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Sample records for endogenous neurotransmitter inhibition

  1. Endogenous opioid peptides as neurotransmitters in the rat hippocampus

    SciTech Connect

    Neumaier, J.F.

    1989-01-01

    The role of endogenous opioid peptides as neurotransmitters in the rat hippocampus was investigated by using extracellular recording and radioligand binding techniques in the hippocampal slice preparation. Synaptic conductances from endogenously released opioid peptides have been difficult to detect. This problem was approach by designing a novel assay of opioid peptide release, in which release was detected by measuring binding competition between endogenous opioids and added radioligand. Membrane depolarization displaced ({sup 3}H)-diprenorphine binding in a transient, calcium-dependent, and peptidase-sensitive manner. Autoradiographic localization of the sites of ({sup 3}H)-diprenorphine binding displacement showed that significant opioid peptide release and receptor occupancy occurred in each major subregion of the hippocampal slices. This assay method can not be used to define optimal electrical stimulation conditions for releasing endogenous opioids. The binding displacement method was extended to the study of the sigma receptor. Depolarization of hippocampal slices was found to reduce the binding of the sigma-selective radioligand ({sup 3}H)-ditolylguanidine in a transient and calcium-dependent manner with no apparent direct effects on sigma receptor affinity.

  2. Neurotransmitters

    NASA Video Gallery

    Our nerve cells (neurons) communicate with each other using little chemical messengers called neurotransmitters. These neurotransmitters are transferred from one neuron to the next within a space c...

  3. Endogenous endostatin inhibits choroidal neovascularization.

    PubMed

    Marneros, Alexander G; She, Haicheng; Zambarakji, Hadi; Hashizume, Hiroya; Connolly, Edward J; Kim, Ivana; Gragoudas, Evangelos S; Miller, Joan W; Olsen, Bjorn R

    2007-12-01

    Endostatin, a fragment of the basement membrane component collagen XVIII, exhibits antiangiogenic properties in vitro and in vivo when high doses are administered. It is not known whether endogenous endostatin at physiological levels has a protective role as an inhibitor of pathological angiogenesis, such as choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in age-related macular degeneration. Using a laser injury model, we induced CNV in mice lacking collagen XVIII/endostatin and in control mice. CNV lesions in mutant mice were approximately 3-fold larger than in control mice and showed increased vascular leakage. These differences were independent of age-related changes at the choroid-retina interface. Ultrastructural analysis of the choroidal vasculature in mutant mice excluded morphological vascular abnormalities as a cause for the larger CNV lesions. When recombinant endostatin was administered to collagen XVIII/endostatin-deficient mice, CNV lesions were similar to those seen in control mice. In control mice treated with recombinant endostatin, CNV lesions were almost undetectable. These findings demonstrate that endogenous endostatin is an inhibitor of induced angiogenesis and that administration of endostatin potently inhibits CNV growth and vascular leakage. Endostatin may have a regulatory role in the pathogenesis of CNV and could be used therapeutically to inhibit growth and leakage of CNV lesions. PMID:17526870

  4. Common Drugs Inhibit Human Organic Cation Transporter 1 (OCT1)-Mediated Neurotransmitter Uptake

    PubMed Central

    Boxberger, Kelli H.; Hagenbuch, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    The human organic cation transporter 1 (OCT1) is a polyspecific transporter involved in the uptake of positively charged and neutral small molecules in the liver. To date, few endogenous compounds have been identified as OCT1 substrates; more importantly, the effect of drugs on endogenous substrate transport has not been examined. In this study, we established monoamine neurotransmitters as substrates for OCT1, specifically characterizing serotonin transport in human embryonic kidney 293 cells. Kinetic analysis yielded a Km of 197 micomolar and a Vmax of 561 pmol/mg protein/minute for serotonin. Furthermore, we demonstrated that serotonin uptake was inhibited by diphenhydramine, fluoxetine, imatinib, and verapamil, with IC50 values in the low micromolar range. These results were recapitulated in primary human hepatocytes, suggesting that OCT1 plays a significant role in hepatic elimination of serotonin and that xenobiotics may alter the elimination of endogenous compounds as a result of interactions at the transporter level. PMID:24688079

  5. A biochemical approach to study sub-second endogenous release of diverse neurotransmitters from central nerve terminals.

    PubMed

    Leenders, A G Miriam; Hengst, Pieter; Lopes da Silva, Fernando H; Ghijsen, Wim E J M

    2002-01-15

    Exocytosis in central nerve terminals is rapidly triggered by the influx of calcium through high voltage sensitive Ca2+ -channels. Mainly due to their small size, studies in which neurotransmitter release from these terminals was determined at the sub-second time-scale are still rather limited. Here we describe the use of a pneumatic rapid mixing device, allowing application of short (> or = 50 ms) K+ -depolarizing pulses to purified nerve terminals, synaptosomes, to trigger endogenous release of different transmitter types. A consistent, Ca2+ -dependent exocytotic release of the amino acid transmitters, glutamate and GABA, from synaptosomes purified from rat and mouse brain was observed after 100 ms depolarization. For determination of amino acid release after longer depolarizations (> 100 ms), transporter blockers had to be added to prevent clearance of the vesicularly released transmitters. Ca2+ -dependent release of the neuropeptide cholecystokinin occured only after 250 ms depolarization. In addition, the time-courses of amino acid and cholecystokinin release were clearly different. The fast Ca2+ -dependent release of all transmitters was selectively and strongly inhibited by the P/Q-type Ca2+ -channel blocker omega-Agatoxin IVA. In conclusion, this approach allows direct measurement of Ca2+ -dependent release of diverse endogenous neurotransmitters from central nerve terminals upon depolarization pulses at a physiologically relevant, sub-second, time scale. PMID:11741718

  6. Re-examining how complexin inhibits neurotransmitter release

    PubMed Central

    Trimbuch, Thorsten; Xu, Junjie; Flaherty, David; Tomchick, Diana R; Rizo, Josep; Rosenmund, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Complexins play activating and inhibitory functions in neurotransmitter release. The complexin accessory helix inhibits release and was proposed to insert into SNARE complexes to prevent their full assembly. This model was supported by ‘superclamp’ and ‘poor-clamp’ mutations that enhanced or decreased the complexin-I inhibitory activity in cell–cell fusion assays, and by the crystal structure of a superclamp mutant bound to a synaptobrevin-truncated SNARE complex. NMR studies now show that the complexin-I accessory helix does not insert into synaptobrevin-truncated SNARE complexes in solution, and electrophysiological data reveal that superclamp mutants have slightly stimulatory or no effects on neurotransmitter release, whereas a poor-clamp mutant inhibits release. Importantly, increasing or decreasing the negative charge of the complexin-I accessory helix inhibits or stimulates release, respectively. These results suggest a new model whereby the complexin accessory helix inhibits release through electrostatic (and perhaps steric) repulsion enabled by its location between the vesicle and plasma membranes. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02391.001 PMID:24842998

  7. Neurotransmitter-induced inhibition of exocytosis in insulin-secreting beta cells by activation of calcineurin.

    PubMed

    Renström, E; Ding, W G; Bokvist, K; Rorsman, P

    1996-09-01

    Neurotransmitters and hormones such as somatostatin, galanin, and adrenalin reduce insulin secretion. Their inhibitory action involves direct interference with the exocytotic machinery. We have examined the molecular processes underlying this effect using high resolution measurements of cell capacitance. Suppression of exocytosis was maximal at concentrations that did not cause complete inhibition of glucose-stimulated electrical activity. This action was dependent on activation of G proteins but was not associated with inhibition of the voltage-dependent Ca2+ currents or adenylate cyclase activity. The molecular processes initiated by the agonists culminate in the activation of the Ca(2+)-dependent protein phosphatase calcineurin, and suppression of the activity of this enzyme abolishes their action on exocytosis. We propose that mechanisms similar to those we report here may contribute to adrenergic and peptidergic inhibition of secretion in other neuroendocrine cells and in nerve terminals. PMID:8816714

  8. Interleukin-6 inhibits neurotransmitter release and the spread of excitation in the rat cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    D'Arcangelo, G; Tancredi, V; Onofri, F; D'Antuono, M; Giovedì, S; Benfenati, F

    2000-04-01

    Cytokines are extracellular mediators that have been reported to affect neurotransmitter release and synaptic plasticity phenomena when applied in vitro. Most of these effects occur rapidly after the application of the cytokines and are presumably mediated through the activation of protein phosphorylation processes. While many cytokines have an inflammatory action, interleukin-6 (IL-6) has been found to have a neuroprotective effect against ischaemia lesions and glutamate excitotoxicity, and to increase neuronal survival in a variety of experimental conditions. In this paper, the functional effects of IL-6 on the spread of excitation visualized by dark-field/infrared videomicroscopy in rat cortical slices and on glutamate release from cortical synaptosomes were analysed and correlated with the activation of the STAT3, mitogen-activated protein kinase ERK (MAPK/ERK) and stress-activated protein kinase/cJun NH2-terminal kinase (SAPK/JNK) pathways. We have found that IL-6 depresses the spread of excitation and evoked glutamate release in the cerebral cortex, and that these effects are accompanied by a stimulation of STAT3 tyrosine phosphorylation, an inhibition of MAPK/ERK activity, a decreased phosphorylation of the presynaptic MAPK/ERK substrate synapsin I and no detectable effects on SAPK/JNK. The effects of IL-6 were effectively counteracted by treatment of the cortical slices with the tyrosine kinase inhibitor lavendustin A. The inhibitory effects of IL-6 on glutamate release and on the spread of excitation in the rat cerebral cortex indicate that the protective effect of IL-6 on neuronal survival could be mediated by a downregulation of neuronal activity, release of excitatory neurotransmitters and MAPK/ERK activity. PMID:10762353

  9. Increased Expression of Alpha-Synuclein Reduces Neurotransmitter Release by Inhibiting Synaptic Vesicle Reclustering After Endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Nemani, Venu M.; Lu, Wei; Berge, Victoria; Nakamura, Ken; Onoa, Bibiana; Lee, Michael K.; Chaudhry, Farrukh A.; Nicoll, Roger A.; Edwards, Robert H.

    2011-01-01

    Summary The protein α-synuclein accumulates in the brain of patients with sporadic Parkinson’s disease (PD), and increased gene dosage causes a severe, dominantly inherited form of PD, but we know little about the effects of synuclein that precede degeneration. α-Synuclein localizes to the nerve terminal, but the knockout has little if any effect on synaptic transmission. In contrast, we now find that the modest over-expression of α-synuclein, in the range predicted for gene multiplication and in the absence of overt toxicity, markedly inhibits neurotransmitter release. The mechanism, elucidated by direct imaging of the synaptic vesicle cycle, involves a specific reduction in size of the synaptic vesicle recycling pool. Ultrastructural analysis demonstrates reduced synaptic vesicle density at the active zone, and imaging further reveals a defect in the reclustering of synaptic vesicles after endocytosis. Increased levels of α-synuclein thus produce a specific, physiological defect in synaptic vesicle recycling that precedes detectable neuropathology. PMID:20152114

  10. Inhibition of RhoA-dependent pathway and contraction by endogenous hydrogen sulfide in rabbit gastric smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Nalli, Ancy D.; Rajagopal, Senthilkumar; Mahavadi, Sunila; Grider, John R.

    2015-01-01

    Inhibitory neurotransmitters, chiefly nitric oxide and vasoactive intestinal peptide, increase cyclic nucleotide levels and inhibit muscle contraction via inhibition of myosin light chain (MLC) kinase and activation of MLC phosphatase (MLCP). H2S produced as an endogenous signaling molecule synthesized mainly from l-cysteine via cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE) and cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS) regulates muscle contraction. The aim of this study was to analyze the expression of CSE and H2S function in the regulation of MLCP activity, 20-kDa regulatory light chain of myosin II (MLC20) phosphorylation, and contraction in isolated gastric smooth muscle cells. Both mRNA expression and protein expression of CSE, but not CBS, were detected in smooth muscle cells of rabbit, human, and mouse stomach. l-cysteine, an activator of CSE, and NaHS, a donor of H2S, inhibited carbachol-induced Rho kinase and PKC activity, Rho kinase-sensitive phosphorylation of MYPT1, PKC-sensitive phosphorylation of CPI-17, and MLC20 phosphorylation and sustained muscle contraction. The inhibitory effects of l-cysteine, but not NaHS, were blocked upon suppression of CSE expression by siRNA or inhibition of its activity by dl-propargylglycine (PPG) suggesting that the effect of l-cysteine is mediated via activation of CSE. Glibenclamide, an inhibitor of KATP channels, had no effect on the inhibition of contraction by H2S. Both l-cysteine and NaHS had no effect on basal cAMP and cGMP levels but augmented forskolin-induced cAMP and SNP-induced cGMP formation. We conclude that both endogenous and exogenous H2S inhibit muscle contraction, and the mechanism involves inhibition of Rho kinase and PKC activities and stimulation of MLCP activity leading to MLC20 dephosphorylation and inhibition of muscle contraction. PMID:25567809

  11. Constitutively Active 5-HT Receptors: An Explanation of How 5-HT Antagonists Inhibit Gut Motility in Species Where 5-HT is Not an Enteric Neurotransmitter?

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Nick J.

    2015-01-01

    Antagonists of 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptors are well known to inhibit gastrointestinal (GI)-motility and transit in a variety of mammals, including humans. Originally, these observations had been interpreted by many investigators (including us) as evidence that endogenous 5-HT plays a major role in GI motility. This seemed a logical assumption. However, the story changed dramatically after recent studies revealed that 5-HT antagonists still blocked major GI motility patterns (peristalsis and colonic migrating motor complexes) in segments of intestine depleted of all 5-HT. Then, these results were further supported by Dr. Gershons' laboratory, which showed that genetic deletion of all genes that synthesizes 5-HT had minor, or no inhibitory effects on GI transit in vivo. If 5-HT was essential for GI motility patterns and transit, then one would expect major disruptions in motility and transit when 5-HT synthesis was genetically ablated. This does not occur. The inhibitory effects of 5-HT antagonists on GI motility clearly occur independently of any 5-HT in the gut. Evidence now suggests that 5-HT antagonists act on 5-HT receptors in the gut which are constitutively active, and don't require 5-HT for their activation. This would explain a long-standing mystery of how 5-HT antagonists inhibit gut motility in species like mice, rats, and humans where 5-HT is not an enteric neurotransmitter. Studies are now increasingly demonstrating that the presence of a neurochemical in enteric neurons does not mean they function as neurotransmitters. Caution should be exercised when interpreting any inhibitory effects of 5-HT antagonists on GI motility. PMID:26732863

  12. Endogenous APP accumulates in synapses after BACE1 inhibition.

    PubMed

    Nigam, Saket Milind; Xu, Shaohua; Ackermann, Frauke; Gregory, Joshua A; Lundkvist, Johan; Lendahl, Urban; Brodin, Lennart

    2016-08-01

    BACE1-mediated cleavage of APP is a pivotal step in the production of the Alzheimer related Aβ peptide and inhibitors of BACE1 are currently in clinical development for the treatment of Alzheimer disease (AD). While processing and trafficking of APP has been extensively studied in non-neuronal cells, the fate of APP at neuronal synapses and in response to reduced BACE1 activity has not been fully elucidated. Here we examined the consequence of reduced BACE1 activity on endogenous synaptic APP by monitoring N- and C-terminal APP epitopes by immunocytochemistry. In control rodent primary hippocampal neuron cultures, labeling with antibodies directed to N-terminal APP epitopes showed a significant overlap with synaptic vesicle markers (SV2 or synaptotagmin). In contrast, labeling with antibodies directed to C-terminal epitopes of APP showed only a limited overlap with these proteins. In neurons derived from BACE1-deficient mice, and in control neurons treated with a BACE1 inhibitor, both the N-terminal and the C-terminal APP labeling overlapped significantly with synaptic vesicle markers. Moreover, BACE1 inhibition increased the proximity between the APP C-terminus and SV2 as shown by a proximity ligation assay. These results, together with biochemical observations, indicate that BACE1 can regulate the levels of full-length APP at neuronal synapses. PMID:26907521

  13. Endogenous galectin-1 exerts tonic inhibition on experimental arthritis.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Asif J; Cooper, Dianne; Vugler, Alexander; Gittens, Beatrice R; Moore, Adrian; Perretti, Mauro

    2013-07-01

    Little is known about the role(s) of endogenous galectin-1 (Gal-1) in arthritis. In this study we queried whether antiarthritic functions for this effector of endogenous anti-inflammation could be unveiled by studying collagen-induced arthritis in Gal-1(-/-) mice. Gal-1(-/-) and C57BL/6J [wild-type (WT)] mice received an immunization of chicken type II collagen (CII) in CFA followed by a booster on day 21, which consisted of CII in IFA. Animals were monitored for signs of arthritis from day 14 onward. Clinical and histological signs of arthritis were recorded, and humoral and cellular immune responses against CII were analyzed. A distinct disease penetrance was apparent, with ~ 70% of Gal-1(-/-) mice developing arthritis compared with ~ 50% in WT animals. Gal-1(-/-) mice also exhibited an accelerated disease onset and more severe arthritis characterized by significantly elevated clinical scores. Postmortem analyses (day 42) revealed higher levels of IgG1 and IgG2b anti-CII Ig isotypes in the serum of Gal-1 null animals compared with WT. Finally, T cell responses following ex vivo stimulation with CII revealed a greater degree of proliferation in T cells of Gal-1(-/-) mice compared with WT, which was associated with increased production of IL-17 and IL-22. These data suggest the novel idea that endogenous Gal-1 is an inhibitory factor in the development of arthritis affecting disease severity. We have also highlighted the importance of endogenous Gal-1 in regulating T cell reactivity during experimental arthritis. PMID:23720814

  14. Lateral Inhibition in the Vertebrate Retina: The Case of the Missing Neurotransmitter

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Richard H.; Davenport, Christopher M.

    2015-01-01

    Lateral inhibition at the first synapse in the retina is important for visual perception, enhancing image contrast, color discrimination, and light adaptation. Despite decades of research, the feedback signal from horizontal cells to photoreceptors that generates lateral inhibition remains uncertain. GABA, protons, or an ephaptic mechanism have all been suggested as the primary mediator of feedback. However, the complexity of the reciprocal cone to horizontal cell synapse has left the identity of the feedback signal an unsolved mystery. PMID:26656622

  15. Endogenous inhibition of somatic pain is impaired in girls with irritable bowel syndrome compared with healthy girls

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Endogenous pain inhibition is often deficient in adults with chronic pain conditions including irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). It is unclear whether deficiencies in pain inhibition are present in young children with IBS. The present study compared endogenous pain inhibition, somatic pain threshold, ...

  16. "Low" concentrations of sodium fluoride inhibit neurotransmitter release from the guinea-pig superior cervical ganglion.

    PubMed

    Borasio, Pier Giorgio; Cervellati, Franco; Pavan, Barbara; Pareschi, Maria Cristina

    2004-07-01

    The role of G proteins and related second messenger system on the modulation of acetylcholine release from [3H]choline-preloaded guinea-pig superior cervical ganglion was investigated using the potent general activator NaF. The electrically evoked (1 Hz, 5 min) [3H] release was inhibited by "low" F- concentrations (1-2.5 mM), by the adenylyl cyclase blocker MDL 12330A (10 microM), alone and in combination with 1 mM NaF, and increased by 0.5 mM 8Br-cAMP, 100 microM forskolin and 0.5 mM 3-isobutyl-1-methylxantine. No effect of 1 mM F- was observed on spontaneous release. Fluoride-induced inhibition was counteracted by the G protein blocker sulmazole (1 mM), forskolin and alteration of calcium influx by increasing [Ca2+]out from 2.2 to 6 mM, raising the rate of stimulation (10 Hz, 30 s), or broadening the presynaptic action potential with 10 microM 4-aminopyridine and 50 microM tetraethylammonium chloride. Thus a NaF-sensitive G protein, linked to cAMP synthesis, is determinant for the inhibition of neurosecretion in this cholinergic synapse, involving Ca2+-dependent mechanisms. PMID:15196683

  17. Monomethylarsonous acid inhibited endogenous cholesterol biosynthesis in human skin fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Lei; Xiao, Yongsheng; Wang, Yinsheng

    2014-05-15

    Human exposure to arsenic in drinking water is a widespread public health concern, and such exposure is known to be associated with many human diseases. The detailed molecular mechanisms about how arsenic species contribute to the adverse human health effects, however, remain incompletely understood. Monomethylarsonous acid [MMA(III)] is a highly toxic and stable metabolite of inorganic arsenic. To exploit the mechanisms through which MMA(III) exerts its cytotoxic effect, we adopted a quantitative proteomic approach, by coupling stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) with LC-MS/MS analysis, to examine the variation in the entire proteome of GM00637 human skin fibroblasts following acute MMA(III) exposure. Among the ∼ 6500 unique proteins quantified, ∼ 300 displayed significant changes in expression after exposure with 2 μM MMA(III) for 24 h. Subsequent analysis revealed the perturbation of de novo cholesterol biosynthesis, selenoprotein synthesis and Nrf2 pathways evoked by MMA(III) exposure. Particularly, MMA(III) treatment resulted in considerable down-regulation of several enzymes involved in cholesterol biosynthesis. In addition, real-time PCR analysis showed reduced mRNA levels of select genes in this pathway. Furthermore, MMA(III) exposure contributed to a distinct decline in cellular cholesterol content and significant growth inhibition of multiple cell lines, both of which could be restored by supplementation of cholesterol to the culture media. Collectively, the present study demonstrated that the cytotoxicity of MMA(III) may arise, at least in part, from the down-regulation of cholesterol biosynthesis enzymes and the resultant decrease of cellular cholesterol content. - Highlights: • MMA(III)-induced perturbation of the entire proteome of GM00637 cells is studied. • Quantitative proteomic approach revealed alterations of multiple cellular pathways. • MMA(III) inhibits de novo cholesterol biosynthesis. • MMA

  18. Antiretroviral Agents Inhibit Infection of Human Cells by Porcine Endogenous Retroviruses

    PubMed Central

    Powell, S. K.; Gates, M. E.; Langford, G.; Gu, M.-L.; Lockey, C.; Long, Z.; Otto, E.

    2000-01-01

    The efficacy of antiretroviral drugs against porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERV) that may be harbored in pig organs intended for transplantation was examined in human cells in vitro. The nucleoside analogs zidovudine and dideoxyinosine were found to effectively inhibit PERV replication. PMID:11083652

  19. Monomethylarsonous acid inhibited endogenous cholesterol biosynthesis in human skin fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Guo, Lei; Xiao, Yongsheng; Wang, Yinsheng

    2014-05-15

    Human exposure to arsenic in drinking water is a widespread public health concern, and such exposure is known to be associated with many human diseases. The detailed molecular mechanisms about how arsenic species contribute to the adverse human health effects, however, remain incompletely understood. Monomethylarsonous acid [MMA(III)] is a highly toxic and stable metabolite of inorganic arsenic. To exploit the mechanisms through which MMA(III) exerts its cytotoxic effect, we adopted a quantitative proteomic approach, by coupling stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) with LC-MS/MS analysis, to examine the variation in the entire proteome of GM00637 human skin fibroblasts following acute MMA(III) exposure. Among the ~6500 unique proteins quantified, ~300 displayed significant changes in expression after exposure with 2 μM MMA(III) for 24 h. Subsequent analysis revealed the perturbation of de novo cholesterol biosynthesis, selenoprotein synthesis and Nrf2 pathways evoked by MMA(III) exposure. Particularly, MMA(III) treatment resulted in considerable down-regulation of several enzymes involved in cholesterol biosynthesis. In addition, real-time PCR analysis showed reduced mRNA levels of select genes in this pathway. Furthermore, MMA(III) exposure contributed to a distinct decline in cellular cholesterol content and significant growth inhibition of multiple cell lines, both of which could be restored by supplementation of cholesterol to the culture media. Collectively, the present study demonstrated that the cytotoxicity of MMA(III) may arise, at least in part, from the down-regulation of cholesterol biosynthesis enzymes and the resultant decrease of cellular cholesterol content. PMID:24625837

  20. A conjugate composed of nerve growth factor coupled to a non-toxic derivative of Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin type A can inhibit neurotransmitter release in vitro.

    PubMed

    Chaddock, J A; Purkiss, J R; Duggan, M J; Quinn, C P; Shone, C C; Foster, K A

    2000-01-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) receptor binding, internalisation and transportation of NGF has been identified as a potential route of delivery for other molecules. A derivative of Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin type A (LHN) that retains catalytic activity but has significantly reduced cell-binding capability has been prepared and chemically coupled to NGF. Intact clostridial neurotoxins potently inhibit neurotransmitter release at the neuromuscular junction by proteolysis of specific components of the vesicle docking/fusion complex. Here we report that the NGF-LHN/A conjugate, when applied to PC12 cells, significantly inhibited neurotransmitter release and cleaved the type A toxin substrate. This work represents the successful use of NGF as a targeting moiety for the delivery of a neurotoxin fragment. PMID:11019785

  1. Endogenously released dopamine inhibits the binding of dopaminergic PET and SPECT ligands in superfused rat striatal slices.

    PubMed

    Gifford, A N; Gatley, S J; Ashby, C R

    1996-03-01

    Pharmacologically induced changes in synaptic levels of dopamine (DA) have been found, in some studies, to affect the in vivo binding of dopaminergic radioligands. In the present study we used a superfused brain slice preparation to examine the effect of synaptically released dopamine on the binding of some commonly used PET and SPECT radioligands under more controlled conditions than those present in vivo. The release of DA was evoked by electrical stimulation of striatal slices and the sensitivity of binding of the D1 receptor ligand, [3H]SCH 23390, the D2 receptor ligands [3H]raclopride and [123I]epidepride, and the DA uptake transporter ligands, [3H]WIN 35,428 and [123I]RTI-55, to the frequency of stimulation examined. Most affected by stimulation was the specific binding of [3H]SCH 23390, which was fully inhibited at 2.5 Hz. This was followed by [3H]raclopride and [123I]epidepride, respectively, the binding of the latter showing only a 50% reduction at the highest frequency of 10 Hz. [3H]WIN 35,428 and [123I]RTI-55 binding was unaffected by stimulation. The effects of stimulation on [3H]raclopride binding were prevented by reserpine pretreatment of the rat, when combined with inclusion of the dopamine synthesis inhibitor, alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine, in the superfusate medium. We conclude that, in brain slices, the binding of D1 and D2 receptor ligands but not that of DA uptake transporter ligands is readily inhibited by DA released into the synaptic cleft. Brain slices may prove to be a useful model system for the investigation of factors affecting competition between radioligand binding and endogenous neurotransmitters. PMID:9132991

  2. Sex differences in experimental measures of pain sensitivity and endogenous pain inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Bulls, Hailey W; Freeman, Emily L; Anderson, Austen JB; Robbins, Meredith T; Ness, Timothy J; Goodin, Burel R

    2015-01-01

    It has been suggested that increased pain sensitivity and disruption of endogenous pain inhibitory processes may account, at least in part, for the greater prevalence and severity of chronic pain in women compared to men. However, previous studies addressing this topic have produced mixed findings. This study examined sex differences in pain sensitivity and inhibition using quantitative sensory testing (QST), while also considering the influence of other important factors such as depressive symptoms and sleep quality. Healthy men (n=24) and women (n=24) each completed a QST battery. This battery included an ischemic pain task (IPT) that used a submaximal effort tourniquet procedure as well as a conditioned pain modulation (CPM) procedure for the assessment of endogenous pain inhibition. Prior to QST, participants completed the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Analyses revealed significant sex differences for the ischemic pain task and the conditioned pain modulation procedure, such that women tolerated the ischemic pain for a shorter amount of time and demonstrated less pain inhibition compared with men. This remained true even when accounting for sex differences in depressive symptoms and sleep quality. The results of this study suggest that women may be more pain sensitive and possess less-efficient endogenous pain inhibitory capacity compared with men. Whether interventions that decrease pain sensitivity and enhance pain inhibition in women ultimately improve their clinical pain outcomes is an area of research that deserves additional attention in the future. PMID:26170713

  3. Inhibition of Gli1 mobilizes endogenous neural stem cells for remyelination

    PubMed Central

    Samanta, Jayshree; Grund, Ethan M.; Silva, Hernandez M.; Lafaille, Juan J.; Fishell, Gord; Salzer, James L.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Enhancing repair of myelin is an important, but still elusive therapeutic goal in many neurological disorders1. In Multiple Sclerosis (MS), an inflammatory demyelinating disease, endogenous remyelination does occur but is frequently insufficient to restore function. Both parenchymal oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) and endogenous adult neural stem cells (NSCs) resident within the subventricular zone (SVZ) are known sources of remyelinating cells2. Here, we characterize the contribution to remyelination of a subset of adult NSCs, identified by their expression of Gli1, a transcriptional effector of the Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) pathway. We show that these cells are recruited from the SVZ to populate demyelinated lesions in the forebrain but never enter healthy, white matter tracts. Unexpectedly, recruitment of this pool of NSCs, and their differentiation into oligodendrocytes, is significantly enhanced by genetic or pharmacological inhibition of Gli1. Importantly, complete inhibition of canonical hedgehog signaling was ineffective indicating that Gli1’s role in both augmenting hedgehog signaling and retarding myelination is specialized. Indeed, inhibition of Gli1 improves the functional outcome in a relapsing/remitting model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (RR-EAE) and is neuroprotective. Thus, endogenous NSCs can be mobilized for the repair of demyelinated lesions by inhibiting Gli1, identifying a new therapeutic avenue for the treatment of demyelinating disorders. PMID:26416758

  4. Selenium Inhibits Root Elongation by Repressing the Generation of Endogenous Hydrogen Sulfide in Brassica rapa

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Mei-Yu; Xian, Ming; Qi, Zhong-Qiang; Li, You-Qin; Hu, Liang-Bin; Chen, Jian; Yang, Li-Fei

    2014-01-01

    Selenium (Se) has been becoming an emerging pollutant causing severe phytotoxicity, which the biochemical mechanism is rarely known. Although hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been suggested as an important exogenous regulator modulating plant physiological adaptions in response to heavy metal stress, whether and how the endogenous H2S regulates Se-induce phytotoxicity remains unclear. In this work, a self-developed specific fluorescent probe (WSP-1) was applied to track endogenous H2S in situ in the roots of Brassica rapa under Se(IV) stress. Se(IV)-induced root growth stunt was closely correlated with the inhibition of endogenous H2S generation in root tips. Se(IV) stress dampened the expression of most LCD and DCD homologues in the roots of B. rapa. By using various specific fluorescent probes for bio-imaging root tips in situ, we found that the increase in endogenous H2S by the application of H2S donor NaHS could significantly alleviate Se(IV)-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) over-accumulation, oxidative impairment, and cell death in root tips, which further resulted in the recovery of root growth under Se(IV) stress. However, dampening the endogenous H2S could block the alleviated effect of NaHS on Se(IV)-induced phytotoxicity. Finally, the increase in endogenous H2S resulted in the enhancement of glutathione (GSH) in Se(IV)-treated roots, which may share the similar molecular mechanism for the dominant role of H2S in removing ROS by activating GSH biosynthesis in mammals. Altogether, these data provide the first direct evidences confirming the pivotal role of endogenous H2S in modulating Se(IV)-induced phytotoxicity in roots. PMID:25333279

  5. Inhibition of Histone Deacetylases Preserves Myocardial Performance and Prevents Cardiac Remodeling through Stimulation of Endogenous Angiomyogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ling; Qin, Xin; Zhao, Yu; Fast, Loren; Zhuang, Shougang; Liu, Paul; Cheng, Guangmao

    2012-01-01

    We have previously shown that the inhibition of histone deacetylases (HDACs) protects the heart against acute myocardial ischemia and reperfusion injury. We also demonstrated that HDAC inhibition stimulates myogenesis and angiogenesis in a cultured embryonic stem cell model. We investigate whether in vivo inhibition of HDAC preserves cardiac performance and prevents cardiac remodeling in mouse myocardial infarction (MI) through the stimulation of endogenous regeneration. MI was created by ligation of the left descending artery. Animals were divided into three groups: 1) sham group, animals that underwent thoracotomy without MI; 2) MI, animals that underwent MI; and 3) MI + trichostatin A (TSA), MI animals that received a daily intraperitoneal injection of TSA. In addition, infarcted mice received a daily intraperitoneal injection of TSA (0.1 mg/kg), a selective HDAC inhibitor. 5-Bromo-2-deoxyuridine (50 mg/kg) was delivered every other day to pulse-chase label in vivo endogenous cardiac replication. Eight weeks later, the MI hearts showed a reduction in ventricular contractility. HDAC inhibition increased the improvement of myocardial functional recovery after MI, which was associated with the prevention of myocardial remodeling and reduction of myocardial and serum tumor necrosis factor α. HDAC inhibition enhanced the formation of new myocytes and microvessels, which was consistent with the robust increase in proliferation and cytokinesis in the MI hearts. An increase in angiogenic response was demonstrated in MI hearts receiving TSA treatment. It is noteworthy that TSA treatment significantly inhibited HDAC activity and increased phosphorylation of Akt-1, but decreased active caspase 3. Taken together, our results indicate that HDAC inhibition preserves cardiac performance and mitigates myocardial remodeling through stimulating cardiac endogenous regeneration. PMID:22271820

  6. A rapid and simple method for the simultaneous determination of four endogenous monoamine neurotransmitters in rat brain using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled with atmospheric-pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wenbin; Zhu, Bangjie; Liu, Feng; Lyu, Chunming; Zhang, Shen; Yan, Chao; Cheng, Yu; Wei, Hai

    2015-10-01

    Endogenous monoamine neurotransmitters play an essential role in neural communication in mammalians. Many quantitative methods for endogenous monoamines have been developed during recent decades. Yet, matrix effect was usually a challenge in the quantification, in many cases asking for tedious sample preparation or sacrificing sensitivity. In this work, a simple, fast and sensitive method with no matrix effect was developed to simultaneously determine four endogenous monoamines including serotonin, dopamine, epinephrine and norepinephrine in rat brain tissues, using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled with atmospheric-pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Various conditions, including columns, chromatographic conditions, ion source, MS/MS conditions, and brain tissue preparation methods, were optimized and validated. Pre-weighed 20mg brain sample could be effectively and reproducibly homogenized and protein-precipitated by 20 times value of 0.2% formic acid in cold organic solvents (methanol-acetonitrile, 10:90, v/v). This method exhibited excellent linearity for all analytes (regression coefficients>0.998 or 0.999). The precision, expressed as coefficients of variation, was less than 3.43% for intra-day analyses and ranged from 4.17% to 15.5% for inter-day analyses. Good performance was showed in limit of detection (between 0.3nM and 3.0nM for all analytes), recovery (90.8-120%), matrix effect (84.4-107%), accuracy (89.8-100%) and stability (88.3-104%). The validated method was well applied to simultaneously determine the endogenous serotonin, dopamine, epinephrine and norepinephrine in four brain sections of 18 Wistar rats. The quantification of four endogenous monoamines in rat brain performed excellently in the sensitivity, high throughput, simple sample preparation and matrix effect. PMID:26363373

  7. Replication of Many Human Viruses Is Refractory to Inhibition by Endogenous Cellular MicroRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Bogerd, Hal P.; Skalsky, Rebecca L.; Kennedy, Edward M.; Furuse, Yuki; Whisnant, Adam W.; Flores, Omar; Schultz, Kimberly L. W.; Putnam, Nicole; Barrows, Nicholas J.; Sherry, Barbara; Scholle, Frank; Garcia-Blanco, Mariano A.; Griffin, Diane E.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The issue of whether viruses are subject to restriction by endogenous microRNAs (miRNAs) and/or by virus-induced small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) in infected human somatic cells has been controversial. Here, we address this question in two ways. First, using deep sequencing, we demonstrate that infection of human cells by the RNA virus dengue virus (DENV) or West Nile virus (WNV) does not result in the production of any virus-derived siRNAs or viral miRNAs. Second, to more globally assess the potential of small regulatory RNAs to inhibit virus replication, we used gene editing to derive human cell lines that lack a functional Dicer enzyme and that therefore are unable to produce miRNAs or siRNAs. Infection of these cells with a wide range of viruses, including DENV, WNV, yellow fever virus, Sindbis virus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, measles virus, influenza A virus, reovirus, vesicular stomatitis virus, human immunodeficiency virus type 1, or herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1), failed to reveal any enhancement in the replication of any of these viruses, although HSV-1, which encodes at least eight Dicer-dependent viral miRNAs, did replicate somewhat more slowly in the absence of Dicer. We conclude that most, and perhaps all, human viruses have evolved to be resistant to inhibition by endogenous human miRNAs during productive replication and that dependence on a cellular miRNA, as seen with hepatitis C virus, is rare. How viruses have evolved to avoid inhibition by endogenous cellular miRNAs, which are generally highly conserved during metazoan evolution, remains to be determined. IMPORTANCE Eukaryotic cells express a wide range of small regulatory RNAs, including miRNAs, that have the potential to inhibit the expression of mRNAs that show sequence complementarity. Indeed, previous work has suggested that endogenous miRNAs have the potential to inhibit viral gene expression and replication. Here, we demonstrate that the replication of a wide range of

  8. Inhibiting effects of rhynchophylline on zebrafish methamphetamine dependence are associated with amelioration of neurotransmitters content and down-regulation of TH and NR2B expression.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Mingjin; Chen, Yifei; Li, Chan; Peng, Qiuxian; Fang, Miao; Liu, Wei; Kang, Qunzhao; Lin, Yingbo; Yung, Ken Kin Lam; Mo, Zhixian

    2016-07-01

    Others and we have reported that rhynchophylline reverses amphetamine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) effect which may be partly mediated by amelioration of central neurotransmitters and N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor 2B (NR2B) levels in the rat brains. The current study investigated the inhibiting effects of rhynchophylline on methamphetamine-induced (METH-induced) CPP in adult zebrafish and METH-induced locomotor activity in tyrosine hydroxylase-green fluorescent protein (TH-GFP) transgenic zebrafish larvae and attempted to confirm the hypothesis that these effects were mediated via regulation of neurotransmitters and dopaminergic and glutamatergic systems. After baseline preference test (on days 1-3), zebrafish were injected intraperitoneally METH (on days 4, 6 and 8) or the same volume of fish physiological saline (on days 5 and 7) and were immediately conditioned. Rhynchophylline was administered at 12h after injection of METH. On day 9, zebrafish were tested for METH-induced CPP. Results revealed that rhynchophylline (100mg/kg) significantly inhibited the acquisition of METH-induced CPP, reduced the content of dopamine and glutamate and down-regulated the expression of TH and NR2B in the CPP zebrafish brains. Furthermore, the influence of rhynchophylline on METH-induced locomotor activity was also observed in TH-GFP transgenic zebrafish larvae. Results showed that rhynchophylline (50mg/L) treatment led to a significant reduction on the locomotor activity and TH expression in TH-GFP transgenic zebrafish larvae. Taken together, these data indicate that the inhibition of the formation of METH dependence by rhynchophylline in zebrafish is associated with amelioration of the neurotransmitters dopamine and glutamate content and down-regulation of TH and NR2B expression. PMID:27009763

  9. Inhibition potential of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and its metabolites on the in vitro monoamine oxidase (MAO)-catalyzed deamination of the neurotransmitters serotonin and dopamine.

    PubMed

    Steuer, Andrea E; Boxler, Martina I; Stock, Lorena; Kraemer, Thomas

    2016-01-22

    Neurotoxicity of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is still controversially discussed. Formation of reactive oxygen species e.g. based on elevated dopamine (DA) concentrations and DA quinone formation is discussed among others. Inhibition potential of MDMA metabolites regarding neurotransmitter degradation by catechol-O-methyltransferase and sulfotransferase was described previously. Their influence on monoamine oxidase (MAO) - the major DA degradation pathway-has not yet been studied in humans. Therefore the inhibition potential of MDMA and its metabolites on the deamination of the neurotransmitters DA and serotonin (5-HT) by MAO-A and B using recombinant human enzymes in vitro should be investigated. In initial studies, MDMA and MDA showed relevant inhibition (>30%) toward MAO A for 5-HT and DA. No relevant effects toward MAO B were observed. Further investigation on MAO-A revealed MDMA as a competitive inhibitor of 5-HT and DA deamination with Ki 24.5±7.1 μM and 18.6±4.3 μM respectively and MDA as a mixed-type inhibitor with Ki 7.8±2.6 μM and 8.4±3.2 μM respectively. Although prediction of in vivo relevance needs to be done with care, relevant inhibitory effects at expected plasma concentrations after recreational MDMA consumption seems unlikely based on the obtained data. PMID:26721607

  10. Endogenous pain inhibition is unrelated to autonomic responses in acute whiplash-associated disorders.

    PubMed

    De Kooning, Margot; Daenen, Liesbeth; Roussel, Nathalie; Cras, Patrick; Buyl, Ronald; Ickmans, Kelly; Struyf, Filip; Nijs, Jo

    2015-01-01

    Patients with acute whiplash-associated disorder (WAD) demonstrate an inefficient endogenous pain inhibition and may experience a dysfunction in autonomic nervous system reactivity to pain. This study compared the autonomic response to painful stimuli between patients with acute and chronic WAD and healthy controls. In addition, the role of the autonomic nervous system for explaining inefficient endogenous pain inhibition was examined in acute WAD. Seventeen patients with acute WAD, 30 patients with chronic WAD, and 31 healthy controls participated in an experiment evaluating the autonomic nervous system at rest and during painful stimuli. Skin conductance and heart rate variability (HRV) parameters were monitored continuously during conditioned pain modulation. A significant autonomic response to pain was present for skin conductance and two HRV parameters in all experimental groups. There was an interaction effect in the skin conductance response to pain but not in HRV responses in any of the groups. In patients with acute WAD, no significant correlations were present between pain, pressure pain thresholds, pain inhibition, and any of the autonomic parameters. This study refutes autonomic dysfunction at rest and in response to pain in acute WAD. The dysfunctional conditioned pain modulation appears unrelated to autonomic responses to pain. PMID:26348457

  11. Endogenous inhibition of hippocampal LTD and depotentiation by vasoactive intestinal peptide VPAC1 receptors.

    PubMed

    Cunha-Reis, Diana; Aidil-Carvalho, Maria de Fatima; Ribeiro, Joaquim A

    2014-11-01

    Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), an important modulator of hippocampal synaptic transmission, influences exploration and hippocampal-dependent learning in rodents. Homosynaptic long-term depression (LTD) and depotentiation are two plasticity phenomena implicated in learning of behavior flexibility and spatial novelty detection. In this study, we investigated the influence of endogenous VIP on LTD and depotentiation induced by low-frequency stimulation (1 Hz, 900 pulses) of the hippocampal CA1 area in vitro in juvenile and young adult rats, respectively. LTD and depotentiation were enhanced by the VIP receptor antagonist Ac-Tyr(1) , D-Phe(2) GRF (1-29), and the selective VPAC1 receptor antagonist, PG 97-269, but not the selective VPAC2 receptor antagonist, PG 99-465. This action was mimicked by an anti-VIP antibody, suggesting that VIP, and not pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP), is the endogenous mediator of these effects. Selective inhibition of PAC1 receptors with PACAP (6-38) enhanced depotentiation, but not LTD. VPAC1 receptor blockade also revealed LTD in young adult rats, an effect abolished by the GABAA antagonist bicuculline, evidencing an involvement of GABAergic transmission. We conclude that inhibition of LTD and depotentiation by endogenous VIP occurs through VPAC1 receptor-mediated mechanisms and suggest that disinhibition of pyramidal cell dendrites is the most likely physiological mechanism underlying this effect. As such, VPAC1 receptor ligands may be considered promising pharmacological targets for treatment of cognitive dysfunction in diseases involving altered GABAergic circuits and pathological saturation of LTP/LTD like Down's syndrome and temporal lobe epilepsy. PMID:24935659

  12. Endogenous inhibition of pain and spinal nociception in women with premenstrual dysphoric disorder

    PubMed Central

    Palit, Shreela; Bartley, Emily J; Kuhn, Bethany L; Kerr, Kara L; DelVentura, Jennifer L; Terry, Ellen L; Rhudy, Jamie L

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) is characterized by severe affective and physical symptoms, such as increased pain, during the late-luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. The mechanisms underlying hyperalgesia in women with PMDD have yet to be identified, and supraspinal pain modulation has yet to be examined in this population. The present study assessed endogenous pain inhibitory processing by examining conditioned pain modulation (CPM, a painful conditioning stimulus inhibiting pain evoked by a test stimulus at a distal body site) of pain and the nociceptive flexion reflex (NFR, a spinally-mediated withdrawal reflex) during the mid-follicular, ovulatory, and late-luteal phases of the menstrual cycle. Methods Participants were regularly-cycling women (14 without PMDD; 14 with PMDD). CPM was assessed by delivering electrocutaneous test stimuli to the sural nerve before, during, and after a painful conditioning ischemia task. Participants rated their pain to electrocutaneous stimuli, and NFR magnitudes were measured. A linear mixed model analysis was used to assess the influence of group and menstrual phase on CPM. Results Compared with controls, women with PMDD experienced greater pain during the late-luteal phase and enhanced spinal nociception during the ovulation phase, both of which were independent of CPM. Both groups showed CPM inhibition of pain that did not differ by menstrual phase. Only women with PMDD evidenced CPM inhibition of NFR. Conclusion Endogenous modulation of pain and spinal nociception is not disrupted in women with PMDD. Additionally, greater NFR magnitudes during ovulation in PMDD may be due to tonically-engaged descending mechanisms that facilitate spinal nociception, leading to enhanced pain during the premenstrual phase. PMID:26929663

  13. D1-type dopamine receptors inhibit growth cone motility in cultured retina neurons: evidence that neurotransmitters act as morphogenic growth regulators in the developing central nervous system.

    PubMed Central

    Lankford, K L; DeMello, F G; Klein, W L

    1988-01-01

    Precedent exists for the early development and subsequent down-regulation of neurotransmitter receptor systems in the vertebrate central nervous system, but the function of such embryonic receptors has not been established. Here we show that stimulation of early-developing dopamine receptors in avian retina cells greatly inhibits the motility of neuronal growth cones. Neurons from embryonic chicken retinas were cultured in low-density monolayers, and their growth cones were observed with phase-contrast or video-enhanced-contrast-differential-interference-contrast (VEC-DIC) microscopy. Approximately 25% of the neurons responded to micromolar dopamine with a rapid reduction in filopodial activity followed by a flattening of growth cones and retraction of neurites. The response occurred at all ages examined (embryonic day-8 retinal neurons cultured on polylysine-coated coverslips for 1-7 days), although neurite retraction was greatest in younger cultures. Effects of dopamine on growth cone function could be reversed by haloperidol or (+)-SCH 23390, whereas forskolin elicited a response similar to dopamine; these data show the response was receptor-mediated, acting through a D1-type system, and are consistent with the use of cAMP as a second messenger. The experiments provide strong support for the hypothesis that neurotransmitters, besides mediating transynaptic signaling in the adult, may have a role in neuronal differentiation as growth regulators. Images PMID:3380807

  14. D1-type dopamine receptors inhibit growth cone motility in cultured retina neurons: evidence that neurotransmitters act as morphogenic growth regulators in the developing central nervous system.

    PubMed Central

    Lankford, K L; DeMello, F G; Klein, W L

    1988-01-01

    Precedent exists for the early development and subsequent down-regulation of neurotransmitter receptor systems in the vertebrate central nervous system, but the function of such embryonic receptors has not been established. Here we show that stimulation of early-developing dopamine receptors in avian retina cells greatly inhibits the motility of neuronal growth cones. Neurons from embryonic chicken retinas were cultured in low-density monolayers, and their growth cones were observed with phase-contrast or video-enhanced-contrast-differential-interference-contrast (VEC-DIC) microscopy. Approximately 25% of the neurons responded to micromolar dopamine with a rapid reduction in filopodial activity followed by a flattening of growth cones and retraction of neurites. The response occurred at all ages examined (embryonic day-8 retinal neurons cultured on polylysine-coated coverslips for 1-7 days), although neurite retraction was greatest in younger cultures. Effects of dopamine on growth cone function could be reversed by haloperidol or (+)-SCH 23390, whereas forskolin elicited a response similar to dopamine; these data show the response was receptor-mediated, acting through a D1-type system, and are consistent with the use of cAMP as a second messenger. The experiments provide strong support for the hypothesis that neurotransmitters, besides mediating transynaptic signaling in the adult, may have a role in neuronal differentiation as growth regulators. Images PMID:3357895

  15. Intranasal oxytocin administration is associated with enhanced endogenous pain inhibition and reduced negative mood states

    PubMed Central

    Goodin, Burel R.; Anderson, Austen J. B.; Freeman, Emily L.; Bulls, Hailey W.; Robbins, Meredith T.; Ness, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study examined whether the administration of intranasal oxytocin was associated with pain sensitivity, endogenous pain inhibitory capacity, and negative mood states. Methods A total of 30 pain-free, young adults each completed three laboratory sessions on consecutive days. The first session (baseline) assessed ischemic pain sensitivity, endogenous pain inhibition via conditioned pain modulation (CPM), and negative mood using the Profile of Mood States (POMS). CPM was tested on the dominant forearm and ipsilateral masseter muscle using algometry (test stimulus) and the cold pressor task (conditioning stimulus; non-dominant hand). For the second and third sessions, participants initially completed the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and then self-administered a single (40IU/1mL) dose of intranasal oxytocin or placebo in a randomized counter-balanced order. Thirty minutes post-administration, participants again completed the STAI and repeated assessments of ischemic pain sensitivity and CPM followed by the POMS. Results Findings demonstrated that ischemic pain sensitivity did not significantly differ across the three study sessions. CPM at the masseter, but not the forearm, was significantly greater following administration of oxytocin compared to placebo. Negative mood was also significantly lower following administration of oxytocin compared to placebo. Similarly, anxiety significantly decreased following administration of oxytocin but not placebo. Discussion This study incorporated a placebo-controlled, double-blind, within-subjects crossover design with randomized administration of intranasal oxytocin and placebo. The data suggest that the administration of intranasal oxytocin may augment endogenous pain inhibitory capacity and reduce negative mood states including anxiety. PMID:25370147

  16. Endogenous Sulfur Dioxide Inhibits Vascular Calcification in Association with the TGF-β/Smad Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhenzhen; Huang, Yaqian; Du, Junbao; Liu, Angie Dong; Tang, Chaoshu; Qi, Yongfen; Jin, Hongfang

    2016-01-01

    The study was designed to investigate whether endogenous sulfur dioxide (SO2) plays a role in vascular calcification (VC) in rats and its possible mechanisms. In vivo medial vascular calcification was induced in rats by vitamin D3 and nicotine for four weeks. In vitro calcification of cultured A7r5 vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) was induced by calcifying media containing 5 mmol/L CaCl2. Aortic smooth muscle (SM) α-actin, runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and Smad expression was measured. VC rats showed dispersed calcified nodules among the elastic fibers in calcified aorta with increased aortic calcium content and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. SM α-actin was markedly decreased, but the osteochondrogenic marker Runx2 concomitantly increased and TGF-β/Smad signaling was activated, in association with the downregulated SO2/aspartate aminotransferase (AAT) pathway. However, SO2 supplementation successfully ameliorated vascular calcification, and increased SM α-actin expression, but inhibited Runx2 and TGF-β/Smad expression. In calcified A7r5 VSMCs, the endogenous SO2/AAT pathway was significantly downregulated. SO2 treatment reduced the calcium deposits, calcium content, ALP activity and Runx2 expression and downregulated the TGF-β/Smad pathway in A7r5 cells but increased SM α-actin expression. In brief, SO2 significantly ameliorated vascular calcification in association with downregulation of the TGF-β/Smad pathway. PMID:26907267

  17. Endogenous prostaglandin E2 mediates inhibition of rat thick ascending limb Cl reabsorption in chronic hypercalcemia.

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, L N; McKay, A J; Borzecki, J S

    1993-01-01

    The hypothesis that endogenous PGE2 mediates defective thick ascending limb (TAL) Cl reabsorption (percent delivered load: FRCl%) in rats with vitamin D-induced chronic hypercalcemia (HC) was tested by measuring FRCl% in loop segments microperfused in vivo in HC and control rats treated acutely with indomethacin (Indo) or its vehicle, and obtaining the corresponding outer medullary [PGE2]. Microperfusion conditions were developed in which FRCl% was exclusively furosemide sensitive. To determine the cellular mechanism, tubules were perfused acutely with forskolin (FSK), cAMP, or the protein kinase C inhibitor staurosporine (SSP). Outer medullary [PGE2] in HC rats was 9 to 10 times greater than control and could be normalized by Indo. FRCl% was 20% lower in HC rats infused with vehicle, and Indo, FSK, and cAMP returned FRCl% to normal despite sustained HC. Indo or FSK had no effect on FRCl% in control rats and Indo did not prevent inhibition of FRCl% by luminal PGE2 (1 microM). Luminal SSP (10(-7), 10(-8) M) in HC did not return FRCl% to control values. We conclude that impaired TAL FRCl% in HC occurs at a pre-cAMP site and is due to endogenous PGE2 and not to HC. Images PMID:8390479

  18. Endogenous Sulfur Dioxide Inhibits Vascular Calcification in Association with the TGF-β/Smad Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhenzhen; Huang, Yaqian; Du, Junbao; Liu, Angie Dong; Tang, Chaoshu; Qi, Yongfen; Jin, Hongfang

    2016-01-01

    The study was designed to investigate whether endogenous sulfur dioxide (SO₂) plays a role in vascular calcification (VC) in rats and its possible mechanisms. In vivo medial vascular calcification was induced in rats by vitamin D3 and nicotine for four weeks. In vitro calcification of cultured A7r5 vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) was induced by calcifying media containing 5 mmol/L CaCl₂. Aortic smooth muscle (SM) α-actin, runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and Smad expression was measured. VC rats showed dispersed calcified nodules among the elastic fibers in calcified aorta with increased aortic calcium content and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. SM α-actin was markedly decreased, but the osteochondrogenic marker Runx2 concomitantly increased and TGF-β/Smad signaling was activated, in association with the downregulated SO₂/aspartate aminotransferase (AAT) pathway. However, SO₂ supplementation successfully ameliorated vascular calcification, and increased SM α-actin expression, but inhibited Runx2 and TGF-β/Smad expression. In calcified A7r5 VSMCs, the endogenous SO₂/AAT pathway was significantly downregulated. SO₂ treatment reduced the calcium deposits, calcium content, ALP activity and Runx2 expression and downregulated the TGF-β/Smad pathway in A7r5 cells but increased SM α-actin expression. In brief, SO₂ significantly ameliorated vascular calcification in association with downregulation of the TGF-β/Smad pathway. PMID:26907267

  19. Enhanced endogenous type I interferon cell-driven survival and inhibition of spontaneous apoptosis by Riluzole

    SciTech Connect

    Achour, Ammar

    2009-03-30

    Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), although effective in improving the survival of HIV-1-infected individuals, has not been able to reconstitute the adaptive immune response. We have described the use of novel chemical agents to restore T-cell survival/proliferation by inducing cytokine production. Due to its cationic amphiphilic structure, these molecules appear to enhance immune restoration. In this study, we investigated the action of Riluzole (2-amino-6-trifuromethoxybenzothiazole) in HIV-1 infection. Riluzole is able to increase (effective dose from 1 to 1000 nM) the cell-survival of T cells from HIV-1-infected patients and inhibit spontaneous apoptosis. The immunomodulatory effect of riluzole-sensitized cells was ascribed to endogenous type I interferon (IFN) derived from monocytes. Riluzole might be used for restoring the cell survival of immunocompromised patients and eliminating latent infected cells upon HIV-1 reactivation.

  20. Endogenous inhibition of the trigeminally evoked neurotransmission to cardiac vagal neurons by muscarinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Gorini, C; Philbin, K; Bateman, R; Mendelowitz, D

    2010-10-01

    Stimulation of the nasal mucosa by airborne irritants or water evokes a pronounced bradycardia accompanied by peripheral vasoconstriction and apnea. The dive response, which includes the trigeminocardiac reflex, is among the most powerful autonomic responses. These responses slow the heart rate and reduce myocardial oxygen consumption. Although normally cardioprotective, exaggeration of this reflex can be detrimental and has been implicated in cardiorespiratory diseases, including sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). An essential component of the diving response and trigeminocardiac reflex is activation of the parasympathetic cardiac vagal neurons (CVNs) in the nucleus ambiguus that control heart rate. This study examined the involvement of cholinergic receptors in trigeminally evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents in CVNs in an in vitro preparation from rats. CVNs were identified using a retrograde tracer injected into the fat pads at the base of the heart. Application of the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor neostigmine significantly decreased the amplitude of glutamatergic neurotransmission to CVNs on stimulation of trigeminal fibers. Whereas nicotine did not have any effect on the glutamatergic responses, the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) agonist bethanechol significantly decreased the excitatory neurotransmission. Atropine, an mAChR antagonist, facilitated these responses indicating this trigeminally evoked brain stem pathway in vitro is endogenously inhibited by mAChRs. Tropicamide, an m4 mAChR antagonist, prevented the inhibitory action of the muscarinic agonist bethanechol. These results indicate that the glutamatergic synaptic neurotransmission in the trigeminally evoked pathway to CVNs is endogenously inhibited in vitro by m4 mAChRs. PMID:20719927

  1. Utility of bilirubins and bile acids as endogenous biomarkers for the inhibition of hepatic transporters.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Tomoko; Miyake, Manami; Shimizu, Toshinobu; Kamezawa, Miho; Masutomi, Naoya; Shimura, Takesada; Ohashi, Rikiya

    2015-04-01

    It is useful to identify endogenous substrates for the evaluation of drug-drug interactions via transporters. In this study, we investigated the utility of bilirubins, substrates of OATPs and MRP2, and bile acids and substrates of NTCP and BSEP, as biomarkers for the inhibition of transporters. In rats administered 20 and 80 mg/kg rifampicin, the plasma levels of bilirubin glucuronides were elevated, gradually decreased, and almost returned to the baseline level at 24 hours after administration without an elevation of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). This result indicates the transient inhibition of rOatps and/or rMrp2. Although the correlation between free plasma concentrations and IC50 values of rOatps depended on the substrates used in the in vitro studies, the inhibition of rOatps by rifampicin was confirmed in the in vivo study using valsartan as a substrate of rOatps. In rats administered 10 and 30 mg/kg cyclosporin A, the plasma levels of bile acids were elevated and persisted for up to 24 hours after administration without an elevation of ALT and AST. This result indicates the continuous inhibition of rNtcp and/or rBsep, although there were differences between the free plasma or liver concentrations and IC50 values of rNtcp or rBsep, respectively. This study suggests that the monitoring of bilirubins and bile acids in plasma is useful in evaluating the inhibitory potential of their corresponding transporters. PMID:25581390

  2. Butyrate upregulates endogenous host defense peptides to enhance disease resistance in piglets via histone deacetylase inhibition.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Haitao; Guo, Bingxiu; Gan, Zhenshun; Song, Deguang; Lu, Zeqing; Yi, Hongbo; Wu, Yueming; Wang, Yizhen; Du, Huahua

    2016-01-01

    Butyrate has been used to treat different inflammatory disease with positive outcomes, the mechanisms by which butyrate exerts its anti-inflammatory effects remain largely undefined. Here we proposed a new mechanism that butyrate manipulate endogenous host defense peptides (HDPs) which contributes to the elimination of Escherichia coli O157:H7, and thus affects the alleviation of inflammation. An experiment in piglets treated with butyrate (0.2% of diets) 2 days before E. coli O157:H7 challenge was designed to investigate porcine HDP expression, inflammation and E. coli O157:H7 load in feces. The mechanisms underlying butyrate-induced HDP gene expression and the antibacterial activity and bacterial clearance of macrophage 3D4/2 cells in vitro were examined. Butyrate treatment (i) alleviated the clinical symptoms of E. coli O157:H7-induced hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) and the severity of intestinal inflammation; (ii) reduced the E. coli O157:H7 load in feces; (iii) significantly upregulated multiple, but not all, HDPs in vitro and in vivo via histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition; and (iv) enhanced the antibacterial activity and bacterial clearance of 3D4/2 cells. Our findings indicate that butyrate enhances disease resistance, promotes the clearance of E. coli O157:H7, and alleviates the clinical symptoms of HUS and inflammation, partially, by affecting HDP expression via HDAC inhibition. PMID:27230284

  3. Butyrate upregulates endogenous host defense peptides to enhance disease resistance in piglets via histone deacetylase inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Haitao; Guo, Bingxiu; Gan, Zhenshun; Song, Deguang; Lu, Zeqing; Yi, Hongbo; Wu, Yueming; Wang, Yizhen; Du, Huahua

    2016-01-01

    Butyrate has been used to treat different inflammatory disease with positive outcomes, the mechanisms by which butyrate exerts its anti-inflammatory effects remain largely undefined. Here we proposed a new mechanism that butyrate manipulate endogenous host defense peptides (HDPs) which contributes to the elimination of Escherichia coli O157:H7, and thus affects the alleviation of inflammation. An experiment in piglets treated with butyrate (0.2% of diets) 2 days before E. coli O157:H7 challenge was designed to investigate porcine HDP expression, inflammation and E. coli O157:H7 load in feces. The mechanisms underlying butyrate-induced HDP gene expression and the antibacterial activity and bacterial clearance of macrophage 3D4/2 cells in vitro were examined. Butyrate treatment (i) alleviated the clinical symptoms of E. coli O157:H7-induced hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) and the severity of intestinal inflammation; (ii) reduced the E. coli O157:H7 load in feces; (iii) significantly upregulated multiple, but not all, HDPs in vitro and in vivo via histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition; and (iv) enhanced the antibacterial activity and bacterial clearance of 3D4/2 cells. Our findings indicate that butyrate enhances disease resistance, promotes the clearance of E. coli O157:H7, and alleviates the clinical symptoms of HUS and inflammation, partially, by affecting HDP expression via HDAC inhibition. PMID:27230284

  4. Moscatilin inhibits lung cancer cell motility and invasion via suppression of endogenous reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Kowitdamrong, Akkarawut; Chanvorachote, Pithi; Sritularak, Boonchoo; Pongrakhananon, Varisa

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of death among cancer patients worldwide, and most of them have died from metastasis. Migration and invasion are prerequisite processes associated with high metastasis potential in cancers. Moscatilin, a bibenzyl derivative isolated from the Thai orchid Dendrobium pulchellum, has been shown to have anticancer effect against numerous cancer cell lines. However, little is known regarding the effect of moscatilin on cancer cell migration and invasion. The present study demonstrates that nontoxic concentrations of moscatilin were able to inhibit human nonsmall cell lung cancer H23 cell migration and invasion. The inhibitory effect of moscatilin was associated with an attenuation of endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS), in which hydroxyl radical (OH(∙)) was identified as a dominant species in the suppression of filopodia formation. Western blot analysis also revealed that moscatilin downregulated activated focal adhesion kinase (phosphorylated FAK, Tyr 397) and activated ATP-dependent tyrosine kinase (phosphorylated Akt, Ser 473), whereas their parental counterparts were not detectable changed. In conclusion, our results indicate the novel molecular basis of moscalitin-inhibiting lung cancer cell motility and invasion and demonstrate a promising antimetastatic potential of such an agent for lung cancer therapy. PMID:23738332

  5. Moscatilin Inhibits Lung Cancer Cell Motility and Invasion via Suppression of Endogenous Reactive Oxygen Species

    PubMed Central

    Kowitdamrong, Akkarawut; Chanvorachote, Pithi; Sritularak, Boonchoo

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of death among cancer patients worldwide, and most of them have died from metastasis. Migration and invasion are prerequisite processes associated with high metastasis potential in cancers. Moscatilin, a bibenzyl derivative isolated from the Thai orchid Dendrobium pulchellum, has been shown to have anticancer effect against numerous cancer cell lines. However, little is known regarding the effect of moscatilin on cancer cell migration and invasion. The present study demonstrates that nontoxic concentrations of moscatilin were able to inhibit human nonsmall cell lung cancer H23 cell migration and invasion. The inhibitory effect of moscatilin was associated with an attenuation of endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS), in which hydroxyl radical (OH∙) was identified as a dominant species in the suppression of filopodia formation. Western blot analysis also revealed that moscatilin downregulated activated focal adhesion kinase (phosphorylated FAK, Tyr 397) and activated ATP-dependent tyrosine kinase (phosphorylated Akt, Ser 473), whereas their parental counterparts were not detectable changed. In conclusion, our results indicate the novel molecular basis of moscalitin-inhibiting lung cancer cell motility and invasion and demonstrate a promising antimetastatic potential of such an agent for lung cancer therapy. PMID:23738332

  6. Inhibition of endogenous NGF degradation induces mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia in rats

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background We have previously shown a sprouting of sympathetic fibers into the upper dermis of the skin following subcutaneous injection of complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA) into the hindpaw. This sprouting correlated with an increase in pain-related sensitivity. We hypothesized that this sprouting and pain-related behavior were caused by an increase in nerve growth factor (NGF) levels. In this study, we investigated whether the inhibition of mature NGF degradation, using a matrix metalloproteinase 2 and 9 (MMP-2/9) inhibitor, was sufficient to reproduce a similar phenotype. Results Behavioral tests performed on male Sprague–Dawley rats at 1, 3, 7 and 14 days after intra-plantar MMP-2/9 inhibitor administration demonstrated that acute and chronic injections of the MMP-2/9 inhibitor induced sensitization, in a dose dependent manner, to mechanical, hot and cold stimuli as measured by von Frey filaments, Hargreaves and acetone tests, respectively. Moreover, the protein levels of mature NGF (mNGF) were increased, whereas the levels and enzymatic activity of matrix metalloproteinase 9 were reduced in the glabrous skin of the hind paw. MMP-2/9 inhibition also led to a robust sprouting of sympathetic fibers into the upper dermis but there were no changes in the density of peptidergic nociceptive afferents. Conclusions These findings indicate that localized MMP-2/9 inhibition provokes a pattern of sensitization and fiber sprouting comparable to that previously obtained following CFA injection. Accordingly, the modulation of endogenous NGF levels should be considered as a potential therapeutic target for the management of inflammatory pain associated with arthritis. PMID:23889761

  7. Tests of an electrostatic screening hypothesis of the inhibition of neurotransmitter release by cations at the frog neuromuscular junction.

    PubMed

    Misler, S; Hurlbut, W P

    1980-07-01

    We have investigated an electrostatic screening hypothesis of cationic inhibition of quantal release at the neuromuscular junction of the frog (Rana pipiens). According to this hypothesis, increasing the extracellular concentration of an inhibitory cation reduces the quantal content (m) of the end-plate potential by reducing the ability of negative surface charge to attract Ca2+ to the external surface of the presynaptic membrane. The inhibitory power of various cations should depend only on their net ionic charge and should increase strongly with increasing charge. We have demonstrated, in Ringer's solutions containing modified concentrations of Na+, Ca+, and Mg2+, that at fixed concentrations of Ca2+ and Na+ (a) the dependence of m on [Mg2+]0 is satisfactorily accounted for by electrostatic theory and (b) the dependence of m on the univalent cation concentration of the modified Ringer's solution is satisfactorily predicted from the Mg2+ inhibition of m. (Glucosamine or arginine was used to replace a fraction of the Na+ content of Ringer's solution in the latter experiments.) These results are consistent with electrostatic screening actions of Mg2+ and univalent cations in the inhibition of m. We have also re-examined the inhibition of m caused by the addition to Ringer's solution of two trace concentration divalent cations, Mn2+ and Sr2+. Our data suggest that the inhibition of m by Sr2+ at high quantal contents may also be due to surface charge screening, while the potent inhibitory actions of Mn2+ may be due to its ability to bind negative surface charge. PMID:6115687

  8. Inhibition of ionotropic neurotransmitter receptors by antagonists: strategy to estimate the association and the dissociation rate constant of antagonists with very strong affinity to the receptors.

    PubMed

    Aoshima, H; Inoue, Y; Hori, K

    1992-10-01

    Since binding of an agonist to an ionotropic neurotransmitter receptor causes not only channel opening, but also desensitization of the receptor, inhibition of the receptor by the antagonist sometimes becomes very complicated. The transient state kinetics of ligand association and dissociation, and desensitization of the receptor were considered on the basis of the minimal model proposed by Hess' group, and the following possibilities were proposed. 1) When an agonist is simultaneously applied to the receptor with an antagonist whose affinity to the receptor is extremely strong and different from that of the agonist, it is usually impossible to estimate the real inhibition constant exactly from the responses because desensitization of the receptor proceeds before the equilibrium of the ligand binding. Simultaneous addition of the antagonist with strong affinity to the receptor may apparently accelerate inactivation (desensitization) of the receptor. The association rate constant of the antagonist can be estimated by analyses of the rate of the inactivation in the presence and the absence of the antagonist. 2) A preincubated antagonist with a slow dissociation rate constant, i.e., a very effective inhibitor, may cause apparent noncompetitive inhibition of the receptor, since the receptor is desensitized by an agonist as soon as the antagonist dissociates from the receptor and the dissociation of the antagonist from the receptor becomes the rate-determining step. A nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) was expressed in Xenopus oocytes by injecting mRNA prepared from Electrophorus electricus electroplax and used for the experiments on inhibition by an antagonist.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1337082

  9. Inhibition of Borna disease virus replication by an endogenous bornavirus-like element in the ground squirrel genome.

    PubMed

    Fujino, Kan; Horie, Masayuki; Honda, Tomoyuki; Merriman, Dana K; Tomonaga, Keizo

    2014-09-01

    Animal genomes contain endogenous viral sequences, such as endogenous retroviruses and retrotransposons. Recently, we and others discovered that nonretroviral viruses also have been endogenized in many vertebrate genomes. Bornaviruses belong to the Mononegavirales and have left endogenous fragments, called "endogenous bornavirus-like elements" (EBLs), in the genomes of many mammals. The striking features of EBLs are that they contain relatively long ORFs which have high sequence homology to the extant bornavirus proteins. Furthermore, some EBLs derived from bornavirus nucleoprotein (EBLNs) have been shown to be transcribed as mRNA and probably are translated into proteins. These features lead us to speculate that EBLs may function as cellular coopted genes. An EBLN element in the genome of the thirteen-lined ground squirrel (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus), itEBLN, encodes an ORF with 77% amino acid sequence identity to the current bornavirus nucleoprotein. In this study, we cloned itEBLN from the ground squirrel genome and investigated its involvement in Borna disease virus (BDV) replication. Interestingly, itEBLN, but not a human EBLN, colocalized with the viral factory in the nucleus and appeared to affect BDV polymerase activity by being incorporated into the viral ribonucleoprotein. Our data show that, as do certain endogenous retroviruses, itEBLN potentially may inhibit infection by related exogenous viruses in vivo. PMID:25157155

  10. Endogenous transmembrane protein UT2 inhibits pSTAT3 and suppresses hematological malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ying-Hua; Kalaitzidis, Demetrios; Ramachandran, Janani; Sykes, David B.; Raje, Noopur; Scadden, David T.

    2016-01-01

    Regulation of STAT3 activation is critical for normal and malignant hematopoietic cell proliferation. Here, we have reported that the endogenous transmembrane protein upstream-of-mTORC2 (UT2) negatively regulates activation of STAT3. Specifically, we determined that UT2 interacts directly with GP130 and inhibits phosphorylation of STAT3 on tyrosine 705 (STAT3Y705). This reduces cytokine signaling including IL6 that is implicated in multiple myeloma and other hematopoietic malignancies. Modulation of UT2 resulted in inverse effects on animal survival in myeloma models. Samples from multiple myeloma patients also revealed a decreased copy number of UT2 and decreased expression of UT2 in genomic and transcriptomic analyses, respectively. Together, these studies identify a transmembrane protein that functions to negatively regulate cytokine signaling through GP130 and pSTAT3Y705 and is molecularly and mechanistically distinct from the suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) family of genes. Moreover, this work provides evidence that perturbations of this activation-dampening molecule participate in hematologic malignancies and may serve as a key determinant of multiple myeloma pathophysiology. UT2 is a negative regulator shared across STAT3 and mTORC2 signaling cascades, functioning as a tumor suppressor in hematologic malignancies driven by those pathways. PMID:26927669

  11. Doubling Your Payoff: Winning Pain Relief Engages Endogenous Pain Inhibition1,2,3

    PubMed Central

    Gandhi, Wiebke; Kwan, Saskia; Ahmed, Alysha-Karima; Schweinhardt, Petra

    2015-01-01

    Abstract When in pain, pain relief is much sought after, particularly for individuals with chronic pain. In analogy to augmentation of the hedonic experience (“liking”) of a reward by the motivation to obtain a reward (“wanting”), the seeking of pain relief in a motivated state might increase the experience of pain relief when obtained. We tested this hypothesis in a psychophysical experiment in healthy human subjects, by assessing potential pain-inhibitory effects of pain relief “won” in a wheel of fortune game compared with pain relief without winning, exploiting the fact that the mere chance of winning induces a motivated state. The results show pain-inhibitory effects of pain relief obtained by winning in behaviorally assessed pain perception and ratings of pain intensity. Further, the higher participants scored on the personality trait novelty seeking, the more pain inhibition was induced. These results provide evidence that pain relief, when obtained in a motivated state, engages endogenous pain-inhibitory systems beyond the pain reduction that underlies the relief in the first place. Consequently, such pain relief might be used to improve behavioral pain therapy, inducing a positive, perhaps self-amplifying feedback loop of reduced pain and improved functionality. PMID:26464995

  12. Light Inhibition of Shoot Regeneration Is Regulated by Endogenous Abscisic Acid Level in Calli Derived from Immature Barley Embryos.

    PubMed

    Rikiishi, Kazuhide; Matsuura, Takakazu; Ikeda, Yoko; Maekawa, Masahiko

    2015-01-01

    Shoot regeneration in calli derived from immature barley embryos is regulated by light conditions during the callus-induction period. Barley cultivars Kanto Nijo-5 (KN5) and K-3 (K3) showed lower efficiency of shoot regeneration in a 16-h photoperiod during callus-induction than those in continuous darkness, whereas shoot regeneration was enhanced in cultures under a 16-h photoperiod in Golden Promise (GP) and Lenins (LN). These cultivars were classified as photo-inhibition type (KN5 and K3) or photo-induction type (GP and LN) according to their response to light. Contents of endogenous plant hormones were determined in calli cultured under a 16-h photoperiod and continuous darkness. In photo-inhibition type, higher accumulation of abscisic acid (ABA) was detected in calli cultured under a 16-h photoperiod, whereas calli showed lower levels of endogenous ABA in continuous darkness. However, cultivars of photo-induction type showed lower levels of ABA in calli cultured under both light conditions, similarly to photo-inhibition type in continuous darkness. Exogenous ABA inhibited the callus growth and shoot regeneration independent of light conditions in all cultivars. In photo-inhibition type, lower levels of endogenous ABA induced by ABA biosynthesis inhibitor, fluridone, reduced the photo-inhibition of shoot regeneration. Expression of ABA biosynthesis gene, HvNCED1, in calli was regulated by the light conditions. Higher expression was observed in calli cultured under a 16-h photoperiod. These results indicate that ABA biosynthesis could be activated through the higher expression of HvNCED1 in a 16-h photoperiod and that the higher accumulations of ABA inhibit shoot regeneration in the photo-inhibition type cultivars. PMID:26670930

  13. Light Inhibition of Shoot Regeneration Is Regulated by Endogenous Abscisic Acid Level in Calli Derived from Immature Barley Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Rikiishi, Kazuhide; Matsuura, Takakazu; Ikeda, Yoko; Maekawa, Masahiko

    2015-01-01

    Shoot regeneration in calli derived from immature barley embryos is regulated by light conditions during the callus-induction period. Barley cultivars Kanto Nijo-5 (KN5) and K-3 (K3) showed lower efficiency of shoot regeneration in a 16-h photoperiod during callus-induction than those in continuous darkness, whereas shoot regeneration was enhanced in cultures under a 16-h photoperiod in Golden Promise (GP) and Lenins (LN). These cultivars were classified as photo-inhibition type (KN5 and K3) or photo-induction type (GP and LN) according to their response to light. Contents of endogenous plant hormones were determined in calli cultured under a 16-h photoperiod and continuous darkness. In photo-inhibition type, higher accumulation of abscisic acid (ABA) was detected in calli cultured under a 16-h photoperiod, whereas calli showed lower levels of endogenous ABA in continuous darkness. However, cultivars of photo-induction type showed lower levels of ABA in calli cultured under both light conditions, similarly to photo-inhibition type in continuous darkness. Exogenous ABA inhibited the callus growth and shoot regeneration independent of light conditions in all cultivars. In photo-inhibition type, lower levels of endogenous ABA induced by ABA biosynthesis inhibitor, fluridone, reduced the photo-inhibition of shoot regeneration. Expression of ABA biosynthesis gene, HvNCED1, in calli was regulated by the light conditions. Higher expression was observed in calli cultured under a 16-h photoperiod. These results indicate that ABA biosynthesis could be activated through the higher expression of HvNCED1 in a 16-h photoperiod and that the higher accumulations of ABA inhibit shoot regeneration in the photo-inhibition type cultivars. PMID:26670930

  14. Endogenous descending facilitation and inhibition differ in control of formalin intramuscularly induced persistent muscle nociception.

    PubMed

    Lei, Jing; You, Hao-Jun

    2013-10-01

    In conscious rats, intramuscular injection of 2.5% formalin into the gastrocnemius muscle, at volumes between 25 and 200 μl, evoked dose-dependent biphasic persistent flinching activities: phase 1 (0-10 min) and phase 2 (10-60 min). During this intramuscular formalin-induced ipsilateral muscle nociception, bilateral secondary mechanical hyperalgesia and heat hypoalgesia assessed by measuring thresholds of paw withdrawal reflex to noxious mechanical and heat stimuli were observed (P<0.05). Lesion of either the ipsilateral dorsal funiculus (DF) or contralateral thalamic mediodorsal (MD) nucleus significantly alleviated the formalin-induced flinches in both phase 1 and phase 2 of the behavioral response, and blocked the occurrence of secondary mechanical hyperalgesia, but not heat hypoalgesia. By contrast, lesion of the ipsilateral dorsal lateral funiculus (DLF) or contralateral thalamic ventromedial (VM) nucleus markedly enhanced the formalin induced flinching behavior in the late part (30-60 min) of phase 2 alone; phase 1 and early part (10-30 min) of phase 2 response were unaffected. Heat hypoalgesia, but not mechanical hyperalgesia, was markedly attenuated by this treatment (P<0.05). Microinjection of GABA (0.1 μg/0.5 μl) into the thalamic MD nucleus significantly depressed the intramuscular formalin-induced biphasic persistent nociception, and the occurrence of bilateral secondary mechanical hyperalgesia was significantly delayed (P<0.05). By contrast, microinjection of GABA into the thalamic VM nucleus significantly enhanced the formalin-induced nociceptive behavior in the late part (30-60 min) of phase 2, and the bilateral secondary heat hypoalgesia was temporarily prevented (P<0.05). The present study demonstrates that intramuscular formalin evokes biphasic muscle nociception, and that bilateral secondary mechanical hyperalgesia and heat hypoalgesia are differentially controlled by endogenous descending facilitation and inhibition respectively. It is

  15. Rhabdovirus-induced apoptosis in a fish cell line is inhibited by a human endogenous acid cysteine proteinase inhibitor.

    PubMed Central

    Björklund, H V; Johansson, T R; Rinne, A

    1997-01-01

    To determine the mechanisms of cell death in rhabdovirus-infected cells, we studied the infection of the epithelial papilloma of carp cell line with spring viremia of carp virus. Studies using electron microscopy, confocal microscopy, and agarose gel electrophoresis revealed changes in cell morphology and DNA fragmentation indicative of apoptosis. The virus-induced apoptosis was inhibited in cells treated with a human endogenous acid cysteine proteinase inhibitor. PMID:9188644

  16. Endogenous sulfur dioxide alleviates collagen remodeling via inhibiting TGF-β/Smad pathway in vascular smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yaqian; Shen, Zhizhou; Chen, Qinghua; Huang, Pan; Zhang, Heng; Du, Shuxu; Geng, Bin; Zhang, Chunyu; Li, Kun; Tang, Chaoshu; Du, Junbao; Jin, Hongfang

    2016-01-01

    The study was designed to investigate the role of endogenous sulfur dioxide (SO2) in collagen remodeling and its mechanisms in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Overexpression of endogenous SO2 synthase aspartate aminotransferase (AAT) 1 or 2 increased SO2 levels and inhibited collagen I and III expressions induced by transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 in VSMCs. In contrast, AAT1 or AAT2 knockdown induced a severe collagen deposition in TGF-β1-treated VSMCs. Furthermore, AAT1 or AAT2 overexpression suppressed procollagen I and III mRNA, upregulated matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13 expression, downregulated tissue inhibitors of MMP-1 level, and vice versa. Mechanistically, AAT1 or AAT2 overexpression inhibited phosphorylation of type I TGF-β receptor (TβRI) and Smad2/3 in TGF-β1-stimulated VSMCs. Whereas SB431542, an inhibitor of TGF-β1/Smad signaling pathway, attenuated excessive collagen deposition induced by AAT knockdown. Most importantly, ectopically expressing AAT or exogenous addition of 100 μM SO2 blocked AAT deficiency-aggravated collagen accumulation in TGF-β1-stimulatd VSMCs, while no inhibition was observed at 100 μM ethyl pyruvate. These findings indicated that endogenous SO2 alleviated collagen remodeling by controlling TGF-β1/TβRI/Smad2/3-mediated modulation of collagen synthesis and degradation. PMID:26762477

  17. Endogenous sulfur dioxide alleviates collagen remodeling via inhibiting TGF-β/Smad pathway in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yaqian; Shen, Zhizhou; Chen, Qinghua; Huang, Pan; Zhang, Heng; Du, Shuxu; Geng, Bin; Zhang, Chunyu; Li, Kun; Tang, Chaoshu; Du, Junbao; Jin, Hongfang

    2016-01-01

    The study was designed to investigate the role of endogenous sulfur dioxide (SO2) in collagen remodeling and its mechanisms in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Overexpression of endogenous SO2 synthase aspartate aminotransferase (AAT) 1 or 2 increased SO2 levels and inhibited collagen I and III expressions induced by transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 in VSMCs. In contrast, AAT1 or AAT2 knockdown induced a severe collagen deposition in TGF-β1-treated VSMCs. Furthermore, AAT1 or AAT2 overexpression suppressed procollagen I and III mRNA, upregulated matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13 expression, downregulated tissue inhibitors of MMP-1 level, and vice versa. Mechanistically, AAT1 or AAT2 overexpression inhibited phosphorylation of type I TGF-β receptor (TβRI) and Smad2/3 in TGF-β1-stimulated VSMCs. Whereas SB431542, an inhibitor of TGF-β1/Smad signaling pathway, attenuated excessive collagen deposition induced by AAT knockdown. Most importantly, ectopically expressing AAT or exogenous addition of 100 μM SO2 blocked AAT deficiency-aggravated collagen accumulation in TGF-β1-stimulatd VSMCs, while no inhibition was observed at 100 μM ethyl pyruvate. These findings indicated that endogenous SO2 alleviated collagen remodeling by controlling TGF-β1/TβRI/Smad2/3-mediated modulation of collagen synthesis and degradation. PMID:26762477

  18. Administration of caffeine inhibited adenosine receptor agonist-induced decreases in motor performance, thermoregulation, and brain neurotransmitter release in exercising rats.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xinyan; Hasegawa, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    We examined the effects of an adenosine receptor agonist on caffeine-induced changes in thermoregulation, neurotransmitter release in the preoptic area and anterior hypothalamus, and endurance exercise performance in rats. One hour before the start of exercise, rats were intraperitoneally injected with either saline alone (SAL), 10 mg kg(-1) caffeine and saline (CAF), a non-selective adenosine receptor agonist (5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine [NECA]: 0.5 mg kg(-1)) and saline (NECA), or the combination of caffeine and NECA (CAF+NECA). Rats ran until fatigue on the treadmill with a 5% grade at a speed of 18 m min(-1) at 23 °C. Compared to the SAL group, the run time to fatigue (RTTF) was significantly increased by 52% following caffeine administration and significantly decreased by 65% following NECA injection (SAL: 91 ± 14.1 min; CAF: 137 ± 25.8 min; NECA: 31 ± 13.7 min; CAF+NECA: 85 ± 11.8 min; p<0.05). NECA decreased the core body temperature (Tcore), oxygen consumption, which is an index of heat production, tail skin temperature, which is an index of heat loss, and extracellular dopamine (DA) release at rest and during exercise. Furthermore, caffeine injection inhibited the NECA-induced decreases in the RTTF, Tcore, heat production, heat loss, and extracellular DA release. Neither caffeine nor NECA affected extracellular noradrenaline or serotonin release. These results support the findings of previous studies showing improved endurance performance and overrides in body limitations after caffeine administration, and imply that the ergogenic effects of caffeine may be associated with the adenosine receptor blockade-induced increases in brain DA release. PMID:26604076

  19. Endogenous opioids mediate the sexual inhibition but not the drug hypersensitivity induced by sexual satiation in male rats.

    PubMed

    Garduño-Gutiérrez, René; Guadarrama-Bazante, Lorena; León-Olea, Martha; Rodríguez-Manzo, Gabriela

    2013-06-01

    Ejaculation promotes endogenous opioid release. Copulation to exhaustion produces several enduring behavioral and physiological changes, among which a long-lasting sexual behavior inhibition and generalized drug hypersensitivity are the most conspicuous. Because copulation to exhaustion involves multiple successive ejaculations, in this work we hypothesized that the endogenous opioids released by multiple ejaculations during the copulation to exhaustion process might mediate the abovementioned sexual satiation-induced changes. To test this hypothesis, sexually experienced male rats were injected with the opioid receptor antagonist naltrexone before copulation to exhaustion and were tested for sexual behavior or drug hypersensitivity 24 h later. The latter was assessed by the appearance of the flat body posture sign of the serotonergic syndrome, in response to doses of the 5-hydroxytryptamine-1A (5-HT1A) receptor agonist 8-hydroxy-2-di-n-propylamino-tetralin (8-OH-DPAT), lower than those normally inducing this sign. The effect of administering naltrexone to already sexually exhausted animals (i.e., 24 h after the sexual satiation process) on both responses was also tested. Results showed that endogenous opioids mediate the establishment and maintenance of the long-lasting sexual behavior inhibition but not the drug hypersensitivity (to 8-OH-DPAT) characteristic of sexually exhausted male rats. It is concluded that although both phenomena appear as a consequence of copulation to satiation and follow a same time course of recovery, they are produced by distinct mechanisms. PMID:23544597

  20. Glutamate-evoked release of endogenous brain dopamine: inhibition by an excitatory amino acid antagonist and an enkephalin analogue.

    PubMed Central

    Jhamandas, K.; Marien, M.

    1987-01-01

    The present study examined the effect of a selective delta-opioid receptor agonist [D-Ala2-D-Leu5] enkephalin (DADL) on the spontaneous and the L-glutamic acid (L-Glu)-evoked release of endogenous dopamine from superfused slices of rat caudate-putamen. The amount of dopamine in slice superfusates was measured by a sensitive method employing high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (h.p.l.c.-e.d.) after a two-step separation procedure. The spontaneous release of endogenous dopamine was partially dependent on Ca2+, enhanced in Mg2+-free superfusion medium, partially reduced by tetrodotoxin (TTX, 0.3 microM), partially reduced by the putative excitatory amino acid receptor antagonist DL-2-amino-7-phosphonoheptanoic acid (DL-APH, 1 mM), and increased 10 fold by the dopamine uptake blocker, nomifensine (10 microM). DADL (5 and 50 nM) did not significantly affect spontaneous dopamine release. L-Glu (0.1-10 mM) produced a concentration-dependent release of endogenous dopamine from slices of caudate-putamen. This effect was Ca2+-dependent, strongly inhibited by 1.2 mM Mg2+, attenuated by DL-APH (1 mM), attenuated by TTX (0.3 microM), and enhanced by nomifensine (10 microM). In the presence of nomifensine DADL (50 nM) reduced significantly the L-Glu-evoked release of endogenous dopamine by 20%. The inhibitory effect of DADL was blocked by 10 microM naloxone. These results indicate that L-Glu stimulates the Ca2+-dependent release of endogenous dopamine in the caudate-putamen by activation of N-methy-D-aspartate-type of excitatory amino acid receptors. This release can be selectively modified by the delta-opioid agonist DADL in a naloxone-sensitive manner. PMID:2884003

  1. Selective Inhibition of Porcine Endogenous Retrovirus Replication in Human Cells by Acyclic Nucleoside Phosphonates▿

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Minyi; Wang, Xin; De Clercq, Erik; Takao, Sonshin; Baba, Masanori

    2007-01-01

    Several anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase inhibitors were evaluated for their antiviral activities against porcine endogenous retrovirus in human cells. Among the test compounds, zidovudine was found to be the most active. The order of potency was zidovudine > phosphonylmethoxyethoxydiaminopyrimidine = phosphonylmethoxypropyldiaminopurine > tenofovir ≥ adefovir > stavudine. PMID:17470654

  2. HPLC Neurotransmitter Analysis.

    PubMed

    Holm, Thomas Hellesøe; Isaksen, Toke Jost; Lykke-Hartmann, Karin

    2016-01-01

    High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is a powerful tool to measure neurotransmitter levels in specific tissue samples and dialysates from patients and animals. In this chapter, we list the current protocols used to measure neurotransmitters in the form of biogenic amines from murine brain samples. PMID:26695044

  3. Neurotransmitter properties of the newborn human retina

    SciTech Connect

    Hollyfield, J.G.; Frederick, J.M.; Rayborn, M.E.

    1983-07-01

    Human retinal tissue from a newborn was examined autoradiographically for the presence of high-affinity uptake and localization of the following putative neurotransmitters: dopamine, glycine, GABA, aspartate, and glutamate. In addition, the dopamine content of this newborn retina was measured by high pressure liquid chromatography. Our study reveals that specific uptake mechanisms for /sup 3/H-glycine, /sup 3/H-dopamine, and /sup 3/H-GABA are present at birth. However, the number and distribution of cells labeled with each of these /sup 3/H-transmitters are not identical to those observed in adult human retinas. Furthermore, the amount of endogenous dopamine in the newborn retina is approximately 1/20 the adult level. Photoreceptor-specific uptake of /sup 3/H-glutamate and /sup 3/H-aspartate are not observed. These findings indicate that, while some neurotransmitter-specific properties are present at birth, significant maturation of neurotransmitter systems occurs postnatally.

  4. Kynurenine 3-monooxygenase mediates inhibition of Th17 differentiation via catabolism of endogenous aryl hydrocarbon receptor ligands.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Geoffrey L; Wang, Qun; Swerdlow, Bonnie; Bhat, Geetha; Kolbeck, Roland; Fung, Michael

    2013-07-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a key transcriptional regulator of Th17-cell differentiation. Although endogenous ligands have yet to be identified, evidence suggests that tryptophan metabolites can act as agonists for the AhR. Tryptophan metabolites are abundant in circulation, so we hypothesized that cell intrinsic factors might exist to regulate the exposure of Th17 cells to AhR-dependent activities. Here, we find that Th17 cells preferentially express kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO), which is an enzyme involved in catabolism of the tryptophan metabolite kynurenine. KMO inhibition, either with a specific inhibitor or via siRNA-mediated silencing, markedly increased IL-17 production in vitro, whereas IFN-γ production by Th1 cells was unaffected. Inhibition of KMO significantly exacerbated disease in a Th17-driven model of autoimmune gastritis, suggesting that expression of KMO by Th17 cells serves to limit their continuous exposure to physiological levels of endogenous AhR ligands in vivo. PMID:23568529

  5. Neurotransmitters in hiccups.

    PubMed

    Nausheen, Fauzia; Mohsin, Hina; Lakhan, Shaheen E

    2016-01-01

    Hiccups are the sudden involuntary contractions of the diaphragm and intercostal muscles. They are generally benign and self-limited, however, in some cases they are chronic and debilitating. There are approximately 4000 admissions for hiccups each year in the United States. The hiccup reflex arc is composed of three components: (1) an afferent limb including the phrenic, vagus, and sympathetic nerves, (2) the central processing unit in the midbrain, and (3) the efferent limb carrying motor fibers to the diaphragm and intercostal muscles. Hiccups may be idiopathic, organic, psychogenic, or medication-induced. Data obtained largely from case studies of hiccups either induced by or treated with medications have led to hypotheses on the neurotransmitters involved. The central neurotransmitters implicated in hiccups include GABA, dopamine, and serotonin, while the peripheral neurotransmitters are epinephrine, norepinephrine, acetylcholine, and histamine. Further studies are needed to characterize the nature of neurotransmitters at each anatomical level of the reflex arc to better target hiccups pharmacologically. PMID:27588250

  6. Electrochemical Analysis of Neurotransmitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucher, Elizabeth S.; Wightman, R. Mark

    2015-07-01

    Chemical signaling through the release of neurotransmitters into the extracellular space is the primary means of communication between neurons. More than four decades ago, Ralph Adams and his colleagues realized the utility of electrochemical methods for the study of easily oxidizable neurotransmitters, such as dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin and their metabolites. Today, electrochemical techniques are frequently coupled to microelectrodes to enable spatially resolved recordings of rapid neurotransmitter dynamics in a variety of biological preparations spanning from single cells to the intact brain of behaving animals. In this review, we provide a basic overview of the principles underlying constant-potential amperometry and fast-scan cyclic voltammetry, the most commonly employed electrochemical techniques, and the general application of these methods to the study of neurotransmission. We thereafter discuss several recent developments in sensor design and experimental methodology that are challenging the current limitations defining the application of electrochemical methods to neurotransmitter measurements.

  7. Electrochemical Analysis of Neurotransmitters

    PubMed Central

    Bucher, Elizabeth S.; Wightman, R. Mark

    2016-01-01

    Chemical signaling through the release of neurotransmitters into the extracellular space is the primary means of communication between neurons. More than four decades ago, Ralph Adams and his colleagues realized the utility of electrochemical methods for the study of easily oxidizable neurotransmitters, such as dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin and their metabolites. Today, electrochemical techniques are frequently coupled to microelectrodes to enable spatially resolved recordings of rapid neurotransmitter dynamics in a variety of biological preparations spanning from single cells to the intact brain of behaving animals. In this review, we provide a basic overview of the principles underlying constant-potential amperometry and fast-scan cyclic voltammetry, the most commonly employed electrochemical techniques, and the general application of these methods to the study of neurotransmission. We thereafter discuss several recent developments in sensor design and experimental methodology that are challenging the current limitations defining the application of electrochemical methods to neurotransmitter measurements. PMID:25939038

  8. Inhibiting DNA methylation causes an interferon response in cancer via dsRNA including endogenous retroviruses

    PubMed Central

    Chiappinelli, Katherine B.; Strissel, Pamela L.; Desrichard, Alexis; Li, Huili; Henke, Christine; Akman, Benjamin; Hein, Alexander; Rote, Neal S.; Cope, Leslie M.; Snyder, Alexandra; Makarov, Vladimir; Buhu, Sadna; Slamon, Dennis J.; Wolchok, Jedd D.; Pardoll, Drew M.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Zahnow, Cynthia A.; Mergoub, Taha; Chan, Timothy A.; Baylin, Stephen B.; Strick, Reiner

    2015-01-01

    Summary We show that DNA methyltransferase inhibitors (DNMTis) upregulate immune signaling in cancer through the viral defense pathway. In ovarian cancer (OC), DNMTis trigger cytosolic sensing of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) causing a Type I Interferon response and apoptosis. Knocking down dsRNA sensors TLR3 and MAVS reduces this response twofold, and blocking interferon beta or its receptor abrogates it. Upregulation of hypermethylated endogenous retrovirus (ERV) genes accompanies the response and ERV overexpression activates the response. Basal levels of ERV and viral defense gene expression significantly correlate in primary OC and the latter signature separates primary samples for multiple tumor types from The Cancer Genome Atlas into low versus high expression groups. In melanoma patients treated with an immune checkpoint therapy, high viral defense signature expression in tumors significantly associates with durable clinical response and DNMTi treatment sensitizes to anti-CTLA4 therapy in a pre-clinical melanoma model. PMID:26317466

  9. Focus on: neurotransmitter systems.

    PubMed

    Valenzuela, C Fernando; Puglia, Michael P; Zucca, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    Neurotransmitter systems have been long recognized as important targets of the developmental actions of alcohol (i.e., ethanol). Short- and long-term effects of ethanol on amino acid (e.g., γ-aminobutyric acid and glutamate) and biogenic amine (e.g., serotonin and dopamine) neurotransmitters have been demonstrated in animal models of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Researchers have detected ethanol effects after exposure during developmental periods equivalent to the first, second, and third trimesters of human pregnancy. Results support the recommendation that pregnant women should abstain from drinking-even small quantities-as effects of ethanol on neurotransmitter systems have been detected at low levels of exposure. Recent studies have elucidated new mechanisms and/or consequences of the actions of ethanol on amino acid and biogenic amine neuro-transmitter systems. Alterations in these neurotransmitter systems could, in part, be responsible for many of the conditions associated with FASD, including (1) learning, memory, and attention deficits; (2) motor coordination impairments; (3) abnormal responsiveness to stress; and (4) increased susceptibility to neuropsychiatric disorders, such as substance abuse and depression, and also neurological disorders, such as epilepsy and sudden infant death syndrome. However, future research is needed to conclusively establish a causal relationship between these conditions and developmental dysfunctions in neurotransmitter systems. PMID:23580048

  10. Inhibition of endogenous glucocorticoid synthesis aggravates lung injury triggered by septic shock in rats

    PubMed Central

    Incerpi, Erika K; Oliveira, Luiz M; Pereira, Elisângela M; Soncini, Roseli

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of previous administration of metyrapone (met) on the acute lung injury (ALI) induced by caecal ligation and puncture (CLP) and to explore met’s relationship with endogenous glucocorticoids (GCs) as measured by inflammatory, oxidative and functional parameters. One hundred and thirty-five Wistar rats were divided into three main groups: Control (Naïve), Sham and CLP. The animals received pretreatment one hour before surgery. The Naïve group did not undergo any procedure or pretreatment. The Sham group only had the caecum exposed and was pretreated with saline. The CLP group was divided into three pretreatments: metyrapone (CLP met 50 mg/kg i.p.), dexamethasone (CLP dex 0.5 mg/kg i.p.) or saline (CLP sal equivalent volume of 0.9% NaCl). Analyses were performed after 6 and 24 h of sepsis. Previous administration of met significantly increased inflammatory cells, as well as myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in the lung tissue and alveolar collapsed area, with consequent impairment of respiratory mechanics being observed compared to Sham and Naïve; CLP sal exhibited similar results to those of met. The met reduced corticosterone (CCT) levels and dramatically increased hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels in the lung tissue compared to CLP sal. Our results suggest that previous administration of met may have contributed to increased pulmonary oxidative stress and increased mortality by mechanisms dependent of endogenous GC. PMID:25664386

  11. Inhibition of endogenous glucocorticoid synthesis aggravates lung injury triggered by septic shock in rats.

    PubMed

    Incerpi, Erika K; Oliveira, Luiz M; Pereira, Elisângela M; Soncini, Roseli

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of previous administration of metyrapone (met) on the acute lung injury (ALI) induced by caecal ligation and puncture (CLP) and to explore met's relationship with endogenous glucocorticoids (GCs) as measured by inflammatory, oxidative and functional parameters. One hundred and thirty-five Wistar rats were divided into three main groups: Control (Naïve), Sham and CLP. The animals received pretreatment one hour before surgery. The Naïve group did not undergo any procedure or pretreatment. The Sham group only had the caecum exposed and was pretreated with saline. The CLP group was divided into three pretreatments: metyrapone (CLP met 50 mg/kg i.p.), dexamethasone (CLP dex 0.5 mg/kg i.p.) or saline (CLP sal equivalent volume of 0.9% NaCl). Analyses were performed after 6 and 24 h of sepsis. Previous administration of met significantly increased inflammatory cells, as well as myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in the lung tissue and alveolar collapsed area, with consequent impairment of respiratory mechanics being observed compared to Sham and Naïve; CLP sal exhibited similar results to those of met. The met reduced corticosterone (CCT) levels and dramatically increased hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) levels in the lung tissue compared to CLP sal. Our results suggest that previous administration of met may have contributed to increased pulmonary oxidative stress and increased mortality by mechanisms dependent of endogenous GC. PMID:25664386

  12. ASIC-like Currents in Freshly Isolated Cerebral Artery Smooth Muscle Cells are Inhibited by Endogenous Oxidase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Wen-Shuo; Farley, Jerry M.; Drummond, Heather A.

    2011-01-01

    Background/Aims: The aim of this study was to determine if VSMC ASIC-like currents are regulated by oxidative state. Methods: We used whole-cell patch clamp of isolated mouse cerebral VSMCs to determine if 1) reducing agents, such as DTT and GSH, and 2) inhibition of endogenous oxidase activity from NADPH and Xanthine oxidases potentiate active currents and activate electrically silent currents. Results: Pretreatment with 2 mM DTT or GSH, increased the mean peak amplitude of ASIC-like currents evoked by pH 6.0 from 0.4 ± 0.1 to 14.9 ± 3.6 pA/pF, and from 0.9 ± 0.3 to 11.3 ± 2.4 pA/pF, respectively. Pretreatment with apocynin, a NADPH oxidase inhibitor, mimics the effect of the reducing agents, with the mean peak current amplitude increased from 0.9 ± 0.5 to 7.0 ± 2.6 pA/pF and from 0.5 ± 0.2 to 26.4 ± 6.8 pA/pF by 50 and 200 μM apocynin, respectively. Pretreatment with allopurinol, a xanthine oxidase inhibitor, also potentiates the VSMC ASIC-like activity. Conclusion: These findings suggest that VSMC ASIC-like channels are regulated by oxidative state and may be inhibited by basal endogenous oxidative sources such as NADPH and xanthine oxidase. PMID:21325830

  13. Nanosensors for neurotransmitters.

    PubMed

    Polo, Elena; Kruss, Sebastian

    2016-04-01

    Neurotransmitters are an important class of messenger molecules. They govern chemical communication between cells for example in the brain. The spatiotemporal propagation of these chemical signals is a crucial part of communication between cells. Thus, the spatial aspect of neurotransmitter release is equally important as the mere time-resolved measurement of these substances. In conclusion, without tools that provide the necessary spatiotemporal resolution, chemical signaling via neurotransmitters cannot be studied in greater detail. In this review article we provide a critical overview about sensors/probes that are able to monitor neurotransmitters. Our focus are sensing concepts that provide or could in the future provide the spatiotemporal resolution that is necessary to 'image' dynamic changes of neurotransmitter concentrations around cells. These requirements set the bar for the type of sensors we discuss. The sensor must be small enough (if possible on the nanoscale) to provide the envisioned spatial resolution and it should allow parallel (spatial) detection. In this article we discuss both optical and electrochemical concepts that meet these criteria. We cover techniques that are based on fluorescent building blocks such as nanomaterials, proteins and organic dyes. Additionally, we review electrochemical array techniques and assess limitations and possible future directions. PMID:26586160

  14. Endogenous peptide(s) inhibiting [3H]cocaine binding in mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Reith, M E; Sershen, H; Lajtha, A

    1980-12-01

    The supernatant fraction of centrifuged homogenate of brain tissue contains material that inhibits the saturable binding of [3H]cocaine to crude mouse brain membranes. This material was subjected to heat treatment to remove protein; further purification was achieved by filtering through an Amicon UM-10 membrane ultrafilter and gel filtration of the ultrafiltrate on Sephadex G-25. Sensitivity to acid hydrolysis and peptidase action indicates that the inhibitory activity resides in peptide material with low molecular weight. The partially purified inhibitor has similar effects to that of cocaine on the specific binding of various ligands to opiate and nonopiate receptors in mouse brain membranes. PMID:6261176

  15. Fosetyl-Al photo-Fenton degradation and its endogenous catalyst inhibition.

    PubMed

    Micó, María M; Zapata, Ana; Maldonado, Manuel I; Bacardit, Jordi; Malfeito, Jorge; Sans, Carme

    2014-01-30

    Interferences from many sources can affect photo-Fenton reaction performance. Among them, catalyst inhibition can be caused by the complexation and/or precipitation of iron species by the organic matter and salts present in the reaction media. This is the case of the oxidation of effluents containing organophosphorous fosetyl-Al. The degradation of this fungicide generates phosphate anions that scavenge iron and hinder Fe(II) availability. Experimental design was applied to artificially enlighten photo-Fenton reaction, in order to evaluate fosetyl-Al degradation. The performed experiments suggested how iron inhibition takes place. The monitoring of photo-Fenton reaction over a mixture of fosetyl-Al with other two pesticides also showed the interferences caused by the presence of the fungicide on other species degradation. Solar empowered photo-Fenton was also essayed for comparison purposes. Artificial and solar light photo-Fenton reactions were revealed as effective treatments for the elimination of tested fungicide. However, the phosphate ions generated during fosetyl oxidation decreased iron availability, what hampered organic matter degradation. PMID:24361796

  16. Mitochondrial impairment induced by 3-nitropropionic acid is enhanced by endogenous metalloprotease activity inhibition in cultured rat striatal neurons.

    PubMed

    de Oca Balderas, Pavel Montes; Ospina, Gabriel Gutiérrez; Del Ángel, Abel Santamaría

    2013-06-24

    Metalloproteases from the metzincin family mediate molecule processing at the cell membrane termed ectodomain shedding (ES). This mechanism enables the generation of intracellular and extracellular fragments from cell membrane molecules that exert additional functions involved in cell processes including cell death, beyond those of full length molecules. Micotoxin 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP) induces striatal neuronal degeneration in vivo and in vitro through mitochondrial complex II inhibition. In this study, we hypothesized that metalloproteases regulate mitochondrial activity in cultured rat striatal neurons undergoing degeneration. To test this idea, striatal neuronal cultures characterized by NeuN and GAD-67 expression were treated with 3-NP together with the metalloprotease inhibitor GM6001 and their mitochondrial activity was evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Our results showed that metalloprotease inhibition potentiated mitochondrial activity impairment induced by 3-NP whereas the inhibitor alone had no effect. These results indicate that metalloproteases regulate and promote mitochondrial functionality in striatal neurons undergoing degeneration induced by 3-NP. Since NMDA receptor is involved in the excitotoxic neuronal death triggered by 3-NP and is known to undergo ES, we analyzed NMDAR subunit NR1 phenotypic distribution by immunofluorescence. 3-NP and GM6001 induced abnormal perinuclear NR1 accumulation that was not observed with 3-NP or GM6001 alone. This observation suggests that metalloproteases are involved in NR1 cellular reorganization induced by 3-NP, and that their inhibition results in abnormal NR1 distribution. Together results indicate that endogenous metalloproteases are activated during striatal neurodegeneration induced by 3-NP eliciting an adaptative or compensatory response that protects mitochondrial functionality. PMID:23643981

  17. The cytochrome bd oxidase of Escherichia coli prevents respiratory inhibition by endogenous and exogenous hydrogen sulfide.

    PubMed

    Korshunov, Sergey; Imlay, Karin R C; Imlay, James A

    2016-07-01

    When sulfur compounds are scarce or difficult to process, Escherichia coli adapts by inducing the high-level expression of sulfur-compound importers. If cystine then becomes available, the cystine is rapidly overimported and reduced, leading to a burgeoning pool of intracellular cysteine. Most of the excess cysteine is exported, but some is adventitiously degraded, with the consequent release of sulfide. Sulfide is a potent ligand of copper and heme moieties, raising the prospect that it interferes with enzymes. We observed that when cystine was provided and sulfide levels rose, E. coli became strictly dependent upon cytochrome bd oxidase for continued respiration. Inspection revealed that low-micromolar levels of sulfide inhibited the proton-pumping cytochrome bo oxidase that is regarded as the primary respiratory oxidase. In the absence of the back-up cytochrome bd oxidase, growth failed. Exogenous sulfide elicited the same effect. The potency of sulfide was enhanced when oxygen concentrations were low. Natural oxic-anoxic interfaces are often sulfidic, including the intestinal environment where E. coli dwells. We propose that the sulfide resistance of the cytochrome bd oxidase is a key trait that permits respiration in such habitats. PMID:26991114

  18. A triticale water-deficit-inducible phytocystatin inhibits endogenous cysteine proteinases in vitro.

    PubMed

    Chojnacka, Magdalena; Szewińska, Joanna; Mielecki, Marcin; Nykiel, Małgorzata; Imai, Ryozo; Bielawski, Wiesław; Orzechowski, Sławomir

    2015-02-01

    Water-deficit is accompanied by an increase in proteolysis. Phytocystatins are plant inhibitors of cysteine proteinases that belong to the papain and legumain family. A cDNA encoding the protein inhibitor TrcC-8 was identified in the vegetative organs of triticale. In response to water-deficit, increases in the mRNA levels of TrcC-8 were observed in leaf and root tissues. Immunoblot analysis indicated that accumulation of the TrcC-8 protein occurred after 72h of water-deficit in the seedlings. Using recombinant protein, inhibitory activity of TrcC-8 against cysteine proteases from triticale and wheat tissues was analyzed. Under water-deficit conditions, there are increases in cysteine proteinase activities in both plant tissues. The cysteine proteinase activities were inhibited by addition of the recombinant TrcC-8 protein. These results suggest a potential role for the triticale phytocystatin in modulating cysteine proteinase activities during water-deficit conditions. PMID:25462979

  19. Involvement of nicotinic and muscarinic receptors in the endogenous cholinergic modulation of the balance between excitation and inhibition in the young rat visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Lucas-Meunier, Estelle; Monier, Cyril; Amar, Muriel; Baux, Gérard; Frégnac, Yves; Fossier, Philippe

    2009-10-01

    This study aims to clarify how endogenous release of cortical acetylcholine (ACh) modulates the balance between excitation and inhibition evoked in visual cortex. We show that electrical stimulation in layer 1 produced a significant release of ACh measured intracortically by chemoluminescence and evoked a composite synaptic response recorded intracellularly in layer 5 pyramidal neurons of rat visual cortex. The pharmacological specificity of the ACh neuromodulation was determined from the continuous whole-cell voltage clamp measurement of stimulation-locked changes of the input conductance during the application of cholinergic agonists and antagonists. Blockade of glutamatergic and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABAergic) receptors suppressed the evoked response, indicating that stimulation-induced release of ACh does not directly activate a cholinergic synaptic conductance in recorded neurons. Comparison of cytisine and mecamylamine effects on nicotinic receptors showed that excitation is enhanced by endogenous evoked release of ACh through the presynaptic activation of alpha(*)beta4 receptors located on glutamatergic fibers. DHbetaE, the selective alpha4beta2 nicotinic receptor antagonist, induced a depression of inhibition. Endogenous ACh could also enhance inhibition by acting directly on GABAergic interneurons, presynaptic to the recorded cell. We conclude that endogenous-released ACh amplifies the dominance of the inhibitory drive and thus decreases the excitability and sensory responsiveness of layer 5 pyramidal neurons. PMID:19176636

  20. Resveratrol protects the ovary against chromium-toxicity by enhancing endogenous antioxidant enzymes and inhibiting metabolic clearance of estradiol.

    PubMed

    Banu, Sakhila K; Stanley, Jone A; Sivakumar, Kirthiram K; Arosh, Joe A; Burghardt, Robert C

    2016-07-15

    Resveratrol (RVT), a polyphenolic component in grapes and red wine, has been known for its cytoprotective actions against several diseases. However, beneficial effects of RVT against early exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) have not been understood. EDCs are linked to several ovarian diseases such as premature ovarian failure, polycystic ovary syndrome, early menopause and infertility in women. Hexavalent chromium (CrVI) is a heavy metal EDC, and widely used in >50 industries. Environmental contamination with CrVI in the US is rapidly increasing, predisposing the human to several illnesses including cancers and still birth. Our lab has been involved in determining the molecular mechanism of CrVI-induced female infertility and intervention strategies to mitigate CrVI effects. Lactating mother rats were exposed to CrVI (50ppm potassium dichromate) from postpartum days 1-21 through drinking water with or without RVT (10mg/kg body wt., through oral gavage daily). During this time, F1 females received respective treatments through mother's milk. On postnatal day (PND) 25, blood and the ovary, kidney and liver were collected from the F1 females for analyses. CrVI increased atresia of follicles by increasing cytochrome C and cleaved caspase-3; decreasing antiapoptotic proteins; decreasing estradiol (E2) biosynthesis and enhancing metabolic clearance of E2, increasing oxidative stress and decreasing endogenous antioxidants. RVT mitigated the effects of CrVI by upregulating cell survival proteins and AOXs; and restored E2 levels by inhibiting hydroxylation, glucuronidation and sulphation of E2. This is the first study to report the protective effects of RVT against any toxicant in the ovary. PMID:27129868

  1. Knock-Down of Endogenous Bornavirus-Like Nucleoprotein 1 Inhibits Cell Growth and Induces Apoptosis in Human Oligodendroglia Cells

    PubMed Central

    He, Peng; Sun, Lin; Zhu, Dan; Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Liang; Guo, Yujie; Liu, Siwen; Zhou, Jingjing; Xu, Xiaoyan; Xie, Peng

    2016-01-01

    Endogenous bornavirus-like nucleoprotein elements (EBLNs) have been discovered in the genomes of various animals including humans, whose functions have been seldom studied. To explore the biological functions of human EBLNs, we constructed a lentiviral vector expressing a short-hairpin RNA against human EBLN1, which successfully inhibited EBLN1 expression by above 80% in infected human oligodendroglia cells (OL cells). We found that EBLN1 silencing suppressed cell proliferation, induced G2/M phase arrest, and promoted apoptosis in OL cells. Gene expression profiling demonstrated that 1067 genes were up-regulated, and 2004 were down-regulated after EBLN1 silencing. The top 10 most upregulated genes were PI3, RND3, BLZF1, SOD2, EPGN, SBSN, INSIG1, OSMR, CREB3L2, and MSMO1, and the top 10 most-downregulated genes were KRTAP2-4, FLRT2, DIDO1, FAT4, ESCO2, ZNF804A, SUV420H1, ZC3H4, YAE1D1, and NCOA5. Pathway analysis revealed that these differentially expressed genes were mainly involved in pathways related to the cell cycle, the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, p53 signaling, and apoptosis. The gene expression profiles were validated by using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for detecting these 20 most-changed genes. Three genes closely related to glioma, RND3, OSMR, and CREB3L2, were significantly upregulated and might be the key factors in EBLN1 regulating the proliferation and apoptosis of OL cells. This study provides evidence that EBLN1 plays a key role in regulating cell life and death, thereby opening several avenues of investigation regarding EBLN1 in the future. PMID:27023521

  2. Knock-Down of Endogenous Bornavirus-Like Nucleoprotein 1 Inhibits Cell Growth and Induces Apoptosis in Human Oligodendroglia Cells.

    PubMed

    He, Peng; Sun, Lin; Zhu, Dan; Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Liang; Guo, Yujie; Liu, Siwen; Zhou, Jingjing; Xu, Xiaoyan; Xie, Peng

    2016-01-01

    Endogenous bornavirus-like nucleoprotein elements (EBLNs) have been discovered in the genomes of various animals including humans, whose functions have been seldom studied. To explore the biological functions of human EBLNs, we constructed a lentiviral vector expressing a short-hairpin RNA against human EBLN1, which successfully inhibited EBLN1 expression by above 80% in infected human oligodendroglia cells (OL cells). We found that EBLN1 silencing suppressed cell proliferation, induced G2/M phase arrest, and promoted apoptosis in OL cells. Gene expression profiling demonstrated that 1067 genes were up-regulated, and 2004 were down-regulated after EBLN1 silencing. The top 10 most upregulated genes were PI3, RND3, BLZF1, SOD2, EPGN, SBSN, INSIG1, OSMR, CREB3L2, and MSMO1, and the top 10 most-downregulated genes were KRTAP2-4, FLRT2, DIDO1, FAT4, ESCO2, ZNF804A, SUV420H1, ZC3H4, YAE1D1, and NCOA5. Pathway analysis revealed that these differentially expressed genes were mainly involved in pathways related to the cell cycle, the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, p53 signaling, and apoptosis. The gene expression profiles were validated by using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for detecting these 20 most-changed genes. Three genes closely related to glioma, RND3, OSMR, and CREB3L2, were significantly upregulated and might be the key factors in EBLN1 regulating the proliferation and apoptosis of OL cells. This study provides evidence that EBLN1 plays a key role in regulating cell life and death, thereby opening several avenues of investigation regarding EBLN1 in the future. PMID:27023521

  3. DigiFab interacts with endogenous cardiotonic steroids and reverses preeclampsia-induced Na/K-ATPase inhibition.

    PubMed

    Ishkaraeva-Yakovleva, Valentina V; Fedorova, Olga V; Solodovnikova, Nelly G; Frolova, Elena V; Bzhelyansky, Anton M; Emelyanov, Igor V; Adair, C David; Zazerskaya, Irina E; Bagrov, Alexei Y

    2012-12-01

    Elevated levels of endogenous Na/K-ATPase (NKA) inhibitors, cardiotonic steroids (CTSs) including marinobufagenin (MBG), contribute to pathogenesis of preeclampsia (PE) and represent a target for immunoneutralization by Digibind (Ovine Digoxin Immune Antibody, Glaxo-Smith Kline). Because Digibind is no longer commercially available, we studied whether DigiFab (BTG International Ltd, UK) can substitute Digibind for immunoneutralization of CTS in patients with PE. We compared DigiFab, Digibind, and anti-MBG monoclonal antibody (mAb) with respect to their ability to interact with CTS in PE plasma and to restore NKA activity in erythrocytes from patients with PE. Using immunoassays based on DigiFab, Digibind, and anti-MBG mAb, we studied the elution profile of CTS following high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fractionation of PE plasma. Totally, 7 patients with mild PE (28 ± 2 years; gestational age, 39 ± 0.5 weeks; blood pressure 156 ± 5/94 ± 2 mm Hg) and 6 normotensive pregnant participants (28 ± 1 years; gestational age, 39 ± 0.4 weeks; blood pressure 111 ± 2/73 ± 2 mm Hg) were enrolled. Preeclampsia was associated with a substantial inhibition of erythrocyte NKA (1.47 ± 0.17 vs 2.65 ± 0.16 µmol Pi/mL per h in control group, P < .001). Ex vivo, at 10 µg/mL concentration, which is consistent with the clinical dosing of Digibind administered previously in PE, DigiFab and Digibind as well as anti-MBG mAb (0.5 µg/mL) restored erythrocyte NKA activity. Following HPLC fractionation of pooled PE and control plasma, PE-associated increase in CTS material was detected by Digibind (176 vs 75 pmoles), DigiFab (221 vs 70 pmoles), and anti-MBG mAb (1056 vs 421 pmoles). Therefore, because DigiFab interacts with CTS from PE plasma and reverses PE-induced NKA inhibition, it can substitute Digibind for immunoneutralization of CTS in patients with PE. PMID:22649120

  4. Interleukin 10 inhibits macrophage microbicidal activity by blocking the endogenous production of tumor necrosis factor alpha required as a costimulatory factor for interferon gamma-induced activation.

    PubMed Central

    Oswald, I P; Wynn, T A; Sher, A; James, S L

    1992-01-01

    Interleukin 10 (IL-10) inhibits interferon gamma-induced macrophage activation for cytotoxicity against larvae of the human parasite Schistosoma mansoni by suppressing production of the toxic effector molecule nitric oxide (NO). In this study, the mechanism of IL-10 action was identified as inhibition of endogenous tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) production by interferon gamma-activated macrophages. TNF-alpha appears to serve as a cofactor for interferon gamma-mediated activation, since both schistosomulum killing and NO production were inhibited by anti-TNF-alpha antibody, whereas TNF-alpha alone was unable to stimulate these macrophage functions. IL-10 blocked TNF-alpha production by interferon gamma-treated macrophages at the levels of both protein and mRNA synthesis. Addition of exogenous TNF-alpha reversed IL-10-mediated suppression of macrophage cytotoxic activity as well as NO production. Likewise, addition of a macrophage-triggering agent (bacterial lipopolysaccharide or muramyl dipeptide), which induced the production of TNF-alpha, also reversed the suppressive effect of IL-10 on cytotoxic function. In contrast to IL-10, two other cytokines, IL-4 and transforming growth factor beta, which also inhibit macrophage activation for schistosomulum killing and NO production, did not substantially suppress endogenous TNF-alpha production. These results, therefore, describe a separate pathway by which macrophage microbicidal function is inhibited by the down-regulatory cytokine IL-10. Images PMID:1528880

  5. Neurotransmitter Switching? No Surprise

    PubMed Central

    Spitzer, Nicholas C.

    2015-01-01

    Among the many forms of brain plasticity, changes in synaptic strength and changes in synapse number are particularly prominent. However, evidence for neurotransmitter respecification or switching has been accumulating steadily, both in the developing nervous system and in the adult brain, with observations of transmitter addition, loss, or replacement of one transmitter with another. Natural stimuli can drive these changes in transmitter identity, with matching changes in postsynaptic transmitter receptors. Strikingly, they often convert the synapse from excitatory to inhibitory or vice versa, providing a basis for changes in behavior in those cases in which it has been examined. Progress has been made in identifying the factors that induce transmitter switching and in understanding the molecular mechanisms by which it is achieved. There are many intriguing questions to be addressed. PMID:26050033

  6. How LeuT shapes our understanding of the mechanisms of sodium-coupled neurotransmitter transporters.

    PubMed

    Penmatsa, Aravind; Gouaux, Eric

    2014-03-01

    Neurotransmitter transporters are ion-coupled symporters that drive the uptake of neurotransmitters from neural synapses. In the past decade, the structure of a bacterial amino acid transporter, leucine transporter (LeuT), has given valuable insights into the understanding of architecture and mechanism of mammalian neurotransmitter transporters. Different conformations of LeuT, including a substrate-free state, inward-open state, and competitive and non-competitive inhibitor-bound states, have revealed a mechanistic framework for the transport and transport inhibition of neurotransmitters. The current review integrates our understanding of the mechanistic and pharmacological properties of eukaryotic neurotransmitter transporters obtained through structural snapshots of LeuT. PMID:23878376

  7. Inhibition of leukocyte function and interleukin-2 gene expression by 2-methylarachidonyl-(2'-fluoroethyl)amide, a stable congener of the endogenous cannabinoid receptor ligand anandamide

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, Barbara L.F.; Ouyang Yanli; Herring, Amy; Yea, Sung Su; Razdan, Raj; Kaminski, Norbert E. . E-mail: kamins11@msu.edu

    2005-06-01

    Arachidonylethanolamide (anandamide, AEA) has been identified as an endogenous ligand for cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2. Characterization of the direct cannabimimetic actions of anandamide has been hampered by its short duration of action and rapid degradation in in vivo and in vitro systems to arachidonic acid, a precursor in the biosynthesis of a broad range of biologically active molecules. In the present studies, we utilized 2-methylarachidonyl-(2'-fluoroethyl)amide (F-Me-AEA), an analog of anandamide resistant to enzymatic degradation, to determine whether F-Me-AEA modulated T cell function similar to that of plant-derived cannabinoids. Indeed, F-Me-AEA at low micromolar concentrations exhibited a marked inhibition of phorbol ester plus calcium ionophore (PMA/Io)-induced IL-2 protein secretion and steady state mRNA expression. Likewise, a modest suppression of the mixed lymphocyte response was observed in the presence of F-Me-AEA indicating an alteration in T cell responsiveness to allogeneic MHC class II antigens. F-Me-AEA was also found to modestly inhibit forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity in thymocytes and splenocytes, a hallmark of cannabinoid receptor agonists. Further characterization of the influence of F-Me-AEA on the cAMP signaling cascade revealed an inhibition of CREB-1/ATF-1 phosphorylation and subsequently, an inhibition of CRE DNA binding activity. Characterization of nuclear binding proteins further revealed that NF-AT and, to a lesser extent, NF-{kappa}B DNA binding activities were also suppressed. These studies demonstrate that F-Me-AEA modulates T cell function in a similar manner to plant-derived and endogenous cannabinoids and therefore can be utilized as an amidase- and hydrolysis-resistant endogenous cannabinoid.

  8. Neurotransmitter release from bradykinin-stimulated PC12 cells. Stimulation of cytosolic calcium and neurotransmitter release.

    PubMed Central

    Appell, K C; Barefoot, D S

    1989-01-01

    The effect of bradykinin on intracellular free Ca2+ and neurotransmitter secretion was investigated in the rat pheochromocytoma cell line PC12. Bradykinin was shown to induce a rapid, but transient, increase in intracellular free Ca2+ which could be separated into an intracellular Ca2+ release component and an extracellular Ca2+ influx component. The bradykinin-induced stimulation of intracellular free Ca2+ displayed a similar time course, concentration dependencies and extracellular Ca2+ dependence as that found for neurotransmitter release, indicating an association between intracellular free Ca2+ levels and neurotransmitter secretion. The selective BK1-receptor antagonist des-Arg9,[Leu8]BK (where BK is bradykinin) did not significantly affect the stimulation of intracellular free Ca2+ or neurotransmitter release. In contrast, these effects of bradykinin were effectively blocked by the selective BK2-receptor antagonist [Thi5,8,D-Phe7]BK, and mimicked by the BK2 partial agonist [D-Phe7]BK in a concentration-dependent manner. The stimulation of intracellular free Ca2+ and neurotransmitter release induced by bradykinin was shown not to involve voltage-sensitive Ca2+ channels, since calcium antagonists had no effect on either response at concentrations which effectively inhibit depolarization-induced responses. These results indicate that bradykinin, acting through the interaction with the BK2 receptor, stimulates an increase in intracellular free Ca2+ leading to neurotransmitter secretion. Furthermore, bradykinin-induced responses involve the release of intracellular Ca2+ and the influx of extracellular Ca2+ that is not associated with the activation of voltage-sensitive Ca2+ channels. PMID:2574973

  9. Neurotransmitters of the suprachiasmatic nuclei

    PubMed Central

    Reghunandanan, Vallath; Reghunandanan, Rajalaxmy

    2006-01-01

    There has been extensive research in the recent past looking into the molecular basis and mechanisms of the biological clock, situated in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) of the anterior hypothalamus. Neurotransmitters are a very important component of SCN function. Thorough knowledge of neurotransmitters is not only essential for the understanding of the clock but also for the successful manipulation of the clock with experimental chemicals and therapeutical drugs. This article reviews the current knowledge about neurotransmitters in the SCN, including neurotransmitters that have been identified only recently. An attempt was made to describe the neurotransmitters and hormonal/diffusible signals of the SCN efference, which are necessary for the master clock to exert its overt function. The expression of robust circadian rhythms depends on the integrity of the biological clock and on the integration of thousands of individual cellular clocks found in the clock. Neurotransmitters are required at all levels, at the input, in the clock itself, and in its efferent output for the normal function of the clock. The relationship between neurotransmitter function and gene expression is also discussed because clock gene transcription forms the molecular basis of the clock and its working. PMID:16480518

  10. Pharmacology of neurotransmitter release: measuring exocytosis.

    PubMed

    Khvotchev, Mikhail; Kavalali, Ege T

    2008-01-01

    Neurotransmission in the nervous system is initiated at presynaptic terminals by fusion of synaptic vesicles with the plasma membrane and subsequent exocytic release of chemical transmitters. Currently, there are multiple methods to detect neurotransmitter release from nerve terminals, each with their own particular advantages and disadvantages. For instance, most commonly employed methods monitor actions of released chemical substances on postsynaptic receptors or artificial substrates such as carbon fibers. These methods are closest to the physiological setting because they have a rapid time resolution and they measure the action of the endogenous neurotransmitters rather than the signals emitted by exogenous probes. However, postsynaptic receptors only indirectly report neurotransmitter release in a form modified by the properties of receptors themselves, which are often nonlinear detectors of released substances. Alternatively, released chemical substances can be detected biochemically, albeit on a time scale slower than electrophysiological methods. In addition, in certain preparations, where presynaptic terminals are accessible to whole cell recording electrodes, fusion of vesicles with the plasma membrane can be monitored using capacitance measurements. In the last decade, in addition to electrophysiological and biochemical methods, several fluorescence imaging modalities have been introduced which report synaptic vesicle fusion, endocytosis, and recycling. These methods either take advantage of styryl dyes that can be loaded into recycling vesicles or exogenous expression of synaptic vesicle proteins tagged with a pH-sensitive GFP variant at regions facing the vesicle lumen. In this chapter, we will provide an overview of these methods with particular emphasis on their relative strengths and weaknesses and discuss the types of information one can obtain from them. PMID:18064410

  11. Chemical inhibition of potato ABA-8'-hydroxylase activity alters in vitro and in vivo ABA metabolism and endogenous ABA levels but does not affect potato microtuber dormancy duration.

    PubMed

    Suttle, Jeffrey C; Abrams, Suzanne R; De Stefano-Beltrán, Luis; Huckle, Linda L

    2012-09-01

    The effects of azole-type P450 inhibitors and two metabolism-resistant abscisic acid (ABA) analogues on in vitro ABA-8'-hydroxylase activity, in planta ABA metabolism, endogenous ABA content, and tuber meristem dormancy duration were examined in potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Russet Burbank). When functionally expressed in yeast, three potato CYP707A genes were demonstrated to encode enzymatically active ABA-8'-hydroxylases with micromolar affinities for (+)-ABA. The in vitro activity of the three enzymes was inhibited by the P450 azole-type inhibitors ancymidol, paclobutrazol, diniconazole, and tetcyclasis, and by the 8'-acetylene- and 8'-methylene-ABA analogues, with diniconazole and tetcyclasis being the most potent inhibitors. The in planta metabolism of [(3)H](±)-ABA to phaseic acid and dihydrophaseic acid in tuber meristems was inhibited by diniconazole, tetcyclasis, and to a lesser extent by 8'-acetylene- and 8'-methylene-ABA. Continuous exposure of in vitro generated microtubers to diniconazole resulted in a 2-fold increase in endogenous ABA content and a decline in dihydrophaseic acid content after 9 weeks of development. Similar treatment with 8'-acetylene-ABA had no effects on the endogenous contents of ABA or phaseic acid but reduced the content of dihydrophaseic acid. Tuber meristem dormancy progression was determined ex vitro in control, diniconazole-, and 8'-acetylene-ABA-treated microtubers following harvest. Continuous exposure to diniconazole during microtuber development had no effects on subsequent sprouting at any time point. Continuous exposure to 8'-acetylene-ABA significantly increased the rate of microtuber sprouting. The results indicate that, although a decrease in ABA content is a hallmark of tuber dormancy progression, the decline in ABA levels is not a prerequisite for dormancy exit and the onset of tuber sprouting. PMID:22664582

  12. Multifunctional amaranth cystatin inhibits endogenous and digestive insect cysteine endopeptidases: A potential tool to prevent proteolysis and for the control of insect pests.

    PubMed

    Valdés-Rodríguez, Silvia; Galván-Ramírez, Juan Pablo; Guerrero-Rangel, Armando; Cedro-Tanda, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    In a previous study, the amaranth cystatin was characterized. This cystatin is believed to provide protection from abiotic stress because its transcription is induced in response to heat, drought, and salinity. It has also been shown that recombinant amaranth cystatin inhibits bromelain, ficin, and cysteine endopeptidases from fungal sources and also inhibits the growth of phytopathogenic fungi. In the present study, evidence is presented regarding the potential function of amaranth cystatin as a regulator of endogenous proteinases and insect digestive proteinases. During amaranth germination and seedling growth, different proteolytic profiles were observed at different pH levels in gelatin-containing SDS-PAGE. Most of the proteolytic enzymes detected at pH 4.5 were mainly inhibited by trans-epoxysuccinyl-leucyl amido(4-guanidino)butane (E-64) and the purified recombinant amaranth cystatin. Furthermore, the recombinant amaranth cystatin was active against insect proteinases. In particular, the E-64-sensitive proteolytic digestive enzymes from Callosobruchus maculatus, Zabrotes subfasciatus, and Acanthoscelides obtectus were inhibited by the amaranth cystatin. Taken together, these results suggest multiple roles for cystatin in amaranth, specifically during germination and seedling growth and in the protection of A. hypochondriacus against insect predation. Amaranth cystatin represents a promising tool for diverse applications in the control of insect pest and for preventing undesirable proteolytic activity. PMID:25345487

  13. Endogenous Saccade Preparation Does Not Produce Inhibition of Return: Failure to Replicate Rafal, Calabresi, Brennan, & Sciolto (1989)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chica, Ana B.; Klein, Raymond M.; Rafal, Robert D.; Hopfinger, Joseph B.

    2010-01-01

    Inhibition of Return (IOR, slower reaction times to previously cued or inspected locations) is observed both when eye movements are prohibited, and when the eyes move to the peripheral location and back to the centre before the target appears. It has been postulated that both effects are generated by a common mechanism, the activation of the…

  14. Long Non-coding RNA Growth Arrest-specific Transcript 5 (GAS5) Inhibits Liver Fibrogenesis through a Mechanism of Competing Endogenous RNA.

    PubMed

    Yu, Fujun; Zheng, Jianjian; Mao, Yuqing; Dong, Peihong; Lu, Zhongqiu; Li, Guojun; Guo, Chuanyong; Liu, Zhanju; Fan, Xiaoming

    2015-11-20

    Effective control of hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation and proliferation is critical to the treatment of liver fibrosis. Long non-coding RNAs have been shown to play a pivotal role in the regulation of cellular processes. It has been reported that growth arrest-specific transcript 5 (GAS5) acts as a crucial mediator in the control of cell proliferation and growth. However, little is known about the role and underlying mechanism of GAS5 in liver fibrosis. In this study, our results indicated that GAS5 expression was reduced in mouse, rat, and human fibrotic liver samples and in activated HSCs. Overexpression of GAS5 suppressed the activation of primary HSCs in vitro and alleviated the accumulation of collagen in fibrotic liver tissues in vivo. We identified GAS5 as a target of microRNA-222 (miR-222) and showed that miR-222 could inhibit the expression of GAS5. Interestingly, GAS5 could also repress miR-222 expression. A pulldown assay further validated that GAS5 could directly bind to miR-222. As a competing endogenous RNAs, GAS5 had no effect on primary miR-222 expression. In addition, GAS5 was mainly localized in the cytoplasm. Quantitative RT-PCR further demonstrated that the copy numbers of GAS5 per cell are higher than those of miR-222. GAS5 increased the level of p27 protein by functioning as a competing endogenous RNA for miR-222, thereby inhibiting the activation and proliferation of HSCs. Taken together, a new regulatory circuitry in liver fibrosis has been identified in which RNAs cross-talk by competing for shared microRNAs. Our findings may provide a new therapeutic strategy for liver fibrosis. PMID:26446789

  15. Inhibition of P450 aromatase enhances gonadotropin secretion in early and midpubertal boys: evidence for a pituitary site of action of endogenous E.

    PubMed

    Wickman, S; Dunkel, L

    2001-10-01

    In early pubertal boys, E concentrations are very low. We studied the role and site of action of endogenous E in the regulation of gonadotropin secretion in early and midpubertal boys by inhibiting the action of E with a potent and specific P450 aromatase inhibitor, letrozole. A total of 35 boys who were referred to us because of suspicion of delayed puberty were included in the study. The boys were in either early or midpuberty, and they composed 3 groups: 10 boys did not receive any treatment, 12 boys received T alone, and 13 boys received T and letrozole. In the untreated group during the 5-month follow-up, no changes were observed in 17beta-E2, T, basal gonadotropin, or inhibin B concentrations or in the GnRH-induced gonadotropin responses. In the T-treated group during the 5-month treatment, the T concentration increased by 55% (P < 0.05), and the 17beta-E2 concentration increased by 130% (P < 0.02). Concurrently, basal gonadotropin concentrations were suppressed, but the GnRH-induced gonadotropin responses and the inhibin B concentration remained unchanged. In the T- plus letrozole-treated group during the 5-month treatment, an increase in T concentration of 606% was observed (P < 0.001), but the 17beta-E2 concentration remained unchanged. The changes in the 17beta-E2 concentration within 5 months in the untreated and the T- plus letrozole-treated groups were different (P < 0.02), indicating significant inhibition of endogenous E synthesis during letrozole treatment. During the T plus letrozole treatment, basal gonadotropin concentration, the GnRH-induced LH response, and inhibin B concentration increased, and the GnRH-induced FSH response did not change significantly. Serum nocturnal gonadotropin pulses were determined in 5 boys treated with T and in 5 boys treated with T plus letrozole. In the T- plus letrozole-treated group, the nocturnal LH pulse amplitude increased, and the LH pulse frequency and interpulse interval remained unchanged. In conclusion, in

  16. 2-Methoxyestradiol, an endogenous 17β-estradiol metabolite, inhibits microglial proliferation and activation via an estrogen receptor-independent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Schaufelberger, Sara A; Rosselli, Marinella; Barchiesi, Federica; Gillespie, Delbert G; Jackson, Edwin K; Dubey, Raghvendra K

    2016-03-01

    17β-Estradiol (estradiol) inhibits microglia proliferation. 2-Methoxyestradiol (2-ME) is an endogenous metabolite of estradiol with little affinity for estrogen receptors (ERs). We hypothesize that 2-ME inhibits microglial proliferation and activation and contributes to estradiol's inhibitory effects on microglia. We compared the effects of estradiol, 2-hydroxyestradiol [2-OE; estradiol metabolite produced by cytochrome P450 (CYP450)], and 2-ME [formed by catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) acting upon 2-OE] on microglial (BV2 cells) DNA synthesis, cell proliferation, activation, and phagocytosis. 2-ME and 2-OE were approximately three- and 10-fold, respectively, more potent than estradiol in inhibiting microglia DNA synthesis. The antimitogenic effects of estradiol were reduced by pharmacological inhibitors of CYP450 and COMT. Inhibition of COMT blocked the conversion of 2-OE to 2-ME and the antimitogenic effects of 2-OE but not 2-ME. Microglia expressed ERβ and GPR30 but not ERα. 2,3-Bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-propionitrile (ERβ agonist), but not 4,4',4''-(4-propyl-[1H]-pyrazole-1,3,5-triyl)trisphenol (ERα agonist) or G1 (GPR30 agonist), inhibited microglial proliferation. The antiproliferative effects of estradiol, but not 2-OE or 2-ME, were partially reversed by ICI-182,780 (ERα/β antagonist) but not by 1,3-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-4-methyl-5-[4-(2-piperidinylethoxy)phenol]-1H-pyrazole (ERα antagonist) or G15 (GPR30 antagonist). Lipopolysaccharide increased microglia iNOS and COX-2 expression and phagocytosing activity of microglia; these effects were inhibited by 2-ME. We conclude that in microglia, 2-ME inhibits proliferation, proinflammatory responses, and phagocytosis. 2-ME partially mediates the effects of estradiol via ER-independent mechanisms involving sequential metabolism of estradiol to 2-OE and 2-ME. 2-ME could be of potential therapeutic use in postischemic stroke injuries. Interindividual differences in estradiol metabolism might affect the

  17. Blunted endogenous GABA-mediated inhibition in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus of rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Zurina; Sattar, Munavvar Zubaid Abdul; Suhaimi, Farah Wahida; Yusoff, Nurul Hasnida Mohammed; Abdulla, Mohammed H; Yusof, Ahmad Pauzi M; Johns, Edward J

    2013-09-01

    The hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) is involved in the regulation of sympathetic outflow and particularly affects the heart. This study sets out to determine the role of GABA of the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) in cardiovascular regulation in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Pharmacological stimulation of glutamatergic receptors with DL-Homocysteic acid (200 mM in 100 nL) in the PVN region showed a significant depression in both mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) of diabetic rats (Diabetic vs. non-diabetic: MAP 15.0 ± 1.5 vs. 35.8 ± 2.8 mmHg; HR 3.0 ± 2.0 vs. 30.0 ± 6.0 bpm, P < 0.05). Microinjection of bicuculline methiodide (1 mM in 100 nL), a GABAA receptor antagonist, produced an increase in baseline MAP and HR in both non-diabetic and diabetic rats. In the diabetic rats, bicuculline injection into the PVN reduced the pressor and HR responses (Diabetic vs. non-diabetic: MAP 6.2 ± 0.8 vs. 25.1 ± 2.2 mmHg; HR 1.8 ± 1.1 vs. 25.4 ± 6.2 bpm, P < 0.05). A microinjection of muscimol (2 mM in 100 nL), which is a GABAA receptor agonist, in the PVN elicited decreases in MAP and HR in both groups. The diabetic group showed a significantly blunted reduction in HR, but not MAP (Diabetic vs. non-diabetic: MAP -15.7 ± 4.0 vs. -25.0 ± 3.8 mmHg; HR -5.2 ± 2.1 vs. -39.1 ± 7.9 bpm). The blunted vasopressor and tachycardic responses to bicuculline microinjection in the diabetic rats are likely to result from decreased GABAergic inputs, attenuated release of endogenous GABA or alterations in GABAA receptors within the PVN. PMID:23242937

  18. Chalcone inhibits the activation of NF-kappaB and STAT3 in endothelial cells via endogenous electrophile.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yen-Chin; Hsieh, Chia-Wen; Wu, Chun-Ching; Wung, Being-Sun

    2007-03-20

    Chalcone, an alpha,beta-unsaturated flavonoid, possesses anti-inflammatory properties. In our present study, we have demonstrated chalcone inhibited IL-6- and LPS-induced ICAM-1 gene expression. In adhesion assay, chalcone reduced the LPS-induced adhesion of THP-1 cells to endothelial cells (ECs). Chalcone was found to abrogate the activation of STAT3 and NF-kappaB in a dose- and time-dependent manner, in IL-6- and LPS-treated ECs. Other flavonoids, quercetin and cyanidin, which lack alpha,beta-unsaturated carbonyl group, showed weaker or no inhibitory effect on both IL-6-induced STAT3 phosphorylation and LPS-induced p65 translocation. However, the electrophilic compounds curcumin and crotonaldehyde, which also contain an alpha,beta-unsaturated carbonyl moiety, mimic the inhibitory effects of chalcone with different efficiencies. In addition, N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) could reverse the inhibition of STAT3 phosphorylation when preincubated with chalcone. The use of buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) to decrease intracellular GSH levels further enhanced the effects of chalcone. On the other hand, in ECs treated with BSO only no abrogation of IL-6-induced STAT3 phosphorylation was observed. We also found that chalcone could reduce the GSH level in vitro. Furthermore, the cellular GSH levels were rapidly reduced after 25 microM chalcone treatment. Following 6 h exposure, however, chalcone treatment rescued the GSH levels in ECs, coincident with the inhibition of STAT3 and NF-kappaB activation. In contrast, chalcone induced expression of thioredoxin reductase and heme-oxygenase genes after prolonged treatment. Furthermore, chalcone upregulated the levels of the transcription factor Nrf2 in nuclear extracts and increased antioxidant response element (ARE)-luciferase activity and thioredoxin reductase promoter activity. Hence, our present findings indicate that chalcone suppresses both IL-6- and LPS-induced signaling pathways through the thiol-dependent intracellular redox

  19. The Anti-HIV Microbicide Candidate RC-101 Inhibits Pathogenic Vaginal Bacteria Without Harming Endogenous Flora or Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Eade, Colleen R.; Cole, Amy L.; Diaz, Camila; Rohan, Lisa C.; Parniak, Michael A.; Marx, Preston; Tarwater, Patrick M.; Gupta, Phalguni; Cole, Alexander M.

    2012-01-01

    Problem Vaginal microbicides represent a promising approach for preventing heterosexual HIV transmission. However, preclinical evaluation should be conducted to ensure that microbicides will be safe for human cells and healthy microflora of the female reproductive tract. One microbicide candidate, RC-101, has been effective and well-tolerated in preliminary cell culture and macaque models. However, the effect of RC-101 on primary vaginal tissues and resident vaginal microflora requires further evaluation. Method of Study We treated primary vaginal tissues and vaginal bacteria, both pathogenic and commensal, with RC-101 to investigate effects of this microbicide. Results RC-101 was well-tolerated by host tissues, and also by commensal vaginal bacteria. Simultaneously, pathogenic vaginal bacteria, which are known to increase susceptibility to HIV acquisition, were inhibited by RC-101. Conclusions By establishing vaginal microflora, the specific antibacterial activity of RC-101 may provide a dual mechanism of HIV protection. These findings support advancement of RC-101 to clinical trials. PMID:23167830

  20. Autophagy inhibition in endogenous and nutrient-deprived conditions reduces dorsal root ganglia neuron survival and neurite growth in vitro.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Joseph-Patrick; Mearow, Karen

    2016-07-01

    Peripheral neuropathies can result in cytoskeletal changes in axons, ultimately leading to Wallerian degeneration and cell death. Recently, autophagy has been studied as a potential target for improving axonal survival and growth during peripheral nerve damage. This study investigates the influence of autophagy on adult dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neuron survival and axonal growth under control and nutrient deprivation conditions. Constitutive autophagy was modulated with pharmacological activators (rapamycin; Rapa) and inhibitors (3-methyladenine, bafilomycin A1) in conjunction with either a nutrient-stable environment (standard culture medium) or a nutrient-deprived environment (Hank's balanced salt solution + Ca(2+) /Mg(2+) ). The results demonstrated that autophagy inhibition decreased cell viability and reduced neurite growth and branching complexity. Although autophagy was upregulated with nutrient deprivation compared with the control, it was not further activated by rapamycin, suggesting a threshold level of autophagy. Overall, both cellular and biochemical approaches combined to show the influence of autophagy on adult DRG neuron survival and growth. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27018986

  1. Genetics of monoamine neurotransmitter disorders

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The monoamine neurotransmitter disorders are a heterogeneous group of inherited neurological disorders involving defects in the metabolism of dopamine, norepinephrine, epinephrine and serotonin. The inheritance of these disorders is mostly autosomal recessive. The neurological symptoms are primarily attributable to cerebral deficiency of dopamine, serotonin or both. The clinical presentations were highly variable and substantial overlaps exist. Evidently, laboratory investigations are crucial for accurate diagnosis. Measurement of neurotransmitter metabolites in cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) is the key to delineate the metabolic defects. Adjuvant investigations including plasma phenylalanine, urine pterins, urine 3-O-methyldopa (3-OMD) and serum prolactin are also helpful to establish the diagnosis. Genetic analyses are pivotally important to confirm the diagnosis which allows specific treatments, proper genetic counselling, prognosis prediction, assessment of recurrent risk in the family as well as prenatal diagnosis. Early diagnosis with appropriate treatment is associated with remarkable response and favourable clinical outcome in several disorders in this group. PMID:26835371

  2. Genetics of monoamine neurotransmitter disorders.

    PubMed

    Siu, Wai-Kwan

    2015-04-01

    The monoamine neurotransmitter disorders are a heterogeneous group of inherited neurological disorders involving defects in the metabolism of dopamine, norepinephrine, epinephrine and serotonin. The inheritance of these disorders is mostly autosomal recessive. The neurological symptoms are primarily attributable to cerebral deficiency of dopamine, serotonin or both. The clinical presentations were highly variable and substantial overlaps exist. Evidently, laboratory investigations are crucial for accurate diagnosis. Measurement of neurotransmitter metabolites in cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) is the key to delineate the metabolic defects. Adjuvant investigations including plasma phenylalanine, urine pterins, urine 3-O-methyldopa (3-OMD) and serum prolactin are also helpful to establish the diagnosis. Genetic analyses are pivotally important to confirm the diagnosis which allows specific treatments, proper genetic counselling, prognosis prediction, assessment of recurrent risk in the family as well as prenatal diagnosis. Early diagnosis with appropriate treatment is associated with remarkable response and favourable clinical outcome in several disorders in this group. PMID:26835371

  3. Therapeutic effect of the endogenous fatty acid amide, palmitoylethanolamide, in rat acute inflammation: inhibition of nitric oxide and cyclo-oxygenase systems

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Barbara; Conti, Silvia; Giagnoni, Gabriella; Colleoni, Mariapia

    2002-01-01

    The anti-inflammatory activity of the endogenous fatty acid amide palmitoylethanolamide and its relationship to cyclo-oxygenase (COX) activity, nitric oxide (NO) and oxygen free radical production were investigated in the rat model of carrageenan-induced acute paw inflammation and compared with the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) indomethacin. Palmitoylethanolamide (1, 3, 5, 10 mg kg−1; p.o.) and indomethacin (5 mg kg−1; p.o.) were administered daily after the onset of inflammation for three days and the paw oedema was measured daily; 24 h after the last dose (fourth day) the rats were killed and the COX activity and the content of nitrite/nitrate (NO2−/NO3−), malondialdehyde (MDA), endothelial and inducible nitric oxide synthase (eNOS and iNOS) were evaluated in the paw tissues. Palmitoylethanolamide had a curative effect on inflammation, inhibiting the carrageenan-induced oedema in a dose- and time-dependent manner. This effect was not reversed by the selective CB2 receptor antagonist (N-[(1S)-endo-1,3,3-trimethylbicyclo[2.2.1]heptan-2yl]-5-(4-chloro-3-methylphenyl)-1-(4-methylbenzyl)pyrazole-3 carboxamide) (SR144528), 3 mg kg−1 p.o. On the fourth day after carrageenan injection, COX activity and the level of NO2−/NO3−, eNOS and MDA were increased in the inflamed paw, but iNOS was not present. Palmitoylethanolamide (10 mg kg−1) and indomethacin markedly reduced these increases. Our findings show, for the first time, that palmitoylethanolamide has a curative effect in a model of acute inflammation. The inhibition of COX activity and of NO and free radical production at the site of inflammation might account for this activity. PMID:12359622

  4. Endogenous B-ring oxysterols inhibit the Hedgehog component Smoothened in a manner distinct from cyclopamine or side-chain oxysterols.

    PubMed

    Sever, Navdar; Mann, Randall K; Xu, Libin; Snell, William J; Hernandez-Lara, Carmen I; Porter, Ned A; Beachy, Philip A

    2016-05-24

    Cellular lipids are speculated to act as key intermediates in Hedgehog signal transduction, but their precise identity and function remain enigmatic. In an effort to identify such lipids, we pursued a Hedgehog pathway inhibitory activity that is particularly abundant in flagellar lipids of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, resulting in the purification and identification of ergosterol endoperoxide, a B-ring oxysterol. A mammalian analog of ergosterol, 7-dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC), accumulates in Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome, a human genetic disease that phenocopies deficient Hedgehog signaling and is caused by genetic loss of 7-DHC reductase. We found that depleting endogenous 7-DHC with methyl-β-cyclodextrin treatment enhances Hedgehog activation by a pathway agonist. Conversely, exogenous addition of 3β,5α-dihydroxycholest-7-en-6-one, a naturally occurring B-ring oxysterol derived from 7-DHC that also accumulates in Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome, blocked Hedgehog signaling by inhibiting activation of the essential transduction component Smoothened, through a mechanism distinct from Smoothened modulation by other lipids. PMID:27162362

  5. Human amniotic epithelial cell feeder layers maintain human iPS cell pluripotency via inhibited endogenous microRNA-145 and increased Sox2 expression

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Te; Cheng, Weiwei; Huang, Yongyi; Huang, Qin; Jiang, Lizhen; Guo, Lihe

    2012-02-15

    Currently, human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells were generated from patient or disease-specific sources and share the same key properties as embryonic stem cells. This makes them attractive for personalized medicine, drug screens or cellular therapy. Long-term cultivation and maintenance of normal iPS cells in an undifferentiated self-renewing state are a major challenge. Our previous studies have shown that human amniotic epithelial cells (HuAECs) could provide a good source of feeder cells for mouse and human embryonic stem cells, or spermatogonial stem cells, but the mechanism for this is unknown. Here, we examined the effect of endogenous microRNA-145 regulation on Sox2 expression in human iPS cells by HuAECs feeder cells regulation, and in turn on human iPS cells pluripotency. We found that human IPS cells transfected with a microRNA-145 mutant expressed Sox2 at high levels, allowing iPS to maintain a high level of AP activity in long-term culture and form teratomas in SCID mice. Expression of stem cell markers was increased in iPS transfected with the microRNA-145 mutant, compared with iPS was transfected with microRNA-145. Besides, the expression of Drosha proteins of the microRNA-processor complex, required for the generation of precursor pre-miRNA, was significantly increased in human iPS cells cultured on MEF but not on HuAECs. Taken together, these results suggest that endogenous Sox2 expression may be regulated by microRNA-145 in human iPS cells with HuAECs feeder cells, and Sox2 is a crucial component required for maintenance of them in an undifferentiated, proliferative state capable of self-renewal. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer microRNA-145 inhibits Sox2 expression in human iPS cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer microRNA-145 suppresses the self-renewal and pluripotency of human iPS cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HuAECs regulate expression of microRNA-145 and Sox2 in human iPS cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HuAECs feeder

  6. Tobacco/Nicotine and Endogenous Brain Opioids

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Yue; Domino, Edward F.

    2008-01-01

    Smoking is a major public health problem with devastating health consequences. Although many cigarette smokers are able to quit, equal numbers of others cannot! Standard medications to assist in smoking cessation, such as nicotine replacement therapies and bupropion, are ineffective in many remaining smokers. Recent developments in the neurobiology of nicotine dependence have identified several neurotransmitter systems that may contribute to the process of smoking maintenance and relapse. These include: especially dopamine, but also norepinephrine, 5-hydroxytryptamine, acetylcholine, endogenous opioids, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glutamate, and endocannabinoids. The present review examines the limited contribution of the endogenous opioid system to the complex effects of nicotine/tobacco smoking. PMID:18215788

  7. Hypoxia. 3. Hypoxia and neurotransmitter synthesis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Central and peripheral neurons as well as neuroendocrine cells express a variety of neurotransmitters/modulators that play critical roles in regulation of physiological systems. The synthesis of several neurotransmitters/modulators is regulated by O2-requiring rate-limiting enzymes. Consequently, hypoxia resulting from perturbations in O2 homeostasis can affect neuronal functions by altering neurotransmitter synthesis. Two broad categories of hypoxia are frequently encountered: continuous hypoxia (CH) and intermittent hypoxia (IH). CH is often seen during high altitude sojourns, whereas IH is experienced in sleep-disordered breathing with recurrent apneas (i.e., brief, repetitive cessations of breathing). This article presents what is currently known on the effects of both forms of hypoxia on neurotransmitter levels and neurotransmitter synthesizing enzymes in the central and peripheral nervous systems. PMID:21270298

  8. Sources and consequences of oxidative damage from mitochondria and neurotransmitter signaling.

    PubMed

    Brennan-Minnella, Angela M; Arron, Sarah T; Chou, Kai-Ming; Cunningham, Eric; Cleaver, James E

    2016-06-01

    Cancer and neurodegeneration represent the extreme responses of growing and terminally differentiated cells to cellular and genomic damage. The damage recognition mechanisms of nucleotide excision repair, epitomized by xeroderma pigmentosum (XP), and Cockayne syndrome (CS), lie at these extremes. Patients with mutations in the DDB2 and XPC damage recognition steps of global genome repair exhibit almost exclusively actinic skin cancer. Patients with mutations in the RNA pol II cofactors CSA and CSB, that regulate transcription coupled repair, exhibit developmental and neurological symptoms, but not cancer. The absence of skin cancer despite increased photosensitivity in CS implies that the DNA repair deficiency is not associated with increased ultraviolet (UV)-induced mutagenesis, unlike DNA repair deficiency in XP that leads to high levels of UV-induced mutagenesis. One attempt to explain the pathology of CS is to attribute genomic damage to endogenously generated reactive oxygen species (ROS). We show that inhibition of complex I of the mitochondria generates increased ROS, above an already elevated level in CSB cells, but without nuclear DNA damage. CSB, but not CSA, quenches ROS liberated from complex I by rotenone. Extracellular signaling by N-methyl-D-aspartic acid in neurons, however, generates ROS enzymatically through oxidase that does lead to oxidative damage to nuclear DNA. The pathology of CS may therefore be caused by impaired oxidative phosphorylation or nuclear damage from neurotransmitters, but without damage-specific mutagenesis. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 57:322-330, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27311994

  9. Therapeutic Implications of Modifying Endogenous Serotonergic Analgesic Systems

    PubMed Central

    Frier, James W.

    1985-01-01

    Basic research strongly implicates the neurotransmitter serotonin as a modulator of endogenous analgesic systems. Recently, clinical strategies have been developed to activate endogenous serotonergic systems as a therapeutic approach to pain control. This paper reviews the biochemistry, anatomical distribution, and physiologic functions of serotonin. The evidence reviewed suggests that precursor loading to increase brain serotonin levels and administration of serotonin receptor inhibitors and serotonin receptor agonists may lead to novel methods of pain control and the development of useful analgesic drugs. PMID:2986489

  10. Borderline Personality Disorder: A Dysregulation of the Endogenous Opioid System?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bandelow, Borwin; Schmahl, Christian; Falkai, Peter; Wedekind, Dirk

    2010-01-01

    The neurobiology of borderline personality disorder (BPD) remains unclear. Dysfunctions of several neurobiological systems, including serotoninergic, dopaminergic, and other neurotransmitter systems, have been discussed. Here we present a theory that alterations in the sensitivity of opioid receptors or the availability of endogenous opioids…

  11. Endogenous ochronosis.

    PubMed

    Turgay, E; Canat, D; Gurel, M S; Yuksel, T; Baran, M F; Demirkesen, C

    2009-12-01

    Endogenous ochronosis or alkaptonuria is a rare, autosomal recessive disease of tyrosine metabolism that is caused by a deficiency of the enzyme homogentisic acid oxidase. The disease results in the accumulation and deposition of homogentisic acid in the cartilage, eyelids, forehead, cheeks, axillae, genital region, buccal mucosa, larynx, tympanic membranes, and tendons. The disease generally presents in adults with arthritis and skin abnormalities; occasionally, involvement of other organs may be seen. A 49-year-old man was referred to our clinic with verrucous lesions on his hands. On physical examination, caviar-like ochronotic papules were found around his eyes and the helix cartilage of his ears, and on the dorsa of both hands. There were brown macules on the sclera (Osler's sign). The patient had arthritis and nephrolithiasis, and a sample of his urine darkened upon standing. Histopathological examination showed deposition of ochronotic pigment. High-dose ascorbic acid was given, and the patient showed improvement on follow-up examination 6 months later. PMID:20055850

  12. Chemical inhibition of potato ABA 8'-hydroxylase activity alters in vitro and in vivo ABA metabolism and endogenous ABA levels but does not affect potato microtuber dormancy duration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of azole-type P450 inhibitors and two metabolism-resistant ABA analogs on in vitro ABA 8'-hydroxylase activity, in planta ABA metabolism, endogenous ABA content, and tuber meristem dormancy duration were examined in potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Russet Burbank). When functionally expr...

  13. Orquestic regulation of neurotransmitters on reward-seeking behavior

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The ventral tegmental area is strongly associated with the reward system. Dopamine is released in areas such as the nucleus accumbens and prefrontal cortex as a result of rewarding experiences such as food, sex, and neutral stimuli that become associated with them. Electrical stimulation of the ventral tegmental area or its output pathways can itself serve as a potent reward. Different drugs that increase dopamine levels are intrinsically rewarding. Although the dopaminergic system represent the cornerstone of the reward system, other neurotransmitters such as endogenous opioids, glutamate, γ-Aminobutyric acid, acetylcholine, serotonin, adenosine, endocannabinoids, orexins, galanin and histamine all affect this mesolimbic dopaminergic system. Consequently, genetic variations of neurotransmission are thought influence reward processing that in turn may affect distinctive social behavior and susceptibility to addiction. Here, we discuss current evidence on the orquestic regulation of different neurotranmitters on reward-seeking behavior and its potential effect on drug addiction. PMID:25061480

  14. Kinase-dependent Regulation of Monoamine Neurotransmitter Transporters.

    PubMed

    Bermingham, Daniel P; Blakely, Randy D

    2016-10-01

    Modulation of neurotransmission by the monoamines dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE), and serotonin (5-HT) is critical for normal nervous system function. Precise temporal and spatial control of this signaling in mediated in large part by the actions of monoamine transporters (DAT, NET, and SERT, respectively). These transporters act to recapture their respective neurotransmitters after release, and disruption of clearance and reuptake has significant effects on physiology and behavior and has been linked to a number of neuropsychiatric disorders. To ensure adequate and dynamic control of these transporters, multiple modes of control have evolved to regulate their activity and trafficking. Central to many of these modes of control are the actions of protein kinases, whose actions can be direct or indirectly mediated by kinase-modulated protein interactions. Here, we summarize the current state of our understanding of how protein kinases regulate monoamine transporters through changes in activity, trafficking, phosphorylation state, and interacting partners. We highlight genetic, biochemical, and pharmacological evidence for kinase-linked control of DAT, NET, and SERT and, where applicable, provide evidence for endogenous activators of these pathways. We hope our discussion can lead to a more nuanced and integrated understanding of how neurotransmitter transporters are controlled and may contribute to disorders that feature perturbed monoamine signaling, with an ultimate goal of developing better therapeutic strategies. PMID:27591044

  15. Central neurotransmitter disturbances underlying developmental neurotoxicological effects.

    PubMed

    Mirmiran, M; Swaab, D F

    1986-01-01

    Transmission of information among neurons is of a chemical nature. The activity of the neurotransmitter in the brain is regulated by the spontaneous activity of neurotransmitter cell body and the sensitivity of both pre- and post-synaptic receptors. Neurotransmitters are present at very early stages of brain development; they do not only mediate the behavioral-physiological responses of the immature animal, but have trophic effects on the maturation of target neurons as well. Many centrally acting drugs which are frequently used also during pregnancy for the treatment of depression, hypertension, epilepsy, asthma, insomnia, hyperkinetism and other neurological and psychiatric disorders act directly on brain neurotransmitters (in particular monoamines) and behavioral states. Chronic administration of drugs acting on monoamines (such as clonidine, imipramine, alpha-methyl-Dopa, reserpine, monoamine oxidase inhibitors, diazepam) disturb the spontaneous activity and behavioral state dependency of the monoaminergic cells, influences neurotransmitter turnover and change the sensitivity of both pre- and post-synaptic receptors. Sensory deprivation during a critical period of development is known to produce permanent effect on the brain; e.g., monocular deprivation during a particular period of development in a kitten leads to a rewiring of the connectivity in the visual system in the adult cat. Disturbances in neurotransmitter activity during early life will induce a comparable reorganization of the chemical structure of the adult brain. PMID:2878401

  16. Inhibition of neurotransmitter and hormone transport into secretory vesicles by 2-(4-phenylpiperidino)cyclohexanol and 2-bromo-alpha-ergocryptine: both compounds act as uncouplers and dissipate the electrochemical gradient of protons.

    PubMed

    Moriyama, Y; Amakatsu, K; Yamada, H; Park, M Y; Futai, M

    1991-10-01

    2-(4-Phenylpiperidino)cyclohexanol (AH-5183) and 2-bromo-alpha-ergocryptine, known inhibitors of the transport of acetylcholine and L-glutamate, respectively, into synaptic vesicles, inhibited the ATP-dependent uptake of dopamine in parallel with the dissipation of the electrochemical gradient of protons in chromaffin granule membrane vesicles. These compounds induced the release of accumulated dopamine from the vesicles. They also inhibited the ATP-dependent formation of the electrochemical gradient of protons in liposomes reconstituted with chromaffin H(+)-ATPase without affecting the activities for ATP hydrolysis, and ATP-dependent uptakes of dopamine, gamma-aminobutyrate, and glutamate into synaptic vesicles. These results indicated that 2-(4-phenylpiperidino)cyclohexanol and 2-bromo-alpha-ergocryptine acted as uncouplers in the secretory vesicles. PMID:1680315

  17. Antidepressant Binding Site in a Bacterial Homologue of Neurotransmitter Transporters

    SciTech Connect

    Singh,S.; Yamashita, A.; Gouaux, E.

    2007-01-01

    Sodium-coupled transporters are ubiquitous pumps that harness pre-existing sodium gradients to catalyse the thermodynamically unfavourable uptake of essential nutrients, neurotransmitters and inorganic ions across the lipid bilayer. Dysfunction of these integral membrane proteins has been implicated in glucose/galactose malabsorption, congenital hypothyroidism, Bartter's syndrome, epilepsy, depression, autism and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Sodium-coupled transporters are blocked by a number of therapeutically important compounds, including diuretics, anticonvulsants and antidepressants, many of which have also become indispensable tools in biochemical experiments designed to probe antagonist binding sites and to elucidate transport mechanisms. Steady-state kinetic data have revealed that both competitive and noncompetitive modes of inhibition exist. Antagonist dissociation experiments on the serotonin transporter (SERT) have also unveiled the existence of a low-affinity allosteric site that slows the dissociation of inhibitors from a separate high-affinity site. Despite these strides, atomic-level insights into inhibitor action have remained elusive. Here we screen a panel of molecules for their ability to inhibit LeuT, a prokaryotic homologue of mammalian neurotransmitter sodium symporters, and show that the tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) clomipramine noncompetitively inhibits substrate uptake. Cocrystal structures show that clomipramine, along with two other TCAs, binds in an extracellular-facing vestibule about 11 {angstrom} above the substrate and two sodium ions, apparently stabilizing the extracellular gate in a closed conformation. Off-rate assays establish that clomipramine reduces the rate at which leucine dissociates from LeuT and reinforce our contention that this TCA inhibits LeuT by slowing substrate release. Our results represent a molecular view into noncompetitive inhibition of a sodium-coupled transporter and define principles for the rational

  18. Antidepressant binding site in a bacterial homologue of neurotransmitter transporters.

    PubMed

    Singh, Satinder K; Yamashita, Atsuko; Gouaux, Eric

    2007-08-23

    Sodium-coupled transporters are ubiquitous pumps that harness pre-existing sodium gradients to catalyse the thermodynamically unfavourable uptake of essential nutrients, neurotransmitters and inorganic ions across the lipid bilayer. Dysfunction of these integral membrane proteins has been implicated in glucose/galactose malabsorption, congenital hypothyroidism, Bartter's syndrome, epilepsy, depression, autism and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Sodium-coupled transporters are blocked by a number of therapeutically important compounds, including diuretics, anticonvulsants and antidepressants, many of which have also become indispensable tools in biochemical experiments designed to probe antagonist binding sites and to elucidate transport mechanisms. Steady-state kinetic data have revealed that both competitive and noncompetitive modes of inhibition exist. Antagonist dissociation experiments on the serotonin transporter (SERT) have also unveiled the existence of a low-affinity allosteric site that slows the dissociation of inhibitors from a separate high-affinity site. Despite these strides, atomic-level insights into inhibitor action have remained elusive. Here we screen a panel of molecules for their ability to inhibit LeuT, a prokaryotic homologue of mammalian neurotransmitter sodium symporters, and show that the tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) clomipramine noncompetitively inhibits substrate uptake. Cocrystal structures show that clomipramine, along with two other TCAs, binds in an extracellular-facing vestibule about 11 A above the substrate and two sodium ions, apparently stabilizing the extracellular gate in a closed conformation. Off-rate assays establish that clomipramine reduces the rate at which leucine dissociates from LeuT and reinforce our contention that this TCA inhibits LeuT by slowing substrate release. Our results represent a molecular view into noncompetitive inhibition of a sodium-coupled transporter and define principles for the rational design of

  19. Inhibition of peripheral dopamine metabolism and the ventilatory response to hypoxia in the rat.

    PubMed

    Bialkowska, Monika; Zajac, Dominika; Mazzatenta, Andrea; Di Giulio, Camillo; Pokorski, Mieczyslaw

    2015-01-01

    Dopamine (DA) is a putative neurotransmitter in the carotid body engaged in the generation of the hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR). However, the action of endogenous DA is unsettled. This study seeks to determine the ventilatory effects of increased availability of endogenous DA caused by inhibition of DA enzymatic breakdown. The peripheral inhibitor of MAO - debrisoquine, or COMT - entacapone, or both combined were injected to conscious rats. Ventilation and its responses to acute 8 % O(2) in N(2) were investigated in a whole body plethysmograph. We found that inhibition of MAO augmented the hyperventilatory response to hypoxia. Inhibition of COMT failed to influence the hypoxic response. However, simultaneous inhibition of both enzymes, the case in which endogenous availability of DA should increase the most, reversed the hypoxic augmentation of ventilation induced by MAO-inhibition. The inference is that when MAO alone is blocked, COMT takes over DA degradation in a compensatory way, which lowers the availability of DA, resulting in a higher intensity of the HVR. We conclude that MAO is the enzyme predominantly engaged in the chemoventilatory effects of DA. Furthermore, the findings imply that endogenous DA is inhibitory, rather than stimulatory, for hypoxic ventilation. PMID:25310955

  20. Homeostatic control of presynaptic neurotransmitter release.

    PubMed

    Davis, Graeme W; Müller, Martin

    2015-01-01

    It is well established that the active properties of nerve and muscle cells are stabilized by homeostatic signaling systems. In organisms ranging from Drosophila to humans, neurons restore baseline function in the continued presence of destabilizing perturbations by rebalancing ion channel expression, modifying neurotransmitter receptor surface expression and trafficking, and modulating neurotransmitter release. This review focuses on the homeostatic modulation of presynaptic neurotransmitter release, termed presynaptic homeostasis. First, we highlight criteria that can be used to define a process as being under homeostatic control. Next, we review the remarkable conservation of presynaptic homeostasis at the Drosophila, mouse, and human neuromuscular junctions and emerging parallels at synaptic connections in the mammalian central nervous system. We then highlight recent progress identifying cellular and molecular mechanisms. We conclude by reviewing emerging parallels between the mechanisms of homeostatic signaling and genetic links to neurological disease. PMID:25386989

  1. Modulation of monoamine neurotransmitters in fighting fish Betta splendens exposed to waterborne phytoestrogens.

    PubMed

    Clotfelter, Ethan D; McNitt, Meredith M; Carpenter, Russ E; Summers, Cliff H

    2010-12-01

    Endogenous estrogens are known to affect the activity of monoamine neurotransmitters in vertebrate animals, but the effects of exogenous estrogens on neurotransmitters are relatively poorly understood. We exposed sexually mature male fighting fish Betta splendens to environmentally relevant and pharmacological doses of three phytoestrogens that are potential endocrine disruptors in wild fish populations: genistein, equol, and β-sitosterol. We also exposed fish to two doses of the endogenous estrogen 17β-estradiol, which we selected as a positive control because phytoestrogens are putative estrogen mimics. Our results were variable, but the effects were generally modest. Genistein increased dopamine levels in the forebrains of B. splendens at both environmentally relevant and pharmacological doses. The environmentally relevant dose of equol increased dopamine levels in B. splendens forebrains, and the pharmacological dose decreased norepinephrine (forebrain), dopamine (hindbrain), and serotonin (forebrain) levels. The environmentally relevant dose of β-sitosterol decreased norepinephrine and dopamine in the forebrain and hindbrain, respectively. Our results suggest that sources of environmental phytoestrogens, such as runoff or effluent from agricultural fields, wood pulp mills, and sewage treatment plants, have the potential to modulate neurotransmitter activity in free-living fishes in a way that could interfere with normal behavioral processes. PMID:20012186

  2. Detection and Quantification of Neurotransmitters in Dialysates

    PubMed Central

    Zapata, Agustin; Chefer, Vladimir I.; Shippenberg, Toni S.; Denoroy, Luc

    2010-01-01

    Sensitive analytical methods are needed for the separation and quantification of neurotransmitters obtained in microdialysate studies. This unit describes methods that permit quantification of nanomolar concentrations of monoamines and their metabolites (high-pressure liquid chromatography electrochemical detection), acetylcholine (HPLC-coupled to an enzyme reactor), and amino acids (HPLC-fluorescence detection; capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection). PMID:19575473

  3. Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy of neurotransmitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGlashen, Michael L.; Davis, Kevin L.; Morris, Michael D.

    1989-10-01

    The surface-enhanced Raman spectra (SERS) of neurotransmitters in biological matrices and synthetic solutions are described. The effects of protein adsorption on cathecholamine SERS intensity are discussed. Techniques for obtaining dopamine SERS spectra in cerebrospinal fluid and rat brain dialysate are demonstrated. Preliminary SERS of histamine and tel-methylhistamine are presented.

  4. Modeling the glutamate–glutamine neurotransmitter cycle

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Glutamate is the principal excitatory neurotransmitter in brain. Although it is rapidly synthesized from glucose in neural tissues the biochemical processes for replenishing the neurotransmitter glutamate after glutamate release involve the glutamate–glutamine cycle. Numerous in vivo 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) experiments since 1994 by different laboratories have consistently concluded: (1) the glutamate–glutamine cycle is a major metabolic pathway with a flux rate substantially greater than those suggested by early studies of cell cultures and brain slices; (2) the glutamate–glutamine cycle is coupled to a large portion of the total energy demand of brain function. The dual roles of glutamate as the principal neurotransmitter in the CNS and as a key metabolite linking carbon and nitrogen metabolism make it possible to probe glutamate neurotransmitter cycling using MRS by measuring the labeling kinetics of glutamate and glutamine. At the same time, comparing to non-amino acid neurotransmitters, the added complexity makes it more challenging to quantitatively separate neurotransmission events from metabolism. Over the past few years our understanding of the neuronal-astroglial two-compartment metabolic model of the glutamate–glutamine cycle has been greatly advanced. In particular, the importance of isotopic dilution of glutamine in determining the glutamate–glutamine cycling rate using [1−13C] or [1,6-13C2] glucose has been demonstrated and reproduced by different laboratories. In this article, recent developments in the two-compartment modeling of the glutamate–glutamine cycle are reviewed. In particular, the effects of isotopic dilution of glutamine on various labeling strategies for determining the glutamate–glutamine cycling rate are analyzed. Experimental strategies for measuring the glutamate–glutamine cycling flux that are insensitive to isotopic dilution of glutamine are also suggested. PMID:23372548

  5. Demonstration of the neurotransmitter role of calcitonin gene-related peptides (CGRP) by immunoblockade with anti-CGRP monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Tan, K. K.; Brown, M. J.; Longmore, J.; Plumpton, C.; Hill, R. G.

    1994-01-01

    1. Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against rat alpha-calcitonin gene-related peptide (alpha CGRP) were produced. Those which bound CGRP in a radioimmunoassay and inhibited the binding of 2-[125I]-iodohistidyl10-CGRP in a receptor binding assay were selected for immunoblockade experiments. 2. The effect of MAbs on CGRP inhibition of electrically stimulated contractions of the rat isolated vas deferens was characterized. Four out of 11 MAbs tested shifted the concentration-response curve of CGRP to the right compared with vehicle or irrelevant MAb control. MAb C4.19 produced equipotent blockade of rat alpha CGRP and rat beta CGRP and was chosen for further studies. MAb C4.19 had no pharmacologically significant effect on the concentration-response relationship of isoprenaline, rat beta-endorphin or somatostatin. 3. We demonstrated that the pharmacological response to CGRP in the presence of MAb C4.19 could be predicted when the dissociation constant and concentration of binding sites of the antibody were known. Comparison of experimental and computer simulated data showed good agreement for EC50 and maximum effect of CGRP in the presence of MAb C4.19. 4. Capsaicin at 1 microM inhibited the electrically stimulated contractions by 60.8% (95% confidence interval 51.8% to 69.9%). This effect was significantly attenuated by MAb C4.19 to 26.0% (95% confidence interval 15.2% to 36.8%; P < 0.003). 5. The immunoblockade of exogenous and endogenous CGRP described here, together with complementary evidence from other studies, strongly suggest that CGRP has a major neurotransmitter role at the neuroeffector junction of the rat vas deferens. PMID:7912623

  6. Self-inhibiting action of nortriptylin's antidepressive effect at high plasma levels: a randomized double-blind study controlled by plasma concentrations in patients with endogenous depression.

    PubMed

    Kragh-Sorensen, P; Hansen, C E; Baastrup, P C; Hvidberg, E F

    1976-02-01

    Below the toxic plasma level of nortriptyline (NT) an upper therapeutic limit has been postulated in patients with endogenous depression. If so the clinical significance is obvious and a double-blind, randomized study was performed in order to solve this problem. Two groups of patients were controlled at different plasma levels (less than 150 ng/ml and less than 180 ng/ml). The degree of depression was rated weekly. Only about one third (n equals 24) of the patients originally included, were carried through the full protocol, the most prominent reason for drop out beeing spontaneous remission during an initial placebo period. After 4 weeks of NT treatment the majority in the high level group was still depressed, but the difference barely significant (P equals 5.5%). However, a randomized reduction of the plasma level among the patients at the high level resulted in a significant correlation to remission. Evaluation of the total material after 6 weeks of NT treatment demonstrated a strong correlation of high plasma level to poor antidepressive effect of NT. No correlation could be obtained between side-effects, which were few, and plasma level. The non-proteinbound fraction in plasma was found to 7% (SD 1.83) by simultaneous determinations of NT in plasma and CSF in 13 patients. The variation in the proteinbinding was not likely to invalidate the over all results based on total NT determination. A therapeutic plasma range of 50-150 ng/ml is recommended. PMID:766041

  7. LeuT-Desipramine Structure Reveals How Antidepressants Block Neurotransmitter Reuptake

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou,Z.; Zhen, J.; Karpowich, N.; Goetz, R.; Law, C.; Reith, M.; Wang, D.

    2007-01-01

    Tricyclic antidepressants exert their pharmacological effect -- inhibiting the reuptake of serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine -- by directly blocking neurotransmitter transporters (SERT, NET, and DAT, respectively) in the presynaptic membrane. The drug-binding site and the mechanism of this inhibition are poorly understood. We determined the crystal structure at 2.9 angstroms of the bacterial leucine transporter (LeuT), a homolog of SERT, NET, and DAT, in complex with leucine and the antidepressant desipramine. Desipramine binds at the inner end of the extracellular cavity of the transporter and is held in place by a hairpin loop and by a salt bridge. This binding site is separated from the leucine-binding site by the extracellular gate of the transporter. By directly locking the gate, desipramine prevents conformational changes and blocks substrate transport. Mutagenesis experiments on human SERT and DAT indicate that both the desipramine-binding site and its inhibition mechanism are probably conserved in the human neurotransmitter transporters.

  8. Expression Profiles of Neuropeptides, Neurotransmitters, and Their Receptors in Human Keratocytes In Vitro and In Situ

    PubMed Central

    Słoniecka, Marta; Le Roux, Sandrine; Boman, Peter; Byström, Berit; Zhou, Qingjun; Danielson, Patrik

    2015-01-01

    Keratocytes, the quiescent cells of the corneal stroma, play a crucial role in corneal wound healing. Neuropeptides and neurotransmitters are usually associated with neuronal signaling, but have recently been shown to be produced also by non-neuronal cells and to be involved in many cellular processes. The aim of this study was to assess the endogenous intracellular and secreted levels of the neuropeptides substance P (SP) and neurokinin A (NKA), and of the neurotransmitters acetylcholine (ACh), catecholamines (adrenaline, noradrenaline and dopamine), and glutamate, as well as the expression profiles of their receptors, in human primary keratocytes in vitro and in keratocytes of human corneal tissue sections in situ. Cultured keratocytes expressed genes encoding for SP and NKA, and for catecholamine and glutamate synthesizing enzymes, as well as genes for neuropeptide, adrenergic and ACh (muscarinic) receptors. Keratocytes in culture produced SP, NKA, catecholamines, ACh, and glutamate, and expressed neurokinin-1 and -2 receptors (NK-1R and NK-2R), dopamine receptor D2, muscarinic ACh receptors, and NDMAR1 glutamate receptor. Human corneal sections expressed SP, NKA, NK-1R, NK-2R, receptor D2, choline acetyl transferase (ChAT), M3, M4 and M5 muscarinic ACh receptors, glutamate, and NMDAR1, but not catecholamine synthesizing enzyme or the α1 and β2 adrenoreceptors, nor M1 receptor. In addition, expression profiles assumed significant differences between keratocytes from the peripheral cornea as compared to those from the central cornea, as well as differences between keratocytes cultured under various serum concentrations. In conclusion, human keratocytes express an array of neuropeptides and neurotransmitters. The cells furthermore express receptors for neuropeptides/neurotransmitters, which suggests that they are susceptible to stimulation by these substances in the cornea, whether of neuronal or non-neuronal origin. As it has been shown that neuropeptides/neurotransmitters

  9. Neurotransmitters drive combinatorial multistate postsynaptic density networks.

    PubMed

    Coba, Marcelo P; Pocklington, Andrew J; Collins, Mark O; Kopanitsa, Maksym V; Uren, Rachel T; Swamy, Sajani; Croning, Mike D R; Choudhary, Jyoti S; Grant, Seth G N

    2009-01-01

    The mammalian postsynaptic density (PSD) comprises a complex collection of approximately 1100 proteins. Despite extensive knowledge of individual proteins, the overall organization of the PSD is poorly understood. Here, we define maps of molecular circuitry within the PSD based on phosphorylation of postsynaptic proteins. Activation of a single neurotransmitter receptor, the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR), changed the phosphorylation status of 127 proteins. Stimulation of ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors and dopamine receptors activated overlapping networks with distinct combinatorial phosphorylation signatures. Using peptide array technology, we identified specific phosphorylation motifs and switching mechanisms responsible for the integration of neurotransmitter receptor pathways and their coordination of multiple substrates in these networks. These combinatorial networks confer high information-processing capacity and functional diversity on synapses, and their elucidation may provide new insights into disease mechanisms and new opportunities for drug discovery. PMID:19401593

  10. Dynamic neurotransmitter interactions measured with PET

    SciTech Connect

    Schiffer, W.K.; Dewey, S.L.

    2001-04-02

    Positron emission tomography (PET) has become a valuable interdisciplinary tool for understanding physiological, biochemical and pharmacological functions at a molecular level in living humans, whether in a healthy or diseased state. The utility of tracing chemical activity through the body transcends the fields of cardiology, oncology, neurology and psychiatry. In this, PET techniques span radiochemistry and radiopharmaceutical development to instrumentation, image analysis, anatomy and modeling. PET has made substantial contributions in each of these fields by providing a,venue for mapping dynamic functions of healthy and unhealthy human anatomy. As diverse as the disciplines it bridges, PET has provided insight into an equally significant variety of psychiatric disorders. Using the unique quantitative ability of PET, researchers are now better able to non-invasively characterize normally occurring neurotransmitter interactions in the brain. With the knowledge that these interactions provide the fundamental basis for brain response, many investigators have recently focused their efforts on an examination of the communication between these chemicals in both healthy volunteers and individuals suffering from diseases classically defined as neurotransmitter specific in nature. In addition, PET can measure the biochemical dynamics of acute and sustained drug abuse. Thus, PET studies of neurotransmitter interactions enable investigators to describe a multitude of specific functional interactions in the human brain. This information can then be applied to understanding side effects that occur in response to acute and chronic drug therapy, and to designing new drugs that target multiple systems as opposed to single receptor types. Knowledge derived from PET studies can be applied to drug discovery, research and development (for review, see (Fowler et al., 1999) and (Burns et al., 1999)). Here, we will cover the most substantial contributions of PET to understanding

  11. High concentrations of therapeutic IgG1 antibodies are needed to compensate for inhibition of antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity by excess endogenous immunoglobulin G.

    PubMed

    Preithner, Susanne; Elm, Stefanie; Lippold, Sandra; Locher, Mathias; Wolf, Andreas; da Silva, Antonio J; Baeuerle, Patrick A; Prang, Nadja S

    2006-03-01

    A common feature of human IgG1 antibodies used for cancer treatment is that their anti-tumour efficacy requires high serum trough levels and continued therapy for several months. Treatment cycles, thereby, consume several grams of IgG1 translating into significant drug needs and costs. The basis for the low in vivo efficacy, which is in contrast to high in vitro antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), is not well understood. Here, we have explored factors contributing to this discrepancy using adecatumumab (MT201), a fully human monoclonal IgG1 against epithelial cell adhesion molecule (Ep-CAM) and trastuzumab (Herceptin), a humanized IgG1 with specificity for the human epithelial growth factor receptor type 2 (HER-2) antigen. We found that physiological levels of human sera strongly inhibited ADCC of both IgG1 antibodies. Effects showed some dependence on the density of Ep-CAM and HER-2 targets, the tumour cell line tested and on effector cell and serum donors. Removal of IgG by affinity chromatography abolished the inhibitory effect of a serum pool. Inhibition of ADCC was fully restored by adding back the IgG fraction or by an equal amount of IgG from a commercial source. We further demonstrate that CD56-positive lymphocytes within human PBMC contributed >90% to ADCC and that normal serum levels of IgG effectively competed for in vitro binding of an IgG1 antibody to low-affinity Fcgamma receptor type III (CD16), as is present on natural killer (NK) cells. Competition of serum IgG for binding of therapeutic IgG1 to NK cell may be one important reason why high antibody doses are required in the clinic for treatment of cancer by an ADCC-based mechanism. PMID:16102830

  12. Endogenous respiration of Polyporus sulphureus

    SciTech Connect

    Li, S.M.W.; Siehr, D.J.

    1980-01-01

    Thirty percent of the dry weight of the basidiomycete Polyporus sulphureus is triterpenoid acid. The endogenous respiratory quotient of this organism is 0.8 indicating that the triterpenoid is being used as an endogenous storage material. Monosaccharides did not seem to be utilized as exogenous substrates but Krebs-cycle intermediates stimulated oxygen uptake. Pyruvic acid inhibited oxygen uptake. Studies with /sup 14/C-labeled glucose indicated that 27% of the glucose was metabolized by way of glycolysis. The hexose-monophosphate pathway was the major metabolic path for the utilization of glucose. Despite the fact that P. sulphureus is associated with brown rot, its carbon metabolism suggests that it utilizes substances associated with the degradation of lignin more readily than it does glucose.

  13. Simultaneous analysis of multiple neurotransmitters by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Tufi, Sara; Lamoree, Marja; de Boer, Jacob; Leonards, Pim

    2015-05-22

    Neurotransmitters are endogenous metabolites that allow the signal transmission across neuronal synapses. Their biological role is crucial for many physiological functions and their levels can be changed by several diseases. Because of their high polarity, hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) is a promising tool for neurotransmitter analysis. Due to the large number of HILIC stationary phases available, an evaluation of the column performances and retention behaviors has been performed on five different commercial HILIC packing materials (silica, amino, amide and two zwitterionic stationary phases). Several parameters like the linear correlation between retention and the distribution coefficient (logD), the separation factor k and the column resolution Rs have been investigated and the column performances have been visualized with a heat map and hierarchical clustering analysis. An optimized and validated HILIC-MS/MS method based on the ZIC-cHILIC column is proposed for the simultaneous detection and quantification of twenty compounds consisting of neurotransmitters, precursors and metabolites: 3-methoxytyramine (3-MT), 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), 5-hydroxy-L-tripthophan, acetylcholine, choline, L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA), dopamine, epinephrine, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glutamate, glutamine, histamine, histidine, L-tryptophan, L-tyrosine, norepinephrine, normetanephrine, phenylalanine, serotonin and tyramine. The method was applied to neuronal metabolite profiling of the central nervous system of the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis. This method is suitable to explore neuronal metabolism and its alteration in different biological matrices. PMID:25869798

  14. The Fluorescence Methods to Study Neurotransmitters (Biomediators) in Plant Cells.

    PubMed

    Roshchina, Victoria V

    2016-05-01

    -tubocurarine for acetylcholine, yohimbine for dopamine and norepinephrine, inmecarb for serotonin) of neurotransmitters that bound with animal receptors fluorescent in blue (460-480 nm) or blue-green (490-530 nm) and usually are bound with the plasmatic membrane of intact cells or with membrane of the isolated organelles studied. In some model cells autofluorescence (belonging to chlorophyll or not, for example secondary metabolites) may be stimulated by exogenous biogenic amines or their agonists and, on the contrary, be inhibited by certain antagonists. The fluorescence data may be applied for the testing in ecological monitoring, medicine and pharmacology. PMID:27056187

  15. Tyrosine 402 phosphorylation of Pyk2 is involved in ionomycin-induced neurotransmitter release.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhao; Zhang, Yun; Mou, Zheng; Chu, Shifeng; Chen, Xiaoyu; He, Wenbin; Guo, Xiaofeng; Yuan, Yuhe; Takahashi, Masami; Chen, Naihong

    2014-01-01

    Protein tyrosine kinases, which are highly expressed in the central nervous system, are implicated in many neural processes. However, the relationship between protein tyrosine kinases and neurotransmitter release remains unknown. In this study, we found that ionomycin, a Ca²⁺ ionophore, concurrently induced asynchronous neurotransmitter release and phosphorylation of a non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase, proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 (Pyk2), in clonal rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells and cerebellar granule cells, whereas introduction of Pyk2 siRNA dramatically suppressed ionomycin-induced neurotransmitter release. Further study indicated that Tyr-402 (Y402) in Pyk2, instead of other tyrosine sites, underwent rapid phosphorylation after ionomycin induction in 1 min to 2 min. We demonstrated that the mutant of Pyk2 Y402 could abolish ionomycin-induced dopamine (DA) release by transfecting cells with recombinant Pyk2 and its mutants (Y402F, Y579F, Y580F, and Y881F). In addition, Src inhibition could prolong phosphorylation of Pyk2 Y402 and increase DA release. These findings suggested that Pyk2 was involved in ionomycin-induced neurotransmitter release through phosphorylation of Y402. PMID:24718602

  16. Subunit Composition of Neurotransmitter Receptors in the Immature and in the Epileptic Brain

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez Fernández, Iván; Loddenkemper, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Neuronal activity is critical for synaptogenesis and the development of neuronal networks. In the immature brain excitation predominates over inhibition facilitating the development of normal brain circuits, but also rendering it more susceptible to seizures. In this paper, we review the evolution of the subunit composition of neurotransmitter receptors during development, how it promotes excitation in the immature brain, and how this subunit composition of neurotransmission receptors may be also present in the epileptic brain. During normal brain development, excitatory glutamate receptors peak in function and gamma-aminobutiric acid (GABA) receptors are mainly excitatory rather than inhibitory. A growing body of evidence from animal models of epilepsy and status epilepticus has demonstrated that the brain exposed to repeated seizures presents a subunit composition of neurotransmitter receptors that mirrors that of the immature brain and promotes further seizures and epileptogenesis. Studies performed in samples from the epileptic human brain have also found a subunit composition pattern of neurotransmitter receptors similar to the one found in the immature brain. These findings provide a solid rationale for tailoring antiepileptic treatments to the specific subunit composition of neurotransmitter receptors and they provide potential targets for the development of antiepileptogenic treatments. PMID:25295256

  17. The human endogenous retrovirus K(HML-2) has a broad envelope-mediated cellular tropism and is prone to inhibition at a post-entry, pre-integration step.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Philipp; Lausch, Veronika; Volkwein, Alexander; Hanke, Kirsten; Hohn, Oliver; Bannert, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    The HERV-K(HML-2) family is the most recent addition to the collection of human endogenous retroviruses. It comprises proviruses that encode functional proteins that can assemble into replication defective particles carrying the envelope protein. Using a reconstituted HERV-K113 envelope sequence, we have analyzed its ability to mediate entry into a set of 33 cell lines from 10 species. Of these, 30 were permissive, demonstrating an amphotropism consistent with a broad expression of receptor protein(s). In an initial effort to identify a receptor for HERV-K(HML-2) we investigated whether transferrin receptor 1 and hyaluronidase 2, known cellular receptors of the closely related betaretroviruses mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) and Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV), could facilitate HERV-K(HML-2) entry. However, neither of these proteins could serve as a receptor for HERV-K(HML-2). Moreover, during attempts to further characterize the tropism of HERV-K(HML-2), we identified a cellular activity that inhibits infection at a post-entry, pre-integration step. PMID:26517399

  18. Neurotransmitter signaling in the pathophysiology of microglia

    PubMed Central

    Domercq, María; Vázquez-Villoldo, Nuria; Matute, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Microglial cells are the resident immune cells of the central nervous system. In the resting state, microglia are highly dynamic and control the environment by rapidly extending and retracting motile processes. Microglia are closely associated with astrocytes and neurons, particularly at the synapses, and more recent data indicate that neurotransmission plays a role in regulating the morphology and function of surveying/resting microglia, as they are endowed with receptors for most known neurotransmitters. In particular, microglia express receptors for ATP and glutamate, which regulate microglial motility. After local damage, the release of ATP induces microgliosis and activated microglial cells migrate to the site of injury, proliferate, and phagocytose cells, and cellular compartments. However, excessive activation of microglia could contribute to the progression of chronic neurodegenerative diseases, though the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. Microglia have the capacity to release a large number of substances that can be detrimental to the surrounding neurons, including glutamate, ATP, and reactive oxygen species. However, how altered neurotransmission following acute insults or chronic neurodegenerative conditions modulates microglial functions is still poorly understood. This review summarizes the relevant data regarding the role of neurotransmitter receptors in microglial physiology and pathology. PMID:23626522

  19. Integrated Carbon Nanostructures for Detection of Neurotransmitters.

    PubMed

    Sainio, Sami; Palomäki, Tommi; Tujunen, Noora; Protopopova, Vera; Koehne, Jessica; Kordas, Krisztian; Koskinen, Jari; Meyyappan, M; Laurila, Tomi

    2015-10-01

    Carbon-based materials, such as diamond-like carbon (DLC), carbon nanofibers (CNFs), and carbon nanotubes (CNTs), are inherently interesting for neurotransmitter detection due to their good biocompatibility, low cost and relatively simple synthesis. In this paper, we report on new carbon-hybrid materials, where either CNTs or CNFs are directly grown on top of tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C). We show that these hybrid materials have electrochemical properties that not only combine the best characteristics of the individual "building blocks" but their synergy makes the electrode performance superior compared to conventional carbon based electrodes. By combining ta-C with CNTs, we were able to realize electrode materials that show wide and stable water window, almost reversible electron transfer properties and high sensitivity and selectivity for detecting dopamine in the presence of ascorbic acid. Furthermore, the sensitivity of ta-C + CNF hybrids towards dopamine as well as glutamate has been found excellent paving the road for actual in vivo measurements. The wide and stable water window of these sensors enables detection of other neurotransmitters besides DA as well as capability of withstanding higher potentials without suffering from oxygen and hydrogen evolution. PMID:26093378

  20. Analysis of drug effects on neurotransmitter release

    SciTech Connect

    Rowell, P.; Garner, A.

    1986-03-05

    The release of neurotransmitter is routinely studied in a superfusion system in which serial samples are collected and the effects of drugs or other treatments on the amount of material in the superfusate is determined. With frequent sampling interval, this procedure provides a mechanism for dynamically characterizing the release process itself. Using automated data collection in conjunction with polyexponential computer analysis, the equation which describes the release process in each experiment is determined. Analysis of the data during the nontreated phase of the experiment allows an internal control to be used for accurately assessing any changes in neurotransmitter release which may occur during a subsequent treatment phase. The use of internal controls greatly improves the signal to noise ratio and allows determinations of very low concentrations of drugs on small amounts of tissue to be made. In this presentation, the effects of 10 ..mu..M nicotine on /sup 3/H-dopamine release in rat nucleus accumbens is described. The time course, potency and efficacy of the drug treatment is characterized using this system. Determinations of the exponential order of the release as well as the rate constants allow one to study the mechanism of the release process. A description of /sup 3/H-dopamine release in normal as well as Ca/sup + +/-free medium is presented.

  1. Marine Toxins Potently Affecting Neurotransmitter Release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meunier, Frédéric A.; Mattei, César; Molgó, Jordi

    Synapses are specialised structures where interneuronal communication takes place. Not only brain function is absolutely dependent on synaptic activity, but also most of our organs are intimately controlled by synaptic activity. Synapses re therefore an ideal target to act upon and poisonous species have evolved fascinating neurotoxins capable of shutting down neuronal communication by blocking or activating essential components of the synapse. By hijacking key proteins of the communication machinery, neurotoxins are therefore extremely valuable tools that have, in turn, greatly helped our understanding of synaptic biology. Moreover, analysis and understanding of the molecular strategy used by certain neurotoxins has allowed the design of entirely new classes of drugs acting on specific targets with high selectivity and efficacy. This chapter will discuss the different classes of marine neurotoxins, their effects on neurotransmitter release and how they act to incapacitate key steps in the process leading to synaptic vesicle fusion.

  2. The microwave spectrum of neurotransmitter serotonin.

    PubMed

    Cabezas, Carlos; Varela, Marcelino; Peña, Isabel; López, Juan C; Alonso, José L

    2012-10-21

    A laser ablation device in combination with a molecular beam Fourier-transform microwave spectrometer has allowed the observation of the rotational spectrum of serotonin for the first time. Three conformers of the neurotransmitter have been detected and characterized in the 4-10 GHz frequency range. The complicated hyperfine structure arising from the presence of two (14)N nuclei has been fully resolved for all conformers and used for their identification. Nuclear quadrupole coupling constants of the nitrogen atom of the side chain have been used to determine the orientation of the amino group probing the existence of N-Hπ interactions involving the amino group and the pyrrole unit in the Gauche-Phenyl conformer (GPh) or the phenyl unit in the Gauche-Pyrrole (GPy) ones. PMID:22965174

  3. Imaging neurotransmitter release kinetics in living cells

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Weihong; Yeung, E.S.; Haydon, P.G.

    1996-12-31

    A new UV-laser based optical microscope and CCD detection system has been developed to image neurotransmitter in living biological cells. We demonstrate the detection of serotonin that has been taken up into and released from individual living glial cells (astrocytes) based on its native fluorescence. The detection methodology has high sensitivity, low limit of detection and does not require coupling to fluorescence dyes. We have studied serotonin uptake kinetics and its release dynamics in single glial cells. Different regions of a glial cell have taken up different amounts of serotonin with a variety of kinetics. Similarly, different serotonin release mechanisms have been observed in different astrocyte cell regions. The temporal resolution of this detection system is as fast as 50 ms, and the spatial resolution is diffraction limited. We will also report on single enzyme molecule reaction studies and single metal ion detection based on CCD imaging of pL reaction vials formed by micromachining on fused silica.

  4. Endogenous Pyrogen Physiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beisel, William R.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the physiology of endogenous pyrogen (EP), the fever-producing factor of cellular origin. Included are: its hormone-like role, its molecular nature, bioassay procedures, cellular production and mechanisms of EP action. (SA)

  5. Secondary Abnormalities of Neurotransmitters in Infants with Neurological Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Cazorla, A.; Serrano, M.; Perez-Duenas, B.; Gonzalez, V.; Ormazabal, A.; Pineda, M.; Fernandez-Alvarez, E.; Campistol, J. M. D.; Artuch, R. M. D.

    2007-01-01

    Neurotransmitters are essential in young children for differentiation and neuronal growth of the developing nervous system. We aimed to identify possible factors related to secondary neurotransmitter abnormalities in pediatric patients with neurological disorders. We analyzed cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and biogenic amine metabolites in 56 infants…

  6. Bacillus cereus endogenous panophthalmitis.

    PubMed

    Bouza, E; Grant, S; Jordan, C; Yook, R H; Sulit, H L

    1979-03-01

    A case of severe suppurative endogenous panophthalmitis caused by Bacillus cereus resulted from intravenously administered medications. This is the first, to our knowledge, well-documented case of endogenous endophthalmitis associated with this organism. It is recommended that if on Gram's stain of the anterior chamber fluid, Gram-positive rods are seen, chloramphenicol should be administered in addition to penicillin because of the possibility of B cereus infection. PMID:105693

  7. Inhibition by chloroquine of the class II major histocompatibility complex-restricted presentation of endogenous antigens varies according to the cellular origin of the antigen-presenting cells, the nature of the T-cell epitope, and the responding T cell.

    PubMed Central

    Lombard-Platlet, S; Bertolino, P; Deng, H; Gerlier, D; Rabourdin-Combe, C

    1993-01-01

    Chloroquine treatment of antigen-presenting cells (APC) was explored as a tool to investigate the processing pathway for major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II-restricted presentation of the endogenous secreted hen egg lysozyme (HEL) and transmembrane measles virus haemagglutinin (HA). A 72-hr pretreatment of the APC with 25 microM chloroquine blocked the presentation of the HEL(52-61) T-cell epitope generated from endogenous HEL to the I-Ak-restricted 3A9 T-cell hybridoma by MHC class II-transfected L cells expressing the invariant chain (Ii). The presentation of exogenously added HEL peptides was not affected. Under the same conditions, no inhibition of the presentation of HEL(106-116) to the I-Ed-restricted G28 high-avidity T-cell hybridoma, nor of HA when synthesized by L cells, was observed. When B-lymphoid APC were used, inhibition was observed in every case with a low number of B APC pretreated for 48 hr with chloroquine prior to the T-cell stimulation test. Moreover, addition of chloroquine to untreated B APC during the T-cell stimulation assay was sufficient to inhibit completely the presentation of HEL(106-116) to the B10.D24.42 low avidity T-cell hybridoma. Altogether these studies suggest that an apparent resistance of endogenous Ag presentation to chloroquine inhibition may not necessarily indicate the existence of a non-endosomal pathway but may be due to the nature of the T-cell epitope, to the use of 'non-professional' APC such as L cells, to the use of T cells of high avidity, and to high amounts of pre-existing MHC class II-peptide complexes expressed by the APC. We demonstrate here that, at least in conventional APC such as B cells, class II-restricted presentation of both endogenous secreted HEL and transmembrane HA involves an endosomal pathway. PMID:7508420

  8. Regulation of nonsmall-cell lung cancer stem cell like cells by neurotransmitters and opioid peptides.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Jheelam; Papu John, Arokya M S; Schuller, Hildegard M

    2015-12-15

    Nonsmall-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the leading type of lung cancer and has a poor prognosis. We have shown that chronic stress promoted NSCLC xenografts in mice via stress neurotransmitter-activated cAMP signaling downstream of beta-adrenergic receptors and incidental beta-blocker therapy was reported to improve clinical outcomes in NSCLC patients. These findings suggest that psychological stress promotes NSCLC whereas pharmacologically or psychologically induced decreases in cAMP may inhibit NSCLC. Cancer stem cells are thought to drive the development, progression and resistance to therapy of NSCLC. However, their potential regulation by stress neurotransmitters has not been investigated. In the current study, epinephrine increased the number of cancer stem cell like cells (CSCs) from three NSCLC cell lines in spheroid formation assays while enhancing intracellular cAMP and the stem cell markers sonic hedgehog (SHH), aldehyde dehydrogenase-1 (ALDH-1) and Gli1, effects reversed by GABA or dynorphin B via Gαi -mediated inhibition of cAMP formation. The growth of NSCLC xenografts in a mouse model of stress reduction was significantly reduced as compared with mice maintained under standard conditions. Stress reduction reduced serum levels of corticosterone, norepinephrine and epinephrine while the inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and opioid peptides increased. Stress reduction significantly reduced cAMP, VEGF, p-ERK, p-AKT, p-CREB, p-SRc, SHH, ALDH-1 and Gli1 in xenograft tissues whereas cleaved caspase-3 and p53 were induced. We conclude that stress neurotransmitters activate CSCs in NSCLC via multiple cAMP-mediated pathways and that pharmacologically or psychologically induced decreases in cAMP signaling may improve clinical outcomes in NSCLC patients. PMID:26088878

  9. Fast neurotransmitter release regulated by the endocytic scaffold intersectin.

    PubMed

    Sakaba, Takeshi; Kononenko, Natalia L; Bacetic, Jelena; Pechstein, Arndt; Schmoranzer, Jan; Yao, Lijun; Barth, Holger; Shupliakov, Oleg; Kobler, Oliver; Aktories, Klaus; Haucke, Volker

    2013-05-14

    Sustained fast neurotransmission requires the rapid replenishment of release-ready synaptic vesicles (SVs) at presynaptic active zones. Although the machineries for exocytic fusion and for subsequent endocytic membrane retrieval have been well characterized, little is known about the mechanisms underlying the rapid recruitment of SVs to release sites. Here we show that the Down syndrome-associated endocytic scaffold protein intersectin 1 is a crucial factor for the recruitment of release-ready SVs. Genetic deletion of intersectin 1 expression or acute interference with intersectin function inhibited the replenishment of release-ready vesicles, resulting in short-term depression, without significantly affecting the rate of endocytic membrane retrieval. Acute perturbation experiments suggest that intersectin-mediated vesicle replenishment involves the association of intersectin with the fissioning enzyme dynamin and with the actin regulatory GTPase CDC42. Our data indicate a role for the endocytic scaffold intersectin in fast neurotransmitter release, which may be of prime importance for information processing in the brain. PMID:23633571

  10. The Endogenous Exposome

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Jun; Mutlu, Esra; Sharma, Vyom; Collins, Leonard; Bodnar, Wanda; Yu, Rui; Lai, Yongquan; Moeller, Benjamin; Lu, Kun; Swenberg, James

    2014-01-01

    The concept of the Exposome, is a compilation of diseases and one’s lifetime exposure to chemicals, whether the exposure comes from environmental, dietary, or occupational exposures; or endogenous chemicals that are formed from normal metabolism, inflammation, oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, infections, and other natural metabolic processes such as alteration of the gut microbiome. In this review, we have focused on the Endogenous Exposome, the DNA damage that arises from the production of endogenous electrophilic molecules in our cells. It provides quantitative data on endogenous DNA damage and its relationship to mutagenesis, with emphasis on when exogenous chemical exposures that produce identical DNA adducts to those arising from normal metabolism cause significant increases in total identical DNA adducts. We have utilized stable isotope labeled chemical exposures of animals and cells, so that accurate relationships between endogenous and exogenous exposures can be determined. Advances in mass spectrometry have vastly increased both the sensitivity and accuracy of such studies. Furthermore, we have clear evidence of which sources of exposure drive low dose biology that results in mutations and disease. These data provide much needed information to impact quantitative risk assessments, in the hope of moving towards the use of science, rather than default assumptions. PMID:24767943

  11. Neurotransmitters and Novelty: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Rangel-Gomez, Mauricio; Meeter, Martijn

    2016-01-01

    Our brains are highly responsive to novelty. However, how novelty is processed in the brain, and what neurotransmitter systems play a role therein, remains elusive. Here, we systematically review studies on human participants that have looked at the neuromodulatory basis of novelty detection and processing. While theoretical models and studies on nonhuman animals have pointed to a role of the dopaminergic, cholinergic, noradrenergic and serotonergic systems, the human literature has focused almost exclusively on the first two. Dopamine was found to affect electrophysiological responses to novelty early in time after stimulus presentation, but evidence on its effects on later processing was found to be contradictory: While neuropharmacological studies mostly yielded null effects, gene studies did point to an important role for dopamine. Acetylcholine seems to dampen novelty signals in the medial temporal lobe, but boost them in frontal cortex. Findings on 5-HT (serotonin) were found to be mostly contradictory. Two large gaps were identified in the literature. First, few studies have looked at neuromodulatory influences on behavioral effects of novelty. Second, no study has looked at the involvement of the noradrenergic system in novelty processing. PMID:26601905

  12. Microfabrication of biosensors for neurotransmitter analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Weihong; Cordek, Julia; Liu, Xiaojing; Gross, Brooks; Liesenfeld, Bernd

    1999-06-01

    We have developed ultrasensitive biosensors for the analysis of neurotransmitters such as glutamate, GABA and lactate. These sensors have micrometer to submicrometer sizes. They are based on biomolecule immobilization on optical fiber probe surfaces. The miniaturized fiber probes are fabricated by either pulling or etching conventional optical fibers. For example, surface immobilized glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) is being used for glutamate analysis. GDH has been directly immobilized onto an optical fiber probe surface through a new optical fiber sensor fabrication technique using covalent binding mechanisms. None of the direct or indirect physical confinement methods, such as mechanical confinement, gel trapping or membrane immobilization, has been used for the sensor preparation. An optical fiber surface is initially activated by silanization, which adds amine groups (-NH2) to the surface. We then affix functional groups -CHO to the optical fiber surface by employing a bifunctional cross-linking agent, glutaraldehyde. The amino acids of GDH enzyme molecules (or other biomolecules) readily attach to these free -CHO groups on the fiber surface. The sensor is able to detect its substrate, glutamate, by monitoring the fluorescence of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), a product of the reaction between nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) and glutamate. Similar procedures and principle have been used for the development of lactate and GABA sensors. Our biomolecule based biosensors have been applied to the study of single living cell neurophysiological responses.

  13. Microfluidic Systems for Studying Neurotransmitters and Neurotransmission

    PubMed Central

    Croushore, Callie A.; Sweedler, Jonathan V.

    2013-01-01

    Neurotransmitters and neuromodulators are molecules within the nervous system that play key roles in cell-to-cell communication. Upon stimulation, neurons release these signaling molecules, which then act at local or distant locations to elicit a physiological response. Ranging from small molecules, such as diatomic gases and amino acids, to larger peptides, these chemical messengers are involved in many functional processes including growth, reproduction, memory and behavior. Understanding signaling molecules and the conditions that govern their release in healthy or damaged networks promises to deliver insights into neural network formation and function. Microfluidic devices can provide optimal cell culture conditions, reduced volume systems, and precise control over the chemical and physical nature of the extracellular environment, making them well-suited for studying neurotransmission and other forms of cell-to-cell signaling. Here we review selected microfluidic approaches that are suitable for monitoring cell-to-cell signaling molecules. We highlight devices that improve in vivo sample collection as well as compartmentalized devices designed to isolate individual neurons or co-cultures in vitro, including a focus on systems used for studying neural injury and regeneration, and devices that allow selective chemical stimulations and the characterization of released molecules. PMID:23474943

  14. Neurotransmitter signaling in postnatal neurogenesis: the first leg

    PubMed Central

    Platel, Jean-Claude; Stamboulian, Séverine; Nguyen, Ivy; Bordey, Angélique

    2010-01-01

    Like the liver or other peripheral organs, two regions of the adult brain possess the ability of self-renewal through a process called neurogenesis. This raises tremendous hope for repairing the damaged brain and has stimulated research on identifying signals controlling neurogenesis. Neurogenesis involves several stages from fate determination to synaptic integration via proliferation, migration, and maturation. While fate determination primarily depends on a genetic signature, other stages are controlled by the interplay between genes and micro-environmental signals. Here, we propose that neurotransmitters are master regulators of the different stages of neurogenesis. In favor of this idea, a description of selective neurotransmitter signaling and their functions in the largest neurogenic zone, the subventricular zone (SVZ), is provided. In particular, we emphasize the interactions between neuroblasts and astrocyte-like cells that release gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate, respectively. However, we also raise several limitations to our knowledge on neurotransmitters in neurogenesis. The function of neurotransmitters in vivo remains largely unexplored. Neurotransmitter signaling has been viewed as uniform which dramatically contrasts with the cellular and molecular mosaic nature of the SVZ. How neurotransmitters are integrated with other well-conserved molecules, such as sonic hedgehog, is poorly understood. In an effort to reconcile these differences, we discuss how specificity of neurotransmitter functions can be provided through their multitude of receptors and intracellular pathways in different cell types, and their possible interactions with sonic hedgehog. PMID:20188124

  15. Endogenous opioids and reward.

    PubMed

    Van Ree, J M; Niesink, R J; Van Wolfswinkel, L; Ramsey, N F; Kornet, M M; Van Furth, W R; Vanderschuren, L J; Gerrits, M A; Van den Berg, C L

    2000-09-29

    The discovery of endogenous opioids has markedly influenced the research on the biology of addiction and reward brain processes. Evidence has been presented that these brain substances modulate brain stimulation reward, self-administration of different drugs of abuse, sexual behaviour and social behaviour. There appears to be two different domains in which endogenous opioids, present in separate and distinct brain regions, are involved. One is related to the modulation of incentive motivational processes and the other to the performance of certain behaviours. It is concluded that endogenous opioids may play a role in the vulnerability to certain diseases, such as addiction and autism, but also when the disease is present, such as alcoholism. PMID:11033317

  16. Challenges and recent advances in mass spectrometric imaging of neurotransmitters

    PubMed Central

    Gemperline, Erin; Chen, Bingming; Li, Lingjun

    2014-01-01

    Mass spectrometric imaging (MSI) is a powerful tool that grants the ability to investigate a broad mass range of molecules, from small molecules to large proteins, by creating detailed distribution maps of selected compounds. To date, MSI has demonstrated its versatility in the study of neurotransmitters and neuropeptides of different classes toward investigation of neurobiological functions and diseases. These studies have provided significant insight in neurobiology over the years and current technical advances are facilitating further improvements in this field. neurotransmitters, focusing specifically on the challenges and recent Herein, we advances of MSI of neurotransmitters. PMID:24568355

  17. Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 4 Inhibits γ-Aminobutyric Acid-Activated Current in Hippocampal Pyramidal Neurons.

    PubMed

    Hong, Zhiwen; Tian, Yujing; Qi, Mengwen; Li, Yingchun; Du, Yimei; Chen, Lei; Liu, Wentao; Chen, Ling

    2016-01-01

    The balance between excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitter systems is crucial for the modulation of neuronal excitability in the central nervous system (CNS). The activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) is reported to enhance the response of hippocampal glutamate receptors, but whether the inhibitory neurotransmitter system can be regulated by TRPV4 remains unknown. γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the CNS. Here, we show that application of transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) synthetic (GSK1016790A or 4α-PDD) or endogenous agonist (5,6-EET) inhibited GABA-activated current (I GABA) in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons, which was blocked by specific antagonists of TRPV4 and of GABAA receptors. GSK1016790A increased the phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (p-AMPK) and decreased the phosphorylated protein kinase B (p-Akt) protein levels, which was attenuated by removing extracellular calcium or by a calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase-β antagonist. GSK1016790A-induced decrease of p-Akt protein level was sensitive to an AMPK antagonist. GSK1016790A-inhibited I GABA was blocked by an AMPK antagonist or a phosphatidyl inositol 3 kinase (PI3K) agonist. GSK1016790A-induced inhibition of I GABA was also significantly attenuated by a protein kinase C (PKC) antagonist but was unaffected by protein kinase A or calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II antagonist. We conclude that activation of TRPV4 inhibits GABAA receptor, which may be mediated by activation of AMPK and subsequent down-regulation of PI3K/Akt signaling and activation of PKC signaling. Inhibition of GABAA receptors may account for the neuronal hyperexcitability caused by TRPV4 activation. PMID:27616980

  18. Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 4 Inhibits γ-Aminobutyric Acid-Activated Current in Hippocampal Pyramidal Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Zhiwen; Tian, Yujing; Qi, Mengwen; Li, Yingchun; Du, Yimei; Chen, Lei; Liu, Wentao; Chen, Ling

    2016-01-01

    The balance between excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitter systems is crucial for the modulation of neuronal excitability in the central nervous system (CNS). The activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) is reported to enhance the response of hippocampal glutamate receptors, but whether the inhibitory neurotransmitter system can be regulated by TRPV4 remains unknown. γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the CNS. Here, we show that application of transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) synthetic (GSK1016790A or 4α-PDD) or endogenous agonist (5,6-EET) inhibited GABA-activated current (IGABA) in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons, which was blocked by specific antagonists of TRPV4 and of GABAA receptors. GSK1016790A increased the phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (p-AMPK) and decreased the phosphorylated protein kinase B (p-Akt) protein levels, which was attenuated by removing extracellular calcium or by a calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase-β antagonist. GSK1016790A-induced decrease of p-Akt protein level was sensitive to an AMPK antagonist. GSK1016790A-inhibited IGABA was blocked by an AMPK antagonist or a phosphatidyl inositol 3 kinase (PI3K) agonist. GSK1016790A-induced inhibition of IGABA was also significantly attenuated by a protein kinase C (PKC) antagonist but was unaffected by protein kinase A or calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II antagonist. We conclude that activation of TRPV4 inhibits GABAA receptor, which may be mediated by activation of AMPK and subsequent down-regulation of PI3K/Akt signaling and activation of PKC signaling. Inhibition of GABAA receptors may account for the neuronal hyperexcitability caused by TRPV4 activation.

  19. Chemical stimulation of rat retinal neurons: feasibility of an epiretinal neurotransmitter-based prosthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inayat, Samsoon; Rountree, Corey M.; Troy, John B.; Saggere, Laxman

    2015-02-01

    Objective. No cure currently exists for photoreceptor degenerative diseases, which cause partial or total blindness in millions of people worldwide. Electrical retinal prostheses have been developed by several groups with the goal of restoring vision lost to these diseases, but electrical stimulation has limitations. It excites both somas and axons, activating retinal pathways nonphysiologically, and limits spatial resolution because of current spread. Chemical stimulation of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) using the neurotransmitter glutamate has been suggested as an alternative to electrical stimulation with some significant advantages. However, sufficient scientific data to support developing a chemical-based retinal prosthesis is lacking. The goal of this study was to investigate the feasibility of a neurotransmitter-based retinal prosthesis and determine therapeutic stimulation parameters. Approach. We injected controlled amounts of glutamate into rat retinas from the epiretinal side ex vivo via micropipettes using a pressure injection system and recorded RGC responses with a multielectrode array. Responsive units were identified using a spike rate threshold of 3 Hz. Main results. We recorded both somal and axonal units and demonstrated successful glutamatergic stimulation across different RGC subtypes. Analyses show that exogenous glutamate acts on RGC synapses similar to endogenous glutamate and, unlike electrical prostheses, stimulates only RGC somata. The spatial spread of glutamate stimulation was ˜ 290 μm from the injection site, comparable to current electrical prostheses. Further, the glutamate injections produced spatially differential responses in OFF, ON, and ON-OFF RGC subtypes, suggesting that differential stimulation of the OFF and ON systems may be possible. A temporal resolution of 3.2 Hz was obtained, which is a rate suitable for spatial vision. Significance. We provide strong support for the feasibility of an epiretinal neurotransmitter

  20. Sympathetic Neurotransmitters Modulate Osteoclastogenesis and Osteoclast Activity in the Context of Collagen-Induced Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Muschter, Dominique; Schäfer, Nicole; Stangl, Hubert; Straub, Rainer H.; Grässel, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    Excessive synovial osteoclastogenesis is a hallmark of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Concomitantly, local synovial changes comprise neuronal components of the peripheral sympathetic nervous system. Here, we wanted to analyze if collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) alters bone marrow-derived macrophage (BMM) osteoclastogenesis and osteoclast activity, and how sympathetic neurotransmitters participate in this process. Therefore, BMMs from Dark Agouti rats at different CIA stages were differentiated into osteoclasts in vitro and osteoclast number, cathepsin K activity, matrix resorption and apoptosis were analyzed in the presence of acetylcholine (ACh), noradrenaline (NA) vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and assay-dependent, adenylyl cyclase activator NKH477. We observed modulation of neurotransmitter receptor mRNA expression in CIA osteoclasts without affecting protein level. CIA stage-dependently altered marker gene expression associated with osteoclast differentiation and activity without affecting osteoclast number or activity. Neurotransmitter stimulation modulated osteoclast differentiation, apoptosis and activity. VIP, NA and adenylyl cyclase activator NKH477 inhibited cathepsin K activity and osteoclastogenesis (NKH477, 10-6M NA) whereas ACh mostly acted pro-osteoclastogenic. We conclude that CIA alone does not affect metabolism of in vitro generated osteoclasts whereas stimulation with NA, VIP plus specific activation of adenylyl cyclase induced anti-resorptive effects probably mediated via cAMP signaling. Contrary, we suggest pro-osteoclastogenic and pro-resorptive properties of ACh mediated via muscarinic receptors. PMID:26431344

  1. Electrochemical nanoprobes for the chemical detection of neurotransmitters

    PubMed Central

    Colombo, Michelle L.

    2015-01-01

    Neurotransmitters, acting as chemical messengers, play an important role in neurotransmission, which governs many functional aspects of nervous system activity. Electrochemical probes have proven a very useful technique to study neurotransmission, especially to quantify and qualify neurotransmitters. With the emerging interests in probing neurotransmission at the level of single cells, single vesicles, as well as single synapses, probes that enable detection of neurotransmitters at the nanometer scale become vitally important. Electrochemical nanoprobes have been successfully employed in nanometer spatial resolution imaging of single nanopores of Si membrane and single Au nanoparticles, providing both topographical and chemical information, thus holding great promise for nanometer spatial study of neurotransmission. Here we present the current state of electrochemical nanoprobes for chemical detection of neurotransmitters, focusing on two types of nanoelectrodes, i.e. carbon nanoelectrode and nano-ITIES pipet electrode. PMID:26327927

  2. Diffusion cannot govern the discharge of neurotransmitter in fast synapses.

    PubMed Central

    Khanin, R; Parnas, H; Segel, L

    1994-01-01

    In the present work we show that diffusion cannot provide the observed fast discharge of neurotransmitter from a synaptic vesicle during neurotransmitter release, mainly because it is not sufficiently rapid nor is it sufficiently temperature-dependent. Modeling the discharge from the vesicle into the cleft as a continuous point source, we have determined that discharge should occur in 50-75 microseconds, to provide the observed high concentrations of transmitter at the critical zone. Images FIGURE 5 PMID:7811953

  3. A Phenomenological Synapse Model for Asynchronous Neurotransmitter Release

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tao; Yin, Luping; Zou, Xiaolong; Shu, Yousheng; Rasch, Malte J.; Wu, Si

    2016-01-01

    Neurons communicate with each other via synapses. Action potentials cause release of neurotransmitters at the axon terminal. Typically, this neurotransmitter release is tightly time-locked to the arrival of an action potential and is thus called synchronous release. However, neurotransmitter release is stochastic and the rate of release of small quanta of neurotransmitters can be considerably elevated even long after the ceasing of spiking activity, leading to asynchronous release of neurotransmitters. Such asynchronous release varies for tissue and neuron types and has been shown recently to be pronounced in fast-spiking neurons. Notably, it was found that asynchronous release is enhanced in human epileptic tissue implicating a possibly important role in generating abnormal neural activity. Current neural network models for simulating and studying neural activity virtually only consider synchronous release and ignore asynchronous transmitter release. Here, we develop a phenomenological model for asynchronous neurotransmitter release, which, on one hand, captures the fundamental features of the asynchronous release process, and, on the other hand, is simple enough to be incorporated in large-size network simulations. Our proposed model is based on the well-known equations for short-term dynamical synaptic interactions and includes an additional stochastic term for modeling asynchronous release. We use experimental data obtained from inhibitory fast-spiking synapses of human epileptic tissue to fit the model parameters, and demonstrate that our model reproduces the characteristics of realistic asynchronous transmitter release. PMID:26834617

  4. Radiotracers for PET and SPECT studies of neurotransmitter systems

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, J.S.

    1991-01-01

    The study of neurotransmitter systems is one of the major thrusts in emission tomography today. The current generation of Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) radiotracers examines neurotransmitter properties from a number of different perspectives including their pre and post synaptic sites and the activity of the enzymes which regulate their concentration. Although the dopamine system has been the most extensively investigated, other neurotransmitter systems including the acetylcholine muscarine, serotonin, benzodiazepine, opiate, NMDA and others are also under intensive development. Enzymes involved in the synthesis and regulation of neurotransmitter concentration, for example monoamine oxidase and amino acid decarboxylase has also been probed in vivo. Medical applications range from the study of normal function and the characterization of neurotransmitter activity in neurological and psychiatric diseases and in heart disease and cancer to the study of the binding of therapeutic drugs and substances of abuse. This chapter will provide an overview of the current generation of radiotracers for PET and SPECT studies of neurotransmitter systems including radiotracer design, synthesis localization mechanisms and applications in emission tomography. 60 refs., 1 tab.

  5. Endogenous cholecystokinin regulates growth of human cholangiocarcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Evers, B M; Gomez, G; Townsend, C M; Rajaraman, S; Thompson, J C

    1989-01-01

    Exogenous administration of cholecystokinin (CCK) or caerulein inhibits growth of SLU-132, a human cholangiocarcinoma that we have shown to possess receptors for CCK. Chronic administration of cholestyramine, a resin that binds bile salts, increases release of CCK and growth of the pancreas in guinea pigs. Feeding the bile salt, taurocholate, inhibits meal-stimulated release of CCK. The purpose of this study was to determine whether endogenous CCK affects growth of the human cholangiocarcinoma, SLU-132. We implanted SLU-132 subcutaneously into athymic nude mice. The bile salt pool was depleted by feeding 4% cholestyramine for 40 days, either alone or enriched with 0.5% taurocholate for 32 days. When the mice were killed, tumors and pancreas were removed. Cholestyramine significantly inhibited the growth of SLU-132 and stimulated growth of the normal pancreas. Feeding of taurocholate acted to stimulate tumor growth. These results demonstrate that endogenous levels of CCK regulate growth of this human cholangiocarcinoma. Our findings suggest that manipulation of levels of endogenous gut hormones may, in the future, play a role in management of patients with certain gastrointestinal cancers. Images Fig. 1. PMID:2476084

  6. Stimulating endogenous cardiac repair

    PubMed Central

    Finan, Amanda; Richard, Sylvain

    2015-01-01

    The healthy adult heart has a low turnover of cardiac myocytes. The renewal capacity, however, is augmented after cardiac injury. Participants in cardiac regeneration include cardiac myocytes themselves, cardiac progenitor cells, and peripheral stem cells, particularly from the bone marrow compartment. Cardiac progenitor cells and bone marrow stem cells are augmented after cardiac injury, migrate to the myocardium, and support regeneration. Depletion studies of these populations have demonstrated their necessary role in cardiac repair. However, the potential of these cells to completely regenerate the heart is limited. Efforts are now being focused on ways to augment these natural pathways to improve cardiac healing, primarily after ischemic injury but in other cardiac pathologies as well. Cell and gene therapy or pharmacological interventions are proposed mechanisms. Cell therapy has demonstrated modest results and has passed into clinical trials. However, the beneficial effects of cell therapy have primarily been their ability to produce paracrine effects on the cardiac tissue and recruit endogenous stem cell populations as opposed to direct cardiac regeneration. Gene therapy efforts have focused on prolonging or reactivating natural signaling pathways. Positive results have been demonstrated to activate the endogenous stem cell populations and are currently being tested in clinical trials. A potential new avenue may be to refine pharmacological treatments that are currently in place in the clinic. Evidence is mounting that drugs such as statins or beta blockers may alter endogenous stem cell activity. Understanding the effects of these drugs on stem cell repair while keeping in mind their primary function may strike a balance in myocardial healing. To maximize endogenous cardiac regeneration, a combination of these approaches could ameliorate the overall repair process to incorporate the participation of multiple cellular players. PMID:26484341

  7. Expression of Neurotransmitter Transporters for Structural and Biochemical Studies

    PubMed Central

    Elbaz, Yael; Danieli, Tsafi; Kanner, Baruch I.; Schuldiner, Shimon

    2010-01-01

    Neurotransmitter transporters play essential roles in the process of neurotransmission. Vesicular neurotransmitter transporters mediate storage inside secretory vesicles in a process that involves the exchange of lumenal H+ for cytoplasmic transmitter. Retrieval of the neurotransmitter from the synaptic cleft catalyzed by sodium-coupled transporters is critical for the termination of the synaptic actions of the released neurotransmitter. Our current understanding of the mechanism of these transporters is based on functional and biochemical characterization but is lacking high-resolution structural information. Very few structures of membrane transport systems from mammalian origin have been solved to atomic resolution, mainly because of the difficulty in obtaining large amounts of purified protein. Development of high yield heterologous expression systems suitable for mammalian neurotransmitter transporters is essential to enable the production of purified protein for structural studies. Such a system makes possible also the production of mutants that can be used in biochemical and biophysical studies. We describe here a screen for the expression of the vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) in cell-free and baculovirus expression systems and discuss the expression of VMAT2 in other systems as well (bacterial, yeast and mammalian cell lines). After screening and optimization, we achieved high yield (2–2.5 mg/liter) expression of functional VMAT2 in insect cells. The system was also used for the expression of three additional plasma membrane neurotransmitter transporters. All were functional and expressed to high levels. Our results demonstrate the advantages of the baculovirus expression system for the expression of mammalian neurotransmitter transporters in a functional state. PMID:20566324

  8. [Analysis of synaptic neurotransmitter release mechanisms using bacterial toxins].

    PubMed

    Doussau, F; Humeau, Y; Vitiello, F; Popoff, M R; Poulain, B

    1999-01-01

    Several bacterial toxins are powerful and highly specific tools for studying basic mechanisms involved in cell biology. Whereas the clostridial neurotoxins are widely used by neurobiologists, many other toxins (i.e. toxins acting on small G-proteins or actin) are still overlooked. Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT, serotypes A-G) and tetanus neurotoxin (TeNT), known under the generic term of clostridial neurotoxins, are characterized by their unique ability to selectively block neurotransmitter release. These proteins are formed of a light (Mr approximately 50) and a heavy (Mr approximately 100) chain which are disulfide linked. The cellular action of BoNT and TeNT involves several steps: heavy chain-mediated binding to the nerve ending membrane, endocytosis, and translocation of the light chain (their catalytic moiety) into the cytosol. The light chains each cleaves one of three, highly conserved, proteins (VAMP/synaptobrevin, syntaxin, and SNAP-25 also termed SNAREs) implicated in fusion of synaptic vesicles with plasma membrane at the release site. Hence, when these neurotoxins are applied extracellularly, they can be used as specific tools to inhibit evoked and spontaneous transmitter release from certain neurones whereas, when the membrane limiting steps are bypassed by the mean of intracellular applications, BoNTs orTeNT can be used to affect regulated secretion in various cell types. Several members of the Rho GTPase family have been involved in intracellular trafficking of synaptic vesicles and secretory organelles. As they are natural targets for several bacterial exoenzymes or cytotoxins, their role in neurotransmitter release can be probed by examining the action of these toxins on neurotransmission. Such toxins include: i) the non permeant C3 exoenzymes from C. botulinum or C. limosum which ADP-ribosylate and thereby inactivate Rho, ii) exoenzyme S from Pseudomonas aeruginosa which ADP-ribosylates different members of the Ras, Rab, Ral and Rap families, iii

  9. Inhibition of endogenous heat shock protein 70 attenuates inducible nitric oxide synthase induction via disruption of heat shock protein 70/Na(+) /H(+) exchanger 1-Ca(2+) -calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II/transforming growth factor β-activated kinase 1-nuclear factor-κB signals in BV-2 microglia.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chao; Lu, Xu; Wang, Jia; Tong, Lijuan; Jiang, Bo; Zhang, Wei

    2015-08-01

    Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) critically contributes to inflammation and host defense. The inhibition of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) prevents iNOS induction in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages. However, the role and mechanism of endogenous Hsp70 in iNOS induction in microglia remains unclear. This study addresses this issue in BV-2 microglia, showing that Hsp70 inhibition or knockdown prevents LPS-induced iNOS protein expression and nitric oxide production. Real-time PCR experiments showed that LPS-induced iNOS mRNA transcription was blocked by Hsp70 inhibition. Further studies revealed that the inhibition of Hsp70 attenuated LPS-stimulated nuclear translocation and phosphorylation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB as well as the degradation of inhibitor of κB (IκB)-α and phosphorylation of IκB kinase β (IKKβ). This prevention effect of Hsp70 inhibition on IKKβ-NF-κB activation was found to be dependent on the Ca(2+) /calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII)/transforming growth factor β-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) signals based on the following observations: 1) chelation of intracellular Ca(2+) or inhibition of CaMKII reduced LPS-induced increases in TAK1 phosphorylation and 2) Hsp70 inhibition reduced LPS-induced increases in CaMKII/TAK1 phosphorylation, intracellular pH value, [Ca(2+) ]i , and CaMKII/TAK1 association. Mechanistic studies showed that Hsp70 inhibition disrupted the association between Hsp70 and Na(+) /H(+) exchanger 1 (NHE1), which is an important exchanger responsible for Ca(2+) influx in LPS-stimulated cells. These studies demonstrate that the inhibition of endogenous Hsp70 attenuates the induction of iNOS, which likely occurs through the disruption of NHE1/Hsp70-Ca(2+) -CaMKII/TAK1-NF-κB signals in BV-2 microglia, providing further insight into the functions of Hsp70 in the CNS. PMID:25691123

  10. The mechanisms and functions of spontaneous neurotransmitter release.

    PubMed

    Kavalali, Ege T

    2015-01-01

    Fast synaptic communication in the brain requires synchronous vesicle fusion that is evoked by action potential-induced Ca(2+) influx. However, synaptic terminals also release neurotransmitters by spontaneous vesicle fusion, which is independent of presynaptic action potentials. A functional role for spontaneous neurotransmitter release events in the regulation of synaptic plasticity and homeostasis, as well as the regulation of certain behaviours, has been reported. In addition, there is evidence that the presynaptic mechanisms underlying spontaneous release of neurotransmitters and their postsynaptic targets are segregated from those of evoked neurotransmission. These findings challenge current assumptions about neuronal signalling and neurotransmission, as they indicate that spontaneous neurotransmission has an autonomous role in interneuronal communication that is distinct from that of evoked release. PMID:25524119

  11. Leukemia Inhibitory Factor Induces Neurotransmitter Switching in Transgenic Mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bamber, Bruce A.; Masters, Brian A.; Hoyle, Gary W.; Brinster, Ralph L.; Palmiter, Richard D.

    1994-08-01

    Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) is a cytokine growth factor that induces rat sympathetic neurons to switch their neurotransmitter phenotype from noradrenergic to cholinergic in vitro. To test whether LIF can influence neuronal differentiation in vivo, we generated transgenic mice that expressed LIF in pancreatic islets under the control of the insulin promoter and evaluated the neurotransmitter phenotype of the pancreatic sympathetic innervation. We also used the insulin promoter to coexpress nerve growth factor in the islets, which greatly increased the density of sympathetic innervation and facilitated analysis of the effects of LIF. Our data demonstrate that tyrosine hydroxylase and catecholamines declined and choline acetyltransferase increased in response to LIF. We conclude that LIF can induce neurotransmitter switching of sympathetic neurons in vivo.

  12. Time-coded neurotransmitter release at excitatory and inhibitory synapses.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Serafim; Desroches, Mathieu; Krupa, Martin; Cortes, Jesus M; Sejnowski, Terrence J; Ali, Afia B

    2016-02-23

    Communication between neurons at chemical synapses is regulated by hundreds of different proteins that control the release of neurotransmitter that is packaged in vesicles, transported to an active zone, and released when an input spike occurs. Neurotransmitter can also be released asynchronously, that is, after a delay following the spike, or spontaneously in the absence of a stimulus. The mechanisms underlying asynchronous and spontaneous neurotransmitter release remain elusive. Here, we describe a model of the exocytotic cycle of vesicles at excitatory and inhibitory synapses that accounts for all modes of vesicle release as well as short-term synaptic plasticity (STSP). For asynchronous release, the model predicts a delayed inertial protein unbinding associated with the SNARE complex assembly immediately after vesicle priming. Experiments are proposed to test the model's molecular predictions for differential exocytosis. The simplicity of the model will also facilitate large-scale simulations of neural circuits. PMID:26858411

  13. Distinct domains of Complexin I differentially regulate neurotransmitter release

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Mingshan; Reim, Kerstin; Chen, Xiaocheng; Chao, Hsiao-Tuan; Deng, Hui; Rizo, Josep; Brose, Nils; Rosenmund, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Complexins constitute a family of four synaptic high-affinity SNARE complex binding proteins. They positively regulate a late, post-priming step in Ca2+-triggered synchronous neurotransmitter release, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are unclear. We show here that SNARE complex binding of Complexin I via its central α-helix is necessary but unexpectedly not sufficient for its key function in promoting neurotransmitter release. An accessory α-helix N-terminal of the SNARE complex binding region plays an inhibitory role in fast synaptic exocytosis, while its N-terminally adjacent sequences facilitate Ca2+-triggered release even in the absence of the Ca2+ sensor Synaptotagmin 1. Our results indicate that distinct functional domains of Complexins differentially regulate synaptic exocytosis, and that via the interplay between these domains Complexins play a crucial role in fine-tuning Ca2+-triggered fast neurotransmitter release. PMID:17828276

  14. Infrared photodissociation spectroscopy of protonated neurotransmitters in the gas phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacLeod, N. A.; Simons, J. P.

    2007-03-01

    Protonated neurotransmitters have been produced in the gas phase via a novel photochemical scheme: complexes of the species of interest, 1-phenylethylamine, 2-amino-1-phenylethanol and the diastereo-isomers, ephedrine and pseudoephedrine, with a suitable proton donor, phenol (or indole), are produced in a supersonic expansion and ionized by resonant two photon ionization of the donor. Efficient proton transfer generates the protonated neurotransmitters, complexed to a phenoxy radical. Absorption of infrared radiation, and subsequent evaporation of the phenoxy tag, coupled with time of flight mass spectrometry, provides vibrational spectra of the protonated (and also hydrated) complexes for comparison with the results of quantum chemical computation. Comparison with the conformational structures of the neutral neurotransmitters (established previously) reveals the effect of protonation on their structure. The photochemical proton transfer strategy allows spectra to be recorded from individual laser shots and their quality compares favourably with that obtained using electro-spray or matrix assisted laser desorption ion sources.

  15. Time-coded neurotransmitter release at excitatory and inhibitory synapses

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Serafim; Desroches, Mathieu; Krupa, Martin; Cortes, Jesus M.; Sejnowski, Terrence J.; Ali, Afia B.

    2016-01-01

    Communication between neurons at chemical synapses is regulated by hundreds of different proteins that control the release of neurotransmitter that is packaged in vesicles, transported to an active zone, and released when an input spike occurs. Neurotransmitter can also be released asynchronously, that is, after a delay following the spike, or spontaneously in the absence of a stimulus. The mechanisms underlying asynchronous and spontaneous neurotransmitter release remain elusive. Here, we describe a model of the exocytotic cycle of vesicles at excitatory and inhibitory synapses that accounts for all modes of vesicle release as well as short-term synaptic plasticity (STSP). For asynchronous release, the model predicts a delayed inertial protein unbinding associated with the SNARE complex assembly immediately after vesicle priming. Experiments are proposed to test the model’s molecular predictions for differential exocytosis. The simplicity of the model will also facilitate large-scale simulations of neural circuits. PMID:26858411

  16. THE PURINERGIC NEUROTRANSMITTER REVISITED: A SINGLE SUBSTANCE OR MULTIPLE PLAYERS?

    PubMed Central

    Mutafova-Yambolieva, Violeta N.; Durnin, Leonie

    2014-01-01

    The past half century has witnessed tremendous advances in our understanding of extracellular purinergic signaling pathways. Purinergic neurotransmission, in particular, has emerged as a key contributor in the efficient control mechanisms in the nervous system. The identity of the purine neurotransmitter, however, remains controversial. Identifying it is difficult because purines are present in all cell types, have a large variety of cell sources, and are released via numerous pathways. Moreover, studies on purinergic neurotransmission have relied heavily on indirect measurements of integrated postjunctional responses that do not provide direct information for neurotransmitter identity. This paper discusses experimental support for adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP) as a neurotransmitter and recent evidence for possible contribution of other purines, in addition to or instead of ATP, in chemical neurotransmission in the peripheral, enteric and central nervous systems. Sites of release and action of purines in model systems such as vas deferens, blood vessels, urinary bladder and chromaffin cells are discussed. This is preceded by a brief discussion of studies demonstrating storage of purines in synaptic vesicles. We examine recent evidence for cell type targets (e.g., smooth muscle cells, interstitial cells, neurons and glia) for purine neurotransmitters in different systems. This is followed by brief discussion of mechanisms of terminating the action of purine neurotransmitters, including extracellular nucleotide hydrolysis and possible salvage and reuptake in the cell. The significance of direct neurotransmitter release measurements is highlighted. Possibilities for involvement of multiple purines (e.g., ATP, ADP, NAD+, ADP-ribose, adenosine, and diadenosine polyphosphates) in neurotransmission are considered throughout. PMID:24887688

  17. The neurotransmitter N-acetylaspartylglutamate in models of pain, ALS, diabetic neuropathy, CNS injury and schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Neale, Joseph H; Olszewski, Rafal T; Gehl, Laura M; Wroblewska, Barbara; Bzdega, Tomasz

    2005-09-01

    N-Acetylaspartylglutamate (NAAG) is the most abundant and widely distributed peptide transmitter in the mammalian nervous system. NAAG activates the metabotropic glutamate mGlu(3) receptor at presynaptic sites, inhibiting the release of neurotransmitters, including glutamate, and activates mGlu(3) receptors on glial cells, stimulating the release of neuroprotective growth factors from these cells. Elevated levels of glutamate released from neurons are associated with the pathology of stroke, traumatic nervous system injury, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, inflammatory and neuropathic pain, diabetic neuropathy and the schizophrenia-like symptoms elicited by phencyclidine. NAAG is inactivated by specific peptidases following its synaptic release. Novel compounds that inhibit these enzymes prolong the activity of synaptically released NAAG and have significant therapeutic efficacy in animal models of these diverse clinical conditions. In this review, we summarize recent studies in these animal models and discuss the mechanisms by which NAAG peptidase inhibitors achieve these effects. PMID:16055199

  18. Nicotine induces self-renewal of pancreatic cancer stem cells via neurotransmitter-driven activation of sonic hedgehog signalling.

    PubMed

    Al-Wadei, Mohammed H; Banerjee, Jheelam; Al-Wadei, Hussein A N; Schuller, Hildegard M

    2016-01-01

    A small subpopulation of pancreatic cancer cells with characteristics of stem cells drive tumour initiation, progression and metastasis. A better understanding of the regulation of cancer stem cells may lead to more effective cancer prevention and therapy. We have shown that the proliferation and migration of pancreatic cancer cell lines is activated by the nicotinic receptor-mediated release of stress neurotransmitters, responses reversed by γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). However, the observed cancer inhibiting effects of GABA will only succeed clinically if GABA inhibits pancreatic cancer stem cells (PCSCs) in addition to the more differentiated cancer cells that comprise the majority of cancer tissues and cell lines. Using PCSCs isolated from two pancreatic cancer patients by cell sorting and by spheroid formation assay from pancreatic cancer cell line Panc-1, we tested the hypothesis that nicotine induces the self-renewal of PCSCs. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) α3, α4, α5 and α7 were expressed and chronic exposure to nicotine increased the protein expression of these receptors. Immunoassays showed that PCSCs produced the stress neurotransmitters epinephrine and norepinephrine and the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA. Chronic nicotine significantly increased the production of stress neurotransmitters and sonic hedgehog (SHH) while inducing Gli1 protein and decreasing GABA. GABA treatment inhibited the induction of SHH and Gli1. Spheroid formation and 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazoliumbromide assays showed significant nicotine-induced increases in self renewal and cell proliferation, responses blocked by GABA. Our data suggest that nicotine increases the SHH-mediated malignant potential of PCSCs and that GABA prevents these effects. PMID:26689865

  19. Neurotransmitter Co-release: Mechanism and Physiological Role

    PubMed Central

    Hnasko, Thomas S.; Edwards, Robert H.

    2014-01-01

    Neurotransmitter identity is a defining feature of all neurons because it constrains the type of information they convey, but it has become clear that many neurons in fact release multiple transmitters. Although the physiological role for co-release has remained poorly understood, the vesicular uptake of one transmitter can regulate filling with the other by influencing expression of the H+ electrochemical driving force. In addition, the sorting of vesicular neurotransmitter transporters and other synaptic vesicle proteins into different vesicle pools suggests the potential for distinct modes of release. Co-release thus serves multiple roles in synaptic transmission. PMID:22054239

  20. Benzodiazepine receptor and neurotransmitter studies in the brain of suicides

    SciTech Connect

    Manchon, M.; Kopp, N.; Rouzioux, J.J.; Lecestre, D.; Deluermoz, S.; Miachon, S.

    1987-12-14

    The characteristics of benzodiazepine binding sites were studied on frozen sections of hippocampus of 7 suicides and 5 controls subjects, using biochemical and autoradiographic techniques. /sup 3/H flunitrazepam was used as ligand, clonazepam and CL 218,872 as displacing agents. Some neurotransmitters or their derivatives were evaluated quantitatively in parallel in the hippocampal tissue by liquid chromatography. The authors observed mainly an increase in the Ki of CL 218,872 subtype I binding sites in suicides, and an increase in % of type I binding sites. Among neurotransmitters, only norepinephrine differed significantly between controls and suicides. 36 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  1. Mammalian Endogenous Retroviruses.

    PubMed

    Mager, Dixie L; Stoye, Jonathan P

    2015-02-01

    Over 40% of mammalian genomes comprise the products of reverse transcription. Among such retrotransposed sequences are those characterized by the presence of long terminal repeats (LTRs), including the endogenous retroviruses (ERVs), which are inherited genetic elements closely resembling the proviruses formed following exogenous retrovirus infection. Sequences derived from ERVs make up at least 8 to 10% of the human and mouse genomes and range from ancient sequences that predate mammalian divergence to elements that are currently still active. In this chapter we describe the discovery, classification and origins of ERVs in mammals and consider cellular mechanisms that have evolved to control their expression. We also discuss the negative effects of ERVs as agents of genetic disease and cancer and review examples of ERV protein domestication to serve host functions, as in placental development. Finally, we address growing evidence that the gene regulatory potential of ERV LTRs has been exploited multiple times during evolution to regulate genes and gene networks. Thus, although recently endogenized retroviral elements are often pathogenic, those that survive the forces of negative selection become neutral components of the host genome or can be harnessed to serve beneficial roles. PMID:26104559

  2. Evidence for a neurotransmitter function of acetylcholine in rabbit superior colliculus.

    PubMed

    Wichmann, T; Illing, R B; Starke, K

    1987-12-01

    Acetylcholinesterase staining and studies on the uptake of [3H]choline into the subsequent efflux of tritium from collicular slices were carried out in order to provide evidence for a neurotransmitter function of acetylcholine in rabbit superior colliculus. Acetylcholinesterase staining was dense and homogeneous in superficial layers whereas the staining was arranged in patches with slightly higher density caudally than rostrally in the intermediate layers. The accumulation of tritium in slices incubated with [3H]choline depended on time, temperature and concentration, and was inhibited by hemicholinium-3. Accumulation was slightly higher in caudal than in rostral slices. Electrical stimulation enhanced tritium outflow from slices preincubated with [3H]choline. Tetrodotoxin and a low calcium medium inhibited the evoked overflow whereas hemicholinium-3 caused an enhancement. Oxotremorine decreased the evoked overflow; atropine prevented this effect. The opioids [D-Ala2, MePhe4, Glycol5]enkephalin, [D-Ala2, D-Leu5]enkephalin and ethylketocyclazocine caused an inhibition. The effects of the latter two agonists were antagonized by naloxone. The GABAB-receptor-agonist (-)-baclofen decreased the evoked overflow at lower concentrations than GABA, whereas the GABAA-receptor-agonist muscimol was ineffective. Serotonin produced an inhibition which was prevented by metitepin, alpha- and beta-adrenoceptor as well as dopamine-receptor ligands caused no change. It is concluded that in the rabbit superior colliculus the pattern of acetylcholinesterase staining is comparable, but not identical to the distribution in other species. The accumulation of [3H]choline, as well as the tetrodotoxin-sensitive and calcium-dependent overflow of tritium upon electrical stimulation (reflecting presumably release of [3H]acetylcholine) indicate that acetylcholine has a neurotransmitter function in this tissue. The release of [3H]acetylcholine was modulated by various transmitter substances and

  3. Enhanced stimulus-induced neurotransmitter overflow in epinephrine-induced hypertensive rats is not mediated by prejunctional beta-adrenoceptor activation.

    PubMed

    Eikenburg, D C; Schwartz, D D

    1986-12-01

    The present study examines the effect of 6-day epinephrine treatment (100 micrograms/kg per h, s.c.) on stimulus-induced (1 Hz) endogenous neurotransmitter overflow from the isolated perfused kidney of vehicle- and epinephrine-treated rats. Renal catecholamine stores and stimulus-induced overflow in the vehicle-treated group consisted of norepinephrine only. However, epinephrine treatment resulted in the incorporation of epinephrine into renal catecholamine stores such that approximately 40% of the catecholamine present was epinephrine while the norepinephrine content was reduced by a similar degree. Total tissue catecholamine content of the kidney on a molar basis was unchanged. Stimulus-induced fractional overflow of neurotransmitter from the epinephrine-treated kidneys was approximately twice normal and consisted of both norepinephrine and epinephrine in proportions similar to those found in the kidney. This difference in fractional overflow between groups was not affected by neuronal and extraneuronal uptake blockade. Propranolol had no effect on stimulus-induced overflow in either group. Phentolamine increased stimulus-induced overflow in both groups although the increment in overflow was greater in the epinephrine-treated group. In conclusion, chronic epinephrine treatment results in enhanced fractional neurotransmitter overflow. However, neither alterations in prejunctional beta-adrenoceptor influences nor alterations in neuronal and extraneuronal uptake mechanisms appear to be responsible for this alteration. Furthermore, data obtained with phentolamine alone do not suggest alpha-adrenoceptor desensitization as the cause of the enhanced neurotransmitter overflow after epinephrine treatment. PMID:2886572

  4. Quantitative profiling of neurotransmitter abnormalities in the hippocampus of rats treated with lipopolysaccharide: Focusing on kynurenine pathway and implications for depression.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yujin; Cai, Hualin; Chen, Lei; Liang, Donglou; Yang, Ranyao; Dang, Ruili; Jiang, Pei

    2016-06-15

    Peripheral administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) can induce the rodents to a depression-like state accompanied with remarkable changes of neurotransmitter systems. In this study, the effect of an intraperitoneal LPS injection (3mg/kg) on the concentrations of neurotransmitters was investigated by in vivo microdialysis in rat hippocampus. To further explore dysregulation pattern of the neurotransmitters following continuous inflammatory process, we then analyzed the neurotransmitters in the hippocampus of rats after 2-week LPS exposure (500μg/kg every other day). Acute treatment of LPS quickly enhanced glutamate release and increased the extracellular levels of dopamine, serotonin and their metabolites. Elevated glutamate status was also found in the chronic inflamed hippocampus, whereas dopamine and serotonin was decreased following prolonged LPS exposure. Interestingly, both acute and chronic treatment of LPS significantly elevated hippocampal kynurenine concentrations and altered the balance between the serotonin and kynurenine branches of tryptophan metabolism-increasing kynurenine/tryptophan ratio, but decreasing serotonin/tryptophan ratio. Additionally, kynurenic acid, the endogenous NMDA receptor antagonist, and the ratio of kynurenic acid/kynurenine were significantly decreased by acute treatment of LPS, which may further strengthen NMDA receptor activation. Since that NMDA activation can exacerbate inflammatory and neurodegenerative process, the enhanced glutamate release and dysregulated kynurenine pathway might constitute a vicious cycle playing a pivotal role in the neuropsychiatric disorders associated with inflammation, such as depression. PMID:27235347

  5. Correlation of 3-Mercaptopropionic Acid Induced Seizures and Changes in Striatal Neurotransmitters Monitored by Microdialysis

    PubMed Central

    Crick, Eric W.; Osorio, Ivan; Frei, Mark; Mayer, Andrew P.; Lunte, Craig E.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The goal of this study was to use a status epilepticus steady-state chemical model in rats using the convulsant, 3-mercaptopropionic acid (3-MPA), and to compare the changes in striatal neurotransmission on a slow (5 minute) and fast (60 second) timescale. In vivo microdialysis was combined with electrophysiological methods in order to provide a complete evaluation of the dynamics of the results obtained. Objective To compare the effects of a steady-state chemical model pof status epilepticus on striatal amino-acid and amine neurotransmitters contents, as measured via in vivo microdialysis combined with electrophysiological methods. Measurements were performed on samples collected every 60 seconds and every 5 minutes. “Fast” (60s) and “slow” (5 min.) sampling timescales were selected, to gain more insight into the dynamics of GABA synthesis inhibition and of its effects on other neurotransmitters and on cortical electrical activity. Methods 3-MPA was administered in the form of an intra-venous load(60 mg/kg) followed by a constant infusion (50 mg/kg/min) for min. Microdialysis samples were collected from the striatum at intervals of 5 minutes and 60 seconds and analyzed for biogenic amine and amino acid neurotransmitters. ECoG activity was monitored via screws placed over the cortex. Results In the 5 minute samples, glutamate (Glu) increased and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) decreased monotonically while changes in dopamine (DA) concentration were bimodal. In the sixty second samples, Glu changes were bimodal, a feature that was not apparent with the five minute samples. ECoG activity was indicative of status epilepticus. Conclusions This study describes the combination of in vivo microdialysis with electrophysiology to monitor the effect of 3-MPA on neurotransmission in the brain. This led to a better understanding of the chemical changes in the striatum due to the applied 3-MPA chemical model of status epilepticus. PMID:24462767

  6. High dose sapropterin dihydrochloride therapy improves monoamine neurotransmitter turnover in murine phenylketonuria (PKU).

    PubMed

    Winn, Shelley R; Scherer, Tanja; Thöny, Beat; Harding, Cary O

    2016-01-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) deficiencies of the monoamine neurotransmitters, dopamine and serotonin, have been implicated in the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric dysfunction in phenylketonuria (PKU). Increased brain phenylalanine concentration likely competitively inhibits the activities of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH), the rate limiting steps in dopamine and serotonin synthesis respectively. Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is a required cofactor for TH and TPH activity. Our hypothesis was that treatment of hyperphenylalaninemic Pah(enu2/enu2) mice, a model of human PKU, with sapropterin dihydrochloride, a synthetic form of BH4, would stimulate TH and TPH activities leading to improved dopamine and serotonin synthesis despite persistently elevated brain phenylalanine. Sapropterin (20, 40, or 100mg/kg body weight in 1% ascorbic acid) was administered daily for 4 days by oral gavage to Pah(enu2/enu2) mice followed by measurement of brain biopterin, phenylalanine, tyrosine, tryptophan and monoamine neurotransmitter content. A significant increase in brain biopterin content was detected only in mice that had received the highest sapropterin dose, 100mg/kg. Blood and brain phenylalanine concentrations were unchanged by sapropterin therapy. Sapropterin therapy also did not alter the absolute amounts of dopamine and serotonin in brain but was associated with increased homovanillic acid (HVA) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), dopamine and serotonin metabolites respectively, in both wild type and Pah(enu2/enu2) mice. Oral sapropterin therapy likely does not directly affect central nervous system monoamine synthesis in either wild type or hyperphenylalaninemic mice but may stimulate synaptic neurotransmitter release and subsequent metabolism. PMID:26653793

  7. Endogenous pulmonary antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, M A; Bowdish, D M; Davidson, D J; Sallenave, J M; Simpson, A J

    2006-05-01

    The human lung produces a variety of peptides and proteins which have intrinsic antimicrobial activity. In general these molecules have broad spectra of antimicrobial activity, kill micro-organisms rapidly, and evade resistance generated by pathogens. In recent years it has become increasingly apparent that the antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) simultaneously possess immunomodulatory functions, suggesting complex roles for these molecules in regulating the clearance of, and immune response to, invading pathogens. These collective properties have stimulated considerable interest in the potential clinical application of endogenous AMPs. This article outlines the biology of AMPs, their pattern of expression in the lung, and their functions, with reference to both antimicrobial and immunomodulatory activity. We then consider the biological importance of AMPs, before concentrating on the potential to use AMPs to therapeutic effect. The principles discussed in the article apply to innate immune defence throughout the body, but particular emphasis is placed on AMPs in the lung and the potential application to pulmonary infection. PMID:16722137

  8. The methylation, neurotransmitter, and antioxidant connections between folate and depression.

    PubMed

    Miller, Alan L

    2008-09-01

    Depression is common - one-fourth of the U.S. population will have a depressive episode sometime in life. Folate deficiency is also relatively common in depressed people, with approximately one-third of depressed individuals having an outright deficiency. Folate is a water-soluble B-vitamin necessary for the proper biosynthesis of the monoamine neurotransmitters serotonin, epinephrine, and dopamine. The active metabolite of folate, 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-MTHF, L-methylfolate), participates in re-methylation of the amino acid metabolite homocysteine, creating methionine. S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe), the downstream metabolite of methionine, is involved in numerous biochemical methyl donation reactions, including reactions forming monoamine neurotransmitters. Without the participation of 5-MTHF in this process, SAMe and neurotransmitter levels decrease in the cerebrospinal fluid, contributing to the disease process of depression. SAMe supplementation was shown to improve depressive symptoms. 5-MTHF also appears to stabilize, enhance production of, or possibly act as a substitute for, tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), an essential cofactor in monoamine neurotransmitter biosynthesis. There are few intervention studies of folic acid or 5-MTHF as a stand-alone treatment for depression related to folate deficiency; however, the studies that have been conducted are promising. Depressed individuals with low serum folate also tend to not respond well to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressant drugs. Correcting the insufficiency by dosing folate along with the SSRI results in a significantly better antidepressant response. PMID:18950248

  9. Inherited disorders of brain neurotransmitters: pathogenesis and diagnostic approach.

    PubMed

    Szymańska, Krystyna; Kuśmierska, Katarzyna; Demkow, Urszula

    2015-01-01

    Neurotransmitters (NTs) play a central role in the efficient communication between neurons necessary for normal functioning of the nervous system. NTs can be divided into two groups: small molecule NTs and larger neuropeptide NTs. Inherited disorders of NTs result from a primary disturbance of NTs metabolism or transport. This group of disorders requires sophisticated diagnostic procedures. In this review we discuss disturbances in the metabolism of tetrahydrobiopterin, biogenic amines, γ-aminobutyric acid, foliate, pyridoxine-dependent enzymes, and also the glycine-dependent encephalopathy. We point to pathologic alterations of proteins involved in synaptic neurotransmission that may cause neurological and psychiatric symptoms. We postulate that synaptic receptors and transporter proteins for neurotransmitters should be investigated in unresolved cases. Patients with inherited neurotransmitters disorders present various clinical presentations such as mental retardation, refractory seizures, pyramidal and extrapyramidal syndromes, impaired locomotor patterns, and progressive encephalopathy. Every patient with suspected inherited neurotransmitter disorder should undergo a structured interview and a careful examination including neurological, biochemical, and imaging. PMID:25310959

  10. Beneficial effects of lycopene against haloperidol induced orofacial dyskinesia in rats: Possible neurotransmitters and neuroinflammation modulation.

    PubMed

    Datta, Swati; Jamwal, Sumit; Deshmukh, Rahul; Kumar, Puneet

    2016-01-15

    Tardive Dyskinesia is a severe side effect of chronic neuroleptic treatment consisting of abnormal involuntary movements, characterized by orofacial dyskinesia. The study was designed to investigate the protective effect of lycopene against haloperidol induced orofacial dyskinesia possibly by neurochemical and neuroinflammatory modulation in rats. Rats were administered with haloperidol (1mg/kg, i.p for 21 days) to induce orofacial dyskinesia. Lycopene (5 and 10mg/kg, p.o) was given daily 1hour before haloperidol treatment for 21 days. Behavioral observations (vacuous chewing movements, tongue protrusions, facial jerking, rotarod activity, grip strength, narrow beam walking) were assessed on 0th, 7th(,) 14th(,) 21st day after haloperidol treatment. On 22nd day, animals were killed and striatum was excised for estimation of biochemical parameters (malondialdehyde, nitrite and endogenous enzyme (GSH), pro-inflammatory cytokines [Tumor necrosis factor, Interleukin 1β, Interleukin 6] and neurotransmitters level (dopamine, serotonin, nor epinephrine, 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA), Homovanillic acid, 3,4- dihydroxyphenylacetic acid. Haloperidol treatment for 21 days impaired muscle co-ordination, motor activity and grip strength with an increased in orofacial dyskinetic movements. Further free radical generation increases MDA and nitrite levels, decreasing GSH levels in striatum. Neuroinflammatory markers were significantly increased with decrease in neurotransmitters levels. Lycopene (5 and 10mg/kg, p.o) treatment along with haloperidol significantly attenuated impairment in behavioral, biochemical, neurochemical and neuroinflammatory markers. Results of the present study attributed the therapeutic potential of lycopene in the treatment (prevented or delayed) of typical antipsychotic induced orofacial dyskinesia. PMID:26712377

  11. Effects of ethanol on neurotransmitter release and intracellular free calcium in PC12 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Rabe, C.S.; Weight, F.F.

    1988-02-01

    The effect of ethanol on muscarine-stimulated release of l-(/sup 3/H)norepinephrine ((/sup 3/H)NE) was studied using the rat pheochromocytoma cell line, PC12. At concentrations of 25 mM and above, ethanol produced a dose-dependent inhibition of muscarine-stimulated release of (/sup 3/H)NE. The inhibition of muscarine-stimulated transmitter release occurred in the absence of any detectable effect of ethanol on (/sup 3/H)NE uptake or on muscarinic binding to the cells. However, ethanol produced an inhibition of muscarine-stimulated elevation of intracellular free Ca++ which corresponded with the inhibition of transmitter release. At concentrations greater than 100 mM, ethanol produced an increase in the basal release of (/sup 3/H)NE. Intracellular free Ca++ also was increased by ethanol concentrations greater than 100 mM. The elevation of basal transmitter release and intracellular free Ca++ by concentrations of ethanol greater than 100 mM occurred independently of the inhibition by ethanol of muscarine-stimulated elevation of intracellular free Ca++ and transmitter secretion. These results suggest that the effects of ethanol on neurotransmitter release are associated with the effects of ethanol on intracellular free Ca++.

  12. Ethanol's effects on neurotransmitter release and intracellular free calcium in PC12 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Rabe, C.S.; Weight, F.F.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of ethanol on muscarine-stimulated release of (/sup 3/H)NE was studied using the rat pheochromocytoma cell line, PC12. At concentrations of 25 mM and above, ethanol produced a dose dependent inhibition of muscarine-stimulated release of (/sup 3/H)NE. The inhibition of muscarine-stimulated transmitter release occurred in the absence of any effect of ethanol on (/sup 3/H)NE uptake, metabolism or on muscarinic binding to the cells. However, ethanol produced an inhibition of muscarine-stimulated elevation of intracellular free Ca2+ which corresponded with the inhibition of transmitter release. At concentrations greater than 100 mM, ethanol produced both a stimulation of the release of (/sup 3/H)NE as well as an increase in intracellular free Ca2+. The increase in basal transmitter release and intracellular free Ca2+ occurred independent of the inhibition by ethanol of muscarine-stimulated elevation of intracellular free Ca2+ or transmitter section. These results demonstrate the relationship of the effects of ethanol on cellular free Ca2+ and neurotransmitter release.

  13. Peptides and neurotransmitters that affect renin secretion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ganong, W. F.; Porter, J. P.; Bahnson, T. D.; Said, S. I.

    1984-01-01

    Substance P inhibits renin secretion. This polypeptide is a transmitter in primary afferent neurons and is released from the peripheral as well as the central portions of these neurons. It is present in afferent nerves from the kidneys. Neuropeptide Y, which is a cotransmitter with norepinephrine and epinephrine, is found in sympathetic neurons that are closely associated with and presumably innervate the juxtagolmerular cells. Its effect on renin secretion is unknown, but it produces renal vasoconstriction and natriuresis. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) is a cotransmitter with acetylocholine in cholinergic neurons, and this polypeptide stimulates renin secretion. We cannot find any evidence for its occurence in neurons in the kidneys, but various stimuli increase plasma VIP to levels comparable to those produced by doses of exogenous VIP which stimulated renin secretion. Neostigmine increases plasma VIP and plasma renin activity, and the VIP appears to be responsible for the increase in renin secretion, since the increase is not blocked by renal denervation or propranolol. Stimulation of various areas in the brain produces sympathetically mediated increases in plasma renin activity associated with increases in blood pressure. However, there is pharmacological evidence that the renin response can be separated from the blood pressure response. In anaesthetized dogs, drugs that increase central serotonergic discharge increase renin secretion without increasing blood pressure. In rats, activation of sertonergic neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus increases renin secretion by a pathway that projects from this nucleus to the ventral hypothalamus, and from there to the kidneys via the sympathetic nervous system. The serotonin releasing drug parachloramphetamine also increases plasma VIP, but VIP does not appear to be the primary mediator of the renin response. There is preliminary evidence that the serotonergic neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus are part of the

  14. Construction of Cell-based Neurotransmitter Fluorescent Engineered Reporters (CNiFERs) for Optical Detection of Neurotransmitters In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Lacin, Emre; Muller, Arnaud; Fernando, Marian; Kleinfeld, David; Slesinger, Paul A

    2016-01-01

    Cell-based neurotransmitter fluorescent engineered reporters (CNiFERs) provide a new tool for neuroscientists to optically detect the release of neurotransmitters in the brain in vivo. A specific CNiFER is created from a human embryonic kidney cell that stably expresses a specific G protein-coupled receptor, which couples to Gq/11 G proteins, and a FRET-based Ca(2+)-detector, TN-XXL. Activation of the receptor leads to an increase in the FRET signal. CNiFERs have nM sensitivity and a temporal response of seconds because a CNiFER clone utilizes the native receptor for a particular neurotransmitter, e.g., D2R for dopamine. CNiFERs are directly implanted into the brain, enabling them to sense neurotransmitter release with a spatial resolution of less than one hundred µm, making them ideal to measure volume transmission in vivo. CNiFERs can also be used to screen other drugs for potential cross-reactivity in vivo. We recently expanded the family of CNiFERs to include GPCRs that couple to Gi/o G proteins. CNiFERs are available for detecting acetylcholine (ACh), dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE). Given that any GPCR can be used to create a novel CNiFER and that there are approximately 800 GPCRs in the human genome, we describe here the general procedure to design, realize, and test any type of CNiFER. PMID:27214050

  15. Biophysical Approaches to the Study of LeuT, a Prokaryotic Homolog of Neurotransmitter Sodium Symporters

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Satinder K.; Pal, Aritra

    2016-01-01

    Ion-coupled secondary transport is utilized by multiple integral membrane proteins as a means of achieving the thermodynamically unfavorable translocation of solute molecules across the lipid bilayer. The chemical nature of these molecules is diverse and includes sugars, amino acids, neurotransmitters, and other ions. LeuT is a sodium-coupled, nonpolar amino acid symporter and eubacterial member of the solute carrier 6 (SLC6) family of Na+/Cl−-dependent neurotransmitter transporters. Eukaryotic counterparts encompass the clinically and pharmacologically significant transporters for γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glycine, serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT), dopamine (DA), and norepinephrine (NE). Since the crystal structure of LeuT was first solved in 2005, subsequent crystallographic, binding, flux, and spectroscopic studies, complemented with homology modeling and molecular dynamic simulations, have allowed this protein to emerge as a remarkable mechanistic paradigm for both the SLC6 class as well as several other sequence-unrelated SLCs whose members possess astonishingly similar architectures. Despite yielding groundbreaking conceptual advances, this vast treasure trove of data has also been the source of contentious hypotheses. This chapter will present a historical scientific overview of SLC6s; recount how the initial and subsequent LeuT structures were solved, describing the insights they each provided; detail the accompanying functional techniques, emphasizing how they either supported or refuted the static crystallographic data; and assemble these individual findings into a mechanism of transport and inhibition. PMID:25950965

  16. Presynaptic effects of d-tubocurarine on neurotransmitter release at the neuromuscular junction of the frog.

    PubMed Central

    Matzner, H; Parnas, H; Parnas, I

    1988-01-01

    1. Presynaptic effects of d-tubocurarine on neurotransmitter release were examined at the frog neuromuscular junction, using intracellular and extracellular recording techniques. 2. d-Tubocurarine in concentrations of 10(-7)-10(-6) M decreased the quantal content (m) measured by the coefficient of variation and failure methods. 3. d-Tubocurarine produced a shift to the right of the curve relating log quantal content to log [Ca2+]o without changing the slope. 4. The duration of twin-impulse facilitation was not affected by 5 x 10(-7) M-d-tubocurarine. Early facilitation was higher in d-tubocurarine. 5. d-Tubocurarine altered the synaptic delay histogram. The peak of the histogram was shifted to longer delays. Prolongation of the minimal delay was seen in most but not all experiments. 6. These results suggest that d-tubocurarine inhibits release of neurotransmitter by affecting a stage in the process of release, which occurs after the entry of Ca2+ ions. PMID:2899171

  17. An in vivo biosensor for neurotransmitter release and in situ receptor activity

    PubMed Central

    Mank, Marco; Muller, Arnaud; Taylor, Palmer; Griesbeck, Oliver; Kleinfeld, David

    2013-01-01

    Tools from molecular biology, in combination with in vivo optical imaging techniques, provide new mechanisms to noninvasively observe brain processing. Current approaches primarily probe cell-based variables, such as cytosolic calcium or membrane potential, but not cell-to-cell signaling. Here we introduce CNiFERs, cell-based neurotransmitter fluorescent engineered reporters, to address this challenge and monitor in situ neurotransmitter receptor activation. CNiFERs are cultured cells that are engineered to express a chosen metabotropic receptor, make use of the Gq protein-coupled receptor cascade to transform receptor activity into a rise in cytosolic [Ca2+], and report [Ca2+] with a genetically encoded fluorescent Ca2+ sensor. The initial realization of CNiFERs detects acetylcholine release via activation of M1 muscarinic receptors. Chronic implantation of M1-CNiFERs in frontal cortex of the adult rat is used to elucidate the muscarinic action of the atypical neuroleptics clozapine and olanzapine. We show that these drugs potently inhibit in situ muscarinic receptor activity. PMID:20010818

  18. Neuron-glia signaling in developing retina mediated by neurotransmitter spillover

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Juliana M; Bos, Rémi; Sack, Georgeann S; Fortuny, Cécile; Agarwal, Amit; Bergles, Dwight E; Flannery, John G; Feller, Marla B

    2015-01-01

    Neuron-glia interactions play a critical role in the maturation of neural circuits; however, little is known about the pathways that mediate their communication in the developing CNS. We investigated neuron-glia signaling in the developing retina, where we demonstrate that retinal waves reliably induce calcium transients in Müller glial cells (MCs). During cholinergic waves, MC calcium transients were blocked by muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonists, whereas during glutamatergic waves, MC calcium transients were inhibited by ionotropic glutamate receptor antagonists, indicating that the responsiveness of MCs changes to match the neurotransmitter used to support retinal waves. Using an optical glutamate sensor we show that the decline in MC calcium transients is caused by a reduction in the amount of glutamate reaching MCs. Together, these studies indicate that neurons and MCs exhibit correlated activity during a critical period of retinal maturation that is enabled by neurotransmitter spillover from retinal synapses. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.09590.001 PMID:26274565

  19. Biophysical Approaches to the Study of LeuT, a Prokaryotic Homolog of Neurotransmitter Sodium Symporters.

    PubMed

    Singh, Satinder K; Pal, Aritra

    2015-01-01

    Ion-coupled secondary transport is utilized by multiple integral membrane proteins as a means of achieving the thermodynamically unfavorable translocation of solute molecules across the lipid bilayer. The chemical nature of these molecules is diverse and includes sugars, amino acids, neurotransmitters, and other ions. LeuT is a sodium-coupled, nonpolar amino acid symporter and eubacterial member of the solute carrier 6 (SLC6) family of Na(+)/Cl(-)-dependent neurotransmitter transporters. Eukaryotic counterparts encompass the clinically and pharmacologically significant transporters for γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glycine, serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT), dopamine (DA), and norepinephrine (NE). Since the crystal structure of LeuT was first solved in 2005, subsequent crystallographic, binding, flux, and spectroscopic studies, complemented with homology modeling and molecular dynamic simulations, have allowed this protein to emerge as a remarkable mechanistic paradigm for both the SLC6 class as well as several other sequence-unrelated SLCs whose members possess astonishingly similar architectures. Despite yielding groundbreaking conceptual advances, this vast treasure trove of data has also been the source of contentious hypotheses. This chapter will present a historical scientific overview of SLC6s; recount how the initial and subsequent LeuT structures were solved, describing the insights they each provided; detail the accompanying functional techniques, emphasizing how they either supported or refuted the static crystallographic data; and assemble these individual findings into a mechanism of transport and inhibition. PMID:25950965

  20. Endogenous strategy in exploration.

    PubMed

    Solman, Grayden J F; Kingstone, Alan

    2015-12-01

    We examined the characteristics of endogenous exploratory behaviors in a generalized search task in which guidance signals (e.g., landmarks, semantics, visual saliency, layout) were limited or precluded. Individuals looked for the highest valued cell in an array and were scored on the quality of the best value they could find. Exploration was guided only by the cells that had been previously examined, and the value of this guidance was manipulated by adjusting spatial autocorrelation to produce relatively smooth and rough landscapes-that is, arrays in which nearby cells had unrelated values (low correlation = rough) or similar values (high correlation = smooth). For search in increasingly rough as compared with smooth arrays, we found reduced performance despite increased sampling and increased time spent searching after revelation of a searcher's best cell. Spatially, sampling strategies tended toward more excursive, branching, and space-filling patterns as correlation decreased. Using a novel generalized-recurrence analysis, we report that these patterns reflect an increase in systematic search paths, characterized by regularized sweeps with localized infilling. These tendencies were likewise enhanced for high-performance as compared with low-performance participants. The results suggest a trade-off between guidance (in smooth arrays) and systematicity (in rough arrays), and they provide insight into the particular strategic approaches adopted by searchers when exogenous guiding information is minimized. PMID:26214501

  1. [Endogenous bacterial endophthalmitis].

    PubMed

    Cornut, P-L; Chiquet, C

    2011-01-01

    Endogenous bacterial endophthalmitis, also called metastatic bacterial endophthalmitis, remains a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. It is a rare and potentially sight-threatening ocular infection that occurs when bacteria reach the eye via the bloodstream, cross the blood-ocular barrier, and multiply within the eye. It usually affects immunocompromised patients and those suffering from diabetes mellitus, malignancy, or cardiac disease, but has also been reported after invasive procedures or in previously healthy people. In most cases, the ocular symptoms occur after the diagnosis of septicemia or systemic infection. Ocular symptoms include decreased vision, redness, discharge, pain, and floaters. The ocular inflammatory signs may be anterior and/or posterior. Bilateral involvement occurs in nearly 25% of cases. A wide range of microorganisms are involved, with differences in their frequency according to geography as well as the patient's age and past medical history, because of variations in the predisposing conditions and the source of the sepsis. The majority of patients are initially misdiagnosed, and ophthalmologists should be aware of this because prompt local and general management is required to save the eye and/or the patient's life. PMID:21145128

  2. Modulation of BKCa channel gating by endogenous signaling molecules

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Shangwei; Heinemann, Stefan H.; Hoshi, Toshinori

    2010-01-01

    Large-conductance Ca2+- and voltage-activated K+ (BKCa, MaxiK or Slo1) channels are expressed in almost every tissue in our body and participate in many critical functions such as neuronal excitability, vascular tone regulation and neurotransmitter release. The functional versatility of BKCa channels owes in part to the availability of a spectacularly wide array of biological modulators of the channel function. In this review, we focus on modulation of BKCa channels by small endogenous molecules, emphasizing their molecular mechanisms. The mechanistic information available from studies on the small naturally occurring modulators is expected to contribute to our understanding of the physiological and pathophysiological roles of BKCa channels. PMID:19196649

  3. Wnt signalling tunes neurotransmitter release by directly targeting Synaptotagmin-1

    PubMed Central

    Ciani, Lorenza; Marzo, Aude; Boyle, Kieran; Stamatakou, Eleanna; Lopes, Douglas M.; Anane, Derek; McLeod, Faye; Rosso, Silvana B.; Gibb, Alasdair; Salinas, Patricia C.

    2015-01-01

    The functional assembly of the synaptic release machinery is well understood; however, how signalling factors modulate this process remains unknown. Recent studies suggest that Wnts play a role in presynaptic function. To examine the mechanisms involved, we investigated the interaction of release machinery proteins with Dishevelled-1 (Dvl1), a scaffold protein that determines the cellular locale of Wnt action. Here we show that Dvl1 directly interacts with Synaptotagmin-1 (Syt-1) and indirectly with the SNARE proteins SNAP25 and Syntaxin (Stx-1). Importantly, the interaction of Dvl1 with Syt-1, which is regulated by Wnts, modulates neurotransmitter release. Moreover, presynaptic terminals from Wnt signalling-deficient mice exhibit reduced release probability and are unable to sustain high-frequency release. Consistently, the readily releasable pool size and formation of SNARE complexes are reduced. Our studies demonstrate that Wnt signalling tunes neurotransmitter release and identify Syt-1 as a target for modulation by secreted signalling proteins. PMID:26400647

  4. Molecular mechanisms for synchronous, asynchronous, and spontaneous neurotransmitter release.

    PubMed

    Kaeser, Pascal S; Regehr, Wade G

    2014-01-01

    Most neuronal communication relies upon the synchronous release of neurotransmitters, which occurs through synaptic vesicle exocytosis triggered by action potential invasion of a presynaptic bouton. However, neurotransmitters are also released asynchronously with a longer, variable delay following an action potential or spontaneously in the absence of action potentials. A compelling body of research has identified roles and mechanisms for synchronous release, but asynchronous release and spontaneous release are less well understood. In this review, we analyze how the mechanisms of the three release modes overlap and what molecular pathways underlie asynchronous and spontaneous release. We conclude that the modes of release have key fusion processes in common but may differ in the source of and necessity for Ca(2+) to trigger release and in the identity of the Ca(2+) sensor for release. PMID:24274737

  5. Molecular Mechanisms for Synchronous, Asynchronous, and Spontaneous Neurotransmitter Release

    PubMed Central

    Kaeser, Pascal S.; Regehr, Wade G.

    2015-01-01

    Most neuronal communication relies upon the synchronous release of neurotransmitters, which occurs through synaptic vesicle exocytosis triggered by action potential invasion of a presynaptic bouton. However, neurotransmitters are also released asynchronously with a longer, variable delay following an action potential or spontaneously in the absence of action potentials. A compelling body of research has identified roles and mechanisms for synchronous release, but asynchronous release and spontaneous release are less well understood. In this review, we analyze how the mechanisms of the three release modes overlap and what molecular pathways underlie asynchronous and spontaneous release. We conclude that the modes of release have key fusion processes in common but may differ in the source of and necessity for Ca2+ to trigger release and in the identity of the Ca2+ sensor for release. PMID:24274737

  6. Imaging Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Neurotransmitters: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Perez, Gustavo A.; Takei, Shiro; Yao, Ikuko

    2014-01-01

    Imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) is a toolbox of versatile techniques that enable us to investigate analytes in samples at molecular level. In recent years, IMS, and especially matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation (MALDI), has been used to visualise a wide range of metabolites in biological samples. Simultaneous visualisation of the spatial distribution of metabolites in a single sample with little tissue disruption can be considered as one important advantage of MALDI over other techniques. However, several technical hurdles including low concentrations and rapid degradation rates of small molecule metabolites, matrix interference of signals and poor ionisation, need to be addressed before MALDI can be considered as a reliable tool for the analysis of metabolites such as neurotransmitters in brain tissues from different sources including humans. In the present review we will briefly describe current MALDI IMS techniques used to study neurotransmitters and discuss their current status, challenges, as well as future prospects. PMID:26819893

  7. Neurotransmitters couple brain activity to subventricular zone neurogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Young, Stephanie Z.; Taylor, M. Morgan; Bordey, Angélique

    2011-01-01

    Adult neurogenesis occurs in two privileged microenvironments, the hippocampal subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus and the subventricular zone (SVZ) along the lateral ventricle. This review focuses on accumulating evidence suggesting that the activity of specific brain regions or bodily states influences SVZ cell proliferation and neurogenesis. Neuromodulators such as dopamine and serotonin have been shown to have long-range effects through neuronal projections into the SVZ. Local GABA and glutamate signaling have demonstrated effects on SVZ proliferation and neurogenesis, but an extra-niche source of these neurotransmitters remains to be explored and options will be discussed. There is also accumulating evidence that diseases and bodily states such as Alzheimer's disease, seizures, sleep, and pregnancy influence SVZ cell proliferation. With such complex behavior and environmentally-driven factors that control subregion-specific activity, it will become necessary to account for overlapping roles of multiple neurotransmitter systems on neurogenesis when developing cell therapies or drug treatments. PMID:21395856

  8. Neurotransmitter imaging in living cells based on native fluorescence detection

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, W.; Yeung, E.S. |; Parpura, V.; Haydon, P.G.

    1995-08-01

    A UV laser-based optical microscope and CCD detection system with high sensitivity has been developed to image neurotransmitters in living cells. We demonstrate the detection of serotonin that has been taken up into individual living glial cells (astrocytes) based on its native fluorescence. We found that the fluorescence intensity of astrocytes increased by up to 10 times after serotonin uptake. The temporal resolution of this detection system at 10{sup -4} M serotonin is as fast as 50 ms, and the spatial resolution is diffraction limited. This UV laser microscope imaging system shows promise for studies of spatial-temporal dynamics of neurotransmitter levels in living neurons and glia. 19 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  9. English walnuts (Juglans regia L.) protect endogenous antioxidants in humans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ellagic acid monomers, polymeric tannins and related phenolic compounds isolated from English walnuts (Juglans regia L.) have been reported to inhibit LDL oxidation ex vivo and decrease biomarkers of oxidative stress in animal models. To determine whether dietary and endogenous antioxidants are pres...

  10. Extremely Low Frequency Magnetic Field Modulates the Level of Neurotransmitters

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Yoon Hee; Lee, Young Joo; Lee, Ho Sung; Chung, Su Jin; Lim, Cheol Hee; Oh, Keon Woong; Sohn, Uy Dong

    2015-01-01

    This study was aimed to observe that extremely low frequency magnetic field (ELF-MF) may be relevant to changes of major neurotransmitters in rat brain. After the exposure to ELF-MF (60 Hz, 2.0 mT) for 2 or 5 days, we measured the levels of biogenic amines and their metabolites, amino acid neurotransmitters and nitric oxide (NO) in the cortex, striatum, thalamus, cerebellum and hippocampus. The exposure of ELF-MF for 2 or 5 days produced significant differences in norepinephrine and vanillyl mandelic acid in the striatum, thalamus, cerebellum and hippocampus. Significant increases in the levels of serotonin and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid were also observed in the striatum, thalamus or hippocampus. ELF-MF significantly increased the concentration of dopamine in the thalamus. ELF-MF tended to increase the levels of amino acid neurotransmitters such as glutamine, glycine and γ -aminobutyric acid in the striatum and thalamus, whereas it decreased the levels in the cortex, cerebellum and hippocampus. ELF-MF significantly increased NO concentration in the striatum, thalamus and hippocampus. The present study has demonstrated that exposure to ELF-MFs may evoke the changes in the levels of biogenic amines, amino acid and NO in the brain although the extent and property vary with the brain areas. However, the mechanisms remain further to be characterized. PMID:25605992

  11. Interactions Between Bacteria and the Gut Mucosa: Do Enteric Neurotransmitters Acting on the Mucosal Epithelium Influence Intestinal Colonization or Infection?

    PubMed

    Green, Benedict T; Brown, David R

    2016-01-01

    The intestinal epithelium is a critical barrier between the internal and external milieux of the mammalian host. Epithelial interactions between these two host environments have been shown to be modulated by several different, cross-communicating cell types residing in the gut mucosa. These include enteric neurons, whose activity is influenced by bacterial pathogens, and their secreted products. Neurotransmitters appear to influence epithelial associations with bacteria in the intestinal lumen. For example, internalization of Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli O157:H7 into the Peyer's patch mucosa of the small intestine is altered after the inhibition of neural activity with saxitoxin, a neuronal sodium channel blocker. Catecholamine neurotransmitters, such as dopamine and norepinephrine, also alter bacterial internalization in Peyer's patches. In the large intestine, norepinephrine increases the mucosal adherence of E. coli. These neurotransmitter actions are mediated by well-defined catecholamine receptors situated on the basolateral membranes of epithelial cells rather than through direct interactions with luminal bacteria. Investigations of the involvement of neuroepithelial communication in the regulation of interactions between the intestinal mucosa and luminal bacteria will provide novel insights into the mechanisms underlying bacterial colonization and pathogenesis at mucosal surfaces. PMID:26589216

  12. Inhibition of Notch signaling alters the phenotype of orthotopic tumors formed from glioblastoma multiforme neurosphere cells but does not hamper intracranial tumor growth regardless of endogene Notch pathway signature

    PubMed Central

    Kristoffersen, Karina; Nedergaard, Mette Kjølhede; Villingshøj, Mette; Borup, Rehannah; Broholm, Helle; Kjær, Andreas; Poulsen, Hans Skovgaard; Stockhausen, Marie-Thérése

    2014-01-01

    Background Brain cancer stem-like cells (bCSC) are cancer cells with neural stem cell (NSC)-like properties found in the devastating brain tumor glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). bCSC are proposed a central role in tumor initiation, progression, treatment resistance and relapse and as such present a promising target in GBM research. The Notch signaling pathway is often deregulated in GBM and we have previously characterized GBM-derived bCSC cultures based on their expression of the Notch-1 receptor and found that it could be used as predictive marker for the effect of Notch inhibition. The aim of the present project was therefore to further elucidate the significance of Notch pathway activity for the tumorigenic properties of GBM-derived bCSC. Methods Human-derived GBM xenograft cells previously established as NSC-like neurosphere cultures were used. Notch inhibition was accomplished by exposing the cells to the gamma-secretase inhibitor DAPT prior to gene expression analysis and intracranial injection into immunocompromised mice. Results By analyzing the expression of several Notch pathway components, we found that the cultures indeed displayed different Notch pathway signatures. However, when DAPT-treated neurosphere cells were injected into the brain of immunocompromised mice, no increase in survival was obtained regardless of Notch pathway signature and Notch inhibition. We did however observe a decrease in the expression of the stem cell marker Nestin, an increase in the proliferative marker Ki-67 and an increased number of abnormal vessels in tumors formed from DAPT-treated, high Notch-1 expressing cultures, when compared with the control. Conclusion Based on the presented results we propose that Notch inhibition partly induces differentiation of bCSC, and selects for a cell type that more strongly induces angiogenesis if the treatment is not sustained. However, this more differentiated cell type might prove to be more sensitive to conventional therapies. PMID

  13. Real-time monitoring of inhibitory effects on glutamate-induced neurotransmitter release using a potassium ion image sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kono, Akiteru; Sakurai, Takashi; Hattori, Toshiaki; Okumura, Koichi; Ishida, Makoto; Sawada, Kazuaki

    2015-02-01

    To directly image the release of neurotransmitters from neurons, we combined a substance-selective layer with a 128 × 128-pixel ion image sensor based on CMOS technology. Using the substance-specific image sensors, we studied the dynamics of potassium ion ( K+) release from neurons and examined the effect of ouabain on K+ release. K+ transients were significantly inhibited by ouabain. The K+ image sensor used in this study demonstrated the dynamic analysis of ligand-operated signal release and the pharmacological assessment of secretagogues without requiring cell labeling.

  14. Endogenous prostaglandin in guinea pig taenia coli.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, T; Hitzig, B; Coburn, R F

    1976-01-01

    Prostaglandin (PGE) is synthesized in the guinea pig taenia coli. A low threshold concentration for an effect of exogenous PGE1 or PGE2 on spontaneous mechanical activity was demonstrated. The PG synthetase inhibitors aspirin, indomethacin, and 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraynoic acid, at concentrations that inhibited PGE efflux, had effects on spontaneous mechanical activity, membrane potential, membrane resistance, and evoked and spontaneous action potentials (single and double sucrose-gap methods) that were consistent with an action due to inhibition of membrane PGE concentration. The threshold concentration of indomethacin, which inhibited PGE efflux, was the same as the concentration that inhibited spontaneous mechanical activity. Pretreatment with ouabain (10(-6)-10(-5) g/ml) or elevated extracellular K+ (29 and 126 mM) made the guinea pig taenia coli entirely refractory to exogenous PGE1 or PGE2; the mechanical effects of the three prostaglandin synthetase inhibitors also were absent in the presence of elevated K+ or ouabain. The data are consistent with a hypothesis that, under conditions of our experiments, endogenous PGE has an effect on resting tension and spontaneous mechanical activity and on properties of the surface membrane of the guinea pig taenia coli. PMID:1251900

  15. Suprachiasmatic Nucleus Neuropeptides and Their Control of Endogenous Glucose Production.

    PubMed

    Foppen, E; Tan, A A T; Ackermans, M T; Fliers, E; Kalsbeek, A

    2016-04-01

    Defective control of endogenous glucose production is an important factor responsible for hyperglycaemia in the diabetic individual. During the past decade, progressively more evidence has appeared indicating a strong and potentially causal relationship between disturbances of the circadian system and defects of metabolic regulation, including glucose metabolism. The detrimental effects of disturbed circadian rhythms may have their origin in disturbances of the molecular clock mechanisms in peripheral organs, such as the pancreas and liver, or in the central brain clock in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN). To assess the role of SCN output per se on glucose metabolism, we investigated (i) the effect of several SCN neurotransmitters on endogenous glucose production and (ii) the effect of SCN neuronal activity on hepatic and systemic insulin sensitivity. We show that silencing of SCN neuronal activity results in decreased hepatic insulin sensitivity and increased peripheral insulin sensitivity. Furthermore, both oxytocin neurones in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) and orexin neurones in the lateral hypothalamus may be important targets for the SCN control of glucose metabolism. These data further highlight the role of the central clock in the pathophysiology of insulin resistance. PMID:26791158

  16. Borderline personality disorder: a dysregulation of the endogenous opioid system?

    PubMed

    Bandelow, Borwin; Schmahl, Christian; Falkai, Peter; Wedekind, Dirk

    2010-04-01

    The neurobiology of borderline personality disorder (BPD) remains unclear. Dysfunctions of several neurobiological systems, including serotoninergic, dopaminergic, and other neurotransmitter systems, have been discussed. Here we present a theory that alterations in the sensitivity of opioid receptors or the availability of endogenous opioids constitute part of the underlying pathophysiology of BPD. The alarming symptoms and self-destructive behaviors of the affected patients may be explained by uncontrollable and unconscious attempts to stimulate their endogenous opioid system (EOS) and the dopaminergic reward system, regardless of the possible harmful consequences. Neurobiological findings that support this hypothesis are reviewed: Frantic efforts to avoid abandonment, frequent and risky sexual contacts, and attention-seeking behavior may be explained by attempts to make use of the rewarding effects of human attachment mediated by the EOS. Anhedonia and feelings of emptiness may be an expression of reduced activity of the EOS. Patients with BPD tend to abuse substances that target mu-opioid receptors. Self-injury, food restriction, aggressive behavior, and sensation seeking may be interpreted as desperate attempts to artificially set the body to survival mode in order to mobilize the last reserves of the EOS. BPD-associated symptoms, such as substance abuse, anorexia, self-injury, depersonalization, and sexual overstimulation, can be treated successfully with opioid receptor antagonists. An understanding of the neurobiology of BPD may help in developing new treatments for patients with this severe disorder. PMID:20438240

  17. Beta-amyloid peptides undergo regulated co-secretion with neuropeptide and catecholamine neurotransmitters.

    PubMed

    Toneff, Thomas; Funkelstein, Lydiane; Mosier, Charles; Abagyan, Armen; Ziegler, Michael; Hook, Vivian

    2013-08-01

    Beta-amyloid (Aβ) peptides are secreted from neurons, resulting in extracellular accumulation of Aβ and neurodegeneration of Alzheimer's disease. Because neuronal secretion is fundamental for the release of neurotransmitters, this study assessed the hypothesis that Aβ undergoes co-release with neurotransmitters. Model neuronal-like chromaffin cells were investigated, and results illustrate regulated, co-secretion of Aβ(1-40) and Aβ(1-42) with peptide neurotransmitters (galanin, enkephalin, and NPY) and catecholamine neurotransmitters (dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine). Regulated secretion from chromaffin cells was stimulated by KCl depolarization and nicotine. Forskolin, stimulating cAMP, also induced co-secretion of Aβ peptides with peptide and catecholamine neurotransmitters. These data suggested the co-localization of Aβ with neurotransmitters in dense core secretory vesicles (DCSV) that store and secrete such chemical messengers. Indeed, Aβ was demonstrated to be present in DCSV with neuropeptide and catecholamine transmitters. Furthermore, the DCSV organelle contains APP and its processing proteases, β- and γ-secretases, that are necessary for production of Aβ. Thus, Aβ can be generated in neurotransmitter-containing DCSV. Human IMR32 neuroblastoma cells also displayed regulated secretion of Aβ(1-40) and Aβ(1-42) with the galanin neurotransmitter. These findings illustrate that Aβ peptides are present in neurotransmitter-containing DCSV, and undergo co-secretion with neuropeptide and catecholamine neurotransmitters that regulate brain functions. PMID:23747840

  18. [Neurotransmitter disorders in children--special reference to Segawa disease].

    PubMed

    Segawa, Masaya

    2011-09-01

    Aminergic neurotransmitter disorders occurring in childhood include metabolic disorders of pteridine and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). Pteridine metabolic disorders cause a deficiency of serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine (DA) and TH disorder causes a deficiency of noradrenaline (NA) and DA in the terminals of each aminergic neuron. The activities of TH or DA in the terminals are marked in early childhood, and then they show an exponential age-dependent decrement and achieve stationary or minimal levels in the twenties. As observed in Segawa disease, TH or DA activities in these disorders follow this age-related decrease with levels around 20% of normal, and patients develop symptoms age-dependently, with onset in childhood, progression by the late teens, and a stationary period after the twenties, but this does not cause morphological changes. These phenomena may occur with other neurotransmitters. So replacement therapies are effective irrespective of the clinical course. However, early-onset cases in infancy or early childhood showing a marked decrement of 5-HT or NA activities show postural hypotonia and failed locomotion. These cause failure in atonia restriction in the REM stage and induce dysfunction of the pedunculopontine nucleus, and, consequently induce dysfunction or failure in the development of DA neurons in the sutbstantia nigra and ventrotegmental area. These relate to failure in the development of higher cortical functions. Thus, assessing of ages at onset and activities of antigravity muscles and locomotion in infancy is cardinal for the treatment the neurotransmitter disorders occurring in infancy and early childhood. PARK2 with deficiency of DA in the substantia nigra leads to dystonia in the teens and Parkinson disease after 20 years, although these respond to 1-Dopa favorably but induce D2 receptor upregulation and intractable dyskinesia. A decrease of DA in the perikaryon leads to symptoms after 10 years and causes dysfunction of the target

  19. Endogenous and endobiotic induced reactive oxygen species formation by isolated hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Siraki, Arno G; Pourahmad, Jalal; Chan, Tom S; Khan, Sumsullah; O'Brien, Peter J

    2002-01-01

    The rat hepatocyte catalyzed oxidation of 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin to form the fluorescent 2,7'-dichlorofluorescein was used to measure endogenous and xenobiotic-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation by intact isolated rat hepatocytes. Various oxidase substrates and inhibitors were then used to identify the intracellular oxidases responsible. Endogenous ROS formation was markedly increased in catalase-inhibited or GSH-depleted hepatocytes, and was inhibited by ROS scavengers or desferoxamine. Endogenous ROS formation was also inhibited by cytochrome P450 inhibitors, but was not affected by oxypurinol, a xanthine oxidase inhibitor, or phenelzine, a monoamine oxidase inhibitor. Mitochondrial respiratory chain inhibitors or hypoxia, on the other hand, markedly increased ROS formation before cytotoxicity ensued. Furthermore, uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation inhibited endogenous ROS formation. This suggests endogenous ROS formation can largely be attributed to oxygen reduction by reduced mitochondrial electron transport components and reduced cytochrome P450 isozymes. Addition of monoamine oxidase substrates increased antimycin A-resistant respiration and ROS formation before cytotoxicity ensued. Addition of peroxisomal substrates also increased antimycin A-resistant respiration but they were less effective at inducing ROS formation and were not cytotoxic. However, peroxisomal substrates readily induced ROS formation and were cytotoxic towards catalase-inhibited hepatocytes, which suggests that peroxisomal catalase removes endogenous H(2)O(2) formed in the peroxisomes. Hepatocyte catalyzed dichlorofluorescin oxidation induced by oxidase substrates, e.g., benzylamine, was correlated with the cytotoxicity induced in catalase-inhibited hepatocytes. PMID:11755311

  20. Carbon Nanotube-based microelectrodes for enhanced detection of neurotransmitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Christopher B.

    Fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) is one of the common techniques used for rapid measurement of neurotransmitters in vivo. Carbon-fiber microelectrodes (CFMEs) are typically used for neurotransmitter detection because of sub-second measurement capabilities, ability to measure changes in neurotransmitter concentration during neurotransmission, and the small size electrode diameter, which limits the amount of damage caused to tissue. Cylinder CFMEs, typically 50 -- 100 microm long, are commonly used for in vivo experiments because the electrode sensitivity is directly related to the electrode surface area. However the length of the electrode can limit the spatial resolution of neurotransmitter detection, which can restrict experiments in Drosophila and other small model systems. In addition, the electrode sensitivity toward dopamine and serotonin detection drops significantly for measurements at rates faster than 10 Hz, limiting the temporal resolution of CFMEs. While the use of FSCV at carbon-fiber microelectrodes has led to substantial strides in our understanding of neurotransmission, techniques that expand the capabilities of CFMEs are crucial to fully maximize the potential uses of FSCV. This dissertation introduces new methods to integrate carbon nanotubes (CNT) into microelectrodes and discusses the electrochemical enhancements of these CNT-microelectrodes. The electrodes are specifically designed with simple fabrication procedures so that highly specialized equipment is not necessary, and they utilize commercially available materials so that the electrodes could be easily integrated into existing systems. The electrochemical properties of CNT modified CFMEs are characterized using FSCV and the effect of CNT functionalization on these properties is explored in Chapter 2. For example, CFME modification using carboxylic acid functionalized CNTs yield about a 6-fold increase in dopamine oxidation current, but modification with octadecylamine CNTs results in a

  1. Neurotransmitters in the Gas Phase: La-Mb Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabezas, C.; Mata, S.; López, J. C.; Alonso, J. L.

    2011-06-01

    LA-MB-FTMW spectroscopy combines laser ablation with Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy in supersonic jets overcoming the problems of thermal decomposition associated with conventional heating methods. We present here the results on LA-MB-FTMW studies of some neurotransmitters. Six conformers of dopamine, four of adrenaline, five of noradrenaline and three conformers of serotonin have been characterized in the gas phase. The rotational and nuclear quadrupole coupling constants extracted from the analysis of the rotational spectrum are directly compared with those predicted by ab initio methods to achieve the conclusive identification of different conformers and the experimental characterization of the intramolecular forces at play which control conformational preferences.

  2. Endogenous rhythms influence interpersonal synchrony.

    PubMed

    Zamm, Anna; Wellman, Chelsea; Palmer, Caroline

    2016-05-01

    Interpersonal synchrony, the temporal coordination of actions between individuals, is fundamental to social behaviors from conversational speech to dance and music-making. Animal models indicate constraints on synchrony that arise from endogenous rhythms: Intrinsic periodic behaviors or processes that continue in the absence of change in external stimulus conditions. We report evidence for a direct causal link between endogenous rhythms and interpersonal synchrony in a music performance task, which places high demands on temporal coordination. We first establish that endogenous rhythms, measured by spontaneous rates of individual performance, are stable within individuals across stimulus materials, limb movements, and time points. We then test a causal link between endogenous rhythms and interpersonal synchrony by pairing each musician with a partner who is either matched or mismatched in spontaneous rate and by measuring their joint behavior up to 1 year later. Partners performed melodies together, using either the same or different hands. Partners who were matched for spontaneous rate showed greater interpersonal synchrony in joint performance than mismatched partners, regardless of hand used. Endogenous rhythms offer potential to predict optimal group membership in joint behaviors that require temporal coordination. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26820249

  3. Metabolism of acetyl-L-carnitine for energy and neurotransmitter synthesis in the immature rat brain

    PubMed Central

    Scafidi, Susanna; Fiskum, Gary; Lindauer, Steven L.; Bamford, Penelope; Shi, Da; Hopkins, Irene; McKenna, Mary C.

    2016-01-01

    Acetyl-L-carnitine (ALCAR) is an endogenous metabolic intermediate that facilitates the influx and efflux of acetyl groups across the mitochondrial inner membrane. Exogenously administered ALCAR has been used as a nutritional supplement and also as an experimental drug with reported neuroprotective properties and effects on brain metabolism. The aim of this study was to determine oxidative metabolism of ALCAR in the immature rat forebrain. Metabolism was studied in 21 day old rat brain at 15, 60 and 120 minutes after an intraperitoneal injection of [2-13C]acetyl-L-carnitine. The amount, pattern, and fractional enrichment of 13C-labeled metabolites were determined by ex vivo 13C-NMR spectroscopy. Metabolism of the acetyl moiety from [2-13C]ALCAR via the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle led to incorporation of label into the C4, C3 and C2 positions of glutamate (GLU), glutamine (GLN) and GABA. Labeling patterns indicated that [2-13C]ALCAR was metabolized by both neurons and glia; however, the percent enrichment was higher in GLN and GABA than in GLU, demonstrating high metabolism in astrocytes and GABAergic neurons. Incorporation of label into the C3 position of alanine, both C3 and C2 of lactate, and the C1 and C5 positions of glutamate and glutamine demonstrated that [2-13C]ALCAR was actively metabolized via the pyruvate recycling pathway. The enrichment of metabolites with 13C from metabolism of ALCAR was highest in alanine C3 (10%) and lactate C3 (9%), with considerable enrichment in GABA C4 (8%), GLN C3 (~4%) and GLN C5 (5%). Overall, our 13C-NMR studies reveal that the acetyl moiety of ALCAR is metabolized for energy in both astrocytes and neurons and the label incorporated into the neurotransmitters glutamate and GABA. Cycling ratios showed prolonged cycling of carbon from the acetyl moiety of ALCAR in the TCA cycle. Labeling of compounds formed from metabolism of [2-13C]ALCAR via the pyruvate recycling pathway was higher than values reported for other

  4. Endogenous conversion of ω-6 to ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in fat-1 mice attenuated intestinal polyposis by either inhibiting COX-2/β-catenin signaling or activating 15-PGDH/IL-18.

    PubMed

    Han, Young-Min; Park, Jong-Min; Cha, Ji-Young; Jeong, Migyeong; Go, Eun-Jin; Hahm, Ki Baik

    2016-05-01

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3PUFAs) have inhibitory effects in various preclinical cancer models, but their effects in intestinal polyposis have never been examined. As attempts have been made to use nutritional intervention to counteract colon cancer development, in this study we evaluated the effects of ω-3 PUFAs on intestinal polyposis in the Apc(Min/+) mouse model. The experimental groups included wild-type C56BL/6 mice, Apc(Min/+) mice, fat-1 transgenic mice expressing an n-3 desaturase to enable ω-3 PUFA synthesis, and Apc(Min/+) × fat-1 double-transgenic mice; all mice were 20 weeks of age. Small intestines were collected for gross and pathologic evaluation, including assessment of polyp number and size, followed by immunohistochemical staining and Western blotting. After administration of various concentrations of ω-3 PUFAs, PUFA levels were measured in small intestine tissue by GC/MS/MS analysis to compare with PUFA synthesis of between C57BL6 and fat-1mice. As a result, ω-3 PUFAs significantly attenuated Apc mutation-induced intestinal polyposis accompanied with significant inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin signaling, COX-2 and PGE2, but induced significant levels of 15-PGDH. In addition, significant induction of the inflammasome-related substrates as IL-1β and IL-18 and activation of caspase-1 was observed in Apc(Min/+) × fat-1 mice. Administration of at least 3 g/60 kg ω-3 PUFAs was equivalent to ω-3 PUFAs produced in fat-1 mice and resulted in significant increase in the expression of IL-1β, caspase-3 and IL-18, as seen in Apc(Min/+) × fat-1 mice. We conclude that ω-3PUFAs can prevent intestinal polyp formation by inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin signaling, but increased levels of 15-PGDH and IL-18. PMID:26650508

  5. Nematode endogenous small RNA pathways

    PubMed Central

    Hoogstrate, Suzanne W; Volkers, Rita JM; Sterken, Mark G; Kammenga, Jan E; Snoek, L Basten

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of small RNA silencing pathways has greatly extended our knowledge of gene regulation. Small RNAs have been presumed to play a role in every field of biology because they affect many biological processes via regulation of gene expression and chromatin remodeling. Most well-known examples of affected processes are development, fertility, and maintenance of genome stability. Here we review the role of the three main endogenous small RNA silencing pathways in Caenorhabditis elegans: microRNAs, endogenous small interfering RNAs, and PIWI-interacting RNAs. After providing an entry-level overview on how these pathways function, we discuss research on other nematode species providing insight into the evolution of these small RNA pathways. In understanding the differences between the endogenous small RNA pathways and their evolution, a more comprehensive picture is formed of the functions and effects of small RNAs. PMID:25340013

  6. Body position differentially influences responses to exogenous and endogenous cues.

    PubMed

    McAuliffe, Jim; Johnson, Michel J; Weaver, Bruce; Deller-Quinn, Miranda; Hansen, Steve

    2013-10-01

    The influence of vestibular inputs on exogenous (Exp. 1) and endogenous (Exp. 2) orienting of visual attention was examined. The vestibular system was manipulated through a change in static body position. Participants engaged in an exogenous or endogenous response task while in a seated position, while lying in a prone position, and while in a prone position with their head down and neck flexed (HDNF). An attenuation of inhibition and facilitation effects during the exogenous task was observed in the HDNF position. However, responses to the cues remained similar in the endogenous task, irrespective of body position. The results reveal a potential dissociation between reflexive and volitional orienting of visual attention that is dependent on vestibular inputs. PMID:24092358

  7. Quantitative analysis of endogenous compounds.

    PubMed

    Thakare, Rhishikesh; Chhonker, Yashpal S; Gautam, Nagsen; Alamoudi, Jawaher Abdullah; Alnouti, Yazen

    2016-09-01

    Accurate quantitative analysis of endogenous analytes is essential for several clinical and non-clinical applications. LC-MS/MS is the technique of choice for quantitative analyses. Absolute quantification by LC/MS requires preparing standard curves in the same matrix as the study samples so that the matrix effect and the extraction efficiency for analytes are the same in both the standard and study samples. However, by definition, analyte-free biological matrices do not exist for endogenous compounds. To address the lack of blank matrices for the quantification of endogenous compounds by LC-MS/MS, four approaches are used including the standard addition, the background subtraction, the surrogate matrix, and the surrogate analyte methods. This review article presents an overview these approaches, cite and summarize their applications, and compare their advantages and disadvantages. In addition, we discuss in details, validation requirements and compatibility with FDA guidelines to ensure method reliability in quantifying endogenous compounds. The standard addition, background subtraction, and the surrogate analyte approaches allow the use of the same matrix for the calibration curve as the one to be analyzed in the test samples. However, in the surrogate matrix approach, various matrices such as artificial, stripped, and neat matrices are used as surrogate matrices for the actual matrix of study samples. For the surrogate analyte approach, it is required to demonstrate similarity in matrix effect and recovery between surrogate and authentic endogenous analytes. Similarly, for the surrogate matrix approach, it is required to demonstrate similar matrix effect and extraction recovery in both the surrogate and original matrices. All these methods represent indirect approaches to quantify endogenous compounds and regardless of what approach is followed, it has to be shown that none of the validation criteria have been compromised due to the indirect analyses. PMID

  8. Cytokine Targets in the Brain: Impact on Neurotransmitters and Neurocircuits

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Andrew H.; Haroon, Ebrahim; Raison, Charles L.; Felger, Jennifer C.

    2014-01-01

    Increasing attention has been paid to the role of inflammation in a host of illnesses including neuropsychiatric disorders such as depression and anxiety. Activation of the inflammatory response leads to release of inflammatory cytokines and mobilization of immune cells both of which have been shown to access the brain and alter behavior. The mechanisms of the effects of inflammation on the brain have become an area of intensive study. Data indicate that cytokines and their signaling pathways including p38 mitogen activated protein kinase have significant effects on the metabolism of multiple neurotransmitters such as serotonin, dopamine and glutamate through impact on their synthesis, release and reuptake. Cytokines also activate the kynurenine pathway which not only depletes tryptophan, the primary amino acid precursor of serotonin, but also generates neuroactive metabolites that can significantly influence the regulation of dopamine and glutamate. Through their effects on neurotransmitter systems, cytokines impact neurocircuits in the brain including the basal ganglia and anterior cingulate cortex, leading to significant changes in motor activity and motivation as well as anxiety, arousal and alarm. In the context of environmental challenge from the microbial world, these effects of inflammatory cytokines on the brain represent an orchestrated suite of behavioral and immune responses that subserve evolutionary priorities to shunt metabolic resources away from environmental exploration to fighting infection and wound healing, while also maintaining vigilance against attack, injury and further pathogen exposure. Chronic activation of this innate behavioral and immune response may lead to depression and anxiety disorders in vulnerable individuals. PMID:23468190

  9. Developmental profiles of neurotransmitter receptors in respiratory motor nuclei

    PubMed Central

    Kubin, Leszek; Volgin, Denys V.

    2008-01-01

    We discuss the time course of postnatal development of selected neurotransmitter receptors in motoneurons that innervate respiratory pump and accessory respiratory muscles, with emphasis on other than classic respiratory signals as important regulatory factors. Functions of those brainstem motoneurons that innervate the pharynx and larynx change more dramatically during early postnatal development than those of spinal respiratory motoneurons. Possibly in relation to this difference, the time course of postnatal expression of distinct receptors for serotonin differ between the hypoglossal (XII) and phrenic motoneurons. In rats, distinct developmental patterns include a decline or increase that extends over the first 3−4 postnatal weeks, a rapid increase during the first two weeks, or a transient decline on postnatal days 11−14. The latter period coincides with major changes in many transmitters in brainstem respiratory regions that may be related to a brain-wide reconfiguration of sensorymotor processing resulting from eye and ear opening and beginning of a switch from suckling to mature forms of food seeking and processing. Such rapid neurochemical changes may impart increased vulnerability on the respiratory system. We also consider rapid eye movement sleep as a state during which some brain functions may revert to conditions typical of perinatal period. In addition to normal developmental processes, changes in the expression or function of neurotransmitter receptors may occur in respiratory motoneurons in response to injury, perinatal stress, or disease conditions that increase the load on respiratory muscles or alter the normal levels and patterns of oxygen delivery. PMID:18514591

  10. A CMOS Amperometric System for Multi-Neurotransmitter Detection.

    PubMed

    Massicotte, Genevieve; Carrara, Sandro; Di Micheli, Giovanni; Sawan, Mohamad

    2016-06-01

    In vivo multi-target and selective concentration monitoring of neurotransmitters can help to unravel the brain chemical complex signaling interplay. This paper presents a dedicated integrated potentiostat transducer circuit and its selective electrode interface. A custom 2-electrode time-based potentiostat circuit was fabricated with 0.13 μm CMOS technology and provides a wide dynamic input current range of 20 pA to 600 nA with 56 μ W, for a minimum sampling frequency of 1.25 kHz. A multi-working electrode chip is functionalized with carbon nanotubes (CNT)-based chemical coatings that offer high sensitivity and selectivity towards electroactive dopamine and non-electroactive glutamate. The prototype was experimentally tested with different concentrations levels of both neurotransmitter types, and results were similar to measurements with a commercially available potentiostat. This paper validates the functionality of the proposed biosensor, and demonstrates its potential for the selective detection of a large number of neurochemicals. PMID:26761882

  11. Detection and Monitoring of Neurotransmitters - a Spectroscopic Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manciu, Felicia; Lee, Kendall; Durrer, William; Bennet, Kevin

    2012-10-01

    In this work we demonstrate the capability of confocal Raman mapping spectroscopy for simultaneously and locally detecting important compounds in neuroscience such as dopamine, serotonin, and adenosine. The Raman results show shifting of the characteristic vibrations of the compounds, observations consistent with previous spectroscopic studies. Although some vibrations are common in these neurotransmitters, Raman mapping was achieved by detecting non-overlapping characteristic spectral signatures of the compounds, as follows: for dopamine the vibration attributed to C-O stretching, for serotonin the indole ring stretching vibration, and for adenosine the adenine ring vibrations. Without damage, dyeing, or preferential sample preparation, confocal Raman mapping provided positive detection of each neurotransmitter, allowing association of the high-resolution spectra with specific micro-scale image regions. Such information is particularly important for complex, heterogeneous samples, where modification of the chemical or physical composition can influence the neurotransmission processes. We also report an estimated dopamine diffusion coefficient two orders of magnitude smaller than that calculated by the flow-injection method.

  12. Endogenized viral sequences in mammals.

    PubMed

    Parrish, Nicholas F; Tomonaga, Keizo

    2016-06-01

    Reverse-transcribed RNA molecules compose a significant portion of the human genome. Many of these RNA molecules were retrovirus genomes either infecting germline cells or having done so in a previous generation but retaining transcriptional activity. This mechanism itself accounts for a quarter of the genomic sequence information of mammals for which there is data. We understand relatively little about the causes and consequences of retroviral endogenization. This review highlights functions ascribed to sequences of viral origin endogenized into mammalian genomes and suggests some of the most pressing questions raised by these observations. PMID:27128186

  13. Drosophila melanogaster as a genetic model system to study neurotransmitter transporters

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Ciara A.; Krantz, David E.

    2014-01-01

    The model genetic organism Drosophila melanogaster, commonly known as the fruit fly, uses many of the same neurotransmitters as mammals and very similar mechanisms of neurotransmitter storage, release and recycling. This system offers a variety of powerful molecular-genetic methods for the study of transporters, many of which would be difficult in mammalian models. We review here progress made using Drosophila to understand the function and regulation of neurotransmitter transporters and discuss future directions for its use. PMID:24704795

  14. Structure, Function, and Drug Interactions of Neurotransmitter Transporters in the Postgenomic Era.

    PubMed

    Omote, Hiroshi; Miyaji, Takaaki; Hiasa, Miki; Juge, Narinobu; Moriyama, Yoshinori

    2016-01-01

    Vesicular neurotransmitter transporters are responsible for the accumulation of neurotransmitters in secretory vesicles and play essential roles in chemical transmission. The SLC17 family contributes to sequestration of anionic neurotransmitters such as glutamate, aspartate, and nucleotides. Identification and subsequent cellular and molecular biological studies of SLC17 transporters unveiled the principles underlying the actions of these transporters. Recent progress in reconstitution methods in combination with postgenomic approaches has advanced studies on neurotransmitter transporters. This review summarizes the molecular properties of SLC17-type transporters and recent findings regarding the novel SLC18 transporter. PMID:26514205

  15. [Glutamatergic neurotransmitter system in regulation of the gastrointestinal tract motor activity].

    PubMed

    Alekseeva, E V; Popova, T S; Sal'nikov, P S

    2015-01-01

    The review include actual facts, demonstrating high probability of glutamatergic neurotransmitter system role in the regulation of the gastrointestinal tract motor activity. These facts suggest significant role of the glutamatergic neurotransmitter system dysfunction in forming motor activity disorders of the digestive tract, including in patients in critical condition. The analysis is based on results of multiple experimental and clinical researches of glutamic acid and other components of the glutamatergic neurotransmitter system in central nervous system and autonomic nervous system (with the accent on the enteral nervous system) in normal conditions and with functioning changes of the glutamatergic neurotransmitter system in case of inflammation, hupoxia, stress and in critical condition. PMID:26852608

  16. [Endogenous hyperlactatemia and insulin secretion].

    PubMed

    Ribes, G; Valette, G; Lignon, F; Loubatières-Mariani, M M

    1978-01-01

    In the normal anesthetized dog, the endogenous hyperlactatemia induced either by intense muscular work or by a high dose of phenformin (20 mg/kg subtucaneously) is followed by an increase in the pancreaticoduodenal insulin output. A previous perfusion of sodium dichloroacetate (50 mg/kg. h) opposes the hyperlactatemia, and reduces or suppresses the increase in insulin output. PMID:150887

  17. Inhibition of nitrosation.

    PubMed

    Bartsch, H; Pignatelli, B; Calmels, S; Ohshima, H

    1993-01-01

    Humans are exposed through ingestion or inhalation to preformed N-nitroso compounds (NOC) in the environment and through the endogenous nitrosation of amino precursors in the body. Activated macrophages and bacterial strains isolated from human infections can enzymatically produce nitrosating agents and NOC from precursors at neutral pH. As a consequence, endogenous nitrosation may occur at various sites of the body, such as the oral cavity, stomach, urinary bladder, and at other sites of infection or inflammation. Numerous substances to which humans are exposed have been identified and shown to inhibit formation of NOC. Such inhibitors include vitamins C and E, certain phenolic compounds, and complex mixtures such as fruit and vegetable juices or other plant extracts. Nitrosation inhibitors normally destroy the nitrosating agents and, thus, act as competitors for the amino compound that serves as substrate for the nitrosating species. Independently, epidemiological studies have already established that fresh fruits and vegetables that are sources of vitamin C, other vitamins, and polyphenols have a protective effect against cancers at various sites and in particular gastric cancer. This article briefly reviews (a) the chemistry of NOC formation and inhibition; (b) the studies in experimental animals that showed that inhibition of endogenous NOC synthesis leads to a reduction of toxic, mutagenic, and carcinogenic effects; (c) recent studies in humans where the degree of inhibition of endogenous NOC synthesis was directly quantified; and (d) the possible contribution of nitrosation inhibitors to human cancer prevention. PMID:8304939

  18. Clinical Neuroanatomy and Neurotransmitter-Mediated Regulation of Penile Erection

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Hyun Woo; Kwon, Hyunseob

    2014-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) has an adverse impact on men's quality of life. Penile erection, which is regulated by nerves that are innervated into the erectile tissue, can be affected by functional or anatomical trauma of the perineal region, including specific structures of the penis, causing ED. Penile erection is neurologically controlled by the autonomic nervous system. Therefore, it is of utmost importance to understand the neurogenic structure of the erectile tissue and the types of neurotransmitters involved in the penile erection process. Here, we highlight the basic clinical anatomy and erectile function of the penis. Understanding the clinical connotation of the relationship between penile erectile structure and function may provide fresh insights for identifying the main mechanisms involved in ED and help develop surgical techniques for the treatment of ED. PMID:24987557

  19. Teaching medical students basic neurotransmitter pharmacology using primary research resources.

    PubMed

    Halliday, Amy C; Devonshire, Ian M; Greenfield, Susan A; Dommett, Eleanor J

    2010-12-01

    Teaching pharmacology to medical students has long been seen as a challenge, and one to which a number of innovative approaches have been taken. In this article, we describe and evaluate the use of primary research articles in teaching second-year medical students both in terms of the information learned and the use of the papers themselves. We designed a seminar where small groups of students worked on different neurotransmitters before contributing information to a plenary session. Student feedback suggested that when the information was largely novel, students learned considerably more. Crucially, this improvement in knowledge was seen even when they had not directly studied a particular transmitter in their work groups, suggesting a shared learning experience. Moreover, the majority of students reported that using primary research papers was easy and useful, with over half stating that they would use them in future study. PMID:21098388

  20. SLC18: Vesicular neurotransmitter transporters for monoamines and acetylcholine ☆

    PubMed Central

    Lawal, Hakeem O.; Krantz, David E.

    2012-01-01

    The exocytotic release of neurotransmitters requires active transport into synaptic vesicles and other types of secretory vesicles. Members of the SLC18 family perform this function for acetylcholine (SLC18A3, the vesicular acetylcholine transporter or VAChT) and monoamines such as dopamine and serotonin (SLC18A1 and 2, the vesicular monoamine transporters VMAT1 and 2, respectively). To date, no specific diseases have been attributed to a mutation in an SLC18 family member; however, polymorphisms in SLC18A1 and SLC18A2 may confer risk for some neuropsychiatric disorders. Additional members of this family include SLC18A4, expressed in insects, and SLC18B1, the function of which is not known. SLC18 is part of the Drug:H+ Antiporter-1 Family (DHA1, TCID 2.A.1.2) within the Major Facilitator Superfamily (MFS, TCID 2.A.1). PMID:23506877

  1. Wireless Power Transfer for Autonomous Wearable Neurotransmitter Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Cuong M.; Kota, Pavan Kumar; Nguyen, Minh Q.; Dubey, Souvik; Rao, Smitha; Mays, Jeffrey; Chiao, J.-C.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we report a power management system for autonomous and real-time monitoring of the neurotransmitter L-glutamate (L-Glu). A low-power, low-noise, and high-gain recording module was designed to acquire signal from an implantable flexible L-Glu sensor fabricated by micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS)-based processes. The wearable recording module was wirelessly powered through inductive coupling transmitter antennas. Lateral and angular misalignments of the receiver antennas were resolved by using a multi-transmitter antenna configuration. The effective coverage, over which the recording module functioned properly, was improved with the use of in-phase transmitter antennas. Experimental results showed that the recording system was capable of operating continuously at distances of 4 cm, 7 cm and 10 cm. The wireless power management system reduced the weight of the recording module, eliminated human intervention and enabled animal experimentation for extended durations. PMID:26404311

  2. Mimicking subsecond neurotransmitter dynamics with femtosecond laser stimulated nanosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, Takashi; Chin, Catherine; Myint, David Mo Aung; Tan, Eng Wui; Hale, Peter John; Krishna M., Bala Murali; Reynolds, John N. J.; Wickens, Jeff; Dani, Keshav M.

    2014-06-01

    Existing nanoscale chemical delivery systems target diseased cells over long, sustained periods of time, typically through one-time, destructive triggering. Future directions lie in the development of fast and robust techniques capable of reproducing the pulsatile chemical activity of living organisms, thereby allowing us to mimic biofunctionality. Here, we demonstrate that by applying programmed femtosecond laser pulses to robust, nanoscale liposome structures containing dopamine, we achieve sub-second, controlled release of dopamine - a key neurotransmitter of the central nervous system - thereby replicating its release profile in the brain. The fast delivery system provides a powerful new interface with neural circuits, and to the larger range of biological functions that operate on this short timescale.

  3. Identification of catecholamine neurotransmitters using fluorescence sensor array.

    PubMed

    Ghasemi, Forough; Hormozi-Nezhad, M Reza; Mahmoudi, Morteza

    2016-04-21

    A nano-based sensor array has been developed for identification and discrimination of catecholamine neurotransmitters based on optical properties of their oxidation products under alkaline conditions. To produce distinct fluorescence response patterns for individual catecholamine, quenching of thioglycolic acid functionalized cadmium telluride (CdTe) quantum dots, by oxidation products, were employed along with the variation of fluorescence spectra of oxidation products. The spectral changes were analyzed with hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) to identify catecholamine patterns. The proposed sensor could efficiently discriminate the individual catecholamine (i.e., dopamine, norepinephrine, and l-DOPA) and their mixtures in the concentration range of 0.25-30 μmol L(-1). Finally, we found that the sensor had capability to identify the various catecholamines in urine sample. PMID:27026604

  4. Wireless multichannel integrated potentiostat for distributed neurotransmitter sensing.

    PubMed

    Murari, Kartikeya; Sauer, Christian; Stanacevic, Milutin; Cauwenberghs, Gert; Thakor, Nitish

    2005-01-01

    Sensing neurotransmitters is critical in studying neural pathways and neurological disorders. An integrated device is presented which incorporates a potentiostat and a power harvesting and telemetry module. The potentiostat features 16 channels with multiple scales from microamperes to picoamperes. The wireless module is able to harvest power through inductively coupled coils and uses the same link to transmit data to and from the potentiostat. An integrated prototype is fabricated in CMOS technology, and experimentally characterized. Test results show RF powering introduces noise levels of 0.42% and 0.18% on potentiostat current scales of 500pA and 4nA respectively. Real-time multi-channel acquisition of dopamine concentration in vitro is performed with carbon fiber sensors. PMID:17281973

  5. Wireless Power Transfer for Autonomous Wearable Neurotransmitter Sensors.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Cuong M; Kota, Pavan Kumar; Nguyen, Minh Q; Dubey, Souvik; Rao, Smitha; Mays, Jeffrey; Chiao, J-C

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we report a power management system for autonomous and real-time monitoring of the neurotransmitter L-glutamate (L-Glu). A low-power, low-noise, and high-gain recording module was designed to acquire signal from an implantable flexible L-Glu sensor fabricated by micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS)-based processes. The wearable recording module was wirelessly powered through inductive coupling transmitter antennas. Lateral and angular misalignments of the receiver antennas were resolved by using a multi-transmitter antenna configuration. The effective coverage, over which the recording module functioned properly, was improved with the use of in-phase transmitter antennas. Experimental results showed that the recording system was capable of operating continuously at distances of 4 cm, 7 cm and 10 cm. The wireless power management system reduced the weight of the recording module, eliminated human intervention and enabled animal experimentation for extended durations. PMID:26404311

  6. Endogenous opiates and behavior: 2014.

    PubMed

    Bodnar, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    This paper is the thirty-seventh consecutive installment of the annual review of research concerning the endogenous opioid system. It summarizes papers published during 2014 that studied the behavioral effects of molecular, pharmacological and genetic manipulation of opioid peptides, opioid receptors, opioid agonists and opioid antagonists. The particular topics that continue to be covered include the molecular-biochemical effects and neurochemical localization studies of endogenous opioids and their receptors related to behavior (endogenous opioids and receptors), and the roles of these opioid peptides and receptors in pain and analgesia (pain and analgesia); stress and social status (human studies); tolerance and dependence (opioid mediation of other analgesic responses); learning and memory (stress and social status); eating and drinking (stress-induced analgesia); alcohol and drugs of abuse (emotional responses in opioid-mediated behaviors); sexual activity and hormones, pregnancy, development and endocrinology (opioid involvement in stress response regulation); mental illness and mood (tolerance and dependence); seizures and neurologic disorders (learning and memory); electrical-related activity and neurophysiology (opiates and conditioned place preferences (CPP)); general activity and locomotion (eating and drinking); gastrointestinal, renal and hepatic functions (alcohol and drugs of abuse); cardiovascular responses (opiates and ethanol); respiration and thermoregulation (opiates and THC); and immunological responses (opiates and stimulants). This paper is the thirty-seventh consecutive installment of the annual review of research concerning the endogenous opioid system. It summarizes papers published during 2014 that studied the behavioral effects of molecular, pharmacological and genetic manipulation of opioid peptides, opioid receptors, opioid agonists and opioid antagonists. The particular topics that continue to be covered include the molecular

  7. Endogenous Mechanisms of Cardiac Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Xiang, M S W; Kikuchi, K

    2016-01-01

    Zebrafish possess a remarkable capacity for cardiac regeneration throughout their lifetime, providing a model for investigating endogenous cellular and molecular mechanisms regulating myocardial regeneration. By contrast, adult mammals have an extremely limited capacity for cardiac regeneration, contributing to mortality and morbidity from cardiac diseases such as myocardial infarction and heart failure. However, the viewpoint of the mammalian heart as a postmitotic organ was recently revised based on findings that the mammalian heart contains multiple undifferentiated cell types with cardiogenic potential as well as a robust regenerative capacity during a short period early in life. Although it occurs at an extremely low level, continuous cardiomyocyte turnover has been detected in adult mouse and human hearts, which could potentially be enhanced to restore lost myocardium in damaged human hearts. This review summarizes and discusses recent advances in the understanding of endogenous mechanisms of cardiac regeneration. PMID:27572127

  8. Endogenous opiates and behavior: 2004.

    PubMed

    Bodnar, Richard J; Klein, Gad E

    2005-12-01

    This paper is the 27th consecutive installment of the annual review of research concerning the endogenous opioid system, now spanning over 30 years of research. It summarizes papers published during 2004 that studied the behavioral effects of molecular, pharmacological and genetic manipulation of opioid peptides, opioid receptors, opioid agonists and opioid antagonists. The particular topics that continue to be covered include the molecular-biochemical effects and neurochemical localization studies of endogenous opioids and their receptors related to behavior, and the roles of these opioid peptides and receptors in pain and analgesia; stress and social status; tolerance and dependence; learning and memory; eating and drinking; alcohol and drugs of abuse; sexual activity and hormones, pregnancy, development and endocrinology; mental illness and mood; seizures and neurologic disorders; electrical-related activity and neurophysiology; general activity and locomotion; gastrointestinal, renal and hepatic functions; cardiovascular responses; respiration and thermoregulation; and immunological responses. PMID:16039752

  9. Endogenous opiates and behavior: 2013.

    PubMed

    Bodnar, Richard J

    2014-12-01

    This paper is the thirty-sixth consecutive installment of the annual review of research concerning the endogenous opioid system. It summarizes papers published during 2013 that studied the behavioral effects of molecular, pharmacological and genetic manipulation of opioid peptides, opioid receptors, opioid agonists and opioid antagonists. The particular topics that continue to be covered include the molecular-biochemical effects and neurochemical localization studies of endogenous opioids and their receptors related to behavior, and the roles of these opioid peptides and receptors in pain and analgesia; stress and social status; tolerance and dependence; learning and memory; eating and drinking; alcohol and drugs of abuse; sexual activity and hormones, pregnancy, development and endocrinology; mental illness and mood; seizures and neurologic disorders; electrical-related activity and neurophysiology; general activity and locomotion; gastrointestinal, renal and hepatic functions; cardiovascular responses; respiration and thermoregulation; and immunological responses. PMID:25263178

  10. Endogenous opiates and behavior: 2007.

    PubMed

    Bodnar, Richard J

    2008-12-01

    This paper is the thirtieth consecutive installment of the annual review of research concerning the endogenous opioid system. It summarizes papers published during 2007 that studied the behavioral effects of molecular, pharmacological and genetic manipulation of opioid peptides, opioid receptors, opioid agonists and opioid antagonists. The particular topics that continue to be covered include the molecular-biochemical effects and neurochemical localization studies of endogenous opioids and their receptors related to behavior, and the roles of these opioid peptides and receptors in pain and analgesia; stress and social status; tolerance and dependence; learning and memory; eating and drinking; alcohol and drugs of abuse; sexual activity and hormones, pregnancy, development and endocrinology; mental illness and mood; seizures and neurologic disorders; electrical-related activity and neurophysiology; general activity and locomotion; gastrointestinal, renal and hepatic functions; cardiovascular responses; respiration and thermoregulation; and immunological responses. PMID:18851999

  11. Dynamic equilibrium of endogenous selenium nanoparticles in selenite-exposed cancer cells: a deep insight into the interaction between endogenous SeNPs and proteins.

    PubMed

    Bao, Peng; Chen, Song-Can; Xiao, Ke-Qing

    2015-12-01

    Elemental selenium (Se) was recently found to exist as endogenous nanoparticles (i.e., SeNPs) in selenite-exposed cancer cells. By sequestrating critical intracellular proteins, SeNPs appear capable of giving rise to multiple cytotoxicity mechanisms including inhibition of glycolysis, glycolysis-dependent mitochondrial dysfunction, microtubule depolymerization and inhibition of autophagy. In this work, we reveal a dynamic equilibrium of endogenous SeNP assembly and disassembly in selenite-exposed H157 cells. Endogenous SeNPs are observed both in the cytoplasm and in organelles. There is an increase in endogenous SeNPs between 24 h and 36 h, and a decrease between 36 h and 72 h according to transmission electron microscopy results and UV-Vis measurements. These observations imply that elemental Se in SeNPs could be oxidized back into selenite by scavenging superoxide radicals and ultimately re-reduced into selenide; then the assembly and disassembly of SeNPs proceed simultaneously with the sequestration and release of SeNP high-affinity proteins. There is also a possibility that the reduction of elemental Se to selenide pathway may lie in selenite-exposed cancer cells, which results in the assembly and disassembly of endogenous SeNPs. Genome-wide expression analysis results show that endogenous SeNPs significantly altered the expression of 504 genes, compared to the control. The endogenous SeNPs induced mitochondrial impairment and decreasing of the annexin A2 level can lead to inhibition of cancer cell invasion and migration. This dynamic flux of endogenous SeNPs amplifies their cytotoxic potential in cancer cells, thus provide a starting point to design more efficient intracellular self-assembling systems for overcoming multidrug resistance. PMID:26456389

  12. RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN ELECTROCHEMICAL SENSORS FOR THE DETECTION OF NEUROTRANSMITTERS FOR APPLICATIONS IN BIOMEDICINE

    PubMed Central

    Özel, Rıfat Emrah; Hayat, Akhtar; Andreescu, Silvana

    2015-01-01

    Neurotransmitters are important biological molecules that are essential to many neurophysiological processes including memory, cognition, and behavioral states. The development of analytical methodologies to accurately detect neurotransmitters is of great importance in neurological and biological research. Specifically designed microelectrodes or microbiosensors have demonstrated potential for rapid, real-time measurements with high spatial resolution. Such devices can facilitate study of the role and mechanism of action of neurotransmitters and can find potential uses in biomedicine. This paper reviews the current status and recent advances in the development and application of electrochemical sensors for the detection of small-molecule neurotransmitters. Measurement challenges and opportunities of electroanalytical methods to advance study and understanding of neurotransmitters in various biological models and disease conditions are discussed. PMID:26973348

  13. Proton MR spectroscopy-detectable major neurotransmitters of the brain: biology and possible clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, N; Renshaw, P F

    2012-04-01

    Neurotransmitters are chemical substances that, by definition, allow communication between neurons and permit most neuronal-glial interactions in the CNS. Approximately 80% of all neurons use glutamate, and almost all interneurons use GABA. A third neurotransmitter, NAAG, modulates glutamatergic neurotransmission. Concentration changes in these molecules due to defective synthetic machinery, receptor expression, or errors in their degradation and metabolism are accepted causes of several neurologic disorders. Knowledge of changes in neurotransmitter concentrations in the brain can add useful information in making a diagnosis, helping to pick the right drug of treatment, and monitoring patient response to drugs in a more objective manner. Recent advances in (1)H-MR spectroscopy hold promise in providing a more reliable in vivo detection of these neurotransmitters. In this article, we summarize the essential biology of 3 major neurotransmitters: glutamate, GABA, and NAAG. Finally we illustrate possible applications of (1)H-MR spectroscopy in neuroscience research. PMID:22207303

  14. Repeated immobilization stress alters rat hippocampal and prefrontal cortical morphology in parallel with endogenous agmatine and arginine decarboxylase levels

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Meng-Yang; Wang, Wei-Ping; Huang, Jingjing; Feng, Yang-Zheng; Regunathan, Soundar; Bissette, Garth

    2008-01-01

    Agmatine, an endogenous amine derived from decarboxylation of L-arginine catalyzed by arginine decarboxylase, has been proposed as a neurotransmitter or neuromodulator in the brain. In the present study we examined whether agmatine has neuroprotective effects against repeated immobilization-induced morphological changes in brain tissues and possible effects of immobilization stress on endogenous agmatine levels and arginine decarboxylase expression in rat brains. Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to two hour immobilization stress daily for seven days. This paradigm significantly increased plasma corticosterone levels, and the glutamate efflux in the hippocampus as measured by in vivo microdialysis. Immunohistochemical staining with β-tubulin III showed that repeated immobilization caused marked morphological alterations in the hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex that were prevented by simultaneous treatment with agmatine (50 mg/kg/day, i.p.). Likewise, endogenous agmatine levels measured by high performance liquid chromatography in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, striatum and hypothalamus were significantly increased by immobilization, as compared to controls. The increased endogenous agmatine levels, ranging from 92% to 265% of controls, were accompanied by a significant increase of arginine decarboxylase protein levels in the same regions. These results demonstrate that administration of exogenous agmatine protects the hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex against neuronal insults caused by repeated immobilization. The parallel increase in endogenous brain agmatine and arginine decarboxylase protein levels triggered by repeated immobilization indicates that the endogenous agmatine system may play an important role in adaptation to stress as a potential neuronal self-protection mechanism. PMID:18832001

  15. Reduced endogenous Ca2+ buffering speeds active zone Ca2+ signaling.

    PubMed

    Delvendahl, Igor; Jablonski, Lukasz; Baade, Carolin; Matveev, Victor; Neher, Erwin; Hallermann, Stefan

    2015-06-01

    Fast synchronous neurotransmitter release at the presynaptic active zone is triggered by local Ca(2+) signals, which are confined in their spatiotemporal extent by endogenous Ca(2+) buffers. However, it remains elusive how rapid and reliable Ca(2+) signaling can be sustained during repetitive release. Here, we established quantitative two-photon Ca(2+) imaging in cerebellar mossy fiber boutons, which fire at exceptionally high rates. We show that endogenous fixed buffers have a surprisingly low Ca(2+)-binding ratio (∼ 15) and low affinity, whereas mobile buffers have high affinity. Experimentally constrained modeling revealed that the low endogenous buffering promotes fast clearance of Ca(2+) from the active zone during repetitive firing. Measuring Ca(2+) signals at different distances from active zones with ultra-high-resolution confirmed our model predictions. Our results lead to the concept that reduced Ca(2+) buffering enables fast active zone Ca(2+) signaling, suggesting that the strength of endogenous Ca(2+) buffering limits the rate of synchronous synaptic transmission. PMID:26015575

  16. Reduced endogenous Ca2+ buffering speeds active zone Ca2+ signaling

    PubMed Central

    Delvendahl, Igor; Jablonski, Lukasz; Baade, Carolin; Matveev, Victor; Neher, Erwin; Hallermann, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Fast synchronous neurotransmitter release at the presynaptic active zone is triggered by local Ca2+ signals, which are confined in their spatiotemporal extent by endogenous Ca2+ buffers. However, it remains elusive how rapid and reliable Ca2+ signaling can be sustained during repetitive release. Here, we established quantitative two-photon Ca2+ imaging in cerebellar mossy fiber boutons, which fire at exceptionally high rates. We show that endogenous fixed buffers have a surprisingly low Ca2+-binding ratio (∼15) and low affinity, whereas mobile buffers have high affinity. Experimentally constrained modeling revealed that the low endogenous buffering promotes fast clearance of Ca2+ from the active zone during repetitive firing. Measuring Ca2+ signals at different distances from active zones with ultra-high-resolution confirmed our model predictions. Our results lead to the concept that reduced Ca2+ buffering enables fast active zone Ca2+ signaling, suggesting that the strength of endogenous Ca2+ buffering limits the rate of synchronous synaptic transmission. PMID:26015575

  17. Neurobiological mechanisms involved in nicotine dependence and reward: participation of the endogenous opioid system

    PubMed Central

    Berrendero, Fernando; Robledo, Patricia; Trigo, José Manuel; Martín-García, Elena; Maldonado, Rafael

    2010-01-01

    Nicotine is the primary component of tobacco that maintains the smoking habit and develops addiction. The adaptive changes of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors produced by repeated exposure to nicotine play a crucial role in the establishment of dependence. However, other neurochemical systems also participate in the addictive effects of nicotine including glutamate, cannabinoids, GABA and opioids. This review will cover the involvement of these neurotransmitters in nicotine addictive properties, with a special emphasis on the endogenous opioid system. Thus, endogenous enkephalins and beta-endorphins acting on mu-opioid receptors are involved in nicotine rewarding effects, whereas opioid peptides derived from prodynorphin participate in nicotine aversive responses. An upregulation of mu-opioid receptors has been reported after chronic nicotine treatment that could counteract the development of nicotine tolerance, whereas the downregulation induced on kappa-opioid receptors seems to facilitate nicotine tolerance. Endogenous enkephalins acting on mu-opioid receptors also play a role in the development of physical dependence to nicotine. In agreement with these actions of the endogenous opioid system, the opioid antagonist naltrexone has shown to be effective for smoking cessation in certain subpopulations of smokers. PMID:20170672

  18. Regulation of Tumor Angiogenesis and Choroidal Neovascularization by Endogenous Angioinhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Gunda, Venugopal; Sudhakar, Yakkanti A

    2014-01-01

    Angiogenesis is the process of neovascularization from parent blood vessels, which is a prerequisite for many physiological and pathological conditions and is regulated by a balance between endogenous angioinhibitors and angioactivators or angiogenic factors. Imbalance between angioinhibitors and angioactivators is associated with neovascularization capacity during progression of tumor development and Choroidal Neovascularization (CNV). Normalization of pathological angiogenesis is considered as an alternative strategy to prevent the tumor growth in cancer progression or retinal damage in CNV. Various angioinhibitors are being identified and evaluated for their pathological angiogenesis regulation, of which endogenous angioinhibitors are one class derived either from extra cellular matrix or from non-extra cellular matrix of human origin. Endogenous angioinhibitors are gaining much significance as they interact with proliferating endothelial cells by binding to distinct integrins and non-integrin receptors, regulating different intracellular signaling mechanisms leading to inhibition of choroidal neovascularization and tumor growth. This review will focus on endogenous angioinhibitors and their receptor(s) mediated angioinhibitory signaling, which are of major concern in angiogenesis and their clinical and pharmaceutical implications. PMID:25258675

  19. Novel endogenous angiogenesis inhibitors and their therapeutic potential

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Nithya; Lee, Yu Fei; Ge, Ruowen

    2015-01-01

    Angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels from the pre-existing vasculature is essential for embryonic development and tissue homeostasis. It also plays critical roles in diseases such as cancer and retinopathy. A delicate balance between pro- and anti-angiogenic factors ensures normal physiological homeostasis. Endogenous angiogenesis inhibitors are proteins or protein fragments that are formed in the body and have the ability to limit angiogenesis. Many endogenous angiogenesis inhibitors have been discovered, and the list continues to grow. Endogenous protein/peptide inhibitors are relatively less toxic, better tolerated and have a lower risk of drug resistance, which makes them attractive as drug candidates. In this review, we highlight ten novel endogenous protein angiogenesis inhibitors discovered within the last five years, including ISM1, FKBPL, CHIP, ARHGAP18, MMRN2, SOCS3, TAp73, ZNF24, GPR56 and JWA. Although some of these proteins have been well characterized for other biological functions, we focus on their new and specific roles in angiogenesis inhibition and discuss their potential for therapeutic application. PMID:26364800

  20. A Comprehensive Optogenetic Pharmacology Toolkit for In Vivo Control of GABA(A) Receptors and Synaptic Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wan-Chen; Tsai, Ming-Chi; Davenport, Christopher M; Smith, Caleb M; Veit, Julia; Wilson, Neil M; Adesnik, Hillel; Kramer, Richard H

    2015-12-01

    Exogenously expressed opsins are valuable tools for optogenetic control of neurons in circuits. A deeper understanding of neural function can be gained by bringing control to endogenous neurotransmitter receptors that mediate synaptic transmission. Here we introduce a comprehensive optogenetic toolkit for controlling GABA(A) receptor-mediated inhibition in the brain. We developed a series of photoswitch ligands and the complementary genetically modified GABA(A) receptor subunits. By conjugating the two components, we generated light-sensitive versions of the entire GABA(A) receptor family. We validated these light-sensitive receptors for applications across a broad range of spatial scales, from subcellular receptor mapping to in vivo photo-control of visual responses in the cerebral cortex. Finally, we generated a knockin mouse in which the "photoswitch-ready" version of a GABA(A) receptor subunit genomically replaces its wild-type counterpart, ensuring normal receptor expression. This optogenetic pharmacology toolkit allows scalable interrogation of endogenous GABA(A) receptor function with high spatial, temporal, and biochemical precision. PMID:26606997

  1. New Findings on the Neurotransmitter Modulation of Defense in the Dorsal Periaqueductal Gray.

    PubMed

    Graeff, Frederico Guilherme; Sant'Ana, Ana Beatriz; Vilela-Costa, Heloísa Helena; Zangrossi, Hélio

    2015-01-01

    The dorsal periaqueductal gray (DPAG) has long been implicated in the pathophysiology of anxiety, particularly in panic disorder (PD). Evidence obtained with animal models indicates that different neurotransmitters/neuromodulators in this midbrain area are involved in the regulation of anxiety- (e.g. inhibitory avoidance) and panic- (e.g. escape) associated defensive behaviors. Earlier findings showed that activation of serotonin (5-HT) 1A and 2A receptors in the DPAG inhibits escape expression, a panicolytic-like effect. Recently gathered evidence shows that different classes of antipanic drugs, such as the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressant fluoxetine or the benzodiazepine alprazolam, enhance the inhibitory action of 5-HT upon these receptors. They also show that opioidergic mechanisms, through the activation of μ-receptors, contribute to this process. As with 5-HT, activation of GABAA or GABAB receptors, or cannabinoid type 1receptors as well as the tropomyosin-related kinase B receptors by brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the DPAG also inhibits escape expression. There is evidence that chronic antidepressant treatment, besides facilitating 5-HT/opioid neurotransmission, also increases brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in this area with an impact on its panicolytic effect. On the other hand, facilitation of corticotrophin releasing factor- or cholecystokinin-mediated neurotransmission in the DPAG, via CRF1 and CCK2 receptors, respectively, causes panicogenic-like effects with implications for the pathogenesis of PD. A better understanding of the neurochemical control of defense in the DPAG may foster the development of new strategies for pharmacological treatment of PD. PMID:26350338

  2. Effects of neurotransmitters on calcium efflux from cultured glioma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lazarewicz, J.W.; Kanje, M.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of various neurotransmitters and cyclic nucleotides on 45Ca2+ efflux in cultured human glioma cells were investigated. Glutamate and glycine, but not GABA, stimulated 45Ca2+ release from the cells. Stimulation of beta-adrenergic receptors but not alpha-adrenergic receptors also increased 45Ca2+ efflux. Cholinergic receptor stimulation by carbachol had the same effect. The stimulatory effect of carbachol was abolished in the presence of either atropine or hexamethonium. C-AMP and c-GMP increased the 45Ca2+ efflux, suggesting that these agents are involved in the transmitter-stimulated release of 45Ca2+ from the cell. Kinetic analysis of the efflux revealed four calcium compartments. The carbachol-stimulated efflux represented a net release of calcium and could be ascribed to the slowest compartment. The physiological role of the transmitter-stimulated calcium release is discussed in terms of calcium-regulated stimulus-response coupling in glial-neural interaction during excitation.

  3. Polyethylenimine carbon nanotube fiber electrodes for enhanced detection of neurotransmitters.

    PubMed

    Zestos, Alexander G; Jacobs, Christopher B; Trikantzopoulos, Elefterios; Ross, Ashley E; Venton, B Jill

    2014-09-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT)-based microelectrodes have been investigated as alternatives to carbon-fiber microelectrodes for the detection of neurotransmitters because they are sensitive, exhibit fast electron transfer kinetics, and are more resistant to surface fouling. Wet spinning CNTs into fibers using a coagulating polymer produces a thin, uniform fiber that can be fabricated into an electrode. CNT fibers formed in poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) have been used as microelectrodes to detect dopamine, serotonin, and hydrogen peroxide. In this study, we characterize microelectrodes with CNT fibers made in polyethylenimine (PEI), which have much higher conductivity than PVA-CNT fibers. PEI-CNT fibers have lower overpotentials and higher sensitivities than PVA-CNT fiber microelectrodes, with a limit of detection of 5 nM for dopamine. The currents for dopamine were adsorption controlled at PEI-CNT fiber microelectrodes, independent of scan repetition frequency, and stable for over 10 h. PEI-CNT fiber microelectrodes were resistant to surface fouling by serotonin and the metabolite interferant 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA). No change in sensitivity was observed for detection of serotonin after 30 flow injection experiments or after 2 h in 5-HIAA for PEI-CNT electrodes. The antifouling properties were maintained in brain slices when serotonin was exogenously applied multiple times or after bathing the slice in 5-HIAA. Thus, PEI-CNT fiber electrodes could be useful for the in vivo monitoring of neurochemicals. PMID:25117550

  4. Potential Antidepressant Role of Neurotransmitter CART: Implications for Mental Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Peizhong

    2011-01-01

    Depression is one of the most prevalent and debilitating public health concerns. Although no single cause of depression has been identified, it appears that interaction among genetic, epigenetic, biochemical, environmental, and psychosocial factors may explain its etiology. Further, only a fraction of depressed patients show full remission while using current antidepressants. Therefore, identifying common pathways of the disorder and using that knowledge to develop more effective pharmacological treatments are two primary targets of research in this field. Brain-enriched neurotransmitter CART (cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript) has multiple functions related to emotions. It is a potential neurotrophic factor and is involved in the regulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and stress response as well as in energy homeostasis. CART is also highly expressed in limbic system, which is considered to have an important role in regulating mood. Notably, adolescents carrying a missense mutation in the CART gene exhibit increased depression and anxiety. Hence, CART peptide may be a novel promising antidepressant agent. In this paper, we summarize recent progress in depression and CART. In particular, we emphasize a new antidepressant function for CART. PMID:21785720

  5. Characterization of bacterial drug antiporters homologous to mammalian neurotransmitter transporters.

    PubMed

    Vardy, Eyal; Steiner-Mordoch, Sonia; Schuldiner, Shimon

    2005-11-01

    Multidrug transporters are ubiquitous proteins, and, based on amino acid sequence similarities, they have been classified into several families. Here we characterize a cluster of archaeal and bacterial proteins from the major facilitator superfamily (MFS). One member of this family, the vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT) was previously shown to remove both neurotransmitters and toxic compounds from the cytoplasm, thereby conferring resistance to their effects. A BLAST search of the available microbial genomes against the VMAT sequence yielded sequences of novel putative multidrug transporters. The new sequences along with VMAT form a distinct cluster within the dendrogram of the MFS, drug-proton antiporters. A comparison with other proteins in the family suggests the existence of a potential ion pair in the membrane domain. Three of these genes, from Mycobacterium smegmatis, Corynebacterium glutamicum, and Halobacterium salinarum, were cloned and functionally expressed in Escherichia coli. The proteins conferred resistance to fluoroquinolones and chloramphenicol (at concentrations two to four times greater than that of the control). Measurement of antibiotic accumulation in cells revealed proton motive force-dependent transport of those compounds. PMID:16237035

  6. Benefits of Neuronal Preferential Systemic Gene Therapy for Neurotransmitter Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ni-Chung; Muramatsu, Shin-Ichi; Chien, Yin-Hsiu; Liu, Wen-Shin; Wang, Wei-Hua; Cheng, Chia-Hao; Hu, Meng-Kai; Chen, Pin-Wen; Tzen, Kai-Yuan; Byrne, Barry J; Hwu, Wuh-Liang

    2015-10-01

    Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive disease that impairs synthesis of dopamine and serotonin. Children with AADC deficiency exhibit severe motor, behavioral, and autonomic dysfunctions. We previously generated an IVS6+4A>T knock-in mouse model of AADC deficiency (Ddc(KI) mice) and showed that gene therapy at the neonatal stage can rescue this phenotype. In the present study, we extended this treatment to systemic therapy on young mice. After intraperitoneal injection of AADC viral vectors into 7-day-old Ddc(KI) mice, the treated mice exhibited improvements in weight gain, survival, motor function, autonomic function, and behavior. The yfAAV9/3-Syn-I-mAADC-treated mice showed greater neuronal transduction and higher brain dopamine levels than AAV9-CMV-hAADC-treated mice, whereas AAV9-CMV-hAADC-treated mice exhibited hyperactivity. Therefore, neurotransmitter-deficient animals can be rescued at a young age using systemic gene therapy, although a vector for preferential neuronal expression may be necessary to avoid hyperactivity caused by this treatment. PMID:26137853

  7. REM Sleep at its Core - Circuits, Neurotransmitters, and Pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Fraigne, Jimmy J; Torontali, Zoltan A; Snow, Matthew B; Peever, John H

    2015-01-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is generated and maintained by the interaction of a variety of neurotransmitter systems in the brainstem, forebrain, and hypothalamus. Within these circuits lies a core region that is active during REM sleep, known as the subcoeruleus nucleus (SubC) or sublaterodorsal nucleus. It is hypothesized that glutamatergic SubC neurons regulate REM sleep and its defining features such as muscle paralysis and cortical activation. REM sleep paralysis is initiated when glutamatergic SubC cells activate neurons in the ventral medial medulla, which causes release of GABA and glycine onto skeletal motoneurons. REM sleep timing is controlled by activity of GABAergic neurons in the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray and dorsal paragigantocellular reticular nucleus as well as melanin-concentrating hormone neurons in the hypothalamus and cholinergic cells in the laterodorsal and pedunculo-pontine tegmentum in the brainstem. Determining how these circuits interact with the SubC is important because breakdown in their communication is hypothesized to underlie narcolepsy/cataplexy and REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD). This review synthesizes our current understanding of mechanisms generating healthy REM sleep and how dysfunction of these circuits contributes to common REM sleep disorders such as cataplexy/narcolepsy and RBD. PMID:26074874

  8. Fiber-optic evanescent wave biosensor of catecholamine neurotransmitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yexiang; Ran, Yong; Xu, Shunqing

    2001-09-01

    Using quartz fiber-immobilized laccase, detection of catecholamine neurotransmitter is described in this work. Laccase is immobilized on the fiber-optic by means of 3- aminopropyltriethoxysilane/glutaraldehyde method. The oxidation products of adrenalin catalyzed by laccade would absorb the fiber-optic evanescent wave according to the products' concentration. The optimal detection range of this fiber-optic biosensor is between 50-250ng/ml. The minimum detection limit is 10ng/ml. The analysis can provide results in only two minutes to detect one sample. Finally, the specificity of the biosensor is high. The special interference of other substrates of laccase such as o- phyenylenediamine (OPD) and benzenediol can be removed by controlling the pH of the reaction buffer. When the OPD concentration is 100ng/ml, the relative error is only 6.3 percent. On the other hand, the non-special interference is removed by employing double-channel differential method.

  9. Does chronic nicotine alter neurotransmitter receptors involved in Parkinson's disease

    SciTech Connect

    Reilly, M.A.; Lapin, E.P.; Lajtha, A.; Maker, H.S.

    1986-03-05

    Cigarette smokers are fewer in number among Parkinson's Disease (PD) patients than among groups of persons who do not have PD. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain this observation. One which must be tested is the possibility that some pharmacologic agent present in cigarette smoke may interact with some central nervous system component involved in PD. To this end, they have investigated the effect of chronic nicotine administration on receptors for some of the neurotransmitters that are affected in PD. Rats were injected for six weeks with saline or nicotine 0.8 mg/kg S.C., then killed and brains removed and dissected. The binding of (/sup 3/H)-ketanserin to serotonin receptors in frontal cortex and of (/sup 3/H)-domperidone to dopamine receptors in caudate was not affected. However, the binding of (/sup 3/H)-domperidone in nucleus accumbens was altered: the K/sub d/ increased from 0.16 +/- 0.02 nM to 0.61 +/- 0.07 nM, and the B/sub max/ increased from 507 +/- 47 fmol/mg protein to 910 +/- 43 fmol/mg (p < 0.001 for both comparisons). These values are based on three ligand concentrations. Additional studies are in progress to substantiate the data. It is concluded that chronic nicotine administration may alter dopamine receptors in nucleus accumbens.

  10. Neurotransmitter map of the asymmetric dorsal habenular nuclei of zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    deCarvalho, Tagide N.; Subedi, Abhignya; Rock, Jason; Harfe, Brian D.; Thisse, Christine; Thisse, Bernard; Halpern, Marnie E.; Hong, Elim

    2014-01-01

    The role of the habenular nuclei in modulating fear and reward pathways has sparked a renewed interest in this conserved forebrain region. The bilaterally paired habenular nuclei, each consisting of a medial/dorsal and lateral/ventral nucleus, can be further divided into discrete subdomains whose neuronal populations, precise connectivity and specific functions are not well understood. An added complexity is that the left and right habenulae show pronounced morphological differences in many non-mammalian species. Notably, the dorsal habenulae of larval zebrafish provide a vertebrate genetic model to probe the development and functional significance of brain asymmetry. Previous reports have described a number of genes that are expressed in the zebrafish habenulae, either in bilaterally symmetric patterns or more extensively on one side of the brain than the other. The goal of our study was to generate a comprehensive map of the zebrafish dorsal habenular nuclei, by delineating the relationship between gene expression domains, comparing the extent of left-right asymmetry at larval and adult stages, and identifying potentially functional subnuclear regions as defined by neurotransmitter phenotype. While many aspects of habenular organization appear conserved with rodents, the zebrafish habenulae also possess unique properties that may underlie lateralization of their functions. PMID:24753112

  11. Pyrethroid insecticides evoke neurotransmitter release from rabbit striatal slices

    SciTech Connect

    Eells, J.T.; Dubocovich, M.L.

    1988-08-01

    The effects of the synthetic pyrethroid insecticide fenvalerate ((R,S)-alpha-cyano-3-phenoxybenzyl(R,S)-2-(4-chlorophenyl)-3- methylbutyrate) on neurotransmitter release in rabbit brain slices were investigated. Fenvalerate evoked a calcium-dependent release of (/sup 3/H)dopamine and (/sup 3/H)acetylcholine from rabbit striatal slices that was concentration-dependent and specific for the toxic stereoisomer of the insecticide. The release of (/sup 3/H)dopamine and (/sup 3/H)acetylcholine by fenvalerate was modulated by D2 dopamine receptor activation and antagonized completely by the sodium channel blocker, tetrodotoxin. These findings are consistent with an action of fenvalerate on the voltage-dependent sodium channels of the presynaptic membrane resulting in membrane depolarization, and the release of dopamine and acetylcholine by a calcium-dependent exocytotic process. In contrast to results obtained in striatal slices, fenvalerate did not elicit the release of (/sup 3/H)norepinephrine or (/sup 3/H)acetylcholine from rabbit hippocampal slices indicative of regional differences in sensitivity to type II pyrethroid actions.

  12. Four-dimensional multi-site photolysis of caged neurotransmitters

    PubMed Central

    Go, Mary Ann; To, Minh-Son; Stricker, Christian; Redman, Stephen; Bachor, Hans-A.; Stuart, Greg J.; Daria, Vincent R.

    2013-01-01

    Neurons receive thousands of synaptic inputs that are distributed in space and time. The systematic study of how neurons process these inputs requires a technique to stimulate multiple yet highly targeted points of interest along the neuron's dendritic tree. Three-dimensional multi-focal patterns produced via holographic projection combined with two-photon photolysis of caged compounds can provide for highly localized release of neurotransmitters within each diffraction-limited focus, and in this way emulate simultaneous synaptic inputs to the neuron. However, this technique so far cannot achieve time-dependent stimulation patterns due to fundamental limitations of the hologram-encoding device and other factors that affect the consistency of controlled synaptic stimulation. Here, we report an advanced technique that enables the design and application of arbitrary spatio-temporal photostimulation patterns that resemble physiological synaptic inputs. By combining holographic projection with a programmable high-speed light-switching array, we have overcome temporal limitations with holographic projection, allowing us to mimic distributed activation of synaptic inputs leading to action potential generation. Our experiments uniquely demonstrate multi-site two-photon glutamate uncaging in three dimensions with submillisecond temporal resolution. Implementing this approach opens up new prospects for studying neuronal synaptic integration in four dimensions. PMID:24348330

  13. Polyethylenimine Carbon Nanotube Fiber Electrodes for Enhanced Detection of Neurotransmitters

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT)-based microelectrodes have been investigated as alternatives to carbon-fiber microelectrodes for the detection of neurotransmitters because they are sensitive, exhibit fast electron transfer kinetics, and are more resistant to surface fouling. Wet spinning CNTs into fibers using a coagulating polymer produces a thin, uniform fiber that can be fabricated into an electrode. CNT fibers formed in poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) have been used as microelectrodes to detect dopamine, serotonin, and hydrogen peroxide. In this study, we characterize microelectrodes with CNT fibers made in polyethylenimine (PEI), which have much higher conductivity than PVA-CNT fibers. PEI-CNT fibers have lower overpotentials and higher sensitivities than PVA-CNT fiber microelectrodes, with a limit of detection of 5 nM for dopamine. The currents for dopamine were adsorption controlled at PEI-CNT fiber microelectrodes, independent of scan repetition frequency, and stable for over 10 h. PEI-CNT fiber microelectrodes were resistant to surface fouling by serotonin and the metabolite interferant 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA). No change in sensitivity was observed for detection of serotonin after 30 flow injection experiments or after 2 h in 5-HIAA for PEI-CNT electrodes. The antifouling properties were maintained in brain slices when serotonin was exogenously applied multiple times or after bathing the slice in 5-HIAA. Thus, PEI-CNT fiber electrodes could be useful for the in vivo monitoring of neurochemicals. PMID:25117550

  14. REM Sleep at its Core – Circuits, Neurotransmitters, and Pathophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Fraigne, Jimmy J.; Torontali, Zoltan A.; Snow, Matthew B.; Peever, John H.

    2015-01-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is generated and maintained by the interaction of a variety of neurotransmitter systems in the brainstem, forebrain, and hypothalamus. Within these circuits lies a core region that is active during REM sleep, known as the subcoeruleus nucleus (SubC) or sublaterodorsal nucleus. It is hypothesized that glutamatergic SubC neurons regulate REM sleep and its defining features such as muscle paralysis and cortical activation. REM sleep paralysis is initiated when glutamatergic SubC cells activate neurons in the ventral medial medulla, which causes release of GABA and glycine onto skeletal motoneurons. REM sleep timing is controlled by activity of GABAergic neurons in the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray and dorsal paragigantocellular reticular nucleus as well as melanin-concentrating hormone neurons in the hypothalamus and cholinergic cells in the laterodorsal and pedunculo-pontine tegmentum in the brainstem. Determining how these circuits interact with the SubC is important because breakdown in their communication is hypothesized to underlie narcolepsy/cataplexy and REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD). This review synthesizes our current understanding of mechanisms generating healthy REM sleep and how dysfunction of these circuits contributes to common REM sleep disorders such as cataplexy/narcolepsy and RBD. PMID:26074874

  15. Changes in Neurotransmitter Profiles during Early Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Development and after Pesticide Exposure.

    PubMed

    Tufi, Sara; Leonards, Pim; Lamoree, Marja; de Boer, Jacob; Legler, Juliette; Legradi, Jessica

    2016-03-15

    During early development, neurotransmitters are important stimulants for the development of the central nervous system. Although the development of different neuronal cell types during early zebrafish (Danio rerio) development is well-studied, little is known of the levels of neurotransmitters, their precursors and metabolites during development, and how these levels are affected by exposure to environmental contaminants. A method based on hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry has been applied for the first time to zebrafish embryos and larvae to study five neurotransmitter systems in parallel, including the dopaminergic-andrenergic, glutaminergic-GABAnergic, serotoninergic, histaminergic, and cholinergic systems. Our method enables the quantification of neurotransmitters and their precursors and metabolites in whole zebrafish from the period of zygote to free-swimming larvae 6 days postfertilization (dpf). We observed a developmental stage-dependent pattern with clear differences between the first 2 days of development and the following days. Whereas the neurotransmitter levels steadily increased, the precursors showed a peak at 3 dpf. After exposure to several pesticides, significant differences in concentrations of neurotransmitters and precursors were observed. Our study revealed new insights about neurotransmitter systems during early zebrafish development and showed the usefulness of our approach for environmental neurotoxicity studies. PMID:26866575

  16. Are vesicular neurotransmitter transporters potential treatment targets for temporal lobe epilepsy?

    PubMed Central

    Van Liefferinge, Joeri; Massie, Ann; Portelli, Jeanelle; Di Giovanni, Giuseppe; Smolders, Ilse

    2013-01-01

    The vesicular neurotransmitter transporters (VNTs) are small proteins responsible for packing synaptic vesicles with neurotransmitters thereby determining the amount of neurotransmitter released per vesicle through fusion in both neurons and glial cells. Each transporter subtype was classically seen as a specific neuronal marker of the respective nerve cells containing that particular neurotransmitter or structurally related neurotransmitters. More recently, however, it has become apparent that common neurotransmitters can also act as co-transmitters, adding complexity to neurotransmitter release and suggesting intriguing roles for VNTs therein. We will first describe the current knowledge on vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUT1/2/3), the vesicular excitatory amino acid transporter (VEAT), the vesicular nucleotide transporter (VNUT), vesicular monoamine transporters (VMAT1/2), the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) and the vesicular γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transporter (VGAT) in the brain. We will focus on evidence regarding transgenic mice with disruptions in VNTs in different models of seizures and epilepsy. We will also describe the known alterations and reorganizations in the expression levels of these VNTs in rodent models for temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and in human tissue resected for epilepsy surgery. Finally, we will discuss perspectives on opportunities and challenges for VNTs as targets for possible future epilepsy therapies. PMID:24009559

  17. Crosstalk among electrical activity, trophic factors and morphogenetic proteins in the regulation of neurotransmitter phenotype specification.

    PubMed

    Borodinsky, Laura N; Belgacem, Yesser H

    2016-04-01

    Morphogenetic proteins are responsible for patterning the embryonic nervous system by enabling cell proliferation that will populate all the neural structures and by specifying neural progenitors that imprint different identities in differentiating neurons. The adoption of specific neurotransmitter phenotypes is crucial for the progression of neuronal differentiation, enabling neurons to connect with each other and with target tissues. Preliminary neurotransmitter specification originates from morphogen-driven neural progenitor specification through the combinatorial expression of transcription factors according to morphogen concentration gradients, which progressively restrict the identity that born neurons adopt. However, neurotransmitter phenotype is not immutable, instead trophic factors released from target tissues and environmental stimuli change expression of neurotransmitter-synthesizing enzymes and specific vesicular transporters modifying neuronal neurotransmitter identity. Here we review studies identifying the mechanisms of catecholaminergic, GABAergic, glutamatergic, cholinergic and serotonergic early specification and of the plasticity of these neurotransmitter phenotypes during development and in the adult nervous system. The emergence of spontaneous electrical activity in developing neurons recruits morphogenetic proteins in the process of neurotransmitter phenotype plasticity, which ultimately equips the nervous system and the whole organism with adaptability for optimal performance in a changing environment. PMID:26686293

  18. Endogenous Cholinergic Neurotransmission Contributes to Behavioral Sensitization to Morphine

    PubMed Central

    Bajic, Dusica; Soiza-Reilly, Mariano; Spalding, Allegra L.; Berde, Charles B.; Commons, Kathryn G.

    2015-01-01

    Neuroplasticity in the mesolimbic dopaminergic system is critical for behavioral adaptations associated with opioid reward and addiction. These processes may be influenced by cholinergic transmission arising from the laterodorsal tegmental nucleus (LDTg), a main source of acetylcholine to mesolimbic dopaminergic neurons. To examine this possibility we asked if chronic systemic morphine administration affects expression of genes in ventral and ventrolateral periaqueductal gray at the level of the LDTg using rtPCR. Specifically, we examined gene expression changes in the area of interest using Neurotransmitters and Receptors PCR array between chronic morphine and saline control groups. Analysis suggested that chronic morphine administration led to changes in expression of genes associated, in part, with cholinergic neurotransmission. Furthermore, using a quantitative immunofluorescent technique, we found that chronic morphine treatment produced a significant increase in immunolabeling of the cholinergic marker (vesicular acetylcholine transporter) in neurons of the LDTg. Finally, systemic administration of the nonselective and noncompetitive neuronal nicotinic antagonist mecamylamine (0.5 or 2 mg/kg) dose-dependently blocked the expression, and to a lesser extent the development, of locomotor sensitization. The same treatment had no effect on acute morphine antinociception, antinociceptive tolerance or dependence to chronic morphine. Taken together, the results suggest that endogenous nicotinic cholinergic neurotransmission selectively contributes to behavioral sensitization to morphine and this process may, in part, involve cholinergic neurons within the LDTg. PMID:25647082

  19. Endogenous opiates and behavior: 2012.

    PubMed

    Bodnar, Richard J

    2013-12-01

    This paper is the thirty-fifth consecutive installment of the annual review of research concerning the endogenous opioid system. It summarizes papers published during 2012 that studied the behavioral effects of molecular, pharmacological and genetic manipulation of opioid peptides, opioid receptors, opioid agonists and opioid antagonists. The particular topics that continue to be covered include the molecular-biochemical effects and neurochemical localization studies of endogenous opioids and their receptors related to behavior (Section 2), and the roles of these opioid peptides and receptors in pain and analgesia (Section 3); stress and social status (Section 4); tolerance and dependence (Section 5); learning and memory (Section 6); eating and drinking (Section 7); alcohol and drugs of abuse (Section 8); sexual activity and hormones, pregnancy, development and endocrinology (Section 9); mental illness and mood (Section 10); seizures and neurologic disorders (Section 11); electrical-related activity and neurophysiology (Section 12); general activity and locomotion (Section 13); gastrointestinal, renal and hepatic functions (Section 14); cardiovascular responses (Section 15); respiration and thermoregulation (Section 16); and immunological responses (Section 17). PMID:24126281

  20. Endogenous opiates and behavior: 2009.

    PubMed

    Bodnar, Richard J

    2010-12-01

    This paper is the 32nd consecutive installment of the annual review of research concerning the endogenous opioid system. It summarizes papers published during 2009 that studied the behavioral effects of molecular, pharmacological and genetic manipulation of opioid peptides, opioid receptors, opioid agonists and opioid antagonists. The particular topics that continue to be covered include the molecular-biochemical effects and neurochemical localization studies of endogenous opioids and their receptors related to behavior (Section 2), and the roles of these opioid peptides and receptors in pain and analgesia (Section 3); stress and social status (Section 4); tolerance and dependence (Section 5); learning and memory (Section 6); eating and drinking (Section 7); alcohol and drugs of abuse (Section 8); sexual activity and hormones, pregnancy, development and endocrinology (Section 9); mental illness and mood (Section 10); seizures and neurologic disorders (Section 11); electrical-related activity and neurophysiology (Section 12); general activity and locomotion (Section 13); gastrointestinal, renal and hepatic functions (Section 14); cardiovascular responses (Section 15); respiration and thermoregulation (Section 16); and immunological responses (Section 17). PMID:20875476

  1. Endogenous opiates and behavior: 2005.

    PubMed

    Bodnar, Richard J; Klein, Gad E

    2006-12-01

    This paper is the 28th consecutive installment of the annual review of research concerning the endogenous opioid system, now spanning over a quarter-century of research. It summarizes papers published during 2005 that studied the behavioral effects of molecular, pharmacological and genetic manipulation of opioid peptides, opioid receptors, opioid agonists and opioid antagonists. The particular topics that continue to be covered include the molecular-biochemical effects and neurochemical localization studies of endogenous opioids and their receptors related to behavior (Section 2), and the roles of these opioid peptides and receptors in pain and analgesia (Section 3); stress and social status (Section 4); tolerance and dependence (Section 5); learning and memory (Section 6); eating and drinking (Section 7); alcohol and drugs of abuse (Section 8); sexual activity and hormones, pregnancy, development and endocrinology (Section 9); mental illness and mood (Section 10); seizures and neurologic disorders (Section 11); electrical-related activity, neurophysiology and transmitter release (Section 12); general activity and locomotion (Section 13); gastrointestinal, renal and hepatic functions (Section 14); cardiovascular responses (Section 15); respiration and thermoregulation (Section 16); immunological responses (Section 17). PMID:16973239

  2. Endogenous opiates and behavior: 2008.

    PubMed

    Bodnar, Richard J

    2009-12-01

    This paper is the 31st consecutive installment of the annual review of research concerning the endogenous opioid system. It summarizes papers published during 2008 that studied the behavioral effects of molecular, pharmacological and genetic manipulation of opioid peptides, opioid receptors, opioid agonists and opioid antagonists. The particular topics that continue to be covered include the molecular-biochemical effects and neurochemical localization studies of endogenous opioids and their receptors related to behavior (Section 2), and the roles of these opioid peptides and receptors in pain and analgesia (Section 3); stress and social status (Section 4); tolerance and dependence (Section 5); learning and memory (Section 6); eating and drinking (Section 7); alcohol and drugs of abuse (Section 8); sexual activity and hormones, pregnancy, development and endocrinology (Section 9); mental illness and mood (Section 10); seizures and neurologic disorders (Section 11); electrical-related activity and neurophysiology (Section 12); general activity and locomotion (Section 13); gastrointestinal, renal and hepatic functions (Section 14); cardiovascular responses (Section 15); respiration and thermoregulation (Section 16); and immunological responses (Section 17). PMID:19793543

  3. Endogenous opiates and behavior: 2010.

    PubMed

    Bodnar, Richard J

    2011-12-01

    This paper is the thirty-third consecutive installment of the annual review of research concerning the endogenous opioid system. It summarizes papers published during 2010 that studied the behavioral effects of molecular, pharmacological and genetic manipulation of opioid peptides, opioid receptors, opioid agonists and opioid antagonists. The particular topics that continue to be covered include the molecular-biochemical effects and neurochemical localization studies of endogenous opioids and their receptors related to behavior (Section 2), and the roles of these opioid peptides and receptors in pain and analgesia (Section 3); stress and social status (Section 4); tolerance and dependence (Section 5); learning and memory (Section 6); eating and drinking (Section 7); alcohol and drugs of abuse (Section 8); sexual activity and hormones, pregnancy, development and endocrinology (Section 9); mental illness and mood (Section 10); seizures and neurologic disorders (Section 11); electrical-related activity and neurophysiology (Section 12); general activity and locomotion (Section 13); gastrointestinal, renal and hepatic functions (Section 14); cardiovascular responses (Section 15); respiration (Section 16); and immunological responses (Section 17). PMID:21983105

  4. Endogenous opiates and behavior: 2006.

    PubMed

    Bodnar, Richard J

    2007-12-01

    This paper is the 29th consecutive installment of the annual review of research concerning the endogenous opioid system, now spanning 30 years of research. It summarizes papers published during 2006 that studied the behavioral effects of molecular, pharmacological and genetic manipulation of opioid peptides, opioid receptors, opioid agonists and opioid antagonists. The particular topics that continue to be covered include the molecular-biochemical effects and neurochemical localization studies of endogenous opioids and their receptors related to behavior (Section 2), and the roles of these opioid peptides and receptors in pain and analgesia (Section 3); stress and social status (Section 4); tolerance and dependence (Section 5); learning and memory (Section 6); eating and drinking (Section 7); alcohol and drugs of abuse (Section 8); sexual activity and hormones, pregnancy, development and endocrinology (Section 9); mental illness and mood (Section 10); seizures and neurological disorders (Section 11); electrical-related activity and neurophysiology (Section 12); general activity and locomotion (Section 13); gastrointestinal, renal and hepatic functions (Section 14); cardiovascular responses (Section 15); respiration and thermoregulation (Section 16); and immunological responses (Section 17). PMID:17949854

  5. Endogenous opiates and behavior: 2011.

    PubMed

    Bodnar, Richard J

    2012-12-01

    This paper is the thirty-fourth consecutive installment of the annual review of research concerning the endogenous opioid system. It summarizes papers published during 2011 that studied the behavioral effects of molecular, pharmacological and genetic manipulation of opioid peptides, opioid receptors, opioid agonists and opioid antagonists. The particular topics that continue to be covered include the molecular-biochemical effects and neurochemical localization studies of endogenous opioids and their receptors related to behavior (Section 2), and the roles of these opioid peptides and receptors in pain and analgesia (Section 3); stress and social status (Section 4); tolerance and dependence (Section 5); learning and memory (Section 6); eating and drinking (Section 7); alcohol and drugs of abuse (Section 8); sexual activity and hormones, pregnancy, development and endocrinology (Section 9); mental illness and mood (Section 10); seizures and neurologic disorders (Section 11); electrical-related activity and neurophysiology (Section 12); general activity and locomotion (Section 13); gastrointestinal, renal and hepatic functions (Section 14); cardiovascular responses (Section 15); respiration (Section 16); and immunological responses (Section 17). PMID:23041439

  6. Endogenous opiates and behavior: 2002.

    PubMed

    Bodnar, Richard J; Hadjimarkou, Maria M

    2003-08-01

    This paper is the twenty-fifth consecutive installment of the annual review of research concerning the endogenous opioid system, now spanning over a quarter-century of research. It summarizes papers published during 2002 that studied the behavioral effects of molecular, pharmacological and genetic manipulation of opioid peptides, opioid receptors, opioid agonists and opioid antagonists. The particular topics that continue to be covered include the molecular-biochemical effects and neurochemical localization studies of endogenous opioids and their receptors related to behavior (Section 2), and the roles of these opioid peptides and receptors in pain and analgesia (Section 3); stress and social status (Section 4); tolerance and dependence (Section 5); learning and memory (Section 6); eating and drinking (Section 7); alcohol and drugs of abuse (Section 8); sexual activity and hormones, pregnancy, development and endocrinology (Section 9); mental illness and mood (Section 10); seizures and neurologic disorders (Section 11); electrical-related activity and neurophysiology (Section 12); general activity and locomotion (Section 13); gastrointestinal, renal and hepatic functions (Section 14); cardiovascular responses (Section 15); respiration and thermoregulation (Section 16); and immunological responses (Section 17). PMID:14612197

  7. Endogenous opiates and behavior: 2003.

    PubMed

    Bodnar, Richard J; Klein, Gad E

    2004-12-01

    This paper is the 26th consecutive installment of the annual review of research concerning the endogenous opioid system, now spanning over a quarter-century of research. It summarizes papers published during 2003 that studied the behavioral effects of molecular, pharmacological and genetic manipulation of opioid peptides, opioid receptors, opioid agonists and opioid antagonists. The particular topics that continue to be covered include the molecular-biochemical effects and neurochemical localization studies of endogenous opioids and their receptors related to behavior (Section 2), and the roles of these opioid peptides and receptors in pain and analgesia (Section 3); stress and social status (Section 4); tolerance and dependence (Section 5); learning and memory (Section 6); eating and drinking (Section 7); alcohol and drugs of abuse (Section 8); sexual activity and hormones, pregnancy, development and endocrinology (Section 9); mental illness and mood (Section 10); seizures and neurologic disorders (Section 11); electrical-related activity and neurophysiology (Section 12); general activity and locomotion (Section 13); gastrointestinal, renal and hepatic functions (Section 14); cardiovascular responses (Section 15); respiration and thermoregulation (Section 16); and immunological responses (Section 17). PMID:15572211

  8. Endogenous Opiates and Behavior: 2006

    PubMed Central

    Bodnar, Richard J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper is the twenty-ninth consecutive installment of the annual review of research concerning the endogenous opioid system, now spanning thirty years of research. It summarizes papers published during 2006 that studied the behavioral effects of molecular, pharmacological and genetic manipulation of opioid peptides, opioid receptors, opioid agonists and opioid antagonists. The particular topics that continue to be covered include the molecular-biochemical effects and neurochemical localization studies of endogenous opioids and their receptors related to behavior (Section 2), and the roles of these opioid peptides and receptors in pain and analgesia (Section 3); stress and social status (Section 4); tolerance and dependence (Section 5); learning and memory (Section 6); eating and drinking (Section 7); alcohol and drugs of abuse (Section 8); sexual activity and hormones, pregnancy, development and endocrinology (Section 9); mental illness and mood (Section 10); seizures and neurological disorders (Section 11); electrical-related activity and neurophysiology (Section 12); general activity and locomotion (Section 13); gastrointestinal, renal and hepatic functions (Section 14); cardiovascular responses (Section 15); respiration and thermoregulation (Section 16); and immunological responses (Section 17). PMID:17949854

  9. Chronic infusion of enalaprilat into hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus attenuates angiotensin II-induced hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy by restoring neurotransmitters and cytokines

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Yu-Ming; Zhang, Dong-Mei; Yu, Xiao-Jing; Yang, Qing; Qi, Jie; Su, Qing; Suo, Yu-Ping; Yue, Li-Ying; Zhu, Guo-Qing; Qin, Da-Nian

    2014-02-01

    The renin–angiotensin system (RAS) in the brain is involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension. We hypothesized that inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) attenuates angiotensin II (ANG II)-induced hypertension via restoring neurotransmitters and cytokines. Rats underwent subcutaneous infusions of ANG II or saline and bilateral PVN infusions of ACE inhibitor enalaprilat (ENL, 2.5 μg/h) or vehicle for 4 weeks. ANG II infusion resulted in higher mean arterial pressure and cardiac hypertrophy as indicated by increased whole heart weight/body weight ratio, whole heart weight/tibia length ratio, left ventricular weight/tibia length ratio, and mRNA expressions of cardiac atrial natriuretic peptide and beta-myosin heavy chain. These ANG II-infused rats had higher PVN levels of glutamate, norepinephrine, tyrosine hydroxylase, pro-inflammatory cytokines (PICs) and the chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and lower PVN levels of gamma-aminobutyric acid, interleukin (IL)-10 and the 67-kDa isoform of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD67), and higher plasma levels of PICs, norepinephrine and aldosterone, and lower plasma IL-10, and higher renal sympathetic nerve activity. However, PVN treatment with ENL attenuated these changes. PVN microinjection of ANG II induced increases in IL-1β and IL-6, and a decrease in IL-10 in the PVN, and pretreatment with angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1-R) antagonist losartan attenuated these changes. These findings suggest that ANG II infusion induces an imbalance between excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters and an imbalance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in the PVN, and PVN inhibition of the RAS restores neurotransmitters and cytokines in the PVN, thereby attenuating ANG II-induced hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy. - Highlights: • Chronic ANG II infusion results in sympathetic hyperactivity and cardiac hypertrophy. • PVN inhibition of ACE

  10. Endogenous Auxin and Ethylene in Pellia (Bryophyta) 1

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Robert J.; Harrison, Marcia A.; Taylor, Jane; Kaufman, Peter B.

    1983-01-01

    The occurrence of endogenous indole-3-acetic acid and ethylene in bryophyte tissue was tentatively demonstrated using gas chromatography, high performance liquid chromatography, and double-standard isotope dilution techniques. Rapidly elongating stalks (or setae) of Pellia epiphylla (L.) Corda sporophytes contain approximately 2.5 to 2.9 micrograms per gram fresh weight of putative free IAA. Ethylene released by setae increases during growth from 0.027 to 0.035 nanoliter per seta per hour. Application of 5 microliters per liter ethylene inhibits auxin-stimulated elongation growth of this tissue, a result which suggests that both endogenously produced compounds act in tandem as natural growth modulators. Images Fig. 1 PMID:16663227

  11. Effect of irradiation and endogenous nucleases on rat liver chromatin

    SciTech Connect

    Gelderblom, D.; Smit, B.J.; Boehm, L.

    1984-08-01

    The assessment of the consequences of irradiation on chromatin is complicated by endogenous nucleases. Isolation and prolonged storage of rat liver nuclei in buffers containing divalent metal ions activates these enzymes and promotes the degradation of chromatin. Irradiation of rat liver nuclei to dose levels of 20,000 rad under conditions in which endogenous nucleases are inhibited and analysis of the irradiated chromatin by sucrose density gradient centrifugation gave no evidence for monosomes or oligosomes. When chromatin from irradiated nuclei was digested with micrococcal nuclease, the levels of monosomes and oligosomes were identical to those of micrococcal nuclease digests of unirradiated control nuclei. These results suggest that irradiation results in neither a direct fragmentation of linkers nor the sensitization of linkers for subsequent cleavage by micrococcal nuclease.

  12. Functional differences between neurotransmitter binding sites of muscle acetylcholine receptors

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Tapan K.; Bruhova, Iva; Chakraborty, Srirupa; Gupta, Shaweta; Zheng, Wenjun; Auerbach, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    A muscle acetylcholine receptor (AChR) has two neurotransmitter binding sites located in the extracellular domain, at αδ and either αε (adult) or αγ (fetal) subunit interfaces. We used single-channel electrophysiology to measure the effects of mutations of five conserved aromatic residues at each site with regard to their contribution to the difference in free energy of agonist binding to active versus resting receptors (ΔGB1). The two binding sites behave independently in both adult and fetal AChRs. For four different agonists, including ACh and choline, ΔGB1 is ∼−2 kcal/mol more favorable at αγ compared with at αε and αδ. Only three of the aromatics contribute significantly to ΔGB1 at the adult sites (αY190, αY198, and αW149), but all five do so at αγ (as well as αY93 and γW55). γW55 makes a particularly large contribution only at αγ that is coupled energetically to those contributions of some of the α-subunit aromatics. The hydroxyl and benzene groups of loop C residues αY190 and αY198 behave similarly with regard to ΔGB1 at all three kinds of site. ACh binding energies estimated from molecular dynamics simulations are consistent with experimental values from electrophysiology and suggest that the αγ site is more compact, better organized, and less dynamic than αε and αδ. We speculate that the different sensitivities of the fetal αγ site versus the adult αε and αδ sites to choline and ACh are important for the proper maturation and function of the neuromuscular synapse. PMID:25422413

  13. Residual free calcium is not responsible for facilitation of neurotransmitter release.

    PubMed Central

    Blundon, J A; Wright, S N; Brodwick, M S; Bittner, G D

    1993-01-01

    An increase in internal free calcium ([Ca2+]i) in the presynaptic terminal is often assumed to directly produce facilitation of neurotransmitter release. Using a Ca(2+)-activated potassium conductance as a bioassay for free [Ca2+]i in the presynaptic terminal of the crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) opener neuromuscular junction, we now demonstrate that free [Ca2+]i has a decay time constant (tau) of 1-4 msec, whereas facilitation of neurotransmitter release has a decay tau of 7-43 msec. In addition, facilitation of neurotransmitter release can be markedly different at times when free [Ca2+]i values and presynaptic membrane voltages are equal. We conclude that free [Ca2+]i in the presynaptic terminal is not directly responsible for facilitation of neurotransmitter release. Our data suggest that facilitation results from bound Ca2+ or some long-lived consequence of bound Ca2+. PMID:8105475

  14. Endogenous Retroviruses and Human Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Lebedev, Yuri; Sverdlov, Eugene

    2002-01-01

    Humans share about 99% of their genomic DNA with chimpanzees and bonobos; thus, the differences between these species are unlikely to be in gene content but could be caused by inherited changes in regulatory systems. Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) comprise ∼ 5% of the human genome. The LTRs of ERVs contain many regulatory sequences, such as promoters, enhancers, polyadenylation signals and factor-binding sites. Thus, they can influence the expression of nearby human genes. All known human-specific LTRs belong to the HERV-K (human ERV) family, the most active family in the human genome. It is likely that some of these ERVs could have integrated into regulatory regions of the human genome, and therefore could have had an impact on the expression of adjacent genes, which have consequently contributed to human evolution. This review discusses possible functional consequences of ERV integration in active coding regions. PMID:18629260

  15. Endogenous opiates and behavior: 2001.

    PubMed

    Bodnar, Richard J; Hadjimarkou, Maria M

    2002-12-01

    This paper is the twenty-fourth installment of the annual review of research concerning the opiate system. It summarizes papers published during 2001 that studied the behavioral effects of the opiate peptides and antagonists. The particular topics covered this year include the molecular-biochemical effects and neurochemical localization studies of endogenous opioids and their receptors (Section 2), and the roles of these opioid peptides and receptors in pain and analgesia (Section 3); stress and social status (Section 4); tolerance and dependence (Section 5); learning and memory (Section 6); eating and drinking (Section 7); alcohol and drugs of abuse (Section 8); sexual activity and hormones, pregnancy, development and endocrinology(Section 9); mental illness and mood (Section 10); seizures and neurologic disorders (Section 11); electrical-related activity and neurophysiology (Section 12); general activity and locomotion (Section 13); gastrointestinal, renal and hepatic functions (Section 14); cardiovascular responses (Section 15); respiration and thermoregulation (Section 16); and immunological responses (Section 17). PMID:12535711

  16. Blockade of presynaptic 4-aminopyridine-sensitive potassium channels increases initial neurotransmitter release probability, reinstates synaptic transmission altered by GABAB receptor activation in rat midbrain periaqueductal gray.

    PubMed

    Li, Guangying; Liu, Zhi-Liang; Zhang, Wei-Ning; Yang, Kun

    2016-01-01

    The activation of γ-aminobutyric acid receptor subtype B (GABAB) receptors in the midbrain ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (vlPAG) induces both postsynaptic and presynaptic inhibition. Whereas the postsynaptic inhibition is mediated by G protein-coupled inwardly rectifying K channels, the presynaptic inhibition of neurotransmitter release is primarily mediated by voltage-gated calcium channels. Using whole-cell recordings from acute rat PAG slices, we report here that the bath application of 4-aminopyridine, a voltage-gated K channel blocker, increases the initial GABA and glutamate release probability (P) and reinstates P depressed by presynaptic GABAB receptor activation at inhibitory and excitatory synapses, respectively. However, Ba, which blocks G protein-coupled inwardly rectifying K channels, does not produce similar effects. Our data suggest that the blockade of presynaptic 4-aminopyridine-sensitive K channels in vlPAG facilitates neurotransmitter release and reinstates synaptic transmission that has been altered by presynaptic GABAB receptor activation. Because vlPAG is involved in the descending pain control system, the present results may have potential therapeutic applications. PMID:26575285

  17. LRRK2 kinase activity regulates synaptic vesicle trafficking and neurotransmitter release through modulation of LRRK2 macro-molecular complex.

    PubMed

    Cirnaru, Maria D; Marte, Antonella; Belluzzi, Elisa; Russo, Isabella; Gabrielli, Martina; Longo, Francesco; Arcuri, Ludovico; Murru, Luca; Bubacco, Luigi; Matteoli, Michela; Fedele, Ernesto; Sala, Carlo; Passafaro, Maria; Morari, Michele; Greggio, Elisa; Onofri, Franco; Piccoli, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 gene (LRRK2) are associated with familial and sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD). LRRK2 is a complex protein that consists of multiple domains executing several functions, including GTP hydrolysis, kinase activity, and protein binding. Robust evidence suggests that LRRK2 acts at the synaptic site as a molecular hub connecting synaptic vesicles to cytoskeletal elements via a complex panel of protein-protein interactions. Here we investigated the impact of pharmacological inhibition of LRRK2 kinase activity on synaptic function. Acute treatment with LRRK2 inhibitors reduced the frequency of spontaneous currents, the rate of synaptic vesicle trafficking and the release of neurotransmitter from isolated synaptosomes. The investigation of complementary models lacking LRRK2 expression allowed us to exclude potential off-side effects of kinase inhibitors on synaptic functions. Next we studied whether kinase inhibition affects LRRK2 heterologous interactions. We found that the binding among LRRK2, presynaptic proteins and synaptic vesicles is affected by kinase inhibition. Our results suggest that LRRK2 kinase activity influences synaptic vesicle release via modulation of LRRK2 macro-molecular complex. PMID:24904275

  18. Anxiolytic action of neuromedin-U and neurotransmitters involved in mice.

    PubMed

    Telegdy, G; Adamik, A

    2013-09-10

    Peptide Neuromedin-U (NmU) is widely distributed in the central nervous system and the peripheral tissues. Its physiological effects include the regulation of blood pressure, heart rate, and body temperature, and the inhibition of gastric acid secretion. The action of NmU in rats is mediated by two G-protein-coupled receptors, NmU-1R and NmU-2R. NmU-2R is present mainly in the brain, and NmU-1R mainly in the periphery. Despite the great variety of the physiological action of NmU, little is known about its possible effects in different forms of behavior, such as anxiety. In the present work, NmU-23 (the rodent form of the peptide) was tested for its effect on anxiety in elevated plus maze test in mice. For detection of the possible involvement of neurotransmitters, the mice were pretreated with receptor blockers: haloperidol (a D2, dopamine receptor antagonist), propranolol (a β-adrenergic receptor antagonist), atropine (a nonselective muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist), phenoxybenzamine (a nonselective α-adrenergic receptor antagonist) or nitro-l-arginine (a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor). The peptide and nitro-l-arginine were administered into the lateral brain ventricle, while the receptor blockers were applied intraperitoneally. An NmU-23 dose 0.5μg elicited anxiolytic action, whereas this action is faded away when the dose was increased. For further testing therefore 0.5μg i.c.v. was used. Propranolol and atropine fully blocked the NmU-induced anxiolytic action, while haloperidol, phenoxybenzamine and nitro-l-arginine were ineffective. The results suggest that β-adrenergic and cholinergic mechanisms are involved in the anxiolytic action of NmU. PMID:23892031

  19. Platelet-induced neurogenic coronary contractions due to accumulation of the false neurotransmitter, 5-hydroxytryptamine.

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, R A

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if 5-hydroxytryptamine released from aggregating platelets could be accumulated and released by canine coronary adrenergic nerves, and if the false neurotransmitter resulted in an abnormal response of the smooth muscle to nerve stimulation. Isometric tension was measured in rings of epicardial coronary suspended in organ chambers filled with physiological salt solution. The response to electrical stimulation or exogenously added norepinephrine was elicited after contraction with prostaglandin F2 alpha. Electrical stimulation and exogenous norepinephrine caused beta-adrenergic relaxation of control rings. However, after rings were exposed for 2 h to aggregating platelets or 5-hydroxytryptamine, electrical stimulation caused frequency-dependent contractions. These contractions were prevented by the serotonergic antagonists, cyproheptadine or ketanserin, or by the neuronal uptake inhibitor, cocaine. The relaxation caused by exogenously added norepinephrine was unchanged after exposure to platelets or 5-hydroxytryptamine, indicating that smooth muscle alpha- and beta-adrenergic responsiveness was unchanged. The electrically stimulated overflow of radiolabeled norepinephrine from superfused strips of coronary artery was not altered by prior exposure to 5-hydroxytryptamine, indicating that the effect of exposure on the response to electrical stimulation is primarily at smooth muscle serotonergic receptors. Canine coronary arteries accumulated and metabolized radiolabeled 5-hydroxytryptamine in vitro. The accumulation of 5-hydroxytryptamine was inhibited by cocaine or by adrenergic denervation with 6-hydroxydopamine but unaffected by removal of endothelium, indicating that the adrenergic nerves were the primary site of accumulation. Electrical stimulation of superfused strips of coronary artery preincubated with radiolabeled 5-hydroxytryptamine caused the release of the intact indoleamine; this was blocked by the neurotoxin

  20. Influence of Glutamic Acid on the Endogenous Respiration of Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Clifton, C. E.; Cherry, John

    1966-01-01

    Clifton, C. E. (Stanford University, Stanford, Calif.), and John Cherry. Influence of glutamic acid on the endogenous respiration of Bacillus subtilis. J. Bacteriol. 91:546–550. 1966.—Amino acids serve as the major initial endogenous substrate for Bacillus subtilis. The endogenous activity of freshly harvested washed cells is high and falls off rapidly with time of shaking at 30 C to lower but still significant levels. The rate of O2 consumption after the addition of glutamic acid also decreases as the cells age, but more slowly than noted for endogenous respiration. When cells were fed glutamate as soon as possible after harvesting, an apparent stimulation of endogenous respiration was noted. However, endogenous activity was inhibited if the cell suspensions were shaken for at least 1 hr before addition of the glutamate. Similar results were obtained with glycerol or glucose as exogenous substrates. Variation in rates of respiration with age of the cells, inherent instability of B. subtilis, and possible utilization of substances initially excreted by the cells appear to account for the variations noted regarding the influence of an exogenous substrate on endogenous respiration. PMID:4956754

  1. Endogenous Peer Effects: Fact or Fiction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeung, Ryan; Nguyen-Hoang, Phuong

    2016-01-01

    The authors examine endogenous peer effects, which occur when a student's behavior or outcome is a function of the behavior or outcome of his or her peer group. Endogenous peer effects have important implications for educational policies such as busing, school choice and tracking. In this study, the authors quantitatively review the literature on…

  2. Endogenous timing factors in bird migration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gwinner, E. G.

    1972-01-01

    Several species of warbler birds were observed in an effort to determine what initiates and terminates migration. Environmental and endogenous timing mechanisms were analyzed. The results indicate that endogenous stimuli are dominant factors for bird migration especially for long distances. It was concluded that environmental factors act as an assist mechanism.

  3. Imaging endogenous opioid peptide release with [11C]carfentanil and [3H]diprenorphine: influence of agonist-induced internalization

    PubMed Central

    Quelch, Darren R; Katsouri, Loukia; Nutt, David J; Parker, Christine A; Tyacke, Robin J

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the cellular processes underpinning the changes in binding observed during positron emission tomography neurotransmitter release studies may aid translation of these methodologies to other neurotransmitter systems. We compared the sensitivities of opioid receptor radioligands, carfentanil, and diprenorphine, to amphetamine-induced endogenous opioid peptide (EOP) release and methadone administration in the rat. We also investigated whether agonist-induced internalization was involved in reductions in observed binding using subcellular fractionation and confocal microscopy. After radioligand administration, significant reductions in [11C]carfentanil, but not [3H]diprenorphine, uptake were observed after methadone and amphetamine pretreatment. Subcellular fractionation and in vitro radioligand binding studies showed that amphetamine pretreatment only decreased total [11C]carfentanil binding. In vitro saturation binding studies conducted in buffers representative of the internalization pathway suggested that μ-receptors are significantly less able to bind the radioligands in endosomal compared with extracellular compartments. Finally, a significant increase in μ-receptor-early endosome co-localization in the hypothalamus was observed after amphetamine and methadone treatment using double-labeling confocal microscopy, with no changes in δ- or κ-receptor co-localization. These data indicate carfentanil may be superior to diprenorphine when imaging EOP release in vivo, and that alterations in the ability to bind internalized receptors may be a predictor of ligand sensitivity to endogenous neurotransmitter release. PMID:25005876

  4. Endogenous Protease Nexin-1 Protects against Cerebral Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Mirante, Osvaldo; Price, Melanie; Puentes, Wilfredo; Castillo, Ximena; Benakis, Corinne; Thevenet, Jonathan; Monard, Denis; Hirt, Lorenz

    2013-01-01

    The serine protease thrombin plays a role in signalling ischemic neuronal death in the brain. Paradoxically, endogenous neuroprotective mechanisms can be triggered by preconditioning with thrombin (thrombin preconditioning, TPC), leading to tolerance to cerebral ischemia. Here we studied the role of thrombin’s endogenous potent inhibitor, protease nexin-1 (PN-1), in ischemia and in tolerance to cerebral ischemia induced by TPC. Cerebral ischemia was modelled in vitro in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures from rats or genetically engineered mice lacking PN-1 or with the reporter gene lacZ knocked into the PN-1 locus PN-1HAPN-1-lacZ/HAPN-1-lacZ (PN-1 KI) exposed to oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD). We observed increased thrombin enzyme activity in culture homogenates 24 h after OGD. Lack of PN-1 increased neuronal death in the CA1, suggesting that endogenous PN-1 inhibits thrombin-induced neuronal damage after ischemia. OGD enhanced β-galactosidase activity, reflecting PN-1 expression, at one and 24 h, most strikingly in the stratum radiatum, a glial cell layer adjacent to the CA1 layer of ischemia sensitive neurons. TPC, 24 h before OGD, additionally increased PN-1 expression 1 h after OGD, compared to OGD alone. TPC failed to induce tolerance in cultures from PN-1−/− mice confirming PN-1 as an important TPC target. PN-1 upregulation after TPC was blocked by the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor, L-JNKI1, known to block TPC. This work suggests that PN-1 is an endogenous neuroprotectant in cerebral ischemia and a potential target for neuroprotection. PMID:23949634

  5. Endogenous protease nexin-1 protects against cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Mirante, Osvaldo; Price, Melanie; Puentes, Wilfredo; Castillo, Ximena; Benakis, Corinne; Thevenet, Jonathan; Monard, Denis; Hirt, Lorenz

    2013-01-01

    The serine protease thrombin plays a role in signalling ischemic neuronal death in the brain. Paradoxically, endogenous neuroprotective mechanisms can be triggered by preconditioning with thrombin (thrombin preconditioning, TPC), leading to tolerance to cerebral ischemia. Here we studied the role of thrombin's endogenous potent inhibitor, protease nexin-1 (PN-1), in ischemia and in tolerance to cerebral ischemia induced by TPC. Cerebral ischemia was modelled in vitro in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures from rats or genetically engineered mice lacking PN-1 or with the reporter gene lacZ knocked into the PN-1 locus PN-1HAPN-1-lacZ/HAPN-1-lacZ (PN-1 KI) exposed to oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD). We observed increased thrombin enzyme activity in culture homogenates 24 h after OGD. Lack of PN-1 increased neuronal death in the CA1, suggesting that endogenous PN-1 inhibits thrombin-induced neuronal damage after ischemia. OGD enhanced β-galactosidase activity, reflecting PN-1 expression, at one and 24 h, most strikingly in the stratum radiatum, a glial cell layer adjacent to the CA1 layer of ischemia sensitive neurons. TPC, 24 h before OGD, additionally increased PN-1 expression 1 h after OGD, compared to OGD alone. TPC failed to induce tolerance in cultures from PN-1(-/-) mice confirming PN-1 as an important TPC target. PN-1 upregulation after TPC was blocked by the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor, L-JNKI1, known to block TPC. This work suggests that PN-1 is an endogenous neuroprotectant in cerebral ischemia and a potential target for neuroprotection. PMID:23949634

  6. Endostatin: an endogenous inhibitor of angiogenesis and tumor growth.

    PubMed

    O'Reilly, M S; Boehm, T; Shing, Y; Fukai, N; Vasios, G; Lane, W S; Flynn, E; Birkhead, J R; Olsen, B R; Folkman, J

    1997-01-24

    We previously identified the angiogenesis inhibitor angiostatin. Using a similar strategy, we have identified endostatin, an angiogenesis inhibitor produced by hemangioendothelioma. Endostatin is a 20 kDa C-terminal fragment of collagen XVIII. Endostatin specifically inhibits endothelial proliferation and potently inhibits angiogenesis and tumor growth. By a novel method of sustained release, E. coli-derived endostatin was administered as a nonrefolded suspension. Primary tumors were regressed to dormant microscopic lesions. Immunohistochemistry revealed blocked angiogenesis accompanied by high proliferation balanced by apoptosis in tumor cells. There was no toxicity. Together with angiostatin data, these findings validate a strategy for identifying endogenous angiogenesis inhibitors, suggest a theme of fragments of proteins as angiogenesis inhibitors, and demonstrate dormancy therapy. PMID:9008168

  7. Fast-Scan Cyclic Voltammetry (FSCV) Detection of Endogenous Octopamine in Drosophila melanogaster Ventral Nerve Cord.

    PubMed

    Pyakurel, Poojan; Privman Champaloux, Eve; Venton, B Jill

    2016-08-17

    Octopamine is an endogenous biogenic amine neurotransmitter, neurohormone, and neuromodulator in invertebrates and has functional analogy with norepinephrine in vertebrates. Fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) can detect rapid changes in neurotransmitters, but FSCV has not been optimized for octopamine detection in situ. The goal of this study was to characterize octopamine release in the ventral nerve cord of Drosophila larvae for the first time. A FSCV waveform was optimized so that the potential for octopamine oxidation would not be near the switching potential where interferences can occur. Endogenous octopamine release was stimulated by genetically inserting either the ATP sensitive channel, P2X2, or the red-light sensitive channelrhodopsin, CsChrimson, into cells expressing tyrosine decarboxylase (TDC), an octopamine synthesis enzyme. To ensure that release is due to octopamine and not the precursor tyramine, the octopamine synthesis inhibitor disulfiram was applied, and the signal decreased by 80%. Stimulated release was vesicular, and a 2 s continuous light stimulation of CsChrimson evoked 0.22 ± 0.03 μM of octopamine release in the larval ventral nerve cord. Repeated stimulations were stable with 2 or 5 min interstimulation times. With pulsed stimulations, the release was dependent on the frequency of applied light pulse. An octopamine transporter has not been identified, and blockers of the dopamine transporter and serotonin transporter had no significant effect on the clearance time of octopamine, suggesting that they do not take up octopamine. This study shows that octopamine can be monitored in Drosophila, facilitating future studies of how octopamine release functions in the insect brain. PMID:27326831

  8. Gravity effects on endogenous movements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnsson, Anders; Antonsen, Frank

    Gravity effects on endogenous movements A. Johnsson * and F. Antonsen *+ * Department of Physics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology,NO-7491, Trond-heim, Norway, E-mail: anders.johnsson@ntnu.no + Present address: Statoil Research Center Trondheim, NO-7005, Trondheim, Norway Circumnutations in stems/shoots exist in many plants and often consists of more or less regular helical movements around the plumb line under Earth conditions. Recent results on circumnu-tations of Arabidopsis in space (Johnsson et al. 2009) showed that minute amplitude oscilla-tions exist in weightlessness, but that centripetal acceleration (mimicking the gravity) amplified and/or created large amplitude oscillations. Fundamental mechanisms underlying these results will be discussed by modeling the plant tissue as a cylinder of cells coupled together. As a starting point we have modeled (Antonsen 1998) standing waves on a ring of biological cells, as first discussed in a classical paper (Turing 1952). If the coupled cells can change their water content, an `extension' wave could move around the ring. We have studied several, stacked rings of cells coupled into a cylinder that together represent a cylindrical plant tissue. Waves of extensions travelling around the cylinder could then represent the observable circumnutations. The coupling between cells can be due to cell-to-cell diffusion, or to transport via channels, and the coupling can be modeled to vary in both longitudinal and transversal direction of the cylinder. The results from ISS experiments indicate that this cylindrical model of coupled cells should be able to 1) show self-sustained oscillations without the impact of gravity (being en-dogenous) and 2) show how an environmental factor like gravity can amplify or generate the oscillatory movements. Gravity has been introduced in the model by a negative, time-delayed feed-back transport across the cylinder. This represents the physiological reactions to acceler

  9. Functional mechanisms of neurotransmitter transporters regulated by lipid-protein interactions of their terminal loops

    PubMed Central

    Khelashvili, George; Weinstein, Harel

    2015-01-01

    The physiological functions of neurotransmitter:sodium symporters (NSS) in reuptake of neurotransmitters from the synapse into the presynaptic nerve have been shown to be complemented by their involvement, together with non-plasma membrane neurotransmitter transporters, in the reverse transport of substrate (efflux) in response to psychostimulants. Recent experimental evidence implicates highly anionic phosphatidylinositol 4,5-biphosphate (PIP2) lipids in such functions of the serotonin (SERT) and dopamine (DAT) transporters. Thus, for both SERT and DAT, neurotransmitter efflux has been shown to be strongly regulated by the presence of PIP2 lipids in the plasma membrane, and the electrostatic interaction of the N-terminal region of DAT with the negatively charged PIP2 lipids. We examine the experimentally established phenotypes in a structural context obtained from computational modeling based on recent crystallographic data. The results are shown to set the stage for a mechanistic understanding of physiological actions of neurotransmitter transporters in the NSS family of membrane proteins. PMID:25847498

  10. Functional mechanisms of neurotransmitter transporters regulated by lipid-protein interactions of their terminal loops.

    PubMed

    Khelashvili, George; Weinstein, Harel

    2015-09-01

    The physiological functions of neurotransmitter:sodium symporters (NSS) in reuptake of neurotransmitters from the synapse into the presynaptic nerve have been shown to be complemented by their involvement, together with non-plasma membrane neurotransmitter transporters, in the reverse transport of substrate (efflux) in response to psychostimulants. Recent experimental evidence implicates highly anionic phosphatidylinositol 4,5-biphosphate (PIP(2)) lipids in such functions of the serotonin (SERT) and dopamine (DAT) transporters. Thus, for both SERT and DAT, neurotransmitter efflux has been shown to be strongly regulated by the presence of PIP(2) lipids in the plasma membrane, and the electrostatic interaction of the N-terminal region of DAT with the negatively charged PIP(2) lipids. We examine the experimentally established phenotypes in a structural context obtained from computational modeling based on recent crystallographic data. The results are shown to set the stage for a mechanistic understanding of physiological actions of neurotransmitter transporters in the NSS family of membrane proteins. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Lipid-protein interactions. PMID:25847498

  11. Temperature dependence of electrical properties of mixture of exogenous neurotransmitters dopamine and epinephrine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patki, Mugdha; Patil, Vidya

    2016-05-01

    Neurotransmitters are chemical messengers that support the communication between the neurons. In vitro study of exogenous neurotransmitters Dopamine and Epinephrine and their mixture, carried out to learn about their electrical properties being dielectric constant and conductivity amongst others. Dielectric constant and conductivity of the selected neurotransmitters are found to increase with temperature. As a result, the time constant of the system increases with temperature. This change leads to increase in the time taken by the synapse to transport the action potential. The correlation between physical properties of exogenous neurotransmitters and psychological and physiological behaviour of human being may be understood with the help of current study. The response time of Epinephrine is in microseconds whereas response time of Dopamine is in milliseconds. The response time for both the neurotransmitters and their mixture is found to be increasing with temperature indicating the symptoms such as depression, apathy, chronic fatigue and low physical energy with no desire to exercise the body, which are observed during the fever.

  12. Studies on endogenous circulating calcium entry blocker and stimulator

    SciTech Connect

    Pang, P.K.T.; Yang, M.C.M.

    1986-03-01

    Several synthetic compounds have been studied extensively for their calcium entry blockade and stimulation in smooth muscles. It is hypothesized that there should be endogenous substances which control calcium entry into cells. We recently investigated the effect of some vasoactive hormones on calcium entry. Our studies on rat tail artery helical strip showed that the in vitro vasoconstriction produced by arginine vasopressin (AVP) decreased stepwise with decreasing concentration of both calcium. After exposure of the tail artery to calcium-free Ringer's solution for 1 minute or longer, the tissue lost its ability to respond to AVP. Subsequent addition of calcium to the medium produced immediate contraction. Measurements of low affinity lanthanum resistant pool of calcium with /sup 45/Ca showed that AVP increased calcium uptake by tail artery in a dose-dependent manner. In another study rat tail artery helical strip indicated that the vasorelaxing action of parathyroid hormone (PTH) was related to an inhibition of calcium uptake. AVP or 60 mM potassium chloride increased the low affinity lanthanum resistant pool of calcium in rate tail artery and PTH inhibited the increase. In conclusion, AVP and PTH may behave like endogenous calcium entry stimulator and inhibitor respectively in vascular tissues.

  13. Regulation of rheumatoid synoviocyte proliferation by endogenous p53 induction

    PubMed Central

    Migita, K; Tanaka, F; Yamasaki, S; Shibatomi, K; Ida, H; Kawakami, A; Aoyagi, T; Kawabe, Y; Eguchi, K

    2001-01-01

    The p53 tumour suppressor protein protects cells from tumorigenic alterations by inducing either cell growth arrest or apoptosis. In the present study, we investigated the role of endogenous p53 expressed in rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts which show transformed-appearing phenotypes. Type B synovial cells (fibroblast-like synovial cells) were exposed to a proteasome inhibitor, carbobenzoxyl-leucinyl-leucinyl-leucinal (MG-132). During this process, the expressions of p53 and p21 were examined by Western blot. Cell cycle analysis of the synovial cells was determined by DNA staining using propidium iodide (PI). Inhibition of proteasome resulted in the accumulation of p53 which was followed by an increase in the amount of a cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)-inhibitor, p21. As a consequence, the retinoblastoma gene product, Rb, remained in the hypophosphorylated state, thus preventing PDGF-stimulated synovial cells from progressing into S-phase. This study shows that endogenous p53, which is inducible in rheumatoid synovial cells, is functionally active based on the findings that its expression blocks the G1/S transition by inhibiting the CDK-mediated phosphorylation of Rb via p21 induction. Thus the induction of p53 using proteasome inhibitor may provide a new approach in the treatment of RA. PMID:11703379

  14. Neurotransmitter Specific, Cellular-Resolution Functional Brain Mapping Using Receptor Coated Nanoparticles: Assessment of the Possibility

    PubMed Central

    Forati, Ebrahim; Sabouni, Abas; Ray, Supriyo; Head, Brian; Schoen, Christian; Sievenpiper, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Receptor coated resonant nanoparticles and quantum dots are proposed to provide a cellular-level resolution image of neural activities inside the brain. The functionalized nanoparticles and quantum dots in this approach will selectively bind to different neurotransmitters in the extra-synaptic regions of neurons. This allows us to detect neural activities in real time by monitoring the nanoparticles and quantum dots optically. Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) with two different geometries (sphere and rod) and quantum dots (QDs) with different sizes were studied along with three different neurotransmitters: dopamine, gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA), and glycine. The absorption/emission spectra of GNPs and QDs before and after binding of neurotransmitters and their corresponding receptors are reported. The results using QDs and nanorods with diameter 25nm and aspect rations larger than three were promising for the development of the proposed functional brain mapping approach. PMID:26717196

  15. Convergent Pathways for Steroid Hormone-and Neurotransmitter-Induced Rat Sexual Behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mani, S. K.; Allen, J. M. C.; Clark, J. H.; Blaustein, J. D.; O'Malley, B. W.

    1994-08-01

    Estrogen and progesterone modulate gene expression in rodents by activation of intracellular receptors in the hypothalamus, which regulate neuronal networks that control female sexual behavior. However, the neurotransmitter dopamine has been shown to activate certain steroid receptors in a ligand-independent manner. A dopamine receptor stimulant and a D_1 receptor agonist, but not a D_2 receptor agonist, mimicked the effects of progesterone in facilitating sexual behavior in female rats. The facilitatory effect of the neurotransmitter was blocked by progesterone receptor antagonists, a D_1 receptor antagonist, or antisense oligonucleotides to the progesterone receptor. The results suggest that in rodents neurotransmitters may regulate in vivo gene expression and behavior by means of cross-talk with steroid receptors in the brain.

  16. Actions of tremorgenic fungal toxins on neurotransmitter release.

    PubMed

    Norris, P J; Smith, C C; De Belleroche, J; Bradford, H F; Mantle, P G; Thomas, A J; Penny, R H

    1980-01-01

    The neurochemical effects of the tremorgenic mycotoxins Verruculogen and Penitrem A, which produce a neurotoxic syndrome characterised by sustained tremors, were studied using sheep and rat synaptosomes. The toxins were administered in vivo, either by chronic feeding (sheep) or intraperitoneal injection 45 min prior to killing (rat), and synaptosomes were subsequently prepared from cerebrocortical and spinal cord/medullary regions of rat, and corpus striatum of sheep. Penitrem A (400 mg mycelium/kg) increased the spontaneous release of endogenous glutamate, GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid), and aspartate by 213%, 455%, and 277%, respectively, from cerebrocortical synaptosomes. Verruculogen (400 mg mycelium/kg) increased the spontaneous release of glutamate and aspartate by 1300% and 1200%, respectively, but not that of GABA from cerebrocortical synaptosomes. The spontaneous release of the transmitter amino acids or other amino acids was not increased by the tremorgens in spinal cord/medullary synaptosomes. Penitrem A pretreatment reduced the veratrine (75 microM) stimulated release of glutamate, aspartate, and GABA from cerebrocortical synaptosomes by 33%, 46%, and 11%, respectively, and the stimulated release of glycine and GABA from spinal cord/medulla synaptosomes by 67% and 32% respectively. Verruculogen pretreatment did not alter the veratrine-induced release of transmitter amino acids from cerebrocortex and spinal cord/medulla synaptosomes. Penitrem A pretreatment increased the spontaneous release of aspartate, glutamate, and GABA by 68%, 62%, and 100%, respectively, from sheep corpus striatum synaptosomes but did not alter the synthesis and release of dopamine in this tissue. Verruculogen was shown to cause a substantial increase (300-400%) in the miniature-end-plate potential (m.e.p.p.) frequency at the locust neuromuscular junction. The response was detectable within 1 min, rose to a maximum within 5-7 min, and declined to the control rate over a similar

  17. Microfluidic platform for neurotransmitter sensing based on cyclic voltammetry and dielectrophoresis for in vitro experiments.

    PubMed

    Mathault, Jessy; Zamprogno, Pauline; Greener, Jesse; Miled, Amine

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents a new microfluidic platform that can simultaneously measure and locally modulate neurotransmitter concentration in a neuron network. This work focuses on the development of a first prototype including a potentiostat and electrode functionalization to detect several neurotransmitter's simultaneously. We tested dopamine as proof of concept to validate functionality. The system is based on 320 bidirectional electrode array for dielectrophoretic manipulation and cyclic voltammetry. Each electrode is connected to a mechanical multiplexer in order to reduce noise interference and fully isolate the electrode. The multiplexing rate is 476 kHz and each electrode can drive a signal with an amplitude of 60 V pp for dielectrophoretic manipulation. PMID:26736720

  18. Protective Effect of Spermidine Against Excitotoxic Neuronal Death Induced by Quinolinic Acid in Rats: Possible Neurotransmitters and Neuroinflammatory Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Jamwal, Sumit; Singh, Shamsher; Kaur, Navneet; Kumar, Puneet

    2015-08-01

    Huntington disease is hyperkinetic movement disorder characterized by selective and immense degradation of GABAergic medium spiny neurons in striatum. Quinolinic acid (QA)-induced neurotoxicity involves a cascade of events such as excitotoxicity, ATP depletion, oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, as well as selective GABAergic neuronal loss. Therefore, we investigated spermidine, an endogenous molecule with free radical scavenging, anti-inflammatory, and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonistic properties, for its beneficial potential if any, in QA-induced Huntington's like symptoms in rats. Rats were administered with QA (200 nmol/2 µl saline) bilaterally on 0 day. Spermidine (5 and 10 mg/kg, p.o.) was administered for 21 days once a day. Behavioral parameters (body weight, locomotor activity, grip strength, and narrow beam walk) observations were done on 1st, 7th, 14th, and 21st day after QA treatment. On 21st day, animals were sacrificed and rat striatum was isolated for biochemical (LPO, GSH, Nitrite), neuroinflammation (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6), and neurochemical analysis (GABA, glutamate, dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin, DOPAC, HVA, 5-HIAA, adenosine, adenine, hypoxanthine, and inosine). QA treatment significantly altered body weight, locomotor activity, motor coordination, oxidative defense (increased LPO, nitrite, and decreased GSH), pro-inflammatory levels (TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β), GABA, glutamate, catecholamines level (norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin and their metabolites), and purines level (adenosine, inosine, and hypoxanthine). Spermidine (5 and 10 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly attenuated these alterations in body weight, motor impairments, oxidative stress, neuroinflammatory markers, GABA, glutamate, catecholamines, adenosine, and their metabolites levels in striatum. The neuroprotective effect of spermidine against QA-induced excitotoxic cell death is attributed to its antioxidant, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonistic, anti

  19. Modulation of cholinergic neural bronchoconstriction by endogenous nitric oxide and vasoactive intestinal peptide in human airways in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Ward, J K; Belvisi, M G; Fox, A J; Miura, M; Tadjkarimi, S; Yacoub, M H; Barnes, P J

    1993-01-01

    Human airway smooth muscle possesses an inhibitory nonadrenergic noncholinergic neural bronchodilator response mediated by nitric oxide (NO). In guinea pig trachea both endogenous NO and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) modulate cholinergic neural contractile responses. To identify whether endogenous NO or VIP can modulate cholinergic contractile responses in human airways in vitro, we studied the effects of specific NO synthase inhibitors and the peptidase alpha-chymotrypsin on contractile responses evoked by electrical field stimulation (EFS) at three airway levels. Endogenous NO, but not VIP, was shown to inhibit cholinergic contractile responses at all airway levels but this inhibition was predominantly in trachea and main bronchus and less marked in segmental and subsegmental bronchi. To elucidate the mechanism of this modulation we then studied the effects of endogenous NO on acetylcholine (ACh) release evoked by EFS from tracheal smooth muscle strips. We confirmed that release was neural in origin, frequency dependent, and that endogenous NO did not affect ACh release. These findings show that endogenous NO, but not VIP, evoked by EFS can inhibit cholinergic neural responses via functional antagonism of ACh at the airway smooth muscle and that the contribution of this modulation is less marked in lower airways. PMID:8349813

  20. Synaptic inhibition and γ-aminobutyric acid in the mammalian central nervous system

    PubMed Central

    OBATA, Kunihiko

    2013-01-01

    Signal transmission through synapses connecting two neurons is mediated by release of neurotransmitter from the presynaptic axon terminals and activation of its receptor at the postsynaptic neurons. γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA), non-protein amino acid formed by decarboxylation of glutamic acid, is a principal neurotransmitter at inhibitory synapses of vertebrate and invertebrate nervous system. On one hand glutamic acid serves as a principal excitatory neurotransmitter. This article reviews GABA researches on; (1) synaptic inhibition by membrane hyperpolarization, (2) exclusive localization in inhibitory neurons, (3) release from inhibitory neurons, (4) excitatory action at developmental stage, (5) phenotype of GABA-deficient mouse produced by gene-targeting, (6) developmental adjustment of neural network and (7) neurological/psychiatric disorder. In the end, GABA functions in simple nervous system and plants, and non-amino acid neurotransmitters were supplemented. PMID:23574805

  1. Newer putative central neurotransmitters: roles in thermoregulation. Hypothalamic substances in the control of body temperature: general characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Blatteis, C.M.

    1981-11-01

    Although it has been demonstrated that their central, exogenous application induces thermal responses, it is not yet established whether various substances found in the hypothalami of many species function as neurotransmitters in central thermoregulatory pathways. Available data concerning their presence, synthesis, release, possible binding sites, and inactivation are reviewed in the light of established criteria for determining a neurotransmitter role for such substances.

  2. 13C MRS studies of neuroenergetics and neurotransmitter cycling in humans

    PubMed Central

    Rothman, Douglas L.; De Feyter, Henk M.; de Graaf, Robin A.; Mason, Graeme F.; Behar, Kevin L.

    2011-01-01

    In the last 25 years 13C MRS has been established as the only non invasive method for measuring glutamate neurotransmission and cell specific neuroenergetics. Although technically and experimentally challenging 13C MRS has already provided important new information on the relationship between neuroenergetics and neuronal function, energy cost of brain function, the high neuronal activity in the resting brain state, and how neuroenergetics and neurotransmitter cycling are altered in neurological and psychiatric disease. In this paper the current state of 13C MRS as it is applied to study neuroenergetics and neurotransmitter cycling in humans is reviewed. The focus is predominantly on recent findings in humans regarding metabolic pathways, applications to clinical research, and the technical status of the method. Results from in vivo 13C MRS studies in animals are discussed from the standpoint of validation of MRS measurements of neuroenergetics and neurotransmitter cycling and where they have helped identify key questions to address in human research. Controversies concerning the relation of neuroenergetics and neurotransmitter cycling and factors impacting accurate determination of fluxes through mathematical modeling are addressed. We further touch upon different 13C labeled substrates used to study brain metabolism, before reviewing a number of human brain diseases studied using 13C MRS. Future technological developments are discussed that will help to overcome limitations of 13C MRS with special attention on recent developments in hyperpolarized 13C MRS. PMID:21882281

  3. Neurotransmitters and Neuropeptides: New Players in the Control of Islet of Langerhans' Cell Mass and Function.

    PubMed

    Di Cairano, Eliana S; Moretti, Stefania; Marciani, Paola; Sacchi, Vellea Franca; Castagna, Michela; Davalli, Alberto; Folli, Franco; Perego, Carla

    2016-04-01

    Islets of Langerhans control whole body glucose homeostasis, as they respond, releasing hormones, to changes in nutrient concentrations in the blood stream. The regulation of hormone secretion has been the focus of attention for a long time because it is related to many metabolic disorders, including diabetes mellitus. Endocrine cells of the islet use a sophisticate system of endocrine, paracrine and autocrine signals to synchronize their activities. These signals provide a fast and accurate control not only for hormone release but also for cell differentiation and survival, key aspects in islet physiology and pathology. Among the different categories of paracrine/autocrine signals, this review highlights the role of neurotransmitters and neuropeptides. In a manner similar to neurons, endocrine cells synthesize, accumulate, release neurotransmitters in the islet milieu, and possess receptors able to decode these signals. In this review, we provide a comprehensive description of neurotransmitter/neuropetide signaling pathways present within the islet. Then, we focus on evidence supporting the concept that neurotransmitters/neuropeptides and their receptors are interesting new targets to preserve β-cell function and mass. A greater understanding of how this network of signals works in physiological and pathological conditions would advance our knowledge of islet biology and physiology and uncover potentially new areas of pharmacological intervention. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 756-767, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26332080

  4. Review of recent advances in analytical techniques for the determination of neurotransmitters

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Maura; Li, Qiang; Kennedy, Robert T.

    2009-01-01

    Methods and advances for monitoring neurotransmitters in vivo or for tissue analysis of neurotransmitters over the last five years are reviewed. The review is organized primarily by neurotransmitter type. Transmitter and related compounds may be monitored by either in vivo sampling coupled to analytical methods or implanted sensors. Sampling is primarily performed using microdialysis, but low-flow push-pull perfusion may offer advantages of spatial resolution while minimizing the tissue disruption associated with higher flow rates. Analytical techniques coupled to these sampling methods include liquid chromatography, capillary electrophoresis, enzyme assays, sensors, and mass spectrometry. Methods for the detection of amino acid, monoamine, neuropeptide, acetylcholine, nucleoside, and soluable gas neurotransmitters have been developed and improved upon. Advances in the speed and sensitivity of these methods have enabled improvements in temporal resolution and increased the number of compounds detectable. Similar advances have enabled improved detection at tissue samples, with a substantial emphasis on single cell and other small samples. Sensors provide excellent temporal and spatial resolution for in vivo monitoring. Advances in application to catecholamines, indoleamines, and amino acids have been prominent. Improvements in stability, sensitivity, and selectivity of the sensors have been of paramount interest. PMID:19800472

  5. Differential regulation of the central neural cardiorespiratory system by metabotropic neurotransmitters

    PubMed Central

    Pilowsky, Paul M.; Lung, Mandy S. Y.; Spirovski, Darko; McMullan, Simon

    2009-01-01

    Central neurons in the brainstem and spinal cord are essential for the maintenance of sympathetic tone, the integration of responses to the activation of reflexes and central commands, and the generation of an appropriate respiratory motor output. Here, we will discuss work that aims to understand the role that metabotropic neurotransmitter systems play in central cardiorespiratory mechanisms. It is well known that blockade of glutamatergic, gamma-aminobutyric acidergic and glycinergic pathways causes major or even complete disruption of cardiorespiratory systems, whereas antagonism of other neurotransmitter systems barely affects circulation or ventilation. Despite the lack of an ‘all-or-none’ role for metabotropic neurotransmitters, they are nevertheless significant in modulating the effects of central command and peripheral adaptive reflexes. Finally, we propose that a likely explanation for the plethora of neurotransmitters and their receptors on cardiorespiratory neurons is to enable differential regulation of outputs in response to reflex inputs, while at the same time maintaining a tonic level of sympathetic activity that supports those organs that significantly autoregulate their blood supply, such as the heart, brain, retina and kidney. Such an explanation of the data now available enables the generation of many new testable hypotheses. PMID:19651655

  6. Involvement of the endogenous opioid system in the psychopharmacological actions of ethanol: the role of acetaldehyde

    PubMed Central

    Font, Laura; Luján, Miguel Á.; Pastor, Raúl

    2013-01-01

    Significant evidence implicates the endogenous opioid system (EOS) (opioid peptides and receptors) in the mechanisms underlying the psychopharmacological effects of ethanol. Ethanol modulates opioidergic signaling and function at different levels, including biosynthesis, release, and degradation of opioid peptides, as well as binding of endogenous ligands to opioid receptors. The role of β-endorphin and µ-opioid receptors (OR) have been suggested to be of particular importance in mediating some of the behavioral effects of ethanol, including psychomotor stimulation and sensitization, consumption and conditioned place preference (CPP). Ethanol increases the release of β-endorphin from the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (NArc), which can modulate activity of other neurotransmitter systems such as mesolimbic dopamine (DA). The precise mechanism by which ethanol induces a release of β-endorphin, thereby inducing behavioral responses, remains to be elucidated. The present review summarizes accumulative data suggesting that the first metabolite of ethanol, the psychoactive compound acetaldehyde, could participate in such mechanism. Two lines of research involving acetaldehyde are reviewed: (1) implications of the formation of acetaldehyde in brain areas such as the NArc, with high expression of ethanol metabolizing enzymes and presence of cell bodies of endorphinic neurons and (2) the formation of condensation products between DA and acetaldehyde such as salsolinol, which exerts its actions via OR. PMID:23914161

  7. Olfactory bulb short axon cell release of GABA and dopamine produces a temporally biphasic inhibition-excitation response in external tufted cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shaolin; Plachez, Celine; Shao, Zuoyi; Puche, Adam; Shipley, Michael T.

    2013-01-01

    Evidence for co-expression of two or more classic neurotransmitters in neurons has increased but less is known about co-transmission. Ventral tegmental area (VTA) neurons, co-release dopamine (DA), the excitatory transmitter glutamate and the inhibitory transmitter GABA onto target cells in the striatum. Olfactory bulb (OB) short axon cells (SACs) form interglomerular connections and co-express markers for dopamine (DA) and GABA. Using an optogenetic approach we provide evidence that mouse OB SACs release both GABA and DA onto external tufted cells (ETCs) in other glomeruli. Optical activation of channelrhodopsin specifically expressed in DAergic SACs produced a GABAA receptor-mediated monosynaptic inhibitory response followed by DA-D1-like receptor-mediated excitatory response in ETCs. The GABAA receptor-mediated hyperpolarization activates Ih current in ETCs; synaptically released DA increases Ih, which enhances post-inhibitory rebound spiking. Thus, the opposing actions of synaptically released GABA and DA are functionally integrated by Ih to generate an inhibition-to-excitation “switch” in ETCs. Consistent with the established role of Ih in ETC burst firing, we show that endogenous DA release increases ETC spontaneous bursting frequency. ETCs transmit sensory signals to mitral/tufted output neurons and drive intraglomerular inhibition to shape glomerulus output to downstream olfactory networks. GABA and DA co-transmission from SACs to ETCs may play a key role in regulating output coding across the glomerular array. PMID:23407950

  8. Neurotransmitter receptor density changes in Pitx3ak mice--a model relevant to Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Cremer, J N; Amunts, K; Graw, J; Piel, M; Rösch, F; Zilles, K

    2015-01-29

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by alterations of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurotransmission. Compared to the wealth of data on the impairment of the dopamine system, relatively limited evidence is available concerning the role of major non-dopaminergic neurotransmitter systems in PD. Therefore, we comprehensively investigated the density and distribution of neurotransmitter receptors for glutamate, GABA, acetylcholine, adrenaline, serotonin, dopamine and adenosine in brains of homozygous aphakia mice being characterized by mutations affecting the Pitx3 gene. This genetic model exhibits crucial hallmarks of PD on the neuropathological, symptomatic and pharmacological level. Quantitative receptor autoradiography was used to characterize 19 different receptor binding sites in eleven brain regions in order to understand receptor changes on a systemic level. We demonstrated striking differential changes of neurotransmitter receptor densities for numerous receptor types and brain regions, respectively. Most prominent, a strong up-regulation of GABA receptors and associated benzodiazepine binding sites in different brain regions and concomitant down-regulations of striatal nicotinic acetylcholine and serotonergic receptor densities were found. Furthermore, the densities of glutamatergic kainate, muscarinic acetylcholine, adrenergic α1 and dopaminergic D2/D3 receptors were differentially altered. These results present novel insights into the expression of neurotransmitter receptors in Pitx3(ak) mice supporting findings on PD pathology in patients and indicating on the possible underlying mechanisms. The data suggest Pitx3(ak) mice as an appropriate new model to investigate the role of neurotransmitter receptors in PD. Our study highlights the relevance of non-dopaminergic systems in PD and for the understanding of its molecular pathology. PMID:25451278

  9. Long-distance mechanism of neurotransmitter recycling mediated by glial network facilitates visual function in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, Ratna; Reddig, Keith; Li, Hong-Sheng

    2014-02-18

    Neurons rely on glia to recycle neurotransmitters such as glutamate and histamine for sustained signaling. Both mammalian and insect glia form intercellular gap-junction networks, but their functional significance underlying neurotransmitter recycling is unknown. Using the Drosophila visual system as a genetic model, here we show that a multicellular glial network transports neurotransmitter metabolites between perisynaptic glia and neuronal cell bodies to mediate long-distance recycling of neurotransmitter. In the first visual neuropil (lamina), which contains a multilayer glial network, photoreceptor axons release histamine to hyperpolarize secondary sensory neurons. Subsequently, the released histamine is taken up by perisynaptic epithelial glia and converted into inactive carcinine through conjugation with β-alanine for transport. In contrast to a previous assumption that epithelial glia deliver carcinine directly back to photoreceptor axons for histamine regeneration within the lamina, we detected both carcinine and β-alanine in the fly retina, where they are found in photoreceptor cell bodies and surrounding pigment glial cells. Downregulating Inx2 gap junctions within the laminar glial network causes β-alanine accumulation in retinal pigment cells and impairs carcinine synthesis, leading to reduced histamine levels and photoreceptor synaptic vesicles. Consequently, visual transmission is impaired and the fly is less responsive in a visual alert analysis compared with wild type. Our results suggest that a gap junction-dependent laminar and retinal glial network transports histamine metabolites between perisynaptic glia and photoreceptor cell bodies to mediate a novel, long-distance mechanism of neurotransmitter recycling, highlighting the importance of glial networks in the regulation of neuronal functions. PMID:24550312

  10. Sex-Dependent Influence of Endogenous Estrogen in Pulmonary Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Mair, Kirsty M.; Wright, Audrey F.; Duggan, Nicholas; Rowlands, David J.; Hussey, Martin J.; Roberts, Sonia; Fullerton, Josephine; Nilsen, Margaret; Loughlin, Lynn; Thomas, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: The incidence of pulmonary arterial hypertension is greater in women, suggesting estrogens may play a role in the disease pathogenesis. Experimentally, in males, exogenously administered estrogen can protect against pulmonary hypertension (PH). However, in models that display female susceptibility, estrogens may play a causative role. Objectives: To clarify the influence of endogenous estrogen and sex in PH and assess the therapeutic potential of a clinically available aromatase inhibitor. Methods: We interrogated the effect of reduced endogenous estrogen in males and females using the aromatase inhibitor, anastrozole, in two models of PH: the hypoxic mouse and Sugen 5416/hypoxic rat. We also determined the effects of sex on pulmonary expression of aromatase in these models and in lungs from patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension. Measurements and Main Results: Anastrozole attenuated PH in both models studied, but only in females. To verify this effect was caused by reduced estrogenic activity we confirmed that in hypoxic mice inhibition of estrogen receptor α also has a therapeutic effect specifically in females. Female rodent lung displays increased aromatase and decreased bone morphogenetic protein receptor 2 and Id1 expression compared with male. Anastrozole treatment reversed the impaired bone morphogenetic protein receptor 2 pathway in females. Increased aromatase expression was also detected in female human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells compared with male. Conclusions: The unique phenotype of female pulmonary arteries facilitates the therapeutic effects of anastrozole in experimental PH confirming a role for endogenous estrogen in the disease pathogenesis in females and suggests aromatase inhibitors may have therapeutic potential. PMID:24956156

  11. Comparison of synganglion neuropeptides, neuropeptide receptors and neurotransmitter receptors and their gene expression in response to feeding in Ixodes scapularis (Ixodidae) vs. Ornithodoros turicata (Argasidae).

    PubMed

    Egekwu, N; Sonenshine, D E; Garman, H; Barshis, D J; Cox, N; Bissinger, B W; Zhu, J; M Roe, R

    2016-02-01

    Illumina GAII high-throughput sequencing was used to compare expressed genes for female synganglion neuropeptides, neuropeptide receptors and neurotransmitter receptors of the soft tick Ornithodoros turicata with the hard tick Ixodes scapularis. Gene ontology molecular level three mapping revealed no significant differences amongst the same categories represented in O. turicata and I. scapularis. Transcripts predicting 22 neuropeptides or their receptors in the O. turicata synganglion were similar to annotations for 23 neuropeptides or receptors previously identified from I scapularis, with minor exceptions. A transcript predicting ecdysis triggering hormone receptor was identified in O. turicata; transcripts encoding for proprotein convertase and glycoprotein B were identified in both species. Transcripts predicting the same neurotransmitter receptors were found in the synganglion of both species. Gene expression of the transcripts showed numerous differences in response to feeding. Major differences were observed in expression of genes believed important in regulating slow vs. rapid feeding, blood water elimination, cuticle synthesis plasticity and in signalling reproductive activity. Although the glutamate receptor was strongly upregulated in both species, the gamma aminobutyric acid receptor, which inhibits glutamate, was upregulated significantly only in I. scapularis. These differences are consistent with the slow vs. rapid action of the pharyngeal pump in the two species. PMID:26783017

  12. Advances in understanding the peptide neurotransmitter NAAG and appearance of a new member of the NAAG neuropeptide family.

    PubMed

    Neale, Joseph H; Olszewski, Rafal T; Zuo, Daiying; Janczura, Karolina J; Profaci, Caterina P; Lavin, Kaleen M; Madore, John C; Bzdega, Tomasz

    2011-08-01

    A substantial body of data was reported between 1984 and 2000 demonstrating that the neuropeptide N-acetylaspartylglutamate (NAAG) not only functions as a neurotransmitter but also is the third most prevalent transmitter in the mammalian nervous system behind glutamate and GABA. By 2005, this conclusion was validated further through a series of studies in vivo and in vitro. The primary enzyme responsible for the inactivation of NAAG following its synaptic release had been cloned, characterized and knocked out. Potent inhibitors of this enzyme were developed and their efficacy has been extensively studied in a series of animal models of clinical conditions, including stroke, peripheral neuropathy, traumatic brain injury, inflammatory and neuropathic pain, cocaine addiction, and schizophrenia. Considerable progress also has been made in defining further the mechanism of action of these peptidase inhibitors in elevating synaptic levels of NAAG with the consequent inhibition of transmitter release via the activation of pre-synaptic metabotropic glutamate receptor 3 by this peptide. Very recent discoveries include identification of two different nervous system enzymes that mediate the synthesis of NAAG from N-acetylaspartate and glutamate and the finding that one of these enzymes also mediates the synthesis of a second member of the NAAG family of neuropeptides, N-acetylaspartylglutamylglutamate. PMID:21644997

  13. Human neuromelanin: an endogenous microglial activator for dopaminergic neuron death

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Zecca, Luigi; Wilson, Belinda; Ren, RW; Wang, Yong-jun; Wang, Xiao-min; Hong, Jau-Shyong

    2013-01-01

    Substantial evidence indicates that neuroinflammation caused by over-activation of microglial in the substantia nigra is critical in the pathogenesis of dopaminergic neurodegeneration in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Increasing data demonstrates that environmental factors such as rotenone, paraquat play pivotal roles in the death of dopaminergic neurons. Here, potential role and mechanism of neuromelanin (NM), a major endogenous component in dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra, on microglial activation and associated dopaminergic neurotoxicity were investigated. Using multiple well-established primary mesencephalic cultures, we tested whether human NM (HNM) could activate microglia, thereby provoking dopaminergic neurodegeneration. The results demonstrated that in primary mesencephalic neuron-glia cultures, HNM caused dopaminergic neuronal damage characterized by the decreased dopamine uptake and reduced numbers and shorted dendrites of dopaminergic neurons. HNM-induced degeneration was relatively selective to dopaminergic neurons since the other types of neurons determined by either gamma-aminobutyric acid uptake and total neuronal numbers after staining showed smaller decrease. We demonstrated that HNM produced modest dopaminergic neurotoxicity in neuron-enriched cultures; in contrast, much greater neurotoxicity was observed in the presence of microglia. HNM-induced microglial activation was shown by morphological changes and production of proinflammatory and neurotoxic factors. These results suggest that HNM, once released from damaged dopaminergic neurons, can be an potent endogenous activator involved in the reactivation of microglia, which may mediate disease progression. Thus, inhibition of reactive microglia can be a useful strategy for PD therapy. PMID:23276965

  14. Endogenous digitalis-like factors: an overview of the history.

    PubMed

    Buckalew, Vardaman M

    2015-01-01

    The sodium pump is a ubiquitous cell surface enzyme, a Na, K ATPase, which maintains ion gradients between cells and the extracellular fluid (ECF). The extracellular domain of this enzyme contains a highly conserved binding site, a receptor for a plant derived family of compounds, the digitalis glycosides. These compounds inhibit the enzyme and are used in the treatment of congestive heart failure and certain cardiac arrhythmias. The highly conserved nature of this enzyme and its digitalis receptor led to early suggestions that endogenous regulators might exist. Recent examination of this hypothesis emerged from research in two separate areas: the regulation of ECF volume by a natriuretic hormone (NH), and the regulation of peripheral vascular resistance by a circulating inhibitor of vascular Na, K ATPase. These two areas merged with the hypothesis that NH and the vascular Na, K ATPase inhibitor were in fact the same entity, and that it played a causative role in the pathophysiology of certain types of hypertension. The possibility that multiple endogenous digitalis-like factors (EDLFs) exist emerged from efforts to characterize the circulating enzyme inhibitory activity. In this review, the development of this field from its beginnings is traced, the current status of the structure of EDLFs is briefly discussed, and areas for future development are suggested. PMID:25918512

  15. Oxidatively Generated DNA Damage Following Cu(II)-Catalysis of Dopamine and Related Catecholamine Neurotransmitters and Neurotoxins: Role of Reactive Oxygen Species1

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Wendy A.; Jeyabalan, Jeyaprakash; Kichambre, Sunita; Gupta, Ramesh C.

    2012-01-01

    a possible contributory role of oxidatively generated DNA damage by dopamine and related catechol neurotransmitters/neurotoxins in neurodegeneration and cell death. We also found that a naturally occurring broad spectrum antioxidant, ellagic acid, was substantially effective (nearly 50% inhibition) at low doses (1 μM) at preventing this dopamine/Cu(II)-mediated oxidatively generated DNA damage. Since dietary ellagic acid has been found to reduce oxidative stress in rat brains, a neuro-protective role of this polyphenol is plausible. PMID:21075203

  16. Rett syndrome - Stimulation of endogenous biogenic amines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelligra, R.; Norton, R. D.; Wilkinson, R.; Leon, H. A.; Matson, W. R.

    1992-01-01

    Transient hypercapnic hyperoxemia was induced in two Rett syndrome children by the administration of a gaseous mixture of 80 percent O2 and 20 percent CO2. Time course studies of neurotransmitters and their metabolites showed an immediate and marked increase in central biogenic amine turnover following inhalation of the gas mixture. The increased turnover of biogenic amines was associated with improved clinical changes. This suggests a coupled relationship and provides further support for an etiological role of neurotransmitter dysfunction in Rett syndrome. In a complementary study, elevation of pulmonary CO2 by application of a simple rebreathing device resulted in improvement of abnormal blood gases and elimination of the Cheyne-Stokes-like respiratory pattern of the Rett syndrome. Near normalization of the EEG occurred when a normal respiratory pattern was imposed by means of a respirator. Taken together, these results lead to the preliminary conclusion that cerebral hypoxemia secondary to abnormal respiratory function may contribute to diminished production of biogenic amines in Rett syndrome.

  17. Endogenous Dopamine Suppresses Initiation of Swimming in Prefeeding Zebrafish Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Thirumalai, Vatsala; Cline, Hollis T.

    2008-01-01

    Dopamine is a key neuromodulator of locomotory circuits, yet the role that dopamine plays during development of these circuits is less well understood. Here, we describe a suppressive effect of dopamine on swim circuits in larval zebrafish. Zebrafish larvae exhibit marked changes in swimming behavior between 3 days postfertilization (dpf) and 5dpf. We found that swim episodes were fewer and of longer durations at 3 than at 5dpf. At 3dpf, application of dopamine as well as bupropion, a dopamine reuptake blocker, abolished spontaneous fictive swim episodes. Blocking D2 receptors increased frequency of occurrence of episodes and activation of adenylyl cyclase, a downstream target inhibited by D2-receptor signaling, blocked the inhibitory effect of dopamine. Dopamine had no effect on motor neuron firing properties, input impedance, resting membrane potential, or the amplitude of spike afterhyperpolarization. Application of dopamine either to the isolated spinal cord or locally within the cord does not decrease episode frequency, whereas dopamine application to the brain silences episodes, suggesting a supraspinal locus of dopaminergic action. Treating larvae with 10 μM MPTP reduced catecholaminergic innervation in the brain and increased episode frequency. These data indicate that dopamine inhibits the initiation of fictive swimming episodes at 3dpf. We found that at 5dpf, exogenously applied dopamine inhibits swim episodes, yet the dopamine reuptake blocker or the D2-receptor antagonist have no effect on episode frequency. These results led us to propose that endogenous dopamine release transiently suppresses swim circuits in developing zebrafish. PMID:18562547

  18. An endogenous model of the credit network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Jianmin; Sui, Xin; Li, Shouwei

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, an endogenous credit network model of firm-bank agents is constructed. The model describes the endogenous formation of firm-firm, firm-bank and bank-bank credit relationships. By means of simulations, the model is capable of showing some obvious similarities with empirical evidence found by other scholars: the upper-tail of firm size distribution can be well fitted with a power-law; the bank size distribution can be lognormally distributed with a power-law tail; the bank in-degrees of the interbank credit network as well as the firm-bank credit network fall into two-power-law distributions.

  19. Animal spirits, competitive markets, and endogenous growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazaki, Kenji

    2013-10-01

    This paper uses a simple model with an endogenous discount rate and linear technology to investigate whether a competitive equilibrium has a higher balanced growth path (BGP) than the social planning solution and whether the BGP is determinate or indeterminate. The implications are as follows. To start with, people with an instinct to compare themselves with others possess an endogenous discount rate. In turn, this instinct affects the economic growth rate in a competitive market economy. The competitive market economy also sometimes achieves higher economic growth than a social planning economy. However, the outcomes of market economy occasionally fluctuate because of the presence of the self-fulfilling prophecy or animal spirits.

  20. Upregulating endogenous genes by an RNA-programmable artificial transactivator

    PubMed Central

    Fimiani, Cristina; Goina, Elisa; Mallamaci, Antonello

    2015-01-01

    To promote expression of endogenous genes ad libitum, we developed a novel, programmable transcription factor prototype. Kept together via an MS2 coat protein/RNA interface, it includes a fixed, polypeptidic transactivating domain and a variable RNA domain that recognizes the desired gene. Thanks to this device, we specifically upregulated five genes, in cell lines and primary cultures of murine pallial precursors. Gene upregulation was small, however sufficient to robustly inhibit neuronal differentiation. The transactivator interacted with target gene chromatin via its RNA cofactor. Its activity was restricted to cells in which the target gene is normally transcribed. Our device might be useful for specific applications. However for this purpose, it will require an improvement of its transactivation power as well as a better characterization of its target specificity and mechanism of action. PMID:26152305

  1. Endogenous grouper and barramundi Mx proteins facilitated the clearance of betanodavirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase.

    PubMed

    Wu, Y-C; Tsai, P-Y; Chan, J-C; Chi, S-C

    2016-06-01

    This study confirmed that the infection of nervous necrosis virus (NNV), belonging to the betanodavirus, can induce the expression of endogenous Mx in grouper fin-3 (GF-3), grouper brain (cGB), and barramundi brain (cBB) cells, but not in grouper fin-1 (GF-1) cells. In a co-sedimentation assay, RdRp appeared in the mitochondrial pellet of GF-1 cells without endogenous Mx expression. However, in GF-3, cGB, and cBB cells, RdRp was detected in the nuclear pellet accompanied by endogenous Mx. By immunostaining, RdRp was found to colocalize with not only endogenous Mx but also lysosomes and monodansylcadaverine (MDC)-labeled autophagic vacuoles. In GF-1 cells, the RdRp level continuously increased during 24-72 h post infection (hpi). When endogenous Mx expressed during 24-72 hpi in virus-infected GF-3, cGB, and cBB cells, the RdRp level peaked at 24 hpi but decreased at 48-72 hpi. The degradation of RdRp could be suppressed by treatment with 3-methyladenine (3MA), NH4Cl, and Mx-specific siRNA respectively. After poly I:C transfection, the endogenous Mx level peaked at 3 days post transfection (dpt) and then spontaneously decreased at 5-7 dpt. The poly I:C-indued Mx also colocalized with MDC-labeled autophagic vacuoles at 3 dpt, and its degradation could be inhibited by 3MA or NH4Cl treatments. Therefore, the anti-NNV mechanism of endogenous grouper and barramundi Mx is suggested to sequester RdRp for degradation through autophagy and lysosomes. PMID:26820443

  2. Effect of endogenous insulin-like growth factor and stem cell factor on diabetic colonic dysmotility

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yun; Xu, Xin-Yu; Tang, Yu-Rong; Yang, Wei-Wei; Yuan, Yu-Feng; Ning, Yue-Ji; Yu, Yin-Juan; Lin, Lin

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether the reduction of stem cell factor (SCF) is mediated by decreased endogenous insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 in diabetic rat colon smooth muscle. METHODS: Sixteen Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups: control group and streptozotocin-induced diabetic group. After 8 wk of streptozotocin administration, colonic motility function and contractility of circular muscle strips were measured. The expression of endogenous IGF-1 and SCF was tested in colonic tissues. Colonic smooth muscle cells were cultured from normal adult rats. IGF-1 siRNA transfection was used to investigate whether SCF expression was affected by endogenous IGF-1 expression in smooth muscle cells, and IGF-1 induced SCF expression effects were studied. The effect of high glucose on the expression of endogenous IGF-1 and SCF was also investigated. RESULTS: Diabetic rats showed prolonged colonic transit time (252 ± 16 min vs 168 ± 9 min, P < 0.01) and weakness of circular muscle contraction (0.81 ± 0.09 g vs 2.48 ± 0.23 g, P < 0.01) compared with the control group. Endogenous IGF-1 and SCF protein expression was significantly reduced in the diabetic colonic muscle tissues. IGF-1 and SCF mRNA expression also showed a paralleled reduction in diabetic rats. In the IGF-1 siRNA transfected smooth muscle cells, SCF mRNA and protein expression was significantly decreased. IGF-1 could induce SCF expression in a concentration and time-dependent manner, mainly through the extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2 signal pathway. High glucose inhibited endogenous IGF-1 and SCF expression and the addition of IGF-1 to the medium reversed the SCF expression. CONCLUSION: Myopathy may resolve in colonic motility dysfunction in diabetic rats. Deficiency of endogenous IGF-1 in colonic smooth muscle cells leads to reduction of SCF expression. PMID:23745035

  3. Co-morbidity and self medication in schizophrenia: involvement of endogenous morphine signaling mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Kream, Richard M; Kuzelova, Hana; Kralickova, Milena; Ptacek, Radek; Stefano, George B

    2012-10-01

    For over 30 years, empirical studies have demonstrated expression of chemically authentic morphine by diverse animal tissues and organs systems. De novo biosynthesis of endogenous morphine by animal cells displays striking similarities to the multi-enzyme mediated biosynthetic pathway previously characterized in great biochemical and molecular detail in opium poppy (Papaver somniferum). The committed enzyme step within this pathway involves an asymmetric Pictet-Spengler condensation of dopamine (DA) and 3,4 dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde (DOPAL), the oxidation product of L- 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA), to form the essential intermediate precursor tetrahydropapaveroline (THP). We have hypothesized that endogenous morphine is synthesized within peripheral sites via conversion of THP in a regulated biosynthetic pathway, or conversely, THP may be directly transported into the CNS and converted to endogenous morphine within a similar biosynthetic pathway. The fundamental chemical relationship of the prototype catecholamine DA and its immediate precursor L-DOPA to endogenous morphine expression indicates a novel reciprocally interactive mechanism that links catecholamine and "morphinergic" pathways in the activation and inhibition of key physiological responses, including higher order neural integration. Dysregulation of interactive DAergic and "morphinergic" signaling pathways within CNS foci may contribute to the etiological factors driving co-morbid behavioral syndromes in major psychiatric disorders. Our short review is designed to provide insights on comorbidity and self-medication in schizophrenia from a novel perspective involving endogenous morphine signaling mechanisms. PMID:22876887

  4. Effect of different organic and inorganic blockers of calcium entry on the release of endogenous dopamine from tuberoinfundibular neurones.

    PubMed

    Annunziato, L; Amoroso, S; Taglialatela, M; De Natale, G; Di Renzo, G F

    1986-05-01

    In the present study the effect of different blockers of calcium entry belonging to different chemical classes on basal and K+-elicited release of endogenous dopamine (DA) from tuberoinfundibular dopaminergic neurones was studied in vitro. For this purpose fragments of hypothalamus containing arcuate-periventricular nuclei and median eminence were incubated in vitro and endogenous DA released into the medium was assayed by radioenzymatic assay. The organic blockers of calcium entry, nitrendipine, nimodipine, nifedipine, diltiazem and flunarizine did not modify basal or K+-evoked release of endogenous DA, unless very large concentrations (100 microM) of nifedipine or diltiazem were used. The phenylalkylamine methoxyverapamil (D-600) consistently inhibited K+-stimulated release of endogenous DA in concentrations of 50 and 100 microM. Cobalt and lanthanum, two ions with an ionic radius similar to that of calcium and which are known to inhibit calcium fluxes through nerve membranes, significantly blocked release of endogenous DA elicited by 35 mM K+. In summary, the results of the present study showed that calcium channels in the tuberoinfundibular dopaminergic system displayed a different sensitivity to various classes of blockers of calcium entry. Inorganic blockers of calcium entry, like lanthanum and cobalt, appeared to be the most effective in blocking Ca2+-dependent release of endogenous DA, whereas, among the organic calcium antagonists, phenylalkylamines seemed to possess a certain degree of effectiveness. PMID:3736788

  5. Essays on Policy Evaluation with Endogenous Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentile, Elisabetta

    2011-01-01

    Over the last decade, experimental and quasi-experimental methods have been favored by researchers in empirical economics, as they provide unbiased causal estimates. However, when implementing a program, it is often not possible to randomly assign subjects to treatment, leading to a possible endogeneity bias. This dissertation consists of two…

  6. Endogenous opioids and excessive alcohol consumption.

    PubMed Central

    Gianoulakis, C

    1993-01-01

    Alcohol is one of the most popular drugs of abuse in our society, and alcoholism is an important cause of absenteeism at work and a major health and social problem. Ethanol induces a number of effects, such as disinhibition, a feeling of general well-being, tolerance and physical dependence. Since there are no specific receptors with which ethanol interacts, it has been proposed that ethanol exerts its effects by altering the activity of a number of neuronal and neuroendocrine systems. Studies have indicated that alcohol influences the activity of the dopaminergic, serotonergic and opioidergic systems. The implication of the endogenous opioid system in mediating some of the effects of ethanol is indicated by the observations that some of the behavioral and pharmacological effects of ethanol are similar to those of the opiates. Indeed, injections of small amounts of morphine increased ethanol consumption, while the administration of naltrexone decreased ethanol consumption among rats and other experimental animals, in a number of experimental paradigms, suggesting that endogenous opioids may play an important role in controlling voluntary ethanol consumption. This paper reviews studies of the effects of ethanol on the activity of the endogenous opioid system and on the importance of endogenous opioids in controlling alcohol consumption. PMID:7690585

  7. New Trends and Perspectives in the Evolution of Neurotransmitters in Microbial, Plant, and Animal Cells.

    PubMed

    Roshchina, Victoria V

    2016-01-01

    The evolutionary perspective on the universal roles of compounds known as neurotransmitters may help in the analysis of relations between all organisms in biocenosis-from microorganisms to plant and animals. This phenomenon, significant for chemosignaling and cellular endocrinology, has been important in human health and the ability to cause disease or immunity, because the "living environment" influences every organism in a biocenosis relationship (microorganism-microorganism, microorganism-plant, microorganism-animal, plant-animal, plant-plant and animal-animal). Non-nervous functions of neurotransmitters (rather "biomediators" on a cellular level) are considered in this review and ample consideration is given to similarities and differences that unite, as well as distinguish, taxonomical kingdoms. PMID:26589213

  8. Neurotransmitters and synaptic components in the Merkel cell-neurite complex, a gentle touch receptor

    PubMed Central

    Maksimovic, Srdjan; Baba, Yoshichika; Lumpkin, Ellen A.

    2013-01-01

    Merkel cells are an enigmatic group of rare cells found in the skin of vertebrates. Most make contacts with somatosensory afferents to form Merkel cell-neurite complexes, which are gentle-touch receptors that initiate slowly adapting type I responses. The function of Merkel cells within the complex remains debated despite decades of research. Numerous anatomical studies demonstrate that Merkel cells form synaptic-like contacts with sensory afferent terminals. Moreover, recent molecular analysis reveals that Merkel cells express dozens of presynaptic molecules that are essential for synaptic vesicle release in neurons. Merkel cells also produce a host of neuro-active substances that can act as fast excitatory neurotransmitters or neuromodulators. Here, we review the major neurotransmitters found in Merkel cells and discuss these findings in relation to the potential function of Merkel cells in touch reception. PMID:23530998

  9. Quantification of Amino Acid Neurotransmitters in Cerebrospinal Fluid of Patients with Neurocysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    Camargo, José Augusto; Bertolucci, Paulo Henrique Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    Background : Neurocysticercosis is a parasitic disease that affects the central nervous system. Its main clinical manifestations are epileptic seizures. The objective of this study was to investigate the correlation between neurotransmitter concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and the different evolutive forms of neurocysticercosis with or without seizures. Methods : Neurotransmitter concentrations (Aspartate, Glutamate, GABA, Glutamine, Glycine, Taurine) were determined in CSF samples from 42 patients with neurocysticercosis divided into patients with the active cystic form (n = 24, 12 with and 12 without seizures) and patients with calcified form (n = 18, 12 with and 6 without seizures), and a control group consisting of 59 healthy subjects. Results : Alterations in amino acid concentration were observed in all patients with neurocysticercosis. Conclusion : We conclude that disturbances in amino acid metabolism accompany the presentation of neurocysticercosis. Replacement of the terms inactive cyst by reactive inactive cyst and calcification by reactive calcification is suggested. PMID:26157521

  10. Analysis of Neurotransmitter Tissue Content of Drosophila melanogaster in Different Life Stages

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster is a widely used model organism for studying neurological diseases with similar neurotransmission to mammals. While both larva and adult Drosophila have central nervous systems, not much is known about how neurotransmitter tissue content changes through development. In this study, we quantified tyramine, serotonin, octopamine, and dopamine in larval, pupal, and adult fly brains using capillary electrophoresis coupled to fast-scan cyclic voltammetry. Tyramine and octopamine content varied between life stages, with almost no octopamine being present in the pupa, while tyramine levels in the pupa were very high. Adult females had significantly higher dopamine content than males, but no other neurotransmitters were dependent on sex in the adult. Understanding the tissue content of different life stages will be beneficial for future work comparing the effects of diseases on tissue content throughout development. PMID:25437353

  11. Laser R2PI spectroscopic and mass spectrometric studies of chiral neurotransmitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giardini, A.; Marotta, V.; Paladini, A.; Piccirillo, S.; Rondino, F.; Satta, M.; Speranza, M.

    2007-07-01

    One color, mass selected resonant two-photon ionization (1cR2PI) spectra of supersonically expanded bare neurotransmitter, (1 S,2 S)-(+)- N-methyl pseudoephedrine (MPE), and its complexes with chiral and achiral molecules have been investigated. The excitation spectrum of bare MPE has been analyzed and discussed on the basis of theoretical predictions at the B3LYP/6-31G** level of theory. The results allowed to get information on the possible conformers of MPE molecule and on the intermolecular forces on its cluster formed with a variety of solvent molecules, including chiral alcohols, lactates and water. Further information on intermolecular interactions have been obtained with ESI-CID-MS 2 technique, applied to chiral biomolecules linked through a metal ion to the neurotransmitter. The experimental results are compared with theoretical predictions.

  12. Identification of neurotransmitters and co-localization of transmitters in brainstem respiratory neurons

    PubMed Central

    R.L., Stornetta

    2008-01-01

    Identifying the major ionotropic neurotransmitter in a respiratory neuron is of critical importance in determining how the neuron fits into the respiratory system, whether in producing or modifying respiratory drive and rhythm. There are now several groups of respiratory neurons whose major neurotransmitters have been identified and in some of these cases, more than one transmitter have been identified in particular neurons. This review will describe the physiologically identified neurons in major respiratory areas that have been phenotyped for major ionotropic transmitters as well as those where more than one transmitter has been identified. Although the purpose of the additional transmitter has not been elucidated for any of the respiratory neurons, some examples from other systems will be discussed. PMID:18722563

  13. Microfluidic in-channel multi-electrode platform for neurotransmitter sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kara, A.; Mathault, J.; Reitz, A.; Boisvert, M.; Tessier, F.; Greener, J.; Miled, A.

    2016-03-01

    In this project we present a microfluidic platform with in-channel micro-electrodes for in situ screening of bio/chemical samples through a lab-on-chip system. We used a novel method to incorporate electrochemical sensors array (16x20) connected to a PCB, which opens the way for imaging applications. A 200 μm height microfluidic channel was bonded to electrochemical sensors. The micro-channel contains 3 inlets used to introduce phosphate buffer saline (PBS), ferrocynide and neurotransmitters. The flow rate was controlled through automated micro-pumps. A multiplexer was used to scan electrodes and perform individual cyclic voltammograms by a custom potentiostat. The behavior of the system was linear in terms of variation of current versus concentration. It was used to detect the neurotransmitters serotonin, dopamine and glutamate.

  14. A capillary-PDMS hybrid chip for separations-based sensing of neurotransmitters in vivo.

    PubMed

    Cellar, Nicholas A; Kennedy, Robert T

    2006-09-01

    A chip fabricated by multilayer soft lithography of poly(dimethylsiloxane) was created for separations-based sensing of neurotransmitters in vivo. The chip incorporated a pneumatically actuated peristaltic pump and valving system to combine low-flow push-pull perfusion sampling, on-line derivatization, and flow-gated injection onto an embedded fused-silica capillary for high speed separation of amine neurotransmitters from the brain of living animals. Six 160 microm wide by 10 microm high control channels, actuated with an overlapping 60 degrees pulse sequence, simultaneously drove sample and buffers through fluidic channels of the same dimensions. Tunable sampling flow rates of 40 to 130 nL min(-1) and separation buffer flow rates of 380 to 850 nL min(-1) were achieved with actuation frequencies between 3 and 10 Hz. On-line sampling of amine neurotransmitters with separation efficiencies in excess of 250,000 plates, detection limits of approximately 40 nM, and relative standard deviations of 4% for glutamate and aspartate were achieved in vitro. Electropherograms with resolution of gamma-aminobutyric acid, glutamine, taurine, serine, glycine, o-phosphorylethanolamine, glutamate, and aspartate could be collected every 30 s for over 4 h in vivo. It was also shown that pharmacological agents could be delivered and subsequent changes in neurotransmitter profile could be measured when delivering either 70 mM K+ artificial cerebrospinal fluid or 200 microM l-trans-pyrrolidine-2,4-dicarboxilic acid with the chip. These results demonstrate the ability of this chip to sample and monitor chemicals in the complex environment of the central nervous system with high selectivity and sensitivity over extended periods. PMID:16929400

  15. Fast liquid chromatography separation and multiple-reaction monitoring mass spectrometric detection of neurotransmitters.

    PubMed

    Hammad, Loubna A; Neely, Matthew; Bridge, Bob; Mechref, Yehia

    2009-07-01

    We describe here the fast LC-MS/MS separation of a mixture of neurotransmitters consisting of dopamine, epinephrine, norepinephrine, 3,4-dihydroxybenzylamine (DHBA), salsolinol, serotonin, and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). The new UltiMate 3000 Rapid Separation system (RSLC) was successfully coupled to the 4000 QTRAP mass spectrometer operating in multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The separation was attained using a 100 mm length, 2.2 microm particle size Acclaim column at a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min. The column back pressure was 350 bar, while the total run time including column re-equilibration was 5.2 min. The peak resolution was minimally affected by the fast separation. The RSLC-MRM separation was found to have a precision range based on peak area for 50 replicate runs of 2-5% CV for all analytes, and the reproducibility of the retention time for all analytes was found to range from 0-2% CV. The described method represents an almost seven times shorter analysis time of neurotransmitters using LC/MRM which is very useful in screening large quantities of biological samples for various neurotransmitters. PMID:19569096

  16. The molecular basis of memory. Part 3: tagging with “emotive” neurotransmitters

    PubMed Central

    Marx, Gerard; Gilon, Chaim

    2014-01-01

    Many neurons of all animals that exhibit memory (snails, worms, flies, vertebrae) present arborized shapes with many varicosities and boutons. These neurons, release neurotransmitters and contain ionotropic receptors that produce and sense electrical signals (ephaptic transmission). The extended shapes maximize neural contact with the surrounding neutrix [defined as: neural extracellular matrix (nECM) + diffusible (neurometals and neurotransmitters)] as well as with other neurons. We propose a tripartite mechanism of animal memory based on the dynamic interactions of splayed neurons with the “neutrix.” Their interactions form cognitive units of information (cuinfo), metal-centered complexes within the nECM around the neuron. Emotive content is provided by NTs, which embody molecular links between physiologic (body) responses and psychic feelings. We propose that neurotransmitters form mixed complexes with cuinfo used for tagging emotive memory. Thus, NTs provide encoding option not available to a Turing, binary-based, device. The neurons employ combinatorially diverse options, with >10 NMs and >90 NTs for encoding (“flavoring”) cuinfo with emotive tags. The neural network efficiently encodes, decodes and consolidates related (entangled) sets of cuinfo into a coherent pattern, the basis for emotionally imbued memory, critical for determining a behavioral choice aimed at survival. The tripartite mechanism with tagging of NTs permits of a causal connection between physiology and psychology. PMID:24778616

  17. Neurotransmitter systems of the medial prefrontal cortex: potential role in sensitization to psychostimulants.

    PubMed

    Steketee, Jeffery D

    2003-03-01

    The mesocorticolimbic dopamine system, which arises in the ventral tegmental area and innervates the nucleus accumbens, among numerous other regions, has been implicated in processes associated with drug addiction, including behavioral sensitization. Behavioral sensitization is the enhanced motor-stimulant response that occurs with repeated exposure to psychostimulants. The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), defined as the cortical region that has a reciprocal innervation with the mediodorsal nucleus of the thalamus, is also a terminal region of the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system. The mPFC contains pyramidal glutamatergic neurons that serve as the primary output of this region. These pyramidal neurons are modulated by numerous neurotransmitter systems, including gamma-aminobutyric acidergic interneurons and dopaminergic, noradrenergic, serotonergic, glutamatergic, cholinergic and peptidergic afferents. Changes in interactions between these various neurotransmitter systems in the mPFC may lead to alterations in behavioral responses. For example, recent studies have demonstrated a role for decreased mPFC dopaminergic transmission in the development of psychostimulant-induced behavioral sensitization. The present review will discuss the anatomical organization of the mPFC including descriptions of innervation patterns and receptor localization of the various neurotransmitter systems of this region. Data supporting or suggesting a role for each of these mPFC transmitter systems in the development of behavioral sensitization to cocaine and amphetamine will be presented. Finally a model of the mPFC that may be useful in directing future research efforts on the cortical mechanisms involved in the development of sensitization will be proposed. PMID:12663081

  18. Altered levels of brain neurotransmitter from new born rabbits with intrauterine restriction.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Andrade, E; Cortés-Camberos, A J; Díaz, N F; Flores-Herrera, H; García-López, G; González-Jiménez, M; Santamaría, A; Molina-Hernández, A

    2015-01-01

    Fetal intrauterine growth restriction generates chronic hypoxia due to placental insufficiency. Despite the hemodynamic process of blood flow, redistributions are taking place in key organs such as the fetal brain during intrauterine growth restriction, in order to maintain oxygen and nutrients supply. The risk of short- and long-term neurological effects are still present in hypoxic offspring. Most studies previously reported the effect of hypoxia on the levels of a single neurotransmitter, making it difficult to have a better understanding of the relationship among neurotransmitter levels and the defects reported in products that suffer intrauterine growth restriction, such as motor development, coordination and execution of movement, and the learning-memory process. The aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of gamma-aminobutyric acid, glutamate, dopamine and serotonin in three structures of the brain related to the above-mentioned function such as the cerebral cortex, the striatum, and the hippocampus in the chronic hypoxic newborn rabbit model. Our results showed a significant increase in glutamate and dopamine levels in all studied brain structures and a significant decrease in gamma-aminobutyric acid levels but only in the striatum, suggesting that the imbalance on the levels of several neurotransmitters could be involved in new born brain damage due to perinatal hypoxia. PMID:25304540

  19. Acute effects of a bicyclophosphate neuroconvulsant on monoamine neurotransmitter and metabolite levels in the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Lindsey, J W; Jung, A E; Narayanan, T K; Ritchie, G D

    1998-07-10

    Naive male Sprague-Dawley rats were injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with the bicyclophosphate convulsant trimethylolpropane phosphate (TMPP) at dose levels from 0.2 to 0.6 mg/kg. Rats were observed for convulsive activity, and were sacrificed 15 min posttreatment. Levels of the monoamine neurotransmitters norepinephrine (NE), epinephrine (EPI), dopamine (DA), and serotonin (5-HT) and the major metabolites 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), homovanillic acid (HVA), and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) were assayed in forebrain, midbrain, hindbrain, cerebellum and brainstem regions. Neurotransmitter and metabolite levels were compared between control rats and rats that did and did not experience seizures. TMPP administration induced significant decreases in levels of measured neurotransmitters that varied as a function of brain region, dose, and expression of the seizure activity. These results show that tonic or tonic-clonic seizures induced by TMPP administration (0.6 mg/kg) are reliably associated with regional decreases in serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine. Convulsive activity resulting from lower dose administrations (0.2-0.4 mg/kg) of TMPP result only in decreased regional levels of serotonin. PMID:9650574

  20. The molecular basis of memory. Part 3: tagging with "emotive" neurotransmitters.

    PubMed

    Marx, Gerard; Gilon, Chaim

    2014-01-01

    Many neurons of all animals that exhibit memory (snails, worms, flies, vertebrae) present arborized shapes with many varicosities and boutons. These neurons, release neurotransmitters and contain ionotropic receptors that produce and sense electrical signals (ephaptic transmission). The extended shapes maximize neural contact with the surrounding neutrix [defined as: neural extracellular matrix (nECM) + diffusible (neurometals and neurotransmitters)] as well as with other neurons. We propose a tripartite mechanism of animal memory based on the dynamic interactions of splayed neurons with the "neutrix." Their interactions form cognitive units of information (cuinfo), metal-centered complexes within the nECM around the neuron. Emotive content is provided by NTs, which embody molecular links between physiologic (body) responses and psychic feelings. We propose that neurotransmitters form mixed complexes with cuinfo used for tagging emotive memory. Thus, NTs provide encoding option not available to a Turing, binary-based, device. The neurons employ combinatorially diverse options, with >10 NMs and >90 NTs for encoding ("flavoring") cuinfo with emotive tags. The neural network efficiently encodes, decodes and consolidates related (entangled) sets of cuinfo into a coherent pattern, the basis for emotionally imbued memory, critical for determining a behavioral choice aimed at survival. The tripartite mechanism with tagging of NTs permits of a causal connection between physiology and psychology. PMID:24778616

  1. Organic electronics for precise delivery of neurotransmitters to modulate mammalian sensory function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Daniel T.; Kurup, Sindhulakshmi; Larsson, Karin C.; Hori, Ryusuke; Tybrandt, Klas; Goiny, Michel; Jager, Edwin W. H.; Berggren, Magnus; Canlon, Barbara; Richter-Dahlfors, Agneta

    2009-09-01

    Significant advances have been made in the understanding of the pathophysiology, molecular targets and therapies for the treatment of a variety of nervous-system disorders. Particular therapies involve electrical sensing and stimulation of neural activity, and significant effort has therefore been devoted to the refinement of neural electrodes. However, direct electrical interfacing suffers from some inherent problems, such as the inability to discriminate amongst cell types. Thus, there is a need for novel devices to specifically interface nerve cells. Here, we demonstrate an organic electronic device capable of precisely delivering neurotransmitters in vitro and in vivo. In converting electronic addressing into delivery of neurotransmitters, the device mimics the nerve synapse. Using the peripheral auditory system, we show that out of a diverse population of cells, the device can selectively stimulate nerve cells responding to a specific neurotransmitter. This is achieved by precise electronic control of electrophoretic migration through a polymer film. This mechanism provides several sought-after features for regulation of cell signalling: exact dosage determination through electrochemical relationships, minimally disruptive delivery due to lack of fluid flow, and on-off switching. This technology has great potential as a therapeutic platform and could help accelerate the development of therapeutic strategies for nervous-system disorders.

  2. Detection of amino acid neurotransmitters by surface enhanced Raman scattering and hollow core photonic crystal fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, Vidhu S.; Khetani, Altaf; Monfared, Ali Momenpour T.; Smith, Brett; Anis, Hanan; Trudeau, Vance L.

    2012-03-01

    The present work explores the feasibility of using surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) for detecting the neurotransmitters such as glutamate (GLU) and gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA). These amino acid neurotransmitters that respectively mediate fast excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission in the brain, are important for neuroendocrine control, and upsets in their synthesis are also linked to epilepsy. Our SERS-based detection scheme enabled the detection of low amounts of GLU (10-7 M) and GABA (10-4 M). It may complement existing techniques for characterizing such kinds of neurotransmitters that include high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) or mass spectrography (MS). This is mainly because SERS has other advantages such as ease of sample preparation, molecular specificity and sensitivity, thus making it potentially applicable to characterization of experimental brain extracts or clinical diagnostic samples of cerebrospinal fluid and saliva. Using hollow core photonic crystal fiber (HC-PCF) further enhanced the Raman signal relative to that in a standard cuvette providing sensitive detection of GLU and GABA in micro-litre volume of aqueous solutions.

  3. Neurotransmitter and their metabolite concentrations in different areas of the HPRT knockout mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Tschirner, Sarah K; Gutzki, Frank; Schneider, Erich H; Seifert, Roland; Kaever, Volkhard

    2016-06-15

    Lesch-Nyhan syndrome (LNS) is characterized by uric acid overproduction and severe neurobehavioral symptoms, such as recurrent self-mutilative behavior. To learn more about the pathophysiology of the disease, we quantified neurotransmitters and their metabolites in the cerebral hemisphere, cerebellum and the medulla oblongata of HPRT knockout mice, an animal model for LNS, in comparison to the corresponding wild-type. Our analyses included l-glutamate, 4-aminobutanoic acid (GABA), acetylcholine, serotonin, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), norepinephrine, l-normetanephrine, epinephrine and l-metanephrine and were conducted via high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Among these neurotransmitter systems, we did not find any abnormalities in the HPRT knockout mouse brains. On one side, this might indicate that HPRT deficiency most severely affects dopamine signaling, while brain functioning based on other neurotransmitters is more or less spared. On the other hand, our findings may reflect a compensating mechanism for impaired purine salvage that protects the brain in HPRT-deficient mice but not in LNS patients. PMID:27206901

  4. In vitro screening of major neurotransmitter systems possibly involved in the mechanism of action of antibodies to S100 protein in released-active form

    PubMed Central

    Gorbunov, Evgeniy A; Ertuzun, Irina A; Kachaeva, Evgeniya V; Tarasov, Sergey A; Epstein, Oleg I

    2015-01-01

    Experimentally and clinically, it was shown that released-active form of antibodies to S100 protein (RAF of Abs to S100) exerts a wide range of pharmacological activities: anxiolytic, antiasthenic, antiaggressive, stress-protective, antihypoxic, antiischemic, neuroprotective, and nootropic. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of RAF of Abs to S100 on major neurotransmitter systems (serotoninergic, GABAergic, dopaminergic, and on sigma receptors as well) which are possibly involved in its mechanism of pharmacological activity. Radioligand binding assays were used for assessment of the drug influence on ligand–receptor interaction. [35S]GTPγS binding assay, cyclic adenosine monophosphate HTRF™, cellular dielectric spectroscopy assays, and assays based on measurement of intracellular concentration of Ca2+ ions were used for assessment of agonist or antagonist properties of the drug toward receptors. RAF of Abs to S100 increased radioligand binding to 5-HT1F, 5-HT2B, 5-HT2Cedited, 5-HT3, and to D3 receptors by 142.0%, 131.9%, 149.3%, 120.7%, and 126.3%, respectively. Also, the drug significantly inhibited specific binding of radioligands to GABAB1A/B2 receptors by 25.8%, and to both native and recombinant human sigma1 receptors by 75.3% and 40.32%, respectively. In the functional assays, it was shown that the drug exerted antagonism at 5-HT1B, D3, and GABAB1A/B2 receptors inhibiting agonist-induced responses by 23.24%, 32.76%, and 30.2%, respectively. On the contrary, the drug exerted an agonist effect at 5-HT1A receptors enhancing receptor functional activity by 28.0%. The pharmacological profiling of RAF of Abs to S100 among 27 receptor provides evidence for drug-related modification of major neurotransmitter systems. PMID:26604768

  5. Investigating Endogenous Peptides and Peptidases using Peptidomics

    PubMed Central

    Tinoco, Arthur D.; Saghatelian, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Rather than simply being protein degradation products, peptides have proven to be important bioactive molecules. Bioactive peptides act as hormones, neurotransmitters and antimicrobial agents in vivo. The dysregulation of bioactive peptide signaling is also known to be involved in disease, and targeting peptide hormone pathways has been successful strategy in the development of novel therapeutics. The importance of bioactive peptides in biology has spurred research to elucidate the function and regulation of these molecules. Classical methods for peptide analysis have relied on targeted immunoassays, but certain scientific questions necessitated a broader and more detailed view of the peptidome–all the peptides in a cell, tissue or organism. In this review we discuss how peptidomics has emerged to fill this need through the application of advanced liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) methods that provide unique insights into peptide activity and regulation. PMID:21786763

  6. Involvement of neurotransmitters in the action of the nociceptin/orphanin FQ peptide-receptor system on passive avoidance learning in rats.

    PubMed

    Palotai, Miklós; Adamik, Agnes; Telegdy, Gyula

    2014-08-01

    The nociceptin/orphanin FQ peptide (NOP) receptor and its endogenous ligand plays role in several physiologic functions of the central nervous system, including pain, locomotion, anxiety and depression, reward and drug addiction, learning and memory. Previous studies demonstrated that the NOP-receptor system induces impairment in memory and learning. However, we have little evidence about the underlying neuromodulation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the involvement of distinct neurotransmitters in the action of the selective NOP receptor agonist orphan G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) SP9155 P550 on memory consolidation in a passive avoidance learning test in rats. Accordingly, rats were pretreated with a nonselective muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist, atropine, a γ-aminobutyric acid subunit A (GABA-A) receptor antagonist, bicuculline, a D2, D3, D4 dopamine receptor antagonist, haloperidol, a nonselective opioid receptor antagonist, naloxone, a non-specific nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, nitro-L-arginine, a nonselective α-adrenergic receptor antagonist, phenoxybenzamine and a β-adrenergic receptor antagonist, propranolol. Atropine, bicuculline, naloxone and phenoxybenzamine reversed the orphan GPCR SP9155 P550-induced memory impairment, whereas propranolol, haloperidol and nitro-L-arginine were ineffective. Our results suggest that the NOP system-induced impairment of memory consolidation is mediated through muscarinic cholinergic, GABA-A-ergic, opioid and α-adrenergic receptors, whereas β-adrenergic, D2, D3, D4-dopaminergic and nitrergic mechanisms are not be implicated. PMID:24893797

  7. 13C/15N‐Enriched l‐Dopa as a Triple‐Resonance NMR Probe to Monitor Neurotransmitter Dopamine in the Brain and Liver Extracts of Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kameda, Tetsuro; Kimura, Yu; Imai, Hirohiko; Matsuda, Tetsuya; Sando, Shinsuke; Toshimitsu, Akio

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In an attempt to monitor μm‐level trace constituents, we applied here 1H‐{13C‐15N} triple‐resonance nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to 13C/15N‐enriched l‐Dopa as the inevitable precursor of the neurotransmitter dopamine in the brain. The perfect selectivity (to render endogenous components silent) and μm‐level sensitivity (700 MHz spectrometer equipped with a cryogenic probe) of triple‐resonance allowed the unambiguous and quantitative metabolic and pharmacokinetic analyses of administered l‐Dopa/dopamine in the brain and liver of mice. The level of dopamine generated in the brain (within the range 7–76 μm, which covers the typical stimulated level of ∼30 μm) could be clearly monitored ex vivo, but was slightly short of the detection limit of a 7 T MR machine for small animals. This work suggests that μm‐level trace constituents are potential targets of ex vivo monitoring as long as they contain N atom(s) and their appropriate 13C/15N‐enrichment is synthetically accessible. PMID:27308224

  8. Selective enrichment and determination of monoamine neurotransmitters by CU(II) immobilized magnetic solid phase extraction coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    He, Maofang; Wang, Chaozhan; Wei, Yinmao

    2016-01-15

    In this paper, iminodiacetic acid-Cu(II) functionalized Fe3O4@SiO2 magnetic nanoparticles were prepared and used as new adsorbents for magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) of six monoamine neurotransmitters (MNTs) from rabbit plasma. The selective enrichment of MNTs at pH 5.0 was motivated by the specific coordination interaction between amino groups of MNTs and the immobilized Cu(II). The employed weak acidic extraction condition avoided the oxidation of MNTs, and thus facilitated operation and ensured higher recoveries. Under optimal conditions, the recoveries of six MNTs from rabbit plasma were in the range of 83.9-109.4%, with RSD of 2.0-10.0%. When coupled the Cu(II) immobilized MSPE with high-performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection, the method exhibited relatively lower detection limits than the previously reported methods, and the method was successfully used to determine the endogenous MNTs in rabbit plasma. The proposed method has potential application for the determination of MNTs in biological samples. Also, the utilization of coordination interaction to improve the selectivity might open another way to selectively enrich small alkaloids from complex samples. PMID:26592630

  9. Environment- and activity-dependent dopamine neurotransmitter plasticity in the adult substantia nigra.

    PubMed

    Aumann, Tim D

    2016-04-01

    The ability of neurons to change the amount or type of neurotransmitter they use, or 'neurotransmitter plasticity', is an emerging new form of adult brain plasticity. For example, it has recently been shown that neurons in the adult rat hypothalamus up- or down-regulate dopamine (DA) neurotransmission in response to the amount of light the animal receives (photoperiod), and that this in turn affects anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors (Dulcis et al., 2013). In this Chapter I consolidate recent evidence from my laboratory suggesting neurons in the adult mouse substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) also undergo DA neurotransmitter plasticity in response to persistent changes in their electrical activity, including that driven by the mouse's environment or behavior. Specifically, we have shown that the amounts of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, the rate-limiting enzyme in DA synthesis) gene promoter activity, TH mRNA and TH protein in SNc neurons increases or decreases after ∼20h of altered electrical activity. Also, infusion of ion-channel agonists or antagonists into the midbrain for 2 weeks results in ∼10% (∼500 neurons) more or fewer TH immunoreactive (TH+) SNc neurons, with no change in the total number of SNc neurons (TH+ and TH-). Targeting ion-channels mediating cell-autonomous pacemaker activity in, or synaptic input and afferent pathways to, SNc neurons are equally effective in this regard. In addition, exposing mice to different environments (sex pairing or environment enrichment) for 1-2 weeks induces ∼10% more or fewer TH+ SNc (and ventral tegmental area or VTA) neurons and this is abolished by concurrent blockade of synaptic transmission in midbrain. Although further research is required to establish SNc (and VTA) DA neurotransmitter plasticity, and to determine whether it alters brain function and behavior, it is an exciting prospect because: (1) It may play important roles in movement, motor learning, reward, motivation, memory and cognition; and (2

  10. Angiostatin and endostatin: endothelial cell-specific endogenous inhibitors of angiogenesis and tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Sim, B K

    1998-01-01

    Angiostatin and Endostatin are potent inhibitors of angiogenesis. These proteins are endogenously produced and specifically target endothelial cells resulting in angiogenesis inhibition. Recombinant preparations of these proteins inhibit the growth of metastases and regress primary tumors to dormant microscopic lesions. A variety of murine tumors as well as human breast, prostate and colon tumors in human xenograft models regress when treated with Angiostatin or Endostatin. Regression of tumors upon systemic treatment with these proteins is in part due to increased tumor cell apoptosis. Repeated cycles of Endostatin therapy lead to prolonged tumor dormancy without further treatment and are not associated with any apparent toxicity or acquired drug resistance. PMID:14517374

  11. Protein Prenylation Constitutes an Endogenous Brake on Axonal Growth.

    PubMed

    Li, Hai; Kuwajima, Takaaki; Oakley, Derek; Nikulina, Elena; Hou, Jianwei; Yang, Wan Seok; Lowry, Emily Rhodes; Lamas, Nuno Jorge; Amoroso, Mackenzie Weygandt; Croft, Gist F; Hosur, Raghavendra; Wichterle, Hynek; Sebti, Said; Filbin, Marie T; Stockwell, Brent; Henderson, Christopher E

    2016-07-12

    Suboptimal axonal regeneration contributes to the consequences of nervous system trauma and neurodegenerative disease, but the intrinsic mechanisms that regulate axon growth remain unclear. We screened 50,400 small molecules for their ability to promote axon outgrowth on inhibitory substrata. The most potent hits were the statins, which stimulated growth of all mouse- and human-patient-derived neurons tested, both in vitro and in vivo, as did combined inhibition of the protein prenylation enzymes farnesyltransferase (PFT) and geranylgeranyl transferase I (PGGT-1). Compensatory sprouting of motor axons may delay clinical onset of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Accordingly, elevated levels of PGGT1B, which would be predicted to reduce sprouting, were found in motor neurons of early- versus late-onset ALS patients postmortem. The mevalonate-prenylation pathway therefore constitutes an endogenous brake on axonal growth, and its inhibition provides a potential therapeutic approach to accelerate neuronal regeneration in humans. PMID:27373155

  12. TDP-43 regulates endogenous retrovirus-K viral protein accumulation.

    PubMed

    Manghera, Mamneet; Ferguson-Parry, Jennifer; Douville, Renée N

    2016-10-01

    The concomitant expression of neuronal TAR DNA binding protein 43 (TDP-43) and human endogenous retrovirus-K (ERVK) is a hallmark of ALS. Since the involvement of TDP-43 in retrovirus replication remains controversial, we sought to evaluate whether TDP-43 exerts an effect on ERVK expression. In this study, TDP-43 bound the ERVK promoter in the context of inflammation or proteasome inhibition, with no effect on ERVK transcription. However, over-expression of ALS-associated aggregating forms of TDP-43, but not wild-type TDP-43, significantly enhanced ERVK viral protein accumulation. Human astrocytes and neurons further demonstrated cell-type specific differences in their ability to express and clear ERVK proteins during inflammation and proteasome inhibition. Astrocytes, but not neurons, were able to clear excess ERVK proteins through stress granule formation and autophagy. In vitro findings were validated in autopsy motor cortex tissue from patients with ALS and neuro-normal controls. We further confirmed marked enhancement of ERVK in cortical neurons of patients with ALS. Despite evidence of enhanced stress granule and autophagic response in ALS cortical neurons, these cells failed to clear excess ERVK protein accumulation. This highlights how multiple cellular pathways, in conjunction with disease-associated mutations, can converge to modulate the expression and clearance of viral gene products from genomic elements such as ERVK. In ALS, ERVK protein aggregation is a novel aspect of TDP-43 misregulation contributing towards the pathology of this neurodegenerative disease. PMID:27370226

  13. The Cannabinoid Acids, Analogs and Endogenous Counterparts

    PubMed Central

    Burstein, Sumner H.

    2015-01-01

    The cannabinoid acids are a structurally heterogeneous group of compounds some of which are endogenous molecules and others that are metabolites of phytocannabinoids. The prototypic endogenous substance is N-arachidonoyl glycine (NAgly) that is closely related in structure to the cannabinoid agonist anandamide. The most studied phytocannabinoid is Δ9–THC-11-oic acid, the principal metabolite of Δ9–THC. Both types of acids have in common several biological actions such as low affinity for CB1, anti-inflammatory activity and analgesic properties. This suggests that there may be similarities in their mechanism of action, a point that is discussed in this review. Also presented are reports on analogs of the acids that provide opportunities for the development of novel therapeutic agents, such as ajulemic acid. PMID:24731541

  14. An update of the classical and novel methods used for measuring fast neurotransmitters during normal and brain altered function.

    PubMed

    Cifuentes Castro, Victor Hugo; López Valenzuela, Carmen Lucía; Salazar Sánchez, Juan Carlos; Peña, Kenia Pardo; López Pérez, Silvia J; Ibarra, Jorge Ortega; Villagrán, Alberto Morales

    2014-12-01

    To understand better the cerebral functions, several methods have been developed to study the brain activity, they could be related with morphological, electrophysiological, molecular and neurochemical techniques. Monitoring neurotransmitter concentration is a key role to know better how the brain works during normal or pathological conditions, as well as for studying the changes in neurotransmitter concentration with the use of several drugs that could affect or reestablish the normal brain activity. Immediate response of the brain to environmental conditions is related with the release of the fast acting neurotransmission by glutamate (Glu), γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and acetylcholine (ACh) through the opening of ligand-operated ion channels. Neurotransmitter release is mainly determined by the classical microdialysis technique, this is generally coupled to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Detection of neurotransmitters can be done by fluorescence, optical density, electrochemistry or other detection systems more sophisticated. Although the microdialysis method is the golden technique to monitor the brain neurotransmitters, it has a poor temporal resolution. Recently, with the use of biosensor the drawback of temporal resolution has been improved considerably, however other inconveniences have merged, such as stability, reproducibility and the lack of reliable biosensors mainly for GABA. The aim of this review is to show the important advances in the different ways to measure neurotransmitter concentrations; both with the use of classic techniques as well as with the novel methods and alternant approaches to improve the temporal resolution. PMID:25977677

  15. An Update of the Classical and Novel Methods Used for Measuring Fast Neurotransmitters During Normal and Brain Altered Function

    PubMed Central

    Cifuentes Castro, Victor Hugo; López Valenzuela, Carmen Lucía; Salazar Sánchez, Juan Carlos; Peña, Kenia Pardo; López Pérez, Silvia J.; Ibarra, Jorge Ortega; Villagrán, Alberto Morales

    2014-01-01

    To understand better the cerebral functions, several methods have been developed to study the brain activity, they could be related with morphological, electrophysiological, molecular and neurochemical techniques. Monitoring neurotransmitter concentration is a key role to know better how the brain works during normal or pathological conditions, as well as for studying the changes in neurotransmitter concentration with the use of several drugs that could affect or reestablish the normal brain activity. Immediate response of the brain to environmental conditions is related with the release of the fast acting neurotransmission by glutamate (Glu), γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and acetylcholine (ACh) through the opening of ligand-operated ion channels. Neurotransmitter release is mainly determined by the classical microdialysis technique, this is generally coupled to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Detection of neurotransmitters can be done by fluorescence, optical density, electrochemistry or other detection systems more sophisticated. Although the microdialysis method is the golden technique to monitor the brain neurotransmitters, it has a poor temporal resolution. Recently, with the use of biosensor the drawback of temporal resolution has been improved considerably, however other inconveniences have merged, such as stability, reproducibility and the lack of reliable biosensors mainly for GABA. The aim of this review is to show the important advances in the different ways to measure neurotransmitter concentrations; both with the use of classic techniques as well as with the novel methods and alternant approaches to improve the temporal resolution. PMID:25977677

  16. Endogenous Viral Elements in Animal Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Katzourakis, Aris; Gifford, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Integration into the nuclear genome of germ line cells can lead to vertical inheritance of retroviral genes as host alleles. For other viruses, germ line integration has only rarely been documented. Nonetheless, we identified endogenous viral elements (EVEs) derived from ten non-retroviral families by systematic in silico screening of animal genomes, including the first endogenous representatives of double-stranded RNA, reverse-transcribing DNA, and segmented RNA viruses, and the first endogenous DNA viruses in mammalian genomes. Phylogenetic and genomic analysis of EVEs across multiple host species revealed novel information about the origin and evolution of diverse virus groups. Furthermore, several of the elements identified here encode intact open reading frames or are expressed as mRNA. For one element in the primate lineage, we provide statistically robust evidence for exaptation. Our findings establish that genetic material derived from all known viral genome types and replication strategies can enter the animal germ line, greatly broadening the scope of paleovirological studies and indicating a more significant evolutionary role for gene flow from virus to animal genomes than has previously been recognized. PMID:21124940

  17. Induced pluripotency with endogenous and inducible genes

    SciTech Connect

    Duinsbergen, Dirk; Eriksson, Malin; Hoen, Peter A.C. 't; Frisen, Jonas; Mikkers, Harald

    2008-10-15

    The recent discovery that two partly overlapping sets of four genes induce nuclear reprogramming of mouse and even human cells has opened up new possibilities for cell replacement therapies. Although the combination of genes that induce pluripotency differs to some extent, Oct4 and Sox2 appear to be a prerequisite. The introduction of four genes, several of which been linked with cancer, using retroviral approaches is however unlikely to be suitable for future clinical applications. Towards developing a safer reprogramming protocol, we investigated whether cell types that express one of the most critical reprogramming genes endogenously are predisposed to reprogramming. We show here that three of the original four pluripotency transcription factors (Oct4, Klf4 and c-Myc or MYCER{sup TAM}) induced reprogramming of mouse neural stem (NS) cells exploiting endogenous SoxB1 protein levels in these cells. The reprogrammed neural stem cells differentiated into cells of each germ layer in vitro and in vivo, and contributed to mouse development in vivo. Thus a combinatorial approach taking advantage of endogenously expressed genes and inducible transgenes may contribute to the development of improved reprogramming protocols.

  18. Presence of endogenous prednisolone in human urine.

    PubMed

    Fidani, Marco; Gamberini, Maria C; Pompa, Giuseppe; Mungiguerra, Francesca; Casati, Alessio; Arioli, Francesco

    2013-02-01

    The possibility of an endogenous presence of the glucocorticoid prednisolone has already been demonstrated in bovine and horse urine, with the aim of clarifying its origin in this matrix, which is used by official agencies for the control of illicit treatments. From this point of view, the endogenous nature of prednisolone could be a major topic in doping control of both amateur and professional human athletes. A study was therefore made on 34 human volunteers (13 males and 21 females; aged 22-62) to detect the presence of prednisolone in their urine by HPLC-MS(3). One of the volunteers underwent vernal allergy treatment with betamethasone for two subsequent years. An investigation was carried out with the aim of verifying if the suppression, and the circadian rhythm, of cortisol urinary levels could also apply to prednisolone. The results of the study show that prednisolone was present in the urine of all 34 volunteers, with a concentration very close to 100-times lower that of cortisol, with no dependence on gender. The same ratio (1/100) was observed in the prednisolone and cortisol levels detected during the 24h together with the suppression of prednisolone by betamethasone treatment. These data demonstrate the endogenous nature of low concentrations of prednisolone in human urine, and motivate further studies about the biosynthetic pathways of this corticosteroid and its relationship with stress in humans, as already described in cows. PMID:23182764

  19. Contemporary perspective on endogenous myocardial regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Milasinovic, Dejan; Mohl, Werner

    2015-01-01

    Considering the complex nature of the adult heart, it is no wonder that innate regenerative processes, while maintaining adequate cardiac function, fall short in myocardial jeopardy. In spite of these enchaining limitations, cardiac rejuvenation occurs as well as restricted regeneration. In this review, the background as well as potential mechanisms of endogenous myocardial regeneration are summarized. We present and analyze the available evidence in three subsequent steps. First, we examine the experimental research data that provide insights into the mechanisms and origins of the replicating cardiac myocytes, including cell populations referred to as cardiac progenitor cells (i.e., c-kit+ cells). Second, we describe the role of clinical settings such as acute or chronic myocardial ischemia, as initiators of pathways of endogenous myocardial regeneration. Third, the hitherto conducted clinical studies that examined different approaches of initiating endogenous myocardial regeneration in failing human hearts are analyzed. In conclusion, we present the evidence in support of the notion that regaining cardiac function beyond cellular replacement of dysfunctional myocardium via initiation of innate regenerative pathways could create a new perspective and a paradigm change in heart failure therapeutics. Reinitiating cardiac morphogenesis by reintroducing developmental pathways in the adult failing heart might provide a feasible way of tissue regeneration. Based on our hypothesis “embryonic recall”, we present first supporting evidence on regenerative impulses in the myocardium, as induced by developmental processes. PMID:26131310

  20. Induction of Neurorestoration From Endogenous Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ji Hea; Seo, Jung-Hwa; Lee, Ji Yong; Lee, Min-Young; Cho, Sung-Rae

    2016-01-01

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) persist in the subventricular zone lining the ventricles of the adult brain. The resident stem/progenitor cells can be stimulated in vivo by neurotrophic factors, hematopoietic growth factors, magnetic stimulation, and/or physical exercise. In both animals and humans, the differentiation and survival of neurons arising from the subventricular zone may also be regulated by the trophic factors. Since stem/progenitor cells present in the adult brain and the production of new neurons occurs at specific sites, there is a possibility for the treatment of incurable neurological diseases. It might be feasible to induce neurogenesis, which would be particularly efficacious in the treatment of striatal neurodegenerative conditions such as Huntington's disease, as well as cerebrovascular diseases such as ischemic stroke and cerebral palsy, conditions that are widely seen in the clinics. Understanding of the molecular control of endogenous NSC activation and progenitor cell mobilization will likely provide many new opportunities as therapeutic strategies. In this review, we focus on endogenous stem/progenitor cell activation that occurs in response to exogenous factors including neurotrophic factors, hematopoietic growth factors, magnetic stimulation, and an enriched environment. Taken together, these findings suggest the possibility that functional brain repair through induced neurorestoration from endogenous stem cells may soon be a clinical reality. PMID:26787093

  1. Antidepressant-Like Effects of Fractions Prepared from Danzhi-Xiaoyao-San Decoction in Rats with Chronic Unpredictable Mild Stress: Effects on Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis, Arginine Vasopressin, and Neurotransmitters

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Li-Li; Liu, Yan; Pan, Yi; Su, Jun-Fang; Wu, Wei-Kang

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the antidepressant-like effects of two fractions, including petroleum ether soluble fraction (Fraction A, FA) and water-EtOH soluble fraction (Fraction B, FB) prepared from the Danzhi-xiaoyao-san (DZXYS) by using chronic unpredictable mild stress-induced depressive rat model. The results indicated that DZXYS could ameliorate the depression-like behavior in chronic stress model of rats. The inhibition of hyperactivity of HPA axis and the modulation of monoamine and amino acid neurotransmitters in the hippocampus may be the important mechanisms underlying the action of DZXYS antidepressant-like effect in chronically stressed rats. PMID:27413389

  2. Targeting neurotrophic factors and their receptors, but not cholinesterase or neurotransmitter, in the neurotoxicity of TDCPP in Chinese rare minnow adults (Gobiocypris rarus).

    PubMed

    Yuan, Lilai; Li, Jiasu; Zha, Jinmiao; Wang, Zijian

    2016-01-01

    Organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) have been detected at high concentrations in various environmental and biotic samples, but little is known about their toxicity. In this study, the potential neurotoxicity of three OPFRs (TCEP, TDCPP, and TPP) and Chlorpyrifos (CPF, an organophosphate pesticide) were compared in Chinese rare minnow using an acute toxicity test and a 21-day fish assay. The acute test demonstrated significant inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) by CPF. Although significant AChE inhibition at high concentration of TPP was also observed, none of the OPFRs had effects similar to CPF on these enzymes, indicating that their acute toxicities to Chinese rare minnow may be unrelated to cholinesterase inhibition. In addition, the 21-day fish assay with TDCPP demonstrated no significant effects on cholinesterase activities or neurotransmitter levels. Nonetheless, this OPFR exhibited widespread effects on the neurotrophic factors and their receptors (e.g., ntf3, ntrk1, ntrk2, ngfr, and fgf2, fgf11, fgf22, fgfr4), indicating that TDCPP or other OPFRs may elicit neurological effects by targeting neurotrophic factors and their receptors in Chinese rare minnow. PMID:26552522

  3. Endogenous neural precursors influence grafted neural stem cells and contribute to neuroprotection in the Parkinsonian rat

    PubMed Central

    Madhavan, Lalitha; Daley, Brian F; Sortwell, Caryl E; Collier, Timothy J

    2012-01-01

    Neuroprotective and neurorescue effects after neural stem/precursor cell (NPC) transplantation have been reported, but the mechanisms underlying such phenomena are not well understood. Our recent findings in a rat Parkinson’s disease (PD) model indicate that transplantation of NPCs before a 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) insult can result in nigrostriatal protection which is associated with endogenous NPC proliferation, migration and neurogenesis. Here, we sought to determine whether the observed endogenous NPC response (1) contributes to transplanted NPC - mediated neuroprotection and/or (2) affects graft phenotype and function. Host Fischer 344 rats were administered the antimitotic agent cytosine-β-D-arabinofuranoside (Ara-C) to eliminate actively proliferating endogenous neural precursors before being transplanted with NPCs and treated with 6-OHDA to induce nigrostriatal degeneration. Behavioral and histological analyses demonstrate that the neuroprotective response observed in NPC transplanted animals which had not received Ara-C was significantly attenuated in animals which did receive pre-transplant Ara-C. Also, while grafts in Ara-C treated animals showed no decrease in cell number, they exhibited significantly reduced expression of the neural stem cell regulators nestin and sonic hedgehog. In addition, inhibition of the endogenous NPC response resulted in an exaggerated host glial reaction. Overall, the study establishes for the first time that endogenous NPCs contribute to transplanted NPC-mediated therapeutic effects by affecting both grafted and mature host cells in unique ways. Thus, both endogenous and transplanted NPCs are important in creating an environment suitable for neural protection and rescue, and harnessing their synergistic interaction may lead to the optimization of cell-based therapies for PD. PMID:22417168

  4. A Derivatization and Validation Strategy for Determining the Spatial Localization of Endogenous Amine Metabolites in Tissues using MALDI Imaging Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Manier, M. Lisa; Spraggins, Jeffrey M.; Reyzer, Michelle L.; Norris, Jeremy L.; Caprioli, Richard M.

    2014-01-01

    Imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) studies increasingly focus on endogenous small molecular weight metabolites and consequently bring special analytical challenges. Since analytical tissue blanks do not exist for endogenous metabolites, careful consideration must be given to confirm molecular identity. Here we present approaches for the improvement in detection of endogenous amine metabolites such as amino acids and neurotransmitters in tissues through chemical derivatization and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) IMS. Chemical derivatization with 4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamaldehyde (CA) was used to improve sensitivity and specificity. CA was applied to the tissue via MALDI sample targets precoated with a mixture of derivatization reagent and ferulic acid (FA) as a MALDI matrix. Spatial distributions of chemically derivatized endogenous metabolites in tissue were determined by high-mass resolution and MSn imaging mass spectrometry. We highlight an analytical strategy for metabolite validation whereby tissue extracts are analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-MS/MS to unambiguously identify metabolites and distinguish them from isobaric compounds. PMID:25044893

  5. Endogenous nitric oxide and myocardial adaptation to ischemia.

    PubMed

    Heusch, G; Post, H; Michel, M C; Kelm, M; Schulz, R

    2000-07-21

    Ischemic myocardium does not inevitably undergo necrosis but rather can survive through downregulation of contractile function, ie, "hibernate." To study the role of endogenous NO in this adaptation, 41 enflurane-anesthetized swine were subjected to 90 minutes of moderate left anterior descending coronary artery hypoperfusion and assigned to placebo (P), to 30 mg/kg N(G)-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA) IV to inhibit NO synthase, or to aortic constriction (AO) to match the increased left ventricular pressure observed with L-NNA. During normoperfusion, a regional myocardial external work index (WI, mm Hg. mm, sonomicrometry and micromanometry) was reduced with L-NNA (from 326+/-27 [SEM] to 250+/-19, P<0.05) but increased with AO (from 321+/-16 to 363+/-19, P<0.05 versus L-NNA). At 10 minutes of ischemia, WI was lower with L-NNA (109+/-10, P<0.05) than P (180+/-22) and AO (170+/-11) and did not change further at 85 minutes of ischemia. Relationships between WI and transmural myocardial blood flow and oxygen consumption were shifted rightward by L-NNA versus P and AO at both 10 and 85 minutes of ischemia. The maximal increment in calcium-activated external work was not different during normoperfusion among groups but was decreased during ischemia with L-NNA. L-NNA transiently increased myocardial contractile calcium sensitivity along with systemic pressure but reduced it during ongoing ischemia. The free-energy change of ATP hydrolysis after an early ischemic decrease recovered toward baseline values in all groups, and necrosis was absent after 2 (triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining) or 8 (histology) hours of reperfusion. Thus, endogenous NO contributes to hibernation by reducing oxygen consumption and preserving calcium sensitivity and contractile function without an energy cost during ischemia. PMID:10903999

  6. Inhibition of MMPs by alcohols

    PubMed Central

    Tezvergil-Mutluay, Arzu; Agee, Kelli A.; Hoshika, Tomohiro; Uchiyama, Toshikazu; Tjäderhane, Leo; Breschi, Lorenzo; Mazzoni, Annalisa; Thompson, Jeremy M.; McCracken, Courtney E.; Looney, Stephen W.; Tay, Franklin R.; Pashley, David H.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives While screening the activity of potential inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), due to the limited water solubility of some of the compounds, they had to be solubilized in ethanol. When ethanol solvent controls were run, they were found to partially inhibit MMPs. Thus, the purpose of this study was to compare the MMP-inhibitory activity of a series of alcohols. Methods The possible inhibitory activity of a series of alcohols was measured against soluble rhMMP-9 and insoluble matrix-bound endogenous MMPs of dentin in completely demineralized dentin. Increasing concentrations (0.17, 0.86, 1.71 and 4.28 moles/L) of a homologous series of alcohols (i.e. methanol, ethanol, propanols, butanols, pentanols, hexanols, the ethanol ester of methacrylic acid, heptanols and octanol) were compared to ethanediol, and propanediol by regression analysis to calculate the molar concentration required to inhibit MMPs by 50% (i.e. the IC50). Results Using two different MMP models, alcohols were shown to inhibit rhMMP-9 and the endogenous proteases of dentin matrix in a dose-dependent manner. The degree of MMP inhibition by alcohols increased with chain length up to 4 methylene groups. Based on the molar concentration required to inhibit rhMMP-9 fifty percent, 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA), 3-hexanol, 3-heptanol and 1-octanol gave the strongest inhibition. Significance The results indicate that alcohols with 4 methylene groups inhibit MMPs more effectively than methanol or ethanol. MMP inhibition was inversely related to the Hoy's solubility parameter for hydrogen bonding forces of the alcohols (i.e. to their hydrophilicity). PMID:21676453

  7. Nitric oxide, and not vasoactive intestinal peptide, as the main neurotransmitter of vagally induced relaxation of the guinea pig stomach.

    PubMed Central

    Desai, K M; Warner, T D; Bishop, A E; Polak, J M; Vane, J R

    1994-01-01

    1. Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) was localized in the guinea pig stomach by immunocytochemistry. In vitro experiments were carried out on the isolated stomach of the guinea pig to study any possible links between nitric oxide (NO) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) in mediating relaxations induced by vagal stimulation. 2. NOS was localized to nerve cell bodies and nerve fibre varicosities of the myenteric plexus in wholemounts of the longitudinal muscle-myenteric plexus of the stomach fundus. The NOS-positive cells had a Dogiel type I morphology characteristic of motor neurones. 3. The cross-sections of the stomach wall showed NOS-positive neurones mainly in the myenteric plexus ganglia and NOS-positive nerve fibre varicosities in the circular muscle layer. 4. Relaxations induced by vagal stimulation were almost completely prevented by L-NAME with an IC50 value of 5.5 x 10(-6) M. This inhibition was reversed by L-arginine (2 mM). 5. VIP (100 nM) induced reproducible relaxations of the stomach. These were unaffected by tetrodotoxin (2 microM) or N omega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 100 microM). 6. Desensitization to the relaxant effect of VIP partially reduced relaxations induced by vagal stimulation, glyceryl trinitrate or sodium nitroprusside but not noradrenaline. 7. These results show that NO has a neuronal origin in the guinea pig stomach, and support NO, and not VIP, as the major neurotransmitter of vagally induced gastric relaxation in the guinea pig. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:7534182

  8. Effects of colistin on amino acid neurotransmitters and blood-brain barrier in the mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Yi, Meishuang; Chen, Xueping; Muhammad, Ishfaq; Liu, Fangping; Li, Rui; Li, Jian; Li, Jichang

    2016-01-01

    Neurotoxicity is one of the major potential side effects of colistin therapy. However, the mechanistic aspects of colistin-induced neurotoxicity remain largely unknown. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of colistin on the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and amino acid neurotransmitters in the cerebral cortex of mouse. Mice were divided into four groups (n=5) and were administrated intravenously with 15mg/kg/day of colistin sulfate for 1, 3 and 7days successively while the control group was administrated intravenously with saline solution. The permeability and ultrastructure of the BBB were detected using the Evans blue (EB) dye and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and the expression of Claudin-5 were determined by real-time PCR examination and western blotting. The brain uptake of colistin was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The effects of colistin on amino acid neurotransmitters and their receptors were also examined by HPLC and real-time PCR. The results of EB extravasation, TEM and expression of Claudin-5 showed that colistin treatment did not affect the BBB integrity. In addition, multiple doses of colistin could induce accumulation of this compound in the brain parenchyma although there was poor brain uptake of colistin. Moreover, colistin exposure significantly increased the contents of glutamate (Glu) and gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA), and enhanced the mRNA expression levels of gamma aminobutyric acid type A receptor (GABAAR), gamma aminobutyric acid type B receptor (GABABR), N-methyl-d-aspartate 1 receptor (NR1), N-methyl-d-aspartate 2A receptor (NR2A) and N-methyl-d-aspartate 2B receptor (NR2B) in the cerebral cortex. Our data demonstrate that colistin is able to accumulate in the mouse brain and elevate the levels of amino acid neurotransmitters. These findings may be associated with colistin-induced neurotoxicity. PMID:27018023

  9. Secondary neurotransmitter deficiencies in epilepsy caused by voltage-gated sodium channelopathies: A potential treatment target?

    PubMed

    Horvath, Gabriella A; Demos, Michelle; Shyr, Casper; Matthews, Allison; Zhang, Linhua; Race, Simone; Stockler-Ipsiroglu, Sylvia; Van Allen, Margot I; Mancarci, Ogan; Toker, Lilah; Pavlidis, Paul; Ross, Colin J; Wasserman, Wyeth W; Trump, Natalie; Heales, Simon; Pope, Simon; Cross, J Helen; van Karnebeek, Clara D M

    2016-01-01

    We describe neurotransmitter abnormalities in two patients with drug-resistant epilepsy resulting from deleterious de novo mutations in sodium channel genes. Whole exome sequencing identified a de novo SCN2A splice-site mutation (c.2379+1G>A, p.Glu717Gly.fs*30) resulting in deletion of exon 14, in a 10-year old male with early onset global developmental delay, intermittent ataxia, autism, hypotonia, epileptic encephalopathy and cerebral/cerebellar atrophy. In the cerebrospinal fluid both homovanillic acid and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid were significantly decreased; extensive biochemical and genetic investigations ruled out primary neurotransmitter deficiencies and other known inborn errors of metabolism. In an 8-year old female with an early onset intractable epileptic encephalopathy, developmental regression, and progressive cerebellar atrophy, a previously unreported de novo missense mutation was identified in SCN8A (c.5615G>A; p.Arg1872Gln), affecting a highly conserved residue located in the C-terminal of the Nav1.6 protein. Aside from decreased homovanillic acid and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, 5-methyltetrahydrofolate was also found to be low. We hypothesize that these channelopathies cause abnormal synaptic mono-amine metabolite secretion/uptake via impaired vesicular release and imbalance in electrochemical ion gradients, which in turn aggravate the seizures. Treatment with oral 5-hydroxytryptophan, l-Dopa/Carbidopa, and a dopa agonist resulted in mild improvement of seizure control in the male case, most likely via dopamine and serotonin receptor activated signal transduction and modulation of glutamatergic, GABA-ergic and glycinergic neurotransmission. Neurotransmitter analysis in other sodium channelopathy patients will help validate our findings, potentially yielding novel treatment opportunities. PMID:26647175

  10. Toluene induces rapid and reversible rise of hippocampal glutamate and taurine neurotransmitter levels in mice.

    PubMed

    Win-Shwe, Tin-Tin; Mitsushima, D; Nakajima, D; Ahmed, S; Yamamoto, S; Tsukahara, S; Kakeyama, M; Goto, S; Fujimaki, H

    2007-01-10

    Toluene, a widely used aromatic organic solvent, has been well characterized as a neurotoxic chemical. Although the neurobehavioral effects of toluene have been studied substantially, the mechanisms involved are not clearly understood. Hippocampus, which is one of the limbic areas of brain associated with neuronal plasticity, and learning and memory functions, may be a principal target of toluene. In the present study, to establish a mouse model for investigating the effects of acute toluene exposure on the amino acid neurotransmitter levels in the hippocampus, in vivo microdialysis study was performed in freely moving mice after a single intraperitoneal administration of toluene (150 and 300 mg/kg). Amino acid neurotransmitters in microdialysates were measured by a high performance liquid chromatography system. The extracellular levels of glutamate and taurine were rapidly and reversibly increased within 30 min after the toluene administration in a dose-dependent manner and returned to the basal level by 1h. Conversely, the extracellular level of glycine and GABA were stable, and no significant change was observed after the toluene administration. To further investigate the brain toluene level in the hippocampus of toluene-administered mice, we used a solid-phase microextraction (SPME) method and examined the time course changes of toluene in the hippocampus of living mice. The brain toluene level reached the peak at 30 min after injection and returned to the basal level after 2h. In the present study, we observed the relationship between brain toluene levels and amino acid neurotransmitter glutamate and taurine levels in the hippocampus. Therefore, we suggest that toluene may mediate its action through the glutamatergic and taurinergic neurotransmission in the hippocampus of freely moving mice. PMID:17145141

  11. Endogenous glucocorticoids released during acute toxic liver injury enhance hepatic IL-10 synthesis and release.

    PubMed

    Swain, M G; Appleyard, C; Wallace, J; Wong, H; Le, T

    1999-01-01

    Endogenous glucocorticoids are known to play a role in the regulation of the inflammatory response possibly by modulating pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine expression. We examined endogenous glucocorticoid secretion, hepatic damage, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and interleukin-10 (IL-10) mRNA expression and release in rats treated with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) after treatment with vehicle or a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist (RU-486). Rats treated with CCl4 demonstrated striking elevations of plasma corticosterone levels. Inhibition of endogenous glucocorticoid activity by pretreatment with the glucocorticoid receptor antagonist RU-486 resulted in augmented CCl4-mediated hepatotoxicity, as reflected by histology and serum transaminase levels, which were independent of alterations in serum TNF-alpha levels or hepatic mRNA expression. CCl4 treatment resulted in enhanced hepatic IL-10 mRNA expression and elevated serum IL-10 levels, which were markedly attenuated by glucocorticoid receptor blockade. In summary, significant endogenous glucocorticoid release occurs during acute toxic liver injury in the rat and suppresses the inflammatory response independent of effects on TNF-alpha but possibly by upregulating hepatic IL-10 production. PMID:9886996

  12. Endogenous heparan sulfate and heparin modulate bone morphogenetic protein-4 signaling and activity.

    PubMed

    Khan, Shaukat A; Nelson, Matthew S; Pan, Chendong; Gaffney, Patrick M; Gupta, Pankaj

    2008-06-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and their endogenous antagonists are important for brain and bone development and tumor initiation and progression. Heparan sulfate (HS) proteoglycans (HSPG) modulate the activities of BMPs and their antagonists. How glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) influence BMP activity in various malignancies and in inherited abnormalities of GAG metabolism, and the structural features of GAGs essential for modulation of BMP signaling, remain incompletely defined. We examined whether chemically modified soluble heparins, the endogenous HS in malignant cells and the HS accumulated in Hurler syndrome cells influence BMP-4 signaling and activity. We show that both exogenous (soluble) and endogenous GAGs modulate BMP-4 signaling and activity, and that this effect is dependent on specific sulfate residues of GAGs. Our studies suggest that endogenous sulfated GAGs promote the proliferation and impair differentiation of malignant human cells, providing the rationale for investigating whether pharmacological agents that inhibit GAG synthesis or function might reverse this effect. Our demonstration of impairment of BMP-4 signaling by GAGs in multipotent stem cells in human Hurler syndrome identifies a mechanism that might contribute to the progressive neurological and skeletal abnormalities in Hurler syndrome and related mucopolysaccharidoses. PMID:18385288

  13. Exploration of inclusion complexes of neurotransmitters with β-cyclodextrin by physicochemical techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Mahendra Nath; Saha, Subhadeep; Kundu, Mitali; Saha, Binoy Chandra; Barman, Siti

    2016-07-01

    Molecular assemblies of β-cyclodextrin with few of the most important neurotransmitters, viz., dopamine hydrochloride, tyramine hydrochloride and (±)-epinephrine hydrochloride in aqueous medium have been explored by reliable spectroscopic and physicochemical techniques as potential drug delivery systems. Job plots confirm the 1:1 host-guest inclusion complexes, while surface tension and conductivity studies illustrate the inclusion process. The inclusion complexes were characterized by 1H NMR spectroscopy and association constants have been calculated by using Benesi-Hildebrand method. Thermodynamic parameters for the formation of inclusion complexes have been derived by van't Hoff equation, which demonstrate that the overall inclusion processes are thermodynamically favorable.

  14. In Vivo Assessment of Neurotransmitters and Modulators with Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Application to Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Wijtenburg, S. Andrea; Yang, Shaolin; Fischer, Bernard A.; Rowland, Laura M.

    2015-01-01

    In vivo measurement of neurotransmitters and modulators is now feasible with advanced proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) techniques. This review provides a basic tutorial of MRS, describes the methods available to measure brain glutamate, glutamine, γ-aminobutyric acid, glutathione, N-acetylaspartylglutamate, glycine, and serine at magnetic field strengths of 3Tesla or higher, and summarizes the neurochemical findings in schizophrenia. Overall, 1H-MRS holds great promise for producing biomarkers that can serve as treatment targets, prediction of disease onset, or illness exacerbation in schizophrenia and other brain diseases. PMID:25614132

  15. Statistical Mechanics Model for the Interaction between the Neurotransmitter γ-Aminobutyric acid and GABAA Receptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zafar, Sufi; Saxena, Nina C.; Conrad, Kevin A.; Hussain, Arif

    2004-07-01

    Interactions between the neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and GABAA receptor ion channels play an important role in the central nervous system. A statistical mechanics model is proposed for the interaction between GABA and GABAA receptors. The model provides good fits to the electrophysiology data as well as an estimation of receptor activation energies, and predicts the temperature dependence consistent with measurements. In addition, the model provides insights into single channel conductance measurements. This model is also applicable to other ligand-gated ion channels with similar pentameric structures.

  16. Advances in the pharmacological treatment of Parkinson's disease: targeting neurotransmitter systems.

    PubMed

    Brichta, Lars; Greengard, Paul; Flajolet, Marc

    2013-09-01

    For several decades, the dopamine precursor levodopa has been the primary therapy for Parkinson's disease (PD). However, not all of the motor and non-motor features of PD can be attributed solely to dopaminergic dysfunction. Recent clinical and preclinical advances provide a basis for the identification of additional innovative therapeutic options to improve the management of the disease. Novel pharmacological strategies must be optimized for PD by: (i) targeting disturbances of the serotonergic, noradrenergic, glutamatergic, GABAergic, and cholinergic systems in addition to the dopaminergic system, and (ii) characterizing alterations in the levels of neurotransmitter receptors and transporters that are associated with the various manifestations of the disease. PMID:23876424

  17. Noncovalent Complexation of Monoamine Neurotransmitters and Related Ammonium Ions by Tetramethoxy Tetraglucosylcalix[4]arene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torvinen, Mika; Kalenius, Elina; Sansone, Francesco; Casnati, Alessandro; Jänis, Janne

    2012-02-01

    The noncovalent complexation of monoamine neurotransmitters and related ammonium and quaternary ammonium ions by a conformationally flexible tetramethoxy glucosylcalix[4]arene was studied by electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (ESI-FTICR) mass spectrometry. The glucosylcalixarene exhibited highest binding affinity towards serotonin, norepinephrine, epinephrine, and dopamine. Structural properties of the guests, such as the number, location, and type of hydrogen bonding groups, length of the alkyl spacer between the ammonium head-group and the aromatic ring structure, and the degree of nitrogen substitution affected the complexation. Competition experiments and guest-exchange reactions indicated that the hydroxyl groups of guests participate in intermolecular hydrogen bonding with the glucocalixarene.

  18. Theophylline inhibition of renal and cerebral nucleoside formation.

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, M. H.

    1981-01-01

    1 Theophylline inhibits the enzymatic formation of purine nucleosides, among these adenosine (dephosphorylated adenosine 5'-monophosphate), in kidney and brain of the rat. 2 Some pharmacological effects of theophylline on regional blood flow and electrophysiological activity of the nervous system may be caused by inhibition of the endogenous formation of adenosine. PMID:7236996

  19. Hydrophilic interaction chromatography combined with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction as a preconcentration tool for the simultaneous determination of the panel of underivatized neurotransmitters in human urine samples.

    PubMed

    Konieczna, Lucyna; Roszkowska, Anna; Niedźwiecki, Maciej; Bączek, Tomasz

    2016-01-29

    determination of trace amounts of polar endogenous compounds, such as neurotransmitters, in human urine samples, including samples with a reduced volume obtained from pediatric patients. PMID:26747692

  20. Distribution of Endogenous Retroviruses in Crocodilians▿

    PubMed Central

    Jaratlerdsiri, Weerachai; Rodríguez-Zárate, Clara J.; Isberg, Sally R.; Damayanti, Chandramaya Siska; Miles, Lee G.; Chansue, Nantarika; Moran, Chris; Melville, Lorna; Gongora, Jaime

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge of endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) in crocodilians (Crocodylia) is limited, and their distribution among extant species is unclear. Here we analyzed the phylogenetic relationships of these retroelements in 20 species of crocodilians by studying the pro-pol gene. The results showed that crocodilian ERVs (CERVs) cluster into two major clades (CERV 1 and CERV 2). CERV 1 clustered as a sister group of the genus Gammaretrovirus, while CERV 2 clustered distantly with respect to all known ERVs. Interestingly, CERV 1 was found only in crocodiles (Crocodylidae). The data generated here could assist future studies aimed at identifying orthologous and paralogous ERVs among crocodilians. PMID:19605486

  1. Evaluation of Tetrahydrobiopterin Therapy with Large Neutral Amino Acid Supplementation in Phenylketonuria: Effects on Potential Peripheral Biomarkers, Melatonin and Dopamine, for Brain Monoamine Neurotransmitters

    PubMed Central

    Yano, Shoji; Moseley, Kathryn; Fu, Xiaowei; Azen, Colleen

    2016-01-01

    Background Phenylketonuria (PKU) is due to a defective hepatic enzyme, phenylalanine (Phe) hydroxylase. Transport of the precursor amino acids from blood into the brain for serotonin and dopamine synthesis is reported to be inhibited by high blood Phe concentrations. Deficiencies of serotonin and dopamine are involved in neurocognitive dysfunction in PKU. Objective (1) To evaluate the effects of sapropterin (BH4) and concurrent use of large neutral amino acids (LNAA) on the peripheral biomarkers, melatonin and dopamine with the hypothesis they reflect brain serotonin and dopamine metabolism. (2) To evaluate synergistic effects with BH4 and LNAA. (3) To determine the effects of blood Phe concentrations on the peripheral biomarkers concentrations. Methods Nine adults with PKU completed our study consisting of four 4-week phases: (1) LNAA supplementation, (2) Washout, (3) BH4 therapy, and (4) LNAA with BH4 therapy. An overnight protocol measured plasma amino acids, serum melatonin, and 6-sulfatoxymelatonin and dopamine in first void urine after each phase. Results (1) Three out of nine subjects responded to BH4. A significant increase of serum melatonin levels was observed in BH4 responders with decreased blood Phe concentration. No significant change in melatonin, dopamine or Phe levels was observed with BH4 in the subjects as a whole. (2) Synergistic effects with BH4 and LNAA were observed in serum melatonin in BH4 responders. (3) The relationship between serum melatonin and Phe showed a significant negative slope (p = 0.0005) with a trend toward differing slopes among individual subjects (p = 0.066). There was also a negative association overall between blood Phe and urine 6-sulfatoxymelatonin and dopamine (P = 0.040 and 0.047). Conclusion Blood Phe concentrations affected peripheral monoamine neurotransmitter biomarker concentrations differently in each individual with PKU. Melatonin levels increased with BH4 therapy only when blood Phe decreased. Monitoring

  2. Theoretical study of electron transfer process between fullerenes and neurotransmitters; acetylcholine, dopamine, serotonin and epinephrine in nanostructures [neurotransmitters].C n complexes.

    PubMed

    Taherpour, Avat Arman; Rizehbandi, Mohammad; Jahanian, Fatemeh; Naghibi, Ehsan; Mahdizadeh, Nosrat-Allah

    2016-01-01

    Neurotransmitters are the compounds which allow the transmission of signals from one neuron to the next across synapses. They are the brain chemicals that communicate information throughout brain and body. Fullerenes are a family of carbonallotropes, molecules composed entirely of carbon, that take the forms of spheres, ellipsoids, and cylinders. Various empty carbon fullerenes (Cn) with different carbon atoms have been obtained and investigated. Topological indices have been successfully used to construct effective and useful mathematical methods to establish clear relationships between structural data and the physical properties of these materials. In this study, the number of carbon atoms in the fullerenes was used as an index to establish a relationship between the structures of neurotransmitters (NTs) acetylcholine (AC) 1, dopamine (DP) 2, serotonin (SE) 3, and epinephrine (EP) 4 as the well-known redox systems and fullerenes C n (n = 60, 70, 76, 82, and 86) which create [NT].Cn; A-1 to A-5 up to D-1 to D-5. The relationship between the number of carbon atoms and the free energy of electron transfer (ΔG et(n); n = 1-4) is assessed using the Rehm-Weller equation for A-1 to A-5 up to D-1 to D-5 supramolecular [NT].Cn complexes. The calculations are presented for the four reduction potentials ( (Red.) E 1 to (Red.) E 4 ) of fullerenes C n . The results were used to calculate the four free energy values of electron transfer (ΔG et(1) to ΔG et(4)) of the supramolecular complexes A-1 to A-8 up to D-1 to D-8 for fullerenes C60 to C120. The first to fourth free activation energy values of electron transfer and the maximum wavelength of the electron transfers, ΔG (#) et(n) and λ et (n = 1-4), respectively, were also calculated in this study for A-1 to A-8 up to D-1 to D-8 in accordance with the Marcus theory. PMID:26855678

  3. Characterization of the endogenous protein kinase activity of the hepatitis B virus.

    PubMed

    Kann, M; Thomssen, R; Köchel, H G; Gerlich, W H

    1993-01-01

    During the assembly of the nucleocapsid of the hepatitis B virus a protein kinase, probably of cellular origin, is encapsidated. This enzyme phosphorylates serine residue(s) localized within the lumen of the particle. By using purified, liver-derived core particles, we characterized the protein kinase activity in the presence of different ions and inhibitors. Controls were performed with cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) and protein kinase C (PKC) and recombinant core particles. We showed that the endogenous protein kinase of the core particles was not inhibited by H89, a specific inhibitor of PKA. Staurosporine, a selective inhibitor of PKC inhibited the endogenous kinase activity only within the first minutes of the reaction. In contrast, quercetine, a selective inhibitor of the protein kinase M (PKM) did not inhibit during the first minutes but inhibited efficiently during later phases of incubation. PKM represents an enzymatically active proteolytic fragment of PKC. These results suggest that PKC is encapsidated into human core particles and is converted to PKM during the in vitro reaction. This conclusion implies the association of a protease activity localized with the HBV nucleocapsid inside liver-derived core particles. PMID:8260877

  4. Involvement of interleukin-1 in glial responses to lipopolysaccharide: endogenous versus exogenous interleukin-1 actions.

    PubMed

    Molina-Holgado, F; Toulmond, S; Rothwell, N J

    2000-11-01

    Interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) participates in neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. Its mechanisms of action are not fully understood, but appear to involve complex interactions between neurons and glia. The objective of this study was to determine the involvement of endogenous IL-1beta in inflammatory responses to LPS in cultured mouse glial cells, and compare this to the effects of exogenous IL-1beta. Activation of primary mixed glial cultures by incubation with LPS (1 microgram/ml, 24 h), caused marked (approximately ten-fold) increases in release of NO, twenty-fold increases in PGE(2) and ninety-fold increases of IL-6 release. Incubation with human recombinant IL-1beta (100 ng/ml) also stimulated NO and IL-6 release to a similar extent to LPS, but IL-1beta (1 or 100 ng/ml) caused only modest increases (approximately seven-fold) in PGE(2) release. Co-incubation with IL-1ra inhibited the effects of LPS on NO release (-65%) and IL-6 production (-30%), but failed to reduce PGE(2) release. These results indicate that exogenous IL-1beta induces release of NO, PGE(2) and IL-6 in mixed glial cultures, and that endogenous IL-1beta mediates inflammatory actions of LPS on NO and to a lesser extent IL-6, but not on PGE(2) release in mixed glial cultures. Indeed endogenous IL-1beta appears to inhibit LPS-induced PGE(2) release. PMID:11063815

  5. 4-Organoseleno-Isoquinolines Selectively and Reversibly Inhibit the Cerebral Monoamine Oxidase B Activity.

    PubMed

    Sampaio, Tuane Bazanella; Da Rocha, Juliana Trevisan; Prigol, Marina; Saraiva, Rogério Aquino; Nogara, Pablo Froner; Stein, André Luiz Agnes; da Rocha, João Batista Teixeira; Zeni, Gilson; Nogueira, Cristina Wayne

    2016-05-01

    Isoquinolines are formed endogenously as metabolites of neurotransmitters and are studied because they have structures similar to neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine and selegiline, a selective inhibitor of MAO-B. This study investigated a possible in vitro inhibitory activity of new 4-organochalcogen-isoquinoline derivatives, containing sulfur 1, selenium 2 or tellurium 3 on MAO-A and B activities. Considering that the non-substituted selenoisoquinoline derivative 2 showed the best inhibitory profile (IC50 = 36.45 μM), new compounds were synthesized by adding substituents (methyl 2a, fluorine 2b, chloro 2c and trifluoromethyl 2d) to the aromatic ring bonded to the selenium atom of compound 2. All tested compounds were selective MAO-B inhibitors, although only the substituted isoquinoline derivative 2b showed IC50 lower than the concentration of 100 μM (IC50 = 82.41 μM). Compounds 2 and 2b were chosen to study the inhibitory profile. These compounds demonstrated reversible and mixed inhibition by decreasing apparent V (app) max and increasing apparent K (app) m, however the non-substituted compound 2 was a more potent inhibitor than the substituted compound 2b (K i = 7.07 and 16.30 μM). In conclusion, selenoisoquinolines 2 and 2b fit in the profile of third generation MAO inhibitors (selective and reversible), which are promising alternatives for treatment of emotional and neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:27052821

  6. Synthesis on accumulation of putative neurotransmitters by cultured neural crest cells

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, G.D.; Sietz, P.D.; Rafford, C.E.

    1982-07-01

    The events mediating the differentiation of embryonic neural crest cells into several types of neurons are incompletely understood. In order to probe one aspect of this differentiation, we have examined the capacity of cultured quail trunk neural crest cells to synthesize, from radioactive precursors, and store several putative neurotransmitter compounds. These neural crest cultures develop the capacity to synthesize and accumulate acetylcholine and the catecholamines norepinephrine and dopamine. In contrast, detectable but relatively little synthesis and accumulation of 5-hydroxytryptamine gamma-aminobutyric acid, or octopamine from the appropriate radiolabeled precursors were observed. The capacity for synthesis and accumulation of radiolabeled acetylcholine and catecholamines is very low or absent at 2 days in vitro. Between 3 and 7 days in vitro, there is a marked rise in both catecholamine and acetylcholine accumulation in the cultures. These findings suggest that, under the particular conditions used in these experiments, the development of neurotransmitter biosynthesis in trunk neural crest cells ijs restricted and resembles, at least partially, the pattern observed in vivo. The development of this capacity to synthesize and store radiolabeled acetylcholine and catecholamines from the appropriate radioactive precursors coincides closely with the development of the activities of the synthetic enzymes choline acetyltransferase and dopamine beta-hydroxylase reported by others.

  7. Neurotransmitter Release: The Last Millisecond in the Life of a Synaptic Vesicle

    PubMed Central

    Südhof, Thomas C.

    2013-01-01

    During an action potential, Ca2+ entering a presynaptic terminal triggers synaptic vesicle exocytosis and neurotransmitter release in less than a millisecond. How does Ca2+ stimulate release so rapidly and precisely? Work over the last decades revealed that Ca2+-binding to synaptotagmin triggers release by stimulating synaptotagmin-binding to a core machinery composed of SNARE and SM proteins that mediates membrane fusion during exocytosis. Complexin adaptor proteins assist synaptotagmin by activating and clamping this core fusion machinery. Synaptic vesicles containing synaptotagmin are positioned at the active zone, the site of vesicle fusion, by a protein complex containing RIM proteins. RIM proteins simultaneously activate docking and priming of synaptic vesicles and recruit Ca2+-channels to active zones, thereby connecting in a single complex primed synaptic vesicles to Ca2+-channels. This architecture allows direct flow of Ca2+-ions from Ca2+-channels to synaptotagmin, which then triggers fusion, thus mediating tight millisecond coupling of an action potential to neurotransmitter release. PMID:24183019

  8. Expression of functional neurotransmitter receptors in Xenopus oocytes after injection of human brain membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miledi, Ricardo; Eusebi, Fabrizio; Martínez-Torres, Ataúlfo; Palma, Eleonora; Trettel, Flavia

    2002-10-01

    The Xenopus oocyte is a very powerful tool for studies of the structure and function of membrane proteins, e.g., messenger RNA extracted from the brain and injected into oocytes leads to the synthesis and membrane incorporation of many types of functional receptors and ion channels, and membrane vesicles from Torpedo electroplaques injected into oocytes fuse with the oocyte membrane and cause the appearance of functional Torpedo acetylcholine receptors and Cl channels. This approach was developed further to transplant already assembled neurotransmitter receptors from human brain cells to the plasma membrane of Xenopus oocytes. Membranes isolated from the temporal neocortex of a patient, operated for intractable epilepsy, were injected into oocytes and, within a few hours, the oocyte membrane acquired functional neurotransmitter receptors to -aminobutyric acid, -amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid, kainate, and glycine. These receptors were also expressed in the plasma membrane of oocytes injected with mRNA extracted from the temporal neocortex of the same patient. All of this makes the Xenopus oocyte a more useful model than it already is for studies of the structure and function of many human membrane proteins and opens the way to novel pathophysiological investigations of some human brain disorders.

  9. Brainstem amino acid neurotransmitters and ventilatory response to hypoxia in piglets.

    PubMed

    Hehre, Dorothy A; Devia, Carlos J; Bancalari, Eduardo; Suguihara, Cleide

    2008-01-01

    The ventilatory response to hypoxia is influenced by the balance between inhibitory (GABA, glycine, and taurine) and excitatory (glutamate and aspartate) brainstem amino acid (AA) neurotransmitters. To assess the effects of AA in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) on the ventilatory response to hypoxia at 1 and 2 wk of age, inhibitory and excitatory AA were sampled by microdialysis in unanesthetized and chronically instrumented piglets. Microdialysis samples from the NTS area were collected at 5-min intervals and minute ventilation (VE), arterial blood pressure (ABP), and arterial blood gases (ABG) were measured while the animals were in quiet sleep. A biphasic ventilatory response to hypoxia was observed in wk 1 and 2, but the decrease in VE at 10 and 15 min was more marked in wk 1. This was associated with an increase in inhibitory AA during hypoxia in wk 1. Excitatory AA levels were elevated during hypoxia in wk 1 and 2. Changes in ABP, pH, and ABG during hypoxia were not different between weeks. These data suggest that the larger depression in the ventilatory response to hypoxia observed in younger piglets is mediated by predominance of the inhibitory AA neurotransmitters, GABA, glycine, and taurine, in the NTS. PMID:18043517

  10. Competing Insertion and External Binding Motifs in Hydrated Neurotransmitters: Infrared Spectra of Protonated Phenylethylamine Monohydrate.

    PubMed

    Bouchet, Aude; Schütz, Markus; Dopfer, Otto

    2016-01-18

    Hydration has a drastic impact on the structure and function of flexible biomolecules, such as aromatic ethylamino neurotransmitters. The structure of monohydrated protonated phenylethylamine (H(+) PEA-H2 O) is investigated by infrared photodissociation (IRPD) spectroscopy of cold cluster ions by using rare-gas (Rg=Ne and Ar) tagging and dispersion-corrected density functional theory calculations at the B3LYP-D3/aug-cc-pVTZ level. Monohydration of this prototypical neurotransmitter gives an insight into the first step of the formation of its solvation shell, especially regarding the competition between intra- and intermolecular interactions. The spectra of Rg-tagged H(+) PEA-H2 O reveal the presence of a stable insertion structure in which the water molecule is located between the positively charged ammonium group and the phenyl ring of H(+) PEA, acting both as a hydrogen bond acceptor (NH(+) ⋅⋅⋅O) and donor (OH⋅⋅⋅π). Two other nearly equivalent isomers, in which water is externally H bonded to one of the free NH groups, are also identified. The balance between insertion and external hydration strongly depends on temperature. PMID:26584245

  11. Novel microfabricated device to measure hormone/neurotransmitter release with millisecond temporal resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillis, Kevin D.; Chen, Peng; Xu, Bai; Tokranova, Natalya; Feng, Xiaojun; Castracane, James

    2002-06-01

    We are developing a novel readout for secretion of hormones and neurotransmitter on micro/nanofabricated chips. Traditional biochemical assays of signaling molecules secreted from cells are slow, cumbersome and have at best, a temporal resolution of several seconds. On the other hand, electrochemical measurement of hormone or transmitter secretion can obtain millisecond temporal resolution if the diffusion distance between the release site on the cell and the working electrode is within 1 micron. Carbon fiber microelectrodes can have millisecond time resolution, but can only measure release form a small fraction of the cell surface. We have fabricated arrays of Au electrodes in wells micromachined on the surface of silicon microchips. Each well/microelectrode roughly conforms to the shape of a single cell in order to capture release forma large fraction of the surface area of each cell with minimal diffusional delays. This paper will present details of the microfabrication process flow as well a initial results demonstrating millisecond-resolution measurement of catecholamine secretion form adrenal chromaffin cells. Our goal for this project is to develop enabling technology for massively parallel systems on a chip such as cell-based biosensors to detect neurotoxins and high-throughput assays of drugs that affect neurotransmitter release.

  12. From progenitors to integrated neurons: role of neurotransmitters in adult olfactory neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Bovetti, Serena; Gribaudo, Simona; Puche, Adam C; De Marchis, Silvia; Fasolo, Aldo

    2011-12-01

    Adult neurogenesis is due to the persistence of pools of constitutive stem cells able to give rise to a progeny of proliferating progenitors. In rodents, adult neurogenic niches have been found in the subventricular zone (SVZ) along the lateral ventricles and in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus in the hippocampus. SVZ progenitors undergo a unique process of tangential migration from the lateral ventricle to the olfactory bulb (OB) where they differentiate mainly into GABAergic interneurons in the granule and glomerular layers. SVZ progenitor proliferation, migration and differentiation into fully integrated neurons, are strictly related processes regulated by complex interactions between cell intrinsic and extrinsic influences. Numerous observations demonstrate that neurotrasmitters are involved in all steps of the adult neurogenic process, but the understanding of their role is hampered by their intricate mechanism of action and by the highly complex network in which neurotransmitters work. By considering the three main steps of olfactory adult neurogenesis (proliferation, migration and integration), this review will discuss recent advances in the study of neurotransmitters, highlighting the regulatory mechanisms upstream and downstream their action. PMID:21641990

  13. Non-Cell-Autonomous Mechanism of Activity-Dependent Neurotransmitter Switching

    PubMed Central

    Guemez-Gamboa, Alicia; Xu, Lin; Meng, Da; Spitzer, Nicholas C.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Activity-dependent neurotransmitter switching engages genetic programs regulating transmitter synthesis but the mechanism by which activity is transduced is unknown. We suppressed activity in single neurons in the embryonic spinal cord to determine whether glutamate-GABA switching is cell-autonomous. Transmitter respecification did not occur, suggesting that it is homeostatically regulated by the level of activity in surrounding neurons. Graded increase in the number of silenced neurons in cultures led to graded decrease in the number of neurons expressing GABA, supporting non-cell-autonomous transmitter switching. We found that BDNF is expressed in the spinal cord during the period of transmitter respecification and that spike activity causes release of BDNF. Activation of TrkB receptors triggers a signaling cascade involving JNK-mediated activation of cJun that regulates tlx3, a glutamate/GABA selector gene, accounting for calcium-spike-BDNF-dependent transmitter switching. Our findings identify a molecular mechanism for activity-dependent respecification of neurotransmitter phenotype in developing spinal neurons. PMID:24908484

  14. Probing interactions of neurotransmitters with twin tailed anionic surfactant: A detailed physicochemical study.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Rajwinder; Sanan, Reshu; Mahajan, Rakesh Kumar

    2016-05-01

    Keeping in view the role of neurotransmitters (NTs) in central nervous system diseases and in controlling various physiological processes, present study is aimed to study the binding of neurotransmitters (NTs) such as norepinephrine hydrochloride (NE) and serotonin hydrochloride (5-HT) with twin tailed surfactant sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate (AOT). Spectroscopic and electrochemical measurements combined with microcalorimetric measurements were used to characterize the interactions between AOT and NTs. Meteoric modifications to emission profile and absorption spectra of NTs upon addition of AOT are indicative of the binding of NTs with AOT. Distinct interactional states such as formation of ion-pairs, induced and regular micelles with adsorbed NTs molecules have been observed in different concentration regimes of AOT. The formation of ion-pairs from oppositely charged NTs and AOT is confirmed by the reduced absorbance, quenched fluorescence intensity and decrease in peak current (ipa) as well as shifts in peak potential (Epa) values. The stoichiometry and formation of the NTs-AOT complexes has been judged and the extent of interactions is quantitatively discussed in terms of binding constant (K) and free energy of binding (ΔG°). The enthalpy (ΔH°mic) and free energy of micellization (ΔG°mic) for AOT in presence and absence of NTs are determined from the enthalpy curves. PMID:26866888

  15. Neurotransmitter Transporter-Like: A Male Germline-specific SLC6 Transporter Required for Drosophila Spermiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Nabanita; Rollins, Janet; Mahowald, Anthony P.; Bazinet, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    The SLC6 class of membrane transporters, known primarily as neurotransmitter transporters, is increasingly appreciated for its roles in nutritional uptake of amino acids and other developmentally specific functions. A Drosophila SLC6 gene, Neurotransmitter transporter-like (Ntl), is expressed only in the male germline. Mobilization of a transposon inserted near the 3′ end of the Ntl coding region yields male-sterile mutants defining a single complementation group. Germline transformation with Ntl cDNAs under control of male germline-specific control elements restores Ntl/Ntl homozygotes to normal fertility, indicating that Ntl is required only in the germ cells. In mutant males, sperm morphogenesis appears normal, with elongated, individualized and coiled spermiogenic cysts accumulating at the base of the testes. However, no sperm are transferred to the seminal vesicle. The level of polyglycylation of Ntl mutant sperm tubulin appears to be significantly lower than that of wild type controls. Glycine transporters are the most closely related SLC6 transporters to Ntl, suggesting that Ntl functions as a glycine transporter in developing sperm, where augmentation of the cytosolic pool of glycine may be required for the polyglycylation of the massive amounts of tubulin in the fly's giant sperm. The male-sterile phenotype of Ntl mutants may provide a powerful genetic system for studying the function of an SLC6 transporter family in a model organism. PMID:21298005

  16. A multichannel native fluorescence detection system for capillary electrophoretic analysis of neurotransmitters in single neurons.

    PubMed

    Lapainis, T; Scanlan, C; Rubakhin, S S; Sweedler, J V

    2007-01-01

    A laser-induced native fluorescence detection system optimized for analysis of indolamines and catecholamines by capillary electrophoresis is described. A hollow-cathode metal vapor laser emitting at 224 nm is used for fluorescence excitation, and the emitted fluorescence is spectrally distributed by a series of dichroic beam-splitters into three wavelength channels: 250-310 nm, 310-400 nm, and >400 nm. A separate photomultiplier tube is used for detection of the fluorescence in each of the three wavelength ranges. The instrument provides more information than a single-channel system, without the complexity associated with a spectrograph/charge-coupled device-based detector. With this instrument, analytes can be separated and identified not only on the basis of their electrophoretic migration time but also on the basis of their multichannel signature, which consists of the ratios of relative fluorescence intensities detected in each wavelength channel. The 224-nm excitation channel resulted in a detection limit of 40 nmol L-1 for dopamine. The utility of this instrument for single-cell analysis was demonstrated by the detection and identification of the neurotransmitters in serotonergic LPeD1 and dopaminergic RPeD1 neurons, isolated from the central nervous system of the well-established neurobiological model Lymnaea stagnalis. Not only can this system detect neurotransmitters in these individual neurons with S/N>50, but analyte identity is confirmed on the basis of spectral characteristics. PMID:17047942

  17. Near-future carbon dioxide levels alter fish behaviour by interfering with neurotransmitter function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsson, Göran E.; Dixson, Danielle L.; Domenici, Paolo; McCormick, Mark I.; Sørensen, Christina; Watson, Sue-Ann; Munday, Philip L.

    2012-03-01

    Predicted future CO2 levels have been found to alter sensory responses and behaviour of marine fishes. Changes include increased boldness and activity, loss of behavioural lateralization, altered auditory preferences and impaired olfactory function. Impaired olfactory function makes larval fish attracted to odours they normally avoid, including ones from predators and unfavourable habitats. These behavioural alterations have significant effects on mortality that may have far-reaching implications for population replenishment, community structure and ecosystem function. However, the underlying mechanism linking high CO2 to these diverse responses has been unknown. Here we show that abnormal olfactory preferences and loss of behavioural lateralization exhibited by two species of larval coral reef fish exposed to high CO2 can be rapidly and effectively reversed by treatment with an antagonist of the GABA-A receptor. GABA-A is a major neurotransmitter receptor in the vertebrate brain. Thus, our results indicate that high CO2 interferes with neurotransmitter function, a hitherto unrecognized threat to marine populations and ecosystems. Given the ubiquity and conserved function of GABA-A receptors, we predict that rising CO2 levels could cause sensory and behavioural impairment in a wide range of marine species, especially those that tightly control their acid-base balance through regulatory changes in HCO3- and Cl- levels.

  18. Vesicular release of neurotransmitters: converting amperometric measurements into size, dynamics and energetics of initial fusion pores.

    PubMed

    Oleinick, Alexander; Lemaître, Frédéric; Collignon, Manon Guille; Svir, Irina; Amatore, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Amperometric currents displaying a pre-spike feature (PSF) may be treated so as to lead to precise information about initial fusion pores, viz., about the crucial event initiating neurotransmitter vesicular release in neurons and medullary glands. However, amperometric data alone are not self-sufficient, so their full exploitation requires external calibration to solve the inverse problem. For this purpose we resorted to patch-clamp measurements published in the literature on chromaffin cells. Reported pore radii were thus used to evaluate the diffusion rate of neurotransmitter cations in the partially altered matrix located near the fusion pore entrance. This allowed an independent determination of each initial fusion pore radius giving rise to a single PSF event. The statistical distribution of the radii thus obtained provided for the first time an experimental access to the potential energy well governing the thermodynamics of such systems. The shape of the corresponding potential energy well strongly suggested that, after their creation, initial fusion pores are essentially controlled by the usual physicochemical laws describing pores formed in bilayer lipidic biological membranes, i.e., they have an essentially lipidic nature. PMID:24466657

  19. Functional associations among G protein-coupled neurotransmitter receptors in the human brain

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The activity of neurons is controlled by groups of neurotransmitter receptors rather than by individual receptors. Experimental studies have investigated some receptor interactions, but currently little information is available about transcriptional associations among receptors at the whole-brain level. Results A total of 4950 correlations between 100 G protein-coupled neurotransmitter receptors were examined across 169 brain regions in the human brain using expression data published in the Allen Human Brain Atlas. A large number of highly significant correlations were found, many of which have not been investigated in hypothesis-driven studies. The highest positive and negative correlations of each receptor are reported, which can facilitate the construction of receptor sets likely to be affected by altered transcription of one receptor (such sets always exist, but their members are difficult to predict). A graph analysis isolated two large receptor communities, within each of which receptor mRNA levels were strongly cross-correlated. Conclusions The presented systematic analysis shows that the mRNA levels of many G protein-coupled receptors are interdependent. This finding is not unexpected, since the brain is a highly integrated complex system. However, the analysis also revealed two novel properties of global brain structure. First, receptor correlations are described by a simple statistical distribution, which suggests that receptor interactions may be guided by qualitatively similar processes. Second, receptors appear to form two large functional communities, which might be differentially affected in brain disorders. PMID:24438157

  20. Immunohistochemical profile of various neurotransmitters, neurotrophins and MIB-1 in cholesteatomas of the petrous bone.

    PubMed

    Artico, Marco; Bronzetti, Elena; Lo Vasco, Vincenza Rita; Ionta, Brunella; Alicino, Valentina; D'Ambrosio, Anna; Magliulo, Giuseppe

    2008-01-01

    Compared to the normal epidermal epithelium, cholesteatomas have altered growth properties characterized by the excessive growth of keratinocytes leading to mucosal destruction. Either congenital or acquired, these lesions, which grow in the middle ear space, the petrous apex or the mastoid of temporal bones, are mostly considered benign skin tumoral lesions. However, many questions remain concerning their pathophysiology. Numerous studies have been proposed to identify those cholesteatoma lesions at risk of recurrence, a possible event that may cause hearing loss. We examined patients with petrous apex or mastoid cholesteatoma in order to analyze the expression of various neurotransmitters, neurotrophins and their receptors and the Ki-67 antigen for identification of a possible relationship between clinical outcome and histopathological behaviour in terms of the proliferative activity of cholesteatomas. Expression of the analyzed molecules was studied using immunohistochemical methods in seven adult patients with petrous apex cholesteatoma who underwent surgical removal of the lesion. Our results, in accordance with published data, confirm that Molecular Immunology Borstel-1 (MIB-1) and certain neurotransmitters could be useful in the prognostic evaluation of the risk of recurrence of aggressive forms of cholesteatoma. PMID:21479416

  1. Deletion of mouse FXR gene disturbs multiple neurotransmitter systems and alters neurobehavior

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Fei; Wang, Tingting; Lan, Yunyi; Yang, Li; Pan, Weihong; Zhu, Yonghui; Lv, Boyang; Wei, Yuting; Shi, Hailian; Wu, Hui; Zhang, Beibei; Wang, Jie; Duan, Xiaofeng; Hu, Zhibi; Wu, Xiaojun

    2015-01-01

    Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a nuclear hormone receptor involved in bile acid synthesis and homeostasis. Dysfunction of FXR is involved in cholestasis and atherosclerosis. FXR is prevalent in liver, gallbladder, and intestine, but it is not yet clear whether it modulates neurobehavior. In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that mouse FXR deficiency affects a specific subset of neurotransmitters and results in an unique behavioral phenotype. The FXR knockout mice showed less depressive-like and anxiety-related behavior, but increased motor activity. They had impaired memory and reduced motor coordination. There were changes of glutamatergic, GABAergic, serotoninergic, and norepinephrinergic neurotransmission in either hippocampus or cerebellum. FXR deletion decreased the amount of the GABA synthesis enzyme GAD65 in hippocampus but increased GABA transporter GAT1 in cerebral cortex. FXR deletion increased serum concentrations of many bile acids, including taurodehydrocholic acid, taurocholic acid, deoxycholic acid (DCA), glycocholic acid (GCA), tauro-α-muricholic acid, tauro-ω-muricholic acid, and hyodeoxycholic acid (HDCA). There were also changes in brain concentrations of taurocholic acid, taurodehydrocholic acid, tauro-ω-muricholic acid, tauro-β-muricholic acid, deoxycholic acid, and lithocholic acid (LCA). Taken together, the results from studies with FXR knockout mice suggest that FXR contributes to the homeostasis of multiple neurotransmitter systems in different brain regions and modulates neurobehavior. The effect appears to be at least partially mediated by bile acids that are known to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) inducing potential neurotoxicity. PMID:25870546

  2. The neurotransmitters serotonin and glutamate accelerate the heart rate of the mosquito Anopheles gambiae.

    PubMed

    Hillyer, Julián F; Estévez-Lao, Tania Y; Mirzai, Homa E

    2015-10-01

    Serotonin and glutamate are neurotransmitters that in insects are involved in diverse physiological processes. Both serotonin and glutamate have been shown to modulate the physiology of the dorsal vessel of some insects, yet until the present study, their activity in mosquitoes remained unknown. To test whether serotonin or glutamate regulate dorsal vessel physiology in the African malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae, live mosquitoes were restrained, and a video of the contracting heart (the abdominal portion of the dorsal vessel) was acquired. These adult female mosquitoes were then injected with various amounts of serotonin, glutamate, or a control vehicle solution, and additional videos were acquired at 2 and 10 min post-treatment. Comparison of the videos taken before and after treatment revealed that serotonin accelerates the frequency of heart contractions, with the cardioacceleration being significantly more pronounced when the wave-like contractions of cardiac muscle propagate in the anterograde direction (toward the head). Comparison of the videos taken before and after treatment with glutamate revealed that this molecule is also cardioacceleratory. However, unlike serotonin, the activity of glutamate does not depend on whether the contractions propagate in the anterograde or the retrograde (toward the posterior of the abdomen) directions. Serotonin or glutamate induces a minor change or no change in the percentage of contractions and the percentage of the time that the heart contracts in the anterograde or the retrograde directions. In summary, this study shows that the neurotransmitters serotonin and glutamate increase the heart contraction rate of mosquitoes. PMID:26099947

  3. Metabolic Profiling and Quantification of Neurotransmitters in Mouse Brain by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Jäger, Christian; Hiller, Karsten; Buttini, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Metabolites are key mediators of cellular functions, and have emerged as important modulators in a variety of diseases. Recent developments in translational biomedicine have highlighted the importance of not looking at just one disease marker or disease inducing molecule, but at populations thereof to gain a global understanding of cellular function in health and disease. The goal of metabolomics is the systematic identification and quantification of metabolite populations. One of the most pressing issues of our times is the understanding of normal and diseased nervous tissue functions. To ensure high quality data, proper sample processing is crucial. Here, we present a method for the extraction of metabolites from brain tissue, their subsequent preparation for non-targeted gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) measurement, as well as giving some guidelines for processing of raw data. In addition, we present a sensitive screening method for neurotransmitters based on GC-MS in selected ion monitoring mode. The precise multi-analyte detection and quantification of amino acid and monoamine neurotransmitters can be used for further studies such as metabolic modeling. Our protocol can be applied to shed light on nervous tissue function in health, as well as neurodegenerative disease mechanisms and the effect of experimental therapeutics at the metabolic level. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:27584556

  4. Insertional Polymorphisms of Endogenous Feline Leukemia Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Roca, Alfred L.; Nash, William G.; Menninger, Joan C.; Murphy, William J.; O'Brien, Stephen J.

    2005-01-01

    The number, chromosomal distribution, and insertional polymorphisms of endogenous feline leukemia viruses (enFeLVs) were determined in four domestic cats (Burmese, Egyptian Mau, Persian, and nonbreed) using fluorescent in situ hybridization and radiation hybrid mapping. Twenty-nine distinct enFeLV loci were detected across 12 of the 18 autosomes. Each cat carried enFeLV at only 9 to 16 of the loci, and many loci were heterozygous for presence of the provirus. Thus, an average of 19 autosomal copies of enFeLV were present per cat diploid genome. Only five of the autosomal enFeLV sites were present in all four cats, and at only one autosomal locus, B4q15, was enFeLV present in both homologues of all four cats. A single enFeLV occurred in the X chromosome of the Burmese cat, while three to five enFeLV proviruses occurred in each Y chromosome. The X chromosome and nine autosomal enFeLV loci were telomeric, suggesting that ectopic recombination between nonhomologous subtelomeres may contribute to enFeLV distribution. Since endogenous FeLVs may affect the infectiousness or pathogenicity of exogenous FeLVs, genomic variation in enFeLVs represents a candidate for genetic influences on FeLV leukemogenesis in cats. PMID:15767400

  5. Endogenous Technology Adoption and Medical Costs.

    PubMed

    Lamiraud, Karine; Lhuillery, Stephane

    2016-09-01

    Despite the claim that technology has been one of the most important drivers of healthcare spending growth over the past decades, technology variables are rarely introduced explicitly in cost equations. Furthermore, technology is often considered exogenous. Using 1996-2007 panel data on Swiss geographical areas, we assessed the impact of technology availability on per capita healthcare spending covered by basic health insurance whilst controlling for the endogeneity of health technology availability variables. Our results suggest that medical research, patent intensity and the density of employees working in the medical device industry are influential factors for the adoption of technology and can be used as instruments for technology availability variables in the cost equation. These results are similar to previous findings: CT and PET scanner adoption is associated with increased healthcare spending, whilst increased availability of percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty facilities is associated with reductions in per capita spending. However, our results suggest that the magnitude of these relationships is much greater in absolute value than that suggested by previous studies that did not control for the possible endogeneity of the availability of technologies. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27492052

  6. Human endogenous retroviruses in neurologic disease.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Tove

    2016-01-01

    Endogenous retroviruses are pathogenic - in other species than the human. Disease associations for Human Endogenous RetroViruses (HERVs) are emerging, but so far an unequivocal pathogenetic cause-effect relationship has not been established. A role for HERVs has been proposed in neurological and neuropsychiatric diseases as diverse as multiple sclerosis (MS) and schizophrenia (SCZ). Particularly for MS, many aspects of the activation and involvement of specific HERV families (HERV-H/F and HERV-W/MSRV) have been reported, both for cells in the circulation and in the central nervous system. Notably envelope genes and their gene products (Envs) appear strongly associated with the disease. For SCZ, for ALS, and for HIV-associated dementia (HAD), indications are accumulating for involvement of the HERV-K family, and also HERV-H/F and/or HERV-W. Activation is reasonably a prerequisite for causality as most HERV sequences remain quiescent in non-pathological conditions, so the importance of regulatory pathways and epigenetics involved in regulating HERV activation, derepression, and also involvement of retroviral restriction factors, is emerging. HERV-directed antiretrovirals have potential as novel therapeutic paradigms in neurologic disease, particularly in MS. The possible protective or ameliorative effects of antiretroviral therapy in MS are substantiated by reports that treatment of HIV infection may be associated with a significantly decreased risk of MS. Further studies of HERVs, their role in neurologic diseases, and their potential as therapeutic targets are essential. PMID:26818266

  7. LKB1 Regulates Mitochondria-Dependent Presynaptic Calcium Clearance and Neurotransmitter Release Properties at Excitatory Synapses along Cortical Axons

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Seok-Kyu; Sando, Richard; Maximov, Anton; Polleux, Franck

    2016-01-01

    Individual synapses vary significantly in their neurotransmitter release properties, which underlie complex information processing in neural circuits. Presynaptic Ca2+ homeostasis plays a critical role in specifying neurotransmitter release properties, but the mechanisms regulating synapse-specific Ca2+ homeostasis in the mammalian brain are still poorly understood. Using electrophysiology and genetically encoded Ca2+ sensors targeted to the mitochondrial matrix or to presynaptic boutons of cortical pyramidal neurons, we demonstrate that the presence or absence of mitochondria at presynaptic boutons dictates neurotransmitter release properties through Mitochondrial Calcium Uniporter (MCU)-dependent Ca2+ clearance. We demonstrate that the serine/threonine kinase LKB1 regulates MCU expression, mitochondria-dependent Ca2+ clearance, and thereby, presynaptic release properties. Re-establishment of MCU-dependent mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake at glutamatergic synapses rescues the altered neurotransmitter release properties characterizing LKB1-null cortical axons. Our results provide novel insights into the cellular and molecular mechanisms whereby mitochondria control neurotransmitter release properties in a bouton-specific way through presynaptic Ca2+ clearance. PMID:27429220

  8. Quantitative mass spectrometry imaging of small-molecule neurotransmitters in rat brain tissue sections using nanospray desorption electrospray ionization.

    PubMed

    Bergman, Hilde-Marléne; Lundin, Erik; Andersson, Malin; Lanekoff, Ingela

    2016-06-01

    Small molecule neurotransmitters are essential for the function of the nervous system, and neurotransmitter imbalances are often connected to neurological disorders. The ability to quantify such imbalances is important to provide insights into the biochemical mechanisms underlying the disorder. This proof-of-principle study presents online quantification of small molecule neurotransmitters, specifically acetylcholine, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate, in rat brain tissue sections using nanospray desorption electrospray ionization (nano-DESI) mass spectrometry imaging. By incorporating deuterated internal standards in the nano-DESI solvent we show identification, accurate mapping, and quantification of these small neurotransmitters in rat brain tissue without introducing any additional sample preparation steps. We find that GABA is about twice as abundant in the medial septum-diagonal band complex (MSDB) as in the cortex, while glutamate is about twice as abundant in the cortex as compared to the MSDB. The study shows that nano-DESI is well suited for imaging of small molecule neurotransmitters in health and disease. PMID:26859000

  9. Impact of Synaptic Neurotransmitter Concentration Time Course on the Kinetics and Pharmacological Modulation of Inhibitory Synaptic Currents

    PubMed Central

    Barberis, Andrea; Petrini, Enrica Maria; Mozrzymas, Jerzy W.

    2011-01-01

    The time course of synaptic currents is a crucial determinant of rapid signaling between neurons. Traditionally, the mechanisms underlying the shape of synaptic signals are classified as pre- and post-synaptic. Over the last two decades, an extensive body of evidence indicated that synaptic signals are critically shaped by the neurotransmitter time course which encompasses several phenomena including pre- and post-synaptic ones. The agonist transient depends on neurotransmitter release mechanisms, diffusion within the synaptic cleft, spill-over to the extra-synaptic space, uptake, and binding to post-synaptic receptors. Most estimates indicate that the neurotransmitter transient is very brief, lasting between one hundred up to several hundreds of microseconds, implying that post-synaptic activation is characterized by a high degree of non-equilibrium. Moreover, pharmacological studies provide evidence that the kinetics of agonist transient plays a crucial role in setting the susceptibility of synaptic currents to modulation by a variety of compounds of physiological or clinical relevance. More recently, the role of the neurotransmitter time course has been emphasized by studies carried out on brain slice models that revealed a striking, cell-dependent variability of synaptic agonist waveforms ranging from rapid pulses to slow volume transmission. In the present paper we review the advances on studies addressing the impact of synaptic neurotransmitter transient on kinetics and pharmacological modulation of synaptic currents at inhibitory synapses. PMID:21734864

  10. LKB1 Regulates Mitochondria-Dependent Presynaptic Calcium Clearance and Neurotransmitter Release Properties at Excitatory Synapses along Cortical Axons.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Seok-Kyu; Sando, Richard; Lewis, Tommy L; Hirabayashi, Yusuke; Maximov, Anton; Polleux, Franck

    2016-07-01

    Individual synapses vary significantly in their neurotransmitter release properties, which underlie complex information processing in neural circuits. Presynaptic Ca2+ homeostasis plays a critical role in specifying neurotransmitter release properties, but the mechanisms regulating synapse-specific Ca2+ homeostasis in the mammalian brain are still poorly understood. Using electrophysiology and genetically encoded Ca2+ sensors targeted to the mitochondrial matrix or to presynaptic boutons of cortical pyramidal neurons, we demonstrate that the presence or absence of mitochondria at presynaptic boutons dictates neurotransmitter release properties through Mitochondrial Calcium Uniporter (MCU)-dependent Ca2+ clearance. We demonstrate that the serine/threonine kinase LKB1 regulates MCU expression, mitochondria-dependent Ca2+ clearance, and thereby, presynaptic release properties. Re-establishment of MCU-dependent mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake at glutamatergic synapses rescues the altered neurotransmitter release properties characterizing LKB1-null cortical axons. Our results provide novel insights into the cellular and molecular mechanisms whereby mitochondria control neurotransmitter release properties in a bouton-specific way through presynaptic Ca2+ clearance. PMID:27429220

  11. Live Imaging of Endogenous PSD-95 Using ENABLED: A Conditional Strategy to Fluorescently Label Endogenous Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Fortin, Dale A.; Tillo, Shane E.; Yang, Guang; Rah, Jong-Cheol; Melander, Joshua B.; Bai, Suxia; Soler-Cedeño, Omar; Qin, Maozhen; Zemelman, Boris V.; Guo, Caiying

    2014-01-01

    Stoichiometric labeling of endogenous synaptic proteins for high-contrast live-cell imaging in brain tissue remains challenging. Here, we describe a conditional mouse genetic strategy termed endogenous labeling via exon duplication (ENABLED), which can be used to fluorescently label endogenous proteins with near ideal properties in all neurons, a sparse subset of neurons, or specific neuronal subtypes. We used this method to label the postsynaptic density protein PSD-95 with mVenus without overexpression side effects. We demonstrated that mVenus-tagged PSD-95 is functionally equivalent to wild-type PSD-95 and that PSD-95 is present in nearly all dendritic spines in CA1 neurons. Within spines, while PSD-95 exhibited low mobility under basal conditions, its levels could be regulated by chronic changes in neuronal activity. Notably, labeled PSD-95 also allowed us to visualize and unambiguously examine otherwise-unidentifiable excitatory shaft synapses in aspiny neurons, such as parvalbumin-positive interneurons and dopaminergic neurons. Our results demonstrate that the ENABLED strategy provides a valuable new approach to study the dynamics of endogenous synaptic proteins in vivo. PMID:25505322

  12. Biological redundancy of endogenous GPCR ligands in the gut and the potential for endogenous functional selectivity

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Georgina L.; Canals, Meritxell; Poole, Daniel P.

    2014-01-01

    This review focuses on the existence and function of multiple endogenous agonists of the somatostatin and opioid receptors with an emphasis on their expression in the gastrointestinal tract. These agonists generally arise from the proteolytic cleavage of prepropeptides during peptide maturation or from degradation of peptides by extracellular or intracellular endopeptidases. In other examples, endogenous peptide agonists for the same G protein-coupled receptors can be products of distinct genes but contain high sequence homology. This apparent biological redundancy has recently been challenged by the realization that different ligands may engender distinct receptor conformations linked to different intracellular signaling profiles and, as such the existence of distinct ligands may underlie mechanisms to finely tune physiological responses. We propose that further characterization of signaling pathways activated by these endogenous ligands will provide invaluable insight into the mechanisms governing biased agonism. Moreover, these ligands may prove useful in the design of novel therapeutic tools to target distinct signaling pathways, thereby favoring desirable effects and limiting detrimental on-target effects. Finally we will discuss the limitations of this area of research and we will highlight the difficulties that need to be addressed when examining endogenous bias in tissues and in animals. PMID:25506328

  13. The Role of Neurotransmitters in Protection against Amyloid- β Toxicity by KiSS-1 Overexpression in SH-SY5Y Neurons.

    PubMed

    Chilumuri, Amrutha; Milton, Nathaniel G N

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that the kisspeptin (KP) and kissorphin (KSO) peptides have neuroprotective actions against the Alzheimer's amyloid- β (A β ) peptide. Overexpression of the human KiSS-1 gene that codes for KP and KSO peptides in SH-SY5Y neurons has also been shown to inhibit A β neurotoxicity. The in vivo actions of KP include activation of neuroendocrine and neurotransmitter systems. The present study used antagonists of KP, neuropeptide FF (NPFF), opioids, oxytocin, estrogen, adrenergic, cholinergic, dopaminergic, serotonergic, and γ -aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors plus inhibitors of catalase, cyclooxygenase, nitric oxide synthase, and the mitogen activated protein kinase cascade to characterize the KiSS-1 gene overexpression neuroprotection against A β cell model. The results showed that KiSS-1 overexpression is neuroprotective against A β and the action appears to involve the KP or KSO peptide products of KiSS-1 processing. The mechanism of neuroprotection does not involve the activation of the KP or NPFF receptors. Opioids play a role in the toxicity of A β in the KiSS-1 overexpression system and opioid antagonists naloxone or naltrexone inhibited A β toxicity. The mechanism of KiSS-1 overexpression induced protection against A β appears to have an oxytocin plus a cyclooxygenase dependent component, with the oxytocin antagonist atosiban and the cyclooxygenase inhibitor SC-560 both enhancing the toxicity of A β . PMID:24967306

  14. The Role of Neurotransmitters in Protection against Amyloid-β Toxicity by KiSS-1 Overexpression in SH-SY5Y Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Milton, Nathaniel G. N.

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that the kisspeptin (KP) and kissorphin (KSO) peptides have neuroprotective actions against the Alzheimer's amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide. Overexpression of the human KiSS-1 gene that codes for KP and KSO peptides in SH-SY5Y neurons has also been shown to inhibit Aβ neurotoxicity. The in vivo actions of KP include activation of neuroendocrine and neurotransmitter systems. The present study used antagonists of KP, neuropeptide FF (NPFF), opioids, oxytocin, estrogen, adrenergic, cholinergic, dopaminergic, serotonergic, and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors plus inhibitors of catalase, cyclooxygenase, nitric oxide synthase, and the mitogen activated protein kinase cascade to characterize the KiSS-1 gene overexpression neuroprotection against Aβ cell model. The results showed that KiSS-1 overexpression is neuroprotective against Aβ and the action appears to involve the KP or KSO peptide products of KiSS-1 processing. The mechanism of neuroprotection does not involve the activation of the KP or NPFF receptors. Opioids play a role in the toxicity of Aβ in the KiSS-1 overexpression system and opioid antagonists naloxone or naltrexone inhibited Aβ toxicity. The mechanism of KiSS-1 overexpression induced protection against Aβ appears to have an oxytocin plus a cyclooxygenase dependent component, with the oxytocin antagonist atosiban and the cyclooxygenase inhibitor SC-560 both enhancing the toxicity of Aβ. PMID:24967306

  15. The hallucinogen N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) is an endogenous sigma-1 receptor regulator.

    PubMed

    Fontanilla, Dominique; Johannessen, Molly; Hajipour, Abdol R; Cozzi, Nicholas V; Jackson, Meyer B; Ruoho, Arnold E

    2009-02-13

    The sigma-1 receptor is widely distributed in the central nervous system and periphery. Originally mischaracterized as an opioid receptor, the sigma-1 receptor binds a vast number of synthetic compounds but does not bind opioid peptides; it is currently considered an orphan receptor. The sigma-1 receptor pharmacophore includes an alkylamine core, also found in the endogenous compound N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT). DMT acts as a hallucinogen, but its receptor target has been unclear. DMT bound to sigma-1 receptors and inhibited voltage-gated sodium ion (Na+) channels in both native cardiac myocytes and heterologous cells that express sigma-1 receptors. DMT induced hypermobility in wild-type mice but not in sigma-1 receptor knockout mice. These biochemical, physiological, and behavioral experiments indicate that DMT is an endogenous agonist for the sigma-1 receptor. PMID:19213917

  16. The Hallucinogen N,N-Dimethyltryptamine (DMT) Is an Endogenous Sigma-1 Receptor Regulator

    PubMed Central

    Fontanilla, Dominique; Johannessen, Molly; Hajipour, Abdol R.; Cozzi, Nicholas V.; Jackson, Meyer B.; Ruoho, Arnold E.

    2010-01-01

    The sigma-1 receptor is widely distributed in the central nervous system and periphery. Originally mischaracterized as an opioid receptor, the sigma-1 receptor binds a vast number of synthetic compounds but does not bind opioid peptides; it is currently considered an orphan receptor. The sigma-1 receptor pharmacophore includes an alkylamine core, also found in the endogenous compound N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT). DMT acts as a hallucinogen, but its receptor target has been unclear. DMT bound to sigma-1 receptors and inhibited voltage-gated sodium ion (Na+) channels in both native cardiac myocytes and heterologous cells that express sigma-1 receptors. DMT induced hypermobility in wild-type mice but not in sigma-1 receptor knockout mice. These biochemical, physiological, and behavioral experiments indicate that DMT is an endogenous agonist for the sigma-1 receptor. PMID:19213917

  17. Effective Delivery of Endogenous Antioxidants Ameliorates Diabetic Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yongsoo; Kim, Hyunok; Park, Leejin; Min, Dongsoo; Park, Jinseu; Choi, Sooyoung; Park, Moon Hyang

    2015-01-01

    Background Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is thought to be partially due to the injury of renal cells and the renal micro-environment by free radicals. Free radial scavenging agents that inhibit free radical damage may well prevent the development of underlying conditions such as mesangial expansion (by inhibiting extracellular matrix expression) in these patients. Methods Using techniques for intra-cellular delivery of peptides, we made metallothionein (MT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), potent endogenous antioxidants, readily transducible into cell membrane and tested their protective effect against the development of DN in OLETF rats. Herein, we study antioxidant peptides for their ability to prevent oxidative damage to primary rat mesangial cells (MCs), which are important constituents of renal glomeruli. Results Intraperitoneal administration of these antioxidants resulted in delivery to the kidney and decreased ROS and the expression of downstream signals in renal cells and postponed the usual progression to DN. In in vitro experiments, MT and SOD were efficiently transferred to MCs, and the increased removal of ROS by MT and SOD was proportional to the degree of scavenging enzymes delivered. MT and SOD decreased three major oxidative injuries (hyperglycemia, AGE and ROS exposure) and also injuries directly mediated by angiotensin II in MCs while changing downstream signal transduction. Conclusions The protective effects of MT and SOD for the progression of DN in experimental animals may be associated with the scavenging of ROS by MT and SOD and correlated changes in signal transduction downstream. Concomitant administration of these antioxidant peptides may prove to be a new approach for the prevention and therapy of DN. PMID:26114547

  18. Mycobacterium tuberculosis has diminished capacity to counteract redox stress induced by elevated levels of endogenous superoxide

    PubMed Central

    Tyagi, Priyanka; Dharmaraja, Allimuthu T.; Bhaskar, Ashima; Chakrapani, Harinath; Singh, Amit

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) has evolved protective and detoxification mechanisms to maintain cytoplasmic redox balance in response to exogenous oxidative stress encountered inside host phagocytes. In contrast, little is known about the dynamic response of this pathogen to endogenous oxidative stress generated within Mtb. Using a noninvasive and specific biosensor of cytoplasmic redox state of Mtb, we for first time discovered a surprisingly high sensitivity of this pathogen to perturbation in redox homeostasis induced by elevated endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS). We synthesized a series of hydroquinone-based small molecule ROS generators and found that ATD-3169 permeated mycobacteria to reliably enhance endogenous ROS including superoxide radicals. When Mtb strains including multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) patient isolates were exposed to this compound, a dose-dependent, long-lasting, and irreversible oxidative shift in intramycobacterial redox potential was detected. Dynamic redox potential measurements revealed that Mtb had diminished capacity to restore cytoplasmic redox balance in comparison with Mycobacterium smegmatis (Msm), a fast growing nonpathogenic mycobacterial species. Accordingly, Mtb strains were extremely susceptible to inhibition by ATD-3169 but not Msm, suggesting a functional linkage between dynamic redox changes and survival. Microarray analysis showed major realignment of pathways involved in redox homeostasis, central metabolism, DNA repair, and cell wall lipid biosynthesis in response to ATD-3169, all consistent with enhanced endogenous ROS contributing to lethality induced by this compound. This work provides empirical evidence that the cytoplasmic redox poise of Mtb is uniquely sensitive to manipulation in steady-state endogenous ROS levels, thus revealing the importance of targeting intramycobacterial redox metabolism for controlling TB infection. PMID:25819161

  19. Mycobacterium tuberculosis has diminished capacity to counteract redox stress induced by elevated levels of endogenous superoxide.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, Priyanka; Dharmaraja, Allimuthu T; Bhaskar, Ashima; Chakrapani, Harinath; Singh, Amit

    2015-07-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) has evolved protective and detoxification mechanisms to maintain cytoplasmic redox balance in response to exogenous oxidative stress encountered inside host phagocytes. In contrast, little is known about the dynamic response of this pathogen to endogenous oxidative stress generated within Mtb. Using a noninvasive and specific biosensor of cytoplasmic redox state of Mtb, we for first time discovered a surprisingly high sensitivity of this pathogen to perturbation in redox homeostasis induced by elevated endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS). We synthesized a series of hydroquinone-based small molecule ROS generators and found that ATD-3169 permeated mycobacteria to reliably enhance endogenous ROS including superoxide radicals. When Mtb strains including multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) patient isolates were exposed to this compound, a dose-dependent, long-lasting, and irreversible oxidative shift in intramycobacterial redox potential was detected. Dynamic redox potential measurements revealed that Mtb had diminished capacity to restore cytoplasmic redox balance in comparison with Mycobacterium smegmatis (Msm), a fast growing nonpathogenic mycobacterial species. Accordingly, Mtb strains were extremely susceptible to inhibition by ATD-3169 but not Msm, suggesting a functional linkage between dynamic redox changes and survival. Microarray analysis showed major realignment of pathways involved in redox homeostasis, central metabolism, DNA repair, and cell wall lipid biosynthesis in response to ATD-3169, all consistent with enhanced endogenous ROS contributing to lethality induced by this compound. This work provides empirical evidence that the cytoplasmic redox poise of Mtb is uniquely sensitive to manipulation in steady-state endogenous ROS levels, thus revealing the importance of targeting intramycobacterial redox metabolism for controlling TB infection. PMID:25819161

  20. Ultrastructural effects of acetamizuril on endogenous phases of Eimeria tenella.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lili; Chen, Huiya; Fei, Chenzhong; Wang, Xiaoyang; Zheng, Wenli; Wang, Mi; Zhang, Keyu; Zhang, Lifang; Li, Tao; Xue, Feiqun

    2016-03-01

    To explore the primary stage or site of action of acetamizuril (AZL), a novel triazine anticoccidial compound, the ultrastructural development of Eimeria tenella at different endogenous stages was studied in experimentally infected chickens treated with a single oral dose of 15 mg/kg AZL. As a result of drug action, the differentiations of second-generation schizonts and microgamonts were largely inhibited and merozoites became irregular in shape. Meanwhile, the outer membrane blistering and perinuclear space enlargement were obvious in the second-generation schizonts and microgamonts, which were never observed in the classic triazine anticoccidiosis drug diclazuril-treated E. tenella. The chromatin aggregation, anachromasis, and marginalization were visible in merozoites and microgamonts. Furthermore, the abnormal evagination of microgametes finally resulted in the degeneration of microgamonts and the failure of subsequent fertilization. The most marked micromorphological alteration occurring in the macrogamonts was the WFB2. Even if the fertilization occurred, the formation of oocyst wall became malformed and the zygote proceeded to the obvious degeneration. In addition, mitochondria swelling and cytoplasm vacuolization were discerned in respective intracellular stages, while endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi body swelling was less seen. These alterations may be the causes leading to the final death of E. tenella and also provide some information for further exploring the mechanism of action of AZL at the molecular level. PMID:26706906

  1. Opening of Iris flowers is regulated by endogenous auxins.

    PubMed

    van Doorn, Wouter G; Dole, Isabelle; Celikel, Fisun G; Harkema, Harmannus

    2013-01-15

    Flower opening in Iris (Iris×hollandica) requires elongation of the pedicel and ovary. This moves the floral bud upwards, thereby allowing the tepals to move laterally. Flower opening is requires with elongation of the pedicel and ovary. In cv. Blue Magic, we investigated the possible role of hormones other than ethylene in pedicel and ovary elongation and flower opening. Exogenous salicylic acid (SA) and the cytokinins benzyladenine (N6-benzyladenine, BA) and zeatin did not affect opening. Jasmonic acid (JA) and abscisic acid (ABA) were slightly inhibitory, but an inhibitor of ABA synthesis (norflurazon) was without effect. Flower opening was promoted by gibberellic acid (GA(3)), but two inhibitors of gibberellin synthesis (4-hydroxy-5-isopropyl-2-methylphenyltrimethyl ammonium chloride-1-piperidine carboxylate, AMO-1618; ancymidol) did not change opening. The auxins indoleacetic acid (IAA) and naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) strongly promoted elongation and opening. An inhibitor of auxin transport (2,3,5-triodobenzoic acid, TIBA) and an inhibitor of auxin effects [α-(p-chlorophenoxy)-isobutyric acid; PCIB] inhibited elongation and opening. The data suggest that endogenous auxins are among the regulators of the pedicel and ovary elongation and thus of flower opening in Iris. PMID:23218543

  2. Infection Barriers to Successful Xenotransplantation Focusing on Porcine Endogenous Retroviruses

    PubMed Central

    Tönjes, Ralf R.

    2012-01-01

    Summary: Xenotransplantation may be a solution to overcome the shortage of organs for the treatment of patients with organ failure, but it may be associated with the transmission of porcine microorganisms and the development of xenozoonoses. Whereas most microorganisms may be eliminated by pathogen-free breeding of the donor animals, porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs) cannot be eliminated, since these are integrated into the genomes of all pigs. Human-tropic PERV-A and -B are present in all pigs and are able to infect human cells. Infection of ecotropic PERV-C is limited to pig cells. PERVs may adapt to host cells by varying the number of LTR-binding transcription factor binding sites. Like all retroviruses, they may induce tumors and/or immunodeficiencies. To date, all experimental, preclinical, and clinical xenotransplantations using pig cells, tissues, and organs have not shown transmission of PERV. Highly sensitive and specific methods have been developed to analyze the PERV status of donor pigs and to monitor recipients for PERV infection. Strategies have been developed to prevent PERV transmission, including selection of PERV-C-negative, low-producer pigs, generation of an effective vaccine, selection of effective antiretrovirals, and generation of animals transgenic for a PERV-specific short hairpin RNA inhibiting PERV expression by RNA interference. PMID:22491774

  3. Involvement of endogenous neuromedin U and neuromedin S in thermoregulation.

    PubMed

    Nakahara, Keiko; Akagi, Ai; Shimizu, Seiya; Tateno, Satoshi; Qattali, Abdul Wahid; Mori, Kenji; Miyazato, Mikiya; Kangawa, Kenji; Murakami, Noboru

    2016-02-19

    We investigated the possible involvement of neuromedin U (NMU) and neuromedin S (NMS) in thermoregulation in rats. Intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of NMU or NMS increased the back surface temperature (BS-T) in a dose-dependent manner during both the light and dark periods. Pre-treatment with the β3 blocker SR59230A, and the cyclooxygenase blocker indomethacin, inhibited the increase in BS-T induced by NMS. Icv injection of NMS and NMU increased the expression of mRNAs for prostaglandin E synthase and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) in the hypothalamus, and that of mRNA for uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) in the brown adipose tissue. Comparison of thermogenesis in terms of body temperature under normal and cold conditions revealed that NMS-KO and double-KO mice had a significantly low BS-T during the active phase, whereas NMU-KO mice did not. Exposure to low temperature decreased the BS temperature in all KO mice, but BS-T was lower in NMS-KO and double-KO mouse than in NMU-KO mice. Calorie and oxygen consumption was also significantly lower in all KO mice than in wild-type mice during the dark period. These results suggest that NMU and NMS are involved in thermoregulation via the prostaglandin E2 and β3 adrenergic receptors, but that endogenous NMS might play a more predominant role than NMU. PMID:26826380

  4. Curbing Inflammation through Endogenous Pathways: Focus on Melanocortin Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Tazeen J.; Montero-Melendez, Trinidad; Perretti, Mauro; Pitzalis, Costantino

    2013-01-01

    The resolution of inflammation is now known to be an active process, armed with a multitude of mediators both lipid and protein in nature. Melanocortins are peptides endowed with considerable promise with their proresolution and anti-inflammatory effects in preclinical models of inflammatory disease, with tissue protective effects. These peptides and their targets are appealing because they can be seen as a natural way of inducing these effects as they harness endogenous pathways of control. Whereas most of the information generated about these mediators derives from several acute models of inflammation (such as zymosan induced peritonitis), there is some indication that these mediators may inhibit chronic inflammation by modulating cytokines, chemokines, and leukocyte apoptosis. In addition, proresolving mediators and their mimics have often been tested alongside therapeutic protocols, hence have been tested in settings more relevant to real life clinical scenarios. We provide here an overview on some of these mediators with a focus on melanocortin peptides and receptors, proposing that they may unveil new opportunities for innovative treatments of inflammatory arthritis. PMID:23738228

  5. Regulation of vascular tone in rabbit ophthalmic artery: cross talk of endogenous and exogenous gas mediators.

    PubMed

    Salomone, Salvatore; Foresti, Roberta; Villari, Ambra; Giurdanella, Giovanni; Drago, Filippo; Bucolo, Claudio

    2014-12-15

    Nitric oxide (NO), carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen sulphide (H2S) modulate vascular tone. In view of their therapeutic potential for ocular diseases, we examined the effect of exogenous CO and H2S on tone of isolated rabbit ophthalmic artery and their interaction with endogenous and exogenous NO. Ophthalmic artery segments mounted on a wire myograph were challenged with cumulative concentrations of phenylephrine (PE) in the presence or absence of NG-nitro-L-arginine (LNNA) to inhibit production of NO, the CO-releasing molecules CORMs or the H2S-donor GYY4137. The maximal vasoconstriction elicited by PE reached 20-30% of that induced by KCl but was dramatically increased by incubation with LNNA. GYY4137 significantly raised PE-mediated vasoconstriction, but it did not change the response to PE in the presence of LNNA or the relaxation to sodium nitroprusside (SNP). CORMs concentration-dependently inhibited PE-induced constriction, an effect that was synergistic with endogenous NO (reduced by LNNA), but insensitive to blockade of guanylyl cyclase by 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3,-α]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ). In vascular tissues cyclic GMP (cGMP) levels seemed reduced by GYY4137 (not significantly), but were not changed by CORM. These data indicate that CO is able per se to relax isolated ophthalmic artery and to synergize with NO, while H2S counteracts the effect of endogenous NO. CO does not stimulate cGMP production in our system, while H2S may reduce cGMP production stimulated by endogenous NO. These findings provide new insights into the complexities of gas interactions in the control of ophthalmic vascular tone, highlighting potential pharmacological targets for ocular diseases. PMID:25451691

  6. Impaired learning of predators and lower prey survival under elevated CO2 : a consequence of neurotransmitter interference.

    PubMed

    Chivers, Douglas P; McCormick, Mark I; Nilsson, Göran E; Munday, Philip L; Watson, Sue-Ann; Meekan, Mark G; Mitchell, Matthew D; Corkill, Katherine C; Ferrari, Maud C O

    2014-02-01

    Ocean acidification is one of the most pressing environmental concerns of our time, and not surprisingly, we have seen a recent explosion of research into the physiological impacts and ecological consequences of changes in ocean chemistry. We are gaining considerable insights from this work, but further advances require greater integration across disciplines. Here, we showed that projected near-future CO2 levels impaired the ability of damselfish to learn the identity of predators. These effects stem from impaired neurotransmitter function; impaired learning under elevated CO2 was reversed when fish were treated with gabazine, an antagonist of the GABA-A receptor - a major inhibitory neurotransmitter receptor in the brain of vertebrates. The effects of CO2 on learning and the link to neurotransmitter interference were manifested as major differences in survival for fish released into the wild. Lower survival under elevated CO2 , as a result of impaired learning, could have a major influence on population recruitment. PMID:23765546

  7. Pancreatic polypepetide inhibits pancreatic enzyme secretion via a cholinergic pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, G.; Louie, D.S.; Owyang, C. )

    1987-11-01

    In rat pancreatic slices, rat pancreatic polypeptide (PP) or C-terminal hexapeptide of PP (PP-(31-36)) inhibited potassium-stimulated amylase release in a dose-dependent manner. The inhibition was unaffected by addition of hexamethonium but blocked by atropine. In contrast, PP-(31-36) did not have any effect on acetylcholine- or cholecystokinin octapeptide-stimulated amylase release. In addition, when pancreatic slices were incubated with ({sup 3}H)choline, PP-(31-36) inhibited the potassium-evoked release of synthesized ({sup 3}H)acetylcholine in a dose-dependent manner. The inhibitory action of PP was unaffected by adrenergic, dopaminergic, or opioid receptor antagonists. Thus PP inhibits pancreatic enzyme secretion via presynaptic modulation of acetylcholine release. This newly identified pathway provides a novel mechanism for hormonal inhibition of pancreatic enzyme secretion via modulation of the classic neurotransmitter function.

  8. Methylated DNA Immunoprecipitation Analysis of Mammalian Endogenous Retroviruses.

    PubMed

    Rebollo, Rita; Mager, Dixie L

    2016-01-01

    Endogenous retroviruses are repetitive sequences found abundantly in mammalian genomes which are capable of modulating host gene expression. Nevertheless, most endogenous retrovirus copies are under tight epigenetic control via histone-repressive modifications and DNA methylation. Here we describe a common method used in our laboratory to detect, quantify, and compare mammalian endogenous retrovirus DNA methylation. More specifically we describe methylated DNA immunoprecipitation (MeDIP) followed by quantitative PCR. PMID:26895065

  9. Endogenous lipoid pneumonia associated with Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1.

    PubMed

    Hui, Chee-Kin

    2013-03-01

    Endogenous lipoid pneumonia is an uncommon condition. This is a report of a 29-year-old woman diagnosed with endogenous lipoid pneumonia associated with Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 infection. The patient's endogenous lipoid pneumonia resolved completely after treatment for Legionella pneumophila infection. This suggests that early diagnosis and aggressive treatment of the underlying infection may prevent any long-term sequelae of lipoid pneumonia. PMID:23546039

  10. Endogenous retroviruses and the development of cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kassiotis, George

    2013-01-01

    Mammalian genomes include a considerable number of endogenous retroviruses (ERVs), relics of ancestral infectious retroviruses, whose proviruses have invaded the germ-line. The documented ability of infectious retroviruses to cause cancer has greatly contributed to the discovery of ERVs. It also reinforced the concept that ERVs are causative agents of many cancers, a notion that historically has not always stood up to experimental scrutiny. The recent greater appreciation of the complexity of ERV biology and the identification of dedicated host mechanisms controlling ERV activity have revealed novel interactions between ERVs and their hosts with the potential to cause or contribute to disease. In this review, the involvement of ERVs in cancer initiation and progression is discussed, as well as their contribution to our understanding of the process of transformation and to the invention of innovative preventive and therapeutic cancer treatments. PMID:24511094

  11. Chitin is endogenously produced in vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Sohn, Joel J.; Amemiya, Chris T.

    2015-01-01

    Chitin, a biopolymer of N-acetylglucosamine, is abundant in invertebrates and fungi, and is an important structural molecule. There has been a longstanding belief that vertebrates do not produce chitin, however, we have obtained compelling evidence to the contrary. Chitin synthase genes are present in numerous fishes and amphibians, and chitin is localized in situ to the lumen of the developing zebrafish gut, in epithelial cells of fish scales, and in at least three different cell types in larval salamander appendages. Chitin synthase gene knockdowns and various histochemical experiments in zebrafish further authenticated our results. Finally, a polysaccharide was extracted from scales of salmon that exhibited all the chemical hallmarks of chitin. Our data and analyses demonstrate the existence of endogenous chitin in vertebrates and suggest that it serves multiple roles in vertebrate biology. PMID:25772447

  12. Endogenous cannabinoids revisited: a biochemistry perspective.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, B M; Costa, M A; Almada, M; Correia-da-Silva, G; Teixeira, N A

    2013-01-01

    Marijuana is the most commonly used illegal drug, particularly in Western societies. The discovery of an endogenous cannabinoid system (ECS) highlighted new molecules in various physiological processes. The ECS consists of G-protein-coupled cannabinoid receptors that can be activated by small lipid mediators, termed endocannabinoids (eCBs) and cannabis-derived drugs, plus the associated biochemical machinery (precursors, synthesis and degradative enzymes, and transporters). Several biochemical, pharmacological and physiological studies have shown that endocannabinoid system elements are widely distributed throughout the body, with regional variations and organ-specific actions. This review portrays the endocannabinoid "family" on new studies concerning eCB storage, release and functional roles and on the growing importance of its bioactive metabolites. Those findings reinforce and confirm the importance of ECS. Strategies for manipulating the system for the treatment of human disease will require a thorough understanding of the roles of the different eCBs and their sources. PMID:23474290

  13. Endogenous Group Formation via Unproductive Costs

    PubMed Central

    Aimone, Jason A.; Iannaccone, Laurence R.; Makowsky, Michael D.; Rubin, Jared

    2013-01-01

    Sacrifice is widely believed to enhance cooperation in churches, communes, gangs, clans, military units, and many other groups. We find that sacrifice can also work in the lab, apart from special ideologies, identities, or interactions. Our subjects play a modified VCM game—one in which they can voluntarily join groups that provide reduced rates of return on private investment. This leads to both endogenous sorting (because free-riders tend to reject the reduced-rate option) and substitution (because reduced private productivity favours increased club involvement). Seemingly unproductive costs thus serve to screen out free-riders, attract conditional cooperators, boost club production, and increase member welfare. The sacrifice mechanism is simple and particularly useful where monitoring difficulties impede punishment, exclusion, fees, and other more standard solutions. PMID:24808623

  14. Parental representations of neurotic and endogenous depressives.

    PubMed

    Parker, G; Kiloh, L; Hayward, L

    1987-01-01

    Low parental care and parental overprotection have been incriminated as risk factors to depression in adult life. The relevance of these parental characteristics to broad depressive 'types' with their varying imputed aetiologies was assessed by having 26 patients with endogenous depression (ED) and 40 with neurotic depression (ND) complete the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) self-report measure. In comparison to their controls, the EDs did not differ on the parental care and overprotection scales. The NDs, by contrast, were more likely than their controls to report their parents as uncaring and overprotective. A PBI care scale score of less than 10 was particularly discriminating, being reported by 3.8% of the EDs and 37.5% of the NDs. While findings support the binary view of depression in terms of broad imputed aetiological factors, several response biases which might influence the findings are considered. PMID:2959703

  15. [Endogenous retroviruses are associated with autoimmune diseases].

    PubMed

    Nexø, Bjørn A; Jensen, Sara B; Hansen, Bettina; Laska, Magdalena J

    2016-06-13

    Retroviruses can be transmitted in two fundamentally different ways: 1) They can be horizontally transmitted as infectious virus, or 2) they can integrate in the germ line and be transmitted to offspring and the offsprings' offspring as DNA. The latter is called endogenous viruses. The mode of transmission is called vertical. Viral variants of importance for development of disease must be more frequent among diseased persons than among healthy individuals. Multiple sclerosis, diabetes and rheumatoid arthritis are all associated with sets of endogenouos retroviruses but not the same sets. If a virus grows and this contributes to disease, one should be able to alleviate disease with antiretroviral drugs. We call for clinical trials to elucidate this issue. PMID:27292833

  16. Aquatic contaminants alter genes involved in neurotransmitter synthesis and gonadotropin release in largemouth bass.

    PubMed

    Martyniuk, Christopher J; Sanchez, Brian C; Szabo, Nancy J; Denslow, Nancy D; Sepúlveda, Maria S

    2009-10-19

    Many aquatic contaminants potentially affect the central nervous system, however the underlying mechanisms of how toxicants alter normal brain function are not well understood. The objectives of this study were to compare the effects of emerging and prevalent environmental contaminants on the expression of brain transcripts with a role in neurotransmitter synthesis and reproduction. Adult male largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) were injected once for a 96 h duration with control (water or oil) or with one of two doses of a single chemical to achieve the following body burdens (microg/g): atrazine (0.3 and 3.0), toxaphene (10 and 100), cadmium (CdCl(2)) (0.000067 and 0.00067), polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) 126 (0.25 and 2.5), and phenanthrene (5 and 50). Partial largemouth bass gene segments were cloned for enzymes involved in neurotransmitter (glutamic acid decarboxylase 65, GAD65; tyrosine hydroxylase) and estrogen (brain aromatase; CYP19b) synthesis for real-time PCR assays. In addition, neuropeptides regulating feeding (neuropeptide Y) and reproduction (chicken GnRH-II, cGnRH-II; salmon GnRH, sGnRH) were also investigated. Of the chemicals tested, only cadmium, PCB 126, and phenanthrene showed any significant effects on the genes tested, while atrazine and toxaphene did not. Cadmium (0.000067 microg/g) significantly increased cGnRH-II mRNA while PCB 126 (0.25 microg/g) decreased GAD65 mRNA. Phenanthrene decreased GAD65 and tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA levels at the highest dose (50 microg/g) but increased cGnRH-II mRNA at the lowest dose (5 microg/g). CYP19b, NPY, and sGnRH mRNA levels were unaffected by any of the treatments. A hierarchical clustering dendrogram grouped PCB 126 and phenanthrene more closely than other chemicals with respect to the genes tested. This study demonstrates that brain transcripts important for neurotransmitter synthesis neuroendocrine function are potential targets for emerging and prevalent aquatic contaminants. PMID:19781795

  17. Endogenous fluorescence emission of the ovary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utzinger, Urs; Kirkpatrick, Nathaniel D.; Drezek, Rebekah A.; Brewer, Molly A.

    2005-03-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer has the highest mortality rate among the gynecologic cancers. Early detection would significantly improve survival and quality of life of women at increased risk to develop ovarian cancer. We have constructed a device to investigate endogenous signals of the ovarian tissue surface in the UV C to visible range and describe our initial investigation of the use of optical spectroscopy to characterize the condition of the ovary. We have acquired data from more than 33 patients. A table top spectroscopy system was used to collect endogenous fluorescence with a fiberoptic probe that is compatible with endoscopic techniques. Samples were broken into five groups: Normal-Low Risk (for developing ovarian cancer) Normal-High Risk, Benign, and Cancer. Rigorous statistical analysis was applied to the data using variance tests for direct intensity versus diagnostic group comparisons and principal component analysis (PCA) to study the variance of the whole data set. We conclude that the diagnostically most useful excitation wavelengths are located in the UV. Furthermore, our results indicate that UV B and C are most useful. A safety analysis indicates that UV-C imaging can be conducted at exposure levels below safety thresholds. We found that fluorescence excited in the UV-C and UV-B range increases from benign to normal to cancerous tissues. This is in contrast to the emission created with UV-A excitation which decreased in the same order. We hypothesize that an increase of protein production and a decrease of fluorescence contributions of the extracellular matrix could explain this behavior. Variance analysis also identified fluctuation of fluorescence at 320/380 which is associated with collagen cross link residues. Small differences were observed between the group at high risk and normal risk for ovarian cancer. High risk samples deviated towards the cancer group and low risk samples towards benign group.

  18. How Active Are Porcine Endogenous Retroviruses (PERVs)?

    PubMed Central

    Denner, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs) represent a risk factor if porcine cells, tissues, or organs were to be transplanted into human recipients to alleviate the shortage of human transplants; a procedure called xenotransplantation. In contrast to human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs), which are mostly defective and not replication-competent, PERVs are released from normal pig cells and are infectious. PERV-A and PERV-B are polytropic viruses infecting cells of several species, among them humans; whereas PERV-C is an ecotropic virus infecting only pig cells. Virus infection was shown in co-culture experiments, but also in vivo, in the pig, leading to de novo integration of proviruses in certain organs. This was shown by measurement of the copy number per cell, finding different numbers in different organs. In addition, recombinations between PERV-A and PERV-C were observed and the recombinant PERV-A/C were found to be integrated in cells of different organs, but not in the germ line of the animals. Here, the evidence for such in vivo activities of PERVs, including expression as mRNA, protein and virus particles, de novo infection and recombination, will be summarised. These activities make screening of pigs for provirus number and PERV expression level difficult, especially when only blood or ear biopsies are available for analysis. Highly sensitive methods to measure the copy number and the expression level will be required when selecting pigs with low copy number and low expression of PERV as well as when inactivating PERVs using the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated nuclease (CRISPR/Cas) technology. PMID:27527207

  19. Dynamic option pricing with endogenous stochastic arbitrage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contreras, Mauricio; Montalva, Rodrigo; Pellicer, Rely; Villena, Marcelo

    2010-09-01

    Only few efforts have been made in order to relax one of the key assumptions of the Black-Scholes model: the no-arbitrage assumption. This is despite the fact that arbitrage processes usually exist in the real world, even though they tend to be short-lived. The purpose of this paper is to develop an option pricing model with endogenous stochastic arbitrage, capable of modelling in a general fashion any future and underlying asset that deviate itself from its market equilibrium. Thus, this investigation calibrates empirically the arbitrage on the futures on the S&P 500 index using transaction data from September 1997 to June 2009, from here a specific type of arbitrage called “arbitrage bubble”, based on a t-step function, is identified and hence used in our model. The theoretical results obtained for Binary and European call options, for this kind of arbitrage, show that an investment strategy that takes advantage of the identified arbitrage possibility can be defined, whenever it is possible to anticipate in relative terms the amplitude and timespan of the process. Finally, the new trajectory of the stock price is analytically estimated for a specific case of arbitrage and some numerical illustrations are developed. We find that the consequences of a finite and small endogenous arbitrage not only change the trajectory of the asset price during the period when it started, but also after the arbitrage bubble has already gone. In this context, our model will allow us to calibrate the B-S model to that new trajectory even when the arbitrage already started.

  20. Endogenous Methanol Regulates Mammalian Gene Activity

    PubMed Central

    Komarova, Tatiana V.; Petrunia, Igor V.; Shindyapina, Anastasia V.; Silachev, Denis N.; Sheshukova, Ekaterina V.; Kiryanov, Gleb I.; Dorokhov, Yuri L.

    2014-01-01

    We recently showed that methanol emitted by wounded plants might function as a signaling molecule for plant-to-plant and plant-to-animal communications. In mammals, methanol is considered a poison because the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) converts methanol into toxic formaldehyde. However, the detection of methanol in the blood and exhaled air of healthy volunteers suggests that methanol may be a chemical with specific functions rather than a metabolic waste product. Using a genome-wide analysis of the mouse brain, we demonstrated that an increase in blood methanol concentration led to a change in the accumulation of mRNAs from genes primarily involved in detoxification processes and regulation of the alcohol/aldehyde dehydrogenases gene cluster. To test the role of ADH in the maintenance of low methanol concentration in the plasma, we used the specific ADH inhibitor 4-methylpyrazole (4-MP) and showed that intraperitoneal administration of 4-MP resulted in a significant increase in the plasma methanol, ethanol and formaldehyde concentrations. Removal of the intestine significantly decreased the rate of methanol addition to the plasma and suggested that the gut flora may be involved in the endogenous production of methanol. ADH in the liver was identified as the main enzyme for metabolizing methanol because an increase in the methanol and ethanol contents in the liver homogenate was observed after 4-MP administration into the portal vein. Liver mRNA quantification showed changes in the accumulation of mRNAs from genes involved in cell signalling and detoxification processes. We hypothesized that endogenous methanol acts as a regulator of homeostasis by controlling the mRNA synthesis. PMID:24587296

  1. Parkinson's disease, L-DOPA, and endogenous morphine: a revisit.

    PubMed

    Stefano, George B; Mantione, Kirk J; Králíčková, Milena; Ptacek, Radek; Kuzelova, Hana; Esch, Tobias; Kream, Richard M

    2012-08-01

    Clinical observations stemming from widespread employment of restorative L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) therapy for management of dyskinesia in Parkinson's Disease (PD) patients implicate a regulatory role for endogenous morphine in central nervous system dopamine neurotransmission. Reciprocally, it appears that restorative L-DOPA administration has provided us with a compelling in vivo pharmacological model for targeting peripheral sites involved in endogenous morphine expression in human subjects. The biological activities underlying endogenous morphine expression and its interaction with its major precursor dopamine strongly suggest that endogenous morphine systems are reciprocally dysregulated in PD. These critical issues are examined from historical and current perspectives within our short review. PMID:22847214

  2. Validated methods for determination of neurotransmitters and metabolites in rodent brain tissue and extracellular fluid by reversed phase UHPLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Bergh, Marianne Skov-Skov; Bogen, Inger Lise; Lundanes, Elsa; Øiestad, Åse Marit Leere

    2016-08-15

    Fast and sensitive methods for simultaneous determination of dopamine (DA), the two DA-metabolites homovanillic acid (HVA) and 3-methoxytyramine (3-MT), serotonin (5-HT) and the 5-HT-metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), norepinephrine (NE), acetylcholine (ACh), glutamic acid (Glu) and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in rodent brain tissue (1.0-4000nM) and extracellular fluid (ECF) (0.5-2000nM) based on ultra high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) have been developed. Of the three different sample preparation methods for brain tissue samples tested, a simple and rapid protein precipitation procedure with formic acid was found to give the best results. The neurotransmitters (NTs) and NT metabolites were separated using UHPLC with an Acquity UPLC HSS T3 C18 column (2.1×100mm, 1.8μm particle size) with acidic mobile phase. Gradient elution with methanol was used and quantification was performed using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). The total run time was 5.2min including equilibration time. The methods were validated by determining calibration model, intra- and inter-day precision and accuracy, limit of detection (LOD), lower limit of quantification (LLOQ), matrix effects (ME), carry-over and stability. Surrogate analytes were used to enable determination of the recovery and ME of the endogenous analytes in brain tissue. The methods were applied for determination of NTs at basal levels in rodent brain ECF and brain tissue homogenate. The developed methods are valuable tools in the studies of mechanisms of drugs of abuse, and neurologic and psychiatric disease. PMID:27336704

  3. Endogenously produced hydrogen sulfide is involved in porcine oocyte maturation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Nevoral, Jan; Žalmanová, Tereza; Zámostná, Kateřina; Kott, Tomáš; Kučerová-Chrpová, Veronika; Bodart, Jean-Francois; Gelaude, Armance; Procházka, Radek; Orsák, Matyáš; Šulc, Miloslav; Klein, Pavel; Dvořáková, Markéta; Weingartová, Ivona; Víghová, Aurélia; Hošková, Kristýna; Krejčová, Tereza; Jílek, František; Petr, Jaroslav

    2015-12-01

    Hydrogen sulfide, one of three known gasotransmitters, is involved in physiological processes, including reproductive functions. Oocyte maturation and surrounding cumulus cell expansion play an essential role in female reproduction and subsequent embryonic development. Although the positive effects of exogenous hydrogen sulfide on maturing oocytes are well known, the role of endogenous hydrogen sulfide, which is physiologically released by enzymes, has not yet been described in oocytes. In this study, we observed the presence of Cystathionine β-Synthase (CBS), Cystathionine γ-Lyase (CTH) and 3-Mercaptopyruvate Sulfurtransferase (3-MPST), hydrogen sulfide-releasing enzymes, in porcine oocytes. Endogenous hydrogen sulfide production was detected in immature and matured oocytes as well as its requirement for meiotic maturation. Individual hydrogen sulfide-releasing enzymes seem to be capable of substituting for each other in hydrogen sulfide production. However, meiosis suppression by inhibition of all hydrogen sulfide-releasing enzymes is not irreversible and this effect is a result of M-Phase/Maturation Promoting Factor (MPF) and Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) activity inhibition. Futhermore, cumulus expansion expressed by hyaluronic acid (HA) production is affected by the inhibition of hydrogen sulfide production. Moreover, quality changes of the expanded cumuli are indicated. These results demonstrate hydrogen sulfide involvement in oocyte maturation as well as cumulus expansion. As such, hydrogen sulfide appears to be an important cell messenger during mammalian oocyte meiosis and adequate cumulus expansion. PMID:26456342

  4. Clonidine-specific antisera recognize an endogenous clonidine-displacing substance in brain

    SciTech Connect

    Meeley, M.P.; Towle, A.C.; Ernsberger, P.; Char, L.K.; McCauley, P.M.; Reis, D.J.

    1989-04-01

    An endogenous substance in brain, clonidine-displacing substance, binds to the same receptor populations as clonidine and is biologically active. Since receptor binding sites can be modeled by using specific antiligand antibodies, we tested the hypothesis that polyclonal antibodies raised in rat and rabbit against the clonidine analog p-aminoclonidine coupled to hemocyanin would recognize compounds structurally related to clonidine, including clonidine-displacing substance. Binding to anti-p-aminoclonidine antibodies was examined by using a competitive radioimmunoassay with tritiated p-aminoclonidine as the radioligand. Central vasodepressor agents that, like clonidine, are known to bind with high affinity to both imidazole sites and alpha 2-adrenergic receptors in brain inhibited radioligand binding to anti-p-aminoclonidine antibodies. All of these agents contain imidazol(in)e and phenyl ring moieties as part of their chemical structures (e.g., oxymetazoline); a number of other compounds without one or both of these rings failed to cross-react with the antisera. Clonidine-displacing substance, partially purified from bovine brain, also inhibited specific radioligand binding to anti-p-aminoclonidine antibodies. The inhibition was dose dependent and high affinity (IC50, 4 Units). The endogenous substance had no effect on the apparent affinity of the antibodies for the radioligand, but blocked a specific number of binding sites. Immunoprecipitation experiments showed that authentic clonidine-displacing substance, that which displaces tritiated p-aminoclonidine binding to membrane receptors, is recognized by anti-p-aminoclonidine antibodies.

  5. Cerebrospinal fluid as a reflector of central cholinergic and amino acid neurotransmitter activity in cerebellar ataxia.

    PubMed

    Manyam, B V; Giacobini, E; Ferraro, T N; Hare, T A

    1990-11-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) amino acid neurotransmitters, related compounds, and their precursors, choline levels, and acetylcholinesterase activity were measured in the CSF of patients with cerebellar ataxia during a randomized, double-blind, crossover, placebo-controlled clinical trial of physostigmine salicylate. The CSF gamma-aminobutyric acid, methionine, and choline levels, adjusted for age, were significantly lower in patients with cerebellar ataxia compared with controls. Physostigmine selectively reduced the level of CSF isoleucine and elevated the levels of phosphoethanolamine. No change occurred in CSF acetylcholinesterase activity and in the levels of plasma amino compounds in patients with cerebellar ataxia when compared with controls. Median ataxia scores did not statistically differ between placebo and physostigmine nor did functional improvement occur in any of the patients. PMID:1978660

  6. PRRT2 Is a Key Component of the Ca2+-Dependent Neurotransmitter Release Machinery

    PubMed Central

    Valente, Pierluigi; Castroflorio, Enrico; Rossi, Pia; Fadda, Manuela; Sterlini, Bruno; Cervigni, Romina Ines; Prestigio, Cosimo; Giovedì, Silvia; Onofri, Franco; Mura, Elisa; Guarnieri, Fabrizia C.; Marte, Antonella; Orlando, Marta; Zara, Federico; Fassio, Anna; Valtorta, Flavia; Baldelli, Pietro; Corradi, Anna; Benfenati, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    Summary Heterozygous mutations in proline-rich transmembrane protein 2 (PRRT2) underlie a group of paroxysmal disorders, including epilepsy, kinesigenic dyskinesia, and migraine. Most of the mutations lead to impaired PRRT2 expression, suggesting that loss of PRRT2 function may contribute to pathogenesis. We show that PRRT2 is enriched in presynaptic terminals and that its silencing decreases the number of synapses and increases the number of docked synaptic vesicles at rest. PRRT2-silenced neurons exhibit a severe impairment of synchronous release, attributable to a sharp decrease in release probability and Ca2+ sensitivity and associated with a marked increase of the asynchronous/synchronous release ratio. PRRT2 interacts with the synaptic proteins SNAP-25 and synaptotagmin 1/2. The results indicate that PRRT2 is intimately connected with the Ca2+-sensing machinery and that it plays an important role in the final steps of neurotransmitter release. PMID:27052163

  7. PRRT2 Is a Key Component of the Ca(2+)-Dependent Neurotransmitter Release Machinery.

    PubMed

    Valente, Pierluigi; Castroflorio, Enrico; Rossi, Pia; Fadda, Manuela; Sterlini, Bruno; Cervigni, Romina Ines; Prestigio, Cosimo; Giovedì, Silvia; Onofri, Franco; Mura, Elisa; Guarnieri, Fabrizia C; Marte, Antonella; Orlando, Marta; Zara, Federico; Fassio, Anna; Valtorta, Flavia; Baldelli, Pietro; Corradi, Anna; Benfenati, Fabio

    2016-04-01

    Heterozygous mutations in proline-rich transmembrane protein 2 (PRRT2) underlie a group of paroxysmal disorders, including epilepsy, kinesigenic dyskinesia, and migraine. Most of the mutations lead to impaired PRRT2 expression, suggesting that loss of PRRT2 function may contribute to pathogenesis. We show that PRRT2 is enriched in presynaptic terminals and that its silencing decreases the number of synapses and increases the number of docked synaptic vesicles at rest. PRRT2-silenced neurons exhibit a severe impairment of synchronous release, attributable to a sharp decrease in release probability and Ca(2+) sensitivity and associated with a marked increase of the asynchronous/synchronous release ratio. PRRT2 interacts with the synaptic proteins SNAP-25 and synaptotagmin 1/2. The results indicate that PRRT2 is intimately connected with the Ca(2+)-sensing machinery and that it plays an important role in the final steps of neurotransmitter release. PMID:27052163

  8. Discovery and characterization of gut microbiota decarboxylases that can produce the neurotransmitter tryptamine

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Brianna B.; Van Benschoten, Andrew H.; Cimermancic, Peter; Donia, Mohamed S.; Zimmermann, Michael; Taketani, Mao; Ishihara, Atsushi; Kashyap, Purna C.; Fraser, James S.; Fischbach, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Several recent studies describe the influence of the gut microbiota on host brain and behavior. However, the mechanisms responsible for microbiota-nervous system interactions are unknown. Using a combination of genetics, biochemistry, and crystallography, we identify and characterize two phylogenetically distinct enzymes found in the human microbiome that decarboxylate tryptophan to form the β-arylamine neurotransmitter tryptamine. Although this enzymatic activity is exceedingly rare among bacteria more broadly, analysis of the Human Microbiome Project data demonstrates that at least 10% of the human population harbors at least one bacterium encoding a tryptophan decarboxylase in their gut community. Our results uncover a previously unrecognized enzymatic activity that can give rise to host-modulatory compounds and suggests a potential direct mechanism by which gut microbiota can influence host physiology, including behavior. PMID:25263219

  9. Activation of Progestin Receptors in Female Reproductive Behavior: Interactions with Neurotransmitters

    PubMed Central

    Mani, Shaila; Portillo, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    The steroid hormone, progesterone (P), modulates neuroendocrine functions in the central nervous system resulting in alterations in physiology and reproductive behavior in female mammals. A wide body of evidence indicates that these neural effects of P are predominantly mediated via their intracellular progestin receptors (PRs) functioning as “ligand-dependent” transcription factors in the steroid-sensitive neurons regulating genes and genomic networks. In addition to P, intracellular PRs can be activated by neurotransmitters, growth factors and cyclic nucleotides in a ligand-independent manner via crosstalk and convergence of pathways. Furthermore, recent studies indicate that rapid signaling events associated with membrane PRs and/or extra-nuclear, cytoplasmic PRs converge with classical PR activated pathways in neuroendocrine regulation of female reproductive behavior. The molecular mechanisms, by which multiple signaling pathways converge on PRs to modulate PR-dependent female reproductive behavior, are discussed in this review. PMID:20116396

  10. RIM-binding protein, a central part of the active zone, is essential for neurotransmitter release.

    PubMed

    Liu, Karen S Y; Siebert, Matthias; Mertel, Sara; Knoche, Elena; Wegener, Stephanie; Wichmann, Carolin; Matkovic, Tanja; Muhammad, Karzan; Depner, Harald; Mettke, Christoph; Bückers, Johanna; Hell, Stefan W; Müller, Martin; Davis, Graeme W; Schmitz, Dietmar; Sigrist, Stephan J

    2011-12-16

    The molecular machinery mediating the fusion of synaptic vesicles (SVs) at presynaptic active zone (AZ) membranes has been studied in detail, and several essential components have been identified. AZ-associated protein scaffolds are viewed as only modulatory for transmission. We discovered that Drosophila Rab3-interacting molecule (RIM)-binding protein (DRBP) is essential not only for the integrity of the AZ scaffold but also for exocytotic neurotransmitter release. Two-color stimulated emission depletion microscopy showed that DRBP surrounds the central Ca(2+) channel field. In drbp mutants, Ca(2+) channel clustering and Ca(2+) influx were impaired, and synaptic release probability was drastically reduced. Our data identify RBP family proteins as prime effectors of the AZ scaffold that are essential for the coupling of SVs, Ca(2+) channels, and the SV fusion machinery. PMID:22174254

  11. The estimation of neurotransmitter release probability in feedforward neuronal network based on adaptive synchronization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Ming; Wang, Jiang; Jia, Chenhui; Yu, Haitao; Deng, Bin; Wei, Xile; Che, Yanqiu

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, we proposed a new approach to estimate unknown parameters and topology of a neuronal network based on the adaptive synchronization control scheme. A virtual neuronal network is constructed as an observer to track the membrane potential of the corresponding neurons in the original network. When they achieve synchronization, the unknown parameters and topology of the original network are obtained. The method is applied to estimate the real-time status of the connection in the feedforward network and the neurotransmitter release probability of unreliable synapses is obtained by statistic computation. Numerical simulations are also performed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed adaptive controller. The obtained results may have important implications in system identification in neural science.

  12. Activities of autonomic neurotransmitters in Meibomian gland tissues are associated with menopausal dry eye★

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lianxiang; Jin, Dongling; Gao, Jinsheng; Wang, Liguang; Liu, Xianjun; Wang, Jingzhang; Xu, Zhongxin

    2012-01-01

    The secretory activities of meibomian glands are regulated by the autonomic nervous system. The change in density and activity of autonomic nerves in meibomian glands during menopause play an important role in the pathogenesis of dry eye. In view of this, we established a dry eye rat model by removing the bilateral ovaries. We used neuropeptide Y and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide as markers of autonomic neurotransmitters. Our results showed that the concentration of estradiol in serum significantly decreased, the density of neuropeptide Y immunoreactivity in nerve fibers significantly increased, the density of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide immunoreactivity in nerve fibers significantly decreased, and the ratio of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide/neuropeptide Y positive staining significantly decreased. These results suggest that a decrease in ovary activity may lead to autonomic nervous system dysfunction, thereby affecting the secretory activity of the meibomian gland, which participates in sexual hormone imbalance-induced dry eye. PMID:25317125

  13. VLSI Potentiostat Array With Oversampling Gain Modulation for Wide-Range Neurotransmitter Sensing.

    PubMed

    Stanacevic, M; Murari, K; Rege, A; Cauwenberghs, G; Thakor, N V

    2007-03-01

    A 16-channel current-measuring very large-scale integration (VLSI) sensor array system for highly sensitive electrochemical detection of electroactive neurotransmiters like dopamine and nitric-oxide is presented. Each channel embeds a current integrating potentiostat within a switched-capacitor first-order single-bit delta-sigma modulator implementing an incremental analog-to-digital converter. The duty-cycle modulation of current feedback in the delta-sigma loop together with variable oversampling ratio provide a programmable digital range selection of the input current spanning over six orders of magnitude from picoamperes to microamperes. The array offers 100-fA input current sensitivity at 3.4-muW power consumption per channel. The operation of the 3 mm times3 mm chip fabricated in 0.5-mum CMOS technology is demonstrated with real-time multichannel acquisition of neurotransmitter concentration. PMID:23851522

  14. Activity-dependent changes in partial VAMP complexes during neurotransmitter release.

    PubMed

    Hua, S Y; Charlton, M P

    1999-12-01

    The temporal sequence of SNARE protein interactions that cause exocytosis is unknown. Blockade of synaptic neurotransmitter release through cleavage of VAMP/synaptobrevin by tetanus toxin light chain (TeNT-LC) was accelerated by nerve stimulation. Botulinum/B neurotoxin light chain (BoNT/B-LC), which cleaves VAMP at the same site as TeNT-LC, did not require stimulation. Because TeNT-LC requires the N-terminal coil domain of VAMP for binding but BoNT/B-LC requires the C-terminal coil domain, it seems that, before nerve activity, the N-terminal domain is shielded in a protein complex, but the C-terminal domain is exposed. This N-terminal complex lasts until nerve activity occurs and may serve to cock synaptic vesicles for immediate exocytosis upon Ca2+ entry. PMID:10570484

  15. Fluorescent false neurotransmitter reveals functionally silent dopamine vesicle clusters in the striatum.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Daniela B; Schmitz, Yvonne; Mészáros, József; Merchant, Paolomi; Hu, Gang; Li, Shu; Henke, Adam; Lizardi-Ortiz, José E; Karpowicz, Richard J; Morgenstern, Travis J; Sonders, Mark S; Kanter, Ellen; Rodriguez, Pamela C; Mosharov, Eugene V; Sames, Dalibor; Sulzer, David

    2016-04-01

    Neurotransmission at dopaminergic synapses has been studied with techniques that provide high temporal resolution, but cannot resolve individual synapses. To elucidate the spatial dynamics and heterogeneity of individual dopamine boutons, we developed fluorescent false neurotransmitter 200 (FFN200), a vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) substrate that selectively traces monoamine exocytosis in both neuronal cell culture and brain tissue. By monitoring electrically evoked Ca(2+) transients with GCaMP3 and FFN200 release simultaneously, we found that only a small fraction of dopamine boutons that exhibited Ca(2+) influx engaged in exocytosis, a result confirmed with activity-dependent loading of the endocytic probe FM1-43. Thus, only a low fraction of striatal dopamine axonal sites with uptake-competent VMAT2 vesicles are capable of transmitter release. This is consistent with the presence of functionally 'silent' dopamine vesicle clusters and represents, to the best of our knowledge, the first report suggestive of presynaptically silent neuromodulatory synapses. PMID:26900925

  16. Dynamic complex optical fields for optical manipulation, 3D microscopy, and photostimulation of neurotransmitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daria, Vincent R.; Stricker, Christian; Bekkers, John; Redman, Steve; Bachor, Hans

    2010-08-01

    We demonstrate a multi-functional system capable of multiple-site two-photon excitation of photo-sensitive compounds as well as transfer of optical mechanical properties on an array of mesoscopic particles. We use holographic projection of a single Ti:Sapphire laser operating in femtosecond pulse mode to show that the projected three-dimensional light patterns have sufficient spatiotemporal photon density for multi-site two-photon excitation of biological fluorescent markers and caged neurotransmitters. Using the same laser operating in continuous-wave mode, we can use the same light patterns for non-invasive transfer of both linear and orbital angular momentum on a variety of mesoscopic particles. The system also incorporates high-speed scanning using acousto-optic modulators to rapidly render 3D images of neuron samples via two-photon microscopy.

  17. Effects of dietary amino acids, carbohydrates, and choline on neurotransmitter synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wurtman, Richard J.

    1988-01-01

    The ability of a meal to increase or decrease brain neurotransmitter synthesis has been studied. It is concluded that brain serotonin synthesis is directly controlled by the proportions of carbohydrate to protein in meals and snacks that increase or decrease brain tryptophan levels, thereby changing the substrate saturation of tryptophan hydroxylase and the rate of serotonin synthesis. The ability of serotoninergic neurons to have their output coupled to dietary macronutrients enables them to function as sensors of peripheral metabolism, and to subserve an important role in the control of appetite. The robust and selective responses of catecholaminergic and cholinergic neurons to supplemental tyrosine and choline suggest that these compounds may become useful as a new type of drug for treating deseases or conditions in which adequate quantities of the transmitter would otherwise be unavailable.

  18. Microelectronics-Based Biosensors Dedicated to the Detection of Neurotransmitters: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Mirzaei, Maryam; Sawan, Mohamad

    2014-01-01

    Dysregulation of neurotransmitters (NTs) in the human body are related to diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's. The mechanisms of several neurological disorders, such as epilepsy, have been linked to NTs. Because the number of diagnosed cases is increasing, the diagnosis and treatment of such diseases are important. To detect biomolecules including NTs, microtechnology, micro and nanoelectronics have become popular in the form of the miniaturization of medical and clinical devices. They offer high-performance features in terms of sensitivity, as well as low-background noise. In this paper, we review various devices and circuit techniques used for monitoring NTs in vitro and in vivo and compare various methods described in recent publications. PMID:25264957

  19. The inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA evokes long-lasting Ca(2+) oscillations in cortical astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Mariotti, Letizia; Losi, Gabriele; Sessolo, Michele; Marcon, Iacopo; Carmignoto, Giorgio

    2016-03-01

    Studies over the last decade provided evidence that in a dynamic interaction with neurons glial cell astrocytes contribut to fundamental phenomena in the brain. Most of the knowledge on this derives, however, from studies monitoring the astrocyte Ca(2+) response to glutamate. Whether astrocytes can similarly respond to other neurotransmitters, including the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA, is relatively unexplored. By using confocal and two photon laser-scanning microscopy the astrocyte response to GABA in the mouse somatosensory and temporal cortex was studied. In slices from developing (P15-20) and adult (P30-60) mice, it was found that in a subpopulation of astrocytes GABA evoked somatic Ca(2+) oscillations. This response was mediated by GABAB receptors and involved both Gi/o protein and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3 ) signalling pathways. In vivo experiments from young adult mice, revealed that also cortical astrocytes in the living brain exibit GABAB receptor-mediated Ca(2+) elevations. At all astrocytic processes tested, local GABA or Baclofen brief applications induced long-lasting Ca(2+) oscillations, suggesting that all astrocytes have the potential to respond to GABA. Finally, in patch-clamp recordings it was found that Ca(2+) oscillations induced by Baclofen evoked astrocytic glutamate release and slow inward currents (SICs) in pyramidal cells from wild type but not IP3 R2(-/-) mice, in which astrocytic GABAB receptor-mediated Ca(2+) elevations are impaired. These data suggest that cortical astrocytes in the mouse brain can sense the activity of GABAergic interneurons and through their specific recruitment contribut to the distinct role played on the cortical network by the different subsets of GABAergic interneurons. PMID:26496414

  20. Onchocerca volvulus-neurotransmitter tyramine is a biomarker for river blindness.

    PubMed

    Globisch, Daniel; Moreno, Amira Y; Hixon, Mark S; Nunes, Ashlee A K; Denery, Judith R; Specht, Sabine; Hoerauf, Achim; Janda, Kim D

    2013-03-12

    Onchocerciasis, also known as "river blindness", is a neglected tropical disease infecting millions of people mainly in Africa and the Middle East but also in South America and Central America. Disease infectivity initiates from the filarial parasitic nematode Onchocerca volvulus, which is transmitted by the blackfly vector Simulium sp. carrying infectious third-stage larvae. Ivermectin has controlled transmission of microfilariae, with an African Program elimination target date of 2025. However, there is currently no point-of-care diagnostic that can distinguish the burden of infection--including active and/or past infection--and enable the elimination program to be effectively monitored. Here, we describe how liquid chromatography-MS-based urine metabolome analysis can be exploited for the identification of a unique biomarker, N-acetyltyramine-O,β-glucuronide (NATOG), a neurotransmitter-derived secretion metabolite from O. volvulus. The regulation of this tyramine neurotransmitter was found to be linked to patient disease infection, including the controversial antibiotic doxycycline treatment that has been shown to both sterilize and kill adult female worms. Further clues to its regulation have been elucidated through biosynthetic pathway determination within the nematode and its human host. Our results demonstrate that NATOG tracks O. volvulus metabolism in both worms and humans, and thus can be considered a host-specific biomarker for onchocerciasis progression. Liquid chromatography-MS-based urine metabolome analysis discovery of NATOG not only has broad implications for a noninvasive host-specific onchocerciasis diagnostic but provides a basis for the metabolome mining of other neglected tropical diseases for the discovery of distinct biomarkers and monitoring of disease progression. PMID:23440222

  1. [Effects of Kaixin San formulas on behavioristics and central monoamine neurotransmitters of chronic stress rats].

    PubMed

    Liu, Wan-wan; Xu, Lu; Dong, Xian-zhe; Tan, Xiao; Wang, Shi; Zhu, Wei-yu; Liu, Ping

    2015-06-01

    The efficacy of Chinese herbal formula in treating depression has been proved in many studies. In this study, six different Kaixin San formulas were compared to investigate their effects on central monoamine neurotransmitters of chronic stress rats and against depression based on their different components in plasma, in order to discuss the efficacy-comparability relationship and the possible efficacy mechanism. The classic isolation method and the chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) depression model were combined to investigate the changes in contents in hippocampus and monoamine neurotransmitters (NE, DA, 5-HT) and the components of some formulas in plasma with HPLC and UPLC-Q-TOF-MSE methods. As a result, Dingzhi Xiaowan recorded in Essential Recipes for Emergent Use Worth A Thousand significantly increased the behavioral scores, NE and 5-HT contents in hippocampus and NE, DA and 5-HT contents in cortex, with the best anti-depressant effect. Dingzhi Xiaowan recorded in Complete Records of Ancient and Modern Medical Works showed a notable increase in sucrose preference and open field score in model rats, NE content in hippocampus and NE, DA and 5-HT contents in cortex, with a certain anti anti-depressant effect. Kaixin San recorded in Ishinpo showed remarkable rise in weight of model rats. NE content in hippocampus and DA content in cortex. Puxin Decoction recorded in A Supplement to Recipes Worth A Thousand Gold showed 5-HT content in hippocampus and DA content in cortex. Kaixin San recorded in Yimenfang only showed DA content in cortex. Kaixin Wan recorded in Essential Recipes for Emergent Use Worth A Thousand did not mention the antidepressant effect. According to the results, the formulas' different anti-depressant effects may be related to the different plasma components. PMID:26552177

  2. Rapid, sensitive detection of neurotransmitters at microelectrodes modified with self-assembled SWCNT forests

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Ning; Venton, B. Jill

    2012-01-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) modification of microelectrodes can result in increased sensitivity without compromising time response. However, dip coating CNTs is not very reproducible and the CNTs tend to lay flat on the electrode surface which limits access to the electroactive sites on the ends. In this study, aligned CNT forests were formed using a chemical self-assembly method, which resulted in more exposed CNT ends to the analyte. Shortened, carboxylic acid functionalized single-walled CNTs were assembled from a DMF suspension onto a carbon-fiber disk microelectrode modified with a thin iron hydroxide-decorated Nafion film. The modified electrodes were highly sensitive, with 36-fold higher oxidation currents for dopamine using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry than bare electrodes and 34-fold more current than electrodes dipped in CNTs. The limit of detection for dopamine was 17 ± 3 nM at a 10 Hz repetition rate and 65 ± 7 nM at 90 Hz. The LOD at 90 Hz was the same as a bare electrode at 10 Hz, allowing a 9-fold increase in temporal resolution without a decrease in sensitivity. Similar increases were observed for other cationic catecholamine neurotransmitters and the increases in current were greater than for anionic interferents such as ascorbic acid and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC). The CNT forest electrodes had high sensitivity at 90 Hz repetition rate when stimulated dopamine release was measured in Drosophila. The sensitivity, temporal resolution, and spatial resolution of these CNT forest modified disk electrodes facilitate enhanced electrochemical measurements of neurotransmitters release in vivo. PMID:22823497

  3. A novel key-lock mechanism for inactivating amino acid neurotransmitters during transit across extracellular space.

    PubMed

    Baslow, Morris H

    2010-01-01

    There are two kinds of neurotransmissions that occur in brain. One is neuron to neuron at synapses, and the other is neuron to glia via extracellular fluid (ECF), both of which are important for maintenance of proper neuronal functioning. For neuron to neuron communications, several potent amino acid neurotransmitters are used within the confines of synaptic space. However, their presence at elevated concentrations in extra-synaptic space could be detrimental to well organized neuronal functioning. The significance of the synthesis and release of N-acetylaspartylglutamate (NAAG) by neurons has long been a puzzle since glutamate (Glu) itself is the "key" that can interact with all Glu receptors on membranes of all cells. Nonetheless, neurons synthesize this acetylated dipeptide, which cannot be catabolized by neurons, and release it to ECF where its specific physiological target is the Glu metabotropic receptor 3 on the surface of astrocytes. Since Glu is excitotoxic at elevated concentrations, it is proposed that formation and release of NAAG by neurons allows large quantities of Glu to be transported in ECF without the risk of injurious excitotoxic effects. The metabolic mechanism used by neurons is a key-lock system to detoxify Glu during its intercellular transit. This is accomplished by first synthesizing N-acetylaspartate (NAA), and then joining this molecule via a peptide bond to Glu. In this paper, a hypothesis is presented that neurons synthesize a variety of relatively nontoxic peptides and peptide derivatives, including NAA, NAAG, homocarnosine (gamma-aminobutyrylhistidine) and carnosine (beta-alanylhistidine) from potent excitatory and inhibitory amino acids for the purpose of releasing them to ECF to function as cell-specific neuron-to-glia neurotransmitters. PMID:19151913

  4. Expression of neurotransmitters and neurotrophins in neurogenic inflammation of the rat retina.

    PubMed

    Bronzetti, Elena; Artico, M; Kovacs, I; Felici, L M; Magliulo, G; Vignone, D; D'Ambrosio, A; Forte, F; Di Liddo, R; Feher, J

    2007-01-01

    Antidromic stimulation of the rat trigeminal ganglion triggers the release of substance P (SP) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) from sensory nerve terminals of the capsaicin sensitive C-fibers. These pro-inflammatory neuropeptides produce a marked hyperemia in the anterior segment of the eye, accompanied by increased intraocular pressure, breakdown of the blood-aqueous barrier and myosis. To assess the effects of neurogenic inflammation on the retina, specifically on the immunostaining of neurotransmitters and neurotrophins, as well as on the expression of neurotrophin receptors in the retina. RT-PCR was also accomplished in control and stimulated animals to confirm the immunohistochemical results. In the electrically stimulated eyes, immunostaining for SP, CGRP, VIP and nNOS demonstrated a marked increase in the RPE/POS (Retinal Pigment Epithelium/Photoreceptor Outer Segments), in the inner and outer granular layers and in the ganglion cells in comparison to the control eyes. CGRP and SP were found increased in stimulated animals and this result has been confirmed by RT- PCR. Changes in neurotrophin immunostaining and in receptor expression were also observed after electric stimulation of trigeminal ganglia. Decrease of BDNF and NT4 in the outer and inner layers and in ganglion cells was particularly marked. In stimulated rat retinas immunostaining and RT-PCR showed a NGF expression increase. Neurotrophin receptors remained substantially unchanged. These studies demonstrated, for the first time, that antidromic stimulation of the trigeminal ganglion and subsequent neurogenic inflammation affect immunostaining of retinal cell neurotransmitter/neuropeptides and neurotrophins as well as the expression of neurotrophin receptors. PMID:18162454

  5. The appearance and development of neurotransmitter sensitivity in Xenopus embryonic spinal neurones in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Bixby, J L; Spitzer, N C

    1984-01-01

    We have determined the time of onset and examined some of the properties of neurotransmitter sensitivity in Xenopus spinal neurones developing in dissociated cell culture. These cells are initially insensitive, but acquire responses to several agonists over a period of 6 h. Nearly one-third of the neurones were depolarized by gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) or by both GABA and glycine; these cells were not affected by glutamate. The reversal potential of the ionophoretic GABA response is -35 mV. These neurones are likely to be Rohon-Beard neurones. Roughly two-thirds of the neurones were depolarized by glutamate and hyperpolarized by GABA and by glycine. The reversal potential of the ionophoretic GABA response is -58 mV. These neurones are likely to include motoneurones. A quantitative measure of the sensitivity to a given GABA dose was obtained at early and intermediate stages of development. The mean 'sensitivity index' (ionophoretic sensitivity/input resistance) for both classes of neurones in vitro was initially the same as that seen in Rohon-Beard neurones in vivo. This sensitivity index did not increase with time in culture to attain the value at intermediate stages in vivo. The development of chemosensitivity in Rohon-Beard-like neurones in these cultures resembles that of Rohon-Beard neurones in the spinal cord with respect to the time of onset of responses to GABA, the reversal potential, pharmacology and desensitization of these responses, and the spectrum of agonists to which they are sensitive. It differs in the absence of a developmental increase in sensitivity to GABA. The development of chemosensitivity in motoneurone-like neurones in these cultures parallels that of Rohon-Beard-like neurones, with respect to the time of onset and level of sensitivity, as well as susceptibility to pharmacological blockers. Several features of normal neurotransmitter sensitivity, like features of the action potential, differentiate in culture in the absence of normal

  6. Proteolytic processing of human serum albumin generates EPI-X4, an endogenous antagonist of CXCR4.

    PubMed

    Zirafi, Onofrio; Hermann, Patrick C; Münch, Jan

    2016-06-01

    The chemokine receptor CXCR4 is an important G protein-coupled receptor. Signaling via CXCL12 regulates a number of important biologic processes, including immune responses, organogenesis, or hematopoiesis. Dysregulation of CXCR4 signaling is associated with a variety of diseases, such as cancer development and metastasis, immunodeficiencies, or chronic inflammation. Here, we review our findings on endogenous peptide inhibitor of CXCR4 as a novel antagonist of CXCR4. This peptide is a 16-residue fragment of human serum albumin and was isolated as an inhibitor of CXCR4-tropic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 from a blood-derived peptide library. Endogenous peptide inhibitor of CXCR4 binds the second extracellular loop of CXCR4, thereby preventing engagement of CXCL12 and antagonizing the receptor. Consequently, endogenous peptide inhibitor of CXCR4 inhibits CXCL12-mediated migration of CXCR4-expressing cells in vitro, mobilizes hematopoietic stem cells, and suppresses inflammatory responses in vivo. We discuss the generation of endogenous peptide inhibitor of CXCR4, its relevance as biomarker for disease, and its role in human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome pathogenesis and cancer. Furthermore, we discuss why optimized endogenous peptide inhibitor of CXCR4 derivatives might have advantages over other CXCR4 antagonists. PMID:26965637

  7. Crosstalk between endogenous and synthetic components--synthetic signaling meets endogenous components.

    PubMed

    Morey, Kevin J; Antunes, Mauricio S; Barrow, Matt J; Solorzano, Fernando A; Havens, Keira L; Smith, J Jeff; Medford, June

    2012-07-01

    Synthetic biology uses biological components to engineer new functionality in living organisms. We have used the tools of synthetic biology to engineer detector plants that can sense man-made chemicals, such as the explosive trinitrotoluene, and induce a response detectable by eye or instrumentation. A goal of this type of work is to make the designed system orthogonal, that is, able to function independently of systems in the host. In this review, the design and function of two partially synthetic signaling pathways for use in plants is discussed. We describe observed interactions (crosstalk) with endogenous signaling components. This crosstalk can be beneficial, allowing the creation of hybrid synthetic/endogenous signaling pathways, or detrimental, resulting in system noise and/or false positives. Current approaches in the field of synthetic biology applicable to the design of orthogonal signaling systems, including the design of synthetic components, partially synthetic systems that utilize crosstalk to signal through endogenous components, computational redesign of proteins, and the use of heterologous components, are discussed. PMID:22649041

  8. Cholinergic inhibition of adrenergic neurosecretion in the rabbit iris-ciliary body

    SciTech Connect

    Jumblatt, J.E.; North, G.T.

    1988-04-01

    The prejunctional effects of cholinergic agents on release of norepinephrine from sympathetic nerve endings were investigated in the isolated, superfused rabbit iris-ciliary body. Stimulation-evoked release of /sup 3/H-norepinephrine was inhibited by the cholinergic agonists methacholine, oxotremorine, muscarine, carbamylcholine and acetylcholine (plus eserine), but was unmodified by pilocarpine or nicotine. Agonist-induced inhibition was antagonized selectively by atropine, indicating a muscarinic response. Atropine alone markedly enhanced norepinephrine release, revealing considerable tonic activation of prejunctional cholinergic receptors in this system. Prejunctional inhibition by carbamylcholine was found to completely override the facilitative action of forskolin or 8-bromo-cyclic AMP on neurotransmitter release. Cholinergic and alpha 2-adrenergic effects on neurosecretion were non-additive, suggesting that the underlying receptors coexist at neurotransmitter release sites.

  9. When the endogenous hallucinogenic trace amine N,N-dimethyltryptamine meets the sigma-1 receptor.

    PubMed

    Su, Tsung-Ping; Hayashi, Teruo; Vaupel, D Bruce

    2009-01-01

    N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) is a hallucinogen found endogenously in human brain that is commonly recognized to target the 5-hydroxytryptamine 2A receptor or the trace amine-associated receptor to exert its psychedelic effect. DMT has been recently shown to bind sigma-1 receptors, which are ligand-regulated molecular chaperones whose function includes inhibiting various voltage-sensitive ion channels. Thus, it is possible that the psychedelic action of DMT might be mediated in part through sigma-1 receptors. Here, we present a hypothetical signaling scheme that might be triggered by the binding of DMT to sigma-1 receptors. PMID:19278957

  10. When the Endogenous Hallucinogenic Trace Amine N,N-Dimethyltryptamine Meets the Sigma-1 Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Su, Tsung-Ping; Hayashi, Teruo; Vaupel, D. Bruce

    2011-01-01

    N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) is a hallucinogen found endogenously in human brain that is commonly recognized to target the 5-hydroxytryptamine 2A receptor or the trace amine–associated receptor to exert its psychedelic effect. DMT has been recently shown to bind sigma-1 receptors, which are ligand-regulated molecular chaperones whose function includes inhibiting various voltage-sensitive ion channels. Thus, it is possible that the psychedelic action of DMT might be mediated in part through sigma-1 receptors. Here, we present a hypothetical signaling scheme that might be triggered by the binding of DMT to sigma-1 receptors. PMID:19278957

  11. Pharmacologic inhibition of L-tyrosine degradation ameliorates cerebral dopamine deficiency in murine phenylketonuria (PKU)

    PubMed Central

    Harding, Cary O.; Winn, Shelley R.; Gibson, K. Michael; Arning, Erland; Bottiglieri, Teodoro; Grompe, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Summary Monoamine neurotransmitter deficiency has been implicated in the etiology of neuropsychiatric symptoms associated with chronic hyperphenylalaninemia in phenylketonuria (PKU). Two proposed explanations for neurotransmitter deficiency in PKU include first, that chronically elevated blood L-phenylalanine (Phe) inhibits the transport of L-tyrosine (Tyr) and L-tryptophan (Trp), the substrates for dopamine and serotonin synthesis respectively, into brain. In the second hypothesis, elevated Phe competitively inhibits brain tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) activities, the rate limiting steps in dopamine and serotonin synthesis. Dietary supplementation with large neutral amino acids (LNAA) including Tyr and Trp has been recommended for individuals with chronically elevated blood Phe in an attempt to restore amino acid and monoamine homeostasis in brain. As a potential alternative treatment approach, we demonstrate that pharmacologic inhibition of Tyr degradation through oral administration of nitisinone (NTBC) yielded sustained increases in blood and brain Tyr, decreased blood and brain Phe, and consequently increased dopamine synthesis in a murine model of PKU. Our results suggest that Phe-mediated inhibition of TH activity is the likely mechanism of impaired dopamine synthesis in PKU. Pharmacologic inhibition of Tyr degradation may be a promising adjunct therapy for CNS monoamine neurotransmitter deficiency in hyperphenylalaninemic individuals with PKU. PMID:24487571

  12. Pharmacologic inhibition of L-tyrosine degradation ameliorates cerebral dopamine deficiency in murine phenylketonuria (PKU).

    PubMed

    Harding, Cary O; Winn, Shelley R; Gibson, K Michael; Arning, Erland; Bottiglieri, Teodoro; Grompe, Markus

    2014-09-01

    Monoamine neurotransmitter deficiency has been implicated in the etiology of neuropsychiatric symptoms associated with chronic hyperphenylalaninemia in phenylketonuria (PKU). Two proposed explanations for neurotransmitter deficiency in PKU include first, that chronically elevated blood L-phenylalanine (Phe) inhibits the transport of L-tyrosine (Tyr) and L-tryptophan (Trp), the substrates for dopamine and serotonin synthesis respectively, into brain. In the second hypothesis, elevated Phe competitively inhibits brain tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) activities, the rate limiting steps in dopamine and serotonin synthesis. Dietary supplementation with large neutral amino acids (LNAA) including Tyr and Trp has been recommended for individuals with chronically elevated blood Phe in an attempt to restore amino acid and monoamine homeostasis in brain. As a potential alternative treatment approach, we demonstrate that pharmacologic inhibition of Tyr degradation through oral administration of nitisinone (NTBC) yielded sustained increases in blood and brain Tyr, decreased blood and brain Phe, and consequently increased dopamine synthesis in a murine model of PKU. Our results suggest that Phe-mediated inhibition of TH activity is the likely mechanism of impaired dopamine synthesis in PKU. Pharmacologic inhibition of Tyr degradation may be a promising adjunct therapy for CNS monoamine neurotransmitter deficiency in hyperphenylalaninemic individuals with PKU. PMID:24487571

  13. A Preliminary Study of Gene Polymorphisms Involved in the Neurotransmitters Metabolism of a Homogeneous Spanish Autistic Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calahorro, Fernando; Alejandre, Encarna; Anaya, Nuria; Guijarro, Teresa; Sanz, Yolanza; Romero, Auxiliadora; Tienda, Pilar; Burgos, Rafael; Gay, Eudoxia; Sanchez, Vicente; Ruiz-Rubio, Manuel

    2009-01-01

    Twin studies have shown a strong genetic component for autism. Neurotransmitters, such as serotonin and catecholamines, have been suggested to play a role in the disease since they have an essential function in synaptogenesis and brain development. In this preliminary study, polymorphism of genes implicated in the serotonergic and dopaminergic…

  14. Derivatization for the simultaneous LC/MS quantification of multiple neurotransmitters in extracellular fluid from rat brain microdialysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Minli; Fang, Ch