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Sample records for endodontic post glass

  1. Comparative evaluation of fracture resistance of glass fiber reinforced, carbon, and quartz post in endodontically treated teeth: An in-vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Shweta; Attokaran, George; Singh, Kunwar S.; Jerry, Jeethu J.; Ahmed, Naima; Mitra, Nirban

    2016-01-01

    Aim and Objectives: Use of posts improves the physical properties of endodontically-treated teeth. Different post types are developed such as metal, custom-made, carbon, and quartz. The present study was conducted to evaluate the fracture resistance of glass fiber-reinforced, carbon, and quartz post in endodontically-treated teeth. Materials and Methods: Forty extracted human maxillary incisor teeth were decoronated and endodontically treated and equally divided into 4 groups; control, glass fiber-reinforced, carbon, and quartz posts. No post was used in the control group. Post space was prepared and cemented with different posts and subjected to universal testing machine to check fracture resistance. The data were statistically analyzed using t-test and analysis of variance to compare the mean difference between groups (SPSS version 20, IBM). Results: Quartz type of endodontic post showed good fracture resistance compared to carbon and resin-reinforced post. Least resistance was observed in the control group without post. Conclusion: Quartz, carbon, and glass fiber-reinforced posts show good resistance to fracture, and hence can be used in endodontically-treated teeth to enhance their strength. PMID:27583227

  2. An In Vitro Comparative Evaluation of Fracture Resistance of Custom Made, Metal, Glass Fiber Reinforced and Carbon Reinforced Posts in Endodontically Treated Teeth

    PubMed Central

    Sonkesriya, Subhash; Olekar, Santosh T; Saravanan, V; Somasunderam, P; Chauhan, Rashmi Singh; Chaurasia, Vishwajit Rampratap

    2015-01-01

    Background: Posts are used to enhance crown buildup in pulpless teeth with destructed crown portion. Different types of post are used in endodontically treated teeth. The aim of the present in vitro study was to evaluate fracture resistance of custom made, metal, glass fiber reinforced and carbon reinforced posts in endodontically treated teeth. Materials and Methods: An in vitro study was carried out on extracted 40 human maxillary central incisor teeth, which was divided into four groups with 10 samples in each group with custom made, metal post, glass fiber reinforced, and carbon reinforced posts. The samples were decoronated at cemento-enamel junction and endodontically treated. Post space was prepared and selected posts were cemented. The composite cores were prepared at the height of 5 mm and samples mounted on acrylic blocks. Later fracture resistance to the compressive force of samples was measured using Universal Testing Machine. Results: The maximum resistance to the compressive force was observed in carbon reinforced and glass fiber reinforced posts compared others which is statistically significant (P > 0.001) and least was seen in custom fabricated post. Conclusion: It is concluded that carbon reinforced fiber post and glass fiber posts showed good fracture resistance compared to custom made and metal posts. PMID:26028904

  3. Fracture Strength of Endodontically Treated Teeth Restored with Casting Post and Core and Glass-Fiber with Composite Core

    PubMed Central

    Saatian, Sedigheh

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Prefabricated metal and ceramic posts can be used with different kinds of core materials as an alternative to the conventional casting post and cores. It is unclear how these post and core systems can withstand different kind of forces in the mouth. The purpose of this study was to compare the fracture strength of endodontically treated, crowned maxillary incisors restored with casting post and cores and glass- fiber post with composite core and to evaluate their mode of fractures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty caries free, human maxillary central incisors with incisoapical length of 23 ± 1 mm were divided into two groups. After root canal treatment procedures and decronation of teeth 2mm above cementoenamel junction, Grope 1 was restored with glass- fiber posts and composite cores and group 2 received casting post and cores. Teeth were prepared with a circumferential shoulder including a 1-2 mm ferrule and 0.5 mm bevel; all posts were cemented with an adhesive resin and teeth were restored with complete coverage crowns. Loads were applied at an angle of 135 degrees using a universal testing machine. Compression force was applied until the specimens fractured. RESULTS: The median fracture strengths of groups 1 and 2 were 459 and 686 respectively (p<0.5). In group I, all fractures occurred in incisal third of roots. In groups II, 40% of fractures were in apical third and middle of roots. CONCLUSION: Within the limitation of this study, the results suggested that glass fiber with composite cores can be used as an alternative to cast posts and cores in anterior teeth when creating 2mm ferrule effect was possible in normal occlusion. Clinical trial is required to verify these in vitro results. PMID:24470803

  4. Clinical evaluation of carbon fiber reinforced carbon endodontic post, glass fiber reinforced post with cast post and core: A one year comparative clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Preethi, GA; Kala, M

    2008-01-01

    Aim: Restoring endodontically treated teeth is one of the major treatments provided by the dental practitioner. Selection and proper use of restorative materials continues to be a source of frustration for many clinicians. There is controversy surrounding the most suitable choice of restorative material and the placement method that will result in the highest probability of successful treatment. This clinical study compares two different varieties of fiber posts and one cast post and core in terms of mobility of crown margin under finger pressure, recurrent caries detected at the crown margin, fracture of the restoration, fracture of the root and periapical and periodontal pathology requiring crown removal over the period of 12months as evaluated by clinical and radiographical examination. Materials and Methods: 30 root canal treated, single rooted maxillary anterior teeth of 25 patients in the age range of 18–60 years where a post retained crown was indicated were selected for the study between January 2007 and August 2007; and prepared in a standard clinical manner. It was divided into 3 groups of 10 teeth in each group. After post space preparation, the Carbon fiber and Glass fiber reinforced posts were cemented with Scotch bond multipurpose plus bonding agent and RelyX adhesive resin cement in the first and second groups respectively. The Cast post and cores were cemented with Zinc Phosphate cement in the third group. Following post- cementation, the preparation was further refined and a rubber base impression was taken for metal-ceramic crowns which was cemented with Zinc Phosphate cement. A baseline periapical radiograph was taken once each crown was cemented. All patients were evaluated after one week (baseline), 3 months, 6 months and one year for following characteristics mobility of crown margin under finger pressure, recurrent caries detected at the crown margin, fracture of the restoration, fracture of the root and periapical and periodontal pathology

  5. Mechanical resistance evaluation of a novel anatomical short glass fiber reinforced post in artificial endodontically treated premolar under rotational/lateral fracture fatigue testing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hsuan-Wen; Chang, Yen-Hsiang; Lin, Chun-Li

    2016-01-01

    This study develops a novel anatomical short glass fiber reinforced (anatomical SGFR) post and evaluates the mechanical performance in artificial endodontically treated premolars. An anatomical SGFR fiber post with an oval shape and slot/notch designs was manufactured using an injection-molding machine. The three-point bending test and crown/core restorations using the anatomical SGFR and commercial cylindrical fiber posts under fatigue test were executed to understand the mechanical resistances. The results showed that static and dynamic rotational resistance were found significantly higher in the anatomical SGFR fiber post than in the commercial post. The endurance limitations at 1.2×10(6) cycles were 66.81 and 64.77 N for the anatomical SGFR and commercial fiber posts, respectively. The anatomical SGFR fiber post presented acceptable value of flexural strength and modulus, better fit adaption in the root canal resist torque more efficiency but was not a key issue in the lateral fracture resistance in an endodontically treated premolar. PMID:27041013

  6. Post endodontic Aspergillosis in an immunocompetent individual

    PubMed Central

    Urs, Aadithya B.; Nunia, Kalpana; Mohanty, Sujata; Gupta, Shalini

    2015-01-01

    Non-invasive aspergillosis in immunocompetent individuals subsequent to post endodontic treatment can involve the maxillary antrum. An early and accurate diagnosis will aid in prompt and effective treatment. A 35 year old female patient reported with a painful nasomaxillary swelling. Previous records revealed the failure of the endodontic treatment of maxillary left second premolar which was subsequently extracted. Root piece was accidently left behind which resulted in a painful nasomaxillary swelling. The extraction socket was curetted and tissue was sent for histopathological examination, which revealed abundant septate fungal hyphae with numerous spores characteristic of Aspergillus. The patient showed marked improvement in the symptoms with systemic itraconazole at 3 months follow up and complete resolution occurred within 6 months. Inclusion of aspergilloma infections in the differential diagnosis is advocated when patients present with post-endodontic nasomaxillary swelling. Key words:Aspergillosis, fungal sinusitis, post root canal treatment. PMID:26535103

  7. The effect of different full-coverage crown systems on fracture resistance and failure pattern of endodontically treated maxillary incisors restored with and without glass fiber posts.

    PubMed

    Salameh, Ziad; Sorrentino, Roberto; Ounsi, Hani F; Sadig, Walid; Atiyeh, Fadi; Ferrari, Marco

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the fracture resistance and failure pattern of endodontically treated maxillary incisors restored using composite resin with or without fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) posts under different types of full-coverage crowns. The null hypothesis tested was that fracture resistance and the failure pattern of these teeth were not affected by the use of FRC posts or by the type of full-coverage crown. One hundred twenty maxillary incisors were endodontically treated and divided into 4 groups of 30 each. Each group was divided into two subgroups: restoration with or without fiber post. PFM crowns were placed in group 1, Empress II crowns in group 2, SR Adoro crowns in group 3, and Cercon crowns in group 4. Fracture tests were performed by loading specimens to fracture. Data were analyzed with two-way analysis of variance (alpha = 0.05). The type of crown was not a significant factor affecting fracture resistance (p = 0.4), whereas the presence of a post was (p = 0.001). Both the presence of post and the type of crown had a significant influence on the proportion of restorable versus unrestorable fractures. Although prosthodontics textbooks do not generally advocate the placement of fiber posts in endodontically treated incisors, the results of this study indicate that the use of fiber posts in such teeth increases their resistance to fracture and improves the prognosis in case of fracture. PMID:18570992

  8. In vitro evaluation of glass fiber post

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Navneet; Singh, Harpal

    2012-01-01

    Statement of problem: Techniques and recommendations for the restoration of endodontically treated teeth have changed from the use of custom cast metal post and core system to glass fiber-reinforced (GFRC) post and composite core system. Has this latest prefabricated glass fiber reinforced post and composite core system increased the fracture resistance of teeth and reduced the incidence of unrestorable root fractures. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence of root fracture and mode of failure of endodontically treated teeth restored with two different post and core systems. Material and Methods: Forty maxillary central incisors were randomly divided into two groups. (n=20). All teeth received endodontic treatment. First group was restored with custom cast post and core system. Second group was restored with glass fiber post and composite core system. In Both the groups posts were cemented with adhesive resin cement. Compressive load was applied at an angle of 130 to the long axis of teeth at a cross head speed of 1 mm/min until fracture occurred. Data were analyzed with student “t” test P<.001. Results: The mean value for fracture resistance was (331.4025) N in Group -I Custom cast Ni-Cr post and core and (237.0625) N in Group -II Glass fiber reinforced post and composite core system. Students “t” test shows the significant difference in fracture resistance of two groups. Conclusion: This study showed that the incidence of root fracture was significantly higher in custom cast Ni-Cr post and core system than glass fiber post and composite core system. A more favourable mode of failure was observed in teeth restored with Group II glass fiber post system. Key words:Post-and-core technique, glass fiber post, cast post and-core system, fracture resistance, endodontically treated teeth. PMID:24558556

  9. Photomechanical investigations on post endodontically rehabilitated teeth.

    PubMed

    Kishen, A; Asundi, A

    2002-04-01

    An investigation of the stress distribution patterns in post-core restored teeth and the behavior of dentin material to fracture propagation was conducted using experimental techniques such as digital photoelasticity (on photoelastic models), mechanical testing and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) (on extracted teeth). Digital photoelastic experiments showed that endodontic post-core restoration resulted in regions of high tensile stress and of stress concentrations in the remaining dentin structure. It was observed from mechanical testing that the fracture resistance in post-core restored teeth is significantly lower (p<0.0001) than that in intact tooth. There was a significant correspondence between the plane of stress concentrations identified in the photoelastic models and in those of the plane of fracture exhibited by the rehabilitated tooth specimens. While the fracture of post-core rehabilitated teeth was consistent, that of control teeth was not as distinct. The SEM highlighted varying dentin response to fracture propagation at the inner core and the outer regions. The fractographs showed brittle and ductile response to fracture propagation in the outer and inner core dentin, respectively. These photomechanical studies highlighted that the stress concentrations, high tensile stress and loss of inner ductile dentin associated with post endodontic rehabilitation diminished their resistance to fracture. PMID:11966313

  10. Rehabilitation of endodontically treated teeth using the radiopaque fiber post.

    PubMed

    Brown, Philip L; Hicks, Norman L

    2003-04-01

    Metallic posts fall short of satisfying contemporary guidelines for ideal post/core rehabilitation. Along with technological improvements in adhesive resins, cements, and composite restoratives, the evolution of fiber-reinforced posts allows the rehabilitation of endodontically treated teeth with greater esthetics and virtually no predisposition to root fracture. At least one fiber post system now complies with all of the ideal post characteristics described in the endodontic text. This article describes the potential for displacement of metal posts by low-modulus fiber posts, the differences between them, and the development and placement of a radiopaque, translucent, double-tapered fiber post. PMID:12769029

  11. Castable glass ceramic crowns and their reaction to endodontic therapy.

    PubMed

    Cohen, B D; Wallace, J A

    1991-07-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine how castable glass (Dicor) crowns would react to both cold testing and endodontic access intervention. Full crown preparations were made on six extracted maxillary teeth. The teeth were then forwarded to Dentsply International, York, Pa. Six castable glass crowns were fabricated to fit these teeth and returned to us. Subsequently the teeth were dried and the crowns were cemented. Scanning electron micrographs of the cemented crowns were made, and endodontic access openings were drilled. The teeth were also cold tested with standard methods. The teeth were then again subjected to scanning electron microscopy to determine any changes the crowns might have undergone. One crown cracked around the gingival collar as scanning electron microscopy was performed. The other crowns did not exhibit any problems such as cracking or crazing from either the access openings or the cold testing. PMID:1891229

  12. Removal of fiber posts from endodontically treated teeth.

    PubMed

    de Rijk, W G

    2000-05-01

    The removal of posts from endodontically treated teeth can be a major obstacle in the retreatment of teeth that have recurrent pathology, often leading to extraction of a tooth that could have been saved with endodontic retreatment. The use of a fiber post offers the advantages of a suitable elastic modulus and good bonding between post and cement, but also the advantage of easy removal, if so indicated by clinical findings. A special removal kit for fiber posts has been developed, and its use is illustrated, and described. The removal procedure can be completed in a very short time, usually less than 5 min. The tooth can then be restored with the same type and size of fiber post as was in the tooth prior to removal. Removal kits are found to be for single use only. PMID:11763867

  13. An In Vitro Study on the Effects of Post-Core Design and Ferrule on the Fracture Resistance of Endodontically Treated Maxillary Central Incisors

    PubMed Central

    Sreedevi, S; Sanjeev, R; Raghavan, Rekha; Abraham, Anna; Rajamani, T; Govind, Girish Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Endodontically treated teeth have significantly different physical and mechanical properties compared to vital teeth and are more prone to fracture. The study aims to compare the fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth with and without post reinforcement, custom cast post-core and prefabricated post with glass ionomer core and to evaluate the ferrule effect on endodontically treated teeth restored with custom cast post-core. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 human maxillary central incisors with similar dimensions devoid of any root caries, restorations, previous endodontic treatment or cracks were selected from a collection of stored extracted teeth. An initial silicone index of each tooth was made. They were treated endodontically and divided into four groups of ten specimens each. Their apical seal was maintained with 4 mm of gutta-percha. Root canal preparation was done and then post core fabrication was done. The prepared specimens were subjected to load testing using a computer coordinated UTM. The fracture load results were then statistically analyzed. One-way ANOVA was followed by paired t-test. Results: 1. Reinforcement of endodontically treated maxillary central incisors with post and core, improved their fracture resistance to be at par with that of endodontically treated maxillary central incisor, with natural crown. 2. The fracture resistance of endodontically treated maxillary central incisors is significantly increased when restored with custom cast post-core and 2 mm ferrule. Conclusion: With 2 mm ferrule, teeth restored with custom cast post-core had a significantly higher fracture resistance than teeth restored with custom cast post-core or prefabricated post and glass ionomer core without ferrule. PMID:26464537

  14. Development of new radiopaque glass fiber posts.

    PubMed

    Furtos, Gabriel; Baldea, Bogdan; Silaghi-Dumitrescu, Laura

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the radiopacity and filler content of three experimental glass fiber posts (EGFP) in comparison with other glass/carbon fibers and metal posts from the dental market. Three EGFP were obtained by pultrusion of glass fibers in a polymer matrix based on 2,2-bis[4-(2-hydroxy-3-methacryloyloxypropoxy)-phenyl]propane (bis-GMA) and triethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) monomers. Using intraoral sensor disks 27 posts, as well as mesiodistal sections of human molar and aluminum step wedges were radiographed for evaluation of radiopacity. The percentage compositions of fillers by weight and volume were investigated by combustion analysis. Two EGFP showed radiopacity higher than enamel. The commercial endodontic posts showed radiopacity as follows: higher than enamel, between enamel and dentin, and lower than dentin. The results showed statistically significant differences (p b 0.05)when evaluatedwith one-way ANOVA statistical analysis. According to combustion analyses, the filler content of the tested posts ranges between 58.84wt.% and 86.02wt.%. The filler content of the tested EGFP ranged between 68.91 wt.% and 79.04 wt.%. EGFP could be an alternative to commercial glass fiber posts. Futureglass fiber posts are recommended to present higher radiopacity than dentin and perhaps ideally similar to or higher than that of enamel, for improved clinical detection. The posts with a lower radiopacity than dentin should be considered insufficiently radiopaque. The radiopacity of some glass fiber posts is not greatly influenced by the amount of filler. PMID:26652441

  15. Three-Year Follow Up of Customized Glass Fiber Esthetic Posts

    PubMed Central

    da Costa, Rogério Goulart; de Morais, Eduardo Christiano Caregnatto; Leão, Moira Pedroso; Bindo, Márcio José Fraxino; Campos, Edson Alves; Correr, Gisele Maria

    2011-01-01

    Customized glass fiber posts that is well adjusted into the root canal and have mechanical properties similar to those of dentin may be a suitable treatment for severely compromised endodontically treated teeth. This article reports a 3-year follow up of severely damaged endodontically treated teeth restored with unidirectional fiber glass customized post and core system instead of a conventional fiber post. The fabrication of this glass fiber customized post is a simple technique, providing an increased volume of fibers into the root canal, and an adequate polymerization of the post-core system. Over a three-year period, the treatments demonstrated good clinical and radiographic characteristics, with no fracture or loss of the post and/or crown. This technique can be considered effective, less invasive, and suitable for restore endodontically treated teeth. PMID:21228960

  16. Aesthetic posts and cores for metal-free restoration of endodontically treated teeth.

    PubMed

    Quintas, A F; Dinato, J C; Bottino, M A

    2000-01-01

    Utilization of contemporary post and core systems has facilitated the aesthetic restoration of endodontically treated teeth. Light transmission and biocompatibility have been enhanced by the introduction of metal-free post systems. The periodontal and endodontic status, root length, and histological structure of the devitalized teeth must be considered in order to achieve successful restoration following endodontic treatment. This article presents various restorative criteria for the aesthetic placement and buildup of post and core materials, as well as the preservation of maximum coronal and root structure. PMID:11405025

  17. Mechanical effect of static loading on endodontically treated teeth restored with fiber-reinforced posts.

    PubMed

    Chieruzzi, Manila; Rallini, Marco; Pagano, Stefano; Eramo, Stefano; D'Errico, Potito; Torre, Luigi; Kenny, José M

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanical behavior of a dental system built up with fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) endodontic posts with different types of fibers and two cements (the first one used with a primer, the second one without it). Six FRC posts were used. Each system was characterized in terms of structural efficiency under external applied loads similar to masticatory forces. An oblique force was applied and stiffness and maximum load data were obtained. The same test was used for the dentine. The systems were analyzed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) to investigate the surface of the post and inner surface of root canal after failure. The mechanical tests showed that load values in dental systems depend on the post material and used cement. The highest load (281 ± 59 N) was observed for the conical glass fiber posts in the cement without primer. There was a 50 and 85% increase in the maximum load for two of the conical posts with glass fibers and a 229% increase for the carbon fiber posts in the cement without primer as compared with the cement with primer. Moreover, almost all the studied systems showed fracture resistances higher than the typical masticatory loads. The microscopic analysis underlined the good adhesion of the second cement at the interfaces between dentine and post. The mechanical tests confirmed that the strength of the dental systems subjected to masticatory loads was strictly related to the bond at the interface post/cement and cement/dentine. PMID:24000235

  18. Effect of Post Material and Length on Fracture Resistance of Endodontically Treated Premolars: An In-Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Amarnath, G S; Swetha, M U; Muddugangadhar, B C; Sonika, Radhika; Garg, Ashu; Rao, T R Poonam

    2015-01-01

    Background: Endodontically treated teeth with posts are more prone to fracture. Hence, the purpose of this study was to investigate the in-vitro fracture resistance of devitalized teeth and mode of failure restored with posts of different materials and different lengths. Materials and Methods: Sixty freshly extracted human mandibular premolars were endodontically treated and then restored with 1 of 2 prefabricated posts: Stainless-steel (SS) and glass-fiber (fiber posts [FP]) with intraradicular lengths of 4, 5 or 10 mm (n = 10). Following core restoration, a static compressive load was applied perpendicular to the long-axis of the teeth. Initial failure of each specimen was recorded in Newton. The mode of failure was also determined radiographically. The data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey's post-hoc analysis with Bonferroni adjustment. Results: Analysis indicated significant differences (P < 0.001) among the groups. Among the SS posts, SS/7 (246 N) exhibited the highest failure load and SS/4 (122 N) the lowest. FP/10 (140.5 N) exhibited the highest failure load among the FP and FP/4 (68.5 N) the lowest. SS posts showed post pull out, followed by core fracture while FP showed core debonding, followed by core fracture as the primary mode of failure. Conclusion: Fracture resistance of the teeth proportionately increased with increase in the length of FP while it decreased with that of metal post. SS posts showed greater fracture resistance than FP when 90° load was applied. PMID:26229366

  19. Genetic Variants in Cyclooxygenase- 2 Contribute to Post-treatment Pain among Endodontic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Applebaum, Elizabeth; Nackley, Andrea G.; Bair, Eric; Maixner, William; Khan, Asma A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have a well-established analgesic efficacy for inflammatory pain. These drugs exert their effect by inhibiting the enzyme cyclooxygenase (COX) and are commonly used for the management of pain following endodontic treatment. There are two distinct isoforms of COX: COX-1, which is constitutively expressed; and COX-2, which is primarily induced by inflammation. Previous studies have shown that functional human genetic variants of the COX-2 gene may explain individual variations in acute pain. The present study extends this work by examining the potential contribution of the two COX isoforms to pain after endodontic treatment. Methods Ninety-four patients treated by endodontic residents at the University of North Carolina School of Dentistry were enrolled into a prospective cohort study. Data on potential predictors of post-treatment pain was collected and all patients submitted saliva samples for genetic analysis. Non-surgical root canal therapy was performed and participants recorded pain levels for five days following. Results In this study, 63% of patients experienced at least mild pain after root canal therapy and 24% experienced moderate to severe pain. Presence of pretreatment pain was correlated with higher post-treatment pain (p=0.01). Elevated heart rate (p=0.02) and higher diastolic blood pressure (p=0.024) were also correlated with decreased post-treatment pain. Finally, we identified genetic variants in COX-2 (haplotype composed of rs2383515 G, rs5277 G, rs5275 T, and rs2206593 A) associated with post-treatment pain following endodontic treatment (p= 0.025). Conclusion Understanding the genetic basis of pain following endodontic treatment will advance its prevention and management. PMID:26081267

  20. The reinforcement effect of polyethylene fibre and composite impregnated glass fibre on fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Luthria, Archana; Srirekha, A; Hegde, Jayshree; Karale, Rupali; Tyagi, Sanjana; Bhaskaran, Sajeev

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the fracture resistance of endodontically treated maxillary premolars with wide mesio-occluso-distal (MOD) cavities restored with either composite resin, or composite resin reinforced with different types of fibres. Materials and Methods: Fifty human maxillary premolars were selected. Five intact teeth served as positive controls. Endodontic therapy was carried out in the remaining forty-five teeth. Standardized MOD cavities were prepared in all the teeth. The teeth were restored with a nanocomposite using an incremental technique. These forty five teeth were randomly divided into three experimental groups (Group A, B and C) (n = 15). The teeth in Group A did not undergo any further procedures. The teeth in Group B and C were reinforced with composite impregnated glass fibre and polyethylene fibre, respectively. Fracture resistance was measured in Newtons (N). Results: The positive controls showed the highest mean fracture resistance (811.90 N), followed by Group B (600.49N), Group A (516.96N) and Group C (514.64N), respectively. One Way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test revealed a statistically significant difference between all the groups (P = 0.001). Post-hoc Tukey test revealed a moderately significant difference (P = 0.034) between Control and Group B, and a strongly significant difference between Control and Group A (P = 0.002), and Control and Group C (P = 0.001). Conclusions: Endodontic therapy and MOD cavity preparation significantly reduced the fracture resistance of endodontically treated maxillary premolars (P = 0.001). No statistically significant difference was found between the experimental groups (Group A, B and C) (P > 0.1). However, the fracture resistance of the composite impregnated glass fibre reinforced group was much higher than the others. PMID:23112487

  1. Comparative Evaluation of the Reinforcing Effect of Different Post Systems in the Restoration of Endodontically Treated Human Anterior Teeth at Two Different Lengths of Post Space Preparation- An in Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Jindal, Sahil; Jindal, Ritu; Gupta, Kanika; Mahajan, Sandeep; Garg, Sunidhi

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Comparative evaluation of the reinforcing effect of different post systems in the restoration of endodontically treated human anterior teeth at two different lengths of post space preparation- an in vitro study Materials and Methods: 135 extracted human incisors were endodontically treated, out of which 120 teeth were decoronated 2mm above the cementoenamel junction and divided into four experimental groups based on the post system to be used: Glass fiber post (GFP) and stainless steel post (SSP), titanium post (TTP), cast metal post (CMP). Each group was divided into two sub-groups according to the length of post space preparation: 5mm and 10mm. All the samples were restored with metal crowns. The fracture resistance was measured by applying loads at an angle of 135º to the long axis of teeth in an instron universal testing machine. Fracture mode was analyzed for all the samples. Results from the four test groups were compared and analysed using one-way ANOVA test and the Post-hoc Bonferroni test to demonstrate differences between pairs of groups. Results: The results revealed that SSP group at 10mm post space length showed the significantly (“P-value< 0.05”) highest fracture resistance (793.7787 N). Decrease in post length resulted in the decrease in fracture resistance in all the groups reduced to values even lesser than the control (437.8733N). Conclusion: The different post systems used in the study were able to reinforce endodontically treated teeth only at 10mm post space length. PMID:23724211

  2. Root dentin strain and temperature rise during endodontic treatment and post rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Amade, Euridsse Sulemane; Novais, Veridiana Resende; Roscoe, Marina Guimarães; Azevedo, Fabiane Maria Ferreira; Bicalho, Aline Aredes; Soares, Carlos José

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of endodontic treatment procedures and different post systems rehabilitation steps on the strain and temperature rise on apical and cervical root dentin regions. Twenty-one extracted human canine teeth had two strain gages attached to the distal root surface and two thermocouples attached to the mesial root surface (cervical and apical). The strain and temperature rise were recorded during the following procedures: root canal preparation, final rinse and drying, root canal filling and canal relief. Then the teeth were divided into three groups (n=7), according to the type of post system: CPC, cast post and core; FGP, fiberglass post; and PSP, prefabricated steel post. Data continued to be recorded during the post space preparation, post modeling (only for CPC), post trying and post cementation. Data were subjected to a two-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's test (α=0.05). The post-space preparation caused the highest temperature rise (4.0-14.9 °C) and the highest strain in the apical region during irrespective of post type. The resin cement light-activation resulted in significant temperature increases in the cervical region for all of the groups. The canal relief and the post-space preparation produced highest temperature rises. The CPC post modeling resulted in higher root strain level similarly the level of post preparation. The PSP resulted in highest strain during post trying and post cementation. PMID:24474355

  3. Influence of endodontic sealer composition and time of fiber post cementation on sealer adhesiveness to bovine root dentin.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Ricardo Abreu da; Barreto, Mirela Sangoi; Moraes, Rafael do Amaral; Broch, Juliana; Bier, Carlos Alexandre Souza; Só, Marcus Vinícius Reis; Kaizer, Osvaldo Bazzan; Valandro, Luiz Felipe

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the influence of the type of endodontic sealer (salicylate resin-based sealer vs. two endodontic sealers) and the time of fiber post cementation after root filling on the post adhesion to bovine root dentin. Sixty bovine roots were assigned to six groups (n=10), considering an experimental design with two factors (factorial 3x2): endodontic sealer factor in three levels [epoxy resin-based sealer (AH Plus), eugenol-based sealer (Endofill), and salicylate resin-based sealer plus mineral trioxide aggregate - MTA (MTA Fillapex)] and time for post cementation factor in two levels (immediate post cementation or 15 days after root canal filling). After post cementation, 2-mm-thick slices were produced and submitted to push-out test. The failure modes were analyzed under a 40× stereomicroscope and scored as: adhesive at cement/dentin interface; adhesive at cement/post interface; cement cohesive; post cohesive; dentin cohesive; or mixed. Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey's post-hoc tests (α=0.05). When the fiber posts were cemented immediately after the root canal filling, the bond strengths were similar, independent of the endodontic sealer type. However, after 15 days, the epoxy resin-based sealer presented higher bond strength than the other sealers (p<0.05). Comparison between each sealer in different experimental times did not reveal any differences. The main failure type was adhesive at dentin/cement interface (89.4%). The time elapsed between the root canal filling and post cementation has no influence on post/root dentin adhesion. On the contrary, the type of endodontic sealer can influence the adhesion between fiber posts and root dentin. PMID:23969913

  4. Effect of different ferrule designs on the fracture resistance and failure pattern of endodontically treated teeth restored with fiber posts and allceramic crowns

    PubMed Central

    SHERFUDHIN, Haneef; HOBEICH, Joseph; CARVALHO, Carlos Augusto; N. ABOUSHELIB, Moustafa; SADIG, Walid; SALAMEH, Ziad

    2011-01-01

    Objective This study investigated the effect of different ferrule heights on endodontically treated premolars. Materials and Methods Fifty sound mandibular first premolars were endodontically treated and then restored with 7-mm fiber post (FRC Postec Plus #1 Ivoclar-Vivadent) luted with self-polymerized resin cement (Multilink, Ivoclar Vivadent) while the coronal section was restored with hybrid composite core build-up material (Tetric Ceram, Ivoclar-Vivadent), which received all-ceramic crown. Different ferrule heights were investigated: 1-mm circumferential ferrule without post and core (group 1 used as control), a circumferential 1-mm ferrule (group 2), non-uniform ferrule 2-mm buccally and 1-mm lingually (group 3), non-uniform ferrule 3-mm buccally and 2-mm lingually (group 4), and finally no ferrule preparation (group 5). The fracture load and failure pattern of the tested groups were investigated by applying axial load to the ceramic crowns (n=10). Data were analyzed statistically by one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s post-hoc test was used for pair-wise comparisons (α=0.05). Results There were no significant differences among the failure load of all tested groups (P<0.780). The control group had the lowest fracture resistance (891.43±202.22 N) and the highest catastrophic failure rate (P<0.05). Compared to the control group, the use of fiber post reduced the percentage of catastrophic failure while increasing the ferrule height did not influence the fracture resistance of the restored specimens. Conclusions Within the limitations of this study, increasing the ferrule length did not influence the fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth restored with glass ceramic crowns. Insertion of a fiber post could reduce the percentage of catastrophic failure of these restorations under function. PMID:21437466

  5. Fracture resistance of endodontically treated canines restored with different sizes of fiber post and all-ceramic crowns

    PubMed Central

    Alkumru, Hasan Necdet; Akalin, Buket

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of this study was to determine the fracture resistance and the mode of fracture of endodontically treated teeth restored with different fiber posts and all-ceramic crowns. MATERIALS AND METHODS Two glass fiber reinforced post systems in two different sizes and polyethylene fiber ribbon in two different thicknesses (n=10) were used. The specimens, restored with all-ceramic crowns, were subjected to a compressive load (in N) delivered at a 130-degree angle to the long axis until a fracture could be noted. The results were analyzed statistically with a One-Way ANOVA test (P<.05). RESULTS Statistically significant differences were observed between the mean fracture resistance values of Postec, Snowlight, and Kerr Connect thin specimens (P<.0095). The Postec results (395.70 N) were found to be significantly higher than the others. No statistical difference was observed among the thick specimens (P<.2657). The mean fracture resistance values of the Snowlight thick samples were found to be higher than those of the Snowlight thin samples. The specimens were always fractured around the cemento-enamel junction at the palatinal side. No post fracture was observed for the thin Snowlight and Kerr Connect specimens or for the thick Postec and Kerr Connect specimens. Among the common failure types of the specimens, the worst was observed to be the root fracture failure. The highest post dislodgement failure result (80%) was obtained from the thin Kerr Connect specimen. CONCLUSION In terms of optimizing fracture resistance, the fiber post size selection should be done according to the forces applied to the restored teeth. PMID:27141261

  6. Reconstruction of endodontically treated posterior teeth--with or without post? Guidelines for the dental practitioner.

    PubMed

    Zarow, Maciej; Devoto, Walter; Saracinelli, Monalds

    2009-01-01

    The clinical concepts regarding the restoration of root canal treated teeth are not clear today and often based on conjecture due to a lack of sound empirical data. The diversity of published opinions is confusing and may lead to less-than-optimal treatment selections. There is also emerging debate whether or not a post is necessary. The purpose of the present article is to organize this topic in evidence-based principles and provide dental practitioners with clear guidelines about restorative therapy for premolar and molar teeth. Two clinical reports are presented, to exemplify the different clinical situations. The first case highlights a conservative restoration of an endodontically treated molar, maintaining an adequate quantity of healthy residual tissue and only covering the cusp with restoration material, which was not sustained by healthy dentin. In the second case, the fact that the premolar was so badly damaged by carious pathology meant that it was necessary to use a pin to anchor the composite material, and the cusp was covered completely. Based on the two presented clinical reports and a literature review, the concept of fiber post application is explained. Searches by hand and MEDLINE were employed to identify peer-reviewed articles on reconstruction of endodontically treated posterior teeth. A total of 70 articles published between 1967 and 2008 were reviewed. PMID:20111757

  7. Fracture strength of endodontically-treated teeth restored with post and cores and composite cores only.

    PubMed

    Ozcan, M; Valandro, L F

    2009-01-01

    This study compared the fracture strength of different conditioned metallic posts, fiber-reinforced-composite posts and composite cores only in teeth without coronal tooth structure and determined failure modes after the fracture test. Post spaces were prepared in the root canals, and the teeth were randomly divided into seven experimental groups: Gr1: Titanium posts (ParaPost) + Silano-Pen (Bredent) + silane; Gr2: Titanium posts + 30 microm CoJet-Sand (3M ESPE) + silane; Gr3: Titanium posts + 50 microm Al2O3 + V-primer (Sun Medical); Gr4: Titanium posts + 50 microm Al2O3 + Alloy primer (Kuraray); Gr5: E-glass FRC post (EverStick); Gr6: Polyethylene fiber (Ribbond) + Resin impregnation and Gr7: Resin composite core only, with no posts. The posts were cemented using Panavia F 2.0 (Kuraray); coronal parts of the roots were etched, primed, bonded and composite cores were built-up. After thermocycling (5 degrees C-55 degrees C, 6000x), the fracture strength test was performed. The fracture strength of titanium posts (408 +/- 122 - 550 +/- 149 N) was significantly higher (p<0.05) than that of FRC posts (321 +/- 131 and 267 +/- 108 N for Everstick and Ribbond, respectively) or the group without posts (175 +/- 70 N) (Gr7) (ANOVA, Tukey's test). The group without posts resulted in complete core detachment (100%). In the E-glass FRC group, 60% adhesive core fracture occurred, covering >1/3 of the core and, in the polyethylene FRC group, 100% post-core detachment at the canal opening was observed. In all the titanium post applied groups (Gr1-Gr4), the posts remained in place with partial detachment of the core material from the post surface at varying degrees, depending on the conditioning method used. When no coronal tooth structure exist, the metal posts showed higher fracture strength values as opposed to the FRC post or no-post approach. PMID:19678448

  8. Comparison of Single Visit Post Endodontic Pain Using Mtwo Rotary and Hand K-File Instruments: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kashefinejad, Mohamad; Harandi, Azade; Bijani, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Pain is an unpleasant outcome of endodontic treatment that can be unbearable to patients. Instrumentation techniques may affect the frequency and intensity of post-endodontic pain. This study aimed to compare single visit post endodontic pain using Mtwo (NiTi) rotary and hand K-file instruments. Materials and Methods: In this randomized controlled trial, 60 teeth with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis in 53 patients were selected and randomly assigned into two groups of 30 teeth. In group A, the root canals were prepared with Mtwo (NiTi) rotary instruments. In group B, the root canals were prepared with hand K-file instruments. Pain assessment was implemented using visual analog scale (VAS) at four, eight, 12 and 24 hours after treatment. The acquired data were analyzed using chi-square, Mann-Whitney U and Student’s t-test (P<0.05). Results: Patients treated with rotary instruments experienced significantly less post-endodontic pain than those treated with hand instruments (P<0.001). Conclusions: The use of Mtwo (NiTi) rotary instruments in root canal preparation contributed to lower incidence of postoperative pain than hand K-files.

  9. Esthetic and biologic mode of reattaching incisor fracture fragment utilizing glass fiber post.

    PubMed

    Manju, M; Shanthraj, Srinivas L; Savitha, K C; Sethi, Ntasha

    2015-01-01

    Trauma to the anterior teeth affects the esthetic and psychological well-being of the patient. Advancement in the adhesive dentistry has facilitated the restoration of the coronal tooth fractures by minimally invasive procedures when the original tooth fragment is available. Reattachment of fractured fragment offers immediate treatment with improved preponderant aesthetics and restoration of function. Here, we describe a case of complicated fracture of the maxillary left immature permanent central incisor, which was treated endodontically followed by esthetic reattachment of the fractured fragment using the glass fiber post. Functional demands and esthetic considerations of the patient were fully met with this biologic mode of fragment reattachment. PMID:26283849

  10. Esthetic and biologic mode of reattaching incisor fracture fragment utilizing glass fiber post

    PubMed Central

    Manju, M.; Shanthraj, Srinivas L.; Savitha, K. C.; Sethi, Ntasha

    2015-01-01

    Trauma to the anterior teeth affects the esthetic and psychological well-being of the patient. Advancement in the adhesive dentistry has facilitated the restoration of the coronal tooth fractures by minimally invasive procedures when the original tooth fragment is available. Reattachment of fractured fragment offers immediate treatment with improved preponderant aesthetics and restoration of function. Here, we describe a case of complicated fracture of the maxillary left immature permanent central incisor, which was treated endodontically followed by esthetic reattachment of the fractured fragment using the glass fiber post. Functional demands and esthetic considerations of the patient were fully met with this biologic mode of fragment reattachment. PMID:26283849

  11. Influence of fiber posts on the fracture resistance of endodontically treated premolars with different dental defects

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Qian-Qian; Gao, Yi-Ming; Sun, Lei

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the influence of quartz fiber post placement on the fracture resistance of endodontically treated premolars with different dental defects under dynamic loading. Fifty extracted single-rooted mandibular premolars were randomized into five groups. Each group was prepared according to numbers of residual walls ranged from 0 to 4. Then each group was divided into two subgroups with one restored with quartz fiber posts and the other without posts. In no-post groups, gutta percha point 2 mm below cemento-enamel junction was removed. Composite resin was adapted to the well and used to shape the core directly. Each tooth was restored with a complete metal crown. Dynamic loading was carried out in a masticatory simulator with a nominal load of 50 N at 2 Hz for 300 000 loading cycles. Then a quasi-statically load was applied in a universal testing machine 30° to the long axis with a crosshead speed of 1 mm⋅min−1 until fracture. Data were analyzed with one-way analysis of variance and pairwise comparison (P<0.05). No specimens failed during dynamic loading. The fracture resistance enhanced with the increase of numbers of coronal walls and the differences were significant (P<0.05). Placement of fiber posts had a significant effect when fewer than two walls remained (P<0.05), but it had no significant influence in groups with two, three or four walls (P>0.05). Fiber post did not change failure mode, and the fracture pattern was mainly favorable. More dentin walls need to be retained in clinic. When no less than two walls remained, a fiber post is not always necessary. PMID:23907677

  12. Effect of eugenol-based endodontic cement on the adhesion of intraradicular posts.

    PubMed

    Alfredo, Edson; de Souza, Emanuel Soares; Marchesan, Melissa Andréia; Paulino, Silvana Maria; Gariba-Silva, Ricardo; Sousa-Neto, Manoel Damião

    2006-01-01

    The present study evaluated, in vitro, the influence of an eugenol-based endodontic sealer (EndoFill) on the adhesion of intra-radicular posts cemented with a resin-based cement (Enforce) ou a zinc phosphate cement. Twenty-four single-rooted maxillary canines were divided into 2 groups (n=12) and obturated with either gutta-percha points plus EndoFill or gutta-percha points alone (no cement). In each group, half of intracanal posts (n=6) were cemented with Enforce resin-based cement and half with zinc phosphate cement. Specimens were submitted to pull-out test in an Instron machine and tensile force was applied at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min until post dislodgement. The maximum forces required for post removal was recorded (N) and means were submitted to statistical analysis by Kruskal-Wallis test (p<0.01). Posts cemented with zinc phosphate cement were significantly more retentive (353.4 N) than those cemented with Enforce (134.9 N) (p<0.01). Regarding the influence of the eugenol-based cement (EndoFill) on post retention, there was statistically significant difference (p<0.01) only between the groups cemented with Enforce, i.e., in the canals filled with EndoFill + guta-percha there was lower bond strength than in the canals filled with gutta-percha points alone (101.5 and 168.2 N, respectively). In conclusion, the zinc-phosphate-based cement showed greater post retention than the resin-based cement. The findings of this study suggest that the eugenol-containing sealer interfered with the adhesive properties of the resin-based cement. PMID:16924340

  13. Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Blast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Blast Deflector Fences, Northeast & Southwest sides of Operational Apron, Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  14. Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Operational ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Operational & Hangar Access Aprons, Spanning length of northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  15. Effect of a crown ferrule on the fracture strength of endodontically treated canines restored with fiber posts and metal-ceramic or all-ceramic crowns.

    PubMed

    Evangelinaki, Evangelia; Tortopidis, Dimitrios; Kontonasaki, Eleana; Fragou, Theodora; Gogos, Christos; Koidis, Petros

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to comparatively evaluate the fracture strength of endodontically treated canines restored with glass-fiber posts (GFPs) and either metal-ceramic (MC) or all-ceramic (AC) crowns in the presence or absence of 2 mm of ferrule height. Fifty human maxillary canines were endodontically treated and randomly divided into five groups of 10 specimens each. The first group remained intact (control), while the remainder were restored with GFPs and composite cores with either MC or AC crowns. Each of the AC and MC groups was equally divided between teeth with or without ferrule. Teeth were embedded in acrylic resin and loaded at a 135-degree angle to their long axis until fracture. Fracture strength was not significantly different between ferrule and no ferrule groups (P = .571), but was significantly larger for the MC groups compared with the control and AC groups (P = .009 and P = .024, respectively). A significant effect of the type of restoration was found as teeth restored with MC crowns presented significantly higher fracture strength, independently of ferrule. PMID:23837171

  16. Coronal microleakage of endodontically treated teeth with intracanal post exposed to fresh human saliva

    PubMed Central

    de OLIVEIRA, Simone Gomes dias; GOMES, Denise Jornada; COSTA, Marcelo Hissé das Neves; de SOUSA, Ezilmara Rolim; LUND, Rafael Guerra

    2013-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the coronal microleakage of endodontically treated teeth prepared to receive an intracanal post and teeth with an intracanal post but without a prosthetic crown and exposed to contamination by fresh human saliva. Material and Methods A mechanical-chemical preparation following the step-back technique was carried out in 35 extracted single-rooted human teeth. The teeth were randomly divided into five groups: G1=root canals instrumented, obturated, and prepared to receive an intracanal post (N=10); G2=root canals with cemented posts but without coronal sealing (N=10); PC1=positive control root canals instrumented and open (N=5); PC2=positive control 2 root canals without instrumentation and open (N=5); and NC=negative control healthy teeth (N=5). The crowns were removed except for the control group of intact teeth. The root canals were obturated and sterilized with cobalt 60 gamma irradiation and were then adapted in an apparatus using a Brain Heart Infusion (BHI) medium and fresh human saliva for contamination. Microbial growth was indicated by the presence of turbidity in the BHI liquid medium. Results Data were submitted to the Kaplan-Meier Survival Analysis and the Holm-Sidak statistic method, which observed an index of 90% of microleakage in root canals after 24 hours for G1 and 70% of microleakage in samples at the end of 40 days for G2. Conclusion The results show that root canals with an intracanal post but without a prosthetic crown can be recontaminated when exposed to fresh human saliva in a short period. PMID:24212985

  17. Stress generated by customized glass fiber posts and other types by photoelastic analysis.

    PubMed

    Bosso, Kátia; Gonini Júnior, Alcides; Guiraldo, Ricardo Danil; Berger, Sandrine Bittencourt; Lopes, Murilo Baena

    2015-01-01

    Endodontic posts are necessary to provide adequate retention and support when no sufficient remaining structure is available to retain the core. There are different materials and techniques to construct post-and-core, but there is no consensus about which one promotes better stress distribution on the remaining tooth structure. This study aimed to quantify and evaluate the distribution of stress in the root produced by customized glass fiber posts compared to different endodontic posts. Twenty-five simulated roots from photoelastic resin were made and divided into 5 groups: CPC, cast post-and-core; SP, screw post; CF, carbon fiber post; GF, glass fiber post; and CGF, customized glass fiber post. After cementing CPC and SP posts with zinc phosphate cement, and CF, GF and CGF posts with resin cement, resin cores were made for groups 2-5. Specimens were evaluated with vertical or 45° oblique loading. To analyze the fringes, the root was divided into 6 parts: palatal cervical, palatal middle, palatal apical, vestibular cervical, vestibular middle, and vestibular apical. The formed fringes were photographed and quantified. Data were recorded and subjected to two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (5%). SP (1.95±0.60) showed higher stress (p<0.05) compared to the others (CPC-0.52±0.74; CF-0.50±0.75, GF-0.23±0.48 and CGF-0.45±0.83). All posts showed high stress in apical third (CPC-1.40±0.65; SP-2.30±0.44, CF-1.80±0.45, GF-1.20±0.45, CGF-1.70±1.03) Low stress was found in cervical third (CPC-0.20±0.45; CF-0.00±0.00, GF-0.00±0.00, CGF-0.00±0.00), except by SP (1.90±0.65), which showed statistical difference (p<0.05). Customized post showed high stress concentration at the root and conventional glass fiber posts showed more favorable biomechanical behavior. PMID:26200144

  18. Four-year Survival of Endodontically Treated Premolars Restored with Fiber Posts

    PubMed Central

    Juloski, J.; Fadda, G.M.; Monticelli, F.; Fajó-Pascual, M.; Goracci, C.; Ferrari, M.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this prospective clinical trial was to investigate the influence of the residual coronal structure of endodontically treated teeth and the type of cement used for luting fiber posts on four-year clinical survival. Two groups (n = 60) were defined, depending on the amount of residual coronal dentin after abutment build-up and final preparation: (1) more than 50% of coronal residual structure; and (2) equal to or less than 50% of coronal residual structure. Within each group, teeth were randomly divided into 2 subgroups (n = 30) according to the material used for luting fiber posts: (A) resin core build-up material, Gradia Core; or (B) self-adhesive universal cement GCem Automix. The rate of success was assessed based on clinical and intra-oral radiographic examinations at the follow-up after 6, 12, 24, 36, and 48 months. The highest 48-month success and survival rates were recorded in group 1A (90% and 100%, respectively), whereas teeth in group 2B exhibited the lowest performance (63.3% success rate, 86.6% survival rate). Cox regression analysis revealed that neither the amount of coronal residual structure nor the luting material significantly influenced the failure risk (p > .05) (ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01532947). PMID:24646637

  19. Effect of the Type of Endodontic Sealer on the Bond Strength Between Fiber Post and Root Wall Dentin

    PubMed Central

    Mosharraf, Ramin; Zare, Sepideh

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: An important factor that interferes with the bonding between the root canal wall and resin cement is the root canal sealer remnant. There is controversy about the effect of eugenol-containing sealers on the bond strength between resin cements and fiber post. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the type of endodontic sealer on the bond strength of FRC posts cemented with resin cement to the root canal wall. Materials and Methods: In this in vitro study, 20 extracted mandibular first premolars were endodontically treated and divided into two groups according to the endodontic sealer used (n=10): G1: AH26 (Resin based); and G2: Endofill (Eugenol-based). After preparing post space, adhesive resin cement (Panavia F 2.0) was used for cementation of the fiber post to the root canal dentin. Three 3 mm thick slices were obtained from each root. The push-out test was performed with a cross-head speed of 1 mm/minute. Two-way ANOVA and Tukey post hoc tests were used for analyzing data (α=0.05). Results: The two-way ANOVA showed that different root canal sealers (P=0.037) had significant effects on bond strength (BS), but root canal regions (P=0.811) and interaction between root canal sealers and root canal regions (P=0.258) had no significant effects on BS. Maximum and minimum mean values were observed in the AH26 group, the apical region and the Endofill group in the apical region, respectively. Post Hoc Tukey test revealed that there were no significant differences between different root canal regions in both cements (P>0.05). Conclusion: The region of root canal had no effect on the bond strength of cemented fiber posts to the root canal. Eugenol-based sealers (Endofill) significantly reduced the bond strength between fiber posts luted with resin cement to the root canal. PMID:25584058

  20. Stress distribution of endodontically treated teeth with titanium alloy post and carbon fiber post with different alveolar bone height: A three-dimensional finite element analysis

    PubMed Central

    Singh, S. Vijay; Bhat, Manohar; Gupta, Saurabh; Sharma, Deepak; Satija, Harsha; Sharma, Sumeet

    2015-01-01

    Objective: A three-dimensional (3D) finite element analysis (FEA) on the stress distribution of endodontically treated teeth with titanium alloy post and carbon fiber post with different alveolar bone height. Materials and Methods: The 3D model was fabricated using software to represent an endodontically treated mandibular second premolar with post and restored with a full ceramic crown restoration, which was then analyzed using FEA using FEA ANSYS Workbench V13.0 (ANSYS Inc., Canonsburg, Pennsylvania, U.S.A) software. Results: The FEA showed the maximum stresses of 137.43 Mpa in dentin with alveolar bone height of 4 mm when the titanium post was used, 138.48 Mpa when carbon fiber post was used as compared to 105.91 Mpa in the model with alveolar bone height of 2 mm from the cement enamel junction (CEJ) when the titanium post was used and 107.37 Mpa when the carbon fiber post was used. Conclusions: Stress was observed more in alveolar bone height level of 4 mm from CEJ than 2 mm from CEJ. Stresses in the dentin were almost similar when the carbon fiber post was compared to titanium post. However, stresses in the post and the cement were much higher when titanium post was used as compared to carbon fiber post. PMID:26430375

  1. Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Hydraulic ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Hydraulic Fluid Buildings, Northeast of Looking Glass Avenue at southwest side of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  2. Effect of root canal preparation, type of endodontic post and mechanical cycling on root fracture strength

    PubMed Central

    RIPPE, Marília Pivetta; SANTINI, Manuela Favarin; BIER, Carlos Alexandre Souza; BALDISSARA, Paolo; VALANDRO, Luiz Felipe

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the impact of the type of root canal preparation, intraradicular post and mechanical cycling on the fracture strength of roots. Material and Methods eighty human single rooted teeth were divided into 8 groups according to the instruments used for root canal preparation (manual or rotary instruments), the type of intraradicular post (fiber posts- FRC and cast post and core- CPC) and the use of mechanical cycling (MC) as follows: Manual and FRC; Manual, FRC and MC; Manual and CPC; Manual, CPC and MC; Rotary and FRC; Rotary, FRC and MC; Rotary and CPC; Rotary, CPC and MC. The filling was performed by lateral compactation. All root canals were prepared for a post with a 10 mm length, using the custom #2 bur of the glass fiber post system. For mechanical cycling, the protocol was applied as follows: an angle of incidence of 45°, 37°C, 88 N, 4 Hz, 2 million pulses. All groups were submitted to fracture strength test in a 45° device with 1 mm/ min cross-head speed until failure occurred. Results The 3-way ANOVA showed that the root canal preparation strategy (p<0.03) and post type (p<0.0001) affected the fracture strength results, while mechanical cycling (p=0.29) did not. Conclusion The root canal preparation strategy only influenced the root fracture strength when restoring with a fiber post and mechanical cycling, so it does not seem to be an important factor in this scenario. PMID:25025556

  3. Evaluation of over-etching technique in the endodontically treated tooth restoration

    PubMed Central

    Migliau, Guido; Piccoli, Luca; Besharat, Laith Konstantinos; Di Carlo, Stefano; Pompa, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    Summary The main purpose of a post-endodontic restoration with posts is to guarantee the retention of the restorative material. The aim of the study was to examine, through the push-out test, how bond strength between the post and the dentin varied with etching time with 37% orthophosphoric acid, before cementation of a glass fiber post. Moreover, it has been examined if over-etching (application time of the acid: 2 minutes) was an effective technique to improve the adhesion to the endodontic substrate, after highlighting the problems of adhesion concerning its anatomical characteristics and the changes after the endodontic treatment. Highest bond strength values were found by etching the substrate for 30 sec., while over-etching didn’t improve bond strength to the endodontic substrate. PMID:26161247

  4. Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Vehicle ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Vehicle Refueling Station, Northeast of AGE Storage Facility at far northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  5. Glass Fibre-Reinforced Composite Post and Core Used in Decayed Primary Anterior Teeth: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Leena; Passi, Sidhi

    2011-01-01

    Aesthetic requirement of severely mutilated primary anterior teeth in the case of early childhood caries has been a challenge to pediatric dentist. Among restorative treatment options, prefabricated crown and biological and resin composite restoration either by means of direct or indirect technique are mentioned in the literature. This paper presents the clinical sequence of rehabilitation of maxillary anterior primary teeth. Endodontic treatment was followed by the placement of a glass fibre-reinforced composite resin post. The crown reconstruction was done with composite restoration. Resin glass fibre post has best properties in elasticity, translucency, adaptability, tenaciousness, and resistance to traction and to impact. Along with ease of application, fiber can be used as an alternative to traditionally used materials in the management of early childhood caries. PMID:22567447

  6. The Prophylactic Effects of Zintoma and Ibuprofen on Post-endodontic Pain of Molars with Irreversible Pulpitis: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Ramazani, Mohsen; Hamidi, Mahmoud Reza; Moghaddamnia, Ali Akbar; Ramazani, Nahid; Zarenejad, Nafiseh

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Post endodontic pain is often linked to the inflammatory process as well as additional central mechanisms. The purpose of the present double-blind randomized clinical trial study was to compare the prophylactic effects of a derivative of Zingiber Officinale, Zintoma, and Ibuprofen on post endodontic pain of molars with irreversible pulpitis. Materials and Methods The post endodontic pain of 72 enrolled patients suffering from irreversible pulpitis was assessed after prophylactic use of 400 mg Ibuprofen, 2 gr Zintoma and placebo. Using the Heft-Parker Visual Analogue Scale, the patients recorded their perceived pain before taking the medicament (baseline), immediately after and also at 4, 8, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h post one-visit endodontic treatment. The statistical analysis was done using Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney, and Freedman tests (P<0.05). Results At all times, there was significant difference between the Ibuprofen and Zintoma (P<0.05) and also between the Ibuprofen and placebo (P<0.05). However, there was no significant difference between Zintoma and the placebo in any of time intervals (P>0.05). No side effects were observed. Conclusion The obtained results of the trial revealed that prophylactic use of 2 gr Zintoma is not an effective pain relieving agent. PMID:23922575

  7. The effect of pressure changes during simulated diving on the pull out strength of glass fiber posts

    PubMed Central

    Gulve, Meenal Nitin; Gulve, Nitin Dilip

    2013-01-01

    Background: Scuba diving is one of the fastest growing sports in the world. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of pressure variations to which divers are exposed on the pull out strength of glass fiber post luted with different cements. Materials and Methods: In this in vitro study, 120 extracted, single-rooted lower premolars were endodontically treated. They were randomly divided into six groups and restored using the glass fiber post (Ivoclar Vivadent AG) and the following luting agents: Zinc phosphate, conventional glass ionomer, resin reinforced glass ionomer, resin cement with etch-and-rinse adhesive, resin cement with self-etching adhesive, and self-adhesive resin cement. Each group was randomly divided into two equal subgroups, one as a control, and the other to be used experimentally. After 7 days of storage, experimental groups were pressure cycled. The force required to dislodge each post was recorded in Newton (N) on Universal testing machine (Star Testing System) at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. Data were statistically analyzed using the ANOVA and Student's t-test (P < 0.001). Results: The pull out strength of posts cemented with zinc phosphate and conventional glass ionomer in pressure cycle group was significantly less than their control group. Although, no significant difference was found between pressure cycle and control group using resin reinforced glass ionomer cement and resin cements. Conclusion: Dentist should consider using resin reinforced glass ionomer or resin cement, for the cementation of glass fiber post, for the patients such as divers, who are likely to be exposed to pressure cycling. PMID:24379861

  8. Fracture Resistance of Endodontically-treated Maxillary Premolars Restored with Composite Resin along with Glass Fiber Insertion in Different Positions

    PubMed Central

    Jafari Navimipour, Elmira; Ebrahimi Chaharom, Mohammad Esmaeel; Alizadeh Oskoee, Parnian; Mohammadi, Narmin; Bahari, Mahmoud; Firouzmandi, Maryam

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims The aim was to evaluate the effect of three methods of fiber insertion on fracture resistance of root-filled maxillary premolars in vitro. Materials and methods Sixty extracted human maxillary premolars received endodontic treatment followed by preparation of mesioocclusodistal (MOD) cavities, with gingival cavosurface margin 1.5 mm coronal to the cementoenamel junction (CEJ). Subsequently, the samples were randomly divided into four groups: no-fiber group; occlusal fiber group (fiber was placed in the occlusal third); circumferential fiber group (fiber was placed circumferentially in the cervical third); and dual-fiber group (occlusal and circumferential fibers). Subsequent to restoring with composite resin and thermocycling, a compressive force was applied until fracture. Data was analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey test at significance levels of P < 0.05 and P < 0.02, respectively. Results Fiber placement significantly increased fracture resistance. Fracture resistance in the dual-fiber group was significantly higher than that in the circumferential fiber group (P < 0.007); however, there were no significant differences between the dual-fiber and occlusal fiber groups (P = 0.706). The highest favorable fracture rate was observed in the circumferential fiber group (60%). Conclusion Composite resin restoration along with glass fiber in the occlusal and gingival thirds can be an acceptable treatment option for restoring root-filled upper premolars. PMID:23277858

  9. A new atraumatic method of removing fractured palatal root using endodontic H-files luted with resin modified glass ionomercement: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Kannan, V. Sadesh; Narayanan, G. R. Sathya; Ahamed, A. Saneem; Velavan, K.; Elavarasi, E.; Danavel, C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of using endodontic H-files luted with Resin modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC) in removing fractured palatal root. Materials and Methods: This study consists of 30 patients, of which 16 were males and 14 were females with a mean age of 36 years. In which, 19 were maxillary first molar and 11 were maxillary second molar. In that, 18 were fractured at the level of apical 1/3rd and 12 were at the level of apical 2/3rd. All cases were first tried with endodontic H-files, within few attempts, it was wedged tightly in the remaining pulp chamber with one or two clockwise direction and using sudden jerk with a downward pull the remnant part was removed. The cases, which fail to deliver after several attempts were taken up for study. After sufficient isolation with a rubber dam and the socket was dried using sterile gauze, under good lighting and vision again the same file was introduced, which was now luted with RMGIC, after 5 min of setting time, the same attempt using sudden jerk with a downward pull was given. Results: In those 30 cases, 20 cases were removed in the first few attempts using endodontic H-files. The 10 cases (7 cases were apical 2/3rd and 3 cases were of apical 1/3rd), which fails to come out were tried using endodontic H-files luted with RMGIC, in which 9 cases were successfully removed (90%) and 1 case of apical 1/3rd was again failed to come out. Conclusion: Even though, the number of cases were too small to come to a definitive conclusion, the encouraging result (90%) and technically easy, this is a novel method of removing fractured palatal root atraumatically and devoid of any complication. PMID:25210360

  10. Stress distribution of posts on the endodontically treated teeth with and without bone height augmentation: A three-dimensional finite element analysis

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sougaijam Vijay; Gupta, Saurabh; Sharma, Deepak; Pandit, Nymphea; Nangom, Aruna; Satija, Harsha

    2015-01-01

    Aims: Adequate bone support is an essential factor to avoid undue stress to the tooth. This is important when the tooth is endodontically treated and requires a post. The purpose of the present finite element (FE) analysis study was to evaluate the stress distribution of post on endodontically treated tooth with reduced alveolar bone height support and after bone augmentation. The null hypothesis was that there is no difference between the stress distribution of post on endodontically treated teeth with reduced alveolar bone height support and after alveolar bone height augmented using bone graft substitute. Materials and Methods: The three-dimensional model was fabricated using ANSYS Workbench version 13.0 software to represent an endodontically treated mandibular second premolar restored with a full ceramic crown restoration and was analyzed using FE analysis. A load of 300N at an angle of 60° to the vertical was applied to the triangular ridge of the buccal cusp in a buccolingual plane. The stresses on the tooth with normal alveolar bone height, reduced alveolar bone height, and after bone augmentation because of reduced bone height were calculated using von misses stresses. Results: A maximum stress value of 136.04 MPa was observed in dentin with an alveolar bone height of 4 mm from the cemento-enamel junction (CEJ). However, after 2 mm of alveolar bone augmentation, the stress value was 104.32 MPa, which was comparable to the stress value of 105.56 observed with the normal bone height of 2 mm from the CEJ. Conclusion: Similar values of stresses were observed in teeth with normal and augmented bone height. Increased stresses were observed with alveolar bone loss of 4 mm from the CEJ. PMID:26069403

  11. Fracture resistance of tooth restored with four glass fiber post systems of varying surface geometries-An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Solomon-Sathish, Emmanuel; Venkatalakshmi-Aparna, Potluri; Balagopal, Sunderasan

    2016-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to relate the fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth in relation to post geometry. Material and Methods Forty single rooted mandibular premolars were instrumented by step - back technique and obturated by lateral condensation. Forty teeth were randomly divided into four groups: Reforpost glass fiber X-ray®, RelyX®, Exacto conical® and Parapost Fiber Lux®. The post spaces were prepared using respective drills and luted. The core build up was done and metal crowns were luted. Fracture resistance was determined in universal testing machine. The statistical analysis was done using one way ANOVA and post hoc Tukey Kramer test. Results The teeth restored with Reforpost showed highest fracture resistance followed by Parapost and Exacto conical. The teeth restored with RelyX showed least fracture resistance. The teeth restored with Parapost had less unfavourable fracture followed by exacto conical. Conclusions Parallel design had less number of catastrophic failure and had better fracture resistance. Key words:Fracture resistance, glass fiber post, post geometry, stress. PMID:26855705

  12. Effect of Different Irrigating Solutions and Endodontic Sealers on Bond Strength of the Dentin - Post Interface with and without Defects

    PubMed Central

    Grassi, Felice R.; Pappalettere, Carmine; Di Comite, Mariasevera; Corsalini, Massimo; Mori, Giorgio; Ballini, Andrea; Crincoli, Vito; Pettini, Francesco; Rapone, Biagio; Boccaccio, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Aims. To investigate how the interfacial shear strength of the dentin - post interface with and without defects changes for different combinations irrigant/sealer. Methods. In forty human decoronated and instrumented teeth, fibreglass posts were inserted. The obtained root segments were randomly assigned to four different groups according to the irrigant adopted and the cement used to seal the root canal. The root segments were processed for metyl-methacrylate embedding. Serial sections were obtained and submitted to histomorphometric analyses in order to observe any defect of adhesion at the dentin - post interface and to measure the defects' dimension. The serial sections were also submitted to micro-push-out test. The measured shear strength values were subjected to statistical analysis by one-way ANOVA. The values of bond strength determined for the defective samples were correlated with the dimension of the defects. Finite element models were built to interpret and corroborate the experimental findings. Results. ANOVA showed that the generic combination irrigant/sealer does not affect the interfacial shear strength values. The bond strength of the samples without defects was averagely twice as large as that of the defective samples. The defects occupying more than 12 % of the total transverse section area of the endodontic cement layer led to a reduction of the bond strength of about 70 %. The predictions of the finite element models were in agreement with the experimental results. Conclusion. Defects occupying less than 2 % of the total transverse section area of the cement layer were shown to be acceptable as they have rather negligible effects on the shear strength values. Technologies/protocols should be developed to minimize the number and the size of the defects. PMID:23055816

  13. Factors affecting on bond strength of glass fiber post cemented with different resin cements to root canal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clavijo, V. R. G.; Bandéca, M. C.; Calixto, L. R.; Nadalin, M. R.; Saade, E. G.; Oliveira-Junior, O. B.; Andrade, M. F.

    2009-09-01

    Luting materials provides the retention of endodontic post. However, the failures of endodontic posts predominantly occurred are the losses of retention. Thus, the alternating use to remove the smear layer, open the dentine tubules, and/or etch the inter-tubular dentine can be provided by EDTA. This study was performed to evaluate effect of EDTA on bond strength of glass fiber post cemented with different resin cements to root canal. Fifty bovine incisors were selected and the crowns were removed to obtain a remaining 14-mm-height root. The roots were randomly distributed into five groups: GI: RelyX™ ARC/LED; GII: RelyX™ U100/LED; GIII EDTA/RelyX™ U100/LED; GIV: Multilink™; and GV: EDTA/Multlink™. After endodontic treatment, the post space was prepared with the drills designated for the quartz-coated-carbon-fiber post Aestheti-Post®. Before application of resin cements, root canals were irrigated with 17% EDTA (GIII and GV) during 1 min, rinsed with distilled water and dried using paper points. The light-cured materials were light-activated with UltraLume LED 5 (Ultradent, South Jordan, Utah) with power density of 1315 mW/cm2. Specimens were perpendicularly sectioned into approximately 1 mm thick sections and the stubs were performed on Universal Testing Machine. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey’s post-hoc tests showed significant statistical different between RelyX™ ARC (GI) and RelyX™ U100 independent of the pre-treatment (GII to GIII) ( P < 0.05). The Multlink™ showed between RelyX™ ARC and RelyX™ U100 (GI to GIII; GII to GV) ( P < 0.05). The ANOVA showed significant statistical similar ( P > 0.05) to all resin cements between the Cervical to Apical regions (GI to GV). The use of 17% EDTA showed no difference significant between the resin cements evaluated (GII to GIII; GIV to GV). Within the limitations of the current study, it can be concluded that the use of EDTA did not provide efficiency on bond strength. The RelyX™ ARC

  14. Effect of Different Endodontic Sealers on the Push-out Bond Strength of Fiber Posts

    PubMed Central

    Forough Reyhani, Mohammad; Ghasemi, Negin; Rahimi, Saeed; Milani, Amin Salem; Omrani, Elnaz

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of MTA-based sealer (MTA Fillapex), eugenol-based sealer (Dorifill) and an epoxy resin sealer (AH Plus) on the bond strength of fiber posts cemented with a self-etch adhesive. Materials and Methods: The root canals of 72 maxillary incisors were prepared using the step-back technique after removing/cutting off the crowns. The samples were randomly divided to 4 groups (n=18). In group 1 (the controls) gutta-percha was used without sealer. In groups 2, 3 and 4, the canals were filled with gutta-percha using AH Plus, Dorifill and MTA Fillapex sealers, respectively, by cold lateral compaction technique. After post space preparation, the fiber posts were cemented in the root canals using self-etch adhesive. Then 1-mm-thick disks were prepared from the coronal thirds of all the root canals and subjected to a push-out test. Data were analyzed using the one-way ANOVA and post hoc Tukey’s tests. Results: The maximum (4.45±0.09 MPa) and minimum (1.02±0.03 MPa) bond strength values were recorded in the control and Dorifill groups, respectively. The mean push-out bond strength values were similar for MTA Fillapex and AH Plus sealers (P>0.05). However these values were significantly higher than that of the Dorifill sealer (P<0.05). Conclusion: Sealer type affected the bond strength of the fiber posts and MTA Fillapex decreased the dislodgment resistant of the fiber post. PMID:27141220

  15. Endodontic Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Shahravan, Arash; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiology is the study of disease distribution and factors determining or affecting it. Likewise, endodontic epidemiology can be defined as the science of studying the distribution pattern and determinants of pulp and periapical diseases; specially apical periodontitis. Although different study designs have been used in endodontics, researchers must pay more attention to study designs with higher level of evidence such as randomized clinical trials. PMID:24688577

  16. Effects of Internal Bleaching on the Adhesion of Glass-Fiber Posts

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira Moreira, Paulo E.; Pamplona, Lucianne S.; Nascimento, Gláucia C. R.; Esteves, Renata A.; Pessoa, Oscar F.; Silva, Cecy M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We evaluated the effects of internal bleaching on the adhesion of glass-fiber posts (GFPs) luted with different resin cements. Methods: Forty extracted human single-root teeth were endodontically treated and divided into four groups (n=10): G1- conventional resin cement (CRC); G2- self-adhesive resin cement (SARC); G3- bleaching + CRC; and G4- bleaching + SARC. Specimens were sectioned transversally into three slices to perform the push-out test at the coronal, middle and apical regions of the root canals. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance and Tukey's test (p<0.05). Results: The push-out bond strength of GFPs luted with SARC after bleaching (G4) was significantly lower than that of the other groups (p<0.001). We found no statistically significant differences in push-out bond strength among the other groups. Significance: Internal bleaching reduced the adhesion of GFPs luted with SARC. The adhesion of GFPs luted with CRC was not decreased after bleaching. PMID:26962369

  17. Immediate and delayed photoactivation of self-adhesive resin cements and retention of glass-fiber posts.

    PubMed

    Faria-e-Silva, André Luis; Peixoto, Aline Carvalho; Borges, Marcela Gonçalves; Menezes, Murilo de Sousa; Moraes, Rafael Ratto de

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of immediate and delayed photoactivation of self-adhesive resin cements (SARCs) on the retention of glass-fiber posts luted into root canals. Bovine incisors were endodontically treated, and post holes of 9 mm in depth were prepared. Fiber posts were luted using one of two SARCs, BisCem (Bisco Inc., Schaumburg, USA) or RelyX Unicem clicker (3M ESPE, Saint Paul, USA), or a regular (etch-and-rinse) resin cement (AllCem; FGM, Joinvile, Brazil). Photoactivation was performed immediately, or at 5 or 10 min after cementation. Root/post specimens were transversely sectioned 7 days after luting into 1-mm-thick slices, which were submitted to push-out testing in a mechanical testing machine. Bond strength data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Student-Newman-Keuls' method (α = 0.05). Immediate photoactivation resulted in the highest bond strength for Unicem. BisCem demonstrated higher bond strength values when photoactivated after a 10-min delay. Immediate photoactivation yielded the lowest bond strengths for AllCem, although no differences in bond strength were observed between photoactivation delayed by 5 and 10 min. In conclusion, the moment of resin cement photoactivation may affect the intraradicular retention of fiber posts, depending upon the resin cement used for luting. PMID:25006624

  18. Randomized clinical comparison of endodontically treated teeth restored with amalgam or with fiber posts and resin composite: five-year results.

    PubMed

    Mannocci, Francesco; Qualtrough, Alison J E; Worthington, Helen V; Watson, Timothy F; Pitt Ford, Thomas R

    2005-01-01

    Prospective clinical studies comparing the results of different types of restorations of endodontically treated teeth are lacking. This study compared the clinical success rate of endodontically treated premolars restored with fiber posts and direct composite to the restorations of premolars using amalgam. Premolars with Class II carious lesions were selected and randomly assigned to one of two experimental groups: (1) restoration with amalgam or (2) restoration with fiber posts and composite. One hundred and nine teeth were included in Group 1 and 110 in Group 2. Patients were recalled after 1, 3 and 5 years. No statistically significant difference was found between the proportion of failed teeth in the two experimental groups. Significant differences were observed between the proportion of root fractures (p=0.029) and caries (p=0.047), with more root fractures and less caries observed in the teeth restored with amalgam at the five-year recall. Within the limits of this study, it can be concluded that restorations with fiber posts and composite were found to be more effective than amalgam in preventing root fractures but less effective in preventing secondary caries. PMID:15765952

  19. A Comparative Study of the Stress Distribution in Different EndodonticPost-RetainedTeeth with and without Ferrule Design—A Finite Element Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Garhnayak, Lokanath; Parkash, Hari; Sehgal, D. K.; Jain, Veena; Garhnayak, Mirna

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. To analyze the stress distribution in an endodontically treated maxillary central incisor restored with various post-core systems and assess the benefit of ferrule using finite element analysis. Material and Methods. Twelve models with metal ceramic crown were created based on the combination of three types of post-core systems (titanium post-composite resin core, nickel-chromium post-core, and fiber reinforced composite resin post-composite resin core), two varieties of posts (tapered, parallel), and with or without ferrule. 100 N load was applied in three directions and the von Mises stress was compared. Results. Ferrule made no difference in stress distribution for the titanium and nickel-chromium posts, though it showed some stress reduction in fiber-reinforced composite resin posts. Nickel-chromium cast post-core transmitted the least amount of stresses to the dentin despite producing the maximum stress. Conclusion. Incorporation of ferrule offered some degree of stress reduction in nonmetal post, and it increased the stresses within cervical dentin. PMID:21991454

  20. Influence of antimicrobial solutions in the decontamination and adhesion of glass-fiber posts to root canals

    PubMed Central

    HARAGUSHIKU, Gisele Aihara; BACK, Eduardo Donato Eing Engelke; TOMAZINHO, Paulo Henrique; BARATTO, Flares; FURUSE, Adilson Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study evaluated the effect of root canal disinfectants on the elimination of bacteria from the root canals, as well as their effect on glass-fiber posts bond strength. Material and Methods Fifty-three endodontically treated root canals had post spaces of 11 mm in length prepared and contaminated with E. faecalis. For CFU/ml analysis, eight teeth were contaminated for 1 h or 30 days (n=4). Teeth were decontaminated with 5% NaOCl, 2% CHX, or distilled water. As control, no decontamination was conducted. After decontamination, sterile paper points were used to collect samples, and CFU/ml were counted. For push-out, three groups were evaluated (n=15): irrigation with 2.5% NaOCl, 2% CHX, or sterile distilled water. A bonding agent was applied to root canal dentin, and a glass-fiber post was cemented with a dual-cured cement. After 24 h, 1-mm-thick slices of the middle portion of root canals were obtained and submitted to the push-out evaluation. Three specimens of each group were evaluated in scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Data were analyzed with one-way ANOVA and Dunnett’s T3 test (α=0.05). Results The number of CFU/ml increased from 1 h to 30 days of contamination in control and sterile distilled water groups. Decontamination with NaOCl was effective only when teeth were contaminated for 1 h. CHX was effective at both contamination times. NaOCl did not influence the bond strength (p>0.05). Higher values were observed with CHX (p<0.05). SEM showed formation of resin tags in all groups. Conclusion CHX showed better results for the irrigation of contaminated root canals both in reducing the bacterial contamination and in improving the glass-fiber post bonding. PMID:26398518

  1. Influence of instrumentation techniques and irrigating solutions on bond strength of glass fiber posts to root dentin.

    PubMed

    Marques, Eduardo Fernandes; Bueno, Carlos Eduardo da Silveira; Veloso, Heloisa Helena Pinho; Almeida, Gustavo; Pinheiro, Sergio Luiz

    2014-01-01

    This study sought to evaluate how instrumentation techniques and irrigating solutions affected the bond strength of glass fiber posts. For this study, 80 human maxillary central incisors were selected. Endodontic access was obtained, root canal length was measured, and the coronal third was prepared using Gates-Glidden drills. The specimens were embedded in acrylic resin and randomly assigned to 8 groups (n = 10): manual instrumentation only (Group 1), rotary instrumentation only (Group 2), irrigation with 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) (Group 3), irrigation with 2% chlorhexidine (CHX) (Group 4), manual instrumentation and irrigation with 2.5% NaOCl (Group 5), manual instrumentation and irrigation with 2% CHX (Group 6), rotary instrumentation and irrigation with 2.5% NaOCl (Group 7), and rotary instrumentation and irrigation with 2% CHX (Group 8). Specimens in Groups 5-8 also received a 1 minute final rinse with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. Canals were filled and the specimens stored for 30 days in distilled water. The restoration material was removed down to the apical 4 mm of the root canal. The glass fiber posts were luted with resin cement and stored for 24 hours at 37°C. Specimens were subjected to a tensile strength test at a constant speed of 1.0 mm/minute and a load of 2,000 kgf. The results were analyzed by analysis of variance and Tukey's test. Irrigation with 2.5% NaOCl reduced the bond strength of fiber posts significantly (P < 0.01), while CHX showed no effect (P > 0.05). It was concluded that irrigation with 2.5% NaOCl has a negative effect on micromechanical retention of glass fiber posts, whether manual or rotary instrumentation is used. PMID:24598496

  2. The effect of incomplete crown ferrules on fracture resistance and failure modes of endodontically treated maxillary incisors restored with quartz fiber post, composite core, and crowns

    PubMed Central

    Muangamphan, Panorjit; Sattapan, Boonrat; Kukiattrakoon, Boonlert; Thammasitboon, Kewalin

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the fracture resistance of restored endodontically treated teeth (RETT) with fiber posts, cores, and crowns with limited ferrules. Materials and Methods: Sixty maxillary anterior teeth were endodontically treated and decoronated 2 mm above the cemento-enamel junction, and then divided into 6 groups of 10 teeth each; Group circumferential ferrule (2FR), Group ferrule in the labial, mesial, and palatal region (2FR-LaMPa), Group ferrule in the labial, and palatal region (2FR-LaPa), Group 2FR-Pa and 2FR-La respectively, and Group 0FR (no ferrule). All 60 prepared teeth were then restored with quartz fiber posts, resin composite cores, and metal crowns. The specimens were subjected to load until failure occurred. Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and Tukey's tests (α = 0.05). The mode of failure was determined under a stereoscope. Results: A statistical significant difference was found among groups 2FR-LaMPa, 2FR-Pa, 2FR-LaPa, and 2FR from the group 2FR-La, and from the group 0FR (P < 0.01). The predominant mode of failure was an oblique palatal to labial root fracture for the groups with remaining ferrules. Conclusion: For RETT that have incomplete crown ferrules, the location of the ferrules may affect their fracture resistance. PMID:26069401

  3. Endodontic classification.

    PubMed

    Morse, D R; Seltzer, S; Sinai, I; Biron, G

    1977-04-01

    Clinical and histopathologic findings are mixed in current endodontic classifications. A new system, based on symptomatology, may be more useful in clincial practice. The classifications are vital asymptomatic, hypersensitive dentin, inflamed-reversible, inflamed/dengenerating without area-irreversible, inflamed/degenerating with area-irreversible, necrotic without area, and necrotic with area. PMID:265327

  4. Analysis of Resin-Dentin Interface Morphology and Bond Strength Evaluation of Core Materials for One Stage Post-Endodontic Restorations

    PubMed Central

    Bitter, Kerstin; Gläser, Christin; Neumann, Konrad; Blunck, Uwe; Frankenberger, Roland

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Restoration of endodontically treated teeth using fiber posts in a one-stage procedure gains more popularity and aims to create a secondary monoblock. Data of detailed analyses of so called “post-and-core-systems” with respect to morphological characteristics of the resin-dentin interface in combination with bond strength measurements of fiber posts luted with these materials are scarce. The present study aimed to analyze four different post-and-core-systems with two different adhesive approaches (self-etch and etch-and-rinse). Materials and Methods Human anterior teeth (n = 80) were endodontically treated and post space preparations and post placement were performed using the following systems: Rebilda Post/Rebilda DC/Futurabond DC (Voco) (RB), Luxapost/Luxacore Z/Luxabond Prebond and Luxabond A+B (DMG) (LC), X Post/Core X Flow/XP Bond and Self Cure Activator (Dentsply DeTrey) (CX), FRC Postec/MultiCore Flow/AdheSE DC (Ivoclar Vivadent) (MC). Adhesive systems and core materials of 10 specimens per group were labeled using fluorescent dyes and resin-dentin interfaces were analyzed using Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (CLSM). Bond strengths were evaluated using a push-out test. Data were analyzed using repeated measurement ANOVA and following post-hoc test. Results CLSM analyses revealed significant differences between groups with respect to the factors hybrid layer thickness (p<0.0005) and number of resin tags (p = 0.02; ANOVA). Bond strength was significantly affected by core material (p = 0.001), location inside the root canal (p<0.0005) and incorporation of fluorescent dyes (p = 0.036; ANOVA). CX [7.7 (4.4) MPa] demonstrated significantly lower bond strength compared to LC [14.2 (8.7) MPa] and RB [13.3 (3.7) MPa] (p<0.05; Tukey HSD) but did not differ significantly from MC [11.5 (3.5) MPa]. Conclusion It can be concluded that bond strengths inside the root canal were not affected by the adhesive approach of the post

  5. Effect of irrigating solutions used for postspace treatment on the push-out bond strength of glass fiber posts

    PubMed Central

    Vangala, Amulya; Hegde, Vivek; Sathe, Sucheta; Dixit, Manisha; Jain, Paresh

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the effect of different irrigating solutions on postspace treatments on the push-out bond strength of glass fiber posts. Materials and Methods: Thirty mandibular premolar roots were decoronated and endodontically treated. Postspaces were prepared and roots were divided into three groups: In group 1: 2.5% sodium hypochlorite irrigation (control), group 2: 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) with hand activation, group 3: 17% EDTA irrigation with photon-induced photoacoustic streaming (PIPS) has been done to the postspaces. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis has been made for two samples of each group. Fiber posts were then luted with resin cement. Each root was prepared for push-out test. Data have been statistically analyzed. Results: SEM results showed clean postwalls with both group 2 and group 3, whereas group 1 showed adhesion of resin cement to intraradicular dentine. When all groups were compared, the bond strength values are higher with group 2 followed by group 3. Conclusion: Within the limitations of the study, clean postwalls and the highest bond strength values were obtained from 17% EDTA with hand activation and 17% EDTA with PIPS. PMID:26957800

  6. Fracture resistance of weakened teeth restored using accessory glass fiber posts.

    PubMed

    da Rosa, Ricardo Abreu; Barreto, Mirela Sangoi; da Rosa, Tiago Abreu; Reis, Katia Rodrigues; Kaizer, Osvaldo Bazzan

    2013-01-01

    This study used differential root weakening to evaluate the fracture resistance of bovine teeth restored using glass fiber posts (with or without accessory glass fiber posts). Fifty bovine mandibular incisors were sectioned 14 mm from the apex, fixed in acrylic resin blocks, and divided into 5 groups: healthy roots with a glass fiber post (Group 1), partially weakened teeth with a glass fiber post (Group 2), partially weakened teeth with a glass fiber post and 2 accessory glass fiber posts (Group 3), extensively weakened teeth with a glass fiber post (Group 4), and extensively weakened teeth with a glass fiber post and 5 accessory glass fiber posts (Group 5). Posts were luted with resin cement, cores were prepared using composite resin, and metallic crowns were cemented. The specimens were stored in distilled water at 37°C for more than 72 hours until the fracture resistance test. Specimens were loaded at 135 degrees relative to the long axis of the tooth at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/minute in a universal testing machine. All groups predominantly exhibited favorable failure patterns and there were no statistically significant differences between groups (two-way ANOVA, α = 0.05). PMID:23454321

  7. Ions Release and pH of Calcium Hydroxide-, Chlorhexidine- and Bioactive Glass-Based Endodontic Medicaments.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Ceci Nunes; Freire, Laila Gonzales; Carvalho, Alexandre Pinheiro Lima de; Duarte, Marco Antonio Húngaro; Bauer, José; Gavini, Giulio

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated pH and release of calcium, sodium and phosphate ions from different medications in human dentin. Fifty premolars were prepared and randomly divided into groups: (CHX) - 2% chlorhexidine gel; (CHX + CH) - CHX + calcium hydroxide PA; (CH) - CH + propylene glycol 600; (NPBG) - experimental niobium phosphate bioactive glass + distilled water; (BG) - bioactive glass (Bio-Gran) + distilled water. The specimens were immersed in deionized water and the pH variations were measured. The quantification of ions in the solutions was made by inductively coupled plasma - atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP/AES) at 10 min, 24 h, 7, 14, 21 and 30 days. The results were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey`s test, with a significance level of 5%. CH had the highest level of calcium ions release at 30 days, while CHX and BG released more sodium ions. BG, NPBG and CHX released a higher amount of phosphate ions. The pH of CH was significantly higher compared with the other groups. CH favored the greatest increase of pH and calcium ions release. The bioactive glasses released more sodium and phosphate ions and presented an alkaline pH immediately and after 30 days. PMID:27224568

  8. Endodontic retreatment: an online study guide.

    PubMed

    2008-05-01

    The Editorial Board of the Journal of Endodontics has developed a literature-based study guide of topical areas related to endodontics. This study guide is intended to give the reader a focused review of the essential endodontic literature and does not cite all possible articles related to each topic. Although citing all articles would be comprehensive, it would defeat the idea of a study guide. This section will cover retreatment rationale, corrosion of silver points, retreatment techniques, removal of posts, and possible complications during retreatment. PMID:18457690

  9. Evaluation of Different Post Lengths’ Effect on Fracture Resistance of a Glass Fiber Post System

    PubMed Central

    Adanir, Necdet; Belli, Sema

    2008-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the influence of different post lengths upon root fracture resistance. Methods 78 maxillary central teeth with similar dimensions were mounted in acrylic blocks with artificial silicone periodontal ligaments. Combinations of post lengths of 6 mm (shorter than 1/1 clinical crown length), 9 mm (1/1 clinical crown length), and 12 mm (longer than 1/1 clinical crown length) made up 6 different groups consisting of 13 teeth each. The glass fiber posts (Snowpost) were cemented with Super-Bond C&B and Panavia F luting cement. Composite-resin cores were made with Clearfil PhotoCore. The specimens were tested in a universal test machine. The testing machine applied controlled loads to the core, 2 mm from its incisal edge, on the palatal side at an angle 135 degrees to the long axis of the root. The testing machine was set at a crosshead speed of 5mm per minute. All samples were loaded until failure. Results There was no statistically significant difference between cements (P>.05). Posts shorter than clinical crown length, demonstrated root fracture under significantly lower loading forces (P<.05). Conclusion Usage of posts shorter than clinical crowns should be avoided to eliminate clinical failure. PMID:19212505

  10. An assessment of fracture resistance of three composite resin core build-up materials on three prefabricated non-metallic posts, cemented in endodontically treated teeth: an in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Bhupinder; Pujari, Prashant

    2015-01-01

    Endodontically treated teeth with excessive loss of tooth structure would require to be restored with post and core to enhance the strength and durability of the tooth and to achieve retention for the restoration. The non-metallic posts have a superior aesthetic quality. Various core build-up materials can be used to build-up cores on the posts placed in endodontically treated teeth. These materials would show variation in their bonding with the non-metallic posts thus affecting the strength and resistance to fracture of the remaining tooth structure. Aims. The aim of the study was to assess the fracture resistance of three composite resin core build-up materials on three prefabricated non-metallic posts, cemented in extracted endodontically treated teeth. Material and Methods. Forty-five freshly extracted maxillary central incisors of approximately of the same size and shape were selected for the study. They were divided randomly into 3 groups of 15 each, depending on the types of non-metallic posts used. Each group was further divided into 3 groups (A, B and C) of 5 samples each depending on three core build-up material used. Student’s unpaired ‘t’ test was also used to analyse and compare each group with the other groups individually, and decide whether their comparisons were statistically significant. Results. Luxacore showed the highest fracture resistance among the three core build-up materials with all the three posts systems. Ti-core had intermediate values of fracture resistance and Lumiglass had the least values of fracture resistance. PMID:25755926

  11. Fracture resistance of endodontically treated maxillary central incisors with varying ferrule heights and configurations: In vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Smita; Thareja, Prerna

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study is to determine the best ferrule configuration of endodontically treated teeth. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 freshly extracted maxillary central incisors were collected. Teeth were allocated into following four groups of each having 10 teeth. Group 1 teeth restored with crowns (CRN), Group 2 endodontically treated teeth restored with crowns (RCT and CRN), Group 3 endodontically treated teeth restored with cast dowel cores and crowns incorporating uniform 2 mm ferrule (2 FRL), Group 4 endodontically treated teeth restored with cast dowel cores and crowns incorporating uniform 1 mm ferrule (1 FRL). Crown preparation was performed with varying ferrule heights, crowns were cemented with resin modified glass ionomer cement and were kept in 100% humidity for 3 days, all specimens were loaded to failure in a universal testing machine at 0.5 mm/min. Results were obtained in the form of kilo Newton and Newton. Result: The statistical analysis applied was an analysis of variance to detect the presence of group differences. Pair wise comparisons between the groups were analyzed with the Tukey Kramer significant difference test for multiple comparisons. Conclusion: Ferrule had a significant role in the fracture resistance of custom cast post core restored teeth. Endodontically treated maxillary central incisors with a uniform 2 mm ferrule were more fracture resistant than those with a uniform 1 mm ferrule. PMID:24778504

  12. Effects of heat treating silane and different etching techniques on glass fiber post push-out bond strength.

    PubMed

    Samimi, P; Mortazavi, V; Salamat, F

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were to compare two pretreatment methods of a fiber post and to evaluate the effect of heat treatment to applied silane on the push-out bond strength for different levels of root. In this in vitro study, 40 glass fiber posts were divided into five groups (n=8) according to the kind of surface treatment applied. They were then inserted into extracted and endodontically treated human canines using a self-etch resin cement (Panavia F2.0, Kuraray, Japan). Group HF+S = hydrofluoric acid (HF) etching and silane (S) application; group HF+S+WP = HF etching and heat-treated silane application and warmed posts (WP); group H2O2+S = hydrogen peroxide etching and silane application; group H2O2+S+WP = hydrogen peroxide and heat-treated-silane application and warmed post; and group C, the control group, received no pretreatment. After completion of thermal cycling (1000 cycles, 5-55°C), all specimens were cut horizontally to obtain three sections. Each section was subjected to a push-out test, and the test results were analyzed using two-way analysis of variance, post-hoc Tukey honestly significant difference test, and a paired sample t-test (α=0.05). It was found that bond strength was not statistically influenced by the kind of etching material used (p=0.224), but was significantly affected by heat treatment of applied silane (p<0.001). The interaction between these two factors was not statistically significant (p=0.142). Group HF+S+WP showed the highest bond strength (12.56±1.73 MPa) (p<0.05). Scanning electron microscopy revealed the effect of the different treatments on the surface characteristics of posts. In the four pretreated groups, the bond strength decreased significantly from the coronal to the apical root canal sections (p≤0.05). The results of this study show that the use of heat-treated silane significantly enhances the push-out bond strength of the fiber posts to root. HF acid etching with heat-treated silane application led to the

  13. Fracture strength and stress distributions of pulpless premolars restored with fiber posts.

    PubMed

    Furuya, Yu; Huang, Shih-Hao; Takeda, Yuko; Fok, Alex; Hayashi, Mikako

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effect of glass fiber posts on increasing the fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth. Extracted upper premolars with two canals in a root were divided into three groups according to the number of posts they were restored with: none, one, or two. All teeth were endodontically treated, crown-sectioned, and restored with a composite core and a metallic crown. A static oblique load was applied to the restored tooth until fracture, and the fracture pattern was recorded. Stress distributions were examined by finite element analysis (FEA). Teeth with glass fiber post(s) showed significantly higher fracture loads compared with those without posts. In the premolars without posts, von Mises and maximum principal stresses were found on the root surface alone; in premolars restored with posts, stresses were distributed on both root and post surfaces. Risk of root dentin fracture was significantly lowest in teeth restored with two posts. PMID:25483385

  14. EFFECT OF EUGENOL-BASED ENDODONTIC SEALER ON THE ADHESION OF INTRARADICULAR POSTS CEMENTED AFTER DIFFERENT PERIODS

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Larissa Lustosa Lima; Giovani, Alessandro Rogério; Sousa, Yara Teresinha Corrêa Silva; Vansan, Luiz Pascoal; Alfredo, Edson; Sousa-Neto, Manoel Damião; Paulino, Silvana Maria

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study evaluated in vitro the influence of an eugenol-based sealer (EndoFill) on the retention of stainless steel prefabricated posts cemented with zinc phosphate and resin-based (Panavia F) cements after different periods of root canal obturation, using the pull-out test. Material and methods: Sixty upper canines were decoronated and the roots were embedded in resin blocks. The specimens were distributed into 3 groups, according to the period elapsed between canal obturation and post cementation: Group I - immediately; Group II - 72 h and Group III - 4 months. The groups were subdivided according to the type of cement used for post cementation: A - zinc phosphate and B - Panavia F. Following the experimental periods, specimens were subjected to pull- out test in an Instron machine with application of tensile force at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min until post dislodgement. The maximum forces required for post removal were recorded (kN) and means were subjected to statistical analysis by 2-way ANOVA and Tukey-Kramer test (α=0.001) Results: There were statistically significant differences (p<0.01) between the posts cemented with zinc phosphate cement (0.2112 kN) and Panavia F (0.0501 kN). However, no statistically significant differences (p>0.05) were found between the three post cementation periods, regardless of the cement. Conclusions: It was concluded that the eugenol-based sealer influenced the tensile strength of the posts cemented with the resin cement, but had no influence on the time waited between root canal obturation and post space preparation/post cementation. PMID:20027430

  15. Comparison of fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth restored with nanohybrid, silorane, and fiber reinforced composite: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Bilgi, Priyanka Shripad; Shah, Nimisha Chinmay; Patel, Parth Pinakinbhai; Vaid, Deepa S

    2016-01-01

    Background: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the most suitable restorative for badly mutilated endodontically treated teeth. Aims: To evaluate and compare the fracture resistance of endodontically treated premolars restored with conventional nanohybrid, silorane composite with glass fibers and newer fiber-reinforced composite in mesio-occluso-distal (MOD) cavities. Materials and Methods: Sixty extracted human maxillary premolars were selected. Fifteen intact teeth served as positive controls (Group 1). Endodontic therapy was done in the remaining 45 teeth. MOD cavities were prepared in all the teeth with standardized dimensions and were randomly divided into three groups (Group 2 - nanohybrid + glass fibers, Group 3 - silorane + glass fibers, and Group 4 – fiber-reinforced composite). Restorations were done for all groups. Fracture resistance was measured by Instron universal testing machine. Statistical Analysis Used: One-way anova test and Tukey's post hoc test. Results: Highest fracture resistance was shown by intact teeth group followed by fiber-reinforced composite, nanohybrid, and silorane, respectively. Statistically Significant difference was revealed by anova test (P < 0.0001) and Tukey's post hoc test (P < 0.0001). Conclusions: Among the experimental groups, fiber-reinforced composite showed the highest fracture resistance. Statistically significant difference was observed for all the groups. PMID:27563188

  16. Push-out bond strength of fiber posts to root dentin using glass ionomer and resin modified glass ionomer cements

    PubMed Central

    PEREIRA, Jefferson Ricardo; da ROSA, Ricardo Abreu; SÓ, Marcus Vinícius Reis; AFONSO, Daniele; KUGA, Milton Carlos; HONÓRIO, Heitor Marques; do VALLE, Accácio Lins; VIDOTTI, Hugo Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to assess the push-out bond strength of glass fiber posts to root dentin after cementation with glass ionomer (GICs) and resin-modified glass ionomer cements (RMGICs). Material and Methods Fifty human maxillary canines were transversally sectioned at 15 mm from the apex. Canals were prepared with a step back technique until the application of a #55 K-file and filled. Post spaces were prepared and specimens were divided into five groups according to the cement used for post cementation: Luting & Lining Cement; Fuji II LC Improved; RelyX Luting; Ketac Cem; and Ionoseal. After cementation of the glass fiber posts, all roots were stored at 100% humidity until testing. For push-out test, 1-mm thick slices were produced. The push-out test was performed in a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/minute and the values (MPa) were analyzed by Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Levene's tests and by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc test at a significance level of 5%. Results Fiber posts cemented using Luting & Lining Cement, Fuji II LC Improved, and Ketac Cem presented the highest bond strength to root dentin, followed by RelyX Luting. Ionoseal presented the lowest bond strength values (P>0.05). The post level did not influence the bond strength of fiber posts to root dentin (P=0.148). The major cause of failure was cohesive at the cement for all GICs and RMGICs. Conclusions Except for Ionoseal, all cements provided satisfactory bond strength values. PMID:25004052

  17. Analysis of Bond Strength by Pull Out Test on Fiber Glass Posts Cemented in Different Lengths

    PubMed Central

    Webber, Mariana Benedetti Ferreira; Michida, Silvia Masae de Araújo; Marson, Fabiano Carlos; de Oliveira, Giovani Corrêa; Silva, Cleverson de Oliveira e

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate, by means of pull-out test, the bond strength of fiberglass posts when cemented with different lengths in endodontically treated teeth. Materials and Methods: Sixty single-rooted bovine roots were cut in the cementoenamel junction with 21 mm length. They were endodontically treated and randomly divided into three groups (n = 20). Group 1 - Preparation of 2/3 of the remaining roots; Group 2 - Preparation of ½ of the remaining roots and Group 3 - Preparation of ¼ of remaining roots. For all groups it were used posts n = 3 (Exacto, Angelus, Brazil), and cemented with self-etching resin cement (RelyXU200). After cementing posts, the samples were thermocycled (10.000 cycles/5°C and 55°C). The pull-out test was performed on a universal testing machine (EMIC - DL500) and the values obtained were statistically analyzed by analysis of variance (one-factor ANOVA) and multiple comparison test of Tukey, with level of significance of 5%. Results: The mean values ± standard deviation in Newtons (N) were: Group 1 = 120.5 (±42.8) A, Group 2 = 103.1 (±31.2) AB, Group 3 = 41.2 (±22.4) C, P < 0.005. Conclusion: The preparation of ½ of remaining root appears to be a viable alternative when 2/3 of the preparation of the remaining root is not possible, but more results are needed for clinical validation. PMID:25954063

  18. Push-Out Bond Strength Evaluation of Glass Fiber Posts With Different Resin Cements and Application Techniques.

    PubMed

    Durski, M T; Metz, M J; Thompson, J Y; Mascarenhas, A K; Crim, G A; Vieira, S; Mazur, R F

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the push-out strength of two different adhesive cements (total etch and self-adhesive) for glass fiber post (GFP) cementation using two different techniques (microbrush and elongation tip) of cement application. In addition, this study evaluated the effect of total-etch conditioning before the use of a self-adhesive cement. Sixty premolar specimens with a single root canal were selected, endodontically treated, and shaped for GFP cementation. The specimens were randomly placed into one of six groups according to the cement and technique used: RelyX ARC (ARC): ARC + microbrush, ARC + elongation tip; RelyX Unicem (RU): RU + microbrush, RU + elongation tip; or RelyX Unicem + 37% phosphoric acid (RUE): RUE + microbrush, RUE + elongation tip. Each specimen root was cut perpendicular to the vertical axis yielding six 1.0-mm-thick sections. Push-out strength test was performed, followed by statistical analysis using three-way analysis of variance and the Games-Howell test (p<0.05). Statistically significant differences between the groups were found (p< 0.05). The cervical third of the roots had the highest mean push-out strength values, while the apical third had the lowest mean values regardless of the technique used. The elongation technique produced higher mean push-out strength values compared to the microbrush technique. The self-etch adhesive cement had the highest mean push-out strength value in all thirds. The addition of a conditioning step before the self-etch adhesive cementation appears to be effective in enhancing push-out strength with GFPs. PMID:26332737

  19. Effect of chlorhexidine on bond strength between glass-fiber post and root canal dentine after six month of water storage.

    PubMed

    Toman, M; Toksavul, S; Tamaç, E; Sarikanat, M; Karagözoğlu, I

    2014-03-01

    Aim of this study was to assess the influence of chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX) application on bond strength of glass fibre reinforced composite (FRC) posts to root dentine using adhesive luting systems. Forty extracted human mandibular premolars were endodontically treated and root canals were prepared. Teeth were divided into 2 groups according to luting system as SuperBond C&B (etch-and-rinse/chemical cure) and FuturaBond DC (self-etch/ dual cure). Each group was further divided in 2 subgroups (n=10) according to whether CHX was applied or not. Group Futura/CHX: FuturaBond DC + CHX; group Futura: FuturaBond DC; group Super/CHX: Super Bond C&B + CHX; group Super: SuperBond C&B + CHX. Mean and standard deviation (in parenthesis) values of bond strength in MPa were: group Futura/CHX: 8.86 (1.96), group Futura: 7.65 (1.01), group Super/CHX: 17.47(2.93), group Super: 12.41 (3.83). Bond strength values were affected by the type of luting agent and CHX irrigation (p=0.001, two-way ANOVA). There were statistically significant differences among the groups according to one-way ANOVA (p<0.001). Significant differences were observed in bond strength between groups Super/CHX and Super (p=0.023), between groups Futura/CHX and Super/CHX (p<0.001). Application of CHX before luting procedure with etch-and-rinse/chemical cure luting agent of glass FRC post improved long-term bond strength between glass FRC and root dentine. PMID:24922997

  20. Influence of post-thickness and material on the fracture strength of teeth with reduced coronal structure

    PubMed Central

    Bacchi, Ataís; dos Santos, Mateus Bertolini Fernandes; Pimentel, Marcele Jardim; Caetano, Conrado Reinoldes; Sinhoreti, Mário Alexandre Coelho; Consani, Rafael Leonardo Xediek

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the fracture strength of endodontically treated teeth with reduced coronal structure reinforced with glass-fiber posts and cast posts and core (nickel–chromium alloy) with different thickness. Materials and Methods: Forty maxillary central incisors were sectioned at 1 mm of the cementoenamel junction and endodontically treated. The teeth were divided into four groups (n = 10) and restored with cast post and core and glass-fiber posts with diameters of 1.5 mm and 1.1 mm. The fracture strength was evaluated using a Universal Testing Machine (Instron 1144) at 45° of angulation. The results were submitted to analysis of variance two-way and Tukey's test (P < 0.05). The failure mode was also evaluated. Results: Cast post and core were statistically superior to the glass-fiber posts with the self-post diameter (P = 0.001). When the self-post material was considered, no significant difference was observed between the two post-diameters (P = 0.749). The glass-fiber post-groups presented more fractures in the cervical third than the cast post and core groups. Conclusion: Teeth restored with cast post and cores present higher fracture strength than those reinforced with glass-fiber posts. An increased post-thickness does not increase the fracture strength. Glass-fiber posts lead to less severe fractures. PMID:23716966

  1. Comparative evaluation of the effect of different crown ferrule designs on the fracture resistance of endodontically treated mandibular premolars restored with fiber posts, composite cores, and crowns: An ex-vivo study

    PubMed Central

    Dua, Nikita; Kumar, Bhupendra; Arunagiri, D.; Iqbal, Mohammad; Pushpa, S.; Hussain, Juhi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: In cases of severe hard tissue loss, 2 mm circumferential ferrule is difficult to achieve which leads to incorporation of different ferrule designs. Aim: To compare and evaluate the effect of different crown ferrule designs on the fracture resistance of mandibular premolars restored with fiber posts, composite cores, and crowns. Materials and Methods: Fifty freshly extracted mandibular premolars were endodontically treated and divided into five groups: Group I - 2 mm circumferential ferrule above the cementoenamel junction (CEJ); Group II - 2 mm ferrule on the facial aspect above CEJ; Group III - 2 mm ferrule on the lingual aspect above CEJ; Group IV - 2 mm ferrule on the facial and lingual aspects above CEJ with interproximal concavities, and Group V - no ferrule (control group) and were later restored with fiber posts, composite cores, and crowns. Specimens were mounted on a universal testing machine, and compressive load was applied at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min until fracture occurred. Results: The results showed that circumferential ferrule produced the highest mean fracture resistance and the least fracture resistance was found in the control group. Conclusion: Circumferential ferrule increases the fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth restored with bonded post, core, and crown. PMID:27217642

  2. Curricular Guidelines for Endodontics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Dental Education, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Guidelines developed by the Section on Endodontics of the American Association of Dental Schools for use by educational institutions as curriculum development aids are provided. Endodontics is that branch of dentistry dealing with diagnosis and treatment of oral conditions that arise as a result of pathoses of dental pulp. (MLW)

  3. Management of Horizontal Root Fracture in the Middle Third via Intraradicular Splinting Using a Fiber Post.

    PubMed

    Karhade, Ishani; Gulve, Meenal N

    2016-01-01

    Radicular fractures in permanent teeth are uncommon injuries and account for only 0.5-7% of dental traumas. These fractures commonly result from a horizontal impact and are transverse to oblique in direction. Their incidence is more in the middle third of the root than at the apical and cervical thirds. This paper describes a case of complicated crown fracture of maxillary incisors along with horizontal root fracture at the middle third of maxillary right central and lateral incisor. The fractured root fragments of the upper right central and lateral incisor were united with the help of a glass fiber post after receiving an endodontic treatment. The other two incisors were treated endodontically followed by post endodontic restorations. Eventually the four incisors were restored with porcelain fused to metal crowns. A one-year follow-up revealed a well stabilized assembly of the root fragments and the post. PMID:26904313

  4. Management of Horizontal Root Fracture in the Middle Third via Intraradicular Splinting Using a Fiber Post

    PubMed Central

    Gulve, Meenal N.

    2016-01-01

    Radicular fractures in permanent teeth are uncommon injuries and account for only 0.5–7% of dental traumas. These fractures commonly result from a horizontal impact and are transverse to oblique in direction. Their incidence is more in the middle third of the root than at the apical and cervical thirds. This paper describes a case of complicated crown fracture of maxillary incisors along with horizontal root fracture at the middle third of maxillary right central and lateral incisor. The fractured root fragments of the upper right central and lateral incisor were united with the help of a glass fiber post after receiving an endodontic treatment. The other two incisors were treated endodontically followed by post endodontic restorations. Eventually the four incisors were restored with porcelain fused to metal crowns. A one-year follow-up revealed a well stabilized assembly of the root fragments and the post. PMID:26904313

  5. Techniques for immediate core buildup of endodontically treated teeth.

    PubMed

    Smidt, Ami; Venezia, Eyal

    2003-04-01

    Access to the pulp chamber for endodontic treatment is indicated inter alia as a result of extensive caries, trauma to the tooth causing fracture or loss of vitality, requiring restoration of the missing tooth structure. Different approaches and materials are described in the literature for foundation restorations, either with a cast post and core or immediately, with a chairside post-and-core system. This article briefly reviews the current data regarding the microbiologic, prosthetic, mechanical, and periodontal aspects while emphasizing the immediate approach using amalgam, resin composites, and glass ionomers. Factors affecting retention of the post are presented to guide the clinician in selecting a suitable post-and-core system to preserve optimal root structure and prevent root fracture. Three clinical cases are presented in which tooth structure was restored using different techniques: in the first two, provisional acrylic resin shells, one custom made and the other prefabricated, were used to house an amalgam coronal-radicular dowel core, where in the third case, a copper band was used for a composite post-and-core system. All cases emphasize the ease of production and short chairtime in the stages of crown fabrication. PMID:12731611

  6. Dimensional changes of endodontic sealers.

    PubMed

    Kazemi, R B; Safavi, K E; Spångberg, L S

    1993-12-01

    The purpose of this study was a long-term comparison of the dimensional changes of endodontic sealers of diverse properties. The sealers were injected as thin layers on the internal walls of glass pipettes 1 mm in diameter. The pipettes were filled with deionized water, and the water meniscus levels were recorded periodically up to 180 days. The water was removed from the pipettes, samples were allowed to dry, and the mass and the volume of the sealers were measured. AH26 and Endo-Fill had an initial expansion followed by a volumetric loss. The two zinc oxide eugenol-based sealers studied started to shrink within hours after mixing; the first volumetric loss for AH26 was recorded during the first 30 days and for Endo-Fill after 30 days. The least dimensional change at any time was observed for Endo-Fill. It was concluded that a significant dimensional change and continued volume loss can occur in some endodontic sealers. PMID:8284084

  7. Evaluation of the retention of endodontic implants.

    PubMed

    Maniatopoulos, C; Pilliar, R M; Smith, D C

    1988-04-01

    The study investigated the retentive strength of endodontic implants measured by forced removal (pull-out or push-out tests) as a function of implant design and cement type. Smooth-tapered, threaded, and an innovative porous-surfaced implant were evaluated. Specimens were cemented in single-rooted human teeth with five different cements: zinc phosphate, polycarboxylate, glass ionomer, silicophosphate, or AH-26. The results indicated superior retention for the threaded and porous-surfaced implants, and stronger retention with glass-ionomer and AH-26 cements. PMID:3162990

  8. Endodontic treatment of molars

    PubMed Central

    Habl, Claudia; Bodenwinkler, Andrea; Stürzlinger, Heidi

    2006-01-01

    Objective Commissioned by the German Institute of Medical Documentation and Information (DIMDI) the Austrian Health Institute (ÖBIG) prepared a HTA report on the long-term effectiveness of endodontic treatment (root canal treatment, RCT) of molars. The focus is to examine factors influencing the outcome of endodontic treatment and showing their impact on long-term results. Additionally, economic aspects of root canal treatment in Germany are discussed. Methodology By performing a systematic literature search in 29 databases (e.g. MEDLINE), the Cochrane Library and by hand searching two peer-reviewed endodontic journals the authors could identify 750 relevant articles, of which finally 18 qualified for assessment. Results The findings show that the most relevant factor influencing the long-term outcome of endodontic treatment is the preoperative status of a tooth. The lowest success rates are reported for molars with a preoperative devital or necrotic pulp and persisting periapical lesions (so called periapical disease). Discussion Even if there is no positive selection of patients and the RCT is performed by a normal dentist rather than an endodontist - a fact which is very common - long-term success rates of more then 90% are possible. The overall success rates for endodontic treatment of molars therefore seem to be similar to those of other tooth-types. Conclusions Especially primary, conventional (i.e. non-surgical) root canal treatment is an effective and efficient therapy for endodontically ill molars, especially if no large periapical lesion persists. Nonetheless, a long term successful endodontic therapy requires a thorough assessment of the pre-operative status of the molar and treatment according to established guidelines. PMID:21289954

  9. Preclinical endodontic teaching

    PubMed Central

    Narayanaraopeta, Udaya; AlShwaimi, Emad

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To provide an overview of the general curricula in preclinical endodontic training from 6 established dental schools in Saudi Arabia. Methods: This study was conducted in January 2014 including only schools that had more than 2 groups of student graduates prior to the study. We included 2 dental schools from the Central region, one from Qassim region, one from the Makkah region (west), one from Abha region (south west), and one from the eastern region. An internet-based questionnaire was sent to the course directors of preclinical endodontics department of the 6 schools. The survey comprised 20 questions that examined various aspects of preclinical endodontics. Results: It was demonstrated that a significant number of faculty members had Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) degrees (n=21), Master’s degrees (n=15), and Saudi board certifications (n=8). We determined that the faculty to student ratio varied from 2:1 to 8: 1 among the colleges. The participating dental schools were found to teach the Step Back, as well as the Step Down techniques for root canal preparation. Five of the 6 schools implemented the use of nickel titanium rotary instruments. All dental schools predominantly used radiographs as the means of the working length determination. Conclusion: The curriculum for preclinical endodontics in Saudi Arabia is comparable to that followed in most European countries. A more comprehensive survey is needed that would involve more schools to formulate generalized guidelines for preclinical endodontic training in Saudi Arabia. PMID:25630011

  10. Post-Impact Mechanical Characterisation of Glass and Basalt Woven Fabric Laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Rosa, Igor M.; Marra, Francesco; Pulci, Giovanni; Santulli, Carlo; Sarasini, Fabrizio; Tirillò, Jacopo; Valente, Marco

    2012-06-01

    Two woven fabric laminates, one based on basalt fibres, the other on E-glass fibres, as a reinforcement for vinylester matrix, were compared in terms of their post-impact performance. With this aim, first the non-impacted specimens were subjected to interlaminar shear stress and flexural tests, then flexural tests were repeated on laminates impacted using a falling weight tower at three impact energies (7.5, 15 and 22.5J). Tests were monitored using acoustic emission analysis of signal distribution with load and with distance from the impact point. The results show that the materials have a similar damage tolerance to impact and also their post-impact residual properties after impact do not differ much, with a slight superiority for basalt fibre reinforced laminates. The principal difference is represented by the presence of a more extended delamination area on E-glass fibre reinforced laminates than on basalt fibre reinforced ones.

  11. Survival of Composite Resin Restorations of severely Decayed Primary Anterior Teeth retained by Glass Fiber Posts or Reversed-orientated Metal Posts

    PubMed Central

    Ranjkesh, Bahram; Lovschall, Henrik; Erfanparast, Leila; Jafarabadi, Mohammad A; Oskouei, Sina Ghertasi; Isidor, Flemming

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the survival of composite resin restorations retained by glass fiber posts or reversed-orientated (upside-down) metal posts in severely decayed primary anterior teeth after 6, 12, and 18 months. Materials and methods: A total of forty-four 3- to 5-year-old children with bilateral severely decayed primary maxillary canines were included. Patients were treated under general anesthesia. After pulpectomy, an intracanal post was seated in the primary maxillary canine on each side: either a glass fiber post or a metallic post in reversed orientation and teeth restored with light-cured composite. Survival rate of each technique was evaluated at predetermined follow-ups and data were analyzed with McNemar’s test (α = 0.05). Results: The difference in survival of restorations retained by two types of posts was not statistically significant in clinical and radiographical evaluations after 6, 12, and 18 months. The survival rate of reversed-orientated metal and glass fiber posts after 18 months was 81.1 and 67.6% respectively (p = 0.14). Conclusion: Reversed-orientated metal post did not show lower clinical survival compared with glass fiber posts in 18-month follow-up. Hence, reversed-orientated metal post can be considered as a potential method to obtain retention for composite restorations in severely decayed primary anterior teeth. How to cite this article: Vafaei A, Ranjkesh B, L0vschall H, Erfanparast L, Jafarabadi MA, Oskouei SG, Isidor F. Survival of Composite Resin Restorations of severely Decayed Primary Anterior Teeth retained by Glass Fiber Posts or Reversed-orientated Metal Posts. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(2):109-113. PMID:27365929

  12. Comparison of Two Techniques for Evaluation of Coronal Leakage Along of a Glass Fiber Post

    PubMed Central

    Sadighpour, L.; Rezaei, S.; Geramipanah, F.; Mohammadi, M.; Choubchian, S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Contradictory results have been reported over microleakage studies of restorative materials and methods. Despite the number of publications on leakage there are few evidences comparing the different microleakage evaluation methods. The purpose of the present study was to compare the clearing technique and longitudinal sectioning in the evaluation of dye penetration along a glass fiber post. Materials and Methods: Fifteen single-rooted human teeth were endontically prepared and obturated with gutta percha points and a resin based sealer (AH26). A glass fiber post (Glassix) was cemented into each post space with a dual polymerizing resin cement (Varilink II) and the composite core (Tetric Ceram) was fabricated. Specimens were immersed in Indian ink solution for 72 hours after completion of 1500 cycles of thermal cycling. Then demineralized, cleared and evaluated for the deepest length of dye penetration using a stereomicroscope. Specimens were then cut longitudinally and the length of penetration was measured again by the same instrument. The mean difference of the penetrated length was analyzed by two methods using the paired t test and an analysis of correlation (α = 0.05). Results: No significant difference was found in the mean microleakage measured by the two methods (P= 0.07). Significant correlation was found between them (P=0.0001, r= 0.9) Conclusion: The clearing technique and longitudinal sectioning showed the same results in microleakage of Glassix post and composite core within the limitation of the present study. PMID:21998786

  13. 3D FEA of cemented glass fiber and cast posts with various dental cements in a maxillary central incisor.

    PubMed

    Madfa, Ahmed A; Al-Hamzi, Mohsen A; Al-Sanabani, Fadhel A; Al-Qudaimi, Nasr H; Yue, Xiao-Guang

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to analyse and compare the stability of two dental posts cemented with four different luting agents by examining their shear stress transfer through the FEM. Eight three-dimensional finite element models of a maxillary central incisor restored with glass fiber and Ni-Cr alloy cast dental posts. Each dental post was luted with zinc phosphate, Panavia resin, super bond C&B resin and glass ionomer materials. Finite element models were constructed and oblique loading of 100 N was applied. The distribution of shear stress was investigated at posts and cement/dentine interfaces using ABAQUS/CAE software. The peak shear stress for glass fiber post models minimized approximately three to four times of those for Ni-Cr alloy cast post models. There was negligible difference in peak of shear stress when various cements were compared, irrespective of post materials. The shear stress had same trend for all cement materials. This study found that the glass fiber dental post reduced the shear stress concentration at interfacial of post and cement/dentine compared to Ni-Cr alloy cast dental post. PMID:26543733

  14. Fracture resistance of structurally compromised premolar roots restored with single and accessory glass or quartz fiber posts

    PubMed Central

    Sharafeddin, Farahnaz; Alavi, Ali Asghar; Zare, Samira

    2014-01-01

    Background: Glass and quartz fiber posts are used in restoration of structurally compromised roots. Accessory fiber posts are recently introduced to enhance the fiber post adaptation. This study evaluated the effectiveness of glass versus quartz accessory fiber posts. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 40 mandibular premolar roots with similar dimension (radius of 3.5 ± 0.2 mm and length of 13 ± 0.5 mm) were selected and their root canals were flared until 1.5 mm of dentin wall remained. They were randomly assigned to four groups (n = 10) and restored as follows: Exacto glass fiber post (EX), Exacto glass fiber post + 2 Reforpin accessories (EXR), D. T. Light quartz fiber post (DT), and D. T. Light quartz fiber post + 2 Fibercone accessories (DTF). All posts were cemented with Duo-Link resin cement and the cores were built with the particulate filler composite. Following 1-week water storage, specimens were subjected to fracture loads in a universal testing machine. The maximum loads and failure modes were recorded and analyzed with the two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Fisher's exact tests (α = 0.05). Results: The mean fracture resistance values (N) were 402.8 (EX), 378.4 (EXR), 400.1 (DT), and 348.5 (DTF). Two-way ANOVA test showed neither reinforcing method (P = 0.094), nor post composition (P = 0.462) had statistically significant differences on fracture resistance of the structurally compromised premolar teeth. Fisher's exact test also demonstrated no statistically significant difference regarding two variables (P = 0.695). Core fracture was the most common failure mode (62.5%). Conclusion: Glass and quartz fiber posts with or without accessories restored the weakened premolar roots equally. PMID:24932200

  15. Bonding Effectiveness of Two Adhesive Luting Cements to Glass Fiber Posts: Pull-Out Evaluation of Three Different Post Surface Conditioning Methods

    PubMed Central

    Calabrese, Marco

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bond strength at the post/resin-cement interface with 3 different surface treatments of glass fiber posts and with 2 different luting resin cements. Sixty glass fiber posts (RelyX Fiber Post) were randomly divided into 3 groups (n = 20) and were luted with a dual-polymerizing self-adhesive universal resin cement (RelyX Unicem) and with a dual-polymerizing resin cement (RelyX ARC). This was carried out in association with a dual-polymerizing adhesive (Scotchbond Multi-Purpose Plus) in simulated plexiglass root canals after receiving three different pretreatment procedures. A pull-out test was performed on each sample to measure bond strengths. Data were analyzed with two-way ANOVA. Two samples from each group were processed for SEM observations in order to investigate the morphologic aspect of the post/cement interface. Both resin cements demonstrated significant different bond strength values (P < 0.0001). The surface treatment result was also statistically significant (P = 0.0465). SEM examination showed a modification of the post surface after pretreatment with methyl methacrylate. The dual-polymerizing self-adhesive universal resin cement achieved higher MPa bond strength values. The use of methyl methacrylate as a surface treatment of glass fiber posts provided a significant increase in bond strengths between the posts and both luting materials. PMID:24987418

  16. INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT ADHESIVE SYSTEMS ON THE PULL-OUT BOND STRENGTH OF GLASS FIBER POSTS

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Luciana Mendonça; de Andrade, Andréa Mello; Machuca, Melissa Fernanda Garcia; da Silva, Paulo Maurício Batista; da Silva, Ricardo Virgolino C.; Veronezi, Maria Cecília

    2008-01-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the tensile bond strength of glass fiber posts (Reforpost – Angelus-Brazil) cemented to root dentin with a resin cement (RelyX ARC – 3M/ESPE) associated with two different adhesive systems (Adper Single Bond - 3M/ESPE and Adper Scotchbond Multi Purpose (MP) Plus – 3M/ESPE), using the pull-out test. Twenty single-rooted human teeth with standardized root canals were randomly assigned to 2 groups (n=10): G1- etching with 37% phosphoric acid gel (3M/ESPE) + Adper Single Bond + #1 post (Reforpost – Angelus) + four #1 accessory posts (Reforpin – Angelus) + resin cement; G2- etching with 37% phosphoric acid gel + Adper Scotchbond MP Plus + #1 post + four #1 accessory posts + resin cement. The specimens were stored in distilled water at 37°C for 7 days and submitted to the pull-out test in a universal testing machine (EMIC) at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. The mean values of bond strength (kgf) and standard deviation were: G1- 29.163 ± 7.123; G2- 37.752 ±13.054. Statistical analysis (Student's t-test; α=0.05 showed no statistically significant difference (p<0.05) between the groups. Adhesive bonding failures between resin cement and root canal dentin surface were observed in both groups, with non-polymerized resin cement in the apical portion of the post space when Single Bond was used (G1). The type of adhesive system employed on the fiber post cementation did not influence the pull-out bond strength. PMID:19089224

  17. Modern Endodontic Principles. Part 8: The Future of Endodontics.

    PubMed

    Roudsari, Reza Vahid; Jawad, Sarra; Taylor, Carly; Darcey, James; Qualtrough, Alison

    2016-06-01

    Although the principles of endodontics have remained unchanged for many decades, root canal treatment has been subject to major changes in the past few years. This paper outlines the cutting-edge advances including the materials and techniques used. CPD/Clinical Relevance: This article provides an overview of bioactive materials and insight into regenerative endodontics, vital pulp therapy and intentional replantation. PMID:27529911

  18. Chlorhexidine in endodontics.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Brenda P F A; Vianna, Morgana E; Zaia, Alexandre A; Almeida, José Flávio A; Souza-Filho, Francisco J; Ferraz, Caio C R

    2013-01-01

    Chemical auxiliary substances (CAS) are essential for a successful disinfection and cleanness of the root canals, being used during the instrumentation and if necessary, as antimicrobial intracanal medicaments. Different CAS have been proposed and used, among which sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), chlorhexidine (CHX), 17% EDTA, citric acid, MTAD and 37% phosphoric acid solution. CHX has been used in Endodontics as an irrigating substance or intracanal medicament, as it possesses a wide range of antimicrobial activity, substantivity (residual antimicrobial activity), lower cytotoxicity than NaOCl whilst demonstrating efficient clinical performance, lubricating properties, rheological action (present in the gel presentation, keeping the debris in suspension); it inhibits metalloproteinase, is chemically stable, does not stain cloths, it is odorless, water soluble, among other properties. CHX has been recommended as an alternative to NaOCl, especially in cases of open apex, root resorption, foramen enlargement and root perforation, due to its biocompatibility, or in cases of allergy related to bleaching solutions. The aim of this paper is to review CHX's general use in the medical field and in dentistry; its chemical structure, presentation form and storage; mechanism of action; antimicrobial activity including substantivity, effects on biofilms and endotoxins, effects on coronal and apical microbial microleakage; tissue dissolution ability; interaction with endodontic irrigants; effects on dentin bonding, metalloproteinases and collagen fibrils; its use as intracanal medicament and diffusion into the dentinal tubules; its use as disinfectant agent of obturation cones; other uses in the endodontic therapy; and possible adverse effects, cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. PMID:23780357

  19. Change in silica sources in Roman and post-Roman glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aerts, A.; Velde, B.; Janssens, K.; Dijkman, W.

    2003-04-01

    Although Roman and post-Empire glasses found in Europe are reputed to have a very constant composition and hence source of components, it appears that some 4-5th century and later specimens show evidence of a different source of silica (sand) component. Zirconium and titanium are the discriminating elements. Data presented here for 278 specimens from 1st to 4th century German and Belgian samples indicate a strongly homogeneous Zr and Ti content; N: number of analyzed samples while 62 samples from Maastricht show low Zr-Ti contents from 1st to 3rd century samples while 4-5th century samples show a strong trend of concomitant Ti and Zr increase. If the high values of Zr-Ti represent a new source of silica (sand) the trend from low to high content suggests that a significant amount of low Zr-Ti glass was recycled to form these glass objects. Similar high Ti content can be seen in analysis results reported for other but not all 4-5th century samples found in northern Europe while earlier productions show typical low Ti contents. Although the fusing agent for these glasses seems to have always been natron (a mineral deposit in the Nile delta) from Hellenistic times to the 9th century, a change in the silica source, indicated by variation of the Ti and Zr content, could very well reflect the results of political instability of the 4-5th century exemplified by the fragmentation of the Roman Empire into two parts.

  20. Postextraction implant in sites with endodontic infection as an alternative to endodontic retreatment: a review of literature.

    PubMed

    Corbella, Stefano; Taschieri, Silvio; Tsesis, Igor; Del Fabbro, Massimo

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this literature review is to evaluate the outcomes of implants placed after extraction of teeth with infections of endodontic origin. An electronic search was performed through electronic databases (Medline and Embase) using the terms "immediate implant," "post-extractive implants," "endodontic infection," "infected site," and "extraction socket" combined with the use of Boolean operators ("AND" and "OR"). Only articles on human subjects were considered. At least 12 month of mean follow-up was required for inclusion. No restriction was placed regarding study design. Ten studies were included in this review. Survival rates ranged from 92% to 100%. A total of 497 implants were placed in sites with endodontic infection. In nine studies the use of bone substitutes was associated with immediate implant placement. Because of the low number of included studies and the heterogeneity of study design, more well-designed studies are required to assess the relevance of this treatment alternative. PMID:23834016

  1. Influence of CBCT enhancement filters on diagnosis of vertical root fractures: a simulation study in endodontically treated teeth with and without intracanal posts

    PubMed Central

    Visconti, M A P G; Nascimento, H A; Dallemolle, R R; Ambrosano, G M; Freitas, D Q

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the influence of CBCT enhancement filters on the diagnosis of vertical root fractures (VRFs) in teeth with and without metal posts. Methods: The crowns of 40 uniradicular human teeth were removed and all roots were prepared. 20 teeth were randomly selected, and VRFs were induced using a universal testing machine. The i-CAT (Imaging Sciences International, Hatfield, PA) CBCT was used to scan teeth with and without intracanal metal posts using the following parameters: 0.2 voxel size, 8 × 8-cm scan size and acquisition time of 26.9 s. Images were evaluated by three observers with and without the use of the following filters: S9, smooth, smooth 3 × 3, sharpen, sharpen-mild and sharpen 3 × 3. Results: Intra- and interobserver agreement ranged from poor to moderate. Images with and without CBCT filters did not show significant differences regarding the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, as well as sensitivity (p > 0.05). As for accuracy, the sharpen-mild filter was superior to the sharpen (p = 0.03), but these filters did not differ from all others. For specificity, S9, smooth and original images were superior to sharpen (p < 0.01). Results for teeth without posts differed from those for teeth with metal posts in all cases (p < 0.05). Conclusions: The use of enhancement filters in CBCT images has no influence on the diagnosis of VRFs in teeth with metal posts, and their use is not justified. PMID:25666446

  2. Lasers in endodontics: an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frentzen, Matthias; Braun, Andreas; Koort, Hans J.

    2002-06-01

    The interest in endodontic use of dental laser systems is increasing. Developing laser technology and a better understanding of laser effects widened the spectrum of possible endodontic indications. Various laser systems including excimer-, argon+-, diode-, Nd:YAG-, Er:YAG- and CO2-lasers are used in pulp diagnosis, treatment of hypersensitivity, pulp capping, sterilization of root canals, root canal shaping and obturation or apicoectomy. With the development of new delivery systems - thin and flexible fibers - for many different wavelengths laser applications in endodontics may increase. Since laser devices are still relatively costly, access to them is limited. Most of the clinical applications are laser assisted procedures such as the removing of pulp remnants and debris or disinfection of infected root canals. The essential question is whether a laser can provide improved treatment over conventional care. To perform laser therapy in endodontics today different laser types with adopted wavelengths and pulse widths are needed, each specific to a particular application. Looking into the future we will need endodontic laser equipment providing optimal laser parameters for different treatment modalities. Nevertheless, the quantity of research reports from the last decade promises a genuine future for lasers in endodontics.

  3. Microleakage in endodontics.

    PubMed

    Muliyar, Sabir; Shameem, K Abdul; Thankachan, Rekha P; Francis, P G; Jayapalan, C S; Hafiz, K A Abdul

    2014-01-01

    A three-dimensional obturation and complete coronal and apical seal is one the important aims of root canal treatment. Since microorganisms may remain in the root canal system after instrumentation, a tight apical seal is desired to prevent bacteria and their by-products from invading the apex. A perfect apical seal is also desired to prevent apical percolation. One of the major objectives of tooth restoration is the protection of exposed dentine against bacteria and their toxins. The interface between the restoration and dental hard tissue is an area of clinical concern as insufficient sealing can result in marginal discoloration, secondary caries, and pulpitis. For that reason, adequate sealing is essential for the optimal clinical performance Prevention of microleakage in endodontically treated teeth is most important for patients who rely on the combined expertise and quality care of dentist/endodontist colleagues. Microleakage is arguably the single most important risk factor for apical periodontitis. PMID:25628496

  4. Microleakage in Endodontics

    PubMed Central

    Muliyar, Sabir; Shameem, K Abdul; Thankachan, Rekha P; Francis, P G; Jayapalan, C S; Hafiz, K A Abdul

    2014-01-01

    A three-dimensional obturation and complete coronal and apical seal is one the important aims of root canal treatment. Since microorganisms may remain in the root canal system after instrumentation, a tight apical seal is desired to prevent bacteria and their by-products from invading the apex. A perfect apical seal is also desired to prevent apical percolation. One of the major objectives of tooth restoration is the protection of exposed dentine against bacteria and their toxins. The interface between the restoration and dental hard tissue is an area of clinical concern as insufficient sealing can result in marginal discoloration, secondary caries, and pulpitis. For that reason, adequate sealing is essential for the optimal clinical performance Prevention of microleakage in endodontically treated teeth is most important for patients who rely on the combined expertise and quality care of dentist/endodontist colleagues. Microleakage is arguably the single most important risk factor for apical periodontitis. PMID:25628496

  5. Effect of post type and restorative techniques on the strain and fracture resistance of flared incisor roots.

    PubMed

    Silva, Gisele Rodrigues da; Santos-Filho, Paulo César de Freitas; Simamoto-Júnior, Paulo Cézar; Martins, Luis Roberto Marcondes; Mota, Adérito Soares da; Soares, Carlos José

    2011-01-01

    Restoring flared endodontically treated teeth continues to be a challenge for clinicians. This study evaluated the effect of post types and restorative techniques on the strain, fracture resistance, and fracture mode of incisors with weakened roots. One hundred five endodontically treated bovine incisors roots (15 mm) were divided into 7 groups (n=15). The two control groups were (C) intact roots restored with Cpc (cast posts and core) or Gfp (glass fiber posts). The five experimental groups were (F) flared roots restored with GfpAp (Gfp associated with accessory glass fiber posts), GfpRc (anatomic Gfp, relined with composite resin), and GfpRcAp (anatomized Gfp with resin and accessory glass fiber posts). All teeth were restored with metal crowns. Mechanical fatigue was performed with 3x10(5)/50 N. Specimens were loaded at 45º, and the strain values (μS) were obtained on root buccal and proximal surfaces. Following that, the fracture resistance (N) was measured. One-way ANOVA and Tukey's HSD tests (α=0.05) were applied, and failure mode was checked. No significant difference in strain values among the groups was found. Cpc presented lower fracture resistance and more catastrophic failures in flared roots. Gfp associated with composite resin or accessory glass fiber posts seems to be an effective method to improve the biomechanical behavior of flared roots. PMID:21915521

  6. [The place of radiography in endodontic treatment carried out in general practice in Dakar].

    PubMed

    Gaye, F; Mbaye, M; Faye, B; Diallo, B

    2002-03-01

    An investigation conducted over dental surgeons of 52 dental offices in Dakar and it's near suburb (40 from private sector and 12 from public and quasi-public) has shown that the use of retro-alveolar radiography during endodontic treatment was not systematic, due to the price of retro-alveolar film, waste of time and relative facility of the endodontic treatment of monoradicular teeth. The preparatory negative is favored (32.70%) particularly by private dental surgeons, who use two retro-alveolar films for endodontic treatment: pre and post operative radiography (30%). The immediate post operator control is executed only in case of post-operator pains by public and quasi-public dental surgeons (16.67%) with one retro-alveolar film on average for the endodontic treatment; at term any radiographic control is done. Three retro-alveolar films per endodontic treatment were exceptionally used (9.61%) and offset incidences (15%) are not much used as well as support-films (angulators). The retro-alveolar radiography is still a reliable guide for a clinical success in endodontic treatment with a minimum of three retro-alveolar films and offset incidences. PMID:12061249

  7. Veterinary endodontics: an online study guide.

    PubMed

    2008-05-01

    The Editorial Board of the Journal of Endodontics has developed a literature-based study guide of topical areas related to endodontics. This study guide is intended to give the reader a focused review of the essential endodontic literature and does not cite all possible articles related to each topic. Although citing all articles would be comprehensive, it would defeat the idea of a study guide. This section will cover veterinary endodontics. PMID:18457705

  8. Glucocorticoids in endodontics: an online study guide.

    PubMed

    2008-05-01

    The Editorial Board of the Journal of Endodontics has developed a literature-based study guide of topical areas related to endodontics. This study guide is intended to give the reader a focused review of the essential endodontic literature and does not cite all possible articles related to each topic. Although citing all articles would be comprehensive, it would defeat the idea of a study guide. This section will cover the use of glucocorticoids in endodontics. PMID:18457695

  9. Fiber-matrix integrity, micromorphology and flexural strength of glass fiber posts: Evaluation of the impact of rotary instruments.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Gabriel Kalil Rocha; Lançanova, Mateus; Wandscher, Vinicius Felipe; Kaizer, Osvaldo Bazzan; Limberger, Inácio; Özcan, Mutlu; Valandro, Luiz Felipe

    2015-08-01

    Several rotary instruments have been daily employed on clinic to promote cut aiming to adjust the length of fiber posts to the radicular conduct, but there is no information on the literature about the effects of the different rotary instruments and its impact on the micromorphology of surface and mechanical properties of the glass fiber post. This study aimed the impact of rotary instruments upon fiber-matrix integrity, micromorphology and flexural-strength of glass-fiber posts (GFP). GFP (N=110) were divided into 5 groups: Ctrl: as-received posts, DBc: coarse diamond-bur, DBff: extra-fine diamond-bur, CB: carbide-bur, DD: diamond-disc. Cutting procedures were performed under abundant irrigation. Posts exposed to rotary instruments were then subjected to 2-point inclined loading test (compression 45°) (n=10/group) and 3-point flexural-strength test (n=10/group). Fiber-matrix integrity and micromorphology at the cut surface were analyzed using a SEM (n=2/group). Cutting procedures did not significantly affect the 2-point (51.7±4.3-56.7±5.1 MPa) (p=0.0233) and 3-point flexural-strength (671.5±35.3-709.1±33.1 MPa) (p=0.0968) of the posts (One-way ANOVA and Tukey׳s test). Fiber detachment was observed only at the end point of the cut at the margins of the post. Cut surfaces of the CB group were smoother than those of the other groups. After 3-point flexural strength test, fiber-matrix separation was evident at the tensile side of the post. Rotary instruments tested with simultaneous water-cooling did not affect the resistance of the tested fiber posts but caused disintegration of the fibers from the matrix at the end of the cut, located at the margins. PMID:25955561

  10. Fatigue surviving, fracture resistance, shear stress and finite element analysis of glass fiber posts with different diameters.

    PubMed

    Wandscher, Vinícius Felipe; Bergoli, César Dalmolin; de Oliveira, Ariele Freitas; Kaizer, Osvaldo Bazzan; Souto Borges, Alexandre Luiz; Limberguer, Inácio da Fontoura; Valandro, Luiz Felipe

    2015-03-01

    This study evaluated the shear stress presented in glass fiber posts with parallel fiber (0°) and different coronal diameters under fatigue, fracture resistance and FEA. 160 glass-fiber posts (N=160) with eight different coronal diameters were used (DT=double tapered, number of the post=coronal diameter and W=Wider - fiber post with coronal diameter wider than the conventional): DT1.4; DT1.8W; DT1.6; DT2W; DT1.8; DT2.2W; DT2; DT2.2. Eighty posts were submitted to mechanical cycling (3×10(6) cycles; inclination: 45°; load: 50N; frequency: 4Hz; temperature: 37°C) to assess the surviving under intermittent loading and other eighty posts were submitted to fracture resistance testing (resistance [N] and shear-stress [MPa] values were obtained). The eight posts types were 3D modeled (Rhinoceros 4.0) and the shear-stress (MPa) evaluated using FEA (Ansys 13.0). One-way ANOVA showed statistically differences to fracture resistance (DT2.2W and DT2.2 showed higher values) and shear stress values (DT1.4 showed lower values). Only the DT1.4 fiber posts failed after mechanical cycling. FEA showed similar values of shear stress between the groups and these values were similar to those obtained by shear stress testing. The failure analysis showed that 95% of specimens failed by shear. Posts with parallel fiber (0°) may suffer fractures when an oblique shear load is applied on the structure; except the thinner group, greater coronal diameters promoted the same shear stresses. PMID:25553557

  11. Interpreting finite element results for brittle materials in endodontic restorations

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Finite element simulation has been used in last years for analysing the biomechanical performance of post-core restorations in endodontics, but results of these simulations have been interpreted in most of the works using von Mises stress criterion. However, the validity of this failure criterion for brittle materials, which are present in these restorations, is questionable. The objective of the paper is to analyse how finite element results for brittle materials of endodontic restorations should be interpreted to obtain correct conclusions about the possible failure in the restoration. Methods Different failure criteria (Von Mises, Rankine, Coulomb-Mohr, Modified Mohr and Christensen) and material strength data (diametral tensile strength and flexural strength) were considered in the study. Three finite element models (FEM) were developed to simulate an endodontic restoration and two typical material tests: diametral tensile test and flexural test. Results Results showed that the Christensen criterion predicts similar results as the Von Mises criterion for ductile components, while it predicts similar results to all other criteria for brittle components. The different criteria predict different failure points for the diametral tensile test, all of them under multi-axial stress states. All criteria except Von Mises predict failure for flexural test at the same point of the specimen, with this point under uniaxial tensile stress. Conclusions From the results it is concluded that the Christensen criterion is recommended for FEM result interpretation in endodontic restorations and that the flexural test is recommended to estimate tensile strength instead of the diametral tensile test. PMID:21635759

  12. Microleakage along glass-fibre posts cemented with three different materials after cyclic loading: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Barbić, Marija Rogić; Segović, Sanja; Baraba, Anja; Ribarić, Sonja Pezelj; Katunarić, Marina; Anić, Ivica

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate microleakage along glass-fibre posts cemented with three different cements after cyclic loading. After post-space preparation, fifty obturated root canals were randomly divided into three experimental groups and two control groups. In group 1, Glassix posts were cemented using Harvard cement, in group 2, Fuji PLUS cement was used and in group 3, Variolink II was used for post cementation. The specimens were artificially aged by loading in a special testing machine. Coronal leakage was evaluated using a fluid transport system. Posts cemented with Variolink II, showed significantly higher failure rate after loading, compared to group 1 and 2 (p = 0.009). Comparing microleakage in samples that have not failed, specimens cemented with Variolink II showed significantly less fluid transport than specimens cemented with zinc phosphate and glass ionomer cements (p = 0.04 and p = 0.006, respectively). Variolink II cement exibited significantly less fluid movement compared with Harvard and Fuji PLUS cement. PMID:23940985

  13. Endodontic applications of cone beam computed tomography.

    PubMed

    McClammy, Thomas V

    2014-07-01

    Cone-beam CT (CBCT) has made a dramatic contribution and has been quickly adopted in endodontics. It is a game changer in research and clinical applications. Although CBCT and its application in implantology is well known, the surgical placement of implants is now a factor in endodontics. This article illustrates unique applications of CBCT in implantology in a specialty endodontic facility. Endodontics creates the foundation for restorative dentistry for a healthy tooth, a well-treated endodontically treated tooth, or a well-placed dental implant. CBCT helps make this possible and predictable. PMID:24993923

  14. Diversity of endodontic microbiota revisited.

    PubMed

    Siqueira, J F; Rôças, I N

    2009-11-01

    Although fungi, archaea, and viruses contribute to the microbial diversity in endodontic infections, bacteria are the most common micro-organisms occurring in these infections. Datasets from culture and molecular studies, integrated here for the first time, showed that over 460 unique bacterial taxa belonging to 100 genera and 9 phyla have been identified in different types of endodontic infections. The phyla with the highest species richness were Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, and Proteobacteria. Diversity varies significantly according to the type of infection. Overall, more taxa have been disclosed by molecular studies than by culture. Many cultivable and as-yet-uncultivated phylotypes have emerged as candidate pathogens based on detection in several studies and/or high prevalence. Now that a comprehensive inventory of the endodontic microbial taxa has been established, future research should focus on the association with different disease conditions, functional roles in the community, and susceptibility to antimicrobial treatment procedures. PMID:19828883

  15. Endodontics and the ageing patient.

    PubMed

    Johnstone, M; Parashos, P

    2015-03-01

    Patients are living longer and the rate of edentulism is decreasing. Endodontic treatment is an essential part of maintaining the health and well-being of the elderly. Retention of natural teeth improves the quality of life and the overall health and longevity of ageing patients. Also, teeth that might be otherwise extracted may be strategically valuable to retain a prosthesis, and elderly patients are more likely to have medical complications that may prevent dental extractions from being safely performed. The technical goals of endodontic treatment in the elderly are the same as those for younger patients. However, the pulpo-dentinal complex undergoes calcific changes over time, which may pose challenges for the clinician. The purposes of this review are to discuss age changes in the pulp and the challenges posed by diagnosing, treatment planning and treating the elderly endodontic patient. PMID:25762039

  16. Biofilm in endodontics: A review.

    PubMed

    Jhajharia, Kapil; Parolia, Abhishek; Shetty, K Vikram; Mehta, Lata Kiran

    2015-01-01

    Endodontic disease is a biofilm-mediated infection, and primary aim in the management of endodontic disease is the elimination of bacterial biofilm from the root canal system. The most common endodontic infection is caused by the surface-associated growth of microorganisms. It is important to apply the biofilm concept to endodontic microbiology to understand the pathogenic potential of the root canal microbiota as well as to form the basis for new approaches for disinfection. It is foremost to understand how the biofilm formed by root canal bacteria resists endodontic treatment measures. Bacterial etiology has been confirmed for common oral diseases such as caries and periodontal and endodontic infections. Bacteria causing these diseases are organized in biofilm structures, which are complex microbial communities composed of a great variety of bacteria with different ecological requirements and pathogenic potential. The biofilm community not only gives bacteria effective protection against the host's defense system but also makes them more resistant to a variety of disinfecting agents used as oral hygiene products or in the treatment of infections. Successful treatment of these diseases depends on biofilm removal as well as effective killing of biofilm bacteria. So, the fundamental to maintain oral health and prevent dental caries, gingivitis, and periodontitis is to control the oral biofilms. From these aspects, the formation of biofilms carries particular clinical significance because not only host defense mechanisms but also therapeutic efforts including chemical and mechanical antimicrobial treatment measures have the most difficult task of dealing with organisms that are gathered in a biofilm. The aim of this article was to review the mechanisms of biofilms' formation, their roles in pulpal and periapical pathosis, the different types of biofilms, the factors influencing biofilm formation, the mechanisms of their antimicrobial resistance, techniques to

  17. Biofilm in endodontics: A review

    PubMed Central

    Jhajharia, Kapil; Parolia, Abhishek; Shetty, K Vikram; Mehta, Lata Kiran

    2015-01-01

    Endodontic disease is a biofilm-mediated infection, and primary aim in the management of endodontic disease is the elimination of bacterial biofilm from the root canal system. The most common endodontic infection is caused by the surface-associated growth of microorganisms. It is important to apply the biofilm concept to endodontic microbiology to understand the pathogenic potential of the root canal microbiota as well as to form the basis for new approaches for disinfection. It is foremost to understand how the biofilm formed by root canal bacteria resists endodontic treatment measures. Bacterial etiology has been confirmed for common oral diseases such as caries and periodontal and endodontic infections. Bacteria causing these diseases are organized in biofilm structures, which are complex microbial communities composed of a great variety of bacteria with different ecological requirements and pathogenic potential. The biofilm community not only gives bacteria effective protection against the host's defense system but also makes them more resistant to a variety of disinfecting agents used as oral hygiene products or in the treatment of infections. Successful treatment of these diseases depends on biofilm removal as well as effective killing of biofilm bacteria. So, the fundamental to maintain oral health and prevent dental caries, gingivitis, and periodontitis is to control the oral biofilms. From these aspects, the formation of biofilms carries particular clinical significance because not only host defense mechanisms but also therapeutic efforts including chemical and mechanical antimicrobial treatment measures have the most difficult task of dealing with organisms that are gathered in a biofilm. The aim of this article was to review the mechanisms of biofilms’ formation, their roles in pulpal and periapical pathosis, the different types of biofilms, the factors influencing biofilm formation, the mechanisms of their antimicrobial resistance, techniques to

  18. A Comparative Evaluation of Effect of Different Chemical Solvents on the Shear Bond Strength of Glass Fiber reinforced Post to Core Material

    PubMed Central

    Samadi, Firoza; Jaiswal, JN; Saha, Sonali

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT% Aim: To compare the effect of different chemical solvents on glass fiber reinforced posts and to study the effect of these solvents on the shear bond strength of glass fiber reinforced post to core material. Materials and methods: This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of three chemical solvents, i.e. silane coupling agent, 6% H2O2 and 37% phosphoric acid on the shear bond strength of glass fiber post to a composite resin restorative material. The changes in post surface characteristics after different treatments were also observed, using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and shear bond strength was analyzed using universal testing machine (UTM). Results: Surface treatment with hydrogen peroxide had greatest impact on the post surface followed by 37% phosphoric acid and silane. On evaluation of the shear bond strength, 6% H2O2 exhibited the maximum shear bond strength followed in descending order by 37% phosphoric acid and silane respectively. Conclusion: The surface treatment of glass fiber post enhances the adhesion between the post and composite resin which is used as core material. Failure of a fiber post and composite resin core often occurs at the junction between the two materials. This failure process requires better characterization. How to cite this article: Sharma A, Samadi F, Jaiswal JN, Saha S. A Comparative Evaluation of Effect of Different Chemical Solvents on the Shear Bond Strength of Glass Fiber Reinforced Post to Core Material. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(3):192-196. PMID:25709300

  19. Learning experience in endodontics: Brazilian students' perceptions.

    PubMed

    Seijo, Marilia O S; Ferreira, Efigênia F; Ribeiro Sobrinho, Antônio P; Paiva, Saul M; Martins, Renata C

    2013-05-01

    Including students' perceptions in the educational process is considered a key component in monitoring the quality of academic programs. This study aimed to evaluate the concept of one's learning experience in endodontic teaching from the perspective of a group of Brazilian students. A total of 126 self-administered, structured questionnaires were distributed to undergraduate dental students enrolled in endodontics courses during the second semester of the 2009 academic year. The questionnaires were administered during final examinations and focused on students' opinions concerning learning during endodontic treatments, time spent during endodontic treatments, difficulties found during endodontic treatments, quality of endodontic treatments performed, characteristics of the technique employed, and suggestions to improve endodontic teaching. Ninety-one percent of the questionnaires were returned for evaluation. The obtained answers were discussed and analyzed, thereby generating quantitative and qualitative data showing students' perceptions of their experiences in endodontics courses. The main points that can affect the teaching of endodontics, according to the undergraduate students, included patients' absences and delays, selection of patients, preclinical and clinical training, difficulties found, type of technique employed, and teachers' orientation during endodontic treatment. The students' perceptions provided valuable information about the development of the course and the teacher-student relationship, together with the added intention of enhancing the teaching of endodontics as well as other courses. PMID:23658412

  20. Endodontic surgery: an online study guide.

    PubMed

    2008-05-01

    The Editorial Board of the Journal of Endodontics has developed a literature-based study guide of topical areas related to endodontics. This study guide is intended to give the reader a focused review of the essential endodontic literature and does not cite all possible articles related to each topic. Although citing all articles would be comprehensive, it would defeat the idea of a study guide. This section will cover indications and contraindications, surgical anatomy related to endodontics, flap design, root-end resection, the beveled root surface, root-end preparation techniques, root-end filling materials, endodontic surgical aids, endodontic surgical wound healing, incision and drainage, surgical trephination, intentional replantation, endodontic endosseous implants, submergence of roots, transplantation of teeth, and cystic decompression. PMID:18457709

  1. Acid Etching and Surface Coating of Glass-Fiber Posts: Bond Strength and Interface Analysis.

    PubMed

    Cecchin, Doglas; Farina, Ana Paula; Vitti, Rafael Pino; Moraes, Rafael Ratto; Bacchi, Ataís; Spazzin, Aloísio Oro

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the bond strength of a composite resin to glass-fiber post (GFP) treated or not with phosphoric acid, silane coupling agent, and unfilled resin. GFPs were etched or not with 37% phosphoric acid and different surface coating applied: silane coupling agent, unfilled resin, or both. Composite resin blocks were built around a 4-mm height on the GFP. Unfilled resin (20 s) and composite resin (40 s) were light activated by a light-emitting diode unit. The specimens were stored in distilled water at 37 °C for 24 h. Microtensile bond test was performed using a mechanical testing machine until failure (n=10). The data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA followed by Student-Newman-Keuls' test (p<0.05). Failure modes were classified as adhesive, mixed, or cohesive failures. Additional specimens (n=3) were made to analyze the bonded interfaces by scanning electron microscopy. The statistical analysis showed the factor 'surface coating' was significant (p<0.05), whereas the factor 'HP etching' (p=0.131) and interaction between the factors (p=0.171) were not significant. The highest bond strength was found for the silane and unfilled resin group (p<0.05). A predominance of adhesive and cohesive failures was found. Differences regarding the homogeneity and thickness of the unfilled resin layer formed by different GFP surface treatments were observed. The application of silane and unfilled resin can improve the bond strength between GFP and resin composite. PMID:27058389

  2. Argon laser application to endodontics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blankenau, Richard J.; Ludlow, Marvin; Anderson, David

    1993-07-01

    The application of laser technology to endodontics has been studied for some time. At the present time several major problems are being investigated: (1) removal of infected tissues, (2) sterilization of canals, (3) obturation of canals, and (4) preservation of the vitality of supporting tissues. This list is not intended to imply other problems do not exist or have been solved, but it is a starting point. This paper reviews some of the literature that relates to laser applications to endodontics and concludes with some of the findings from our investigation.

  3. Pathological evaluation for sterilization of routinely used prosthodontic and endodontic instruments

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, K. Vinay; Kiran Kumar, K.S.; Supreetha, S.; Raghu, K.N.; Veerabhadrappa, Anusha Channabasappa; Deepthi, S

    2015-01-01

    Background: In daily practice of dentistry, we use same instruments on many patients. Before use, all instruments must be cleaned, disinfected, and sterilized to prevent any contamination. Pre-cleaning and sterilization of some devices can be difficult because of their small size and complex architecture. Dental burs and endodontic files are such instruments. Dental burs come in a variety of shapes and sizes, all with highly complex and detailed surface features. Aim: To determine the effectiveness of various disinfectants and sterilization techniques for disinfection and resterilization of dental burs and endodontic files. Materials and Methods: The materials used for the study were dental burs and endodontic files. Disinfectants used were Quitanet plus, glutaraldehyde, glass-bead sterilizer, and autoclave. The sterility of used dental burs and endodontic files was analyzed. Burs and files that had been used were pre-cleaned, resterilized, and then tested for various pathogens. Each item was transferred by sterile technique into Todd-Hewitt broth, incubated at 37°C for 72 h, and observed for bacterial growth. Results: The present study shows that the endodontic files and burs sterilized by autoclaving and glutaraldehyde showed complete sterilization. Burs and files immersed in glutaraldehyde (2.4%) for 12 h showed complete sterilization, whereas Quitanet plus solution and glass-bead sterilizer showed incomplete sterilization. Conclusion: The present study results indicate that autoclaving and glutaraldehyde (2.4%) showed complete sterilization. Other methods cannot be relied upon for sterilization. PMID:26236684

  4. Retentive strength of different intracanal posts in restorations of anterior primary teeth: an in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Memarpour, Mahtab; Abbaszadeh, Maryam

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To determine the retentive strength and failure mode of undercut composite post, glass fiber post and polyethylene fiber post luted with flowable composite resin and resin-cement. Materials and Methods Coronal parts of 120 primary canine teeth were sectioned and specimens were treated endodontically. The teeth were randomly divided into 6 groups (n = 20). Prepared root canals received intracanal retainers with a short composite post, undercut composite post, glass fiber post luted with flowable resin or resin-cement, and polyethylene fiber post luted with flowable resin or resin-cement. After crown reconstruction, samples were tested for retentive strength and failure mode. Statistical analysis was done with one-way ANOVA and Tukey tests (p < 0.05). Results There were statistically significant differences between groups (p = 0.001). Mean bond strength in the undercut group was significantly greater than in the short composite post (p = 0.030), and the glass fiber post (p = 0.001) and the polyethylene fiber post group luted with resin-cement (p = 0.008). However, the differences between the undercut group and the groups with flowable composite as the luting agent were not significant (p = 0.068, p = 0.557). Adhesive failure was more frequent in the fiber post groups. Conclusions Although the composite post with undercutting showed the greatest resistance to dislodgement, fiber posts cemented with flowable composite resin provided acceptable results in terms of retentive strength and fracture mode. PMID:24303356

  5. Degree of vinyl conversion, polymerization shrinkage and stress development in experimental endodontic composite

    PubMed Central

    O’Donnell, J.N.R.; Skrtic, D.

    2010-01-01

    This study explores degree of vinyl conversion (DVC), polymerization shrinkage (PS) and shrinkage stress (PSS) of the experimental amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) composites intended for use as an endodontic sealer. Light-cure (LC), chemical cure (CC) or dual-cure (DC; combined light and chemical cure) resins comprised urethane dimethacrylate (UDMA), 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA), methacryloyloxyethyl phthalate (MEP) and a high molecular mass oligomeric co-monomer, poly(ethyleneglycol)-extended UDMA (PEG-U) (designated UPHM resin). To fabricate composites, a mass fraction of 60 % UPHM resin was blended with a mass fraction of 40 % as-made (am-ACP) or ground ACP (g-ACP). DVC values of copolymer (unfilled UPHM resin) and composite specimens were determined by infrared spectroscopy. Glass-filled composites were used as controls. PS and PSS of composites were determined by dilatometry and tensometry, respectively. LC copolymers attained extraordinary high DVC values at 24 h post-cure (95.7 %), compared to CC (52 %) and DC (79.3 %) copolymer specimens. While the DVC values of LC and DC am-ACP composites were reduced between 5 and 10 %, DVC values of DC g-ACP composites increased almost 8 % compared to the corresponding copolymers. High DVC attained in LC composites was, expectedly, accompanied with high PS values (on average 7 vol%). However, PSS developed in LC and especially DC composites did not exceed PSS values seen in other UDMA-based composites. Based on this initial evaluation, it is concluded that, DC, g-ACP filled UPHM composite shows promise as an endodontic sealer. However, further physicochemical evaluations, including water sorption, mechanical stability and ion release as well as a leachability studies need to be performed before this experimental material is tested for cellular responses and, eventually recommended for clinical utility. PMID:20411033

  6. [Study of some physical and biological properties of an endodontic sealer composed of calcium hydroxide].

    PubMed

    Birman, E G; Sampaio, J M; Magalhães, J; Sato, E

    1990-01-01

    The authors present a study of the physical and biological properties of a new endodontic cement known as Sealapex. In its composition the presence of calcium hydroxide is introduced in order to induce calcification of the periapical tissue. Our results using glass round cover slips implanted on the subcutaneous tissue of mice indicated a persistent foreign body reaction (60 days). The physical properties studied compared to N-Rickert ciment indicated, a decreased leakage. Adhesivity tests didn't give us significant values. Laboratorial studies and clinical trials are necessary to a complete acceptance of this new ciment in endodontic treatment. PMID:2135327

  7. The effectiveness of endodontic solvents to remove endodontic sealers.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jae I; Chuang, Augustine H; Sidow, Stephanie J; McNally, Kathleen; Goodin, Jeremy L; McPherson, James C

    2015-03-01

    Dental emergencies negatively affect troop readiness, especially during combat. Endodontic retreatment, when required, is especially challenging when the removal of endodontic sealer is required. In this study, we investigated the effectiveness of synthetic endodontic solvents to remove endodontic sealers. Fifty capillary tubes (2.7 mm ID×22 mm L), each filled to 15 mm with either Roth 801, AH Plus, MetaSEAL, or gutta-percha, were stored at 75% humidity for 14 days at 37°C. Ten capillary tubes containing each sealer were treated with either chloroform, xylene, EndoSolv R, EndoSolv E, or no solvent, and then penetrated with D3 ProTaper Universal Retreatment file on the same day. The time for the file to penetrate the length of each sealer was recorded, and the data statistically analyzed. Roth 801 failed to set and was not tested. The file took 3.4±0.1, 4.8±0.3, 5.7±0.4, 4.5±0.2, and 10.6±1.0 seconds (mean±SD) to penetrate gutta-percha using chloroform, xylene, EndoSolv R, EndoSolv E, or no solvent, respectively, and was performed by one endodontic resident at one sitting. The time for penetration of gutta-percha with any solvent was significantly faster (p≤0.05) than for AH Plus or MetaSEAL.The time for AH Plus ranged from 23.1±1.0 to 81.5±4.5 seconds. The time for MetaSEAL ranged from 97.2±6.1 to >180 seconds. EndoSolv E was the most effective solvent for AH Plus. It took significantly more time to remove MetaSEAL than AH Plus, regardless of the solvent used. Our study indicated that the use of the proper endodontic solvent makes complete removal of a sealer much more effective during retreatment. PMID:25747639

  8. Modern endodontic practice: instruments and techniques.

    PubMed

    Kim, Syngcuk

    2004-01-01

    Like many other dental and medical specialties, endodontics has evolved and changed over the years. The changes that have occurred in the past 10 years, however, have been of great magnitude and profundity. The microscope, ultrasonic units with specially configured tips, superbly accurate microchip computerized apex locators, flexible nickel-titanium files in rotary engines, and greater emphasis on microscopic endodontic surgery have totally changed the way endodontics and endodontic surgery are practiced. Comparing these changes with formocreoszol medication, K-file and radiographic determination of working length are truly dramatic. These changes are bringing the specialty of endodontic practice into the twenty-first century with greater precision, fewer procedural errors, less discomfort to the patient, and faster case completions. Seven key advancements in endodontics were made in the last decade. This article discusses these advancements and their applicability to everyday practice. PMID:15066503

  9. Optical spectroscopy applied to the analysis of medieval and post-medieval plain flat glass fragments excavated in Belgium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meulebroeck, W.; Wouters, H.; Baert, K.; Ceglia, A.; Terryn, H.; Nys, K.; Thienpont, H.

    2010-04-01

    Window glass fragments from four Belgian sites were studied and for a set of eighty-five samples the UV-VIS-NIR transmission spectra were analyzed. This collection contains historical and archaeological finds originating from religious buildings namely the Basilica of Our Lady of Hanswijk in Mechelen (17th-20thc) and the Church of Our Lady in Bruges (16th-20thc) as well as from secular buildings as a private house/Antwerp (18th-1948) and the castle of Middelburg-in-Flanders (1448-17thc). All sites contain material on the hinge point between the medieval and the industrial tradition. The variation in composition of the analyzed samples can be explained by the use of different glassmaking recipes, more specifically the use of different raw materials. The composition of window glass differs essentially in the type of flux, using a potash rich fluxing agent until the post-medieval times and industrial soda from the 19th century onwards. A second difference concerns the iron impurities in the glass. For all fragments a clear compositional classification could be made based on the iron concentration. These conclusions were based on archaeological research and drawn after submitting samples to expensive, complex, time-consuming and destructive chemical analyzing methods. Our study indicates that similar conclusions could be made applying the proposed optical based methodology for plain window glass. As a whole, the obtained results make it possible to cluster the fragments for a particular site based on three different sensing parameters: the UV absorption edge, the color and the presence of characteristic absorption bands. This information helps in identifying trends to date window glass collections and indicating the use of different raw materials, production technologies and/or provenance.

  10. Comparative characteristics of endodontic drills.

    PubMed

    Loska, Sonia; Basiaga, Marcin; Pochrząst, Magdalena; Łukomska-Szymańska, Monika; Walke, Witold; Tyrlik-Held, Jadwiga

    2015-01-01

    The work concerns the analysis of influence of the wear process of endodontic instruments on the mechanical and physico-chemical properties of the materials from which they are made. A detailed study of the microstructure, mechanical properties and corrosion resistance in the environment simulating work of the tool was conducted. The research was done for the new Mtwo endodontic files and after six times of use. In addition, the observations with a scanning electron microscope in order to reveal possible damage caused by the impact of a corrosive environment were carried out. The results showed that use of the tool by six times revealed damage at the edges of the blades and may cause a lack of continuity of the cutting line resulting in the uneven distribution of the resistive force which acts on the tool during operation. PMID:26688191

  11. Implant treatment planning: endodontic considerations.

    PubMed

    Simonian, Krikor; Frydman, Alon; Verdugo, Fernando; Roges, Rafael; Kar, Kian

    2014-12-01

    Implants are a predictable and effective method for replacing missing teeth. Some clinicians have advocated extraction and replacement of compromised but treatable teeth on the assumption that implants will outperform endodontically and/or periodontally treated teeth. However, evidence shows that conventional therapy is as effective as implant treatment. With data on implants developing complications long term and a lack of predictable treatment for peri-implantitis, retaining and restoring the natural dentition should be the first choice when possible. PMID:25928961

  12. Treponema diversity in root canals with endodontic failure

    PubMed Central

    Nóbrega, Leticia M. M.; Delboni, Maraisa G.; Martinho, Frederico C.; Zaia, Alexandre A; Ferraz, Caio C. R.; Gomes, Brenda P. F. A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study sought to investigate the prevalence of eight oral Treponemas (Treponema denticola, T. amylovorum, T. maltophilum, T. medium, T. pectinovorum, T. socranskii, T. vicentii and T. lecithinolyticum) in teeth with endodontic treatment failure and periapical lesion. Methods: Samples were taken from 40 root canals presenting endodontic failure and periapical lesion. DNA extraction was performed and Nested-PCR technique was used for the detection of Treponema species using specific primers. Results: Treponemas was detected in 56.5% of the samples analyzed (22/39). Individual root canals yielded a maximum of 6 target Treponema species. T. denticola (30.8%) and T. maltophilum (30.8%) were the most frequently detected species followed by T. medium (20.5%), T. socranskii (20.5%), T. pectinovorum (17.9%) and T. vicentii (17.9%). Positive association was verified between T. denticola and T. maltophilum such as T. medium (P<.05). T. lecithinolyticum was positively associated with intraradicular post (P<.05). Conclusion: The present study revealed that a wide variety of Treponema species plays a role in persistent/secondary infection turning the root canal microbiota even more complex than previously described by endodontic literature. PMID:23408792

  13. Imaging Techniques in Endodontics: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Deepak, B. S.; Subash, T. S.; Narmatha, V. J.; Anamika, T.; Snehil, T. K.; Nandini, D. B.

    2012-01-01

    This review provides an overview of the relevance of imaging techniques such as, computed tomography, cone beam computed tomography, and ultrasound, to endodontic practice. Many limitations of the conventional radiographic techniques have been overcome by the newer methods. Advantages and disadvantages of various imaging techniques in endodontic practice are also discussed. PMID:22530184

  14. Teacher Training in Graduate Endodontic Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrell, William; Lee, Mickey M.

    1981-01-01

    A national survey of postdoctoral endodontic students on the perceived educational needs of dental faculty indicated that most endodontic students possess very little formal educational training, they perceive a strong need for it, and that they desire more training in evaluation/testing methods. (MLW)

  15. 21 CFR 872.3840 - Endodontic silver point.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Endodontic silver point. 872.3840 Section 872.3840...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3840 Endodontic silver point. (a) Identification. An endodontic silver point is a device made of silver intended for use during endodontic therapy...

  16. 21 CFR 872.3840 - Endodontic silver point.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Endodontic silver point. 872.3840 Section 872.3840...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3840 Endodontic silver point. (a) Identification. An endodontic silver point is a device made of silver intended for use during endodontic therapy...

  17. 21 CFR 872.3840 - Endodontic silver point.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Endodontic silver point. 872.3840 Section 872.3840...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3840 Endodontic silver point. (a) Identification. An endodontic silver point is a device made of silver intended for use during endodontic therapy...

  18. 21 CFR 872.3840 - Endodontic silver point.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Endodontic silver point. 872.3840 Section 872.3840...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3840 Endodontic silver point. (a) Identification. An endodontic silver point is a device made of silver intended for use during endodontic therapy...

  19. 21 CFR 872.3840 - Endodontic silver point.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Endodontic silver point. 872.3840 Section 872.3840...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3840 Endodontic silver point. (a) Identification. An endodontic silver point is a device made of silver intended for use during endodontic therapy...

  20. 21 CFR 872.3830 - Endodontic paper point.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Endodontic paper point. 872.3830 Section 872.3830...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3830 Endodontic paper point. (a) Identification. An endodontic paper point is a device made of paper intended for use during endodontic therapy to...

  1. 21 CFR 872.3830 - Endodontic paper point.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Endodontic paper point. 872.3830 Section 872.3830...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3830 Endodontic paper point. (a) Identification. An endodontic paper point is a device made of paper intended for use during endodontic therapy to...

  2. 21 CFR 872.3830 - Endodontic paper point.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Endodontic paper point. 872.3830 Section 872.3830...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3830 Endodontic paper point. (a) Identification. An endodontic paper point is a device made of paper intended for use during endodontic therapy to...

  3. Three-dimensional imaging modalities in endodontics

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Recent research in endodontics has highlighted the need for three-dimensional imaging in the clinical arena as well as in research. Three-dimensional imaging using computed tomography (CT) has been used in endodontics over the past decade. Three types of CT scans have been studied in endodontics, namely cone-beam CT, spiral CT, and peripheral quantitative CT. Contemporary endodontics places an emphasis on the use of cone-beam CT for an accurate diagnosis of parameters that cannot be visualized on a two-dimensional image. This review discusses the role of CT in endodontics, pertaining to its importance in the diagnosis of root canal anatomy, detection of peri-radicular lesions, diagnosis of trauma and resorption, presurgical assessment, and evaluation of the treatment outcome. PMID:25279337

  4. Postextraction implant in sites with endodontic infection as an alternative to endodontic retreatment: a review of literature.

    PubMed

    Corbella, Stefano; Taschieri, Silvio; Tsesis, Igor; Massimo, Del Fabbro

    2012-05-22

    Abstract Objective: the aim of this literature review was to evaluate the outcomes of implants placed after extraction of teeth with infections of endodontic origin.Study design: an electronic search was performed through electronic databases (Medline and EMBASE) using the terms "immediate implant", "post-extractive implants", "endodontic infection", "infected site", "extraction socket" combined with the use of Boolean operators ("AND" and "OR"). Only articles on human subjects were considered. At least 12 month of mean follow-up was required for inclusion. No restriction was placed regarding study design.Results: Ten studies were included in this review. Survival rates ranged from 92% to 100%. A total of 497 implants were placed in sites with endodontic infection. In nine studies the use of bone substitutes was associated with immediate implant placement.Conclusion: because of the low number of included study and the heterogeneity in study design, more well-designed studies are required in order to assess relevance of this treatment alternative. PMID:22616711

  5. Experimental and numerical determination of the mechanical response of teeth with reinforced posts.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulos, Triantafillos; Papadogiannis, Dimitris; Mouzakis, Dionysios E; Giannadakis, Konstantinos; Papanicolaou, George

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the mechanical behavior of endodontically treated teeth restored with fiber reinforced composite posts versus titanium posts, by both experimental testing and numerical simulation (finite element analysis (FEA)). Forty maxillary central incisors were endodontically treated to a size 45 file and then obturated using gutta-percha points and sealer with the lateral condensation technique. The teeth were divided into four groups of ten teeth each. All the posts were of similar dimensions. The first group was restored using carbon fiber reinforced posts (CB), the second and third groups were restored using glass fiber reinforced posts (DP and FW, respectively), and the fourth group (control group) was restored using conventional titanium posts (PP). Half of the specimens of every group were submitted to hydrothermal cycling (2000 cycles, at 5 °C and 55 °C, respectively). All specimens were loaded until failure at a 45° angle with respect to the longitudinal axis at a cross head speed of 0.5 mm min(-1). A two-dimensional finite element model was designed in order to simulate the experimentally obtained results. Mechanical testing revealed that teeth restored with titanium posts exhibited the highest fracture strength. Debonding of the core was the main failure mode observed in glass fiber posts, whereas vertical root fractures were observed in the titanium posts. FEA revealed that the maximum stresses were developed at the interface between the post, dentin and the composite core critical regions in all three cases. Hydrothermal cycling had no significant effect on the fracture behavior of fiber reinforced composite posts. PMID:20505232

  6. Comparative Evaluation of Fracture Resistance of Simulated Immature Teeth Restored with Glass Fiber Posts, Intracanal Composite Resin, and Experimental Dentine Posts

    PubMed Central

    Jha, Padmanabh; Aggarwal, Akarshak

    2015-01-01

    Aim. The aim of this study was to compare the fracture resistance of simulated immature teeth restored with gutta-percha, glass fiber posts (GFP), experimental dentine posts (DP) or Intracanal composite Resin (ICR). Materials and Methods. Fifty maxillary canines were decoronated, standardized and enlarged until, number 5 Peeso reamers were allowed to simulate immature teeth. After placement of 5 mm of MTA, the canals were divided into 5 groups and filled as follows: Group 1: AH Plus + gutta-percha, lateral compaction; Group 2: GFP luted with PARACORE dual cure resin; Group 3: DP luted with PARACORE dual cure resin; Group 4: PARACORE dual cure resin. A standardized core was built in all groups except in Group 5. Each of the specimens was tested for fracture resistance by universal testing machine. Results. The mean fracture resistance were 817 ± 27.753, 1164.6 ± 21.624, 994.4 ± 96.8747, 873.8 ± 105.446 and 493.7 ± 6.945 newtons for Groups 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 respectively. Independent “t” test revealed statistically significant discrepancies, in the fracture resistance among the 4 groups except Group 1 and Group 4 (P < 0.05). Conclusions. This study suggests that GFP and DP may be preferred for additional reinforcement of immature teeth. PMID:25629086

  7. Iatrogenic Subcutaneous Emphysema of Endodontic Origin – Case Report with Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Lora; Patnaik, Swarnav; Patro, Sangram; Debnath, Nitai; Mishra, Satyaranjan

    2014-01-01

    Surgical emphysema is well known and many case reports have been published on this. Many authors have reported this as a complication post dentoalveolar treatment. Diffusion of air into facial planes and periorbital area during endodontic procedures has been rarely reported. The use of three way air syringe and forceful irrigation of root canal can lead to surgical emphysema of subcutaneous tissue planes in and around the teeth which are involved. This case report highlights one such complication seen during endodontic treatment, discusses aetiology, complications and conservative management of this dental office emergency. PMID:24596796

  8. 6. Looking glass aircraft in the project looking glass historic ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Looking glass aircraft in the project looking glass historic district. View to north. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Avenue between Comstat Drive & Nightwatch Avenue, Offutt Air Force Base, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  9. Fibre reinforcement in a structurally compromised endodontically treated molar: a case report.

    PubMed

    Soares, Renita; de Ataide, Ida de Noronha; Fernandes, Marina; Lambor, Rajan

    2016-05-01

    The reconstruction of structurally compromised posterior teeth is a rather challenging procedure. The tendency of endodontically treated teeth (ETT) to fracture is considerably higher than vital teeth. Although posts and core build-ups followed by conventional crowns have been generally employed for the purpose of reconstruction, this procedure entails sacrificing a considerable amount of residual sound enamel and dentin. This has drawn the attention of researchers to fibre reinforcement. Fibre-reinforced composite (FRC), designed to replace dentin, enables the biomimetic restoration of teeth. Besides improving the strength of the restoration, the incorporation of glass fibres into composite resins leads to favorable fracture patterns because the fibre layer acts as a stress breaker and stops crack propagation. The following case report presents a technique for reinforcing a badly broken-down ETT with biomimetic materials and FRC. The proper utilization of FRC in structurally compromised teeth can be considered to be an economical and practical measure that may obviate the use of extensive prosthetic treatment. PMID:27200283

  10. Fibre reinforcement in a structurally compromised endodontically treated molar: a case report

    PubMed Central

    de Ataide, Ida de Noronha; Fernandes, Marina; Lambor, Rajan

    2016-01-01

    The reconstruction of structurally compromised posterior teeth is a rather challenging procedure. The tendency of endodontically treated teeth (ETT) to fracture is considerably higher than vital teeth. Although posts and core build-ups followed by conventional crowns have been generally employed for the purpose of reconstruction, this procedure entails sacrificing a considerable amount of residual sound enamel and dentin. This has drawn the attention of researchers to fibre reinforcement. Fibre-reinforced composite (FRC), designed to replace dentin, enables the biomimetic restoration of teeth. Besides improving the strength of the restoration, the incorporation of glass fibres into composite resins leads to favorable fracture patterns because the fibre layer acts as a stress breaker and stops crack propagation. The following case report presents a technique for reinforcing a badly broken-down ETT with biomimetic materials and FRC. The proper utilization of FRC in structurally compromised teeth can be considered to be an economical and practical measure that may obviate the use of extensive prosthetic treatment. PMID:27200283

  11. Effect of various endodontic solutions on punch out strength of Resilon under cyclic loading

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Narender; Aggarwal, Vivek; Singla, Mamta; Gupta, Ridhima

    2011-01-01

    Background: Before obturation, various endodontic solutions are used as a final rinse. These solutions might affect the bond strength of Resilon-Epiphany system. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of NaOCl (5.25%), chlorhexidine CHX (2%), EDTA solution (17%), and BioPure MTAD on push out bond strength of Resilon-Epiphany system. Materials and Methods: Seventy-five human premolar roots were prepared and divided on the basis of final endodontic solution rinse. The canals were obturated with Resilon-Epiphany system. All samples were restored using a fiber post system and indirect composite crown. The samples received 150 000 cycles of mechanical loading. Push out bond strength was performed in the apical third of root having Resilon obturation. Results and Conclusions: Different endodontic solutions tested, did not affected the push out bond strength of Resilon-Epiphany obturation system. PMID:22144804

  12. A Novel Glass Polyalkenoate Cement for Fixation and Stabilisation of the Ribcage, Post Sternotomy Surgery: An ex-Vivo Study

    PubMed Central

    Alhalawani, Adel M.F.; Curran, Declan J.; Pingguan-Murphy, Belinda; Boyd, Daniel; Towler, Mark R.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the use of gallium (Ga) based glass polyalkenoate cements (GPCs) as a possible alternative adhesive in sternal fixation, post sternotomy surgery. The glass series consists of a Control (CaO–ZnO–SiO2), and LGa-1 and LGa-2 which contain Ga at the expense of zinc (Zn) in 0.08 mol% increments. The additions of Ga resulted in increased working time (75 s to 137 s) and setting time (113 to 254 s). Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) analysis indicated that this was a direct result of increased unreacted poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and the reduction of crosslink formation during cement maturation. LGa samples (0.16 wt % Ga) resulted in an altered ion release profile, particularly for 30 days analysis, with maximum Ca2+, Zn2+, Si4+ and Ga3+ ions released into the distilled water. The additions of Ga resulted in increased roughness and decreased contact angles during cement maturation. The presence of Ga has a positive effect on the compressive strength of the samples with strengths increasing over 10 MPa at 7 days analysis compared to the 1 day results. The additions of Ga had relatively no effect on the flexural strength. Tensile testing of bovine sterna proved that the LGa samples (0.16 wt % Ga) are comparable to the Control samples. PMID:24956193

  13. Effect of Resin Cement Porosity on Retention of Glass-Fiber Posts to Root Dentin: An Experimental and Finite Element Analysis.

    PubMed

    Da Silva, Natércia Rezende; Aguiar, Grazielle Crystine Rodrigues; Rodrigues, Monise de Paula; Bicalho, Aline Aredes; Soares, Priscilla Barbosa Ferreira; Veríssimo, Crisnicaw; Soares, Carlos José

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of porosity of self-adhesive resin on the stress distribution, post retention and failure mode of fiber post cemented to human root dentin. Ten human central upper incisors with circular root canal were selected. They were sectioned with 15 mm and were endodontically filled. The roots were scanned using micro-CT after post space preparation for root filling remaining evaluation. Fiber posts were cemented using self-adhesive resin cement (Rely X U200, 3M-ESPE). Two 1-mm-thick slices from the cervical, medium and apical thirds were scanned for resin cement bubbles volume measurements and submitted to a push-out test (PBS). Three operators using stereomicroscopy and confocal laser microscopy classified the failure mode. Stress distributions during the push-out test were analyzed using 3D finite element analysis. PBS values (MPa) were submitted to one-way ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc tests and the failure modes using the Kappa coefficient to assess inter-operator agreement. Chi-square test was used to determine significant differences between the methods ( = 0.05). Push-out bond strength was significantly affected by the bubbles presence in all root depth (p<0.05). The stress concentration was higher when the bubbles were present. Adhesive dentin/resin cement interface failure was the most frequent type of failure. Confocal microscopy was better than stereomicroscopy for failure analysis. Bubbles generated during resin cement insertion into the root canal negatively affect the stress distribution and the bond strength. The use of confocal microscopy is recommended for failure analysis. PMID:26963208

  14. The periodontal – endodontic continuum: A review

    PubMed Central

    Sunitha V, Raja; Emmadi, Pamela; Namasivayam, Ambalavanan; Thyegarajan, Ramakrishnan; Rajaraman, Vijayalakshmi

    2008-01-01

    Periodontal therapy deals with many aspects of the supporting structures, including the prevention and repair of lesions of the gingival sulcus. Endodontics deals primarily with disease of the pulp and periapical tissues. The success of both periodontal and endodontic therapy depends on the elimination of both disease processes, whether they exist separately or as a combined lesion. The relationship between periodontal and endodontic disease has been a subject of speculation for many years. This paper aims at presenting a comprehensive review of several aspects of perio-endo lesions. PMID:20142886

  15. Biomimetic endodontics: the final evolution?

    PubMed

    Clark, David J

    2007-07-01

    We are seeing a gradual evolution by a small but growing number of endodontists and general dentists toward delicate biomimetic, microscope-based shaping. This old-fashioned respect for periradicular dentin is paired with microscopes, ultrasonics, and an appreciation for root morphology. Although no 2 roots are the same, general anatomic patterns allow the microscope-equipped clinician to search for major pulpal regions that will yield a high probability of cleaning and shaping the clinically available pulpal zones. There are complex, anatomically improbable, and clinically impossible areas of pulp that are beyond the reach of even the most gifted hands. Regardless, the clinician has the responsibility to begin each procedure seeking perfection and joyfully finishing with excellence. The shapes that were introduced during the Schilder (crown-down) era have served as a transitional technique to allow the first real 3-dimensional compaction of gutta-percha. Nonetheless, endodontics is in the end a restoratively driven procedure. Large, arbitrary, round shapes create beautiful endodontics but can dramatically weaken the tooth. The shaping philosophy advanced in this treatise allows perfectly adequate shapes to achieve the hydraulics needed for modern obturation. It will require different skills and materials to shape, pack, and restore the exotic architecture of nature. (See Tables 1 to 3.). PMID:17708316

  16. The Factors Responsible for Endodontic Treatment Failure in the Permanent Dentitions of the Patients Reported to the College of Dentistry, the University of Aljouf, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The endodontic failure is a common problem in dentistry. The success of endodontic and re-endodontic treatment depends on many factors. These includes periodontal disease, root fractures, residual necrotic pulp tissue, presence of peri-radicular infection, broken instruments, mechanical perforations, root canal underfillings, root canal overfillings, missed canals or unfilled canals. Aim The present research was aimed at evaluating the different factors responsible for endodontic treatment failure in permanent dentitions of the patients. Materials and Methods In the present in vivo cross-sectional study, 90 patients, who reported in endodontic section of Department of Conservative Dentistry, with post endodontic treatment pain, tenderness to percussion, swelling and sinus tract in their permanent dentitions were considered as endodontic failure cases, and were considered for endodontic re-treatment. The teeth with vertical root fracture and badly broken down unrestorable teeth were excluded from the present study. The study subjects were divided into three groups on the basis of their age. Informed consent was taken from the study subjects and the approval was taken for this study from the college ethical committee. Results The results were obtained as frequencies and percentages after analysing the collected informations by using SPSS version 10 computer soft ware. The majority of the endodontic failures were noted in the age group III (41.11%) and minimum endodontic failures were found in the age group I (24.44%). According to the tooth type, the majority of the endodontic failures were noted in maxillary molars (44.4%), mandibular molars (20%) and maxillary premolars (15.5%). The endodontic treatment performed by the general dental practitioners (GDPs) showed the most failure rate (78.8%). The factors which were most responsible for endodontic failures were underfilled canals (33.3%), unfilled and missed canals (17.7%). Conclusion This study

  17. Stress distribution on dentin-cement-post interface varying root canal and glass fiber post diameters. A three-dimensional finite element analysis based on micro-CT data

    PubMed Central

    LAZARI, Priscilla Cardoso; de OLIVEIRA, Rodrigo Caldeira Nunes; ANCHIETA, Rodolfo Bruniera; de ALMEIDA, Erika Oliveira; FREITAS JUNIOR, Amilcar Chagas; KINA, Sidney; ROCHA, Eduardo Passos

    2013-01-01

    Objective The aim of the present study was to analyze the influence of root canal and glass fiber post diameters on the biomechanical behavior of the dentin/cement/post interface of a root-filled tooth using 3D finite element analysis. Material and Methods Six models were built using micro-CT imaging data and SolidWorks 2007 software, varying the root canal (C) and the glass fiber post (P) diameters: C1P1-C=1 mm and P=1 mm; C2P1-C=2 mm and P=1 mm; C2P2-C=2 mm and P=2 mm; C3P1-C=3 mm and P=1 mm; C3P2-C=3 mm and P=2 mm; and C3P3-C=3 mm and P=3 mm. The numerical analysis was conducted with ANSYS Workbench 10.0. An oblique force (180 N at 45º) was applied to the palatal surface of the central incisor. The periodontal ligament surface was constrained on the three axes (x=y=z=0). Maximum principal stress (σmax) values were evaluated for the root dentin, cement layer, and glass fiber post. Results: The most evident stress was observed in the glass fiber post at C3P1 (323 MPa), and the maximum stress in the cement layer occurred at C1P1 (43.2 MPa). The stress on the root dentin was almost constant in all models with a peak in tension at C2P1 (64.5 MPa). Conclusion The greatest discrepancy between root canal and post diameters is favorable for stress concentration at the post surface. The dentin remaining after the various root canal preparations did not increase the stress levels on the root. PMID:24473716

  18. [Ultrasonics in endodontics: mechanism of action].

    PubMed

    Pacheco Plaza, M C; Kessler Nieto, F; Orts Rodríguez, M T; Ruiz de Temiño Malo, P

    1989-01-01

    The present study, first of three dwelling with ultrasonics in endodontic therapy, is a review of the literature about mechanisms involved and appliance of some of the sonic and ultrasonic system. PMID:2700391

  19. Fracture resistance of endodontically treated single rooted premolars restored with Sharonlay: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Sharath Chandra, S. M.; Agrawal, Nishtha; Sujatha, I.; Sivaji, K.

    2016-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this study is to compare in vitro the fracture resistance of the endodontically treated tooth restored with a novel design Sharonlay, with the two component restorative method, i.e., post with separate onlay, and onlay without post. Subjects and Methods: 45 single-rooted mandibular second premolars were taken, and root canal treatment was performed. Teeth were then randomly divided into three groups (n = 15) based on the type of restoration given: Group I - metal onlay with cast post extension (Sharonlay), Group II - metal onlay with prefabricated metal post (Mani post system), Group III - metal onlay over endodontically treated tooth obturated with Gutta-percha (control group). Fracture resistance was checked using the Instron universal testing machine and the fracture patterns were analyzed. Results: According to the values recorded, Group I showed maximum mean fracture resistance followed by Groups II and III. Statistically significant difference was found between Groups I and II and Groups I and III and statistically significant difference was found between Groups II and III. Conclusion: A single unit component Sharonlay, gives higher fracture resistance to a premolar as compared to (a) metal onlay with prefabricated metal post and (b) metal onlay over endodontically treated tooth. PMID:27217643

  20. Trends in endodontic claims in Italy.

    PubMed

    Pinchi, Vilma; Pradella, Francesco; Gasparetto, Laura; Norelli, Gian-Aristide

    2013-02-01

    According to the scant data available in the literature, endodontic claims are common among dental professional liability cases and the second most common type of claim. This study aimed to describe the characteristics of endodontic claims in Italy and the most frequently disputed errors, and the discussion below includes consideration of ethical and medico-legal aspects thereof. We retrospectively analysed 120 technical reports written on cases of professional malpractice in endodontics in the last 5 years. The complainant patients were males in 22.5% of the cases, while females made up the remaining 77.5%. In the dentist sample, male operators were more often involved in litigation cases (80%) than female operators. The most frequently claimed technical errors were: lack of a complete filling of root canal/s (71.7%), the perforation of tooth structure (12.7%), extrusion of sealing materials beyond the apex of the tooth (9.6%) and the fracture of an endodontic instrument (5.9%). In 1.7% of cases it was found that the expert did not make any errors performing the endodontic therapy. In only very few cases (2.7%) no therapy was considered necessary, while the most common therapeutic solution involved in endodontic misconduct was tooth extraction (53.0%). In many cases the dentist preferred to extract the endodontically undertreated tooth and substitute it prosthetically rather than trying to re-treat it. The discrepancy between the total number of cases examined and those that eventually go to court leads us to believe that the majority of endodontic malpractice cases are resolved in out-of-court settlements. PMID:23410021

  1. Cone beam computed tomography evaluation and endodontic management of permanent mandibular second molar with four roots: A rare case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Rajasekhara, Subhashini; Sharath Chandra, SM; Parthasarathy, Late Bharath

    2014-01-01

    The morphological variation in the number of roots and root canals, especially in multi-rooted teeth is a constant challenge for diagnosis and successful endodontic therapy. Knowledge of the most common anatomic characteristics and their possible variations is fundamental. Although, endodontic management of four-rooted mandibular first molars have been observed on a few occasions in the literature, to the best of our knowledge four-rooted mandibular second molars having two mesial and two distal roots have not been reported. This paper highlights endodontic management of mandibular second molar with four roots (two mesial and two distal) with one canal in each root and its cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) evaluation which was primarily done for post treatment assessment for diagnosing post-endodontic complications, at the same time confirmed our radiographic diagnosis of this variation. This also helped us portraying the anatomy of this rare variation. PMID:25125856

  2. Chloroform in the endodontic operatory

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, M.N.; Vire, D.E. )

    1992-06-01

    This article reviews the role chloroform has played in dentistry and describes an occupational health clinical investigation into the possible hazards of chloroform use in the operatory. Due to a Food and Drug Administration ban on drugs and cosmetics containing chloroform, there has been some confusion as to whether the use of chloroform in the practice of dentistry is considered unsafe or has been prohibited. Utilizing common endodontic treatment methods employing chloroform, this study reports no negative health effects to the dentist or assistant and air vapor levels well below Occupational Health and Safety Administration mandated maximum levels. The report concludes that, with careful and controlled use, chloroform can be a useful adjunct in the practice of dentistry. The Food and Drug Administration has no jurisdiction over a dentist's use of chloroform in clinical practice and has not proven that chloroform is a human carcinogen.

  3. On implementation of an endodontic program.

    PubMed

    Koch, Margaretha

    2013-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the uptake of research findings by practitioners is unpredictable, yet until they are adopted, advances in technology and clinical research cannot improve health outcomes in patients. Despite extensive research there is limited knowledge of the processes by which changes occur and ways of measuring the effectiveness of change of practice. The overall aim of this thesis was to investigate aspects of an educational intervention in clinical endodontic routines and new instrumentation techniques in a Swedish County Public Dental Service. Special reference was made to the establishment of changed behaviour in practice, the process of change, and the clinical effects. Although a high level of competence in root canal treatment procedures is required in general dental practice, a number of Swedish studies have revealed inadequate root-fillings quality and associated periapical inflammation in general populations. It is suggested that the adoption of the nickel-titanium rotary instrumentation (NiTiR) technique would improve the cleaning and shaping of root canals and the quality of the root-filling. However, there is limited knowledge of the effectiveness of the technique when applied in general dental practice. In two of four consecutive studies, the subjects were employees of a county Public Dental Service. The aim was to investigate the rate of adoption of clinical routines and the NiTiR technique: the output, and the qualitative meaning of successful change in clinical practice. In the other two studies the aim was to investigate treatment effect and the cost-effectiveness of root canal treatment in a general population: the outcome. Four hundred employees (dentists, dental assistants, administrative assistants and clinical managers) of a Swedish County Public Dental Service were mandatorily enrolled in an educational and training program over two years. Change of practice was investigated in a post-education survey. The NiTiR technique was

  4. Relationship between systemic diseases and endodontics: an online study guide.

    PubMed

    2008-05-01

    The Editorial Board of the Journal of Endodontics has developed a literature-based study guide of topical areas related to endodontics. This study guide is intended to give the reader a focused review of the essential endodontic literature and does not cite all possible articles related to each topic. Although citing all articles would be comprehensive, it would defeat the idea of a study guide. This section will cover the relationship between systemic diseases and endodontics. PMID:18457702

  5. Single-visit endodontics: an online study guide.

    PubMed

    2008-05-01

    The Editorial Board of the Journal of Endodontics has developed a literature-based study guide of topical areas related to endodontics. This study guide is intended to give the reader a focused review of the essential endodontic literature and does not cite all possible articles related to each topic. Although citing all articles would be comprehensive, it would defeat the idea of a study guide. This section will cover single visit endodontics. PMID:18457689

  6. 21 CFR 872.3890 - Endodontic stabilizing splint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Endodontic stabilizing splint. 872.3890 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3890 Endodontic stabilizing splint. (a) Identification. An endodontic stabilizing splint is a device made of a material, such as titanium, intended to...

  7. 21 CFR 872.3890 - Endodontic stabilizing splint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Endodontic stabilizing splint. 872.3890 Section 872.3890 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3890 Endodontic stabilizing splint. (a) Identification. An endodontic stabilizing...

  8. Manual versus mechanical endodontic glidepath.

    PubMed

    West, John

    2011-01-01

    This article, the second in a series of 3 articles on the endodontic Glidepath beginning with the September 2010 issue of Dentistry Today (archived articles can be found at dentistrytoday.com), represents an inquiry into the critical distinctions of the endodontic Glidepath. First, we reviewed the need for a confirmed and reproducible Glidepath as prerequisite to rotary or reciprocal shaping. In order to be safe, before rotary shaping, the dentist must always discover that a Glidepath already exists or that one needs to be created. Second, an emphasis was placed on a "finishing checklist" for Glidepath preparation for safe and successful rotary. The checklist is 2 parts: (1) minimum super loose No. 10 file sized k tunnel is verified; (2) the super loose No. 10 file sized tunnel must run from canal orifice through the canal PT to the RT. In this way, patency is preserved and yet the delicate and often fragile cemental anatomy remains undamaged and unchanged, therefore meeting Schilder's fourth mechanical objective of "keeping the foramen as small as practical." Third, we discussed that the question should not be "manual versus mechanical" but rather "manual, then mechanical." Always measure the existence of a Glidepath with manual before mechanical. The key elements for improving your performance of Glidepath mastery include a clear intention of what needs to be accomplished and yet at the same time, restraint; gentleness; copious irrigation with sodium hypochlorite; curved files; randomness; discovery; expecting the unexpected and surrendering to, honoring, and respecting the delicate anatomical structure called the root canal system. After all, nature has been demonstrating how to make a Glidepath for a long time, but we have not been paying attention. We have been too heavy-handed, we have pushed, we have forced, and we have not always been good stewards of nature's fragile framework. She has been giving us and teaching us the Glidepath answer all along. Listen

  9. Regenerative endodontics--Creating new horizons.

    PubMed

    Dhillon, Harnoor; Kaushik, Mamta; Sharma, Roshni

    2016-05-01

    Trauma to the dental pulp, physical or microbiologic, can lead to inflammation of the pulp followed by necrosis. The current treatment modality for such cases is non-surgical root canal treatment. The damaged tissue is extirpated and the root canal system prepared. It is then obturated with an inert material such a gutta percha. In spite of advances in techniques and materials, 10%-15% of the cases may end in failure of treatment. Regenerative endodontics combines principles of endodontics, cell biology, and tissue engineering to provide an ideal treatment for inflamed and necrotic pulp. It utilizes mesenchymal stem cells, growth factors, and organ tissue culture to provide treatment. Potential treatment modalities include induction of blood clot for pulp revascularization, scaffold aided regeneration, and pulp implantation. Although in its infancy, successful treatment of damaged pulp tissue has been performed using principles of regenerative endodontics. This field is dynamic and exciting with the ability to shape the future of endodontics. This article highlights the fundamental concepts, protocol for treatment, and possible avenues for research in regenerative endodontics. PMID:26699211

  10. Current overview on challenges in regenerative endodontics

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Ramta; Jain, Aditya; Mittal, Sunandan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Regenerative endodontics provides hope of converting the non-vital tooth into vital once again. It focuses on substituting traumatized and pathological pulp with functional pulp tissue. Current regenerative procedures successfully produce root development but still fail to re-establish real pulp tissue and give unpredictable results. There are several drawbacks that need to be addressed to improve the quality and efficiency of the treatment. Aim: The aim of this review article is to discuss major priorities that ought to be dealt before applications of regenerative endodontics flourish the clinical practice. Materials and Methods: A web-based research on MEDLINE was done using filter terms Review, published in the last 10 years and Dental journals. Keywords used for research were “regenerative endodontics,” “dental stem cells,” “growth factor regeneration,” “scaffolds,” and “challenges in regeneration.” This review article screened about 150 articles and then the relevant information was compiled. Results: Inspite of the impressive growth in regenerative endodontic field, there are certain loopholes in the existing treatment protocols that might sometimes result in undesired and unpredictable outcomes. Conclusion: Considerable research and development efforts are required to improve and update existing regenerative endodontic strategies to make it an effective, safe, and biological mode to save teeth. PMID:25657518

  11. [Theory and practice of minimally invasive endodontics].

    PubMed

    Jiang, H W

    2016-08-01

    The primary goal of modern endodontic therapy is to achieve the long-term retention of a functional tooth by preventing or treating pulpitis or apical periodontitis is. The long-term retention of endodontically treated tooth is correlated with the remaining amount of tooth tissue and the quality of the restoration after root canal filling. In recent years, there has been rapid progress and development in the basic research of endodontic biology, instrument and applied materials, making treatment procedures safer, more accurate, and more efficient. Thus, minimally invasive endodontics(MIE)has received increasing attention at present. MIE aims to preserve the maximum of tooth structure during root canal therapy, and the concept covers the whole process of diagnosis and treatment of teeth. This review article focuses on describing the minimally invasive concepts and operating essentials in endodontics, from diagnosis and treatment planning to the access opening, pulp cavity finishing, root canal cleaning and shaping, 3-dimensional root canal filling and restoration after root canal treatment. PMID:27511034

  12. Undergraduate endodontic education: what are the challenges?

    PubMed

    Qualtrough, A J E

    2014-03-01

    To deliver the knowledge and skills required to equip undergraduate students for practice is a significant responsibility; graduates must be familiar with the diagnosis and treatment of pulpal and periradicular diseases and the preservation and restoration of pulpally compromised teeth. A greater understanding of the microbiological processes involved in endodontics and developments in instruments and materials have transformed our approaches to root canal treatment. Information technology has revolutionised certain aspects of education and has had an effect on endodontic teaching. Dental graduates will be expected to treat an increasingly elderly population and will enter a climate in which remuneration for root canal treatment could have a significant effect on the number of cases treated and the pattern of referral. Teachers of endodontics at the majority of dental schools are taxed by competing demands for time in packed curricula, a lack of availability of natural teeth for classroom exercise and a lack of suitable patients. The debate as to whether endodontics should be a specialist subject in its own right has rumbled on for three decades. Compared with the situation in the 1970s, there are now well defined curricula guidelines to which those involved in teaching can refer and map teaching in their schools against agreed norms. These create the potential for students to graduate with the knowledge and skills at a sound level of competence to carry out endodontic procedures and with a deeply engrained understanding of the need for continuing professional development. PMID:24651348

  13. Pregabalin in the treatment of inferior alveolar nerve paraesthesia following overfilling of endodontic sealer

    PubMed Central

    Alonso-Ezpeleta, Oscar; Martín, Pablo J.; López-López, José; Castellanos-Cosano, Lizett; Martín-González, Jenifer; Segura-Egea, Juan J.

    2014-01-01

    A case of orofacial pain and inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) paraesthesia after extrusion of endodontic sealer within the mandibular canal treated with prednisone and pregabalin is described. A 36-year-old woman underwent root canal treatment of the mandibular second right premolar tooth. Post-operative panoramic radiograph revealed the presence of radiopaque canal sealer in the mandibular canal. Damage to IAN consecutive to extrusion of endodontic sealer was diagnosed. Non-surgical management was decided, including: 1 mg/kg/day prednisone 2 times/day, once-daily regimen, and 150 mg/day pregabalin, two doses per day, monitoring the progress with periodic follow-up visits. Six weeks after the incident the signs and symptoms were gone. The complete resolution of paraesthesia and the control of pain achieved suggest that a non-surgical approach, combining prednisone and the GABA analogue pregabalin, is a good option in the management of the IAN damage subsequent to endodontic sealer extrusion. Key words:Endodontics, inferior alveolar nerve, neuropathic pain, orofacial pain, paraesthesia, pregabalin. PMID:24790724

  14. Impact of different file systems on the amount of apically extruded debris during endodontic retreatment

    PubMed Central

    Uzunoglu, Emel; Turker, Sevinc Aktemur

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The goal of present study was to determine the effect of different nickel–titanium file systems on the amount of apically extruded debris during endodontic retreatment: D-RaCe retreatment systems, EdgeFile XR retreatment rotary files, and Reciproc R40. Materials and Methods: Thirty-six single-rooted prepared mandibular premolar teeth were filled with Gutta-percha and AH Plus sealer. The teeth were then randomly assigned into three groups (n = 12) for retreatment. The endodontic retreatment was performed as follows: D-RaCe, EdgeFile XR, Reciproc 40. Debris extruded apically during the retreatment was collected into preweighed Eppendorf tubes. An incubator was used to store tubes at 70° C for 5 days. The initial weight was subtracted from final weight of the Eppendorf tubes to calculate the weight of the dry extruded debris for each group. The data obtained were evaluated using Welch analysis of variance and Games-Howell post-hoc tests (P < 0.05). Results: All files resulted in apical extrusion of debris. Reciproc caused significantly less debris extrusion compared to D-RaCe and EdgeFile XR (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The findings revealed that during endodontic retreatment, number, and taper of files might have an influence on the amount of apically extruded debris during endodontic retreatment. PMID:27095898

  15. Effect of surface treatments on the flexural properties and adhesion of glass fiber-reinforced composite post to self-adhesive luting agent and radicular dentin.

    PubMed

    Elnaghy, Amr M; Elsaka, Shaymaa E

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of different surface treatments on the flexural properties and adhesion of glass fiber post to self-adhesive luting agent and radicular dentin. Seventy-five single-rooted human teeth were prepared to receive a glass fiber post (Reblida). The posts were divided into five groups according to the surface treatment: Gr C (control; no treatment), Gr S (silanization for 60 s), Gr AP (airborne-particle abrasion), Gr HF (etching with 9 % hydrofluoric acid for 1 min), and Gr M10 (etching with CH2Cl2 for 10 min). Dual-cure self-adhesive luting agent (Rely X Unicem) was applied to each group for testing the adhesion using micropush-out test. Failure types were examined with stereomicroscope and surface morphology of the posts was characterized using a scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Flexural properties of posts were assessed using a three-point bending test. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey's HSD test. Statistical significance was set at the 0.05 probability level. Groups treated with M10 showed significantly higher bond strength than those obtained with other surface treatments (P < 0.05). In general, improvements in bond strength (MPa) were found in the following order: M10 > C > S > AP > HF. Most failure modes were adhesive type of failures between dentin and luting agent (48.2%). SEM analysis revealed that the fiber post surfaces were modified after surface treatments. The surface treatments did not compromise the flexural properties of fiber posts. Application of M10 to the fiber post surfaces enhanced the adhesion to self-adhesive luting agent and radicular dentin. PMID:25424595

  16. Fracture resistance of upper central incisors restored with different posts and cores

    PubMed Central

    Rezaei Dastjerdi, Maryam; Amirian Chaijan, Kamran

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine and compare the fracture resistance of endodontically treated maxillary central incisors restored with different posts and cores. Materials and Methods Forty-eight upper central incisors were randomly divided into four groups: cast post and core (group 1), fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) post and composite core (group 2), composite post and core (group 3), and controls (group 4). Mesio-distal and bucco-lingual dimensions at 7 and 14 mm from the apex were compared to ensure standardization among the groups. Twelve teeth were prepared for crown restoration (group 4). Teeth in other groups were endodontically treated, decoronated at 14 mm from the apex, and prepared for posts and cores. Resin-based materials were used for cementation in groups 1 and 2. In group 3, composite was used directly to fill the post space and for core build-up. All samples were restored by standard metal crowns using glass ionomer cement, mounted at 135° vertical angle, subjected to thermomechanical aging, and then fractured using a universal testing machine. Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests were used to analyze the data. Results Fracture resistance of the groups was as follows: Control (group 4) > cast post and core (group 1) > fiber post and composite core (group 2) > composite post and core (group 3). All samples in groups 2 and 3 fractured in restorable patterns, whereas most (58%) in group 1 were non-restorable. Conclusions Within the limitations of this study, FRC posts showed acceptable fracture resistance with favorable fracture patterns for reconstruction of upper central incisors. PMID:26295027

  17. CBCT Use in Endodontic Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Beach, David A

    2016-02-01

    Endodontic diagnosis and treatment planning has taken a giant leap forward due to introduction of CBCT in dentistry. While conventional 2-D radiographs remain the most cost-effective and routine method to evaluate a patient’s dentition, their diagnostic potential is limited. The 3-D manipulation of images that CBCT offers provides better insight into diagnostic dilemmas and complicate treatment decisions. Despite the advantages of CBCT imaging, it should be used complimentary to 2-D radiography, not as a replacement. The principle of ALARA (in which patients should be exposed to radiation “as low as reasonably achievable”), still applies to this technology. CBCT should not be used routinely in the absence of clinical signs or symptoms that necessitate a more in-depth view of a tooth and surrounding structures. In other words, if a conventional 2-D radiograph will suffice, then a CBCT pretreatment scan is not necessary. However, if more information is needed to make an accurate diagnosis, a 3-D CBCT image is justified and highly beneficial as shown through several case examples share in this article. PMID:26995838

  18. Estimated radiation risks associated with endodontic radiography.

    PubMed

    Danforth, R A; Torabinejad, M

    1990-02-01

    Endodontic patients are sometimes concerned about the risks of tumors or cataracts from radiation exposure during root canal therapy. By using established dose and risk information, we calculated the extent of these risks. The chance of getting leukemia from an endodontic x-ray survey using 90 kVp was found to be 1 in 7.69 million, the same as the risk of dying from cancer from smoking 0.94 cigarettes or from an auto accident when driving 3.7 km. Risk of thyroid gland neoplasia was 1 in 667,000 (smoking 11.6 cigarettes, driving 45 km) and risk of salivary gland neoplasia 1 in 1.35 million (smoking 5.4 cigarettes, driving 21.1 km). Use of 70 kVp radiography reduced these risks only slightly. To receive the threshold dose to eyes to produce cataract changes, a patient would have to undergo 10,900 endodontic surveys. PMID:2390963

  19. Pulsed Nd-YAG laser in endodontics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ragot-Roy, Brigitte; Severin, Claude; Maquin, Michel

    1994-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish an operative method in endodontics. The effect of a pulsed Nd:YAG laser on root canal dentin has been examined with a scanning electron microscope. Our first experimentation was to observe the impacts carried out perpendicularly to root canal surface with a 200 micrometers fiber optic in the presence of dye. Secondarily, the optical fiber was used as an endodontic instrument with black dye. The irradiation was performed after root canal preparation (15/100 file or 40/100 file) or directly into the canal. Adverse effects are observed. The results show that laser irradiation on root canal dentin surfaces induces a nonhomogeneous modified dentin layer, melted and resolidified dentin closed partially dentinal tubules. The removal of debris is not efficient enough. The laser treatment seems to be indicated only for endodontic and periapical spaces sterilization after conventional root canal preparation.

  20. Biological post

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, B. Suresh; Kumar, Senthil; Mohan Kumar, N. S.; Karunakaran, J. V.

    2015-01-01

    Anterior tooth fracture as a result of traumatic injuries, is frequently encountered in endodontic practice. Proper reconstruction of extensively damaged teeth can be achieved through the fragment reattachment procedure known as “biological restoration.” This case report refers to the esthetics and functional recovery of extensively damaged maxillary central incisor through the preparation and adhesive cementation of “biological post” in a young patient. Biological post obtained through extracted teeth from another individual–represent a low-cost option and alternative technique for the morphofunctional recovery of extensively damaged anterior teeth. PMID:26538952

  1. Periostitis ossificans managed with endodontic treatment.

    PubMed

    Kucukyilmaz, Ebru; Sener, Yagmur; Tosun, Gül; Savas, Selcuk

    2015-01-01

    Periostitis ossificans (PO) is a specific type of chronic osteomyelitis. Radiographically, it is characterized by the presence of lamellae of newly formed periosteal bone outside the cortex, giving the characteristic appearance of "onion skin." The most common cause of PO is periapical infection of the mandibular permanent first molar, which occurs primarily in children and young adults. Treatment in these cases is directed toward eliminating the source of the infection, either by extraction of the offending tooth or endodontic therapy. The purpose of this paper is to present a case of PO involving a permanent mandibular first molar managed with endodontic treatment. PMID:25909844

  2. Natural Therapeutic Options in Endodontics - A Review

    PubMed Central

    Venkateshbabu, Nagendrababu; Anand, Suresh; Abarajithan, Mohan; Sheriff, Sultan O.; Jacob, Pulikkotil S.; Sonia, Nath

    2016-01-01

    Complete eradication of microbial biofilms and elimination of the smear layer are the key factors during endodontic treatment. Various chemical irrigants have been proposed in the literature for the same. The major setback with these chemical irrigants is that they are not bio-friendly to the dental and peri-radicular tissues. In the recent years, research to use natural products for root canal disinfection has gained importance. The aim of this article is to compile various herbal products that have been used as an irrigants and intracanal medicaments in the field of Endodontics to eradicate the biofilm and remove smear layer. PMID:27386007

  3. Natural Therapeutic Options in Endodontics - A Review.

    PubMed

    Venkateshbabu, Nagendrababu; Anand, Suresh; Abarajithan, Mohan; Sheriff, Sultan O; Jacob, Pulikkotil S; Sonia, Nath

    2016-01-01

    Complete eradication of microbial biofilms and elimination of the smear layer are the key factors during endodontic treatment. Various chemical irrigants have been proposed in the literature for the same. The major setback with these chemical irrigants is that they are not bio-friendly to the dental and peri-radicular tissues. In the recent years, research to use natural products for root canal disinfection has gained importance. The aim of this article is to compile various herbal products that have been used as an irrigants and intracanal medicaments in the field of Endodontics to eradicate the biofilm and remove smear layer. PMID:27386007

  4. Antimicrobial peptide-based treatment for endodontic infections--biotechnological innovation in endodontics.

    PubMed

    Lima, Stella Maris de Freitas; de Pádua, Gabriela Martins; Sousa, Maurício Gonçalves da Costa; Freire, Mirna de Souza; Franco, Octávio Luiz; Rezende, Taia Maria Berto

    2015-01-01

    The presence/persistence of microorganisms in the pulp and periapical area corresponds to the maintenance of an exacerbated immune response that leads to the start of periradicular bone resorption and its perpetuation. In endodontic treatment, the available intracanal medications do not have all the desirable properties in the context of endodontic infection and apical periodontitis; they need to include not only strong antimicrobial performance but also an immunomodulatory and reparative activity, without host damage. In addition, there are various levels of resistance to root canal medications. Thus, antimicrobial agents that effectively eliminate resistant species in root canals could potentially improve endodontic treatment. In the emergence of new therapies, an increasing number of studies on antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have been seen over the past few years. AMPs are defense biomolecules produced in response to infection, and they have a wide spectrum of action against many oral microorganisms. There are some studies that correlate peptides and oral infections, including oral peptides, neuropeptides, and bacterial, fish, bovine and synthetic peptides. So far, there are around 120 published studies correlating endodontic microbiota with AMPs but, according to our knowledge, there are no registered patents in the American patent database. There are a considerable number of AMPs that exhibit excellent antimicrobial activity against endodontic microbiota at a small inhibitory concentration and modulate an exacerbated immune response, down-regulating bone resorption. All these reasons indicate the antimicrobial peptide-based endodontic treatment as an emerging and promising option. PMID:25447423

  5. Endodontic treatment enhances the regenerative potential of teeth with advanced periodontal disease with secondary endodontic involvement

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Eun-Young; Cho, Yunjung; Lee, Ju-Youn; Kim, Sung-Jo

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to identify a role for endodontic intervention in enhancing the regenerative potential of the periodontal ligament when combined with periodontal treatment in seriously involved teeth with a secondary endodontic component. Methods Patients who exhibited radiolucency extending to the periapical region, abnormal electric pulp testing values, and deep probing depth derived from primary periodontal disease with secondary endodontic involvement were included. Intentional root canal treatment was applied to those teeth in which the apical lesions were presumed to communicate with those of the periodontal lesion of the teeth that remained vital. In all three selected cases, regenerative periodontal therapy incorporating either bone graft or guided tissue regeneration was instituted 3 months after the endodontic intervention. Results Remarkable enhancement in radiographic density was noticeable around the affected teeth as evidenced by changes in radiopacity. There was a significant reduction in the probing pocket depth and gain in the clinical attachment level. Chewing discomfort gradually disappeared from the commencement of the combined treatment. Conclusions An intentional endodontic intervention may be a worthwhile approach for the sophisticated management of teeth suffering from serious attachment loss and alveolar bone destruction with concomitant secondary endodontic involvement. PMID:23837128

  6. Endodontic-periodontal microsurgery for combined endodontic-periodontal lesions: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Ritu; Hegde, Vivek; Siddharth, M; Hegde, Rashmi; Manchanda, Gunsha; Agarwal, Pratul

    2014-01-01

    Endodontic and periodontal microsurgery has surpassed the success rates for traditional endodontic and periodontal surgical procedures. Excellent healing results are being attributed to both the techniques, when employed, for isolated endodontic or periodontal defects. Combined endodontic-periodontal lesions have been referred to as a true challenge, requiring not only endodontic microsurgical management but also concurrent bone grafting and membrane barriers techniques. The prevention of epithelial downgrowth and regeneration of periodontal cementum, fiber, and bone seals the fate of these cases. Achieving primary closure with submergence of grafts has a positive effect on GTR outcome. New techniques of periodontal microsurgery, such as minimally invasive papilla preserving flaps with passive internal mattress suturing, have managed to obtain 90% primary flap closure over grafted sites. Root surface treatment and conditioning has also shown to be beneficial for GTR. Endodontic microsurgery for the combined lesion has not integrated these advances yet. These advances, along with a recently suggested treatment strategy, are ushering in the level next in management of the combined lesions. This article offers an overview of the combined lesion, the disease, its classification, treatment strategy, regenerative tools, microsurgical recommendations, and outcome studies. PMID:25506135

  7. A technique to salvage endodontically compromised maxillary anterior tooth.

    PubMed

    Comut, Alper; Foran, Denise; Cunningham, Ralph P

    2014-01-01

    A complication of endodontic treatment is over-preparation of the tooth structure in an attempt to access calcified pulp chambers and root canals. This could result in thin root walls that might compromise the long-term prognosis of the tooth. There are various treatment options when such a complication occurs, among them, extraction of the compromised tooth and its replacement with a dental implant. This clinical report describes a nonsurgical, multidisciplinary treatment alternative where a maxillary anterior tooth with a thinned root wall was successfully saved by repairing the damaged root to its original thickness using a composite resin material and subsequently restoring with a cast post and core and a crown. PMID:24654367

  8. Glass-silicon column

    DOEpatents

    Yu, Conrad M.

    2003-12-30

    A glass-silicon column that can operate in temperature variations between room temperature and about 450.degree. C. The glass-silicon column includes large area glass, such as a thin Corning 7740 boron-silicate glass bonded to a silicon wafer, with an electrode embedded in or mounted on glass of the column, and with a self alignment silicon post/glass hole structure. The glass/silicon components are bonded, for example be anodic bonding. In one embodiment, the column includes two outer layers of silicon each bonded to an inner layer of glass, with an electrode imbedded between the layers of glass, and with at least one self alignment hole and post arrangement. The electrode functions as a column heater, and one glass/silicon component is provided with a number of flow channels adjacent the bonded surfaces.

  9. Factors Associated with Postoperative Pain in Endodontic Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Sadaf, Durre; Ahmad, Muhammad Zubair

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess postoperative pain in endodontic therapy and its association with clinical factors such as gender, age, tooth type, pulpal diagnosis, and preoperative pain, length of obturation and sealer extrusion. Study Design: Cross-Sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Dental section of the Aga khan university hospital, Karachi, Pakistan from January to December 2009. Methodology: One hundred and forty patients (140) requiring endodontic therapy for molar and premolar teeth were included in this study. Local Anesthesia (2% Lidocain with 1:80,000 Epinephrine) was administered. The tooth was isolated with rubber dam. Access cavity was prepared with the help of round carbide No. 2 bur. Canal preparation was completed using crown-down technique. Access was sealed with sterile dry cotton pallet and restored temporarily with double layer of Glass ionomer cement and Cavit. After one week patients were recalled and access was re-opened, obturation was done using cold lateral condensation technique. Ca(OH)2 based sealer was used. Postoperative radiographs were taken. Patients were recalled after 24 hours and postobturation pain was recorded using Visual analogue scale (VAS).Data was obtained on a structured Performa. χ2 test was used for statistical analysis. Results: Pain was present in 42.9% of patients. Females more frequently experienced pain (65%) than males (35%). Preoperative pain was found to be significantly associated with postoperative pain (p value < 0.001). Obturation length was not found to be significantly associated with postoperative pain (p value 1.0). Sealer extrusion was not found to be significantly associated with postoperative (P value 0.547). PMID:25598754

  10. Genotoxicity of Endodontic Materials: A Critical Review.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Zahed; Shalavi, Sousan; Jafarzadeh, Hamid; Bhandi, Shilpa; Patil, Shankargouda

    2015-08-01

    Genotoxicity is an action on cell's genetic material which may affect its integrity. This includes certain types of radiations and also certain chemical compounds. Genotoxic materials are those with affinity to interact with DNA but render them potentially carcinogenic or mutagenic. This review will address the genotoxicity of endodontic irrigants, medicaments and sealers. PMID:26423507

  11. Clinical decision making in restorative dentistry, endodontics, and antibiotic prescription.

    PubMed

    Zadik, Yehuda; Levin, Liran

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of geographic location of graduation (Israel, Eastern Europe, Latin America) on decision making regarding management of dental caries, periapical lesions, and antibiotic prescribing routines. A questionnaire was given to ninety-eight general practitioners regarding demographic and work habits. Photographs of lesions were shown on a screen. Participants reported recommended treatment and whether they would routinely prescribe antibiotics following regular endodontic treatment, retreatment, and impacted third molar surgical extraction in healthy patients. There was a 94 percent (n=92) response rate, of which eighty-five responses were used in the data analysis. Surgical treatment of asymptomatic enamel caries lesions was not recommended by most of the subjects, and surgery was recommended for DEJ caries lesions in low or moderate caries risk patients, both without significant differences between geographic regions of dental school graduation. Israelis had a lower frequency of retreatment in asymptomatic teeth that demonstrated periapical radiolucency with post restoration (without crown) compared to Latin Americans and East Europeans. Most of the participants would not retreat asymptomatic teeth that demonstrated periapical radiolucency with post and crown. After third molar surgery, 46 percent of participants routinely prescribed antibiotics. Significantly more Latin American graduates prescribed antibiotics following endodontic treatment, retreatment, and third molar extractions (p<0.05). Overmedication (antibiotics) and overtreatment (caries) among young practitioners reflect failure of undergraduate education in proper use of antibiotics and management of the carious lesions according to the patient's clinical presentation and caries risk assessment rather than routinely undertaking surgical caries treatment. PMID:18172239

  12. Outcomes of endodontic therapy in general practice

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, Susan D.; Horowitz, Allan J.; Man, Martin; Wu, Hongyu; Foran, Denise; Vena, Donald A.; Collie, Damon; Matthews, Abigail G.; Curro, Frederick A.; Thompson, Van P.; Craig, Ronald G.

    2014-01-01

    Background The authors undertook a study involving members of a dental practice-based research network to determine the outcome and factors associated with success and failure of endodontic therapy. Methods Members in participating practices (practitioner-investigators [P-Is]) invited the enrollment of all patients seeking treatment in the practice who had undergone primary endodontic therapy and restoration in a permanent tooth three to five years previously. If a patient had more than one tooth so treated, the P-I selected as the index tooth the tooth treated earliest during the three- to five-year period. The authors excluded from the study any teeth that served as abutments for removable partial dentures or overdentures, third molars and teeth undergoing active orthodontic endodontic therapy. The primary outcome was retention of the index tooth. Secondary outcomes, in addition to extraction, that defined failure included clinical or radiographic evidence (or both) of periapical pathosis, endodontic retreatment or pain on percussion. Results P-Is in 64 network practices enrolled 1,312 patients with a mean (standard deviation) time to follow-up of 3.9 (0.6) years. During that period, 3.3 percent of the index teeth were extracted, 2.2 percent underwent retreatment, 3.6 percent had pain on percussion and 10.6 percent had periapical radiolucencies for a combined failure rate of 19.1 percent. The presence of preoperative periapical radiolucency with a diagnosis of either irreversible pulpitis or necrotic pulp was associated with failure after multivariate analysis, as were multiple canals, male sex and Hispanic/Latino ethnicity. Conclusions These results suggest that failure rates for endodontic therapy are higher than previously reported in general practices, according to results of studies based on dental insurance claims data. Clinical Implications The results of this study can help guide the practitioner in deciding the most appropriate course of therapy for

  13. SHARONLAY - A new onlay design for endodontically treated premolar.

    PubMed

    Sharath Chandra, Siddapur Mathada

    2015-01-01

    Root-canal-treated teeth are structurally compromised as a result of loss of tooth structure due to caries, iatrogenic cavity preparation, and dehydration. Given that a direct relationship exists between the amount of remaining tooth structure and the ability to resist occlusal forces, it is vital to provide a restoration allowing cuspal coverage as soon as possible following completion of the root canal treatment. A decision to provide a full crown or an onlay depends on the remaining tooth structure; if the cuspal width to length ratio is 1:2 or more, an onlay can be placed. When the ratio is less than 1:2, a full crown has to be planned. In single-rooted teeth requiring post-endodontic restoration cast post and core or a prefabricated post can provide resistance to fracture with comparable results. However, in case of premolars contradictory to the practice of providing only cuspal coverage through Onlays, it would in addition require cervical reinforcement also to counter horizontal forces acting in cervical region. A new onlay design SHARONLAY patented design with I.P. no 1956475 dated 27/04/2010 with a post extending into the radicular portion of the premolar providing the required reinforcement in a conservative manner and protecting it against both vertical and horizontal forces is proposed herewith. PMID:25829701

  14. Finite element analysis to study the effects of using CAD/CAM glass-fiber post system in a severely damaged anterior tooth.

    PubMed

    Chen, Aijie; Feng, Xiaoli; Zhang, Yanli; Liu, Ruoyu; Shao, Longquan

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the stress distribution of a severely damaged maxillary anterior tooth restored with a computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) glass-fiber post system. Twelve models were fabricated with different alveolar bone levels and cervical dentin wall thicknesses and studied using a two-dimensional finite element method. A force of 100 N was applied to the lingual surface of the crown at 45 degrees, and the maximum von Mises stress was calculated. A higher stress level was observed in the dentin than in the post and crown. With the reduction of dentin thickness, the maximum von Mises stress in the dentin increased slightly to a peak at a thickness of 1.5 mm, followed by a slight decrease at a thickness of 1.0 mm. However, the relative ratio (RR) values did not show a large difference (RR > 80%). Meanwhile, a large difference in RR values was observed with a change in bone level (RR < 80%). When using a CAD/CAM glass-fiber post system, the maximal von Mises stress was significantly affected by the bone level, rather than by the dentin thickness. Moreover, this system may be applied to the treatment of a maxillary anterior tooth with a bone level of only 2/3. PMID:26406043

  15. Retention of fiber posts to the optimally and over-prepared dowel spaces

    PubMed Central

    Othman, Hesham Ibrahim; Elshinawy, Mohamed Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE To assess the retention of glass fiber post cemented with self-adhesive resin cement into optimum and over-prepared root canals following obturation in the presence of either eugenol (EB) or calcium hydroxide (CB)-based sealers. MATERIALS AND METHODS Roots of extracted premolars were endodontically-treated in 5 groups (n = 10). Roots of Group 1 (control) were left with no obturation and then optimally prepared to receive endodontic dowels. Other root canals were obturated with gutta-percha in the presence of either eugenol-based (Groups 2 and 4) or calcium hydroxide-based (Groups 3 and 5) sealer. Dowel spaces were prepared with optimal diameter in Groups 2 and 3, one size larger in Groups 4 and 5. Standardized fiber posts were luted to the prepared spaces using self-adhesive resin cement and itsretention was then tested on an universal testing machine. Both one-way ANOVA and Tukey's HSD comparisons (α=0.05) were used to identifythe significance of inter-group retention differences. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of both optimally and over-prepared dowel spaces was also considered to figure the nature of their interior out. RESULTS The post retention was significantly higher to the non-obturated, optimally-prepared dowel spaces of Group 1 compared to the obturated, optimally-prepared ones of Groups 2 and 3. For each dowel space diameter, root canals obturated using CB of Groups 3 and 5 showed significantly higher dowel retention compared to those obturated using EB of Groups 2 and 4. Post retention to the over-prepared dowel spaces of Groups 4 and 5 was significantly higher than that recorded for the optimally-prepared ones of Groups 1-3. SEM images revealed traces of endodontic sealer and gutta-percha on the walls of the optimally-prepared dowel spaces. CONCLUSION Despite the adverse effect of endodontic sealers on the retention of fiber posts, the over-preparation of dowel spaces helps to improve the retention. PMID:23508925

  16. Use of ultrasound, color Doppler imaging and radiography to monitor periapical healing after endodontic surgery.

    PubMed

    Tikku, Aseem P; Kumar, Sunil; Loomba, Kapil; Chandra, Anil; Verma, Promila; Aggarwal, Renu

    2010-09-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of ultrasound, color Doppler imaging and conventional radiography in monitoring the post-surgical healing of periapical lesions of endodontic origin. Fifteen patients who underwent periapical surgery for endodontic pathology were randomly selected. In all patients, periapical lesions were evaluated preoperatively using ultrasound, color Doppler imaging and conventional radiography, to analyze characteristics such as size, shape and dimensions. On radiographic evaluation, dimensions were measured in the superoinferior and mesiodistal direction using image-analysis software. Ultrasound evaluation was used to measure the changes in shape and dimensions on the anteroposterior, superoinferior, and mesiodistal planes. Color Doppler imaging was used to detect the blood-flow velocity. Postoperative healing was monitored in all patients at 1 week and 6 months by using ultrasound and color Doppler imaging, together with conventional radiography. The findings were then analyzed to evaluate the effectiveness of the 3 imaging techniques. At 6 months, ultrasound and color Doppler imaging were significantly better than conventional radiography in detecting changes in the healing of hard tissue at the surgical site (P < 0.004). This study demonstrates that ultrasound and color Doppler imaging have the potential to supplement conventional radiography in monitoring the post-surgical healing of periapical lesions of endodontic origin. PMID:20881334

  17. Effect of Premedication with Indomethacin and Ibuprofen on Postoperative Endodontic Pain: A Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Mokhtari, Fatemeh; Yazdi, Kamal; Mahabadi, Amir Mohammad; Modaresi, Seyed Jalil; Hamzeheil, Zeinab

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Post-endodontic pain is one of the main problems for both patients and dentists. The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of premedication with indomethacin and ibuprofen for management of postoperative endodontic pain. Methods and Materials: In this clinical trial, mandibular molars with irreversible pulpitis were endodontically treated in 66 patients. The medicines were prepared similarly in the form of capsules containing 400 mg ibuprofen (group A), 25 mg indomethacin (group B) and placebo (group C). The patients were given one capsule 1 h before the start of treatment. Patients recorded their pain measured by a visual analogue scale (VAS) at medication time, during treatment and 8, 12 and 24 h after treatment. The data were analyzed using the chi-square, repeated measures ANOVA, paired t-test, Tamhane and Pearson correlation coefficient. Results: Ibuprofen and indomethacin significantly reduced the postoperative pain in comparison with placebo during treatment and 8 h after treatment; however, there were no significant differences between them 12 and 24 h after treatment. Conclusion: Premedication with ibuprofen and indomethacin can effectively control short term post-operative pain; the lower incidence of side effects and greater analgesic power of ibuprofen make it a superior choice. PMID:26843879

  18. Survival time of endodontically treated teeth: a 7-year retrospective clinical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldea, Bogdan; Canjau, Silvana; Popescu, Dragos; Tudor, Anca; Todea, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this retrospective clinical study was to examine the survival time of endodontically treated teeth (ETT) and the factors that may influence the failure risk, over a period of up to 7 years. The files of 67 patients that received metal free post and core restorations using a standardized technique were analyzed. The survival probability was assessed using Kaplan-Meyer analysis and Log Rank (Matel-Cox). Cox regression was used to assess the risk of failure and to identify possible covariates. The average survival time of the ETT was 6.6 Years. The cumulative failure rate was 5.82% for all type of the restored endodontically treated teeth. The main failure type was encountered in the cervical area of the teeth, and due to the extensive hard tissue loss, the teeth were extracted.

  19. Persistent endodontic infection--re-treatment or surgery?

    PubMed

    Love, Robert M

    2012-04-01

    Management of a tooth with persistent periradicular disease primarily involves management of persistent intraradicular infection. Conventional endodontic re-treatment is the main modality that will manage this condition although endodontic surgery with or without retreatment is a viable option in cases. Case selection involves an appreciation of the disease aetiology and expected outcomes and consideration of patient, tooth and clinician factors. Both conventional endodontic re-treatment and surgery have high long-term success and survival rates and it has been shown that an endodontically treated tooth with persistent periradicular pathology that can be managed by conventional endodontic re-treatment or surgery and restoration has comparable, and potentially more beneficial, outcomes to treatment options involving tooth loss and rehabilitation, such as an implant supported crown. As such endodontic retreatment should be the prime treatment modality unless a tooth has reached a stage where these techniques cannot manage ongoing disease and/or structural integrity. PMID:24783842

  20. Advances in endodontics: Potential applications in clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Kishen, Anil; Peters, Ove A.; Zehnder, Matthias; Diogenes, Anibal R.; Nair, Madhu K.

    2016-01-01

    Contemporary endodontics has seen an unprecedented advance in technology and materials. This article aimed to review some of the challenges and advances in the following sections: (1) endodontic imaging, (2) root canal preparation, (3) root canal disinfection, (4) root canal filling, and (4) regenerative endodontic procedures (REPs). Jointly, these advances are aimed at improving the state of the art and science of root canal treatment. PMID:27217630

  1. Evidenced-based review of clinical studies on endodontic diagnosis.

    PubMed

    2009-08-01

    The practice of endodontics requires excellence in diagnostic skills. The importance of this topic has been underscored by a recent 2008 AAE-sponsored symposium on endodontic diagnosis, which will be highlighted in a special issue of the Journal of Endodontics. In this minireview, we focus on recent clinical studies that emphasize different aspects related to the diagnosis of disorders of the pulp-dentin complex. PMID:19631854

  2. Advances in endodontics: Potential applications in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Kishen, Anil; Peters, Ove A; Zehnder, Matthias; Diogenes, Anibal R; Nair, Madhu K

    2016-01-01

    Contemporary endodontics has seen an unprecedented advance in technology and materials. This article aimed to review some of the challenges and advances in the following sections: (1) endodontic imaging, (2) root canal preparation, (3) root canal disinfection, (4) root canal filling, and (4) regenerative endodontic procedures (REPs). Jointly, these advances are aimed at improving the state of the art and science of root canal treatment. PMID:27217630

  3. Role of provisional restorations in endodontic therapy

    PubMed Central

    Sivakumar, Jambai Sampathkumar; Suresh Kumar, Beri Narasimiah; Shyamala, Palaniyandi Vadivel

    2013-01-01

    Root-canal treatment can be carried out in single visit in vital, non-infected teeth, eliminating the need for dressing and provisionalization. Many clinical cases with infected canals require dressing with antibacterial medicaments in a multivisit treatment in which effective provisionalization for different periods of time becomes mandatory. Successful root-canal treatment requires effective mechanical and chemical debridement, elimination of bacteria and pulp tissue remnants and proper canal shaping to facilitate effective obturation. Lack of satisfactory temporary restorations during endodontic therapy ranked second amongst the contributing factors in continuing pain after the commencement of treatment. This review aims to provide an overview of the materials used for provisionalization during and immediately after endodontic treatment. PMID:23946564

  4. [The application of laser in endodontics].

    PubMed

    He, W X; Liu, N N; Wang, X L; He, X Y

    2016-08-01

    Since laser was introduced in the field of medicine in 1970's, its application range has continuously expanded. The application of laser in endodontics also increased due to its safety and effectiveness in dental treatments. The majority of the laser application researches in dentistry focused on dentin hypersensitivity, removal of carious tissues, tooth preparations, pulp capping or pulpotomy, and root canal treatment. In this article, we reviewed literature on the effects of laser in the treatments of dental and pulp diseases. PMID:27511037

  5. Diversity of Spirochetes in Endodontic Infections ▿

    PubMed Central

    Sakamoto, Mitsuo; Siqueira, José F.; Rôças, Isabela N.; Benno, Yoshimi

    2009-01-01

    The diversity of spirochetes in primary endodontic infections of teeth with chronic apical periodontitis or acute apical abscesses was investigated using 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis. The prevalences of three common cultivable oral Treponema species were also determined using species-specific nested PCR. All detected spirochetes belonged to the genus Treponema. Overall, 28 different taxa were identified from the 431 clones sequenced: 9 cultivable and validly named species, 1 cultivable as-yet-uncharacterized strain, and 18 as-yet-uncultivated phylotypes, 17 of which were novel. The large majority of clones (94%) were from cultivable named species. The numbers of Treponema species/phylotypes per selected positive sample ranged from 2 to 12. Species-specific nested PCR detected T. denticola, T. socranskii, and T. maltophilum in 59 (66%), 33 (37%), and 26 (29%) of the 90 cases of primary endodontic infections, respectively. Clone library analysis revealed diverse Treponema species/phylotypes as part of the microbiota associated with asymptomatic and symptomatic (abscess) endodontic infections. Although several as-yet-uncultivated Treponema phylotypes were disclosed, including novel taxa, cultivable named species were more abundant and frequently detected. PMID:19261792

  6. Diversity of spirochetes in endodontic infections.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Mitsuo; Siqueira, José F; Rôças, Isabela N; Benno, Yoshimi

    2009-05-01

    The diversity of spirochetes in primary endodontic infections of teeth with chronic apical periodontitis or acute apical abscesses was investigated using 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis. The prevalences of three common cultivable oral Treponema species were also determined using species-specific nested PCR. All detected spirochetes belonged to the genus Treponema. Overall, 28 different taxa were identified from the 431 clones sequenced: 9 cultivable and validly named species, 1 cultivable as-yet-uncharacterized strain, and 18 as-yet-uncultivated phylotypes, 17 of which were novel. The large majority of clones (94%) were from cultivable named species. The numbers of Treponema species/phylotypes per selected positive sample ranged from 2 to 12. Species-specific nested PCR detected T. denticola, T. socranskii, and T. maltophilum in 59 (66%), 33 (37%), and 26 (29%) of the 90 cases of primary endodontic infections, respectively. Clone library analysis revealed diverse Treponema species/phylotypes as part of the microbiota associated with asymptomatic and symptomatic (abscess) endodontic infections. Although several as-yet-uncultivated Treponema phylotypes were disclosed, including novel taxa, cultivable named species were more abundant and frequently detected. PMID:19261792

  7. Mandibular nerve paresthesia caused by endodontic treatment.

    PubMed

    Gallas-Torreira, M Mercedes; Reboiras-López, M Dolores; García-García, Abel; Gándara-Rey, José

    2003-01-01

    The paresthesias of the inferior dental nerve consists of a complication that can occur after performing various dental procedures such as cystectomies, extraction of impacted teeth, apicoectomies, endodontic treatments, local anesthetic deposition, preprosthetic or implantologic surgery. The possible mechanisms of nervous lesions are mechanical, chemical and thermal. Mechanical injury includes compression, stretching, partial or total resection and laceration. The lesion can cause a discontinuity to the nerve with Wallerian degeneration of the distal and integrated fibers of the covering (axonotmesis) or can cause the total sectioning of the nerve (neurotmesis). Chemical trauma can be due to certain toxic components of the endodontic filling materials (paraformaldehyde, corticoids or eugenol) and irrigating solutions (sodium hypochlorite) or local anesthetics. Thermal injury is a consequence of bone overheating during the execution of surgical techniques. We present a clinical case of paresthesia of the inferior dental nerve after the introduction of a gutta-percha point in the mandibular canal during the performance of a root canal therapy of the inferior first molar. The etiology and the treatment of this endodontic complication are described. PMID:12937392

  8. Effect of etch-and-rinse and self-etching adhesive systems on hardness uniformity of resin cements after glass fiber post cementation

    PubMed Central

    Grande da Cruz, Fernanda Zander; Grande, Christiana Zander; Roderjan, Douglas Augusto; Galvão Arrais, César Augusto; Bührer Samra, Adriana Postiglione; Calixto, Abraham Lincoln

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effects of etch-and-rinse and self-etching adhesive systems on Vickers hardness (VHN) uniformity of dual-cured resin cements after fiber post cementation. Methods: Fifty glass fiber posts were cemented into bovine roots using the following cementing systems: Prime&Bond 2.1 Dual Cure and Enforce with light-activation (PBDC-LCEN); Prime&Bond 2.1 and Enforce with light-activation (PB-CLEN); Prime&Bond 2.1 Dual Cure and Enforce without light exposure (PBDC-SCEN); ED Primer and Panavia 21 (ED-SCPN); and Clearfil SE Bond and Panavia 21 (CF-SCPN). The roots were stored in distilled water for 72 h and transversely sectioned into thirds (coronal, medium, and apical). The VHN values of the resin cement layers were measured close to the post and to the dentin wall on the transversely sectioned flat surfaces. The results were analyzed by three-way repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey’s post-hoc test (pre-set alpha of 5%). Results: Most resin cements presented higher VHN values near the post than near the dentin wall. The ED-SCPN group showed the highest VHN values regardless of the root third, while the self-cured group PBDC-SCEN exhibited the lowest values. The resin cements from the light-activated groups PBDC-LCEN and PB-LCEN showed lower VHN values at the apical third than at the coronal third. The VHN values were not influenced by the root third in self-cured groups PBDC-SCEN, ED-SCPN, and ED-SCPN. Conclusion: Depending on the product, bonding agents might promote changes in hardness uniformity of resin cements after post cementation. PMID:22904652

  9. Cleaning of endodontic files, Part I: The effect of bioburden on the sterilization of endodontic files.

    PubMed

    Johnson, M A; Primack, P D; Loushine, R J; Craft, D W

    1997-01-01

    Ninety-two new endodontic files were randomly assigned to five groups with varying parameters of contamination, cleaning method, and sterilization (steam or chemical). Files were instrumented in bovine teeth to accumulate debris and a known contaminant, Bacillus stearothermophilus. Positive controls produced growth on both T-soy agar plates and in T-soy broth. Negative controls and experimental files (some with heavy debris) failed to produce growth. The results showed that there was no significant difference between contaminated files that were not cleaned before sterilization and contaminated files that were cleaned before sterilization. Bioburden present on endodontic files does not appear to affect the sterilization process. PMID:9594742

  10. An in vivo assessment of the influence of needle gauges on endodontic irrigation flow rate

    PubMed Central

    Gopikrishna, Velayutham; Sibi, Swamy; Archana, Durvasulu; Pradeep Kumar, Angabakkam Rajasekaran; Narayanan, Lakshmi

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this clinical study was to assess the influence of irrigation needle gauge on endodontic irrigation flow rates. Settings and Design: In vivo assessment. Materials and Methods: Five specialist endodontists performed intracanal irrigation procedures on 50 mesiobuccal canal of mandibular first molars using three different irrigation needle gauges. Data of time taken for irrigation was recorded by an irrigation testing system and analyzed using independent sample “T” test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test. The level of significance was set at P < 0.05. Statistical Analysis Used: The following tests were used for the statistical analysis: Independent sample “T” test, one-way ANOVA test, and post hoc multiple comparison was carried out using Tukey's honest significant difference (HSD) test using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16 for Windows. Results: The average flow rate of 26 gauge was 0.27 mLs−1, of 27 gauge was 0.19 mLs−1, and of 30 gauge was 0.09 mls−1. There was statistical significance among the gauges (P < 0.001). 26 gauge had highest flow rate when compared with other groups followed by 27 gauge and 30 gauge respectively. The operator variability for flow rate of three endodontic irrigation needle gauges (26 gauge, 27 gauge, and 30 gauge) was found to be not significant. Conclusions: Needle gauge has significant influence on endodontic irrigation flow rate. PMID:27099430

  11. Inclusion of the periodontal ligament in studies on the biomechanical behavior of fiber post-retained restorations: An in vitro study and three-dimensional finite element analysis.

    PubMed

    González-Lluch, Carmen; Rodríguez-Cervantes, Pablo-Jesús; Forner, Leopoldo; Barjau, Amaya

    2016-03-01

    Endodontically treated teeth are known to have reduced structural strength. Periodontal ligament may influence fracture resistance. The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of including the periodontal ligament in biomechanical studies about endodontically treated and restored teeth. Forty human maxillary central incisors were treated endodontically and randomly divided into four groups: non-crowned (with and without an artificial ligament) and crowned (with and without an artificial ligament) with glass-ceramic crowns. All groups received prefabricated glass-fiber posts and a composite resin core. Specimens were tested, under a flexural-compressive load, until failure occurred. The failure mode was registered for all specimens. The failure loads were recorded and analyzed using an analysis of variance test (p < 0.05). These results were compared with those predicted by a finite element model. The analysis of variance did not show significant differences between the use of crown on the failure load (p = 0.331) and the use of periodontal ligament (p = 0.185). A cohesive mode in crown appeared in crowned teeth and in core in non-crowned groups. For non-crowned teeth, adhesive failure occurred along the cement-enamel junction with a slight tendency in specimens without periodontal ligament. Furthermore, an unfavorable failure mode affects partially the root with no differences regarding non-crown specimens. In crowned teeth, the tendency was an adhesive failure along the cement-enamel junction. The model predicted a distribution of the safety factor consistent with these results. This study showed that inclusion of periodontal ligament is not particularly important on biomechanical behavior of post-retained restorations. However, we recommend its inclusion in fatigue studies. PMID:26893228

  12. 21 CFR 872.3830 - Endodontic paper point.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Endodontic paper point. 872.3830 Section 872.3830 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3830 Endodontic paper point. (a)...

  13. 21 CFR 872.3830 - Endodontic paper point.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Endodontic paper point. 872.3830 Section 872.3830 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3830 Endodontic paper point. (a)...

  14. 21 CFR 872.6730 - Endodontic dry heat sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... dry heat sterilizer shall have an approved PMA or declared completed PDP in effect before being placed... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Endodontic dry heat sterilizer. 872.6730 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6730 Endodontic dry heat...

  15. 21 CFR 872.6730 - Endodontic dry heat sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... dry heat sterilizer shall have an approved PMA or declared completed PDP in effect before being placed... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Endodontic dry heat sterilizer. 872.6730 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6730 Endodontic dry heat...

  16. 21 CFR 872.6730 - Endodontic dry heat sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... dry heat sterilizer shall have an approved PMA or declared completed PDP in effect before being placed... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Endodontic dry heat sterilizer. 872.6730 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6730 Endodontic dry heat...

  17. 21 CFR 872.3890 - Endodontic stabilizing splint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Endodontic stabilizing splint. 872.3890 Section 872.3890 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3890 Endodontic stabilizing splint....

  18. Comparison of the effectiveness of sterilizing endodontic files by 4 different methods: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Venkatasubramanian, R; Das, U M; Bhatnagar, S

    2010-01-01

    Sterilization is the best method to counter the threats of microorganisms. The purpose of sterilization in the field of health care is to prevent the spread of infectious diseases. In dentistry, it primarily relates to processing reusable instruments to prevent cross-infection. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of 4 methods of sterilizing endodontic instruments: Autoclaving, carbon dioxide laser sterilization, chemical sterilization (with glutaraldehyde) and glass-bead sterilization. The endodontic file was sterilized by 4 different methods after contaminating it with bacillus stearothermophillus and then checked for sterility by incubating after putting it in test tubes containing thioglycollate medium. The study showed that the files sterilized by autoclave and lasers were completely sterile. Those sterilized by glass bead were 90% sterile and those with glutaraldehyde were 80% sterile. The study concluded that autoclave or laser could be used as a method of sterilization in clinical practice and in advanced clinics; laser can be used also as a chair side method of sterilization. PMID:20215664

  19. Influence of the Cement Film Thickness on the Push-Out Bond Strength of Glass Fiber Posts Cemented in Human Root Canals

    PubMed Central

    Prado, Natália Araújo Silva; Ferreira, Reinaldo de Souza; Maurício, Marcos Henrique de Pinho; Paciornik, Sidnei; de Miranda, Mauro Sayão

    2016-01-01

    The present study evaluated the influence of the cement film thickness on the push-out bond strength of glass fiber posts in the cervical, medium, and apical thirds of root canal spaces. Thirty roots were randomly divided into three groups, according to the fiber post system's drills: (G1) #2; (G2) #3; (G3) #4. The posts were cemented using a self-adhesive cement, and a small amount of powdered Rhodamine B was used as a stain. Images of both sides of each slice were obtained before and after the push-out test. To determine the cement thickness, a macro routine was developed using the software KS 400. The data were analyzed statistically using Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's test. G2 (14.62 ± 5.15 MPa) showed statistically higher bond strength values than G1 (10.04 ± 5.13 MPa) and G3 (7.68 ± 6.14 MPa). All groups presented higher bond strength values in the apical third. The bur diameter significantly influenced the results of the shear bond strength for the push-out test. The slight increase in the cement thickness allowed an increase in the values of shear bond strength when compared to very thin or very thick cement films. PMID:27143971

  20. The effect of different adhesive system applications on push-out bond strengths of glass fiber posts

    PubMed Central

    Deniz Arısu, Hacer; Üçtaşlı, Mine Betül; Okay, Tufan Can

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE Over the past years, the adhesion of fiber posts luted with simplified adhesive systems has been a matter of great interest. The aim of this study was to assess the post retentive potential of a self-adhesive resin cement using different adhesive systems to compare the push-out bond strengths of fiber posts. MATERIALS AND METHODS The post spaces of 56 mandibular premolar roots were prepared and divided into 4 experimental groups and further divided into 2 subgroups according to testing time (n=7). The fiber posts (Rely X Fiber Post) were luted with a self-adhesive resin cement (RelyX Unicem) and one of the following adhesive systems: no adhesive, a total-etch adhesive resin (Single Bond), a two-step self-etch adhesive resin (Clearfil SE Bond) and a one-step self-etch adhesive resin (Clearfil S3 Bond). Each root was cut horizontally, and 1.5 mm thick six root segments were prepared. Push-out tests were performed after one week or three months (0.5 mm/min). Statistical analysis were performed with three-way ANOVA (α=.05). RESULTS Cervical root segments showed higher bond strength values than middle segments. Adhesive application increased the bond strength. For one week group, the total-etch adhesive resin Single Bond showed higher bond strength than the self-adhesive resin cement RelyX Unicem applied without adhesive resin at middle region. For 3 months group, the two-step self-etch adhesive resin Clearfil SE Bond showed the highest bond strength for both regions. Regarding the time considered, Clearfil SE Bond 3 months group showed higher bond strength values than one week group. CONCLUSION Using the adhesive resins in combination with the self-adhesive resin cement improves the bond strengths. The bond strength values of two-step self-etch adhesive resin Clearfil SE Bond improved as time passes. PMID:24049572

  1. Experimental polyethylene-hydroxyapatite carrier-based endodontic system: an in vitro study on dynamic thermomechanical properties, sealing ability, and measurements of micro-computed tomography voids.

    PubMed

    Alhashimi, Raghad A; Mannocci, Francesco; Sauro, Salvatore

    2016-06-01

    The dynamic thermomechanical properties, sealing ability, and voids formation of an experimental obturation hydroxyapatite-reinforced polyethylene (HA/PE) composite/carrier system were investigated and compared with those of a commercial system [GuttaCore (GC)]. The HA/PE system was specifically designed using a melt-extrusion process. The viscoelastic properties of HA/PE were determined using a dynamic thermomechanical analyser. Human single-rooted teeth were endodontically instrumented and obturated using HA/PE or GC systems, and then sealing ability was assessed using a fluid filtration system. In addition, micro-computed tomography (μCT) was used to quantify apparent voids within the root-canal space. The data were statistically analysed using one-way anova and post hoc tests. The HA/PE composite exhibited important modulus and damping changes with an increase of temperature. The HA/PE system was more flexible than GC as the modulus of GC appeared to be significantly higher than that of HA/PE as a result of the high positive glass transition temperature (Tg ). However, HA/PE and GC presented similar sealing abilities. In conclusion, because sealing ability and voids formation were comparable between the tested materials, the experimental HA/PE system may be considered a suitable alternative material for root-canal obturation. Moreover, HA/PE possesses specific viscoelastic behaviour and lower melting points, which may facilitate root-canal retreatments. PMID:27041355

  2. Biomechanical considerations for the restoration of endodontically treated teeth: a systematic review of the literature--Part 1. Composition and micro- and macrostructure alterations.

    PubMed

    Dietschi, Didier; Duc, Olivier; Krejci, Ivo; Sadan, Avishai

    2007-10-01

    The specific biomechanical alterations related to vitality loss or endodontic procedures are confusing issues for the practitioner and have been controversially approached from a clinical standpoint. The aim of part 1 of this literature review is to present an overview of the current knowledge about composition changes, structural alterations, and status following endodontic therapy and restorative procedures. The basic search process included a systematic review of the PubMed/Medline database between 1990 and 2005, using single or combined key words to obtain the most comprehensive list of references; a perusal of the references of the relevant sources completed the review. Only negligible alterations in tissue moisture and composition attributable to vitality loss or endodontic therapy were reported. Loss of vitality followed by proper endodontic therapy proved to affect tooth biomechanical behavior only to a limited extent. Conversely, tooth strength is reduced in proportion to coronal tissue loss, due to either caries lesion or restorative procedures. Therefore, the best current approach for restoring endodontically treated teeth seems to (1) minimize tissue sacrifice, especially in the cervical area so that a ferrule effect can be created, (2) use adhesive procedures at both radicular and coronal levels to strengthen remaining tooth structure and optimize restoration stability and retention, and (3) use post and core materials with physical properties close to those of natural dentin, because of the limitations of current adhesive procedures. PMID:17873980

  3. Endodontic re-treatment associated with the elimination of amalgam root-end filling through sinus tracts: a report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Soares, Janir Alves; Nunes, Eduardo; Silveira, Frank Ferreira; Santos, Suelleng Maria Cunha; Oliveira, Maiolino Thomaz Fonseca

    2009-08-01

    Two patients presented with complaints of recurrent drainage of purulent exudate from sinus tracts, inflammation and pain after endodontic re-treatment of the maxillary left (Case 1) and right (Case 2) lateral incisors. The periapical lesions persisted after apical curettage, apicectomy and root-end filling with silver amalgam. Radiographic examination exposed the poor quality of the endodontic treatments and the silver amalgam root-end fillings, which were associated with periapical radiolucent areas in both teeth. The sinus tract persisted after root canal cleaning and shaping, followed by a calcium hydroxide root canal dressing. The root-end fillings were periapically dislodged with endodontic K-files, and showed progressive displacement by sinus tracts up to elimination in the oral cavity. Follow ups of 42 and 65 months post procedure revealed clinical disappearance of the symptoms, sinus tracts and exudates, and radiographs revealed that the repair process of the periapical radiolucent areas was quite advanced. PMID:19703076

  4. [Determination of canal length in endodontics].

    PubMed

    Bogaerts, P; Van Nieuwenhuysen, J P

    2005-01-01

    Although the reliability of the electronic apex locator is agreed upon in the endodontic literature, the general practitioner has difficulties to integrate the device in his daily practice. The authors of this paper conclude that the apex locator should be used to confirm the information obtained from the pre-operatory radiograph (imperatively taken with the parallel technique) and they assert that the data obtained electronically have still to be interpretated. The apex locator can be considered an essential tool as long as its limitations are known. PMID:15943057

  5. Some problems encountered in endodontic radiography.

    PubMed

    Lim, K C; Teo, C S

    1986-07-01

    This retrospective survey highlights some of the problems faced by undergraduate students using the bisecting angle technique in endodontic radiography. The radiographs of maxillary incisors and premolars were observed to suffer from a greater amount of distortion than radiographs of the corresponding mandibular teeth. Further, the presence of rubber dam equipment affected the accuracy of the radiographs, and this was more apparent on the radiographs of the maxillary incisors and premolars compared to the mandibular incisors and premolars. Other problems identified included superimposition, indistinct and missed root apices. Methods to overcome these problems are suggested. PMID:3777839

  6. The sterilization of endodontic hand files.

    PubMed

    Hurtt, C A; Rossman, L E

    1996-06-01

    Several different methods of file sterilization were analyzed to determine the best method of providing complete file sterility, including the metal shaft and plastic handle. Six test groups of 15 files were studied using Bacillus stearothermophilus as the test organism. Groups were "sterilized" by glutaraldehyde immersion, steam autoclaving, and various techniques of salt sterilization. Only proper steam autoclaving reliably produced completely sterile instruments. Salt sterilization and glutaraldehyde solutions may not be adequate sterilization methods for endodontic hand files and should not be relied on to provide completely sterile instruments. PMID:8934994

  7. An innovative approach in microscopic endodontics.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Sunandan; Kumar, Tarun; Sharma, Jyotika; Mittal, Shifali

    2014-05-01

    The introduction of the dental operating microscope was a turning point in the history of dentistry. It triggered a rapid transition from the conventional world of macro-dentistry to the precise, detailed world of micro-dentistry. However, working at these higher-power magnifications brings the clinician into the realm where even slight hand movements are disruptive. Physiologic hand tremor is a problem resulting in difficulty in mouth mirror placement. Hence, in this paper, a new instrument was designed to overcome the drawback of hand tremors during microscopic endodontics. PMID:24944459

  8. 4. View showing underside of wing, looking glass aircraft. View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. View showing underside of wing, looking glass aircraft. View to north. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Aircraft, On Operational Apron covering northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  9. 3. General view showing rear of looking glass aircraft. View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. General view showing rear of looking glass aircraft. View to north. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Aircraft, On Operational Apron covering northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  10. 5. Headon view of looking glass aircraft. View to southwest. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Head-on view of looking glass aircraft. View to southwest. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Aircraft, On Operational Apron covering northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  11. Evaluation of Temperature and Stress Distribution on 2 Different Post Systems Using 3-Dimensional Finite Element Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Değer, Yalçın; Adigüzel, Özkan; Özer, Senem Yiğit; Kaya, Sadullah; Polat, Zelal Seyfioğlu; Bozyel, Bejna

    2015-01-01

    Background The mouth is exposed to thermal irritation from hot and cold food and drinks. Thermal changes in the oral cavity produce expansions and contractions in tooth structures and restorative materials. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of temperature and stress distribution on 2 different post systems using the 3-dimensional (3D) finite element method. Material/Methods The 3D finite element model shows a labio-lingual cross-sectional view of the endodontically treated upper right central incisor and supporting periodontal ligament with bone structures. Stainless steel and glass fiber post systems with different physical and thermal properties were modelled in the tooth restored with composite core and ceramic crown. We placed 100 N static vertical occlusal loading onto the center of the incisal surface of the tooth. Thermal loads of 0°C and 65°C were applied on the model for 5 s. Temperature and thermal stresses were determined on the labio-lingual section of the model at 6 different points. Results The distribution of stress, including thermal stress values, was calculated using 3D finite element analysis. The stainless steel post system produced more temperature and thermal stresses on the restorative materials, tooth structures, and posts than did the glass fiber reinforced composite posts. Conclusions Thermal changes generated stresses in the restorative materials, tooth, and supporting structures. PMID:26615495

  12. Modern endodontic surgery concepts and practice: a review.

    PubMed

    Kim, Syngcuk; Kratchman, Samuel

    2006-07-01

    Endodontic surgery has now evolved into endodontic microsurgery. By using state-of-the-art equipment, instruments and materials that match biological concepts with clinical practice, we believe that microsurgical approaches produce predictable outcomes in the healing of lesions of endodontic origin. In this review we attempted to provide the most current concepts, techniques, instruments and materials with the aim of demonstrating how far we have come. Our ultimate goal is to assertively teach the future generation of graduate students and also train our colleagues to incorporate these techniques and concepts into everyday practice. PMID:16793466

  13. Restoration of Endodontically Treated Molars Using All Ceramic Endocrowns

    PubMed Central

    Carlos, Roopak Bose; Thomas Nainan, Mohan; Pradhan, Shamina; Roshni Sharma; Benjamin, Shiny; Rose, Rajani

    2013-01-01

    Clinical success of endodontically treated posterior teeth is determined by the postendodontic restoration. Several options have been proposed to restore endodontically treated teeth. Endocrowns represent a conservative and esthetic restorative alternative to full coverage crowns. The preparation consists of a circular equigingival butt-joint margin and central retention cavity into the entire pulp chamber constructing both the crown and the core as a single unit. The case reports discussed here are moderately damaged endodontically treated molars restored using all ceramic endocrowns fabricated using two different systems, namely, CAD/CAM and pressed ceramic. PMID:24455318

  14. Endodontic instruments after torsional failure: nanoindentation test.

    PubMed

    Jamleh, Ahmed; Sadr, Alireza; Nomura, Naoyuki; Ebihara, Arata; Yahata, Yoshio; Hanawa, Takao; Tagami, Junji; Suda, Hideaki

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate effects of torsional loading on the mechanical properties of endodontic instruments using the nanoindentation technique. ProFile (PF; size 30, taper 04; Dentsply Maillefer, Switzerland) and stainless steel (SS; size 30, taper 02; Mani, Japan) instruments were subjected to torsional test. Nanoindentation was then performed adjacent to the edge of fracture (edge) and at the cutting part beside the shank (shank). Hardness and elastic modulus were measured under 100-mN force on 100 locations at each region, and compared to those obtained from the same regions on new instruments. It showed that PF and SS instruments failed at 559 ± 67 and 596 ± 73 rotation degrees and mean maximum torque of 0.90 ± 0.07 and 0.99 ± 0.05 N-cm, respectively. Hardness and elastic modulus ranged 4.8-6.7 and 118-339 GPa in SS, and 2.7-3.2 and 52-81 GPa in PF. Significant differences between torsion-fractured and new instruments in hardness and elastic modulus were detected in the SS system used. While in PF system, the edge region after torsional fracture had significantly lower hardness and elastic modulus compared to new instruments. The local hardness and modulus of elasticity of endodontic instruments adjacent to the fracture edge are significantly reduced by torsional loading. PMID:24610598

  15. Optical coherence tomography for endodontic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Soest, G.; Shemesh, H.; Wu, M.-K.; van der Sluis, L. W. M.; Wesselink, P. R.

    2008-02-01

    In root canal therapy, complications frequently arise as a result of root fracture or imperfect cleaning of fins and invaginations. To date, there is no imaging method for nondestructive in vivo evaluation of the condition of the root canal, during or after treatment. There is a clinical need for a technique to detect defects before they give rise to complications. In this study we evaluate the ability of optical coherence tomography (OCT) to image root canal walls, and its capacity to identify complicating factors in root canal treatment. While the potential of OCT to identify caries has been explored before, endodontic imaging has not been reported. We imaged extracted lower front teeth after endodontic preparation and correlated these images to histological sections. A 3D OCT pullback scan was made with an endoscopic rotating optical fiber probe inside the root canal. All oval canals, uncleaned fins, risk zones, and one perforation that were detected by histology were also imaged by OCT. As an example of an area where OCT has clinical potential, we present a study of vertical root fracture identification with OCT.

  16. Sound levels in conservative dentistry and endodontics clinic

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Arindam; Mala, Kundabala; Acharya, Shashi Rashmi

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the sound levels generated in dental clinics of conservative dentistry and endodontics. Material and Methods: A decibel-meter with digital readout was used to measure sound levels at different time intervals at the chairside and at the center of the clinic. Minimum and maximum readings during a 3 min interval were recorded. Results: In the post-graduate (PG) clinic, there was significant difference in noise levels between the chairside (66-81 dB[A]) and the center of the clinic (66-67 dB[A]) at certain times. In the under graduate (UG) clinic, noise levels with suction and either high/slow speed handpieces (67-80 dB[A]) were significantly higher than the center of clinic. Suction alone in the UG clinic (63-75 dB[A]) was significantly quieter than in the PG clinic (69-79 dB[A]). Conclusions: (1) Mean sound levels in the working clinics ranged from 63.0 dB[A] to 81.5 dB[A]. These are within the recommended range for dental equipment. (2) With suction and either low/high speed handpiece combination, the PG clinic was significantly noisier than the UG clinic at several time periods. PMID:23716962

  17. Evaluation of post-fire strength of concrete flexural members reinforced with glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) bars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, Devon S.

    Owing to their corrosion resistance and superior strength to weight ratio, there has been, over the past two decades, increased interest in the use of fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) reinforcing bars in reinforced concrete structural members. The mechanical behavior of FRP reinforcement differs from that of steel reinforcement. For example, FRP reinforcement exhibit a linear stress-strain behavior until the bar ruptures and the strength, stiffness and bond properties of FRP reinforcement are affected more adversely by elevated temperatures. All structures are subject to the risk of damage by fire and fires continue to be a significant cause of damage to structures. Many structures do not collapse after being exposed to fire. The safety of the structure for any future use is dependent on the ability to accurately estimate the post-fire load capacity of the structure. Assuming that the changes, due to fire exposure, in the mechanical behavior of the GFRP reinforcing bar and concrete, and the bond between the reinforcing bar and the concrete are understood, an analytical procedure for estimating the post-fire strength of GFRP reinforced concrete flexural elements can be developed. This thesis investigates the changes in: a) tensile properties and bond of GFRP bars; and b) the flexural behavior of GFRP reinforced concrete beams flexural after being exposed to elevated temperatures up to 400°C and cooled to ambient temperature. To this end, twelve tensile tests, twelve pullout bond tests and ten four-point beam tests were performed. The data from the tests were used to formulate analytical procedures for evaluating the post-fire strength of GFRP reinforced concrete beams. The procedure produced conservative results when compared with the experimental data. In general, the residual tensile strength and modulus of elasticity of GFRP bars decrease as the exposure temperature increases. The loss in properties is however, smaller than that observed by other researchers when

  18. Causes and management of post-treatment apical periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Siqueira, J F; Rôças, I N; Ricucci, D; Hülsmann, M

    2014-03-01

    Endodontic treatment failure is usually characterised by the presence of post-treatment apical periodontitis, which may be persistent, emergent or recurrent. The major aetiology of post-treatment disease is persistent intraradicular infection, but in some cases a secondary intraradicular infection due to coronal leakage or an extraradicular infection may be the cause of failure. Understanding the causes of endodontic treatment failure is of paramount importance for the proper management of this condition. Teeth with post-treatment apical periodontitis can be managed by either nonsurgical endodontic retreatment or periradicular surgery, both of which have very high chances of restoring the health of the periradicular tissues and maintaining the tooth function in the oral cavity. This review article focuses on the aetiological factors of post-treatment apical periodontitis and discusses the indications and basics of the procedures for optimal clinical management of this condition. PMID:24651336

  19. Ultrasonics in endodontic surgery: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    De Paolis, Gianfranco; Vincenti, Valentina; Prencipe, Matteo; Milana, Valerio; Plotino, Gianluca

    2010-04-01

    Currently, although ultrasonics (US) is used in dentistry for therapeutic and diagnostic applications as well as for cleaning of instruments before sterilization, its main use is for scaling and root planing of teeth and in root canal therapy, both for orthograde and retrograde therapy. Both in conventional and surgical treatments, US in endodontics has enhanced quality of clinical procedures and represents an important adjunct in the treatment of difficult cases. More precisely it has become increasingly more useful in applications such as gaining access to canal openings, cleaning and shaping, obturation of root canals, removal of intracanal materials and obstructions, and endodontic surgery. This review of the literature aims at presenting the numerous advantages of US in surgical endodontics and emphasizes its application in a modern-day endodontic practice. PMID:22238704

  20. Ultrasonics in endodontic surgery: a review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    De Paolis, Gianfranco; Vincenti, Valentina; Prencipe, Matteo; Milana, Valerio; Plotino, Gianluca

    2010-01-01

    Summary Currently, although ultrasonics (US) is used in dentistry for therapeutic and diagnostic applications as well as for cleaning of instruments before sterilization, its main use is for scaling and root planing of teeth and in root canal therapy, both for orthograde and retrograde therapy. Both in conventional and surgical treatments, US in endodontics has enhanced quality of clinical procedures and represents an important adjunct in the treatment of difficult cases. More precisely it has become increasingly more useful in applications such as gaining access to canal openings, cleaning and shaping, obturation of root canals, removal of intracanal materials and obstructions, and endodontic surgery. This review of the literature aims at presenting the numerous advantages of US in surgical endodontics and emphasizes its application in a modern-day endodontic practice. PMID:22238704

  1. Antimicrobial Activity of Calcium Hydroxide in Endodontics: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Shalavi, S; Yazdizadeh, M

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of endodontic therapy is to preserve the patient's natural teeth without compromising the patient's local or systemic health. Calcium hydroxide has been included in several materials and antimicrobial formulations that are used in several treatment modalities in endodontics, such as inter-appointment intracanal medicaments. The purpose of this article was to review the antimicrobial properties of calcium hydroxide in endodontics. Calcium hydroxide has a high pH (approximately 12.5-12.8) and is classified chemically as a strong base. The lethal effects of calcium hydroxide on bacterial cells are probably due to protein denaturation and damage to DNA and cytoplasmic membranes. Calcium hydroxide has a wide range of antimicrobial activity against common endodontic pathogens but is less effective against Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans. Calcium hydroxide is also a valuable anti-endotoxin agent. However, its effect on microbial biofilms is controversial. PMID:23323217

  2. Use of Cone Beam Computed Tomography in Endodontics

    PubMed Central

    Scarfe, William C.; Levin, Martin D.; Gane, David; Farman, Allan G.

    2009-01-01

    Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) is a diagnostic imaging modality that provides high-quality, accurate three-dimensional (3D) representations of the osseous elements of the maxillofacial skeleton. CBCT systems are available that provide small field of view images at low dose with sufficient spatial resolution for applications in endodontic diagnosis, treatment guidance, and posttreatment evaluation. This article provides a literature review and pictorial demonstration of CBCT as an imaging adjunct for endodontics. PMID:20379362

  3. [Overall digitalization: leading innovation of endodontics in big data era].

    PubMed

    Ling, J Q

    2016-04-01

    In big data era, digital technologies bring great challenges and opportunities to modern stomatology. The applications of digital technologies, such as cone-beam CT(CBCT), computer aided design,(CAD)and computer aided manufacture(CAM), 3D printing and digital approaches for education , provide new concepts and patterns to the treatment and study of endodontic diseases. This review provides an overview of the application and prospect of commonly used digital technologies in the development of endodontics. PMID:27117212

  4. Cone beam computed tomography in Endodontics - a review.

    PubMed

    Patel, S; Durack, C; Abella, F; Shemesh, H; Roig, M; Lemberg, K

    2015-01-01

    Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) produces undistorted three-dimensional information of the maxillofacial skeleton, including the teeth and their surrounding tissues with a lower effective radiation dose than computed tomography. The aim of this paper is to: (i) review the current literature on the applications and limitations of CBCT; (ii) make recommendations for the use of CBCT in Endodontics; (iii) highlight areas of further research of CBCT in Endodontics. PMID:24697513

  5. A Review of Antibacterial Agents in Endodontic Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Rahimi, Saeed; Janani, Maryam; Lotfi, Mehrdad; Shahi, Shahriar; Aghbali, Amirala; Vahid Pakdel, Mahdi; Salem Milani, Amin; Ghasemi, Negin

    2014-01-01

    Microorganisms play a major role in initiation and perpetuation of pulpal and periapical diseases. Therefore, elimination of the microorganisms present in the root canal system is the fundamental objective of endodontic treatment. The use of mechanical debridement, chemical irrigation or other antimicrobial protocols and intra-canal medicaments are critical to attain this goal. The aim of this article was to review the antimicrobial agents and their properties in endodontics. PMID:25031587

  6. Fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth restored with ceramic inlays and different base materials.

    PubMed

    Saridag, Serkan; Sari, Tugrul; Ozyesil, Atilla Gokhan; Ari Aydinbelge, Hale

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth restored with different base materials and mesioocclusal-distal (MOD) ceramic inlays. Fifty mandibular molars were assigned into five groups (n=10 per group). Group1 (control) comprised intact molar teeth without any treatment. Teeth in other groups were subjected to root canal treatment and restored with MOD ceramic inlays on different base materials. In Group 2, base material was zinc phosphate cement; Group 3's was glass ionomer cement; Group 4's was composite resin, and Group 5's was composite resin reinforced with fiber. Finally, a continuous occlusal load was applied until fracture occurred. Mean fracture resistance of Group 1 (3,027 N) was significantly higher than the other groups (890, 1,070, 1,670, 1,226 N respectively). Fracture resistance of Group 4 was statistically comparable with Group 5 and significantly higher than Groups 2 and 3 (p<0.05; Tukey's HSD). Use of different base materials under ceramic inlay restorations could affect the fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth. PMID:25740162

  7. Ion release and pH of a new endodontic cement, MTA and Portland cement

    PubMed Central

    Amini Ghazvini, Sara; Abdo Tabrizi, Maryam; Kobarfard, Farzad; Akbarzadeh Baghban, Alireza; Asgary, Saeed

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This in vitro study measured and compared pH and phosphate and calcium ions release of a new endodontic material (CEM cement), mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), and Portland cement (PC) using UV-visible technique, atomic absorption spectrophotometry methods, and pH meter, respectively. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Each material was placed in a plastic tube (n=10) and immersed in a glass flask containing deionized water. Half of the samples were tested for determining pH and released ions after 1h, 3h, 24h, 48h, 7d and 28d. Remaining samples (n=5), were evaluated after 28d. Data was analyzed using one way ANOVA and Tukey tests. RESULTS: Results indicated that all materials were highly alkaline and released calcium and low concentration of phosphate ions in all the time intervals. CEM cement released considerably higher concentration of phosphate during the first hour (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: This novel endodontic cement promoted alkaline pH in a similar manner to MTA and released calcium and phosphate. These conditions can stimulate the calcification process and explain the basic physico-chemical mechanisms of hard tissue regeneration of CEM cement. PMID:23940490

  8. Comparative evaluation of fracture resistance of various post systems using different luting agents under tangential loading

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Rajnish; Gupta, Swati; Tandan, Amrit; Gupta, Narendra Kumar; Dwivedi, Ravi; Aggarwal, Renu

    2013-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the fracture resistance of various post system using different luting agents under tangential loading after wet thermocycling. Material & methods Seventy freshly extracted maxillary central incisors were endodontically treated and post-spaces were prepared to receive different post system. They were assigned to 7 groups. Composite resin was used as core material in all the groups. Three type of post system: prefabricated post system (ParaPost® XP™), fibre post (ParaPost® fiber Lux™), cast nickel–chromium alloy post and two type of luting cements dual cure resin cement (ParaCem®, Whaledent) and glass ionomer cement (Fuji I, GC) were used. The specimens were thermocycled and subjected to tangential loading at a crosshead speed of 1.5 mm/min. The failure loads were recorded and data were statistically analyzed with one-way ANOVA (p < 0.05) and Student's t tests (p < 0.001). Results Significant differences of fracture resistance were detected among groups (p < 0.001). The greatest number of repairable fracture mode was recorded in fibre posts and resin cement system. Conclusions Within the limitations of this in vitro study, it can be stated that fibre posts can be recommended as a better alternative to the cast post and cores and prefabricated metallic posts in the anterior region and resin cement might give additional fracture resistance when used for post and crown cementation. PMID:25737886

  9. Application of cone beam volumetric tomography in endodontics.

    PubMed

    Tyndall, D A; Kohltfarber, H

    2012-11-01

    In a 2008 article on cone beam volumetric tomography (CBVT) and dentoalveolar applications, Tyndall and Rathore wrote: "It is in the area of endodontic applications that the literature has proved most fruitful to date." This statement is even truer today than in 2008. A review of the literature has demonstrated that, in many cases, CBVT is more efficacious than traditional forms of 2-D imaging. Endodontic applications of CBVT include the diagnosis of periapical lesions due to pulpal inflammation, identification, and localization of internal and external resorption, the detection of vertical root fractures, the visualization of accessory canals, and elucidation of the causes of non-healing endodontically treated teeth. Prior to 2008, most published articles on CBVT applications in endodontics were either case reports or in vitro studies. Since that time more well designed clinically related scholarly activity has been published. This article attempts to survey the field of CBVT applications in endodontics and provide the readers with an overview of what has been found. The authors hope that this knowledge will form a foundation for appropriate clinical decision making with specific reference to selection criteria for the endodontic applications of CBVT. PMID:23487892

  10. Application of cone beam volumetric tomography in endodontics.

    PubMed

    Tyndall, Donald A; Kohltfarber, H

    2012-03-01

    In a 2008 article on cone beam volumetric tomography (CBVT) and dentoalveolar applications, Tyndall and Rathore wrote: 'It is in the area of endodontic applications that the literature has proved most fruitful to date.' This statement is even truer today than in 2008. A review of the literature has demonstrated that, in many cases, CBVT is more efficacious than traditional forms of 2-D imaging. Endodontic applications of CBVT include the diagnosis of periapical lesions due to pulpal inflammation, identification and localization of internal and external resorption, the detection of vertical root fractures, the visualization of accessory canals, and elucidation of the causes of non-healing endodontically treated teeth. Prior to 2008, most published articles on CBVT applications in endodontics were either case reports or in vitro studies. Since that time more well designed clinically related scholarly activity has been published. This article attempts to survey the field of CBVT applications in endodontics and provide the readers with an overview of what has been found. The authors hope that this knowledge will form a foundation for appropriate clinical decision making with specific reference to selection criteria for the endodontic applications of CBVT. PMID:22376099

  11. The effect of a multimedia interactive tutorial on learning endodontic problem-solving.

    PubMed

    Plasschaert, A J; Cailleteau, J G; Verdonschot, E H

    1997-05-01

    New technology may create additional opportunities for learning in dental education. One of these new features is a multimedia approach, courseware combining sound, text, stills and video with interactive learning. A multimedia program was developed to train dental students and dental practitioners in decision making and problem solving in endodontics. This study compared the effects of the multimedia program with a more traditional approach consisting of written information, without interaction. 28, 4th-year dental students at the University of Kentucky in Lexington, KY, USA were randomly assigned to the multimedia or the text-based groups. They were given a written pre-test using 2 cases of dental pain and were instructed to study independently using either the multimedia program (group A) or the written information (group B). No restrictions were imposed on the amount of time to be invested, and the total study time was recorded for each student. 3 weeks after the pre-test, the students completed the post-test. A total of 18 students completed both the pre-test and the post-test and their scores were included in the final data. Statistical analysis of the average scores using paired t-tests revealed no significant difference between the performance of the students in either group, indicating that the multimedia approach to learning endodontic problem solving may successfully replace traditional learning strategies. PMID:9567903

  12. Current considerations concerning endodontically treated teeth: alteration of hard dental tissues and biomechanical properties following endodontic therapy.

    PubMed

    Dimitriu, Bogdan; Vârlan, Constantin; Suciu, Ioana; Vârlan, Virginia; Bodnar, Dana

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this general article is to present an overview of the current knowledge about composition and structural changes and also about specific biomechanical alterations related to vitality loss or endodontic therapy. For a long time, these issues have been controversially approached from a clinical standpoint and are therefore still confusing for many practitioners. Vitality loss or endodontic procedures seem to induce only negligible changes in hard dental tissue moisture. Physico-chemical properties of dentin can be modified by some of the endodontic chemical products used for chemo-mechanical debridement. On the other hand, tooth biomechanical behavior is affected, since tooth strength is reduced proportionally to coronal tissue loss, due to either pre-existent carious/non-carious lesions or cavity acces preparation, besides restorative procedures. The related literature shows the lack of accepted clinical standards and consensus regarding the optimal way of approaching the specific tooth biomechanics following endodontic therapy. PMID:20108492

  13. Relative efficiency of solvents used in endodontics.

    PubMed

    Hansen, M G

    1998-01-01

    A root canal model was used to test the relative efficiency of various commonly used endodontic solvents including eucalyptol, eucalyptus oil, orange oil, chloroform, and xylene to dissolve or soften gutta-percha and several different types of sealers (Proco-Sol, AH26, and Sealapex). There was no significant difference in the ability of the solvents to dissolve gutta-percha and the zinc oxide-eugenol-based sealer Proco-Sol. The resin-based sealer, AH26, was only dissolved in chloroform and took considerable time (> 30 min). The calcium hydroxide-based sealer, Sealapex, could not be tested because it was found not to set at all unless in contact with air. All of the solvents for both Proco-Sol and gutta-percha produced clinically acceptable dissolving times. PMID:9487865

  14. Regenerative Endodontics: A Road Less Travelled

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Ramta; Mittal, Sunandan; Kumar, Tarun; Kaur, Dilpreet

    2014-01-01

    Although traditional approaches like root canal therapy and apexification procedures have been successful in treating diseased or infected root canals, but these modalities fail to re-establish healthy pulp tissue in treated teeth. Regeneration-based approaches aims to offer high levels of success by replacing diseased or necrotic pulp tissues with healthy pulp tissue to revitalize teeth. The applications of regenerative approaches in dental clinics have potential to dramatically improve patients’ quality of life. This review article offers a detailed overview of present regenerative endodontic approaches aiming to revitalize teeth and also outlines the problems to be dealt before this emerging field contributes to clinical treatment protocols. It conjointly covers the basic trilogy elements of tissue engineering. PMID:25478476

  15. [Irrigants and intracanal medicaments in endodontics].

    PubMed

    Zehnder, Matthias; Lehnert, Birgit; Schönenberger, Kathrin; Waltimo, Tuomas

    2003-01-01

    Modern, biologic root canal therapy should be performed with suitable irrigating solutions and intracanal medicaments. The goal of endodontic treatment is to free the treated tooth from infection and prevent reinfection as thoroughly as possible by means which do not put the organism at risk. In this review of the literature, an evidence-based concept for irrigation and medication of root canal systems is presented. Irrigants and medicaments are discussed with respect to their antimicrobial, tissue-dissolving and endotoxin-decontaminating capacity in relation to their systemic toxicity. Recent findings pertaining to interactions of root canal medicaments and irrigating solutions and their impact on a sound irrigating and medicating concept are discussed. PMID:12956038

  16. Irrigants in non-surgical endodontic treatment.

    PubMed

    Regan, John D; Fleury, Alex A P

    2006-01-01

    This paper highlights that one of the main goals of root canal treatment is the elimination of microorganisms from the contaminated root canal system. Instrumentation alone will not allow for adequate debridement and disinfection of the complex and diverse root canal system. Chemomechanical debridement is required. The importance of the use of irrigants during non-surgical root canal treatment has frequently been neglected both during instruction of dental students and later in the clinical practice of endodontics. The article highlights 'shape, clean and fill' vs. 'clean, shape and fill' to enable chemomechanical debridement. Our protocol advises mechanical debridement and copious irrigation for a minimum of twenty minutes with 2.5% to 6% solutions of sodium hypochlorite, followed by a rinse with a 17% solution of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and a final rinse with 2% chlorhexidine. The canals are dried with high volume aspirators and sterile paper points. PMID:16989370

  17. Regenerative endodontics: a road less travelled.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Ramta; Jain, Aditya; Mittal, Sunandan; Kumar, Tarun; Kaur, Dilpreet

    2014-10-01

    Although traditional approaches like root canal therapy and apexification procedures have been successful in treating diseased or infected root canals, but these modalities fail to re-establish healthy pulp tissue in treated teeth. Regeneration-based approaches aims to offer high levels of success by replacing diseased or necrotic pulp tissues with healthy pulp tissue to revitalize teeth. The applications of regenerative approaches in dental clinics have potential to dramatically improve patients' quality of life. This review article offers a detailed overview of present regenerative endodontic approaches aiming to revitalize teeth and also outlines the problems to be dealt before this emerging field contributes to clinical treatment protocols. It conjointly covers the basic trilogy elements of tissue engineering. PMID:25478476

  18. The role of resin cement on bond strength of glass-fiber posts luted into root canals: a systematic review and meta-analysis of in vitro studies.

    PubMed

    Sarkis-Onofre, R; Skupien, J A; Cenci, M S; Moraes, R R; Pereira-Cenci, T

    2014-01-01

    Because there are several ways to cement glass-fiber posts (GFPs) into root canals, there is no consensus on the best strategy to achieve high bond strengths. A systematic review was conducted to determine if there is difference in bond strength to dentin between regular and self-adhesive resin cements and to verify the influence of several variables on the retention of GFPs. This report followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement. In vitro studies that investigated the bond strength of GFPs luted with self-adhesive and regular resin cements were selected. Searches were carried out in the PubMed and Scopus databases. No publication year or language limit was used, and the last search was done in October 2012. A global comparison was performed between self-adhesive and regular resin cements. Two subgroup analyses were performed: 1) Self-adhesive × Regular resin cement + Etch-and-rinse adhesive and 2) Self-adhesive × Regular resin cement + Self-etch adhesive. The analyses were carried out using fixed-effect and random-effects models. The results showed heterogeneity in all comparisons, and higher bond strength to dentin was identified for self-adhesive cements. Although the articles included in this meta-analysis showed high heterogeneity and high risk of bias, the in vitro literature seems to suggest that use of self-adhesive resin cement could improve the retention of GFPs into root canals. PMID:23937401

  19. INFLUENCE OF LUTING AGENTS ON TIME REQUIRED FOR CAST POST REMOVAL BY ULTRASOUND: AN IN VITRO STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Janir Alves; Brito, Manoel; Fonseca, Dimitri Ribas; Melo, Anielo Faleiro; Santos, Suelleng Maria Cunha; Sotomayor, Nadia Del Carmen Soto; Braga, Neilor Mateus Antunes; Silva, André Luis Faria e

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This in vitro study evaluated the influence of luting agents on ultrasonic vibration time for intraradicular cast post removal. Material and Methods: After endodontic treatment, 30 roots of extracted human canines were embedded in resin cylinders. The post-holes were prepared at 10 mm depth and their impressions were taken using autopolymerizing acrylic resin. After casting procedures using a nickel-chromium alloy, the posts were randomly distributed into 3 groups (n=10) according to the luting material: G1- zinc phosphate (SS White) (control group), G2 - glass ionomer cement (Vidrion C; SS White), and G3- resin cement (C&B; Bisco). In G3, the adhesive procedure was performed before post cementation. After 24 h, the cement line was removed at the post/tooth interface using a fine diamond bur, and the ST-09 tip of an Enac ultrasound unit was applied at maximum power on all surfaces surrounding the posts. The application time was recorded with a chronometer until the post was completely dislodged and data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey's test (p<0.05). Results: The roots were removed from the acrylic resin and inspected to detect cracks and/or fractures. The means for G1, G2, and G3 were 168.5, 59.5, and 285 s, respectively, with statistically significant differences among them. Two G3 posts resisted removal, one of which developed a vertical fracture line. Conclusions: Therefore, the cement type had a direct influence on the time required for ultrasonic post removal. Compared to the zinc phosphate and glass ionomer cements, the resin cement required a longer ultrasonic vibration time. PMID:19466241

  20. Coronal microleakage of 3 temporary filling materials used for endodontic treatment: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Feliz Matos, Leandro; Rodriguez, Indira De Los Santos; Gonzalez, Mally Luz Rodriguez; Pereyra, Dulce; Monzon Velez, Erick R

    2013-01-01

    Most root canal treatments are performed over multiple appointments. The temporary sealing material used between sessions must have sealing properties capable of preventing microleakage. This study assessed the degree of microleakage of temporary sealing materials according to time spent blocking the access cavity. Endodontic treatments with a standardized protocol were performed on 63 healthy, single-rooted, caries-free human teeth. The teeth were divided randomly into 5 groups. Groups 1-3 were each treated with 1 of 3 sealing materials, while Group 4 and 5 served as positive and negative controls, respectively. Data was obtained and analyzed with nonparametric tests (Kruskal-Wallis and Chi-square). Results indicated statistically significant differences between materials and the degree of microleakage (P = 0.000). All 3 sealing materials allowed microleakage within 48 hours, with glass ionomer cement demonstrating the most microleakage. PMID:24064164

  1. Analysis of glass from the post-Roman settlement Tonovcov grad (Slovenia) by PIXE-PIGE and LA-ICP-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šmit, Ž.; Milavec, T.; Fajfar, H.; Rehren, Th.; Lankton, J. W.; Gratuze, B.

    2013-09-01

    The combined PIXE-PIGE method was used for the analysis of 43 glass fragments from the archaeological site Tonovcov grad in western Slovenia, with 10 of these additionally being analysed by LA-ICP-MS. The glass objects were attributed to the Late Antique production of the 4th-7th c. AD, with two examples of early Roman glass and three glass beads, one of them presumably of oriental origin. The analysis showed typical natron-type glass, produced in the Levantine region around the river Belus, and a few examples of HIMT glass, which could be recognized also in several other recycled objects. Only one glass bead, found in Early Medieval context, was made of the ash of halophytic plants.

  2. [Desmoplastic fibroma. Differential diagnosis of a periapical lesion from endodontic failure].

    PubMed

    Zabalegui, B; Gil, J; Zabalegui, I

    1989-01-01

    Treatment of endodontically involved teeth requires accurate diagnosis of the clinical pulpal condition to determine the primary cause of pathosis. The case presented shows the differential diagnosis between a desmoplastic fibroma and a failure of a misdiagnosed endodontic treatment. The initial direction of treatment should had never been the endodontic therapy but local surgical curettage of the lesion. PMID:2638020

  3. Influence of post and resin cement on stress distribution of maxillary central incisors restored with direct resin composite.

    PubMed

    Spazzin, A O; Galafassi, D; de Meira-Júnior, A D; Braz, R; Garbin, C A

    2009-01-01

    The current study evaluated the influence of two endodontic post systems and the elastic modulus and film thickness of resin cement on stress distribution in a maxillary central incisor (MCI) restored with direct resin composite using finite element analysis (FEA). A three-dimensional model of an MCI with a coronary fracture and supporting structures was performed. A static chewing pressure of 2.16 N/mm2 was applied to two areas on the palatal surface of the composite restoration. Zirconia ceramic (ZC) and glass fiber (GF) posts were considered. The stress distribution was analyzed in the post, dentin and cement layer when ZC and GF posts were fixed to the root canals using resin cements of different elastic moduli (7.0 and 18.6 GPa) and different layer thicknesses (70 and 200 microm). The different post materials presented a significant influence on stress distribution with lesser stress concentration when using the GF post. The higher elastic modulus cement created higher stress levels within itself. The cement thicknesses did not present significant changes. PMID:19363979

  4. ANALYSIS OF ENTEROCOCCUS FAECALIS IN SAMPLES FROM TURKISH PATIENTS WITH PRIMARY ENDODONTIC INFECTIONS AND FAILED ENDODONTIC TREATMENT BY REAL-TIME PCR SYBR GREEN METHOD

    PubMed Central

    Ozbek, Selcuk M.; Ozbek, Ahmet; Erdogan, Aziz S.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The aims of this study were to investigate the presence of Enterococcus faecalis in primary endodontic infections and failed endodontic treatments using real-time PCR and to determine the statistical importance of the presence of E. faecalis in a Turkish population with endodontic infections. Material and Methods: E. faecalis was investigated from 79 microbial samples collected from patients who were treated at the Endodontic Clinic of the Dental School of Atatürk University (Erzurum, Turkey). Microbial samples were taken from 43 patients (Group 1) with failed endodontic treatments and 36 patients (Group 2) with chronic apical periodontitis (primary endodontic infections). DNA was extracted from the samples by using a QIAamp® DNA mini-kit and analyzed with real-time PCR SYBR Green. Results: E. faecalis was detected in 41 out of 79 patients, suggesting that it exists in not less than 61% of all endodontic infections when the proportion test (z= -1.645, endodontic infections in Turkish patients, and is more often associated with failed endodontic treatments than primary endodontic infections. PMID:19936510

  5. Root dentine and endodontic instrumentation: cutting edge microscopic imaging.

    PubMed

    Atmeh, Amre R; Watson, Timothy F

    2016-06-01

    Cutting of the dental hard tissues is an integral part of restorative dentistry. Cutting of the root dentine is also needed in preparation prior to endodontic treatment, with significant commercial investment for the development of flexible cutting instruments based around nickel titanium (NiTi) alloys. This paper describes the evolution of endodontic cutting instruments, both in materials used, e.g. the transition from stainless steel to NiTi, and the design of the actual instruments themselves and their method of activation-by hand or motor driven. We have been examining tooth-cutting interactions microscopically for over 25 years using a variety of microscopic techniques; in particular, video-rate confocal microscopy. This has given a unique insight into how many of the procedures that we take for granted are achieved in clinical practice, by showing microscopic video images of the cutting as it occurs within the tooth. This technology has now been extended to allow imaging of the endodontic instrument and the root canal wall for the first time. We are able to image dentine distortion and crack propagation during endodontic filing of the root canal space. We are also able to visualize the often claimed, but seldom seen action of contemporary endodontic instruments. PMID:27274802

  6. Rapid kill-novel endodontic sealer and Enterococcus faecalis.

    PubMed

    Beyth, Nurit; Kesler Shvero, Dana; Zaltsman, Nathan; Houri-Haddad, Yael; Abramovitz, Itzhak; Davidi, Michael Perez; Weiss, Ervin I

    2013-01-01

    With growing concern over bacterial resistance, the identification of new antimicrobial means is paramount. In the oral cavity microorganisms are essential to the development of periradicular diseases and are the major causative factors associated with endodontic treatment failure. As quaternary ammonium compounds have the ability to kill a wide array of bacteria through electrostatic interactions with multiple anionic targets on the bacterial surface, it is likely that they can overcome bacterial resistance. Melding these ideas, we investigated the potency of a novel endodontic sealer in limiting Enterococcus faecalis growth. We used a polyethyleneimine scaffold to synthesize nano-sized particles, optimized for incorporation into an epoxy-based endodontic sealer. The novel endodontic sealer was tested for its antimicrobial efficacy and evaluated for biocompatibility and physical eligibility. Our results show that the novel sealer foundation affixes the nanoparticles, achieving surface bactericidal properties, but at the same time impeding nanoparticle penetration into eukaryotic cells and thereby mitigating a possible toxic effect. Moreover, adequate physical properties are maintained. The nanosized quaternary amine particles interact within minutes with bacteria, triggering cell death across wide pH values. Throughout this study we demonstrate a new antibacterial perspective for endodontic sealers; a novel antibacterial, effective and safe antimicrobial means. PMID:24223159

  7. Epigenetic modulation of dental pulp stem cells: implications for regenerative endodontics.

    PubMed

    Duncan, H F; Smith, A J; Fleming, G J P; Cooper, P R

    2016-05-01

    Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) offer significant potential for use in regenerative endodontics, and therefore, identifying cellular regulators that control stem cell fate is critical to devising novel treatment strategies. Stem cell lineage commitment and differentiation are regulated by an intricate range of host and environmental factors of which epigenetic influence is considered vital. Epigenetic modification of DNA and DNA-associated histone proteins has been demonstrated to control cell phenotype and regulate the renewal and pluripotency of stem cell populations. The activities of the nuclear enzymes, histone deacetylases, are increasingly being recognized as potential targets for pharmacologically inducing stem cell differentiation and dedifferentiation. Depending on cell maturity and niche in vitro, low concentration histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) application can promote dedifferentiation of several post-natal and mouse embryonic stem cell populations and conversely increase differentiation and accelerate mineralization in DPSC populations, whilst animal studies have shown an HDACi-induced increase in stem cell marker expression during organ regeneration. Notably, both HDAC and DNA methyltransferase inhibitors have also been demonstrated to dramatically increase the reprogramming of somatic cells to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) for use in regenerative therapeutic procedures. As the regulation of cell fate will likely remain the subject of intense future research activity, this review aims to describe the current knowledge relating to stem cell epigenetic modification, focusing on the role of HDACi on alteration of DPSC phenotype, whilst presenting the potential for therapeutic application as part of regenerative endodontic regimens. PMID:26011759

  8. Management of a Large Internal Resorption Lesion with Metal Reinforced Glass Ionomer Cement

    PubMed Central

    Bhuyan, Atool Chandra; Arora, Suraj; Sethi, Kunal; Kalra, Tarun

    2014-01-01

    Mineral trioxide aggregate is the mainstay of treatment of large internal resorption defects. But its cost may be a deterrent to its use in some patients. The present case report describes the successful endodontic management of an extensive internal resorptive lesion in a mandibular molar with metal reinforced glass ionomer cement. PMID:25436156

  9. Viscosity of endodontic irrigants: Influence of temperature

    PubMed Central

    Poggio, Claudio; Ceci, Matteo; Beltrami, Riccardo; Colombo, Marco; Dagna, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to assess the influence of temperature on the viscosity of different endodontic irrigants. Materials and Methods: The measurements of viscosity of 3% hydrogen peroxide, 0.9% sodium chloride, aqueous solution of 0.2% chlorhexidine (CHX) and 0.2% cetrimide, 5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) at different temperatures (22°C, 30°C, 40°C, 50°C and 60°C) were obtained using Mohr balance and Ostwald viscometer. The Shapiro-Wilk test and Mann-Whitney U-tests were used for the statistical analysis. (α = 0.05). Results: No significant differences were recorded at each temperature among 3% hydrogen peroxide, 0.9% sodium chloride and aqueous solution of 0.2% CHX and 0.2% cetrimide. 5% NaOCl and 17% EDTA showed the higher values. Viscosity statistically decreased with increasing temperature. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, 5% NaOCl and 17% EDTA are significantly viscous at room temperature and their viscosity reduces with elevating temperature. PMID:26604955

  10. Nanoparticle-based endodontic antimicrobial photodynamic therapy

    PubMed Central

    Pagonis, Tom C.; Chen, Judy; Fontana, Carla Raquel; Devalapally, Harikrishna; Ruggiero, Karriann; Song, Xiaoqing; Foschi, Federico; Dunham, Joshua; Skobe, Ziedonis; Yamazaki, Hajime; Kent, Ralph; Tanner, Anne C.R.; Amiji, Mansoor M.; Soukos, Nikolaos S.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To study the in vitro effects of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles loaded with the photosensitizer methylene blue (MB) and light against Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212). Materials and Methods The uptake and distribution of nanoparticles in E. faecalis in suspension was investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) after incubation with PLGA complexed with colloidal gold particles for 2.5, 5 and 10 minutes. E. faecalis species were sensitized in planktonic phase and in experimentally infected root canals of human extracted teeth with MB-loaded nanoparticles for 10 minutes followed by exposure to red light at 665 nm. Results The nanoparticles were found to be concentrated mainly on the cell walls of microorganisms at all three time points. The synergism of light and MB-loaded nanoparticles led to approximately 2 and 1 log10 reduction of colony-forming units in planktonic phase and root canals, respectively. In both cases, mean log10 CFU levels were significantly lower than controls and MB-loaded nanoparticles without light. Conclusion The utilization of PLGA nanoparticles encapsulated with photoactive drugs may be a promising adjunct in antimicrobial endodontic treatment. PMID:20113801

  11. Progression of periapical cystic lesion after incomplete endodontic treatment.

    PubMed

    Huh, Jong-Ki; Yang, Dong-Kyu; Jeon, Kug-Jin; Shin, Su-Jung

    2016-05-01

    We report a case of large radicular cyst progression related to endodontic origin to emphasize proper intervention and follow-up for endodontic pathosis. A 25 yr old man presented with an endodontically treated molar with radiolucency. He denied any intervention because of a lack of discomfort. Five years later, the patient returned. The previous periapical lesion had drastically enlarged and involved two adjacent teeth. Cystic lesion removal and apicoectomy were performed on the tooth. Histopathological analysis revealed that the lesion was an inflammatory radicular cyst. The patient did not report any discomfort except for moderate swelling 3 days after the surgical procedure. Although the patient had been asymptomatic, close follow-ups are critical to determine if any periapical lesions persist after root canal treatment. PMID:27200282

  12. Historical perspectives on the evolution of surgical procedures in endodontics.

    PubMed

    Gutmann, James L; Gutmann, Marylou S

    2010-01-01

    The historical pathway to current surgical endodontic procedures and their applications has been tortuous and tumultuous. Influenced heavily in their development by the European sector, these surgical procedures faced many challenges over the decades. Fortunately for today's practitioners, influential members of the oral surgery community, and a few staunch believers in retaining devitalized teeth, persisted in their investigation of and search for improved procedures that had predictable outcomes. Many so-called "revolutionary" or newer techniques practiced today are but a re-emergence of surgical concepts that were lost in the archives of time. With the advent of evidence-based endodontics, these procedures are now supported extensively by science and by the integration of science into materials usage, technique applications and outcomes research. However, in many respects, this story is just beginning, as the "roots" of surgical endodontics are explored. PMID:20491369

  13. A century of endodontics: from Philadelphia to Boston.

    PubMed

    Millstein, Charles B

    2010-01-01

    While Dr. Grossman was in Rostock with a letter of introduction from Dr. Prinz, he visited several distinguished dentists in Berlin. One was the aged Dr. Otto Walkoff, who, with the help of a physicist while in Wurzberg, was the first dentist to capture the image of a tooth soon after the discovery of radiology by Roentgen in 1895. At his home, Dr. Walkoff passed the X-ray tube head that had taken the historic film to Dr. Grossman, who then held this treasured artifact in his hands. This transfer of culture from Germany to the United States marked the beginning of modern endodontics. Similarly, when Dr. Goldman gave Dr. Schilder his backing by sending him to study under Dr. Grossman at the University of Pennsylvania, the progress of endodontic excellence moved forward, ensuring a Century of Endodontics. PMID:20806701

  14. [Evaluation of radiation risk associated with endodontic radiography].

    PubMed

    Danforth, R A; Torabainejad, M

    1991-01-01

    Endodontic patients are sometimes concerned about the risks of tumors or cataracts from radiation exposure during root canal therapy. By using established dose and risk information, we calculated the extent of these risks. The chance of getting leukemia from an endodontic x-ray survey using 90 kVp was found to be 1 in 7.69 million, the same as the risk of dying from cancer from smoking 0.94 cigarettes or from an auto accident when driving 3.7 km. Risk of thyroid gland neoplasia was 1 in 667,000 (smoking 11.6 cigarettes, driving 45 km) and risk of salivary gland neoplasia 1 in 1.35 million (smoking 5.4 cigarettes, driving 21.1 km). Use of 70 kVp radiography reduced these risks only slightly. To receive the threshold dose to eyes to produce cataract changes, a patient would have to undergo 10,900 endodontic surveys. PMID:1782436

  15. Progression of periapical cystic lesion after incomplete endodontic treatment

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Dong-Kyu; Jeon, Kug-Jin

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of large radicular cyst progression related to endodontic origin to emphasize proper intervention and follow-up for endodontic pathosis. A 25 yr old man presented with an endodontically treated molar with radiolucency. He denied any intervention because of a lack of discomfort. Five years later, the patient returned. The previous periapical lesion had drastically enlarged and involved two adjacent teeth. Cystic lesion removal and apicoectomy were performed on the tooth. Histopathological analysis revealed that the lesion was an inflammatory radicular cyst. The patient did not report any discomfort except for moderate swelling 3 days after the surgical procedure. Although the patient had been asymptomatic, close follow-ups are critical to determine if any periapical lesions persist after root canal treatment. PMID:27200282

  16. Endodontic therapy averting major surgery and avoiding keloid formation.

    PubMed

    Marano, P D; Korkosz, J A; Rogers, E W

    1978-04-01

    Keloids and mandibular unfavorable fractures are reviewed. A case report of a patient with keloid diathesis, who had a mandibular unfavorable fracture, is presented. A grossly carious, abscessed first molar was in the line of fracture. This tooth was the only erupted tooth present in the proximal fragment. Endodontic therapy and restoration of normal contour enabled the surgeons to treat the fractured mandible by means of simple closed reduction. The endodontic treatment pre-empted a major surgical procedure under general anesthesia and also averted a skin incision which would have subsequently formed a disfiguring keloid. PMID:273853

  17. Absorbed radiation by various tissues during simulated endodontic radiography.

    PubMed

    Torabinejad, M; Danforth, R; Andrews, K; Chan, C

    1989-06-01

    The amount of absorbed radiation by various organs was determined by placing lithium fluoride thermoluminescent chip dosimeters at selected anatomical sites in and on a human-like X-ray phantom and exposing them to radiation at 70- and 90-kV X-ray peaks during simulated endodontic radiography. The mean exposure dose was determined for each anatomical site. The results show that endodontic X-ray doses received by patients are low when compared with other radiographic procedures. PMID:2592879

  18. Influence of remaining dentin wall thickness on the fracture strength of endodontically treated tooth

    PubMed Central

    Haralur, Satheesh B.; Al-Qahtani, Ali Saad; Al-Qarni, Marie Mohammed; Al-Homrany, Rami Mohammed; Aboalkhair, Ayyob Ehsan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Remaining dentin wall thickness may influence the fracture resistance of tooth. Aims: To investigate the effect of various coronal dentin wall widths on the fracture strength of root canal treated teeth. Materials and Methods: Fifty recently extracted single canal mandibular premolars were used for the study. Ten unrestored teeth were used as control (Group 1); remaining teeth were root canal treated and divided into four groups (n = 10). The Groups 2a, 2b and 3a, 3b were having 2.5 mm, 1.5 mm remaining dentin with and without post, respectively. The samples fracture resistance was tested under the universal testing machine. The data were analyzed with one-way ANOVA and post-hoc Tukey test for comparative evaluation. Results: The mean fracture strength observed in Group 1 was (29.75 Mpa) followed by Group 2a (28.97 Mpa), Group 2b (27.70 Mpa), Group 3a (23.39 Mpa), and Group 3b (16.38 Mpa). There was no statistically significant difference between control and Groups 2a and 2b with P > 0.05. The post contributed significantly for fracture resistance in Group 3a. Conclusion: The endodontic post is not required in root canal treated teeth >2.5 mm coronal dentin wall width while the post is essential for a tooth with <1.5 mm dentin wall width to improve fracture resistance. PMID:26957796

  19. Comparison of the effect of shear bond strength with silane and other three chemical presurface treatments of a glass fiber-reinforced post on adhesion with a resin-based luting agent: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Belwalkar, Vaibhavi Ramkrishna; Gade, Jaykumar; Mankar, Nikhil Purushottam

    2016-01-01

    Background: Loss of retention has been cited to be the most common cause of the failure of postretained restoration with irreversible consequences when materials with different compositions are in intimate contact at the post/adhesive interface. With this background, a study was conducted to improve the adhesion at the resin phase of fiber posts using silane and other chemical pretreatments. Materials and Methods: Hundred glass fiber-reinforced posts were tested with 4 different protocols (n = 25) using silane as a control (Group A) and other three experimental groups, namely, Group B-20% potassium permanganate, Group C-4% hydrofluoric acid, and Group D-10% hydrogen peroxide were pretreated on the postsurface followed by silanization. These specimens were bonded with dual-polymerizing resin-based luting agent, which were then loaded at the crosshead speed of 1 mm/min to record the shear bond strength at the post/adhesive interface. The data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA test for multiple group comparisons and the post hoc Bonferroni test for pairwise comparisons (P < 0.05). Results: Group B showed more influence on the shear bond strength when compared to other protocols, respectively (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Alone silanization as a surface treatment did not improve the bond strength. Combination of chemical presurface treatments followed by silanization significantly enhanced the bond strength at the post/adhesive interface. PMID:27307666

  20. Evaluation of push-out bond strength of two fiber-reinforced composite posts systems using two luting cements in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Kadam, Ajay; Pujar, Madhu; Patil, Chetan

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The concept of using a “post” for the restoration of teeth has been practiced to restore the endodontically treated tooth. Metallic posts have been commonly used, but their delirious effects have led to the development of fiber-reinforced materials that have overcome the limitations of metallic posts. The use of glass and quartz fibers was proposed as an alternative to the dark color of carbon fiber posts as far as esthetics was concerned. “Debonding” is the most common failure in fiber-reinforced composite type of posts. This study was aimed to compare the push-out bond strength of a self-adhesive dual-cured luting agent (RelyX U100) with a total etch resin luting agent (Variolink II) used to cement two different FRC posts. Materials and Methods: Eighty human maxillary anterior single-rooted teeth were decoronated, endodontically treated, post space prepared and divided into four groups (n = 20); Group I: D.T. light post (RTD) and Variolink II (Ivoclare vivadent), Group II: D.T. light post (RTD) and RelyX U100 (3M ESPE), Group III: Glassix post (Nordin) and Variolink II (Ivoclare vivadent) and Group IV: Glassix post (Nordin) and RelyX U100 (3M ESPE). Each root was sectioned to get slices of 2 ± 0.05-mm thickness. Push-out tests were performed using a triaxial loading frame. To express bond strength in megapascals (Mpa), load value recorded in Newton (N) was divided by the area of the bonded interface. After testing the push-out strengths, the samples were analyzed under a stereomicroscope. Results: The mean values of the push-out bond strength show that Group I and Group III had significantly higher values than Group II and Group IV. The most common mode of failure observed was adhesive between dentin and luting material and between post and luting material. Conclusions: The mean push-out bond strengths were higher for Groups I and III where Variolink II resin cement was used for luting the fiber post, which is based on the total etch

  1. A 22-year follow-up of an endodontic implant.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Jan; Sándor, George K; Forouzanfar, Tim; Schulten, Engelbert A J M; Oikarinen, Kyösti S

    2015-10-01

    Root fractures in the middle and apical thirds of the root are treated by repositioning and for approximately 6 weeks of immobilization while those in the cervical third are immobilized for 3 months. Even though the results are good, some root-fractured teeth are lost and replaced by dental implants or fixed partial dentures. One historic but effective treatment option for those root fractures with unfavorable crown to root ratios is an endodontic implant in middle and apical third root fractures. This method offers immediate stable fixation of a crown and its coronal root segment to the underlying alveolar bone. This report documents the long-term survival of a tooth treated with an endodontic implant. A 25-year-old male patient presented following a bicycle accident with a dislocated unfavorable root fracture in the middle third. The crown with the coronal root segment was secured to the bone using a commercially available endodontic implant. The apical part of the root was removed. Although the clinical and radiological follow-up results of the endodontic implant demonstrated a good clinical function and little bone loss, the implant ultimately had to be removed after 22 years of service due to pain and increasing mobility. PMID:25865147

  2. [Scanning electron microscope study of chemically disinfected endodontic files].

    PubMed

    Navarro, G; Mateos, M; Navarro, J L; Canalda, C

    1991-01-01

    Forty stainless steel endodontic files were observed at scanning electron microscopy after being subjected to ten disinfection cycles of 10 minutes each one, immersed in different chemical disinfectants. Corrosion was not observed on the surface of the files in circumstances that this study was made. PMID:1659857

  3. Evidence-based patient education: knowledge transfer to endodontic patients.

    PubMed

    Sorrell, John T; McNeil, Daniel W; Gochenour, Lori L; Jackson, C Russell

    2009-11-01

    Evidence-based treatment is emphasized in oral health care, but there has been less focus on empirically demonstrating the effects of patient education. Attempts to educate patients must be empirically demonstrated in order to provide evidence-based guidance to practitioners and educators. We conducted two studies that assessed information acquisition during five-minute audiovisual films on oral hygiene procedures, endodontic procedures, and fear about pain during root canal therapy. A fifteen-item Dental Knowledge Questionnaire (DKQ), with three subscales each focusing on the content of one of the films, was developed and psychometrically evaluated. Study 1 included 268 undergraduates; study 2 involved 104 endodontic patients. Participants completed the DKQ, viewed one of the three films, and repeated the questionnaire. The effects of information on knowledge were assessed using 3 (film group) X 3 (subscale of the DKQ) X 2 (time) repeated measures ANOVAs. Scores improved in a content-specific fashion relevant to the film viewed among undergraduates, F(4, 263)=211.33, p<.001, partial eta(2)=.62 and endodontic patients, F(4, 99)=87.22, p<.001, partial eta(2)=.63. The results provide evidence for using brief informational film as an efficacious method to increase patient knowledge, at least in the short term. The DKQ is proposed as a tool to assess patient knowledge in the arenas of oral hygiene and endodontics. PMID:19910479

  4. Effectiveness of an Endodontic Diagnosis Computer Simulation Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fouad, Ashraf F.; Burleson, Joseph A.

    1997-01-01

    Effectiveness of a computer simulation to teach endodontic diagnosis was assessed using three groups (n=34,32,24) of dental students. All were lectured on diagnosis, pathology, and radiographic interpretation. One group then used the simulation, another had a seminar on the same material, and the third group had no further instruction. Results…

  5. Sickle cell anemia in Brazil: personal, medical and endodontic patterns.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Shirlene Barbosa Pimentel; Tavares, Warley Luciano Fonseca; Rosa, Marco Aurélio Camargo da; Brito, Luciana Carla Neves de; Vieira, Leda Quércia; Martelli, Hercílio; Ribeiro, Antônio Paulino

    2016-05-20

    Sickle cell anemia (SCA) is the most prevalent genetic disease worldwide. Recurrent vaso-occlusive infarcts predispose SCA patients to infections, which are the primary causes of morbidly and mortality. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between SCA and endodontic diseases. Personal information, medical data (hematological indices, virologic testing, blood transfusions, medications received, splenectomy) and information on the need for endodontic treatment were obtained from SCA patients who were registered and followed up by the Fundação Hemominas, Minas Gerais, Brazil.These data were compared with the need for root canal treatment in SCA patients. One hundred eight patients comprised the studied population, and the rate of the need for endodontic therapy was 10.2%. Among the medical data, a significant difference was observed for eosinophil (p = 0.045) counts and atypical lymphocyte counts (p = 0.036) when the groups (with and without the need for endodontic treatment) were compared. Statistical relevance was observed when comparing the patients with and without the need for root canal therapy concerned eosinophil counts and atypical lymphocyte counts. The differences in statistical medical data, observed between the groups suggest that both parameters are naturally connected to the stimulation of the immune system that can occur in the presence of root canal infections and that can be harmful to SCA individuals. PMID:27223130

  6. Student Endodontic Performance with and without Numerical Requirements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Charles Q.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    A study compared dental student performance in clinical endodontics under two instructional approaches, one in which number of procedures completed by students (n=79) was measured and one (n=84 students) emphasizing total patient care and stricter accounting of clinical treatment time. Results indicated the latter group treated fewer teeth but…

  7. A systematic review of nonsurgical single-visit versus multiple-visit endodontic treatment

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Amy WY; Zhang, Chengfei; Chu, Chun-hung

    2014-01-01

    Conventional endodontic treatment used to require multiple visits, but some clinicians have suggested that single-visit treatment is superior. Single-visit endodontic treatment and multiple-visit endodontic treatment both have their advantages and disadvantages. This paper is a literature review of the research on nonsurgical single-visit versus multiple-visit endodontic treatment. The PubMed database was searched using the keywords (endodontic treatment OR endodontic therapy OR root canal treatment OR root canal therapy) AND (single-visit OR one-visit OR 1-visit). Review papers, case reports, data studies, and irrelevant reports were excluded, and 47 papers on clinical trials were reviewed. The studies generally had small sample sizes, and the endodontic procedures varied among the studies. Meta-analysis on the selected studies was performed, and the results showed that the postoperative complications of the single-visit and multiple-visit endodontic treatment were similar. Furthermore, neither single-visit endodontic treatment nor multiple-visit treatment had superior results over the other in terms of healing or success rate. Results of limited studies on disinfection of the root canals using low-energy laser photodynamic therapy is inconclusive, and further studies are necessary to show whether laser should be used in endodontic treatment. This review also found that that neither single-visit endodontic treatment nor multiple-visit treatment could guarantee the absence of postoperative pain. Since the study design of many studies displayed significant limitation and the materials and equipment used in endodontic treatment have dramatically changed in recent years, prospective randomized clinical trials are needed to further verify the postoperative pain and success rates of single-visit versus multiple-visit endodontic treatment. PMID:24855389

  8. Intraorifice sealing ability of different materials in endodontically treated teeth: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Parekh, Bandish; Irani, Rukshin S.; Sathe, Sucheta; Hegde, Vivek

    2014-01-01

    Background: Microbial contamination of the pulp space is one of the major factors associated with endodontic failure. Thus, in addition to a three dimentional apical filling a coronal seal for root canal fillings has been recommended. Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate and compare the intra-orifice sealing ability of three experimental materials after obturation of the root canal system. Materials and Methods: Fourty single rooted mandibular premolars were decoronated, cleaned, shaped and obturated. Gutta-percha was removed to the depth of 3.5 mm from the orifice with a heated plugger. Ten specimens each were sealed with Light Cure Glass Ionomer Cement (LCGIC), Flowable Composite (Tetric N-Flow), and Light Cure Glass Ionomer Cement with Flowable Composite in Sandwich Technique along with a positive control respectively and roots submerged in Rhodamine-B dye in vacuum for one week. Specimens were longitudinally sectioned and leakage measured using a 10X stereomicroscope and graded for depth of leakage. Results: According to the results of the present study LC GIC + Tetric N Flow demonstrated significantly better seal (P < 0.01) than LC GIC. However there was no statistically significant difference in leakage (P > 0.01) between Tetric N-Flow and LCGIC+Tetric N-Flow groups. Conclusion: In the current study LCGIC+Tetric N-Flow was found to be superior over other experimental materials as intra-orifice barriers. PMID:24944446

  9. Intra-radicular dentin treatments and retention of fiber posts with self-adhesive resin cements.

    PubMed

    Faria-e-Silva, André Luis; Menezes, Murilo de Sousa; Silva, Fernanda Pereira; Reis, Giselle Rodrigues dos; Moraes, Rafael Ratto de

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of treating intraradicular dentin with irrigating solutions on the retention of glass-fiber posts luted with self-adhesive resin cement. Bovine incisors were endodontically treated, and 9-mm-deep postholes were prepared. Before inserting the cement, the root canals were irrigated with various solutions: 11.5% polyacrylic acid for 30 s, 17% EDTA for 60 s, or 5% NaOCl for 60 s, respectively. Irrigation with distilled water was used in the control group. After all specimens had been rinsed with distilled water, the excess moisture was removed and the posts were luted using either BisCem (Bisco) or RelyX Unicem clicker (3M ESPE). Seven days after luting, the specimens were sectioned transversally into 1-mm-thick slices, which were submitted to push-out testing on a mechanical testing machine. Bond strength data (n = 6 per group) were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Student-Newman-Keuls' test (α = 0.05). For Unicem, EDTA showed lower bond strength than the other solutions, which had similar results. For BisCem, EDTA showed higher bond strength than the other treatments, while application of NaOCl yielded higher bond strength than polyacrylic acid whereas the control group had intermediate results. In conclusion, irrigating root canals before insertion of self-adhesive resin cements, especially EDTA, might interfere with retention of the fiber posts. PMID:23306622

  10. Effect of antioxidants on push-out bond strength of hydrogen peroxide treated glass fiber posts bonded with two types of resin cement

    PubMed Central

    Khoroushi, Maryam; Mazaheri, Hamid; Tarighi, Pardis; Samimi, Pouran

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) surface treatment of fiber posts has been reported to increase bond strength of fiber posts to resin cements. However, residual oxygen radicals might jeopardize the bonding procedure. This study examined the effect of three antioxidant agents on the bond strength of fiber posts to conventional and self-adhesive resin cements. Materials and Methods Post spaces were prepared in forty human maxillary second premolars. Posts were divided into five groups of 8 each: G1 (control), no pre-treatment; G2, 10% H2O2 pre-treatment; G3, G4 and G5. After H2O2 application, Hesperidin (HES), Sodium Ascorbate (SA) or Rosmarinic acid (RA) was applied on each group respectively. In each group four posts were cemented with Duo-Link conventional resin cement and the others with self-adhesive BisCem cement. Push-out test was performed and data were analyzed using 2-way ANOVA and tukey's post-hoc test (α = 0.05). Results There was a statistically significant interaction between the cement type and post surface treatment on push-out bond strength of fiber posts (p < 0.001, F = 16). Also it was shown that different posts' surface treatments significantly affect the push-out bond strength of fiber posts (p = 0.001). H2O2 treated posts (G2) and control posts (G1) cemented with Duo-link showed the highest (15.96 ± 5.07MPa) and lowest bond strengths (6.79 ± 3.94) respectively. Conclusions It was concluded that H2O2 surface treatment might enhance the bond strength of fiber posts cemented with conventional resin cements. The effect of antioxidants as post's surface treatment agents depends on the characteristics of resin cements used for bonding procedure. PMID:25383350

  11. Endodontic and periodontal management of a severely affected maxillary lateral incisor having combined mucosal fenestration and palatogingival groove

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Sarang; Srivastava, Dhirendra; Sood, Vishal; Yadav, Priya

    2015-01-01

    Mucosal fenestrations, wherein the tooth root apices are clinically discernible in the oral cavity subsequent to loss of overlying alveolar bone and mucosa, are rare pathologic entities. Palato gingival grooves- anatomic aberrations are also infrequent occurrences that notoriously predispose to periodontal pathologies of varying extent. Both conditions independently are known to popularly affect maxillary lateral incisors. Coexistent fenestration defect and palato gingival groove in the same tooth is extremely rare and undoubtedly is a perfect combination to precipitate severe endodontic-periodontal consequences. In this report, a 34-year-old patient presented to the dental department with complaint of esthetics in relation to exposed root of right maxillary lateral incisor. On closer inspection, a palato gingival groove in addition to fenestration defect was evident on the root surface along with a periodontal pocket of >5 mm. An interdisciplinary treatment was instituted which included endodontic treatment followed by root end resection, osseous bone graft placement and guided tissue regeneration procedures for repair of mucosal fenestration defect. Debridement of the palatal pocket, with saucerization of the groove and restoration with glass ionomer cement were simultaneously employed to correct the palatal defect. PMID:26229283

  12. Use of the carbon dioxide laser in sterilization of endodontic reamers.

    PubMed

    Hooks, T W; Adrian, J C; Gross, A; Bernier, W E

    1980-03-01

    The object of this study was to test a new method of sterilizing endodontic instruments by using a carbon dioxide laser system. This was done by contaminating endodontic reamers with spores, exposing them to a CO2 laser beam, and checking for their viability by standard microbiologic techniques. It was found that 100 percent of the spores were killed by the CO2 laser. This holds promise as an effective method of sterilizing endodontic instruments in the future. PMID:6766545

  13. Comparison of Long-term Survival of Implants and Endodontically Treated Teeth

    PubMed Central

    Setzer, F.C.; Kim, S.

    2014-01-01

    The outcomes of both dental implants and endodontically treated teeth have been extensively studied. However, there is still a great controversy over when to keep a natural tooth and when to extract it for a dental implant. This article reviews the benefits and disadvantages of both treatment options and discusses success vs. survival outcomes, as well as the impact of technical advances for modern endodontics and endodontic microsurgery on the long-term prognosis of tooth retention. PMID:24065635

  14. Glass sealing

    SciTech Connect

    Brow, R.K.; Kovacic, L.; Chambers, R.S.

    1996-04-01

    Hernetic glass sealing technologies developed for weapons component applications can be utilized for the design and manufacture of fuel cells. Design and processing of of a seal are optimized through an integrated approach based on glass composition research, finite element analysis, and sealing process definition. Glass sealing procedures are selected to accommodate the limits imposed by glass composition and predicted calculations.

  15. Cone beam computed tomography aided diagnosis and treatment of endodontic cases: Critical analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yılmaz, Funda; Kamburoglu, Kıvanç; Yeta, Naz Yakar; Öztan, Meltem Dartar

    2016-01-01

    Although intraoral radiographs still remain the imaging method of choice for the evaluation of endodontic patients, in recent years, the utilization of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) in endodontics showed a significant jump. This case series presentation shows the importance of CBCT aided diagnosis and treatment of complex endodontic cases such as; root resorption, missed extra canal, fusion, oblique root fracture, non-diagnosed periapical pathology and horizontal root fracture. CBCT may be a useful diagnostic method in several endodontic cases where intraoral radiography and clinical examination alone are unable to provide sufficient information. PMID:27551342

  16. Treatment of a Periodontic-Endodontic Lesion in a Patient with Aggressive Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Case Description. This case report describes the successful management of a left mandibular first molar with a combined periodontic-endodontic lesion in a 35-year-old Caucasian woman with aggressive periodontitis using a concerted approach including endodontic treatment, periodontal therapy, and a periodontal regenerative procedure using an enamel matrix derivate. In spite of anticipated poor prognosis, the tooth lesion healed. This case report also discusses the rationale behind different treatment interventions. Practical Implication. Periodontic-endodontic lesions can be successfully treated if dental professionals follow a concerted treatment protocol that integrates endodontic and periodontic specialties. General dentists can be the gatekeepers in managing these cases. PMID:27418983

  17. Cone beam computed tomography aided diagnosis and treatment of endodontic cases: Critical analysis.

    PubMed

    Yılmaz, Funda; Kamburoglu, Kıvanç; Yeta, Naz Yakar; Öztan, Meltem Dartar

    2016-07-28

    Although intraoral radiographs still remain the imaging method of choice for the evaluation of endodontic patients, in recent years, the utilization of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) in endodontics showed a significant jump. This case series presentation shows the importance of CBCT aided diagnosis and treatment of complex endodontic cases such as; root resorption, missed extra canal, fusion, oblique root fracture, non-diagnosed periapical pathology and horizontal root fracture. CBCT may be a useful diagnostic method in several endodontic cases where intraoral radiography and clinical examination alone are unable to provide sufficient information. PMID:27551342

  18. Biocompatibility and bioactivity of calcium silicate-based endodontic sealers in human dental pulp cells

    PubMed Central

    MESTIERI, Leticia Boldrin; GOMES-CORNÉLIO, Ana Lívia; RODRIGUES, Elisandra Márcia; SALLES, Loise Pedrosa; BOSSO-MARTELO, Roberta; GUERREIRO-TANOMARU, Juliane Maria; TANOMARU, Mário

    2015-01-01

    Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA) is a calcium silicate-based material. New sealers have been developed based on calcium silicate as MTA Fillapex and MTA Plus. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate biocompatibility and bioactivity of these two calcium silicate-based sealers in culture of human dental pulp cells (hDPCs). Material and Methods The cells were isolated from third molars extracted from a 16-year-old patient. Pulp tissue was sectioned into fragments with approximately 1 mm3 and kept in supplemented medium to obtain hDPCs adherent cultures. Cell characterization assays were performed to prove the osteogenic potential. The evaluated materials were: MTA Plus (MTAP); MTA Fillapex (MTAF) and FillCanal (FC). Biocompatibility was evaluated with MTT and Neutral Red (NR) assays, after hDPCs exposure for 24 h to different dilutions of each sealer extract (1:2, 1:3 and 1:4). Unexposed cells were the positive control (CT). Bioactivity was assessed by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) enzymatic assay in cells exposed for one and three days to sealer extracts (1:4 dilution). All data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey post-test (p≤0.05%). Results MTT and NR results showed suitable cell viability rates for MTAP at all dilutions (90-135%). Cells exposed to MTAF and FC (1:2 and 1:4 dilutions) showed significant low viability rate when compared to CT in MTT. The NR results demonstrated cell viability for all materials tested. In MTAP group, the cells ALP activity was similar to CT in one and three days of exposure to the material. MTAF and FC groups demonstrated a decrease in ALP activity when compared to CT at both periods of cell exposure. Conclusions The hDPCs were suitable for the evaluation of new endodontic materials in vitro. MTAP may be considered a promising material for endodontic treatments. PMID:26537716

  19. Pressure Alteration Techniques in Endodontics- A Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Makkar, Sameer; Gupta, Pranav

    2015-01-01

    The triad of biomechanical preparation, pulp space sterilization and three-dimensional obturation is the hallmark of endodontic success. Complete disinfection of the pulp space cannot be achieved with most sophisticated instrumentation techniques. The role of irrigants in obtaining this goal cannot be underestimated. Optimal irrigation is based on the combined use of two or several irrigating solutions, in a specific sequence. Today’s irrigation armamentarium presents a diverse variety of tools and techniques that can assist the practitioner in reducing bacteria and debris within the canal system. However, currently there is no universally accepted standard irrigation technique. The aim of this article is to review armamentarium and various irrigants in endodontic practice. PMID:25954716

  20. A Natural Meliorate: Revolutionary Tissue Engineering in Endodontics

    PubMed Central

    Geeta, I.B.; Galagali, Girish; Kulkarni, Sangeeta; Suran, Pushpa; Noushin, Faizal

    2013-01-01

    Platelet-Rich Fibrin (PRF) was first described by Choukroun et al., (2001). It has been referred to as a second-generation platelet concentrate, which has been shown to have several advantages over traditionally prepared platelet-rich plasma. PRF has a physiologic architecture that is very favourable to the healing process, obtained due to the slow polymerization process. The development of platelet concentrate as bioactive surgical additives that are applied locally to promote wound healing stems from the use of fibrin adhesive. Developments in the field of tissue engineering have made the generation of artificial substitutes in several areas of medicine. Various clinical applications in endodontics include Periapical surgeries, Revascularisationprocedures, Regenerative pulpotomy, Perforation repair. This article aims to discuss the various applications of PRF in the field of Endodontics with few case reports. PMID:24392430

  1. Differential Diagnosis and Treatment Proposal for Acute Endodontic Infection.

    PubMed

    Keine, Kátia Cristina; Kuga, Milton Carlos; Pereira, Kamila Figueiredo; Diniz, Ana Carolina Soares; Tonetto, Mateus Rodrigues; Galoza, Marina Oliveira Gonçalves; Magro, Miriam Graziele; de Barros, Yolanda Benedita Abadia Martins; Bandéca, Matheus Coelho; de Andrade, Marcelo Ferrarezi

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the main lesions that simulate clinically and propose a treatment protocol for acute endodontic infection. Signs and clinical symptoms of periodontal abscess, gingival abscess, odontoma, herpes simplex, pericoronitis, acute pulpitis and necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis/periodontitis (NUG/NUP) were described and compared with acute endodontic infections. A treatment protocol was described by optimizing the procedures in access cavity, microbial decontamination and detoxification of the root canal, apical debridement, intracanal and systemic medication and surgical drainage procedures. The convenience of the use of 5.25% sodium hypochlorite, root canal instrumentation using a crown-down technique, intracanal medication with 2% chlorhexidine or triple antibiotic paste and the convenience of the use of antibiotics, analgesics, and surgical drainage to solve cases of acute dentoalveolar abscess was discussed. PMID:27018033

  2. Er:YAG laser for endodontics: efficiency and safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hibst, Raimund; Stock, Karl; Gall, Robert; Keller, Ulrich

    1997-12-01

    Recently it has been shown that bacterias can be sterilized by Er:YAG laser irradiation. By optical fiber transmission the bactericidal effect can also be used in endodontics. In order to explore potential laser parameters, we further investigated sterilization of caries and measured temperatures in models simulating endodontic treatment. It was found out that the bactericidal effect is cumulative, with single pulses being active. This offers to choose all laser parameters except pulse energy (radiant exposure) from technical, practical or safety considerations. For clinical studies the following parameter set is proposed for efficient and safe application (teeth with a root wall thickness > 1 mm, and prepared up to ISO 50): pulse energy: 50 mJ, repetition rate: 15 Hz, fiber withdrawal velocity: 2 mm/s. With these settings 4 passes must be performed to accumulate the total dose for sterilization.

  3. Endodontic surgery failure: SEM analysis of root-end filling.

    PubMed

    Taschieri, Silvio; Bettach, Raphael; Lolato, Alessandra; Moneghini, Laura; Fabbro, Massimo Del

    2011-09-01

    This study investigated the quality of root-end filling in cases of periapical lesions persisting after endodontic surgery. Ten patients requiring extraction of an endodontically treated tooth were included. The root-ends of extracted teeth were examined by scanning electron microscopy. Defects at the interface between the root-end filling and cavity margin were classified as ideal, imperfect (some marginal disruption) or inadequate (continuous marginal disruption involving >30% of the interface). Four cases were scored as imperfect, and six were scored as inadequate. A defective apical seal could favour continuous leakage of surviving bacteria and their by-products from the infected root canal system to periapical tissues, thereby sustaining inflammation. PMID:21959669

  4. Diagnosis demystified: CT as diagnostic tool in endodontics

    PubMed Central

    Shruthi, Nagaraja; Sreenivasa Murthy, B V; Sundaresh, K J; Mallikarjuna, Rachappa

    2013-01-01

    Diagnosis in endodontics is usually based on clinical and radiographical presentations, which are only empirical methods. The role of healing profession is to apply knowledge and skills towards maintaining and restoring the patient's health. Recent advances in imaging technologies have added to correct interpretation and diagnosis. CT is proving to be an effective tool in solving endodontic mysteries through its three-dimensional visualisation. CT imaging offers many diagnostic advantages to produce reconstructed images in selected projection and low-contrast resolution far superior to that of all other X-ray imaging modalities. This case report is an endeavour towards effective treatment planning of cases with root fracture, root resorption using spiral CT as an adjuvant diagnostic tool. PMID:23814212

  5. Chlorhexidine gluconate, its properties and applications in endodontics

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Zahed

    2008-01-01

    The major objective in endodontic therapy is to disinfect the entire root canal system. This requires that the pulpal content be eliminated as sources of infection. This goal may be accomplished by mechanical instrumentation and chemical irrigation, in conjunction with medication of the root canal between treatment sessions. Microorganisms and their by-products are considered to be the major cause of pulpal and periradicular pathosis. In order to reduce or eliminate bacteria from the root canal system, various irrigants have been used during treatment. Chlorhexidine is a cationic solution which can be used during treatment. It has a wide range of antimicrobial activity. Furthermore, because of its cationic structure, chlorhexidine has a unique property named substantivity. The purpose of this paper is to review different aspects of chlorhexidine in endodontics. PMID:24265633

  6. [Endodontically treated teeth. Success--failure. Endorestorative treatment plan].

    PubMed

    Zabalegui, B

    1990-01-01

    More and more often the general dentist is finding the presence of endodontically treated teeth during his treatment planning procedure. He has to ask himself if the endo-treated tooth functions and will continue to function function successfully, when deciding which final endo-restorative procedure to apply. For this reason the dentist or the endodontist with whom he works should clinically evaluate these teeth, establish a diagnostic criteria of their success or failure and a treatment plan according to the prognosis. The purpose of this article is to offer an organized clinical view of the steps to follow when evaluating an endodontically treated tooth and how to establish a final endo-restorative plan. PMID:2168732

  7. Clinical negligence or endodontic mishaps: A surgeons dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Rakesh Kumar; Chand, Sharad; Verma, Promila; Chandra, Anil; Tikku, Aseem Prakash; Wadhwani, Kulwinder Kaur

    2012-01-01

    Complications may occur during and after endodontic treatment, which may be due to negligence of the operator. The surgical treatment of a case presenting pain and persistent pus discharge and swelling due to the extrusion of the root canal filling to the base of the nasal floor between left maxillary lateral and canine teeth is presented in this report. First, carelessness was during root canal treatment that was over obturated and second time during extraction in which overextended gutta-percha remained in the bone, caused the complications like pain, persistent pus discharge, and headache. Clinicians should be aware of the fact that endodontic instruments and filling materials (solid or liquid) can be extended in such a degree that can lead to neurological or sinus complications. PMID:23251068

  8. Endodontic pathology leading to implant failure--a case report.

    PubMed

    Sussman, H I

    1997-01-01

    This case report documents both the placement of a single implant into an alveolar ridge site and the failure of the implant due to bacterial contamination from an endodontic lesion. After placement of the fixture using osteotomes, the adjacent bicuspid developed periapical pathology following prior crown preparation. This root-end inflammatory process proceeded to involve the mesial surface of the implant. Although endodontic therapy on the devitalized tooth was performed within one week, an osteitis developed around the implant. One month after placement, the fixture had to be removed to prevent additional sequela. The osteotomy site appeared to heal uneventfully, allowing for the placement of a tooth-supported, fixed, partial prosthesis. PMID:9477848

  9. Overview on the Current Antibiotic Containing Agents Used in Endodontics

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Ramta; Jain, Aditya

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotics are systemically and locally used extensively in endodontics. However, local antibiotic application mode is considered more effective than systemic administration. The local mode enables the dentist to target bacteria in every nook and corner of root canal system, which is otherwise beyond reach if targeted by instrumentation or conventional root canal treatment protocols. Therefore, they are an important adjunct to conventional treatment of root canal. The present study reviews the various antibiotic containing dental agents used in endodontics. A web-based research on MedLine was performed with terms Review Articles published in the last 10 year's dental journals in English for literature researching, extracting, and synthesizing data. Relevant articles were shortlisted. Important cross-reference articles were also reviewed. PMID:25210667

  10. Rotary endodontics in primary teeth – A review

    PubMed Central

    George, Sageena; Anandaraj, S.; Issac, Jyoti S.; John, Sheen A.; Harris, Anoop

    2015-01-01

    Endodontic treatment in primary teeth can be challenging and time consuming, especially during canal preparation, which is considered one of the most important steps in root canal therapy. The conventional instrumentation technique for primary teeth remains the “gold-standard” over hand instrumentation, which makes procedures much more time consuming and adversely affects both clinicians and patients. Recently nickel–titanium (Ni–Ti) rotary files have been developed for use in pediatric endodontics. Using rotary instruments for primary tooth pulpectomies is cost effective and results in fills that are consistently uniform and predictable. This article reviews the use of nickel–titanium rotary files as root canal instrumentation in primary teeth. The pulpectomy technique is described here according to different authors and the advantages and disadvantages of using rotary files are discussed. PMID:26792964

  11. [Endodontic filling points with gutta percha - requirements, composition and properties].

    PubMed

    Yildirim, Ayhan; Lübbers, Heinz-Theo; Yildirim, Vedat

    2016-01-01

    Gutta-percha is a tough plastic substance from the latex of several Malaysian trees of the sapodilla family that resembles rubber but contains more resin. It is especially used as insulation and in dentistry. Gutta-percha endodontic filling points were found to contain approximately 20% gutta-percha (matrix), 66% zinc oxide (filler), 11% heavy metal sulphates (radiopacifier), and 3% waxes and/or resins (plasticiser). The mechanical properties were indicative of a partially crystalline viscoelastic polymeric material. PMID:26797818

  12. [Endodontic filling with gutta-percha- requirements, formation and characteristics].

    PubMed

    Yildirim, Ayhan; Lübbers, Heinz-Theo; Yildirim, Vedat

    2016-01-01

    Gutta-percha is a tough plastic substance from the latex of several Malaysian trees of the sapodilla family that resembles rubber but contains more resin. It is especially used as insulation and in dentistry. Gutta-percha endodontic filling points were found to contain approximately 20% gutta-percha (matrix), 66% zinc oxide (filler), 11% heavy metal sulphates (radiopacifier), and 3% waxes and/or resins (plasticiser). The mechanical properties were indicative of a partially crystalline viscoelastic polymeric material. PMID:26915930

  13. [Developmental radicular groove as a cause of endodontic failure].

    PubMed

    Fabra Campos, H; Millet Part, J

    1989-01-01

    A clinical case of apical injury on an upper lateral incisor with endodontical and surgical failures in its treatment is presented. Extraction of the incisor and its study at the stereoscopic microscope showed the existence of a developmental groove running from the cingulum to the end of the root, establishing a communication between the crevice and the apical part of the tooth. Bacterial infection through the groove could provide an explanation for treatment failure. PMID:2640035

  14. A Successful Endodontic Outcome with Non-Obturated Canals

    PubMed Central

    Asgary, Saeed; Fazlyab, Mahta

    2015-01-01

    This case report represents the outcome of endodontic treatment in an infected mandibular molar with periradicular periodontitis and inherent poor prognosis of root canal treatment due to severe root curvature. The tooth was successfully treated by leaving the mesial root non-obturated, the canal orifices were coronally sealed with calcium enriched mixture cement and a definitive coronal amalgam restoration, was placed at the subsequent visit. PMID:26213546

  15. Oral microbiota species in acute apical endodontic abscesses

    PubMed Central

    George, Noelle; Flamiatos, Erin; Kawasaki, Kellie; Kim, Namgu; Carriere, Charles; Phan, Brian; Joseph, Raphael; Strauss, Shay; Kohli, Richie; Choi, Dongseok; Craig Baumgartner, J.; Sedgley, Christine; Maier, Tom; Machida, Curtis A.

    2016-01-01

    Background and objectives Acute apical abscesses are serious endodontic diseases resulting from pulpal infection with opportunistic oral microorganisms. The objective of this study was to identify and compare the oral microbiota in patients (N=18) exhibiting acute apical abscesses, originating from the demographic region in Portland, Oregon. The study hypothesis is that abscesses obtained from this demographic region may contain unique microorganisms not identified in specimens from other regions. Design Endodontic abscesses were sampled from patients at the Oregon Health & Science University (OHSU) School of Dentistry. DNA from abscess specimens was subjected to polymerase chain reaction amplification using 16S rRNA gene-specific primers and Cy3-dCTP labeling. Labeled DNA was then applied to microbial microarrays (280 species) generated by the Human Oral Microbial Identification Microarray Laboratory (Forsyth Institute, Cambridge, MA). Results The most prevalent microorganisms, found across multiple abscess specimens, include Fusobacterium nucleatum, Parvimonas micra, Megasphaera species clone CS025, Prevotella multisaccharivorax, Atopobium rimae, and Porphyromonas endodontalis. The most abundant microorganisms, found in highest numbers within individual abscesses, include F. nucleatum, P. micra, Streptococcus Cluster III, Solobacterium moorei, Streptococcus constellatus, and Porphyromonas endodontalis. Strong bacterial associations were identified between Prevotella multisaccharivorax, Acidaminococcaceae species clone DM071, Megasphaera species clone CS025, Actinomyces species clone EP053, and Streptococcus cristatus (all with Spearman coefficients >0.9). Conclusions Cultivable and uncultivable bacterial species have been identified in endodontic abscesses obtained from the Portland, Oregon demographic region, and taxa identifications correlated well with other published studies, with the exception of Treponema and Streptococcus cristae, which were not commonly

  16. Can traumatic occlusion cause endodontic problems? A case report.

    PubMed

    Indramohan, Jamuna; Neelakantan, Prasanna; Subba Rao, C V; Vasudevan, C

    2011-01-01

    Radicular cysts are commonly found odontogenic cysts in the jaws. The lesion is diagnosed mainly in young patients during the second decade of life. In the majority of cases, it is asymptomatic. This paper reports a rare case in which traumatic occlusion was identified as the etiology of a radicular cyst. Endodontic treatment was performed and the traumatic occlusion also was corrected. A six-month follow-up appointment found good healing of the periapical region. PMID:21903554

  17. Low-temperature superficial chemical changes and post-entrapment effects alter CO2 budget estimation in vapor bubbles of glass inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robidoux, P.; Frezzotti, M. L.; Hauri, E. H.; Aiuppa, A.

    2015-12-01

    Quantifying the CO2 budget in glass inclusions containing a shrinkage bubble has become an important topic with the development of methodology based on microthermometry and micro-Raman measurements [1]. It is possible to determine CO2 in the shrinkage bubble and to calculate the bulk inclusion+bubble CO2 content, but should the methodology be refined for natural glass inclusion samples in a volcanic arc context ? We attempt to use the method for quantifying the major gas output (CO2, H2O, S, Cl) and understanding the evolution of gas mixture from melt and vapor at San Cristóbal volcano in the Central American Volcanic Arc (CAVA) by taking into account for the first time volatile contents of < 15 - 35 μm glass inclusions by using high spatial resolution/sensitivity NanoSIMS 50L ion microprobe. The presented approach focus on 16 - 527 ppm CO2 content in uncorrected glass inclusions with the presence of a shrinkage bubble and the added CO2 content could range between 550 - 1630 ppm. H2O in the bubble (1-X μm) was quantified with a Horiba Jobin Yvon HR800 micro-Raman spectrometer instrument by developing a curve spectrum correction method to isolate and put into evidence the Raman-Water-Liquid band from the glass-water band background, and by estimating their mass and volume with 1 μm imagery precision. Inside the glass inclusions, NanoSIMS multi-elements intensity imagery allowed to visualize the region where the intersected bubble is found and it should be avoided when programming NanoSIMS spots on the inclusion surface. Carbonates peaks were also detected along the vapor bubble walls by Raman and may be associated with unstable C-phases with a variety of low-°T minerals detected by SEM [2]. The presence of such low °T mineral phases must represent important low °T superficial and hydrothermal effects and may alter the CO2 budget estimation of primary melts at San Cristóbal. [1] Moore et al., 2015, Am. Mineral. 100, 806-823. [2] Kamenetsky et al., 2001, EPSL

  18. Effective exposure level and diagnostic performance in endodontic radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Okano, T.; Wiebe, J.D.; Webber, R.L.; Wagner, R.F.

    1983-05-01

    Image quality is limited by the information capacity of the image-forming system and can be computed from three parameters: contrast, resolution, and noise. These parameters can be combined to yield a single measure which determines the maximum amount of information obtainable from any x-ray system and is called the noise-equivalent number of quanta (NEQ) per unit area. The effects of image quality, expressed as noise-equivalent number of quanta (NEQ) per unit area, on the radiographic performance by dentists reading the position of an endodontic file in a root canal were studied. Three different speed films were used in conjunction with a fixed screen. Components of variance associated with the position of the tooth apex and the tip of an endodontic file in a root canal were compared for the effect of different NEQs and observers. Results show that the standard deviation in locating a file tip and tooth apex may be a linear function of log NEQ. These findings indicate that a significant reduction in exposure would have a relatively small effect on the precision of endodontic distance measurements.

  19. [Treatment of a fractured endodontical instrument in the root canal].

    PubMed

    Schipper, M; Peters, L B

    2015-12-01

    A 53-year-old woman with continuing pain coming from a lower first molar was diagnosed with apical periodontitis, with a retained fractured instrument in the root canal. There are a variety of treatment options for dealing with a corpus alienum in a root canal. In this case it was decided to treat the tooth endodontically, and leave the fractured instrument fragment in situ. The selection of this treatment option was made on the basis of knowledge of the original diagnosis and the success rates of the various treatment options as described in the relevant literature, weighed against the possible risks and their effects on the prognosis. This suggested that the use of a dental operating microscope has a positive impact on the success rates of endodontic treatment The prognosis for endodontic treatment when a fractured instrument fragment is left within the root canal, as in this case, is not significantly reduced. The presence of preoperative periapical pathology, however, is a more clinically significant prognostic indicator. PMID:26665200

  20. Laser scanning dental probe for endodontic root canal treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blank, Molly A. B.; Friedrich, Michal; Hamilton, Jeffrey D.; Lee, Peggy; Berg, Joel; Seibel, Eric J.

    2011-03-01

    Complications that arise during endodontic procedures pose serious threats to the long-term integrity and health of the tooth. Potential complexities of root canals include residual pulpal tissue, cracks, mesial-buccal 2 and accessory canals. In the case of a failed root canal, a successful apicoectomy can be jeopardized by isthmuses, accessory canals, and root microfracture. Confirming diagnosis using a small imaging probe would allow proper treatment and prevent retreatment of endodontic procedures. An ultrathin and flexible laser scanning endoscope of 1.2 to 1.6mm outer diameter was used in vitro to image extracted teeth with varied root configurations. Teeth were opened using a conventional bur and high speed drill. Imaging within the opened access cavity clarified the location of the roots where canal filing would initiate. Although radiographs are commonly used to determine the root canal size, position, and shape, the limited 2D image perspective leaves ambiguity that could be clarified if used in conjunction with a direct visual imaging tool. Direct visualization may avoid difficulties in locating the root canal and reduce the number of radiographs needed. A transillumination imaging device with the separated illumination and light collection functions rendered cracks visible in the prepared teeth that were otherwise indiscernible using reflected visible light. Our work demonstrates that a small diameter endoscope with high spatial resolution may significantly increase the efficiency and success of endodontic procedures.

  1. Effective exposure level and diagnostic performance in endodontic radiography.

    PubMed

    Okano, T; Wiebe, J D; Webber, R L; Wagner, R F

    1983-05-01

    Image quality is limited by the information capacity of the image-forming system and can be computed from three parameters: contrast, resolution, and noise. These parameters can be combined to yield a single measure which determines the maximum amount of information obtainable from any x-ray system and is called the noise-equivalent number of quanta (NEQ) per unit area. The effects of image quality, expressed as noise-equivalent number of quanta (NEQ) per unit area, on the radiographic performance by dentists reading the position of an endodontic file in a root canal were studied. Three different speed films were used in conjunction with a fixed screen. NEQ values ranged between 0.64 x 10(4) and 14.3 x 10(4) per square millimeter. Components of variance associated with the position of the tooth apex and the tip of an endodontic file in a root canal were compared for the effect of different NEQs and observers. Results show that the standard deviation in locating a file tip and tooth apex may be a linear function of log NEQ. The estimated standard deviation associated with changes in NEQ was found to be relatively small compared to that observed among dentists. These findings indicate that a significant reduction in exposure would have a relatively small effect on the precision of endodontic distance measurements. PMID:6575345

  2. Influence of Endodontic Treatment on Systemic Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Inchingolo, Francesco; Marrelli, Massimo; Annibali, Susanna; Cristalli, Maria Paola; Dipalma, Gianna; Inchingolo, Alessio Danilo; Palladino, Antonio; Inchingolo, Angelo Michele; Gargari, Marco; Tatullo, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: An increased production of oxidizing species related to reactive oral diseases, such as chronic apical periodontitis, could have systemic implications such as an increase in cardiovascular morbidity. Based on this consideration, we conducted a prospective study to assess whether subjects affected by chronic periodontitis presented with higher values of oxidative stress than reference values before endodontic treatment, and whether endodontic treatment can reduce the oxidative imbalance and bring it back to normal in these subjects. Materials and methods: The authors recruited 2 groups of patients from private studies and dental clinics: these patients were recruited randomly. The oxidative balance in both patients with chronic apical periodontitis (CAP) and healthy control patients was determined by measuring the oxidant status, using an identification of the reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROMs) test, while the antioxidant status in these patients was determined using a biological antioxidant potential (BAP) test. Both these tests were carried on plasma samples taken from enrolled patients. Values were measured both before the endodontic treatment of the patients with chronic apical periodontitis, and 30 and 90 days after treatment, and compared to those obtained from healthy control patients. Results: It was found that, on recruitment, the patients with chronic apical periodontitis exhibited significantly higher levels of oxidative stress than control patients, as determined by the d-ROMs and BAP tests. Furthermore, the d-ROMs test values were shown to decrease and the BAP test values to increase over time in patients with chronic apical periodontitis following endodontic therapy. As the levels of oxidative stress in these patients tended to reduce and return to normal by 90 days following treatment. Conclusions: This study has demonstrated a positive association between chronic apical periodontitis and oxidative stress. Subjects affected by chronic

  3. Treatment of combined endodontic: periodontic lesion by sealing of palato-radicular groove using biodentine

    PubMed Central

    Naik, Mayuri; de Ataide, Ida de Noronha; Fernandes, Marina; Lambor, Rajan

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Palatoradicular groove is a developmental anomaly which is predominantly found in maxillary lateral incisors. It provides a susceptible alcove for the progression of localised periodontal inflammation which can further cause pulpal involvement. This case report describes the successful treatment of a large periodontic – endodontic lesion usingnon surgical endodontic therapy and biodentine for the sealing of the palatoradicular groove. PMID:25506153

  4. A Comparison of Four Simulation and Instructional Methods for Endodontic Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandoval, Victor A.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    The effects of four different endodontic self-instructional review formats (slide-tape, latent-image simulation, computer text simulation, and computer-assisted video interactive simulation) on senior clinical endodontic performance are compared. Student evaluations, as well as comparative developmental expenditures, are discussed. (Author/MLW)

  5. Characteristics of Predoctoral Endodontic Education in the United States and Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendel, Robert W.; Scheetz, James P.

    1981-01-01

    A survey to assess the current state of predoctoral endodontic education programs in U.S. and Canadian dental schools is discussed. The investigation focused on faculty characteristics, the learning climate for endodontics, and problems of administration. Current learning conditions were compared with the desirability of these conditions.…

  6. Chalcogenide glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, P.C.

    1987-08-15

    Although there are some significant exceptions, most important glass-forming systems contain elements from the sixth, or chalcogenide, column of the periodic table (oxygen, sulfur, selenium, or tellurium). The glasses that contain oxygen are typically insulators, while those that contain the heavier chalcogen elements are usually semiconductors. Even though oxygen is technically a chalcogen element, the term chalcogenide glass is commonly used to denote those largely covalent, semiconducting glasses contain sulfur, selenium, or tellurium as one of the constituents.

  7. Cuspal deflection in molars in relation to endodontic and restorative procedures.

    PubMed

    Panitvisai, P; Messer, H H

    1995-02-01

    The extent of cuspal flexure following endodontic and restorative procedures has important consequences for potential fracture. This study was undertaken to determine the extent to which cusps of molars are weakened by progressively larger restorative preparations and endodontic access. Cuspal flexure of 13 extracted, intact human mandibular molars was measured under controlled occlusal loading. A ramped load of 100 N was applied to the mesial cusps via a steel sphere, using a closed-loop servohydraulic testing machine. Lateral cuspal displacement was recorded by linear measuring devices (direct current differential transformers) accurate to 1 micron. Increasingly extensive MO or MOD cavity preparations followed by endodontic access were cut in each tooth. Cuspal deflection increased with increasing cavity size and was greatest following endodontic access. Cuspal deflections of more than 10 microns were observed. These findings reinforce the importance of cuspal coverage to minimize the danger of marginal leakage and cuspal fracture in endodontically treated teeth. PMID:7714437

  8. Management of an Endodontic-Periodontal Lesion in a Maxillary Lateral Incisor with Palatal Radicular Groove: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Sooratgar, Aidin; Tabrizizade, Mehdi; Nourelahi, Maryam; Asadi, Yasin; Sooratgar, Hosein

    2016-01-01

    The radicular groove is a developmental anomaly that predisposes the tooth to periodontal break-down. Sometimes the situation becomes more complicated by pulp necrosis and development of a combined endodontic-periodontal lesion which is a diagnostic and treatment challenge for the clinician. This report presents the successful management of an endodontic-periodontal lesion in a maxillary lateral incisor that has a developmental palatal radicular groove using a combination of nonsurgical endodontic therapy and periodontal regenerative techniques. Conclusion: The combination of nonsurgical endodontic and periodontal regenerative treatment is a predictable method in treating combined endodontic-periodontal lesions caused by palato-gingival groove. PMID:27141225

  9. Sol-gel derived bioactive glasses with low tendency to crystallize: synthesis, post-sintering bioactivity and possible application for the production of porous scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Bellucci, Devis; Sola, Antonella; Salvatori, Roberta; Anesi, Alexandre; Chiarini, Luigi; Cannillo, Valeria

    2014-10-01

    A new sol-gel (SG) method is proposed to produce special bioactive glasses (BG_Ca family) characterized by a low tendency to devitrify. These formulations, derived from 45S5 Bioglass®, are characterized by a high content of CaO (45.6 mol%) and by a partial or complete substitution of sodium oxide with potassium oxide (total amount of alkaline oxides: 4.6 mol%), which increases the crystallization temperature up to 900°C. In this way, it is possible to produce them by SG preserving their amorphous nature, in spite of the calcination at 850°C. The sintering behavior of the obtained SG powders is thoroughly investigated and the properties of the sintered bodies are compared to those of the melt-derived (M) counterparts. Furthermore, the SG glass powders are successfully used to produce scaffolds by means of a modified replication technique based on the combined use of polyurethane sponges and polyethylene particles. Finally, in the view of a potential application for bone tissue engineering, the cytotoxicity of the produced materials is evaluated in vitro. PMID:25175252

  10. Antimicrobial comparison on effectiveness of endodontic therapy and endodontic therapy combined with photo-disinfection on patients with periapical lesion: a 6 month follow-up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcez, Aguinaldo S.; Núñez, Silvia C.; Hamblin, Michael R.; Ribeiro, Martha S.

    2008-03-01

    This study compares the antimicrobial effect of photodynamic therapy (PDT) combined to endodontic treatment with conventional endodontic treatment alone in patients with necrotic pulp and has a 6-month radiographic follow up comparing the healing of periapical lesions. Fifteen patients with periapical lesion and requiring root canal treatment were selected. Microbiological samples were taken after accessing the root canal, conventional manual endodontic therapy (group 1 n=5) and after accessing the canal, endodontic therapy and PDT (group 2 n=10). All the root canals were filled with a calcium hydroxide paste for 1 week. Radiographs were taken after obturation and following 6 months. Endodontic therapy alone presented an 87% reduction in microorganisms while the combination with PDT had a 95% reduction. Radiographic follow up showed 32% higher reduction in the lesion area in PDT group. Results suggest that the use of PDT added to conventional endodontic treatment leads to a further major reduction of microbial load. PDT is an efficient alternative to chemical antimicrobial agents. It is a non-cumulative local treatment, which may be an appropriate approach for the treatment of infections in the oral cavity.

  11. 2. Looking glass aircraft with open main entry door and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Looking glass aircraft with open main entry door and cockpit hatch. View to south. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Aircraft, On Operational Apron covering northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  12. 4. General view of looking glass aircraft in the project ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. General view of looking glass aircraft in the project looking glass historic district. View to west. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Avenue between Comstat Drive & Nightwatch Avenue, Offutt Air Force Base, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  13. 3. General view of looking glass aircraft in the project ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. General view of looking glass aircraft in the project looking glass historic district. View to west. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Avenue between Comstat Drive & Nightwatch Avenue, Offutt Air Force Base, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  14. 5. General view of looking glass aircraft in the project ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. General view of looking glass aircraft in the project looking glass historic district. View to north. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Avenue between Comstat Drive & Nightwatch Avenue, Offutt Air Force Base, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  15. 2. General view of looking glass aircraft in the project ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. General view of looking glass aircraft in the project looking glass historic district. View to south. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Avenue between Comstat Drive & Nightwatch Avenue, Offutt Air Force Base, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  16. 1. General view of looking glass aircraft in the project ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. General view of looking glass aircraft in the project looking glass historic district. View to southeast. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Avenue between Comstat Drive & Nightwatch Avenue, Offutt Air Force Base, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  17. Innovations in endodontic filling materials: guttapercha vs Resilon.

    PubMed

    de Souza Filho, Francisco José; Gallina, Giuseppe; Gallottini, Livio; Russo, Riccardo; Cumbo, Enzo Maria

    2012-01-01

    One of the goals of endodontic treatment is to achieve a complete, tridimensional, hermetic sealing of the root canal system to prevent the entry of microorganisms or their products through both the coronal and apical pathways. Gutta-percha is the most widely used material for root canal filling and despite its numerous properties, such as biocompatibility and thermoplasticity, it has however an important limit: the lack of adhesion to the canal walls. Attempts to address this problem have been made over the years by using endodontic cements capable of bonding to canal dentine but their tendency to resorption in time can compromise the quality of treatment. The first step towards a real adhesive endodontic filling(4) is rather recent; in fact, it goes back to 2003 when, on the occasion of the American Dental Association (ADA) Annual Session, Resilon Research LLC introduced a new canal filling adhesive system based on a thermoplastic synthetic resin material called Resilon™. The real innovation of this system is its capacity of creating a core made of Resilon™ bonded to the cement which adheres to dentine walls previously conditioned with a self-etching primer(4) so no changes in the techniques of canal preparation are required. The aim of this study was to evaluate the capacity of two filling materials (gutta-percha and Resilon) to adapt to the canal anatomy, especially on the apical third, using the continuous wave of condensation technique. Our data suggest that in the third apical the gutta-percha best shows rheological properties that are as important as the bond capability. PMID:22632398

  18. Antibacterial effects of N-acetylcysteine against endodontic pathogens.

    PubMed

    Moon, Ji-Hoi; Choi, Young-Suk; Lee, Hyeon-Woo; Heo, Jung Sun; Chang, Seok Woo; Lee, Jin-Yong

    2016-04-01

    The success of endodontic treatment depends on the eradication of microorganisms from the root canal system and the prevention of reinfection. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the antibacterial and antibiofilm efficacy of N-acetylcysteine (NAC), an antioxidant mucolytic agent, as an intracanal medicament against selected endodontic pathogens. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of NAC for Actinomyces naeslundii, Lactobacillus salivarius, Streptococcus mutans, and Enterococcus faecalis were determined using the broth microdilution method. NAC showed antibacterial activity, with MIC values of 0.78-1.56 mg/ml. The effect of NAC on biofilm formation of each bacterium and a multispecies culture consisting of the four bacterial species was assessed by crystal violet staining. NAC significantly inhibited biofilm formation by all the monospecies and multispecies bacteria at minimum concentrations of 0.78-3.13 mg/ml. The efficacy of NAC for biofilm disruption was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy and ATP-bioluminescence quantification using mature multispecies biofilms. Preformed mature multispecies biofilms on saliva-coated hydroxyapatite disks were disrupted within 10 min by treatment with NAC at concentrations of 25 mg/ml or higher. After 24 h of treatment, the viability of mature biofilms was reduced by > 99% compared with the control. Moreover, the biofilm disrupting activity of NAC was significantly higher than that of saturated calcium hydroxide or 2% chlorhexidine solution. Within the limitations of this in vitro study, we conclude that NAC has excellent antibacterial and antibiofilm efficacy against endodontic pathogens and may be used as an alternative intracanal medicament in root canal therapies. PMID:27033208

  19. Antimicrobial effect of Rosa damascena extract on selected endodontic pathogens.

    PubMed

    Shokouhinejad, Noushin; Emaneini, Mohammad; Aligholi, Marziyeh; Jabalameli, Fereshteh

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the antimicrobial activity of a plant-derived extract (2 percent Rosa damascena extract) with 5.25 percent sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and 2 percent chlorhexidine (CHX) on selected endodontic pathogens. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 2 percent rose extract and 2 percent CHX for test microorganisms, except F. nucleatum, were lower than that of 5.25 percent NaOCl. All solutions were able to kill all test microorganisms after one minute. PMID:20232691

  20. Endodontic periapical lesion-induced mental nerve paresthesia

    PubMed Central

    Shadmehr, Elham; Shekarchizade, Neda

    2015-01-01

    Paresthesia is a burning or prickling sensation or partial numbness, resulting from neural injury. The symptoms can vary from mild neurosensory dysfunction to total loss of sensation in the innervated area. Only a few cases have described apical periodontitis to be the etiological factor of impaired sensation in the area innervated by the inferior alveolar and mental nerves. The aim of the present paper is to report a case of periapical lesion-induced paresthesia in the innervation area of the mental nerve, which was successfully treated with endodontic retreatment. PMID:25878687

  1. Endodontic periapical lesion-induced mental nerve paresthesia.

    PubMed

    Shadmehr, Elham; Shekarchizade, Neda

    2015-01-01

    Paresthesia is a burning or prickling sensation or partial numbness, resulting from neural injury. The symptoms can vary from mild neurosensory dysfunction to total loss of sensation in the innervated area. Only a few cases have described apical periodontitis to be the etiological factor of impaired sensation in the area innervated by the inferior alveolar and mental nerves. The aim of the present paper is to report a case of periapical lesion-induced paresthesia in the innervation area of the mental nerve, which was successfully treated with endodontic retreatment. PMID:25878687

  2. [Physico-chemical properties of 4 endodontic sealing cements].

    PubMed

    Halimi, P; Camps, J; Roche, M; Proust, J P

    1990-12-01

    Four endodontic sealers were compared with two series of tests, in thin layer and in 10 mm long and 5 mm diameter rods. Under these conditions, the Pulp Canal Sealer showed the best ability to present a thin layer and the same flow than the Cortisomol. Its setting time was 15 minutes. Forty-eight hours later, the Sealite showed a very good tightness compared to the other sealers. At 30 days, the Pulp Canal Sealer and the OZn-Eugénol were the tightest ones. Less water was absorbed with the Cortisomal and the Sealite. Is there, for these sealers, any correlation between water-absorbtion and tightness? PMID:2077577

  3. Continuous and Short Fiber Reinforced Composite in Root Post-Core System of Severely Damaged Incisors

    PubMed Central

    Garoushi, Sufyan; Vallittu, Pekka K; Lassila, Lippo V.J

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine the static load-bearing capacity of endodontically treated maxillary incisors restored with post-core complex made of experimental fiber composite resin (FC) and complete crown made of particulate filler composite (PFC). Further aim was to evaluate the effect of FC resin on the failure mode of the restoration. Material and Methods: The experimental composite resin (FC) was prepared by mixing 22.5 wt% of short E-glass fibers (3 mm in length) and 22.5 wt% of semi-interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) resin with 55 wt% of silane treated silica fillers. Thirty extracted sound upper central incisors were used. Twenty teeth were prepared by cutting the clinical crown 2 mm above the cemento-enamel junction horizontally. Restorations were made by two techniques (n=10). Group A (control group) contained samples of sound incisor teeth. Group B had teeth restored using glass fiber post (everStick, Stick- Teck) and PFC (Filtek Z250, 3M-ESPE) to build up core and complete crown. In Group C, the teeth were restored with FC as post-core and complete crown of PFC. The root canals were prepared and posts were cemented with a dual cure resin cement. The restorations were polymerized with a hand-light curing unit. All restored teeth were stored in water at room temperature for 24 h before they were statically loaded with speed of 1.0 mm/min until fracture. Data were analyzed using ANOVA (p=0.05). Failure modes were visually examined. Results: ANOVA revealed that restored incisors (Group B and C) had a statistically significantly lower load-bearing capacity (p<0.05) than the control group. Restorations made from FC post-core and PFC coverage (Group C) gave force value of 363 N (112 SD), which was higher than the value of Group B (211 N, 50 SD). Conclusions: Within the limitations of this study, the teeth restored with experimental fiber composite post-core demonstrated higher load bearing capacity than those with fiber post and PFC core

  4. Proteomic analysis of endodontic infections by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Nandakumar, R.; Madayiputhiya, N.; Fouad, A.F.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Endodontic infections are very prevalent and have a polymicrobial etiology characterized by complex interrelationships between endodontic microorganisms and the host defenses. Proteomic analysis of endodontic infections can provide global insights into the invasion, pathogenicity mechanisms, and multifactorial interactions existing between root canal bacteria and the host in the initiation and progression of apical periodontitis. The purpose of this study was to apply proteomic techniques such as liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) for the identification of proteins of bacterial origin present in endodontic infections. Methods Endodontic specimens were aseptically obtained from seven patients with root canal infections. Protein mixtures were subjected to tryptic in-solution digestion and analysed by reverse-phase nano-LC–MS/MS followed by a database search. Results Proteins, mainly of cell wall or membrane origin, from endodontic bacteria especially Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Fusobacterium nucleatum, and Treponema denticola were identified from all the samples tested. Identified proteins included adhesins, autolysins, proteases, virulence factors, and antibiotic-resistance proteins. Conclusions LC–MS/MS offers a sensitive analytical platform to study the disease processes in the root canal environment. The array of proteins expressed in endodontic infections reflects the complex microbial presence and highlights the bacterial species involved in the inflammatory process. PMID:19572900

  5. Bactericidal effect of Nd:YAG laser irradiation in endodontics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aun, Carlos E.; Barberini, Alexandre F.; Camargo, Selma C. C.; Silva Kfouri, Luciana; Lorenzetti Simionato, Maria R.

    1999-05-01

    The success of endodontic therapy is based on the elimination of bacterial colonization from the endodontic system and periapical tissues. Recent studies have been showing the bactericidal effect of laser in root canal treatment. The propose of the study is to evaluate the effect of Nd:YAG laser irradiation in contaminated root canal treatment. The propose of the study is to evaluate the effect of Nd:YAG laser irradiation in contaminated root canals from upper central incisor. For the experiment 12 teeth were selected, respect at the apical third, sterilized, and 10 μm Streptococcus sanguis liquid culture were inoculated in the root canals. The laser test groups were irradiated with Nd:YAG laser at standard setting of 15Hz, 100mj and 1,5 W for 10, 20 and 30 seconds each in slow helicoidal movements from the apex to the top using a 300 micrometers fiber. After the procedure the specimens were placed in Tryptic Soy Agar, the number of colony forming units was evaluated. The experiment showed a significant reduction on viability of Streptococcus sanguis at the respective time of 20 and 30 seconds.

  6. Regenerative Endodontics in light of the stem cell paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Vinicius; Botero, Tatiana M.; Nör, Jacques E.

    2013-01-01

    Stem cells play a critical role in development and in tissue regeneration. The dental pulp contains a small sub-population of stem cells that are involved in the response of the pulp to caries progression. Specifically, stem cells replace odontoblasts that have undergone cell death as a consequence of the cariogenic challenge. Stem cells also secrete factors that have the potential to enhance pulp vascularization and provide the oxygen and nutrients required for the dentinogenic response that is typically observed in teeth with deep caries. However, the same angiogenic factors that are required for dentin regeneration may ultimately contribute to the demise of the pulp by enhancing vascular permeability and interstitial pressure. Recent studies focused on the biology of dental pulp stem cells revealed that the multipotency and angiogenic capacity of these cells could be exploited therapeutically in dental pulp tissue engineering. Collectively, these findings suggest new treatment paradigms in the field of Endodontics. The goal of this review is to discuss the potential impact of dental pulp stem cells to Regenerative Endodontics. PMID:21726222

  7. Endodontic Management of a Haemophilic Patient- A Clinical Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Dudeja, Krishan Kumar; Lakhanpal, Manisha; Ali, Sartaj

    2014-01-01

    Haemophilia and other bleeding disorders remain an enigma to the dentists world over. They not only challenge the skills of dental specialists but also raise the question of how these individuals should be managed emotionally as well as psychologically. The high incidence of dental problems in haemophiliacs is most likely caused by the fear and apprehension not only on the part of the patients but also dentists of inducing bleeding during treatment which can even be life threatening in certain cases. With proper care, diligence and meticulous treatment planning, there is no dental treatment that cannot be performed in such patients. Mild haemophiliacs can be easily managed and can effectively undergo even surgical endodontics without factor replacement therapies. However, severe haemophilia can pose significant health hazard and needs thorough preparation to meet any exigencies arising during the treatment. This case report describes how one such severely haemophilic patient with pain and swelling in the left submandibular region was managed with nonsurgical endodontic treatment in mandibular molar teeth and also discusses the importance of correct methods of diagnosis and various treatment considerations in such patients. PMID:25177652

  8. Implant Placement in Failed Endodontic Sites: A Review.

    PubMed

    Flanagan, Dennis

    2016-04-01

    Dental implants may fail to osseointegrate in sites of endodontic failure. This may occur as a result colonization by various anaerobic and facultative bacterial species. If an implant is placed in a site where vegetative bacteria are residing, the implant may fail to integrate if a bacterial colonization proceeds coronally. If the implant apical cortical bone is thin or if there is an apical fenestration, the colonization may proceed through the thin or nonexistent bone through the covering mucosa, relieving inflammatory pressure to create an apical (retrograde) peri-implantitis. Enterococcus faecalis may be the prime culprit in these types of implant failures. After thorough debridement, the implant may be immediately placed after extraction of an endodontically failed tooth, and the patient treated with an appropriate antibiotic. Alternatively waiting for postextraction healing and subsequent implant placement can be done. Nevertheless, either way may allow for the formation of bacterial vegetative forms or biofilms. The implant surface may be colonized when the surface is exposed to the bacteria. Thorough debridement is crucial. Nonetheless, organisms may persist. Randomized controlled trials are needed to elucidate this issue. PMID:26550925

  9. The effect of temperature on rheological properties of endodontic sealers

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Roshni U.; Singbal, Kiran P.; Parekh, Vaishali

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to investigate temperature-dependent rheological properties of three endodontic sealers MTA Fillapex (Angelus, Brazil), AH Plus (Dentsply, Germany), and EndoREZ (Ultradent, USA). Materials and Methods: Five samples of each group of endodontic sealers (n = 30) were freshly mixed and placed on the plate of a rheometer (MCR 301, AntonPaar, Physica) and examined at 25°C and 37°C temperature, respectively. Rheological properties of the sealers were calculated according to the loss modulus (G″), storage modulus (G′), loss factor (Tan δ), and complex viscosity (η*) using dynamic oscillatory shear tests. Results: Statistical analysis (Wilcoxon signed-rank test) demonstrated that MTA Fillapex exhibited higher loss modulus (G″ > G′) and a crossover region. AH Plus and EndoREZ had a higher storage modulus (G′ > G″) at both temperatures. Loss factor (Tan δ) of MTA Fillapex was the highest compared to AH Plus, followed by EndoREZ. With a temperature change from 25°C to 37°C, MTA Fillapex exhibited a decrease while AH Plus exhibited an increase and, EndoREZ exhibited the least change, in complex viscosity (η*). Conclusions: EndoREZ exhibited better rheological properties compared to the other two test sealers. PMID:27099414

  10. Flexural properties of three kinds of experimental fiber-reinforced composite posts.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi-Joo; Jung, Won-Chang; Oh, Seunghan; Hattori, Masayuki; Yoshinari, Masao; Kawada, Eiji; Oda, Yutaka; Bae, Ji-Myung

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the flexural properties of three kinds of experimental fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) posts and to evaluate their potential use as posts. Experimental FRC posts were fabricated with glass, aramid, and UHMWP fibers. Commercial FRC posts were used for comparison. A three-point bending test was performed at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. Experimental glass fiber posts showed significantly higher flexural strengths and moduli than aramid and UHMWP posts. Experimental UHMWP posts demonstrated superior toughness to the commercial posts. The glass fiber posts displayed stiff, strong and brittle features, while the UHMWP posts were flexible, weak and ductile. The flexural properties of the aramid posts fell between those of the glass and UHMWP posts. In conclusion, the glass fiber posts proved excellent in flexural strengths and moduli. However, the superior toughness of UHMWP fibers suggests the possibility of their use as posts in combination with glass fibers. PMID:21282890

  11. Influence of gel/LED-laser application on cervical microleakage of two barrier materials used for endodontically treated teeth whitening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchesan, Melissa Andréia; Barros, Felipe; Porto, Saulo; Zaitter, Suellen; Brugnera, Aldo, Jr.; Sousa-Neto, Manoel D.

    2007-02-01

    This study evaluated ex vivo the influence of the number of gel/LED-laser applications/activations on cervical microleakage of two different barrier materials used for protection during whitening of endodontically treated teeth. Eighty-four canines were instrumented and obturated with epoxy resin sealer. The seal was removed 2 mm beyond the cemento-enamel junction for barrier placement and the teeth were divided into two groups of 40 teeth each: G1, zinc phosphate cement; G2, glass ionomer cement. The two groups were subdivided into 4 subgroups (n=10 each): I) no gel or LED-laser application; II) one gel application and two LED-laser activations; III) two gel applications and four LED-laser activations; IV) three gel applications and six LED-laser activations. The teeth were immersed in India ink for 7 days, decalcified and cleared. Cervical microleakage was quantified with a measurement microscope. Statistical analysis showed that zinc phosphate caused significantly lower microleakage than glass ionomer cement (presented microleakage in all subgroups). However, after two (p<0.01) and three (p<0.001) applications of gel, there was statistially significant microleakage in zinc phosphate barriers. Based on the present results, it can be concluded that cervical barriers with zinc phosphate cement show less cervical microleakage and that two or more applications/activations of gel/LED-laser significantly increase microleakage.

  12. A 3-Year Retrospective Evaluation of the Clinical Performance of Fiber Posts.

    PubMed

    Amaral, Marina; Coppo, Priscilla Pessin; Rosalem, Cíntia Gonçalves Carvalho; Suaid, Fabricia Ferreira; Guerra, Selva Maria Gonçalves

    2015-12-01

    This retrospective study evaluated the clinical outcome of 139 teeth restored with carbon fiber posts after 3 years of placement, considering the amount of remaining dentin as the main variable. Eighty-one patients received the fiber posts within a period of 16 months and were recalled after 3 years. The tooth type, amount of remaining dentin, and prosthetic crown material were evaluated. No loss of post or core retention was detected after 3 years of follow up. During the observed time, root or post fracture and secondary caries were not recorded. Only one failure concerning endodontic treatment was detected. The amount of remaining dentin was not an important characteristic in the restorative failure of endodontically treated teeth restored with carbon fiber posts within 3 years. PMID:26963206

  13. The resin-bonded cast post core: technical preparation and cementation protocols.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, M; Vichi, A; Colt, S G; Mason, P N

    1997-03-01

    Post and core restorations have been widely utilized in the reconstruction of endodontically treated teeth. This study compares the traditional cast post core with the bonded type, and reviews the restoration of devitalized teeth without imposing frictional forces within the root canal walls. Clinical and laboratory aspects are discussed, with emphasis on the cementing procedure. Several resin cements are evaluated and compared to traditional zinc oxide phosphate cement techniques; microleakage test results are presented. The learning objective of this article is to outline the clinical indications, advantages, disadvantages, and the clinical techniques employed for resin-bonded cast post core restoration. A case of an endodontically treated maxillary left central incisor following a direct trauma is used to illustrate the procedure of resin-bonded post core placement. Biocompatibility of the cast post core is confirmed by a radiograph 2 years postoperatively. PMID:12698529

  14. Endodontic therapy in a postirradiated child: review of the literature and report of a case.

    PubMed

    Kielbassa, A M; Attin, T; Schaller, H G; Hellwig, E

    1995-06-01

    Exodontia of extremely carious teeth leads to a significant risk of osteoradionecrosis in patients who have undergone radiotherapy. In these patients, endodontic treatment could be an alternative. Successful root canal therapy in a girl who had been irradiated for head and neck neoplasms is reported. The results indicated that use of calcium hydroxide to obturate the root canals is a viable method of postirradiation endodontics in primary teeth. PMID:8602421

  15. Endodontic Treatment of Hypertaurodontic Mandibular Molar Using Reciprocating Single-file System: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    C do Nascimento, Adriano; A F Marques, André; C Sponchiado-Júnior, Emílio; F R Garcia, Lucas; M A de Carvalho, Fredson

    2016-01-01

    Taurodontism is a developmental tooth disorder characterized by lack of constriction in the cementoenamel junction and consequent vertical stretch of the pulp chamber, accompanied by apical displacement of the pulpal floor. The endodontic treatment of teeth with this type of morpho-anatomical anomaly is challenging. The purpose of this article is to report the successful endodontic treatment of a hypertaurodontic mandibular molar using a reciprocating single-file system. PMID:27320297

  16. [The diagnostic value of oblique technique for periapical radiography and its usefulness in endodontic treatment].

    PubMed

    Mikołajczak, Teresa; Wilk, Grazyna

    2008-01-01

    The applicability of the intraoral X-rays in the oblique projection during the endodontic treatment is described in this study. The rules concerning the positioning of the X-ray tube, intraoral film and the examined tooth, necessary to obtain images in mesial and distal oblique projections are discussed. The usefulness of the aforementioned projections in visualizing the anatomy, anomalies as well as periapical changes of the dental roots and canals during the endodontic treatment is presented. PMID:19839519

  17. The Applications of Cone-Beam Computed Tomography in Endodontics: A Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Kiarudi, Amir Hosein; Eghbal, Mohammad Jafar; Safi, Yaser; Aghdasi, Mohammad Mehdi; Fazlyab, Mahta

    2015-01-01

    By producing undistorted three-dimensional images of the area under examination, cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) systems have met many of the limitations of conventional radiography. These systems produce images with small field of view at low radiation doses with adequate spatial resolution that are suitable for many applications in endodontics from diagnosis to treatment and follow-up. This review article comprehensively assembles all the data from literature regarding the potential applications of CBCT in endodontics. PMID:25598804

  18. Representative survey on the reprocessing of endodontic instruments in Germany.

    PubMed

    Sonntag, D; Martin, E; Raab, W H M

    2016-05-13

    Aim The aim of the study was to review the implementation of hygiene guidelines for the reprocessing of endodontic files in a representative survey and to determine the time needed for the procedure.Methods A questionnaire with nine items was sent to 4,000 German dentists. In addition to obtaining personal information, it asked for the total time required for the reprocessing of instruments and contained specific questions about the cleaning procedure in order to assess whether the requirements of the German Federal Ministry of Health, as defined by the Robert Koch Institute, were complied with. Approval by the Ethics Committee was obtained. The data were analysed statistically using the Chi-square test and Cramer's V as a measurement of effect size.Results The response rate was 29.4% (n = 1,177/4,000). On 59 questionnaires, answers to several questions were missing; 1,118 questionnaires (28.0%) could be included in the evaluation. With effect sizes between 0.12 and 0.21, the survey could be classified as statistically representative of German dentists in terms of age and gender. The guidelines were adhered to by 31.7% (n = 354/1118) of respondents, while 68.3% (n = 764/1118) adhered to them either not fully, or not at all (P < 0.001). There were no significant differences in adherence to guidelines between younger (up to 44 years) and older (45 years and above) dentists (P = 0.31) or between women and men (P = 0.194). The reported time for cleaning a patient-related instrument set was more than nine minutes for 68.1% of respondents, not including the time needed for sterilisation; 5% of respondents treated files as single-use instruments.Conclusions The guidelines of the German Federal Ministry of Health for cleaning, disinfecting and sterilising endodontic files are widely disregarded in Germany. The designation and use of endodontic files as single-use instruments should be considered. PMID:27173705

  19. [Resistance to fracture of direct restorations with cuspal coverage in endodontically treated upper bicuspids].

    PubMed

    Takahashi, C U; De Cara, A A; Contin, I

    2001-01-01

    Endodontically treated teeth are considered more susceptible to fracture because of the loss of tooth structure. The aim of this study was to evaluate the increase of resistance to fracture of upper bicuspids that underwent endodontic access and were restored with composite resin, with cuspal coverage. Forty extracted human maxillary premolars were divided in 4 groups: I--intact teeth; II--teeth with endodontic access and MOD preparation, restored with composite resin, without cuspal coverage; III--teeth with endodontic access, MOD preparation and occlusal reduction, restored with composite resin, with cuspal coverage; IV--teeth with endodontic access and MOD preparation, without any restoration. The test specimens were submitted to compression test up to their fracture. The test of Turkey and the ANOVA analysis were used to compare and test the results. The teeth from group III (with cuspal coverage) presented with significantly greater resistance to fracture, when compared with those from groups II (restored without cuspal coverage) and IV (not restored). The composite restoration with cuspal coverage can be considered an alternative for endodontically treated premolars. PMID:11705272

  20. Immediate endodontic access cavity sealing: fundamentals of a new restorative technique.

    PubMed

    De Rose, Luca; Krejci, I; Bortolotto, T

    2015-09-01

    Endodontic access cavity sealing is conventionally performed after endodontic irrigation, referred to as delayed endodontic sealing (DES). Evidence shows that endodontic irrigation with NaOCl decreases dentinal bond quality and could cause coronal leakage. Access cavity sealing before endodontic irrigation is a new restorative approach, referred to as immediate endodontic sealing (IES). The primary aim of this in vitro study was to investigate whether IES improved internal adaptation. The secondary aim was to investigate the influence of the viscosity of the composite used to seal the dentine, on the internal adaptation in both IES and DES groups. Third molars (n= 40) with fully developed apices were used. The teeth were prepared into standard Class II MO cavities, and divided in 4 groups according to the approach, and composite viscosity was used for sealing. Group 1: IES + low viscosity composite; group 2: IES + high viscosity composite; group 3: DES + low viscosity composite; and group 4: DES + high viscosity composite. Samples were then sectioned axially for observation using scanning electron microscopy. Outcome was evaluated by determining the internal adaptation of the samples, which was judged based on the percentage of a continuous margin at the tooth-composite interface. The results were analyzed using a two-way analysis of variance and Mann-Whitney test. IES groups exhibited significantly greater internal adaptation (p = 0.000) as compared with DES groups. Composite viscosity did not significantly affect internal adaptation in either IES or DES groups (p > 0.005). PMID:25183493

  1. Endodontic treatment of the pregnant patient: Knowledge, attitude and practices of dental residents

    PubMed Central

    Ibhawoh, Louis; Enabulele, Joan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: In order to control serious pulpal pain following odontogenic infections in pregnant women, endodontic treatment may become necessary. The aim of this study was to assess the perception of dentists about rendering endodontic treatment to pregnant women. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of resident doctors in the different dental specialties in Nigeria preparing for the various levels of the fellowship examinations of the West Africa College of Surgeons and the National Postgraduate Medical College of Nigeria. Data were collected by the means of a 17-itemed questionnaire which sought information on respondents' demography, their considerations while rendering endodontic treatment to the pregnant patients and their perceptions of the safety of endodontic treatment in pregnancy. The data collected were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Science version 21.0. Results: With regards to the safety of endodontic treatment during pregnancy, 91.8% considered it safe, and this was not statistically significant in relation to the specialty or status of the respondent. Majority (77.0%) agreed they would undertake a root canal treatment on a pregnant patient with all respondents in restorative dentistry, prosthodontics, periodontics, and pedodontics in the affirmative while all in oral pathology would refuse to do such (P = 0.0001). Conclusion: Dental residents are aware of the safety of endodontic treatment in pregnant women. However, gaps exist in their knowledge, bringing to the fore, the need for inclusion of pregnancy-specific training in the dental postgraduate curriculum. PMID:26778880

  2. Modern Endodontic Planning Part 1: Assessing Complexity and Predicting Success.

    PubMed

    Jawad, Sarra; Taylor, Carly; Roudsari, Reza Vahid; Darcey, James; Qualtrough, Alison

    2015-09-01

    Following a diagnosis of irreversible pulpal disease, periapical disease or failed endodontic therapy, the options for the tooth are extraction or root canal treatment. There is increasing evidence that certain factors may allow the clinician to predict the likely outcome of root canal therapy (RCT) and thus better inform the patient of the possible success rates. Should the patient choose root canal treatment, the clinician must also be able to gauge the potential difficulties that may be encountered and consequently determine whether it is within their competency. CPD/CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Assessing outcomes and complexity of care is an essential part of informed consent. Knowing when to refer is an essential component of best clinical practice. PMID:26630858

  3. Treatment Options: Biological Basis of Regenerative Endodontic Procedures

    PubMed Central

    Hargreaves, Kenneth M.; Diogenes, Anibal; Teixeira, Fabricio B.

    2013-01-01

    Dental trauma occurs frequently in children and often can lead to pulpal necrosis. The occurrence of pulpal necrosis in the permanent but immature tooth represents a challenging clinical situation since the thin and often short roots increase the risk of subsequent fracture. Current approaches for treating the traumatized immature tooth with pulpal necrosis do not reliably achieve the desired clinical outcomes, consisting of healing of apical periodontitis, promotion of continued root development and restoration of the functional competence of pulpal tissue. An optimal approach for treating the immature permanent tooth with a necrotic pulp would be to regenerate functional pulpal tissue. This review summarizes the current literature supporting a biological rationale for considering regenerative endodontic treatment procedures in treating the immature permanent tooth with pulp necrosis. PMID:23439043

  4. Combined Endodontic-Periodontal Treatment of a Palatogingival Groove.

    PubMed

    Castelo-Baz, Pablo; Ramos-Barbosa, Isabel; Martín-Biedma, Benjamín; Dablanca-Blanco, Ana Belén; Varela-Patiño, Purificación; Blanco-Carrión, Juan

    2015-11-01

    A palatogingival groove is a developmental anomaly that predisposes the involved tooth to develop a severe periodontal lesion. These grooves often present a clinical challenge because diagnosis and treatment planning require an interdisciplinary approach. This case report describes the successful management of a right maxillary lateral incisor with a deep palatogingival groove in combination with an extensive periodontal pocket and pulp necrosis of the involved tooth. Collaborative management used a combination of endodontic treatment, periodontal therapy, odontoplasty, and a periodontal regenerative procedure using protein complex derived from enamel matrix (Emdogain; Straumann, Basel, Switzerland). Despite a predicted poor prognosis, the tooth lesion healed. This report also discusses the rationale behind the treatment modalities. PMID:26395912

  5. An evaluation of sterilization of endodontic instruments in artificial sponges.

    PubMed

    Vélez, A E; Thomas, D D; del Río, C E

    1998-01-01

    The ability to sterilize endodontic files inserted into synthetic sponges was tested. Sponges were subjected to 5 cycles of either dry heat (Driclave) or steam under pressure (autoclave) sterilization. Sterilization was corroborated by microbiological tests. The sponges and files were pre-sterilized separately using steam under pressure. One hundred eighty files contaminated with Bacillus stearothermophilus spores (experimental and positive control) and 60 noncontaminated files (negative control), were inserted into 60 sponges. After each cycle, each file and a portion of sponge surrounding the file were transferred aseptically to tubes containing trypticase soy broth culture medium for bacteriological analysis. None of the tubes containing files and portions of sponges that were subjected to autoclave grew Bacillus stearothermophilus spores. Two of 60 (3.33%) of the tubes that were subjected to sterilization by Driclave demonstrated bacterial growth. Although the sponges tolerated the dry heat cycles well physically, sterilization was achieved in only 96.67% of the cases. PMID:9487869

  6. Antimicrobial activity of diterpenes from Viguiera arenaria against endodontic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Tatiane C; Simão, Marília R; Ambrósio, Sérgio R; Furtado, Niege A J C; Veneziani, Rodrigo C S; Heleno, Vladimir C G; Da Costa, Fernando B; Gomes, Brenda P F A; Souza, Maria Gorete M; Borges dos Reis, Erika; Martins, Carlos H G

    2011-01-01

    Six pimarane-type diterpenes isolated from Viguiera arenaria Baker and two semi-synthetic derivatives were evaluated in vitro against a panel of representative microorganisms responsible for dental root canal infections. The microdilution method was used for the determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) against Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella nigrescens, Prevotella intermedia, Prevotella buccae, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Bacteroides fragilis, Actinomyces naeslundii, Actinomyces viscosus, Peptostreptococcus micros, Enterococcus faecalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. The compounds ent-pimara-8(14),15-dien-19-oic acid, its sodium salt and ent-8(14),15-pimaradien-3β-ol were the most active, displaying MIC values ranging from 1 to 10 μg mL-1. The results also allow us to conclude that minor structural differences among these diterpenes significantly influence their antimicrobial activity, bringing new perspectives to the discovery of new chemicals for use as a complement to instrumental endodontic procedures. PMID:21233793

  7. 3D root canal modeling for advanced endodontic treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Shane Y.; Dong, Janet

    2002-06-01

    More than 14 million teeth receive endodontic (root canal) treatment annually. Before a clinician's inspection and diagnosis, destructive access preparation by removing teeth crown and dentin is usually needed. This paper presents a non-invasive method for accessing internal tooth geometry by building 3-D tooth model from 2-D radiographic and endoscopic images to be used for an automatic prescription system of computer-aided treatment procedure planning, and for the root canal preparation by an intelligent micro drilling machine with on-line monitoring. It covers the techniques specific for dental application in the radiographic images acquirement, image enhancement, image segmentation and feature recognition, distance measurement and calibration, merging 2D image into 3D mathematical model representation and display. Included also are the methods to form references for irregular teeth geometry and to do accurately measurement with self-calibration.

  8. Microbial transformation from normal oral microbiota to acute endodontic infections

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Endodontic infections are a leading cause of oro-facial pain and tooth loss in western countries, and may lead to severe life-threatening infections. These infections are polymicrobial with high bacterial diversity. Understanding the spatial transition of microbiota from normal oral cavities through the infected root canal to the acute periapical abscess can improve our knowledge of the pathogenesis of endodontic infections and lead to more effective treatment. We obtained samples from the oral cavity, infected root canal and periapical abscess of 8 patients (5 with localized and 3 with systemic infections). Microbial populations in these samples were analyzed using next-generation sequencing of 16S rRNA amplicons. Bioinformatics tools and statistical tests with rigorous criteria were used to elucidate the spatial transition of the microbiota from normal to diseased sites. Results On average, 10,000 partial 16S rRNA gene sequences were obtained from each sample. All sequences fell into 11 different bacterial phyla. The microbial diversity in root canal and abscess samples was significantly lower than in the oral samples. Streptococcus was the most abundant genus in oral cavities while Prevotella and Fusobacterium were most abundant in diseased samples. The microbiota community structures of root canal and abscess samples were, however, more similar to each other than to the oral cavity microbiota. Using rigorous criteria and novel bioinformatics tools, we found that Granulicatella adiacens, Eubacterium yurii, Prevotella melaninogenica, Prevotella salivae, Streptococcus mitis, and Atopobium rimae were over-represented in diseased samples. Conclusions We used a novel approach and high-throughput methodologies to characterize the microbiota associated normal and diseased oral sites in the same individuals. PMID:22839737

  9. Glass lasers.

    PubMed

    Snitzer, E

    1966-10-01

    After a general discussion of the merits of glass vs. crystals as host materials for laser ions, a summary is given of the various glass lasers. Because of its importance as an efficient, room temperature laser the properties of neodymium are considered in greater detail. This includes the nonlaser properties of Nd(3+) in glass, the spectral and temporal emission characteristics of Nd(3+) lasers, and Nd(3+) laser configurations. Separate sections deal with the other two room temperature lasers which use Yb(3+) or Er(3+). The problem of thermal stability of laser cavities is also discussed. Finally, a survey is given of the glasses that are useful as Faraday rotators. PMID:20057584

  10. Influence of Different Restorative Techniques on the Strength of Endodontically Treated Weakened Roots

    PubMed Central

    Alsamadani, Khalid H.; Abdaziz, El-Sayed Mohammed; Gad, El-Sayed

    2012-01-01

    Objective. Comparing effect of different restoration techniques on fracture resistance of compromised roots. Methods. Crowns of 100 single-rooted teeth were sectioned and 10 roots were kept as negative control group (Group 1). Remaining roots were instrumented and divided into one and positive control group of 10 samples (Group 2) and 4 experimental groups of 20 samples each. Group 3: roots were obturated with gutta-percha; Group 4: roots were restored with gutta-percha, composite, and glass fiber post; Group 5: roots were obturated with Resilon; Group 6: Roots were restored with Resilon, composite, and glass fiber post. Roots were weakened before obturation in groups 2, 3, and 5 and after obturation in groups 4 and 6. Fracture strengths were measured using Dartec testing machine and fracture load was recorded in kilo-Newton. Statistical analysis was done using ANOVA and Tukeys test. Results. The fractures resistance of restored roots was significantly higher in groups 4, 5, and 6 than in Groups 2 and 3. There were no significant differences between groups 1, 4, 5, and 6. Conclusions. Restoration of weakened roots with Resilon or bonding an intermediate composite resin to coronal radicular dentin and to glass fiber post increased their fracture resistance. PMID:22666251

  11. Photochromic glass

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffmann, H.J.

    1990-12-31

    This article deals with the general properties of photochromic inorganic glasses and the darkening and regeneration dynamics as well as the main photochemical and photophysical reactions occurring in the glasses. It concludes with applications of photochromic systems to self-adjusting window panes. This controlled flow of radiant energy could lead to important energy savings by decreasing the cooling and heating loads in buildings and automobiles.

  12. Large-scale Clinical Endodontic Research in The National Dental Practice-Based Research Network: Study Overview and Methods

    PubMed Central

    Nixdorf, Donald R.; Law, Alan S.; Look, John O.; Rindal, D. Brad; Durand, Emily U.; Kang, Wenjun; Agee, Bonita S.; Fellows, Jeffrey L.; Gordan, Valeria V.; Gilbert, Gregg H.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction This paper reports on the feasibility of conducting a large-scale endodontic prospective cohort study in The National Dental Practice-Based Research Network. This study was designed to measure pain and burden associated with initial orthograde root canal therapy (RCT) and to explore potential prognostic factors for pain outcomes. The main objectives of this first report in a series are to describe the project’s feasibility and methods and the demographics of the sample obtained. Methods Sixty-two dentist practitioner-investigators (46 generalists, 16 endodontists) in five geographical areas were certified within the network and trained regarding the standardized study protocol. Enrollment and baseline data collection occurred over 6 months, with post-obturation follow-up for another 6 months. Patients and dentists completed questionnaires before and immediately after treatment visits. Patients also completed questionnaires at 1 week, 3 months, and 6 months after obturation. Results Enrollment exceeded target expectations, with 708 eligible patient-participants. Questionnaire return rates were good, ranging between 90% to 100%. Patient demographics were typical of persons who receive RCT in the United States: mean age 48 years (SD 13 years), with most being female (59%), college-educated (81%), white non-Hispanic (86%), and having dental insurance (81%). The tooth types being treated were also typical: 61% molars, 28% premolars, and 11% anteriors, with maxillary teeth being predominant (59%). Conclusions This study demonstrates the feasibility of conducting large-scale endodontic prospective cohort studies in the network. Patients were rapidly recruited, with high levels of compliance in data collection. PMID:23063220

  13. In vitro study of the apical microleakage with resilon root canal filling using different final endodontic irrigants

    PubMed Central

    Lahor-Soler, Eduard; Brunet-Llobet, Lluís; Farré, Magí; Pumarola, Josep

    2015-01-01

    Background Endodontic microleakage or microfiltration refers to the percolation of fluids and micro-organisms at the interface of the obturation material and the walls of the root canal system. The aim of this in vitro study was to compare apical microfiltration of Resilon root canal filling by employing three different final irrigant solutions. Material and Methods 128 single-rooted teeth were employed. The crowns were sectioned horizontally at the cemento-enamel junction and instrumented with 5.25% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and 17% EDTA gel to obtain an instrumented 040 apical caliber. An intermediate irrigation was performed with distilled water. The roots were then randomly assigned to three experimental groups with three different final irrigants: (A) 20% citric acid (CA); (B) 2% chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX); and (C) 5.25% NaOCl, plus two control groups (positive and negative). They were then dried, obturated with RealSeal™, and cleared by Robertson’s technique. Apical microleakage was measured by the dye penetration method and assessed with a 4.5x stereomicroscope. Data were statistically analyzed by one way ANOVA and post hoc analysis for multiple comparisons. Results Mean and standard deviations for apical microleakage were: 2% CHX (0.24 mm ± 0.22), 20% CA (0.25 mm ± 0.20), and 5.25% NaOCl (0.87 mm ± 0.32). Significant differences were reported among the group irrigated with NaOCl, CHX and CA (P<0.001). Conclusions A higher rate of apical microleakage was observed when the final irrigation was performed with NaOCl whilst lower rates were reported for CHX and CA. Key words:Apical filtration, endodontic irrigation, resin-based sealers, adhesion, root canal filling. PMID:26155335

  14. In vitro evaluation of five different herbal extracts as an antimicrobial endodontic irrigant using real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction

    PubMed Central

    Vinothkumar, Thilla S; Rubin, Mohamed I; Balaji, Lakshmi; Kandaswamy, Deivanayagam

    2013-01-01

    Context: Sodium hypochlorite is the most commonly used irrigant but it has disadvantage like high cytotoxicity. So there is a need to find an alternative to 5.25% Sodium hypochlorite against microorganism Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans. Literature has shown that these 5 extracts namely Terminalia chebula, Myristica frangrans, Aloe barbadensis, Curcuma longa and Azadaricta indica has good properties which can be used as a potential endodontic irrigant. Aims: To evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of various herbal extracts namely Curcuma longa (CL), Azadiracta indica (AI), Aloe barbadensis (AV), Myristica fragrans (MF) and Terminalia chebula (TC) as endodontic irrigant against Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Materials and Methods: Eighty-four teeth were extracted and suspended with Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans. A preliminary study was first performed to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration of extracts. The irrigating groups were divided into five herbal groups and 2 control groups. After irrigating the teeth the remaining microbial load was determined using qPCR. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis was performed using Oneway Anova/Kruskal-Wallis test with post-hoc Tukey's HSD and was statistically significant (P < 0.05). Results: It was shown that Neem was highly efficient to 5.25% NaOCl in reducing Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans within the root canals when compared with other extracts. Conclusions: Neem leaf extract has a significant antimicrobial efficacy against Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans compared to 5.25% sodium hypochlorite. PMID:23716972

  15. Crown lengthening procedure following intentional endodontic therapy for correction of supra-erupted posterior teeth: Case series with long-term follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Shruti Arun; Kulkarni, Sudhindra; Thakur, Srinath; Naik, Balaram

    2016-01-01

    Context: The crown lengthening procedure (CLP) is routinely carried out to correct gingival levels and achieve esthetic contours and adequate crown lengths for restorative purposes. Though the short-term outcomes have been found to be stable, long-term results are not much reported. Aims: To evaluate the long-term stability of the marginal bone levels, gingival levels, and the status of the teeth, which underwent endodontic therapy, followed by CLP and final restorations. Settings and Design: Institutional setting, long-term case series. Materials and Methods: Case records of the patients who underwent CLP and endodontic therapy for corrections of the supra-erupted teeth to regain the lost interocclusal spaces were retrieved, and the cases with complete set of the clinical and radiographs were taken. All the cases were recalled and bone levels on the radiographs, bleeding on probing, probing pocket depths, and changes in the soft tissue margins were evaluated. Statistical Analysis Used: Descriptive analysis. Results: A total of 25 teeth had undergone CLP and endodontic therapy and final restorations for a minimum of 24 months. The mean post-restorative duration was 50.8 ± 22.48 months (range 24–96 months). All the teeth were functional and asymptomatic with 100% survival. Interdental bone loss of 1 mm, probing pockets of 5 mm, and 1 mm buccal recession were observed in 16% of the sites. The amount of interocclusal space regained was adequate to restore the missing teeth in the opposing arch. Conclusions: The CLP is a predictive procedure for correction of supra-erupted teeth. The survival of the teeth that underwent the procedure in the present study was 100% over 24–96 months. PMID:27041850

  16. Evaluation of Fracture Resistance of Endodontically Treated Teeth Filled with Gutta-Percha and Resilon Obturating Material: An In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Sheeba; Inamdar, Mohammed Nasir K; Munaga, Swapna; Ali, Syed Akbar; Rawtiya, Manjusha; Ahmad, Ezaz

    2015-01-01

    Background: As per many studies endodontically treated teeth are widely considered to be more susceptible to fracture than vital teeth. Obturation strains and post placement have been a major cause of vertical root fracture. Present study was conducted to compare in vitro fracture resistance after filling with either Gutta-percha or Resilon by lateral condensation techniques in root canals. This study evaluated a new thermoplastic synthetic polymer based on polyester, which contains bioactive and radiopaque filler, Resilon performs every way as Gutta-percha except that it allows the bonding agent to attach to the resin core and the dentin wall thus forming a monoblock. Materials and Methods: In the present study 90 freshly extracted single-rooted human mandibular premolar teeth endodontically treated, were cut at the cemento-enamel junction, and were randomly divided into three groups of 30 each as teeth of Group A (Control) received no obturation, Group B teeth were obturated using Gutta-percha/AH26, and Group C teeth were obturated using Resilon/Epiphany obturating kit. Each specimen were mounted in acrylic in a polyvinyl ring and then tested for fracture resistance with the help of an universal testing machine. A compressive force was applied until the root is fractured. The data were subjected to analysis of variance for comparing mean difference of fracture resistance among three groups. Multiple comparisons among these groups were carried out by non-parametric Kruskal–Wallis analysis. A p value of <0.0001 was considered a statistically significant difference. Results: The results obtain after analysis showed no significant differences in the fracture resistance between the two tested groups of endodontic sealers. Conclusion: Within the limitation of the present in-vitro study, Resilon/Epiphany sealer performs better than Gutta-percha/AH 26 sealer with lateral condensation technique. PMID:26668476

  17. Energetics of glass fragmentation: Experiments on synthetic and natural glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolzenburg, S.; Russell, J. K.; Kennedy, L. A.

    2013-11-01

    Natural silicate glasses are an essential component of many volcanic rock types including coherent and pyroclastic rocks; they span a wide range of compositions, occur in diverse environments, and form under a variety of pressure-temperature conditions. In subsurface volcanic environments (e.g., conduits and feeders), melts intersect the thermodynamically defined glass transition temperature to form glasses at elevated confining pressures and under differential stresses. We present a series of room temperature experiments designed to explore the fundamental mechanical and fragmentation behavior of natural (obsidian) and synthetic glasses (Pyrex™) under confining pressures of 0.1-100 MPa. In each experiment, glass cores are driven to brittle failure under compressive triaxial stress. Analysis of the load-displacement response curves is used to quantify the storage of energy in samples prior to failure, the (brittle) release of elastic energy at failure, and the residual energy stored in the post-failure material. We then establish a relationship between the energy density within the sample at failure and the grain-size distributions (D-values) of the experimental products. The relationship between D-values and energy density for compressive fragmentation is significantly different from relationships established by previous workers for decompressive fragmentation. Compressive fragmentation is found to have lower fragmentation efficiency than fragmentation through decompression (i.e., a smaller change in D-value with increasing energy density). We further show that the stress storage capacity of natural glasses can be enhanced (approaching synthetic glasses) through heat treatment.

  18. Resin composite restoration in primary anterior teeth using short-post technique and strip crowns: a case report.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Fausto Medeiros; De Benedetto, Monique Saveriano; del Conte Zardetto, Cristina Giovannetti; Wanderley, Marcia Turolla; Correa, Maria Salete Nahás Pires

    2004-10-01

    A case report describing a technique for the restoration of endodontically treated primary maxillary incisors with resin composite short posts and celluloid strip crowns in a 3-year-old boy is presented. The technique offers the advantages of using one restorative material, improving esthetics, and reducing chairtime and costs. PMID:15470991

  19. View showing rear of looking glass aircraft on operational apron ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View showing rear of looking glass aircraft on operational apron with nose dock hangar in background. View to northeast - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Operational & Hangar Access Aprons, Spanning length of northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  20. The effectiveness of eucalyptus oil, orange oil, and xylene in dissolving different endodontic sealers

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Hemant Kumar; Yadav, Rakesh Kumar; Chandra, Anil; Thakkar, Rahul Rameshbhai

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the dissolution effectiveness of eucalyptus oil, orange oil, xylene, and distilled water on three different endodontic sealers. Materials and Methods: About 240 samples of root canal sealers (eighty for each sealer) were prepared and divided into four groups of 20 each for immersion in different organic solvents. Each group was further subdivided into two subgroups (n = 10) for 2 and 10 min of immersion time. The mean percentage of weight loss was determined for each sealer in each solvent at both time periods. Data were statistically analyzed by two factor analysis of variance and significance of mean difference was obtained by Tukey's post hoc test (P < 0.05). Results: The lowest level of solubility was observed for Adseal followed by Apexit Plus and Endomethasone N at both time periods in all solvents. Apexit Plus showed no significant (P > 0.05) difference in its dissolution in all the organic solvents except distilled water at both the time periods. The solubility profile of Endomethasone N and Adseal did not differ significantly among eucalyptus oil, orange oil, and xylene at 2 min and between eucalyptus oil and orange oil at 10 min. However, at 10 min, Endomethasone N and Adseal showed a more pronounced solubility in xylene as compared to both eucalyptus oil and orange oil. Conclusions: In general, xylene was the most effective in dissolving root canal sealers than other organic solvents. Essential oils (eucalyptus oil and orange oil) were found similar in their ability to dissolve Apexit Plus and Endomethasone N. PMID:27563181

  1. Dissolution of a mineral trioxide aggregate sealer in endodontic solvents compared to conventional sealers.

    PubMed

    Alzraikat, Hanan; Taha, Nessrin Ahmad; Hassouneh, Layla

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the solubility of a Mineral Trioxide Aggregate sealer (MTA-Fillapex) compared with five other sealers, calcium hydroxide (Sealapex), resin (Realseal), zinc oxide-eugenol (Tubli-Seal), and two epoxy resins (AH-26 and AH-Plus), in chloroform and eucalyptoil in static and ultrasonic environments. Samples of each sealer were prepared (n = 180) and then divided into 12 groups that were immersed in solvents for 5 and 10 min in static and ultrasonic environments. The mean weight loss was determined, and the values were compared using Student's t-test, One-way ANOVA, and Tukey's HSD post-hoc test (p < 0.05). In chloroform, MTA-Fillapex, AH-26, and Sealapex displayed moderate solubility with no significant difference in dissolution (p = 0.125); however, their dissolution was significantly lower than that of AH-Plus (p < 0.001), which was almost fully dissolved after 10 minutes. Realseal was significantly less soluble than all sealers (p < 0.001). In eucalyptoil, MTA-Fillapex showed low solubility, as all of the sealers did, but Tubli-Seal was significantly more soluble than other sealers (p < 0.001). Using ultrasonic activation resulted in a significantly higher dissolution rate in chloroform for all sealers except MTA-Fillapex after 10 min (p = 0.226). In eucalyptoil, ultrasonic activation significantly increased the dissolution rate of all sealers except MTA-Fillapex after 5 and 10 min, Sealapex at 10 min, and AH-Plus at 5 min (p > 0.05). In conclusion, MTA-Fillapex was not sufficiently dissolved in either solvent. Ultrasonic activation had limited effectiveness on MTA-Fillapex dissolution, whereas it significantly increased the efficiency of solvents in dissolving a number of endodontic sealers. PMID:26910018

  2. Effect of Different Instrumentation Techniques on Vertical Root Fracture Resistance of Endodontically Treated Teeth

    PubMed Central

    Tavanafar, Saeid; Karimpour, Azadeh; Karimpour, Hamideh; Mohammed Saleh, Abdulrahman; Hamed Saeed, Musab

    2015-01-01

    Statement of the Problem Vertical root fractures are catastrophic events that often result in tooth extraction. Many contributing factor are associated with increasing incidence of vertical root fracture. Root canal preparation is one of the predisposing factors which can increase the root susceptibility to vertical fracture. Purpose The aim of this study was to compare the effects of three different instrumentation techniques on vertical root fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth. Materials and Methods In this study, 120 freshly extracted mandibular premolar teeth of similar dimensions were decoronated and randomly divided into control (n=30), nickel-titanium hand K-file (HF, n=30), BioRaCe rotary file (BR, n=30), and WaveOne reciprocating single-file (WO, n=30) groups. After cleaning and shaping the root canals, AH26 was used as canal sealer, and obturation was completed using the continuous wave technique. The root canals were embedded vertically in standardised autopolymerising acrylic resin blocks, and subjected to a vertical load to cause vertical root fracture. The forces required to induce fractures were measured using a universal testing machine. ANOVA and Tukey’s post-hoc test were used to analyse the data. Results All experimental groups showed statistically significant reductions in fracture resistance as compared with the control group. There was a statistically significant difference between the HF and BR groups. The WO group did not differ significantly from the HF group or the BR group. Conclusion All three instrumentation techniques caused weakening of the structure of the roots, and rendered them susceptible to fracture under lesser load than unprepared roots. The fracture resistance of roots prepared with the single-file reciprocating technique was similar to that of those prepared with NiTi hand and rotary instrumentation techniques. PMID:26106635

  3. Pinhole Glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colicchia, Giuseppe; Hopf, Martin; Wiesner, Hartmut; Zollman, Dean

    2008-01-01

    Eye aberrations are commonly corrected by lenses that restore vision by altering rays before they pass through the cornea. Some modern promoters claim that pinhole glasses are better than conventional lenses in correcting all kinds of refractive defects such as myopia (nearsighted), hyperopia (farsighted), astigmatisms, and presbyopia. Do pinhole glasses really give better vision? Some ways to use this question for motivation in teaching optics have been discussed. For this column we include a series of experiments that students can complete using a model of the eye and demonstrate issues related to pinhole vision correction.

  4. [Analysis of the key points in the micro-endodontic treatment].

    PubMed

    Hou, B X

    2016-08-01

    Micro-endodontic treatment refers to the microscope-assisted endodontic treatment techniques. The microscope offers a stereoscopic, enlarged image under great magnification and illumination at a comfortable working position. It will greatly promote the precision and improve the outcomes of endodontic treatment through enhancing the ability to detect the complexity of the root canal system of teeth that probably cannot be seen by the naked eyes, remove the infectious substances in root canal more efficiently, provide a tight root canal obturation and carry out effective retreatment procedures. The requirements of micro-endodontic treatment are different from the conventional root canal therapy carried out without microscope due to the complicated structure of the microscope. In order to make the use of microscope easier, it is of great importance to learn how to adjust the position of the operator and the patient, preset the angle of objective lens and the eyepiece, select the proper magnification and instruments, practice eye-hand cooperation under the microscope, etc. The purpose of this article was to analyze the key points in the applications of the microscope in endodontic treatment by reviewing the literature together with the author's clinical experience. PMID:27511033

  5. Current opinions concerning the restoration of endodontically treated teeth: basic principles

    PubMed Central

    VȦrlan, C; VȦrlan, V; Bodnar, D; Suciu, I

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this general article is to present a survey of the current knowledge about the clinical approach of restoring endodontically treated teeth. The best way to restore teeth after root canal treatment has long been and still is a controversial subject of debate to this day. The clinical approach of restoring endodontically treated teeth needs taking into consideration several issues: aims of coronal restoration, criteria for establishing the various modalities of coronal restoration, clinical solutions of restoring teeth after endodontic treatment, guidelines regarding restorative materials and techniques, possibilities and limits of restoration using direct adhesive materials and techniques. The aims of coronal restoration of endodontically treated teeth are generally considered to be the following ones: to prevent recontamination of the root canal system and / or periapical space, to replace missing hard dental tissues and to restore coronal morphology and functions, to provide the necessary strength for the restoration/tooth complex in order to withstand functional stress and prevent crown and/or root fracture. The criteria for establishing the modalities of coronal restoration for endodontically treated teeth are: amount and quality of remaining hard dental tissues, topography and coronal morphology of the tooth, functional occlusal forces that the restoration/tooth complex has to withstand, restoring requirements in order to include the treated tooth in a comprehensive oral rehabilitation treatment plan, esthetic requirements. PMID:20108535

  6. Clinical Approach of High Technology Techniques for Control and Elimination of Endodontic Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Chiniforush, Nasim; Pourhajibagher, Maryam; Shahabi, Sima; Bahador, Abbas

    2015-01-01

    The main goal in endodontic treatment is to eradicate or at least reduce intraradicular microbial population to levels that are more compatible with periapical lesions healing process. Since endodontic infections are polymicrobial in nature, intraradicular survival of endodontic microbiota and their pathogenic properties are influenced by a combination of their virulence factors. The purpose of this article is to review the endodontic microbiota and their respective virulence attributes, as well as perform a literature review of the effects of disinfection procedures in the treatment of endodontic infections to gain best practices. Conventional technique for root canal preparation includes mechanical debridement and application of antimicrobial irrigants. Recently, laser irradiation has been used to enhance the results of root canal treatment through its thermal effect. To reduce thermal side effects, laser activated irrigation (LAI) and photon induced photoacoustic streaming (PIPS) were introduced. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) by photochemical reaction uses light at a specific wavelength to activate a nontoxic photosensitizer (PS) in the presence of oxygen to produce cytotoxic products. Different PSs are used in dentistry including methylene blue (MB), toluidine blue O (TBO), indocyanine green (ICG) and curcumin. Among different options, ICG could be the best choice due to its peak absorption at wavelength of 808 nm, which coincides with the commercial diode laser devices. Also, this wavelength has more penetration depth compared to other wavelengths used in aPDT. PMID:26705458

  7. The Sensitivity of Endodontic Enterococcus spp. Strains to Geranium Essential Oil.

    PubMed

    Łysakowska, Monika E; Sienkiewicz, Monika; Banaszek, Katarzyna; Sokołowski, Jerzy

    2015-01-01

    Enterococci are able to survive endodontic procedures and contribute to the failure of endodontic therapy. Thus, it is essential to identify novel ways of eradicating them from infected root canals. One such approach may be the use of antimicrobials such as plant essential oils. Enterococcal strains were isolated from endodontically treated teeth by standard microbiological methods. Susceptibility to antibiotics was evaluated by the disc-diffusion method. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of geranium essential oil was investigated by microdilution in 96-well microplates in Mueller Hinton Broth II. Biofilm eradication concentrations were checked in dentin tests. Geranium essential oil inhibited enterococcal strains at concentrations ranging from 1.8-4.5 mg/mL. No correlation was shown between resistance to antibiotics and the MICs of the test antimicrobials. The MICs of the test oil were lower than those found to show cytotoxic effects on the HMEC-1 cell line. Geranium essential oil eradicated enterococcal biofilm at concentrations of 150 mg/mL. Geranium essential oil inhibits the growth of endodontic enterococcal species at lower concentrations than those required to reach IC50 against the HMEC-1 cell line, and is effective against bacteria protected in biofilm at higher concentrations. In addition, bacteria do not develop resistance to essential oils. Hence, geranium essential oil represents a possible alternative to other antimicrobials during endodontic procedures. PMID:26703546

  8. Effect of sealers on fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth with and without smear layer removal: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Jhamb, Swaty; Nikhil, Vineeta; Singh, Vijay

    2009-01-01

    Aim: The present study involved the in vitro comparison of root reinforcing abilities of two sealers, i.e., Ketac-Endo and Acroseal, in endodontically treated teeth in the presence and absence of smear layer. Materials and Methods: Fifty teeth were taken and sectioned at the cementoenamel junction. The teeth with faults were discarded and a total of 36 teeth were used for study. The samples were biomechanically prepared using step-back technique. In 10 teeth, the smear layer was preserved using sodium hypochlorite. Smear layers were removed from 10 teeth using 17% EDTA, and in another 10 samples, the smear layers were eliminated using 17% EGTA. The remaining samples served as controls. Samples were obturated with sealers using the lateral condensation technique. Ketac-Endo (3M) is a glass ionomer based root canal sealer, and Acroseal (Septodont) sealers were used. The teeth were then tested by using an Instron testing machine. Results: Ketac-Endo shows higher fracture resistance values in comparison to Acroseal. Other factors as the amount of tooth structure remaining, the agents used for the removal of smear layer and instrumentation techniques may alter the tooth resistance to fracture. Conclusion: Ketac-Endo shows higher fracture resistance values in comparison to Acroseal. PMID:20543918

  9. The antimicrobial activity of Azadirachta indica, Mimusops elengi, Tinospora cardifolia, Ocimum sanctum and 2% chlorhexidine gluconate on common endodontic pathogens: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Mistry, Kunjal S.; Sanghvi, Zarna; Parmar, Girish; Shah, Samir

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To check the antimicrobial activity of Azadirachta indica (Neem), Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi), Mimusops elelngi (Bakul), Tinospora cardifolia (Giloy) and Chlorhexidine Gluconate (CHX) on common endodontic pathogens like Streptococcus mutans, Enterococcus faecalis and staphylococcus aureus. Materials and Methods: The agar diffusion test was used to check the antimicrobial activity of the Methanolic extracts of the medicinal plants along with CHX. Six different concentrations of the tested agents were used for the study. The values of Zone of Inhibition were tabulated according to the concentration of the tested agent and data was statistically analyzed using ANOVA and Bonferroni post- hoc tests. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentrations (MBC) values were also recorded. Results: All the plants extracts showed considerable antimicrobial activity against selected endodontic pathogens. At 3mg. concentration, O.sanctum was the most effective against S. mutans, M. elengi showed highest zone of inhibition against E.faecalis, whereas CHX was the most effective agent against S.aureus. CHX was also the most consistent of all the medicaments testes, showing inhibitory effect against all the tree pathogens at all the selected concentrations. Conclusions: The Methanolic extract of A.Indica, O.sanctum, M. Elengi, T.cardifolia and Chlorhexidine Gluconate has considerable antimicrobial activity against S. mutans, E. faecalis and S. aureus. PMID:24966766

  10. Current perspectives on post systems: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Goracci, C; Ferrari, M

    2011-06-01

    This literature review summarizes the most recent and reliable evidence on post systems. A search was limited to review articles published over the last 10 years in dental journals with an impact factor. Papers cited in the initially retrieved review articles were also included if significant. Preservation of tooth tissue, presence of a ferrule effect, and adhesion are regarded as the most effective conditions for long-term success of post-endodontic restorations. Adhesively luted fibre-reinforced composite post restorations have demonstrated satisfactory survival rates over relatively long follow-up periods. The clinical effectiveness of such restorations has been mainly ascribed to the more biomimetic behaviour of fibre-reinforced composite posts that reduces the risk of vertical root fractures. The most common type of failure when using fibre posts is post debonding and it is generally agreed that achieving stable adhesion to intraradicular dentine is more challenging than to coronal dentine. Several factors related to endodontic treatment, root canal shape, post space preparation, post translucency, adhesive cement handling and curing may have an influence on the outcome of the luting procedure. The most reliable results in fibre post cementation are obtained by etch-and-rinse adhesives in combination with dual-cure resin cements. The use of self-adhesive resin cements has also been proposed. Simplification is an obvious advantage of these new materials. However, the durability of their bond still needs to be verified with long-term clinical studies. Several techniques for pre-treating the fibre-reinforced composite post surface have been tested with the aim of improving the bond strength at the post-core and post-cement interfaces. Silicoating followed by silanization currently appears to be the most effective and convenient method for this purpose. In conclusion, the available evidence validates the use of fibre posts as an alternative to metal posts and

  11. Effect of endodontic chelating solutions on the bond strength of endodontic sealers.

    PubMed

    Tuncel, Behram; Nagas, Emre; Cehreli, Zafer; Uyanik, Ozgur; Vallittu, Pekka; Lassila, Lippo

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of various chelating solutions on the radicular push-out bond strength of calcium silicate-based and resin-based root canal sealers. Root canals of freshly-extracted single-rooted teeth (n = 80) were instrumented by using rotary instruments. The specimens were randomly divided into 4 groups according to the chelating solutions being tested: (1) 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA); (2) 9% etidronic acid; (3) 1% peracetic acid (PAA); and (4) distilled water (control). In each group, the roots were further assigned into 2 subgroups according to the sealer used: (1) an epoxy resin-based sealer (AH Plus) and (2) a calcium silicate-based sealer (iRoot SP). Four 1 mm-thick sections were obtained from the coronal aspect of each root (n = 40 slices/group). Push-out bond strength test was performed at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min., and the bond strength data were analyzed statistically with two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with Bonferroni's post hoc test (p < 0.05). Failure modes were assessed quantitatively under a stereomicroscope. Irrespective of the irrigation regimens, iRoot SP exhibited significantly higher push-out bond strength values than AH Plus (p < 0.05). For both the sealers, the use of chelating solutions increased the bond strength, but to levels that were not significantly greater than their respective controls (p > 0.05). iRoot SP showed higher resistance to dislocation than AH Plus. Final irrigation with 17% EDTA, 9% Etidronic acid, and 1% PAA did not improve the bond strength of AH Plus and iRoot SP to radicular dentin. PMID:25992788

  12. Pinhole Glasses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colicchia, Giuseppe; Hopf, Martin; Wiesner, Hartmut; Zollman, Dean

    2008-01-01

    Eye aberrations are commonly corrected by lenses that restore vision by altering rays before they pass through the cornea. Some modern promoters claim that pinhole glasses are better than conventional lenses in correcting all kinds of refractive defects such as myopia (nearsighted), hyperopia (farsighted), astigmatisms, and presbyopia. Do pinhole…

  13. Hollow glass waveguide: x-ray image in root canal system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dostalova, Tatjana; Jelinkova, Helena; Sulc, Jan; Nemec, Michal; Miyagi, Mitsunobu; Shi, Yi-Wei; Matsuura, Yuji

    2002-06-01

    Objective of the study was the evaluation of X-ray image quality of cyclic olefin polymer-coated silver hollow glass waveguide (COP/Ag) in root canal, using a dental digital radiography method for an endodontic treatment. Er:YAG laser system was used. The wavelength generated was 2.94 micrometers and the length of the generated pulses was around 250 usec. The radiation was delivered to the investigated tissue by a cyclic olefin polymer-coated silver hollow glass waveguide (COP/Ag) with an inner diameter equal to 700 micrometers and the length of 10 cm. The fluence used in the experiments was in the range of 19 up to 45 J/cm2. The root canal systems of 10 extracted premolars and molars were treated endodontically using a step-back technique with K-type endodontic files. Isometric X-ray images were captured via fixed-point measurement method. Digital images were taken before treatment, with conventional files and with an insertion of the COP/Ag hollow glass waveguide. A density histogram, characterizing the density spread across the image was established. An aluminum step wedge, 50 mm long x 20 mm wide, having thickness range from 0.5 mm to 5 mm was used as a marker to check the quality of radiopacity. The overall dimensions were adjusted in relation to the sensor size as a control. COP/Ag hollow glass waveguide was slightly visible in root canal system. An isometric image, histogram, and pseudocolor picture help to detect the position of waveguide in the root canal.

  14. Evolution of the role of phototherapy during endodontic decontamination

    PubMed Central

    Muhammad, Omid Heidar; Rocca, Jean-Paul; Fornaini, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    A microbe free root canal space before obturation leads to higher success rate and conventional chemo-mechanical debridement might not achieve this goal completely. First trials of laser in dentistry started from surgical intervention on caries and bones of oral cavity and extended to prepare cavities and even shaping root canals. Afterward lasers were implicated soon into direct debridement of root canal space. Anyhow failure of laser to remove debris totally from root canal space is demonstrated recently, additionally it might lead to damages to surrounding tissues or inorganic material of root canal if be used without precaution. Nowadays the theory of light assisted protocols became another start point for laser in endodontics. Laser has been introduced as an adjuvant to conventional debridement of root canals. We used Medline search engine to collect scientific publications to edit this review article in purpose of revealing the evolution of laser position from an ultimate cleaning methodology to an adjuvant to conventional root canal disinfection protocols. PMID:26877593

  15. Accuracy of endodontic microleakage results: autoradiographic vs. volumetric measurements.

    PubMed

    Ximénez-Fyvie, L A; Ximénez-García, C; Carter-Bartlett, P M; Collado-Webber, F J

    1996-06-01

    The correlation between autoradiographic and volumetric leakage measurements was evaluated. Seventy-two anterior teeth with a single canal were selected and divided into three groups of 24. Group 1 served as control (no obturation), group 2 was obturated with gutta-percha only, and group 3 was obturated with gutta-percha and endodontic sealer. Samples were placed in a vertical position in 48-well cell culture plates and immersed in 1 ml of [14C]urea for 14 days. One-mm-thick horizontal serial sections were cut with a diamond disk cooled with liquid-nitrogen gas. Linear penetration was recorded by five independent evaluators from autoradiographs. Volumetric results were based on counts per minute registered in a liquid scintillation spectrometer. Pearson's correlation coefficient test was used to determine the lineal correlation between both methods of evaluation. No acceptable correlation values were found in any of the three groups (group 1, r = 0.34; group 2, r = 0.23; group 3, r = 0.20). Our results indicate that there is no correlation between linear and volumetric measurements of leakage. PMID:8934988

  16. PCR-Based Identification of Bacteria Associated with Endodontic Infections

    PubMed Central

    Fouad, Ashraf F.; Barry, Jody; Caimano, Melissa; Clawson, Michael; Zhu, Qiang; Carver, Rachaele; Hazlett, Karsten; Radolf, Justin D.

    2002-01-01

    PCR primers that target the bacterial 16S rRNA genes (or the tuf gene for the genus Enterococcus) were used to identify 10 putative bacterial pathogens in root canals with necrotic pulp. In addition, the associations of these microorganisms with symptoms and a history of diabetes mellitus were investigated. Microbial samples from the root canals of 24 teeth with necrotic pulp were included in the study. PCR with universal bacterial primers identified bacterial DNA in 22 specimens; the remaining 2 specimens were from intact teeth that had been traumatized 6 months prior to treatment. PCR with specific primers showed that preoperative symptoms were significantly associated with the presence of Streptococcus spp. (P < 0.001 by chi-square analysis). There was also a nonsignificant trend for symptoms to be associated with Fusobacterium nucleatum and Porphyromonas gingivalis (odds ratio, >2) and for diabetes mellitus to be associated with P. gingivalis and Porphyromonas endodontalis (odds ratio, >2). Cloning and sequencing of the universal PCR product in one specimen revealed the presence of an organism related to the genus Olsenella, which has not previously been described in endodontic infections. PMID:12202557

  17. The properties and applications of chlorhexidine in endodontics.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Z; Abbott, P V

    2009-04-01

    Microorganisms and their by-products are considered to be the major cause of pulp and periradicular pathosis. Hence, a major objective in root canal treatment is to disinfect the entire root canal system, which requires that all contents of the root canal system be eliminated as possible sources of infection. This goal may be accomplished using mechanical instrumentation and chemical irrigation, in conjunction with medication of the root canal system between treatment sessions. To reduce or eliminate bacteria, various irrigation solutions have been advocated. Chlorhexidine is a cationic molecule, which can be used during treatment. It has a wide range of antimicrobial activity. Its cationic structure provides a unique property named substantivity. The purpose of this paper is to review the structure and mechanism of action of CHX, its antibacterial and antifungal activity, its effect on biofilm, its substantivity (residual antibacterial activity), its tissue solvent ability, its interaction with calcium hydroxide and sodium hypochlorite, its anticollagenolytic activity, its effect on coronal and apical leakage of bacteria, its toxicity and allergenicity and the modulating effect of dentine and root canal components on its antimicrobial activity. A Medline search was performed from 1981 to the end of March 2008 and was limited to English-language papers. The keywords searched on Medline were 'chlorhexidine AND endodontics', 'chlorhexidine AND root canal therapy', 'chlorhexidine AND substantivity' and 'chlorhexidine AND toxicity'. The reference lists of each article were manually checked for additional articles of relevance. PMID:19220510

  18. Intracanal use of a corticosteroid solution as an endodontic anodyne.

    PubMed

    Moskow, A; Morse, D R; Krasner, P; Furst, M L

    1984-11-01

    In fifty consecutive clinical patients with endodontically involved teeth that responded with vital pulp test readings, a corticosteroid solution and a saline placebo were alternately used as an intracanal anodyne. The patients subjectively rated their pain on a scale of 0 to 100 as "none," "mild," "moderate," and "severe" (0 = none, 1 to 33 = mild, 34 to 66 = moderate, 67 and above = severe). The ratings were done before the first treatment and then at 24, 48, and 72 hours after treatment. Corticosteroid-treated and placebo-treated cases were not significantly different in terms of type of teeth treated, clinical pulpal diagnosis, and preoperative patient evaluation of pain. The results showed a decreased subjective report of pain for the corticosteroid cases as compared to the controls through the three posttreatment time periods (p less than 0.10). A statistically significant decreased incidence of pain was reported for the corticosteroid cases as compared to the control at the 24-hour time period (p less than 0.05). No clinical indication of infection was noted in either the corticosteroid or saline control cases. PMID:6595622

  19. Differential scanning calorimetric studies of nickel titanium rotary endodontic instruments.

    PubMed

    Brantley, W A; Svec, T A; Iijima, M; Powers, J M; Grentzer, T H

    2002-08-01

    Differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) analyses were performed between -130 degrees and 100 degrees C on specimens prepared from nickel-titanium (NiTi) rotary endodontic instruments: ProFile (n = 5), Lightspeed (n = 4), and Quantec (n = 3). The ProFile and Lightspeed instruments were in the as-received condition, whereas the Quantec instruments were randomly selected from a dental clinic and had unknown history. The DSC plots showed that the ProFile and Lightspeed instruments analyzed had the superelastic NiTi property, with an austenite-finish (Af) temperature of approximately 25 degrees C. Differences in DSC plots for the ProFile instruments and the starting wire blanks (n = 2) were attributed to the manufacturing process. The phase transformation behavior when the specimens were heated and cooled between -130 degrees and 100 degrees C, the temperature ranges for the phase transformations, and the resulting enthalpy changes were similar to those previously reported for nickel-titanium orthodontic wires having superelastic characteristics or shape memory behavior in the oral environment. The experiments demonstrated that DSC is a powerful tool for materials characterization of these rotary instruments, providing direct information not readily available from other analytical techniques about the NiTi phases present, which are fundamentally responsible for their clinical behavior. PMID:12184415

  20. Evolution of the role of phototherapy during endodontic decontamination.

    PubMed

    Muhammad, Omid Heidar; Rocca, Jean-Paul; Fornaini, Carlo; Medioni, Etienne

    2015-12-30

    A microbe free root canal space before obturation leads to higher success rate and conventional chemo-mechanical debridement might not achieve this goal completely. First trials of laser in dentistry started from surgical intervention on caries and bones of oral cavity and extended to prepare cavities and even shaping root canals. Afterward lasers were implicated soon into direct debridement of root canal space. Anyhow failure of laser to remove debris totally from root canal space is demonstrated recently, additionally it might lead to damages to surrounding tissues or inorganic material of root canal if be used without precaution. Nowadays the theory of light assisted protocols became another start point for laser in endodontics. Laser has been introduced as an adjuvant to conventional debridement of root canals. We used Medline search engine to collect scientific publications to edit this review article in purpose of revealing the evolution of laser position from an ultimate cleaning methodology to an adjuvant to conventional root canal disinfection protocols. PMID:26877593

  1. Orthodontic-endodontic treatment planning of traumatized teeth.

    PubMed

    Steiner, D R; West, J D

    1997-03-01

    Occasionally, an orthodontic patient will accidentally traumatize a maxillary anterior tooth before or during orthodontic treatment. In some situations, the trauma will be substantial and avulse the tooth. In other accidents, the tooth may not avulse, but the pulp becomes nonvital. If the pulp is devitalized, and the root has not fully formed, the apex of the root canal may be wide. In this situation, the endodontist may recommend apexification procedures to help close the apex before conventional obturation of the root canal. If the patient is currently undergoing orthodontic movement of the traumatized incisor, what effect will the tooth movement have on the success of the apexification? If the tooth were avulsed, replanted, and then ankylosed, should it be extracted? If so, when should the ankylosed incisor be removed? What effect will further facial growth have on the ankylosed tooth and the potential to achieve a successful esthetic restoration? The answers to these questions are important during the interdisciplinary treatment planning of the patient with traumatized teeth. This article will elucidate the endodontic-orthodontic considerations for patients with traumatized anterior teeth. PMID:9206471

  2. Acoustic streaming induced by an ultrasonically oscillating endodontic file.

    PubMed

    Verhaagen, B; Boutsioukis, C; van der Sluis, L W M; Versluis, M

    2014-04-01

    Ultrasonically activated irrigation is an advanced dental technique for irrigation of the root canal system during a root canal treatment. The basic cleaning mechanism is a result of acoustic streaming induced by an oscillating file, leading to mixing of the irrigant and pressure and shear stresses on the walls of the root canal. Here the induced acoustic streaming, pressure, and shear stress are investigated in a two-dimensional cross-section of the root canal, using a combination of theory, numerical predictions, and experimental validation through high-speed particle tracking velocimetry. Acoustic streaming theory describes very well the flow induced by an ultrasonically oscillating endodontic file. It consists of an oscillatory component, which is dominant near the file, and a steady component, or jet, along the axis of oscillation. The importance of the oscillatory component for both the pressure and the shear stress is apparent, as it is two to three orders of magnitude higher than the steady component. A confinement affects the formation of the steady jets; meanwhile the oscillatory velocities and associated pressure and shear stress are increased. Previous work considering only the steady component of the flow therefore, underestimated the hydrodynamic effects induced by ultrasonic files. PMID:25234972

  3. The use of a radiopaque contrast medium in endodontic radiography.

    PubMed

    Shearer, A C; Wasti, F; Wilson, N H

    1996-03-01

    A series of in vitro studies were carried out to investigate the use and application of a radiopaque contrast medium in conventional periapical dental radiography for the diagnosis and evaluation of root canal systems. The water-soluble radiopaque contrast medium was introduced into the root canals of 30 first permanent maxillary and 30 first permanent mandibular molar teeth. The radiographic images of these teeth with and without radiopaque contrast medium in the root canal systems were compared and contrasted. Further comparisons were made with the same teeth rendered transparent. The results indicate that by standardizing the diagnostic criteria the inter-examiner reliability was in good agreement; it was independent of the radiographic technique used. The validity of the radiographs was enhanced by the use of the radiopaque contrast medium. The results confirm that, with the use of a radiopaque contrast medium, images of root canal systems are easier to read and interpret than plain radiographic images of root canal systems. The use of radiopaque contrast medium in endodontic radiography may be a valuable aid in the diagnosis and evaluation of root canal systems. This system would complement rather than replace plain radiography. PMID:9206431

  4. Biocompatibility of two experimental scaffolds for regenerative endodontics

    PubMed Central

    Setzer, Frank C.; Trope, Martin; Karabucak, Bekir

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The biocompatibility of two experimental scaffolds for potential use in revascularization or pulp regeneration was evaluated. Materials and Methods One resilient lyophilized collagen scaffold (COLL), releasing metronidazole and clindamycin, was compared to an experimental injectable poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid scaffold (PLGA), releasing clindamycin. Human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) were seeded at densities of 1.0 × 104, 2.5 × 104, and 5.0 × 104. The cells were investigated by light microscopy (cell morphology), MTT assay (cell proliferation) and a cytokine (IL-8) ELISA test (biocompatibility). Results Under microscope, the morphology of cells coincubated for 7 days with the scaffolds appeared healthy with COLL. Cells in contact with PLGA showed signs of degeneration and apoptosis. MTT assay showed that at 5.0 × 104 hDPSCs, COLL demonstrated significantly higher cell proliferation rates than cells in media only (control, p < 0.01) or cells co-incubated with PLGA (p < 0.01). In ELISA test, no significant differences were observed between cells with media only and COLL at 1, 3, and 6 days. Cells incubated with PLGA expressed significantly higher IL-8 than the control at all time points (p < 0.01) and compared to COLL after 1 and 3 days (p < 0.01). Conclusions The COLL showed superior biocompatibility and thus may be suitable for endodontic regeneration purposes. PMID:27200277

  5. In vitro longitudinal assessment of coronal discoloration from endodontic sealers.

    PubMed

    Parsons, J R; Walton, R E; Ricks-Williamson, L

    2001-11-01

    A major cause of tooth discoloration may be sealer remnants in the chamber. The objective of this study was to evaluate, longitudinally, coronal discoloration from four sealers. Extracted premolars were sectioned in the coronal third of the root. The chamber contents were removed and instrumentation was via the canal. The following sealers were bulk introduced into the chamber: AH26, Kerr Pulp Canal Sealer, Roths 801 (nonstaining), and Sealapex. The apical access was sealed with white sticky wax. Teeth were maintained in a moist environment at 37 degrees C. Initial (immediate pretreatment) digital images of the teeth were made for base line comparison. Subsequent images were at 1-, 3-, 9-, and 12-month intervals. Then images were mixed and descriptively evaluated blindly by trained evaluators. Discoloration was induced by the four sealers, with slight to moderate visible changes that increased through 12 months. There was slightly more discoloration with AH26 and Kerr Pulp Canal Sealer. In conclusion discoloration induced by the endodontic sealers produced slight to moderate and generally progressive discoloration over 12 months. PMID:11716085

  6. Searching for Helicobacter pylori and Chlamydia pneumoniae in primary endodontic infections

    PubMed Central

    Rôças, Isabela N.; Siqueira, José F.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to search samples from primary endodontic infections for the presence of two common human bacterial pathogens - Helicobacter pylori and Chlamydia pneumoniae. Methods: Genomic DNA isolated from samples taken from 25 root canals of teeth with asymptomatic (chronic) apical periodontitis and 25 aspirates from acute apical abscess was initially amplified by the multiple displacement amplification approach and then used as template in species-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detection of H. pylori and C. pneumoniae. Results: All clinical samples were positive for the presence of bacterial DNA. However, no clinical sample was positive for either H. pylori or C. pneumoniae. Conclusions: Neither H. pylori nor C. pneumoniae were found in samples from primary endodontic infections. These findings suggest that these species are not candidate endodontic pathogens and that the necrotic root canal does not serve as a reservoir for these human pathogens in healthy patients. PMID:22509118

  7. Endodontic management of permanent mandibular molars with 6 root canals: report of 3 cases.

    PubMed

    Malhotra, Amit; Ahlawat, Jyoti; Bansal, Chirag; Tahiliani, Divya

    2016-01-01

    Aberrations in the internal dental anatomy present challenges for clinicians performing endodontic therapy. These challenges have been partly resolved in recent years by a more comprehensive knowledge of root canal anatomy as well as advancements in the endodontic armamentarium. The aim of this case series is to describe successful root canal treatment, under magnification, in 3 cases of mandibular first molars with 6 root canals. Two of these teeth had 2 roots (mesial and distal) with 3 canals in each root; the third tooth had 3 root canals located mesially and 3 present distally as well as a radix entomolaris. A distal root with 3 canals is rare; however, it is important to look for such anatomical variations to ensure successful endodontic therapy. PMID:27599288

  8. Management of failed periodontal surgical intervention for a furcal lesion with a nonsurgical endodontic approach

    PubMed Central

    Asgary, Saeed

    2014-01-01

    As long as the prognosis of teeth remains a matter of concern, the endodontic-periodontal relationship will be considered a challenge for the clinician. Many etiologic factors, including bacteria, fungi, and viruses, plus other contributing factors, such as trauma, root resorptions/perforations, and dental malformations, play a role in the co-occurrence of endodontic and periodontal lesions. Whatever the cause, a correct diagnosis on which to base the treatment plan is the key to successful maintenance of the tooth. This article reports the successful endodontic management of a furcation lesion in a mandibular molar that was nonresponsive to a previous periodontal surgical graft. The case had presented a diagnostic challenge for the clinicians, and this article reviews the key points that can lead to a correct diagnosis and treatment planning. PMID:24790924

  9. Using 3-dimensional printing to create presurgical models for endodontic surgery.

    PubMed

    Bahcall, James K

    2014-09-01

    Advances in endodontic surgery--from both a technological and procedural perspective-have been significant over the last 18 years. Although these technologies and procedural enhancements have significantly improved endodontic surgical treatment outcomes, there is still an ongoing challenge of overcoming the limitations of interpreting preoperative 2-dimensional (2-D) radiographic representation of a 3-dimensional (3-D) in vivo surgical field. Cone-beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) has helped to address this issue by providing a 3-D enhancement of the 2-D radiograph. The next logical step to further improve a presurgical case 3-D assessment is to create a surgical model from the CBCT scan. The purpose of this article is to introduce 3-D printing of CBCT scans for creating presurgical models for endodontic surgery. PMID:25197746

  10. Stimulation of proinflammatory cytokines by volatile sulfur compounds in endodontically treated teeth

    PubMed Central

    Lechner, Johann; von Baehr, Volker

    2015-01-01

    Persistent microorganisms in endodontically treated teeth produce volatile sulfur compounds (VSC) such as methyl mercaptan, hydrogen sulfide, and thioether. In this retrospective study, we evaluated the ex vivo immune response of peripheral blood mononuclear cells to sulfur compounds in 354 patients with systemic diseases. These systemic findings are correlated with semiquantitative values of a VSC indicator applied directly on endodontically treated teeth. Data elucidate the role of VSC in patients with immunologic diseases and the role of a semiquantitative chairside test, like the VSC indicator presented here, in correlation to IFNg and IL-10 sensitization in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The association between ex vivo-stimulated cytokines and endodontically derived sulfur components is supported by the fact that the number of interferon gamma- and/or interleukin-10-positive sensitized patients declined significantly 3–8 months after extraction of the corresponding teeth. PMID:25792853

  11. The Application of Microencapsulation Techniques in the Treatment of Endodontic and Periodontal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Álvarez, Asteria Luzardo; Espinar, Francisco Otero; Méndez, José Blanco

    2011-01-01

    In the treatment of intracanal and periodontal infections, the local application of antibiotics and other therapeutic agents in the root canal or in periodontal pockets may be a promising approach to achieve sustained drug release, high antimicrobial activity and low systemic side effects. Microparticles made from biodegradable polymers have been reported to be an effective means of delivering antibacterial drugs in endodontic and periodontal therapy. The aim of this review article is to assess recent therapeutic strategies in which biocompatible microparticles are used for effective management of periodontal and endodontic diseases. In vitro and in vivo studies that have investigated the biocompatibility or efficacy of certain microparticle formulations and devices are presented. Future directions in the application of microencapsulation techniques in endodontic and periodontal therapies are discussed. PMID:24310596

  12. Glass science tutorial: Lecture No. 4, commercial glass melting and associated air emission issues

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, A.A.

    1995-01-01

    This document serves as a manual for a workshop on commercial glass melting and associated air emission issues. Areas covered include: An overview of the glass industry; Furnace design and construction practices; Melting furnace operation; Energy input methods and controls; Air legislation and regulations; Soda lime emission mechanisms; and, Post furnace emission controls. Supporting papers are also included.

  13. Finite elements study of the Flexi Post and Flexi Flange post systems in a maxillary central incisor.

    PubMed

    Lewgoy, Hugo Roberto; Youssef, Michel Nicolau; Matson, Maurício Rufaiel; Bocangel, Jorge Antônio Javier Saldivar; Netto, Camillo Anauate; Amore, Ricardo

    2003-01-01

    The use of post and core systems has become an excellent alternative for restoring endodontically treated teeth. The aim of this study was to evaluate the von Mises, maximal compressive and tensile stresses distribution using the Finite Element Method (FEM) on human teeth restored with different post and core systems. The analysis was made on endodontically treated maxillary central incisors. The post systems used in this investigation were the stainless steel or titanium Flexi Post/Flexi Flange. Composite resin was used as core material and resin cement was the cement material of choice to seat a full porcelain crown. The bi-dimensional mathematical model was created from pictures taken from an intact human maxillary central incisor and prefabricated posts. This image was transferred to a personal computer in the MSC/Nastran 4.5 software. A static and linear analysis treatment was performed when a 45 load of 100 N was applied on the lingual surface of the tooth. Based on the results obtained, it can be concluded that the post design and its material can alter the stress pattern distribution. PMID:14569354

  14. Non-linear indices of heart rate variability during endodontic treatment.

    PubMed

    Santana, Milana Drumond Ramos; Pita Neto, Ivo Cavalcante; Martiniano, Eli Carlos; Monteiro, Larissa Raylane Lucas; Ramos, José Lucas Souza; Garner, David M; Valenti, Vitor Engácia; Abreu, Luiz Carlos de

    2016-01-01

    Dental treatment promotes psychosomatic change that can influence the procedure and compromise the general well-being of the patient. In this context, it highlights the importance of evaluating the function of the autonomic nervous system in individuals undergoing endodontic treatment. Thus, this manuscript aimed to analyse cardiac autonomic modulation, through non-linear indices of heart rate variability (HRV) during endodontic treatment. Analysis of 50 subjects of either sex aged between 18 and 40 years diagnosed with irreversible pulp necrosis of lower molars undergoing endodontic treatment was undertaken. We carried out fractal and symbolic analysis of HRV, which was recorded in the first session of the endodontic treatment at four intervals: T1: 0-10 min before the onset of the treatment session; T2: 0-10 min after the application of anaesthesia; T3: throughout the period of treatment; and T4: 0-30 min after the end of the treatment session. There was reduction of α1 in T2 compared to T1 and T4 (p < 0.0001). The α2 index also reduced in T2 compared to T3 (p = 0.0035). There was an increase in the α1/α2 ratio in T4 compared to T2 and T3 (p = 0.0003). It was found that 0V% was significantly lower in T2 (p = 0.002), while 2UV% was significantly higher (p < 0.0001) when compared to other points in time. In conclusion, HRV is reduced during endodontic treatment, and after applying local anaesthetic the parasympathetic component of HRV increases. These data indicate that endodontic treatment acutely overcharges the heart, supporting the stress involved in this situation. PMID:26910016

  15. A technique to ensure the reproducibility of a cast post and core.

    PubMed

    Naas, Haitem M M; Dashti, Mohammad Hossein; Hashemian, Roxana; Hifeda, Nedda Y

    2014-12-01

    The post-and-core pattern duplication technique is a simple, cost-effective, and accurate method of ensuring the reproducibility of a cast post and core. An acrylic resin pattern is fabricated for an endodontically treated tooth. The post portion of the pattern is duplicated with a polyvinyl siloxane impression material in the lower compartment of a container. The core portion is then duplicated with a polyether impression material in the upper compartment. After the original pattern has been retrieved, the duplicate resin pattern is fabricated in the provided space. This technique will improve efficiency if damage or loss of the pattern or the actual cast post and core occurs. PMID:25156094

  16. Endodontic Treatment of a Double-Rooted Maxillary Second Molar with Four Canals: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Ashraf, Hengameh; Dianat, Omid; Hajrezai, Reihaneh; Paymanpour, Payam; Azadnia, Sina

    2014-01-01

    A healthy female was referred to Endodontic Department. The referral letter from her dentist expressed that an emergency pulpotomy of tooth #27 had been carried out with probable perforation of the chamber floor which was due to the unusual anatomy of the chamber. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) revealed that the tooth had two mesial and two distal canals. Perforation site was repaired and endodontic treatment was completed. At 24-month follow-up, patient was asymptomatic and clinical and radiographic examinations showed successful outcomes. PMID:25386215

  17. Endodontic treatment of a double-rooted maxillary second molar with four canals: a case report.

    PubMed

    Ashraf, Hengameh; Dianat, Omid; Hajrezai, Reihaneh; Paymanpour, Payam; Azadnia, Sina

    2014-01-01

    A healthy female was referred to Endodontic Department. The referral letter from her dentist expressed that an emergency pulpotomy of tooth #27 had been carried out with probable perforation of the chamber floor which was due to the unusual anatomy of the chamber. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) revealed that the tooth had two mesial and two distal canals. Perforation site was repaired and endodontic treatment was completed. At 24-month follow-up, patient was asymptomatic and clinical and radiographic examinations showed successful outcomes. PMID:25386215

  18. Endodontic retreatment of an autotransplanted lower first premolar: a case report.

    PubMed

    Koshy, Sajeev; Love, Robert Matthew

    2003-08-01

    A 24-year-old female with no contributory medical history had been treated by orthodontic alignment and transplantation of the lower left first premolar to the upper left first premolar site to correct for congenitally missing upper premolars. Subsequently, the transplanted premolar was treated by conventional endodontics and apical surgery for persistent periapical periodontitis over a span of 12 years. A combination of conventional endodontic retreatment and periapical surgery resulted in periapical healing. This case outlines the need for careful preoperative case assessment. PMID:12848718

  19. Effect of different post-space pretreatments on fiber post bonding to root dentine

    PubMed Central

    Alaghemand, Homayon; Mirzae, Mansoreh; Ahmadi, Elham; Saidi, Akam

    2013-01-01

    Background: Before the resin bond endodontic post-cementation, various solutions are used to improve bond strength of these posts to root dentine. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of the different pre-treatments (ethanol, ethylene de amine tetra acetic acid [EDTA] and EDTA + ethanol) on the bond strength of adhesively lutted tooth colored fiber post. Materials and Methods: Forty-eight human anterior teeth (incisor and canine) were selected in this experimental study. The species were endodontically treated, and the post-space was prepared. The species were randomly divided into four groups of 12 teeth in each and were treated as follows: (i) 0.1 M EDTA, (ii) 99.6% ethanol, (iii) 0.1 M EDTA followed by 99.6% ethanol and (iv) without any treatment (control). A push-out test was carried out after 24 h. Each tooth was cut into three 1 mm-thick sections. Fracture type was assessed using stereomicroscope. The data were analyzed by one way-ANOVA followed by Scheffe post-hoc test at P = 0.05. Results: Almost, in EDTA and (EDTA + ethanol) every sample failed at the interface between post and lutting cement. Predominant failure mode in ethanol and control group was mixed failure. The surface treatment methods did not have any significant effect (P > 0.05) on any group but EDTA group had the highest bond strength. Conclusion: Surface treatment with (ethanol, EDTA, and EDTA + ethanol) does not significantly appear to be effective in improving the bond strength of fiber posts into root dentine. The highest bond strength was observed in EDTA group and the lowest in the control group. PMID:24130594

  20. Endodontic retreatment. Aspects of decision making and clinical outcome.

    PubMed

    Kvist, T

    2001-01-01

    Epidemiological surveys have reported that 25%-35% of root filled teeth are associated with periapical radiolucencies. Descriptive studies have demonstrated that clinicians' decision making regarding such teeth are subject to substantial variation. A coherent model to explain the observed variation has not been produced. In the present thesis a "Praxis Concept theory" was proposed. The theory suggests that dentists perceive periapical lesions of varying sizes as different stages on a continuous health scale. Interindividual variations can then be regarded as the result of the choice of different cut-off points on the continuum for prescribing retreatment. In the present study experiments among novice and expert decision makers gave evidence in favour of the theory. Data also suggested that the choice of retreatment criterion is affected by values, costs of retreatment and technical quality of original treatment. From a prescriptive point of view, the presence of a persistent periapical radiolucency has often been used as a criterion of endodontic "failure" and as an indication for endodontic retreatment. As an alternative decision strategy, the use of decision analysis has been proposed. Logical display of decision alternatives, values of probabilities, utility values (U-values) of the different outcomes and calculation of optimal decision strategy are features of this theory. The implementation of this approach is impeded by the uncertainty of outcome probabilities and lack of investigations concerning U-values. U-values of two periapical health states in root filled teeth (with and without a periapical lesion respectively) were investigated in a group of 82 dental students and among 16 Swedish endodontists. Two methods were used to elicit U-values: Standard gamble and Visual Analogue Scale. Large interindividual variation for both health states were recorded. The difference in U-values between the two health states was found to be statistically significant

  1. Effects of endodontic treatment on apparent Young's modulus of human teeth: in vitro study using speckle interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Peña, Rolando J.; Salvador, Rosario; Cibrián, Rosa M.; Martinez-Celorio, René A.; López, Francisco J.; Sala, Faustino; Paredes, Vanessa

    2012-04-01

    The introduction of new techniques for endodontic procedures requires the analysis of the biomechanical behavior of dental structures. Digital speckle shearing pattern interferometry (DSSPI) is a nondestructive optical measuring technique that allows one to directly quantify deformations in teeth that are subjected to stress. DSSPI technique was applied to measure small deformations caused by flexion in different types of teeth. The test was carried out both before and after endodontic treatment with the ProTaper method in order to evaluate the variation of dental elasticity, taking into the account the type of tooth and the endodontic treatment. The results obtained show that dental elasticity, established by means of the apparent Young's modulus, before and after the endodontic treatment, differs between incisors and premolars. The endodontic process does not affect dental elasticity (p>0.7). Specifically, 57.1% of central incisors and 56.3% of second premolars slightly increase their elasticity after the endodontic process. In turn, 42.9% of central incisors and 43.7% of second premolars slightly decrease elasticity. The endodontic treatment especially affects the ``neutral fibre'' therefore, there is little influence on elasticity by flexion. However, after finishing the process, the channel was restored with material, which can slightly increase tooth elasticity in some cases.

  2. Retention of posts cemented with various dentinal bonding cements.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, D B; Eakle, W S

    1994-12-01

    This investigation evaluated the retention of preformed posts with four different cements: C & B Metabond, Panavia, All-Bond 2, and Ketac-Cem. Sixty intact maxillary canines were selected for the study. The clinical crowns were removed and endodontic therapy done on each root, which was then prepared to receive prefabricated posts. The 60 samples were divided into four groups of 15, and the posts in each group were cemented with one of the four cements. The roots were mounted in acrylic resin blocks and the posts were separated from the canals with an Instron testing machine. Analysis of the forces needed to dislodge the posts with analysis of variance and Student-Newman-Keuls test disclosed that C & B Metabond cement was the most retentive (p < 0.05). No difference in retention was recorded between Ketac-Cem and Panavia cements. All-Bond 2 cement was the least retentive of cements. PMID:7853255

  3. Effect of cryogenic treatment on nickel-titanium endodontic instruments

    PubMed Central

    Kim, J. W.; Griggs, J. A.; Regan, J. D.; Ellis, R. A.; Cai, Z.

    2005-01-01

    Aim To investigate the effects of cryogenic treatment on nickel-titanium endodontic instruments. The null hypothesis was that cryogenic treatment would result in no changes in composition, microhardness or cutting efficiency of nickel-titanium instruments. Methodology Microhardness was measured on 30 nickel-titanium K-files (ISO size 25) using a Vicker’s indenter. Elemental composition was measured on two instruments using X-ray spectroscopy. A nickel-titanium bulk specimen was analysed for crystalline phase composition using X-ray diffraction. Half of the specimens to be used for each analysis were subjected to a cryogenic treatment in liquid nitrogen (−196 °C) for either 3 s (microhardness specimens) or 10 min (other specimens). Cutting efficiency was assessed by recording operator choice using 80 nickel-titanium rotary instruments (ProFile® 20, .06) half of which had been cryogenically treated and had been distributed amongst 14 clinicians. After conditioning by preparing four corresponding canals, each pair of instruments were evaluated for cutting efficiency by a clinician during preparation of one canal system in vitro. A Student’s t-test was used to analyse the microhardness data, and a binomial test was used to analyse the observer choice data. Composition data were analysed qualitatively. Results Cryogenically treated specimens had a significantly higher microhardness than the controls (P < 0.001; β > 0.999). Observers showed a preference for cryogenically treated instruments (61%), but this was not significant (P = 0.21). Both treated and control specimens were composed of 56% Ni, 44% Ti, 0% N (by weight) with a majority in the austenite phase. Conclusions Cryogenic treatment resulted in increased microhardness, but this increase was not detected clinically. There was no measurable change in elemental or crystalline phase composition. PMID:15910471

  4. Clinical decision-making after endodontic instrument fracture.

    PubMed

    McGuigan, M B; Louca, C; Duncan, H F

    2013-04-01

    When a file fractures during root canal treatment there are several treatment options available to the clinician. The definitive management should be based on a thorough knowledge of the success rates of each treatment option, balanced against potential risks of removal or file retention. Although integration of modern techniques into endodontic practice has improved the clinician's ability to remove fractured files, removal may not always be possible or even desirable. The aim of the third and final review in this series was to analyse the literature with regard to the management of fractured files. Analysis of the literature demonstrated that the presence of a fractured instrument need not reduce the prognosis if the case is well treated and there is no evidence of apical disease. Therefore, in cases without apical disease removal of the file may not be necessary and retention or bypass should be considered. If apical disease is present, file fracture significantly reduces prognosis indicating a greater need to attempt file removal or bypass. A plethora of different methods have been employed to remove fractured instruments and although successful, these techniques usually require the use of the operating microscope and specialist care. Removal of a fractured file is not without considerable risk, particularly in the apical regions of the root canal, therefore, leaving the fragment in situ should be considered if referral is not possible. Finally, it is imperative that the patient is informed (accompanied by appropriate record keeping) if instrument fracture occurs during treatment or if a fractured file is discovered during a routine radiographic examination. PMID:23619858

  5. In vitro study on the softening of gutta-percha cones in endodontic retreatment.

    PubMed

    Pécora, J D; Spanó, J C; Barbin, E L

    1993-01-01

    Softening time of gutta-percha cones was studied in vitro using five chemical solvents: xylol, chloroform, turpentine, eucalyptol, and orange oil. An apparatus which reproduces the penetration force of an endodontic file was used on the sectioned roots of previously filled teeth. The most rapid chemical solvent of gutta-percha cones was chloroform and the slowest was eucalyptol. PMID:8180484

  6. Cervicofacial emphysema and pneumomediastinum after a high-speed air drill endodontic treatment procedure.

    PubMed

    Durukan, Polat; Salt, Omer; Ozkan, Seda; Durukan, Banu; Kavalci, Cemil

    2012-11-01

    Cervicofacial subcutaneous emphysema is defined as the abnormal introduction of air in the subcutaneous tissues of the head and neck. It is mainly caused by trauma, head and neck surgery, general anesthesia, and coughing or habitual performance of Valsalva maneuver. The occurrence of subcutaneous emphysema after dental treatment is rare, and diffusion of gas into the mediastinum is much rarer, especially when the procedure is a nonsurgical treatment. The most common dental cause of pneumomediastinum is the introduction of air via the air turbine handpiece during surgical extraction of an impacted tooth. Only 6 cases of pneumomediastinum after endodontic treatment have been reported between 1960 and 2008. Pneumothorax is defined clinically as an “accumulation of air or gas between the parietal and visceral pleurae,” and although it is often not a medical emergency, it can result in respiratory distress, tension pneumothorax, shock, circulatory collapse, and even death. Although there are many possible causes of dyspnea during a dental procedure, 1 rare complication is pneumothorax. Although specific closed turbine systems are available for oral surgical procedures, these drills may be used in exodontia to section teeth and facilitate tooth extraction. We report a case of cervical subcutaneous emphysema and pneumomediastinum occurring after an endodontic treatment of right first molar using an air-tribune drill. We present here in a case of massive pneumomediastinum and cervicofacial subcutaneous emphysema that occurred after opening the access cavity for endodontic treatment. We describe its etiologies and guidelines for its prevention during nonsurgical endodontic treatment. PMID:22306391

  7. Endodontic management of a hypertaurodontic tooth associated with 48, XXYY syndrome: A review and case report

    PubMed Central

    Krishnamoorthy, Sridevi; Gopikrishna, Velayutham

    2015-01-01

    Taurodontism is a developmental anomaly of a tooth characterized by large pulp chamber and short roots. Patients with multiple taurodontic teeth are associated with the probability of a systemic syndrome or chromosomal anomaly. This is the first reported incidence of the endodontic management of a hyper taurodontic mandibular second molar in a patient diagnosed with 48, XXYY syndrome. PMID:26069418

  8. [Comprehensive endodontic treatment with the use of depo- and galvanophoresis with copper hydroxide-calcium].

    PubMed

    Rumiantsev, V A; Opeshko, V V; Tubaeva, E A; Stapanian, Z V; Chakhkieva, F D; Kop'ev, D A; Ovcharenko, O S

    2007-01-01

    In the blind and randomized study in cases of routine endodontic treatment of 460 teeth in 372 patients high efficacy of additional use of depo- and galvanophoresis with copper hydroxide-calcium according to the technique modified by the authors. PMID:17828063

  9. Indexing of Iranian Publications in Well-known Endodontic Textbooks: A Scientometric Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kakooei, Sina; Mostafavi, Mahshid; Parirokh, Masoud; Asgary, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Quoting an article in well-known textbooks is held as a credit for that paper. The numbers of Iranian publications mentioned in endodontic textbooks have increased during recent years. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the number of Iranian articles quoted in eminent endodontic textbooks. Methods and Materials: Three known textbooks (Ingle’s Endodontics, Seltzer and Bender’s Dental Pulp and Cohen’s Pathways of the Pulp) were chosen and all the editions of the textbooks since 2000 were investigated for quoted Iranian publications. Only Iranian authors with affiliations from a domestic university were chosen. All references at the end of each chapter were read by hand searching, and results were noted. The trend and percentage of Iranian publications in different editions of the textbooks were also calculated. The number of citations of these publications in Google Scholar and Scopus databases were also obtained. Results: The number of Iranian publications in all well-known textbooks have notably increased since 2000. The number and percentage of Iranian publications in the latest edition of Cohen’s Pathways of the Pulp was higher compared to other textbooks as well as the previous edition of the same text. Conclusion: Number and percentage of Iranian publications in the field of endodontics in all three textbooks have remarkably increased since 2000. PMID:27471523

  10. The influence of endodontic broken stainless steel instruments on the urinary levels of iron.

    PubMed

    Saghiri, Mohammad Ali; Asatourian, Armen; Haraji, Afshin; Ramezani, Golam H; Garcia-Godoy, Franklin; Scarbecz, Mark; Sheibani, Nader

    2014-06-01

    Previous studies on the endodontic broken stainless steel instruments have mainly focused on retrieval of specimens. However, the systemic consequences of the retained separated instruments need an investigation. The current study aimed to evaluate the correlation between broken stainless steel instruments inside the root canal space and the urinary level of iron (Fe) in patients. Sixty near-aged and same-gender patients were selected. Thirty patients in the control group had no endodontic treatment in their history, while the other 30 patients in the endodontic group had broken stainless steel instrument. The urine samples were collected in iron-free containers. All specimens were refrigerated for 1 day and then subjected to Fe level measurement by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Data were analyzed by Kolmogorov-Smirnov and t tests at P < 0.05. The correlation coefficients of age and sex were also evaluated in relation with Fe levels in the urine. The level of Fe did not show any significant increase in the experimental group (P > 0.05). There was a positive correlation between age and Fe levels of endodontic and control groups. However, the joint effects of age and sex on Fe levels were different for the two groups. The presence of broken stainless steel instruments inside the root canal space did not elevate the level of Fe in the urine of patients. However, this value was positively correlated with the patient age. PMID:24699830

  11. Patient Demonstration Videos in Predoctoral Endodontic Education: Aspects Perceived as Beneficial by Students.

    PubMed

    Edrees, Hadeel Y; Ohlin, Johan; Ahlquist, Michael; Tessma, Mesfin K; Zary, Nabil

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the perceived benefits of video-mediated demonstrations in learning endodontics. Participants in the study were 75 third-year students enrolled in the undergraduate dentistry program at Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden. After the endodontic preclinical course, the students were introduced to the treatment protocol in the clinic by watching two live patient-demonstrated videos. The first video demonstrated how to communicate with the patient and perform diagnosis and root canal instrumentation. The second video illustrated how to perform bacterial sampling and root canal filling. After the students watched each video, a questionnaire was used to evaluate their opinions about various steps of the endodontic treatment protocol and the benefit of such educational material for their practice. Of the total 75 students, 72 completed the first questionnaire (96% response rate), and 65 completed the second questionnaire (87% response rate). The results showed that the students perceived high value in the video demonstrations related to treatment procedure. A statistically significant difference was observed between the perceived benefits of the first and second sessions in communication and treatment procedure (p<0.001). Further studies are needed to assess improvement in the design and delivery format for video demonstrations to enhance their effectiveness as a teaching modality for endodontics. PMID:26246531

  12. Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis Isolated from Refractory Endodontic Lesions Are Opportunistic Pathogens▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Niazi, Sadia A.; Clarke, Douglas; Do, Thuy; Gilbert, Steven C.; Mannocci, Francesco; Beighton, David

    2010-01-01

    The predominant cultivable microbiota from 20 refractory endodontic lesions (9 with abscesses and 11 without abscesses) were determined, and Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis were among the most predominant organisms. The number of species identified from lesions with abscesses (14.1 ± 2.6) was significantly greater (P < 0.001) than the number from lesions without abscesses (7.4 ± 5.9). Comparison of perioral isolates using repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR of the same species from the same subjects demonstrated that the endodontic and skin populations were significantly different. The P. acnes isolates were typed on the basis of recA gene sequence comparison, and only three types (types I, II, and III) were identified among 125 isolates examined. However, we found that type I (type IA and IB) isolates were primarily isolated from the skin, while types II and III were significantly more likely to be isolated from the endodontic lesions (P < 10−10). We found that the robustness of the recA phylotypes was not strong by comparing the partial gene sequences of six putative virulence determinants, PAmce, PAp60, PA-25957, PA-5541, PA-21293, and PA-4687. The resulting neighbor-joining trees were incongruent, and significant (phi test; P = 2.2 × 10−7) evidence of recombination was demonstrated, with significant phylogenetic heterogeneity being apparent within the clusters. P. acnes and S. epidermidis isolated from refractory endodontic infections, with or without periapical abscesses, are likely to be nosocomial infections. PMID:20739494

  13. The effect of cone beam CT (CBCT) on therapeutic decision-making in endodontics

    PubMed Central

    Knutsson, K; Flygare, L

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The aim was to assess to what extent cone beam CT (CBCT) used in accordance with current European Commission guidelines in a normal clinical setting has an impact on therapeutic decisions in a population referred for endodontic problems. Methods: The study includes data of consecutively examined patients collected from October 2011 to December 2012. From 2 different endodontic specialist clinics, 57 patients were referred for a CBCT examination using criteria in accordance with current European guidelines. The CBCT examinations were performed using similar equipment and standardized among clinics. After a thorough clinical examination, but before CBCT, the examiner made a preliminary therapy plan which was recorded. After the CBCT examination, the same examiner made a new therapy plan. Therapy plans both before and after the CBCT examination were plotted for 53 patients and 81 teeth. As four patients had incomplete protocols, they were not included in the final analysis. Results: 4% of the patients referred to endodontic clinics during the study period were examined with CBCT. The most frequent reason for referral to CBCT examination was to differentiate pathology from normal anatomy, this was the case in 24 patients (45% of the cases). The primary outcome was therapy plan changes that could be attributed to CBCT examination. There were changes in 28 patients (53%). Conclusions: CBCT has a significant impact on therapeutic decision efficacy in endodontics when used in concordance with the current European Commission guidelines. PMID:24766060

  14. Prevalence of apical periodontitis and endodontic treatment in a Kosovar adult population

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Despite numerous studies on the prevalence of apical periodontitis (AP) and endodontic treatment in diverse geographical populations, there are currently no data on the prevalence of these conditions in populations of adults native to Kosovo. Therefore, little is known about how widespread these conditions are, and whether there is any correlation between root canal treatment and AP. The purpose of our research was to address this anomaly by investigating AP and endodontic treatment in an adult Kosovar population based on radiographic examination. Methods The sample used for this study consisted of randomly selected individuals referred to the University Dentistry Clinical Center of Kosovo in the years 2006-2007. Orthopantomographs of 193 patients were evaluated. The periapical status of all teeth (with the exception of third molars) was examined according to Ørstavik's Periapical Index. The quality of the root canal filling was rated as 'adequate' or 'inadequate' based on whether all canals were filled, the depth of fill relative to the radiographic apex and the quality of compaction (absence/presence of voids). Data were analyzed statistically using the Chi-square test and calculation of odds ratios. Results Out of 4131 examined teeth, the prevalence of apical periodontitis (AP) and endodontic treatment was 12.3% and 2.3%, respectively. Of 95 endodontically-treated teeth, 46.3% were associated with AP. The prevalence of AP increased with age. The prevalence in subjects aged over 60 years old (20.2%) was higher than in other age groups. A statistically significant difference was found for the frequency of endodontically-treated teeth associated with AP in the 40-49 year age group (P < 0.001). Of some concern was the discovery that only 30.5% of the endodontically-treated teeth examined met the criteria of an acceptable root canal filling. Inadequately root-filled teeth were associated with an increased AP risk. Conclusions The prevalence of AP and the

  15. Experimental characterization of stress relaxation in glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadali, Hemanth C.

    Glass viscoelasticity has gained importance in recent years as glass lens molding appeared as a valuable alternative to the traditional grinding and polishing process for manufacturing glass lenses. In the precision lens molding process, knowledge of viscoelastic properties of glass in the transition region, which affect the stress relaxation behavior, is required to precisely predict the final size and shape of molded lenses. The purpose of this study is to establish a step-by-step procedure for characterizing the viscoelastic behavior of glass in the glass transition region using a finite term Prony series of a Generalized Maxwell model. This study focuses on viscoelastic characterization of stabilized glass samples at lower stress levels between 3 and 12 MPa where it demonstrates linearity. Analysis and post-processing of creep data, performed in MATLAB and MAPLE, include displacement-to-strain conversion, determination of viscoelastic moments and constants, normalization, curve fitting and retardation-to-relaxation conversion. The process of curve fitting is carried out using a constrained optimization scheme to satisfy the constraint equations involving viscoelastic constants and functions. A set of relaxation parameters needed in numerical modeling, i.e., weights and times of the Prony series are presented in this thesis for borosilicate glass at different temperatures. Additionally, the issues related to the characterization of optical glasses were identified and discussed.

  16. Rigidity and retention of carbon fibre versus stainless steel root canal posts.

    PubMed

    Purton, D G; Love, R M

    1996-07-01

    Two of the main requirements of a root canal post are that it is rigid so as to resist flexing under functional load, and that it is well retained in the root. This study compared these properties in two different 1-mm diameter root canal posts--smooth carbon fibre posts (Endopost) and serrated stainless steel posts (Parapost). Ten posts of each type were tested for rigidity in a three-point bend test. Ten posts of each type were cemented with resin cement into the roots of endodontically treated, extracted teeth. The tensile force required to remove the posts was recorded. The Paraposts proved to be significantly more rigid under load (P < 0.001) and significantly more strongly retained in the tooth roots (P < 0.005). The Parapost appears to be a mechanically superior post for the restoration of root-filled teeth with narrow diameter root canals. PMID:9206443

  17. Cytotoxicity of a novel nano-silver particle endodontic irrigant

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Eric LK; Zhang, Chengfei; Cheung, Gary SP

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic effect of a novel nano-silver particle (25.2±6.5 nm) endodontic irrigant (0.2 mM) and compare it with 3% sodium hypochlorite. Materials and methods Two cell types, mouse fibroblast National Institutes of Health 3T3 (NIH 3T3) and primary human periodontal ligament stem cell (hPDLSCs) were used in a test for the effect of direct and indirect (by separating the agent and cell with a layer of agar) exposure to the two solutions. In the direct exposure experiment, ten groups of cell cultures were exposed to one dilution (3:1, 2:1, 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4, 1:5, 1:6 or 1:7) of a nano-silver irrigant for 48 hours; the concentration-response function was estimated by determining the number of viable cells in each group by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The 50% lethal dose of the testing irrigant for NIH3T3 and hPDLSCs were estimated. In the second part of the experiment, a modified agar overlaying technique was applied. Twelve culture wells (6-well plate) were divided into three groups (n=4). The cell lysis zone (cytotoxic range) created by the stock nano-silver solution, 3% sodium hypochlorite, and an isotonic phosphate buffering saline (control) was measured by two double blinded observers (Kappa score =100%). The cytotoxic score of specific irrigant was derived by modified Sjögren’s method. Results The 50% lethal doses of the testing nano silver irrigant for NIH 3T3 and hPDLSCs after 48 hours of direct exposure were 0.58 and 0.608 dilution of stock solution, respectively. The cytotoxic scores of nano-silver irrigant and control (phosphate buffered saline) on NIH 3T3 were 0.25 (95% confidence interval [CI] =0 to 1.04) and 0 (95% CI =0 to 0); and on hPDLSCs were 0.13 (95% CI =0 to 0.52) and 0.25 (95% CI =0 to 1.04), respectively. Toxicity of the test and control group on both mouse fibroblasts (P>0.05) and hPDLSCs (P=1.00) was not statistically different. Conclusion Our

  18. Diagnosis and treatment of teeth with primary endodontic lesions mimicking periodontal disease: three cases with long-term follow ups

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Jae-Hyung; Lee, Ji-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    A tooth with primary endodontic disease that demonstrates a periodontal defect might be extracted because of misdiagnosis as severe periodontal disease or a vertical root fracture. The aim of this case report was to demonstrate the long-term survival of endodontically treated teeth, which had been initially considered unsavable. With meticulous evaluation including the patient's dental history, clinical and radiographic examinations, teeth with primary endodontic lesions could be differentiated and saved after proper root canal treatment. Pain history, vitality test, and radiographic examinations, as well as a general periodontal condition check with periodontal probing on an affected tooth, might be the key methods to differentiate endodontic pathosis from that of periodontal disease. PMID:24516831

  19. Evaluation of Contact Friction in Fracture of Rotationally Bent Nitinol Endodontic Files

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haimed, Tariq Abu

    2011-12-01

    The high flexibility of rotary Nitinol (Ni-Ti) files has helped clinicians perform root canal treatments with fewer technical errors than seen with stainless steel files. However, intracanal file fracture can occur, compromising the outcome of the treatment. Ni-Ti file fracture incidence is roughly around 4% amongst specialists and higher amongst general practitioners. Therefore, eliminating or reducing this problem should improve patient care. The aim of this project was to isolate and examine the role of friction between files and the canal walls of the glass tube model, and bending-related maximum strain amplitudes, on Ni-Ti file lifetimes-tofracture in the presence of different irrigant solutions and file coatings. A specifically designed device was used to test over 300 electropolished EndoSequenceRTM Ni-Ti files for number of cycles to failure (NCF) in smooth, bent glass tube models at 45 and 60 degrees during dry, coated and liquid-lubricated rotation at 600rpm. Fractured files were examined under Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) afterwards. Four different file sizes 25.04, 25.06, 35.04, 35.06 (diameter in mm/taper %) and six surface modification conditions were used independently. These conditions included, three solutions; (1) a surfactant-based solution, Surface-Active-Displacement-Solution (SADS), (2) a mouth wash proven to remove biofilms, Delmopinol 1%(DEL), and (3) Bleach 6% (vol.%), the most common antibacterial endodontic irrigant solution. The conditions also included two low-friction silane-based coating groups, 3-Hepta-fluoroisopropyl-propoxymethyl-dichlorosilane (3-HEPT) and Octadecyltrichlorosilane (ODS), in addition to an as-received file control group (Dry). The coefficient of friction (CF) between the file and the canal walls for each condition was measured as well as the surface tension of the irrigant solutions and the critical surface tension of the coated and uncoated files by contact angle measurements. The radius of curvature and

  20. Glass Mica Composite Seals for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, Y S.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Singh, Prabhakar

    2005-07-20

    A novel glass-mica composite seal was developed based on the previous concept of ''infiltrated'' mica seals for solid oxide fuel cells. A Ba-Al-Ca silicate sealing glass was mixed with mica flakes to form the glass-mica composite seals. The glass-mica composite seals were tested thermal cycle stability in terms of the high temperature leakage and compressive stresses. Post mortem analyses were used to characterize the fracture and leak path of the glass-mica composite seals.

  1. Methyl mercaptan and hydrogen sulfide products stimulate proinflammatory cytokines in patients with necrotic pulp tissue and endodontically treated teeth.

    PubMed

    Jacobi-Gresser, E; Schütt, S; Huesker, K; Von Baehr, V

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial infections of the residual dentin or infected pulp tissue are responsible for most cases of endodontic treatment failures. Persisting microorganisms in necrotic pulp tissue produce sulphur components such as methyl mercaptan and hydrogen sulfide as well as thioether derivatives. Although there is emerging evidence that these sulphur compounds stimulate immune cells and induce the inflammatory cascade, the immunological mechanisms of local and systemic inflammation have not been described. In this retrospective study we evaluated the ex-vivo immune response of peripheral blood mononuclear cells to sulphur compounds in 53 patients with clinical or radiologic endodontic treatment failure, 20 patients with clinical discomfort or radiological findings without previous endodontic treatment and a control group of 31 patients who had received successful endodontic treatment at least five years previously. Patients with endodontic abnormalities showed significantly higher ex-vivo sulphur compound-stimulated interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) levels as compared to the control group. The association between ex-vivo-stimulated cytokines and endodontically derived sulphur compounds was further substantiated by the fact that the number of IFN-γ and/or IL-10-positive patients decreased significantly 3-8 months after re-treatment of the root canal or tooth extraction. Furthermore, serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) levels were higher in patients than in controls, and at the same time, the TNFA -308 G/A polymorphism was associated with endodontic treatment failure in our study population. We conclude that a cellular immune response to sulphur compounds contributes to the inflammatory process observed in relation to endodontic treatment failures. PMID:25864743

  2. Identification and Endodontic Management of Middle Mesial Canal in Mandibular Second Molar Using Cone Beam Computed Tomography.

    PubMed

    Paul, Bonny; Dube, Kavita

    2015-01-01

    Endodontic treatments are routinely done with the help of radiographs. However, radiographs represent only a two-dimensional image of an object. Failure to identify aberrant anatomy can lead to endodontic failure. This case report presents the use of three-dimensional imaging with cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) as an adjunct to digital radiography in identification and management of mandibular second molar with three mesial canals. PMID:26664763

  3. Identification and Endodontic Management of Middle Mesial Canal in Mandibular Second Molar Using Cone Beam Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Bonny; Dube, Kavita

    2015-01-01

    Endodontic treatments are routinely done with the help of radiographs. However, radiographs represent only a two-dimensional image of an object. Failure to identify aberrant anatomy can lead to endodontic failure. This case report presents the use of three-dimensional imaging with cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) as an adjunct to digital radiography in identification and management of mandibular second molar with three mesial canals. PMID:26664763

  4. CRYSTALLIZATION IN MULTICOMPONENT GLASSES

    SciTech Connect

    KRUGER AA; HRMA PR

    2009-10-08

    In glass processing situations involving glass crystallization, various crystalline forms nucleate, grow, and dissolve, typically in a nonuniform temperature field of molten glass subjected to convection. Nuclear waste glasses are remarkable examples of multicomponent vitrified mixtures involving partial crystallization. In the glass melter, crystals form and dissolve during batch-to-glass conversion, melter processing, and product cooling. Crystals often agglomerate and sink, and they may settle at the melter bottom. Within the body of cooling glass, multiple phases crystallize in a non-uniform time-dependent temperature field. Self-organizing periodic distribution (the Liesegnang effect) is common. Various crystallization phenomena that occur in glass making are reviewed.

  5. Strength of inorganic glass

    SciTech Connect

    Kurkjian, C.R.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents information on the following topics: a look at the history of glass strength; atomistic theory of fracture; surface chemistry in relation to the strength and fracture of silicate glasses; high-speed photographic investigations of the dynamic localized loading of some oxide glasses; a correction for measurements of contact area using Newton's rings; envionmentally enhanced crack growth; fatigue in glass; behavior of flaws in fused silica fibers; fracture toughness of chalcogenide glasses and glass-ceramics; fracture analysis of glass surfaces; and fracture mechanics parameters for glasses - a compilation and correlation.

  6. IMPACT STRENGTH OF GLASS AND GLASS CERAMIC

    SciTech Connect

    Bless, S.; Tolman, J.

    2009-12-28

    Strength of glass and glass ceramic was measured with a bar impact technique. High-speed movies show regions of tensile and compressive failure. The borosilicate glass had a compressive strength of at least 2.2 GPa, and the glass ceramic at least 4 GPa. However, the BSG was much stronger in tension than GC. In ballistic tests, the BSG was the superior armor.

  7. Cytotoxicity and biocompatibility of Zirconia (Y-TZP) posts with various dental cements

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Hyeongsoon; Ko, Hyunjung

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Endodontically treated teeth with insufficient tooth structure are often restored with esthetic restorations. This study evaluated the cytotoxicity and biological effects of yttria partially stabilized zirconia (Y-TZP) blocks in combination with several dental cements. Materials and Methods Pairs of zirconia cylinders with medium alone or cemented with three types of dental cement including RelyX U200 (3M ESPE), FujiCEM 2 (GC), and Panavia F 2.0 (Kuraray) were incubated in medium for 14 days. The cytotoxicity of each supernatant was determined using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays on L929 fibroblasts and MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts. The levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) mRNA were evaluated by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and IL-6 protein was evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). The data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey post-hoc tests. A p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results The MTT assays showed that MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts were more susceptible to dental cements than L929 fibroblasts. The resin based dental cements increased IL-6 expression in L929 cells, but reduced IL-6 expression in MC3T3-E1 cells. Conclusions Zirconia alone or blocks cemented with dental cement showed acceptable biocompatibilities. The results showed resin-modified glass-ionomer based cement less produced inflammatory cytokines than other self-adhesive resin-based cements. Furthermore, osteoblasts were more susceptible than fibroblasts to the biological effects of dental cement. PMID:27508157

  8. Effect of Intra-Orifice Barriers on the Fracture Resistance of Endodontically Treated Teeth – An Ex-Vivo Study

    PubMed Central

    Aboobaker, Shaheen; Gopal, Rajesh; Jituri, Sandeep; Veetil, Fazalu Rahman Pothu

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the fracture resistance of roots obturated with guttapercha using bonded amalgam, GC Light cure GIC (resin modified glass ionomer cement) and Tetric N Flow (flowable hybrid composite) as different intra orifice barriers. Materials and Methods: Eighty freshly extracted mandibular premolars with straight roots were reduced to 14 mm from the coronal aspect. All canals were enlarged to size 30 and specimens were obturated with gutta percha cones, except for control group specimens the coronal 3 mm of root fillings of all other group specimens were removed with the aid of heated plugger. All samples were randomly divided into 4 groups of 20 specimens each. They were control, Fuji GC LC GIC, Tetric N Flow and Bonded Amalgam. After the placement of the intra orifice barrier materials, specimens stored at 37oC and 100% humidity for one week to allow the materials to set completely. After one week, all the groups were subjected to fracture resistance testing by using Universal testing machine. Results: Data was analysed for significance by ANOVA (Analysis of variance) and further pair wise comparison was performed by Benferroni test. Level of significance was taken as 0.05. Tetric N Flow group showed better fracture resistance as compared to all other groups and Control group is least among the groups. Fracture resistance of Tetric N Flow compared with bonded amalgam was statistically significant. Conclusion: Tetric N Flow and Fuji GC LC GIC can be used as intra-orifice barriers with good fracture resistance in endodontically treated teeth. PMID:25859518

  9. Glass breaking strength: The role of surface flaws and treatments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, D.

    1985-01-01

    Although the intrinsic strength of silicon dioxide glass is of the order of 10 to the 6th power lb/sq in, the practical strength is roughly two orders of magnitude below this theoretical limit, and depends almost entirely on the surface condition of the glass, that is, the number and size of flaws and the residual surface compression (temper) in the glass. Glass parts always fail in tension when these flaws grow under sustained loading to some critical size. Research associated with glass encapsulated crystalline-Si photovoltaic (PV) modules has greatly expanded our knowledge of glass breaking strength and developed sizeable data base for commercially available glass types. A detailed design algorithm is developed for thickness sizing of rectangular glass plates subject to pressure loads. Additional studies examine the strength of glass under impact loading conditions such as that caused by hail. Although the fundamentals of glass breakage are directly applicable to thin film modules, the fracture strength of typical numerical glass must be replaced with data that reflect the high temperature tin oxide processing, laser scribing, and edge processing peculiar to thin film modules. The fundamentals of glass breakage applicable to thin film modules and preliminary fracture strength data for a variety of 1 ft square glass specimens representing preprocessed and post processed sheets from current amorphous-Si module manufacturers are presented.

  10. Chemical Principles Revisited: The Chemistry of Glass.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolb, Doris; Kolb, Kenneth E.

    1979-01-01

    Presents a detailed discussion on the chemistry of glass. Topics discussed include: natural glass, early history, modern glass composition, raw materials for glass melting, chemically modified glasses, modern glass forming, glass ceramics, and new developments in glass research. (BT)

  11. Evaluation of pigmented intraorifice barriers in endodontically treated teeth.

    PubMed

    Wolcott, J F; Hicks, M L; Himel, V T

    1999-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of three pigmented glass ionomer cements used as intraorifice barriers to prevent coronal microleakage. One hundred ten extracted mandibular human premolars were divided into four experimental groups of 25 teeth each and two control groups of 5 teeth each. The experimental teeth were instrumented and obturated using thermoplasticized gutta-percha and AH26 sealer. Group 1 teeth received no further treatment. Teeth in groups 2 through 4 had 1 of 3 pigmented glass ionomers (Vitrebond, GC America, and Ketac-Bond) placed as an intraorifice barrier. Positive control teeth were instrumented but not obturated. The negative control teeth were instrumented, obturated, and externally sealed with epoxy resin. The coronal 3 mm of each root was sealed into the lumen of an 18-mm segment of latex surgical tubing. After the apparatus was sterilized, 2.0 ml of a 24 h growth of Proteus vulgaris in trypticase soy broth (TSB) was placed in the coronal reservoir of the tooth. The inoculated apparatus was placed into a presterilized test tube containing 1.5 ml of TSB and incubated for 90 days at 37 degrees C. The TSB in the lower reservoir was observed daily for turbidity, which would indicate leakage along the full length of the obturated root canal. To determine if differences in microbial leakage occurred among the four experimental groups, Pearson's chi 2 and Fisher's exact tests were performed. The confidence level was set at 95%. The positive and negative controls validated the microbial testing method. The teeth without an intraorifice barrier leaked significantly more than teeth with Vitrebond intraorifice barriers (p < 0.05). The difference in leakage among the experimental glass ionomer barriers was not significant (p > 0.05). PMID:10687533

  12. Repairing cracked glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helman, D. D.; Holt, J. W.; Smiser, L. V.

    1979-01-01

    Filing procedure consisting of machined lightweight fused-silica tiles coated with thin-layer of borosilicate glass produces homogeneous seal in thin glass. Procedure is useful in repairing glass envelopes, X-ray tub windows, Dewar flasks, and similar thin glass objects.

  13. Inverted glass harp.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Daniel B; Rosenberg, Brian J

    2015-08-01

    We present an analytical treatment of the acoustics of liquid-filled wine glasses, or "glass harps." The solution is generalized such that under certain assumptions it reduces to previous glass harp models, but also leads to a proposed musical instrument, the "inverted glass harp," in which an empty glass is submerged in a liquid-filled basin. The versatility of the solution demonstrates that all glass harps are governed by a family of solutions to Laplace's equation around a vibrating disk. Tonal analyses of recordings for a sample glass are offered as confirmation of the scaling predictions. PMID:26382336

  14. Inverted glass harp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, Daniel B.; Rosenberg, Brian J.

    2015-08-01

    We present an analytical treatment of the acoustics of liquid-filled wine glasses, or "glass harps." The solution is generalized such that under certain assumptions it reduces to previous glass harp models, but also leads to a proposed musical instrument, the "inverted glass harp," in which an empty glass is submerged in a liquid-filled basin. The versatility of the solution demonstrates that all glass harps are governed by a family of solutions to Laplace's equation around a vibrating disk. Tonal analyses of recordings for a sample glass are offered as confirmation of the scaling predictions.

  15. [Accidental injection sodium hypochlorite during endodontic therapy. Better understand to better manage].

    PubMed

    Ben Rejeb, H; Douki, N

    2015-09-01

    The high frequency of iatrogenic incidents during endodontic treatment is a source of stress for the practitioner. These incidents may occur during the different steps of a root canal treatment. During irrigation, extrusion of sodium hypochlorite beyond the apex is a rare but impressive accident. Sodium hypochlorite, is the most common irrigant used in modern endodontics, but when it comes in contact with the periapical tissue, it can cause complications ranging from mild discomfort to serious tissue damage such as the hematoma and hemato-emphysema. The aims of this article are to discuss through the presentation of two clinical cases: Etiological and predisposing factors; Signs guiding to suspicion of accidental injection of sodium hypochlorite. In this work, we focused on clinical keys that help the practitioner in better understanding this accident in order to prevent it or to manage it well when it occurs. PMID:26930773

  16. Morphological analysis of tissue reaction caused by a new endodontic paste in subcutaneous tissue of rats

    PubMed Central

    Marques, André AF; Sponchiado, Emilio C; Garcia, Lucas FR; Garrido, Angela DB; França, Suzelei C; Lia, Raphael CC

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To assess the biocompatibility of an experimental endodontic paste based on the ethyl acetate fraction of Pothomorphe umbellata + calcium hydroxide, using propylene glycol as vehicle, in connective tissue of rats. Materials and Methods: Fifteen rats had four polyethylene tubes implanted in their backs, with each one containing the experimental paste. The tube side was considered the control group. After 7, 21, and 42 days, animals were euthanized. Results: Intense inflammatory reaction was noticed after 7 days for experimental paste and it was moderate for control group. At 21 days, the inflammatory reaction was moderate for experimental paste and discrete for control group; and at 42 days, it was discrete for experimental paste and control group. Statistical analysis (Dunn's test, P < 0.01) demonstrated significant difference between the fibrous capsule area at 7 and 42 days (P > 0.01) for experimental paste. Conclusions: Experimental endodontic paste presented satisfactory tissue reaction in the connective tissue of rats. PMID:22025840

  17. Endodontic management of mandibular first molar with seven canals using cone-beam computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Banode, Ankur Mahesh; Gade, Vandana; Patil, Sanjay; Gade, Jaykumar

    2016-01-01

    The endodontic treatment of a mandibular molar with aberrant canal configuration can be diagnostically and clinically challenging. Successful endodontic therapy thus depends on the clinician's ability to anticipate and look for these aberrant variations. A mandibular first molar with seven canals represents a rare anatomical variant, particularly when four canals are found in distal root. Based on in vitro studies, its incidence is reported to be between 0.2% and 3%. With the advent of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) as an adjunctive diagnostic aid, the determination of root canal anatomy in teeth with complex canal configurations has become more precise. The present case report discusses successful nonsurgical management of radix entomolaris along with middle mesial canal and middle distal canal in mandibular first molar with seven canals (four canals in distal and three in mesial) employing CBCT as an adjunctive diagnostic aid to conventional radiography. PMID:27307680

  18. [Endodontic re-treatment or apical surgery, is an evidence-based choice possible?].

    PubMed

    de Lange, J

    2016-02-01

    Treatment of a recurrence after an initial endodontic treatment can consist of endodontic re-treatment or apical surgery. The literature reports comparable success rates for these two options. However, randomised controlled trials that are truly comparable to each other are unavailable as a result of which comparison and an informed choice are not really possible. In addition to the treatment outcome, consideration also has to be given to cost-effectiveness and other patient-related factors, such as pain, swelling and medication. Regarding these considerations, too, little reliable information can be found in the literature. Moreover, factors relating to insurance play an important role in the Netherlands, where only apical surgery is covered by the basic healthcare insurance. In conclusion, all of these factors should be carefully considered before proceeding to an individual treatment strategy. PMID:26878715

  19. Use of a new retrograde filling material (Biodentine) for endodontic surgery: two case reports.

    PubMed

    Caron, Grégory; Azérad, Jean; Faure, Marie-Odile; Machtou, Pierre; Boucher, Yves

    2014-12-01

    Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) is considered at the present time as the gold standard for root-end filling in endodontic surgery. However, this biocompatible material presents several drawbacks such as a long setting time and handling difficulties. The aim of this article is to present a new commercialized calcium silicate-based material named Biodentine with physical improved properties compared to MTA in a clinical application. Two endodontic microsurgeries were performed by using specific armamentarium (microsurgical instrumentation, ultrasonic tips) under high-power magnification with an operatory microscope. Biodentine was used as a root-end filling in order to seal the root canal system. The two cases were considered completely healed at 1 year and were followed for one more year. The 2-year follow-up consolidated the previous observation with absence of clinical symptoms and radiographic evidence of regeneration of the periapical tissues. PMID:24810806

  20. Endodontic management of mandibular first molar with seven canals using cone-beam computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Banode, Ankur Mahesh; Gade, Vandana; Patil, Sanjay; Gade, Jaykumar

    2016-01-01

    The endodontic treatment of a mandibular molar with aberrant canal configuration can be diagnostically and clinically challenging. Successful endodontic therapy thus depends on the clinician's ability to anticipate and look for these aberrant variations. A mandibular first molar with seven canals represents a rare anatomical variant, particularly when four canals are found in distal root. Based on in vitro studies, its incidence is reported to be between 0.2% and 3%. With the advent of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) as an adjunctive diagnostic aid, the determination of root canal anatomy in teeth with complex canal configurations has become more precise. The present case report discusses successful nonsurgical management of radix entomolaris along with middle mesial canal and middle distal canal in mandibular first molar with seven canals (four canals in distal and three in mesial) employing CBCT as an adjunctive diagnostic aid to conventional radiography. PMID:27307680

  1. A Review of the Properties and Applications of Ozone in Endodontics: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Zahed; Shalavi, Sousan; Soltani, Mohammad Karim; Asgary, Saeed

    2013-01-01

    Ozone is a triatomic molecule consisting of three oxygen atoms. It is applied to oral tissues in the forms of ozonated water, ozonated olive oil and oxygen/ozone gas. This paper presents a brief review on the chemistry of ozone as well as its medical and dental applications focusing on its use in endodontics. Ozone’s antimicrobial activity, its effect on dentin bonding, toxicity and contra-indications are also reviewed. PMID:23717326

  2. Finite Element Analysis of a Copper Single Crystal Shape Memory Alloy-Based Endodontic Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincent, Marin; Thiebaud, Frédéric; Bel Haj Khalifa, Saifeddine; Engels-Deutsch, Marc; Ben Zineb, Tarak

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the present paper is the development of endodontic Cu-based single crystal Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) instruments in order to eliminate the antimicrobial and mechanical deficiencies observed with the conventional Nickel-Titane (NiTi) SMA files. A thermomechanical constitutive law, already developed and implemented in a finite element code by our research group, is adopted for the simulation of the single crystal SMA behavior. The corresponding material parameters were identified starting from experimental results for a tensile test at room temperature. A computer-aided design geometry has been achieved and considered for a finite element structural analysis of the endodontic Cu-based single crystal SMA files. They are meshed with tetrahedral continuum elements to improve the computation time and the accuracy of results. The geometric parameters tested in this study are the length of the active blade, the rod length, the pitch, the taper, the tip diameter, and the rod diameter. For each set of adopted parameters, a finite element model is built and tested in a combined bending-torsion loading in accordance with ISO 3630-1 norm. The numerical analysis based on finite element procedure allowed purposing an optimal geometry suitable for Cu-based single crystal SMA endodontic files. The same analysis was carried out for the classical NiTi SMA files and a comparison was made between the two kinds of files. It showed that Cu-based single crystal SMA files are less stiff than the NiTi files. The Cu-based endodontic files could be used to improve the root canal treatments. However, the finite element analysis brought out the need for further investigation based on experiments.

  3. Pathogenic Bacterial Species Associated with Endodontic Infection Evade Innate Immune Control by Disabling Neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Matsui, Aritsune; Jin, Jun-O; Johnston, Christopher D.; Yamazaki, Hajime; Houri-Haddad, Yael

    2014-01-01

    Endodontic infections, in which oral bacteria access the tooth pulp chamber, are common and do not resolve once established. To investigate the effects of these infections on the innate immune response, we established a mouse subcutaneous chamber model, where a mixture of four oral pathogens commonly associated with these infections (endodontic pathogens [EP]), i.e., Fusobacterium nucleatum, Streptococcus intermedius, Parvimonas micra, and Prevotella intermedia, was inoculated into subcutaneously implanted titanium chambers. Cells that infiltrated the chamber after these infections were primarily neutrophils; however, these neutrophils were unable to control the infection. Infection with a nonpathogenic oral bacterial species, Streptococcus mitis, resulted in well-controlled infection, with bacterial numbers reduced by 4 to 5 log units after 7 days. Propidium iodide (PI) staining of the chamber neutrophils identified three distinct populations: neutrophils from EP-infected chambers were intermediate in PI staining, while cells in chambers from mice infected with S. mitis were PI positive (apoptotic) or negative (live). Strikingly, neutrophils from EP-infected chambers were severely impaired in their ability to phagocytose and to generate reactive oxygen species in vitro after removal from the chamber compared to cells from S. mitis-infected chambers. The mechanism of neutrophil impairment was necrotic cell death as determined by morphological analyses. P. intermedia alone could induce a similar neutrophil phenotype. We conclude that the endodontic pathogens, particularly P. intermedia, can efficiently disable and kill infiltrating neutrophils, allowing these infections to become established. These results can help explain the persistence of endodontic infections and demonstrate a new virulence mechanism associated with P. intermedia. PMID:25024367

  4. Development and Evaluation of an Endodontic Simulation Model for Dental Students.

    PubMed

    Wolgin, Michael; Wiedemann, Paul; Frank, Wilhelm; Wrbas, Karl-Thomas; Kielbassa, Andrej M

    2015-11-01

    The aims of this study were to develop an endodontic simulation model able to implement the electronic method of working length determination (electronic apex locators, EALs) in a dental school, to evaluate the practicality of this tool for dental students, and to compare the accuracy of working length measurements achieved by the EAL and the radiographic method. A new simulation model was constructed by embedding extracted human teeth in a self-cured resin, along with a conductive medium. After radiographic and electronic working length determinations, root canal instrumentation was performed by students at a dental school in Austria according to the working lengths obtained from the EAL. Subsequently, root apices (n=44) were longitudinally sectioned using a diamond coated bur. Measurements of the distance between the anatomical root apex (ARA) and the apical constriction (AC) as well as between ARA and the ascertained apical point of endodontic instrumentation were performed using digital photography and a 3D computer-assisted design software. The distance between ARA and the radiologic (ARA-R) or electrometric (ARA-EL) readings of the apical point of endodontic instrumentation was compared with the actual distance ARA-AC. The accuracy of both methods was determined. The difference between the actual distance ARA-AC and the targeted radiological distance was statistically significant (p=0.0001), as was the measured distance between ARA-R and ARA-EL (p=0.016). The electronic method seems to be more precisely referring to the AC (R(2)=0.0198) than the radiographic method (R(2)=0.0019). These results suggest that the endodontic simulation model described in this study can be successfully used in preclinical dental education. PMID:26522643

  5. Retrieval of a broken endodontic instrument using cyanoacrylate adhesive. Case report.

    PubMed

    Coutinho Filho, T; Krebs, R L; Berlinck, T C; Galindo, R G

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to report a clinical case of removal of a fractured endodontic instrument in the root canal of a maxillary molar, when part of this fragment extended through the apical foramen. In the present case, many methods were tried without satisfactory results. Therefore, an alternative device utilizing cyanoacrylate adhesive was tested with success. This method proved to be practical, and the advantages it offers should make it a useful device in the dentist's office. PMID:9835806

  6. Regenerative Endodontic Treatment: Report of Two Cases with Different Clinical Management and Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Khoshkhounejad, Mehrfam; Shokouhinejad, Noushin

    2015-01-01

    Endodontic intervention in necrotic immature permanent teeth is usually a clinical challenge. With appropriate case selection, regenerative treatment can be effective, providing a desirable outcome. However, there is still no consensus on the optimal disinfection protocol or the method to achieve predictable clinical outcome. This article presents two cases of regenerative treatment in necrotic immature teeth, using mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and BiodentineTM as coronal barriers and different irrigants, which led to different clinical outcomes. PMID:26884781

  7. Regenerative Endodontic Treatment: Report of Two Cases with Different Clinical Management and Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Khoshkhounejad, Mehrfam; Shokouhinejad, Noushin; Pirmoazen, Salma

    2015-06-01

    Endodontic intervention in necrotic immature permanent teeth is usually a clinical challenge. With appropriate case selection, regenerative treatment can be effective, providing a desirable outcome. However, there is still no consensus on the optimal disinfection protocol or the method to achieve predictable clinical outcome. This article presents two cases of regenerative treatment in necrotic immature teeth, using mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and Biodentine(TM) as coronal barriers and different irrigants, which led to different clinical outcomes. PMID:26884781

  8. Antimicrobial action of calcium hydroxide-based endodontic sealers after setting, against E. faecalis biofilm.

    PubMed

    Rezende, Gabriely Cristinni; Massunari, Loiane; Queiroz, India Olinta de Azevedo; Gomes Filho, João Eduardo; Jacinto, Rogério Castilho; Lodi, Carolina Simonetti; Dezan Junior, Elói

    2016-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis are gram positive bacteria that can mostly resist endodontic therapy, inducing persistent infection in the root canal system. Endodontic sealers with antimicrobial activity may help eliminate residual microorganisms that survive endodontic treatment. The present study aimed at comparing the antimicrobial activity of Acroseal, Sealapex and AH Plus endodontic sealers in an in vitro biofilm model. Bovine dentin specimens (144) were prepared, and twelve blocks for each sealer and each experimental time point (2, 7 and 14 days) were placed and left in contact with plates containing inoculum of E. faecalis (ATCC 51299), to induce biofilm formation. After 14 days, the samples were transferred to another plate with test sealers and kept at 37°C and 5% CO2 for 2, 7 and 14 days. The specimens without sealers were used as a control for each period. The samples were agitated in a sonicator after each experiment. The suspensions were agitated in a vortex mixer, serially diluted in saline, and triple plated onto m-Enterococcus agar. Colonyforming units were counted, and the data were statistically analyzed using ANOVA, Shapiro-Wilk and Kruskal-Wallis one-way tests (p < 0.05) to determine antimicrobial potential. Sealapex showed significant differences at all the experimental time points, in comparison with all the other groups. AH Plus and Acroseal showed antimicrobial activity only on the 14th experimental day. Neither of the sealers tested were able to completely eliminate the biofilm. Sealapex showed the highest antimicrobial activity in all the experimental periods. The antimicrobial activity of all the sealers analyzed increased over time. PMID:26981759

  9. Iatrogenic Damage to the Periodontium Caused by Endodontic Treatment Procedures: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Aishwarya; Sirajuddin, Syed; Prabhu, Sandeep S; Chungkham, Sachidananda; Bilichodmath, Chandrasekhar

    2015-01-01

    The tooth, the pulp tissue within it and its supporting structures should be viewed as one biologic unit. The interrelationship of these structures influences each other during health, function and disease. The interrelationship between periodontal and endodontic diseases has aroused much speculation, confusion and controversy. The endodontium and periodontiumare closely related and disease or damage of one tissue may lead to the involvement of the other. PMID:26312090

  10. 46 CFR 97.11-1 - Posting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS OPERATIONS Stability Letter § 97.11-1 Posting. If a stability letter is issued under § 170.120 of this chapter, it must be posted under glass or other suitable transparent material in the pilothouse of the vessel....

  11. 46 CFR 196.12-1 - Posting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS OPERATIONS Stability Letter § 196.12-1 Posting. If a stability letter is issued in accordance with the requirements in § 170.120 of this chapter, it must be posted under glass or other suitable transparent material in the pilothouse...

  12. 46 CFR 97.11-1 - Posting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS OPERATIONS Stability Letter § 97.11-1 Posting. If a stability letter is issued under § 170.120 of this chapter, it must be posted under glass or other suitable transparent material in the pilothouse of the vessel....

  13. 46 CFR 196.12-1 - Posting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS OPERATIONS Stability Letter § 196.12-1 Posting. If a stability letter is issued in accordance with the requirements in § 170.120 of this chapter, it must be posted under glass or other suitable transparent material in the pilothouse...

  14. 46 CFR 196.12-1 - Posting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS OPERATIONS Stability Letter § 196.12-1 Posting. If a stability letter is issued in accordance with the requirements in § 170.120 of this chapter, it must be posted under glass or other suitable transparent material in the pilothouse...

  15. 46 CFR 97.11-1 - Posting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS OPERATIONS Stability Letter § 97.11-1 Posting. If a stability letter is issued under § 170.120 of this chapter, it must be posted under glass or other suitable transparent material in the pilothouse of the vessel....

  16. 46 CFR 196.12-1 - Posting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS OPERATIONS Stability Letter § 196.12-1 Posting. If a stability letter is issued in accordance with the requirements in § 170.120 of this chapter, it must be posted under glass or other suitable transparent material in the pilothouse...

  17. 46 CFR 97.11-1 - Posting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS OPERATIONS Stability Letter § 97.11-1 Posting. If a stability letter is issued under § 170.120 of this chapter, it must be posted under glass or other suitable transparent material in the pilothouse of the vessel....

  18. Endodontic complications in teeth with vital pulps restored with composite resins: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Dawson, V S; Amjad, S; Fransson, H

    2015-07-01

    Composite resin is used extensively for restoration of teeth with vital pulps. Although cell culture studies have disclosed harmful effects on pulpal cells, any untoward clinical effects, manifest as adverse pulpal responses, have yet to be determined. This study comprises a systematic review, designed to address the question of whether the risk of endodontic complications is greater with composite resin restorations than with other restorative materials, such as amalgam. The study methodology involved (i) formulation of the research question, (ii) construction and conduct of an extensive literature search with (iii) interpretation and assessment of the retrieved literature. A search of the medical database PubMed was complemented with a search of the Controlled Trials Register (CENTRAL). The initial search yielded 1043 publications, the abstracts of which were read independently by the authors. After additional searches, 10 studies were included in the review. In all the included studies, the level of evidence was assessed as low. No conclusions could therefore be drawn. The included studies reported few, if any, endodontic complications. Little or no differences emerged between teeth restored with composite resins and those restored with amalgam. To determine whether composite resin restorations of teeth with vital pulps are associated with an increased risk for development of endodontic complications such as apical periodontitis, further evidence is needed, from well-constructed studies with a large number of participants. PMID:25100025

  19. Patients’ Perceptions of Endodontic Treatment as Part of Public Health Services: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Melgaço-Costa, José Leonardo Barbosa; Martins, Renata Castro; Ferreira, Efigênia Ferreira; Sobrinho, Antônio Paulino Ribeiro

    2016-01-01

    Evaluations by patients constitute an important part of the process of improving health services. This study examined patients’ perceptions of secondary dental care in three cities in Minas Gerais, Brazil based on the endodontic treatment received. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews (addressing access, treatment and results) and a field diary (direct observations and report of professionals). The interviews were audiotaped, fully transcribed, and analyzed using content analysis. Two principal themes were identified: access to service and quality of service. The difficulties in accessing service were associated with the insufficient number of professionals to meet the high demand for endodontic treatment, problems in referring from primary to secondary care and geographic barriers. Service quality was related to the presence/absence of pain and anxiety that patients experienced, the time and number of sessions required to complete treatment, how patients were treated by dentists, and whether those patients would recommend the service to other patients. Access to endodontic treatment was a problem emphasized by users, and satisfaction with the quality of the service was more related to how patients were treated than to the technical competence of the dentist. PMID:27128932

  20. Comparison of the Success Rate of Endodontic Treatment and Implant Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Elemam, Ranya Faraj; Pretty, Iain

    2011-01-01

    Dentists and patients are facing a perplexity between saving a compromised tooth through endodontic treatment and restoration or by extraction and replacement with an implant. The purpose of this paper was to compare the success rates of these two treatments. Success was measured as the longevity of the tooth or implant. Studies which met strict inclusion criteria to ensure best evidence were included. Searches were performed in Ovid Medline, Pubmed, Scopus database, and the Cochrane Library. Evidence-based groups were formed following the assessment of inclusion/exclusion criteria. The overall success rates for primary endodontic, nonsurgical retreatment, and surgical treatment were (86.02%), (78.2%), and (63.4%), respectively, implants was 90.9%. In conclusion, choice between implant and endodontic therapy cannot be exclusively based on outcome as both treatments differ in the biological process, diagnostic modalities, failure patterns, and patients preferences. More research is required with improved study designs before long-term success rates can be compared. PMID:21991484

  1. Prevalence of Rubber Dam Usage during Endodontic Procedure: A Questionnaire Survey

    PubMed Central

    G, Shashirekha; Maity, Asim Bikash; Panda, Pankaj Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To determine the prevalence and frequency of rubber dam usage for endodontic procedures among general practitioners, specialized practitioners, undergraduate final year students and Endodontists in the state of Odisha, India. Methodology: A pre-piloted questionnaire was distributed among 737 subjects. Dentists and final year students were surveyed in relation to their prevalence of rubber dam usage. Statistical Analysis Used: Chi-square/ Fisher Exact tests have been used to find the significance of study parameters on categorical scale between two or more groups. Results: Overall response rate was 71%. While about 94% of the subjects knew the use of rubber dam, 30% have used it for root canal cases and 23% use them for all cases of root canal treatment. Use of rubber dam was 15.4% in paediatric patients and 34.4% in adult patients. 68% of subjects received knowledge about rubber dam usage in undergraduate school. 75% felt that rubber dam should be compulsory before endodontic treatment & 90% were willing to gain knowledge through training and continuing dental education programs. Conclusion: Whilst rubber dam is used frequently for root canal treatment than operative treatment, in the present survey there is a low prevalence of its usage during endodontic therapy. This presents quality issues, as well as medico-legal and safety concerns for the professional and patients alike. Greater emphasis should be placed on the advantages of using rubber dam in clinical dentistry at dental school and through continuing dental education for practitioners to update their knowledge. PMID:25121053

  2. Potential of calcium to scaffold an endodontic biofilm, thus protecting the micro-organisms from disinfection.

    PubMed

    van der Waal, Suzette V; van der Sluis, Lucas W M

    2012-07-01

    Biofilms in the root canal of a tooth (endodontic biofilm) can induce and sustain apical periodontitis which is an oral inflammatory disease. Still, little is known about the composition of the endodontic biofilm. Studies on biofilms in root canals focus on the identification of the microbial species, but the majority of the biofilm consists of matrix material. Environmental aspects determine the structure of the biofilm and extracellular matrix. Calcium is involved in biofilm formation and activity at three levels. Firstly in cell-environment; calcium may 'condition' the surfaces of support and bacterial cells. Secondly, in cell-cell interaction; calcium plays a role in build up of biofilm structures. Typically, calcium ions act as 'cation bridges' between polysaccharides originating from different cells. Thirdly, within cells, calcium is required for certain biochemical reactions in bacteria and some bacterial physiological activities. Because calcium is present in the root canal, it could play a significant role in the organization of the biofilm. Chelators, already used in endodontics to remove the smear layer by disintegration of the structural cohesion calcium bonds, could weaken the biofilm matrix by removing calcium from the extracellular matrix thus disturbing its coherence. Subsequently, this disruption could increase the efficacy of disinfecting agents. PMID:22537407

  3. Properties and applications of calcium hydroxide in endodontics and dental traumatology.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Z; Dummer, P M H

    2011-08-01

    Calcium hydroxide has been included within several materials and antimicrobial formulations that are used in a number of treatment modalities in endodontics. These include, inter-appointment intracanal medicaments, pulp-capping agents and root canal sealers. Calcium hydroxide formulations are also used during treatment of root perforations, root fractures and root resorption and have a role in dental traumatology, for example, following tooth avulsion and luxation injuries. The purpose of this paper is to review the properties and clinical applications of calcium hydroxide in endodontics and dental traumatology including its antibacterial activity, antifungal activity, effect on bacterial biofilms, the synergism between calcium hydroxide and other agents, its effects on the properties of dentine, the diffusion of hydroxyl ions through dentine and its toxicity. Pure calcium hydroxide paste has a high pH (approximately 12.5-12.8) and is classified chemically as a strong base. Its main actions are achieved through the ionic dissociation of Ca(2+) and OH(-) ions and their effect on vital tissues, the induction of hard-tissue deposition and the antibacterial properties. The lethal effects of calcium hydroxide on bacterial cells are probably due to protein denaturation and damage to DNA and cytoplasmic membranes. It has a wide range of antimicrobial activity against common endodontic pathogens but is less effective against Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans. Calcium hydroxide is also an effective anti-endotoxin agent. However, its effect on microbial biofilms is controversial. PMID:21535021

  4. The comparison of the effect of endodontic irrigation on cell adherence to root canal dentin.

    PubMed

    Ring, Karla C; Murray, Peter E; Namerow, Kenneth N; Kuttler, Sergio; Garcia-Godoy, Franklin

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of 10 different endodontic irrigation and chelating treatments on dental pulp stem cell (DPSC) attachment to root canal surfaces. Thirty-eight extracted human nondiseased single-canal teeth were cleaned and shaped using ProTaper and ProFile rotary instrumentation (Tulsa Dentsply, Tulsa, OK). The irrigation treatments investigated were 6% sodium hypochlorite, 2% chlorhexidine gluconate, Aquatine Endodontic Cleanser, and Morinda citrifolia juice. The irrigation treatments were used in conjunction with EDTA or MTAD. The instrumented teeth were immediately placed in cell culture with confluent DPSCs for 1 week. The number of attached DPSCs appeared to be correlated with the cytotoxicity of the root canal irrigating solution (analysis of variance, p < 0.0001). The presence or absence of the smear layer had little influence on DPSC activity (chi-square, p > 0.05). The results suggest that biocompatible irrigants are needed to promote DPSC attachment to root canal dentin, which is essential to accomplish some regenerative endodontic therapies. PMID:19026877

  5. Safety Irradiation Parameters of Nd:YAP Laser Beam for Endodontic Treatments: An In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Namour, A.; Geerts, S.; Zeinoun, T.; De Moor, R.; Nammour, S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Nd:YAP laser has several potentialities of clinical applications in endodontics. The aim of our study is to determine the safety range of irradiation parameters during endodontic application of Nd:YAP laser that can be used without damaging and overheating the periodontal tissue. Material and Methods. Twenty-seven caries-free single-rooted extracted human teeth were used. Crowns were sectioned to obtain 11 mm root canal length. Temperature increases at root surfaces were measured by a thermocouple during Nd:YAP laser irradiation of root canals at different energy densities. Canal irradiation was accomplished with a circular and retrograde movement from the apex until the cervical part of the canal during 10 seconds with an axial speed of 1 mm/s. Each irradiation was done in a canal irrigated continuously with 2.25% NaOCl solution. Results. Periodontal temperature increase depends on the value of energy density. Means and standard deviations of temperature increases at root surfaces were below 10°C (safe threshold level) when the average energy densities delivered per second were equal to or below 4981 J/cm2 and 9554 J/cm2, respectively, for irradiations using a fiber diameter of 320 μm and 200 μm. Conclusions. Within the limitations of this study and under specific irradiation conditions, Nd:YAP laser beam may be considered harmless for periodontal tissues during endodontic applications. PMID:27376084

  6. Patients' Perceptions of Endodontic Treatment as Part of Public Health Services: A Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Melgaço-Costa, José Leonardo Barbosa; Martins, Renata Castro; Ferreira, Efigênia Ferreira; Sobrinho, Antônio Paulino Ribeiro

    2016-01-01

    Evaluations by patients constitute an important part of the process of improving health services. This study examined patients' perceptions of secondary dental care in three cities in Minas Gerais, Brazil based on the endodontic treatment received. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews (addressing access, treatment and results) and a field diary (direct observations and report of professionals). The interviews were audiotaped, fully transcribed, and analyzed using content analysis. Two principal themes were identified: access to service and quality of service. The difficulties in accessing service were associated with the insufficient number of professionals to meet the high demand for endodontic treatment, problems in referring from primary to secondary care and geographic barriers. Service quality was related to the presence/absence of pain and anxiety that patients experienced, the time and number of sessions required to complete treatment, how patients were treated by dentists, and whether those patients would recommend the service to other patients. Access to endodontic treatment was a problem emphasized by users, and satisfaction with the quality of the service was more related to how patients were treated than to the technical competence of the dentist. PMID:27128932

  7. Effect of Contrast Inversion Enhancement on the Accuracy of Endodontic File Length Determination in Digital Radiography

    PubMed Central

    Farhadi, Nastaran; Mehdizadeh, Mojdeh

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this ex vivo study was to evaluate the accuracy of endodontic file length measurement on digital periapical radiographs after application of contrast inversion digital enhancement. Materials and Methods Forty single-rooted single-canal mature permanent human teeth with canals measuring 20-24 mm in length were used in this study. ISO #08 K-files were placed in the root canals of the teeth. The file lengths were measured with a digital caliper as the gold standard. Standard periapical digital images were obtained with the Digora storage phosphor plates and Digora Optime scanner as the original images. The contrast inversion option of Scanora software program version 5.1 was used to produce enhanced images. Three radiologists and three endodontists measured file lengths on the original and enhanced images. The measurements were compared using repeated measures ANOVA and Bonferroni tests (α=0.05). Results There were significant differences between the measurement accuracy of the original and enhanced images (p<0.05). The enhanced images exhibited longer measurements compared to the original images. However, the two sets of digital radiographs provided significantly longer measurements compared to the gold standard (p<0.05). Conclusion The contrast inversion tool of Scanora software program decreases measurement accuracy of the length of small endodontic files on digital periapical radiographs. It is suggested that contrast inversion should not be used in determining the lengths of small endodontic files. PMID:26155552

  8. Radiological Evaluation of Penetration of the Irrigant according to Three Endodontic Irrigation Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Benkiran, Imane; El Ouazzani, Amal

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. This experimental study is to compare radiographs based on the penetration depth of the irrigant following three final irrigation techniques. Material and Method. A sample of sixty teeth with single roots were prepared with stainless steel K files followed by mechanized Ni-Ti files iRace® under irrigation with 2.5% sodium hypochlorite. Radiopaque solution was utilized to measure the penetration depth of the irrigant. Three irrigation techniques were performed during this study: (i) passive irrigation, (ii) manually activated irrigation, and (iii) passive irrigation with an endodontic needle CANAL CLEAN®. Radiographs were performed to measure the length of irrigant penetration in each technique. Results. In comparison, passive irrigation with a conventional syringe showed infiltration of the irrigant by an average of 0.682 ± 0.105, whereas the manually activated irrigation technique indicated an average of 0.876 ± 0.066 infiltration. Irrigation with an endodontic syringe showed an average infiltration of 0.910 ± 0.043. The results revealed highly significant difference between the three irrigation techniques (α = 5%). Conclusion. Adding manual activation to the irrigant improved the result by 20%. This study indicates that passive irrigation with an endodontic needle has proved to be the most effective irrigation technique of the canal system. PMID:27433162

  9. The influence of endodontic infection on periodontal status in mandibular molars.

    PubMed

    Jansson, L E; Ehnevid, H

    1998-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the influence of an endodontic infection on periodontal probing depth and presence of furcation involvement in periodontally-involved mandibular molars. All first and second mandibular molars in 100 patients were selected if at least one was root-filled or had a possible periapical radiolucency. The sample consisted of patients from a referral population at a periodontal clinic which represented an adult population with a mean age between 50 and 60 years. For mandibular molars with periapical destruction at both roots, mean periodontal probing depth was significantly greater compared to teeth without periapical destruction. Horizontal furcation depths > or =3 mm were significantly more frequent at mandibular molars with periapical destruction. It is suggested that a root canal infection in periodontitis-involved molars may potentiate periodontitis progression by spreading of endodontic pathogens through patent accessory canals and dentinal tubules. In conclusion, an endodontic infection in mandibular molars was found to be associated with additional attachment loss in the furcation area, and may thus be considered to be one of several risk factors influencing the prognosis of molars in periodontitis-prone patients. PMID:9926769

  10. Safety Irradiation Parameters of Nd:YAP Laser Beam for Endodontic Treatments: An In Vitro Study.

    PubMed

    Namour, A; Geerts, S; Zeinoun, T; De Moor, R; Nammour, S

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Nd:YAP laser has several potentialities of clinical applications in endodontics. The aim of our study is to determine the safety range of irradiation parameters during endodontic application of Nd:YAP laser that can be used without damaging and overheating the periodontal tissue. Material and Methods. Twenty-seven caries-free single-rooted extracted human teeth were used. Crowns were sectioned to obtain 11 mm root canal length. Temperature increases at root surfaces were measured by a thermocouple during Nd:YAP laser irradiation of root canals at different energy densities. Canal irradiation was accomplished with a circular and retrograde movement from the apex until the cervical part of the canal during 10 seconds with an axial speed of 1 mm/s. Each irradiation was done in a canal irrigated continuously with 2.25% NaOCl solution. Results. Periodontal temperature increase depends on the value of energy density. Means and standard deviations of temperature increases at root surfaces were below 10°C (safe threshold level) when the average energy densities delivered per second were equal to or below 4981 J/cm(2) and 9554 J/cm(2), respectively, for irradiations using a fiber diameter of 320 μm and 200 μm. Conclusions. Within the limitations of this study and under specific irradiation conditions, Nd:YAP laser beam may be considered harmless for periodontal tissues during endodontic applications. PMID:27376084

  11. Review of ultrasonic irrigation in endodontics: increasing action of irrigating solutions

    PubMed Central

    Mozo, Sandra; Llena, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Effective irrigant delivery and agitation are prerequisites for successful endodontic treatment. Ultrasonic irrigation can be performed with or without simultaneous ultrasonic instrumentation. Existing literature reveals that ultrasonic irrigation may have a very positive effect on chemical, biological and physical debridement of the root canal system as investigated in many in vitro studies. Objective: The purpose of this review article was to summarize and discuss the available information concerning ultrasonic irrigation in endodontics. Methods: This article presents an overview of ultrasonic irrigation methods and their debridement efficacy. In this paper the relevant literature on passive ultrasonic irrigation is reviewed. Information from original scientific papers or reviews listed in MEDLINE and Cochrane were included in the review. Results: The use of ultrasound in the irrigation procedure results in improved canal cleanliness, better irrigant transfer to the canal system, soft tissue debridement, and removal of smear layer and bacteria. There are many in vitro studies, but there is a need to standardize protocols, and correlate the clinical efficacy of ultrasonic devices with improved treatment outcomes. Understanding the basis of ultrasonic irrigation is fundamental for clinicians and researchers to improve the design and use of ultrasonic irrigation. Key words:Ultrasonic irrigation, ultrasound, smear layer, endodontics. PMID:22143738

  12. Effect of restorative procedures on the strength of endodontically treated molars.

    PubMed

    Linn, J; Messer, H H

    1994-10-01

    Endodontically treated molar teeth are considered susceptible to fracture because of loss of tooth bulk. This study evaluated the significance of retaining intact marginal ridges and selective cusp coverage in preserving tooth stiffness during restoration. Strain gauges were bonded to four cusps of 36 intact extracted human lower molars. Teeth were loaded mesially and distally in a closed-loop servohydraulic system to measure stiffness. Endodontic access was followed by mesio-occlusal or mesio-occluso-distal preparation. Teeth were restored with either amalgam (no overlay), amalgam overlay, or gold overlay with partial or complete cusp coverage. Relative stiffness was calculated for all test conditions. Preserving a marginal ridge in molars did not fully conserve the strength of adjacent cusps; selective cusp coverage reinforced only the capped cusps; full occlusal coverage with gold or amalgam strengthened all cusps, but gold did so more consistently. It is more important to cover cusps than to preserve tooth structure (including a marginal ridge) in endodontically treated molar teeth. PMID:7714419

  13. SUSCEPTIBILITY OF STRICT AND FACULTATIVE ANAEROBES ISOLATED FROM ENDODONTIC INFECTIONS TO METRONIDAZOLE AND β-LACTAMS

    PubMed Central

    Gaetti-Jardim, Elerson; Landucci, Luís Fernando; Lins, Samira Âmbar; Vieira, Evanice Menezes Marçal; de Oliveira, Sérgio Ricardo

    2007-01-01

    Endodontic infections are mixed aerobic-anaerobic infections and several microbial groups associated to these pathologies are also involved in orofacial infections. The goal of this study was to evaluate the susceptibility of microorganisms isolated from endodontic infections to β-lactams and metronidazole and verify the production of β-lactamases. Clinical specimens were collected from 58 endodontic infections of 52 patients. The microorganisms were isolated in selective and non-selective culture media, under anaerobiosis and aerobiosis, and identified using biochemical methods. In the susceptibility tests, it was used an agar dilution method, and Wilkins-Chalgren agar enriched with blood, hemin and menadione for the anaerobes, while Mueller- Hinton agar was employed for the facultative anaerobes. The production of β-lactamases was evaluated through the biological and chromogenic cephalosporin methods. All tested isolates were sensitive to imipenem and 99.3% to amoxicillin/clavulanate association, while 16.1% showed resistance to amoxicillin and penicillin G, and 4.89% to cefoxitin. Resistance to metronidazole was just found in facultative anaerobes. Production of β-lactamases was detected in 18.2% of the isolates and presented a correlation with resistance to β-lactams. PMID:19089195

  14. Outcome of Endodontic Treatments Made by Postgraduate Students in the Dental Clinic of Bretonneau Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Touboul, Virginie; Germa, Alice; Lasfargues, Jean-Jacques; Bonte, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Objective. The objective of this retrospective study is double: (1) to assess the 1–4 years of outcome of endodontic treatment performed by postgraduate students in endodontics in the Dental Clinic of Bretonneau Hospital and (2) to examine outcome predictors. Method. 363 teeth in 296 patients were treated between 2007 and 2011. 183 patients (224 teeth) were lost during the followup. 113 patients were included in the study (recall: 38%), corresponding to 139 teeth of which 8 were extracted. 131 remaining teeth (36%) were examined clinically and radiographically. Apical periodontitis (AP) was absent (PAI = 1) or present (PAI ≥ 2). Outcome was classified as “healed,” “healing,” or “diseased”. Results. The success rate was 92%. No failure was observed among the 23 initial endodontic treatments. Among the 108 retreated teeth, 80% were “healed” and 11% were “healing.” An association was found between success rate and preoperative signs or symptoms (absent 95% versus present 83%), preoperative root filling density (inadequate 93% versus adequate 57%), but not between preoperative AP status and success. Conclusion. Outcomes in this retrospective study were similar to those previously reported. However, a larger sample size is needed to assess outcome predictors more precisely. PMID:24778652

  15. Numerical Study on the Influence of Material Characteristics on Ni-Ti Endodontic Instrument Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrini, Lorenza; Necchi, Silvia; Taschieri, Silvio; Migliavacca, Francesco

    2009-08-01

    Ni-Ti rotary endodontic instruments ( files) are used in dentistry during the endodontic treatment to shape the root canal of the tooth while removing the pulp when infected. Up to now, the studies for evaluating their performances and drawbacks were mainly limited to experimental tests on product flexural and torsional resistance. This work exploits computational analyses for investigating the effects of materials with different mechanical properties on the behavior of rotary endodontic instruments. The aim is to understand the appropriate material choice to reduce the criticality of the treatment in particular clinical conditions. In particular, the interaction between an accurately modeled rotating file and differently shaped root canals during the clinical procedure was studied performing finite element analyses. Strains induced by the treatment on a file made of a “standard” Ni-Ti alloy (characterized by average properties of the pseudoelastic behavior), a “long” Ni-Ti alloy (characterized by wide transformation region), a “super” Ni-Ti alloy (characterized by an extended Hookian behavior without transformation region), and stainless steel were compared. The results accurately show the advantages of the use of Ni-Ti alloy with respect to stainless steel and the better performance of the “long” alloy in all the tested case.

  16. Premixed calcium silicate cement for endodontic applications: injectability, setting time and radiopacity.

    PubMed

    Persson, Cecilia; Engqvist, Håkan

    2011-01-01

    Calcium silicate-based materials (also called MTA) are increasingly being used in endodontic applications. However, the handling properties of MTA are not optimal when it comes to injectability and cohesion. Premixing the cements using glycerol avoids these issues. However, there is a lack of data on the effect of common cement variables on important properties of premixed cements for endodontic applications. In this study, the effects of liquid-to-powder ratio, amount of radiopacifier and amount of calcium sulfate (added to control the setting time) were screened using a statistical model. In the second part of the study, the liquid-to-powder ratio was optimized for cements containing three different amounts of radiopacifier. Finally, the effect of using glycerol rather than water was evaluated in terms of radiopacity. The setting time was found to increase with the amount of radiopacifier when the liquid-to-powder ratio was fixed. This was likely due to the higher density of the radiopacifier in comparison to the calcium silicate, which gave a higher liquid-to-powder ratio in terms of volume. Using glycerol rather than water to mix the cements led to a decrease in radiopacity of the cement. In conclusion, we were able to produce premixed calcium silicate cements with acceptable properties for use in endodontic applications. PMID:23507729

  17. [Endodontics in motion: new concepts, materials and techniques 2. The use of cone-beam computed tomography in endodontic diagnosis and treatment planning].

    PubMed

    Özok, A R; Metska, M E

    2015-09-01

    Systems for cone-beam computed tomography make a high-quality 3D reconstruction of dentomaxillofacial structures possible, without exposing the patient to excessive doses of radiation. Due to its 3D nature cone-beam computed tomography is superior to conventional dental radiographic imaging methods for many aspects of endodontic diagnosis and treatment planning. There are multiple indications for the use of cone-beam computed tomography scans in endodontics, including detection of periapical lesions or root fractures and the exploration of the root canal anatomy and its deviations. Depending on conditions, a judicious decision will always have to be made with regard to the radiographic technique to be applied. Primary in that respect must be the means by which the most accurate diagnostic image can be achieved with the lowest possible dose of radiation. Making a cone-beam computed tomography scan is justified only when the required diagnostic information cannot be achieved adequately using lower dose conventional dental radiographic imaging techniques. PMID:26397106

  18. Picture Wall (Glass Structures)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Photo shows a subway station in Toronto, Ontario, which is entirely glass-enclosed. The all-glass structure was made possible by a unique glazing concept developed by PPG Industries, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, one of the largest U.S. manufacturers of flat glass. In the TVS glazing system, transparent glass "fins" replace conventional vertical support members used to provide support for wind load resistance. For stiffening, silicone sealant bonds the fins to adjacent glass panels. At its glass research center near Pittsburgh, PPG Industries uses the NASTRAN computer program to analyze the stability of enclosures made entirely of glass. The company also uses NASTRAN to simulate stresses on large containers of molten glass and to analyze stress effects of solar heating on flat glass.

  19. Production of Synthetic Nuclear Melt Glass.

    PubMed

    Molgaard, Joshua J; Auxier, John D; Giminaro, Andrew V; Oldham, Colton J; Gill, Jonathan; Hall, Howard L

    2016-01-01

    Realistic surrogate nuclear debris is needed within the nuclear forensics community to test and validate post-detonation analysis techniques. Here we outline a novel process for producing bulk surface debris using a high temperature furnace. The material developed in this study is physically and chemically similar to trinitite (the melt glass produced by the first nuclear test). This synthetic nuclear melt glass is assumed to be similar to the vitrified material produced near the epicenter (ground zero) of any surface nuclear detonation in a desert environment. The process outlined here can be applied to produce other types of nuclear melt glass including that likely to be formed in an urban environment. This can be accomplished by simply modifying the precursor matrix to which this production process is applied. The melt glass produced in this study has been analyzed and compared to trinitite, revealing a comparable crystalline morphology, physical structure, void fraction, and chemical composition. PMID:26779720

  20. Antibacterial activity of Pinus elliottii against anaerobic bacteria present in primary endodontic infections.

    PubMed

    Caetano da Silva, Sandro Donizete; Mendes de Souza, Maria Gorete; Oliveira Cardoso, Miguel Jorge; da Silva Moraes, Thais; Ambrósio, Sérgio Ricardo; Sola Veneziani, Rodrigo Cássio; Martins, Carlos Henrique G

    2014-12-01

    Endodontic infections have a polymicrobial nature, but anaerobic bacteria prevail among the infectious microbes. Considering that it is easy to eliminate planktonic bacteria, biofilm-forming bacteria still challenge clinicians during the fight against endodontic diseases. The chemical constituents of the oleoresin of Pinus elliottii, a plant belonging to the family Pinaceae, stand out in the search for biologically active compounds based on natural products with potential application in the treatment of endodontic infections. Indeed, plant oleoresins are an abundant natural source of diterpenes that display significant and well-defined biological activities as well as potential antimicrobial action. In this context, this study aimed to (1) evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activity of the oleoresin, fractions, and subfractions of P. elliottii as well as the action of dehydroabietic acid against 11 anaerobic bacteria that cause endodontic infection in both their planktonic and biofilm forms and (2) assess the in vitro antibiofilm activity of dehydroabietic acid against the same group of bacteria. The broth microdilution technique helped to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the oleoresin and fractions. This same technique aided determination of the MIC values of nine subfractions of Fraction 1, the most active fraction. The MIC, minimum bactericidal concentration, and antibiofilm activity of dehydroabietic acid against the tested anaerobic bacteria were also examined. The oleoresin and fractions, especially fraction PE1, afforded promising MIC values, which ranged from 0.4 to 50 μg/mL. Concerning the nine evaluated subfractions, PE1.3 and PE1.4 furnished the most noteworthy MIC values, between 6.2 and 100 μg/mL. Dehydroabietic acid displayed antibacterial activity, with MIC values lying from 6.2 to 50 μg/mL, as well as bactericidal effect for all the investigated bacteria, except for Prevotella nigrescens. Assessment of the antibiofilm