 46, with nine pairs of macrochromosomes (three metacentrics, four subtelocentrics and two acrocentrics) and 14 pairs of microchromosomes. The Ag-NOR is located in the telomeric region of the long arm of metacentric chromosome 2 and FISH revealed signals only in the telomeric region of all chromosomes. Further cytogenetic data on other amphisbaenians as well as a robust phylogenetic hypothesis of this clade is needed in order to understand the evolutionary changes on amphisbaenian karyotypes. PMID:21637605

  7. Egg Development and Early Life History of Korean Endemic Species Korean Spotted Sleeper, Odontobutis interrupta (Pisces: Odontobutidae)

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jae-Min; Han, Kyeong-Ho; Kim, Na-ri; Yoo, Dong-Jae; Yun, Seong-Min; Han, Ji-Hyeong

    2014-01-01

    The egg development and early life history of Korean spotted sleeper, Odontobutis interrupta which is Korean endemic species from Sora-choen was investigated. The Korean spotted sleeper were caught at Sora-myeon, Yeosu-si, Jeollanamdo, from Korea at May in 2014. The fertilized eggs were 4.23 ± 0.05 mm in long diameter and had oil globules. Hatching time of the embryo began about 442 hr 14 min after fertilization under water temperature of 19.5°C. The newly hatched larvae were 4.27 ± 0.35 mm in total length and their anus were not yet opened. 3 days after hatching postlarvae was measured 6.20 ± 0.11 mm in total length. 10 days after hatching postlarvae was measured 6.69 ± 0.14 mm in total length. PMID:25949196

  8. Heterogeneous distribution of metabolites across plant species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takemoto, Kazuhiro; Arita, Masanori

    2009-07-01

    We investigate the distribution of flavonoids, a major category of plant secondary metabolites, across species. Flavonoids are known to show high species specificity, and were once considered as chemical markers for understanding adaptive evolution and characterization of living organisms. We investigate the distribution among species using bipartite networks, and find that two heterogeneous distributions are conserved among several families: the power-law distributions of the number of flavonoids in a species and the number of shared species of a particular flavonoid. In order to explain the possible origin of the heterogeneity, we propose a simple model with, essentially, a single parameter. As a result, we show that two respective power-law statistics emerge from simple evolutionary mechanisms based on a multiplicative process. These findings provide insights into the evolution of metabolite diversity and characterization of living organisms that defy genome sequence analysis for different reasons.

  9. Cryobanking of plant species, promise and status

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Currently, the PAGRP has over 4,000 unique samples of clonally propagated species and about 49,000 seed samples in long-term liquid nitrogen storage. Cryopreservation of plant genetic resources has several advantages over germplasm maintenance in field or in vitro; the main of the advantages are pro...

  10. New combinations for Pacific endemic species: Marquesan Poaceae, and Micronesian Myrtaceae.

    PubMed

    Tornabene, Michael W; Wagner, Warren L

    2013-01-01

    As part of the preparation for a comprehensive online flora of Pacific oceanic islands, numerous taxonomic changes have been necessary, primarily due to a new wealth of global molecular phylogenetic studies on genera that include Pacific islands species. In order to compile an accurate checklist of the Pacific island flora with up-to-date taxonomies, we are moving several species to their currently accepted genera. Two Marquesan Pennisetum Rich. are transferred to Cenchrus L. with the new combinations Cenchrus articularis (Trin.) M. Tornabene & W.L. Wagner, and Cenchrus henryanus (F. Br.) M. Tornabene & W.L. Wagner. A key to Marquesas Cenchrus is also provided to differentiate the two species. Additionally, one species of Eugenia L. is transferred to Syzygium Gaertn. with the new combination Syzygium stelechanthoides (Kaneh.) M. Tornabene & W.L. Wagner in accord with the aforementioned studies. PMID:24399889

  11. New combinations for Pacific endemic species: Marquesan Poaceae, and Micronesian Myrtaceae

    PubMed Central

    Tornabene, Michael W.; Wagner, Warren L.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract As part of the preparation for a comprehensive online flora of Pacific oceanic islands, numerous taxonomic changes have been necessary, primarily due to a new wealth of global molecular phylogenetic studies on genera that include Pacific islands species. In order to compile an accurate checklist of the Pacific island flora with up-to-date taxonomies, we are moving several species to their currently accepted genera. Two Marquesan Pennisetum Rich. are transferred to Cenchrus L. with the new combinations Cenchrus articularis (Trin.) M. Tornabene & W.L. Wagner, and Cenchrus henryanus (F. Br.) M. Tornabene & W.L. Wagner. A key to Marquesas Cenchrus is also provided to differentiate the two species. Additionally, one species of Eugenia L. is transferred to Syzygium Gaertn. with the new combination Syzygium stelechanthoides (Kaneh.) M. Tornabene & W.L. Wagner in accord with the aforementioned studies. PMID:24399889

  12. The Scirtothrips dorsalis species complex: Endemism and invasion in a global pest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Invasive arthropods pose unique management challenges in various environments, the first of which is correct identification. This apparently mundane task is particularly difficult if multiple species are morphologically indistinguishable but accurate identification can be determined with DNA barcodi...

  13. Modeling Rare Species Distribution at the Edge: The Case for the Vulnerable Endemic Pyrenean Desman in France

    PubMed Central

    Williams-Tripp, M.; D'Amico, F. J. N.; Pagé, C.; Bertrand, A.; Némoz, M.; Brown, J. A.

    2012-01-01

    The endemic Pyrenean Desman (Galemys pyrenaicus) is an elusive, rare, and vulnerable species declining over its entire and narrow range (Spain, Portugal, France, and Andorra). The principal set of conservation measures in France is a 5-years National Action Plan based on 25 conservation actions. Priority is given to update its present distribution and develop tools for predictive distribution models. We aim at building the first species distribution model and map for the northern edge of the range of the Desman and confronting the outputs of the model to target conservation efforts in the context of environmental change. Contrasting to former comparable studies, we derive a simpler model emphasizing the importance of factors linked to precipitation and not to the temperature. If temperature is one of the climate change key factors, depicted shrinkage in Desman distribution could be lower or null at the northern (French) edge suggesting thus a major role for this northern population in terms of conservation of the species. Finally, we question the applied issue of temporal and spatial transferability for such environmental favourability models when it is made at the edge of the distribution range. PMID:22593702

  14. Modeling rare species distribution at the edge: the case for the vulnerable endemic Pyrenean desman in France.

    PubMed

    Williams-Tripp, M; D'Amico, F J N; Pagé, C; Bertrand, A; Némoz, M; Brown, J A

    2012-01-01

    The endemic Pyrenean Desman (Galemys pyrenaicus) is an elusive, rare, and vulnerable species declining over its entire and narrow range (Spain, Portugal, France, and Andorra). The principal set of conservation measures in France is a 5-years National Action Plan based on 25 conservation actions. Priority is given to update its present distribution and develop tools for predictive distribution models. We aim at building the first species distribution model and map for the northern edge of the range of the Desman and confronting the outputs of the model to target conservation efforts in the context of environmental change. Contrasting to former comparable studies, we derive a simpler model emphasizing the importance of factors linked to precipitation and not to the temperature. If temperature is one of the climate change key factors, depicted shrinkage in Desman distribution could be lower or null at the northern (French) edge suggesting thus a major role for this northern population in terms of conservation of the species. Finally, we question the applied issue of temporal and spatial transferability for such environmental favourability models when it is made at the edge of the distribution range. PMID:22593702

  15. Three new endemic species of Epictia Gray, 1845 (Serpentes: Leptotyphlopidae) from the dry forest of northwestern Peru.

    PubMed

    Koch, Claudia; Venegas, Pablo J; Böhme, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Three new blind snake species of the genus Epictia are described based on material collected in the Peruvian Regions Amazonas, Cajamarca and La Libertad. All three species are well differentiated from all congeners based on characteristics of their morphology and coloration. They share 10 scale rows around the middle of the tail and possess two supralabials with the anterior one in broad contact with the supraocular. Epictia septemlineata sp. nov. has 16 subcaudal scales, 257 mid-dorsal scale rows, a yellowish-white rostral, and a black terminal spine. Epictia vanwallachi sp. nov. exhibits 16 subcaudals, 188 mid-dorsal scale rows, a grayish-brown rostral, and a yellow terminal spine. Epictia antoniogarciai sp. nov. features 14-18 subcaudals, 195-208 mid-dorsal scale rows, a bright yellow or yellowish-white rostral, and the terminal spine and terminal portion of the tail yellow. All three species were collected in the interandean dry forest valleys of the Marañón River and its tributaries. This region is an area of endemism and warrants further attention from systematic and conservation biologists. PMID:26249433

  16. Mapping National Plant Biodiversity Patterns in South Korea with the MARS Species Distribution Model

    PubMed Central

    Choe, Hyeyeong; Thorne, James H.; Seo, Changwan

    2016-01-01

    Accurate information on the distribution of existing species is crucial to assess regional biodiversity. However, data inventories are insufficient in many areas. We examine the ability of Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS) multi-response species distribution model to overcome species’ data limitations and portray plant species distribution patterns for 199 South Korean plant species. The study models species with two or more observations, examines their contribution to national patterns of species richness, provides a sensitivity analysis of different range threshold cutoff approaches for modeling species’ ranges, and presents considerations for species modeling at fine spatial resolution. We ran MARS models for each species and tested four threshold methods to transform occurrence probabilities into presence or absence range maps. Modeled occurrence probabilities were extracted at each species’ presence points, and the mean, median, and one standard deviation (SD) calculated to define data-driven thresholds. A maximum sum of sensitivity and specificity threshold was also calculated, and the range maps from the four cutoffs were tested using independent plant survey data. The single SD values were the best threshold tested for minimizing omission errors and limiting species ranges to areas where the associated occurrence data were correctly classed. Eight individual species range maps for rare plant species were identified that are potentially affected by resampling predictor variables to fine spatial scales. We portray spatial patterns of high species richness by assessing the combined range maps from three classes of species: all species, endangered and endemic species, and range-size rarity of all species, which could be used in conservation planning for South Korea. The MARS model is promising for addressing the common problem of few species occurrence records. However, projected species ranges are highly dependent on the threshold and scale

  17. Next-generation sequencing identification and characterization of microsatellite markers in Aconitum austrokoreense Koidz., an endemic and endangered medicinal plant of Korea.

    PubMed

    Yun, Y-E; Yu, J-N; Nam, G H; Ryu, S-A; Kim, S; Oh, K; Lim, C E

    2015-01-01

    We used next-generation sequencing to develop 9 novel microsatellite markers in Aconitum austrokoreense, an endemic and endangered medicinal plant in Korea. Owing to its very limited distribution, over-harvesting for traditional medicinal purposes, and habitat loss, the natural populations are dramatically declining in Korea. All novel microsatellite markers were successfully genotyped using 64 samples from two populations (Mt. Choejeong, Gyeongsangbuk-do and Ungseokbong, Gyeongsangnam-do) of Gyeongsang Province. The number of alleles ranged from 2 to 7 per locus in each population. Observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.031 to 0.938 and from 0.031 to 0.697, respectively. The novel markers will be valuable tools for assessing the genetic diversity of A. austrokoreense and for germplasm conservation of this endangered species. PMID:25966255

  18. Essential Oils from Fruits with Different Colors and Leaves of Neomitranthes obscura (DC.) N. Silveira: An Endemic Species from Brazilian Atlantic Forest

    PubMed Central

    Amaral, Raquel R.; Fernandes, Caio P.; Caramel, Otávio P.; Tietbohl, Luis A. C.; Santos, Marcelo G.; Carvalho, José C. T.; Rocha, Leandro

    2013-01-01

    Neomitranthes obscura (DC.) N. Silveira is an endemic plant of Brazilian Atlantic Forest and widely spread in the sandbanks of “Restinga de Jurubatiba” National Park. It is popularly known by local population as “camboim-de-cachorro” or “cambuí-preto” and recognized by its black ripe fruits. However, specimens with yellow ripe fruits were localized in the “Restinga de Jurubatiba” National Park. The aim of the present study was to evaluate chemical composition of essential oils obtained from leaves and fruits of N. obscura specimens with different fruit color (black and yellow) by GC and GC-MS. Essential oils from leaves of specimens with black and yellow fruits indicated a predominance of sesquiterpenes (81.1% and 84.8%, resp.). Meanwhile, essential oil from black fruits presented a predominance of monoterpenes (50.5%), while essential oil from yellow fruits had sesquiterpenes (39.9%) as major substances. Despite previous studies about this species, including essential oil extraction, to our knowledge this is the first report on N. obscura fruits with different colors. Our results suggest the occurrence of unless two different varieties for this species. PMID:23484148

  19. Clonal growth and plant species abundance

    PubMed Central

    Herben, Tomáš; Nováková, Zuzana; Klimešová, Jitka

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Both regional and local plant abundances are driven by species' dispersal capacities and their abilities to exploit new habitats and persist there. These processes are affected by clonal growth, which is difficult to evaluate and compare across large numbers of species. This study assessed the influence of clonal reproduction on local and regional abundances of a large set of species and compared the predictive power of morphologically defined traits of clonal growth with data on actual clonal growth from a botanical garden. The role of clonal growth was compared with the effects of seed reproduction, habitat requirements and growth, proxied both by LHS (leaf–height–seed) traits and by actual performance in the botanical garden. Methods Morphological parameters of clonal growth, actual clonal reproduction in the garden and LHS traits (leaf-specific area – height – seed mass) were used as predictors of species abundance, both regional (number of species records in the Czech Republic) and local (mean species cover in vegetation records) for 836 perennial herbaceous species. Species differences in habitat requirements were accounted for by classifying the dataset by habitat type and also by using Ellenberg indicator values as covariates. Key Results After habitat differences were accounted for, clonal growth parameters explained an important part of variation in species abundance, both at regional and at local levels. At both levels, both greater vegetative growth in cultivation and greater lateral expansion trait values were correlated with higher abundance. Seed reproduction had weaker effects, being positive at the regional level and negative at the local level. Conclusions Morphologically defined traits are predictive of species abundance, and it is concluded that simultaneous investigation of several such traits can help develop hypotheses on specific processes (e.g. avoidance of self-competition, support of offspring) potentially

  20. Plant species evaluated for new crop potential

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, M.E.

    1985-01-01

    Ninety-two plant species from various regions of the USA were screened for their energy-producing potential. Samples were analysed for oil, polyphenol, hydrocarbon and protein. Oil fractions of some species were analysed for classes of lipid constituents and yields of unsaponifiable matter and fatty acids were determined. Hydrocarbon fractions of some species were analysed for rubber, gutta and waxes. Average MW and MW distribution of rubber and gutta were determined. Complete analytical data for 16 species is presented. Large quantities of oil were obtained from Philadelphus coronarius, Cacalia muhlenbergii, Lindera benzoin and Koelreuteria paniculata. High yields of polyphenols came from Acer ginnala, Cornus obliqua and Salix caprea and maximum yields of hydrocarbon and protein were from Elymus virginicus and Lindera benzoin, respectively.

  1. Ompok argestes, a new species of silurid catfish endemic to Sri Lanka (Teleostei: Siluridae).

    PubMed

    Sudasinghe, Hiranya; Meegaskumbura, Madhava

    2016-01-01

    Ompok argestes, a new species of silurid catfish, is described from the southwestern lowlands of Sri Lanka. The new species is distinguished from all other species of Ompok in the Indian subcontinent by a combination of the following characters: body color pattern mottled; predorsal profile uniformly convex; maxillary barbels reach or extend slightly beyond base of dorsal fin; eye diameter 14.2-17.1% head length (HL); body depth at anus 19.8-22.3% standard length (SL); head width 14.3-16.8% SL; caudal peduncle depth 5.6-6.5% SL. Callichrous ceylonensis Günther is shown to be a valid species that is apparently restricted to Sri Lanka, distinguished by a combination of the following characters: distinct concavity in predorsal profile; origin of pelvic fin beneath or slightly posterior to the origin of the dorsal fin; maxillary barbels 108-166 % HL; mandibular barbels 16.1-33.7 % HL; and 58-66 anal-fin rays. PMID:27615884

  2. Dissolved oxygen fluctuations in karst spring flow and implications for endemic species: Barton Springs, Edwards aquifer, Texas, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mahler, Barbara J.; Bourgeais, Renan

    2013-01-01

    Karst aquifers and springs provide the dissolved oxygen critical for survival of endemic stygophiles worldwide, but little is known about fluctuations of dissolved oxygen concentrations (DO) and factors that control those concentrations. We investigated temporal variation in DO at Barton Springs, Austin, Texas, USA. During 2006–2012, DO fluctuated by as much as a factor of 2, and at some periods decreased to concentrations that adversely affect the Barton Springs salamander (Eurycea sorosum) (≤4.4 mg/L), a federally listed endangered species endemic to Barton Springs. DO was lowest (≤4.4 mg/L) when discharge was low (≤1 m3/s) and spring water temperature was >21 °C, although not at a maximum; the minimum DO recorded was 4.0 mg/L. Relatively low DO (3/s) and maximum T (22.2 °C). A four-segment linear regression model with daily data for discharge and spring water temperature as explanatory variables provided an excellent fit for mean daily DO (Nash–Sutcliffe coefficient for the validation period of 0.90). DO also fluctuated at short-term timescales in response to storms, and DO measured at 15-min intervals could be simulated with a combination of discharge, spring temperature, and specific conductance as explanatory variables. On the basis of the daily-data regression model, we hypothesize that more frequent low DO corresponding to salamander mortality could result from (i) lower discharge from Barton Springs resulting from increased groundwater withdrawals or decreased recharge as a result of climate change, and (or) (ii) higher groundwater temperature as a result of climate change.

  3. Litsea Species as Potential Antiviral Plant Sources.

    PubMed

    Guan, Yifu; Wang, Dongying; Tan, Ghee T; Van Hung, Nguyen; Cuong, Nguyen Manh; Pezzuto, John M; Fong, Harry H S; Soejarto, Djaja Doel; Zhang, Hongjie

    2016-04-01

    Litsea verticillata Hance (Lauraceae), a Chinese medicine used to treat swelling caused by injury or by snake bites, was the first plant identified by our National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded International Cooperative Biodiversity Group (ICBG) project to exhibit anti-HIV activities. From this plant, we discovered a class of 8 novel litseane compounds, prototypic sesquiterpenes, all of which demonstrated anti-HIV activities. In subsequent studies, 26 additional compounds of different structural types were identified. During our continuing investigation of this plant species, we identified two new litseanes, litseaverticillols L and M, and a new sesquiterpene butenolide, litseasesquibutenolide. Litseaverticillols L and M were found to inhibit HIV-1 replication, with an IC[Formula: see text] value of 49.6[Formula: see text][Formula: see text]M. To further determine the antiviral properties of this plant, several relatively abundant isolates, including a litseane compound, two eudesmane sesquiterpenes and three lignans, were evaluated against an additional 21 viral targets. Lignans 8 and 9 were shown to be active against the Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV), with EC[Formula: see text] values of 22.0[Formula: see text][Formula: see text]M ([Formula: see text]) and 16.2[Formula: see text][Formula: see text]M ([Formula: see text]), respectively. Since many antiviral compounds have been discovered in L. verticillata, we further prepared 38 plant extracts made from the different plant parts of 9 additional Litsea species. These extracts were evaluated for their anti-HIV and cytotoxic activities, and four of the extracts, which ranged across three different species, displayed 97-100% inhibitory effects against HIV replication without showing cytotoxicity to a panel of human cell lines at a concentration of 20[Formula: see text][Formula: see text]g/mL. PMID:27080941

  4. RELATIVE ABUNDANCE AND SPECIES COMPOSITION OF MOSQUITO POPULATIONS (DIPTERA:CULICIDAE) IN A LA CROSSE VIRUS- ENDEMIC AREA IN WESTERN NORTH CAROLINA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Container surveys were conducted in 5 communities on the Cherokee Indian Reservation, an area of western North Carolina endemic for transmission of La Crosse (LAC) virus, to determine the potential for peridomestic mosquito breeding, the relative abundance of mosquito species, an...

  5. Genetic assessment of the Atlantic Forest bristle porcupine, Chaetomys subspinosus (Rodentia: Erethizontidae), an endemic species threatened with extinction.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, C G; Martinez, R A; Giné, G A F; Faria, D M; Gaiotto, F A

    2011-01-01

    The bristle-spined porcupine, Chaetomys subspinosus, an endemic rodent from Atlantic Forest, was considered to be abundant in the recent past, but population reductions due to habitat loss and expansion of human activities caused this species to be included in the "vulnerable" category of the World Conservation Union Red List. We performed the first genetic assessment in natural populations of this focal species along its geographical distribution. Thirty-five non-invasive samples (hair) were collected from three natural populations in the Brazilian States of Sergipe, Bahia and Espírito Santo. Genetic similarity obtained by Jaccard's index, based on dominant RAPD and ISSR markers, varied between 25 and 100%. Four clusters, mainly coincident with the geographical distribution of the populations, were observed. Analysis of molecular variance based on 47 polymorphic loci showed that there was 15.99% genetic variability among populations and 84.01% within populations. The estimated genetic structure among populations (Φ(ST)) was 0.16. The populations may have formed a continuum along the past distribution of the Atlantic rainforest but historical events of human occupation resulted in recent divergence among sampled populations. PMID:21644209

  6. Behavioral and physiological adjustments to new predators in an endemic island species, the Galápagos marine iguana.

    PubMed

    Berger, Silke; Wikelski, Martin; Romero, L Michael; Kalko, Elisabeth K V; Rödl, Thomas

    2007-12-01

    For the past 5 to 15 million years, marine iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus), endemic to the Galápagos archipelago, experienced relaxed predation pressure and consequently show negligible anti-predator behavior. However, over the past few decades introduced feral cats and dogs started to prey on iguanas on some of the islands. We investigated experimentally whether behavioral and endocrine anti-predator responses changed in response to predator introduction. We hypothesized that flight initiation distances (FID) and corticosterone (CORT) concentrations should increase in affected populations to cope with the novel predators. Populations of marine iguanas reacted differentially to simulated predator approach depending on whether or not they were previously naturally exposed to introduced predators. FIDs were larger at sites with predation than at sites without predation. Furthermore, the occurrence of new predators was associated with increased stress-induced CORT levels in marine iguanas. In addition, age was a strong predictor of variation in FID and CORT levels. Juveniles, which are generally more threatened by predators compared to adults, showed larger FIDs and higher CORT baseline levels as well as higher stress-induced levels than adults. The results demonstrate that this naive island species shows behavioral and physiological plasticity associated with actual predation pressure, a trait that is presumably adaptive. However, the adjustments in FID are not sufficient to cope with the novel predators. We suggest that low behavioral plasticity in the face of introduced predators may drive many island species to extinction. PMID:17904141

  7. Speciation processes in putative island endemic sister bat species: false impressions from mitochondrial DNA and microsatellite data.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Hao-Chih; Chen, Shiang-Fan; Fang, Yin-Ping; Cotton, James A; Parker, Joe D; Csorba, Gábor; Lim, Burton K; Eger, Judith L; Chen, Chia-Hong; Chou, Cheng-Han; Rossiter, Stephen J

    2015-12-01

    Cases of geographically restricted co-occurring sister taxa are rare and may point to potential divergence with gene flow. The two bat species Murina gracilis and Murina recondita are both endemic to Taiwan and are putative sister species. To test for nonallopatric divergence and gene flow in these taxa, we generated sequences using Sanger and next-generation sequencing, and combined these with microsatellite data for coalescent-based analyses. MtDNA phylogenies supported the reciprocally monophyletic sister relationship between M. gracilis and M. recondita; however, clustering of microsatellite genotypes revealed several cases of species admixture suggesting possible introgression. Sequencing of microsatellite flanking regions revealed that admixture signatures stemmed from microsatellite allele homoplasy rather than recent introgressive hybridization, and also uncovered an unexpected sister relationship between M. recondita and the continental species Murina eleryi, to the exclusion of M. gracilis. To dissect the basis of these conflicts between ncDNA and mtDNA, we analysed sequences from 10 anonymous ncDNA loci with *beast and isolation-with-migration and found two distinct clades of M. eleryi, one of which was sister to M. recondita. We conclude that Taiwan was colonized by the ancestor of M. gracilis first, followed by the ancestor of M. recondita after a period of allopatric divergence. After colonization, the mitochondrial genome of M. recondita was replaced by that of the resident M. gracilis. This study illustrates how apparent signatures of sympatric divergence can arise from complex histories of allopatric divergence, colonization and hybridization, thus highlighting the need for rigorous analyses to distinguish between such scenarios. PMID:26475683

  8. Quantifying the discrepancy between regional climate and climate in the micro-habitats of a rare, endemic plant of the Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patsiou, Theofania-Sotiria; Conti, Elena; Theodoridis, Spyros; Körner, Christian; Randin, Christophe-François

    2014-05-01

    Alpine vegetation is predicted to be extremely vulnerable to climate change. Effects of ongoing climate warming on plant species have already been reported in the Alps, such as upward shift of species distribution, range contraction or changes in species composition in the form of thermophilisation. Extrinsic factors such as land-area reduction occurring at high elevations in a mountain range and species' intrinsic properties (e.g., their growth form, reproductive strategy or dispersal capacity) are both affecting the response of alpine species to rapid climate change. However, recent studies have shown that the topographic complexity usually found in the alpine zones creates a variety of microclimate conditions that counteract the effect of warming climate. Here we aimed at characterising the microclimate conditions that alpine plant species experience. We used a rare endemic plant of the Maritime Alps, Saxifraga florulenta, as a model taxon because of its specific topographic and edaphic requirements. We hypothesized that temperature conditions at sites where populations of S. florulenta are located are decoupled from the local and regional climate. We also hypothesised topographic-related factors are better predictors than other proxies constrained by elevation only to explain the variation of water stress. To test these hypotheses, we recorded temperature conditions at the microsite where individual grow and reconstructed 30-year time series. We used stable isotopes signal (13C) as the best proxies for water availability. We then compared our recorded temperature data to temperature produced by coarse scale geographic climate layers that are commonly used for predicting species distribution under current and changing climate. We found that the reconstructed extreme temperatures were significantly different from the temperatures of the coarse scale geographic climate layers. In particular, the reconstructed maximum temperatures were lower than the ones of the

  9. Two new endemic species of Epictia Gray, 1845 (Serpentes: Leptotyphlopidae) from Northern Peru.

    PubMed

    Koch, Claudia; Cruz, Roy Santa; Cárdenas, Heidy

    2016-01-01

    Herein, we describe two new thread snake species of the genus Epictia from elevations higher than 2000 meters above sea level in the Andes of the Cajamarca Region in Northern Peru. Both species share 10 midtail scale rows, a broad contact between the anterior supralabial and the supraocular scales in most of the specimens, and a yellow spot on the snout and the terminal part of the tail. Epictia venegasi sp. nov. is described on the basis of nine specimens and can further be differentiated from its congeners by having 211-221 mid-dorsal scale rows and a color pattern where each body scale is black on the anterior half and yellow on the posterior half. The description of Epictia vonmayi sp. nov. is based on two specimens which can further be differentiated from their congeners by having 196-205 mid-dorsal scale rows and 14 distinct black longitudinal stripes around the body, which run through the center of each scale and are separated by bright yellow interspaces; accordingly the tail exhibits 10 black longitudinal stripes which likewise run through the center of each scale. PMID:27515649

  10. Two new species of Indigofera L. (Leguminosae) from the Sneeuberg Centre of Floristic Endemism, Great Escarpment (Eastern and Western Cape, South Africa)

    PubMed Central

    Clark, V. Ralph; Schrire, Brian D.; Barker, Nigel P.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Two new species of Indigofera L. (Leguminosae) are described from the Sneeuberg Centre of Floristic Endemism on the southern Great Escarpment, Eastern and Western Cape Provinces, South Africa. Both species are localised high-altitude endemics. Indigofera magnifica Schrire & V.R. Clark is confined to the summit plateau of the Toorberg–Koudeveldberg–Meelberg west of Graaff-Reinet, and complements other western Sneeuberg endemics such as Erica passerinoides (Bolus) E.G.H. Oliv. and Faurea recondita Rourke & V.R. Clark. Indigofera asantasanensis Schrire & V.R. Clark is confined to a small area east of Graaff-Reinet, and complements several other eastern Sneeuberg endemics such as Euryops exsudans B. Nord & V.R. Clark and Euryops proteoides B. Nord. & V.R. Clark. Based on morphology, both new species belong to the Cape Clade of Indigofera, supporting a biogeographical link between the Cape Floristic Region and the Sneeuberg, as well as with the rest of the eastern Great Escarpment. PMID:25941448

  11. Biology of Anopheles saperoi, an Endemic Species in Okinawajima, the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan.

    PubMed

    Mannen, Kosuke; Toma, Takako; Minakawa, Noboru; Higa, Yukiko; Miyagi, Ichiro

    2016-03-01

    Biological studies of Anopheles saperoi were conducted using larval and adult mosquito collections in the northern part of Okinawajima of the Ryukyu Archipelago from June 2009 to July 2010. Anopheles saperoi was the most collected species in the northern Okinawajima, except Motobu Peninsula, where it was not collected. The southern distribution of An. saperoi was Sugita Stream, Nago City. Anopheles saperoi was collected throughout the year with reproduction (gonotrophic cycle) observed year-round. Immature densities varied for Hinna and Yona streams, and were negatively affected by precipitation patterns. Human attraction activity of females varied for by study area and collection time and was positively affected by temperature, but negatively by heavy rainfall. The greatest female human attraction activity was observed during 3:00-5:00 p.m., with peak at twilight. Parity rates varied from 23.1% to 83.3% throughout the year. PMID:27105212

  12. Vocal Behavior of the Elusive Purple Frog of India (Nasikabatrachus sahyadrensis), a Fossorial Species Endemic to the Western Ghats

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Ashish; Suyesh, Robin; Biju, S. D.; Bee, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative descriptions of animal vocalizations can inform an understanding of their evolutionary functions, the mechanisms for their production and perception, and their potential utility in taxonomy, population monitoring, and conservation. The goal of this study was to provide the first acoustical and statistical analysis of the advertisement calls of Nasikabatrachus sahyadrensis. Commonly known as the Indian purple frog, N. sahyadrensis is an endangered species endemic to the Western Ghats of India. As the only known species in its family (Nasikabatrachidae), it has ancient evolutionary ties to frogs restricted to the Seychelles archipelago (Sooglossidae). The role of vocalizations in the behavior of this unique species poses interesting questions, as the animal is fossorial and potentially earless and it breeds explosively above the soil for only about two weeks a year. In this study, we quantified 19 acoustic properties of 208 calls recorded from 10 males. Vocalizations were organized into distinct call groups typically composed of two to six short (59 ms), pulsatile calls, each consisting of about five to seven pulses produced at a rate of about 106 pulses/s. The frequency content of the call consisted of a single dominant peak between 1200–1300 Hz and there was no frequency modulation. The patterns of variation within and among individuals were typical of those seen in other frogs. Few of the properties we measured were related to temperature, body size, or condition, though there was little variation in temperature. Field observations and recordings of captive individuals indicated that males engaged in both antiphonal calling and call overlap with nearby calling neighbors. We discuss our findings in relation to previous work on vocal behavior in other fossorial frogs and in sooglossid frogs. PMID:24516517

  13. Vocal behavior of the elusive purple frog of India (Nasikabatrachus sahyadrensis), a fossorial species endemic to the Western Ghats.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Ashish; Suyesh, Robin; Biju, S D; Bee, Mark A

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative descriptions of animal vocalizations can inform an understanding of their evolutionary functions, the mechanisms for their production and perception, and their potential utility in taxonomy, population monitoring, and conservation. The goal of this study was to provide the first acoustical and statistical analysis of the advertisement calls of Nasikabatrachus sahyadrensis. Commonly known as the Indian purple frog, N. sahyadrensis is an endangered species endemic to the Western Ghats of India. As the only known species in its family (Nasikabatrachidae), it has ancient evolutionary ties to frogs restricted to the Seychelles archipelago (Sooglossidae). The role of vocalizations in the behavior of this unique species poses interesting questions, as the animal is fossorial and potentially earless and it breeds explosively above the soil for only about two weeks a year. In this study, we quantified 19 acoustic properties of 208 calls recorded from 10 males. Vocalizations were organized into distinct call groups typically composed of two to six short (59 ms), pulsatile calls, each consisting of about five to seven pulses produced at a rate of about 106 pulses/s. The frequency content of the call consisted of a single dominant peak between 1200-1300 Hz and there was no frequency modulation. The patterns of variation within and among individuals were typical of those seen in other frogs. Few of the properties we measured were related to temperature, body size, or condition, though there was little variation in temperature. Field observations and recordings of captive individuals indicated that males engaged in both antiphonal calling and call overlap with nearby calling neighbors. We discuss our findings in relation to previous work on vocal behavior in other fossorial frogs and in sooglossid frogs. PMID:24516517

  14. Potential extinction of Antarctic endemic fungal species as a consequence of global warming.

    PubMed

    Selbmann, Laura; Isola, Daniela; Fenice, Massimiliano; Zucconi, Laura; Sterflinger, Katja; Onofri, Silvano

    2012-11-01

    Cryomyces spp. are fungi adapted to the harsh conditions of the McMurdo Dry Valleys in the Antarctic. The structure of their cell wall is one of the main factors for their uncommon ability to survive external stressors. The cells are, in fact, embedded in a thick and strongly melanised cell wall encrusted with black rigid plaques giving a supplementary protection and making them practically impregnable and refractory even to commercial enzymes including chitinases and glucanases. The Antarctic fungus Lecanicillium muscarium CCFEE 5003, able to produce an arsenal of lytic enzymes, including chitinases and glucanases, is known for its ability to degrade the cell walls of different food spoiling and opportunistic fungi as well as plant pathogenic Oomycota. Active cells of Cryomyces spp. were cultivated in dual culture with the mycoparasitic fungus both in liquid and solid media. Light microscope observations revealed that the cell walls of Cryomyces were heavily decayed. This resulted in the release of protoplasts. Hyphae penetration was evident with both scanning and transmission electron microscope observations. Due to its ecological amplitude (i.e. temperature growth range 0-28 °C), the parasitic fungus could easily expand its area of distribution as a consequence of global warming by invading new areas towards the interior of the continent. The establishment of interactions with organisms living at present in border ecosystems may lead to extinction of extremely specialized and poorly competitive entities. PMID:22982452

  15. Chemical Profile, Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of Achillea moschata Wulfen, an Endemic Species from the Alps.

    PubMed

    Vitalini, Sara; Madeo, Moira; Tava, Aldo; Iriti, Marcello; Vallone, Lisa; Avato, Pinarosa; Cocuzza, Clementina Elvezia; Simonetti, Paolo; Argentieri, Maria Pia

    2016-01-01

    Aerial parts of Achillea moschata Wulfen (Asteraceae) growing wild in the Italian Rhaetian Alps were investigated to describe, for the first time, their phenolic content, as well as to characterize the essential oil. Inspection of the metabolic profile combining HPLC-DAD and ESI-MS/MS data showed that the methanol extract contained glycosylated flavonoids with luteolin and apigenin as the main aglycones. Among them, the major compound was 7-O-glucosyl apigenin. Caffeoyl derivates were other phenolics identified. The essential oil obtained by steam distillation and investigated by GC/FID and GC/MS showed camphor, 1,8-cineole, and bornylacetate as the main constituents. The antioxidant capacity of three different extracts with increasing polarity and of the essential oil was evaluated by employing ABTS·+ and DPPH· radical scavenging assays. The methanolic extract was the only significantly effective sample against both synthetic radicals. All samples were also tested against Gram-positive (Bacillus cereus, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacterial species using the disk diffusion assay. The non-polar extracts (dichloromethane and petroleum ether) and the essential oil possessed a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity expressed according to inhibition zone diameter (8-24 mm). PMID:27347915

  16. DNA profiling of Tilapia guinasana, a species endemic to a single sinkhole, to determine the genetic divergence between color forms.

    PubMed

    Nxomani, C; Ribbink, A J; Kirby, R

    1999-06-01

    Northwestern South Africa and Namibia contain a number of sinkholes in the dolomitic rock formations found in this area. These contain isolated populations of Tilapia. Most contain Tilapia sparmanii, but the one in Namibia, Guinas, is of particular interest as it contains the endemic species, Tilapia guinasana, which exhibits none sex-limited polychromatisms, which is unique for Tilapia. This sinkhole is under environmental threat, particularly as a result of being a recreational diving site. This study, using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA sequences (RAPDs), when analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA), shows that the colour forms of Tilapia guinasana are genetically distinct. This confirms previous evidence that assortative mating between color forms takes place. The various possible hypotheses for the occurrence and genetic stability of the color polymorphism are discussed. Further, a new hypothesis is put forward based on a need to maximize outbreeding in fully isolated population with no possibility of increase in size above the maximum and limited carrying capacity of the sinkhole. PMID:10435449

  17. Numerical taxonomy of Vibrio cholerae and related species isolated from areas that are endemic and nonendemic for cholera.

    PubMed Central

    McNicol, L A; De, S P; Kaper, J B; West, P A; Colwell, R R

    1983-01-01

    A total of 165 strains of vibrios isolated from clinical and environmental sources in the United States, India, and Bangladesh, 11 reference cultures, and 4 duplicated cultures were compared in a numerical taxonomic study using 83 unit characters. Similarity between strains was computed by using the simple matching coefficient and the Jaccard coefficient. Strains were clustered by unweighted average linkage and single linkage algorithms. All methods gave similar cluster compositions. The estimated probability of error in the study was obtained from a comparison of the results of duplicated strains and was within acceptable limits. A total of 174 of the 180 organisms studied were divided into eight major clusters. Two clusters were identified as Vibrio cholerae, one as Vibrio mimicus, one as Vibrio parahaemolyticus, three as Vibrio species, and one as Aeromonas hydrophila. The V. mimicus cluster could be further divided into two subclusters, and the major V. cholerae group could be split into seven minor subclusters. Phenotypic traits routinely used to identify clinical isolates of V. cholerae can be used to identify environmental V. cholerae isolates. No distinction was found between strains of V. cholerae isolated from regions endemic for cholera and strains from nonendemic regions. PMID:6874901

  18. Abundance, Natural Infection with Trypanosomes, and Food Source of an Endemic Species of Triatomine, Panstrongylus howardi (Neiva 1911), on the Ecuadorian Central Coast

    PubMed Central

    Villacís, Anita G.; Ocaña-Mayorga, Sofía; Lascano, Mauricio S.; Yumiseva, César A.; Baus, Esteban G.; Grijalva, Mario J.

    2015-01-01

    The elimination of domestic triatomines is the foundation of Chagas disease control. Regional initiatives are eliminating introduced triatomine species. In this scenario, endemic triatomines can occupy the ecological niches left open and become a threat to long-term Chagas disease control efforts. This study determined the abundance, colonization, and Trypanosoma cruzi infection rate of the endemic Panstrongylus howardi in 10 rural communities located in Ecuador's Manabí Province. In total, 518 individuals of P. howardi were collected. Infestation indices of 1.4% and 6.6% were found in the domestic and peridomestic environments, respectively. We determined a T. cruzi infection rate of 53.2% (N = 47) in this species. P. howardi has a high capacity to adapt to different habitats, especially in the peridomicile. This implies a considerable risk of transmission because of the frequency of intradomicile invasion. Therefore, this species needs to be taken into account in Chagas control and surveillance efforts in the region. PMID:25385867

  19. Abundance, natural infection with trypanosomes, and food source of an endemic species of triatomine, Panstrongylus howardi (Neiva 1911), on the Ecuadorian Central Coast.

    PubMed

    Villacís, Anita G; Ocaña-Mayorga, Sofía; Lascano, Mauricio S; Yumiseva, César A; Baus, Esteban G; Grijalva, Mario J

    2015-01-01

    The elimination of domestic triatomines is the foundation of Chagas disease control. Regional initiatives are eliminating introduced triatomine species. In this scenario, endemic triatomines can occupy the ecological niches left open and become a threat to long-term Chagas disease control efforts. This study determined the abundance, colonization, and Trypanosoma cruzi infection rate of the endemic Panstrongylus howardi in 10 rural communities located in Ecuador's Manabí Province. In total, 518 individuals of P. howardi were collected. Infestation indices of 1.4% and 6.6% were found in the domestic and peridomestic environments, respectively. We determined a T. cruzi infection rate of 53.2% (N = 47) in this species. P. howardi has a high capacity to adapt to different habitats, especially in the peridomicile. This implies a considerable risk of transmission because of the frequency of intradomicile invasion. Therefore, this species needs to be taken into account in Chagas control and surveillance efforts in the region. PMID:25385867

  20. RESPONSE OF WETLAND PLANT SPECIES TO HYDROLOGIC CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Understanding hydrologic requirements of native and introduced species is critical to sustaining native plant communities in wetlands of disturbed landscapes. We examined plant assemblages and 31 species from emergent wetlands in an urbanizing area of the Pacific Northwest, USA,...

  1. RESPONSE OF WETLAND PLANT SPECIES TO HYDROLOGIC CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Understanding hydrologic requirements of native and introduced species is critical to sustaining native plant communities in wetlands of disturbed landscapes. We examined plant assemblages and 31 species from emergent wetlands in an urbanizing area of the Pacific Northwest, USA, ...

  2. Molecular archives of climatic history: exploring patterns of genomic differentiation in endemic species radiations of ancient lakes (MOLARCH)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martens, K.

    2009-04-01

    Little is known about the evolutionary response of species to global climate change because time scales are too long to be directly studied. Recent phylogenetic studies on taxa inhabiting ancient lakes suggested that climate-induced environmental changes can be reconstructed by analyzing genetic patterns within and among species. In fact such evolutionary responses seem to coincide with climate driven lake level-fluctuations and to be concentrated within narrow periods of time. Yet, it remains unclear to what extent such changes occur simultaneously across taxonomic groups and ecological guilds. Our study combines phylogenetic and paleoclimate data to test how patterns of evolutionary diversification agree with predictions of three groups of hypotheses (i) the ‘turnover pulse' and ‘paleo-ecological incumbency' hypotheses, predicting that speciation pulses across major taxa coincide with times of major lake level changes; (ii) the ‘ecological locking' hypothesis, also predicts simultaneous speciation pulses but not necessarily at times of major lake level changes; (iii) the ‘individual response' hypothesis, predicts no correlation of speciation pulses across taxa. These hypotheses will be tested using mtDNA sequences from selected endemic taxa (fish, crustaceans) of Lakes Baikal and Tanganyika, the two oldest lakes on Earth. Patterns of intraspecific diversity (reflecting dynamics of population size changes) and of the synchrony of interspecific divergences across taxa are used to investigate the evolutionary effects of lake level changes on different time scales, in taxa occurring in different habitats, within lakes and across continents. Combined with paleoclimatic information this will elucidate the effects of global climatic induced changes on the more general dynamics of diversification, loss of variation, adaptive radiations and speciation events. Computer simulations of sequence evolution generated in various ecological scenarios will be used to

  3. How many genera and species of woolly monkeys (Atelidae, Platyrrhine, Primates) are there? The first molecular analysis of Lagothrix flavicauda, an endemic Peruvian primate species.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-García, Manuel; Pinedo-Castro, Myreya; Shostell, Joseph Mark

    2014-10-01

    We sequenced COI and COII mitochondrial genes of 141 Neotropical woolly monkeys to provide new insights concerning their phylogeography and phylogenetic relationships. For the first time, eight individuals of the endemic and extremely rare Peruvian yellow-tailed woolly monkey (flavicauda) were sequenced at these genes and compared with other Lagothrix taxa (poeppigii, lagotricha, lugens and cana). There were four main results. (1) L. flavicauda showed a gene diversity of zero, whereas poeppigii and lugens showed high levels of gene diversity and lagotricha and cana showed more modest levels of gene diversity. The absence of gene diversity found for L. flavicauda strongly supports that it is one of the 25 more endangered primates on earth; (2) Our genetic distance and phylogenetic analyses, which included many cases of genetic introgression and recent hybridization, suggest that all woolly monkeys could be included in one unique genus, Lagotrix, divided into two species: L. flavicauda and L. lagotricha. The last species is divided into at least four subspecies. Our molecular results agree with Fooden's (1963) classification, but do not support the classification proposed by Groves (2001). (3) Poeppigii was the first taxon within L. lagotricha to experience a mitochondrial haplotype diversification, while cana and lagotricha experienced more recent mitochondrial haplotype diversification; (4) Poeppigii and lagotricha were the taxa which showed the greatest evidence of population expansions in different Pleistocene periods, whereas lugens experienced a population declination in the last 25,000 YA. PMID:24931730

  4. Long-term shifts in the phenology of rare and endemic Rocky Mountain plants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Munson, Seth M.; Sher, Anna A

    2015-01-01

    CONCLUSIONS: These results provide evidence for large shifts in the phenology of rare Rocky Mountain plants related to climate, which can have strong effects on plant fitness, the abundance of associated wildlife, and the future of plant conservation in mountainous regions.                   

  5. Mycorrhizal status of plant species in the Chaco Serrano Woodland from central Argentina.

    PubMed

    Fracchia, Sebastian; Aranda, Adriana; Gopar, Analia; Silvani, Vanesa; Fernandez, Laura; Godeas, Alicia

    2009-03-01

    We examined the mycorrhizal type of 128 plant species in two patches of native vegetation of the Chaco Serrano Woodland, central Argentina, the largest dry forest area in South America. Of the 128 plant species investigated (belonging to 111 genera in 53 families), 114 were colonized by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AM), orchid mycorrhizal associations were present in the five terrestrial orchid species analyzed, one ectomycorrhiza was only present in Salix humboldtiana Willd., and 96 harbored a dark septate endophyte (DSE) association. Co-occurrence of AM and DSE was observed in 88 plant species. We determine morphological types of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Arum, Paris, and intermediate AM structures) and report the mycorrhizal status in 106 new species, 12 of which are endemic to central Argentina and two, Aa achalensis Schltr. and Buddleja cordobensis Griseb., are declared to be vulnerable species. Root colonization in the Chaco Serrano Woodland is widespread and should be considered in revegetation programs due to the deterioration of this particular ecosystem. Considering the predominance of AM and DSE associations and the various potential benefits that these associations may bring to plant establishment, they should receive special attention in conservation and reforestation of these woodlands. PMID:19184128

  6. Genomic Basis of Plant Pathogen Suppression by Biocontrol Pseudomonas Species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Various plant commensal bacterial species, which naturally colonize the plant rhizosphere, are able to suppress fungal, bacterial, viral and even insect plant pathogens. These biocontrol activities are elicited primarily through the production of secreted exoenzymes and secondary metabolites that ma...

  7. Comment on "Global assessment of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus diversity reveals very low endemism".

    PubMed

    Bruns, Thomas D; Taylor, John W

    2016-02-19

    Davison et al. (Reports, 28 August 2015, p. 970) claim that virtual taxa of Glomeromycota show little endemism and that endemism that exists is similar to the levels seen in plant families. We show that this is likely due to the conservative species definition rather than to any ecological pattern. PMID:26912889

  8. Plant population and habitat characteristics of the endemic Sonoran Desert cactus Peniocereus striatus in Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Greta; Rutman, Sue; Munson, Seth M.

    2010-01-01

    Peniocereus striatus (Brandegee) Buxb. (Cactaceae) is an endemic Sonoran Desert cactus that reaches its northern range limit in southwestern Arizona. One U.S. population occupies a small area of Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument near the U.S./Mexico international boundary, which has been monitored since 1939. An extensive survey conducted in 2002, covering 177 ha, resulted in the discovery of 88 new plants, in addition to the relocation of 57 plants found in previous surveys. Despite potential increases in population size and spatial distribution, mean plant height and number of basal stems has not significantly changed in recent years. Bud scars revealed that a majority of the population was sexually mature. Peniocereus striatus occurrence increased with decreasing slope, spanned every slope aspect, and was highest on rocky soils, but was noticeably low on west and northwest slopes and areas where severe land degradation had previously occurred. Over half of P. striatus plants were nursed by shrubs and subshrubs, while 40% occurred under leguminous trees. A severe frost in January 2002 top-killed 19% of the population, with the greatest damage in drainage bottoms. However, long-term (1944–2002) climate records show that there has been an overall increase in the number of frost free days in the region, which, coupled with land use change, has implications for the future health of this population.

  9. Phylogeography of the Vermilion Flycatcher species complex: Multiple speciation events, shifts in migratory behavior, and an apparent extinction of a Galápagos-endemic bird species.

    PubMed

    Carmi, Ore; Witt, Christopher C; Jaramillo, Alvaro; Dumbacher, John P

    2016-09-01

    full species corresponding to the two currently recognized subspecies, nanus and dubius. The population of dubius is presumed to be extinct, and thus would represent the first documented extinction of a Galápagos-endemic bird species. Two strongly supported mitochondrial clades divide Galápagos subspecies nanus in a geographic pattern that conflicts with previous hypotheses that were based on plumage color. Several populations of nanus have recently become extinct or are in serious decline. Urgent conservation measures should seek to preserve the deep mitochondrial DNA diversity within nanus, and further work should explore whether additional forms should be recognized within nanus. Ancestral states analysis based on our phylogeny revealed that the most recent common ancestor of extant Vermilion Flycatcher populations was migratory, and that migratory behavior was lost more often than gained within Pyrocephalus and close relatives, as has been shown to be the case within Tyrannidae as a whole. PMID:27233443

  10. Development and characterization of 12 microsatellite markers for the Island Night Lizard (Xantusia riversiana), a threatened species endemic to the Channel Islands, California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Donnell, Ryan P.; Drost, Charles A.; Mock, Karen E.

    2014-01-01

    The Island Night Lizard is a federally threatened species endemic to the Channel Islands of California. Twelve microsatellite loci were developed for use in this species and screened in 197 individuals from across San Nicolas Island, California. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 6 to 21. Observed heterozygosities ranged from 0.520 to 0.843. These microsatellite loci will be used to investigate population structure, effective population size, and gene flow across the island, to inform protection and management of this species.

  11. Plants used in the treatment of leishmanial ulcers due to Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis in an endemic area of Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    França, F; Lago, E L; Marsden, P D

    1996-01-01

    This paper records the plants used in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis (L(V)b) among the rural population of a cocoa-producing coastal area of Bahia state, Brazil. An enquiry conducted among a hundred patients identified 49 plants species used to treat skin ulceration caused by this Leishmania species. The principal plants used are caju-branco (Anacardium occidentale, Anacardiaceae), used by 65% of the population, folha-fogo (Clidemia hirta,Melastomataceae) 39%, alfavaca-grossa (Plectranthus amboinicus, Lamiaceae) 33%, mastruz (Chenopodium ambrosioides, Chenopodiaceae) 31%, erva-de-santa-maria (Solanum americanum, Solanaceae) (25%) and transagem (Plantago major, Plantaginaceae) 2%. PMID:8701041

  12. Sesquiterpene lactones from Inula falconeri, a plant endemic to the Himalayas, as potential anti-inflammatory agents.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xiangrong; Zeng, Qi; Ren, Jie; Qin, Jiangjiang; Zhang, Shoude; Shen, Yunheng; Zhu, Jiaxian; Zhang, Fei; Chang, Ruijie; Zhu, Yan; Zhang, Weidong; Jin, Huizi

    2011-11-01

    A phytochemical investigation of Inula falconeri, a plant endemic to the Himalayas, afforded 10 new sesquiterpenoids and 26 known sesquiterpene lactones, including those bearing guaiane, pseudoguaiane, xanthane, eudesmane, germacrane, rare secocaryophyllane, chromolaevane, and carabrane frameworks. The structures were elucidated via spectroscopic analysis and compared with data from literature. All the isolates were assessed for their inhibitory effects against LPS-induced nitric oxide production in RAW264.7 macrophages. Compounds 4, 11, 24, and 31 showed stronger inhibitory activities than the positive control with IC(50) values of 0.13, 0.07, 0.11, and 0.11 μM, respectively. These studies also led to a better understanding of the structure-activity relationships for the sesquiterpene lactone family of compounds. PMID:21924800

  13. When Anthropogenic River Disturbance Decreases Hybridisation between Non-Native and Endemic Cyprinids and Drives an Ecomorphological Displacement towards Juvenile State in Both Species

    PubMed Central

    Sinama, Melthide; Costedoat, Caroline; Chappaz, Rémi; Gilles, André

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the impact of non-native species on native species is a major challenge in molecular ecology, particularly for genetically compatible fish species. Invasions are generally difficult to study because their effects may be confused with those of environmental or human disturbances. Colonized ecosystems are differently impacted by human activities, resulting in diverse responses and interactions between native and non-native species. We studied the dynamics between two Cyprinids species (invasive Chondrostoma nasus and endemic Parachondrostoma toxostoma) and their hybrids in 16 populations (from allopatric to sympatric situations and from little to highly fragmented areas) corresponding to 2,256 specimens. Each specimen was assigned to a particular species or to a hybrid pool using molecular identification (cytochrome b and 41 microsatellites). We carried out an ecomorphological analysis based on size, age, body shape, and diet (gut vacuity and molecular fecal contents). Our results contradicted our initial assumptions on the pattern of invasion and the rate of introgression. There was no sign of underperformance for the endemic species in areas where hybridisation occurred. In the unfragmented zone, the introduced species was found mostly downstream, with body shapes similar to those in allopatric populations while both species were found to be more insectivorous than the reference populations. However, high level of hybridisation was detected, suggesting interactions between the two species during spawning and/or the existence of hybrid swarm. In the disturbed zone, introgression was less frequent and slender body shape was associated with diatomivorous behaviour, smaller size (juvenile characteristics) and greater gut vacuity. Results suggested that habitat degradation induced similar ecomorphological trait changes in the two species and their hybrids (i.e. a transition towards a pedomorphic state) where the invasive species is more affected than the

  14. When Anthropogenic River Disturbance Decreases Hybridisation between Non-Native and Endemic Cyprinids and Drives an Ecomorphological Displacement towards Juvenile State in Both Species.

    PubMed

    Corse, Emmanuel; Pech, Nicolas; Sinama, Melthide; Costedoat, Caroline; Chappaz, Rémi; Gilles, André

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the impact of non-native species on native species is a major challenge in molecular ecology, particularly for genetically compatible fish species. Invasions are generally difficult to study because their effects may be confused with those of environmental or human disturbances. Colonized ecosystems are differently impacted by human activities, resulting in diverse responses and interactions between native and non-native species. We studied the dynamics between two Cyprinids species (invasive Chondrostoma nasus and endemic Parachondrostoma toxostoma) and their hybrids in 16 populations (from allopatric to sympatric situations and from little to highly fragmented areas) corresponding to 2,256 specimens. Each specimen was assigned to a particular species or to a hybrid pool using molecular identification (cytochrome b and 41 microsatellites). We carried out an ecomorphological analysis based on size, age, body shape, and diet (gut vacuity and molecular fecal contents). Our results contradicted our initial assumptions on the pattern of invasion and the rate of introgression. There was no sign of underperformance for the endemic species in areas where hybridisation occurred. In the unfragmented zone, the introduced species was found mostly downstream, with body shapes similar to those in allopatric populations while both species were found to be more insectivorous than the reference populations. However, high level of hybridisation was detected, suggesting interactions between the two species during spawning and/or the existence of hybrid swarm. In the disturbed zone, introgression was less frequent and slender body shape was associated with diatomivorous behaviour, smaller size (juvenile characteristics) and greater gut vacuity. Results suggested that habitat degradation induced similar ecomorphological trait changes in the two species and their hybrids (i.e. a transition towards a pedomorphic state) where the invasive species is more affected than the

  15. Geological and climatic changes in quaternary shaped the evolutionary history of Calibrachoa heterophylla, an endemic South-Atlantic species of petunia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The glacial and interglacial cycles that characterized the Quaternary greatly affected the distribution and genetic diversity of plants. In the Neotropics, few phylogeographic studies have focused on coastal species outside of the Atlantic Rainforest. Climatic and sea level changes during the Quaternary played an important role in the evolutionary history of many organisms found in coastal regions. To contribute to a better understanding of plant evolution in this environment in Southern South America, we focused on Calibrachoa heterophylla (Solanaceae), an endemic and vulnerable wild petunia species from the South Atlantic Coastal Plain (SACP). Results We assessed DNA sequences from two cpDNA intergenic spacers and analyzed them using a phylogeographic approach. The present phylogeographic study reveals the influence of complex geologic and climatic events on patterns of genetic diversification. The results indicate that C. heterophylla originated inland and subsequently colonized the SACP; the data show that the inland haplogroup is more ancient than the coastal one and that the inland was not affected by sea level changes in the Quaternary. The major diversification of C. heterophylla that occurred after 0.4 Myr was linked to sea level oscillations in the Quaternary, and any diversification that occurred before this time was obscured by marine transgressions that occurred before the coastal sand barrier’s formation. Results of the Bayesian skyline plot showed a recent population expansion detected in C. heterophylla seems to be related to an increase in temperature and humidity that occurred at the beginning of the Holocene. Conclusions The geographic clades have been formed when the coastal plain was deeply dissected by paleochannels and these correlate very well with the distributional limits of the clades. The four major sea transgressions formed a series of four sand barriers parallel to the coast that progressively increased the availability of

  16. Analyses of amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP) indicate rapid radiation of Diospyros species (Ebenaceae) endemic to New Caledonia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Radiation in some plant groups has occurred on islands and due to the characteristic rapid pace of phenotypic evolution, standard molecular markers often provide insufficient variation for phylogenetic reconstruction. To resolve relationships within a clade of 21 closely related New Caledonian Diospyros species and evaluate species boundaries we analysed genome-wide DNA variation via amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP). Results A neighbour-joining (NJ) dendrogram based on Dice distances shows all species except D. minimifolia, D. parviflora and D. vieillardii to form unique clusters of genetically similar accessions. However, there was little variation between these species clusters, resulting in unresolved species relationships and a star-like general NJ topology. Correspondingly, analyses of molecular variance showed more variation within species than between them. A Bayesian analysis with BEAST produced a similar result. Another Bayesian method, this time a clustering method, Structure, demonstrated the presence of two groups, highly congruent with those observed in a principal coordinate analysis (PCO). Molecular divergence between the two groups is low and does not correspond to any hypothesised taxonomic, ecological or geographical patterns. Conclusions We hypothesise that such a pattern could have been produced by rapid and complex evolution involving a widespread progenitor for which an initial split into two groups was followed by subsequent fragmentation into many diverging populations, which was followed by range expansion of then divergent entities. Overall, this process resulted in an opportunistic pattern of phenotypic diversification. The time since divergence was probably insufficient for some species to become genetically well-differentiated, resulting in progenitor/derivative relationships being exhibited in a few cases. In other cases, our analyses may have revealed evidence for the existence of cryptic species, for which

  17. Escaping to the summits: phylogeography and predicted range dynamics of Cerastium dinaricum, an endangered high mountain plant endemic to the western Balkan Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Kutnjak, Denis; Kuttner, Michael; Niketić, Marjan; Dullinger, Stefan; Schönswetter, Peter; Frajman, Božo

    2014-09-01

    The Balkans are a major European biodiversity hotspot, however, almost nothing is known about processes of intraspecific diversification of the region's high-altitude biota and their reaction to the predicted global warming. To fill this gap, genome size measurements, AFLP fingerprints, plastid and nuclear sequences were employed to explore the phylogeography of Cerastium dinaricum. Range size changes under future climatic conditions were predicted by niche-based modeling. Likely the most cold-adapted plant endemic to the Dinaric Mountains in the western Balkan Peninsula, the species has conservation priority in the European Union as its highly fragmented distribution range includes only few small populations. A deep phylogeographic split paralleled by divergent genome size separates the populations into two vicariant groups. Substructure is pronounced within the southeastern group, corresponding to the area's higher geographic complexity. Cerastium dinaricum likely responded to past climatic oscillations with altitudinal range shifts, which, coupled with high topographic complexity of the region and warmer climate in the Holocene, sculptured its present fragmented distribution. Field observations revealed that the species is rarer than previously assumed and, as shown by modeling, severely endangered by global warming as viable habitat was predicted to be reduced by more than 70% by the year 2080. PMID:24857887

  18. Cyclical changes in seroprevalence of leptospirosis in California sea lions: endemic and epidemic disease in one host species?

    PubMed Central

    Lloyd-Smith, James O; Greig, Denise J; Hietala, Sharon; Ghneim, George S; Palmer, Lauren; St Leger, Judy; Grenfell, Bryan T; Gulland, Frances MD

    2007-01-01

    Background Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease infecting a broad range of mammalian hosts, and is re-emerging globally. California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) have experienced recurrent outbreaks of leptospirosis since 1970, but it is unknown whether the pathogen persists in the sea lion population or is introduced repeatedly from external reservoirs. Methods We analyzed serum samples collected over an 11-year period from 1344 California sea lions that stranded alive on the California coast, using the microscopic agglutination test (MAT) for antibodies to Leptospira interrogans serovar Pomona. We evaluated seroprevalence among yearlings as a measure of incidence in the population, and characterized antibody persistence times based on temporal changes in the distribution of titer scores. We conducted multinomial logistic regression to determine individual risk factors for seropositivity with high and low titers. Results The serosurvey revealed cyclical patterns in seroprevalence to L. interrogans serovar Pomona, with 4–5 year periodicity and peak seroprevalence above 50%. Seroprevalence in yearling sea lions was an accurate index of exposure among all age classses, and indicated on-going exposure to leptospires in non-outbreak years. Analysis of titer decay rates showed that some individuals probably maintain high titers for more than a year following exposure. Conclusion This study presents results of an unprecedented long-term serosurveillance program in marine mammals. Our results suggest that leptospirosis is endemic in California sea lions, but also causes periodic epidemics of acute disease. The findings call into question the classical dichotomy between maintenance hosts of leptospirosis, which experience chronic but largely asymptomatic infections, and accidental hosts, which suffer acute illness or death as a result of disease spillover from reservoir species. PMID:17986335

  19. Meaningful traits for grouping plant species across arid ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Bär Lamas, Marlene Ivonne; Carrera, A L; Bertiller, M B

    2016-05-01

    Grouping species may provide some degree of simplification to understand the ecological function of plants on key ecosystem processes. We asked whether groups of plant species based on morpho-chemical traits associated with plant persistence and stress/disturbance resistance reflect dominant plant growth forms in arid ecosystems. We selected twelve sites across an aridity gradient in northern Patagonia. At each site, we identified modal size plants of each dominant species and assessed specific leaf area (SLA), plant height, seed mass, N and soluble phenol concentration in green and senesced leaves at each plant. Plant species were grouped according with plant growth forms (perennial grasses, evergreen shrubs and deciduous shrubs) and plant morphological and/or chemical traits using cluster analysis. We calculated mean values of each plant trait for each species group and plant growth form. Plant growth forms significantly differed among them in most of the morpho-chemical traits. Evergreen shrubs were tall plants with the highest seed mass and soluble phenols in leaves, deciduous shrubs were also tall plants with high SLA and the highest N in leaves, and perennial grasses were short plants with high SLA and low concentration of N and soluble phenols in leaves. Grouping species by the combination of morpho-chemical traits yielded 4 groups in which species from one growth form prevailed. These species groups differed in soluble phenol concentration in senesced leaves and plant height. These traits were highly correlated. We concluded that (1) plant height is a relevant synthetic variable, (2) growth forms adequately summarize ecological strategies of species in arid ecosystems, and (3) the inclusion of plant morphological and chemical traits related to defenses against environmental stresses and herbivory enhanced the potential of species grouping, particularly within shrubby growth forms. PMID:26897637

  20. Variation of chemical composition of essential oils in wild populations of Thymus algeriensis Boiss. et Reut., a North African endemic Species

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Thymus algeriensis is an endemic aromatic plant to Tunisia largely used in folk medicine and as a culinary herb. The bulks aromatic plants come from wild populations whose essential oils compositions as well as their biological properties are severely affected by the geographical location and the phase of the plant development. Therefore, the aim of the present work is to provide more information on the variation of essential oil composition of T. algeriensis collected during the vegetative and the flowering phases and from eight different geographical regions. Besides, influence of population location and phenological stage on yield and metal chelating activity of essential oils is also assessed. Methods The essential oil composition of Thymus algeriensis was determined mainly by GC/FID and GC/MS. The chemical differentiation among populations performed on all compounds was assessed by linear discriminate analysis and cluster analysis based on Euclidean distance. Results A total of 71 compounds, representing 88.99 to 99.76% of the total oil, were identified. A significant effect of the population location on the chemical composition variability of T. algeriensis oil was observed. Only 18 out of 71 compounds showed a statistically significant variation among population locations and phenological stages. Chemical differentiation among populations was high. Minor compounds play an important role to distinguish between chemical groups. Five chemotypes according to the major compounds have been distinguished. Chemotypes distribution is linked to the population location and not to bioclimate, indicating that local selective environmental factors acted on the chemotype diversity. Conclusions The major compounds at the species level were α-pinene (7.41-13.94%), 1,8-cineole (7.55-22.07%), cis-sabinene hydrate (0.10-12.95%), camphor (6.8-19.93%), 4-terpineol (1.55-11.86%), terpenyl acetate (0-14.92%) and viridiflorol (0-11.49%). Based on major compounds, the

  1. Detection of Rickettsia Species in Fleas Collected from Cats in Regions Endemic and Nonendemic for Flea-Borne Rickettsioses in California.

    PubMed

    Billeter, Sarah A; Diniz, Pedro Paulo Vissotto de Paiva; Jett, Lindsey A; Wournell, Andrea L; Kjemtrup, Anne M; Padgett, Kerry A; Yoshimizu, Melissa Hardstone; Metzger, Marco E; Barr, Margaret C

    2016-03-01

    Rickettsia typhi, transmitted by rat fleas, causes most human flea-borne rickettsioses worldwide. Another rickettsia, Rickettsia felis, found in cat fleas, Ctenocephalides felis, has also been implicated as a potential human pathogen. In the continental United States, human cases of flea-borne rickettsioses are reported primarily from the southern regions of Texas and California where the cat flea is considered the principal vector. In California, more than 90% of locally acquired human cases are reported from suburban communities within Los Angeles and Orange counties despite the almost ubiquitous presence of cat fleas and their hosts throughout the state. The objective of this study is to assess the presence and infection rate of Rickettsia species in cat fleas from selected endemic and nonendemic regions of California. Cat fleas were collected from cats in Los Angeles County (endemic region) and Sacramento and Contra Costa counties (nonendemic region). Sequencing of 17 amplicons confirmed the presence of R. felis in both the endemic and non-endemic regions with a calculated maximum likelihood estimation of 131 and 234 per 1000 fleas, respectively. R. typhi was not detected in any flea pools. Two R. felis-like genotypes were also detected in fleas from Los Angeles County; Genotype 1 was detected in 1 flea pool and Genotype 2 was found in 10 flea pools. Genotype 1 was also detected in a single flea pool from Sacramento County. Results from this study show that R. felis is widespread in cat flea populations in both flea-borne rickettsioses endemic and nonendemic regions of California, suggesting that a high prevalence of this bacterium in cat fleas does not predispose to increased risk of human infection. Further studies are needed to elucidate the role of R. felis and the two R. felis-like organisms as etiologic agents of human flea-borne rickettsioses in California. PMID:26824189

  2. New pasture plants intensify invasive species risk.

    PubMed

    Driscoll, Don A; Catford, Jane A; Barney, Jacob N; Hulme, Philip E; Inderjit; Martin, Tara G; Pauchard, Aníbal; Pyšek, Petr; Richardson, David M; Riley, Sophie; Visser, Vernon

    2014-11-18

    Agricultural intensification is critical to meet global food demand, but intensification threatens native species and degrades ecosystems. Sustainable intensification (SI) is heralded as a new approach for enabling growth in agriculture while minimizing environmental impacts. However, the SI literature has overlooked a major environmental risk. Using data from eight countries on six continents, we show that few governments regulate conventionally bred pasture taxa to limit threats to natural areas, even though most agribusinesses promote taxa with substantial weed risk. New pasture taxa (including species, subspecies, varieties, cultivars, and plant-endophyte combinations) are bred with characteristics typical of invasive species and environmental weeds. By introducing novel genetic and endophyte variation, pasture taxa are imbued with additional capacity for invasion and environmental impact. New strategies to prevent future problems are urgently needed. We highlight opportunities for researchers, agribusiness, and consumers to reduce environmental risks associated with new pasture taxa. We also emphasize four main approaches that governments could consider as they build new policies to limit weed risks, including (i) national lists of taxa that are prohibited based on environmental risk; (ii) a weed risk assessment for all new taxa; (iii) a program to rapidly detect and control new taxa that invade natural areas; and (iv) the polluter-pays principle, so that if a taxon becomes an environmental weed, industry pays for its management. There is mounting pressure to increase livestock production. With foresight and planning, growth in agriculture can be achieved sustainably provided that the scope of SI expands to encompass environmental weed risks. PMID:25368175

  3. New pasture plants intensify invasive species risk

    PubMed Central

    Driscoll, Don A.; Catford, Jane A.; Barney, Jacob N.; Hulme, Philip E.; Inderjit; Martin, Tara G.; Pauchard, Aníbal; Pyšek, Petr; Richardson, David M.; Riley, Sophie; Visser, Vernon

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural intensification is critical to meet global food demand, but intensification threatens native species and degrades ecosystems. Sustainable intensification (SI) is heralded as a new approach for enabling growth in agriculture while minimizing environmental impacts. However, the SI literature has overlooked a major environmental risk. Using data from eight countries on six continents, we show that few governments regulate conventionally bred pasture taxa to limit threats to natural areas, even though most agribusinesses promote taxa with substantial weed risk. New pasture taxa (including species, subspecies, varieties, cultivars, and plant-endophyte combinations) are bred with characteristics typical of invasive species and environmental weeds. By introducing novel genetic and endophyte variation, pasture taxa are imbued with additional capacity for invasion and environmental impact. New strategies to prevent future problems are urgently needed. We highlight opportunities for researchers, agribusiness, and consumers to reduce environmental risks associated with new pasture taxa. We also emphasize four main approaches that governments could consider as they build new policies to limit weed risks, including (i) national lists of taxa that are prohibited based on environmental risk; (ii) a weed risk assessment for all new taxa; (iii) a program to rapidly detect and control new taxa that invade natural areas; and (iv) the polluter-pays principle, so that if a taxon becomes an environmental weed, industry pays for its management. There is mounting pressure to increase livestock production. With foresight and planning, growth in agriculture can be achieved sustainably provided that the scope of SI expands to encompass environmental weed risks. PMID:25368175

  4. Systematic review of diplommatinid land snails (Caenogastropoda, Diplommatinidae) endemic to the Palau Islands. (3) Description of eight new species and two new subspecies of Hungerfordia.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Midori; Yamazaki, Kazunori; Rundell, Rebecca J; Ueshima, Rei

    2015-01-01

    Hungerfordia Beddome, 1889 is a land snail genus of the family Diplommatinidae, which shows extensive endemic radiation in the Palau (Belau) islands. Although 42 species or subspecies of the genus have been named to date, many species remain to be described. In this article, we describe ten new taxa of the genus: H. goniobasis exserta subsp. nov., H. ngereamensis sp. nov., H. spiroperculata sp. nov., H. fragilipennis sp. nov., H. brachyptera sp. nov., H. elegantissima anomphala subsp. nov., H. nodulosa sp. nov., H. irregularis sp. nov., H. chilorhytis sp. nov., H. globosa sp. nov. PMID:26701496

  5. Valuing the Endangered Species Antirrhinum lopesianum: Neuroprotective Activities and Strategies for in vitro Plant Propagation

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Andreia; Fortalezas, Sofia; Pimpão, Rui; Figueira, Inês; Maroco, João; Aguiar, Carlos; Ferreira, Ricardo B.; Miguel, Célia; Santos, Cláudia N.

    2013-01-01

    Plant phytochemicals are described as possessing considerable neuroprotective properties, due to radical scavenging capacity and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity, important bioactivities in neurodegeneration. Antirrhinum lopesianum is a rare endemism from the Iberian Peninsula, occurring at the northeastern border between Portugal and Spain. It is classified as Endangered, due to its highly fragmented geographical occupation, facing a high risk of extinction in the Portuguese territory, within 20 years. Here, we describe for the first time the chemical characterization of extracts of the species concerning total phenol content, flavonoid content and antioxidant properties. The profile of high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) of the polyphenol-enriched fraction of plant extracts was also performed, showing the great potential of the species as a source of bioactive phytochemical compounds. A. lopesianum’s potential for neuroprotection was revealed by a significant acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity and also by a neuroprotective effect on a human cell model of neurodegeneration. Moreover, this is the first report describing a successful procedure for the in vitro propagation of this endangered species. The comparison of phenolic content and the HPLC-DAD profile of wild and in vitro propagated plants revealed that in vitro plants maintain the ability to produce secondary metabolites, but the profiles are differentially affected by the growth regulators. The results presented here greatly contribute to the value for this species regarding its potential as a source of phytochemicals with prospective neuroprotective health benefits. PMID:26784465

  6. Valuing the Endangered Species Antirrhinum lopesianum: Neuroprotective Activities and Strategies for in vitro Plant Propagation.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Andreia; Fortalezas, Sofia; Pimpão, Rui; Figueira, Inês; Maroco, João; Aguiar, Carlos; Ferreira, Ricardo B; Miguel, Célia; Santos, Cláudia N

    2013-01-01

    Plant phytochemicals are described as possessing considerable neuroprotective properties, due to radical scavenging capacity and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity, important bioactivities in neurodegeneration. Antirrhinum lopesianum is a rare endemism from the Iberian Peninsula, occurring at the northeastern border between Portugal and Spain. It is classified as Endangered, due to its highly fragmented geographical occupation, facing a high risk of extinction in the Portuguese territory, within 20 years. Here, we describe for the first time the chemical characterization of extracts of the species concerning total phenol content, flavonoid content and antioxidant properties. The profile of high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) of the polyphenol-enriched fraction of plant extracts was also performed, showing the great potential of the species as a source of bioactive phytochemical compounds. A. lopesianum's potential for neuroprotection was revealed by a significant acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity and also by a neuroprotective effect on a human cell model of neurodegeneration. Moreover, this is the first report describing a successful procedure for the in vitro propagation of this endangered species. The comparison of phenolic content and the HPLC-DAD profile of wild and in vitro propagated plants revealed that in vitro plants maintain the ability to produce secondary metabolites, but the profiles are differentially affected by the growth regulators. The results presented here greatly contribute to the value for this species regarding its potential as a source of phytochemicals with prospective neuroprotective health benefits. PMID:26784465

  7. The Gyrodactylus (Monogenea, Gyrodactylidae) parasite fauna of freshwater sand gobies (Teleostei, Gobioidei) in their centre of endemism, with description of seven new species.

    PubMed

    Vanhove, Maarten P M; Economou, Alcibiades N; Zogaris, Stamatis; Giakoumi, Sofia; Zanella, Davor; Volckaert, Filip A M; Huyse, Tine

    2014-02-01

    While Gobioidei comprises showcases of (adaptive) radiation, the scientific interest they yielded did not ensure full understanding of goby biodiversity. Even in a well-studied region like Europe, wide knowledge gaps remain. Sand gobies represent one of the few clades whose monogenean parasites have been thoroughly studied. However, in the Balkans, part of the sand gobies' centre of endemism, these parasites were unstudied. We focus on Greek and Croatian freshwater gobies. From five sand goby species, the first parasites are reported, describing seven new Gyrodactylus species. Economidichthys pygmaeus harbours Gyrodactylus benedeni sp. n. and Gyrodactylus dorlodoti sp. n. Its congener E. trichonis hosts G. meelkopae sp. n. Knipowitschia milleri was found to host G. charon sp. n., K. thessala is infected by G. bios sp. n., and K. croatica by G. douglasadamsi sp. n. and G. hellemansi sp. n. Gyrodactylus bubyri was found on its type host K. caucasica. A diverse parasite fauna is expected for a region known for its biodiversity and endemism. The contribution of parasites to species richness in such hotspots is overlooked. The observed species richness per host is rather low compared to the better-studied eastern Atlantic sand gobies. Host vicariance is considered to mediate parasite specificity in this fauna. Some new flatworm species display unique morphological features, such as the remarkable size of the marginal hook sickle proper compared to its foot in the Economidichthys parasites, or a characteristically kinked marginal hook sickle in G. douglasadamsi sp. n. These features reflect their hosts' endemism in the Balkans. PMID:24288050

  8. Bioactive Terpenoids and Flavonoids from Daucus littoralis Smith subsp. hyrcanicus Rech.f, an Endemic Species of Iran

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Daucus littoralis Smith subsp. hyrcanicus Rech.f. (Apiaceae) is an endemic species in northern parts of Iran where it is commonly named Caspian carrot. The fruits have been used as condiment. Methods In a series of in vitro assays, antioxidant (DPPH and FRAP assays), cytotoxic and antimicrobial activities of different extracts of roots and fruits were evaluated for the first time. The separation and purification of the compounds were carried out on the most potent extracts using various chromatographic methods and identified by spectroscopic data (1H and 13C NMR). Results The results showed that among the extracts only fruit methanol extract (FME) has significant antioxidant activity (IC50 = 145.93 μg.ml-1 in DPPH assay and 358 ± 0.02 mmol FeII/g dry extract in FRAP assay). The radical scavenging activity of FME at 400 μg.ml-1 was comparable with α-tocopherol (40 μg.ml-1) and with BHA (100 μg.ml-1) (p > 0.05). FME did not show any toxicity against cancerous and normal cell lines. Fruit ethyl acetate extract (FEE) had cytotoxic activity against breast carcinoma and hepatocellular carcinoma cells (IC50 168.4 and 185 μg.ml-1, respectively), while it did not possess antioxidant activity in comparison with α-tocopherol and BHA as standard compounds. Ethyl acetate and methanol extract of fruits showed antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus (MIC: 3.75 mg.ml-1) and Candida albicans (MIC: 15.6 and 7.8 mg.ml-1, respectively). Four terpenoids were isolated form FEE including: β-sitosterol (1), stigmasterol (2), caryophyllene oxide (3), β-amyrin (4). Also, three flavonoids namely quercetin 3-O-β-glucoside (5), quercetin 3-O-β-galactoside (6) and luteolin (7) were isolated from FME. Conclusion This study showed that FEE and FME of D. littoralis Smith subsp. hyrcanicus Rech.f. had the highest biological activities which may be correlated with in vitro cytotoxic, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of terpenoids and

  9. DNA barcoding in Atlantic Forest plants: What is the best marker for Sapotaceae species identification?

    PubMed Central

    Vivas, Caio Vinicius; Moraes, Ramiris César Souza; Alves-Araújo, Anderson; Alves, Marccus; Mariano-Neto, Eduardo; van den Berg, Cássio; Gaiotto, Fernanda Amato

    2014-01-01

    The Atlantic Forest is a phytogeographic domain with a high rate of endemism and large species diversity. The Sapotaceae is a botanical family for which species identification in the Atlantic Forest is difficult. An approach that facilitates species identification in the Sapotaceae is urgently needed because this family includes threatened species and valuable timber species. In this context, DNA barcoding could provide an important tool for identifying species in the Atlantic Forest. In this work, we evaluated four plant barcode markers (matK, rbcL, trnH-psbA and the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region - ITS) in 80 samples from 26 species of Sapotaceae that occur in the Atlantic Forest. ITS yielded the highest average interspecific distance (0.122), followed by trnH-psbA (0.019), matK (0.008) and rbcL (0.002). For species discrimination, ITS provided the best results, followed by matK, trnH-psbA and rbcL. Furthermore, the combined analysis of two, three or four markers did not result in higher rates of discrimination than obtained with ITS alone. These results indicate that the ITS region is the best option for molecular identification of Sapotaceae species from the Atlantic Forest. PMID:25505841

  10. Evaluating relative impacts of habitat loss and invasive species on an endemic songbird using spatially explicit population models

    EPA Science Inventory

    Island ecosystems maintain greater endemic biodiversity such that changes in land cover can have dramatic impacts on wildlife populations that depend on unique and limited habitat. Sustainable land use decisions that minimize habitat loss require multi-faceted evaluation of cost...

  11. Plant Species Recovery on a Compacted Skid Road

    PubMed Central

    Demir, Murat; Makineci, Ender; Gungor, Beyza Sat

    2008-01-01

    This study was executed to determine the plant species of herbaceous cover in a skid road subjected to soil compaction due to timber skidding in a beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky.) stand. Our previous studies have shown that ground based timber skidding destroys the soils extremely, and degradations on ecosystem because of the timber skidding limit recovery and growth of plant cover on skid roads. However, some plant species show healthy habitat, recovery and they can survive after the extreme degradation in study area. We evaluated composition of these plant species and their cover-abundance scales in 100 m x 3 m transect. 15 plant species were determined belongs to 12 plant families and Liliaceae was the highest representative plant family. Smilax aspera L., Epimedium pubigerum (DC.) Moren et Decaisne, Carex distachya Desf. var. distachya Desf., Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn., Trachystemon orientalis (L.) G. Don, Hedera helix L. have the highest cover-abundance scale overall of determined species on compacted skid road.

  12. A new species of Ituglanis Costa & Bockmann, 1993 (Siluriformes: Trichomycteridae) endemic to the Tramandaí-Mampituba ecoregion, southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ferrer, Juliano; Donin, Laura M; Malabarba, Luiz R

    2015-01-01

    Ituglanis boitata, new species, is described from the rio Tramandaí system and rio Mampituba and Araranguá basins, southern Brazil. This new species is distinguished from congeners with the exception of I. bambui, I. boticario,                       I. paraguassuensis and I. proops by the supraorbital canal of the cephalic laterosensory system interrupted between nasal and frontal sections and the presence of pore s2 (vs. supraorbital canal uninterrupted and pore s2 absent). Ituglanis boitata     differs from these species in osteological characters, measurements and body coloration. Ituglanis boitata presents a              noticeable endemism in the Tramandaí-Mampituba freshwater ecoregion, a recognized biogeographic unit for freshwater fishes including other 22 endemic species. A discussion about the intraspecific variation in the cephalic laterosensory system within Trichomycterinae is also provided. PMID:26624105

  13. Mitochondrial DNA suggests a single maternal origin for the widespread triploid parthenogenetic pest species, Paratanytarsus grimmii, but microsatellite variation shows local endemism.

    PubMed

    Carew, Melissa; Gagliardi, Bryant; Hoffmann, Ary A

    2013-06-01

    Parthenogenesis is common among invasive pest species, with many parthenogenetic species also showing polyploidy. Parthenogenetic polyploid species often have multiple hybrid origins and the potential to rapidly spread over vast geographical areas. In this study, we examine patterns of mitochondrial and microsatellite variation in a widespread triploid parthenogenetic chironomid pest species, Paratanytarsus grimmii. Based on samples from five countries, including Australia, England, Germany, Japan, and Canada, we found extremely low mitochondrial diversity (<0.14%), with most individuals sharing a common and widespread haplotype. In contrast, microsatellite diversity revealed 41 clonal variants, which were regionally endemic. These findings suggest a single invasive maternal lineage of P. grimmii is likely to have recently spread over a broad geographical range. High levels of genotypic endemism suggest P. grimmii populations have remained relatively isolated after an initial spread, with little ongoing migration. This, in part, can be attributed to rapid genetic differentiation via mutations of common clonal genotypes after P. grimmii spread, but multiple polyploidization and subsequent founder events are also likely to be contributing factors. PMID:23955886

  14. Binucleation to breed new plant species adaptable to their environments

    PubMed Central

    Moustafa, Khaled

    2015-01-01

    Classical plant breeding approaches may fall short to breed new plant species of high environmental and ecological interests. Biotechnological and genetic manipulations, on the other hand, may hold more effective capabilities to circumvent the limitations of sexual incompatibility and conventional breeding programs. Given that plant cells encompass multiple copies of organellar genomes (mitochondrial and plastidial genomes), an important question could be raised about whether an artificial attempt to duplicate the nuclear genome might also be conceivable through a binucleation approach (generating plant cells with 2 nuclei from 2 different plant species) for potential production of new polyploidies that would characterize new plant species. Since the complexities of plant genomes are the result of multiple genome duplications, an artificial binucleation approach would thus be of some interest to eventually varying plant genomes and producing new polyploidy from related or distal plant species. Here, I discuss the potentiality of such an approach to engineer binucleated plant cells as a germ of new plant species to fulfill some environmental applications such as increasing the biodiversity and breeding new species adaptable to harsh environmental stresses and increasing green surfaces to reduce atmospheric pollutions in arid lands with poor vegetation. PMID:26322577

  15. Binucleation to breed new plant species adaptable to their environments.

    PubMed

    Moustafa, Khaled

    2015-01-01

    Classical plant breeding approaches may fall short to breed new plant species of high environmental and ecological interests. Biotechnological and genetic manipulations, on the other hand, may hold more effective capabilities to circumvent the limitations of sexual incompatibility and conventional breeding programs. Given that plant cells encompass multiple copies of organellar genomes (mitochondrial and plastidial genomes), an important question could be raised about whether an artificial attempt to duplicate the nuclear genome might also be conceivable through a binucleation approach (generating plant cells with 2 nuclei from 2 different plant species) for potential production of new polyploidies that would characterize new plant species. Since the complexities of plant genomes are the result of multiple genome duplications, an artificial binucleation approach would thus be of some interest to eventually varying plant genomes and producing new polyploidy from related or distal plant species. Here, I discuss the potentiality of such an approach to engineer binucleated plant cells as a germ of new plant species to fulfill some environmental applications such as increasing the biodiversity and breeding new species adaptable to harsh environmental stresses and increasing green surfaces to reduce atmospheric pollutions in arid lands with poor vegetation. PMID:26322577

  16. Soil organisms shape the competition between grassland plant species.

    PubMed

    Sabais, Alexander C W; Eisenhauer, Nico; König, Stephan; Renker, Carsten; Buscot, François; Scheu, Stefan

    2012-12-01

    Decomposers and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) both determine plant nutrition; however, little is known about their interactive effects on plant communities. We set up a greenhouse experiment to study effects of plant competition (one- and two-species treatments), Collembola (Heteromurus nitidus and Protaphorura armata), and AMF (Glomus intraradices) on the performance (above- and belowground productivity and nutrient uptake) of three grassland plant species (Lolium perenne, Trifolium pratense, and Plantago lanceolata) belonging to three dominant plant functional groups (grasses, legumes, and herbs). Generally, L. perenne benefited from being released from intraspecific competition in the presence of T. pratense and P. lanceolata. However, the presence of AMF increased the competitive strength of P. lanceolata and T. pratense against L. perenne and also modified the effects of Collembola on plant productivity. The colonization of roots by AMF was reduced in treatments with two plant species suggesting that plant infection by AMF was modified by interspecific plant interactions. Collembola did not affect total colonization of roots by AMF, but increased the number of mycorrhizal vesicles in P. lanceolata. AMF and Collembola both enhanced the amount of N and P in plant shoot tissue, but impacts of Collembola were less pronounced in the presence of AMF. Overall, the results suggest that, by differentially affecting the nutrient acquisition and performance of plant species, AMF and Collembola interactively modify plant competition and shape the composition of grassland plant communities. The results suggest that mechanisms shaping plant community composition can only be understood when complex belowground interactions are considered. PMID:22678109

  17. Monitoring restoration impacts to endemic plant communities in soil inclusions of arid environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Louhaichi, Mounir; Pyke, David A.; Shaff, Scott E.; Johnson, Douglas E.

    2013-01-01

    Soil inclusions are small patches of soil with different properties than the surrounding, dominant soil. In arid areas of western North America, soil inclusions called slickspot soils are saltier than adjacent soil and support different types of native vegetation. Traditional sagebrush restoration efforts, such as using drills to plant seeds or herbicides to control invasive vegetation, may damage sensitive slickspot soil and supporting vegetation. USGS scientists David Pyke and Scott Shaff and collaborators monitored slickspot size and cover of endangered slickspot peppergrass for two years to see if they were affected by the application of the herbicide glyphosate or by a minimum-till drill in the Snake River Plain, ID. The researchers examined the use of aerial photographs versus on-the-ground measurements and concluded that slickspot sizes were not affected by these treatments. Remote sensing using aerial photographs proved a useful method for mapping slickspot soils.

  18. Micropropagation of Cyclopia genistoides, an endemic South African plant of economic importance.

    PubMed

    Kokotkiewicz, Adam; Luczkiewicz, Maria; Hering, Anna; Ochocka, Renata; Gorynski, Krzysztof; Bucinski, Adam; Sowinski, Pawel

    2012-01-01

    An efficient micropropagation protocol of Cyclopia genistoides (L.) Vent., an indigenous South African shrub of economic importance, was established. In vitro shoot cultures were obtained from shoot tip fragments of sterile seedlings cultured on solid Schenk and Hildebrandt (SH) medium supplemented with 9.84 microM 6-(gamma,gamma-dimethylallylamino)purine (2iP) and 1.0 microM thidiazuron (TDZ). Maximum shoot multiplication rate [(8.2 +/- 1.3) microshoots/explant)] was observed on this medium composition. Prior to rooting, the multiplied shoots were elongated for 60 days (two 30-days passages) on SH medium with one-half sucrose concentration, supplemented with 4.92 microM indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). The rooting of explants was only possible in the case of the elongated shoots. The highest root induction rate (54.8%) was achieved on solid SH medium with one-half sucrose and one-half potassium nitrate and ammonium nitrate concentration, respectively, supplemented with 28.54 microM indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and 260.25 microM citric acid. The plantlets were acclimatized for 30 days in the glasshouse, with the use of peat/gravel/perlite substrate (1:1:1). The highest acclimatization rate (80%) was obtained for explants rooted with the use of IAA-supplemented medium. The phytochemical profile of the regenerated plants was similar to that of the reference intact plant material. HPLC analyses showed that C. genistoides plantlets obtained by the micropropagation procedure kept the ability to produce xanthones (mangiferin and isomangiferin) and the flavanone hesperidin, characteristic of wild-growing shrubs. PMID:22486043

  19. Sequencing of whole plastid genomes and nuclear ribosomal DNA of Diospyros species (Ebenaceae) endemic to New Caledonia: many species, little divergence

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Barbara; Paun, Ovidiu; Munzinger, Jérôme; Chase, Mark W.; Samuel, Rosabelle

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Some plant groups, especially on islands, have been shaped by strong ancestral bottlenecks and rapid, recent radiation of phenotypic characters. Single molecular markers are often not informative enough for phylogenetic reconstruction in such plant groups. Whole plastid genomes and nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA) are viewed by many researchers as sources of information for phylogenetic reconstruction of groups in which expected levels of divergence in standard markers are low. Here we evaluate the usefulness of these data types to resolve phylogenetic relationships among closely related Diospyros species. Methods Twenty-two closely related Diospyros species from New Caledonia were investigated using whole plastid genomes and nrDNA data from low-coverage next-generation sequencing (NGS). Phylogenetic trees were inferred using maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference on separate plastid and nrDNA and combined matrices. Key Results The plastid and nrDNA sequences were, singly and together, unable to provide well supported phylogenetic relationships among the closely related New Caledonian Diospyros species. In the nrDNA, a 6-fold greater percentage of parsimony-informative characters compared with plastid DNA was found, but the total number of informative sites was greater for the much larger plastid DNA genomes. Combining the plastid and nuclear data improved resolution. Plastid results showed a trend towards geographical clustering of accessions rather than following taxonomic species. Conclusions In plant groups in which multiple plastid markers are not sufficiently informative, an investigation at the level of the entire plastid genome may also not be sufficient for detailed phylogenetic reconstruction. Sequencing of complete plastid genomes and nrDNA repeats seems to clarify some relationships among the New Caledonian Diospyros species, but the higher percentage of parsimony-informative characters in nrDNA compared with

  20. Potential distribution of the endangered endemic lizard Liolaemus lutzae Mertens, 1938 (Liolaemidae): are there other suitable areas for a geographically restricted species?

    PubMed

    Winck, G R; Almeida-Santos, P; Rocha, C F D

    2014-05-01

    In this study we attempted to access further information on the geographical distribution of the endangered lizard Liolaemus lutzae, estimating its potential distribution through the maximum entropy algorithm. For this purpose, we related its points of occurrence with matrices of environmental variables. After examining the correlation between environmental matrices, we selected 10 for model construction. The main variables influencing the current geographic distribution of L. lutzae were the diurnal temperature range and altitude. The species endemism seemed to be a consequence of a reduction of the original distribution area. Alternatively, the resulting model may reflect the geographic distribution of an ancestral lineage, since the model selected areas of occurrence of the two other species of Liolaemus from Brazil (L. arambarensis and L. occipitalis), all living in sand dune habitats and having psamophilic habits. Due to the high loss rate of habitat occupied by the species, the conservation and recovery of the remaining areas affected by human actions is essential. PMID:25166318

  1. Plant exposures: a state profile of the most common species.

    PubMed

    Krenzelok, E P; Jacobsen, T D; Aronis, J M

    1996-08-01

    Plant exposures are the fourth most common cause of poisoning and 86% of those exposures involve the pediatric population. The large number of plant-related exposures and the lack of knowledge about plant toxicity has led to plant paranoia and considerable educational efforts to reduce the number of exposures. These efforts are often dictated by misconceptions and folklore. AAPCC TESS data on all plant exposures for the years 1985-1994 were electronically analyzed by plant species and state to establish a frequency distribution in the US. Aggregate national data was also tabulated. A total of 912,534 plant exposures were analyzed to tabulate the top 30 plant exposures for each state. Philodendron species were the most common exposures, followed by Dieffenbachia species, Euphorbia pulcherrima, Capsicum annuum and Ilex species. There were considerable differences between states relating to indoor vs outdoor plants and native vs introduced varieties. Plant exposures are common and poison information centers devote significant clinical service and educational effort to manage them and to enhance public awareness. Recognition of specific plant species and exposure frequency in a poison center region can be a basis for staff education and the development of appropriate poison prevention education brochures. This can direct better utilization of poison center's resources. PMID:8829350

  2. Limitations of microscopy to differentiate Plasmodium species in a region co-endemic for Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium knowlesi

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In areas co-endemic for multiple Plasmodium species, correct diagnosis is crucial for appropriate treatment and surveillance. Species misidentification by microscopy has been reported in areas co-endemic for vivax and falciparum malaria, and may be more frequent in regions where Plasmodium knowlesi also commonly occurs. Methods This prospective study in Sabah, Malaysia, evaluated the accuracy of routine district and referral hospital-based microscopy, and microscopy performed by an experienced research microscopist, for the diagnosis of PCR-confirmed Plasmodium falciparum, P. knowlesi, and Plasmodium vivax malaria. Results A total of 304 patients with PCR-confirmed Plasmodium infection were enrolled, including 130 with P. knowlesi, 122 with P. falciparum, 43 with P. vivax, one with Plasmodium malariae and eight with mixed species infections. Among patients with P. knowlesi mono-infection, routine and cross-check microscopy both identified 94 (72%) patients as “P. malariae/P. knowlesi”; 17 (13%) and 28 (22%) respectively were identified as P. falciparum, and 13 (10%) and two (1.5%) as P. vivax. Among patients with PCR-confirmed P. falciparum, routine and cross-check microscopy identified 110/122 (90%) and 112/118 (95%) patients respectively as P. falciparum, and 8/122 (6.6%) and 5/118 (4.2%) as “P. malariae/P. knowlesi”. Among those with P. vivax, 23/43 (53%) and 34/40 (85%) were correctly diagnosed by routine and cross-check microscopy respectively, while 13/43 (30%) and 3/40 (7.5%) patients were diagnosed as “P. malariae/P. knowlesi”. Four of 13 patients with PCR-confirmed P. vivax and misdiagnosed by routine microscopy as “P. malariae/P. knowlesi” were subsequently re-admitted with P. vivax malaria. Conclusions Microscopy does not reliably distinguish between P. falciparum, P. vivax and P. knowlesi in a region where all three species frequently occur. Misdiagnosis of P. knowlesi as both P. vivax and P. falciparum, and vice versa, is

  3. Plant species composition and biofuel yields of conservation grasslands.

    PubMed

    Adler, Paul R; Sanderson, Matt A; Weimer, Paul J; Vogel, Kenneth P

    2009-12-01

    Marginal croplands, such as those in the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP), have been suggested as a source of biomass for biofuel production. However, little is known about the composition of plant species on these conservation grasslands or their potential for ethanol production. Our objective was to assess the potential of CRP and other conservation grasslands for biofuel production, describing the relationships of plant species richness and tall native C4 prairie grass abundance with plant chemical composition and the resulting potential ethanol yield. We determined plant species composition and diversity at multiple scales with the modified Whittaker plot technique, aboveground biomass, plant chemical composition, and potential ethanol yield at 34 sites across the major ecological regions of the northeastern USA. Conservation grasslands with higher numbers of plant species had lower biomass yields and a lower ethanol yield per unit biomass compared with sites with fewer species. Thus, biofuel yield per unit land area decreased by 77% as plant species richness increased from 3 to 12.8 species per m2. We found that, as tall native C4 prairie grass abundance increased from 1.7% to 81.6%, the number of plant species decreased and aboveground biomass per unit land area and ethanol yield per unit biomass increased resulting in a 500% increased biofuel yield per unit land area. Plant species richness and composition are key determinants of biomass and ethanol yields from conservation grasslands and have implications for low-input high-diversity systems. Designing systems to include a large proportion of species with undesirable fermentation characteristics could reduce ethanol yields. PMID:20014588

  4. A new scorpion species of genus Diplocentrus Peters, 1861 (Scorpiones: Diplocentridae) endemic to Islas de la Bahia, Honduras.

    PubMed

    Sagastume-Espinoza, Kevin O; Longhorn, Stuart J; Santibáñez-López, Carlos E

    2015-07-01

    Three species of genus Diplocentrus are found in north-northwestern Honduras. These species represent the southern east limits of Diplocentrus' distribution. In recent years, a broad survey of arachnids in Honduras has yielded a collection of several specimens of an undescribed species from two islands in northern Honduras. This new species represents the second species of the genus inhabiting an island. The present contribution describes this new species, and compares it against its most similar relatives. A dichotomous key for the identification of the species of Diplocentrus in Honduras is also included. PMID:26026575

  5. Systematic review of diplommatinid land snails (Caenogastropoda, Diplommatinidae) endemic to the Palau Islands. (1) Generic classification and revision of Hungerfordia species with highly developed axial ribs.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Kazunori; Yamazaki, Midori; Ueshima, Rei

    2013-01-01

    Diplommatinidae is a family of terrestrial caenogastropod snails that shows extensive species diversity and endemic radiation within the Palau (Belau) Islands. In this paper, we revised the taxonomy of Palauan endemic diplommatinids based on the comparative morphology of shell, operculum, radula, and genitalia. Although the generic classification of Palauan diplommatinids has been confusing, they are currently classified into two genera, Hungerfordia Beddome, 1889 and Palaina Semper, 1865. Palauan diplommatinids of these two genera are primarily distinguished by the radular, genital and operculum morphology. However, shell morphology, on which taxonomy has traditionally been based, does not provide definitive characters for generic identification, because shell shape and sculpture are highly variable within each genus. Although Hungerfordia has long been known as a monotypic genus, the current study redefines the endemic genus to include a wider range of species that were formerly placed in Diplommatina or Palaina. Following species are transferred to Hungerfordia: H. alata (Crosse, 1866) comb. nov.; H. lamellata (Crosse, 1866) comb. nov.; H. pyramis (Crosse, 1866) comb. nov.; H. ringens (Crosse, 1866) comb. nov.; H. polymorpha (Crosse, 1866) comb. nov.; H. inflatula (Crosse, 1866) comb. nov.; H. lutea (Beddome, 1889) comb. nov.; H. aurea (Beddome, 1889) comb. nov.; H. gibboni (Beddome, 1889) comb. nov.; H. crassilabris (Beddome, 1889) comb. nov. Pseudopalaina Moellendorff in Kobelt & Moellendorff, 1898 (synonym nov.) is demoted as a junior synonym of Hungerfordia. Palaina is also redefined based on the internal shell features and operculum morphology, in addition to the external shell characters. Furthermore, Eupalaina Kobelt & Moellendorff, 1898 is restored as a subgenus of Palaina for Palauan species on the basis of a genital character. The taxonomy of Hungerfordia species with highly developed axial ribs is revised. H. pelewensis Beddome, 1889, H. lamellata

  6. Effects of drought stress on the seed germination and early seedling growth of the endemic desert plant Eremosparton songoricum (Fabaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Haiyan; Li, Xiaoshuang; Zhang, Daoyuan; Liu, Huiliang; Guan, Kaiyun

    2013-01-01

    Eremosparton songoricum (Litv.) Vass. is an endemic and extremely drought-resistant desert plant with populations that are gradually declining due to the failure of sexual recruitment. The effects of drought stress on the seed germination and physiological characteristics of seeds and seedlings were investigated. The results showed that the germination percentage decreased with an increase of polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG) concentration: -0.3 MPa (5 % PEG) had a promoting effect on seed germination, -0.9 MPa (15 % PEG) dramatically reduced germination, and -1.8 MPa (30 % PEG) was the threshold for E. songoricum germination. However, the contents of proline and soluble sugars and the activity of CAT increased with increasing PEG concentrations. At the young seedling stage, the proline content and CAT, SOD and POD activities all increased at 2 h and then decreased; except for a decrease at 2 h, the MDA content also increased compared to the control (0 h). These results indicated that 2 h may be a key response time point for E. songoricum to resist drought stress. The above results demonstrate that drought stress can suppress and delay the germination of E. songoricum and that the seeds accumulate osmolytes and augment the activity of antioxidative enzymes to cope with drought injury. E. songoricum seedlings are sensitive to water stress and can quickly respond to drought but cannot tolerate drought for an extended period. Although such physiological and biochemical changes are important strategies for E. songoricum to adapt to a drought-prone environment, they may be, at least partially, responsible for the failure of sexual reproduction under natural conditions. PMID:26417219

  7. New species of Austropurcellia, cryptic short-range endemic mite harvestmen (Arachnida, Opiliones, Cyphophthalmi) from Australia’s Wet Tropics biodiversity hotspot

    PubMed Central

    Jay, Katya R.; Popkin-Hall, Zachary R.; Coblens, Michelle J.; Oberski, Jill T.; Sharma, Prashant P.; Boyer, Sarah L.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The genus Austropurcellia is a lineage of tiny leaf-litter arachnids that inhabit tropical rainforests throughout the eastern coast of Queensland, Australia. The majority of their diversity is found within the Wet Tropics rainforests of northeast Queensland, an area known for its exceptionally high levels of biodiversity and endemism. Studying the biogeographic history of limited-dispersal invertebrates in the Wet Tropics can provide insight into the role of climatic changes such as rainforest contraction in shaping rainforest biodiversity patterns. Here we describe six new species of mite harvestmen from the Wet Tropics rainforests, identified using morphological data, and discuss the biogeography of Austropurcellia with distributions of all known species. With this taxonomic contribution, the majority of the known diversity of the genus has been documented. PMID:27199608

  8. Eight New Species of Charinus Simon, 1892 (Arachnida: Amblypygi: Charinidae) Endemic for the Brazilian Amazon, with Notes on Their Conservational Status.

    PubMed

    Giupponi, Alessandro Ponce de Leão; de Miranda, Gustavo Silva

    2016-01-01

    Eight new species of Charinus Simon, 1892 are described for the Brazilian Amazon, from the states of Pará (C. bichuetteae sp. n., C. bonaldoi sp. n., C. carajas sp. n., C. ferreus sp. n., C. guto sp. n. and C. orientalis sp. n.) and Amazonas (Charinus brescoviti sp. n. and C. ricardoi sp. n.). All new species can be differentiated from the other species of the genus by the number of pseudo-articles in basitibia IV, the presence/absence of median eyes, and the shape of the female gonopod. Brazil now becomes the country with the largest diversity of Amblypygi in the world, with 25 known species. Half of the new species described here have a high degree of endangerment: C. bichuetteae sp. n. is threatened by the flood caused by the hydroelectric dam of Belo Monte, and C. carajas sp. n., C. ferreus sp. n. and C. orientalis sp. n. are endangered by the iron mining in Carajás municipality and surroundings. The Charinus species here described are endemic to the Amazon Region, so in order to assure their preservation, it is strongly recommended a special care with their habitats (type localities) which are facing increasing rates of destruction and deforestation. PMID:26885641

  9. Eight New Species of Charinus Simon, 1892 (Arachnida: Amblypygi: Charinidae) Endemic for the Brazilian Amazon, with Notes on Their Conservational Status

    PubMed Central

    Giupponi, Alessandro Ponce de Leão; de Miranda, Gustavo Silva

    2016-01-01

    Eight new species of Charinus Simon, 1892 are described for the Brazilian Amazon, from the states of Pará (C. bichuetteae sp. n., C. bonaldoi sp. n., C. carajas sp. n., C. ferreus sp. n., C. guto sp. n. and C. orientalis sp. n.) and Amazonas (Charinus brescoviti sp. n. and C. ricardoi sp. n.). All new species can be differentiated from the other species of the genus by the number of pseudo-articles in basitibia IV, the presence/absence of median eyes, and the shape of the female gonopod. Brazil now becomes the country with the largest diversity of Amblypygi in the world, with 25 known species. Half of the new species described here have a high degree of endangerment: C. bichuetteae sp. n. is threatened by the flood caused by the hydroelectric dam of Belo Monte, and C. carajas sp. n., C. ferreus sp. n. and C. orientalis sp. n. are endangered by the iron mining in Carajás municipality and surroundings. The Charinus species here described are endemic to the Amazon Region, so in order to assure their preservation, it is strongly recommended a special care with their habitats (type localities) which are facing increasing rates of destruction and deforestation. PMID:26885641

  10. A revision of Chilicola (Heteroediscelis), a subgenus of xeromelissine bees (Hymenoptera, Colletidae) endemic to Chile: taxonomy, phylogeny, and biogeography, with descriptions of eight new species.

    PubMed

    Monckton, Spencer K

    2016-01-01

    The bee subgenus Chilicola (Heteroediscelis) Toro & Moldenke, 1979 (Hymenoptera, Colletidae, Xeromelissinae) is revised. The subgenus is considered endemic to Chile and occurs across a broad range of habitats. Eight new species are described: Chilicola (Heteroediscelis) charizard Monckton, sp. n., Chilicola (Heteroediscelis) curvapeligrosa Monckton, sp. n., Chilicola (Heteroediscelis) guanicoe Monckton, sp. n., Chilicola (Heteroediscelis) katherinae Monckton, sp. n., Chilicola (Heteroediscelis) lickana Monckton, sp. n., Chilicola (Heteroediscelis) mayu Monckton, sp. n., Chilicola (Heteroediscelis) packeri Monckton, sp. n., and Chilicola (Heteroediscelis) randolphi Monckton, sp. n. One of the existing species, Chilicola (Heteroediscelis) valparaiso Toro & Moldenke, 1979, syn. n., is treated as a junior synonym of Chilicola (Heteroediscelis) mantagua Toro & Moldenke, 1979, and the nine remaining valid species are redescribed. Thoroughly illustrated keys to species for males and females are provided, along with habitus images, images of male terminalia, distribution maps for each species, and a map of relevant Chilean biogeographic regions. Results of phylogenetic analyses are presented, based upon 74 morphological characters and on CO1 barcode sequences, analyzed both separately and as a combined dataset. Monophyly of the subgenus is supported, and groupings within the subgenus are discussed in light of a biogeographic analysis of their species distributions (spatial analysis of vicariance), whereby divergence between taxa is found to occur primarily via north-south disjunctions. PMID:27408541

  11. A revision of Chilicola (Heteroediscelis), a subgenus of xeromelissine bees (Hymenoptera, Colletidae) endemic to Chile: taxonomy, phylogeny, and biogeography, with descriptions of eight new species

    PubMed Central

    Monckton, Spencer K.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The bee subgenus Chilicola (Heteroediscelis) Toro & Moldenke, 1979 (Hymenoptera, Colletidae, Xeromelissinae) is revised. The subgenus is considered endemic to Chile and occurs across a broad range of habitats. Eight new species are described: Chilicola (Heteroediscelis) charizard Monckton, sp. n., Chilicola (Heteroediscelis) curvapeligrosa Monckton, sp. n., Chilicola (Heteroediscelis) guanicoe Monckton, sp. n., Chilicola (Heteroediscelis) katherinae Monckton, sp. n., Chilicola (Heteroediscelis) lickana Monckton, sp. n., Chilicola (Heteroediscelis) mayu Monckton, sp. n., Chilicola (Heteroediscelis) packeri Monckton, sp. n., and Chilicola (Heteroediscelis) randolphi Monckton, sp. n. One of the existing species, Chilicola (Heteroediscelis) valparaiso Toro & Moldenke, 1979, syn. n., is treated as a junior synonym of Chilicola (Heteroediscelis) mantagua Toro & Moldenke, 1979, and the nine remaining valid species are redescribed. Thoroughly illustrated keys to species for males and females are provided, along with habitus images, images of male terminalia, distribution maps for each species, and a map of relevant Chilean biogeographic regions. Results of phylogenetic analyses are presented, based upon 74 morphological characters and on CO1 barcode sequences, analyzed both separately and as a combined dataset. Monophyly of the subgenus is supported, and groupings within the subgenus are discussed in light of a biogeographic analysis of their species distributions (spatial analysis of vicariance), whereby divergence between taxa is found to occur primarily via north-south disjunctions. PMID:27408541

  12. Plant Species Diversity and Pasture Management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Farmers face many challenges in pasture management, such as evolving agri-environmental schemes to protect natural resources, and need new management techniques to remain sustainable. Ecological research indicates that increased plant biodiversity benefits ecosystem functions such as primary product...

  13. Herbivory and dominance shifts among exotic and congeneric native plant species during plant community establishment.

    PubMed

    Engelkes, Tim; Meisner, Annelein; Morriën, Elly; Kostenko, Olga; Van der Putten, Wim H; Macel, Mirka

    2016-02-01

    Invasive exotic plant species often have fewer natural enemies and suffer less damage from herbivores in their new range than genetically or functionally related species that are native to that area. Although we might expect that having fewer enemies would promote the invasiveness of the introduced exotic plant species due to reduced enemy exposure, few studies have actually analyzed the ecological consequences of this situation in the field. Here, we examined how exposure to aboveground herbivores influences shifts in dominance among exotic and phylogenetically related native plant species in a riparian ecosystem during early establishment of invaded communities. We planted ten plant communities each consisting of three individuals of each of six exotic plant species as well as six phylogenetically related natives. Exotic plant species were selected based on a rapid recent increase in regional abundance, the presence of a congeneric native species, and their co-occurrence in the riparian ecosystem. All plant communities were covered by tents with insect mesh. Five tents were open on the leeward side to allow herbivory. The other five tents were completely closed in order to exclude insects and vertebrates. Herbivory reduced aboveground biomass by half and influenced which of the plant species dominated the establishing communities. Exposure to herbivory did not reduce the total biomass of natives more than that of exotics, so aboveground herbivory did not selectively enhance exotics during this early stage of plant community development. Effects of herbivores on plant biomass depended on plant species or genus but not on plant status (i.e., exotic vs native). Thus, aboveground herbivory did not promote the dominance of exotic plant species during early establishment of the phylogenetically balanced plant communities. PMID:26481795

  14. Phytotoxins produced by plant pathogenic Streptomyces species.

    PubMed

    Bignell, D R D; Fyans, J K; Cheng, Z

    2014-02-01

    Streptomyces is a large genus consisting of soil-dwelling, filamentous bacteria that are best known for their capability of producing a vast array of medically and agriculturally useful secondary metabolites. In addition, a small number of Streptomyces spp. are capable of colonizing and infecting the underground portions of living plants and causing economically important crop diseases such as potato common scab (CS). Research into the mechanisms of Streptomyces plant pathogenicity has led to the identification and characterization of several phytotoxic secondary metabolites that are known or suspected of contributing to diseases in various plants. The best characterized are the thaxtomin phytotoxins, which play a critical role in the development of CS, acid scab and soil rot of sweet potato. In addition, the best-characterized CS-causing pathogen, Streptomyces scabies, produces a molecule that is predicted to resemble the Pseudomonas syringae coronatine phytotoxin and which contributes to seedling disease symptom development. Other Streptomyces phytotoxic secondary metabolites that have been identified include concanamycins, FD-891 and borrelidin. Furthermore, there is evidence that additional, unknown metabolites may participate in Streptomyces plant pathogenicity. Such revelations have implications for the rational development of better management procedures for controlling CS and other Streptomyces plant diseases. PMID:24131731

  15. Studies of Malagasy Eugenia – IV: Seventeen new endemic species, a new combination, and three lectotypifications; with comments on distribution, ecological and evolutionary patterns

    PubMed Central

    Snow, Neil; Callmander, Martin; Phillipson, Peter B.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Seventeen new endemic species of the genus Eugenia L. (Myrtaceae) are proposed from Madagascar, including: Eugenia andapae N. Snow, Eugenia barriei N. Snow, Eugenia bemangidiensis N. Snow, Eugenia calciscopulorum N. Snow, Eugenia delicatissima N. Snow, Callm. & Phillipson, Eugenia echinulata N. Snow, Eugenia gandhii N. Snow, Eugenia hazonjia N. Snow, Eugenia iantarensis N. Snow, Eugenia malcomberi N. Snow, Eugenia manomboensis N. Snow, Eugenia obovatifolia N. Snow, Eugenia ranomafana N. Snow & D. Turk, Eugenia ravelonarivoi N. Snow & Callm., Eugenia razakamalalae N. Snow & Callm., Eugenia tiampoka N. Snow & Callm., and Eugenia wilsoniana N. Snow, and one new combination, Eugenia richardii (Blume) N. Snow, Callm. & Phillipson is provided. Detailed descriptions, information on distribution and ecology, distribution maps, vernacular names (where known), digital images of types, comparisons to morphologically similar species. Preliminary assessment of IUCN risk of extinction and conservation recommendations are provided, including Vulnerable (4 species), Endangered (2 species), and Critically Endangered (4 species). Lectotpyes are designated for Eugenia hovarum H. Perrier, Eugenia nompa H. Perrier, and Eugenia scottii H. Perrier respectively. PMID:25987885

  16. Plant Species Monitoring in the Canary Islands Using WORLDVIEW-2 Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunez-Casillas, L.; Micand, F.; Somers, B.; Brito, P.; Arbelo, M.

    2012-07-01

    The physical and climatic features of a relatively small volcanic island such as Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain) cause increased difficulties to vegetation monitoring by means of moderate resolution satellite data. The use of multispectral very high resolution WorldView-2 (WV2) imagery provides promising perspectives for vegetation mapping in such a heterogeneous landscape. In order to assess its potential to estimate the cover fraction of dominant plant species in endemic Macaronesian laurel forests and heathlands, a hierarchical Multiple Endmember Spectral Mixture Analysis (MESMA) was performed within a study area where different patches from mature forest, to degraded forest and pine plantations can be found. First, a selection of pure pixels in the WV2 image for fern, Morella faya Ait., Laurus novocanariensis and the introduced species Pinus radiata were used to build a spectral library for each species. Last species Erica arborea L. was characterized in field by means of an ASD FieldSpec spectroradiometer, due to the rarity of pure pixels in this case, and to the simultaneous presence of two spectral subclasses depending on its flowering onset; WV2-adjusted spectral signatures from field reflectances were estimated by empirical calibration. Preliminary results showed a good separation of degraded from mature native forests and from plantations, although pine cover fraction is, in general, underestimated. The second MESMA cycle was useful to tell between most similar species, like in case of M. faya and L. novocanariensis.

  17. Widespread plant species: natives vs. aliens in our changing world

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stohlgren, Thomas J.; Pyšek, Petr; Kartesz, John; Nishino, Misako; Pauchard, Aníbal; Winter, Marten; Pino, Joan; Richardson, David M.; Wilson, John R.U.; Murray, Brad R.; Phillips, Megan L.; Ming-yang, Li; Celesti-Grapow, Laura; Font, Xavier

    2011-01-01

    Estimates of the level of invasion for a region are traditionally based on relative numbers of native and alien species. However, alien species differ dramatically in the size of their invasive ranges. Here we present the first study to quantify the level of invasion for several regions of the world in terms of the most widely distributed plant species (natives vs. aliens). Aliens accounted for 51.3% of the 120 most widely distributed plant species in North America, 43.3% in New South Wales (Australia), 34.2% in Chile, 29.7% in Argentina, and 22.5% in the Republic of South Africa. However, Europe had only 1% of alien species among the most widespread species of the flora. Across regions, alien species relative to native species were either as well-distributed (10 comparisons) or more widely distributed (5 comparisons). These striking patterns highlight the profound contribution that widespread invasive alien plants make to floristic dominance patterns across different regions. Many of the most widespread species are alien plants, and, in particular, Europe and Asia appear as major contributors to the homogenization of the floras in the Americas. We recommend that spatial extent of invasion should be explicitly incorporated in assessments of invasibility, globalization, and risk assessments.

  18. Widespread plant species: Natives versus aliens in our changing world

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stohlgren, T.J.; Pysek, P.; Kartesz, J.; Nishino, M.; Pauchard, A.; Winter, M.; Pino, J.; Richardson, D.M.; Wilson, J.R.U.; Murray, B.R.; Phillips, M.L.; Ming-yang, L.; Celesti-Grapow, L.; Font, X.

    2011-01-01

    Estimates of the level of invasion for a region are traditionally based on relative numbers of native and alien species. However, alien species differ dramatically in the size of their invasive ranges. Here we present the first study to quantify the level of invasion for several regions of the world in terms of the most widely distributed plant species (natives vs. aliens). Aliens accounted for 51.3% of the 120 most widely distributed plant species in North America, 43.3% in New South Wales (Australia), 34.2% in Chile, 29.7% in Argentina, and 22.5% in the Republic of South Africa. However, Europe had only 1% of alien species among the most widespread species of the flora. Across regions, alien species relative to native species were either as well-distributed (10 comparisons) or more widely distributed (5 comparisons). These striking patterns highlight the profound contribution that widespread invasive alien plants make to floristic dominance patterns across different regions. Many of the most widespread species are alien plants, and, in particular, Europe and Asia appear as major contributors to the homogenization of the floras in the Americas. We recommend that spatial extent of invasion should be explicitly incorporated in assessments of invasibility, globalization, and risk assessments. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  19. Human population, grasshopper and plant species richness in European countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steck, Claude E.; Pautasso, Marco

    2008-11-01

    Surprisingly, several studies over large scales have reported a positive spatial correlation of people and biodiversity. This pattern has important implications for conservation and has been documented for well studied taxa such as plants, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals. However, it is unknown whether the pattern applies also to invertebrates other than butterflies and more work is needed to establish whether the species-people relationship is explained by both variables correlating with other environmental factors. We studied whether grasshopper species richness (Orthoptera, suborder Caelifera) is related to human population size in European countries. As expected, the number of Caelifera species increases significantly with increasing human population size. But this is not the case when controlling for country area, latitude and number of plant species. Variations in Caelifera species richness are primarily associated with variations in plant species richness. Caelifera species richness also increases with decreasing mean annual precipitation, Gross Domestic Product per capita (used as an indicator for economic development) and net fertility rate of the human population. Our analysis confirms the hypothesis that the broad-scale human population-biodiversity correlations can be explained by concurrent variations in factors other than human population size such as plant species richness, environmental productivity, or habitat heterogeneity. Nonetheless, more populated countries in Europe still have more Caelifera species than less populated countries and this poses a particular challenge for conservation.

  20. Thermal Hyperspectral Remote Sensing for Plant Species and Stress Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlerf, M.; Rock, G.; Ullah, S.; Gerhards, M.; Udelhoven, T.; Skidmore, A. K.

    2014-12-01

    Thermal infrared (TIR) spectroscopy offers a novel opportunity for measuring emissivity spectra of natural surfaces. Emissivity spectra are not directly measured, they first have to be retrieved from the raw measurements. Once retrieved, the spectra can be used, for example, to discriminate plant species or to detect plant stress. Knowledge of plant species distribution is essential for the sustainable management of ecosystems. Remote sensing of plant species has so far mostly been limited to data in the visible and near-infrared where, however, different species often reveal similar reflectance curves. Da Luz and Crowley showed in a recent paper that in the TIR plants indeed have distinct spectral features. Also with a certain species, subtle changes of emissivity in certain wavebands may occur, when biochemical compounds change due to osmotic adjustment induced by water stress. Here we show, that i) emissive imaging spectroscopy allows for reliable and accurate retrieval of plant emissivity spectra, ii) emissivity spectra are well suited to discriminate plant species, iii) a reduction in stomatal conductance (caused by stress) changes the thermal infrared signal. For 13 plant species in the laboratory and for 8 plant species in a field setup emissivity spectra were retrieved. A comparison shows, that for most species the shapes of the emissivity curves agree quite well, but that clear offsets between the two types of spectra exist. Discrimination analysis revealed that based on the lab spectra, 13 species could be distinguished with an average overall classification accuracy of 92% using the 6 best spectral bands. For the field spectra (8 species), a similar high OAA of 89% was achieved. Species discrimination is likely to be possible due to variations in the composition of the superficial epidermal layer of plant leaves and in internal chemical concentrations producing unique emissivity features. However, to date, which spectral feature is responsible for which

  1. Distinct migratory and non-migratory ecotypes of an endemic New Zealand eleotrid (Gobiomorphus cotidianus) – implications for incipient speciation in island freshwater fish species

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background Many postglacial lakes contain fish species with distinct ecomorphs. Similar evolutionary scenarios might be acting on evolutionarily young fish communities in lakes of remote islands. One process that drives diversification in island freshwater fish species is the colonization of depauperate freshwater environments by diadromous (migratory) taxa, which secondarily lose their migratory behaviour. The loss of migration limits dispersal and gene flow between distant populations, and, therefore, is expected to facilitate local morphological and genetic differentiation. To date, most studies have focused on interspecific relationships among migratory species and their non-migratory sister taxa. We hypothesize that the loss of migration facilitates intraspecific morphological, behavioural, and genetic differentiation between migratory and non-migratory populations of facultatively diadromous taxa, and, hence, incipient speciation of island freshwater fish species. Results Microchemical analyses of otolith isotopes (88Sr, 137Ba and 43Ca) differentiated migratory and non-migratory stocks of the New Zealand endemic Gobiomorphus cotidianus McDowall (Eleotridae). Samples were taken from two rivers, one lake and two geographically-separated outgroup locations. Meristic analyses of oculoscapular lateral line canals documented a gradual reduction of these structures in the non-migratory populations. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) fingerprints revealed considerable genetic isolation between migratory and non-migratory populations. Temporal differences in reproductive timing (migratory = winter spawners, non-migratory = summer spawners; as inferred from gonadosomatic indices) provide a prezygotic reproductive isolation mechanism between the two ecotypes. Conclusion This study provides a holistic look at the role of diadromy in incipient speciation of island freshwater fish species. All four analytical approaches (otolith microchemistry, morphology

  2. Global response patterns of terrestrial plant species to nitrogen addition.

    PubMed

    Xia, Jianyang; Wan, Shiqiang

    2008-07-01

    Better understanding of the responses of terrestrial plant species under global nitrogen (N) enrichment is critical for projection of changes in structure, functioning, and service of terrestrial ecosystems. Here, a meta-analysis of data from 304 studies was carried out to reveal the general response patterns of terrestrial plant species to the addition of N. Across 456 terrestrial plant species included in the analysis, biomass and N concentration were increased by 53.6 and 28.5%, respectively, under N enrichment. However, the N responses were dependent upon plant functional types, with significantly greater biomass increases in herbaceous than in woody species. Stimulation of plant biomass by the addition of N was enhanced when other resources were improved. In addition, the N responses of terrestrial plants decreased with increasing latitude and increased with annual precipitation. Dependence of the N responses of terrestrial plants on biological realms, functional types, tissues, other resources, and climatic factors revealed in this study can help to explain changes in species composition, diversity, community structure and ecosystem functioning under global N enrichment. These findings are critical in improving model simulation and projection of terrestrial carbon sequestration and its feedbacks to global climate change, especially when progressive N limitation is taken into consideration. PMID:19086179

  3. An endemic new species of Ameiva (Squamata: Teiidae) from an isolated dry   forest in southern Peru.

    PubMed

    Landauro, Caroll Z; García-Bravo, Antonio; Venegas, Pablo J

    2015-01-01

    We describe a new species of Ameiva from an interandean dry forest in central-southern Peru. Ameiva reticulata sp. nov. represents the fifth species in the genus known to occur in Peru. The new species is similar to the species of the A. ameiva complex such as A. ameiva, A. atrigularis, A. pantherina, and A. praesignis, and is distinguished from these by  a smaller size, a lower  count of dorsal scales along the middorsal line and scales across the midbody, and by the gular coloration. PMID:25947699

  4. Deep-water Thyasiridae (Mollusca: Bivalvia) from the Oman Margin, Arabian Sea, new species and examples of endemism and cosmopolitanism.

    PubMed

    Oliver, P Graham

    2015-01-01

    Seven species of Thyasiridae are reported from the Oman Margin of the Arabian Sea at depths between 688 m and 3356 m. Hypoxic conditions exist at depths between 400 and 1200 m and three species are restricted to this zone and to the Arabian Sea. Leptaxinus indusarium has also been recorded from the Indus Fan and Channelaxinus investigatoris from off Sri Lanka. A new species Thyasira anassa sp. nov. is described from the hypoxic zone. Another four species are recorded from the abyssal zone where oxygen levels are typical for the deep ocean. Here another new species is described, Parathyasira bamberi sp. nov. but the other species could not be conclusively identified because of close affinity with populations from other oceans.  Deep water Atlantic species Axinulus croulinensis and Mendicula ferruginosa are apparently present in the abyssal Indian Ocean while another thyasirid shell is very close to Channelaxinus excavatus from the Eastern Pacific and C. perplicata from the Atlantic. Accompanying these abyssal thyasirids were other bivalve species, Deminucula atacellana, Limopsis pelagica and Bentharca asperula that cannot be distinguished by morphology from their Atlantic populations. It is concluded that using morphology alone that the abyssal species may well be cosmopolitan in distribution. PMID:26250317

  5. Nutritive value in relation to plant species diversity of pastures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Planting forage mixtures may benefit pasture herbage production; however, changes in botanical composition could cause unstable nutritive value. Data from two grazing studies and a farm survey were used to examine how plant species diversity influenced herbage nutritive value. In one grazing study,...

  6. When Are Native Species Inappropriate for Conservation Plantings

    EPA Science Inventory

    Conservation agencies and organizations are generally reluctant to encourage the use of invasive plant species in conservation programs. Harsh lessons learned in the past have resulted in tougher screening protocols for non-indigenous species introductions and removal of many no...

  7. Increasing enemy biodiversity strengthens herbivore suppression on two plant species.

    PubMed

    Straub, Cory S; Snyder, William E

    2008-06-01

    Concern over biodiversity loss, especially at higher trophic levels, has led to a surge in studies investigating how changes in natural enemy diversity affect community and ecosystem functioning. These studies have found that increasing enemy diversity can strengthen, weaken, and not affect prey suppression, demonstrating that multi-enemy effects on prey are context-dependent. Here we ask how one factor, plant species identity, influences multi-enemy effects on prey. We focused on two plant species of agricultural importance, potato (Solanum tuberosum), and collards (Brassica oleracea L.). These species share a common herbivorous pest, the green peach aphid (Myzus persicae), but vary in structural and chemical traits that affect aphid reproductive rates and which may also influence inter-enemy interactions. In a large-scale field experiment, overall prey exploitation varied dramatically among the plant species, with enemies reducing aphid populations by approximately 94% on potatoes and approximately 62% on collards. Increasing enemy diversity similarly strengthened aphid suppression on both plants, however, and there was no evidence that plant species identity significantly altered the relationship between enemy diversity and prey suppression. Microcosm experiments suggested that, on both collards and potatoes, intraspecific competition among natural enemies exceeded interspecific competition. Enemy species showed consistent and significant differences in where they foraged on the plants, and enemies in the low-diversity treatment tended to spend less time foraging than enemies in the high-diversity treatment. These data suggest that increasing enemy diversity may strengthen aphid suppression because interspecific differences in where enemies forage on the plant allow for greater resource partitioning. Further, these functional benefits of diversity appear to be robust to changes in plant species identity. PMID:18589525

  8. Predicting probability of occurrence and factors affecting distribution and abundance of three Ozark endemic crayfish species at multiple spatial scales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nolen, Matthew S.; Magoulick, Daniel D.; DiStefano, Robert J.; Imhoff, Emily M.; Wagner, Brian K.

    2014-01-01

    We found that a range of environmental variables were important in predicting crayfish distribution and abundance at multiple spatial scales and their importance was species-, response variable- and scale dependent. We would encourage others to examine the influence of spatial scale on species distribution and abundance patterns.

  9. Intraspecific genetic variation and species coexistence in plant communities.

    PubMed

    Ehlers, Bodil K; Damgaard, Christian F; Laroche, Fabien

    2016-01-01

    Many studies report that intraspecific genetic variation in plants can affect community composition and coexistence. However, less is known about which traits are responsible and the mechanisms by which variation in these traits affect the associated community. Focusing on plant-plant interactions, we review empirical studies exemplifying how intraspecific genetic variation in functional traits impacts plant coexistence. Intraspecific variation in chemical and architectural traits promotes species coexistence, by both increasing habitat heterogeneity and altering competitive hierarchies. Decomposing species interactions into interactions between genotypes shows that genotype × genotype interactions are often intransitive. The outcome of plant-plant interactions varies with local adaptation to the environment and with dominant neighbour genotypes, and some plants can recognize the genetic identity of neighbour plants if they have a common history of coexistence. Taken together, this reveals a very dynamic nature of coexistence. We outline how more traits mediating plant-plant interactions may be identified, and how future studies could use population genetic surveys of genotype distribution in nature and methods from trait-based ecology to better quantify the impact of intraspecific genetic variation on plant coexistence. PMID:26790707

  10. Climate Change and the Future of California's Endemic Flora

    PubMed Central

    Loarie, Scott R.; Carter, Benjamin E.; Hayhoe, Katharine; McMahon, Sean; Moe, Richard; Knight, Charles A.; Ackerly, David D.

    2008-01-01

    The flora of California, a global biodiversity hotspot, includes 2387 endemic plant taxa. With anticipated climate change, we project that up to 66% will experience >80% reductions in range size within a century. These results are comparable with other studies of fewer species or just samples of a region's endemics. Projected reductions depend on the magnitude of future emissions and on the ability of species to disperse from their current locations. California's varied terrain could cause species to move in very different directions, breaking up present-day floras. However, our projections also identify regions where species undergoing severe range reductions may persist. Protecting these potential future refugia and facilitating species dispersal will be essential to maintain biodiversity in the face of climate change. PMID:18648541

  11. Contrasting soil ciliate species richness and abundance between two tropical plant species: a test of the plant effect.

    PubMed

    Acosta-Mercado, D; Lynn, D H

    2006-05-01

    We still have a rudimentary understanding about the mechanism by which plant roots may stimulate soil microbial interactions. A biochemical model involving plant-derived biochemical fractions, such as exudates, has been used to explain this "rhizosphere effect" on bacteria. However, the variable response of other soil microbial groups, such as protozoa, to the rhizosphere suggests that other factors could be involved in shaping their communities. Thus, two experiments were designed to: (1) determine whether stimulatory and/or inhibiting factors associated with particular plant species regulate ciliate diversity and abundance and (2) obtain a better understanding about the mechanism by which these plant factors operate in the rhizosphere. Bacterial and chemical slurries were reciprocally exchanged between two plant species known to differ in terms of ciliate species richness and abundance (i.e., Canella winterana and plantation Tectona grandis). Analysis of variance showed that the bacteria plus nutrients and the nutrients only treatment had no significant effect on overall ciliate species richness and abundance when compared to the control treatment. However, the use of only colpodean species increased the taxonomic resolution of treatment effects revealing that bacterial slurries had a significant effect on colpodean ciliate species richness. Thus, for particular rhizosphere ciliates, biological properties, such as bacterial diversity or abundance, may have a strong influence on their diversity and possibly abundance. These results are consistent with a model of soil bacteria-mediated mutualisms between plants and protozoa. PMID:16645921

  12. Distribution and content of ellagitannins in Finnish plant species.

    PubMed

    Moilanen, Johanna; Koskinen, Piia; Salminen, Juha-Pekka

    2015-08-01

    The results of a screening study, in which a total of 82 Finnish plant species were studied for their ellagitannin composition and content, are presented. The total ellagitannin content was determined by HPLC-DAD, the detected ellagitannins were further characterized by HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS and divided into four structurally different sub-groups. Thirty plant species were found to contain ellagitannins and the ellagitannin content in the crude extracts varied from few mgg(-1) to over a hundred mgg(-1). Plant families that were rich in ellagitannins (>90mgg(-1) of the crude extract) were Onagraceae, Lyhtraceae, Geraniaceae, Elaeagnaceae, Fagaceae and some species from Rosaceae. Plant species that contained moderate amounts of ellagitannins (31-89mgg(-1) of the crude extract) were representatives of the family Rosaceae. Plant species that contained low amounts of ellagitannins (1-30mgg(-1) of the crude extract) were representatives of the families Betulaceae and Myricaceae. The specific ellagitannin composition of the species allowed their chemotaxonomic classification and the comparison between the older Cronquist's classification and the nowadays preferred Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification. PMID:25819000

  13. Past, Present and Future Distributions of an Iberian Endemic, Lepus granatensis: Ecological and Evolutionary Clues from Species Distribution Models

    PubMed Central

    Acevedo, Pelayo; Melo-Ferreira, José; Real, Raimundo; Alves, Paulo Célio

    2012-01-01

    The application of species distribution models (SDMs) in ecology and conservation biology is increasing and assuming an important role, mainly because they can be used to hindcast past and predict current and future species distributions. However, the accuracy of SDMs depends on the quality of the data and on appropriate theoretical frameworks. In this study, comprehensive data on the current distribution of the Iberian hare (Lepus granatensis) were used to i) determine the species’ ecogeographical constraints, ii) hindcast a climatic model for the last glacial maximum (LGM), relating it to inferences derived from molecular studies, and iii) calibrate a model to assess the species future distribution trends (up to 2080). Our results showed that the climatic factor (in its pure effect and when it is combined with the land-cover factor) is the most important descriptor of the current distribution of the Iberian hare. In addition, the model’s output was a reliable index of the local probability of species occurrence, which is a valuable tool to guide species management decisions and conservation planning. Climatic potential obtained for the LGM was combined with molecular data and the results suggest that several glacial refugia may have existed for the species within the major Iberian refugium. Finally, a high probability of occurrence of the Iberian hare in the current species range and a northward expansion were predicted for future. Given its current environmental envelope and evolutionary history, we discuss the macroecology of the Iberian hare and its sensitivity to climate change. PMID:23272115

  14. Climate-Induced Elevational Range Shifts and Increase in Plant Species Richness in a Himalayan Biodiversity Epicentre

    PubMed Central

    Telwala, Yasmeen; Brook, Barry W.; Manish, Kumar; Pandit, Maharaj K.

    2013-01-01

    Global average temperature increase during the last century has induced species geographic range shifts and extinctions. Montane floras, in particular, are highly sensitive to climate change and mountains serve as suitable observation sites for tracing climate-induced biological response. The Himalaya constitute an important global biodiversity hotspot, yet studies on species’ response to climate change from this region are lacking. Here we use historical (1849–50) and the recent (2007–2010) data on temperature and endemic species’ elevational ranges to perform a correlative study in the two alpine valleys of Sikkim. We show that the ongoing warming in the alpine Sikkim Himalaya has transformed the plant assemblages. This study lends support to the hypothesis that changing climate is causing species distribution changes. We provide first evidence of warmer winters in the region compared to the last two centuries, with mean temperatures of the warmest and the coldest months may have increased by 0.76±0.25°C and 3.65±2°C, respectively. Warming-driven geographical range shifts were recorded in 87% of 124 endemic plant species studied in the region; upper range extensions of species have resulted in increased species richness in the upper alpine zone, compared to the 19th century. We recorded a shift of 23–998 m in species’ upper elevation limit and a mean upward displacement rate of 27.53±22.04 m/decade in the present study. We infer that the present-day plant assemblages and community structure in the Himalaya is substantially different from the last century and is, therefore, in a state of flux under the impact of warming. The continued trend of warming is likely to result in ongoing elevational range contractions and eventually, species extinctions, particularly at mountaintops. PMID:23437322

  15. Studies in Hawaiian Diptera III: New Distributional Records for Canacidae and a New Endemic Species of Procanace

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The distributions of Hawaiian Canacidae, comprising nearly 800 individual collection events, are reviewed and a total of four new island records are reported. These include Canaceoides angulatus from Kahoolawae and Procanace bifurcata from Molokai and Maui, and Procanace constricta from Oahu. A new species from Kauai, Procanace hardyi O'Grady and Pak, is described. This species is closely related to P. constricta from Oahu, Maui, Molokai and Hawaii and shares a similar constriction of the abdomen between tergites four and five but differs in the configuration of the seventh abdominal tergite. Detailed distribution maps for all species are included. PMID:27226743

  16. Studies in Hawaiian Diptera III: New Distributional Records for Canacidae and a New Endemic Species of Procanace.

    PubMed

    O'Grady, Patrick M; Pak, Nina

    2016-01-01

    The distributions of Hawaiian Canacidae, comprising nearly 800 individual collection events, are reviewed and a total of four new island records are reported. These include Canaceoides angulatus from Kahoolawae and Procanace bifurcata from Molokai and Maui, and Procanace constricta from Oahu. A new species from Kauai, Procanace hardyi O'Grady and Pak, is described. This species is closely related to P. constricta from Oahu, Maui, Molokai and Hawaii and shares a similar constriction of the abdomen between tergites four and five but differs in the configuration of the seventh abdominal tergite. Detailed distribution maps for all species are included. PMID:27226743

  17. Multilocus Phylogenetics Show High Levels of Endemic Fusaria Inhabiting Sardinian Soils (Tyrrhenian Islands)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Mediterranean island of Sardinia is well known for high levels of vascular plant diversity and endemism, but little is known about its microbial diversity. Under the hypothesis that Fusarium species would show similar patterns, we estimated variability in Fusarium species composition among ten ...

  18. Predicting species' maximum dispersal distances from simple plant traits.

    PubMed

    Tamme, Riin; Götzenberger, Lars; Zobel, Martin; Bullock, James M; Hooftman, Danny A P; Kaasik, Ants; Pärtel, Meelis

    2014-02-01

    Many studies have shown plant species' dispersal distances to be strongly related to life-history traits, but how well different traits can predict dispersal distances is not yet known. We used cross-validation techniques and a global data set (576 plant species) to measure the predictive power of simple plant traits to estimate species' maximum dispersal distances. Including dispersal syndrome (wind, animal, ant, ballistic, and no special syndrome), growth form (tree, shrub, herb), seed mass, seed release height, and terminal velocity in different combinations as explanatory variables we constructed models to explain variation in measured maximum dispersal distances and evaluated their power to predict maximum dispersal distances. Predictions are more accurate, but also limited to a particular set of species, if data on more specific traits, such as terminal velocity, are available. The best model (R2 = 0.60) included dispersal syndrome, growth form, and terminal velocity as fixed effects. Reasonable predictions of maximum dispersal distance (R2 = 0.53) are also possible when using only the simplest and most commonly measured traits; dispersal syndrome and growth form together with species taxonomy data. We provide a function (dispeRsal) to be run in the software package R. This enables researchers to estimate maximum dispersal distances with confidence intervals for plant species using measured traits as predictors. Easily obtainable trait data, such as dispersal syndrome (inferred from seed morphology) and growth form, enable predictions to be made for a large number of species. PMID:24669743

  19. A new genus and two new nematode species (Drilonematoidea: Ungellidae: Synoecneminae) parasitic in two morphs of Drawida ghilarovi Gates, endemic earthworm from the Russian Far East.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, Elena S; Ganin, Gennadiy N; Spiridonov, Sergei E

    2014-03-01

    Drasico n. g. is erected to accommodate two new species of nematode, Drasico nemoralis n. sp. and D. paludigenus n. sp., recovered from coelomic cavities of Drawida ghilarovi Gates, endemic earthworms of the Russian Far East. The new genus is characterised by the following unique for the Synoecneminae characters: apical portion of the head attenuated, cephalic hooks displaced to the base of attenuated portion, amphids displaced posterior to cephalic hooks, excretory duct short and weak, males possessing several genital papilliform sensilla. The new species are differentiated by the size, number and disposition of the male genital sensilla (larger and more numerous in D. nemoralis n. sp.); the body shape of females (with thinner neck and wider mid-body in D. paludigenus n. sp.) and the ovarian tube arranged in transversal folds in D. paludigenus (vs longitudinal folds in D. nemoralis n. sp.). Nucleotide sequences of D2-D3 expansion segment of 28S rDNA for the two new species differed at 13 positions. Phylogenetic analysis revealed close relationships of Drasico n. g. with species of Siconema Timm, 1966. The host species was represented by two morphs (blue-grey forest and tar-black meadow-swamp morph) with intraspecific divergence of 16-17% for cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI) gene, and each host morph was found infected by a different nematode species. A co-infection with the plectid nematode Creagrocercus drawidae Ivanova & Spiridonov, 2011 was recorded together with D. nemoralis n. sp. in the blue-grey forest morph. PMID:24563140

  20. Systematic revision of the Taiwanese genus Kurixalus members with a description of two new endemic species (Anura, Rhacophoridae)

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shu-Ping; Huang, Chuan-Chin; Tsai, Chi-Li; Lin, Te-En; Jhang, Jhih-Jia; Wu, Sheng-Hai

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Two new species of rhacophorid tree frog were identified in Taiwan. In both new taxa, derived reproductive characteristics of laying eggs in tree holes and oophagous tadpoles are shared with Kurixalus eiffingeri, but they are divergent from each other in molecular genetics, mating calls, and tadpole and adult morphology. The morphological characteristics and the molecular phylogenetic evidence support the hypothesis that the two new species, Kurixalus berylliniris sp. n. and Kurixalus wangi sp. n., are both monophyletic lineages. PMID:26877703

  1. Systematic revision of the Taiwanese genus Kurixalus members with a description of two new endemic species (Anura, Rhacophoridae).

    PubMed

    Wu, Shu-Ping; Huang, Chuan-Chin; Tsai, Chi-Li; Lin, Te-En; Jhang, Jhih-Jia; Wu, Sheng-Hai

    2016-01-01

    Two new species of rhacophorid tree frog were identified in Taiwan. In both new taxa, derived reproductive characteristics of laying eggs in tree holes and oophagous tadpoles are shared with Kurixalus eiffingeri, but they are divergent from each other in molecular genetics, mating calls, and tadpole and adult morphology. The morphological characteristics and the molecular phylogenetic evidence support the hypothesis that the two new species, Kurixalus berylliniris sp. n. and Kurixalus wangi sp. n., are both monophyletic lineages. PMID:26877703

  2. Herbivore effects on plant species density at varying productivity levels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gough, L.; Grace, J.B.

    1998-01-01

    Artificially increasing primary productivity decreases plant species richness in many habitats; herbivory may affect this outcome, but it has rarely been directly addressed in fertilization studies. This experiment was conducted in two Louisiana coastal marshes to examine the effects of nutrient enrichment and sediment addition on herbaceous plant communities with and without vertebrate herbivory. After three growing seasons, fertilization increased community biomass in all plots, but decreased species density (the number of species per unit area) only in plots protected from herbivory. Herbivory alone did not alter species density at either site. At the brackish marsh, herbivory caused a shift in dominance in the fertilized plots from a species that is considered the competitive dominant, but is selectively eaten, to another less palatable species. At the fresh marsh, increased dead biomass in the absence of herbivory and in the fertilized plots probably contributed to the decrease in species density, perhaps by limiting germination of annuals. Our results support those of other fertilization studies in which plant species density decreases with increased biomass, but only in those plots protected from herbivory.

  3. Avian Schistosomes from the South American Endemic Gastropod Genus Chilina (Pulmonata: Chilinidae), with a Brief Review of South American Schistosome Species.

    PubMed

    Flores, Verónica; Brant, Sara V; Loker, Eric S

    2015-10-01

    Our current knowledge of avian schistosomes from South America is scarce in all respects, including species and generic diversity, their life cycles, patterns of host use, potential to cause dermatitis outbreaks, and evolutionary affinities. As a step towards addressing this shortcoming, the goal of this study was to provide discrete reference points relating to snail hosts, locality records, morphological attributes, sequence for nuclear 28S and ITS, and partial mitochondrial cox1 genes, and phylogenetic relationships for schistosome cercariae recovered from different species of Chilina, which are gastropods endemic to South America. In total, 1,308 snails belonging to 6 species of Chilina were collected from 12 localities across Argentina. Thirty-eight snails (2.9%) had schistosome infections. Our data indicate the presence of 3 lineages of Chilina-transmitted schistosomes, all of which group within the major avian schistosome clade. However, none of the lineages grouped within or as sister to other known avian schistosome genera in the tree, indicating they probably represent undescribed genera. The relationships of these schistosomes from Chilina spp. are discussed in relation to their position in the global schistosome phylogenetic tree. PMID:26186680

  4. Endemic treponemal diseases.

    PubMed

    Marks, Michael; Solomon, Anthony W; Mabey, David C

    2014-10-01

    The endemic treponemal diseases, consisting of yaws, bejel (endemic syphilis) and pinta, are non-venereal infections closely related to syphilis, and are recognized by WHO as neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). Despite previous worldwide eradication efforts the prevalence of yaws has rebounded in recent years and the disease is now a major public health problem in 14 countries. Adequate data on the epidemiology of bejel and pinta is lacking. Each disease is restricted to a specific ecological niche but all predominantly affect poor, rural communities. As with venereal syphilis, the clinical manifestations of the endemic treponemal diseases are variable and can be broken down in to early stage and late stage disease. Current diagnostic techniques are unable to distinguish the different causative species but newer molecular techniques are now making this possible. Penicillin has long been considered the mainstay of treatment for the endemic treponemal diseases but the recent discovery that azithromycin is effective in the treatment of yaws has renewed interest in these most neglected of the NTDs, and raised hopes that global eradication may finally be possible. PMID:25157125

  5. Floristic summary of plant species in the air pollution literature

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    A floristic summary and analysis was performed on a list of the plant species that have been studied for the effects of gaseous and chemical air pollutants on vegetation in order to compare the species with the flora of North America north of Mexico. The scientific names of 2081 vascular plant species were extracted from almost 4000 journal articles stored in two large literature databases on the effects of air pollutants on plants. Three quarters of the plant species studied occur in North America, but this was only 7% of the total North American flora. Sixteen percent and 56% of all North American genera and families have been studied. The most studied genus is Pinus with 70% of the North American species studied, and the most studied family is the grass family, with 12% of the species studied. Although Pinus is ranked 86th in the North American flora, the grass family is ranked third, indicating that representation at the family level is better than at the genus level. All of the top ten families in North America are represented in the top 20 families in the air pollution effects literature, but only one genus (Lupinus) in the top ten genera in North America is represented in the top thirteen genera in the air pollution literature.

  6. Invasive species management restores a plant-pollinator mutualism in Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanna, Cause; Foote, David; Kremen, Claire

    2013-01-01

    1.The management and removal of invasive species may give rise to unanticipated changes in plant–pollinator mutualisms because they can alter the composition and functioning of plant–pollinator interactions in a variety of ways. To utilize a functional approach for invasive species management, we examined the restoration of plant–pollinator mutualisms following the large-scale removal of an invasive nectar thief and arthropod predator, Vespula pensylvanica. 2.We reduced V. pensylvanica populations in large plots managed over multiple years to examine the response of plant–pollinator mutualisms and the fruit production of a functionally important endemic Hawaiian tree species, Metrosideros polymorpha. To integrate knowledge of the invader's behaviour and the plant's mating system, we determined the efficacy of V. pensylvanica as a pollinator of M. polymorpha and quantified the dependence of M. polymorpha on animal pollination (e.g. level of self-compatibility and pollen limitation). 3.The reduction of V. pensylvanica in managed sites, when compared to unmanaged sites, resulted in a significant increase in the visitation rates of effective bee pollinators (e.g. introduced Apis mellifera and native Hylaeus spp.) and in the fruit production of M. polymorpha. 4.Apis mellifera, following the management of V. pensylvanica, appears to be acting as a substitute pollinator for M. polymorpha, replacing extinct or threatened bird and bee species in our study system. 5.Synthesis and applications. Fruit production of the native M. polymorpha was increased after management of the invasive pollinator predator V. pensylvanica; however, the main pollinators were no longer native but introduced. This research thus demonstrates the diverse impacts of introduced species on ecological function and the ambiguous role they play in restoration. We recommend incorporating ecological function and context into invasive species management as this approach may enable conservation

  7. Two species of the Asian endemic genus Keteleeria form ectomycorrhizas with diverse fungal symbionts in southwestern China.

    PubMed

    Ge, Zai-Wei; Smith, Matthew E; Zhang, Qing-Ying; Yang, Zhu L

    2012-07-01

    The ectomycorrhizal status of Keteleeria species is reported for the first time based on morphological and molecular analyses of root tips from southwestern China. Based on internal transcribed spacer rDNA sequences, we detected 26 ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal species on roots of Keteleeria evelyniana and Keteleeria davidiana collected from natural sites and a botanical garden in Kunming, China. These ECM symbionts represent six fungal lineages, including /russula-lactarius, /inocybe, /sebacina, /tomentella-thelephora, /wilcoxina, and /cenococcum. Our results provide the first evidence of ECM formation by Keteleeria and also supply ecologically important information for conservation and restoration efforts to recover populations of Keteleeria. PMID:21997220

  8. Seasonal variation and natural infection of Lutzomyia antunesi (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae), an endemic species in the Orinoquia region of Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Trujillo, Adolfo Vásquez; Reina, Angélica E González; Orjuela, Agustín Góngora; Suárez, Edgar Prieto; Palomares, Jairo Enrique; Alvarez, Luz Stella Buitrago

    2013-01-01

    Lutzomyia antunesi has been commonly reported in outbreaks of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in the Orinoquia region of Colombia. The bionomics of this species were studied in the municipality of Villavicencio (Meta, Colombia). Sandflies were captured over the course of one week per month for one year in intradomiciliary, peridomiciliary and extradomiciliary housing areas. The captures were performed from 06:00 pm-06:00 am using CDC light traps and the females were processed for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect Leishmania spp. A total of 22,097 specimens and 19 species were captured of which Lu. antunesi (89%) and Lutzomyia walkeri (5%) were the most abundant. Other species recognised as anthropophilic (Lutzomyia panamensis, Lutzomyia gomezi, Lutzomyia flaviscutellata and Lutzomyia fairtigi) were present in very low abundance (< 2%). Natural infection with Leishmania spp was detected using PCR in Lu. antunesi, Lu. panamensis and Lu. flavicutellata, showing infection rates of 1%, 4.8% and 7.5%, respectively. The present paper provides information on various ecological aspects of Lu. antunesi. An analysis of seasonality shows that this species increases in abundance in the hottest months (December, January and February), directly correlating with the maximum temperature and inversely correlating with precipitation. The natural infection rate is associated with the peaks of highest abundance. PMID:23828011

  9. Seasonal variation and natural infection of Lutzomyia antunesi (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae), an endemic species in the Orinoquia region of Colombia.

    PubMed

    Vásquez Trujillo, Adolfo; González Reina, Angélica E; Góngora Orjuela, Agustín; Prieto Suárez, Edgar; Palomares, Jairo Enrique; Buitrago Alvarez, Luz Stella

    2013-06-01

    Lutzomyia antunesi has been commonly reported in outbreaks of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in the Orinoquia region of Colombia. The bionomics of this species were studied in the municipality of Villavicencio (Meta, Colombia). Sandflies were captured over the course of one week per month for one year in intradomiciliary, peridomiciliary and extradomiciliary housing areas. The captures were performed from 06:00 pm-06:00 am using CDC light traps and the females were processed for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect Leishmania spp. A total of 22,097 specimens and 19 species were captured of which Lu. antunesi (89%) and Lutzomyia walkeri (5%) were the most abundant. Other species recognised as anthropophilic (Lutzomyia panamensis, Lutzomyia gomezi, Lutzomyia flaviscutellata and Lutzomyia fairtigi) were present in very low abundance (< 2%). Natural infection with Leishmania spp was detected using PCR in Lu. antunesi, Lu. panamensis and Lu. flavicutellata, showing infection rates of 1%, 4.8% and 7.5%, respectively. The present paper provides information on various ecological aspects of Lu. antunesi. An analysis of seasonality shows that this species increases in abundance in the hottest months (December, January and February), directly correlating with the maximum temperature and inversely correlating with precipitation. The natural infection rate is associated with the peaks of highest abundance. PMID:23828011

  10. Cryptic host specificity of an avian skin mite (Epidermoptidae) vectored by louseflies (Hippoboscidae) associated with two endemic Galapagos bird species.

    PubMed

    Whiteman, Noah Kerness; Sánchez, Pablo; Merkel, Jane; Klompen, Hans; Parker, Patricia G

    2006-12-01

    Host specificity of vectors is an important but understudied force shaping parasite evolution and the relationship between hosts and parasites. Low vector specificity may allow a vectored parasite to invade new host species, whereas high specificity of vectors may reduce the host range of the parasite and favor specialization. The 'generalist' and widely distributed avian skin mite Myialges caulotoon Speiser (Acari: Epidermoptidae) is unusual because females require an insect vector to complete their life cycle. Myialges caulotoon was previously reported from 2 lousefly (Diptera: Hippoboscidae) species, Olfersia sordida and Icosta nigra, parasitizing flightless cormorants (Phalacrocorax harrisi) and Galápagos hawks (Buteo galapagoensis), respectively, within the Galápagos Islands. This is a surprising distribution, given that the 2 lousefly species involved are relatively host-specific. Mitochondrial DNA sequences revealed 2 reciprocally monophyletic Myialges clades that sorted out perfectly with respect to their vector species, regardless of whether they were in allopatry or sympatry. One clade was restricted to flies of hawks and the other to flies of cormorants. Females of the 2 Myialges groups were also separated consistently by the shape of the sternal surface sclerotization. Mites of hawk flies were more abundant than those of cormorant flies. Within the Myialges clade associated with hawks, genetic differentiation between 2 island populations mirrored its host's patterns of differentiation. PMID:17304798

  11. Assembly of a micro-hotspot of caenogastropod endemism in the southern Nevada desert, with a description of a new species of Tryonia (Truncatelloidea, Cochliopidae)

    PubMed Central

    Hershler, Robert; Liu, Hsiu-Ping; Simpson, Jeffrey S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Newly obtained and previously published sequences of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene were analyzed to examine the biogeographic assembly of the caenogastropod fauna (belonging to the families Assimineidae, Cochliopidae, and Hydrobiidae) of an isolated spring along the lower Colorado River in southern Nevada (Blue Point Spring). Based on available COI clock calibrations, the three lineages that comprise this fauna are 2.78–1.42 million years old, which is roughly coeval or slightly younger than the age of Blue Point Spring (inferred from local fossil spring deposits). Two of the lineages—endemic Pyrgulopsis coloradensis and Assiminea aff. infima—are most closely related to snails in the Death Valley area (well to the west) and likely colonized Blue Point Spring by transport on birds. A single haplotype was detected in both of these snails, suggesting that they may have only recently colonized Blue Point Spring. The third lineage—endemic Tryonia infernalis, newly described herein based on morphological and molecular evidence—is most closely related to a geographically proximal species in a lower Colorado River tributary (Tryonia clathrata); the split between these taxa may be the product of vicariance (severance of a prior drainage connection) or a separate jump dispersal event. The considerable genetic diversity in Tryonia infernalis (three haplotypes differing by 0.6% mean sequence divergence) suggests a possibly lengthy history of local differentiation. Our findings also identify Blue Point Spring as a new micro-hotspot of groundwater-dependent biodiversity in Nevada and will assist ongoing efforts to protect and conserve these imperiled ecosystems. PMID:25878543

  12. Assembly of a micro-hotspot of caenogastropod endemism in the southern Nevada desert, with a description of a new species of Tryonia (Truncatelloidea, Cochliopidae).

    PubMed

    Hershler, Robert; Liu, Hsiu-Ping; Simpson, Jeffrey S

    2015-01-01

    Newly obtained and previously published sequences of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene were analyzed to examine the biogeographic assembly of the caenogastropod fauna (belonging to the families Assimineidae, Cochliopidae, and Hydrobiidae) of an isolated spring along the lower Colorado River in southern Nevada (Blue Point Spring). Based on available COI clock calibrations, the three lineages that comprise this fauna are 2.78-1.42 million years old, which is roughly coeval or slightly younger than the age of Blue Point Spring (inferred from local fossil spring deposits). Two of the lineages-endemic Pyrgulopsiscoloradensis and Assimineaaff.infima-are most closely related to snails in the Death Valley area (well to the west) and likely colonized Blue Point Spring by transport on birds. A single haplotype was detected in both of these snails, suggesting that they may have only recently colonized Blue Point Spring. The third lineage-endemic Tryoniainfernalis, newly described herein based on morphological and molecular evidence-is most closely related to a geographically proximal species in a lower Colorado River tributary (Tryoniaclathrata); the split between these taxa may be the product of vicariance (severance of a prior drainage connection) or a separate jump dispersal event. The considerable genetic diversity in Tryoniainfernalis (three haplotypes differing by 0.6% mean sequence divergence) suggests a possibly lengthy history of local differentiation. Our findings also identify Blue Point Spring as a new micro-hotspot of groundwater-dependent biodiversity in Nevada and will assist ongoing efforts to protect and conserve these imperiled ecosystems. PMID:25878543

  13. A New Species of the Bay Goby Genus Eucyclogobius, Endemic to Southern California: Evolution, Conservation, and Decline

    PubMed Central

    Swift, Camm C.; Spies, Brenton; Ellingson, Ryan A.; Jacobs, David K.

    2016-01-01

    A geographically isolated set of southern localities of the formerly monotypic goby genus Eucyclogobius is known to be reciprocally monophyletic and substantially divergent in mitochondrial sequence and nuclear microsatellite-based phylogenies relative to populations to the north along the California coast. To clarify taxonomic and conservation status, we conducted a suite of analyses on a comprehensive set of morphological counts and measures from across the range of Eucyclogobius and describe the southern populations as a new species, the Southern Tidewater Goby, Eucyclogobius kristinae, now separate from the Northern Tidewater Goby Eucyclogobius newberryi (Girard 1856). In addition to molecular distinction, adults of E. kristinae are diagnosed by: 1) loss of the anterior supratemporal lateral-line canals resulting in higher neuromast counts, 2) lower pectoral and branched caudal ray counts, and 3) sets of measurements identified via discriminant analysis. These differences suggest ecological distinction of the two species. Previous studies estimated lineage separation at 2–4 million years ago, and mitochondrial sequence divergence exceeds that of other recognized fish species. Fish from Santa Monica Artesian Springs (Los Angeles County) northward belong to E. newberryi; those from Aliso Creek (Orange County) southward constitute E. kristinae. The lagoonal habitat of Eucyclogobius has been diminished or degraded, leading to special conservation status at state and federal levels beginning in 1980. Habitat of the newly described species has been impacted by a range of anthropogenic activities, including the conversion of closing lagoons to open tidal systems in the name of restoration. In the last 30 years, E. kristinae has only been observed in nine intermittently occupied lagoonal systems in northern San Diego County; it currently persists in only three sites. Thus, the new species is in imminent danger of extinction and will require ongoing active management

  14. A New Species of the Bay Goby Genus Eucyclogobius, Endemic to Southern California: Evolution, Conservation, and Decline.

    PubMed

    Swift, Camm C; Spies, Brenton; Ellingson, Ryan A; Jacobs, David K

    2016-01-01

    A geographically isolated set of southern localities of the formerly monotypic goby genus Eucyclogobius is known to be reciprocally monophyletic and substantially divergent in mitochondrial sequence and nuclear microsatellite-based phylogenies relative to populations to the north along the California coast. To clarify taxonomic and conservation status, we conducted a suite of analyses on a comprehensive set of morphological counts and measures from across the range of Eucyclogobius and describe the southern populations as a new species, the Southern Tidewater Goby, Eucyclogobius kristinae, now separate from the Northern Tidewater Goby Eucyclogobius newberryi (Girard 1856). In addition to molecular distinction, adults of E. kristinae are diagnosed by: 1) loss of the anterior supratemporal lateral-line canals resulting in higher neuromast counts, 2) lower pectoral and branched caudal ray counts, and 3) sets of measurements identified via discriminant analysis. These differences suggest ecological distinction of the two species. Previous studies estimated lineage separation at 2-4 million years ago, and mitochondrial sequence divergence exceeds that of other recognized fish species. Fish from Santa Monica Artesian Springs (Los Angeles County) northward belong to E. newberryi; those from Aliso Creek (Orange County) southward constitute E. kristinae. The lagoonal habitat of Eucyclogobius has been diminished or degraded, leading to special conservation status at state and federal levels beginning in 1980. Habitat of the newly described species has been impacted by a range of anthropogenic activities, including the conversion of closing lagoons to open tidal systems in the name of restoration. In the last 30 years, E. kristinae has only been observed in nine intermittently occupied lagoonal systems in northern San Diego County; it currently persists in only three sites. Thus, the new species is in imminent danger of extinction and will require ongoing active management

  15. Which ornamental plant species effectively remove benzene from indoor air?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yan-Ju; Mu, Yu-Jing; Zhu, Yong-Guan; Ding, Hui; Crystal Arens, Nan

    Phytoremediation—using plants to remove toxins—is an attractive and cost effective way to improve indoor air quality. This study screened ornamental plants for their ability to remove volatile organic compounds from air by fumigating 73 plant species with 150 ppb benzene, an important indoor air pollutant that poses a risk to human health. The 10 species found to be most effective at removing benzene from air were fumigated for two more days (8 h per day) to quantify their benzene removal capacity. Crassula portulacea, Hydrangea macrophylla, Cymbidium Golden Elf., Ficus microcarpa var. fuyuensis, Dendranthema morifolium, Citrus medica var. sarcodactylis, Dieffenbachia amoena cv. Tropic Snow; Spathiphyllum Supreme; Nephrolepis exaltata cv. Bostoniensis; Dracaena deremensis cv. Variegata emerged as the species with the greatest capacity to remove benzene from indoor air.

  16. Surface ultrastructure of larval mouthpart sensilla of the muga silkmoth, Antheraea assamensis, an endemic species of North-East India.

    PubMed

    Dey, Sudip; Singh, Surendra; Chakraborty, Rahul

    2011-03-01

    Scanning electron microscopy of different larval stages of the muga silk moth Antheraea assamensis revealed the presence of sensilla chaetica, sensilla trichoidea, sensilla styloconica, gustatory sensilla, sensory pegs, placoid sensilla, etc., on their mouth parts. Some variations were observed in the number and sub-types of sensilla in certain larval stages indicating some differences in sensitivity of the worms in different instars to the food plant and microhabitat. PMID:20669308

  17. Invasive vascular plant species of limnocrenic karst springs in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spałek, Krzysztof

    2015-04-01

    Natural water reservoirs are very valuable floristic sites in Poland. Among them, the most important for preservation of biodiversity of flora are limnocrenic karst springs. The long-term process of human pressure on habitats of this type caused disturbance of their biological balance. Changes in the water regime, industrial development and chemisation of agriculture, especially in the period of last two hundred years, led to systematic disappearance of localities of many plant species connected with rare habitats and also to appear numerous invasive plant species. They are: Acorus calamus, Echinocystis lobata, Elodea canadensis, Erechtites hieraciifolia, Impatiens glandulifera, Solidago canadensis, S. gigantea and S. graminifolia. Fielworks were conducted in 2010-2014.

  18. Acclimation of plant species to elevated CO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Olavi, K.; Ball, J.T.; Seemann, J.

    1995-06-01

    Plant species differ in assimilated carbon partitioning between starch, sucrose and hexose sugars. Soluble sugars have been implicated to play a role in downregulating rubisco and other photosynthesis enzymes on the level of transcription. In this study we compared high CO{sub 2} response of plants with different physiology. Cucumber, tobacco and sunflower were chosen as relatively good starch accumulators, spinach and sugar-beet as species with high leaf soluble sugar levels. In addition woody species cottonwood and salt cedar and one C{sub 4} species (corn) were studied. Plants were grown from seed at three CO{sub 2} levels: 330 {mu}bar, 660 {mu}bar and 1500 {mu}bar. Two soil nitrogen levels were used: one that allowed normal growth and the other that caused about 5 times growth suppression. All species except corn (C{sub 4}) showed downregulation of leaf rubisco activity. This downregulation was due to decrease of rubisco content, activation state remaining unchanged. Initial slope of AC{sub i} curve and rubisco activity were in good correlation. Low and high nitrogen plants had similar relative changes in photosynthetic activity. Final harvest onground weight correlated with CO{sub 2} uptake at growth conditions. We concluded that soluble sugars per se do not cause downregulation of leaf photosynthetic activity at high CO{sub 2}.

  19. Short Communication Validation of EST-derived microsatellite markers for two Cerrado-endemic Campomanesia (Myrtaceae) species.

    PubMed

    Miranda, E A G C; Boaventura-Novaes, C R D; Braga, R S; Reis, E F; Pinto, J F N; Telles, M P C

    2016-01-01

    We assessed the transferability of 120 EST-derived Eucalyptus microsatellite primers to Campomanesia adamantium and C. pubescens. Both species are berry trees native to the Brazilian Cerrado, and population genetic information is poor. Twelve markers were used to analyze the genetic variability of four sampled populations. Regarding DNA extraction, we sampled leaf tissues from two populations of each species (80 individuals). Of the 120 primers evaluated, 87 did not amplify any PCR products, and 21 rendered nonspecific amplification. Twelve primers were successfully transferred, providing a low combined probability of genetic identity for both species (5.718 x 10(-10) for C. adamantium; 1.182 x 10(-11) for C. pubescens) and a high probability of paternity exclusion (0.99939 for C. adamantium; 0.99982 for C. pubescens). The average number of alleles in the polymorphic loci was 6.8 for C. adamantium and 7.8 for C. pubescens, ranging from 2 to 16 alleles per locus. The observed heterozygosity values for C. adamantium and C. pubescens were 0.504 and 0.503, respectively, and the expected heterozygosity values for C. adamantium and C. pubescens were 0.517 and 0.579, respectively. The populations exhibited structured genetic variability with qP values of 0.105 for C. adamantium and 0.249 for C. pubescens. Thus, we concluded that these 12 microsatellite markers, transferred from Eucalyptus, were efficient for population genetic studies of C. adamantium and C. pubescens. PMID:26985928

  20. Lesula: A New Species of Cercopithecus Monkey Endemic to the Democratic Republic of Congo and Implications for Conservation of Congo’s Central Basin

    PubMed Central

    Hart, John A.; Detwiler, Kate M.; Gilbert, Christopher C.; Burrell, Andrew S.; Fuller, James L.; Emetshu, Maurice; Hart, Terese B.; Vosper, Ashley; Sargis, Eric J.; Tosi, Anthony J.

    2012-01-01

    In June 2007, a previously undescribed monkey known locally as “lesula” was found in the forests of the middle Lomami Basin in central Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). We describe this new species as Cercopithecus lomamiensis sp. nov., and provide data on its distribution, morphology, genetics, ecology and behavior. C. lomamiensis is restricted to the lowland rain forests of central DRC between the middle Lomami and the upper Tshuapa Rivers. Morphological and molecular data confirm that C. lomamiensis is distinct from its nearest congener, C. hamlyni, from which it is separated geographically by both the Congo (Lualaba) and the Lomami Rivers. C. lomamiensis, like C. hamlyni, is semi-terrestrial with a diet containing terrestrial herbaceous vegetation. The discovery of C. lomamiensis highlights the biogeographic significance and importance for conservation of central Congo’s interfluvial TL2 region, defined from the upper Tshuapa River through the Lomami Basin to the Congo (Lualaba) River. The TL2 region has been found to contain a high diversity of anthropoid primates including three forms, in addition to C. lomamiensis, that are endemic to the area. We recommend the common name, lesula, for this new species, as it is the vernacular name used over most of its known range. PMID:22984482

  1. Coconut Laurels: The Leaf Essential Oils from Four Endemic Australian Cryptocarya Species: C. bellendenkerana, C. cocosoides, C. cunninghamii and C. lividula (Lauraceae).

    PubMed

    Brophy, Joseph J; Forster, Paul I; Goldsack, Robert J

    2016-02-01

    The leaf oils of four species of Cryptocarya, endemic to Australia, were examined. These species are known colloquially as 'coconut laurels' due to the purported distinctive aroma from the crushed foliage. C. cocosoides produced an oil in which bicyclogermacrene (3-26%), spathulenol (16-47%), massoia lactone (6-pentyl-5,6-dihydro-2H-pyran-2-one) (11-15%), (6-heptyl-5,6-dihydro-2H-pyran-2-one (0.3-3%) and benzyl benzoate (0.2-5%) were the principal components. C. cunninghamii showed a second chemotype to that previously published, with benzyl benzoate (80.2%) being the principal component. C. bellendenkerana gave a leaf oil in which the major components were the terpenes limonene (8.3%), β-phellandrene (11.8%) and viridiflorene (9.1%). The principal components of the leaf oil of C. lividula were bicyclogermacrene (26.1%), spathulenol (21.1%) and β-eudesmol (6.1%). Benzaldehyde and acetophenone were both present in amounts of less than 0.7%. Only C. cocosoides and C. cunninghamii have been found to have a 'coconut' aroma mainly due to the presence of massoia lactone and homologues. PMID:27032214

  2. Can REDD+ Help the Conservation of Restricted-Range Island Species? Insights from the Endemism Hotspot of São Tomé

    PubMed Central

    de Lima, Ricardo Faustino; Olmos, Fábio; Dallimer, Martin; Atkinson, Philip W.; Barlow, Jos

    2013-01-01

    REDD+ aims to offset greenhouse gas emissions through “Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation”. Some authors suggest that REDD+ can bring additional benefits for biodiversity, namely for the conservation of extinction-prone restricted-range species. Here, we assess this claim, using São Tomé Island (Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe) as a case study. We quantified the abundance of bird and tree species, and calculated the aboveground carbon stocks across a gradient of land-use intensity. We found a strong spatial congruence between carbon and the presence and abundance of endemic species, supporting the potential of REDD+ to protect these taxa. We then assessed if REDD+ could help protect the forests of São Tomé and Príncipe. To do so, we used OSIRIS simulations to predict country-level deforestation under two different REDD+ designs. These simulations showed that REDD+ could promote the loss of forests in São Tomé and Príncipe through leakage. This happened even when additional payments for biodiversity were included in the simulations, and despite São Tomé and Príncipe having the fourth highest carbon stocks per land area and the second highest biodiversity values according to the OSIRIS database. These results show weaknesses of OSIRIS as a planning tool, and demonstrate that the benefits that REDD+ might bring for biodiversity are strongly dependent on its careful implementation. We recommend that payment for ecosystem services programmes such as REDD+ develop safeguards to ensure that biodiversity co-benefits are met and perverse outcomes are avoided across all tropical countries. In particular, we advise specific safeguards regarding the conservation of extinction-prone groups, such as island restricted-range species. PMID:24066109

  3. Chlamydia pecorum is the endemic intestinal species in cattle while C. gallinacea, C. psittaci and C. pneumoniae associate with sporadic systemic infection.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Guo, Weina; Kaltenboeck, Bernhard; Sachse, Konrad; Yang, Yi; Lu, Guangwu; Zhang, Jilei; Luan, Lu; You, Jinfeng; Huang, Ke; Qiu, Haixiang; Wang, Yaoyao; Li, Min; Yang, Zhangping; Wang, Chengming

    2016-09-25

    To investigate the prevalence and diversity of bovine Chlamydia spp. in cattle, whole blood from dairy and beef cattle in 11 provinces of China (n=2003) and vaginal swabs, whole blood samples, feces, milk samples from cows in a Yangzhou dairy farm (n=108) were examined using genus- and species-specific PCRs. In cattle from 11 provinces, 2.4% (48/2003) of whole-blood samples were positive for Chlamydia spp., and four Chlamydia species (C. pneumoniae, 41.7%, 20/48; C. psittaci, 22.9%, 11/48; C. gallinacea, 20.8%, 10/48; C. pecorum, 6.3%, 3/48) were identified. In a further study on a Yangzhou dairy farm, 64.8% (70/108) of the cows were positive for Chlamydia spp. C. pecorum was the intestinal endemic species (51/51, 100%), and C. gallinacea was the most frequent species in vaginal swabs (24/27, 88.9%), whole blood buffy coats (5/8, 62.5%) and milk (4/6, 66.7%). C. psittaci and C. pneumoniae were infrequently detected. DNA sequencing of the ompA gene demonstrated the presence of multiple in-herd C. pecorum serovars and single C. gallinacea and C. psittaci serovars which were identical with those of poultry from Yangzhou. This is the first report of C. gallinacea and C. pneumoniae in cattle. Further study is required to address the transmission of Chlamydia spp., in particular of C. gallinacea and C. pneumoniae from their natural hosts, and their potential pathogenic effect on health and production of cattle. PMID:27599935

  4. Can REDD+ help the conservation of restricted-range island species? Insights from the endemism hotspot of São Tomé.

    PubMed

    de Lima, Ricardo Faustino; Olmos, Fábio; Dallimer, Martin; Atkinson, Philip W; Barlow, Jos

    2013-01-01

    REDD+ aims to offset greenhouse gas emissions through "Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation". Some authors suggest that REDD+ can bring additional benefits for biodiversity, namely for the conservation of extinction-prone restricted-range species. Here, we assess this claim, using São Tomé Island (Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe) as a case study. We quantified the abundance of bird and tree species, and calculated the aboveground carbon stocks across a gradient of land-use intensity. We found a strong spatial congruence between carbon and the presence and abundance of endemic species, supporting the potential of REDD+ to protect these taxa. We then assessed if REDD+ could help protect the forests of São Tomé and Príncipe. To do so, we used OSIRIS simulations to predict country-level deforestation under two different REDD+ designs. These simulations showed that REDD+ could promote the loss of forests in São Tomé and Príncipe through leakage. This happened even when additional payments for biodiversity were included in the simulations, and despite São Tomé and Príncipe having the fourth highest carbon stocks per land area and the second highest biodiversity values according to the OSIRIS database. These results show weaknesses of OSIRIS as a planning tool, and demonstrate that the benefits that REDD+ might bring for biodiversity are strongly dependent on its careful implementation. We recommend that payment for ecosystem services programmes such as REDD+ develop safeguards to ensure that biodiversity co-benefits are met and perverse outcomes are avoided across all tropical countries. In particular, we advise specific safeguards regarding the conservation of extinction-prone groups, such as island restricted-range species. PMID:24066109

  5. Genetic Homogeneity Revealed Using SCoT, ISSR and RAPD Markers in Micropropagated Pittosporum eriocarpum Royle- An Endemic and Endangered Medicinal Plant

    PubMed Central

    Thakur, Julie; Dwivedi, Mayank D.; Sourabh, Pragya; Uniyal, Prem L.; Pandey, Arun K.

    2016-01-01

    Pittosporum eriocarpum Royle, a medicinally important taxon, is endemic to Uttarakhand region of Himalaya. It has become endangered due to over-collection and the loss of habitats. As raising plants through seeds in this plant is problematic, a reliable protocol for micropropagation using nodal explants has been developed. High shoot regeneration (95%) occurred in MS medium augmented with BA 0.4mg/l in combination IBA 0.6mg/l. In vitro regenerated shoots were rooted in MS medium supplemented with three auxins, of which 0.6 mg/l indole butyric acid proved to be the best for rooting (90%) with maximum number of roots per shoot. Thereafter, rooted plants were hardened and nearly 73% of rooted shoots were successfully acclimatized and established in the field. Start codon targeted (SCoT), inter simple sequence repeats (ISSR) and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were used to validate the genetic homogeneity amongst nine in vitro raised plantlets with mother plant. DNA fingerprints of in vitro regenerated plantlets displayed monomorphic bands similar to mother plant, indicating homogeneity among the micropropagated plants with donor mother plant. The similarity values were calculated based on SCoT, ISSR and RAPD profiles which ranged from 0.89 to 1.00, 0.91 to 1.00 and 0.95 to 1.00 respectively. The dendrograms generated through Unweighted Pair Group Method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) analysis revealed 97% similarity amongst micropropagated plants with donor mother plant, thus confirming genetic homogeneity of micropropagated clones. This is the first report on micropropagation and genetic homogeneity assessment of P. eriocarpum. The protocol would be useful for the conservation and large scale production of P. eriocarpum to meet the demand for medicinal formulations and also for the re-introduction of in vitro grown plants in the suitable natural habitats to restore the populations. PMID:27434060

  6. Global patterns in endemism explained by past climatic change.

    PubMed

    Jansson, Roland

    2003-03-22

    I propose that global patterns in numbers of range-restricted endemic species are caused by variation in the amplitude of climatic change occurring on time-scales of 10-100 thousand years (Milankovitch oscillations). The smaller the climatic shifts, the more probable it is that palaeoendemics survive and that diverging gene pools persist without going extinct or merging, favouring the evolution of neoendemics. Using the change in mean annual temperature since the last glacial maximum, estimated from global circulation models, I show that the higher the temperature change in an area, the fewer endemic species of mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians and vascular plants it harbours. This relationship was robust to variation in area (for areas greater than 10(4) km2), latitudinal position, extent of former glaciation and whether or not areas are oceanic islands. Past climatic change was a better predictor of endemism than annual temperature range in all phylads except amphibians, suggesting that Rapoport's rule (i.e. species range sizes increase with latitude) is best explained by the increase in the amplitude of climatic oscillations towards the poles. Globally, endemic-rich areas are predicted to warm less in response to greenhouse-gas emissions, but the predicted warming would cause many habitats to disappear regionally, leading to species extinctions. PMID:12769457

  7. Effects of invasive alien kahili ginger (Hedychium gardnerianum) on native plant species regeneration in a Hawaiian rainforest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Minden, V.; Jacobi, J.D.; Porembski, S.; Boehmer, H.J.

    2010-01-01

    Questions: Does the invasive alien Hedychium gardnerianum (1) replace native understory species, (2) suppress natural regeneration of native plant species, (3) increase the invasiveness of other non-native plants and (4) are native forests are able to recover after removal of H. gardnerianum. Location: A mature rainforest in Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park on the island of Hawai'i (about 1200 m. a.s.l.; precipitation approximately 2770mm yr-1). Study sites included natural plots without effects of alien plants, ginger plots with a H. gardnerianum-domimted herb layer and cleared plots treated with herbicide to remove alien plants. Methods: Counting mature trees, saplings and seedlings of native and alien plant species. Using nonparametric H-tests to compare impact of H. gardnerianum on the structure of different sites. Results: Results confirmed the hypothesis that H. gardnerianum has negative effects on natural forest dynamics. Lower numbers of native tree seedlings and saplings were found on ginger-dominated plots. Furthermore, H. gardnerianum did not show negative effects on the invasive alien tree species Psidium cattleianum. Conclusions: This study reveals that where dominance of H. gardnerianum persists, regeneration of the forest by native species will be inhibited. Furthermore, these areas might experience invasion by P. cattleianum, resulting in displacement of native canopy species in the future, leading to a change in forest structure and loss of other species dependent on natural rainforest, such as endemic birds. However, if H. gardnerianum is removed the native Hawaiian forest is likely to regenerate and regain its natural structure. ?? 2009 International Association for Vegetation Science.

  8. Isolation and Characterization of Microsatellite Loci for Hibiscus aridicola (Malvaceae), an Endangered Plant Endemic to the Dry-Hot Valleys of Jinsha River in Southwest China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Le; Sun, Weibang; Wang, Zhonglang; Guan, Kaiyun; Yang, Junbo

    2011-01-01

    Hibiscus aridicola (Malvaceae) is an endangered ornamental shrub endemic to the dry-hot valleys of Jinsha River in southwest China. Only four natural populations of H. aridicola exist in the wild according to our field investigation. It can be inferred that H. aridicola is facing a very high risk of extinction in the wild and an urgent conservation strategy is required. By using a modified biotin-streptavidin capture method, a total of 40 microsatellite markers were developed and characterized in H. aridicola for the first time. Polymorphisms were evaluated in 39 individuals from four natural populations. Fifteen of the markers showed polymorphisms with two to six alleles per locus; the observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.19 to 0.72. These microsatellite loci would be useful tools for population genetics studies on H. aridicola and other con-generic species which are important to the conservation and development of endangered species. PMID:22016620

  9. Spatial variability in plant species composition and peatland carbon exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goud, E.; Moore, T. R.; Roulet, N. T.

    2015-12-01

    Plant species shifts in response to global change will have significant impacts on ecosystem carbon (C) exchange and storage arising from changes in hydrology. Spatial variation in peatland C fluxes have largely been attributed to the spatial distribution of microhabitats that arise from variation in surface topography and water table depth, but little is known about how plant species composition impacts peatland C cycling or how these impacts will be influenced by changing environmental conditions. We quantified the effect of species composition and environmental variables on carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) fluxes over 2 years in a temperate peatland for four plant communities situated along a water table gradient from ombrotrophic bog to beaver pond. We hypothesized that (i) spatial heterogeneity in species composition would drive predictable spatial heterogeneity in C fluxes due to variation in plant traits and ecological tolerances, and (ii) increases in peat temperature would increase C fluxes. Species had different effects on C fluxes primarily due to differences in leaf traits. Differences in ecological tolerances among communities resulted in different rates of CO2 exchange in response to changes in water table depth. There was an overall reduction in ecosystem respiration (ER), gross primary productivity (GPP) and CH4 flux in response to colder peat temperatures in the second year, and the additive effects of a deeper water table in the bog margin and pond sites further reduced flux rates in these areas. These results demonstrate that different plant species can increase or decrease the flux of C into and out of peatlands based on differences in leaf traits and ecological tolerances, and that CO2 and CH4 fluxes are sensitive to changes in soil temperature, especially when coupled with changes in moisture availability.

  10. Metal species involved in long distance metal transport in plants

    PubMed Central

    Álvarez-Fernández, Ana; Díaz-Benito, Pablo; Abadía, Anunciación; López-Millán, Ana-Flor; Abadía, Javier

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms plants use to transport metals from roots to shoots are not completely understood. It has long been proposed that organic molecules participate in metal translocation within the plant. However, until recently the identity of the complexes involved in the long-distance transport of metals could only be inferred by using indirect methods, such as analyzing separately the concentrations of metals and putative ligands and then using in silico chemical speciation software to predict metal species. Molecular biology approaches also have provided a breadth of information about putative metal ligands and metal complexes occurring in plant fluids. The new advances in analytical techniques based on mass spectrometry and the increased use of synchrotron X-ray spectroscopy have allowed for the identification of some metal-ligand species in plant fluids such as the xylem and phloem saps. Also, some proteins present in plant fluids can bind metals and a few studies have explored this possibility. This study reviews the analytical challenges researchers have to face to understand long-distance metal transport in plants as well as the recent advances in the identification of the ligand and metal-ligand complexes in plant fluids. PMID:24723928

  11. Epinephelus geoffroyi (Klunzinger, 1870) (Pisces: Serranidae), a valid species of grouper endemic to the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden.

    PubMed

    Randall, John E; Bogorodsky, Sergey V; Krupp, Friedhelm; Rose, Jean Michel; Fricke, Ronald

    2013-01-01

    The grouper Epinephelus geoffioyi (Klunzinger), type locality Red Sea, previously regarded as a synonym of E. chlorostigma (Valenciennes) is recognized as a valid species. It is differentiated from E. chlorostigma by having 25-29 (modally 27) gill rakers vs. 23-26 (modally 24), a more angular anal fin, the dark spots on the abdomen more widely separated, and lacking a clear white margin posteriorly on the caudal fin. The missing holotype of E. geoffroyi was found at the Staatliches Museum für Naturkunde Stuttgart (SMNS 233, 191 mm). Epinephelits chlorostigma is wide-ranging from the Gulf of Aden and east coast of Africa to Samoa; it is reported from the depth range of 32-280 m. Epinephelus geoffroyi is presently known only from the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden at depths of 3-32 m. Illustrations are provided for three other species of groupers with numerous small dark spots, E. areolatus (Forsskål), E. gabriellae Randall & Heemstra, and E. polylepis Randall & Heemstra, that are, or might be, sympatric with E. geoffroyi. PMID:26287104

  12. Out of the Sichuan Basin: Rapid species diversification of the freshwater crabs in Sinopotamon (Decapoda: Brachyura: Potamidae) endemic to China.

    PubMed

    Ji, Yongkun; Sun, Yufang; Gao, Wei; Chu, Kelin; Wang, Ruicong; Zhao, Qiang; Sun, Hongying

    2016-07-01

    Sinopotamon Bott, 1967 is the most speciose and widely distributed freshwater crab genus in East Asia. Our extensive sampling includes about 76% of the known Sinopotamon taxa, and nearly covers its entire distribution area. Based on mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) and 16S rRNA, as well as nuclear 28S rRNA and histone H3, we reconstructed the Sinopotamon phylogeny using maximum likelihood and Bayesian approaches. The divergence time was estimated and multiple methods were used to conduct diversification analyses. The ancestral geographic distribution and character state were reconstructed. Three main clades (Clades I, II and III) that roughly correspond to their main geographic distribution ranges were recovered. Our results challenge the current view of the four major species groups based on the morphological differences in the male first gonopod (G1). The most recent common ancestor of Sinopotamon most likely originated from the Sichuan Basin and surrounding mountains (SBSM) and subsequently dispersed throughout central and eastern China. The exceptionally rapid, recent diversification was detected in Clade II. The high incidence of species-level non-monophyly found in Clade II can be explained by recent rapid radiation. Climatic changes, morphological innovations, range expansion and geographical heterogeneity may all contribute to the diversification in Sinopotamon. This study contributes to our knowledge on diversification of freshwater benthic macro-invertebrates in the East Asian inland ecosystem. PMID:27058122

  13. Little evidence for morphological change in a resilient endemic species following the introduction of a novel predator.

    PubMed

    Sharpe, D M T; Langerhans, R B; Low-Décarie, E; Chapman, L J

    2015-11-01

    Human activities, such as species introductions, are dramatically and rapidly altering natural ecological processes and often result in novel selection regimes. To date, we still have a limited understanding of the extent to which such anthropogenic selection may be driving contemporary phenotypic change in natural populations. Here, we test whether the introduction of the piscivorous Nile perch, Lates niloticus, into East Africa's Lake Victoria and nearby lakes coincided with morphological change in one resilient native prey species, the cyprinid fish Rastrineobola argentea. Drawing on prior ecomorphological research, we predicted that this novel predator would select for increased allocation to the caudal region in R. argentea to enhance burst-swimming performance and hence escape ability. To test this prediction, we compared body morphology of R. argentea across space (nine Ugandan lakes differing in Nile perch invasion history) and through time (before and after establishment of Nile perch in Lake Victoria). Spatial comparisons of contemporary populations only partially supported our predictions, with R. argentea from some invaded lakes having larger caudal regions and smaller heads compared to R. argentea from uninvaded lakes. There was no clear evidence of predator-associated change in body shape over time in Lake Victoria. We conclude that R. argentea have not responded to the presence of Nile perch with consistent morphological changes and that other factors are driving observed patterns of body shape variation in R. argentea. PMID:26278629

  14. Stimulated rhizodegradation of atrazaine by selected plant species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The efficacy of vegetative buffer strips (VBS) in removing herbicides deposited from surface runoff is related to the ability of plant species to promote rapid herbicide degradation. A growth chamber study was conducted to investigate the rhizodegradation of 14C-atrazine and the relationship of degr...

  15. Gloger's rule in plants: The species and ecosystem levels.

    PubMed

    Lev-Yadun, Simcha

    2015-01-01

    Gloger's rule posits that darker birds are found more often in humid environments than in arid ones, especially in the tropics. Accordingly, desert-inhabiting animals tend to be light-colored. This rule is also true for certain mammalian groups, including humans. Gloger's rule is manifested at 2 levels: (1) at the species level (different populations of the same species have different pigmentation at different latitudes), and (2) at the species assembly level (different taxa at a certain geography have different pigmentation than other taxa found at different habitats or latitudes). Concerning plants, Gloger's rule was first proposed to operate in many plant species growing in sand dunes, sandy shores and in deserts, because of being white, whitish, or silver colored, based on white trichomes, because of sand grains and clay particles glued to sticky glandular trichomes, or because of light-colored waxes. Recently, Gloger's rule was shown to also be true at the intraspecific level in relation to protection of anthers from UV irradiation. While Gloger's rule is true in certain plant taxa and ecologies, there are others where "anti-Gloger" coloration patterns exist. In some of these the selective agents are known and in others they are not. I present both Gloger and "anti-Gloger" cases and argue that this largely neglected aspect of plant biology deserves much more research attention. PMID:26786012

  16. Plant species composition and biofuel yields of conservation grasslands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marginal croplands, such as those in the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP), have been suggested as a source of biomass for biofuel production. However, little is known about the composition of plant species on these conservation grasslands or their potential for ethanol production. Our objective w...

  17. AIRBORNE HYPERSPECTRAL IDENTIFICATION OF INVASIVE AND OPPORTUNISTIC WETLANDS PLANT SPECIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coastal wetlands are among the most fragmented and disturbed ecosystems and the Great Lakes are no exception. One possible result is the observed increase in the presence and dominance of invasive and other opportunistic plant species, such as the common reed (Phragmites australi...

  18. ORGANIC PESTICIDE MODIFICATION OF SPECIES INTERACTIONS USING ANNUAL PLANT COMMUNITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A method is proposed and tested for assessing multispecies responses to three pesticides (atrazine, 2,4,D and malathion). Pesticides were applied at two concentrations, mon model plant communities grown in raised beds using soil containing a natural weed bank. over by species was...

  19. Stimulated Rhizodegradation of Atrazine by Selected Plant Species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The efficacy of vegetative buffer strips (VBS) in removing herbicides from surface runoff is related to the ability of plant species to promote rapid herbicide degradation. A growth chamber study was conducted to investigate the rhizodegradation of 14C-atrazine and the relationship of degradation w...

  20. The importance of education in managing invasive plant species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Invasive plant species can establish in diverse environments and with the increase in human mobility, they are no longer restricted to isolated pockets in remote parts of the world. Cheat grass (Bromus tectorum L.) in rangelands, purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria L.) in wet lands and Canada this...

  1. Gloger's rule in plants: The species and ecosystem levels

    PubMed Central

    Lev-Yadun, Simcha

    2015-01-01

    Gloger's rule posits that darker birds are found more often in humid environments than in arid ones, especially in the tropics. Accordingly, desert-inhabiting animals tend to be light-colored. This rule is also true for certain mammalian groups, including humans. Gloger's rule is manifested at 2 levels: (1) at the species level (different populations of the same species have different pigmentation at different latitudes), and (2) at the species assembly level (different taxa at a certain geography have different pigmentation than other taxa found at different habitats or latitudes). Concerning plants, Gloger's rule was first proposed to operate in many plant species growing in sand dunes, sandy shores and in deserts, because of being white, whitish, or silver colored, based on white trichomes, because of sand grains and clay particles glued to sticky glandular trichomes, or because of light-colored waxes. Recently, Gloger's rule was shown to also be true at the intraspecific level in relation to protection of anthers from UV irradiation. While Gloger's rule is true in certain plant taxa and ecologies, there are others where “anti-Gloger” coloration patterns exist. In some of these the selective agents are known and in others they are not. I present both Gloger and “anti-Gloger” cases and argue that this largely neglected aspect of plant biology deserves much more research attention. PMID:26786012

  2. Description of an endemic and endangered new Sympetrum species (Odonata: Libellulidae) from the subtropical area of Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Tang, Hsin-Chieh; Yeh, Wen-Chi; Chen, Szu-Lung

    2013-01-01

    Sympetrum nantouensis sp. nov. collected from Nantou, Central Taiwan, is described and figured, with remarks on its ecology and oviposition behaviour. Judging from penile structure, it is considered to belong to the infuscatum-group, whose members are defined here by penile characters. In the infuscatum-group, S. nantouensis is most similar to S. risi Bartenev, but they are probably not very closely related to each other. Sympetrum nantouensis differs from S. risi mainly in having beak-like cerci, well-lineated black and pale yellow pterothorax, and penile 4th segment with longer and apically upcurved cornua. This new species is distinct among its congeners in view of both biogeography and morphology because of its confined and peripheral existence and the odd shape of its cerci. All type specimens will be deposited at the Insect Collection of TFRI. PMID:26185853

  3. Hydrogen peroxide-induced antioxidant activities and cardiotonic glycoside accumulation in callus cultures of endemic Digitalis species.

    PubMed

    Cingoz, Gunce Sahin; Verma, Sandeep Kumar; Gurel, Ekrem

    2014-09-01

    The effect of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) on callus cultures of four Digitalis species (Digitalis lamarckii, Digitalis trojana, Digitalis davisiana and Digitalis cariensis) increased catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), total phenolic, proline activity and cardiotonic glycoside production. Callus derived from hypocotyl explants was cultured on Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 0.25 mg L(-1) indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and 0.5 mg L(-1) thidiazuron (TDZ). After a month of culture, callus was transferred to MS medium containing 10 mM H2O2 and then incubated for 6 h. The amount of five cardenolides (Lanatoside C, Digitoxin, Digoxigenin, Gitoxigenin and Digoxin) as well as CAT, SOD, total phenolic, proline activity from Digitalis species were compared. No digoxin was detected in all treatments and control groups. The total cardenolides estimated were in the order of D. lamarckii (586.65  μg g(-1) dw), D. davisiana (506.79 μg g(-1) dw), D. cariensis (376.60 μg g(-1) dw) and D. trojana (282.39 μg g(-1) dw). It was clear that H2O2 pre-treatment resulted in an increase in enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants. However, a significant negative relationship between cardenolides production and overall activities of CAT, SOD, total phenolic and proline was evident. The described protocol here will be useful for the development of new strategies for a large-scale production of cardenolides. PMID:24915111

  4. Phylogeny and biogeography of Allium (Amaryllidaceae: Allieae) based on nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer and chloroplast rps16 sequences, focusing on the inclusion of species endemic to China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qin-Qin; Zhou, Song-Dong; He, Xing-Jin; Yu, Yan; Zhang, Yu-Cheng; Wei, Xian-Qin

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims The genus Allium comprises more than 800 species, placing it among the largest monocotyledonous genera. It is a variable group that is spread widely across the Holarctic region. Previous studies of Allium have been useful in identifying and assessing its evolutionary lineages. However, there are still many gaps in our knowledge of infrageneric taxonomy and evolution of Allium. Further understanding of its phylogeny and biogeography will be achieved only through continued phylogenetic studies, especially of those species endemic to China that have often been excluded from previous analyses. Earlier molecular studies have shown that Chinese Allium is not monophyletic, so the goal of the present study was to infer the phylogeny and biogeography of Allium and to provide a classification of Chinese Allium by placement of Chinese species in the context of the entire phylogeny. Methods Phylogenetic studies were based on sequence data of the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and chloroplast rps16 intron, analysed using parsimony and Bayesian approaches. Biogeographical patterns were conducted using statistical dispersal–vicariance analysis (S-DIVA). Key Results Phylogenetic analyses indicate that Allium is monophyletic and consists of three major clades. Optimal reconstructions have favoured the ancestors of Amerallium, Anguinum, Vvedenskya, Porphyroprason and Melanocrommyum as originating in eastern Asia. Conclusions Phylogenetic analyses reveal that Allium is monophyletic but that some subgenera are not. The large genetic distances imply that Allium is of ancient origin. Molecular data suggest that its evolution proceeded along three separate evolutionary lines. S-DIVA indicates that the ancestor of Amerallium, Anguinum, Vvedenskya, Porphyroprason and Melanocrommyum originated from eastern Asia and underwent different biogeographical pathways. A taxonomic synopsis of Chinese Allium at sectional level is given, which divides Chinese

  5. Biosynthesis of Jasmonic Acid by Several Plant Species 1

    PubMed Central

    Vick, Brady A.; Zimmerman, Don C.

    1984-01-01

    Six plant species metabolized 18O-labeled 12-oxo-cis,cis-10,15-phytodienoic acid (12-oxo-PDA) to short chain cyclic fatty acids. The plant species were corn (Zea mays L.), eggplant (Solanum melongena L.), flax (Linum usitatissimum L.), oat (Avena sativa L.), sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Among the products was jasmonic acid, a natural plant constituent with growth-regulating properties. The pathway is the same as the one recently reported by us for jasmonic acid synthesis in Vicia faba L. pericarp. First, the ring double bond of 12-oxo-PDA is saturated; then β-oxidation enzymes remove six carbons from the carboxyl side chain of the ring. Substrate specificity studies indicated that neither the stereochemistry of the side chain at carbon 13 of 12-oxo-PDA nor the presence of the double bond at carbon 15 was crucial for either enzyme step. The presence of enzymes which convert 12-oxo-PDA to jasmonic acid in several plant species indicates that this may be a general metabolic pathway in plants. PMID:16663643

  6. Accumulation of K+ and Cs+ in Tropical Plant Species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velasco, H.; Anjos, R. M.; Zamboni, C. B.; Macario, K. D.; Rizzotto, M.; Cid, A. S.; Medeiros, I. M. A.; Fernández, J.; Rubio, L.; Audicio, P.; Lacerda, T.

    2010-08-01

    Concentrations of K+ and 137Cs+ in tissues of the Citrus aurantifolia were measured both by gamma spectrometry and neutron activation analysis, aiming to understand the behavior of monovalent inorganic cations in plants as well as its capability to store these elements. In contrast to K+, Cs+ ions are not essential elements to plants, what might explain the difference in bioavailability. However, our results have shown that 137Cs+ is positively correlated to 40K+ concentration within tropical plant species, suggesting that these elements might be assimilated in a similar way, and that they pass through the biological cycle together. A simple mathematical model was also proposed to describe the temporal evolution of 40K activity concentration in such tropical woody fruit species. This model exhibited close agreement with the 40K experimental results in the fruit ripening processes of lemon trees.

  7. Plant species richness and ecosystem multifunctionality in global drylands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maestre, Fernando T.; Quero, Jose L.; Gotelli, Nicholas J.; Escudero, Adrian; Ochoa, Victoria; Delgado-Baquerizo, Manuel; Garcia-Gomez, Miguel; Bowker, Matthew A.; Soliveres, Santiago; Escolar, Cristina; Garcia-Palacios, Pablo; Berdugo, Miguel; Valencia, Enrique; Gozalo, Beatriz; Gallardo, Antonio; Aguilera, Lorgio; Arredondo, Tulio; Blones, Julio; Boeken, Bertrand; Bran, Donaldo; Conceicao, Abel A.; Cabrera, Omar; Chaieb, Mohamed; Derak, Mchich; Eldridge, David J.; Espinosa, Carlos I.; Florentino, Adriana; Gaitan, Juan; Gatica, M. Gabriel; Ghiloufi, Wahida; Gomez-Gonzalez, Susana; Gutie, Julio R.; Hernandez, Rosa M.; Huang, Xuewen; Huber-Sannwald, Elisabeth; Jankju, Mohammad; Miriti, Maria; Monerris, Jorge; Mau, Rebecca L.; Morici, Ernesto; Naseri, Kamal; Ospina, Abelardo; Polo, Vicente; Prina, Anibal; Pucheta, Eduardo; Ramirez-Collantes, David A.; Romao, Roberto; Tighe, Matthew; Torres-Diaz, Cristian; Val, James; Veiga, Jose P.; Wang, Deli; Zaady, Eli

    2012-01-01

    Experiments suggest that biodiversity enhances the ability of ecosystems to maintain multiple functions, such as carbon storage, productivity, and the buildup of nutrient pools (multifunctionality). However, the relationship between biodiversity and multifunctionality has never been assessed globally in natural ecosystems. We report here on a global empirical study relating plant species richness and abiotic factors to multifunctionality in drylands, which collectively cover 41% of Earth's land surface and support over 38% of the human population. Multifunctionality was positively and significantly related to species richness. The best-fitting models accounted for over 55% of the variation in multifunctionality and always included species richness as a predictor variable. Our results suggest that the preservation of plant biodiversity is crucial to buffer negative effects of climate change and desertification in drylands.

  8. Plant species richness and ecosystem multifunctionality in global drylands

    PubMed Central

    Maestre, Fernando T.; Quero, José L.; Gotelli, Nicholas J.; Escudero, Adriá; Ochoa, Victoria; Delgado-Baquerizo, Manuel; García-Gómez, Miguel; Bowker, Matthew A.; Soliveres, Santiago; Escolar, Cristina; García-Palacios, Pablo; Berdugo, Miguel; Valencia, Enrique; Gozalo, Beatriz; Gallardo, Antonio; Aguilera, Lorgio; Arredondo, Tulio; Blones, Julio; Boeken, Bertrand; Bran, Donaldo; Conceição, Abel A.; Cabrera, Omar; Chaieb, Mohamed; Derak, Mchich; Eldridge, David J.; Espinosa, Carlos I.; Florentino, Adriana; Gaitán, Juan; Gatica, M. Gabriel; Ghiloufi, Wahida; Gómez-González, Susana; Gutiérrez, Julio R.; Hernández, Rosa M.; Huang, Xuewen; Huber-Sannwald, Elisabeth; Jankju, Mohammad; Miriti, Maria; Monerris, Jorge; Mau, Rebecca L.; Morici, Ernesto; Naseri, Kamal; Ospina, Abelardo; Polo, Vicente; Prina, Aníbal; Pucheta, Eduardo; Ramírez-Collantes, David A.; Romão, Roberto; Tighe, Matthew; Torres-Díaz, Cristian; Val, James; Veiga, José P.; Wang, Deli; Zaady, Eli

    2013-01-01

    Experiments suggest that biodiversity enhances the ability of ecosystems to maintain multiple functions, such as carbon storage, productivity, and buildup of nutrient pools (multifunctionality). However, the relationship between biodiversity and multifunctionality has never been assessed globally in natural ecosystems. We report on the first global empirical study relating plant species richness and abiotic factors to multifunctionality in drylands, which collectively cover 41% of Earth’s land surface and support over 38% of the human population. Multifunctionality was positively and significantly related to species richness. The best-fitting models accounted for over 55% of the variation in multifunctionality, and always included species richness as a predictor variable. Our results suggest that preservation of plant biodiversity is crucial to buffer negative effects of climate change and desertification in drylands. PMID:22246775

  9. Population Genomics for Understanding Adaptation in Wild Plant Species.

    PubMed

    Weigel, Detlef; Nordborg, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection is the foundation of modern biology. However, it has proven remarkably difficult to demonstrate at the genetic, genomic, and population level exactly how wild species adapt to their natural environments. We discuss how one can use large sets of multiple genome sequences from wild populations to understand adaptation, with an emphasis on the small herbaceous plant Arabidopsis thaliana. We present motivation for such studies; summarize progress in describing whole-genome, species-wide sequence variation; and then discuss what insights have emerged from these resources, either based on sequence information alone or in combination with phenotypic data. We conclude with thoughts on opportunities with other plant species and the impact of expected progress in sequencing technology and genome engineering for studying adaptation in nature. PMID:26436459

  10. Regional and local species richness in an insular environment: Serpentine plants in California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harrison, S.; Safford, H.D.; Grace, J.B.; Viers, J.H.; Davies, K.F.

    2006-01-01

    We asked how the richness of the specialized (endemic) flora of serpentine rock outcrops in California varies at both the regional and local scales. Our study had two goals: first, to test whether endemic richness is affected by spatial habitat structure (e.g., regional serpentine area, local serpentine outcrop area, regional and local measures of outcrop isolation), and second, to conduct this test in the context of a broader assessment of environmental influences (e.g., climate, soils, vegetation, disturbance) and historical influences (e.g., geologic age, geographic province) on local and regional species richness. We measured endemic and total richness and environmental variables in 109 serpentine sites (1000-m2 paired plots) in 78 serpentine-containing regions of the state. We used structural equation modeling (SEM) to simultaneously relate regional richness to regionalscale predictors, and local richness to both local-scale and regional-scale predictors. Our model for serpentine endemics explained 66% of the variation in local endemic richness based on local environment (vegetation, soils, rock cover) and on regional endemic richness. It explained 73% of the variation in regional endemic richness based on regional environment (climate and productivity), historical factors (geologic age and geographic province), and spatial structure (regional total area of serpentine, the only significant spatial variable in our analysis). We did not find a strong influence of spatial structure on species richness. However, we were able to distinguish local vs. regional influences on species richness to a novel extent, despite the existence of correlations between local and regional conditions. ?? 2006 by the Ecological Society of America.

  11. Regeneration niche differentiates functional strategies of desert woody plant species

    PubMed Central

    Briggs, John M.

    2010-01-01

    Plant communities vary dramatically in the number and relative abundance of species that exhibit facilitative interactions, which contributes substantially to variation in community structure and dynamics. Predicting species’ responses to neighbors based on readily measurable functional traits would provide important insight into the factors that structure plant communities. We measured a suite of functional traits on seedlings of 20 species and mature plants of 54 species of shrubs from three arid biogeographic regions. We hypothesized that species with different regeneration niches—those that require nurse plants for establishment (beneficiaries) versus those that do not (colonizers)—are functionally different. Indeed, seedlings of beneficiary species had lower relative growth rates, larger seeds and final biomass, allocated biomass toward roots and height at a cost to leaf mass fraction, and constructed costly, dense leaf and root tissues relative to colonizers. Likewise at maturity, beneficiaries had larger overall size and denser leaves coupled with greater water use efficiency than colonizers. In contrast to current hypotheses that suggest beneficiaries are less “stress-tolerant” than colonizers, beneficiaries exhibited conservative functional strategies suited to persistently dry, low light conditions beneath canopies, whereas colonizers exhibited opportunistic strategies that may be advantageous in fluctuating, open microenvironments. In addition, the signature of the regeneration niche at maturity indicates that facilitation expands the range of functional diversity within plant communities at all ontogenetic stages. This study demonstrates the utility of specific functional traits for predicting species’ regeneration niches in hot deserts, and provides a framework for studying facilitation in other severe environments. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00442-010-1741-y) contains supplementary

  12. Re-emergence of tularemia in Germany: Presence of Francisella tularensis in different rodent species in endemic areas

    PubMed Central

    Kaysser, Philipp; Seibold, Erik; Mätz-Rensing, Kerstin; Pfeffer, Martin; Essbauer, Sandra; Splettstoesser, Wolf D

    2008-01-01

    Background Tularemia re-emerged in Germany starting in 2004 (with 39 human cases from 2004 to 2007) after over 40 years of only sporadic human infections. The reasons for this rise in case numbers are unknown as is the possible reservoir of the etiologic agent Francisella (F.) tularensis. No systematic study on the reservoir situation of F. tularensis has been published for Germany so far. Methods We investigated three areas six to ten months after the initial tularemia outbreaks for the presence of F. tularensis among small mammals, ticks/fleas and water. The investigations consisted of animal live-trapping, serologic testing, screening by real-time-PCR and cultivation. Results A total of 386 small mammals were trapped. F. tularensis was detected in five different rodent species with carrier rates of 2.04, 6.94 and 10.87% per trapping area. None of the ticks or fleas (n = 432) tested positive for F. tularensis. We were able to demonstrate F. tularensis-specific DNA in one of 28 water samples taken in one of the outbreak areas. Conclusion The findings of our study stress the need for long-term surveillance of natural foci in order to get a better understanding of the reasons for the temporal and spatial patterns of tularemia in Germany. PMID:19014635

  13. Biological and immunological properties of the venom of Bothrops alcatraz, an endemic species of pitviper from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Furtado, M F D

    2005-06-01

    Bothrops alcatraz is a new pitviper species derived from the Bothrops jararaca group, whose natural habitat is situated in Alcatrazes Archipelago, a group of marine islands near São Paulo State coast in Brazil. Herein, the biological and biochemical properties of venoms of four adult specimens of B. alcatraz were examined comparatively to a reference pool of Bothrops jararaca venom. Both venoms showed similar activities and electrophoretic patterns, but B. alcatraz venom showed three protein bands of molecular masses of 97, 80 and 38 kDa that were not present in B. jararaca reference venom. The i.p. median lethal dose of B. alcatraz venom ranged from 5.1 to 6.6 mg/kg, while it was 1.5 mg/kg for B. jararaca venom. The minimum hemorrhagic dose of B. jararaca venom was 0.63, whereas 2.28 mug/mouse for B. alcatraz venom. In contrast, B. alcatraz venom was more potent in regard to procoagulant and proteolytic activities. These differences were supported by western blotting and neutralization tests, employing commercial bothropic antivenom, which showed that hemorrhagic and lethal activities of B. alcatraz venom were less effectively inhibited than B. jararaca venom. Such results evidence that B. alcatraz shows quantitative and qualitative differences in venom composition in comparison with its B. jararaca relatives, which might represent an optimization of venom towards a specialized diet. PMID:16002343

  14. Systematic review of diplommatinid land snails (Caenogastropoda, Diplommatinidae) endemic to the Palau Islands. (2) Taxonomic revision of Hungerfordia species with low axial ribs.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Kazunori; Yamazaki, Midori; Ueshima, Rei

    2015-01-01

    Hungerfordia Beddome, 1889 is a terrestrial caenogastropod genus of the family Diplommatinidae endemic to the Palau (Belau) islands. Hungerfordia is radiated within the Palau islands and exhibits substantial morphological diversity. In this paper, the taxonomy of Hungerfordia species with low axial ribs is revised. Hungerfordia polymorpha (Crosse, 1866), H. inflatula (Crosse, 1866), H. crassilabris crassilabris (Beddome, 1889), H. lutea lutea (Beddome, 1889), H. ringens ringens (Crosse, 1866), H. pyramis pyramis (Crosse, 1866), and H. aurea (Beddome, 1889) are redescribed based on the syntypes and newly collected materials. The following new taxa are described: H. aspera sp. nov., H. basodonta sp. nov., H. microbasodonta sp. nov., H. rudicostata sp. nov., H. unisulcata sp. nov., H. longissima sp. nov., H. eurystoma sp. nov., H. crenata sp. nov., H. crassilabris tridentata subsp. nov., H. crassilabris attenuata subsp. nov., H. lutea hemilaevis subsp. nov., H. loxodonta sp. nov., H. omphaloptyx sp. nov., H. robiginosa sp. nov., H. angaurensis sp. nov., H. ringens rotundata subsp. nov., H. ringens ventrinodus subsp. nov., H. pyramis pteroma subsp. nov., H. spinoscapula sp. nov. PMID:26249932

  15. The source, discharge, and chemical characteristics of selected springs, and the abundance and health of associated endemic anuran species in the Mojave network parks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schroeder, Roy A.; Smith, Gregory A.; Martin, Peter; Flint, Alan L.; Gallegos, Elizabeth; Fisher, Robert N.

    2015-01-01

    Endemic anuran species were surveyed at Darwin Falls for the western toad (Anaxyrus boreas) and the red-spotted toad (Anaxyrus punctatus), at Piute Spring for the red-spotted toad, and at Fortynine Palms Oasis for the red-spotted toad and California treefrog (Pseudacris cadaverina). Historically, red-spotted toads were at the edge of their range at Darwin Falls, but they were not detected during this study and have not been detected since the early 1980s. The 2006 western toad population at Darwin Falls was estimated at 381 adults (95-percent confidence interval [CI] of 314–482). The population of red-spotted toads at Piute Spring was estimated at 1,153 adults (95-percent CI of 935–1,503). However, an elevated rate of abnormalities (approximately 5 percent) was recorded in red-spotted toads as well as the presence of the chytrid fungus,Bactrochochytrium dendrobatidis, at Piute Spring. In Joshua Tree National Park, the California treefrog now occupies only three of the seven historically occupied drainages. Populations of California treefrogs at Fortynine Palms Oasis have declined more than 50 percent from 288 in 1969–71 to 109 in 2006. A similar decline was observed in the populations of red-spotted toads at Fortynine Palms Oasis from 300 adults in 1969–71 to 155 adults (95-percent CI of 90–139) in 2006. The red-spotted toads at Fortynine Palms Oasis also exhibited the presence of Bactrochochytrium dendrobatidis.

  16. Influence of Morphological Variability and Habitat on the Chemical Composition of Essential Oils of an Algerian Endemic Origanum Species (Origanum floribundum Munby).

    PubMed

    Daoudi-Merbah, Farida; Hazzit, Mohamed; Dahmani-Megrerouche, Malika

    2016-08-01

    The genus Origanum L. (Lamiaceae) enjoys a socioeconomic interest and constitutes one of the most popular spices. In the literature, the study of this taxon is limited mainly to the chemical composition, antimicrobial, antifungal, and antioxidant activities of the essential oils. In Algeria, few works have been done in this area, including the endemic and rare species: Origanum floribundum Munby. In this study, our contribution highlights the influence of the ecological parameters and of the variation of morphological traits on the chemical composition and the antioxidant activity of the essential oils of six populations. The major oils constituents are carvacrol, γ-terpinene, and p-cymene with carvacrol predominance (31.8 - 60.8%) in over five populations (MS1 - MS4 and MS6). However, the population of Ain Terraeur (MS5) of which individuals present a foliar polymorphism, distinguishes itself by p-cymene predominance (42.6%). This would denote a new chemotype and/or variety which seem well differentiated on the dendrogram of the Ascending Hierarchical Classification (A.H.C) and its foliar morphology. The antioxidant activity of the six samples evaluated by the scavenging activity of free radicals DPPH(•) and ABTS(•+) showed a potent efficiency for the sample with foliar polymorphism population (IC50 = 51.6 ± 0.31 and 12.71 ± 0.37 μg/ml, respectively). PMID:27450112

  17. Why evolution matters for species conservation: perspectives from three case studies of plant metapopulations.

    PubMed

    Olivieri, Isabelle; Tonnabel, Jeanne; Ronce, Ophélie; Mignot, Agnès

    2016-01-01

    We advocate the advantage of an evolutionary approach to conservation biology that considers evolutionary history at various levels of biological organization. We review work on three separate plant taxa, spanning from one to multiple decades, illustrating extremes in metapopulation functioning. We show how the rare endemics Centaurea corymbosa (Clape Massif, France) and Brassica insularis in Corsica (France) may be caught in an evolutionary trap: disruption of metapopulation functioning due to lack of colonization of new sites may have counterselected traits such as dispersal ability or self-compatibility, making these species particularly vulnerable to any disturbance. The third case study concerns the evolution of life history strategies in the highly diverse genus Leucadendron of the South African fynbos. There, fire disturbance and the recolonization phase after fires are so integral to the functioning of populations that recruitment of new individuals is conditioned by fire. We show how past adaptation to different fire regimes and climatic constraints make species with different life history syndromes more or less vulnerable to global changes. These different case studies suggest that management strategies should promote evolutionary potential and evolutionary processes to better protect extant biodiversity and biodiversification. PMID:27087848

  18. Mercury uptake and accumulation by four species of aquatic plants.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Kathleen; Wright, Nicole; Porter-Goff, Emily

    2007-01-01

    The effectiveness of four aquatic plants including water hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes), water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes), zebra rush (Scirpus tabernaemontani) and taro (Colocasia esculenta) were evaluated for their capabilities in removing mercury from water. The plants were exposed to concentrations of 0 mg/L, 0.5 mg/L or 2 mg/L of mercury for 30 days. Assays were conducted using both Microtox (water) and cold vapor Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) (roots and water). The Microtox results indicated that the mercury induced acute toxicity had been removed from the water. AAS confirmed an increase of mercury within the plant root tissue and a corresponding decrease of mercury in the water. All species of plants appeared to reduce mercury concentrations in the water via root uptake and accumulation. Water lettuce and water hyacinth appeared to be the most effective, followed by taro and zebra rush, respectively. PMID:16781033

  19. Plant species richness increases phosphatase activities in an experimental grassland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hacker, Nina; Wilcke, Wolfgang; Oelmann, Yvonne

    2014-05-01

    Plant species richness has been shown to increase aboveground nutrient uptake requiring the mobilization of soil nutrient pools. For phosphorus (P) the underlying mechanisms for increased P release in soil under highly diverse grassland mixtures remain obscure because aboveground P storage and concentrations of inorganic and organic P in soil solution and differently reactive soil P pools are unrelated (Oelmann et al. 2011). The need of plants and soil microorganisms for P can increase the exudation of enzymes hydrolyzing organically bound P (phosphatases) which might represent an important release mechanism of inorganic P in a competitive environment such as highly diverse grassland mixtures. Our objectives were to test the effects of i) plant functional groups (legumes, grasses, non-leguminous tall and small herbs), and of (ii) plant species richness on microbial P (Pmic) and phosphatase activities in soil. In autumn 2013, we measured Pmic and alkaline phosphomonoesterase and phosphodiesterase activities in soil of 80 grassland mixtures comprising different community compositions and species richness (1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 60) in the Jena Experiment. In general, Pmic and enzyme activities were correlated (r = 0.59 and 0.46 for phosphomonoesterase and phosphodiesterase activities, respectively; p

  20. Light dependency of VOC emissions from selected Mediterranean plant species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owen, S. M.; Harley, P.; Guenther, A.; Hewitt, C. N.

    The light, temperature and stomatal conductance dependencies of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from ten plant species commonly found in the Mediterranean region were studied using a fully controlled leaf cuvette in the laboratory. At standard conditions of temperature and light (30°C and 1000 μmol m -2 s -1 PAR), low emitting species ( Arbutus unedo, Pinus halepensis, Cistus incanus, Cistus salvifolius, Rosmarinus officinalis and Thymus vulgaris) emitted between 0.1 and 5.0 μg (C) (total VOCs) g -1 dw h -1, a medium emitter ( Pinus pinea) emitted between 5 and 10 μg (C) g -1 dw h -1 and high emitters ( Cistus monspeliensis, Lavendula stoechas and Quercus sp.) emitted more than 10 μg (C) g -1 dw h -1. VOC emissions from all of the plant species investigated showed some degree of light dependency, which was distinguishable from temperature dependency. Emissions of all compounds from Quercus sp. were light dependent. Ocimene was one of several monoterpene compounds emitted by P. pinea and was strongly correlated to light. Only a fraction of monoterpene emissions from C. incanus exhibited apparent weak light dependency but emissions from this plant species were strongly correlated to temperature. Data presented here are consistent with past studies, which show that emissions are independent of stomatal conductance. These results may allow more accurate predictions of monoterpene emission fluxes from the Mediterranean region to be made.

  1. Plant responses to climatic extremes: within-species variation equals among-species variation.

    PubMed

    Malyshev, Andrey V; Arfin Khan, Mohammed A S; Beierkuhnlein, Carl; Steinbauer, Manuel J; Henry, Hugh A L; Jentsch, Anke; Dengler, Jürgen; Willner, Evelin; Kreyling, Juergen

    2016-01-01

    Within-species and among-species differences in growth responses to a changing climate have been well documented, yet the relative magnitude of within-species vs. among-species variation has remained largely unexplored. This missing comparison impedes our ability to make general predictions of biodiversity change and to project future species distributions using models. We present a direct comparison of among- versus within-species variation in response to three of the main stresses anticipated with climate change: drought, warming, and frost. Two earlier experiments had experimentally induced (i) summer drought and (ii) spring frost for four common European grass species and their ecotypes from across Europe. To supplement existing data, a third experiment was carried out, to compare variation among species from different functional groups to within-species variation. Here, we simulated (iii) winter warming plus frost for four grasses, two nonleguminous, and two leguminous forbs, in addition to eleven European ecotypes of the widespread grass Arrhenatherum elatius. For each experiment, we measured: (i) C/N ratio and biomass, (ii) chlorophyll content and biomass, and (iii) plant greenness, root (15) N uptake, and live and dead tissue mass. Using coefficients of variation (CVs) for each experiment and response parameter, a total of 156 within- vs. among-species comparisons were conducted, comparing within-species variation in each of four species with among-species variation for each seed origin (five countries). Of the six significant differences, within-species CVs were higher than among-species CVs in four cases. Partitioning of variance within each treatment in two of the three experiments showed that within-species variability (ecotypes) could explain an additional 9% of response variation after accounting for the among-species variation. Our observation that within-species variation was generally as high as among-species variation emphasizes the importance of

  2. The diversity and prevalence of hard ticks attacking human hosts in Eastern Siberia (Russian Federation) with first description of invasion of non-endemic tick species.

    PubMed

    Khasnatinov, Maxim Anatolyevich; Liapunov, Alexander Valeryevich; Manzarova, Ellina Lopsonovna; Kulakova, Nina Viktorovna; Petrova, Irina Viktorovna; Danchinova, Galina Anatolyevna

    2016-02-01

    Hard ticks are the vectors of many pathogens including tick-borne encephalitis virus and the Lyme disease agent Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. In Eastern Siberia, Ixodes persulcatus, Dermacentor nuttalli, Dermacentor silvarum and Haemaphysalis concinna are regarded as aggressive to humans. Recently, significant changes in world tick fauna have been reported and this affects the spread of tick-borne pathogens. We studied the current species diversity, population structure and prevalence of tick-borne pathogens of hard ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) that attacked humans in Eastern Siberia (Irkutsk region, Russia). In total, 31,892 individual ticks were identified and analysed during the years 2007-2014. The majority (85.4%) of victims was bitten by I. persulcatus, 14.55% of attacks on humans were caused by D. nuttalli and D. silvarum, whereas H. concinna was documented only in 15 cases (0.05%). The seasonal activity and the age/gender structure of the tick population were studied as well. Among all the studied ticks, three unconventional species, i.e. Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Dermacentor reticulatus and Amblyomma americanum, were identified. Analysis of tick bite histories indicates at least three events of invasion of non-endemic ticks into the ecosystems of northern Eurasia with harsh continental climates. Invading ticks are able to reach the adult life stage and are aggressive to the local human population. Phylogenetic analysis of mt 16S rRNA gene fragments suggests multiple independent routes of tick migration to Eastern Siberia. Possible implications to human health and epidemiology of tick-borne infections are discussed. PMID:26443685

  3. Species differences in whole plant carbon balance following winter dormancy in Alaskan tundra plants

    SciTech Connect

    Bret-Harte, M.S.; Chapin, F.S. III

    1995-09-01

    We froze ramets of seven vascular plant species and a mixed community of mosses common to upland tussock tundra for several months, then measured whole-plant photosynthesis and respiration in a growth chamber under simulated spring conditions, to examine whole plant carbon metabolism following winter dormancy. In addition, respiration and photosynthesis of aboveground stems and leaves were measured in the field in a spatial gradient away from a melting snowbank, at comparable developmental stages. Species differences in early respiration were not pronounced, but large differences were seen once development of leaves began. Root development in deciduous shrubs delayed their attainment of a positive whole plant carbon balance compared to that seen in aboveground stems and leaves alone, and partially compensated for differences in photosynthetic rates between shrubs and other species. Temporal patterns of carbon metabolism during spring growth may affect competitive balance in tussock tundra and vegetation response to global change.

  4. Species-specific toxicity of ceria nanoparticles to Lactuca plants.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Ma, Yuhui; Zhang, Zhiyong; He, Xiao; Li, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Jing; Zheng, Lirong; Zhao, Yuliang

    2015-02-01

    Species-specific differences in the toxicity of manufactured nanoparticles (MNPs) have been reported, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. We previously found that CeO2 NPs inhibited root elongation of head lettuce, whereas no toxic effect was observed on other plants (such as wheat, cucumber and radish). In this study, interactions between Lactuca plants and three types of CeO2 NPs (lab-synthesized 7 and 25 nm CeO2 NPs, and a commercial CeO2 NPs) were investigated. It was found that CeO2 NPs were toxic to three kinds of Lactuca genus plants and different CeO2 NPs showed different degrees of toxicity. The results of X-ray absorption near edge fine structure indicate that small parts of CeO2 NPs were transformed from Ce(IV) to Ce(III) in roots of the plants that were treated with CeO2 NPs during the seed germination stage. But the high sensitivity of Lactuca plants to the released Ce(3+) ions caused the species-specific phytotoxicity of CeO2 NPs. Differences in sizes and zeta potentials among three types of CeO2 NPs resulted in their different degrees of biotransformation which accounted for the discrepancy in the toxicity to Lactuca plants. This study is among the few, and may indeed the first, that addresses the relation between the physicochemical properties of nanoparticles and its species-specific phytotoxicity. PMID:24256192

  5. Methylated arsenic species in plants originate from soil microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Lomax, Charlotte; Liu, Wen-Ju; Wu, Liyou; Xue, Kai; Xiong, Jinbo; Zhou, Jizhong; McGrath, Steve P; Meharg, Andrew A; Miller, Anthony J; Zhao, Fang-Jie

    2012-02-01

    • Inorganic arsenic (iAs) is a ubiquitous human carcinogen, and rice (Oryza sativa) is the main contributor to iAs in the diet. Methylated pentavalent As species are less toxic and are routinely found in plants; however, it is currently unknown whether plants are able to methylate As. • Rice, tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and red clover (Trifolium pratense) were exposed to iAs, monomethylarsonic acid (MMA(V)), or dimethylarsinic acid (DMA(V)), under axenic conditions. Rice seedlings were also grown in two soils under nonsterile flooded conditions, and rice plants exposed to arsenite or DMA(V) were grown to maturity in nonsterile hydroponic culture. Arsenic speciation in samples was determined by HPLC-ICP-MS. • Methylated arsenicals were not found in the three plant species exposed to iAs under axenic conditions. Axenically grown rice was able to take up MMA(V) or DMA(V), and reduce MMA(V) to MMA(III) but not convert it to DMA(V). Methylated As was detected in the shoots of soil-grown rice, and in rice grain from nonsterile hydroponic culture. GeoChip analysis of microbial genes in a Bangladeshi paddy soil showed the presence of the microbial As methyltransferase gene arsM. • Our results suggest that plants are unable to methylate iAs, and instead take up methylated As produced by microorganisms. PMID:22098145

  6. Networks of plants: how to measure similarity in vegetable species.

    PubMed

    Vivaldo, Gianna; Masi, Elisa; Pandolfi, Camilla; Mancuso, Stefano; Caldarelli, Guido

    2016-01-01

    Despite the common misconception of nearly static organisms, plants do interact continuously with the environment and with each other. It is fair to assume that during their evolution they developed particular features to overcome similar problems and to exploit possibilities from environment. In this paper we introduce various quantitative measures based on recent advancements in complex network theory that allow to measure the effective similarities of various species. By using this approach on the similarity in fruit-typology ecological traits we obtain a clear plant classification in a way similar to traditional taxonomic classification. This result is not trivial, since a similar analysis done on the basis of diaspore morphological properties do not provide any clear parameter to classify plants species. Complex network theory can then be used in order to determine which feature amongst many can be used to distinguish scope and possibly evolution of plants. Future uses of this approach range from functional classification to quantitative determination of plant communities in nature. PMID:27271207

  7. Networks of plants: how to measure similarity in vegetable species

    PubMed Central

    Vivaldo, Gianna; Masi, Elisa; Pandolfi, Camilla; Mancuso, Stefano; Caldarelli, Guido

    2016-01-01

    Despite the common misconception of nearly static organisms, plants do interact continuously with the environment and with each other. It is fair to assume that during their evolution they developed particular features to overcome similar problems and to exploit possibilities from environment. In this paper we introduce various quantitative measures based on recent advancements in complex network theory that allow to measure the effective similarities of various species. By using this approach on the similarity in fruit-typology ecological traits we obtain a clear plant classification in a way similar to traditional taxonomic classification. This result is not trivial, since a similar analysis done on the basis of diaspore morphological properties do not provide any clear parameter to classify plants species. Complex network theory can then be used in order to determine which feature amongst many can be used to distinguish scope and possibly evolution of plants. Future uses of this approach range from functional classification to quantitative determination of plant communities in nature. PMID:27271207

  8. Plant functional traits and the multidimensional nature of species coexistence

    PubMed Central

    Kraft, Nathan J. B.; Godoy, Oscar; Levine, Jonathan M.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the processes maintaining species diversity is a central problem in ecology, with implications for the conservation and management of ecosystems. Although biologists often assume that trait differences between competitors promote diversity, empirical evidence connecting functional traits to the niche differences that stabilize species coexistence is rare. Obtaining such evidence is critical because traits also underlie the average fitness differences driving competitive exclusion, and this complicates efforts to infer community dynamics from phenotypic patterns. We coupled field-parameterized mathematical models of competition between 102 pairs of annual plants with detailed sampling of leaf, seed, root, and whole-plant functional traits to relate phenotypic differences to stabilizing niche and average fitness differences. Single functional traits were often well correlated with average fitness differences between species, indicating that competitive dominance was associated with late phenology, deep rooting, and several other traits. In contrast, single functional traits were poorly correlated with the stabilizing niche differences that promote coexistence. Niche differences could only be described by combinations of traits, corresponding to differentiation between species in multiple ecological dimensions. In addition, several traits were associated with both fitness differences and stabilizing niche differences. These complex relationships between phenotypic differences and the dynamics of competing species argue against the simple use of single functional traits to infer community assembly processes but lay the groundwork for a theoretically justified trait-based community ecology. PMID:25561561

  9. Arbuscular mycorrhizae of dominant plant species in Yungas forests, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Becerra, Alejandra G; Cabello, Marta; Zak, Marcelo R; Bartoloni, Norberto

    2009-01-01

    In Argentina the Yungas forests are among the ecosystems most affected by human activity, with loss of biodiversity. To assess the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) colonization and the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) spore numbers in these ecosystems, the roots of the most dominant native plants (one tree, Alnus acuminata; three herbaceous, Duchesnea indica, Oxalis conorrhiza, Trifolium aff. repens; and one shrub, Sambucus peruviana) were studied throughout the year from two sites of Yungas forests. Assessments of mycorrhizal colonization (percent root length, intraradical structures) were made by washing and staining the roots. Soil samples of each plant species were pooled and subsamples were obtained to determine AM spore numbers. The herbaceous species formed both Arum- and Paris-type morphologies, whereas the tree and the shrub species formed respectively single structural types of Arum- and Paris-type. AM colonization, intraradical fungi structures and AMF spore numbers displayed variation in species, seasons and sites. D. indica showed the highest AM colonization, whereas the highest spore numbers was observed in the rhizosphere of A. acuminata. No correlation was observed between spore numbers and root length percentage colonized by AM fungi. Results of this study showed that Alnus acuminata is facultatively AM. The AM colonization, intraradical fungi structures and AMF spore numbers varied in species depending on phenological, climatic and edaphic conditions. PMID:19750940

  10. Cupriavidus plantarum sp. nov., a plant-associated species.

    PubMed

    Estrada-de Los Santos, Paulina; Solano-Rodríguez, Roosivelt; Matsumura-Paz, Lucía Tomiko; Vásquez-Murrieta, María Soledad; Martínez-Aguilar, Lourdes

    2014-11-01

    During a survey of plant-associated bacteria in northeast Mexico, a group of 13 bacteria was isolated from agave, maize and sorghum plants rhizosphere. This group of strains was related to Cupriavidus respiraculi (99.4 %), but a polyphasic investigation based on DNA-DNA hybridization analysis, other genotypic studies and phenotypic features showed that this group of strains actually belongs to a new Cupriavidus species. Consequently, taking all the results together, the description of Cupriavidus plantarum sp. nov. is proposed. PMID:25098225

  11. In vitro biological activities of the essential oil from the 'resurrection plant' Myrothamnus moschatus (Baillon) Niedenzu endemic to Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Nicoletti, Marcello; Maggi, Filippo; Papa, Fabrizio; Vittori, Sauro; Quassinti, Luana; Bramucci, Massimo; Lupidi, Giulio; Petrelli, Dezemona; Vitali, Luca A; Ralaibia, Ermenegilde; Rasoanaivo, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    The essential oil of the 'resurrection plant' Myrothamnus moschatus (Baillon) Niedenzu endemic to Madagascar, where it is used in traditional medicine, was investigated for the first time for some biological activities. GC-FID and GC-MS analyses revealed trans-pinocarveol (35.6%), pinocarvone (20.0%), β-selinene (8.5%) and perillyl acetate (6.0%) as the major essential oil constituents. The oil strongly inhibited MDA-MB 231 (human breast adenocarcinoma) cells, with an IC(50) of 15 µg mL(-1), and the growth of Candida albicans, with an inhibition diameter of 18 mm, while its antioxidant activity, measured by DPPH and ABTS assay, proved to be negligible. PMID:22376220

  12. Corridors Increase Plant Species Richness at Large Scales

    SciTech Connect

    Damschen, Ellen I.; Haddad, Nick M.; Orrock,John L.; Tewksbury, Joshua J.; Levey, Douglas J.

    2006-09-01

    Habitat fragmentation is one of the largest threats to biodiversity. Landscape corridors, which are hypothesized to reduce the negative consequences of fragmentation, have become common features of ecological management plans worldwide. Despite their popularity, there is little evidence documenting the effectiveness of corridors in preserving biodiversity at large scales. Using a large-scale replicated experiment, we showed that habitat patches connected by corridors retain more native plant species than do isolated patches, that this difference increases over time, and that corridors do not promote invasion by exotic species. Our results support the use of corridors in biodiversity conservation.

  13. New evidence for electrotropism in some plant species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorgolewski, S.; Rozej, B.

    The ever-present global Atmospheric Electrical F ield (AEF) is used by many plant species. There are many natural habitats with electrotropic plants and habitats with no AEF. The plants growing there are not electrotropic, like the plants growing under the canopies of the trees or the Arecibo radio telescope. Examples are given of different plants which belong to one or the other class, and the criteria how to distinguish them. In addition to natural habitat observations, laboratory experiments were run in search of the sensitivity to electrotropic effect in different electric field intensities and directions. It was established that in very strong fields (of the order of 1 MV/m) all plants respond immediately to the field. This type of reaction is due to the Coulomb forces, but electrotropism depends on electric field interaction with ions in plant tissues. We use a "reference field" (130 V/m) and stronger fields in the several kV/m range which enhance plant growth rate and size similar to plant growth hormones. Surprising effects were also observed with reversed field polarity. In conclusion electrotropic pl nts deprived of the electrical field do not develop asa expected, as can be seen in BIOSPHERE 2. It was a sad example of what happens when one forgets to provide the plants with this vital natural environmental factor. Electrical fields of different intensity and direction are cheap and easy to generate. More plants were investigated in order to verify their response to electrical fields. Effect of several kV/m horizontal fields, was compared with the vertical 130 V/m field (ued as a reference) and it was shown that electrotropic sensitivity can be found easily. Surprisingly even the nonelectrotropic plants, whose initial growth rate does not depend on the field strength, when they develop leaves begin to lean towards the positive electrode, and become elect rotropic. Ground based fitotron experiments enable us to select cheaply plants which shall be suitable

  14. Do Ecological Niche Model Predictions Reflect the Adaptive Landscape of Species?: A Test Using Myristica malabarica Lam., an Endemic Tree in the Western Ghats, India

    PubMed Central

    Nagaraju, Shivaprakash K.; Gudasalamani, Ravikanth; Barve, Narayani; Ghazoul, Jaboury; Narayanagowda, Ganeshaiah Kotiganahalli; Ramanan, Uma Shaanker

    2013-01-01

    Ecological niche models (ENM) have become a popular tool to define and predict the “ecological niche” of a species. An implicit assumption of the ENMs is that the predicted ecological niche of a species actually reflects the adaptive landscape of the species. Thus in sites predicted to be highly suitable, species would have maximum fitness compared to in sites predicted to be poorly suitable. As yet there are very few attempts to address this assumption. Here we evaluate this assumption. We used Bioclim (DIVA GIS version 7.3) and Maxent (version 3.3.2) to predict the habitat suitability of Myristica malabarica Lam., an economically important tree occurring in the Western Ghats, India. We located populations of the trees naturally occurring in different habitat suitability regimes (from highly suitable to poorly suitable) and evaluated them for their regeneration ability and genetic diversity. We also evaluated them for two plant functional traits, fluctuating asymmetry – an index of genetic homeostasis, and specific leaf weight – an index of primary productivity, often assumed to be good surrogates of fitness. We show a significant positive correlation between the predicted habitat quality and plant functional traits, regeneration index and genetic diversity of populations. Populations at sites predicted to be highly suitable had a higher regeneration and gene diversity compared to populations in sites predicted to be poor or unsuitable. Further, individuals in the highly suitable sites exhibited significantly less fluctuating asymmetry and significantly higher specific leaf weight compared to individuals in the poorly suitable habitats. These results for the first time provide an explicit test of the ENM with respect to the plant functional traits, regeneration ability and genetic diversity of populations along a habitat suitability gradient. We discuss the implication of these resultsfor designing viable species conservation and restoration programs. PMID

  15. Content and distribution of flavonoids among 91 edible plant species.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ray-Yu; Lin, Shou; Kuo, George

    2008-01-01

    Flavonoid contents as aglycones (for quercetin, kaempherol, isorhamnetin, luteolin and apigenin) were reported for 115 edible plants (91 species). Plant materials mostly originated in tropical zones were grown and harvested from AVRDC, Taiwan. Acid extraction and HPLC were used as analytical methods. Total flavonoid contents ranged from 0 to 254 mg/100g fresh weight. About 75% of samples were found to contain flavonoids > 0.5 mg/100g with the group mean 33 +/- 48 mg/100g. Data for only 30 samples (20 species) in this study are also available (measured as raw vegetables) in the USDA flavonoid database. This study can expand the flavonoid database and contribute to measurement of flavonoid intake, especially for populations consuming tropical and underutilized vegetables. PMID:18296355

  16. Hybrid Viability and Fertility in Co-occuring Plant Species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, E.; Garcia, C.; Yost, J.

    2012-12-01

    Similar species of plants can co-exist due to reproductive barriers that keep them from hybridizing. In the case of Lasthenia gracilis and L. californica, certain reproductive barriers allow them to co-exist at Jasper Ridge without hybridization. The two species are locally adapted to different regions of the same hillside, and have slight differences in flowering time but hybrids can be created at low rate in the green house. We tested the viability and fertility of green house produced hybrids to quantify post-zygotic reproductive isolation at Jasper Ridge. We planted 10 hybrid seeds and 10 control seeds from 11 different families. We measured the percent germination, survival to flowering and pollen fertility of the seeds. We expect lower germination, lower survival to flowering, and lower pollen viability of hybrid seeds as compared to control seeds.

  17. Origin of floral isolation between ornithophilous and sphingophilous plant species.

    PubMed Central

    Grant, V

    1993-01-01

    Three plant groups in temperate western North America contain closely related ornithophilous and sphingophilous species: the Aquilegia formosa/Aquilegia caerulea group (Ranunculaceae), the Ipomopsis aggregata group (Polemoniaceae), and the Diplacus longiflorus group (Scrophulariaceae). The ornithophilous and sphingophilous species are products of allopatric speciation on the diploid level. Geographical races which are adapted to one class of pollinators in one area where these pollinators are abundant and effective and to another class of pollinators in another geographically isolated area (pollination races) represent a probable intermediate stage in the process of allopatric speciation. Mechanical and ethological isolation (collectively, floral isolation) is a byproduct of the divergence in pollination systems. Selection for reproductive isolation per se has not played any detectable role in the origin of the floral isolation in the three plant groups. PMID:11607421

  18. Fuel breaks affect nonnative species abundance in Californian plant communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Merriam, K.E.; Keeley, J.E.; Beyers, J.L.

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated the abundance of nonnative plants on fuel breaks and in adjacent untreated areas to determine if fuel treatments promote the invasion of nonnative plant species. Understanding the relationship between fuel treatments and nonnative plants is becoming increasingly important as federal and state agencies are currently implementing large fuel treatment programs throughout the United States to reduce the threat of wildland fire. Our study included 24 fuel breaks located across the State of California. We found that nonnative plant abundance was over 200% higher on fuel breaks than in adjacent wildland areas. Relative nonnative cover was greater on fuel breaks constructed by bulldozers (28%) than on fuel breaks constructed by other methods (7%). Canopy cover, litter cover, and duff depth also were significantly lower on fuel breaks constructed by bulldozers, and these fuel breaks had significantly more exposed bare ground than other types of fuel breaks. There was a significant decline in relative nonnative cover with increasing distance from the fuel break, particularly in areas that had experienced more numerous fires during the past 50 years, and in areas that had been grazed. These data suggest that fuel breaks could provide establishment sites for nonnative plants, and that nonnatives may invade surrounding areas, especially after disturbances such as fire or grazing. Fuel break construction and maintenance methods that leave some overstory canopy and minimize exposure of bare ground may be less likely to promote nonnative plants. ?? 2006 by the Ecological Society of America.

  19. Constrained preferences in nitrogen uptake across plant species and environments.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lixin; Macko, Stephen A

    2011-03-01

    Knowledge of determining factors for nitrogen uptake preferences and how they are modified in changing environments are critical to understand ecosystem nitrogen cycling and to predict plant responses to future environmental changes. Two ¹⁵N tracer experiments utilizing a unique differential labelled nitrogen source were employed in both African savannas and greenhouse settings. The results demonstrated that nitrogen uptake preferences were constrained by the climatic conditions. As mainly indicated by root δ¹⁵N signatures at 1:1 ammonium/nitrate ratio, in the drier environments, plants preferred nitrate and in the wetter environments they preferred ammonium. Nitrogen uptake preferences were different across different ecosystems (e.g. from drier to wetter environments) even for the same species. More significantly, our experiments showed that the plant progeny continued to exhibit the same nitrogen preference as the parent plants in the field, even when removed from their native environment and the nitrogen source was changed dramatically. The climatic constraint of nitrogen uptake preference is likely influenced by ammonium/nitrate ratios in the native habitats of the plants. The constancy in nitrogen preference has important implications in predicting the success of plant communities in their response to climate change, to seed bank use and to reforestation efforts. PMID:21118424

  20. Biodegradation of 2,4-dinitrotoluene by different plant species.

    PubMed

    Podlipná, Radka; Pospíšilová, Blanka; Vaněk, Tomáš

    2015-02-01

    Over the past century, rapid growth of population, mining and industrialization significantly contributed to extensive soil, air and water contamination. The 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT), used mostly as explosive, belongs to the hazardous xenobiotics. Soils and waters contaminated with 2,4-DNT may be cleaned by phytoremediation using suitable plant species. The ability of crop plants (hemp, flax, sunflower and mustard) to germinate and grow on soils contaminated with 2,4-DNT was compared. Stimulation of their growth was found at 0.252 mg/g 2,4-DNT. The lethal concentration for the growth for these species was around 1 mg/g. In hydropony, the above mentioned species were able to survive 200 mg/l 2,4-DNT, the concentration close to maximal solubility of 2,4-DNT in water. Metabolism of 2,4-DNT was tested using suspension culture of soapwort and reed. The degradation products 2-aminonitrotoluene and 4-aminonitrotoluene were found both in the medium and in the acetone extract of plant cells. The test showed that the toxicity of these metabolites was higher than the toxicity of the parent compound, but 2,4-diaminotoluene, the product of next reduction step, was less toxic in the concentration range tested (0-200 mg/l). PMID:25463853

  1. Consequences of plant invasions on compartmentalization and species' roles in plant-pollinator networks.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Matthias; Padrón, Benigno; Bartomeus, Ignasi; Traveset, Anna

    2014-08-01

    Compartmentalization-the organization of ecological interaction networks into subsets of species that do not interact with other subsets (true compartments) or interact more frequently among themselves than with other species (modules)-has been identified as a key property for the functioning, stability and evolution of ecological communities. Invasions by entomophilous invasive plants may profoundly alter the way interaction networks are compartmentalized. We analysed a comprehensive dataset of 40 paired plant-pollinator networks (invaded versus uninvaded) to test this hypothesis. We show that invasive plants have higher generalization levels with respect to their pollinators than natives. The consequences for network topology are that-rather than displacing native species from the network-plant invaders attracting pollinators into invaded modules tend to play new important topological roles (i.e. network hubs, module hubs and connectors) and cause role shifts in native species, creating larger modules that are more connected among each other. While the number of true compartments was lower in invaded compared with uninvaded networks, the effect of invasion on modularity was contingent on the study system. Interestingly, the generalization level of the invasive plants partially explains this pattern, with more generalized invaders contributing to a lower modularity. Our findings indicate that the altered interaction structure of invaded networks makes them more robust against simulated random secondary species extinctions, but more vulnerable when the typically highly connected invasive plants go extinct first. The consequences and pathways by which biological invasions alter the interaction structure of plant-pollinator communities highlighted in this study may have important dynamical and functional implications, for example, by influencing multi-species reciprocal selection regimes and coevolutionary processes. PMID:24943368

  2. The Effect of a Digital Learning Environment on Children's Conceptions about the Protection of Endemic Plants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrou, Stella; Korfiatis, Konstantinos

    2013-01-01

    This study presents the results of a pilot learning intervention for improving children's ideas about plant protection. The research was executed in two phases. The first phase aimed at exploring children's ideas about plant protection. These ideas were taken into account for the design and development of a digital learning environment.…

  3. Reactive oxygen species, essential molecules, during plant-pathogen interactions.

    PubMed

    Camejo, Daymi; Guzmán-Cedeño, Ángel; Moreno, Alexander

    2016-06-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are continually generated as a consequence of the normal metabolism in aerobic organisms. Accumulation and release of ROS into cell take place in response to a wide variety of adverse environmental conditions including salt, temperature, cold stresses and pathogen attack, among others. In plants, peroxidases class III, NADPH oxidase (NOX) locates in cell wall and plasma membrane, respectively, may be mainly enzymatic systems involving ROS generation. It is well documented that ROS play a dual role into cells, acting as important signal transduction molecules and as toxic molecules with strong oxidant power, however some aspects related to its function during plant-pathogen interactions remain unclear. This review focuses on the principal enzymatic systems involving ROS generation addressing the role of ROS as signal molecules during plant-pathogen interactions. We described how the chloroplasts, mitochondria and peroxisomes perceive the external stimuli as pathogen invasion, and trigger resistance response using ROS as signal molecule. PMID:26950921

  4. Cambarus (Jugicambarus) pauleyi, a new species of crayfish (Decapoda: Cambaridae) endemic to southcentral West Virginia, USA, with a re-description of Cambarus (J.) dubius.

    PubMed

    Loughman, Zachary J; Thoma, Roger F; Fetzner, James W Jr; Stocker, G Whitney

    2015-01-01

    Cambarus (Jugicambarus) dubius Faxon, 1884 is a polychromatic montane burrowing crayfish with a long, turbulent taxonomic history since its original description by Walter Faxon in 1884. Over the years, many distinct color phases have been identified, with the majority of these being confined to a specific geographic or physiographic region in the central and southern Appalachians. Previous investigations of this species (e.g., Dewees 1972) were unable to discover consistent morphological differences among the various groups, and thus were unable to clarify what has long been considered a species complex. Due to lingering taxonomic issues, we herein re-describe, delimit and restrict the concept of C. dubius. We also describe a new species, Cambarus (Jugicambarus) pauleyi, from the same complex, which can be identified through the use of geographic distribution, coloration, and distinct morphological characters. Cambarus dubius sensu stricto, as defined here, is restricted to the "typical form" which has an overall orang-ish color pattern on the dorsal and lateral sides, with cream ventrally. The distribution of C. dubius s.s. is limited to the central and northern portions of the Allegheny Mountains and high elevations of the Appalachian Plateau in central West Virginia, western Maryland, and southcentral Pennsylvania. In contrast, C. pauleyi is endemic to high elevation wetlands (>700 m) in the Meadow and Greenbrier River basins in Greenbrier and Monroe counties, West Virginia. Cambarus pauleyi can be differentiated from C. dubius s.s. by 1) its blue dorsal coloration compared to the orange coloration of C. dubius s.s., 2) its large (palm depth/(palm length) ratio, and 3) its smaller (rostral width)/(rostral length) ratio. Cambarus pauleyi can be separated from other peripatric populations of C. dubius sensu lato that occur in the Meadow and Greenbrier River drainage by its 1) blue coloration compared to the orange and black coloration of the latter, 2) the smaller

  5. Sulphur phytoaccumulation in plant species characteristic of Gypsiferous soils.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Juan M; López-Cantarero, Inmaculada; Rivero, Rosa M; Romero, Luis

    2003-01-01

    The SO4= toxicity in gypsiferous soils, which represent more than 100 million hectares worldwide, constitutes one of the major problems limiting world agricultural output. Currently, phytoremediation of SO4= is regarded, from agricultural and environmental standpoints, as one of the most effective alternatives for the decontamination and recovery of these soils. In this study, we analyzed the behavior of five plant species characteristic of gypsiferous soils (Gypsophila struthium, Helianthemun alypoides, H. squamatum, H. syriacum, and Lepidium subulatum) in order to establish the variability of these plants in terms of S-extraction mechanisms. Our results indicate that the species best adapted and with the densest population was Lepidium subulatum. This plant showed the highest concentration of total S and the greatest organic S, as well as the highest levels of amino acids and proteins. In this study, we propose that the incorporation of S into organic compounds is the essential metabolic process determining the tolerance of Lepidium subulatum to gypsiferous soils. In conclusion, the foliar accumulation of organic S could be defined a priori as one of the key characteristics in developing plants with a potential for regenerating zones with high SO4= concentrations. PMID:14750428

  6. ANTIFUNGAL POTENTIAL OF PLANT SPECIES FROM BRAZILIAN CAATINGA AGAINST DERMATOPHYTES.

    PubMed

    Biasi-Garbin, Renata Perugini; Demitto, Fernanda de Oliveira; Amaral, Renata Claro Ribeiro do; Ferreira, Magda Rhayanny Assunção; Soares, Luiz Alberto Lira; Svidzinski, Terezinha Inez Estivalet; Baeza, Lilian Cristiane; Yamada-Ogatta, Sueli Fumie

    2016-01-01

    Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes complex, or Trichophyton spp. are the main etiologic agents of dermatophytosis, whose treatment is limited by the high cost of antifungal treatments, their various side effects, and the emergence of resistance amongst these species. This study evaluated the in vitro antidermatophytic activity of 23 crude extracts from nine plant species of semiarid vegetation (caatinga) found in Brazil. The extracts were tested at concentrations ranging from 1.95 to 1,000.0 mg/mL by broth microdilution assay against the reference strains T. rubrum ATCC 28189 and T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481, and 33 clinical isolates of dermatophytes. All plants showed a fungicidal effect against both fungal species, with MIC/MFC values of the active extracts ranging from 15.6 to 250.0 µg/mL. Selected extracts of Eugenia uniflora (AcE), Libidibia ferrea (AE), and Persea americana (AcE) also exhibited a fungicidal effect against all clinical isolates of T. rubrum and T. mentagrophytes complex. This is the first report of the antifungal activity of Schinus terebinthifolius, Piptadenia colubrina, Parapiptadenia rigida, Mimosa ophthalmocentra, and Persea americana against both dermatophyte species. PMID:27007561

  7. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles for Alien Plant Species Detection and Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvořák, P.; Müllerová, J.; Bartaloš, T.; Brůna, J.

    2015-08-01

    Invasive species spread rapidly and their eradication is difficult. New methods enabling fast and efficient monitoring are urgently needed for their successful control. Remote sensing can improve early detection of invading plants and make their management more efficient and less expensive. In an ongoing project in the Czech Republic, we aim at developing innovative methods of mapping invasive plant species (semi-automatic detection algorithms) by using purposely designed unmanned aircraft (UAV). We examine possibilities for detection of two tree and two herb invasive species. Our aim is to establish fast, repeatable and efficient computer-assisted method of timely monitoring, reducing the costs of extensive field campaigns. For finding the best detection algorithm we test various classification approaches (object-, pixel-based and hybrid). Thanks to its flexibility and low cost, UAV enables assessing the effect of phenological stage and spatial resolution, and is most suitable for monitoring the efficiency of eradication efforts. However, several challenges exist in UAV application, such as geometrical and radiometric distortions, high amount of data to be processed and legal constrains for the UAV flight missions over urban areas (often highly invaded). The newly proposed UAV approach shall serve invasive species researchers, management practitioners and policy makers.

  8. ANTIFUNGAL POTENTIAL OF PLANT SPECIES FROM BRAZILIAN CAATINGA AGAINST DERMATOPHYTES

    PubMed Central

    BIASI-GARBIN, Renata Perugini; DEMITTO, Fernanda de Oliveira; do AMARAL, Renata Claro Ribeiro; FERREIRA, Magda Rhayanny Assunção; SOARES, Luiz Alberto Lira; SVIDZINSKI, Terezinha Inez Estivalet; BAEZA, Lilian Cristiane; YAMADA-OGATTA, Sueli Fumie

    2016-01-01

    Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes complex, or Trichophyton spp. are the main etiologic agents of dermatophytosis, whose treatment is limited by the high cost of antifungal treatments, their various side effects, and the emergence of resistance amongst these species. This study evaluated the in vitro antidermatophytic activity of 23 crude extracts from nine plant species of semiarid vegetation (caatinga) found in Brazil. The extracts were tested at concentrations ranging from 1.95 to 1,000.0 mg/mL by broth microdilution assay against the reference strains T. rubrum ATCC 28189 and T. mentagrophytesATCC 11481, and 33 clinical isolates of dermatophytes. All plants showed a fungicidal effect against both fungal species, with MIC/MFC values of the active extracts ranging from 15.6 to 250.0 µg/mL. Selected extracts of Eugenia uniflora (AcE), Libidibia ferrea (AE), and Persea americana (AcE) also exhibited a fungicidal effect against all clinical isolates of T. rubrum and T. mentagrophytes complex. This is the first report of the antifungal activity of Schinus terebinthifolius, Piptadenia colubrina, Parapiptadenia rigida, Mimosa ophthalmocentra, and Persea americana against both dermatophyte species. PMID:27007561

  9. Seed plant phylogenetic diversity and species richness in conservation planning within a global biodiversity hotspot in eastern Asia.

    PubMed

    Li, Rong; Kraft, Nathan J B; Yu, Haiying; Li, Heng

    2015-12-01

    One of the main goals of conservation biology is to understand the factors shaping variation in biodiversity across the planet. This understanding is critical for conservation planners to be able to develop effective conservation strategies. Although many studies have focused on species richness and the protection of rare and endemic species, less attention has been paid to the protection of the phylogenetic dimension of biodiversity. We explored how phylogenetic diversity, species richness, and phylogenetic community structure vary in seed plant communities along an elevational gradient in a relatively understudied high mountain region, the Dulong Valley, in southeastern Tibet, China. As expected, phylogenetic diversity was well correlated with species richness among the elevational bands and among communities. At the community level, evergreen broad-leaved forests had the highest levels of species richness and phylogenetic diversity. Using null model analyses, we found evidence of nonrandom phylogenetic structure across the region. Evergreen broad-leaved forests were phylogenetically overdispersed, whereas other vegetation types tended to be phylogenetically clustered. We suggest that communities with high species richness or overdispersed phylogenetic structure should be a focus for biodiversity conservation within the Dulong Valley because these areas may help maximize the potential of this flora to respond to future global change. In biodiversity hotspots worldwide, we suggest that the phylogenetic structure of a community may serve as a useful measure of phylogenetic diversity in the context of conservation planning. PMID:26371469

  10. A comprehensive checklist of vascular epiphytes of the Atlantic Forest reveals outstanding endemic rates.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Leandro; Salino, Alexandre; Neto, Luiz Menini; Elias Almeida, Thaís; Mortara, Sara Ribeiro; Stehmann, João Renato; Amorim, André Marcio; Guimarães, Elsie Franklin; Coelho, Marcus Nadruz; Zanin, Ana; Forzza, Rafaela Campostrini

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of the geographic distribution of plants is essential to underpin the understanding of global biodiversity patterns. Vascular epiphytes are important components of diversity and functionality of Neotropical forests but, unlike their terrestrial counterparts, they are under-represented in large-scale diversity and biogeographic analyses. This is the case for the Atlantic Forest - one of the most diverse and threatened biomes worldwide. We provide the first comprehensive species list of Atlantic Forest vascular epiphytes; their endemism patterns and threatened species occurrence have also been analyzed. A list with 2,256 species of (hemi-)epiphytes - distributed in 240 genera and 33 families - is presented based on the updated Brazilian Flora Checklist. This represents more than 15% of the total vascular plant richness in the Atlantic Forest. Moreover, 256 species are included on the Brazilian Red List. More than 93% of the overall richness is concentrated in ten families, with 73% represented by Orchidaceae and Bromeliaceae species alone. A total of 78% of epiphytic species are endemic to the Atlantic Forest, in contrast to overall vascular plant endemism in this biome estimated at 57%. Among the non-endemics, 13% of epiphytic species also occur either in the Amazon or in the Cerrado - the other two largest biomes of Brazil - and only 8% are found in two or more Brazilian biomes. This pattern of endemism, in addition to available dated phylogenies of some genera, indicate the dominance of recent radiations of epiphytic groups in the Atlantic Forest, showing that the majority of divergences dating from the Pliocene onwards are similar to those that were recently reported for other Neotropical plants. PMID:26884706

  11. A comprehensive checklist of vascular epiphytes of the Atlantic Forest reveals outstanding endemic rates

    PubMed Central

    Freitas, Leandro; Salino, Alexandre; Neto, Luiz Menini; Elias Almeida, Thaís; Mortara, Sara Ribeiro; Stehmann, João Renato; Amorim, André Marcio; Guimarães, Elsie Franklin; Coelho, Marcus Nadruz; Zanin, Ana; Forzza, Rafaela Campostrini

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Knowledge of the geographic distribution of plants is essential to underpin the understanding of global biodiversity patterns. Vascular epiphytes are important components of diversity and functionality of Neotropical forests but, unlike their terrestrial counterparts, they are under-represented in large-scale diversity and biogeographic analyses. This is the case for the Atlantic Forest - one of the most diverse and threatened biomes worldwide. We provide the first comprehensive species list of Atlantic Forest vascular epiphytes; their endemism patterns and threatened species occurrence have also been analyzed. A list with 2,256 species of (hemi-)epiphytes - distributed in 240 genera and 33 families - is presented based on the updated Brazilian Flora Checklist. This represents more than 15% of the total vascular plant richness in the Atlantic Forest. Moreover, 256 species are included on the Brazilian Red List. More than 93% of the overall richness is concentrated in ten families, with 73% represented by Orchidaceae and Bromeliaceae species alone. A total of 78% of epiphytic species are endemic to the Atlantic Forest, in contrast to overall vascular plant endemism in this biome estimated at 57%. Among the non-endemics, 13% of epiphytic species also occur either in the Amazon or in the Cerrado - the other two largest biomes of Brazil – and only 8% are found in two or more Brazilian biomes. This pattern of endemism, in addition to available dated phylogenies of some genera, indicate the dominance of recent radiations of epiphytic groups in the Atlantic Forest, showing that the majority of divergences dating from the Pliocene onwards are similar to those that were recently reported for other Neotropical plants. PMID:26884706

  12. Chemical recognition of partner plant species by foundress ant queens in Macaranga-Crematogaster myrmecophytism.

    PubMed

    Inui, Y; Itioka, T; Murase, K; Yamaoka, R; Itino, T

    2001-10-01

    The partnership in the Crematogaster-Macaranga ant-plant interaction is highly species-specific. Because a mutualistic relationship on a Macaranga plant starts with colonization by a foundress queen of a partner Crematogaster species, we hypothesized that the foundress queens select their partner plant species by chemical recognition. We tested this hypothesis with four sympatric Macaranga species and their Crematogaster plant-ant species. We demonstrated that foundress Crematogaster queens can recognize their partner Macaranga species by contact with the surface of the seedlings, that they can recognize compounds from the stem surface of seedlings of their partner plant species, and that the gas chromatographic profiles are characteristic of the plant species. These findings support the hypothesis that foundress queens of the Crematogaster plant-ant species select their partner Macaranga species by recognizing nonvolatile chemical characteristics of the stem surfaces of seedlings. PMID:11710609

  13. China's endemic vertebrates sheltering under the protective umbrella of the giant panda.

    PubMed

    Li, Binbin V; Pimm, Stuart L

    2016-04-01

    The giant panda attracts disproportionate conservation resources. How well does this emphasis protect other endemic species? Detailed data on geographical ranges are not available for plants or invertebrates, so we restrict our analyses to 3 vertebrate taxa: birds, mammals, and amphibians. There are gaps in their protection, and we recommend practical actions to fill them. We identified patterns of species richness, then identified which species are endemic to China, and then which, like the panda, live in forests. After refining each species' range by its known elevational range and remaining forest habitats as determined from remote sensing, we identified the top 5% richest areas as the centers of endemism. Southern mountains, especially the eastern Hengduan Mountains, were centers for all 3 taxa. Over 96% of the panda habitat overlapped the endemic centers. Thus, investing in almost any panda habitat will benefit many other endemics. Existing panda national nature reserves cover all but one of the endemic species that overlap with the panda's distribution. Of particular interest are 14 mammal, 20 bird, and 82 amphibian species that are inadequately protected. Most of these species the International Union for Conservation of Nature currently deems threatened. But 7 mammal, 3 bird, and 20 amphibian species are currently nonthreatened, yet their geographical ranges are <20,000 km(2) after accounting for elevational restriction and remaining habitats. These species concentrate mainly in Sichuan, Yunnan, Nan Mountains, and Hainan. There is a high concentration in the east Daxiang and Xiaoxiang Mountains of Sichuan, where pandas are absent and where there are no national nature reserves. The others concentrate in Yunnan, Nan Mountains, and Hainan. Here, 10 prefectures might establish new protected areas or upgrade local nature reserves to national status. PMID:26332026

  14. Invasive Plant Species: Inventory, Mapping, and Monitoring - A National Strategy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ludke, J. Larry; D'Erchia, Frank; Coffelt, Jan; Hanson, Leanne

    2002-01-01

    America is under siege by invasive species of plants and animals, and by diseases. The current environmental, economic, and health-related costs of invasive species could exceed $138 billion per year-more than all other natural disasters combined. Notorious examples include West Nile virus, Dutch elm disease, chestnut blight, and purple loose- strife in the Northeast; kudzu, Brazilian peppertree, water hyacinth, nutria, and fire ants in the Southeast; zebra mussels, leafy spurge, and Asian long-horn beetles in the Midwest; salt cedar, Russian olive, and Africanized bees in the Southwest; yellow star thistle, European wild oats, oak wilt disease, Asian clams, and white pine blister rust in California; cheatgrass, various knapweeds, and thistles in the Great Basin; whirling disease of salmonids in the Northwest; hundreds of invasive species from microbes to mammals in Hawaii; and the brown tree snake in Guam. Thousands of species from other countries are introduced intentionally or accidentally into the United States each year. Based on past experience, 10-15 percent can be expected to establish free-living populations and about 1 percent can be expected to cause significant impacts to ecosystems, native species, economic productivity, and (or) human health.

  15. Exploring rock fissures: does a specialized root morphology explain endemism on granite outcrops?

    PubMed Central

    Poot, Pieter; Hopper, Stephen D.; van Diggelen, Josepha M.H.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Worldwide, many plant species are confined to open, shallow-soil, rocky habitats. Although several hypotheses have been proposed to explain this habitat specificity, none has been convincing. We suggest that the high level of endemism on shallow soils is related to the edaphic specialization needed to survive in these often extremely drought-prone habitats. Previous research has shown that species endemic to ironstone communities in SW Australia have a specialized root morphology that enhances their chance to access fissures in the underlying rock. Here we test the generality of these findings for species that are confined to a shallow-soil habitat that is of much greater global significance: granite outcrops. Methods We compared temporal and spatial root growth and allocation of three endemic woody perennials of SW Australian granite outcrop communities with those of congeners occurring on nearby deeper soils. Seedlings of all species were grown in 1·2 m long custom-made containers with a transparent bottom that allowed monitoring of root growth over time. Key Results The granite outcrop endemics mostly differed in a predictable way from their congeners from deeper soils. They generally invested a larger portion of their biomass in roots, distributed their roots faster and more evenly over the container and had a lower specific root length. In different species pairs the outcrop endemics achieved their apparent advantage by a different combination of the aforementioned traits. Conclusions Our results are consistent with earlier work, indicating that species restricted to different types of drought-prone shallow-soil communities have undergone similar selection pressures. Although adaptive in their own habitat in terms of obtaining access to fissures in the underlying rock, these root system traits are likely to be maladaptive in deeper soil habitats. Therefore, our results may provide an explanation for the narrow endemism of many shallow

  16. Plant Size as Determinant of Species Richness of Herbivores, Natural Enemies and Pollinators across 21 Brassicaceae Species

    PubMed Central

    Schlinkert, Hella; Westphal, Catrin; Clough, Yann; László, Zoltán; Ludwig, Martin; Tscharntke, Teja

    2015-01-01

    Large plants are often more conspicuous and more attractive for associated animals than small plants, e.g. due to their wider range of resources. Therefore, plant size can positively affect species richness of associated animals, as shown for single groups of herbivores, but studies usually consider intraspecific size differences of plants in unstandardised environments. As comprehensive tests of interspecific plant size differences under standardised conditions are missing so far, we investigated effects of plant size on species richness of all associated arthropods using a common garden experiment with 21 Brassicaceae species covering a broad interspecific plant size gradient from 10 to 130 cm height. We recorded plant associated ecto- and endophagous herbivores, their natural enemies and pollinators on and in each aboveground plant organ, i.e. flowers, fruits, leaves and stems. Plant size (measured as height from the ground), the number of different plant organ entities and their biomass were assessed. Increasing plant size led to increased species richness of associated herbivores, natural enemies and pollinating insects. This pattern was found for ectophagous and endophagous herbivores, their natural enemies, as well as for herbivores associated with leaves and fruits and their natural enemies, independently of the additional positive effects of resource availability (i.e. organ biomass or number of entities and, regarding natural enemies, herbivore species richness). We found a lower R2 for pollinators compared to herbivores and natural enemies, probably caused by the high importance of flower characteristics for pollinator species richness besides plant size. Overall, the increase in plant height from 10 to 130 cm led to a 2.7-fold increase in predicted total arthropod species richness. In conclusion, plant size is a comprehensive driver of species richness of the plant associated arthropods, including pollinators, herbivores and their natural enemies

  17. Effects of ‘Target’ Plant Species Body Size on Neighbourhood Species Richness and Composition in Old-Field Vegetation

    PubMed Central

    Schamp, Brandon S.; Aarssen, Lonnie W.; Wight, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    Competition is generally regarded as an important force in organizing the structure of vegetation, and evidence from several experimental studies of species mixtures suggests that larger mature plant size elicits a competitive advantage. However, these findings are at odds with the fact that large and small plant species generally coexist, and relatively smaller species are more common in virtually all plant communities. Here, we use replicates of ten relatively large old-field plant species to explore the competitive impact of target individual size on their surrounding neighbourhoods compared to nearby neighbourhoods of the same size that are not centred by a large target individual. While target individuals of the largest of our test species, Centaurea jacea L., had a strong impact on neighbouring species, in general, target species size was a weak predictor of the number of other resident species growing within its immediate neighbourhood, as well as the number of resident species that were reproductive. Thus, the presence of a large competitor did not restrict the ability of neighbouring species to reproduce. Lastly, target species size did not have any impact on the species size structure of neighbouring species; i.e. they did not restrict smaller, supposedly poorer competitors, from growing and reproducing close by. Taken together, these results provide no support for a size-advantage in competition restricting local species richness or the ability of small species to coexist and successfully reproduce in the immediate neighbourhood of a large species. PMID:24349177

  18. Genetic control of invasive plants species using selfish genetic elements

    PubMed Central

    Hodgins, Kathryn A; Rieseberg, Loren; Otto, Sarah P

    2009-01-01

    Invasive plants cause substantial environmental damage and economic loss. Here, we explore the possibility that a selfish genetic element found in plants called cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) could be exploited for weed control. CMS is caused by mutations in the mitochondrial genome that sterilize male reproductive organs. We developed an analytical model and a spatial simulation to assess the use of CMS alleles to manage weed populations. Specifically, we examined how fertility, selfing, pollen limitation and dispersal influenced extinction rate and time until extinction in populations where CMS arises. We found that the introduction of a CMS allele can cause rapid population extinction, but only under a restricted set of conditions. Both models suggest that the CMS strategy will be appropriate for species where pollen limitation is negligible, inbreeding depression is high and the fertility advantage of females over hermaphrodites is substantial. In general, spatial structure did not have a strong influence on the simulation outcome, although low pollen dispersal and intermediate levels of seed dispersal tended to reduce population extinction rates. Given these results, the introduction of CMS alleles into a population of invasive plants probably represents an effective control method for only a select number of species. PMID:25567898

  19. Hydroperiod regime controls the organization of plant species in wetlands.

    PubMed

    Foti, Romano; del Jesus, Manuel; Rinaldo, Andrea; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio

    2012-11-27

    With urban, agricultural, and industrial needs growing throughout the past decades, wetland ecosystems have experienced profound changes. Most critically, the biodiversity of wetlands is intimately linked to its hydrologic dynamics, which in turn are being drastically altered by ongoing climate changes. Hydroperiod regimes, e.g., percentage of time a site is inundated, exert critical control in the creation of niches for different plant species in wetlands. However, the spatial signatures of the organization of plant species in wetlands and how the different drivers interact to yield such signatures are unknown. Focusing on Everglades National Park (ENP) in Florida, we show here that cluster sizes of each species follow a power law probability distribution and that such clusters have well-defined fractal characteristics. Moreover, we individuate and model those signatures via the interplay between global forcings arising from the hydroperiod regime and local controls exerted by neighboring vegetation. With power law clustering often associated with systems near critical transitions, our findings are highly relevant for the management of wetland ecosystems. In addition, our results show that changes in climate and land management have a quantifiable predictable impact on the type of vegetation and its spatial organization in wetlands. PMID:23150589

  20. Hydroperiod regime controls the organization of plant species in wetlands

    PubMed Central

    Foti, Romano; del Jesus, Manuel; Rinaldo, Andrea; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio

    2012-01-01

    With urban, agricultural, and industrial needs growing throughout the past decades, wetland ecosystems have experienced profound changes. Most critically, the biodiversity of wetlands is intimately linked to its hydrologic dynamics, which in turn are being drastically altered by ongoing climate changes. Hydroperiod regimes, e.g., percentage of time a site is inundated, exert critical control in the creation of niches for different plant species in wetlands. However, the spatial signatures of the organization of plant species in wetlands and how the different drivers interact to yield such signatures are unknown. Focusing on Everglades National Park (ENP) in Florida, we show here that cluster sizes of each species follow a power law probability distribution and that such clusters have well-defined fractal characteristics. Moreover, we individuate and model those signatures via the interplay between global forcings arising from the hydroperiod regime and local controls exerted by neighboring vegetation. With power law clustering often associated with systems near critical transitions, our findings are highly relevant for the management of wetland ecosystems. In addition, our results show that changes in climate and land management have a quantifiable predictable impact on the type of vegetation and its spatial organization in wetlands. PMID:23150589

  1. Species-area relationships in Mediterranean-climate plant communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keeley, J.E.; Fotheringham, C.J.

    2003-01-01

    Aim: To determine the best-fit model of species-area relationships for Mediterranean-type plant communities and evaluate how community structure affects these species-area models. Location: Data were collected from California shrublands and woodlands and compared with literature reports for other Mediterranean-climate regions. Methods: The number of species was recorded from 1, 100 and 1000 m2 nested plots. Best fit to the power model or exponential model was determined by comparing adjusted r2 values from the least squares regression, pattern of residuals, homoscedasticity across scales, and semi-log slopes at 1-100 m2 and 100-1000 m2. Dominance-diversity curves were tested for fit to the lognormal model, MacArthur's broken stick model, and the geometric and harmonic series. Results: Early successional Western Australia and California shrublands represented the extremes and provide an interesting contrast as the exponential model was the best fit for the former, and the power model for the latter, despite similar total species richness. We hypothesize that structural differences in these communities account for the different species-area curves and are tied to patterns of dominance, equitability and life form distribution. Dominance-diversity relationships for Western Australian heathlands exhibited a close fit to MacArthur's broken stick model, indicating more equitable distribution of species. In contrast, Californian shrublands, both postfire and mature stands, were best fit by the geometric model indicating strong dominance and many minor subordinate species. These regions differ in life form distribution, with annuals being a major component of diversity in early successional Californian shrublands although they are largely lacking in mature stands. Both young and old Australian heathlands are dominated by perennials, and annuals are largely absent. Inherent in all of these ecosystems is cyclical disequilibrium caused by periodic fires. The potential for

  2. Plant inter-species effects on rhizosphere priming effect and nitrogen acquisition by plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yue; Xu, Xingliang; Yang, Baijie; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2015-04-01

    Rhizosphere interactions play a central role linking roots-soil system and regulate various aspects of nutrient cycling. Rhizodeposition inputs are known to change soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition via rhizosphere priming effects (RPEs) through enhancing soil biological activity and altering microbial community structure. The magnitude of RPEs varies widely among plant-species and root biomass possibly due to different quality and quantity of rhizodeposits. However, it is virtually unknown whether the RPEs are influenced by plant inter-species interactions and how these processes affect N mineralization and available N for plants. Monocultures of maize (M) and soybean (S), and mixed cultures of maize/maize (MM), soybean/soybean (SS), maize/soybean (MS) were grown over a 45-day greenhouse experiment. We labeled them with plant litter that was enriched in13C and 15N. The 15N distributions in plants and microbial biomass were measured at 14, 35, and 45days after labeling. The RPEs were positive under all plants, ranging from 11.7% to 138.3% and gradually decreased with plant growth. The RPE in the SS was significantly higher than these in others treatments at 14 days, while at 45 days it was higher in the MS than these from their monocultures, suggesting that the RPE was enhanced by the inter-species effects of maize and soybean. The litter decomposition ratio and 15N recovery of plants and microorganism increased with the root growth across all plants. The 15N recovery of plants in the MS (14.2%) was higher than these in the MM (12.3%) and SS(9.7%) at 45 days. Similarly, the 15N recovery of microorganism in the corresponding treatments was 6.7%, 2.2%, and 6.8%, respectively. The MS showed higher soil organic N mineralization amount than that from all soybean and maize monocultures at 45 days. We conclude that plant inter-species interactions may have significant effect on rhizosphere priming and modify the plant N uptake from litter resource and SOM.

  3. Plot shape effects on plant species diversity measurements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keeley, J.E.; Fotheringham, C.J.

    2005-01-01

    Question: Do rectangular sample plots record more plant species than square plots as suggested by both empirical and theoretical studies? Location: Grasslands, shrublands and forests in the Mediterranean-climate region of California, USA. Methods: We compared three 0.1-ha sampling designs that differed in the shape and dispersion of 1-m2 and 100-m2 nested subplots. We duplicated an earlier study that compared the Whittaker sample design, which had square clustered subplots, with the modified Whittaker design, which had dispersed rectangular subplots. To sort out effects of dispersion from shape we used a third design that overlaid square subplots on the modified Whittaker design. Also, using data from published studies we extracted species richness values for 400-m2 subplots that were either square or 1:4 rectangles partially overlaid on each other from desert scrub in high and low rainfall years, chaparral, sage scrub, oak savanna and coniferous forests with and without fire. Results: We found that earlier empirical reports of more than 30% greater richness with rectangles were due to the confusion of shape effects with spatial effects, coupled with the use of cumulative number of species as the metric for comparison. Average species richness was not significantly different between square and 1:4 rectangular sample plots at either 1-or 100-m2. Pairwise comparisons showed no significant difference between square and rectangular samples in all but one vegetation type, and that one exhibited significantly greater richness with squares. Our three intensive study sites appear to exhibit some level of self-similarity at the scale of 400 m2, but, contrary to theoretical expectations, we could not detect plot shape effects on species richness at this scale. Conclusions: At the 0.1-ha scale or lower there is no evidence that plot shape has predictable effects on number of species recorded from sample plots. We hypothesize that for the mediterranean-climate vegetation types

  4. Future of Endemic Flora of Biodiversity Hotspots in India

    PubMed Central

    Chitale, Vishwas Sudhir; Behera, Mukund Dev; Roy, Partha Sarthi

    2014-01-01

    India is one of the 12 mega biodiversity countries of the world, which represents 11% of world's flora in about 2.4% of global land mass. Approximately 28% of the total Indian flora and 33% of angiosperms occurring in India are endemic. Higher human population density in biodiversity hotspots in India puts undue pressure on these sensitive eco-regions. In the present study, we predict the future distribution of 637 endemic plant species from three biodiversity hotspots in India; Himalaya, Western Ghats, Indo-Burma, based on A1B scenario for year 2050 and 2080. We develop individual variable based models as well as mixed models in MaxEnt by combining ten least co-related bioclimatic variables, two disturbance variables and one physiography variable as predictor variables. The projected changes suggest that the endemic flora will be adversely impacted, even under such a moderate climate scenario. The future distribution is predicted to shift in northern and north-eastern direction in Himalaya and Indo-Burma, while in southern and south-western direction in Western Ghats, due to cooler climatic conditions in these regions. In the future distribution of endemic plants, we observe a significant shift and reduction in the distribution range compared to the present distribution. The model predicts a 23.99% range reduction and a 7.70% range expansion in future distribution by 2050, while a 41.34% range reduction and a 24.10% range expansion by 2080. Integration of disturbance and physiography variables along with bioclimatic variables in the models improved the prediction accuracy. Mixed models provide most accurate results for most of the combinations of climatic and non-climatic variables as compared to individual variable based models. We conclude that a) regions with cooler climates and higher moisture availability could serve as refugia for endemic plants in future climatic conditions; b) mixed models provide more accurate results, compared to single variable based

  5. Future of endemic flora of biodiversity hotspots in India.

    PubMed

    Chitale, Vishwas Sudhir; Behera, Mukund Dev; Roy, Partha Sarthi

    2014-01-01

    India is one of the 12 mega biodiversity countries of the world, which represents 11% of world's flora in about 2.4% of global land mass. Approximately 28% of the total Indian flora and 33% of angiosperms occurring in India are endemic. Higher human population density in biodiversity hotspots in India puts undue pressure on these sensitive eco-regions. In the present study, we predict the future distribution of 637 endemic plant species from three biodiversity hotspots in India; Himalaya, Western Ghats, Indo-Burma, based on A1B scenario for year 2050 and 2080. We develop individual variable based models as well as mixed models in MaxEnt by combining ten least co-related bioclimatic variables, two disturbance variables and one physiography variable as predictor variables. The projected changes suggest that the endemic flora will be adversely impacted, even under such a moderate climate scenario. The future distribution is predicted to shift in northern and north-eastern direction in Himalaya and Indo-Burma, while in southern and south-western direction in Western Ghats, due to cooler climatic conditions in these regions. In the future distribution of endemic plants, we observe a significant shift and reduction in the distribution range compared to the present distribution. The model predicts a 23.99% range reduction and a 7.70% range expansion in future distribution by 2050, while a 41.34% range reduction and a 24.10% range expansion by 2080. Integration of disturbance and physiography variables along with bioclimatic variables in the models improved the prediction accuracy. Mixed models provide most accurate results for most of the combinations of climatic and non-climatic variables as compared to individual variable based models. We conclude that a) regions with cooler climates and higher moisture availability could serve as refugia for endemic plants in future climatic conditions; b) mixed models provide more accurate results, compared to single variable based

  6. Telling plant species apart with DNA: from barcodes to genomes

    PubMed Central

    Li, De-Zhu; van der Bank, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Land plants underpin a multitude of ecosystem functions, support human livelihoods and represent a critically important component of terrestrial biodiversity—yet many tens of thousands of species await discovery, and plant identification remains a substantial challenge, especially where material is juvenile, fragmented or processed. In this opinion article, we tackle two main topics. Firstly, we provide a short summary of the strengths and limitations of plant DNA barcoding for addressing these issues. Secondly, we discuss options for enhancing current plant barcodes, focusing on increasing discriminatory power via either gene capture of nuclear markers or genome skimming. The former has the advantage of establishing a defined set of target loci maximizing efficiency of sequencing effort, data storage and analysis. The challenge is developing a probe set for large numbers of nuclear markers that works over sufficient phylogenetic breadth. Genome skimming has the advantage of using existing protocols and being backward compatible with existing barcodes; and the depth of sequence coverage can be increased as sequencing costs fall. Its non-targeted nature does, however, present a major informatics challenge for upscaling to large sample sets. This article is part of the themed issue ‘From DNA barcodes to biomes’. PMID:27481790

  7. Telling plant species apart with DNA: from barcodes to genomes.

    PubMed

    Hollingsworth, Peter M; Li, De-Zhu; van der Bank, Michelle; Twyford, Alex D

    2016-09-01

    Land plants underpin a multitude of ecosystem functions, support human livelihoods and represent a critically important component of terrestrial biodiversity-yet many tens of thousands of species await discovery, and plant identification remains a substantial challenge, especially where material is juvenile, fragmented or processed. In this opinion article, we tackle two main topics. Firstly, we provide a short summary of the strengths and limitations of plant DNA barcoding for addressing these issues. Secondly, we discuss options for enhancing current plant barcodes, focusing on increasing discriminatory power via either gene capture of nuclear markers or genome skimming. The former has the advantage of establishing a defined set of target loci maximizing efficiency of sequencing effort, data storage and analysis. The challenge is developing a probe set for large numbers of nuclear markers that works over sufficient phylogenetic breadth. Genome skimming has the advantage of using existing protocols and being backward compatible with existing barcodes; and the depth of sequence coverage can be increased as sequencing costs fall. Its non-targeted nature does, however, present a major informatics challenge for upscaling to large sample sets.This article is part of the themed issue 'From DNA barcodes to biomes'. PMID:27481790

  8. Short communication: occurrence of Arcobacter species in industrial dairy plants.

    PubMed

    Serraino, A; Giacometti, F

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated the presence of Arcobacter spp. in industrial dairy plants. Between February and September 2013, pasteurized milk used for cheesemaking, processing and cleaning water, cheese, and environmental samples from different plant sites, including surfaces in contact or not in contact with food, were sampled. A total of 126 samples were analyzed by the cultural method and isolates were identified by multiplex PCR. Arcobacter spp. were isolated from 22 of 75 environmental samples (29.3%): of them, 22.7% were surfaces in contact with food and 38.7% surfaces not in contact with food. A total of 135 Arcobacter spp. isolates were obtained; of these, 129 and 6 were identified as Arcobacter butzleri and Arcobacter cryaerophilus, respectively. All food processing water and pasteurized milk samples were negative for Arcobacter species. We were not able to determine the primary source of contamination, but the isolation of both A. butzleri and A. cryaerophilus in surfaces in contact with food before and during manufacturing suggests that Arcobacter spp. are not or are only partially affected by routine sanitizing procedures in the industrial dairy plants studied. The efficacy of sanitizing procedures should be evaluated and further studies are needed to determine whether certain Arcobacter strains persist for long periods of time in industrial dairy plants and whether they can survive in different types of cheese in cases of postprocessing contamination. PMID:24534515

  9. Antimicrobial potentials of some plant species of the Bignoniaceae family.

    PubMed

    Binutu, O A; Lajubutu, B A

    1994-09-01

    The methanol extracts of the leaves and stem bark of four Bignoniaceae plants Jacaranda mimosifolia D. Dol., Tecoma stans Linn., Tabebuia rosea (Bertol) D.C., and Crescentia cujete Linn. were studied for their antimicrobial activity using a wide range of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and fungi. Extracts of both the leaves and stem bark of majority of plant species studied showed variable but remarkable broad spectrum antimicrobial activity. However, methanol extracts of Tecoma stans leaves was found to be effective against only Candida albicans at the concentrations employed. It was observed that the extracts of stem bark generally showed better antimicrobial activity than those of the leaves and some organisms were selectively more sensitive to the extracts than others. Preliminary phytochemical screening of these plants revealed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, alkaloids, quinones and traces of saponins. The antimicrobial activity observed are discussed in relation to the chemical constituents reportedly isolated from these plants and their traditional uses. PMID:7604753

  10. ELEVATED CO2 AND PLANT PLANT SPECIES RICHNESS IMPACT ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL FUNGAL SPORE COMMUNITIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We enumerated arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal spore communities for three years as part of a long-term Free-Air CO2 Enrichment experiment (BioCON) at Cedar Creek, Minnesota, USA. Complete factorial combinations of two levels of CO2 and N, and sixteen perennial plant species grown in monoculture and si...

  11. Reactive oxygen species generation and signaling in plants

    PubMed Central

    Tripathy, Baishnab Charan; Oelmüller, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    The introduction of molecular oxygen into the atmosphere was accompanied by the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as side products of many biochemical reactions. ROS are permanently generated in plastids, peroxisomes, mitochiondria, the cytosol and the apoplast. Imbalance between ROS generation and safe detoxification generates oxidative stress and the accumulating ROS are harmful for the plants. On the other hand, specific ROS function as signaling molecules and activate signal transduction processes in response to various stresses. Here, we summarize the generation of ROS in the different cellular compartments and the signaling processes which are induced by ROS. PMID:23072988

  12. 45 CFR 670.25 - Designation of specially protected species of native mammals, birds, and plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... native mammals, birds, and plants. 670.25 Section 670.25 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public... Protected Species of Mammals, Birds, and Plants § 670.25 Designation of specially protected species of native mammals, birds, and plants. The following species has been designated as Specially...

  13. 45 CFR 670.25 - Designation of specially protected species of native mammals, birds, and plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... native mammals, birds, and plants. 670.25 Section 670.25 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public... Protected Species of Mammals, Birds, and Plants § 670.25 Designation of specially protected species of native mammals, birds, and plants. The following species has been designated as Specially...

  14. 45 CFR 670.25 - Designation of specially protected species of native mammals, birds, and plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... native mammals, birds, and plants. 670.25 Section 670.25 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public... Protected Species of Mammals, Birds, and Plants § 670.25 Designation of specially protected species of native mammals, birds, and plants. The following species has been designated as Specially...

  15. Leishmania donovani: assessment of leishmanicidal effects of herbal extracts obtained from plants in the visceral leishmaniasis endemic area of Bihar, India.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shubhankar K; Bimal, Sanjiva; Narayan, Shyam; Jee, Chandrawati; Bimal, Devla; Das, P; Bimal, Raageeva

    2011-02-01

    One obstacle faced in the effective control of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is the limited number of available treatment options. Furthermore, control efforts have been hindered further by the emergence of Leishmania resistance to many of the available drugs. In this study, we investigated the anti-leishmanial properties of 30 medicinally important plants from the VL endemic area of Bihar, India and compared them to two available anti-leishmanial drugs (sodium antimony gluconate and amphotericin B) and two plant lectins (phytohemagglutinin and concanavalin A) on Leishmania donovani promastigotes in vitro at 24 and 48 h after initiation of culture. We identified eight plant extracts in addition to phytohemagglutinin and amphotericin B that significantly inhibited the growth of promastigotes (p < 0.03). We further studied the minimum effective concentrations as well as the effect on axenic amastigotes viability and the cell cytotoxicity on human peripheral blood of four (Agave americana, Azadirachta indica, Eclipta alba and Piper longum) of the eight plant extracts that induced significant promastigotes killing (p = 0.00098). Effect-based dose finding analysis revealed that the threshold concentration of A. americana required to eliminate L. donovani after 24h was 0.05 mg/ml. A. indica and P. longum plant extracts eliminated L. donovani promastigotes after 48 h at concentrations of 0.1 and 0.5mg/ml, respectively. E. alba eliminated the promastigotes at a concentration of 0.5mg/ml within 24h. The axenic amastigote killing response was 1.90-, 2.52- and 1.3-fold higher than the promastigote killing response with A. indica, A. americana and E. alba plant extracts, respectively. A. americana and A. indica, respectively, led to approximate 2.5- and 1.3-fold declines in mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity compared with control. E. alba stimulation resulted in an up-regulation of dehydrogenase activity (p = 0.00329). The CSA from P. longum was found to be least cytotoxic

  16. Consequences of habitat fragmentation for the prairie-endemic weevil Haplorhynchites aeneus.

    PubMed

    Kluger, Emily C; Berlocher, Stewart H; Tooker, John F; Hanks, Lawrence M

    2011-12-01

    Widespread destruction of tallgrass prairies in the midwestern United States has fragmented plant communities with the result that populations of endemic animal species have become geographically isolated from one another. The goal of the research summarized here was to evaluate the potential for conserving endemic prairie species of herbivorous insects by managing their host plants. Our study species was the weevil Haplorhynchites aeneus (Boehman), adults of which feed on pollen of plants in the genus Silphium (Asteraceae: Heliantheae). The female weevils clip the peduncles of flower heads and oviposit into the heads, where the larvae feed on the ovules. The research was conducted in 12 prairie sites in eastern Illinois. An allozyme analysis revealed that most populations of H. aeneus at the various prairie sites were genetically differentiated from one another, but the degree of differentiation was not associated with geographic distance between sites. Adult H. aeneus fed and oviposited on the plant species Silphium laciniatum L., S. integrifolium Michx., and S. terebinthinaceum Jacq, which differ in bloom phenology. There was no evidence of genetic differentiation of weevil populations with respect to host plant species, and adult weevils strongly preferred S. terebinthinaceum. We conclude that the oligophagous nature of the weevil assures its survival in small prairie remnants even where some of the host plant species are absent. Although H. aeneus can have a significant impact on reproduction of host plants by clipping flower heads, the perennial nature of Silphium species prevents their local extinction. PMID:22217753

  17. A new genus and twenty new species of Australian jumping plant-lice (Psylloidea: Triozidae) from Eremophila and Myoporum (Scrophulariaceae: Myoporeae).

    PubMed

    Taylor, Gary S; Fagan-Jeffries, Erinn P; Austin, Andy D

    2016-01-01

    The Triozidae is a diverse, cosmopolitan family of jumping plant-lice (Hemiptera: Psylloidea) from an exceptionally diverse range of plant families, but with few described Australian species. As a direct outcome of the Australian Biological Resources Study Bush Blitz species discovery program, many new Psylloidea from novel host plants in remote localities have been revealed. In this study a new genus Myotrioza Taylor gen. nov. and 20 new species are described from southern and central Australia which also establishes the first host plant records from Eremophila and Myoporum (Scrophulariaceae: Myoporeae). New species, delineated using a combination of morphological and mitochondrial COI sequence data, are: Myotrioza clementsiana sp. nov., M. darwinensis sp. nov., M. desertorum sp. nov., M. eremi sp. nov., M. eremophili sp. nov., M. flindersiana sp.nov., M. gawlerensis sp. nov., M. insularis sp. nov., M. interioris sp. nov., M. interstantis sp. nov., M. longifoliae sp. nov., M. markmitchelli sp. nov., M. myopori sp. nov., M. oppositifoliae sp. nov., M. pantonii sp. nov., M. platycarpi sp. nov., M. remota sp. nov., M. scopariae sp. nov., M. serrulatae sp. nov., and M. telowiensis sp. nov. Genetic divergence data, host associations, biogeographic data, diagnoses and a key to species are presented. Myotrioza appears to be particularly diverse in ephemeral southern Australia, especially in inland Western Australia and South Australia, matching regions of high diversity of the host genera; some species are likely to be short range endemics. PMID:27395952

  18. Emission of isoprene from common Indian plant species and its implications for regional air quality.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rashmi; Singh, Abhai Pratap; Singh, M P; Kumar, Animesh; Varshney, C K

    2008-09-01

    Isoprene is most dominant volatile organic compounds (VOC) emitted by many plants. In this study 40 common Indian plant species were examined for isoprene emission using dynamic flow through enclosure chamber technique. Isoprene emission rates of plants species were found to vary from undetectable to 69.5 microg g(-1) h(-1) (Madhuca latifolia). Besides, an attempt has been made to evaluate suitability of 80 common Indian plant species for planting programmes. Out of 80 species, 29 species were moderate to high emitters (10 to < or =25 microg g(-1) h(-1)), 12 species were low emitter emitters (1 to < or =10 microg g(-1) h(-1)) and remaining 39 species were found to be negligible or non emitters (<1 microg g(-1) h(-1)) of isoprene. About 50% plant species selected for planting programmes in India were found to be moderate to high emitters of isoprene. PMID:17952698

  19. Emergence, re-emergence, spread and host species crossing of Mycoplasma bovis in the Austrian Alps caused by a single endemic strain.

    PubMed

    Spergser, Joachim; Macher, Kathrin; Kargl, Munkhtsetseg; Lysnyansky, Inna; Rosengarten, Renate

    2013-06-28

    Mycoplasma (M.) bovis was identified and reported in Austria as agent of infection and disease in cattle only once, namely in 2005 associated with a case of mastitis in a smallholding, but in 2007 it unexpectedly emerged as the cause of a devastating disease outbreak in a dairy herd of 100 individuals and spill over infection to pigs, both kept on the same mountain pasture. In 2008, M. bovis remained endemic at a low level in this region followed by the re-emergence of the agent in 2009 and a dramatic spread of the disease to further Alpine areas and their foothills in 2010 and 2011. From these outbreaks, a total of 94 M. bovis isolates including 7 porcine isolates were selected for genotyping. Two molecular tools, randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis and multi-locus variable number of tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) were chosen to identify strain types involved in these outbreaks and to trace routes of infection and dynamics of dissemination. With both typing methods, the majority of Alpine isolates (96.8%) recovered over time from different areas and hosts was clustered into one group exhibiting a unique and indistinguishable profile which significantly differed from those of geographically unrelated strains including the type strain PG45 and 3 Alpine isolates which suddenly appeared and disappeared in 2009. Stability of the unique profile strongly indicated that a single M. bovis strain initiated the outbreak in 2007, crossed the host species barrier by infecting pigs, re-emerged in 2009 and became widespread in the Austrian Alps in 2010 and 2011. The remarkable dissemination and persistence of a single and unique M. bovis strain may reflect peculiarities of dairy management practices in the Alps based on Alpine transhumance and cooperative use of mountain pastures. As the source of the outbreak strain remains unknown, the findings of this study underscore the importance of continuous surveillance by monitoring further spread and persistence of M

  20. Duck productivity in restored species-rich native and species-poor non-native plantings.

    PubMed

    Haffele, Ryan D; Eichholz, Michael W; Dixon, Cami S

    2013-01-01

    Conservation efforts to increase duck production have led the United States Fish and Wildlife Service to restore grasslands with multi-species (3-5) mixtures of introduced cool season vegetation often termed dense nesting cover (DNC). The effectiveness of DNC to increase duck production has been variable, and maintenance of the cover type is expensive. In an effort to decrease the financial and ecological costs (increased carbon emissions from plowing and reseeding) of maintaining DNC and provide a long-term, resilient cover that will support a diversity of grassland fauna, restoration of multi-species (16-32) plantings of native plants has been explored. We investigated the vegetation characteristics, nesting density and nest survival between the 2 aforementioned cover types in the Prairie Pothole Region of North Dakota, USA from 2010-2011 to see if restored-native plantings provide similar benefits to nesting hens as DNC. We searched 14 fields (7 DNC, 271 ha; and 7 restored native, 230 ha) locating 3384 nests (1215 in restored-native vegetation and 2169 in DNC) in 2010-2011. Nest survival was similar between cover types in 2010, while DNC had greater survival than native plantings in 2011. Densities of nests adjusted for detection probability were not different between cover types in either year. We found no structural difference in vegetation between cover types in 2010; however, a difference was detected during the late sampling period in 2011 with DNC having deeper litter and taller vegetation. Our results indicate restored-native plantings are able to support similar nesting density as DNC; however, nest survival is more stable between years in DNC. It appears the annual variation in security between cover types goes undetected by hens as hens selected cover types at similar levels both years. PMID:23840898

  1. Duck Productivity in Restored Species-Rich Native and Species-Poor Non-Native Plantings

    PubMed Central

    Haffele, Ryan D.; Eichholz, Michael W.; Dixon, Cami S.

    2013-01-01

    Conservation efforts to increase duck production have led the United States Fish and Wildlife Service to restore grasslands with multi-species (3-5) mixtures of introduced cool season vegetation often termed dense nesting cover (DNC). The effectiveness of DNC to increase duck production has been variable, and maintenance of the cover type is expensive. In an effort to decrease the financial and ecological costs (increased carbon emissions from plowing and reseeding) of maintaining DNC and provide a long-term, resilient cover that will support a diversity of grassland fauna, restoration of multi-species (16-32) plantings of native plants has been explored. We investigated the vegetation characteristics, nesting density and nest survival between the 2 aforementioned cover types in the Prairie Pothole Region of North Dakota, USA from 2010–2011 to see if restored-native plantings provide similar benefits to nesting hens as DNC. We searched 14 fields (7 DNC, 271 ha; and 7 restored native, 230 ha) locating 3384 nests (1215 in restored-native vegetation and 2169 in DNC) in 2010-2011. Nest survival was similar between cover types in 2010, while DNC had greater survival than native plantings in 2011. Densities of nests adjusted for detection probability were not different between cover types in either year. We found no structural difference in vegetation between cover types in 2010; however, a difference was detected during the late sampling period in 2011 with DNC having deeper litter and taller vegetation. Our results indicate restored-native plantings are able to support similar nesting density as DNC; however, nest survival is more stable between years in DNC. It appears the annual variation in security between cover types goes undetected by hens as hens selected cover types at similar levels both years. PMID:23840898

  2. Delimiting Areas of Endemism through Kernel Interpolation

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Ubirajara; Brescovit, Antonio D.; Santos, Adalberto J.

    2015-01-01

    We propose a new approach for identification of areas of endemism, the Geographical Interpolation of Endemism (GIE), based on kernel spatial interpolation. This method differs from others in being independent of grid cells. This new approach is based on estimating the overlap between the distribution of species through a kernel interpolation of centroids of species distribution and areas of influence defined from the distance between the centroid and the farthest point of occurrence of each species. We used this method to delimit areas of endemism of spiders from Brazil. To assess the effectiveness of GIE, we analyzed the same data using Parsimony Analysis of Endemism and NDM and compared the areas identified through each method. The analyses using GIE identified 101 areas of endemism of spiders in Brazil GIE demonstrated to be effective in identifying areas of endemism in multiple scales, with fuzzy edges and supported by more synendemic species than in the other methods. The areas of endemism identified with GIE were generally congruent with those identified for other taxonomic groups, suggesting that common processes can be responsible for the origin and maintenance of these biogeographic units. PMID:25611971

  3. Effect of plant species on nitrogen recovery in aquaponics.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhen; Lee, Jae Woo; Chandran, Kartik; Kim, Sungpyo; Brotto, Ariane Coelho; Khanal, Samir Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Nitrogen transformations in aquaponics with different edible plant species, i.e., tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) and pak choi (Brassica campestris L. subsp. chinensis) were systematically examined and compared. Results showed that nitrogen utilization efficiencies (NUE) of tomato- and pak choi-based aquaponic systems were 41.3% and 34.4%, respectively. The abundance of nitrifying bacteria in tomato-based aquaponics was 4.2-folds higher than that in pak choi-based aquaponics, primarily due to its higher root surface area. In addition, tomato-based aquaponics had better water quality than that of pak choi-based aquaponics. About 1.5-1.9% of nitrogen input were emitted to atmosphere as nitrous oxide (N2O) in tomato- and pak choi-based aquaponic systems, respectively, suggesting that aquaponics is a potential anthropogenic source of N2O emission. Overall, this is the first intensive study that examined the role plant species played in aquaponics, which could provide new strategy in designing and operating an aquaponic system. PMID:25650140

  4. Plant Functional Diversity and Species Diversity in the Mongolian Steppe

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Guofang; Xie, Xiufang; Ye, Duo; Ye, Xuehua; Tuvshintogtokh, Indree; Mandakh, Bayart; Huang, Zhenying; Dong, Ming

    2013-01-01

    Background The Mongolian steppe is one of the most important grasslands in the world but suffers from aridization and damage from anthropogenic activities. Understanding structure and function of this community is important for the ecological conservation, but has seldom been investigated. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, a total of 324 quadrats located on the three main types of Mongolian steppes were surveyed. Early-season perennial forbs (37% of total importance value), late-season annual forbs (33%) and late-season perennial forbs (44%) were dominant in meadow, typical and desert steppes, respectively. Species richness, diversity and plant functional type (PFT) richness decreased from the meadow, via typical to desert steppes, but evenness increased; PFT diversity in the desert and meadow steppes was higher than that in typical steppe. However, above-ground net primary productivity (ANPP) was far lower in desert steppe than in the other two steppes. In addition, the slope of the relationship between species richness and PFT richness increased from the meadow, via typical to desert steppes. Similarly, with an increase in species diversity, PFT diversity increased more quickly in both the desert and typical steppes than that in meadow steppe. Random resampling suggested that this coordination was partly due to a sampling effect of diversity. Conclusions/Significance These results indicate that desert steppe should be strictly protected because of its limited functional redundancy, which its ecological functioning is sensitive to species loss. In contrast, despite high potential forage production shared by the meadow and typical steppes, management of these two types of steppes should be different: meadow steppe should be preserved due to its higher conservation value characterized by more species redundancy and higher spatial heterogeneity, while typical steppe could be utilized moderately because its dominant grass genus Stipa is resistant to

  5. Evaluating the Interacting Influences of Pollination, Seed Predation, Invasive Species and Isolation on Reproductive Success in a Threatened Alpine Plant

    PubMed Central

    Krushelnycky, Paul D.

    2014-01-01

    Reproduction in rare plants may be influenced and limited by a complex combination of factors. External threats such as invasive species and landscape characteristics such as isolation may impinge on both pollination and seed predation dynamics, which in turn can strongly affect reproduction. I assessed how patterns in floral visitation, seed predation, invasive ant presence, and plant isolation influenced one another and ultimately affected viable seed production in Haleakalā silverswords (Argyroxiphium sandwicense subsp. macrocephalum) of Hawai’i. Floral visitation was dominated by endemic Hylaeus bees, and patterns of visitation were influenced by floral display size and number of plants clustered together, but not by floral herbivory or nearest flowering neighbor distance. There was also some indication that Argentine ant presence impacted floral visitation, but contradictory evidence and limitations of the study design make this result uncertain. Degree of seed predation was associated only with plant isolation, with the two main herbivores partitioning resources such that one preferentially attacked isolated plants while the other attacked clumped plants; total seed predation was greater in more isolated plants. Net viable seed production was highly variable among individuals (0–55% seed set), and was affected mainly by nearest neighbor distance, apparently owing to low cross-pollination among plants separated by even short distances (>10–20 m). This isolation effect dominated net seed set, with no apparent influence from floral visitation rates, percent seed predation, or invasive ant presence. The measured steep decline in seed set with isolation distance may not be typical of the entire silversword range, and may indicate that pollinators in addition to Hylaeus bees could be important for greater gene flow. Management aimed at maintaining or maximizing silversword reproduction should focus on the spatial context of field populations and outplanting

  6. Antifungal Effect of Plant Essential Oils on Controlling Phytophthora Species

    PubMed Central

    Amini, Jahanshir; Farhang, Vahid; Javadi, Taimoor; Nazemi, Javad

    2016-01-01

    In this study, antifungal activity of essential oils of Cymbopogon citratus and Ocimum basilicum and two fungicides Mancozeb and Metalaxyl-Mancozeb in six different concentrations were investigated for controlling three species of Phytophthora, including P. capsici, P. drechsleri and P. melonis on pepper, cucumber and melon under in vitro and greenhouse conditions, respectively. Under the in vitro condition, the median effective concen- tration (EC50) values (ppm) of plant essential oils and fungicides were measured. In greenhouse, soil infested with Phytophthora species was treated by adding 50 ml of essential oils and fungicides (100 ppm). Disease severity was determined after 28 days. Among two tested plant essential oils, C. citratus had the lowest EC50 values for inhibition of the mycelial growth of P. capsici (31.473), P. melonis (33.097) and P. drechsleri (69.112), respectively. The mean EC50 values for Metalaxyl-Mancozeb on these pathogens were 20.87, 20.06 and 17.70, respectively. Chemical analysis of plant essential oils by GC-MS showed that, among 42 compounds identified from C. citratus, two compounds β-geranial (α-citral) (39.16%) and z-citral (30.95%) were the most abundant. Under the greenhouse condition, Metalaxyl-Mancozeb caused the greatest reduction in disease severity, 84.2%, 86.8% and 92.1% on melon, cucumber, and pepper, respectively. The C. citratus essential oil reduced disease severity from 47.4% to 60.5% compared to the untreated control (p≤0.05). Essential oils of O. basilicum had the lowest effects on the pathogens under in vitro and greenhouse conditions. These results show that essential oils may contribute to the development of new antifungal agents to protect the crops from Phytophthora diseases. PMID:26889111

  7. Antifungal Effect of Plant Essential Oils on Controlling Phytophthora Species.

    PubMed

    Amini, Jahanshir; Farhang, Vahid; Javadi, Taimoor; Nazemi, Javad

    2016-02-01

    In this study, antifungal activity of essential oils of Cymbopogon citratus and Ocimum basilicum and two fungicides Mancozeb and Metalaxyl-Mancozeb in six different concentrations were investigated for controlling three species of Phytophthora, including P. capsici, P. drechsleri and P. melonis on pepper, cucumber and melon under in vitro and greenhouse conditions, respectively. Under the in vitro condition, the median effective concen- tration (EC50) values (ppm) of plant essential oils and fungicides were measured. In greenhouse, soil infested with Phytophthora species was treated by adding 50 ml of essential oils and fungicides (100 ppm). Disease severity was determined after 28 days. Among two tested plant essential oils, C. citratus had the lowest EC50 values for inhibition of the mycelial growth of P. capsici (31.473), P. melonis (33.097) and P. drechsleri (69.112), respectively. The mean EC50 values for Metalaxyl-Mancozeb on these pathogens were 20.87, 20.06 and 17.70, respectively. Chemical analysis of plant essential oils by GC-MS showed that, among 42 compounds identified from C. citratus, two compounds β-geranial (α-citral) (39.16%) and z-citral (30.95%) were the most abundant. Under the greenhouse condition, Metalaxyl-Mancozeb caused the greatest reduction in disease severity, 84.2%, 86.8% and 92.1% on melon, cucumber, and pepper, respectively. The C. citratus essential oil reduced disease severity from 47.4% to 60.5% compared to the untreated control (p≤0.05). Essential oils of O. basilicum had the lowest effects on the pathogens under in vitro and greenhouse conditions. These results show that essential oils may contribute to the development of new antifungal agents to protect the crops from Phytophthora diseases. PMID:26889111

  8. California Rare Endemics and Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinoza, M.

    2010-12-01

    California is known for its wide variety of endemic flora, from its annuals such as the Eschscholzia californica (California poppy) to the perennials like the Arctostaphylos pallida (Alameda manzanita), which happens to be a rare species. Each species plays an important role in the biodiversity of California, yet there are species that are threatened, not only by human interaction and urbanization, but by climate change. Species that we seldom see are now on the verge of becoming eradicated; rare endemics similar to Arctostaphylos pallida are now facing a new challenge that may severely impair their survival. The climate has changed significantly over the twentieth century and it has affected the distribution of rare endemics in California, both geographically as well as within their climatic and edaphic niches. Lilaeopsis masonii is just one rare endemic, however it serves as a representative of the other 23 species that were studied. Using Maxent, a climate-modeling program, it was viable to construct two climate envelopes of the masonii species: the early century envelope (1930-1959) and the later century envelope (1990-2009). When these two climate envelopes were compared, it became clear that the later century climate envelope had contracted radically, reshaping the climate niche of all rare endemics in California due to an increase in temperature. It is possible to conclude that the future of rare endemics hangs in the balance, where one degree higher in temperature is enough to topple the scale.

  9. Analysis of the Prefoldin Gene Family in 14 Plant Species

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Prefoldin is a hexameric molecular chaperone complex present in all eukaryotes and archaea. The evolution of this gene family in plants is unknown. Here, I identified 140 prefoldin genes in 14 plant species. These prefoldin proteins were divided into nine groups through phylogenetic analysis. Highly conserved gene organization and motif distribution exist in each prefoldin group, implying their functional conservation. I also observed the segmental duplication of maize prefoldin gene family. Moreover, a few functional divergence sites were identified within each group pairs. Functional network analyses identified 78 co-expressed genes, and most of them were involved in carrying, binding and kinase activity. Divergent expression profiles of the maize prefoldin genes were further investigated in different tissues and development periods and under auxin and some abiotic stresses. I also found a few cis-elements responding to abiotic stress and phytohormone in the upstream sequences of the maize prefoldin genes. The results provided a foundation for exploring the characterization of the prefoldin genes in plants and will offer insights for additional functional studies. PMID:27014333

  10. Reactive oxygen species in response of plants to gravity stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jadko, Sergiy

    2016-07-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) as second messengers can induce stress response of plants. Thioredoxins (Trx) and peroxiredoxins (Prx) can function as sensors and transmitters of the ROS in stress signaling and antioxidant response. 12-14 days old tissue culture of Arabidopsis thaliana have been investigated. Hypergravity stress was induced by centrifugation at 10 and 20 g during 30 and 90 min and than intensity of spontaneous chemiluminescence (SChL/ROS content), Trx and Prx activities were determined. All experiments were repeated from 3 to 5 times and the obtained data were statistically treated. In the tissue culture under development of the stress there were an increase in intensity of SChL and Trx and Prx activities. Thus, under hypergravity stress in the plant occurred early increase in the ROS level and the ROS induced the increase in the Trx and Prx activities. Prx and Trx can also participate in the formation of stress respons as acceptors and transducers of the redox signals. Increase in the activity of these enzymes primarily aimed at increasing of the total antioxidant activity in the cells to prevent of the plant to development of oxidative degradation by ROS.

  11. Optical Parameters of Leaves of 30 Plant Species 1

    PubMed Central

    Gausman, H. W.; Allen, W. A.

    1973-01-01

    Optical parameters (absorption coefficient k, infinite reflectance R∞, scattering coefficient 8) are tabulated for seven wavelengths and analyzed for statistical differences for 30 plant species. The wavelengths are: 550 nm (green reflectance peak), 650 nm (chlorophyll absorption band), 850 nm (infrared reflectance plateau), 1450 nm (water absorption band), 1650 nm (reflectance peak following water absorption band at 1450 nm), 1950 nm (water absorption band), and 2200 nm (reflectance peak following water absorption band at 1950 nm). Thick, complex dorsiventral (bifacial mesophyll) leaves such as rubber plant, begonia, sedum, and privet had lower R∞ values than thinner, less complex dorsiventral leaves (i.e., soybean, peach, bean, rose) or essentially centric (undifferentiated mesophyll) sorghum and corn leaves. Infinite reflectance was negatively correlated with leaf thickness (−0.734**). Thick, complex dorsiventral leaves (crinum, oleander, privet, rubber plant, sedum) had higher (p 0.01) k values than thinner, less complex dorsiventral leaves (i.e., soybean, rose, peach) or essentially centric sorghum, sugarcane, and corn leaves. A coefficient of 0.718** was obtained for the correlation of k values with leaf thickness values. Complex dorsiventral oleander, orange, and crinum leaves had higher (p 0.01) 8 values than less complex dorsiventral (i.e., onion, begonia, banana) or centric leaves (i.e., corn and sugarcane). The scattering coefficient was not correlated with leaf thickness. PMID:16658499

  12. Structural characterisation of the polysaccharides from endemic Mongolian desert plants and their effect on the intestinal absorption of ovalbumin.

    PubMed

    Golovchenko, Victoria V; Khramova, Daria S; Shashkov, Alexandre S; Otgonbayar, Dorjgoo; Chimidsogzol, Aria; Ovodov, Yury S

    2012-07-15

    Using successive extractions with water and 0.7% aqueous ammonium oxalate, pectic polysaccharides were isolated from the following plants growing in the arid climate of Mongolia (Gobi): saxaul Haloxylon ammodendron Maxim., rhubarb Rheum nanum Sievers, Nitraria sibirica Pall., Peganum harmala L. and almond Amygdalus mongolica Maxim. The data obtained exhibited the primary synthesis of the cell wall pectic polysaccharides but not the middle lamellae water-soluble pectins in plants growing in the dry climatic zone. Both α-(1→4)-D-galacturonan and α-(1→4)-D-galacturonan, which was substituted with methyl groups, were found to be backbone of pectins. The L-arabinofuranose residues were identified as the main components of ramified regions. The pectins from almond differed from other pectins due to a high arabinose content. The data from NMR spectroscopy and methylation analyses demonstrated that pectic polysaccharides from almond included terminal, (1→5)-, (1→3)-linked and 3,5-substituted L-arabinofuranose residues and a small terminal D-galactopyranose and 2,5- and 2,3,5-substituted L-arabinofuranose residue content. The pectic polysaccharides were found to decrease the absorption of ovalbumin (OVA) in the blood from the gut lumen. The serum OVA level was lower in mice fed with OVA mixed with the pectins compared with the control group, which was administered OVA alone. PMID:22549013

  13. The predominance of inorganic arsenic species in plants from Yellowknife, Northwest Territories, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, I.; Wang, L.; Ollson, C.A.; Cullen, W.R.; Reimer, K.J.

    2000-01-01

    Elevated levels of arsenic in Yellowknife, NWT, Canada, from historic and recent gold mine operations, are of increasing concern to Yellowknife residents. The study of arsenic in Yellowknife plants is a part of ongoing bioavailability and food chain research. A variety of plants from Yellowknife were analyzed for total arsenic and water soluble arsenic species. The plants included vascular plants and bryophytes (mosses). Total amounts of arsenic were greatest in mosses and varied greatly within specimens of the same plant species from different locations. Mostly inorganic arsenic species were extracted from plants using methanol/water (1:1). This result is very important from a toxicological point of view, since inorganic species are relatively toxic arsenic species. Small amounts of methylated arsenic species, as well as arsenosugars, were present in some plants. On average, greater than 50% of arsenic in these plants was not extracted; the chemical and toxicological characteristics of this fraction remain a topic for further study.

  14. Regionally-defined niche-breadth of tropical African freshwater plant species predicts their global latitudinal range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, Michael; Lang, Pauline; Tapia-Grimaldo, Julissa; Varandas-Martins, Sara; Bruce, Allanah; Moore, Isabel; Sichingabula, Henry; Bottino, Flávia; Murphy, Kevin

    2016-04-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that the measured niche-breadth of river plant species (macrophytes) occurring within a closely-defined geographical area in southern tropical Africa (Zambia), may predict the larger-scale biogeographical range of these species. Two measures of niche-breadth were calculated for 44 riverine macrophyte species commonly occurring in Zambia, using an approach based on PCA ordination with bio-physico-chemical ordination input variables: altitude, stream order, stream flow, pH, conductivity, soluble reactive phosphate concentration (SRP), benthic macroinvertebrate Average Score per Taxon (ASPT), and individual abundance of nine benthic macroinvertebrate families showing differing water quality tolerance, as indicated by their Sensitivity Weightings within the Zambian Invertebrate Scoring System (ZISS). Macrophyte large-scale latitudinal range was derived from world geopositional records held by online databases, supplemented by records held by the authors. The two niche-breadth metrics divided the species into narrow-niche and intermediate/broad-niche categories, showing significant variation in altitude, stream flow, conductivity, SRP and ASPT, but not stream order or pH. There was no evidence to suggest that macrophyte alpha-diversity (as a measure of number of individual niches that may co-exist in a given habitat) showed any significant relationship with individual species niche-breadth. However, macrophyte alpha-diversity was significantly positively correlated with altitude, and significantly negatively related to conductivity, pH, ASPT, SRP, stream flow, and stream order. Narrow-niche macrophyte species included a higher proportion of Afrotropical endemics than did species with broader niche size. There were significant predictive relationships between macrophyte niche breadth and latitudinal range of the target species at global and Afrotropical scales, but not for the Neotropical range of species which occurred in both the

  15. The role of the expansion of native-invasive plant species in coastal dunes: The case of Retama monosperma in SW Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz-Vallés, Sara; Gallego-Fernández, Juan Bautista; Cambrollé, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    Invasion by allochthonous plant species are identified, at present, among the main conservation hazards to coastal dunes. Nevertheless, the role of the expansion, with invasive character, of native species in these ecosystems has received little attention in ecological studies. In recent decades, Retama monosperma, a late colonizing legume shrub found in coastal sandy areas, endemic to the SW of the Iberian Peninsula and NW Morocco, has displayed invasive behavior in coastal dunes in different parts of the world, including its natural area of distribution. Its rapid expansion and increase in coverage has significantly contributed to the dune stabilization process, sometimes involving notable changes in the environment, plant community and shaping local distribution of some associated fauna, thus modifying the functioning of the whole ecosystem. In this review we examine the role of the expansion of R. monosperma in SW Spain coastal dunes, causes and implications, in the context of the ecological theory of invasions, and comparing it with other case studies.

  16. Productivity Is a Poor Predictor of Plant Species Richness.

    SciTech Connect

    Peter B. Adler; et al.

    2011-09-22

    For more than 30 years, the relationship between net primary productivity and species richness has generated intense debate in ecology about the processes regulating local diversity. The original view, which is still widely accepted, holds that the relationship is hump-shaped, with richness first rising and then declining with increasing productivity. Although recent meta-analyses questioned the generality of hump-shaped patterns, these syntheses have been criticized for failing to account for methodological differences among studies. We addressed such concerns by conducting standardized sampling in 48 herbaceous-dominated plant communities on five continents. We found no clear relationship between productivity and fine-scale (meters-2) richness within sites, within regions, or across the globe. Ecologists should focus on fresh, mechanistic approaches to understanding the multivariate links between productivity and richness.

  17. Ecophysiological studies of Mediterranean plant species at the Castelporziano estate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manes, Fausto; Seufert, Günther; Vitale, Marcello

    The aim of this work was to characterize the eco-physiological performance of the main plant species of the Castelporziano site by single leaf investigations. We measured the leaf gas exchange of Quercus ilex L., Pinus pinea L., Pistacia lentiscus L. and Asphodelus microcarpus L. for several days. Additionally, the xylem water potential of Quercus ilex, Pinus pinea and Pistacia lentiscus was recorded in order to obtain more physiological background information for the discussion of the trace gas emissions. This study indicates significantly different physiological responses to the different environmental conditions. In particular, summer conditions (high values of light, air temperature and low xylem water potentials) caused the depression of photosynthesis in Quercus ilex and Pinus pinea but did not affect photosynthesis of Pistacia lentiscus and Asphodelus microcarpus. This should be taken into account when discussing VOC emission rates and fluxes.

  18. Productivity is a poor predictor of plant species richness

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adler, Peter B.; Seabloom, Eric W.; Borer, Elizabeth T.; Hillebrand, Helmut; Hautier, Yann; Hector, Andy; Harpole, W. Stanley; O'Halloran, Lydia R.; Grace, James B.; Anderson, T. Michael; Bakker, Jonathan D.; Biederman, Lori A.; Brown, Cynthia S.; Buckley, Yvonne M.; Calabrese, Laura B.; Chu, Cheng-Jin; Cleland, Elsa E.; Collins, Scott L.; Cottingham, Kathryn L.; Crawley, Michael J.; Damschen, Ellen Ingman; Davies, Kendi F.; DeCrappeo, Nicole M.; Fay, Philip A.; Firn, Jennifer; Frater, Paul; Gasarch, Eve I.; Gruner, Daneil S.; Hagenah, Nicole; Lambers, Janneke Hille Ris; Humphries, Hope; Jin, Virginia L.; Kay, Adam D.; Kirkman, Kevin P.; Klein, Julia A.; Knops, Johannes M.H.; La Pierre, Kimberly J.; Lambrinos, John G.; Li, Wei; MacDougall, Andrew S.; McCulley, Rebecca L.; Melbourne, Brett A.; Mitchell, Charles E.; Moore, Joslin L.; Morgan, John W.; Mortensen, Brent; Orrock, John L.; Prober, Suzanne M.; Pyke, David A.; Risch, Anita C.; Schuetz, Martin; Smith, Melinda D.; Stevens, Carly J.; Sullivan, Lauren L.; Wang, Gang; Wragg, Peter D.; Wright, Justin P.; Yang, Louie H.

    2011-01-01

    For more than 30 years, the relationship between net primary productivity and species richness has generated intense debate in ecology about the processes regulating local diversity. The original view, which is still widely accepted, holds that the relationship is hump-shaped, with richness first rising and then declining with increasing productivity. Although recent meta-analyses questioned the generality of hump-shaped patterns, these syntheses have been criticized for failing to account for methodological differences among studies. We addressed such concerns by conducting standardized sampling in 48 herbaceous-dominated plant communities on five continents. We found no clear relationship between productivity and fine-scale (meters-2) richness within sites, within regions, or across the globe. Ecologists should focus on fresh, mechanistic approaches to understanding the multivariate links between productivity an

  19. Population Dynamics and Conservation Implications of Decalepis arayalpathra (J. Joseph and V. Chandras.) Venter., a Steno Endemic Species of Western Ghats, India.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Priyanka; Kumar, L Dinesh; Kumar, Amit; Gokul, Sivaraman; Ravikumar, Kaliamoorthy; Shukla, Ashutosh K; Sundaresan, Velusamy

    2015-07-01

    Decalepis arayalpathra, a critically endangered plant species, has a restricted and fragmented population in Southern Western Ghats, India. This study is a first attempt to evaluate genetic diversity and population structure in the nine wild populations of D. arayalpathra based on molecular pattern realized through the marker assays. Principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) and Nei's unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic average (UPGMA)-based hierarchical clustering of both the marker assays suggest strong genetic clustering between the individuals corresponding to their geographical ranges. Mantel test also corroborates a close genetic proximity between genetic and geographic data (r = 0.389). Population genetic analysis revealed low levels of gene flow [inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) = 0.289 and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) = 0.847] between the populations, in line with high genetic differentiation (Gst = 0.531 with ISSR and 0.440 with RAPD), which was also supported by analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA), that 54 % (ISSR) and 64 % (RAPD) total variation resided within populations. Bayesian model-based STRUCTURE analysis detected three genetic clusters showing the high degree of admixture within population. Based on the findings, such as inbreeding depression and the loss of genetic diversity, suggestions for conservation strategies are provided to preserve the genetic resources of this endangered species. PMID:25969156