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Sample records for endoleak prevention preliminary

  1. Prophylactic Residual Aneurysmal Sac Embolization with Expandable Hydrogel Embolic Devices for Endoleak Prevention: Preliminary Study in Dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Hiraki, Takao; Pavcnik, Dusan Uchida, Barry T.; Timmermans, Hans A.; Yin Qiang; Wu Renghong; Niyyati, Mahtab; Keller, Frederick S.; Roesch, Josef

    2005-05-15

    Objective. To explore the feasibility and efficacy of residual aneurysmal sac (RAS) embolization with the expandable hydrogel embolic device (EHED) in prevention of endoleaks in a surgically created and endoluminally treated abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Methods. In eight dogs, an AAA was created by means of side-to-side anastomosis between the infrarenal abdominal aorta and inferior vena cava (IVC) with ligation of the IVC above and below the anastomotic end, followed by deployment of an endograft with holes. The RAS was then embolized with the EHED. One animal was killed immediately after RAS embolization and one animal died 12 hr after the procedure. Follow-up aortograms were obtained in six animals after 1 day (1 animal), 2 weeks and 6 months (1 animal), and 8 weeks (4 animals). Results. Four animals had no endoleaks on the follow-up aortograms. The remaining two animals with incomplete RAS embolization had moderate type III endoleaks. Type I or II endoleaks were not seen in any animals. Complications included RAS wall penetration by the devices with platinum wires in two animals (nos. 1 and 2), device migration into an aortic circulation through the endograft holes in two animals (nos. 2 and 3) or through distal interstices between the aortic wall and endograft in one animal (no. 8), aortic occlusion in three animals (nos. 3, 7, and 8), and RAS rupture in one animal (no. 7). Histologic examination showed expanded hydrogels occupying the RAS with associated mature or immature organized thrombus, fibrinous thrombus, or degenerate blood cells. Conclusion. RAS embolization was feasible with the EHED, although additional modifications to the device are required to avoid complications. Angiographic and histologic results suggested that RAS embolization with the EHED may help in the prevention of endoleaks.

  2. Comparison of Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound and Computed Tomography in Classifying Endoleaks After Endovascular Treatment of Abdominal Aorta Aneurysms: Preliminary Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Carrafiello, Gianpaolo Lagana, Domenico; Recaldini, Chiara; Mangini, Monica; Bertolotti, Elena; Caronno, Roberto; Tozzi, Matteo; Piffaretti, Gabriele; Annibale Genovese, Eugenio; Fugazzola, Carlo

    2006-12-15

    The purpose of the study was to assess the effectiveness of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) in endoleak classification after endovascular treatment of an abdominal aortic aneurysm compared to computed tomography angiography (CTA). From May 2001 to April 2003, 10 patients with endoleaks already detected by CTA underwent CEUS with Sonovue (registered) to confirm the CTA classification or to reclassify the endoleak. In three conflicting cases, the patients were also studied with conventional angiography. CEUS confirmed the CTA classification in seven cases (type II endoleaks). Two CTA type III endoleaks were classified as type II using CEUS and one CTA type II endoleak was classified as type I by CEUS. Regarding the cases with discordant classification, conventional angiography confirmed the ultrasound classification. Additionally, CEUS documented the origin of type II endoleaks in all cases. After CEUS reclassification of endoleaks, a significant change in patient management occurred in three cases. CEUS allows a better attribution of the origin of the endoleak, as it shows the flow in real time. CEUS is more specific than CTA in endoleak classification and gives more accurate information in therapeutic planning.

  3. Type II endoleaks: challenges and solutions

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Andrew; Saggu, Greta K; Bown, Matthew J; Sayers, Robert D; Sidloff, David A

    2016-01-01

    Type II endoleaks are the most common endovascular complications of endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR); however, there has been a divided opinion regarding their significance in EVAR. Some advocate a conservative approach unless there is clear evidence of sac expansion, while others maintain early intervention is best to prevent adverse late outcomes such as rupture. There is a lack of level-one evidence in this challenging group of patients, and due to a low event rate of complications, large numbers of patients would be required in well-designed trials to fully understand the natural history of type II endoleak. This review will discuss the imaging, management, and outcome of patients with isolated type II endoleaks following infra-renal EVAR. PMID:27042087

  4. Type II Endoleak After Endovascular Repair of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm: Effectiveness of Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Nevala, Terhi; Biancari, Fausto; Manninen, Hannu; Aho, Pekka-Sakari; Matsi, Pekka; Maekinen, Kimmo; Roth, Wolf-Dieter; Yloenen, Kari; Lepaentalo, Mauri; Peraelae, Jukka

    2010-04-15

    The purpose of this study was to report our experience in treating type II endoleaks after endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) of abdominal aortic aneurysms. Two hundred eighteen patients underwent EVAR with a Zenith stent-graft from January 2000 to December 2005. During a follow-up period of 4.5 {+-} 2.3 years, solely type II endoleak was detected in 47 patients (22%), and 14 of them underwent secondary interventions to correct this condition. Ten patients had transarterial embolization, and four patients had translumbar/transabdominal embolization. The embolization materials used were coils, thrombin, gelatin, Onyx (ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer), and glue. Disappearance of the endoleak without enlargement of the aneurysm sac after the first secondary intervention was achieved in only five of these patients (5/13). One patient without surveillance imaging was excluded from analyses of clinical success. After additional interventions in four patients and the spontaneous disappearance of type II endoleak in two patients, overall clinical success was achieved in eight patients (8/12). One patient did not have surveillance imaging after the second secondary intervention. Clinical success after the first secondary intervention was achieved in two patients (2/9) in the transarterial embolization group and three patients (3/4) in the translumbar embolization group. The results of secondary interventions for type II endoleak are unsatisfactory. Although the small number of patients included in this study prevents reliable comparisons between groups, the results seem to favor direct translumbar embolization in comparison to transarterial embolization.

  5. Billowing Of Endologix Powerlink Stent Mimicking Endoleaks

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Alex; Karuppasamy, Karunakaravel; Wang, Weiping

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Endoleaks remains one of the primary concerns of endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) and is routinely followed with CT angiography (CTA). However, certain imaging findings can mimic endoleaks. Case Presentation: A 65-year-old woman who had endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) of an abdominal aortic aneurysm with Endologix Powerlink system developed marked new circumferential cauliflower-like bulging of contrast-filled sacs at mid-stent-graft with enlargement of the excluded aneurysm at 3-year follow-up. Conclusions: Considering the unique construct of the Powerlink stents, this is thought to represent aneurysmal degeneration of the outer fabric material from the metal struts and may potentially pressurize the excluded sac with risk for rupture. PMID:26949697

  6. Endograft Sizing for Endovascular Aortic Repair and Incidence of Endoleak Type 1A

    PubMed Central

    Zeebregts, Clark J.; Willems, Tineke P.; Vainas, Tryfon; Tielliu, Ignace F. J.

    2016-01-01

    1A. Inadequate oversizing and considerable β-angulation of the aortic neck may have been the cause of endoleak type 1A in this population. Robust and well-investigated sizing methods are paramount for accurate endograft sizing and prevention of endoleak type 1A. Therefore the lack of studies in this field and a sizeable inter-observer variability do not justify the widespread reliance on the traditional diameter-based methods for endograft sizing. PMID:27359115

  7. Quality Improvement Guidelines for Imaging Detection and Treatment of Endoleaks following Endovascular Aneurysm Repair (EVAR)

    SciTech Connect

    Rand, T.; Uberoi, R.; Cil, B.; Munneke, G.; Tsetis, D.

    2013-02-15

    Major concerns after aortic aneurysm repair are caused by the presence of endoleaks, which are defined as persistent perigraft flow within the aortic aneurysm sac. Diagnosis of endoleaks can be performed with various imaging modalities, and indications for treatment are based on further subclassifications. Early detection and correct classification of endoleaks are crucial for planning patient management. The vast majority of endoleaks can be treated successfully by interventional means. Guidelines for Imaging Detection and Treatment of endoleaks are described in this article.

  8. Successful Repair of Type I Endoleak Using the Frozen Elephant Trunk Technique

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seon Hee; Song, Seunghwan; Kim, Sang-pil; Lee, Chung Won; Son, Joohyung

    2016-01-01

    Thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) has emerged as an effective therapy for a variety of thoracic aortic pathologies. However, various types of endoleak remain a major concern, and its treatment is often challenging. We report a case of type I endoleak occurring 19 months after zone II hybrid TEVAR. The endoleak was successfully repaired by the frozen elephant trunk technique, without removal of a previous stent graft, combined with ascending aorta and total arch replacement. PMID:27525241

  9. Combined Laparoscopic and Percutaneous Treatment of a Type II Endoleak Following Endovascular Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair

    SciTech Connect

    Karkos, Christos D. Hayes, Paul D.; Lloyd, David M.; Fishwick, Guy; White, Steve A.; Quadar, Salman; Sayers, Robert D.

    2005-06-15

    We describe a novel approach in treating a persistent type II endoleak related to the inferior mesenteric artery (IMA) and the lower lumbar arteries. The endoleak failed to thrombose following percutaneous IMA coil embolization. We proceeded to one-stage laparoscopic IMA division and intra-sac thrombin injection under direct laparoscopic vision and fluroscopy. A CT scan at 1 and 7 months post-intervention showed no evidence of endoleak and the growth of the aneurysm was arrested. This combined laparoscopic and percutaneous approach may be a useful treatment option in the management of persistent complex type II endoleak. Its durability, however has yet to be defined.

  10. Type 2 Endoleaks Post-EVAR: Current Evidence for Rupture Risk, Intervention and Outcomes of Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Raymond Morgan, Robert A.

    2015-06-15

    Type 2 endoleaks (EL2) are the most commonly encountered endoleaks following EVAR. Despite two decades of experience, there remains considerable variation in the management of EL2 with controversies ranging from if to treat, when to treat and how to treat. Here, we summarise the available evidence, describe the treatment techniques available and offer guidelines for management.

  11. Treatment of Type II Endoleaks After Endovascular Repair of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms: Transcaval Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Mansueto, Giancarlo Cenzi, Daniela; D'Onofrio, Mirko; Petrella, Enrico; Gumbs, Andrew A.; Mucelli, Roberto Pozzi

    2005-06-15

    The purpose of the note is to describe a new technique for type II endoleak treatment, using an alternative approach through femoral venous access. Three patients who developed type II endoleak after endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm were treated with direct transcaval puncture and embolization inside the aneurysm sac. The detailed technique is described. All patients were treated without any complications and discharged 48 hours after the treatment. At 1 month follow-up the computed tomograph scan did not show a recurrence of a type II endoleak. The management of patients with type II endoleak is a controversial issue and different techniques have been proposed. We suggest an alternative technique for type II endoleak treatment. The feasibility and the advantages of this approach can offer new possibilities for the diagnosis as well as for the treatment of this complication.

  12. Transarterial Embolization of Type II Endoleaks after EVAR: The Role of Ethylene Vinyl Alcohol Copolymer (Onyx)

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller-Wille, Rene Wohlgemuth, Walter A. Heiss, Peter Wiggermann, Philipp Guentner, Oliver Schreyer, Andreas G. Hoffstetter, Patrick Stroszczynski, Christian; Zorger, Niels

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: To determine the feasibility and efficacy of transarterial endoleak embolization using the liquid embolic agent ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer (Onyx). Methods: Over a 7-year period eleven patients (6 women, 5 men; mean age 68 years, range 37-83 years) underwent transarterial embolization of a type II endoleak after endovascular aortic aneurysm repair using the liquid embolic agent Onyx. Two patients (18 %) had a simple type II endoleak with only one artery in communication with the aneurysm sac, whereas 9 patients (82 %) had a complex type II endoleak with multiple communicating vessels. We retrospectively analyzed the technical and clinical success of transarterial type II endoleak embolization with Onyx. Complete embolization of the nidus was defined as technical success. Embolization was considered clinically successful when volume of the aneurysm sac was stable or decreased on follow-up CT scans. Result: Mean follow-up time was 26.0 (range 6-50) months. Clinical success was achieved in 8 of 11 patients (73 %). Transarterial nidus embolization with Onyx was technically successful in 6 of 11 patients (55 %). In three cases the nidus was embolized without direct catheterization from a more distal access through the network of collateral vessels. Conclusion: Onyx is a favorable embolic agent for transarterial endoleak embolization. To achieve the best clinical results, complete occlusion of the nidus is mandatory.

  13. Preventing Mania: A Preliminary Examination of the GOALS Program

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Sheri L.; Fulford, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    There is strong evidence of a relationship between goal dysregulation and mania. Building on these findings, we examined the feasibility of developing a mania prevention treatment program designed to improve goal regulation skills for those with bipolar disorder. Here, we describe the process of developing a manual, delivering the intervention to a series of cases, and then conducting a small open uncontrolled trial. All participants met diagnostic criteria for bipolar I disorder based on the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV and were not currently experiencing episodes of depression or mania. Ten participants (8 female, mean age = 46.7 years) were enrolled in the GOALS program and completed an average of 13.2 weekly sessions. Participants were administered the Bech-Rafaelson Mania Scale (BRMS) and the Modified Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression at baseline and termination. Some participants completed self-report scales including the Altman Self-Rating Mania Scale, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Willingly Approached Set of Statistically Unrealistic Pursuits at baseline and termination. In addition, participants were administered a consumer satisfaction questionnaire at termination. At termination, all 10 participants found the program highly relevant and helpful. Most importantly, even though levels of mania were low initially, mean levels of manic symptoms on the BRMS decreased significantly from baseline to termination, and all 10 participants were within a healthy range (BRMS <7) at termination. Although the lack of control group or follow-up data limits this study, preliminary evidence suggests that it is feasible to identify treatment targets by drawing from the basic research literature in bipolar disorder. Findings await replication and more careful testing within a randomized controlled trial. PMID:19433142

  14. Systemic Pulsatile Pressure in Type II Endoleaks After Stent Grafting of Experimental Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

    SciTech Connect

    Pitton, Michael Bernhard Schmenger, Patrick; Dueber, Christoph; Neufang, Achim; Thelen, Manfred

    2003-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate pressure and maximum rate of rise of systolic pressure (peak dP/dt) in completely excluded aneurysms and endoleaks to determine the hemodynamic impact of endoleaks. Methods: In mongrel dogs (n =36) experimental aneurysms were created by insertion of a patch (portion of rectus abdomen is muscle sheath) into the infrarenalaorta. In group I (n 18), all aortic branches of the aneurysm were ligated and all aneurysms were completely excluded by stent grafts. Group II (n = 18) consisted of aneurysms with patent aortic side branches that represented sources of endoleaks.One week (n = 12), six weeks (n = 12),and six months (n = 12) after stent grafting,hemodynamic measurements were obtained in thrombosed aneurysms and proved endoleaks. Systemic blood pressure and intraaneurysmal pressure were simultaneously measured and the respective peak dP/dt were computed. Results: At the six-month follow-up, the systolic-pressure ratio (intraaneurysmatic pressure: systemic pressure)was significantly increased in endoleaks compared to non-perfused areas(0.879 {+-} 0.042 versus 0.438 {+-} 0.176, p <0.01, group II) or completely excluded aneurysms (0.385 {+-}0.221, group I). Peak dP/dt ratio (intraaneurysmal peak dP/dt: systemic peak dP/dt) was 0.922 {+-} 0.154 in endoleaks, compared to 0.084 {+-} 0.080 in non-perfused areas (group II, p <0.01), and was 0.146 {+-} 0.121 in completely excluded aneurysms (group I). The diastolic-pressure ratio was also increased inendoleaks compared to non-perfused areas (0.929 {+-} 0.088 versus 0.655 {+-} 0.231, p < 0.01, group II) or completely excluded aneurysms (0.641 {+-} 0.278, group I). In excluded aneurysms, pressure exposure declined as the length of the follow-up period increased. Conclusion: Type II endoleaks transmit pulsatile pressure of near systemic level and indicate insufficient treatment result. In contrast, complete endovascular exclusion of aneurysms results in significantly reduced pressure exposure.

  15. Emergency Endovascular Treatment of Sac Rupture for Type IIIa Endoleak in Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm Previously Excluded with Endovascular Repair

    SciTech Connect

    Carrafiello, Gianpaolo Mangini, Monica Bracchi, Elena Recaldini, Chiara; Cocozza, Eugenio; Piffaretti, Gabriele; Pellegrino, Carlo Lagana, Domenico Fugazzola, Carlo

    2010-08-15

    Elective endovascular treatment of thoracic aortic pathology has been applied in a variety of conditions. The complications of thoracic aortic stenting are also well recognized. Endoleak after endovascular repair of thoracic aortic aneurysms is the most frequent complication; among them, type III is the least frequent. Endovascular treatment of type III endoleak is generally performed under elective conditions; less frequently, in emergency. We report a successful emergency endovascular management of post-thoracic endovascular repair for thoracic aortic aneurysm rupture due to type IIIa endoleak.

  16. Violence Prevention in Middle School: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KIllam, Wendy K.; Roland, Catherine B.; Weber, Bill

    2014-01-01

    Violence in schools continues reflecting violence within society. There is a growing need for violence prevention programs within the schools that provide students with the skills needed to cope with interpersonal and relationship is-sues effectively. This study was conducted at a middle school and there were 345 middle school students (6th to 8th…

  17. Transcatheter Embolisation of Proximal Type 1 Endoleaks Following Endovascular Aneurysm Sealing (EVAS) Using the Nellix Device: Technique and Outcomes

    SciTech Connect

    Ameli-Renani, S. Morgan, R. A.

    2015-10-15

    AimTo evaluate the technical success and mid-term outcomes following transcatheter embolisation of type 1a endoleak after Nellix endovascular aneurysm sealing (EVAS).Materials and MethodsSeven patients (5 men; mean age 83; range 79–90) underwent transcatheter embolisation between July 2013 and August 2014. The average time from EVAS to embolisation was 136 days (range 6–301) and from endoleak diagnosis to embolisation was 20 days (range 2–50). Embolisation was performed with coils and Onyx in six cases and Onyx only in one case. Technical success, imaging and clinical outcomes of embolisation were reviewed. Technical success was defined as elimination of the endoleak on completion angiography and first imaging follow-up. Clinical success was defined as unchanged or decreased aneurysm sac size on subsequent follow-up (average 8 months; range 103–471 days).ResultsAll cases were technically successful. One patient required a second endovascular procedure following Onyx reflux into the Nellix endograft and another patient required surgical closure of a brachial puncture site. All patients are endoleak free with stable sac size on the latest available follow-up imaging.ConclusionIf a type 1 endoleak occurs after EVAS, embolisation using Onyx with or without coils is feasible and effective with high technical success and freedom from endoleak recurrence at mid-term follow-up.

  18. Examining the Preliminary Efficacy of a Dating Violence Prevention Program for Hispanic Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa Maria; Guerra, Jessica E.; Cummings, Amanda A.; Pino, Karen; Becerra, Maria M.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the preliminary efficacy of a dating violence (DV) prevention program for Cuban American adolescents ("JOVEN"/YOUTH: "Juntos Opuestos a la Violence Entre Novios"/Together Against Dating Violence). A randomized-controlled experimental design with a delayed condition was used to evaluate…

  19. Scope and Limits of Medical Discourse Concerning AIDS Prevention--Rationale and Preliminary Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singy, Pascal; Guex, Patrice

    1997-01-01

    Reports on a preliminary stage of a project funded by the Federal Office of Public Health in Switzerland to gain insights into physician-patient communication regarding Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and apply findings to their teaching programs. Particular focus is on aspects of communication relating to primary prevention of HIV and…

  20. Detection and visualization of endoleaks in CT data for monitoring of thoracic and abdominal aortic aneurysm stents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, J.; Egger, J.; Wimmer, A.; Großkopf, S.; Freisleben, B.

    2008-03-01

    In this paper we present an efficient algorithm for the segmentation of the inner and outer boundary of thoratic and abdominal aortic aneurysms (TAA & AAA) in computed tomography angiography (CTA) acquisitions. The aneurysm segmentation includes two steps: first, the inner boundary is segmented based on a grey level model with two thresholds; then, an adapted active contour model approach is applied to the more complicated outer boundary segmentation, with its initialization based on the available inner boundary segmentation. An opacity image, which aims at enhancing important features while reducing spurious structures, is calculated from the CTA images and employed to guide the deformation of the model. In addition, the active contour model is extended by a constraint force that prevents intersections of the inner and outer boundary and keeps the outer boundary at a distance, given by the thrombus thickness, to the inner boundary. Based upon the segmentation results, we can measure the aneurysm size at each centerline point on the centerline orthogonal multiplanar reformatting (MPR) plane. Furthermore, a 3D TAA or AAA model is reconstructed from the set of segmented contours, and the presence of endoleaks is detected and highlighted. The implemented method has been evaluated on nine clinical CTA data sets with variations in anatomy and location of the pathology and has shown promising results.

  1. The recurrent coronary prevention project. Some preliminary findings.

    PubMed

    Thoresen, C E; Friedman, M; Gill, J K; Ulmer, D K

    1982-01-01

    The Recurrent Coronary Prevention Project (RCPP) was established as a 5-year clinical trial to examine two basic questions: --1. Can the recurrence rate of post-coronary subjects be substantially reduced over a 5-year period by means of a programme of behavioural change, in comparison with treatment by cardiologists focussing on medication, diet, exercise and cardiovascular issues, and with subjects who only receive regular care from their own physician? 2. Can the Type A behaviour pattern (TABP) be changed and do such changes correspond to reduced recurrences of coronary heart disease (CHD) over a 5 year period? To answer these questions, four major treatment groups are currently being compared: --1. A small group treatment programme (Section I) led by cardiologists emphasizing adherence to medication, diet and exercise, and giving cardiovascular and cardiological information. 2. A behavioural change treatment programme (Section II) based primarily on a cognitive social learning model and attempting to alter TABP. 3. A control group of subjects assessed annually and receiving private medical care from their own physicians. 4. A dropout comparison group composed of subjects voluntarily discontinuing participation in groups led by cardiologists or in behavioural change groups. Results to date show a significantly reduced rate of recurrence for subjects in the behavioural change group, compared to those in the groups led by cardiologists as well as control and dropout groups. These significantly lower recurrence rates are accompanied by data suggesting that subjects in the behavioural change programme are also altering their TABP as measured by both behavioural questionnaires and videotaped Type A structured interviews. Clinical impressions suggest that treatment programmes to alter TABP should consider the primary importance of the personal meaning of the TABP and other behaviours to the individual concerned, particularly how basic underlying beliefs set the stage

  2. Detection of Type II Endoleak After Endovascular Aortic Repair: Comparison Between Magnetic Resonance Angiography and Blood-Pool Contrast Agent and Dual-Phase Computed Tomography Angiography

    SciTech Connect

    Wieners, Gero; Meyer, Frank; Halloul, Zuhir; Peters, Nils; Ruehl, Ricarda; Dudeck, Oliver; Tautenhahn, Joerg; Ricke, Jens; Pech, Maciej

    2010-12-15

    PurposeThis prospective study was designed to assess the diagnostic value of magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) with blood-pool contrast agent (gadofosveset) in the detection of type-II endoleak after endovascular aortic repair (EVAR).MethodsThirty-two patients with aortic aneurysms who had undergone EVAR were included in this study. All patients were examined by dual-phase computed tomography angiography (CTA) as well as MRA with gadofosveset in the first-pass and steady-state phases. Two independent readers evaluated the images of CTA and MRA in terms of endoleak type II, feeding vessel, and image quality.ResultsMedian follow-up-time after EVAR was 22 months (range 4 to 59). Endoleak type II was detected by CTA in 12 of 32 patients (37.5%); MRA detected endoleak in all of these patients as well as in another 9 patients (n = 21, 65.6%), of whom the endoleaks in 6 patients showed an increasing diameter. Most endoleaks were detected in the steady-state phase (n = 14). The decrease in diameter of the aneurysmal sac was significantly greater in the patients without a visible endoleak that was visible on MRA (P = 0.004). In the overall estimation of diagnostic accuracy, MRA was judged superior to CTA in 66% of all examinations.ConclusionMRA with gadofosveset appeared superior to CTA, and has higher diagnostic accuracy, in the detection of endoleak after EVAR.

  3. Preliminary Findings of the Delivery of the National Diabetes Prevention Program via a Mobile Application.

    PubMed

    Tiase, Victoria L; Licata, Marissa; Fleck, Elaine M

    2016-01-01

    NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital partnered with Noom Health to pilot the virtual delivery of the proven National Diabetes Prevention Program (NDPP) to prediabetic patients. Goals were to understand if the patients can use a mobile device to receive the NDPP content, perform tasks and communicate with a virtual health coach. This poster describes our preliminary findings and responses from patients and staff. PMID:27332469

  4. Towards an entirely endovascular aortic world: an update of techniques and outcomes for endovascular and open treatment of type I, II, and III endoleaks.

    PubMed

    Mangialardi, Nicola; Orrico, Matteo; Ronchey, Sonia; Praquin, Barbara; Alberti, Vittorio; Setacci, Carlo

    2016-10-01

    Endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) is largely the most adopted strategy for aneurysmal disease of the aorta. Nevertheless, the high incidence of reintervention makes it difficult to identify EVAR as a definitive solution; in particular, the most frequent indication of reintervention is endoleak, which is defined as persistent flow into the aneurysmal sac from different sources. Several treatment strategies are described. A contemporary literature search was performed with the intent of describing techniques and outcomes of endovascular and open strategies to type I, II, and III endoleak. Described techniques and outcomes were organized by indication (type I, II, and III endoleak) and by type of approach (endovascular, open, and laparoscopic) to give an overview of the current status of the treatment for the three most frequent types of endoleak. Several endovascular means are described in the literature for the treatment of endoleak. PMID:27465391

  5. Percutaneous Transosseous Embolization of Internal Iliac Artery Aneurysm Type II Endoleak: Report of Two Cases

    SciTech Connect

    Gemmete, Joseph J. Arabi, Mohammad; Cwikiel, Wojciech B.

    2011-02-15

    This report describes two cases of successful treatment of an internal iliac artery aneurysm (IIAA) type II endoleak utilizing a percutaneous transosseous access that could not be treated using an endovascular or standard percutaneous approach. A direct percutaneous approach through bone was chosen to avoid vital structures and the surrounding bowel. The procedure was successful and required minimal fluoroscopy time compared with other treatment options. We believe this procedure is an alternative to some of the more complex and technically challenging means of treating this lesion.

  6. The Preventing Relational Aggression in Schools Everyday Program: A Preliminary Evaluation of Acceptability and Impact

    PubMed Central

    Leff, Stephen S.; Waasdorp, Tracy Evian; Paskewich, Brooke; Gullan, Rebecca Lakin; Jawad, Abbas F.; MacEvoy, Julie Paquette; Feinberg, Betsy E.; Power, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    Despite recent research suggesting that relationally aggressive behaviors occur frequently and may lead to physically aggressive actions within urban school settings, there has been little prior research to develop and evaluate relational aggression prevention efforts within the urban schools. The current article describes the development and preliminary evaluation of the Preventing Relational Aggression in Schools Everyday (PRAISE) Program. PRAISE is a 20-session classroom-based universal prevention program, designed to be appropriate and responsive to the needs of youth within the urban school context. Results suggest strong acceptability for the program and feasibility of implementation. Further, the program was especially beneficial for girls. For instance, girls in classrooms randomly assigned to the PRAISE Program demonstrated higher levels of knowledge for social information processing and anger management techniques and lower levels of relational aggression following treatment as compared to similar girls randomly assigned to a no-treatment control condition. Further, relationally aggressive girls exhibited similar benefits from the program (greater knowledge and lower levels of relational aggression) plus lower levels of overt aggression following treatment as compared to relationally aggressive girls within the control classrooms. In contrast, the program was not associated with improvements for boys across most measures. The significance and implications of the findings for research and practice are discussed. PMID:21686034

  7. Prevention of post-rape psychopathology: preliminary findings of a controlled acute rape treatment study.

    PubMed

    Resnick, H; Acierno, R; Holmes, M; Kilpatrick, D G; Jager, N

    1999-01-01

    Violent sexual assault such as rape typically results in extremely high levels of acute distress. The intensity of these acute psychological reactions may play a role in later recovery, with higher levels of immediate distress associated with poorer outcome. Unfortunately, post-rape forensic evidence collection procedures may serve to increase, rather than reduce initial distress, potentially exacerbating future psychopathology. To address these concerns, an acute time-frame hospital-based video intervention was developed to: (a) minimize anxiety during forensic rape exams, and (b) prevent post-rape posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), panic, and anxiety. Preliminary data indicated that (1) psychological distress at the time of the exam was strongly related to PTSD symptomatology 6 weeks post-rape, and (2) the video intervention successfully reduced distress during forensic exams. PMID:10504107

  8. A preliminary study of the effectiveness of an otolaryngology-based multidisciplinary falls prevention clinic.

    PubMed

    Alvord, Lynn S; Benninger, Michael S; Stach, Brad A

    2008-09-01

    Because the cause of falls is often multifactorial, efforts to identify risk factors and promote prevention would benefit from a multidisciplinary approach in which the contributions of a broad range of body systems are considered. We describe the practices and procedures followed at the otolaryngology-based multidisciplinary Falls Prevention Clinic at Henry Ford Hospital in Detroit. Our team is made up of an otolaryngologist, an audiologist, an internist, and a physical therapist. Our multidisciplinary approach involves evaluations of vestibular and balance function, cardiovascular function, and visual function; lower-extremity strength and sensation; cognition and mood; and medication use. We also assess a number of nonmedical risk factors. Evaluations are made over the course of two clinic visits. To assess the effectiveness of our approach, we conducted a preliminary study based on chart reviews and telephone interviews of 52 patients who had been referred to our clinic for evaluation and counseling. The basis of our study was a comparison of the number of falls that patients had experienced during the 6 months prior to their first visit to our clinic and the number of falls they experienced during the 6 months after their second visit. We found that among "true fallers" (i.e., those who had actually experienced a fall at some point during the study), 64.7% reported that they had experienced fewer falls after their clinic visits than before (p < 0.001). Also, 59.1% of patients who had been "frequent fallers" prior to their clinic evaluation (i.e., >or=3 falls during the previous 6 mo) reported that they had not fallen at all during the 6 months following their last visit. Finally, our evaluations identified a substantial number of risk factors in individual patients that had been missed previously, including many nonvestibular factors that might not have been detected without a multidisciplinary approach. We conclude that the results of this preliminary study

  9. Preliminary Testing of a Program to Prevent Type 2 Diabetes among High-Risk Youth.(research Papers)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grey, Margaret; Berry, Diane; Davidson, Maryanne; Galasso, Pam; Gustafson, Elaine; Melkus, Gail

    2004-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is increasing among youth, with minority youth at highest risk. This preliminary study tested the feasibility of a school-based program to prevent type 2 diabetes in youth at risk. Forty-one participants (age 12.6 [+ or -] 1.1 years; 63% female, 51% African American, 44% Hispanic, and 5% Caucasian) were randomly assigned to one of…

  10. Development of a monitoring platform for slope instability and sliding prevention : preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drakatos, G.; Paradissis, D.; Anastasiou, D.; Elias, P.; Marinou, A.; Chousianitis, K.; Papanikolaou, X.; Zacharis, V.; Argyrakis, P.; Papazisi, K.; Makropoulos, K.

    2012-04-01

    Land sliding, as a consequence of slope instability, constitutes a natural catastrophe resulting mainly from geological cause often followed by disastrous impact on both the natural and man-made environment. The reasons causing land slides can vary from purely geological factors, to other relevant or not natural catastrophes, urban or residential expansion, tourist growth in areas under inappropriate geological background, or even a combination of the aforementioned causes The respective consequences, also span a wide range of negative impacts, both for the man-made (e.g. destruction of transportation infrastructure, constructions and urban or sub-urban areas) and the natural environment. Unfortunately, prevention of land slides is still largely ineffective adding to an inefficient and inadequate addressing of the problem, mainly due to the lack of systematic monitoring of such regions and due to the fact that "treatment" overwhelms "prevention". Recent developments in Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), Satellite Geodesy and satellite differential interferometry (DinSAR), have established these fields as fully equipped, from a scientific and engineering perspective, to act --either as autonomous techniques or in conjunction-- as prevention and/or early warning systems. Such state-of-the-art technology was implemented, in a project undertaken by the Institute of Geodynamics Dionysos Satellite Observatory/Higher Geodesy Laboratory and the Institute for Space Applications and Remote Sensing, in order to evaluate the potential of monitoring slide stability and the assessment of hazard evaluation. Therefore, for the first time in Greece, an attempt was made to develop a monitoring platform for slope instability and sliding prevention at two of the most hazardous, regarding soil instabilities, regions of Peloponnese, namely Sellas and Chalkio (in Messinia and Korinthia respectively). GPS campaigns were carried through, cGPS stations were installed and a network

  11. Examining the Preliminary Efficacy of a Dating Violence Prevention Program for Hispanic Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa Maria; Guerra, Jessica E; Cummings, Amanda A; Pino, Karen; Becerra, Maria M

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the preliminary efficacy of a dating violence (DV) prevention program for Cuban American adolescents (JOVEN/YOUTH: Juntos Opuestos a la Violence Entre Novios/Together Against Dating Violence). A randomized-controlled experimental design with a delayed condition was used to evaluate the effects on DV victimization and perpetration (N = 82). Self-administrated assessments were completed at baseline, 1 week, 3 months, and 12 months after the intervention to assess for psychological victimization and perpetration and physical and sexual victimization and perpetration. Effect sizes were estimated, and generalized estimating equations were generated to test intervention effects over time and potential gender interactions. The intervention had medium to strong effects on DV victimization and perpetration for male participants but not for females. However, intervention effects were not statistically significant over time. More research is needed to enhance intervention effects of JOVEN on DV outcomes and to evaluate these effects among a larger and more diverse sample. PMID:26260135

  12. Embolization for type 2 endoleak with sac expansion after endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm: safety and effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Kajiwara, Kenji; Yamagami, Takuji; Urashima, Masaki; Tomiyoshi, Hideki; Kakizawa, Hideaki; Yoshimatsu, Rika; Ishikawa, Masaki; Awai, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the safety and outcome of embolization as treatment for persistent type 2 endoleak (T2EL) occurring after abdominal aortic stent graft implantation. This retrospective study included seven consecutive patients (one female, six males, mean age 72 years, range 66-88 years) with T2EL between January 2011 and September 2012. In all, T2EL was associated with an increase more than 5 mm in the aneurysm. The endoleak cavity or feeding artery was embolized with coils and/or n-butyl cyanoacrylate. Clinical success was defined as regression or stabilization of the aneurysm sac irrespective of residual endoleaks on follow-up CT studies. At the time of T2EL intervention, mean aneurysm sac diameter was 63 mm (range 52-72 mm), and mean increase size of aneurysm sac diameter was 7 mm (range 5-13). Mean follow-up period was 6.0 ± 6.2 months (range 3-18 months). Our technical success rate was 100 %. Clinical success was obtained in 5 (71.4 %) of the seven patients. One patient was embolized three times due to sac expansion. T2EL was treated by transarterial embolization in eight procedures, and one procedure was performed by direct puncture embolization. There were no major complications; two procedures elicited minor complications: transient back pain and muscle weakness of the left lower leg. We suggest embolization was safe and effective treatment, a less invasive treatment option comparison to open repair, as one choice to address T2EL. PMID:27006871

  13. Expect respect support groups: preliminary evaluation of a dating violence prevention program for at-risk youth.

    PubMed

    Ball, Barbara; Tharp, Andra Teten; Noonan, Rita K; Valle, Linda Anne; Hamburger, Merle E; Rosenbluth, Barri

    2012-07-01

    Expect Respect support groups, a selective prevention strategy, are designed to prevent and reduce dating violence among at-risk middle and high school students. This preliminary, uncontrolled evaluation examined changes in healthy relationship skills and emotionally and physically abusive behaviors in participants' peer and dating relationships. Self-reports (N = 144) showed significant increases in healthy relationship skills from baseline to program completion, whereas levels of victimization and perpetration remained unchanged. A subgroup of students who reported baseline levels of victimization and perpetration with means at least one standard deviation above the group mean reported significantly less victimization and perpetration at program completion. PMID:22872708

  14. Can Early Computed Tomography Angiography after Endovascular Aortic Aneurysm Repair Predict the Need for Reintervention in Patients with Type II Endoleak?

    SciTech Connect

    Dudeck, O.; Schnapauff, D.; Herzog, L.; Löwenthal, D.; Bulla, K.; Bulla, B.; Halloul, Z.; Meyer, F.; Pech, M.; Gebauer, B.; Ricke, J.

    2015-02-15

    PurposeThis study was designed to identify parameters on CT angiography (CTA) of type II endoleaks following endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), which can be used to predict the subsequent need for reinterventions.MethodsWe retrospectively identified 62 patients with type II endoleak who underwent early CTA in mean 3.7 ± 1.9 days after EVAR. On the basis of follow-up examinations (mean follow-up period 911 days; range, 373–1,987 days), patients were stratified into two groups: those who did (n = 18) and those who did not (n = 44) require reintervention. CTA characteristics, such as AAA, endoleak, as well as nidus dimensions, patency of the inferior mesenteric artery, number of aortic branch vessels, and the pattern of endoleak appearance, were recorded and correlated with the clinical outcome.ResultsUnivariate and receiver operating characteristic curve regression analyses revealed significant differences between the two groups for the endoleak volume (surveillance group: 1391.6 ± 1427.9 mm{sup 3}; reintervention group: 3227.7 ± 2693.8 mm{sup 3}; cutoff value of 2,386 mm{sup 3}; p = 0.002), the endoleak diameter (13.6 ± 4.3 mm compared with 25.9 ± 9.6 mm; cutoff value of 19 mm; p < 0.0001), the number of aortic branch vessels (2.9 ± 1.2 compared with 4.2 ± 1.4 vessels; p = 0.001), as well as a “complex type” endoleak pattern (13.6 %, n = 6 compared with 44.4 %, n = 8; p = 0.02).ConclusionsEarly CTA can predict the future need for reintervention in patients with type II endoleak. Therefore, treatment decision should be based not only on aneurysm enlargement alone but also on other imaging characteristics.

  15. Transcatheter Embolization of Type IA Endoleak after Nellix Endovascular Aortic Aneurysm Sealing with N-Butyl Cyanoacrylate: Technique in Three Patients.

    PubMed

    Harvey, John Julian; Stefan, Brew; Hill, Andrew; Holden, Andrew H

    2016-02-01

    The successful transcatheter treatment of a type IA endoleak after endovascular aortic aneurysm sealing with the Nellix EndoVascular Aneurysm Sealing system (Endologix Inc, Irvine, California) using proximal covered stent extension and transarterial N-butyl cyanoacrylate sac embolization is described. Three patients were treated using the same technique with a mean interval between the index procedure and reintervention of 9.3 months (range, 3-15 mo). No complications or endoleaks were seen on follow-up imaging. The mean follow-up time after reintervention was 10.3 months (range, 7-13 mo). PMID:26830936

  16. Hemoptysis as a first symptom of endoleak after thoracic endovascular aortic repair, which caused aortic rupture and required complex management

    PubMed Central

    Warot, Marcin; Burchard, Paweł; Paschke, Łukasz; Łysiak, Zuzanna; Chęciński, Paweł

    2013-01-01

    Thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) has become the most common procedure in the treatment of thoracic aorta aneurysms. However, potential long-term complications of this technique could be life-threatening. Hemoptysis is a common symptom of lung tumor, especially cancer. On the other hand, hemoptysis can also be caused by bronchitis, tuberculosis, mycosis, and trauma. In this case report, we present a patient with hemoptysis and lung tumor suggesting lung cancer, which was a unique symptom of type IA endoleak after TEVAR and led to rupture of the thoracic aneurysm. It was decided to perform next an endovascular procedure due to the severe state of the patient. Next the thoracotomy was performed because drainage of the left pleural cavity was unsuccessful. In the last stage bronchoscopy was needed to remove the thrombus, which occluded the left main bronchi. Successful management has led to the patient's full recovery. Despite justified popularity of endovascular procedures in the treatment of thoracic aorta aneurysms, we should remember about potential long-term complications. Hemoptysis could be a unique symptom of the endoleak after TEVAR and treatment of such complications could be complex and demanding. PMID:23837105

  17. Applying Computer Technology to Substance Abuse Prevention Science Results of a Preliminary Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsch, Lisa A.; Bickel, Warren K.; Badger, Gary J.

    2007-01-01

    This manuscript reports on the development and evaluation of a computer-based substance abuse prevention program for middle school-aged adolescents, called "HeadOn: Substance Abuse Prevention for Grades 6-8TM". This self-guided program was designed to deliver effective drug abuse prevention science to youth via computer-based educational…

  18. Embolisation of a Proximal Type I Endoleak Post-Nellix Aortic Aneurysm Repair Complicated by Reflux of Onyx into the Nellix Endograft Limb

    SciTech Connect

    Ameli-Renani, S. Das, R. Weller, A. Chung, R. Morgan, R. A.

    2015-06-15

    We report the first case of intervention for a proximal type 1 endoleak following Nellix endovascular aneurysm sealing repair of an aortic aneurysm. This was complicated by migration of Onyx into one of the Nellix graft limbs causing significant stenosis. Subsequent placement of a covered stent to affix the Onyx between the stent and the wall of the Nellix endograft successfully restored stent patency.

  19. 78 FR 50014 - Preliminary Theft Data; Motor Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-16

    ... published on July 9, 2013 (78 FR 41016) which erroneously reported the theft rate for CY/MY 2011 vehicles... higher than 3.5826 per thousand vehicles, the established median theft rate for MYs 1990/1991 (See 59 FR... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 541 Preliminary Theft Data; Motor Vehicle...

  20. 78 FR 41016 - Preliminary Theft Data; Motor Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-09

    ... in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78) or you may visit http://Dockets... since publication of the 1983/1984 theft rate data (50 FR 46669, November 12, 1985). The 2011 theft rate... 2010 theft data, see 77 FR 58500, September 21, 2012). The preliminary theft rate for MY 2011...

  1. Development and preliminary evaluation of a behavioural HIV prevention program for teenage girls of Latino descent in the USA

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Tatiana M.; Lopez, Cristina M.; Saulson, Raelle; Borkman, April L.; Soltis, Kathryn; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; de Arellano, Michael; Wingood, Gina M.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Danielson, Carla Kmett

    2014-01-01

    National data suggests that teenage girls of Latino descent in the USA are disproportionately affected by HIV with the rate of new infections being approximately 4 times higher compared to White women of comparable age (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2013). This paper highlights the need for an effective single-sex HIV prevention program for teenage girls of Latino descent and describes the development and preliminary evaluation of Chicas Healing, Informing, Living and Empowering (CHILE), a culturally-tailored, HIV prevention programme exclusively for teenage girls of Latino descent that was adapted from Sisters Informing, Healing, Living, and Empowering (SiHLE), an evidence-based HIV prevention program that is culturally tailored for African American young women. Theatre testing, a pre-testing methodology to assess consumer response to a demonstration of a product, was utilised to evaluate the relevance and utility of the HIV program as well as opportunities for the integration of cultural constructs. Future directions for the evaluation of CHILE are discussed. PMID:24697607

  2. Laparo- and thoracoscopic aortic aneurysm neck optimization and treatment of potential endoleaks type IA and II in a porcine model

    PubMed Central

    Kloster, Brian O.; Lund, Lars; Lindholt, Jes S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Endovascular repair of aortic aneurysms has a higher incidence of late complications, and open conversion (OC) associated with high mortality may be required. As alternatives to OCs, we propose minimal invasive laparo-/thoracoscopic approaches, either to control endoleaks after endovascular repair, or to convert non-endovascular treatable cases due to a hostile neck anatomy by inserting a peri-aortic PTFE collar before endovascular repair. Such interventions may reduce complications and the necessity for OCs in the future. Methods In twelve pigs, were 10 had infra-/juxtrarenal AAAs, externally placed collars/aneuwraps around the proximal AAA neck and just below the left subclavian artery and division of the aortic side branches were carried out laparo-and thoracoscopically. Results For the laparoscopic and thoracoscopic procedures respectively, mean operative time was 143 ± 41 min and 86 ± 51 min and a mean of 2.6 and 2.25 aortic side branches were ligated/divided. For both procedures, the last half in the series were carried out significantly faster (p < 0.05) indicating a learning curve. Blood loss was minimal and no procedure related complications were seen. Conclusion Using these minimal invasive endoscopic approaches, it seems feasible to externally band aneurysm necks and ligate aortic side branches in a pig model. These procedures could potentially be considered as alternatives to OCs in controlling endoleaks and in improving the safety of endovascular interventions. As endoscopic aortic surgery is challenging a learning curve is expected. Practicing the described procedures using this model, can be used as a learning tool prior to similar interventions on humans. PMID:26793311

  3. 77 FR 38024 - Preliminary Theft Data; Motor Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-26

    ...This document requests comments on data about passenger motor vehicle thefts that occurred in calendar year (CY) 2010 including theft rates for existing passenger motor vehicle lines manufactured in model year (MY) 2010. The preliminary theft data indicate that the vehicle theft rate for CY/MY 2010 vehicles (1.17 thefts per thousand vehicles) decreased by 12.03 percent from the theft rate for......

  4. Preliminary examination of a couple-based eating disorder prevention program.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Ana L; Perez, Marisol; Taylor, Aaron

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of the current study was to investigate a new dissonance-based prevention program that is based on the dual pathway model of eating disorders within the context of an individual's romantic relationship. A total of 209 dating couples participated in a couple-based prevention program or an assessment-only condition and completed measures of body dissatisfaction, thin-ideal internalization, disordered eating, negative affect, and relationship satisfaction at two time points (approximately one week apart) and approximately half of the sample completed 1-month follow-up measures. The prevention program significantly reduced several key risk factors for eating disorders such as environmental pressures to be thin, internalization of the thin and athletic ideals, state body dissatisfaction, and actual-ideal body discrepancy. Initial support was found for the inclusion of couples in eating disorder prevention programs as a successful way of addressing the thin ideal and its detrimental effects for women. PMID:22633843

  5. Perspectives in genetics and sickle cell disease prevention in Africa: beyond the preliminary data from Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Wonkam, Ambroise; Bitoungui, Valentina Josiane Ngo; Ngogang, Jeanne

    2015-01-01

    Cameroon is a country of 20 million inhabitants with a carrier frequency of Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) ranging from 8 to 34 % [1]. Despite the exceptional severity, illustrated by a high prevalence of stroke (6·7%) among SCD patients [2], there are no specialized centres for lifelong medical care in Cameroon. Therefore, management needs to be accompanied by various preventive strategies. Prevention also extends to early detection with the aim to identify SCD in the foetus, provide reproductive options and options for treatment and prognosis. PMID:26044545

  6. The efficacy of an intimate partner violence prevention program with high-risk adolescent girls: a preliminary test.

    PubMed

    Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer; Turner, Lisa A

    2012-08-01

    This study examined the efficacy of a brief (four session) intimate partner violence (IPV) prevention program (Building a Lasting Love, Langhinrichsen-Rohling et al. 2005) that was designed to reduce the relationship violence of predominantly African American inner-city adolescent girls (n = 72) who were receiving teen pregnancy services. These high-risk girls were randomly assigned to the prevention program (n = 39) or waitlist control (n = 33) conditions. Implementation fidelity was documented. As predicted, girls who successfully completed the program (n = 24) reported significant reductions in their perpetration of psychological abuse toward their baby's father as compared to the control (n = 23) participants. They also reported experiencing significantly less severe IPV victimization over the course of the program. Preliminary analyses indicated that avoidant attachment to one's partner may be associated with less program-related change. These findings support the contention that brief IPV prevention programs can be targeted to selected groups of high-risk adolescents. PMID:21842333

  7. Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Prevention Model Learning Systems: Preliminary Designs. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Saul H.

    The final report on a project designed to develop a model learning system for alcohol abuse and alcoholism prevention contains format details of four specific programs. Each program is geared to obtain maximum success in reinforcing responsible behavior, to change learner behavior, and to insure effective implementation in a variety of…

  8. The Preventing Relational Aggression in Schools Everyday Program: A Preliminary Evaluation of Acceptability and Impact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leff, Stephen S.; Waasdorp, Tracy Evian; Paskewich, Brooke; Gullan, Rebecca Lakin; Jawad, Abbas F.; MacEvoy, Julie Paquette; Feinberg, Betsy E.; Power, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    Despite recent research suggesting that relationally aggressive behaviors occur frequently and may lead to physically aggressive actions within urban school settings, there has been little prior research to develop and evaluate relational aggression prevention efforts within the urban schools. The current article describes the development and…

  9. Preliminary Evaluation of the "Playing the Game" Sexual Assault Prevention Theatre Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thatcher, W. Gregory

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the effectiveness of a one-time sexual assault prevention theatre performance against a similar content video performance and a non-intervention control group. Methods: Using the College Date Rape Attitudes and Behaviors Survey, four-hundred ninety-seven students provided matched pairs data for analysis. Results: At a…

  10. Laparoscopic ligation of inferior mesenteric artery and internal iliac artery for the treatment of symptomatic type II endoleak after endovascular aneurysm repair.

    PubMed

    Zou, Junjie; Sun, Yueming; Yang, Hongyu; Ma, Hao; Jiang, Jun; Jiao, Yuangyong; Zhang, Xiwei

    2014-01-01

    We present a case undergoing successful laparoscopic ligation of the inferior mesenteric artery (IMA) and internal iliac artery (IIA) for the treatment of a symptomatic type II endoleak (T2E) after endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). The patient presented with abdominal and back pain 1 year after EVAR. Subsequent enhanced computed tomography scan showed aneurysm sac enlargement from 60 mm to 70 mm, and digital substraction angiography revealed a T2E caused by patent IMA and right IIA. Then the patient underwent successful laparoscopic ligation of the IMA and right IIA. Postprocedural angiogram demonstrated complete resolution of the type II endoleak, and no intraoperative complications occurred. Also, there was no remaining abdominal pain or back pain after the operation. PMID:25216443

  11. Parent-based prevention program for the children of mothers with eating disorders: Feasibility and preliminary outcomes.

    PubMed

    Sadeh-Sharvit, Shiri; Zubery, Eynat; Mankovski, Esty; Steiner, Evelyne; Lock, James D

    2016-01-01

    The children of mothers with eating disorders are at high risk of feeding and eating problems and broader developmental difficulties. The Parent-Based Prevention (PBP) of eating disorders targets risk factors and facilitates behavioral change in parents to mitigate potentially negative outcomes of their children. This pre/post uncontrolled study evaluated the feasibility and preliminary outcomes of PBP. PBP was found to be a feasible intervention for mothers with eating disorders and their spouses, with satisfactory retention rates. A total of 16 intact families were assessed at three measurement points for parents' feeding practices, child outcomes, and maternal functioning. Both parents reported improved feeding practices as well as more positive perceptions of their children in comparison to baseline. These pilot findings suggest that PBP is linked with decreased risk of eating and mental problems among the offspring of mothers with eating disorders. PMID:26940552

  12. The Feasibility, Acceptability, and Preliminary Effectiveness of a Promotora-Led Diabetes Prevention Program (PL-DPP) in Latinas

    PubMed Central

    O’Brien, Matthew J.; Perez, Alberly; Alos, Victor A.; Whitaker, Robert C.; Ciolino, Jody D.; Mohr, David C.; Ackermann, Ronald T.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this pilot study is to test the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary effectiveness of a Promotora-Led Diabetes Prevention Program (PL-DPP) in Hispanic women (Latinas). Methods Twenty Latina adults with prediabetes were enrolled in this single-arm pilot trial of PL-DPP. Participants underwent a year-long lifestyle intervention consisting of 24 sessions divided into 14 weekly core sessions and 10 post-core sessions offered either biweekly or monthly. Each session was led by a promotora in Spanish. The primary outcome was weight change over the 12-month study period. Results The study participants were socioeconomically challenged, middle-aged Latinas with limited access to health care. Eighteen participants (90%) completed at least 12 sessions, and 1 was lost to follow-up. Overall, participants reported high levels of satisfaction with PL-DPP. At 12 months, the participants achieved a mean weight loss of 10.8 pounds, which corresponded to 5.6% of initial body weight. Significant pre-post reductions in waist circumference, diastolic blood pressure, LDL cholesterol, and insulin levels were also observed. Modest reductions in A1C and fasting plasma glucose were not significant. Conclusions The PL-DPP demonstrated feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary effectiveness in a high-risk population of Latinas. Future research examining this intervention in a randomized clinical trial should explore factors impacting its effects using both qualitative and quantitative methods. PMID:26023095

  13. Comparison of Superb Micro-Vascular Ultrasound Imaging (SMI) and Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound (CEUS) for Detection of Endoleaks After Endovascular Aneurysm Repair (EVAR)

    PubMed Central

    Gabriel, Marcin; Tomczak, Jolanta; Snoch-Ziółkiewicz, Magdalena; Dzieciuchowicz, Łukasz; Strauss, Ewa; Oszkinis, Grzegorz

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 68 Final Diagnosis: Unusual clinical course Symptoms: None Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Angio CT Specialty: Surgery Objective: Challenging differential diagnosis Background: High-resolution contrast-enhanced ultrasound is one of methods used in the detection and characterization of endoleaks, which is a frequent complication after EVAR. A new technology provided by Toshiba’s AplioTM 500 ultrasound system, called Superb Micro-Vascular Imaging (SMI), is dedicated specifically to imaging very low flow states and appears to be a promising new method for detection of endoleaks. Case Report: After endovascular treatment, a 68-year-old patient who had stent-graft implantation underwent clinical examinations, including contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS), superb micro-vascular imaging (SMI), and computed tomographic angiography (CTA), revealing additional information about abnormal blood flow localized in the periphery of the sack of the left common iliac artery aneurysm. By using CEUS and SMI, the endoleak was clearly visible. Conclusions: This case report illustrates the potential clinical value of this advanced Doppler technology (SMI) and how it could influence clinical management. PMID:26806053

  14. Eplerenone prevents salt-induced vascular stiffness in Zucker diabetic fatty rats: a preliminary report

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Aldosterone levels are elevated in a rat model of type 2 diabetes mellitus, the Zucker Diabetic fatty rat (ZDF). Moreover blood pressure in ZDF rats is salt-sensitive. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of the aldosterone antagonist eplerenone on structural and mechanical properties of resistance arteries of ZDF-rats on normal and high-salt diet. Methods After the development of diabetes, ZDF animals were fed either a normal salt diet (0.28%) or a high-salt diet (5.5%) starting at an age of 15 weeks. ZDF rats on high-salt diet were randomly assigned to eplerenone (100 mg/kg per day, in food) (ZDF+S+E), hydralazine (25 mg/kg per day) (ZDF+S+H), or no treatment (ZDF+S). Rats on normal salt-diet were assigned to eplerenone (ZDF+E) or no treatment (ZDF). Normoglycemic Zucker lean rats were also divided into two groups receiving normal (ZL) or high-salt diet (ZL+S) serving as controls. Systolic blood pressure was measured by tail cuff method. The experiment was terminated at an age of 25 weeks. Mesenteric resistance arteries were studied on a pressurized myograph. Specifically, vascular hypertrophy (media-to-lumen ratio) and vascular stiffness (strain and stress) were analyzed. After pressurized fixation histological analysis of collagen and elastin content was performed. Results Blood pressure was significantly higher in salt-loaded ZDF compared to ZDF. Eplerenone and hydralazine prevented this rise similarily, however, significance niveau was missed. Media-to-lumen ratio of mesenteric resistance arteries was significantly increased in ZDF+S when compared to ZDF and ZL. Both, eplerenone and hydralazine prevented salt-induced vascular hypertrophy. The strain curve of arteries of salt-loaded ZDF rats was significantly lower when compared to ZL and when compared to ZDF+S+E, but was not different compared to ZDF+S+H. Eplerenone, but not hydralazine shifted the strain-stress curve to the right indicating a vascular wall composition with less

  15. Analyzing diaries for analytical relapse prevention using natural induction: a method and preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Wojtusiak, Janusz; Michalski, Ryszard S

    2008-01-01

    This article briefly describes natural induction approach to knowledge discovery, and then applies it to the problem of bad habit relapse prevention by analyzing patients' diaries. Natural induction seeks patterns in data that are in forms easy to understand and interpret, because they resemble those in which humans represent knowledge, such as natural language descriptions and visual forms. The application of natural induction to the problem of bad habit relapse has produced patterns easy to understand, in some cases of surprising simplicity. PMID:18204380

  16. Cefazolin Embedded Biodegradable Polypeptide Nanofilms Promising for Infection Prevention: A Preliminary Study on Cell Responses

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hongshuai; Ogle, Heather; Jiang, Bingbing; Hagar, Michael; Li, Bingyun

    2013-01-01

    Implant-associated infection is a serious complication in orthopedic surgery, and endowing implant surfaces with antibacterial properties could be one of the most promising approaches for preventing such infection. In this study, we developed cefazolin loaded biodegradable polypeptide multilayer nanofilms on orthopedic implants. We found that the amount of cefazolin released could be tuned. A high local concentration of cefazolin was achieved within the first a few hours and therefore may inhibit bacterial colonization in the critical post-implantation period. The developed cefazolin loaded nanofilms showed their in vitro efficacy against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus); the more antibiotics loaded, the longer the nanocoated implant had antibacterial properties. More interestingly, antibiotic-loaded polypeptide multilayer nanofilms also improved osteoblast bioactivity including cell viability and proliferation. These findings suggested that biodegradable polypeptide multilayer nanofilms as antibiotic carriers at the implant/tissue interface are compatible with human cells such as osteoblasts and bactericidal to bacteria such as S. aureus. These characteristics could be promising for preventing implant-associated infection and potentially improving bone healing. PMID:20162715

  17. Synthesis and Preliminary Evaluation of N-Oxide Derivatives for the Prevention of Atherothrombotic Events.

    PubMed

    Rosseto, Leandro Augusto; Pires, Maria Elisa Lopes; Melchior, Aylime Castanho Bolognesi; Bosquesi, Priscila Longhin; Pavan, Aline Renata; Marcondes, Sisi; Chung, Man Chin; Santos, Jean Leandro Dos

    2015-01-01

    Thrombosis is the main outcome of many cardiovascular diseases. Current treatments to prevent thrombotic events involve the long-term use of antiplatelet drugs. However, this therapy has several limitations, thereby justifying the development of new drugs. A series of N-oxide derivatives (furoxan and benzofuroxan) were synthesized and characterized as potential antiplatelet/antithrombotic compounds. All compounds (3a,b, 4a,b, 8a,b, 9a,b, 13a,b and 14a,b) inhibited platelet aggregation induced by adenosine-5-diphosphate, collagen, and arachidonic acid. All compounds protected mice from pulmonary thromboembolism induced by a mixture of collagen and epinephrine; however, benzofuroxan derivatives (13a,b and 14a,b) were the most active compounds, reducing thromboembolic events by up to 80%. N-oxide derivative 14a did not induce genotoxicity in vivo. In conclusion, 14a has emerged as a new antiplatelet/antithrombotic prototype useful for the prevention of atherothrombotic events. PMID:26457696

  18. Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Prevention Basic Facts & Information Some factors that affect your ... control of the things that you can change. Preventive Recommendations for Adults Aged 65 and Older The ...

  19. Acceptability and Preliminary Outcomes of a Peer-Led Depression Prevention Intervention for African American Adolescents and Young Adults in Employment Training Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tandon, Darius; Mendelson, Tamar; Mance, GiShawn

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the acceptability and preliminary outcomes from an open trial of a depression prevention intervention for low-income African American adolescents and young adults in employment training programs. The sample (N=42) consisted of predominately African American adolescents and young adults (mean age=19.1) exhibiting subclinical…

  20. Preliminary burn and impact tests of hybrid polymeric composites. [preventing graphite fiber release

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tompkins, S. S.; Brewer, W. D.

    1978-01-01

    Free graphite fibers released into the environment from resin matrix composite components, as a result of fire and/or explosion, pose a potential hazard to electrical equipment. An approach to prevent the fibers from becoming airborne is to use hybrid composite materials which retain the fibers at the burn site. Test results are presented for three hybrid composites that were exposed to a simulation of an aircraft fire and explosion. The hybrid systems consisted of 16 plies of graphite-epoxy with two plies of Kevlar-, S-glass-, or boron-epoxy on each face. Two different test environments were used. In one environment, specimens were heated by convection only, and then impacted by a falling mass. In the other environment, specimens were heated by convection and by radiation, but were not impacted. The convective heat flux was about 100-120 kW/m in both environments and the radiative flux was about 110 kW/sq m.

  1. Pilot testing and preliminary evaluation of a suicide prevention education program for emergency department personnel.

    PubMed

    Shim, Ruth S; Compton, Michael T

    2010-12-01

    Emergency department personnel play an important role in recognizing individuals with suicidality and intervening to prevent completed suicide. An educational program was designed to be offered to emergency department personnel, and was piloted with a convenience sample of 54 clinicians. Pre-test and post-test measures showed an increase in knowledge scores (from 7.9 ± 1.9 to 13.6 ± 2.1, P < .001) and self-efficacy scores (from 24.0 ± 9.1 to 32.3 ± 9.2, P < .001) regarding management of suicidal patients or those at elevated risk for suicide in the emergency department immediately after participating in the training session. In addition, participants favorably rated the training session, and would recommend it to others. With further development and refinement, this program could be implemented on a statewide level and targeted at emergency department personnel to enhance their ability to provide appropriate resources, support, and treatment for individuals identified as being at risk for suicide. PMID:19731019

  2. Mixed Production of Filamentous Fungal Spores for Preventing Soil-Transmitted Helminth Zoonoses: A Preliminary Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Arias, M. S.; Cazapal-Monteiro, C. F.; Suárez, J.; Miguélez, S.; Francisco, I.; Arroyo, F. L.; Suárez, J. L.; Paz-Silva, A.; Sánchez-Andrade, R.; Mendoza de Gives, P.

    2013-01-01

    Helminth zoonoses are parasitic infections shared by humans and animals, being the soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) mainly caused by roundworms (ascarids) and hookworms. This study was aimed to assess the individual and/or mixed production of two helminth-antagonistic fungi, one ovicide (Mucor circinelloides) and other predator (Duddingtonia flagrans). Fungi were grown both in Petri plates and in a submerged culture (composed by water, NaCl, Na2HPO4· 12 H2O, and wheat (Triticum aestivum)). A Fasciola hepatica recombinant protein (FhrAPS) was incorporated to the cultures to improve fungal production. All the cultured plates showed fungal growth, without difference in the development of the fungi when grown alone or mixed. High counts of Mucor spores were produced in liquid media cultures, and no significant differences were achieved regarding single or mixed cultures, or the incorporation of the FhrAPS. A significantly higher production of Duddingtonia spores after the incorporation of the FhrAPS was observed. When analyzing the parasiticide efficacy of the fungal mixture, viability of T. canis eggs reduced to 51%, and the numbers of third stage cyathostomin larvae reduced to 4%. It is concluded, the capability of a fungal mixture containing an ovicide (Mucor) and a predator species (Duddingtonia) for growing together in a submerged medium containing the FhrAPS offers a very interesting tool for preventing STHs. PMID:23710451

  3. The prevention of occupational hand dermatitis in bakers, confectioners and employees in the catering trades. Preliminary results of a skin prevention program.

    PubMed

    Bauer, A; Kelterer, D; Stadeler, M; Schneider, W; Kleesz, P; Wollina, U; Elsner, P

    2001-02-01

    Occupational skin diseases (OSD) are among the most frequent occupational diseases (OD). Compared to other occupations, bakers, confectioners and employees in the catering trades are at a high risk of developing OSD. In January 1999, the interdisciplinary Skin Disease Prevention Program in the Baking, Hotel and Catering Industries (SDPP) conducted by the Department of Dermatology and Allergology at the Friedrich Schiller University, Jena, in cooperation with the Research Center for Applied System Safety and Industrial Medicine, Erfurt, and the technical experts at the Social Insurance for the Food Industry and Related Professions (Berufsgenossenschaft für Nahrungsmittel und Gaststätten--(BGN)), Erfurt, was initiated. Following detailed analysis of the occupational exposure of the employees and their personal occupational disease history, the patients' diagnosis and therapy was re-evaluated and supplemented if necessary. Individual skin care and protection regimes were demonstrated and practically trained. Skin care and protection products were supplied. Skin-care and protection seminars were offered to volunteering participants. From January to December 1999, 29 affected employees were examined in the OSD clinic. 22 employees (76%) suffered from irritant contact dermatitis. The follow-up data of 11 employees are available. In 8 employees (73%), the skin disease improved or disappeared. Moreover, in 1 employee (9%), the skin condition was stabilized even though he continued working. In only 2 employees (18%) did the skin condition worsen. These preliminary results showed that most of the OSD were due to lack of or unsuitable skin care and protection. The program will be extended to cover a larger number of food industry employees with OSD. PMID:11205409

  4. Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prevention Treatment 2003 U.S. Outbreak African Rodent Importation Ban For Clinicians Clinical Recognition Specimen Collection Treatment Smallpox ... Examining Animals with Suspected Monkeypox African Rodent Importation Ban Resources Related Links Poxvirus Molluscum Contagiosum Orf Virus ( ...

  5. Embolization by Direct Puncture with a Transpedicular Approach Using an Isocenter Puncture (ISOP) Method in a Patient with a Type II Endoleak After Endovascular Aortic Repair (EVAR)

    SciTech Connect

    Ogawa, Yukihisa Hamaguchi, Shingo; Nishimaki, Hiroshi; Kon, Yuri; Chiba, Kiyoshi; Sakurai, Yuka; Murakami, Kenji; Arai, Yasunori; Miyairi, Takeshi; Nakajima, Yasuo

    2015-06-15

    BackgroundEndovascular aortic repair (EVAR) requires further intervention in 20-30 % of cases, often due to type II endoleak (T2EL). Management options for T2EL include transarterial embolization, direct puncture (DP), or transcaval embolization. We report the case of an 80-year-old man with T2EL who successfully underwent DP embolization.MethodsEmbolization by DP was performed with a transpedicular approach using an isocenter puncture (ISOP) method. An isocenter marker (ICM) was placed at a site corresponding to the aneurysm sac on fluoroscopy in two directions (frontal and lateral views). A vertebroplasty needle was inserted tangentially to the ICM under fluoroscopy and advanced to the anterior wall of the vertebral body. A 20 cm-length, 20-G-PTCD needle was inserted through the outer needle of the 13-G needle and advanced to the ICM. Sac embolization using 25 % N-buty-2-cyanoacrylate diluted with Lipiodol was performed. After complete embolization, rotational DA confirmed good filling of the sac with Lipiodol. The outer cannula and 13-G needle were removed and the procedure was completed.ResultsThe patient was discharged the next day. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography 1 and 8 months later showed no Lipiodol washout in the aneurysm sac, no endoleak recurrence, and no expansion of the excluded aneurysm.ConclusionDP with a transpedicular approach using ISOP may be useful when translumbar and transabdominal approaches prove difficult.

  6. Scaling-up from an implementation trial to state-wide coverage: results from the preliminary Melbourne Diabetes Prevention Study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The successful Greater Green Triangle Diabetes Prevention Program (GGT DPP), a small implementation trial, has been scaled-up to the Victorian state-wide ‘Life!’ programme with over 10,000 individuals enrolled. The Melbourne Diabetes Prevention Study (MDPS) is an evaluation of the translation from the GGT DPP to the Life! programme. We report results from the preliminary phase (pMDPS) of this evaluation. Methods The pMDPS is a randomised controlled trial with 92 individuals aged 50 to 75 at high risk of developing type 2 diabetes randomised to Life! or usual care. Intervention consisted of six structured 90-minute group sessions: five fortnightly sessions and the final session at 8 months. Participants underwent anthropometric and laboratory tests at baseline and 12 months, and provided self-reported psychosocial, dietary, and physical activity measures. Intervention group participants additionally underwent these tests at 3 months. Paired t tests were used to analyse within-group changes over time. Chi-square tests were used to analyse differences between groups in goals met at 12 months. Differences between groups for changes over time were tested with generalised estimating equations and analysis of covariance. Results Intervention participants significantly improved at 12 months in mean body mass index (−0.98 kg/m2, standard error (SE) = 0.26), weight (−2.65 kg, SE = 0.72), waist circumference (−7.45 cm, SE = 1.15), and systolic blood pressure (−3.18 mmHg, SE = 1.26), increased high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (0.07 mmol/l, SE = 0.03), reduced energy from total (−2.00%, SE = 0.78) and saturated fat (−1.54%, SE = 0.41), and increased fibre intake (1.98 g/1,000 kcal energy, SE = 0.47). In controls, oral glucose at 2 hours deteriorated (0.59 mmol/l, SE = 0.27). Only waist circumference reduced significantly (−4.02 cm, SE = 0.95). Intervention participants significantly outperformed controls

  7. Intraoperative DynaCT Detection and Immediate Correction of a Type 1a Endoleak Following Endovascular Repair of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    SciTech Connect

    Biasi, Lukla; Ali, Tahir; Hinchliffe, Robert; Morgan, Rob; Loftus, Ian; Thompson, Matt

    2009-05-15

    Reintervention following endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) is required in up to 10% of patients at 30 days and is associated with a demonstrable risk of increased mortality. Completion angiography cannot detect all graft-related anomalies and computed tomographic angiography is therefore mandatory to ensure clinical success. Intraoperative angiographic computed tomography (DynaCT; Siemens, Germany) utilizes cone beam reconstruction software and flat-panel detectors to generate CT-like images from rotational angiographic acquisitions. We report the intraoperative use of this novel technology in detecting and immediately treating a proximal anterior type Ia endoleak, following an endovascular abdominal aortic repair, which was not seen on completion angiography. Immediate evaluation of cross-sectional imaging following endograft deployment may allow for on-table correction of clinically significant stent-related complications. This should both improve technical success and minimize the need for early secondary intervention following EVAR.

  8. Evaluation of the natural product antifoulant, zosteric acid, for preventing the attachment of quagga mussels--a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Ram, Jeffrey L; Purohit, Sonal; Newby, Bi-Min Zhang; Cutright, Teresa J

    2012-01-01

    The effectiveness of zosteric acid, a natural antifoulant from the marine seagrass Zostera marina, in preventing the attachment of quagga mussels, a biofouling bivalve, was investigated. Animals were exposed to water containing zosteric acid ranging from 0 to 1000 ppm, and their attachment to the container glass walls was tracked with time. 500 ppm zosteric acid was not effective at detaching animals that had already attached, but was able to prevent the attachment of most unattached animals for two days. The anti-fouling effect increased with higher concentration. Low concentrations (250 ppm and below) were not effective at preventing attachment; however, 1000 ppm zosteric acid prevented attachment of mussels for the first three days of zosteric acid exposure, and only 20% of the mussels were attached by day 4. In contrast, animals in control (no zosteric acid) solutions began to attach within one day. In conclusion, zosteric acid is an effective natural product deterrent of attachment of a biofouling bivalve. PMID:21861646

  9. Hip-Hop to Prevent Substance Use and HIV among African-American Youth: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner-Musa, Jocelyn O.; Rhodes, Warren A.; Harper, P. Thandi Hicks; Quinton, Sylvia L.

    2008-01-01

    Substance use and HIV risk behaviors are increasing among African-American youth. Interventions that incorporate youth values and beliefs are needed to reduce this trajectory. Hip-hop plays an important role in the lives of many African-American youth and provides a context within which to prevent risky behaviors. The current study examines the…

  10. A Preliminary Study of the Prevention of Ice on Aircraft by the Use of Engine-exhaust Heat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodert, Lewis A

    1939-01-01

    An investigation was made in the N.A.C.A. ice tunnel at air temperatures from 20 degrees to 28 degrees Fahrenheit and at a velocity of 80 miles per hour to determine whether ice formations on a model wing could be prevented by the use of the heat from the engine-exhaust gas. Various spanwise duct systems were tested in a 6-foot-chord N.A.C.A. 23012 wing model. The formation of ice over the entire wing chord was prevented by the direct heating of the forward 10 percent of the wing by hot air, which was passed through leading-edge ducts. Under dry conditions, enough heat to maintain the temperature of the forward 10 percent of the wing at about 200 degrees Fahrenheit above that of the ambient air was required for the prevention of ice formation. The air temperature in the ducts that was necessary to produce these skin temperatures varied from 360 degrees to 834 degrees Fahrenheit; the corresponding air velocities in the duct were 152 and 45 feet per second. Ice formations at the leading edge were locally prevented by air that passed over the interior of the wing surface at a velocity of 30 feet per second and a temperature of 122 degrees Fahrenheit.

  11. Randomized Controlled Trial of the Prevent-Teach-Reinforce (PTR) Tertiary Intervention for Students with Problem Behaviors: Preliminary Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iovannone, Rose; Greenbaum, Paul E.; Wang, Wei; Kincaid, Don; Dunlap, Glen; Strain, Phil

    2009-01-01

    Although there is literature supporting the effectiveness of tertiary behavioral supports, the majority of the studies have been conducted with single-subject designs. The Prevent-Teach-Reinforce (PTR) model is a standardized model of a school-based tertiary intervention. This study reports initial results from a randomized controlled trial to…

  12. Preliminary Predictors of within-Session Adherence to Exposure and Response Prevention in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Jessica; Caporino, Nicole E.; De Nadai, Alessandro S.; Truax, Tatyana; Lewin, Adam B.; Jung, Leah; Park, Jennifer M.; Khan, Yasmeen Ali; Murphy, Tanya K.; Storch, Eric A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cognitive-behavioral therapy with exposure and response prevention (ERP) is an effective treatment for pediatric OCD; however, up to 30 % of children are treatment non-responders and as many as 40% are partial responders. Although poor treatment adherence has been linked to attenuated response in adults with OCD, little research has…

  13. A Preliminary Evaluation of Two Behavioral Skills Training Procedures for Teaching Abduction-Prevention Skills to Schoolchildren

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Brigitte M.; Miltenberger, Raymond G.; Knudson, Peter; Egemo-Helm, Kristin; Kelso, Pamela; Jostad, Candice; Langley, Linda

    2006-01-01

    Although child abduction is a low-rate event, it presents a serious threat to the safety of children. The victims of child abduction face the threat of physical and emotional injury, sexual abuse, and death. Previous research has shown that behavioral skills training (BST) is effective in teaching children abduction-prevention skills, although not…

  14. The Use of a Narrative Simulation in Rural Residential Fire Prevention: A Preliminary Study in Changes of Behaviorial Intention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goetz, William Clark

    2013-01-01

    Rural Kentucky residents suffer twice as many fire residential deaths than the national average. Fire prevention programs are primarily aimed at elementary school children however these children do not make the decisions nor take the precautions necessary to alter these conditions; their adult parents do. There is little research into the…

  15. Bully Prevention in Positive Behavior Support: Preliminary Evaluation of Third-, Fourth-, and Fifth-Grade Attitudes toward Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Scott W.; Horner, Robert H.

    2014-01-01

    The current pilot study demonstrates the potential of adding simple and efficient bully prevention strategies to already established School-Wide Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports. The self-report surveys of third-, fourth-, and fifth-grade students from three elementary schools evaluated the relationship between the implementation of…

  16. HEALING OF THE CANOE: PRELIMINARY RESULTS OF A CULTURALLY GROUNDED INTERVENTION TO PREVENT SUBSTANCE ABUSE AND PROMOTE TRIBAL IDENTITY FOR NATIVE YOUTH IN TWO PACIFIC NORTHWEST TRIBE

    PubMed Central

    Donovan, Dennis M.; Thomas, Lisa Rey; Sigo, Robin Little Wing; Price, Laura; Lonczak, Heather; Lawrence, Nigel; Ahvakana, Katie; Austin, Lisette; Lawrence, Albie; Price, Joseph; Purser, Abby; Bagley, Lenora

    2015-01-01

    Using Community-Based and tribal Participatory Research (CBPR/TPR) approaches, an academic-tribal partnership between the University of Washington Alcohol and Drug Abuse Institute and the Suquamish and Port Gamble S’Klallam Tribes developed a culturally grounded social skills intervention to promote increased cultural belonging and prevent substance abuse among tribal youth. Participation in the intervention, which used the Canoe Journey as a metaphor for life, was associated with increased hope, optimism, and self-efficacy and with reduced substance use, as well as with higher levels of cultural identity and knowledge about alcohol and drugs among high school-age tribal youth. These results provide preliminary support for the intervention curricula in promoting positive youth development, an optimistic future orientation, and the reduction of substance use among Native youth. PMID:25768390

  17. Prophylactic volume expansion therapy for the prevention of delayed cerebral ischemia after early aneurysm surgery. Results of a preliminary trial.

    PubMed

    Solomon, R A; Fink, M E; Lennihan, L

    1988-03-01

    From June 1986 to June 1987, 47 consecutive patients with ruptured intracranial aneurysms were treated with immediate aneurysm surgery and prophylactic volume expansion therapy for ten to 14 days after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Twenty-four patients were admitted within three days of SAH. Twenty-three of these patients had an excellent result, and one patient died. There were no cases of delayed cerebral infarction. In 18 of 23 patients admitted more than three days after SAH, there was an excellent result. The other five patients had permanent morbidity related to the original SAH. These preliminary data suggest that immediate aneurysm surgery and aggressive postoperative prophylactic volume expansion in all patients can substantially reduce rebleeding and delayed cerebral ischemia, potential causes of morbidity, after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. A more extensive prospective trial of this approach will be required to test this hypothesis. PMID:3277601

  18. The Primary Prevention of PTSD in Firefighters: Preliminary Results of an RCT with 12-Month Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Rees, Clare S.; Mazzucchelli, Trevor G.; Kane, Robert T.

    2016-01-01

    Aim To develop and evaluate an evidence-based and theory driven program for the primary prevention of Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Design A pre-intervention / post-intervention / follow up control group design with clustered random allocation of participants to groups was used. The “control” group received “Training as Usual” (TAU). Method Participants were 45 career recruits within the recruit school at the Department of Fire and Emergency Services (DFES) in Western Australia. The intervention group received a four-hour resilience training intervention (Mental Agility and Psychological Strength training) as part of their recruit training school curriculum. Data was collected at baseline and at 6- and 12-months post intervention. Results We found no evidence that the intervention was effective in the primary prevention of mental health issues, nor did we find any significant impact of MAPS training on social support or coping strategies. A significant difference across conditions in trauma knowledge is indicative of some impact of the MAPS program. Conclusion While the key hypotheses were not supported, this study is the first randomised control trial investigating the primary prevention of PTSD. Practical barriers around the implementation of this program, including constraints within the recruit school, may inform the design and implementation of similar programs in the future. Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR) ACTRN12615001362583 PMID:27382968

  19. Preliminary design of a simple passive toe exercise apparatus with a flexible metal hydride actuator for pressure ulcer prevention.

    PubMed

    Ino, Shuichi; Sato, Mitsuru; Hosono, Minako; Nakajima, Sawako; Yamashita, Kazuhiko; Izumi, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    In an aging society, social demands for home-based rehabilitation and assistive technologies by healthcare and welfare services are globally increasing. The progress of quality-of-life technologies and rehabilitation science is a very important and urgent issue for elderly and disabled individuals as well as for their caregivers. Thus, there is a substantial need to develop simple bedside apparatuses for both continuous exercise of joints and for power assistance for standing to prevent and manage disuse syndromes (e.g., pressure ulcers, joint contractures and muscular atrophy). Unfortunately, there are currently no commercially-available actuators compatible with the human requirements of flexibility, quietness, lightness and a high power-to-weight ratio. To fulfill the above demands, we have developed a novel actuation device using a metal hydride (MH) alloy and a laminate film, called the flexible MH actuator, as a human-friendly force generator for healthcare and welfare services. In this paper, we show the basic structure and characteristics of the flexible MH actuator used to create a passive exercise system for preventing disuse syndromes. To evaluate the efficiency of passive exercise for bedsore prevention, subcutaneous blood flow during passive exercise at common pressure-ulcer sites is measured by a laser blood flow meter. The force and range-of-motion angle required for a passive exercise apparatus is also examined with the help of a professional physical therapist. Based on these findings, a prototype of a passive exercise apparatus is fabricated using the flexible MH actuator technology, and its operation characteristics are preliminarily verified using a thermoelectric control system. PMID:21096304

  20. Feasibility, Acceptability, and Preliminary Efficacy of an Online HIV Prevention Program for Diverse Young Men who have Sex with Men: The Keep It Up! Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Mustanski, Brian; Garofalo, Robert; Monahan, Colleen; Gratzer, Beau; Andrews, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) are disproportionately infected with HIV/AIDS and there are few prevention programs with published efficacy for this population. This study evaluated the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy of an online, interactive, and highly engaging HIV prevention program called Keep It Up! The intervention was designed to be delivered to diverse YMSM upon receiving an HIV negative text result, with the goal for them to “Keep It Up” and stay negative. In a randomized clinical trial, the intervention was compared to an online didactic HIV knowledge condition. The study sample included 102 sexually active YMSM. Participants reported completing online modules in settings that were private and not distracting. Mixed methods data showed intervention participants felt the program was valuable and acceptable. Compared to the control condition, participants in the intervention arm had a 44 % lower rate of unprotected anal sex acts at the 12-week follow-up (p < 0.05). PMID:23673793

  1. A randomised controlled trial of probiotics for the prevention of spontaneous preterm delivery associated with bacterial vaginosis: preliminary results

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Bacterial vaginosis increases the risk of spontaneous preterm delivery at less than 34 weeks of gestation. Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the early administration of selected lactobacilli strains (probiotics) to pregnant women with asymptomatic bacterial vaginosis/intermediate-degree infections to prevent spontaneous premature delivery and associated neonatal morbidity. Methods/Design Asymptomatic pregnant women at less than 20 weeks of gestation, with no indication of elective preterm delivery, with a vaginal pH ≥ 4.5 and Nugent score > 3 were randomly assigned to the placebo or intervention group (oral administration of selected lactobacilli up to the 24th to 26th week of gestation). The randomisation was stratified for the history of premature delivery (HPD) and blocked. The allocation was concealed, and the participating health professionals and patients were blinded. The primary outcome was preterm delivery (<34 to <32 weeks), and the secondary outcomes were associated neonatal complications. Results In total, 4,204 pregnant women were screened; 320 and 324 individuals were respectively randomly assigned to the placebo and intervention groups, and 62% finished the trial. None of the randomised patients were lost to follow-up. For the non-HPD stratum, the intent-to-treat relative risks of spontaneous premature birth at < 34 and < 37 weeks' gestation were 0.33 (0.03, 3.16) and 0.49 (0.17, 1.44), respectively, and they were non-significant (ns) with p = 0.31 and 0.14. The corresponding actual treatment figures were zero and 0.32 (0.09, 1.19), which were ns with p = 0.12 and 0.06. The intent-to-treat relative risk of spontaneous premature birth at < 37 weeks of gestation for the trial as a whole, including HPD and non-HPD participants, was 0.69 (0.26, 1.78), p = 0.30 (ns). The neonatal complications under evaluation occurred in only one infant (< 34 weeks; placebo group) who presented with respiratory distress

  2. Is radiation-induced ovarian failure in rhesus monkeys preventable by luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonists?: Preliminary observations

    SciTech Connect

    Ataya, K.; Pydyn, E.; Ramahi-Ataya

    1995-03-01

    With the advent of cancer therapy, increasing numbers of cancer patients are achieving long term survival. Impaired ovarian function after radiation therapy has been reported in several studies. Some investigators have suggested that luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonists (LHRHa) can prevent radiation-induced ovarian injury in rodents. Adult female rhesus monkeys were given either vehicle or Leuprolide acetate before, during, and after radiation. Radiation was given in a dose of 200 rads/day for a total of 4000 rads to the ovaries. Frequent serum samples were assayed for estradiol (E{sub 2}) and FSH. Ovariectomy was performed later. Ovaries were processed and serially sectioned. Follicle count and size distribution were determined. Shortly after radiation started, E{sub 2} dropped to low levels, at which it remained, whereas serum FSH level, which was low before radiation, rose soon after starting radiation. In monkeys treated with a combination of LHRHa and radiation, FSH started rising soon after the LHRHa-loaded minipump was removed (after the end of radiation). Serum E{sub 2} increased after the end of LHRHa treatment in the non-irradiated monkey, but not in the irradiated monkey. Follicle counts were not preserved in the LHRHa-treated monkeys that received radiation. The data demonstrated no protective effect of LHRHa treatment against radiation-induced ovarian injury in this rhesus monkey model. 58 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  3. TexiCare: an innovative embedded device for pressure ulcer prevention. Preliminary results with a paraplegic volunteer.

    PubMed

    Chenu, Olivier; Vuillerme, Nicolas; Bucki, Marek; Diot, Bruno; Cannard, Francis; Payan, Yohan

    2013-08-01

    This paper introduces the recently developed TexiCare device that aims at preventing pressure ulcers for people with spinal cord injury. This embedded device is aimed to be mounted on the user wheelchair. Its sensor is 100% textile and allows the measurement of pressures at the interface between the cushion and the buttocks. It is comfortable, washable and low cost. It is connected to a cigarette-box sized unit that (i) measures the pressures in real time, (ii) estimates the risk for internal over-strains, and (iii) alerts the wheelchair user whenever necessary. The alert method has been defined as a result of a utility/usability/acceptability study conducted with representative end users. It is based on a tactile-visual feedback (via a watch or a smartphone for example): the tactile modality is used to discreetly alarm the person while the visual modality conveys an informative message. In order to evaluate the usability of the TexiCare device, a paraplegic volunteer equipped his wheelchair at home during a six months period. Interestingly, the first results revealed bad habits such as an inadequate posture when watching TV, rare relief maneuvers, and the occurrence of abnormal high pressures. PMID:23791763

  4. Efficacy of intermittent sub-glottic suctioning in prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia- A preliminary study of 100 patients

    PubMed Central

    Vijai, MN; Ravi, Parli R; Setlur, Rangaraj; Vardhan, Harsh

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Oropharyngeal colonisation followed by aspiration of contaminated secretions is the major cause for ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). Pooled secretions present in the sub-glottic area above inflated endotracheal tube cuff may be aspirated into the lower airways. It was hypothesised that intermittent suctioning of sub-glottic secretions would prevent VAP. Methods: Group I (n = 50) patients were intubated with HiLo Evac™ endotracheal (ET) tube with facility for sub-glottic suctioning, and Group II (n = 50) patients were intubated with HiLo Contour™ ET tube without such facility. In the Group I, sub-glottic suctioning was performed every 2 h. Incidence of VAP, mean ventilator days, Intensive Care Unit (ICU) stay and mortality were compared. Qualitative variables were reported as percentages and were compared by Chi-square test or unpaired two-tailed, Fisher's exact test, as appropriate, to analyse the significance of difference between the two groups. Results: The two groups were similar with respect to demographic characteristics. VAP was seen in 6% of patients in Group I and 22% of patients in Group II (P = 0.021). Both early- and late-onset VAPs were significantly reduced in Group I. Both ventilator days (8.0 vs. 6.45; P = 0.001) and ICU stay (8.33 vs. 6.33; P = 0.001) on the day of onset of VAP were significantly more in the Group I. Total ventilator days were significantly less (6.52 vs. 8.32; P = 0.006) with lower incidence of mortality (36% vs. 48%; P = 0.224) in the Group I. Conclusion: Intermittent sub-glottic suctioning reduces the incidence of VAP including late-onset VAP.

  5. A Preliminary Trial of a Prototype Internet Dissonance-Based Eating Disorder Prevention Program for Young Women with Body Image Concerns

    PubMed Central

    Stice, Eric; Rohde, Paul; Durant, Shelley; Shaw, Heather

    2012-01-01

    Objective A group dissonance-based eating disorder prevention program, in which young women critique the thin-ideal, reduces eating disorder risk factors and symptoms, but it can be difficult to identify school clinicians with the time and expertise to deliver the intervention. Thus, we developed a prototype Internet version of this program and evaluated it in a preliminary trial. Method Female college students with body dissatisfaction (N = 107; M age = 21.6 SD = 6.6) were randomized to the Internet intervention, group intervention, educational video condition or educational brochure condition. Results Internet and group participants showed greater pre-post reductions in eating disorder risk factors and symptoms than video controls (M d = .47 and .54 respectively) and brochure controls (M d = .75 and .72, respectively), with many effects reaching significance. Effects did not differ significantly for Internet versus group participants (M d = -.13) or for video versus brochure controls (M d = .25). Effect sizes for the Internet intervention were similar to those previously observed for group versions of this intervention. Conclusions Results suggest that this prototype Internet intervention is as efficacious as the group intervention, implying there would be merit in completing this intervention and evaluating it in a fully powered trial. PMID:22506791

  6. Type 2 Endoleaks: The Diagnostic Performance of Non-Specialized Readers on Arterial and Venous Phase Multi-Slice CT Angiography

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To define the diagnostic precision of non-specialized readers in the detection of type 2 endoleaks (T2EL) in arterial versus venous phase acquisitions, and to evaluate an approach for radiation dose reduction. Methods The pre-discharge and final follow-up multi-slice CT angiographies of 167 patients were retrospectively analyzed. Image data were separated into an arterial and a venous phase reading set. Two radiology residents assessed the reading sets for the presence of a T2EL, feeding vessels, and aneurysm sac size. Findings were compared with a standard of reference established by two experts in interventional radiology. The effective dose was calculated. Results Overall, experts detected 131 T2ELs, and 331 feeding vessels in 334 examinations. Persistent T2ELs causing aneurysm sac growth > 5 mm were detected in 20 patients. Radiation in arterial and venous phases contributed to a mean of 58.6% and 39.0% of the total effective dose. Findings of reader 1 and 2 showed comparable sensitivities in arterial sets of 80.9 versus 85.5 (p = 0.09), and in venous sets of 73.3 versus 79.4 (p = 0.15), respectively. Reader 1 and 2 achieved a significant higher detection rate of feeding vessels with arterial compared to venous set (p = 0.04, p < 0.01). Both readers correctly identified T2ELs with growing aneurysm sac in all cases, independent of the acquisition phase. Conclusion Arterial acquisitions enable non-specialized readers an accurate detection of T2ELs, and a significant better identification of feeding vessels. Based on our results, it seems reasonable to eliminate venous phase acquisitions. PMID:26930490

  7. Using PANDA (Preventing the Abuse of Tobacco, Narcotics, Drugs, and Alcohol) in a Baltimore City Head Start Setting: A Preliminary Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belcher, Harolyn M. E.; Lockhart, Paula J.; Perkins-Parks, Susan; McNally, Margaret

    2000-01-01

    Describes an evaluation of a substance abuse prevention curriculum, Preventing the Abuse of Tobacco, Narcotics, Drugs, and Alcohol (PANDA), taught to African American Head Start preschool students, examining changes in children's self-concept following participation. Overall, students demonstrated significantly improved self-concept, and PANDA…

  8. INTEGRATION OF POLLUTION PREVENTION TOOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A prototype computer-based decision support system was designed to provide small businesses with an integrated pollution prevention methodology. Preliminary research involved compilation of an inventory of existing pollution prevention tools (i.e., methodologies, software, etc.),...

  9. The Preliminary Findings of a Study Exploring the Perceptions of a Sample of Young Heterosexual Males regarding HIV Prevention Education Programming in Nova Scotia, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gahagan, Jacqueline; Rehman, Laurene; Barbour, Laura; McWilliam, Susan

    2007-01-01

    Despite the increasing numbers of young Canadian females becoming infected with HIV through heterosexual transmission with an infected male sexual partner, the majority of current HIV prevention programs and services in Canada continue to ignore the needs of young heterosexual males. This research is derived from 30 in-depth interviews, 9 focus…

  10. A Preliminary Trial of a Prototype Internet Dissonance-Based Eating Disorder Prevention Program for Young Women with Body Image Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stice, Eric; Rohde, Paul; Durant, Shelley; Shaw, Heather

    2012-01-01

    Objective: A group dissonance-based eating disorder prevention program, in which young women critique the thin ideal, reduces eating disorder risk factors and symptoms, but it can be difficult to identify school clinicians with the time and expertise to deliver the intervention. Thus, we developed a prototype Internet version of this program and…

  11. Preliminary Effectiveness of Surviving the Teens[R] Suicide Prevention and Depression Awareness Program on Adolescents' Suicidality and Self-Efficacy in Performing Help-Seeking Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Keith A.; Strunk, Catherine M.; Sorter, Michael T.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Suicide ranks as the third leading cause of death among youth aged 15-24 years. Schools provide ideal opportunities for suicide prevention efforts. However, research is needed to identify programs that effectively impact youth suicidal ideation and behavior. This study examined the immediate and 3-month effect of Surviving the Teens[R]…

  12. Preliminary Data: An Adapted Hospital Elder Life Program to Prevent Delirium and Reduce Complications of Acute Illness in Long-Term Care Delivered by Certified Nursing Assistants.

    PubMed

    Boockvar, Kenneth S; Teresi, Jeanne A; Inouye, Sharon K

    2016-05-01

    Nursing home (NH) residents have a high prevalence of delirium risk factors, experience two to four acute medical conditions (e.g., infections) each year, and have an incidence of delirium during these conditions similar to that of hospitalized older adults. Many NH residents with delirium do not return to their prior level of cognitive function. They are more likely to die, be hospitalized, and less likely to be discharged home than those without delirium. Research on the prevention or treatment of delirium in NHs is limited. This article describes the development and pilot testing of a multicomponent delirium prevention intervention in the NH setting adapted from the Hospital Elder Life Program (HELP-LTC). Activities to reduce the risk of delirium that were appropriate for functionally impaired NH residents were developed and delivered during treatment for and recovery from acute illness, a novel resident-targeting approach. Expertly trained certified nursing assistants (CNAs - a total of 1.4 full-time equivalent (FTE) positions-) visited residents throughout the facility and delivered the activities. The current study reports on incident delirium, delirium remission, cognitive and physical function change, hospitalization, and death associated with acute medical conditions as ascertained by a program coordinator. The integration and acceptance of the CNAs' activities by residents and staff are also reported on. Hospitalization and death were ascertained in a nonintervention comparison group. Findings support a test of the intervention in a controlled trial. The potential effect is great; there are approximately 1.4 million NH residents in the United States and an estimated 1 million with dementia or cognitive impairment, an important delirium risk factor. An intervention would be broadly adoptable if a reduction in healthcare costs through prevention of hospitalization offset the cost of the program's CNAs. PMID:27160212

  13. Development of a New Hanging-Type Esophageal Stent for Preventing Migration: A Preliminary Study in an Animal Model of Esophagotracheal Fistula

    SciTech Connect

    Endo, Masayuki Kaminou, Toshio Ohuchi, Yasufumi; Sugiura, Kimihiko; Yata, Shinsaku Adachi, Akira Kawai, Tsuyoshi Takasugi, Syohei Yamamoto, Shuichi Matsumoto, Kensuke; Hashimoto, Masayuki; Ihaya, Takashi; Ogawa, Toshihide

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: Covered, self-expandable metallic stents (SEMS) have been enthusiastically adopted for the treatment of esophagotracheal fistula, but problems with stent migration have yet to be resolved. To overcome this problem, we have developed a new hanging-type esophageal stent designed to prevent migration, and we conducted an animal study to assess the efficacy of our method. Methods: A total of six female pigs were used in this study. The main characteristic of our stent was the presence of a string tied to the proximal edge of the stent for fixation under the skin of the neck. The first experiment was performed to confirm technical feasibility in three pigs with esophagotracheal fistula. The second experiment was performed to evaluate stent migration and esophagotracheal fistula in three pigs. Results: Creation of the esophagotracheal fistula and stent placement were technically successful in all pigs. In the first experiment, esophagotracheal fistula was sealed by stent placement. In the second experiment, no stent migration was seen 11 or 12 days after stent placement. Gross findings showed no fistulas on the esophageal or tracheal wall. Conclusions: Our new hanging-type esophageal stent seems to offer a feasible method for preventing stent migration.

  14. The Efficacy of Umbelliferone, Arbutin, and N-Acetylcysteine to Prevent Microbial Colonization and Biofilm Development on Urinary Catheter Surface: Results from a Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Tommaso; Gallelli, Luca; Meacci, Francesca; Brugnolli, Anna; Prosperi, Letizia; Roberta, Stefani; Eccher, Cristina; Mazzoli, Sandra; Lanzafame, Paolo; Caciagli, Patrizio; Malossini, Gianni; Bartoletti, Riccardo

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated, in a preliminary study, the efficacy of umbelliferone, arbutin, and N-acetylcysteine to inhibit biofilm formation on urinary catheter. We used 20 urinary catheters: 5 catheters were incubated with Enterococcus faecalis (control group); 5 catheters were incubated with E. faecalis in presence of umbelliferone (150 mg), arbutin (60 mg), and N-acetylcysteine (150 mg) (group 1); 5 catheters were incubated with E. faecalis in presence of umbelliferone (150 mg), arbutin (60 mg), and N-acetylcysteine (400 mg) (group 2); and 5 catheters were incubated with E. faecalis in presence of umbelliferone (300 mg), arbutin (60 mg), and N-acetylcysteine (150 mg) (group 3). After 72 hours, planktonic microbial growth and microorganisms on catheter surface were assessed. In the control group, we found a planktonic load of ≥105 CFU/mL in the inoculation medium and retrieved 3.69 × 106 CFU/cm from the sessile cells adherent to the catheter surface. A significantly lower amount in planktonic (p < 0.001) and sessile (p = 0.004) bacterial load was found in group 3, showing <100 CFU/mL and 0.12 × 106 CFU/cm in the incubation medium and on the catheter surface, respectively. In groups 1 and 2, 1.67 × 106 CFU/cm and 1.77 × 106 CFU/cm were found on catheter surface. Our results document that umbelliferone, arbutin, and N-acetylcysteine are able to reduce E. faecalis biofilm development on the surface of urinary catheters. PMID:27127655

  15. The Efficacy of Umbelliferone, Arbutin, and N-Acetylcysteine to Prevent Microbial Colonization and Biofilm Development on Urinary Catheter Surface: Results from a Preliminary Study.

    PubMed

    Cai, Tommaso; Gallelli, Luca; Meacci, Francesca; Brugnolli, Anna; Prosperi, Letizia; Roberta, Stefani; Eccher, Cristina; Mazzoli, Sandra; Lanzafame, Paolo; Caciagli, Patrizio; Malossini, Gianni; Bartoletti, Riccardo

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated, in a preliminary study, the efficacy of umbelliferone, arbutin, and N-acetylcysteine to inhibit biofilm formation on urinary catheter. We used 20 urinary catheters: 5 catheters were incubated with Enterococcus faecalis (control group); 5 catheters were incubated with E. faecalis in presence of umbelliferone (150 mg), arbutin (60 mg), and N-acetylcysteine (150 mg) (group 1); 5 catheters were incubated with E. faecalis in presence of umbelliferone (150 mg), arbutin (60 mg), and N-acetylcysteine (400 mg) (group 2); and 5 catheters were incubated with E. faecalis in presence of umbelliferone (300 mg), arbutin (60 mg), and N-acetylcysteine (150 mg) (group 3). After 72 hours, planktonic microbial growth and microorganisms on catheter surface were assessed. In the control group, we found a planktonic load of ≥10(5) CFU/mL in the inoculation medium and retrieved 3.69 × 10(6) CFU/cm from the sessile cells adherent to the catheter surface. A significantly lower amount in planktonic (p < 0.001) and sessile (p = 0.004) bacterial load was found in group 3, showing <100 CFU/mL and 0.12 × 10(6) CFU/cm in the incubation medium and on the catheter surface, respectively. In groups 1 and 2, 1.67 × 10(6) CFU/cm and 1.77 × 10(6) CFU/cm were found on catheter surface. Our results document that umbelliferone, arbutin, and N-acetylcysteine are able to reduce E. faecalis biofilm development on the surface of urinary catheters. PMID:27127655

  16. [Preventive effect of an immunomodulator, OM-85 BV, on acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis in elderly patients. Preliminary results at six months in 291 patients].

    PubMed

    Orcel, B; Delclaux, B; Baud, M; Derenne, J P

    1993-01-01

    Three hundred fifty six patients aged 65 years or more (mean age 81.8 years) who were suffering from chronic bronchitis were included in a double-blind trial against placebo to assess the preventative effect of OM-85 BV against acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis. OM-85 BV is an immunostimulant composed of lyophilised factions of 8 bacteria which are most frequently encountered during the course of respiratory tract infections. 291 patients completed the study. In the group treated by OM-85 BV, a significant increase in the number of patients with no episode of acute bronchitis was noted (96 versus 71, p = 0.006). There was a 38.8% reduction in the absolute numbers of episodes of acute bronchitis and a 33% reduction in the number of prescriptions for antibiotics, however there was no difference in the number of pneumonias and bronchopneumonias. These results show the protective effect of OM-85 BV against bronchial superinfections in a large population of elderly patients suffering from chronic bronchitis. PMID:8451491

  17. Development and preliminary data on the use of a mobile app specifically designed to increase community awareness of invasive pneumococcal disease and its prevention.

    PubMed

    Panatto, Donatella; Domnich, Alexander; Gasparini, Roberto; Bonanni, Paolo; Icardi, Giancarlo; Amicizia, Daniela; Arata, Lucia; Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Signori, Alessio; Landa, Paolo; Bechini, Angela; Boccalini, Sara

    2016-04-01

    Given the growing use and great potential of mobile apps, this project aimed to develop and implement a user-friendly app to increase laypeople's knowledge and awareness of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). Despite the heavy burden of IPD, the documented low awareness of IPD among both laypeople and healthcare professionals and far from optimal pneumococcal vaccination coverage, no app specifically targeting IPD has been developed so far. The app was designed to be maximally functional and conceived in accordance with user-centered design. Its content, layout and usability were discussed and formally tested during several workshops that involved the principal stakeholders, including experts in IPD and information technology and potential end-users. Following several workshops, it was decided that, in order to make the app more interactive, its core should be a personal "checker" of the risk of contracting IPD and a user-friendly risk-communication strategy. The checker was populated with risk factors identified through both Italian and international official guidelines. Formal evaluation of the app revealed its good readability and usability properties. A sister web site with the same content was created to achieve higher population exposure. Seven months after being launched in a price- and registration-free modality, the app, named "Pneumo Rischio," averaged 20.9 new users/day and 1.3 sessions/user. The first in-field results suggest that "Pneumo Rischio" is a promising tool for increasing the population's awareness of IPD and its prevention through a user-friendly risk checker. PMID:26795065

  18. Development and preliminary data on the use of a mobile app specifically designed to increase community awareness of invasive pneumococcal disease and its prevention

    PubMed Central

    Panatto, Donatella; Domnich, Alexander; Gasparini, Roberto; Bonanni, Paolo; Icardi, Giancarlo; Amicizia, Daniela; Arata, Lucia; Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Signori, Alessio; Landa, Paolo; Bechini, Angela; Boccalini, Sara

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Given the growing use and great potential of mobile apps, this project aimed to develop and implement a user-friendly app to increase laypeople's knowledge and awareness of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). Despite the heavy burden of IPD, the documented low awareness of IPD among both laypeople and healthcare professionals and far from optimal pneumococcal vaccination coverage, no app specifically targeting IPD has been developed so far. The app was designed to be maximally functional and conceived in accordance with user-centered design. Its content, layout and usability were discussed and formally tested during several workshops that involved the principal stakeholders, including experts in IPD and information technology and potential end-users. Following several workshops, it was decided that, in order to make the app more interactive, its core should be a personal “checker” of the risk of contracting IPD and a user-friendly risk-communication strategy. The checker was populated with risk factors identified through both Italian and international official guidelines. Formal evaluation of the app revealed its good readability and usability properties. A sister web site with the same content was created to achieve higher population exposure. Seven months after being launched in a price- and registration-free modality, the app, named “Pneumo Rischio,” averaged 20.9 new users/day and 1.3 sessions/user. The first in-field results suggest that “Pneumo Rischio” is a promising tool for increasing the population's awareness of IPD and its prevention through a user-friendly risk checker. PMID:26795065

  19. Preventing stroke

    MedlinePlus

    Stroke - prevention; CVA - prevention; cerebral vascular accident - prevention; TIA - prevention, transient ischemic attack - prevention ... Clinical Cardiology; Council on Functional Genomics and ... Council on Hypertension. Guidelines for the primary prevention ...

  20. From Acquaintance to Engagement: Support in Confronting Primary Prevention Hassles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Israelashvili, Moshe

    2008-01-01

    For many students the importance of primary prevention is unquestionable. However, once they are exposed to the large number of problems that prevention practitioners and prevention scientists face, their preliminary enthusiasm decreases. It is suggested that in order to keep students' positive attitude toward primary prevention and to empower…

  1. Preliminary simulation study of a coincidence Avalanche Pixel Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vignetti, M. M.; Calmon, F.; Cellier, R.; Pittet, P.; Quiquerez, L.; Savoy-Navarro, A.

    2015-06-01

    In this paper a preliminary study of coincidence Avalanche Pixel Sensors (APiX) for High Energy Physics (HEP) applications is presented. In this preliminary work, some PEB prevention techniques found in literature have been studied by TCAD simulations adopting 2D Cylindrical geometrical models and 130nm CMOS process technological data.

  2. Preventing Suicide

    MedlinePlus

    ... The top three methods used in suicides include firearms (49.9%), suffocation (26.7%), and poisoning (15. ... Content source: National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Division of Violence Prevention Page maintained by: Office ...

  3. Drowning Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Drowning Prevention: Information for Parents Page Content Article Body Drowning ... in very cold water for lengthy periods. Drowning Prevention: Know the Warning Signs These signs may signal ...

  4. Bibliographies from the Center for Multicultural Awareness: An Annotated Bibliography of Children's Folklore from Five U.S. Minority Cultures and A Preliminary Bibliography on Primary Prevention of Drug Abuse for Minority Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Development Associates, Inc., Arlington, VA.

    Five minority cultures in the United States (Black, Asian/Pacific Islander, Mexican American, Native American, and Puerto Rican) have been targeted for special Federal drug abuse prevention programs and resources served by the Center for Multicultural Awareness. The folktales listed in the first bibliography represent a cross-section of the best…

  5. Preventing Rejection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Drug Assistance Lifestyle Changes Back to Work or School Physical Changes Relationship Changes Pregnancy Precautions Fertility Labor & Delivery Breastfeeding Risks Cancer Types Risk Factors Prevention & Early Detection ...

  6. Optimizing the technological and informational relationship of the health care process and of the communication between physician and patient. The impact of Preventive Medicine and social marketing applied in Health Care on youth awareness–Preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Gheorghe, IR; Petrescu, GD

    2011-01-01

    Rationale. In this case study we wanted to find out the impact of Preventive Medicine and implicitly social marketing upon young students with the average age of 19, belonging to the academic environment in Romania. Methods The study lasted one month and consisted of a questionnaire that was conceived and applied to 304 adolescents. The questionnaire contained demographic and personal information, such as age, origin, gender, marital status and some questions related to the respondents' attitude towards several issues that are inserted in the preventive medicine discipline, such as the date of their last consultation, if the respondents were registered to a family physician, suffered from chronic diseases, what was the rate of doing physical exercises, if they ate salty and fat meals, if they were on a diet, their rate of alcohol, caffeine and tobacco consumption. Discussion. Ostium secundum defect is the most common type of atrial septal defect and accounts for 60–70% of all cases. The malformation often goes unnoticed for decades because symptoms may be absent and because physical signs are subtle. Symptoms usually take 30–40 years to develop. They are the consequences of pulmonary hypertension, atrial tachyarrhythmias and, sometimes, associated mitral valve disease. ResultsThe panel was made up of more female respondents than male, with the average age rate of 19, who had medical consultations in the last 3 months, are included in the evidence of a family physician, had no chronic diseases, usually do workout exercises moderately, are not on a diet and have 3 meals per day. The meals are medium salty and rarely rich in fats. They drink 2 cups of tea per day and are non–alcohol drinkers and non-smokers. DiscussionAfter applying several statistical tests to find a correlation between our variables, we reached the conclusion that even if the results are encouraging; there is no correlation between the impact of Preventive Medicine and the respondents' health

  7. Preventative Maintenance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Migliorino, James

    Boards of education must be convinced that spending money up front for preventive maintenance will, in the long run, save districts' tax dollars. A good program of preventive maintenance can minimize disruption of service; reduce repair costs, energy consumption, and overtime; improve labor productivity and system equipment reliability; handle…

  8. Preventing Falls

    MedlinePlus

    ... from osteoporosis. Lower-body strength exercises and balance exercises can help you prevent falls and avoid the disability that may result from falling. Here are some fall prevention tips from Go4Life : l Have your eyes and hearing tested often. Always wear your glasses when you ...

  9. Morphological and stent design risk factors to prevent migration phenomena for a thoracic aneurysm: a numerical analysis.

    PubMed

    Altnji, H-E; Bou-Saïd, B; Walter-Le Berre, H

    2015-01-01

    The primary mechanically related problems of endovascular aneurysm repair are migration and type Ia endoleaks. They occur when there is no effective seal between the proximal end of the stent-graft and the vessel. In this work, we have developed several deployment simulations of parameterized stents using the finite element method (FEM) to investigate the contact stiffness of a nitinol stent in a realistic Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm (TAA). Therefore, we evaluated the following factors associated with these complications: (1) Proximal Attachment Site Length (PASL), (2) stent oversizing value (O%), (3) different friction conditions of the stent/aorta contact, and (4) proximal neck angulation α. The simulation results show that PASL>18 mm is a crucial factor to prevent migration at a neck angle of 60°, and the smoothest contact condition with low friction coefficient (μ=0.05). The increase in O% ranging from 10% to 20% improved the fixation strength. However, O%≥25% at 60° caused eccentric deformation and stent collapse. Higher coefficient of friction μ>0.01 considerably increased the migration risk when PASL=18 mm. No migration was found in an idealized aorta model with a neck angle of 0°, PASL=18 mm and μ=0.05. Our results suggest carefully considering the stent length and oversizing value in this neck morphology to strengthen the contact and prevent migration. PMID:25456396

  10. Preventing falls

    MedlinePlus

    ... worsened. Improving your vision will help reduce falls. Images ... for preventing falls in older people living in the community. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2009, Issue 2. Art. No.: ...

  11. Preventing Influenza

    MedlinePlus

    ... spread in respiratory droplets distributed by coughing and sneezing, they readily spread from person to person. Additionally, ... and nose with a tissue when coughing or sneezing, you may help prevent those around you from ...

  12. Dengue Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Compartir This photograph shows a mother applying mosquito repellent to her child's skin in order to prevent ... the lights are on. To protect yourself, use repellent on your skin while indoors or out. When ...

  13. Poison Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Safety & Prevention ... Content Article Body Post the Poison Help number 1-800-222-1222 on the emergency list next to every phone in your home and in your cell phone. A toddler or preschooler who vomits may ...

  14. Preventing Tragedy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    One Feather, Sandra

    2003-01-01

    The Navajo supervisor in the Office of Environmental Health in New Mexico identifies diseases and their risk factors, administers an injury prevention program, and ensures compliance with various health-related codes. She assists in the planning and direction of environmental health programs and public health education for local Navajo…

  15. Bullying Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemp, Patrice

    2016-01-01

    The focus of the milestone project is to focus on bridging the gap of bullying and classroom instruction methods. There has to be a defined expectations and level of accountability that has to be defined when supporting and implementing a plan linked to bullying prevention. All individuals involved in the student's learning have to be aware of…

  16. Preliminary Drill Sites

    DOE Data Explorer

    Lane, Michael

    2013-06-28

    Preliminary locations for intermediate depth temperature gradient holes and/or resource confirmation wells based on compilation of geological, geophysical and geochemical data prior to carrying out the DOE-funded reflection seismic survey.

  17. Preeclampsia prevention

    PubMed Central

    Herrera-Medina, Rodolfo; Pineda, Lucia M

    2015-01-01

    Background: Preeclampsia is the main complication of pregnancy in developing countries. Calcium starting at 14 weeks of pregnancy is indicated to prevent the disease. Recent advances in prevention of preeclampsia endorse the addition of conjugated linoleic acid. Objective: To estimate the protective effect from calcium alone, compared to calcium plus conjugated linoleic acid in nulliparous women at risk of preeclampsia. Methods: A case-control design nested in the cohort of nulliparous women attending antenatal care from 2010 to 2014. The clinical histories of 387 cases of preeclampsia were compared with 1,054 normotensive controls. The exposure was prescriptions for calcium alone, the first period, or calcium plus conjugated linoleic acid, the second period, from 12 to 16 weeks of gestational age to labor. Confounding variables were controlled, allowing only nulliparous women into the study and stratifying by age, education and ethnic group. Results: The average age was 26.4 yrs old (range= 13-45), 85% from mixed ethnic backgrounds and with high school education. There were no differences between women who received calcium carbonate and those who did not (OR= 0.96; 95% CI= 0.73-1.27). The group of adolescents (13 to 18 years old) in the calcium plus conjugated linoleic acid was protected for preeclampsia (OR= 0.00; 95% CI= 0.00-0.44) independent of the confounder variables. Conclusions: 1. Calcium supplementation during pregnancy did not have preventive effects on preeclampsia. 2. Calcium plus Conjugated Linoleic acid provided to adolescents was observed to have preventive effect on Preeclampsia. PMID:26848195

  18. Allergy prevention.

    PubMed

    Muche-Borowski, Cathleen; Kopp, Matthias; Reese, Imke; Sitter, Helmut; Werfel, Thomas; Schäfer, Torsten

    2010-09-01

    The further increase of allergies in industrialized countries demands evidence-based measures of primary prevention. The recommendations as published in the guideline of 2004 were updated and consented on the basis of a systematic literature search. Evidence from the period February 2003-May 2008 was searched in the electronic databases Cochrane and MEDLINE as well as in reference lists of recent reviews and by contacting experts. The retrieved citations were screened for relevance first by title and abstract and in a second step as full paper. Levels of evidence were assigned to each included study and the methodological quality of the studies was assessed as high or low. Finally the revised recommendations were formally consented (nominal group process) by representatives of relevant societies and organizations including a self-help group. Of originally 4556 hits, 217 studies (4 Cochrane Reviews, 14 meta-analyses, 19 randomized controlled trials, 135 cohort and 45 case-control studies) were included and critically appraised. Grossly unchanged remained the recommendations on avoiding environmental tobacco smoke, breast-feeding over 4 months (alternatively hypoallergenic formulas for children at risk), avoiding a mold-promoting indoor climate, vaccination according to current recommendations, and avoidance of furry pets (especially cats) in children at risk. The recommendation on reducing the house dust mite allergen exposure as a measure of primary prevention was omitted and the impact of a delayed introduction of supplementary food was reduced. New recommendations were adopted concerning fish consumption (during pregnancy / breast-feeding and as supplementary food in the first year), avoidance of overweight, and reducing the exposure to indoor and outdoor air pollutants. The revision of this guideline on a profound evidence basis led to (1) a confirmation of existing recommendations, (2) substantial revisions, and (3) new recommendations. Thereby it is possible

  19. Preliminary hazards analysis -- vitrification process

    SciTech Connect

    Coordes, D.; Ruggieri, M.; Russell, J.; TenBrook, W.; Yimbo, P.

    1994-06-01

    This paper presents a Preliminary Hazards Analysis (PHA) for mixed waste vitrification by joule heating. The purpose of performing a PHA is to establish an initial hazard categorization for a DOE nuclear facility and to identify those processes and structures which may have an impact on or be important to safety. The PHA is typically performed during and provides input to project conceptual design. The PHA is then followed by a Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR) performed during Title 1 and 2 design. The PSAR then leads to performance of the Final Safety Analysis Report performed during the facility`s construction and testing. It should be completed before routine operation of the facility commences. This PHA addresses the first four chapters of the safety analysis process, in accordance with the requirements of DOE Safety Guidelines in SG 830.110. The hazards associated with vitrification processes are evaluated using standard safety analysis methods which include: identification of credible potential hazardous energy sources; identification of preventative features of the facility or system; identification of mitigative features; and analyses of credible hazards. Maximal facility inventories of radioactive and hazardous materials are postulated to evaluate worst case accident consequences. These inventories were based on DOE-STD-1027-92 guidance and the surrogate waste streams defined by Mayberry, et al. Radiological assessments indicate that a facility, depending on the radioactive material inventory, may be an exempt, Category 3, or Category 2 facility. The calculated impacts would result in no significant impact to offsite personnel or the environment. Hazardous materials assessment indicates that a Mixed Waste Vitrification facility will be a Low Hazard facility having minimal impacts to offsite personnel and the environment.

  20. Tailored Prevention of Inpatient Falls

    PubMed Central

    ZUYEV, LYUBOV; BENOIT, ANGELA N.; CHANG, FRANK Y.; DYKES, PATRICIA C.

    2011-01-01

    Patient falls and fall-related injuries are serious problems in hospitals. The Fall TIPS application aims to prevent patient falls by translating routine nursing fall risk assessment into a decision support intervention that communicates fall risk status and creates a tailored evidence-based plan of care that is accessible to the care team, patients, and family members. In our design and implementation of the Fall TIPS toolkit, we used the Spiral Software Development Life Cycle model. Three output tools available to be generated from the toolkit are bed poster, plan of care, and patient education handout. A preliminary design of the application was based on initial requirements defined by project leaders and informed by focus groups with end users. Preliminary design partially simulated the paper version of the Morse Fall Scale currently used in hospitals involved in the research study. Strengths and weaknesses of the first prototype were identified by heuristic evaluation. Usability testing was performed at sites where research study is implemented. Suggestions mentioned by end users participating in usability studies were either directly incorporated into the toolkit and output tools, were slightly modified, or will be addressed during training. The next step is implementation of the fall prevention toolkit on the pilot testing units. PMID:20975543

  1. Genesis Preliminary Examination Plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNamara, K. M.; Stansbery, E. K.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of preliminary examination of the Genesis sample collectors is to provide information on the condition and availability of collector materials to the science community as a basis for allocation requests. Similarly, the information will be used by the Genesis Sample Allocation sub-committee of CAPTEM to determine the optimum allocation scheme, and by the Genesis Curator to determine the processing sequence for allocation production. The plan includes a decision process and detailed examination and documentation protocol for whole arrays and individual collectors (wafers, concentrator targets, bulk metallic glass, gold foil, and polished aluminum). It also includes a plan for communicating the information obtained to the scientific community. The plan does not include a detailed plan for preliminary examination of the SRC lid foil collectors, the process for removal of individual collectors from their frames, or for the subsequent subdivision of collector materials for allocation.

  2. On Preliminary Breakdown

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beasley, W. H.; Petersen, D.

    2013-12-01

    The preliminary breakdown phase of a negative cloud-to-ground lightning flash was observed in detail. Observations were made with a Photron SA1.1 high-speed video camera operating at 9,000 frames per second, fast optical sensors, a flat-plate electric field antenna covering the SLF to MF band, and VHF and UHF radio receivers with bandwidths of 20 MHz. Bright stepwise extensions of a negative leader were observed at an altitude of 8 km during the first few milliseconds of the flash, and were coincident with bipolar electric field pulses called 'characteristic pulses'. The 2-D step lengths of the preliminary processes were in excess of 100 meters, with some 2-D step lengths in excess of 200 meters. Smaller and shorter unipolar electric field pulses were superposed onto the bipolar electric field pulses, and were coincident with VHF and UHF radio pulses. After a few milliseconds, the emerging negative stepped leader system showed a marked decrease in luminosity, step length, and propagation velocity. Details of these events will be discussed, including the possibility that the preliminary breakdown phase consists not of a single developing lightning leader system, but of multiple smaller lightning leader systems that eventually join together into a single system.

  3. Environmental Survey preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-04-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Sandia National Laboratories conducted August 17 through September 4, 1987. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with Sandia National Laboratories-Albuquerque (SNLA). The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. This phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations carried on at SNLA, and interviews with site personnel. 85 refs., 49 figs., 48 tabs.

  4. Preventing Pressure Sores

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    Experts \\ Preventing Pressure Sores Topics Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 Spinal Cord Injury 101 The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury ... The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Preventing Pressure Sores Preventing Pressure Sores Transition from Hospital to ...

  5. Lead Poisoning Prevention Tips

    MedlinePlus

    ... CDC.gov . Lead Home Calendar of Events National Lead Poisoning Prevention Week Archived Materials CDC's Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Program Advisory Committee (ACCLPP) Current Activities Blood ...

  6. A Preliminary Jupiter Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubbard, W. B.; Militzer, B.

    2016-03-01

    In anticipation of new observational results for Jupiter's axial moment of inertia and gravitational zonal harmonic coefficients from the forthcoming Juno orbiter, we present a number of preliminary Jupiter interior models. We combine results from ab initio computer simulations of hydrogen-helium mixtures, including immiscibility calculations, with a new nonperturbative calculation of Jupiter's zonal harmonic coefficients, to derive a self-consistent model for the planet's external gravity and moment of inertia. We assume helium rain modified the interior temperature and composition profiles. Our calculation predicts zonal harmonic values to which measurements can be compared. Although some models fit the observed (pre-Juno) second- and fourth-order zonal harmonics to within their error bars, our preferred reference model predicts a fourth-order zonal harmonic whose absolute value lies above the pre-Juno error bars. This model has a dense core of about 12 Earth masses and a hydrogen-helium-rich envelope with approximately three times solar metallicity.

  7. Bienestar: A Diabetes Risk-Factor Prevention Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trevino, Robert P.; Pugh, Jacqueline A.; Hernandez, Arthur E.; Menchaca, Velma D.; Ramirez, Robert R.; Mendoza, Monica

    1998-01-01

    The Bienestar Health Program is a diabetes risk-factor prevention program targeting Mexican American fourth graders. Program goals are to decrease overweight and dietary fats. The program is based on social cognitive theory and uses culturally relevant material. Preliminary evaluation indicates the program significantly decreases dietary fat,…

  8. Preliminary assessment of the safety of IFMIF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, N. P.; Brañas, B.; Eriksson, E.; Natalizio, A.; Pinna, T.; Rodríguez-Rodrigo, L.; Ciattaglia, S.; Lässer, R.

    2007-08-01

    The International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) is a planned high-energy neutron source for the testing of candidate materials for future fusion power plants. Safety studies performed during the various stages of the conceptual design of IFMIF have been brought together in a preliminary assessment of the safety of IFMIF, identifying the principal hazards and the means to prevent or mitigate them. The design is based on dual high-energy deuteron accelerators delivering beams onto a flowing lithium target, in which neutrons are produced through a d-Li stripping reaction. The neutrons irradiate material samples in controlled conditions in a test cell. In all these systems, potential hazards arise, but analyses show that no postulated off-normal event can result in a significant risk of harm to the public. However, care must be taken in forthcoming detailed design development to minimise occupational radiation exposure during IFMIF operation and maintenance.

  9. Recipes for Prevention. Substance Abuse Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Catherine

    This handbook, which is the first in a series of materials being developed by an educational group in Albany, New York, for parents and caregivers of preschoolers, focuses on substance abuse prevention concepts. Its goals are to promote awareness that substance abuse prevention starts with very young children and to provide a format of activities…

  10. Enhanced preliminary assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    An Enhanced Preliminary Assessment was conducted at Fort Benjamin Harrison (FBH) Indiana, which is located approximately 12 miles from downtown Indianapolis in Lawrence Township, Marion County. FBH contains 2,501 acres, of which approximately 1,069 acres is covered by woodlands. Activities at FBH include administration, training, housing, and support. Sensitive environments at FBH include wetlands, habitat areas for the endangered Indiana bat, endangered plants, and historically and archeologically significant areas. FBH is a U.S. Army Soldier Support Center under the jurisdiction of the U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC). Based on information obtained during and subsequent to a site visit (15 through 18 October 1991), 36 types of Areas Requiring Environmental Evaluation (AREEs) were identified and grouped by the following categories: Facility Operations; Maintenance/Fueling Operations; Water Treatment Operations; Training Areas; Hazardous Materials Storage/Waste Handling Areas; Sanitary Wastewater Treatment Plants; Storage Tanks; Landfills/Incinerators; Medical Facilities; Burn Pit Areas; Spill Areas; Ammunition Storage; Coal Storage; and Facility-wide AREEs. This report presents a summary of findings for each AREE and recommendations for further action.

  11. Preliminary Analysis of Photoreading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNamara, Danielle S.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to provide a preliminary analysis of a reading strategy called PhotoReading. PhotoReading is a technique developed by Paul Scheele that claims to increase reading rate to 25,000 words per minute (Scheele, 1993). PhotoReading itself involves entering a "relaxed state" and looking at, but not reading, each page of a text for a brief moment (about I to 2 seconds). While this technique has received attention in the popular press, there had been no objective examinations of the technique's validity. To examine the effectiveness of PhotoReading, the principal investigator (i.e., trainee) participated in a PhotoReading workshop to learn the technique. Parallel versions of two standardized and three experimenter-created reading comprehension tests were administered to the trainee and an expert user of the PhotoReading technique to compare the use of normal reading strategies and the PhotoReading technique by both readers. The results for all measures yielded no benefits of using the PhotoReading technique. The extremely rapid reading rates claimed by PhotoReaders were not observed; indeed, the reading rates were generally comparable to those for normal reading. Moreover, the PhotoReading expert generally showed an increase in reading time when using the PhotoReading technique in comparison to when using normal reading strategies to process text. This increase in reading time when PhotoReading was accompanied by a decrease in text comprehension.

  12. Preliminary DIAL model

    SciTech Connect

    Gentry, S.; Taylor, J.; Stephenson, D.

    1994-06-01

    A unique end-to-end LIDAR sensor model has been developed supporting the concept development stage of the CALIOPE UV DIAL and UV laser-induced-fluorescence (LIF) efforts. The model focuses on preserving the temporal and spectral nature of signals as they pass through the atmosphere, are collected by the optics, detected by the sensor, and processed by the sensor electronics and algorithms. This is done by developing accurate component sub-models with realistic inputs and outputs, as well as internal noise sources and operating parameters. These sub-models are then configured using data-flow diagrams to operate together to reflect the performance of the entire DIAL system. This modeling philosophy allows the developer to have a realistic indication of the nature of signals throughout the system and to design components and processing in a realistic environment. Current component models include atmospheric absorption and scattering losses, plume absorption and scattering losses, background, telescope and optical filter models, PMT (photomultiplier tube) with realistic noise sources, amplifier operation and noise, A/D converter operation, noise and distortion, pulse averaging, and DIAL computation. Preliminary results of the model will be presented indicating the expected model operation depicting the October field test at the NTS spill test facility. Indications will be given concerning near-term upgrades to the model.

  13. Preventing HIV with Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... information in Spanish ( en español ) Preventing HIV with medicine Get medicine right after you are exposed to ... to top More information on Preventing HIV with medicine Explore other publications and websites National HIV and ...

  14. Breast Cancer Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is prevention? Go ... to keep cancer from starting. General Information About Breast Cancer Key Points Breast cancer is a disease in ...

  15. Preventing High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention ...

  16. High Blood Cholesterol Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention ...

  17. Antioxidants and Cancer Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ... Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists NCI Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ...

  18. Home Improvements Prevent Falls

    MedlinePlus

    ... on. Feature: Falls and Older Adults Home Improvements Prevent Falls Past Issues / Winter 2014 Table of Contents ... or home modification programs to help older people prevent falls. Check with your local health department, senior ...

  19. Measles -- Recommendations for Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prevent News and Media Resources News Newsletters Events Measles - Recommendations for Prevention Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... safest protection you can give your child against measles. Children should be given the first dose of ...

  20. Research Areas: Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    NCI's prevention research has a broad focus—from identifying environmental and lifestyle factors that influence cancer risk to studying the biology of how cancer develops and testing ways to disseminate prevention interventions.

  1. Preventing Deep Vein Thrombosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Patient Education FAQs Preventing Deep Vein Thrombosis Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Preventing Deep Vein Thrombosis FAQ174, August 2011 PDF ... Your Practice Patient Safety & Quality Payment Reform (MACRA) Education & Events Annual ... Pamphlets Teen Health About ACOG About Us Leadership & ...

  2. The Body Logic Program for Adolescents: A Treatment Manual for the Prevention of Eating Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varnado-Sullivan, Paula J.; Zucker, Nancy

    2004-01-01

    The Body Logic Program for Adolescents was developed as a two-stage intervention to prevent the development of eating disorder symptoms. Preliminary results indicate that this program shows promise as an effective prevention effort. The current article provides a detailed description of the protocol for implementing Body Logic Part I, a…

  3. Implementation of School Policies to Prevent Youth Tobacco Use in Alabama

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geiger, Brian F.; Vaid, Isam; Beeson, Diane; Riddle, Barry

    2012-01-01

    Background: Public health professionals must monitor the effectiveness of school policies and programs to prevent youth initiation, promote quitting, and eliminate secondhand smoke. This analysis of school tobacco policies was preliminary to release of a state tobacco prevention and control plan for 2010-2015. Methods: University health educators…

  4. The Suicide Prevention Continuum

    PubMed Central

    Caldwell, Dawn

    2010-01-01

    The suicide prevention continuum illustrates a practical approach to the complex issue of suicide prevention. The continuum evolved from discussions with two Aboriginal communities in Atlantic Canada about suicide and the different types of interventions available. The continuum offers a framework and reference tool to differentiate between the different stages of suicide risk. It illustrates where the Aboriginal Community Youth Resilience Network (ACYRN) fits into suicide prevention and how it contributes to prevention knowledge, capacity building, and policy development. PMID:20835376

  5. Fire Prevention Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehmann, Jeanne; Claus, William C.

    The fire prevention education bulletin helps schools continue their work to make the home, school, and community safe places in which to live and to help children and young people live in safe ways without developing undue fears. Briefly discussed are the goals of a fire prevention program, who should be concerned with fire prevention education,…

  6. Suicide Prevention Triangle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutter, Fred

    This manual provides resource tools and strategies to enhance the suicide prevention capabilities of health professionals and the health care setting in which care is provided. In the first section, terms are defined and the suicide prevention triangle model is described. Applications of the model and good practices for suicide prevention in any…

  7. Wildfire Prevention Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Wildlife Coordinating Group, Boise, ID.

    This document provides information and guidance on wildfire prevention strategies. Chapters include: (1) "Introduction"; (2) "How to Use this Guide"; (3) "Fire Cause Classification"; (4) "Relative Effectiveness"; (5) "Degree of Difficulty"; (6) "Intervention Techniques"; (7) "Prevention Activities"; (8) "Sample Prevention Strategies"; and (9)…

  8. Can I Prevent Acne?

    MedlinePlus

    ... I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Can I Prevent Acne? KidsHealth > For Teens > Can I Prevent Acne? Print A A A Text Size What's ... too. Although there is no surefire way to prevent acne, try these tips to help reduce the ...

  9. FACILITY POLLUTION PREVENTION GUIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) has developed the Facility Pollution Prevention Guide for those who are interested in and responsible for pollution prevention in industrial or service facilities. t summarizes the benefits of a company-wide pollution prevention...

  10. Murals Reflecting Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Elementary and Secondary Education (ED), Washington, DC. Safe and Drug Free Schools Program.

    This document is used in a collaborative project that engages children and adolescents in alcohol, tobacco, and drug prevention activities through the arts. The project offers an innovative teaching resource that uses the universal language of the arts for drug prevention. By creating murals with drug prevention themes, elementary and secondary…

  11. Prevention of Food Poisoning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Army Quartermaster School, Ft. Lee, VA.

    The programed text provides a single lesson, four-hour, correspondence subcourse on the prevention of food poisoning. It covers the following areas: a definition of food poisoning; chemical food poisoning; biological food poisoning; causes and prevention of trichinosis; six factors controlling bacteria growth; bacterial infection; prevention of…

  12. PRELIMINARY SELECTION OF MGR DESIGN BASIS EVENTS

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Kappes

    1999-09-16

    The purpose of this analysis is to identify the preliminary design basis events (DBEs) for consideration in the design of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). For external events and natural phenomena (e.g., earthquake), the objective is to identify those initiating events that the MGR will be designed to withstand. Design criteria will ensure that radiological release scenarios resulting from these initiating events are beyond design basis (i.e., have a scenario frequency less than once per million years). For internal (i.e., human-induced and random equipment failures) events, the objective is to identify credible event sequences that result in bounding radiological releases. These sequences will be used to establish the design basis criteria for MGR structures, systems, and components (SSCs) design basis criteria in order to prevent or mitigate radiological releases. The safety strategy presented in this analysis for preventing or mitigating DBEs is based on the preclosure safety strategy outlined in ''Strategy to Mitigate Preclosure Offsite Exposure'' (CRWMS M&O 1998f). DBE analysis is necessary to provide feedback and requirements to the design process, and also to demonstrate compliance with proposed 10 CFR 63 (Dyer 1999b) requirements. DBE analysis is also required to identify and classify the SSCs that are important to safety (ITS).

  13. Preventing Diabetes: Early Versus Late Preventive Interventions.

    PubMed

    Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Schwarz, Peter E H

    2016-08-01

    There are a number of arguments in support of early measures for the prevention of type 2 diabetes (T2D), as well as for concepts and strategies at later intervention stages. Diabetes prevention is achievable when implemented in a sustainable manner. Sustainability within a T2D prevention program is more important than the actual point in time or disease process at which prevention activities may start. The quality of intervention, as well as its intensity, should vary with the degree of the identified T2D risk. Nevertheless, preventive interventions should start as early as possible in order to allow a wide variety of relatively low- and moderate-intensity programs. The later the disease risk is identified, the more intensive the intervention should be. Public health interventions for diabetes prevention represent an optimal model for early intervention. Late interventions will be targeted at people who already have significant pathophysiological derangements that can be considered steps leading to the development of T2D. These derangements may be difficult to reverse, but the worsening of dysglycemia may be halted, and thus the clinical onset of T2D can be delayed. PMID:27440823

  14. Childhood obesity: prevention is better than cure

    PubMed Central

    Pandita, Aakash; Sharma, Deepak; Pandita, Dharti; Pawar, Smita; Tariq, Mir; Kaul, Avinash

    2016-01-01

    Obesity and its associated comorbidities have emerged as a major health problem garnering interests from both public health agencies and mainstream media consumers. With increasing awareness on its impact on health, finances, and community at large, it has come to the forefront for scientific research and development of health plans. The need for better strategies and novel interventions to manage obesity is now being recognized by the entire health care system. Obesity and overweight is now the fifth leading global risk factor for mortality. Strategic investment is thus urgently needed to implement population-based childhood obesity prevention programmes which are effective and also culturally appropriate. Population-based prevention is crucial to stem this rising tide of childhood obesity which is fast reaching epidemic proportions. Obesity has its onset very early in life; therefore, children constitute a major group of this disease. It is thus imperative to lay utmost importance on prevention of obesity in children and herald its progress, if present already. Furthermore, treatment is still in preliminary stage, so early prevention holds better than treatment at later stages. This article is an attempt to lay emphasis on childhood obesity as a problem that needs to be recognized early and measures for its prevention. PMID:27042133

  15. Nutritional interventions for Alzheimer's prevention: a clinical precision medicine approach.

    PubMed

    Schelke, Matthew W; Hackett, Katherine; Chen, Jaclyn L; Shih, Chiashin; Shum, Jessica; Montgomery, Mary E; Chiang, Gloria C; Berkowitz, Cara; Seifan, Alon; Krikorian, Robert; Isaacson, Richard Scott

    2016-03-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a major source of morbidity and mortality, with the disease burden expected to rise as the population ages. No disease-modifying agent is currently available, but recent research suggests that nutritional and lifestyle modifications can delay or prevent the onset of AD. However, preventive nutritional interventions are not universally applicable and depend on the clinical profile of the individual patient. This article reviews existing nutritional modalities for AD prevention that act through improvement of insulin resistance, correction of dyslipidemia, and reduction of oxidative stress, and discusses how they may be modified on the basis of individual biomarkers, genetics, and behavior. In addition, we report preliminary results of clinical application of these personalized interventions at the first AD prevention clinic in the United States. The use of these personalized interventions represents an important application of precision medicine techniques for the prevention of AD that can be adopted by clinicians across disciplines. PMID:27116241

  16. Using communities that care for community child maltreatment prevention.

    PubMed

    Salazar, Amy M; Haggerty, Kevin P; de Haan, Benjamin; Catalano, Richard F; Vann, Terri; Vinson, Jean; Lansing, Michaele

    2016-03-01

    The prevention of mental, emotional, and behavioral (MEB) disorders among children and adolescents is a national priority. One mode of implementing community-wide MEB prevention efforts is through evidence-based community mobilization approaches such as Communities That Care (CTC). This article provides an overview of the CTC framework and discusses the adaptation process of CTC to prevent development of MEBs through preventing child abuse and neglect and bolstering child well-being in children aged 0 to 10. Adaptations include those to the intervention itself as well as those to the evaluation approach. Preliminary findings from the Keeping Families Together pilot study of this evolving approach suggest that the implementation was manageable for sites, and community board functioning and community adoption of a science-based approach to prevention in pilot sites looks promising. Implications and next steps are outlined. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26963184

  17. [Prevention of osteoporosis].

    PubMed

    Dambacher, M A; Kissling, R; Neff, M

    1998-11-01

    The European Parliament presented June 10th in Brussels the 'Osteoporosis Report in EU--Means for Prevention'. It was emphasized that in the EU more than 3500 million Ecu have to be spent for hospitalization and that more than 500,000 hospitals beds are being used by osteoporotic patients. According to some calculations this number will double within the next 50 years. The EU has set up eight steps to be considered, e.g. have densitometric measurements available for persons with high risk and have these measurement paid by the insurances to further finance and support research for the very important areas of prevention and treatment. One distinguishes between primary, secondary and tertiary prevention of osteoporosis. Primary prevention aims at reaching at adolescent age a peak bone mass as high as possible. Secondary prevention aims at reducing bone loss peri- and postmenopausal. The tertiary prevention with manifest osteoporosis aims at preventing fractures. Emphasis of the primary prevention is, besides a sufficient calcium intake, to omit risk factors; with secondary prevention the use of medical treatments such as estrogens/gestagens, bisphosphonates, and recently also SERMs is applied. The tertiary prevention tries mostly to reduce the femur fractures. In addition to drugs such as vitamin D/calcium, vitamin D metabolites and bisphosphonates it is very important to create 'a fall-proof home'. Also very useful are hip protectors. PMID:9865147

  18. Stardust Interstellar Preliminary Examination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westphal, A.; Stardust Interstellar Preliminary Examation Team: http://www. ssl. berkeley. edu/~westphal/ISPE/

    2011-12-01

    A. J. Westphal, C. Allen, A. Ansari, S. Bajt, R. S. Bastien, H. A. Bechtel, J. Borg, F. E. Brenker, J. Bridges, D. E. Brownlee, M. Burchell, M. Burghammer, A. L. Butterworth, A. M. Davis, P. Cloetens, C. Floss, G. Flynn, D. Frank, Z. Gainsforth, E. Grün, P. R. Heck, J. K. Hillier, P. Hoppe, G. Huss, J. Huth, B. Hvide, A. Kearsley, A. J. King, B. Lai, J. Leitner, L. Lemelle, H. Leroux, R. Lettieri, W. Marchant, L. R. Nittler, R. Ogliore, F. Postberg, M. C. Price, S. A. Sandford, J.-A. Sans Tresseras, T. Schoonjans, S. Schmitz, G. Silversmit, A. Simionovici, V. A. Solé, R. Srama, T. Stephan, V. Sterken, J. Stodolna, R. M. Stroud, S. Sutton, M. Trieloff, P. Tsou, A. Tsuchiyama, T. Tyliszczak, B. Vekemans, L. Vincze, D. Zevin, M. E. Zolensky, >29,000 Stardust@home dusters ISPE author affiliations are at http://www.ssl.berkeley.edu/~westphal/ISPE/. In 2000 and 2002, a ~0.1m2 array of aerogel tiles and alumi-num foils onboard the Stardust spacecraft was exposed to the interstellar dust (ISD) stream for an integrated time of 200 days. The exposure took place in interplanetary space, beyond the orbit of Mars, and thus was free of the ubiquitous orbital debris in low-earth orbit that precludes effective searches for interstellar dust there. Despite the long exposure of the Stardust collector, <<100 ISD particles are expected to have been captured. The particles are thought to be ~1μm or less in size, and the total ISD collection is probably <10-6 by mass of the collection of cometary dust parti-cles captured in the Stardust cometary dust collector from the coma of the Jupiter-family comet Wild 2. Thus, although the first solid sample from the local interstellar medium is clearly of high interest, the diminutive size of the particles and the low numbers of particles present daunting challenges. Nevertheless, six recent developments have made a Preliminary Examination (PE) of this sample practical: (1) rapid automated digital optical scanning microscopy for three

  19. Ideology and Violence Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Whitman, Steven

    1988-01-01

    Interpersonal violence is a major problem in US society in terms of the death and destruction it causes, the fear it generates, and the attention it receives. A recent trend has been to regard the problem of violence as an epidemic and to shape ideas of violence prevention according to public-health formulations. This process does not take into account the ideological nature of the proposed violence-prevention measures. Problems arise because this ideology is relevant to the potential effectiveness of violence prevention. This paper delineates several ideological issues involved in violence prevention and discusses how they interact with frequently employed public-health prevention strategies. Based upon this discussion, a general perspective for violence prevention is proposed and guiding principles that emerge from this perspective are presented. PMID:3404554

  20. Technetium removal: preliminary flowsheet options

    SciTech Connect

    Eager, K.M.

    1995-10-24

    This document presents the results of a preliminary investigation into options for preliminary flowsheets for 99Tc removal from Hanford Site tank waste. A model is created to show the path of 99Tc through pretreatment to disposal. The Tank Waste Remediation (TWRS) flowsheet (Orme 1995) is used as a baseline. Ranges of important inputs to the model are developed, such as 99Tc inventory in the tanks and important splits through the TWRS flowsheet. Several technetium removal options are discussed along with sensitivities of the removal schemes to important model parameters

  1. Values in Preventive Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmaster, Barry

    1992-01-01

    We know how lifestyle affects health, yet concern for preventing illness by promoting healthy lifestyles remains marginal in medical practice. Effective preventive strategies can raise daunting moral and political problems about the extent to which individual freedoms may be infringed, particularly on paternalistic grounds. Evaluative questions also arise about more specific matters, such as identifying risk and causal factors, determining what level of risk is acceptable, and deciding how compelling the evidence must be to take preventive action. PMID:11651426

  2. Prevention of High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Prevention of High Blood Pressure Healthy lifestyle habits, proper use of medicines, and ... prevent high blood pressure or its complications. Preventing High Blood Pressure Onset Healthy lifestyle habits can help prevent high ...

  3. Preventing Suicides in the Military

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Preventing Suicides Preventing Suicides in the Military Past Issues / Winter 2010 ... Family Hotline 1-800-984-8523 Read More "Preventing Suicides" Articles Preventing Suicides in the Military / Who's ...

  4. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Prevention.

    PubMed

    Davis, Teaniese Latham; DiClemente, Ralph

    2016-04-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the virus that causes AIDS. Surveillance data from 2012 indicate an estimated 1.2 million people aged 13 years and older were living with HIV infection in the United States, and 12.8% do not know their status. There are approximately 50,000 new HIV infections annually. With no available cure for HIV, primary prevention to reduce incident cases of HIV is essential. Strategies to prevent HIV transmission include reducing sexual risk behavior and needle sharing. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has multiple resources available for primary and secondary prevention to reduce disease transmission and severity. PMID:26980130

  5. Preventive treatment of migraine.

    PubMed

    Silberstein, Stephen D

    2006-08-01

    Migraine is a common episodic pain disorder, the treatment of which can be acute to stop an attack or preventive to reduce the frequency, duration or severity of attacks. Preventive treatment is used when attacks are frequent or disabling. Many different medication groups are used for preventive treatment, including beta-blockers, antidepressants and antiepileptic drugs. Their mechanisms of action include raising the threshold to migraine activation, enhancing antinociception, inhibiting cortical spreading depression, inhibiting peripheral and central sensitization, blocking neurogenic inflammation and modulating sympathetic, parasympathetic or 5-HT tone. In this article, I review evidence of the effectiveness of migraine preventive drugs. I also discuss the setting of treatment priorities. PMID:16820222

  6. Roles in Suicide Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Programs Training & Events Online Training Courses Assessing and Managing Suicide Risk (AMSR) News & Highlights SPARK Talks Organizations States National Action Alliance for Suicide Prevention National ...

  7. Preliminary safety evaluation for the spent nuclear fuel project`s cold vacuum drying system

    SciTech Connect

    Garvin, L.J., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-01

    This preliminary safety evaluation (PSE) considers only the Cold Vacuum Drying System (CVDS) facility and its mission as it relates to the integrated process strategy (WHC 1995). The purpose of the PSE is to identify those CBDS design functions that may require safety- class and safety-significant accident prevention and mitigation features.

  8. Prevention at Community Colleges. Prevention Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2012

    2012-01-01

    According to "Community College Student Alcohol Use: Developing Context-Specific Evidence and Prevention Approaches," community colleges have traditionally had a threefold mission that includes preparing students for transfer to four-year colleges, developmental education, and workforce preparation. The researchers point out that the demographic…

  9. 40 CFR 1033.210 - Preliminary approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... information supporting a different decision. (c) If you request preliminary approval related to the upcoming... model year more than three years ahead of time. (d) You must obtain preliminary approval for your...

  10. Concentrating solar collector subsystem: Preliminary design package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Preliminary design data are presented for a concentrating solar collector including an attitude controller. Provided are schedules, technical status, all documents required for preliminary design, and other program activities.

  11. Fire Prevention Inspection Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pribyl, Paul F.

    Lesson plans are provided for a fire prevention inspection course of the Wisconsin Fire Service Training program. Objectives for the course are to enable students to describe and conduct fire prevention inspections, to identify and correct hazards common to most occupancies, to understand the types of building construction and occupancy, and to…

  12. Teaching Prevention in Pediatrics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Tina L.; Greenberg, Larrie; Loeser, Helen; Keller, David

    2000-01-01

    Reviews methods of teaching preventive medicine in pediatrics and highlights innovative programs. Methods of teaching prevention in pediatrics include patient interactions, self-directed learning, case-based learning, small-group learning, standardized patients, computer-assisted instruction, the Internet, student-centered learning, and lectures.…

  13. Statins and Cancer Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... site at http://prevention.cancer.gov on the Internet. More information on cholesterol-lowering drugs can be obtained from the FDA Web site at http://www.fda.gov on the Internet. Related Resources Causes and Prevention Posted: June 2, ...

  14. Preventing Child Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvy, Kerby T.

    1975-01-01

    Focuses on two major and general approaches to analyzing the problems of child abuse; briefly discusses the prevention implications; deals with the individual physical abuse of children, with particular emphasis on the relationship between theoretical formulations of the causes of individual physical abuse and preventative programs; and, finally,…

  15. Prevention of Graves' ophthalmopathy.

    PubMed

    Bartalena, Luigi

    2012-06-01

    Smoking is the most important risk factor for the occurrence/progression of Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO), as well as for its lower/slower response to immunosuppression. Accordingly, refrain from smoking should be urged, both as primary prevention (removal of risk factors in Graves' patients without GO), secondary prevention (early detection and treatment of asymptomatic/very mild GO) and tertiary prevention (reduction of complications/disability of overt GO). A 6-month course of 200 μg/day sodium selenite can prevent progression of mild GO to more severe GO and is, therefore, a form of secondary prevention and, probably, primary prevention. Correction of thyroid dysfunction and stable maintenance of euthyroidism are important preventive measures. The optimal treatment for hyperthyroidism in patients with GO is uncertain, because evidence demonstrating the superiority of antithyroid drugs over thyroid ablation (radioiodine, thyroidectomy, or both) is lacking. If radioiodine is used, low-dose steroid prophylaxis is recommended, particularly in smokers, to prevent radioiodine-associated GO progression. PMID:22632372

  16. MEASURING POLLUTION PREVENTION PROGRESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The workshop, "Measuring Pollution Prevention Progress," was held in Salem, MA, March 31 - April 2, 1993. he purpose of this workshop was to present the latest significant research and practical findings related to pollution prevention measurement from ongoing and recently comple...

  17. Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... of stomach cancer. Some studies show that eating fruits and vegetables that are high in vitamin C and beta carotene may lower the risk ... take can prevent cancer. These may include eating fruits and vegetables, exercising, ... vitamins, minerals, or food supplements. New ways to prevent ...

  18. DIABETES PREVENTION PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) was a major clinical trial, or research study, aimed at discovering whether either diet and exercise or the oral diabetes drug metformin (Glucophage) could prevent or delay the onset of type 2 diabetes in people with impaired glucose toleranc...

  19. Prevention of preterm birth.

    PubMed

    Flood, Karen; Malone, Fergal D

    2012-02-01

    Preterm birth (delivery before 37 completed weeks of gestation) is common and rates are increasing. In the past, medical efforts focused on ameliorating the consequences of prematurity rather than preventing its occurrence. This approach resulted in improved neonatal outcomes, but it remains costly in terms of both the suffering of infants and their families and the economic burden on society. Increased understanding of the pathophysiology of preterm labor has altered the approach to this problem, with increased focus on preventive strategies. Primary prevention is a limited strategy which involves public education, smoking cessation, improved nutritional status and avoidance of late preterm births. Secondary prevention focuses on recurrent preterm birth which is the most recognisable risk factor. Widely accepted strategies include cervical cerclage, progesterone and dedicated clinics. However, more research is needed to explore the role of antibiotics and anti-inflammatory treatments in the prevention of this complex problem. PMID:21893439

  20. [Atorvastatin in primary prevention].

    PubMed

    Kültürsay, Hakan

    2009-03-01

    Statins are one of the most widely used drugs in medical treatment and have been shown to prevent cardiovascular disease or reduce risk in a large number of studies. Although there is a general class effect, there are differences with regard to structure and efficacy between these agents. Among these agents, atorvastatin is a potent statin whose efficacy has been demonstrated in many clinical trials. Despite the presence of numerous clinical studies, data on atorvastatin related to primary prevention are limited compared to secondary prevention. In this article, clinical results of primary prevention trials with atorvastatin and data on its cost-effectiveness are reviewed. It is concluded that atorvastatin has a role in primary prevention and the cost of its use seems to be lower than commonly accepted cost-effectiveness thresholds. PMID:19404046

  1. Online gaming dependency: a preliminary study in China.

    PubMed

    Peng, Wei; Liu, Ming

    2010-06-01

    Based on theories and previous studies on problematic Internet use, we propose a model to better understand the contributors to and consequences of online gaming dependency. A preliminary study was conducted through a survey of online gamers in China. The results of path analysis found that maladaptive cognitions, shyness, and depression are positively related to online gaming dependency. Online gaming dependency was also positively related to different types of negative life outcomes. The findings of this study have implications for the prevention and treatment of addictive online gaming. PMID:20557254

  2. 40 CFR 161.170 - Preliminary analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Preliminary analysis. 161.170 Section... Preliminary analysis. (a) If the product is produced by an integrated system, the applicant must provide a preliminary analysis of each technical grade of active ingredient contained in the product to identify...

  3. 29 CFR 18.104 - Preliminary questions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Preliminary questions. 18.104 Section 18.104 Labor Office of... OF ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGES Rules of Evidence § 18.104 Preliminary questions. (a) Questions of admissibility generally. Preliminary questions concerning the qualification of a person to be a witness,...

  4. 29 CFR 18.104 - Preliminary questions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Preliminary questions. 18.104 Section 18.104 Labor Office... OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGES Rules of Evidence § 18.104 Preliminary questions. (a) Questions of admissibility generally. Preliminary questions concerning the qualification of a person to be a witness,...

  5. 19 CFR 351.205 - Preliminary determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... determinations, postponement of preliminary determinations, notices of preliminary determinations, and the... its injury determination. (e) Postponement at the request of the petitioner. A petitioner must submit a request for postponement of the preliminary determination (see section 703(c)(1)(A) or section...

  6. 32 CFR 651.49 - Preliminary phase.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... (c) Identify the lead and cooperating agency, if already determined (40 CFR 1501.5 and 1501.6). (d... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Preliminary phase. 651.49 Section 651.49... Preliminary phase. In the preliminary phase, the proponent agency or office identifies, as early as...

  7. 32 CFR 651.49 - Preliminary phase.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... (c) Identify the lead and cooperating agency, if already determined (40 CFR 1501.5 and 1501.6). (d... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Preliminary phase. 651.49 Section 651.49 National... Preliminary phase. In the preliminary phase, the proponent agency or office identifies, as early as...

  8. 32 CFR 651.49 - Preliminary phase.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Preliminary phase. 651.49 Section 651.49 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Public Involvement and the Scoping Process § 651.49 Preliminary phase. In the preliminary...

  9. 32 CFR 651.49 - Preliminary phase.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... (c) Identify the lead and cooperating agency, if already determined (40 CFR 1501.5 and 1501.6). (d... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Preliminary phase. 651.49 Section 651.49 National... Preliminary phase. In the preliminary phase, the proponent agency or office identifies, as early as...

  10. 32 CFR 651.49 - Preliminary phase.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... (c) Identify the lead and cooperating agency, if already determined (40 CFR 1501.5 and 1501.6). (d... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Preliminary phase. 651.49 Section 651.49 National... Preliminary phase. In the preliminary phase, the proponent agency or office identifies, as early as...

  11. 37 CFR 1.115 - Preliminary amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... amendment unduly interferes with the preparation of a first Office action in an application. Factors that... first Office action as of the date of receipt (§ 1.6) of the preliminary amendment by the Office; and... Preliminary amendments. (a) A preliminary amendment is an amendment that is received in the Office (§ 1.6)...

  12. 37 CFR 1.115 - Preliminary amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... amendment unduly interferes with the preparation of a first Office action in an application. Factors that... first Office action as of the date of receipt (§ 1.6) of the preliminary amendment by the Office; and... Preliminary amendments. (a) A preliminary amendment is an amendment that is received in the Office (§ 1.6)...

  13. 37 CFR 1.115 - Preliminary amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... amendment unduly interferes with the preparation of a first Office action in an application. Factors that... first Office action as of the date of receipt (§ 1.6) of the preliminary amendment by the Office; and... Preliminary amendments. (a) A preliminary amendment is an amendment that is received in the Office (§ 1.6)...

  14. 37 CFR 1.115 - Preliminary amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... amendment unduly interferes with the preparation of a first Office action in an application. Factors that... first Office action as of the date of receipt (§ 1.6) of the preliminary amendment by the Office; and... Preliminary amendments. (a) A preliminary amendment is an amendment that is received in the Office (§ 1.6)...

  15. 37 CFR 1.115 - Preliminary amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... amendment unduly interferes with the preparation of a first Office action in an application. Factors that... first Office action as of the date of receipt (§ 1.6) of the preliminary amendment by the Office; and... Preliminary amendments. (a) A preliminary amendment is an amendment that is received in the Office (§ 1.6)...

  16. 19 CFR 111.59 - Preliminary proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Preliminary proceedings. 111.59 Section 111.59... in Lieu of Suspension or Revocation § 111.59 Preliminary proceedings. (a) Opportunity to participate... preliminary proceedings. The port director will serve upon the broker, in the manner set forth in §...

  17. 19 CFR 207.108 - Preliminary conference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... and Committee Proceedings § 207.108 Preliminary conference. As soon as practicable after the response... representatives for the parties to meet with him or her at a preliminary conference, unless the administrative law... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Preliminary conference. 207.108 Section...

  18. Dietary and lifestyle guidelines for the prevention of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Barnard, Neal D; Bush, Ashley I; Ceccarelli, Antonia; Cooper, James; de Jager, Celeste A; Erickson, Kirk I; Fraser, Gary; Kesler, Shelli; Levin, Susan M; Lucey, Brendan; Morris, Martha Clare; Squitti, Rosanna

    2014-09-01

    Risk of developing Alzheimer's disease is increased by older age, genetic factors, and several medical risk factors. Studies have also suggested that dietary and lifestyle factors may influence risk, raising the possibility that preventive strategies may be effective. This body of research is incomplete. However, because the most scientifically supported lifestyle factors for Alzheimer's disease are known factors for cardiovascular diseases and diabetes, it is reasonable to provide preliminary guidance to help individuals who wish to reduce their risk. At the International Conference on Nutrition and the Brain, Washington, DC, July 19-20, 2013, speakers were asked to comment on possible guidelines for Alzheimer's disease prevention, with an aim of developing a set of practical, albeit preliminary, steps to be recommended to members of the public. From this discussion, 7 guidelines emerged related to healthful diet and exercise habits. PMID:24913896

  19. [Prevention of alcohol dependence].

    PubMed

    Trova, A C; Paparrigopoulos, Th; Liappas, I; Ginieri-Coccossis, M

    2015-01-01

    With the exception of cardiovascular diseases, no other medical condition causes more serious dysfunction or premature deaths than alcohol-related problems. Research results indicate that alcohol dependent individuals present an exceptionally poor level of quality of life. This is an outcome that highlights the necessity of planning and implementing preventive interventions on biological, psychological or social level, to be provided to individuals who make alcohol abuse, as well as to their families. Preventive interventions can be considered on three levels of prevention: (a) primary prevention, which is focused on the protection of healthy individuals from alcohol abuse and dependence, and may be provided on a universal, selective or indicated level, (b) secondary prevention, which aims at the prevention of deterioration regarding alcoholic dependence and relapse, in the cases of individuals already diagnosed with the condition and (c) tertiary prevention, which is focused at minimizing deterioration of functioning in chronically sufferers from alcoholic dependence. The term "quaternary prevention" can be used for the prevention of relapse. As for primary prevention, interventions focus on assessing the risk of falling into problematic use, enhancing protective factors and providing information and health education in general. These interventions can be delivered in schools or in places of work and recreation for young people. In this context, various programs have been applied in different countries, including Greece with positive results (Preventure, Alcolocks, LST, SFP, Alcohol Ignition Interlock Device). Secondary prevention includes counseling and structured help with the delivery of programs in schools and in high risk groups for alcohol dependence (SAP, LST). These programs aim at the development of alcohol refusal skills and behaviors, the adoption of models of behaviors resisting alcohol use, as well as reinforcement of general social skills. In the

  20. Prevention of food allergy.

    PubMed

    du Toit, George; Tsakok, Teresa; Lack, Simon; Lack, Gideon

    2016-04-01

    The past few decades have witnessed an increase in the prevalence of IgE-mediated food allergy (FA). For prevention strategies to be effective, we need to understand the causative factors underpinning this rise. Genetic factors are clearly important in the development of FA, but given the dramatic increase in prevalence over a short period of human evolution, it is unlikely that FA arises through germline genetic changes alone. A plausible hypothesis is that 1 or more environmental exposures, or lack thereof, induce epigenetic changes that result in interruption of the default immunologic state of tolerance. Strategies for the prevention of FA might include primary prevention, which seeks to prevent the onset of IgE sensitization; secondary prevention, which seeks to interrupt the development of FA in IgE-sensitized children; and tertiary prevention, which seeks to reduce the expression of end-organ allergic disease in children with established FA. This review emphasizes the prevention of IgE-mediated FA through dietary manipulation, among other strategies; in particular, we focus on recent interventional studies in this field. PMID:27059727

  1. Diet in the prevention of hidradenitis suppurativa (acne inversa).

    PubMed

    Danby, F William

    2015-11-01

    Full control of hidradenitis suppurativa requires the prevention of new lesions. These appear to be induced by a complex series of hormonally driven molecular activities that lead to obstruction of the follicular duct, rupture and destruction of the sebaceous glands, the development of deep dermal sinuses that subsequently rupture to the surface, and production of an invasive subcutaneous mass that is resistant to medical therapy. Preliminary observations suggest that the use of a healthy and fully natural zero dairy and low glycemic-load diet may provide relief from progression of the lesions and possibly prevention of new lesions, even when medications fail. PMID:26470617

  2. The Viking biological investigation - Preliminary results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, H. P.; Oyama, V. I.; Berdahl, B. J.; Horowitz, N. H.; Hobby, G. L.; Levin, G. V.; Straat, P. A.; Lederberg, J.; Rich, A.; Hubbard, J. S.

    1976-01-01

    A preliminary progress report is presented for the Viking biological investigation through its first month. The carbon assimilation, gas exchange, and labeled release experiments are described in detail, and the chronology of the experiments is outlined. For the first experiment, it is found that a small amount of gas was converted into organic material in one sample and that heat treatment of a duplicate sample prevented such conversion. In the second experiment, a substantial amount of O2 was detected along with significant increases in CO2 and small changes in N2. In the third experiment, a significant amount of radioactive gas was evolved from one sample, but not from a duplicate heat-treated sample. Possible biological and nonbiological interpretations are considered for these results. It is concluded that while the experiments provide clear evidence for the occurrence of chemical reactions and while the results do not violate any prima facie criteria for biological processes, a definitive answer cannot yet be given to the question of whether life exists on Mars.

  3. The limits of prevention.

    PubMed Central

    McGinnis, J M

    1985-01-01

    Recent years have been marked by unprecedented accomplishments in preventing disease and reducing mortality. More gains can be expected, but there are limits. The forces shaping the nature and potential of prevention programs can be characterized as points falling along a spectrum ranging from the purely scientific to the purely social. This paper focuses on four elements of that spectrum, discussing some of the limitations to prevention that are presented by biological, technical, ethical, and economic factors. The author concludes with an essentially optimistic perspective on the prospects, special opportunities, and imperatives inherent in each of the categories of limitations discussed. PMID:3923530

  4. Guideline Implementation: Preventing Hypothermia.

    PubMed

    Bashaw, Marie A

    2016-03-01

    The updated AORN "Guideline for prevention of unplanned patient hypothermia" provides guidance for identifying factors associated with intraoperative hypothermia, preventing hypothermia, educating perioperative personnel on this topic, and developing relevant policies and procedures. This article focuses on key points of the guideline, which addresses performing a preoperative assessment for factors that may contribute to hypothermia, measuring and monitoring the patient's temperature in all phases of perioperative care, and implementing interventions to prevent hypothermia. Perioperative RNs should review the complete guideline for additional information and for guidance when writing and updating policies and procedures. PMID:26924369

  5. Prevention of lipohypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Kalra, Sanjay; Kumar, Arun; Gupta, Yashdeep

    2016-07-01

    Lipohypertrophy is an important insulin injection site reaction, which has clinically significant sequelae, including a greater risk of glycaemic variability and higher insulin dose requirement. This article describes the prevention of lipohypertrophy, using the concept of levels of prevention. It enumerates methods of primordial, primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary prevention of lipohypertrophy. Focus on patient education, site rotation, avoidance of needle reuse, and dose titration when shifting from injection in lipohypertrophic lesions to normal subcutaneous tissue, helps minimize the development and impact of lipohypertrophy. PMID:27427150

  6. [Preventive medicine in geriatrics].

    PubMed

    Namias, B

    2003-01-01

    This paper gives a summary of check-up and preventive recommendations for elderly. It concerns screening, vaccination, chemoprophylaxy, and counseling. It is mainly based on the recommendations of the U.S. Preventive services Task force. It approaches the screening of hypertention, visual and auditive impairment, breast, colorectal, cervical, prostate cancers, about dyslipidemia, depression, osteoporosis, vaccination against influenza, pneumococcal infection,and chemoprophylaxy by estrogen, raloxifene, acetyisalicyclic acid. There is also counseling in the prevention of falls, exercises, and diet. This summary underlines the multiple recent changes compared with the 1996 recommendations. PMID:14983902

  7. Radioactive waste shredding: Preliminary evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Soelberg, N.R.; Reimann, G.A.

    1994-07-01

    The critical constraints for sizing solid radioactive and mixed wastes for subsequent thermal treatment were identified via a literature review and a survey of shredding equipment vendors. The types and amounts of DOE radioactive wastes that will require treatment to reduce the waste volume, destroy hazardous organics, or immobilize radionuclides and/or hazardous metals were considered. The preliminary steps of waste receipt, inspection, and separation were included because many potential waste treatment technologies have limits on feedstream chemical content, physical composition, and particle size. Most treatment processes and shredding operations require at least some degree of feed material characterization. Preliminary cost estimates show that pretreatment costs per unit of waste can be high and can vary significantly, depending on the processing rate and desired output particle size.

  8. 75 FR 72831 - Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-Ethics...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-26

    ...), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)--Ethics Subcommittee (ES) In accordance with section 10(a... broad range of public health ethics questions and issues arising from programs, scientists and... preliminary overview to the ACD on ethical issues related to non-communicable disease prevention and...

  9. Lunar Excavator Preliminary Test Video

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This video shows a preliminary test of the boom and bucket wheel assembly of the lunar excavator prototype developed by the Center for Commercial Applications of Combustion at the Colorado School of Mines in Golden. According to Michael Duke, director for the center, the wheel on the end of the boom can dig up 45.36 kilograms (100 pounds) of dirt each hour which is several times the weight of the entire device.

  10. Profiting from pollution prevention

    SciTech Connect

    LoPilato, A.J.; Eng, D.B.

    1994-12-31

    In the case of pollution prevention, national environmental goals coincide with industry`s economic interests. Most, if not all businesses have strong incentives to reduce the toxicity and quantities of wastes generated. These incentives include not only the ever increasing cost of compliance within a growing framework of regulations, but may include a firms desire to reduce the risk of criminal and civil liability, reduce overall operating costs, improve employee morale and participation, enhance corporate image in the community and insure protection of both public health and the environment. Although some businesses may invest in a pollution prevention program because it is the green thin to do, most businesses will weight their initial and long-term pollution prevention program investments on sound economic analyses. An effective pollution prevention program can provide cost savings that will more than offset the initial development and implementation costs.

  11. Household Safety: Preventing Choking

    MedlinePlus

    ... room a child shouldn't enter to prevent wandering into places that haven't been properly childproofed. ... the activities that develop your child's body and mind. Reviewed by: Mary L. Gavin, MD Date reviewed: ...

  12. Prevent Back Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... Back Pain Print This Topic En español Prevent Back Pain Browse Sections The Basics Overview Am I at ... Health: Back Pain . There are different types of back pain. Back pain can be acute or chronic. It ...

  13. Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP)

    MedlinePlus

    ... United States. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services estimates that about one in four U.S. ... to learn more about the study's long-term effects through the Diabetes Prevention Program Outcomes Study (DPPOS), ...

  14. Preventive treatment of migraine.

    PubMed

    Silberstein, Steven D

    2005-01-01

    Migraine preventive therapy, even in the absence of a headache, is given in an attempt to reduce the frequency, duration, or severity of attacks. Circumstances that might warrant preventive treatment include disabling migraine attacks, the overuse of acute medications or failure of or contraindication to acute medications, troublesome side effects from medication, hemiplegic migraine, or very frequent headaches (more than 2 a week). The major medication groups for preventive treatment include anticonvulsants, antidepressants, b-adrenergic blockers, calcium channel antagonists, serotonin antagonists, neurotoxins, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and others. If preventive medication is indicated, the agent preferentially should be chosen from one of the first-line categories, based on the drug's side-effect profile and the patient's coexistent and comorbid conditions. PMID:16622394

  15. Migraine preventive treatment.

    PubMed

    Silberstein, Stephen D

    2010-01-01

    Migraine is a chronic neurological disease. Preventive therapy is given in an attempt to reduce the frequency, duration, or severity of attacks. Circumstances that might warrant preventive treatment include recurring migraine attacks that significantly interfere with the patient's daily routines, despite appropriate acute treatment; frequent headaches; contraindication to, failure of, overuse of, or intolerance to acute therapies; patient preference; frequent, very long, or uncomfortable auras; and presence of uncommon migraine conditions. The major medication groups for preventive migraine treatment include beta-adrenergic blockers, antidepressants, calcium channel antagonists, serotonin antagonists, and anticonvulsants. The choice of preventive treatment depends on the individual drug's efficacy and adverse events, the patient's clinical features, frequency, and response to prior treatment, and the presence of any comorbid or coexistent disease. PMID:20816433

  16. Preventive migraine treatment.

    PubMed

    Silberstein, Stephen D

    2009-05-01

    The pharmacologic treatment of migraine may be acute (abortive) or preventive (prophylactic), and patients with frequent severe headaches often require both approaches. Preventive therapy is used to try to reduce the frequency, duration, or severity of attacks. The preventive medications with the best-documented efficacy are amitriptyline, divalproex, topiramate, and the beta-blockers. Choice is made based on a drug's proven efficacy, the physician's informed belief about medications not yet evaluated in controlled trials, the drug's adverse events, the patient's preferences and headache profile, and the presence or absence of coexisting disorders. Because comorbid medical and psychologic illnesses are prevalent in patients who have migraine, one must consider comorbidity when choosing preventive drugs. Drug therapy may be beneficial for both disorders; however, it is also a potential confounder of optimal treatment of either. PMID:19289224

  17. Oral Cancer Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... South Asia and Southeast Asia, including China and India. Personal history of head and neck cancer A ... such as “NCI’s PDQ cancer information summary about breast cancer prevention states the risks in the following way: [ ...

  18. Prevent Back Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... Previous section Overview 2 of 5 sections Take Action! Take Action: Get Active Take care of your back to ... I at Risk? 3 of 5 sections Take Action: Prevent Injuries Focus on good posture. Good posture ...

  19. Osteoporosis: Preventing Falls

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Osteoporosis Preventing Falls Past Issues / Winter 2011 Table of ... next to your bed Free NIH Videos About Osteoporosis The NIHSeniorHealth Web site features five brief, informative ...

  20. Preventive Antepartum Care

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    As the role of the obstetrician-gynecologist evolves to include primary care, the obstetrician must assume greater responsibility for providing prenatal preventive care, particularly regarding the STORCH5 pathogens. PMID:18475371

  1. Prevent Child Abuse America

    MedlinePlus

    ... Abuse Cases A recent report from the Indianapolis Star has revealed multiple occasions in which allegations of ... Gymnastics. In many of the cases that the Star investigated, complaint… Read more Who we are Prevent ...

  2. Head Injury Prevention Tips

    MedlinePlus

    Head Injury Prevention Tips American Association of Neurological Surgeons 5550 Meadowbrook Drive, Rolling Meadows, IL 60008-3852 ... defined as a blow or jolt to the head or a penetrating head injury that disrupts the ...

  3. Youth Suicide Prevention Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalafat, John

    2006-01-01

    Youth suicide prevention programs are described that promote the identification and referral of at-risk youth, address risk factors, and promote protective factors. Emphasis is on programs that are both effective and sustainable in applied settings.

  4. Automating Preventive Maintenance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oshier, Michael J.

    1984-01-01

    Describes the following aspects of the State University of New York-Brockport's preventive maintenance computerization project: (1) software selection, (2) project implementation; and (3) problems and benefits of the system. (MCG)

  5. Preventability of Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Colditz, Graham A.; Wei, Esther K.

    2013-01-01

    Whereas models of cancer disparities and variation in cancer burden within population groups now specify multiple levels of action from biologic processes to individual risk factors and social and physical contextual factors, approaches to estimating the preventable proportion of cancer use more traditional direct models often from single exposures to cancer at specific organ sites. These approaches are reviewed, and the strengths and limitations are presented. The need for additional multilevel data and approaches to estimation of preventability are identified. International or regional variation in cancer may offer the most integrated exposure assessment over the life course. For the four leading cancers, which account for 50% of incidence and mortality, biologic, social, and physical environments play differing roles in etiology and potential prevention. Better understanding of the interactions and contributions across these levels will help refine prevention strategies. PMID:22224878

  6. Polyp Prevention Trial

    Cancer.gov

    The primary objective of the Polyp Prevention Trial (PPT) is to determine whether a low fat, high fiber, high vegetable and fruit eating plan will decrease the recurrence of adenomatous polyps of the large bowel.

  7. Institutional Preventive Stress Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quick, James C.

    1987-01-01

    Stress is an inevitable characteristic of academic life, but colleges and universities can introduce stress management activities at the organizational level to avert excessive tension. Preventive actions are described, including flexible work schedules and social supports. (Author/MSE)

  8. Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Recruiting Patients & Families Consortia, Networks & Centers Reports & Planning Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) Page Content On this page: ... increased risk of developing diabetes. [ Top ] Type 2 Diabetes and Prediabetes Type 2 diabetes is a disorder ...

  9. Prevent Blindness America

    MedlinePlus

    ... to eNews Close Donate A Lifetime of Healthy Vision See well to learn, work, play, and live ... the sight-saving work of
 Prevent Blindness. Donate Vision Problems in the U.S. Prevalence of Adult Vision ...

  10. Preventing Weight Gain

    MedlinePlus

    ... If this is the case, preventing further weight gain is a worthy goal. As people age, their body composition gradually shifts — the proportion of muscle decreases and the proportion of fat increases. This ...

  11. Infection Prevention in Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Pergam, Steven A

    2016-01-01

    The number of patients undergoing hematopoietic cell and solid organ transplantation are increasing every year, as are the number of centers both transplanting and caring for these patients. Improvements in transplant procedures, immunosuppressive regimens, and prevention of transplant-associated complications have led to marked improvements in survival in both populations. Infections remain one of the most important sources of excess morbidity and mortality in transplant, and therefore, infection prevention strategies are a critical element for avoiding these complications in centers caring for high-risk patients. This manuscript aims to provide an update of recent data on prevention of major healthcare-associated infections unique to transplantation, reviews the emergence of antimicrobial resistant infections, and discusses updated strategies to both identify and prevent transmission of these pathogens in transplant recipients. PMID:26820654

  12. [Prevention of oral cancer].

    PubMed

    Roodenburg, J L; Vermey, A; Nauta, J M

    1994-05-01

    Etiology control is the most important primary prevention of oral cancer. The use of tobacco and alcohol increases the risk of a squamous cell carcinoma of the oral mucosa. The dentist can play an important role in the secondary prevention or screening for premalignant lesions, asymptomatic malignancies and second primary tumours of the oral cavity. Because of their age, edentulous patients run a high risk of oral cancer. Therefore, a regular oral check-up of these patients should be recommended. PMID:11830977

  13. Compliance through pollution prevention

    SciTech Connect

    McCarty, B.D.; Coyle, S.; Kachel, W.M.

    1999-07-01

    Decreased budgetary resources have caused the Air Force Materiel Command to look for a better way to target pollution prevention investments. The new paradigm, Compliance through Pollution Prevention (CTP2), is based upon the Code of Environmental Management Principles (CEMP) for federal facilities. It provides a procedure to assure that all future AFMC P2 investments result in the greatest reduction in environmental compliance burden possible. This paper describes the evolution of this new environmental management system, both past and future.

  14. Prevention of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kew, Michael C

    2010-01-01

    Because of its frequency and grave prognosis, preventing hepatocellular carcinoma is an urgent priority. Prevention should be possible because environmental carcinogens-chronic hepatitis B and C virus infections, dietary exposure to aflatoxins, and iron overload-cause the great majority of these tumors. Chronic hepatitis B virus infection accounts for 55% of global hepatocellular carcinomas and 80% of those in the high-incidence Asia Pacific and sub-Saharan African regions. In these regions the infection that becomes chronic is predominantly acquired very early in life. A safe and effective vaccine against this virus is available and its universal inclusion in the immunization of infants has already resulted in a marked reduction of chronic infection and a 70% decrease in the occurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma in those immunized. Chronic hepatitis C virus infection is the major cause of hepatocellular carcinoma in industrialized countries. The infection is mainly acquired in adulthood and, until a vaccine becomes available, prevention will consist mainly of identifying, counselling, and treating chronically infected individuals, preventing spread of the virus by the use of safe injection practices (particularly in intravenous drug abusers), and screening all donated blood for the presence of the virus. 4.5 billion of the world.s population are exposed to dietary aflatoxins. Prevention involves treating susceptible crops to prevent fungal contamination, and handling the foodstuffs in such a way as to prevent contamination during storage. Iron overload in hereditary hemochromatosis can be prevented by repeated venesection and in African dietary iron overload by fermenting the home-brewed beer in iron-free containers. PMID:20526004

  15. Preventing Obesity through Schools

    PubMed Central

    Nihiser, Allison; Merlo, Caitlin; Lee, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    PRÉCIS This paper describes highlights from the Weight of the Nation™ 2012 Schools Track. Included is a summary of 16 presentations. Presenters shared key actions for obesity prevention through schools. The information provided at the Weight of the Nation™ can help school health practitioners access tools, apply evidence-based strategies, and model real-world examples to successfully start obesity prevention initiatives in their jurisdiction. PMID:24446995

  16. IS SUICIDE PREVENTABLE?

    PubMed Central

    Elias, Ralph B.

    1959-01-01

    Among 500 cases of suicide analyzed in Stockholm, fewer than a third were associated with depression. Most forms of psychiatric disease were represented. Nevertheless, most persons give some warning before attempting suicide, and these warnings should be the signal for preventive action. Centers with trained personnel could prevent many suicides, if the potential victims were recognized and referred early enough. Laymen too should be educated to recognize potential suicide and help avert it. PMID:13629348

  17. Delivery of preventive care

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Alan; Lambert-Lanning, Anita; Miller, Anthony; Kaminsky, Barbara; Enns, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine family physicians’ practice of, knowledge about, and attitudes toward delivering preventive care during periodic health examinations (PHEs). Design A stratified sample of 5013 members of the College of Family Physicians of Canada were randomly selected to receive a questionnaire by mail. Descriptive analysis was performed on a national data set of 1010 respondents. Setting Canada. Participants A sample of family physicians from each Canadian province. Main outcome measures Physicians were asked questions about whether they addressed aspects of preventive care, such as tobacco smoking, nutrition, physical activity, alcohol intake, and sun exposure with patients during PHEs. The questions were designed to gauge attitudes and identify barriers to the provision of preventive care. Results Most respondents (87% to 89%) indicated that they were comfortable counseling their patients about issues such as nutrition, physical activity, and alcohol consumption; however, many of these respondents did not refer their patients to specialists or provide them with additional resources to educate patients about the health risks of their conditions. While tobacco smoking risks and cessation were addressed by most family physicians (79%) during PHEs, other topics, such as sun exposure, were often overlooked. Conclusion The results of this survey indicate that while many family physicians follow the evidence-based guidelines for preventive care, current levels of preventive care in the primary care setting are below national standards. It is critical that Canadians receive optimal preventive care to improve the outlook of the chronic disease burden on the health care system. PMID:22267643

  18. Primary prevention of asthma.

    PubMed

    Becker, Allan B; Chan-Yeung, Moira

    2002-01-01

    There has been a dramatic increase in the prevalence of asthma over the last quarter century, particularly in the industrialized world. Although our understanding of asthma continues to improve, there is no cure for the disease. Primary prevention of asthma is the focus of this review. Asthma is a disease with multiple gene-environment interactions. Candidate genes for asthma are considered, and potential interaction between one of those genes, CD14, and an environmental factor, endotoxin, is reviewed as it relates to the hygiene hypothesis. Environmental risk factors for asthma including allergens, pollutants, infectious factors, and dietary modifications are considered, particularly their potential for primary prevention of asthma. Ongoing cohort studies including the Canadian Allergy and Asthma Prevention Study, the Manchester Allergy and Asthma Study, the Children's Asthma Prevention Study from Australia, and the Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy Study from the Netherlands are briefly reviewed. A more definitive understanding of genetic background and environmental triggers and their interactions is required before any specific approach to the primary prevention of asthma can be championed aggressively. PMID:11753119

  19. [Can falls be prevented?].

    PubMed

    Dubousset, Jean

    2014-06-01

    Most recommendations and measures intended to prevent falls focus on the elderly (see HAS guideline of April 2009) but, in our opinion, this isfar too late: prevention must begin much earlier, not only by identifying persons at risk, but also by providing personalized lifestyle advice adapted to each individual's biomechanical, somatic, neurological and biological characteristics. The first preventive measure is to identify a possible deterioration of balance, starting with a physical examination at the age of 45 and repeated regularly throughout life. Extrinsic preventive measures focusing on the domestic and external environments are clearly necessary. But what is most important is to detect and, if necessary, correct any degradation of intrinsic (intracorporeal or somatic) factors starting at the age of 45 years; these include vision, vestibular function and balance, proprioception, and psychological and neurological status. Chronic illnesses and their treatments must also be taken into account: treatment must be limited to indispensable drugs; sedative psychotropics must be avoided if possible; and polymedication must be tightly controlled, as it is a major risk factor for falls. Prevention also requires a diet sufficiently rich in protein, calcium and vitamin D3 (to prevent osteoporosis), and regular daily exercise adapted to the individual, if possible associated with a simultaneous cognitive task. The last key point is the absolute need for thorough functional rehabilitation after any accidental or medical trauma, regardless of age, with the aim of restoring functional status to that existing prior to the accident. PMID:26983186

  20. Transgender HIV prevention: a qualitative needs assessment.

    PubMed

    Bockting, W O; Robinson, B E; Rosser, B R

    1998-08-01

    Although clinical experience and preliminary research suggest that some transgender people are at significant risk for HIV, this stigmatized group has so far been largely ignored in HIV prevention. As part of the development of HIV prevention education targeting the transgender population, focus groups of selected transgender individuals assessed their HIV risks and prevention needs. Data were gathered in the following four areas: (1) the impact of HIV/AIDS on transgender persons; (2) risk factors; (3) information and services needed; and (4) recruitment strategies. Findings indicated that HIV/AIDS compounds stigmatization related to transgender identity, interferes with sexual experimentation during the transgender 'coming out' process, and may interfere with obtaining sex reassignment. Identified transgender-specific risk factors include: sexual identity conflict, shame and isolation, secrecy, search for affirmation, compulsive sexual behaviour, prostitution, and sharing needles while injecting hormones. Community involvement, peer education and affirmation of transgender identity were stressed as integral components of a successful intervention. Education of health professionals about transgender identity and sexuality and support groups for transgender people with HIV/AIDS are urgently needed. PMID:9828969

  1. Stroke prevention: an update.

    PubMed

    Bousser, Marie-Germaine

    2012-03-01

    Stroke is a personal, familial, and social disaster. It is the third cause of death worldwide, the first cause of acquired disability, the second cause of dementia, and its cost is astronomic. The burden of stroke is likely to increase given the aging of the population and the growing incidence of many vascular risk factors. Prevention of stroke includes--as for all other diseases--a "mass approach" aiming at decreasing the risk at the society level and an individual approach, aiming at reducing the risk in a given subject. The mass approach is primarily based on the identification and treatment of vascular risk factors and, if possible, in the implementation of protective factors. These measures are the basis of primary prevention but most of them have now been shown to be also effective in secondary prevention. The individual approach combines a vascular risk factor modification and various treatments addressing the specific subtypes of stroke, such as antiplatelet drugs for the prevention of cerebral infarction in large and small artery diseases of the brain, carotid endarterectomy or stenting for tight carotid artery stenosis, and oral anticoagulants for the prevention of cardiac emboli. There is a growing awareness of the huge evidence-to-practice gap that exists in stroke prevention largely due to socio-economic factors. Recent approaches include low cost intervention packages to reduce blood pressure and cheap "polypills" combining in a single tablet aspirin and several drugs to lower blood pressure and cholesterol. Polypill intake should however not lead to abandon the healthy life-style measures which remain the mainstay of stroke prevention. PMID:22460445

  2. [Preventive treatment for migraine].

    PubMed

    Mulleners, Wim M; Haan, Joost; Dekker, Frans; Ferrari, Michel D

    2010-01-01

    Migraine patients who experience an average of 2 or more attacks per month are eligible for preventive treatment as well as treatment for acute attacks. The decision to offer preventative treatment is also made on the basis of the average attack duration, severity of the attacks, and response to attack treatment. Prior to initiating preventive treatment, the average attack frequency per month should be assessed, preferably by means of a headache diary over a number of months, as attack frequency is extremely variable. None of the currently available preventive drugs, such as beta-blockers, sodium valproate, topiramate and candesartan, were developed specifically for treating migraine, but were all originally intended for other indications. 50% of the migraine patients receiving preventive treatment can expect a 50% reduction in attacks, and the remaining attacks often seem to be less severe. The effects of the drugs are often unpredictable per individual, and side-effects frequently lead to early discontinuation of treatment. Drugs usually prescribed for cardiovascular disorders are often used. In the case of a disorder such as migraine with a high burden of disability, patients with cardiovascular or pulmonary comorbidity should receive medication that is optimally adjusted for both indications. PMID:20699036

  3. JNCI and Cancer Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Sharmistha; Kramer, Barnett S.

    2015-01-01

    The Journal of the National Cancer Institute (JNCI), with its broad coverage of bench research, epidemiologic studies, and clinical trials, has a long history of publishing practice-changing studies in cancer prevention and public health. These include studies of tobacco cessation, chemoprevention, and nutrition. The landmark Breast Cancer Prevention Trial (BCPT)—the first large trial to prove efficacy of a preventive medication for a major malignancy—was published in the Journal, as were key ancillary papers to the BCPT. Even when JNCI was not the publication venue for the main trial outcomes, conceptual and design discussions leading to the trial as well as critical follow-up analyses based on trial data from the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT) and the Selenium and Vitamin E Chemoprevention Trial (SELECT) were published in the Journal. The Journal has also published important evidence on very charged topics, such as the purported link between abortion and breast cancer risk. In summary, JNCI has been at the forefront of numerous major publications related to cancer prevention. PMID:25713150

  4. Diabetes mellitus prevention.

    PubMed

    Allende-Vigo, Myriam Zaydee

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to review lifestyle modification interventions and pharmacological clinical studies designed to prevent diabetes and provide evidence-based recommendations for the prevention of Diabetes Mellitus. A review of relevant literature compiled via a literature search (PUBMED) of English-language publications between 1997 and 2010 was conducted. It is found that people at increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus can halt the development of the disease. Lifestyle modification intervention with reduction of 5%-10% of excess body weight and increase in moderate physical activity by 150 min/wk has consistently proven to reduce the appearance of diabetes in different at-risk populations. Pharmacologic interventions have also demonstrated the prevention of the appearance of diabetes in persons at risk. Bariatric surgery has decreased the appearance of diabetes patients in a select group of individuals. The progression from prediabetes to diabetes mellitus can be prevented. Lifestyle modification intervention changes with weight loss and increased physical activity are currently recommended for the prevention of diabetes. PMID:22020084

  5. Prevention of Eye Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Pashby, Tom

    1981-01-01

    In Canada 30,000 people are registered as blind; in one third of these, blindness might have been avoided. Prevention is the key to reducing the number of eye injuries and blind eyes. The role of the family physician in early identification of treatable conditions and in the education of patients is discussed, but responsibility for prevention belongs to all physicians. The success of prevention is seen in the great reduction in eye injuries in industry and sports since eye protectors have been commonly used. However, many dangers to the eyes are either not recognized or are not taken seriously enough. This paper discusses some of the common causes of serious eye injuries in the home, in sports and in industry. Imagesp464-aFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4 PMID:21289691

  6. Prevention of intracerebral haemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Patrick; Mitra, Dipayan; Gregson, Barbara A; Mendelow, A David

    2007-07-01

    Nontraumatic intracerebral haemorrhages arise from a wide range of causes falling into two broad groups: discreet vascular "ictohaemorrhagic" lesions such as aneurysms, arteriovenous malformations, cavernomas, tumours, and dural fistulae; and more generalised amyloid or hypertension related conditions. It is now possible using family history, associated risk factors and gradient echo MRI to predict cases at high risk of hypertensive or amyloid related haemorrhage. There is considerable potential for prevention of hypertensive haemorrhages by treatment of high risk cases with antihypertensive medication. As yet no effective preventative treatment for amyloid angiopathy related ICH has emerged although a variety of drugs are under investigation. Prevention of haemorrhage from ictohaemorrhagic lesions revolves around removal or obliteration of the lesion. Although there is a wide range of such lesions available treatments come down to three modalities. These are surgical excision, stereotactic radiosurgery and endovascular embolisation. PMID:17630936

  7. [Prevention of infant obesity].

    PubMed

    Hernández Cordero, Sonia

    2011-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a serious public health problem, demanding urgent and clear defined actions in order to stop the rapid increase on its prevalence and all health consequences associated. The best strategy to stop the rapid increase in childhood obesity is to prevent it. In order to do so, multiple defined actions between government, industry, community organizations, schools, families and health-care professionals. The general and family physicians, pediatricians, nurses, dieticians and other clinicians should be engaged, as a key actor, in the prevention of childhood obesity. The health-care professionals have frequent opportunities to inform to children, youth and their parents about the importance of prevention of obesity and to promote and engage them in healthy life styles, particularly, a healthy diet and regular physical activity. PMID:22352128

  8. Prevention of running injuries.

    PubMed

    Fields, Karl B; Sykes, Jeannie C; Walker, Katherine M; Jackson, Jonathan C

    2010-01-01

    Evidence for preventive strategies to lessen running injuries is needed as these occur in 40%-50% of runners on an annual basis. Many factors influence running injuries, but strong evidence for prevention only exists for training modification primarily by reducing weekly mileage. Two anatomical factors - cavus feet and leg length inequality - demonstrate a link to injury. Weak evidence suggests that orthotics may lessen risk of stress fracture, but no clear evidence proves they will reduce the risk of those athletes with leg length inequality or cavus feet. This article reviews other potential injury variables, including strength, biomechanics, stretching, warm-up, nutrition, psychological factors, and shoes. Additional research is needed to determine whether interventions to address any of these will help prevent running injury. PMID:20463502

  9. Nutrition and melanoma prevention.

    PubMed

    Jensen, J Daniel; Wing, Gregory J; Dellavalle, Robert P

    2010-01-01

    Melanoma has continued to rise in incidence despite public efforts to promote sun protection behaviors. Because sunscreen use does not completely prevent skin cancer induced by ultraviolet radiation, additional chemopreventive methods for protecting against and reversing the effects of ultraviolet photodamage need evaluation. Recent years have brought increased interest in dietary factors, such as natural botanicals and vitamins, for the prevention of melanoma. This contribution provides a narrative review of the relevant, nutrition-related literature found by searching the keywords "melanoma chemoprevention," "nutrition and melanoma," "dietary botanicals and melanoma prevention," "green tea and melanoma," "vitamin D and melanoma," and "vitamin E and melanoma" in the PubMed database. Although randomized controlled trials of humans are lacking, basic science and epidemiologic studies show promising benefits of many natural products in chemoprevention for melanoma. Future studies, hopefully, will yield concrete answers and clarify the role of commonly available dietary nutrients in melanoma chemoprevention. PMID:21034988

  10. Prevention of Ill Health

    PubMed Central

    Muir, D. C. F.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose and possibilities of prevention in the workplace are described. A problem solving approach begins by identifying physical, chemical or organizational factors in the work environment and personal health factors in the individual worker. Consulting experts may be required to assist in the process. Methodical assessment of the value of collecting data or of intervention policies will be required as increasing emphasis is placed on the development of truly effective preventive health policies. Major success so far must be credited to engineering and industrial hygiene endeavors. However, the occupational health professional is the only member of the team with knowledge of individual workers' health and who can thus render appropriate advice. With the employment of handicapped, disabled or recently ill workers, the physician's role will become increasingly important in the prevention of ill health at work. PMID:21289686

  11. Prevention strategies for trichothecenes.

    PubMed

    Aldred, David; Magan, Naresh

    2004-10-10

    Contamination of cereal commodities with mycotoxins represents a significant hazard to consumer health and has thus received increasing attention from food safety authorities and legislators. For trichothecenes, and deoxynivalenol (DON) in particular, the imminent implementation of legislative limits has focused attention on ways to prevent entry of such mycotoxin contaminants into the food and feed chains. Knowledge of the pre- and post-harvest stages in the cereal production chain and in particular information on where prevention strategies can be implemented is being used to develop quality assurance systems for improving food safety. Information on the ecology of Fusarium species, breeding for resistance, more effective fungicides, potential for biological control and effective drying and storage and preservation systems, are all helping to develop effective preventative strategies for minimising consumer exposure to trichothecenes and other mycotoxins. PMID:15342093

  12. Prevention in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Black, R E

    1990-01-01

    Developing countries have implemented primary health care programs directed primarily at prevention and management of important infectious and nutritional problems of children. Successful programs have emphasized the need for individual and community involvement and have been characterized by responsible government policies for equitable implementation of efficacious and cost-effective health interventions. Unfortunately, developing countries must also face increases in the chronic disease and social problems commonly associated with industrialized countries. Prevention efforts, for example, to reduce tobacco smoking, to modify the diet, to reduce injuries, or to avert environmental contamination, are needed to contain future morbidity and rapidly increasing medical care costs. Developing countries can build on their successful approaches to program implementation and add other measures directed at preservation of health and prevention of disease in adult as well as child populations. PMID:2231055

  13. Prevention of Child Maltreatment

    PubMed Central

    Lane, Wendy Gwirtzman

    2014-01-01

    Pediatricians and other health care providers can play a number of important roles in the prevention of child maltreatment. As part of routine patient care, pediatricians can provide anticipatory guidance for effective discipline and parent-child communication, screen for maltreatment risk factors, and refer parents and families to effective community-based programs. This article will help pediatricians incorporate child abuse prevention into their practice. Resources for systematizing anticipatory guidance and child maltreatment risk factor screening will be described. The modalities and strengths and weaknesses of community-based prevention programs will be discussed, and providers will be given tools to identify the effectiveness of available community-based programs. At a broader level, the article will describe ways that pediatricians can advocate at the local, state, and national level for policies and programs that support families and children. PMID:25242703

  14. Prevention of periodontal disease.

    PubMed

    DuPont, G A

    1998-09-01

    Periodontal disease is the most common disease affecting adult dogs and cats. It is also a very preventable disease. The insidious nature of the disease and requirement for the pet owner to be actively involved make client and public education absolutely vital. Although clients are commonly aware of their pets' bad breath, they rarely notice gingivitis, fractured teeth, and traumatic malocclusions. The annual National Pet Dental Health Month program has resulted in a tremendous increase in public awareness. Veterinarians must carry this further in their everyday practices, convincing our clients of the need for preventive dental care. It is only through clients' ongoing desire and persistence that a long-term preventive program can be successful. This requires a coordinated effort by the entire hospital staff. When successful, clients' pets will live healthier and longer lives. PMID:9779544

  15. Mobile text messaging solutions for obesity prevention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akopian, David; Jayaram, Varun; Aaleswara, Lakshmipathi; Esfahanian, Moosa; Mojica, Cynthia; Parra-Medina, Deborah; Kaghyan, Sahak

    2011-02-01

    Cellular telephony has become a bright example of co-evolution of human society and information technology. This trend has also been reflected in health care and health promotion projects which included cell phones in data collection and communication chain. While many successful projects have been realized, the review of phone-based data collection techniques reveals that the existing technologies do not completely address health promotion research needs. The paper presents approaches which close this gap by extending existing versatile platforms. The messaging systems are designed for a health-promotion research to prevent obesity and obesity-related health disparities among low-income Latino adolescent girls. Messaging and polling mechanisms are used to communicate and automatically process response data for the target constituency. Preliminary survey data provide an insight on phone availability and technology perception for the study group.

  16. Preliminary ECLSS waste water model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Donald L.; Holder, Donald W., Jr.; Alexander, Kevin; Shaw, R. G.; Hayase, John K.

    1991-01-01

    A preliminary waste water model for input to the Space Station Freedom (SSF) Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) Water Processor (WP) has been generated for design purposes. Data have been compiled from various ECLSS tests and flight sample analyses. A discussion of the characterization of the waste streams comprising the model is presented, along with a discussion of the waste water model and the rationale for the inclusion of contaminants in their respective concentrations. The major objective is to establish a methodology for the development of a waste water model and to present the current state of that model.

  17. Dielectric cure monitoring: Preliminary studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, B. E.; Semmel, M. L.

    1984-01-01

    Preliminary studies have been conducted on two types of dielectric cure monitoring systems employing both epoxy resins and phenolic composites. An Audrey System was used for 23 cure monitoring runs with very limited success. Nine complete cure monitoring runs have been investigated using a Micromet System. Two additional measurements were performed to investigate the Micromet's sensitivity to water absorption in a post-cure carbon-phenolic material. While further work is needed to determine data significance, the Micromet system appears to show promise as a feedback control device during processing.

  18. LBT adaptive secondary preliminary design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallieni, Daniele; Del Vecchio, Ciro; Anaclerio, E.; Lazzarini, P. G.

    2000-07-01

    We report on the design of the two Gregorian adaptive secondary mirrors of the Large Binocular Telescope. Each adaptive secondary is a Zerodur shell having an external diameter of 911 mm and a thickness of about 1.5 mm. The deformable mirror is controlled by a pattern of 918 electromagnetic actuators. Its shape is referred to a stable ULE back plate by means of capacitive sensors co-located to the actuators pattern. The preliminary design of the system is addressed with particular attention to the reference plate optimization.

  19. Gender-Based Violence Prevention. Issues in Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This issue of "Issues in Prevention" focuses on gender-based violence prevention. This issue contains the following articles: (1) Preventing Gender-Based Violence: An Overview (Linda Langford); (2) Q&A With Amelia Cobb; (3) Denim Day at HBCUs; (4) Dear Colleague Letter; (5) ED Grants for Violence Prevention; and (6) Higher Education Center…

  20. Community How To Guide On Underage Drinking Prevention: Prevention & Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Governors' Highway Safety Representatives.

    Underage drinking prevention has two goals: prevent harm to the individual drinker and prevent harm to society. Modern prevention programs should be measured not by their intentions, but by their consequences: reducing the number of criminal events, reducing the amount of harm to individuals, and reducing the harm to society. This guide discusses…

  1. Adolescent preventive services.

    PubMed

    Reif, C J; Elster, A B

    1998-03-01

    Today, there are significant risks to the health of teenagers. Drugs (tobacco, alcohol, steroids and others), sex (pregnancy, STDs, date rape), nutrition (obesity and eating disorders), and violence (abuse, fighting) are unfortunately a part of many teens' lives. These risks increase throughout the teen years. Since each risk has a strong behavioral component, we hope to modify the behavior and minimize the risk. Prevention and health promotion are an important part of health care for teens. Primary care providers, such as family physicians, are in an excellent position to provide teen preventative care that is comprehensive and specific to the needs of each teen. PMID:9469914

  2. Preventing jailhouse suicides.

    PubMed

    Felthous, A R

    1994-01-01

    Psychiatric consultants to city and county jails are confronted with the challenge of preventing jailhouse suicides, a problem of national scope. Suicide prevention programs in jails must emphasize screening and identification, psychological support, observation, disarmament, clarity and consistency, and diagnosis, treatment, and/or hospitalization. Exactly how these principles are formulated and implemented will depend on the unique circumstances of each jail. Finally information is presented as evidence that a program that embodies these principles can effectively reduce the number of suicides in a jail where the average daily census has increased from fewer than 400 to greater than 900 in the past six years. PMID:7718921

  3. Nanomaterials in preventive dentistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannig, Matthias; Hannig, Christian

    2010-08-01

    The prevention of tooth decay and the treatment of lesions and cavities are ongoing challenges in dentistry. In recent years, biomimetic approaches have been used to develop nanomaterials for inclusion in a variety of oral health-care products. Examples include liquids and pastes that contain nano-apatites for biofilm management at the tooth surface, and products that contain nanomaterials for the remineralization of early submicrometre-sized enamel lesions. However, the treatment of larger visible cavities with nanomaterials is still at the research stage. Here, we review progress in the development of nanomaterials for different applications in preventive dentistry and research, including clinical trials.

  4. Preventing and Recognizing Embezzlement.

    PubMed

    Phairas, Debra

    2016-01-01

    It is estimated that approximately one in six physicians will be the victim of embezzlement at least once during his or her lifetime. This may be due to the trusting nature of physicians, a lack of business training about separating duties in transactions involving money, or employees' feeling overworked, underpaid, or underappreciated. The best protection against embezzlement is prevention. This article informs the reader of the steps to take to prevent stealing in the medical office, how to recognize if it is occurring, and how to obtain restitution or prosecution. PMID:27039633

  5. Preventing 30-day readmissions.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Sherri

    2015-03-01

    Preventing 30-day readmissions to hospitals is a top priority in the era of health care reform. New regulations will be costly to health care facilities because of payment guidelines. The most frequently readmitted medical conditions are acute myocardial infarction, heart failure, and pneumonia. The transition from the hospital and into the home has been classified as a vulnerable time for many patients. During this time of transition patients may fail to fully understand their discharge instructions. Ineffective communication, low health literacy, and compliance issues contribute to readmissions. Telehealth and the use of technology may be used to prevent some readmissions. PMID:25680492

  6. HIV prevention transformed: the new prevention research agenda.

    PubMed

    Padian, Nancy S; McCoy, Sandra I; Karim, Salim S Abdool; Hasen, Nina; Kim, Julia; Bartos, Michael; Katabira, Elly; Bertozzi, Stefano M; Schwartländer, Bernhard; Cohen, Myron S

    2011-07-16

    We have entered a new era in HIV prevention whereby priorities have expanded from biomedical discovery to include implementation, effectiveness, and the effect of combination prevention at the population level. However, gaps in knowledge and implementation challenges remain. In this Review we analyse trends in the rapidly changing landscape of HIV prevention, and chart a new path for HIV prevention research that focuses on the implementation of effective and efficient combination prevention strategies to turn the tide on the HIV pandemic. PMID:21763938

  7. Descent Advisor Preliminary Field Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Steven M.; Vivona, Robert A.; Sanford, Beverly

    1995-01-01

    A field test of the Descent Advisor (DA) automation tool was conducted at the Denver Air Route Traffic Control Center in September 1994. DA is being developed to assist Center controllers in the efficient management and control of arrival traffic. DA generates advisories, based on trajectory predictions, to achieve accurate meter-fix arrival times in a fuel efficient manner while assisting the controller with the prediction and resolution of potential conflicts. The test objectives were: (1) to evaluate the accuracy of DA trajectory predictions for conventional and flight-management system equipped jet transports, (2) to identify significant sources of trajectory prediction error, and (3) to investigate procedural and training issues (both air and ground) associated with DA operations. Various commercial aircraft (97 flights total) and a Boeing 737-100 research aircraft participated in the test. Preliminary results from the primary test set of 24 commercial flights indicate a mean DA arrival time prediction error of 2.4 seconds late with a standard deviation of 13.1 seconds. This paper describes the field test and presents preliminary results for the commercial flights.

  8. Descent advisor preliminary field test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Steven M.; Vivona, Robert A.; Sanford, Beverly

    1995-01-01

    A field test of the Descent Advisor (DA) automation tool was conducted at the Denver Air Route Traffic Control Center in September 1994. DA is being developed to assist Center controllers in the efficient management and control of arrival traffic. DA generates advisories, based on trajectory predictions, to achieve accurate meter-fix arrival times in a fuel efficient manner while assisting the controller with the prediction and resolution of potential conflicts. The test objectives were to evaluate the accuracy of DA trajectory predictions for conventional- and flight-management-system-equipped jet transports, to identify significant sources of trajectory prediction error, and to investigate procedural and training issues (both air and ground) associated with DA operations. Various commercial aircraft (97 flights total) and a Boeing 737-100 research aircraft participated in the test. Preliminary results from the primary test set of 24 commercial flights indicate a mean DA arrival time prediction error of 2.4 sec late with a standard deviation of 13.1 sec. This paper describes the field test and presents preliminary results for the commercial flights.

  9. Topaz II preliminary safety assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, A.C. ); Standley, V. ); Voss, S.S. ); Haskin, E. . Dept. of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering)

    1992-01-01

    The Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) decided to investigate the possibility of launching a Russian Topaz 11 space nuclear power system. A preliminary safety assessment was conducted to determine whether or not a space mission could be conducted safely and within budget constraints. As part of this assessment, a safety policy and safety functional requirements were developed to guide both the safely assessment and future Topaz II activities. A review of the Russian flight safety program was conducted and documented. Our preliminary safety assessment included a top level event tree, neutronic analysis of normal and accident configurations, an evaluation of temperature coefficients of reactivity, a reentry and disposal analysis, and analysis of postulated launch abort impact accidents, and an analysis of postulated propellant fire and explosion accidents. Based on the assessment, it appears that it will be possible to safely launch the Topaz II system in the US with some possible system modifications. The principal system modifications will probably include design changes to preclude water flooded criticality and to assure intact reentry.

  10. Topaz II preliminary safety assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, A.C. ); Standley, V. ); Voss, S.S. ); Haskin, E. )

    1993-01-10

    The Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) decided to investigate the possibility of launching a Russian Topaz II space nuclear power system. A preliminary safety assessment was conducted to determine whether or not a space mission could be conducted safely and within budget constraints. As part of this assessment, a safety policy and safety functional requirements were developed to guide both the safety assessment and future Topaz II activities. A review of the Russian flight safety program was conducted and documented. Our preliminary safety assessment included a top level event tree, neutronic analysis of normal and accident configurations, an evaluation of temperature coefficients of reactivity, a reentry and disposal analysis, and analysis of postulated launch abort impact accidents, and an analysis of postulated propellant fire and explosion accidents. Based on the assessment, it appears that it will be possible to safely launch the Topaz II system in the U.S. with some possible system modifications. The principal system modifications will probably include design changes to preclude water flooded criticality and to assure intact reentry.

  11. Delinquency Prevention Works. Program Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bilchik, Shay

    The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) compiled this summary in order to assist states and jurisdictions in their delinquency prevention efforts. The summary provides a synthesis of current information on a broad range of programs and strategies which seek to prevent delinquency. The theory of risk-focused prevention is…

  12. Handbook of Youth Prevention Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doll, Beth, Ed.; Pfohl, William, Ed.; Yoon, Jina S., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    The "Handbook of Youth Prevention Science" describes current research and practice in mental health preventive interventions for youth. Traditional prevention research focused on preventing specific disorders, e.g. substance abuse, conduct disorders, or criminality. This produced "silos" of isolated knowledge about the…

  13. | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  14. Vandalism and Its Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baughman, Paul; And Others

    As a result of the sharp increases in the costs of vandalism in the last few years, technical developments in intrusion devices have been rapid. This report provides an overall view of vandalism prevention emphasizing the various devices for detecting and reporting unauthorized entry into buildings and giving information about the activities of…

  15. Eating Disorder Prevention Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapia, Jennifer L.

    This paper provides information for school psychologists regarding the necessity and benefits of school-based prevention programming for students at risk for developing eating disorders (i.e., females). School-based programming is a cost-effective means of reaching the largest number of individuals at once and identifying those individuals…

  16. The Prevention Researcher, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ungerleider, Steven, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    The issues of this quarterly publication and year end supplement contain professional articles on topics that concern at risk youth and emphasize preventive measures. Number 1 highlights the importance of mentoring programs for at-risk youth. Discussions on mentoring for special groups such as gifted adolescents and lesbian and gay youth are…

  17. Preventing Adolescent Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capuzzi, David

    The adolescent at risk for suicidal preoccupation and behavior has become an increasing concern for schools and communities. This paper presents some of the causes of teen suicide, things adults should know about adolescent suicide prevention, and what can be done to help such youth. The transition to adolescence is a complex time when many values…

  18. Preventing School Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rulloda, Rudolfo Barcena

    2011-01-01

    School violence has mushroomed into a devastating epidemic and is deteriorating the basic foundation of education. In this article, the author will present several teaching strategies for preventing school violence from becoming an arduous enigma within the classroom and school environments, and focus on assessment and reflection in order to…

  19. Chickenpox Prevention and Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... People on chemotherapy, immunosuppressive medications, or long-term use of steroids Treatments at Home for People with Chickenpox There are several things that can be done at home to help relieve the symptoms and prevent skin ... Use non-aspirin medications, such as acetaminophen, to relieve ...

  20. Substance Use Prevention Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Judy

    This report outlines the Hillsborough County, Florida, Head Start Program's project to field test with young children and their families curricula that were designed to prevent alcohol and other drug problems. A national search conducted by means of computers, individual contacts, and other methods yielded information on 22 substance abuse…

  1. Strategies for Dropout Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Far West Lab. for Educational Research and Development, San Francisco, CA.

    This report provides descriptions of strategies for dropout prevention at the secondary level and presents examples of programs that successfully utilize these strategies. The information is based on data from a review of nearly 200 programs at secondary schools across the four-state Western region that includes Arizona, California, Nevada, and…

  2. Preventing Adolescent Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capuzzi, Dave; Golden, Larry

    This book deals with the realities of adolescent suicide. It consists of 15 chapters organized under 5 major headings: The Problem of Adolescent Suicide (chapters 1 and 2); A Profile of the Attempter (chapters 3-6); Assessing Lethality (chapters 7 and 8); Prevention and Intervention (chapters 9-14); and Legal Issues (chapter 15). Individual…

  3. Student Leadership. Prevention Updates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langford, Linda; DeJong, William

    2010-01-01

    Campus-based efforts to reduce alcohol and other drug abuse and violence (AODV) will be more successful if they involve a wide range of stakeholders--including students--who can contribute to the program's design, implementation, and evaluation. Students provide a unique perspective on AODV prevention, and they can also bring a certain authority…

  4. Preventive medicine in 2030.

    PubMed

    Freudenberg, Nicholas

    2012-12-01

    This invited commentary imagines two futures for preventive medicine and public health in the Year 2030. Using satire, the commentary describes one future in which large corporations control public health and another where a robust public sector plays the leading role. PMID:23103593

  5. Responsible Hospitality. Prevention Updates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colthurst, Tom

    2004-01-01

    Responsible Hospitality (RH)--also called Responsible Beverage Service (RBS)--encompasses a variety of strategies for reducing risks associated with the sale and service of alcoholic beverages. RH programs have three goals: (1) to prevent illegal alcohol service to minors; (2) to reduce the likelihood of drinkers becoming intoxicated; and (3) to…

  6. The Prevention Researcher, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ungerleider, Steven, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This document consists of volume 7 of "The Prevention Researcher," a service of Integrated Research Services. Each issue provides information on a specific topic. The topic of Issue Number One is adolescent dating violence. This issue includes articles on adolescents' beliefs about rape and sexual victimization, and contains a report on an…

  7. Cervical Cancer Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... the risk of HPV infection: Having a weakened immune system Having a weakened immune system caused by immunosuppression increases the risk of HPV ... This virus causes AIDS and weakens the body's immune system. Medicine given to prevent organ rejection after transplant . ...

  8. Phoenix Violence Prevention Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waits, Mary Jo; Johnson, Ryan; Silverstein, Rustin

    This report describes seven categories of violent crime in Phoenix, Arizona, and provides causes, facts, preventative programs, and lessons learned pertaining to each category of violence. The categories are: (1) prenatal and early childhood; (2) families; (3) individual youth; (4) schools; (5) neighborhood and community; (6) workplace; and (7)…

  9. Can Sinusitis Be Prevented?

    MedlinePlus

    ... the NIAID Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases web site to work incorrectly. Please visit your browser settings and turn JavaScript on. Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Sinusitis Prevention There ...

  10. [Can we prevent preeclampsia?].

    PubMed

    Ghesquière, Louise; Clouqueur, Elodie; Garabedian, Charles; Tsatsaris, Vassili; Houfflin-Debarge, Veronique

    2016-04-01

    Preeclampsia (PE), a specific complication of pregnancy, is one of the most frequent causes of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality in the world. Recently, PE risk calculation algorithms allowing early detection of PE in the first trimester of pregnancy have been described. The aim of early detection would be to rapidly introduce an effective preventive treatment. The aim of our work is to study the different preventive treatments through the literature. Aspirin has some efficiency and reduces the risk of PE from 10 to 24%. It is most effective when the dose exceeds 75mg and when introduced before 16 gestational age. Early introduction of aspirin mainly prevents severe and preterm PE. Low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) and vitamin D appear to be promising therapy for PE but further research is required. Calcium administered at 1g/day reduces the risk of PE especially to patients with low baseline calcium intake. A low dose of calcium could also reduce the risk of PE but this must be confirmed. Other preventive measures (antioxidants, nitric oxide, progesterone, rest, exercise) do not reduce the incidence of PE. PMID:27013262

  11. Illinois: Prevention Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Law and Social Policy, Inc. (CLASP), 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Illinois Prevention Initiative provides grants to home-based and center-based programs to expand access to the Early Head Start (EHS) model as well as other birth to 3 models. The goal is to serve additional children birth to age 3 and help grantees increase program quality. The initiative to expand access to EHS and other models was…

  12. Preventing Giardia Infection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beer, W. Nicholas

    1993-01-01

    Outdoor recreationists are at risk for developing giardia infection from drinking contaminated stream water. Giardia is the most common human parasite found in contaminated water that causes gastrointestinal illness. Describes medical treatment and ways of preventing infection through water treatment, including heat, filtration, and chemical…

  13. Reducing Bullying Through Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gubler, Rea; Croxall, Kathy

    2005-01-01

    Schoolyard bullies are seven times more likely to become delinquents or criminals than their nonbully peers. The unacceptable anti-social behavior of bullies can have an impact on both bullies and their victims across the lifespan. Most family and consumer sciences (FCS) professionals realize that early violence prevention protects the social and…

  14. Vaccination to Prevent Cancer.

    PubMed

    Clements, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    Vaccines stimulate the immune system, mimicking infectious attacks and thereby promoting the development of protective antibodies and/or cellular immunity so that the body is immune to infection when live native infections attack. Some of these infections are associated with cancer-causing changes in the body; thus some vaccines may help prevent cancer. PMID:27621345

  15. The Prevention Researcher, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ungerleider, Steven, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    Volume 6 of" The Prevention Researcher" contains three 12-page issues and one supplement. Issue Number 1 focuses on gambling, and contains the following articles: (1) "Gambling in the Family: The Hidden Addiction" (D. A. Abbott); (2) "Adolescent Gambling and Substance Use: The View from Texas" (L. Wallisch); (3) "Adolescent Gambling in Minnesota"…

  16. POLLUTION PREVENTION RESEARCH STRATEGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    One of the strategic goals of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is to prevent pollution and reduce risk in communities, homes, workplaces, and ecosystems. This goal must be based in large part on the application of the best available science and technology associat...

  17. Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  18. Why Prevention? Why Now?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tabachnick, Joan

    2013-01-01

    In 1995, the American Medical Association declared sexual abuse a "silent, violent epidemic." Since that declaration, there has been a growing acceptance and awareness of the need for a broader public health approach to preventing sexual violence. However, it is only recently that individuals and organizations are beginning to look at…

  19. Prevent and "British Values"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenny, Alex; Ghale, Baljeet

    2015-01-01

    At the recent National Union of Teachers' conference the role of the Prevent strategy and the introduction of "British Values" in the Office for Standards in Education, Children's Services and Skills framework emerged as key issues for delegates. Two of the speeches made at the conference are presented here.

  20. Approaches to Truancy Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mogulescu, Sara; Segal, Heidi J.

    This report examines how New York counties can systematically and programmatically improve approaches to managing persons in need of supervision (PINS), describing approaches to truancy prevention and diversion that have been instituted nationwide and may be applicable to the PINS operating system. Researchers surveyed truancy-specific programs…

  1. HPV Cancer Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... of these cancers can be prevented by HPV vaccine. HPV VACCINE IS RECOMMENDED AT THE SAME TIME AS OTHER ... caused by HPV, and meningitis. V1a1c-ci1n2esyfeoarryooludr:  THMdPaeVpningococcal HPV VACCINE IS BEST AT 11-12 YEARS Preteens have ...

  2. [Prevention in regional policy].

    PubMed

    Masi, M; Caponetti, A

    2006-01-01

    Prevention, safety and health promotion represent fondamental issues in the Regional policy. With this regard, the implementation of the Regional policy has been thought as the promotion of an integrated system which links different fields such as health, work-related information and education, job orientation and work in general. It is recommended that a good standard of prevention is achieved through the synergic actions and the collaborations among all the different actors playing a role in safety and prevention in workplace, including occupational physicians, safety and prevention operators, safety representatives for workers, trade unions, employers associations and public institutions. It is also necessary to adopt a strategy in order to decrease the number of misdiagnosed occupational diseases as well as to promote the "culture of safety in workplaces", increasing the awareness of all figures, with special focus on employers category. All this has to be set in the new scenario of the nowadays work characterized by the progressive increase of atypical job contracts, renewing the emphasis on the necessity of keeping joined "the right to a job with the right to health". PMID:17144418

  3. Prevention of relapsing backache

    PubMed Central

    Lühmann, Dagmar; Stoll, Susanne; Burkhardt-Hammer, Tatjana; Raspe, Heiner

    2006-01-01

    Background The condition of non-specific back pain is characterized by high prevalence, non satisfactory therapeutic options and severe socioeconomic consequences. Therefore prevention seems an attractive option to downsize the problem. However, the construction of effective preventive measures is complicated by the obscure aetiology of the condition, the multidimensionality of risk and prognostic factors (bio psychosocial model!) and the variability of its natural as well as clinical course. This led to the development of a wide variety of preventive measures: e. g. exercise programs, educational measures (including back school), ergonomic modification of the work environment, mechanical supports (e. g. back belts) as well as multidisciplinary interventions. For two reasons the workplace seems to be a suitable setting for prevention. First, because a number of strong risk factors are associated with working conditions and second, because it allows addressing a large proportion of the adult population. Against this background the assessment at hand sets out to answer the following questions: What is the amount and methodological quality of the available scientific literature on the effectiveness of back pain prevention in the workplace environment? What are effective measures for the prevention of back pain and its consequences in the workplace environment and how effective are they? Is back pain prevention in the workplace environment cost-effective? Is there a need for more research? As primary outcomes for effectiveness the assessment will focus on time lost from work and the frequency and duration of episodes with back pain. The preventive measures assessed belong to the following categories: exercise programs, educational and information measures, multidimensional interventions, back belts, lifting teams and ergonomic interventions. Methods The assessment is based on a systematic review of the published literature according to the methodological requirements

  4. Dropout Prevention Planning Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine State Dept. of Educational and Cultural Services, Augusta. Office of Truancy, Dropout and Alternative Education.

    This document presents a dropout prevention planning guide developed by the Office of Truancy, Dropout and Alternative Education of the Maine Department of Education, an office established to provide technical consultant services to public and private schools for identifying students at risk of school failure, and the development of dropout…

  5. Light Vehicle Preventive Maintenance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    This correspondence course, originally developed for the Marine Corps, is designed to instruct students in the performance of preventive maintenance on motor vehicles. Instructional materials are presented in three chapters as follows: (1) Major Maintenance Areas (maintenance system, tires, batteries, cooling systems, and vehicle lubrication; (2)…

  6. Neonatal Pressure Ulcer Prevention.

    PubMed

    Scheans, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of pressure ulcers in acutely ill infants and children ranges up to 27 percent in intensive care units, with a range of 16-19 percent in NICUs. Anatomic, physiologic, and developmental factors place ill and preterm newborns at risk for skin breakdown. Two case studies illustrate these factors, and best practices for pressure ulcer prevention are described. PMID:26803094

  7. Teenage Pregnancy Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Sheila; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Peer counselors and staff members describe the "I Have a Future" Program at Meharry Medical College in Nashville (Tennessee). This program focuses on pregnancy prevention by providing education, health care, and increased life options; social skills training; an entrepreneurial program; and separate classes for African-American youth. (SLD)

  8. The Prevention Researcher, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ungerleider, Steven, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    As a service of Integrated Research Services, a non-profit organization, this newsletter reports on many facets of prevention research. Written in direct, accessible language, each issue provides a "snapshot" update on a specific topic. Some articles are reprinted (often in a briefer format) from other publications; others provide a synthesis of…

  9. Nogales Dropout Prevention Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nogales High School District 10, AZ.

    Descriptions of the Nogales dropout prevention program, including activities of the career counseling center and causes for dropping out of school, introduce the guide. The goals and objectives of the independent study center for potential dropouts include giving assistance to students so they may complete their high school education and guidance…

  10. Prevention Researcher, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ungerleider, Steven, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    The issues of this quarterly publication and year end supplement contain professional articles on topics that concern at risk youth and emphasize preventive measures. Number 1 highlights the challenges facing gay, lesbian, and bisexual youth in schools. Many schools have nothing in their curricula to help provide an understanding of these issues…

  11. Increasing Parent Involvement in Youth HIV Prevention: A Randomized Caribbean Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baptiste, Donna R.; Kapungu, Chisina; Miller, Steve; Crown, Laurel; Henry, David; Da Costa Martinez, Dona; Jo-Bennett, Karen

    2009-01-01

    This article presents preliminary findings of a randomized HIV prevention study in Trinidad and Tobago in the Caribbean. The study centers on a family HIV workshop aimed at strengthening parenting skills that are empirically linked to reducing adolescent HIV exposure and other sexual risks. These skills include parental monitoring; educating youth…

  12. Diagnosis and Treatment of a Community Illness: Primary Prevention of Racism in Ethnically Heterogenous Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziegler, Suzanne

    This paper summarizes research in which the public health models of epidemiological assessment and primary prevention were used to (1) determine the prevalence of ethnic social segregation among school children in Toronto, Canada; and (2) alter ethnically segregated friendship patterns in Toronto schools. A preliminary study of children aged 12 to…

  13. Prevention of Coronary Atherosclerosis: The Role of a College Health Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manchester, Ralph A.; Greenland, Philip

    1987-01-01

    This paper reviews the concept of behavioral risk factors for atherosclerosis which become entrenched in adolescence or young adulthood. Evidence favoring intervention in the adolescent years and a screening program at the University of Rochester Health Service are described. A preliminary strategy for prevention of atherosclerosis on campus is…

  14. Prevention Practice Differences Among Persons With Spinal Cord Injuries Who Rarely Versus Frequently Sustain Pressure Ulcers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Michael L.; Marini, Irmo; Slate, John R.

    2005-01-01

    Pressure ulcers are common among people with spinal cord injury (SCI) and not only are costly to treat but also affect the quality of life of those affected by them. Despite a plethora of literature on prevention, there are few wellness studies focusing on the practices of people who do not develop pressure ulcers. This preliminary study sought to…

  15. Stress Prevention and Mindfulness: A Psychoeducational and Support Group for Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiser, Jenson E.; Murphy, Susan L.; McCarthy, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    A stress prevention and mindfulness (SPAM) group is described, which is a 6-week psychoeducational and support group for teachers. The group incorporated psychoeducation about stress and utilized elements of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR). The group was implemented in a public charter school in the Southwest. Preliminary evaluation…

  16. 32 CFR 1901.11 - Preliminary information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Preliminary information. 1901.11 Section 1901.11... UNDER THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 Filing of Privacy Act Requests § 1901.11 Preliminary information. Members... outstanding fees for information services at this or other federal agencies will not be accepted and action...

  17. 32 CFR 1801.11 - Preliminary information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Preliminary information. 1801.11 Section 1801.11... RIGHTS UNDER THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 Filing Of Privacy Act Requests § 1801.11 Preliminary information... outstanding fees for information services at this or other federal agencies will not be accepted and action...

  18. 32 CFR 1801.11 - Preliminary information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Preliminary information. 1801.11 Section 1801.11... RIGHTS UNDER THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 Filing Of Privacy Act Requests § 1801.11 Preliminary information... outstanding fees for information services at this or other federal agencies will not be accepted and action...

  19. 18 CFR 1b.6 - Preliminary investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Preliminary investigations. 1b.6 Section 1b.6 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.6 Preliminary investigations....

  20. 33 CFR 116.10 - Preliminary review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Preliminary review. 116.10... ALTERATION OF UNREASONABLY OBSTRUCTIVE BRIDGES § 116.10 Preliminary review. (a) Upon receipt of a written complaint, the District Commander will review the complaint to determine if, in the District...

  1. 33 CFR 116.10 - Preliminary review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Preliminary review. 116.10... ALTERATION OF UNREASONABLY OBSTRUCTIVE BRIDGES § 116.10 Preliminary review. (a) Upon receipt of a written complaint, the District Commander will review the complaint to determine if, in the District...

  2. 5 CFR 838.1007 - Preliminary review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Preliminary review. 838.1007 Section 838... Benefits § 838.1007 Preliminary review. (a)(1) Upon receipt of a court order and documentation required by... for further review when the employee or Member dies or funds become available under § 838.1006....

  3. 32 CFR 1700.4 - Preliminary information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Preliminary information. 1700.4 Section 1700.4... INTELLIGENCE PROCEDURES FOR DISCLOSURE OF RECORDS PURSUANT TO THE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT § 1700.4 Preliminary information. Members of the public shall address all communications to the point of...

  4. 32 CFR 1800.11 - Preliminary information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Preliminary information. 1800.11 Section 1800.11... ACCESS TO NACIC RECORDS UNDER THE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT (FOIA) Filing of FOIA Requests § 1800.11 Preliminary information. Members of the public shall address all communications to the NACIC Coordinator...

  5. 32 CFR 1908.11 - Preliminary information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Preliminary information. 1908.11 Section 1908.11... FOR MANDATORY DECLASSIFICATION REVIEW OF CLASSIFIED INFORMATION PURSUANT TO SEC. 3.5 OF EXECUTIVE ORDER 13526 Filing of Mandatory Declassification Review (mdr) Requests § 1908.11 Preliminary...

  6. 32 CFR 1801.11 - Preliminary information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Preliminary information. 1801.11 Section 1801.11... RIGHTS UNDER THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 Filing Of Privacy Act Requests § 1801.11 Preliminary information... outstanding fees for information services at this or other federal agencies will not be accepted and action...

  7. 32 CFR 1801.11 - Preliminary information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Preliminary information. 1801.11 Section 1801.11 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense NATIONAL COUNTERINTELLIGENCE CENTER PUBLIC RIGHTS UNDER THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 Filing Of Privacy Act Requests § 1801.11 Preliminary...

  8. 32 CFR 1801.11 - Preliminary information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Preliminary information. 1801.11 Section 1801.11 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense NATIONAL COUNTERINTELLIGENCE CENTER PUBLIC RIGHTS UNDER THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 Filing Of Privacy Act Requests § 1801.11 Preliminary...

  9. 40 CFR 158.345 - Preliminary analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Preliminary analysis. 158.345 Section 158.345 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Product Chemistry § 158.345 Preliminary analysis. (a) If the product is produced...

  10. 40 CFR 158.345 - Preliminary analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Preliminary analysis. 158.345 Section 158.345 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Product Chemistry § 158.345 Preliminary analysis. (a) If the product is produced...

  11. 40 CFR 158.345 - Preliminary analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Preliminary analysis. 158.345 Section 158.345 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Product Chemistry § 158.345 Preliminary analysis. (a) If the product is produced...

  12. 40 CFR 158.345 - Preliminary analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Preliminary analysis. 158.345 Section 158.345 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Product Chemistry § 158.345 Preliminary analysis. (a) If the product is produced...

  13. 19 CFR 202.3 - Preliminary inquiry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Preliminary inquiry. 202.3 Section 202.3 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS OF COSTS OF PRODUCTION § 202.3 Preliminary inquiry. Upon the receipt of an application properly filed,...

  14. 19 CFR 202.3 - Preliminary inquiry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Preliminary inquiry. 202.3 Section 202.3 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS OF COSTS OF PRODUCTION § 202.3 Preliminary inquiry. Upon the receipt of an application properly filed,...

  15. 32 CFR 1901.11 - Preliminary information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Preliminary information. 1901.11 Section 1901.11 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY PUBLIC RIGHTS UNDER THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 Filing of Privacy Act Requests § 1901.11 Preliminary information....

  16. 32 CFR 1901.11 - Preliminary information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Preliminary information. 1901.11 Section 1901.11 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY PUBLIC RIGHTS UNDER THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 Filing of Privacy Act Requests § 1901.11 Preliminary information....

  17. 32 CFR 1901.11 - Preliminary information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Preliminary information. 1901.11 Section 1901.11 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY PUBLIC RIGHTS UNDER THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 Filing of Privacy Act Requests § 1901.11 Preliminary information....

  18. 32 CFR 1901.11 - Preliminary information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Preliminary information. 1901.11 Section 1901.11 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY PUBLIC RIGHTS UNDER THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 Filing of Privacy Act Requests § 1901.11 Preliminary information....

  19. Plutonium Immobilization Can Loading Preliminary Specifications

    SciTech Connect

    Kriikku, E.

    1998-11-25

    This report discusses the Plutonium Immobilization can loading preliminary equipment specifications and includes a process block diagram, process description, equipment list, preliminary equipment specifications, plan and elevation sketches, and some commercial catalogs. This report identifies loading pucks into cans and backfilling cans with helium as the top priority can loading development areas.

  20. 7 CFR 1735.90 - Preliminary approvals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... preliminary approval to the acquisition or merger. However, the borrower may not obtain additional loan funds...) Before RUS will grant preliminary approval, the borrower shall submit: (1) Merger or acquisition documents required by state law; (2) Acquisition agreements covering the transaction; (3) Any...

  1. 40 CFR 158.345 - Preliminary analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Preliminary analysis. 158.345 Section 158.345 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Product Chemistry § 158.345 Preliminary analysis. (a) If the product is produced...

  2. 7 CFR 4284.930 - Preliminary review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GRANTS Value-Added Producer Grant Program Applying for A Grant § 4284.930 Preliminary review. The Agency encourages applicants to contact their State... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Preliminary review. 4284.930 Section...

  3. 7 CFR 4284.930 - Preliminary review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GRANTS Value-Added Producer Grant Program Applying for A Grant § 4284.930 Preliminary review. The Agency encourages applicants to contact their State... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Preliminary review. 4284.930 Section...

  4. 7 CFR 4284.930 - Preliminary review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GRANTS Value-Added Producer Grant Program Applying for A Grant § 4284.930 Preliminary review. The Agency encourages applicants to contact their State... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Preliminary review. 4284.930 Section...

  5. 40 CFR 1042.210 - Preliminary approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Preliminary approval. 1042.210 Section 1042.210 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS... Families § 1042.210 Preliminary approval. If you send us information before you finish the application,...

  6. Psychohistory and Slavery: Preliminary Issues.

    PubMed

    Adams, Kenneth Alan

    2015-01-01

    "Psychohistory and Slavery: Preliminary Issues," begins an examination of slavery in the antebellum South. The paper suggests that how slavery and the group-fantasy of white male supremacy were perpetuated among slaveholders is a question of fundamental importance for psychohistorians. The family and childrearing are the focus of attention. Given the ferocity of slavery, it is argued that the psychological and emotional consequences of this barbarism were not limited to the slaves themselves, but had significant impact on the slaveholders as well-their parenting, their children, and their children's parenting of the next generation. In each generation the trauma of slavery was injected into slaveholder children and became a fundamental component of elite Southern personality. PMID:26462403

  7. Genesis Preliminary Examination: Ellipsometry Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stansbery, E. K.; McNamara, K. M.

    2005-01-01

    The Genesis spacecraft returned to Earth on September 8, 2004, experiencing a non-nominal reentry in which both the drogue and main parachutes failed to deploy causing the capsule to impact the surface of the UTTR desert at a speed of approximately 310 kph (193 mph). The impact caused severe damage to the capsule and a breach of the science canister in the field. The science canister was recovered and transported to the cleanroom at UTTR within approximately 8 hours of reentry. Although the ground water table did not rise to canister level before removal, damp soil and debris from the heat shield and other spacecraft components did enter the canister and contaminate some collector surfaces. The objective of preliminary examination of the Genesis collectors is to provide the science community with the information necessary to request the most useful samples for their analysis.

  8. Preliminary Results of the Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pap, Judit

    1995-01-01

    The preliminary results of the photometry of CaII K spectroheliograms taken at the NationalSolar Observatory at Sacramento peak are presented in this paper. We have digitizedspectroheliograms for 1980 (maximum of SC21), 1985 (minimum of SC21), 1987 (beginning of theascending phase of SC22), 1988 and 1989 (ascending phase and maximum of SC22), and 1992(declining phase of SC22). We have analyzed images for 1992 and separated the plages, the magneticnetwork, internetwork elements and the chromospheric background using histogram method. Wehave derived the intensity and area of these features as well as the full disk intensity (Spatial KIndex). The Spatial K Index has been compared to the spectral Ca K index derived from the lineprofiles and total solar and UV irradiance measured by the UARS and NOAA9 satellites. Thecontribution of plages, the magnetic network and internetwork element to the changes observed intotal solar and UV irradiances are also estimated.

  9. Monsoon '90 - Preliminary SAR results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubois, Pascale C.; Van Zyl, Jakob J.; Guerra, Abel G.

    1992-01-01

    Multifrequency polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images of the Walnut Gulch watershed near Tombstone, Arizona were acquired on 28 Mar. 1990 and on 1 Aug. 1990. Trihedral corner reflectors were deployed prior to both overflights to allow calibration of the two SAR data sets. During both overflights, gravimetric soil moisture and dielectric constant measurements were made. Detailed vegetation height, density, and water content measurements were made as part of the Monsoon 1990 Experiment. Preliminary results based on analysis of the multitemporal polarimetric SAR data are presented. Only the C-band data (5.7-cm wavelength) radar images show significant difference between Mar. and Aug., with the strongest difference observed in the HV images. Based on the radar data analysis and the in situ measurements, we conclude that these differences are mainly due to changes in the vegetation and not due to the soil moisture changes.

  10. Monsoon 1990: Preliminary SAR results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanzyl, Jakob J.; Dubois, Pascale; Guerra, Abel

    1991-01-01

    Multifrequency polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images of the Walnut Gulch watershed near Tombstone, Arizona were acquired on 28 Mar. 1990 and on 1 Aug. 1990. Trihedral corner reflectors were deployed prior to both overflights to allow calibration of the two SAR data sets. During both overflights, gravimetric soil moisture and dielectric constant measurements were made. Detailed vegetation height, density, and water content measurements were made as part of the Monsoon 1990 Experiment. Preliminary results based on analysis of the multitemporal polarimetric SAR data are presented. Only the C-band data (5.7-cm wavelength) radar images show significant difference between Mar. and Aug., with the strongest difference observed in the HV images. Based on the radar data analysis and the in situ measurements, we conclude that these differences are mainly due to changes in the vegetation and not due to the soil moisture changes.

  11. Surveyor 3 Preliminary Science Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1967-01-01

    Surveyor III soft-landed on the Moon at 00:04 GMT on April 20, 1967. Data obtained have significantly increased our knowledge of the Moon. The Surveyor III spacecraft was similar to Surveyor I; the only major change in scientific instrumentation was the addition of a soil mechanics surface sampler. Surveyor III results at this preliminary evaluation of data give valuable information about the relation between the surface skin of under-dense material responsible for the photometric properties and the deeper layers of material whose properties resemble those of ordinary terrestrial soils. In addition, they provide new insight into the relation between the general lunar surface as seen by Surveyor I and the interior of a large subdued crater. The new results have also contributed to our understanding of the mechanism of downhill transport. Many critical questions cannot, however, be answered until final reduction of experimental data.

  12. [Prevention of diabetic foot].

    PubMed

    Metelko, Zeljko; Brkljacić Crkvencić, Neva

    2013-10-01

    Diabetic foot (DF) is the most common chronic complication, which depends mostly on the duration and successful treatment of diabetes mellitus. Based on epidemiological studies, it is estimated that 25% of persons with diabetes mellitus (PwDM) will develop the problems with DF during lifetime, while 5% do 15% will be treated for foot or leg amputation. The treatment is prolonged and expensive, while the results are uncertain. The changes in DF are influenced by different factors usually connected with the duration and regulation of diabetes mellitus. The first problems with DF are the result of misbalance between nutritional, defensive and reparatory mechanisms on the one hand and the intensity of damaging factors against DF on the other hand. Diabetes mellitus is a state of chronic hyperglycemia, consisting of changes in carbohydrate, protein and fat metabolism. As a consequence of the long duration of diabetes mellitus, late complications can develop. Foot is in its structure very complex, combined with many large and small bones connected with ligaments, directed by many small and large muscles, interconnected with many small and large blood vessels and nerves. Every of these structures can be changed by nutritional, defensive and reparatory mechanisms with consequential DE Primary prevention of DF includes all measures involved in appropriate maintenance of nutrition, defense and reparatory mechanisms.First, it is necessary to identify the high-risk population for DF, in particular for macrovascular, microvascular and neural complications. The high-risk population of PwDM should be identified during regular examination and appropriate education should be performed. In this group, it is necessary to include more frequent and intensified empowerment for lifestyle changes, appropriate diet, regular exercise (including frequent breaks for short exercise during sedentary work), regular self control of body weight, quit smoking, and appropriate treatment of glycemia

  13. [Prevention, why resist it?].

    PubMed

    Laurin, J C

    1989-01-01

    Prevention, why resist it? Based on a 1988 speech the author gave to infection control professionals in Montréal, this article draws a parallel between individuals' resistance to change and their reaction to infection control programs. Gladly, many of the same well-honed techniques that help change along can be applied to infection control efforts, he says. Analyzing the implementation of an infection control program for AIDS in a health center, the author emphasizes do's and don'ts and explores appropriate and inappropriate approaches to leadership, conflict prevention and problem solving. To sell your program, he says, you must also sell yourself; you must be convincing and credible. PMID:2912544

  14. Prevention of suicidal behavior

    PubMed Central

    Hegerl, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    More than 800 000 people die every year from suicide, and about 20 times more attempt suicide. In most countries, suicide risk is highest in older males, and risk of attempted suicide is highest in younger females. The higher lethal level of suicidal acts in males is explained by the preference for more lethal methods, as well as other factors. In the vast majority of cases, suicidal behavior occurs in the context of psychiatric disorders, depression being the most important one. Improving the treatment of depression, restricting access to lethal means, and avoiding the Werther effect (imitation suicide) are central aspects of suicide prevention programs. In several European regions, the four-level intervention concept of the European Alliance Against Depression (www.EAAD.net), simultaneously targeting depression and suicidal behavior, has been found to have preventive effects on suicidal behavior. It has already been implemented in more than 100 regions in Europe. PMID:27489458

  15. Venereal disease prevention.

    PubMed

    Cutler, J C

    1981-03-01

    Outlining his interest and work in the prevention of VD, especially gonorrhea and syphilis, the author addresses the questions of prophylaxis and contraceptives, together with their technological advances, and ties these two concepts into the complex fabric of human behavior, history of available therapy in both world wars as well as the economic, social, moral and national concepts of what constitutes proper emphasis: prevention or cure. Thus, the absence of therapeutic modalities spurred the United States Armed Services to utilize Credé's solution for urethral irrigation and locally applied calomel ointment for prophylactic purposes in World War I but abandoned this mode when cheap penicillin therapy became available after World War II. Similarly, the utilization of combined prophylactic and contraceptive methods for women has to await the overcoming of societal and parental resistance. Particularly where teenagers are concerned the importance of combined modalities is stressed. PMID:6894273

  16. Prevention of recurrent nephrolithiasis.

    PubMed

    Goldfarb, D S; Coe, F L

    1999-11-15

    The first episode of nephrolithiasis provides an opportunity to advise patients about measures for preventing future stones. Low fluid intake and excessive intake of protein, salt and oxalate are important modifiable risk factors for kidney stones. Calcium restriction is not useful and may potentiate osteoporosis. Diseases such as hyperparathyroidism, sarcoidosis and renal tubular acidosis should be considered in patients with nephrolithiasis. A 24-hour urine collection with measurement of the important analytes is usually reserved for use in patients with recurrent stone formation. In these patients, the major urinary risk factors include hypercalciuria, hyperoxaluria, hypocitraturia and hyperuricosuria. Effective preventive and treatment measures include thiazide therapy to lower the urinary calcium level, citrate supplementation to increase the urinary citrate level and, sometimes, allopurinol therapy to lower uric acid excretion. Uric acid stones are most often treated with citrate supplementation. Data now support the cost-effectiveness of evaluation and treatment of patients with recurrent stones. PMID:10593318

  17. The Prevention of Thalassemia

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Antonio; Kan, Yuet Wai

    2013-01-01

    The thalassemias are among the most common inherited diseases worldwide, affecting individuals originating from the Mediterranean area, Middle East, Transcaucasia, Central Asia, Indian subcontinent, and Southeast Asia. As the diseases require long-term care, prevention of the homozygous state constitutes a major armament in the management. This article discusses the major prevention programs that are set up in many countries in Europe, Asia, and Australia, often drawing from the experience in Sardinia. These comprehensive programs involve carrier detections, molecular diagnostics, genetic counseling, and prenatal diagnosis. Variability of clinical severity can be attributable to interactions with α-thalassemia and mutations that increase fetal productions. Special methods taht are currently quite expensive and not widely applicable are preimplantation and preconception diagnosis. The recent successful studies of fetal DNA in maternal plasma may allow future prenatal diagnosis that is noninvasive for the fetus. PMID:23378598

  18. Osteoradionecrosis: Causes and prevention

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, R.B. )

    1990-01-01

    Osteoradionecrosis (ORN) is one of the most serious complications arising from head and neck radiation therapy. Current research has shown that ORN represents nonhealing, dead bone and is not a state of infection. ORN is the result of functional and structural bony changes that may not be expressed for months or years. ORN may occur spontaneously or in response to wounding. Predisposing factors include absorbed radiation dose, fractionation, delivery modality, and dental status. Timing of dental extractions and other factors have also been shown to affect incidence. ORN may be reduced through early intraoral evaluation, treatment, and adequate healing time prior to beginning RT. Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy has been beneficial in the prevention and treatment of ORN. It is of paramount importance for the medical community to recognize the factors that may reduce ORN incidence, endorse oral care protocols, and acknowledge the value of HBO therapy in the prevention and treatment of this disease. 60 references.

  19. Stardust interstellar preliminary examination (ISPE).

    SciTech Connect

    Westphal, A.J.; Allen, C.; Bajt, S.; Basset, R.; Flynn, G.L.; Sutton, S.

    2009-03-23

    The Stardust Interstellar Preliminary Examination (ISPE) is a three-year effort to characterize the Stardust interstellar dust collection and collector using non-destructive techniques. We summarize the status of the ISPE. In January 2006 the Stardust sample return capsule returned to Earth bearing the first solid samples from a primitive solar system body, Comet 81P/Wild2, and a collector dedicated to the capture and return of contemporary interstellar dust. Both collectors were {approx}0.1 m{sup 2} in area and were composed of aerogel tiles (85% of the collecting area) and aluminum foils. The Stardust Interstellar Dust Collector (SIDC) was exposed to the interstellar dust stream for a total exposure factor of 20 m{sup 2}-day during two periods before the cometary encounter. The Stardust Interstellar Preliminary Examination (ISPE) is a three-year effort to characterize the collection using nondestructive techniques. The goals and restrictions of the ISPE are described in Westphal et al. The ISPE consists of six interdependent projects: (1) Candidate identification through automated digital microscopy and a massively distributed, calibrated search; (2) Candidate extraction and photodocumentation; (3) Characterization of candidates through synchrotron-based Fourier-Tranform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning X-Ray Fluoresence Microscopy (SXRF), and Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy (STXM); (4) Search for and analysis of craters in foils through FESEM scanning, Auger Spectroscopy and synchrotron-based Photoemission Electron Microscopy (PEEM); (5) Modeling of interstellar dust transport in the solar system; and (6) Laboratory simulations of hypervelocity dust impacts into the collecting media.

  20. Lactoferrin for prevention of neonatal sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Turin, Christie G.; Zea-Vera, Alonso; Pezo, Alonso; Cruz, Karen; Zegarra, Jaime; Bellomo, Sicilia; Cam, Luis; Llanos, Raul; Castañeda, Anne; Tucto, Lourdes; Ochoa, Theresa J.

    2015-01-01

    Preterm neonates are at risk to acquire infections. In addition to the high mortality associated with sepsis, these patients are at risk for long-term disabilities, particularly neurodevelopment impairment. Several interventions have been evaluated to reduce rates of infections in neonates but have not proven efficacy. Lactoferrin (LF), a milk glycoprotein with anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory and anti-microbial properties, has the potential to prevent infections in young children. We performed a review of current and ongoing clinical trials of LF for prevention of neonatal sepsis, and found eleven registered clinical trials that include more than 6000 subjects. Few of these trials have finished; despite their small sample size, the preliminary results show a trend towards a positive protective effect of LF on neonatal infections. Larger trials are underway to confirm the findings of these initial studies. This information will help to define LF´s role in clinical settings and, if proven effective, would profoundly affect the treatment of low birth weight neonates as a cost-effective intervention worldwide. PMID:24935001

  1. Evaluating the benefits of risk prevention initiatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Baldassarre, G.

    2012-04-01

    The likelihood and adverse impacts of water-related disasters, such as floods and landslides, are increasing in many countries because of changes in climate and land-use. This presentation illustrates some preliminary results of a comprehensive demonstration of the benefits of risk prevention measures, carried out within the European FP7 KULTURisk project. The study is performed by using a variety of case studies characterised by diverse socio-economic contexts, different types of water-related hazards (floods, debris flows and landslides, storm surges) and space-time scales. In particular, the benefits of state-of-the-art prevention initiatives, such as early warning systems, non-structural options (e.g. mapping and planning), risk transfer strategies (e.g. insurance policy), and structural measures, are showed. Lastly, the importance of homogenising criteria to create hazard inventories and build memory, efficient risk communication and warning methods as well as active dialogue with and between public and private stakeholders, is highlighted.

  2. Brief report: preliminary results of a suicide awareness mass media campaign in Cuyahoga County, Ohio.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Richard J; Spilsbury, James C; Osiecki, Scott S; Denihan, William M; Zureick, Joel L; Friedman, Steve

    2008-04-01

    Little information is currently available concerning the effects of suicide awareness and prevention campaigns. This brief report provides preliminary information about the influence of such a media campaign on the number of suicide-related telephone calls to an emergency mental health service in Cuyahoga County, Ohio. Examination of the pattern of calls before, during, and between phases of the campaign suggests that the media campaign significantly increased telephone calls to the emergency service. We provide this information to catalyze similar sharing of data and experiences among those organizations and agencies working to prevent suicide. PMID:18444781

  3. Prevention and drug treatment.

    PubMed

    Testa, Mark F; Smith, Brenda

    2009-01-01

    Evidence linking alcohol and other drug abuse with child maltreatment, particularly neglect, is strong. But does substance abuse cause maltreatment? According to Mark Testa and Brenda Smith, such co-occurring risk factors as parental depression, social isolation, homelessness, or domestic violence may be more directly responsible than substance abuse itself for maltreatment. Interventions to prevent substance abuse-related maltreatment, say the authors, must attend to the underlying direct causes of both. Research on whether prevention programs reduce drug abuse or help parents control substance use and improve their parenting has had mixed results, at best. The evidence raises questions generally about the effectiveness of substance abuse services in preventing child maltreatment. Such services, for example, raise only marginally the rates at which parents are reunified with children who have been placed in foster care. The primary reason for the mixed findings, say Testa and Smith, is that almost all the parents face not only substance abuse problems but the co-occurring issues as well. To prevent recurring maltreatment and promote reunification, programs must ensure client progress in all problem areas. At some point in the intervention process, say Testa and Smith, attention must turn to the child's permanency needs and well-being. The best evidence to date suggests that substance-abusing parents pose no greater risk to their children than do parents of other children taken into child protective custody. It may be sensible, say the authors, to set a six-month timetable for parents to engage in treatment and allow twelve to eighteen months for them to show sufficient progress in all identified problem areas. After that, permanency plans should be expedited to place the child with a relative caregiver or in an adoptive home. Investing in parental recovery from substance abuse and dependence, the authors conclude, should not substitute for a comprehensive approach

  4. Preventing Supercooling Of Gallium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massucco, Arthur A.; Wenghoefer, Hans M.; Wilkins, Ronnie

    1994-01-01

    Principle of heterogeneous nucleation exploited to prevent gallium from supercooling, enabling its use as heat-storage material that crystallizes reproducibly at its freezing or melting temperature of 29 to 30 degrees C. In original intended application, gallium used as heat-storage material in gloves of space suits. Terrestrial application lies in preparation of freezing-temperature reference samples for laboratories. Principle of heterogeneous nucleation also exploited similarly in heat pipes filled with sodium.

  5. Models for effective prevention.

    PubMed

    Perry, C L; Kelder, S H

    1992-07-01

    The social influence models do provide some optimism for primary prevention efforts. Prevention programs appear most effective when 1) the target behavior of the intervention has received increasing societal disapproval (such as cigarette smoking), 2) multiple years of behavioral health education are planned, and 3) community-wide involvement or mass media complement a school-based peer-led program (45,46). Short-term programs and those involving alcohol use have had less favorable outcomes. Future research in primary prevention should address concerns of high-risk groups and high-risk countries, such as lower income populations in the United States or countries that have large adolescent homeless populations. The utilization of adolescent leaders for program dissemination might be particularly critical in these settings. A second major and global concern should focus upon alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. In many communities adolescent alcohol use is normative and even adult supported. Thus, young people are getting quite inconsistent messages on alcohol from their schools, from TV, from peers, and from parents. This inconsistency may translate into many tragic and avoidable deaths for young people. Clearly, in the area of alcohol-related problems, community-wide involvement may be necessary. A third direction for prevention research should involve issues of norms, access, and enforcement including policy interventions, such as involve the availability of cigarette vending machines or the ease of under-age buying or levels of taxation. These methods affect adolescents more acutely since their financial resources, for the most part, are more limited. These policy level methods also signify to adolescents what adults consider appropriate.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1390786

  6. Preventing ophthalmia neonatorum

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Dorothy L; MacDonald, Noni E

    2015-01-01

    The use of silver nitrate as prophylaxis for neonatal ophthalmia was instituted in the late 1800s to prevent the devastating effects of neonatal ocular infection with Neisseria gonorrhoeae. At that time – during the preantibiotic era – many countries made such prophylaxis mandatory by law. Today, neonatal gonococcal ophthalmia is rare in Canada, but ocular prophylaxis for this condition remains mandatory in some provinces/ territories. Silver nitrate drops are no longer available and erythromycin, the only ophthalmic antibiotic eye ointment currently available for use in newborns, is of questionable efficacy. Ocular prophylaxis is not effective in preventing chlamydial conjunctivitis. Applying medication to the eyes of newborns may result in mild eye irritation and has been perceived by some parents as interfering with mother-infant bonding. Physicians caring for newborns should advocate for rescinding mandatory ocular prophylaxis laws. More effective means of preventing ophthalmia neonatorum include screening all pregnant women for gonorrhea and chlamydia infection, and treatment and follow-up of those found to be infected. Mothers who were not screened should be tested at delivery. Infants of mothers with untreated gonococcal infection at delivery should receive ceftriaxone. Infants exposed to chlamydia at delivery should be followed closely for signs of infection. PMID:26236350

  7. Blow out preventer

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce, A.I.

    1980-06-10

    In oil and gas well pumping apparatus, a polish rod reciprocates through a stuffing box and connects to a submersible pump through a tubing string or the like. When servicing, it is desirable to close off the gas or oil pressure from below and hydraulic fluid is routed from a remote location to the blow out preventer. The blow out preventer consists of a cylindrical casing with a cap screw threadably engaged to the upper end thereof and containing a cylindrical spool or the like formed from elastomeric material having an annular channel around the outer perimeter which is operatively connected to the source of hydraulic fluid. When it is desired to close off the blow out preventer, hydraulic fluid is pumped under pressure to the channel thus forcing the center of the spool inwardly and clamping same around the polish rod thereby closing off the passageway around the polish rod. O rings surround the spool above and below the channel and assist in sealing. Upper and lower steps in the casing slope outwardly and away from one another to facilitate the return of the spool to the normal position when pressure is released.

  8. Preventing ophthalmia neonatorum

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Dorothy L; MacDonald, Noni E

    2015-01-01

    The use of silver nitrate as prophylaxis for neonatal ophthalmia was instituted in the late 1800s to prevent the devastating effects of neonatal ocular infection with Neisseria gonorrhoeae. At that time – during the preantibiotic era – many countries made such prophylaxis mandatory by law. Today, neonatal gonococcal ophthalmia is rare in Canada, but ocular prophylaxis for this condition remains mandatory in some provinces/ territories. Silver nitrate drops are no longer available and erythromycin, the only ophthalmic antibiotic eye ointment currently available for use in newborns, is of questionable efficacy. Ocular prophylaxis is not effective in preventing chlamydial conjunctivitis. Applying medication to the eyes of newborns may result in mild eye irritation and has been perceived by some parents as interfering with mother-infant bonding. Physicians caring for newborns should advocate for rescinding mandatory ocular prophylaxis laws. More effective means of preventing ophthalmia neonatorum include screening all pregnant women for gonorrhea and chlamydia infection, and treatment and follow-up of those found to be infected. Mothers who were not screened should be tested at delivery. Infants of mothers with untreated gonococcal infection at delivery should receive ceftriaxone. Infants exposed to chlamydia at delivery should be followed closely for signs of infection. PMID:25838784

  9. Osteoradionecrosis prevention myths

    SciTech Connect

    Wahl, Michael J. E-mail: WahlMichaelJ@aol.com

    2006-03-01

    Purpose: To critically analyze controversial osteoradionecrosis (ORN) prevention techniques, including preradiation extractions of healthy or restorable teeth and the use of prophylactic antibiotics or hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) treatments for preradiation and postradiation extractions. Methods: The author reviewed ORN studies found on PubMed and in other article references, including studies on overall ORN incidence and pre- and postradiation incidence, with and without prophylactic HBO or antibiotics. Results: Owing in part to more efficient radiation techniques, the incidence of ORN has been declining in radiation patients over the last 2 decades, but the prevention of ORN remains controversial. A review of the available literature does not support the preradiation extraction of restorable or healthy teeth. There is also insufficient evidence to support the use of prophylactic HBO treatments or prophylactic antibiotics before extractions or other oral surgical procedures in radiation patients. Conclusions: To prevent ORN, irradiated dental patients should maintain a high level of oral health. A preradiation referral for a dental evaluation and close collaboration by a multidisciplinary team can be invaluable for radiation patients. As with most other dental patients, restorable and healthy teeth should be retained in irradiated patients. The use of prophylactic HBO or antibiotics should be reconsidered for preradiation and postradiation extractions.

  10. Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program (CPFP) | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Prevention Fellowship provides a strong foundation for scientists and clinicians to train in the field of cancer prevention and control. This structured, multidisciplinary program offers early career scientists from different health disciplines a variety of postdoctoral training opportunities . | Training to form a strong foundation in cancer prevention and control for scientists and clinicians.

  11. Community Colleges--Prevention Challenges. Issues in Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This issue of "Issues in Prevention" focuses on prevention challenges facing community colleges. This issue contains the following articles: (1) Prevention at Community Colleges; (2) Q&A With William Auvenshine; (3) Chancellor's Initiative at the University of Wisconsin-Stout; (4) Alcohol Marketing in the Digital Age; and (5) Higher Education…

  12. Role of Enforcement in Prevention. Issues in Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This issue of "Issues in Prevention" focuses on the role of enforcement in prevention. This issue contains the following articles: (1) What the Evidence Tells Us about the Role of Enforcement in Prevention; (2) Campus Briefs; (3) Q&A with Charles Cychosz; and (4) Higher Education Center Resources.

  13. Preventing Breast Cancer: Making Progress

    MedlinePlus

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Preventing Breast Cancer: Making Progress Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of ... inhibitor, can do an even better job of preventing breast cancer than the SERMs. Aromatase inhibitors stop an enzyme ...

  14. Prevention: What You Can Do

    MedlinePlus

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention ...

  15. Head Lice: Prevention and Control

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment FAQs Malathion FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ... Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ...

  16. Vitamin D and Cancer Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ... Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists NCI Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ...

  17. Pollution prevention makes good sense

    SciTech Connect

    Spearot, R.M.

    1993-06-01

    EPA is trying to write source reduction into new regulations and enforcement actions to encourage industry to prevent waste generation. Waste reduction is best accomplished by setting up a pollution prevention program.

  18. Diet for Kidney Stone Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... may also help prevent kidney stones, such as citrus drinks. Recommendations based on the specific type of ... do to prevent kidney stones. Some studies suggest citrus drinks like lemonade and orange juice protect against ...

  19. Prevention and Treatment of Arrhythmia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pressure High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Prevention & Treatment of Arrhythmia Updated:Sep 2,2016 Do ... Risk for Arrhythmia • Symptoms, Diagnosis & Monitoring of Arrhythmia • Prevention & Treatment of Arrhythmia Introduction Medications Ablation Devices for ...

  20. Preventing and Treating Blood Clots

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Treating Blood Clots Request Permissions Download PDF Preventing and Treating Blood Clots January 20, 2015 To ... 2013, ASCO updated the clinical practice guideline about preventing and treating blood clots for people with cancer ...

  1. How Can Pneumonia Be Prevented?

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Can Pneumonia Be Prevented? Pneumonia can be very serious and ... t last as long Fewer serious complications Pneumococcal Pneumonia Vaccine A vaccine is available to prevent pneumococcal ...

  2. Body Lice Prevention and Control

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment FAQs Malathion FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ... Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ...

  3. PREVENTION GUIDELINES SYSTEM/DATABASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Prevention Guidelines System gives public health practitioners quick access to the most current CDC recommendations and guidelines for the prevention, control, treatment and detection of infectious and chronic diseases, environmental hazards, natural or human-generated disast...

  4. Can Kaposi Sarcoma Be Prevented?

    MedlinePlus

    ... early? Can Kaposi sarcoma be prevented? Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is caused by the Kaposi sarcoma associated herpesvirus ( ... to protect people against KSHV. For now, preventing KS depends on reducing the chance of becoming infected ...

  5. The Diabetes Prevention Program

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    The Diabetes Prevention Program is a randomized clinical trial testing strategies to prevent or delay the development of type 2 diabetes in high-risk individuals with elevated fasting plasma glucose concentrations and impaired glucose tolerance. The 27 clinical centers in the U.S. are recruiting at least 3,000 participants of both sexes, ~50% of whom are minority patients and 20% of whom are ≥65 years old, to be assigned at random to one of three intervention groups: an intensive lifestyle intervention focusing on a healthy diet and exercise and two masked medication treatment groups—metformin or placebo—combined with standard diet and exercise recommendations. Participants are being recruited during a 2 2/3-year period, and all will be followed for an additional 3 1/3 to 5 years after the close of recruitment to a common closing date in 2002. The primary outcome is the development of diabetes, diagnosed by fasting or post-challenge plasma glucose concentrations meeting the 1997 American Diabetes Association criteria. The 3,000 participants will provide 90% power to detect a 33% reduction in an expected diabetes incidence rate of at least 6.5% per year in the placebo group. Secondary outcomes include cardiovascular disease and its risk factors; changes in glycemia, β-cell function, insulin sensitivity, obesity, diet, physical activity, and health-related quality of life; and occurrence of adverse events. A fourth treatment group—troglilazone combined with standard diet and exercise recommendations—was included initially but discontinued because of the liver toxicity of the drug. This randomized clinical trial will test the possibility of preventing or delaying the onset of type 2 diabetes in individuals at high risk. PMID:10189543

  6. Prevention of youth injuries.

    PubMed Central

    Laraque, D.; Barlow, B.; Durkin, M.

    1999-01-01

    There are four categories of causes responsible for the majority of injuries in youth 10-19 years of age: 1) motor vehicle traffic; 2) violence (intra-familial, extra-familial, self, pregnancy-related); 3) recreational; and 4) occupational. This article presents data from the National Center for Health Statistics mortality data and the National Pediatric Trauma Registry morbidity data. Nationwide, the pediatric injury death rate is highest among adolescents 15-19 years of age. Motor vehicle-related deaths account for 41% and firearm-related deaths account for 36% of injury deaths in this age group. For youths aged 10-14 years, motor vehicle-related deaths account for 38% and; firearm-related deaths account for 26% of injury deaths. For both age groups, occupant motor vehicle-related deaths account for the majority of deaths and underscore the need for seat belt use. Using theoretical principles based on the Haddon matrix and a knowledge of adolescent development, proposed interventions to decrease injuries and deaths related to motor vehicles and firearms include graduated licensing, occupant restraint, speed limits, conflict resolution, and gun control. Occupational injuries, particularly injury associated with agricultural production, account for an estimated 100,000 injuries per year. Preventive strategies include OSHA regulations imposing standards for protective devices and further study for guidelines for adolescent work in agriculture. Injuries related to recreation include drowning and sports injuries. Preventive strategies may include proper supervision and risk reduction with respect to use of alcohol/drugs. The data presented support the use of primary prevention to achieve the most effective, safe community interventions targeting adolescents. PMID:10599188

  7. HIV prevention transformed: the new prevention research agenda

    PubMed Central

    Padian, Nancy S.; McCoy, Sandra I.; Karim, Salim Abdool; Hasen, Nina; Kim, Julia; Bartos, Michael; Katabira, Elly; Bertozzi, Stefano; Schwartländer, Bernhard; Cohen, Myron S.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY We have entered a new era in HIV prevention whereby priorities have expanded from biomedical discovery to include implementation, effectiveness, and the effect of combination prevention at the population level. However, gaps in knowledge and implementation challenges remain. In this Review we analyse trends in the rapidly changing landscape of HIV prevention, and chart a new path for HIV prevention research that focuses on the implementation of effective and efficient combination prevention strategies to turn the tide on the HIV pandemic. PMID:21763938

  8. Insulin use: preventable errors.

    PubMed

    2014-01-01

    Insulin is vital for patients with type 1 diabetes and useful for certain patients with type 2 diabetes. The serious consequences of insulin-related medication errors are overdose, resulting in severe hypoglycaemia, causing seizures, coma and even death; or underdose, resulting in hyperglycaemia and sometimes ketoacidosis. Errors associated with the preparation and administration of insulin are often reported, both outside and inside the hospital setting. These errors are preventable. By analysing reports from organisations devoted to medication error prevention and from poison control centres, as well as a few studies and detailed case reports of medication errors, various types of error associated with insulin use have been identified, especially in the hospital setting. Generally, patients know more about the practicalities of their insulin treatment than healthcare professionals with intermittent involvement. Medication errors involving insulin can occur at each step of the medication-use process: prescribing, data entry, preparation, dispensing and administration. When prescribing insulin, wrong-dose errors have been caused by the use of abbreviations, especially "U" instead of the word "units" (often resulting in a 10-fold overdose because the "U" is read as a zero), or by failing to write the drug's name correctly or in full. In electronic prescribing, the sheer number of insulin products is a source of confusion and, ultimately, wrong-dose errors, and often overdose. Prescribing, dispensing or administration software is rarely compatible with insulin prescriptions in which the dose is adjusted on the basis of the patient's subsequent capillary blood glucose readings, and can therefore generate errors. When preparing and dispensing insulin, a tuberculin syringe is sometimes used instead of an insulin syringe, leading to overdose. Other errors arise from confusion created by similar packaging, between different insulin products or between insulin and other

  9. [Epidemiology and prevention].

    PubMed

    Akaza, Hideyuki

    2016-01-01

    Incidence and mortality rates of the prostate cancer are quite different between countries in the world. Such diversity may relate not only with the genetic difference but life style including diet. It is sure that the countries where PSA test widely prevails experience the decrease of the mortality of the prostate cancer. In Japan, 25% of the population is now over 65 years old. Surprisingly, one third of the patients with prostate cancer who were diagnosed at year 2010 are over 75 years old. Adequate selection of the treatment and endeavor to establish prevention strategy are important. PMID:26793873

  10. Dentistry preventing family violence.

    PubMed

    Mouden, L D

    1996-01-01

    Dentistry has a long history of dealing with one form of family violence, child maltreatment. However, a recent national survey shows that dentists are not living up to their legal and ethical obligations to report suspected child victims. Dentistry needs to be equally concerned with adult victims of family violence--the victims of spousal abuse and elder abuse and neglect. Successful child abuse prevention programs need to expand to cover all of family violence. All health care professionals need education and awareness training to help develop the necessary attitudes to deal with all victims of family violence. PMID:9564320

  11. Insect bite prevention.

    PubMed

    Moore, Sarah J; Mordue Luntz, Anne Jennifer; Logan, James G

    2012-09-01

    Protection from the bites of arthropod (insect and acarine) vectors of disease is the first line of defense against disease transmission and should be advised in all cases when traveling abroad. Details are described of the main approaches for the prevention of bites, including topical or skin repellents, impregnated clothing, bed nets, and spatial or aerial repellents and aerosols. The bionomics of the main arthropod vectors of disease are described along with photographic plates and tabulated advice to give the traveler. An in-depth treatment of the different protection methodologies provides an up-to-date overview of the technologies involved. PMID:22963776

  12. Biorepositories | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Carefully collected and controlled high-quality human biospecimens, annotated with clinical data and properly consented for investigational use, are available through the Division of Cancer Prevention Biorepositories listed in the charts below. Biorepositories Managed by the Division of Cancer Prevention Biorepositories Supported by the Division of Cancer Prevention Related Biorepositories | Information about accessing biospecimens collected from DCP-supported clinical trials and projects.

  13. Changing Schools to Prevent Delinquency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, Douglas M.

    Although community psychologists and prevention specialists view schools as the ideal vehicle for delinquency programs for children, few examples of effective school-based prevention programs are available. Delinquency prevention program developers view common school practices as contributing causes of delinquency, making school change a major…

  14. Eating Disorders: Prevention through Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagel, K. L.; Jones, Karen H.

    1993-01-01

    School prevention programs for teenage eating disorders should emphasize nutrition education (knowledge, attitudes, behavior) and living skills (self-concept, coping). Secondary prevention involves identifying early warning signs and places for referral; tertiary prevention creates a supportive school environment for recoverers with teachers as…

  15. Proven Pathways to Violence Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calhoun, John

    2006-01-01

    Drawing on forty years of distinguished service in delinquency prevention, John Calhoun, founder of the National Crime Prevention Council, lays out the essential ingredients for preventing violence. These include strategies for connecting with alienated youth, building community norms of caring, reducing access of weapons of violence, and claiming…

  16. Space station preliminary design report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The results of a 3 month preliminary design and analysis effort is presented. The configuration that emerged consists of a very stiff deployable truss structure with an overall triangular cross section having universal modules attached at the apexes. Sufficient analysis was performed to show feasibility of the configuration. An evaluation of the structure shows that desirable attributes of the configuration are: (1) the solar cells, radiators, and antennas will be mounted to stiff structure to minimize control problems during orbit maintenance and correction, docking, and attitude control; (2) large flat areas are available for mounting and servicing of equipment; (3) Large mass items can be mounted near the center of gravity of the system to minimize gravity gradient torques; (4) the trusses are lightweight structures and can be transported into orbit in one Shuttle flight; (5) the trusses are expandable and will require a minimum of EVA; and (6) the modules are anticipated to be structurally identical except for internal equipment to minimize cost.

  17. Advanced space engine preliminary design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuffe, J. P. B.; Bradie, R. E.

    1973-01-01

    A preliminary design was completed for an O2/H2, 89 kN (20,000 lb) thrust staged combustion rocket engine that has a single-bell nozzle with an overall expansion ratio of 400:1. The engine has a best estimate vacuum specific impulse of 4623.8 N-s/kg (471.5 sec) at full thrust and mixture ratio = 6.0. The engine employs gear-driven, low pressure pumps to provide low NPSH capability while individual turbine-driven, high-speed main pumps provide the system pressures required for high-chamber pressure operation. The engine design dry weight for the fixed-nozzle configuration is 206.9 kg (456.3 lb). Engine overall length is 234 cm (92.1 in.). The extendible nozzle version has a stowed length of 141.5 cm (55.7 in.). Critical technology items in the development of the engine were defined. Development program plans and their costs for development, production, operation, and flight support of the ASE were established for minimum cost and minimum time programs.

  18. Preliminary Response Analysis of AUV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hariri, Azian; Basharie, Siti Mariam; Ghani, Mohamad Hanifah Abd.

    2010-06-01

    Development of Autonomous Unmanned Vehicle (AUV) involves a great task to fully understand the overall working principles of an UAV that needed time, experience and a wide range of intelligence to cover the entire scientific facts. This study is done by means to acquire the fundamental knowledge in understanding the stability and response of an UAV. The longitudinal response and stability of UAV owing to deflection of stern plane during trimmed equilibrium motion can be computed by solving the AUV equation of motion. In this study, the AUV equations of motion were rederived and the solution was computed with the aid of Matlab software. From the existing AUV, a new dimension, weight and speed were specified to be used in the rederivation of the linearised AUV longitudinal equations of motion. From the analysis done, the longitudinal response AUV shows the stern plane and thrust has relatively steady longitudinal control power and quick response characteristic. The results had successfully given a preliminary insight of the specified AUV response and dynamic stability.

  19. EUPORIAS: plans and preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buontempo, C.

    2013-12-01

    Recent advances in our understanding and ability to forecast climate variability have meant that skilful predictions are beginning to be routinely made on seasonal to decadal (s2d) timescales. Such forecasts have the potential to be of great value to a wide range of decision-making, where outcomes are strongly influenced by variations in the climate. In 2012 the European Commission funded EUPORIAS, a four year long project to develop prototype end-to-end climate impact prediction services operating on a seasonal to decadal timescale, and assess their value in informing decision-making. EUPORIAS commenced on 1 November 2012, coordinated by the UK Met Office leading a consortium of 24 organisations representing world-class European climate research and climate service centres, expertise in impacts assessments and seasonal predictions, two United Nations agencies, specialists in new media, and commercial companies in climate-vulnerable sectors such as energy, water and tourism. The poster describes the setup of the project, its main outcome and some of the very preliminary results.

  20. Stardust Interstellar Preliminary Examination (ISPE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westphal, A. J.; Allen, C.; Bajt, S.; Basset, R.; Bastien, R.; Bechtel, H.; Bleuet, P.; Borg, J.; Brenker F.; Bridges, J.

    2009-01-01

    In January 2006 the Stardust sample return capsule returned to Earth bearing the first solid samples from a primitive solar system body, C omet 81P/Wild2, and a collector dedicated to the capture and return o f contemporary interstellar dust. Both collectors were approximately 0.1m(exp 2) in area and were composed of aerogel tiles (85% of the co llecting area) and aluminum foils. The Stardust Interstellar Dust Col lector (SIDC) was exposed to the interstellar dust stream for a total exposure factor of 20 m(exp 2-) day during two periods before the co metary encounter. The Stardust Interstellar Preliminary Examination ( ISPE) is a three-year effort to characterize the collection using no ndestructive techniques. The ISPE consists of six interdependent proj ects: (1) Candidate identification through automated digital microsco py and a massively distributed, calibrated search (2) Candidate extr action and photodocumentation (3) Characterization of candidates thro ugh synchrotronbased FourierTranform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), S canning XRay Fluoresence Microscopy (SXRF), and Scanning Transmission Xray Microscopy (STXM) (4) Search for and analysis of craters in f oils through FESEM scanning, Auger Spectroscopy and synchrotronbased Photoemission Electron Microscopy (PEEM) (5) Modeling of interstell ar dust transport in the solar system (6) Laboratory simulations of h ypervelocity dust impacts into the collecting media

  1. Preliminary Iron Distribution on Vesta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mittlefehldt, David W.; Mittlefehldt, David W.

    2013-01-01

    The distribution of iron on the surface of the asteroid Vesta was investigated using Dawn's Gamma Ray and Neutron Detector (GRaND) [1,2]. Iron varies predictably with rock type for the howardite, eucrite, and diogenite (HED) meteorites, thought to be representative of Vesta. The abundance of Fe in howardites ranges from about 12 to 15 wt.%. Basaltic eucrites have the highest abundance, whereas, lower crustal and upper mantle materials (cumulate eucrites and diogenites) have the lowest, and howardites are intermediate [3]. We have completed a mapping study of 7.6 MeV gamma rays produced by neutron capture by Fe as measured by the bismuth germanate (BGO) detector of GRaND [1]. The procedures to determine Fe counting rates are presented in detail here, along with a preliminary distribution map, constituting the necessary initial step to quantification of Fe abundances. We find that the global distribution of Fe counting rates is generally consistent with independent mineralogical and compositional inferences obtained by other instruments on Dawn such as measurements of pyroxene absorption bands by the Visual and Infrared Spectrometer (VIR) [4] and Framing Camera (FC) [5] and neutron absorption measurements by GRaND [6].

  2. Microbicides for HIV prevention

    PubMed Central

    Ramjee, Gita

    2011-01-01

    Although the HIV incidence rate has slowed in some countries, HIV remains a serious health challenge, particularly in the developing world. The epidemic is increasingly feminised, with young women at high risk of acquiring the virus. There is thus a clear requirement for acceptable woman-initiated methods of HIV prevention. Foremost among these are vaginally-applied substances known as microbicides; early research into potential microbicides focussed on non-HIV-specific compounds such as surfactants and polyanionic entry inhibitors. However, proof of the microbicide concept as a viable prevention strategy was not provided until the CAPRISA 004 trial of a microbicide containing the HIV-specific antiretroviral tenofovir was completed in mid-2010. Confirmation of the proof of concept provided by CAPRISA 004 by at least two major trials will hopefully lead to licensure of the product by 2018. Parallel studies are planned to ascertain the feasibility of implementation of these products in the public sector with subsequent research focussed on appropriate and acceptable methods of delivery of the active ingredient, and to increase adherence through other delivery systems such as vaginal rings. PMID:22310825

  3. Prevention of suicide.

    PubMed Central

    McNamee, J E; Offord, D R

    1990-01-01

    We reviewed the epidemiologic features of suicide in Canada and evaluated suicide prevention programs. Three groups were found to be at increased risk for suicide: men aged 70 years or more, women aged 65 to 69 and men aged 20 to 24. The other groups, in decreasing order of risk, were the mentally ill, people who have attempted suicide, those with a life-threatening illness, native people, people with a family history of suicide and prisoners. Studies that evaluated suicide prevention programs showed that none significantly reduced the incidence of suicide; however, the studies were found to be methodologically inadequate or used noncomparable systems of data collection. On the basis of our findings we recommend that primary care physicians routinely evaluate suicide risk among patients in high-risk groups and that intervention include counselling, follow-up and, if necessary, referral to a psychiatrist. Close follow-up is recommended for newly discharged psychiatric patients and those who recently attempted suicide. PMID:2134157

  4. Migraine: preventive treatment.

    PubMed

    Silberstein, S D; Goadsby, P J

    2002-09-01

    Migraine is a common episodic headache disorder. A comprehensive headache treatment plan includes acute attack treatment to relieve pain and impairment and long-term preventive therapy to reduce attack frequency, severity, and duration. Circumstances that might warrant preventive treatment include: (i) migraine that significantly interferes with the patient's daily routine despite acute treatment; (ii) failure, contraindication to, or troublesome side-effects from acute medications; (iii) overuse of acute medications; (iv) special circumstances, such as hemiplegic migraine; (v) very frequent headaches (more than two a week); or (vi) patient preference. Start the drug at a low dose. Give each treatment an adequate trial. Avoid interfering, overused, and contraindicated drugs. Re-evaluate therapy. Be sure that a woman of childbearing potential is aware of any potential risks. Involve patients in their care to maximize compliance. Consider co-morbidity. Choose a drug based on its proven efficacy, the patient's preferences and headache profile, the drug's side-effects, and the presence or absence of coexisting or co-morbid disease. Drugs that have documented high efficacy and mild to moderate adverse events (AEs) include beta-blockers, amitriptyline, and divalproex. Drugs that have lower documented efficacy and mild to moderate AEs include selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), calcium channel antagonists, gabapentin, topiramate, riboflavin, and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. PMID:12230591

  5. How to prevent overdiagnosis.

    PubMed

    Chiolero, Arnaud; Paccaud, Fred; Aujesky, Drahomir; Santschi, Valérie; Rodondi, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Overdiagnosis is the diagnosis of an abnormality that is not associated with a substantial health hazard and that patients have no benefit to be aware of. It is neither a misdiagnosis (diagnostic error), nor a false positive result (positive test in the absence of a real abnormality). It mainly results from screening, use of increasingly sensitive diagnostic tests, incidental findings on routine examinations, and widening diagnostic criteria to define a condition requiring an intervention. The blurring boundaries between risk and disease, physicians' fear of missing a diagnosis and patients' need for reassurance are further causes of overdiagnosis. Overdiagnosis often implies procedures to confirm or exclude the presence of the condition and is by definition associated with useless treatments and interventions, generating harm and costs without any benefit. Overdiagnosis also diverts healthcare professionals from caring about other health issues. Preventing overdiagnosis requires increasing awareness of healthcare professionals and patients about its occurrence, the avoidance of unnecessary and untargeted diagnostic tests, and the avoidance of screening without demonstrated benefits. Furthermore, accounting systematically for the harms and benefits of screening and diagnostic tests and determining risk factor thresholds based on the expected absolute risk reduction would also help prevent overdiagnosis. PMID:25612105

  6. Initiatives for proliferation prevention

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    Preventing the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction is a central part of US national security policy. A principal instrument of the Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) program for securing weapons of mass destruction technology and expertise and removing incentives for scientists, engineers and technicians in the newly independent states (NIS) of the former Soviet Union to go to rogue countries or assist terrorist groups is the Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention (IPP). IPP was initiated pursuant to the 1994 Foreign Operations Appropriations Act. IPP is a nonproliferation program with a commercialization strategy. IPP seeks to enhance US national security and to achieve nonproliferation objectives by engaging scientists, engineers and technicians from former NIS weapons institutes; redirecting their activities in cooperatively-developed, commercially viable non-weapons related projects. These projects lead to commercial and economic benefits for both the NIS and the US IPP projects are funded in Russian, Ukraine, Kazakhstan and Belarus. This booklet offers an overview of the IPP program as well as a sampling of some of the projects which are currently underway.

  7. Overview study of LNG release prevention and control systems

    SciTech Connect

    Pelto, P.J.; Baker, E.G.; Holter, G.M.; Powers, T.B.

    1982-03-01

    The liquefied natural gas (LNG) industry employs a variety of release prevention and control techniques to reduce the likelihood and the consequences of accidental LNG releases. A study of the effectiveness of these release prevention and control systems is being performed. Reference descriptions for the basic types of LNG facilities were developed. Then an overview study was performed to identify areas that merit subsequent and more detailed analyses. The specific objectives were to characterize the LNG facilities of interest and their release prevention and control systems, identify possible weak links and research needs, and provide an analytical framework for subsequent detailed analyses. The LNG facilities analyzed include a reference export terminal, marine vessel, import terminal, peakshaving facility, truck tanker, and satellite facility. A reference description for these facilities, a preliminary hazards analysis (PHA), and a list of representative release scenarios are included. The reference facility descriptions outline basic process flows, plant layouts, and safety features. The PHA identifies the important release prevention operations. Representative release scenarios provide a format for discussing potential initiating events, effects of the release prevention and control systems, information needs, and potential design changes. These scenarios range from relatively frequent but low consequence releases to unlikely but large releases and are the principal basis for the next stage of analysis.

  8. Sensing Senses: Tactile Feedback for the Prevention of Decubitus Ulcers

    PubMed Central

    Verbunt, Marcel

    2009-01-01

    Decubitus ulcers, also known as pressure sores, is a major problem in health care, in particular for patients with spinal cord injuries. These patients cannot feel the discomfort that would urge healthy people to change their posture. We describe a system that uses a sensor mat to detect problematic postures and provides tactile feedback to the user. The results of our preliminary study with healthy subjects show that the tactile feedback is a viable option to spoken feedback. We envision the system being used for rehabilitation games, but also for everyday Decubitus ulcers prevention. PMID:19949852

  9. Integrated Global Nuclear Materials Management Preliminary Concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, E; Dreicer, M

    2006-06-19

    The world is at a turning point, moving away from the Cold War nuclear legacy towards a future global nuclear enterprise; and this presents a transformational challenge for nuclear materials management. Achieving safety and security during this transition is complicated by the diversified spectrum of threat 'players' that has greatly impacted nonproliferation, counterterrorism, and homeland security requirements. Rogue states and non-state actors no longer need self-contained national nuclear expertise, materials, and equipment due to availability from various sources in the nuclear market, thereby reducing the time, effort and cost for acquiring a nuclear weapon (i.e., manifestations of latency). The terrorist threat has changed the nature of military and national security requirements to protect these materials. An Integrated Global Nuclear Materials Management (IGNMM) approach would address the existing legacy nuclear materials and the evolution towards a nuclear energy future, while strengthening a regime to prevent nuclear weapon proliferation. In this paper, some preliminary concepts and studies of IGNMM will be presented. A systematic analysis of nuclear materials, activities, and controls can lead to a tractable, integrated global nuclear materials management architecture that can help remediate the past and manage the future. A systems approach is best suited to achieve multi-dimensional and interdependent solutions, including comprehensive, end-to-end capabilities; coordinated diverse elements for enhanced functionality with economy; and translation of goals/objectives or standards into locally optimized solutions. A risk-informed basis is excellent for evaluating system alternatives and performances, and it is especially appropriate for the security arena. Risk management strategies--such as defense-in-depth, diversity, and control quality--help to weave together various technologies and practices into a strong and robust security fabric. Effective

  10. Natural Products for Cancer Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Greenlee, Heather

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To review the clinical trial literature on the use and effects of natural products for cancer prevention. DATA SOURCES Clinical trials published in PubMed. CONCLUSION There is a growing body of literature on the use of natural products for cancer prevention. To date, few trials have demonstrated conclusive benefit. Current guidelines recommend against the use of natural products for cancer prevention. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING PRACTICE Clinicians should ask patients about their use of natural products and motivations for use. If patients are using natural products specifically for cancer prevention, they should be counseled on the current guidelines, as well as their options for other cancer prevention strategies. PMID:22281308

  11. Prevention of pediatric sports injuries.

    PubMed

    Demorest, Rebecca A; Landry, Gregory L

    2003-12-01

    With over 30 million children participating in sports each year across the United States, a number of significant injuries are to be expected. Although mild injuries such as strains, sprains, and contusions predominate, catastrophic injuries do occur. Young athletes are at an increased risk for growth plate and apophyseal injuries, overuse injuries, and heat illness. Many of these sports injuries can be prevented. Prevention strategies include protective equipment, rule changes, preseason and season prevention interventions, safety measures, better coaching, education, and a societal awareness of injury and prevention. This article discusses current injury prevention for children participating in baseball, football, soccer, and ice hockey. PMID:14583164

  12. 45 CFR 150.217 - Preliminary determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Are Failing To Substantially Enforce HIPAA Requirements § 150.217 Preliminary determination. If, at... that it is substantially enforcing the HIPAA requirements described in the notice, CMS takes...

  13. 45 CFR 150.217 - Preliminary determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Are Failing To Substantially Enforce HIPAA Requirements § 150.217 Preliminary determination. If, at... that it is substantially enforcing the HIPAA requirements described in the notice, CMS takes...

  14. 45 CFR 150.217 - Preliminary determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Are Failing To Substantially Enforce HIPAA Requirements § 150.217 Preliminary determination. If, at... that it is substantially enforcing the HIPAA requirements described in the notice, CMS takes...

  15. SURFACES PRELIMINARY REMEDIATION GOALS FOR RADIONUCLIDES (SPRG)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Internet based Calculational tool for establishing 10(-6) cancer risk based Preliminary Remediation Goals (PRGs) for radioactively contaminated outside hard surfaces (e.g., streets, sidewalks, slabs, and outside of buildings) for CERCLA remedial response actions.

  16. Renewable Energy Park - Preliminary Feasibility & Engineering Report

    SciTech Connect

    Ariwite, Roderick

    2015-07-31

    This "Renewable Energy Park - Preliminary Feasibility & Engineering Report" seeks to provide an overall assessment and review of renewable energy development opportunities on the Fallon Indian Reservation and Colony Lands.

  17. 42 CFR 457.925 - Preliminary investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS AND GRANTS TO STATES Program Integrity § 457.925 Preliminary investigation. If the State agency receives a complaint of fraud or...

  18. USSR ethnic composition: preliminary 1989 census results.

    PubMed

    Kingkade, W

    1990-03-01

    Some preliminary results concerning ethnic distribution and language spoken from the 1989 census of the USSR that have been published in the Soviet media are summarized. Comparative data for 1979 are also provided. PMID:12342632

  19. Developing a preliminary ‘never event’ list for general practice using consensus-building methods

    PubMed Central

    de Wet, Carl; O’Donnell, Catherine; Bowie, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Background The ‘never event’ concept has been implemented in many acute hospital settings to help prevent serious patient safety incidents. Benefits include increasing awareness of highly important patient safety risks among the healthcare workforce, promoting proactive implementation of preventive measures, and facilitating incident reporting. Aim To develop a preliminary list of never events for general practice. Design and setting Application of a range of consensus-building methods in Scottish and UK general practices. Method A total of 345 general practice team members suggested potential never events. Next, ‘informed’ staff (n =15) developed criteria for defining never events and applied the criteria to create a list of candidate never events. Finally, UK primary care patient safety ‘experts’ (n = 17) reviewed, refined, and validated a preliminary list via a modified Delphi group and by completing a content validity index exercise. Results There were 721 written suggestions received as potential never events. Thematic categorisation reduced this to 38. Five criteria specific to general practice were developed and applied to produce 11 candidate never events. The expert group endorsed a preliminary list of 10 items with a content validity index (CVI) score of >80%. Conclusion A preliminary list of never events was developed for general practice through practitioner experience and consensus-building methods. This is an important first step to determine the potential value of the never event concept in this setting. It is now intended to undertake further testing of this preliminary list to assess its acceptability, feasibility, and potential usefulness as a safety improvement intervention. PMID:24567655

  20. Prevention of cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed Central

    Haines, A.; Patterson, D.; Rayner, M.; Hyland, K.

    1992-01-01

    1. Major risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD) are smoking, blood pressure and blood cholesterol and they interact in a multiplicative fashion. Family history of premature coronary heart disease and lack of exercise also contribute. Obesity increases risk probably mainly by its effect on blood cholesterol and blood pressure. Heavy alcohol consumption is a risk factor for stroke. 2. Prevention may be opportunistic or in specially organized clinics, the latter being less likely to result in the attendance of high risk individuals. 3. Worthwhile reductions in cigarette smoking can be achieved by brief advice and follow-up. Literature on smoking and other aspects of prevention is available from the district health education department. 4. Risk scores can be used to calculate the risk of coronary heart disease. They can help to indicate the advisability of measurement of blood cholesterol and to focus limited resources on those at highest risk by helping to define a 'special care group'. 5. Indications for measuring blood cholesterol are: a family history of premature coronary heart disease or hyperlipidaemia, personal history of coronary heart disease, clinical evidence of raised lipids (xanthelasma, corneal arcus under 50, xanthomas at any age), a high risk of coronary heart disease according to a risk score. Many would also include those under treatment for hypertension and diabetes. 6. Dietary advice can moderately reduce blood cholesterol. The proportion of calories from fat should be reduced from the current average of around 40% to a maximum of 33%. Dietary advice should be tailored to the patient's current diet. An increase in vegetables and fruit can be generally advocated. 7. Regular exercise has a worthwhile role to play in prevention. Rapid walking, jogging and swimming may all be suitable, as may be heavy gardening and housework. 8. A small proportion of patients may require lipid-lowering drugs. These include resins (cholestyramine and colestipol

  1. Pressure Ulcer Prevention

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Executive Summary In April 2008, the Medical Advisory Secretariat began an evidence-based review of the literature concerning pressure ulcers. Please visit the Medical Advisory Secretariat Web site, http://www.health.gov.on.ca/english/providers/program/mas/tech/tech_mn.html to review these titles that are currently available within the Pressure Ulcers series. Pressure ulcer prevention: an evidence based analysis The cost-effectiveness of prevention strategies for pressure ulcers in long-term care homes in Ontario: projections of the Ontario Pressure Ulcer Model (field evaluation) Management of chronic pressure ulcers: an evidence-based analysis (anticipated pubicstion date - mid-2009) Purpose A pressure ulcer, also known as a pressure sore, decubitus ulcer, or bedsore, is defined as a localized injury to the skin/and or underlying tissue occurring most often over a bony prominence and caused by pressure, shear, or friction, alone or in combination. (1) Those at risk for developing pressure ulcers include the elderly and critically ill as well as persons with neurological impairments and those who suffer conditions associated with immobility. Pressure ulcers are graded or staged with a 4-point classification system denoting severity. Stage I represents the beginnings of a pressure ulcer and stage IV, the severest grade, consists of full thickness tissue loss with exposed bone, tendon, and or muscle. (1) In a 2004 survey of Canadian health care settings, Woodbury and Houghton (2) estimated that the prevalence of pressure ulcers at a stage 1 or greater in Ontario ranged between 13.1% and 53% with nonacute health care settings having the highest prevalence rate (Table 1). Executive Summary Table 1: Prevalence of Pressure Ulcers* Setting Canadian Prevalence,% (95% CI) Ontario Prevalence,Range % (n) Acute care 25 (23.8–26.3) 23.9–29.7 (3418) Nonacute care† 30 (29.3–31.4) 30.0–53.3 (1165) Community care 15 (13.4–16.8) 13.2 (91) Mixed health care‡ 22 (20.9

  2. Preliminary Design Reviews Project: SAPHIRE 8

    SciTech Connect

    Kurt G. Vedros; Curtis L. Smith

    2011-09-01

    The Preliminary Design Review (PDR) is intended to be performed at the conceptual phase of a design request. The design request is initiated with a Design Specification document which includes a problem statement, design details, a design checklist and supporting documentation and/or projected sample output. In addition to this, the design specification has a chapter devoted to the completion of the Preliminary Design Review. This document describes the process of documentation of the PDR in the Design Specification.

  3. 43 CFR 3425.1-7 - Preliminary data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Preliminary data. 3425.1-7 Section 3425.1... Preliminary data. (a) Any application for a lease shall contain preliminary data to assist the authorized... preliminary data shall include: (1) A map, or maps, showing the topography, physical features and...

  4. 43 CFR 3425.1-7 - Preliminary data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Preliminary data. 3425.1-7 Section 3425.1... Preliminary data. (a) Any application for a lease shall contain preliminary data to assist the authorized... preliminary data shall include: (1) A map, or maps, showing the topography, physical features and...

  5. 43 CFR 3425.1-7 - Preliminary data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Preliminary data. 3425.1-7 Section 3425.1... Preliminary data. (a) Any application for a lease shall contain preliminary data to assist the authorized... preliminary data shall include: (1) A map, or maps, showing the topography, physical features and...

  6. 7 CFR 614.7 - Preliminary technical determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Preliminary technical determinations. 614.7 Section... Preliminary technical determinations. (a) A preliminary technical determination is limited to those... preliminary technical determination. The participant may also provide any additional documentation to...

  7. 7 CFR 614.7 - Preliminary technical determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Preliminary technical determinations. 614.7 Section... Preliminary technical determinations. (a) A preliminary technical determination becomes final 30 days after... purpose of gathering additional information and discussing the facts relating to the preliminary...

  8. 7 CFR 614.7 - Preliminary technical determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Preliminary technical determinations. 614.7 Section... Preliminary technical determinations. (a) A preliminary technical determination becomes final 30 days after... purpose of gathering additional information and discussing the facts relating to the preliminary...

  9. 7 CFR 614.7 - Preliminary technical determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Preliminary technical determinations. 614.7 Section... Preliminary technical determinations. (a) A preliminary technical determination becomes final 30 days after... purpose of gathering additional information and discussing the facts relating to the preliminary...

  10. 7 CFR 614.7 - Preliminary technical determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Preliminary technical determinations. 614.7 Section... Preliminary technical determinations. (a) A preliminary technical determination is limited to those... preliminary technical determination. The participant may also provide any additional documentation to...

  11. 12 CFR 611.1250 - Preliminary exit fee estimate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Preliminary exit fee estimate. 611.1250 Section... System Institution Status § 611.1250 Preliminary exit fee estimate. (a) Preliminary exit fee estimate—terminating association. You must provide a preliminary exit fee estimate to us when you submit the plan...

  12. Preventing ground water contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, R.

    1985-07-12

    A recent Office of Technology Assessment report to Congress indicates that the associated health risks from ground water contamination are likely to increase because federal and state laws provide inadequate protection. Road de-icing salts, pesticide runoff, septic tanks, and seepage from livestock manure and fertilizers are all major causes that are difficult to control. A primary source that can be corrected is improper or unsafe disposal of hazardous wastes that are dumped into landfills or surface ponds or injected into deep wells. Congress has tried to deal with the problem by strengthening existing and introducing new legislation. Because getting rid of hazardous waste is increasingly expensive and difficult, companies are beginning to look for ways to prevent pollution at the source by using new technologies that are economically sound. 17 references, 4 figures.

  13. Diet and cancer prevention.

    PubMed

    Greenwald, P; Clifford, C K; Milner, J A

    2001-05-01

    Research from several sources provides strong evidence that vegetables, fruits, and whole grains, dietary fibre, certain micronutrients, some fatty acids and physical activity protect against some cancers. In contrast, other factors, such as obesity, alcohol, some fatty acids and food preparation methods may increase risks. Unravelling the multitude of plausible mechanisms for the effects of dietary factors on cancer risk will likely necessitate that nutrition research moves beyond traditional epidemiological and metabolic studies. Nutritional sciences must build on recent advances in molecular biology and genetics to move the discipline from being largely 'observational' to focusing on 'cause and effect'. Such basic research is fundamental to cancer prevention strategies that incorporate effective dietary interventions for target populations. PMID:11334719

  14. Preventing remediation problems

    SciTech Connect

    Fleming, W.H.

    1994-12-31

    Remediation, the design and construction of a remedy, typically represents the most significant portion of the cleanup process. The cost may be 5 to 10 times the cost of earlier investigation and feasibility efforts. Furthermore, the risks associated with remediation activities and their ability to meet ultimate cleanup goals and objectives are far greater than those associated with earlier efforts. Often times there are unrealistic expectations interjected throughout the design and construction process in the remediation field. The simple fact that most problems are buried, and one cannot see all that is below the ground surface provides sufficient uncertainty to result in problems. There are three key points during the remediation process which provide opportunities to prevent and avoid problems. These are: (1) during design; (2) during procurement and contracting; and (3) during construction. This paper examines actions which the author has found or believes will assist in providing a formula for success.

  15. [Prevention of hepatic encephalopathy].

    PubMed

    Morillas, Rosa M; Sala, Marga; Planas, Ramon

    2014-06-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a frequent complication of cirrhosis which, in addition to producing a great social impact, deteriorates the quality of life of patients and is considered a sign of advanced liver disease and therefore a clinical indication for liver transplant evaluation. Patients who have had episodes of HE have a high risk of recurrence. Thus, after the HE episode resolves, it is recommended: control and prevention of precipitating factors (gastrointestinal bleeding, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, use of diuretics with caution, avoid nervous system depressant medications), continued administration of non-absorbable disaccharides such as lactulose or lactitol, few or non-absorbable antibiotics such as rifaximin and assess the need for a liver transplant as the presence of a HE episode carries a poor prognosis in cirrhosis. PMID:24480288

  16. Melanoma Epidemiology and Prevention.

    PubMed

    Berwick, Marianne; Buller, David B; Cust, Anne; Gallagher, Richard; Lee, Tim K; Meyskens, Frank; Pandey, Shaily; Thomas, Nancy E; Veierød, Marit B; Ward, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    The epidemiology of melanoma is complex, and individual risk depends on sun exposure, host factors, and genetic factors, and in their interactions as well. Sun exposure can be classified as intermittent, chronic, or cumulative (overall) exposure, and each appears to have a different effect on type of melanoma. Other environmental factors, such as chemical exposures-either through occupation, atmosphere, or food-may increase risk for melanoma, and this area warrants further study. Host factors that are well known to be important are the numbers and types of nevi and the skin phenotype. Genetic factors are classified as high-penetrant genes, moderate-risk genes, or low-risk genetic polymorphisms. Subtypes of tumors, such as BRAF-mutated tumors, have different risk factors as well as different therapies. Prevention of melanoma has been attempted using various strategies in specific subpopulations, but to date optimal interventions to reduce incidence have not emerged. PMID:26601858

  17. Preventing and diagnosing dementia.

    PubMed

    Keenan, Bernie; Jenkins, Catharine; Ginesi, Laura

    While dementia is an umbrella term for a range of degenerative brain disorders, many share similar presentations. Nurses are ideally placed to identify those at risk and empower them to access treatment and plan and prepare for their future needs--as such, they need up-to-date knowledge of the signs and symptoms of the different types of dementia to identify risk factors and make an informed diagnosis. This article, the third in a four-part series on dementia, examines the risk factors, signs, symptoms and diagnosis of dementia, as well as outlining lifestyle factors such as diet and exercise that may help to prevent the development of the condition. PMID:27544960

  18. Preventing recurrent suicidal behaviour.

    PubMed Central

    Links, P. S.; Balchand, K.; Dawe, I.; Watson, W. J.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To highlight recent empirical evidence for effective interventions that can guide family physicians in managing patients after suicide attempts. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Randomized control trials of psychosocial interventions for people after suicide attempts have provided some evidence for effective interventions. MAIN MESSAGE: Suicide attempts are more common than suicides; the number of attempts seen in a family practice is estimated to be 10 to 15 yearly. Up to two thirds of patients who take their lives by suicide have seen a family physician in the month before their death. Principles of care after a suicide attempt include actively engaging the patient, involving the family, restricting access to means of suicide, and developing intervention plans to deal with the psychopathology that has placed the patient at risk. CONCLUSIONS: Family physicians have a crucial role in preventing suicide through aftercare and ongoing monitoring of patients who have attempted suicide. PMID:10587773

  19. [Prevention of Postthrombotic Syndrom].

    PubMed

    Hügel, Ulrike; Baumgartner, Iris

    2015-11-25

    Post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS) is a complication which occurs after deep vein thrombosis in spite of optimal anticoagulation. The term ’post-thrombotic syndrome’ summarizes all clinical symptoms and skin lesions developing in the aftermath of deep vein thrombosis. In order to prevent PTS various therapeutic options exist, the choice is depending on the time lapse since the event of thrombosis. At the acute phase of pelvic vein thrombosis catheter-directed lysis has proved to be an efficient therapy. Starting from the acute phase up to the chronic phase compression therapy should be administered. In the chronic phase clinically relevant improvement of PTS can be achieved by recanalisation of the venous outflow tract in the pelvic axis by endovascular stenting. Surgery or endovenous thermal ablation of the insufficient superficial venous system are further and supplementary sensible treatment options. PMID:26602850

  20. Prevention of cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Hobbs, F D Richard

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the most important cause of premature death and disability globally. Much is known of the main aetiological risk factors, including elevated blood pressure, dyslipidaemia and smoking, with a raft of additional risks of increasing prevalence, such as obesity and diabetes. Furthermore, some of the most secure evidence-based management strategies in healthcare relate to interventions that modify risk. Yet major gaps remain in the implementation of such evidence, summarized in international guideline recommendations. Some of this gap relates to knowledge deficits amongst clinicians, but also to continued uncertainties over interpretation of the evidence base and areas where data are less available. This article collection in BMC Medicine seeks to offer reflections in each of these areas of uncertainty, spanning issues of better diagnosis, areas of controversy and glimpses of potentially potent future interventions in the prevention of CVD. PMID:26456942

  1. Comparative Soot Diagnostics: Preliminary Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urban, David L.; Griffin, DeVon W.; Gard, Melissa Y.

    1997-01-01

    detected and suppressed. Prior to CSD, no combustion-generated particulate samples had been collected near the flame zone for well-developed microgravity flames. All of the extant data either came from drop tower tests and therefore only corresponded to the early stages of a fire or were collected far from the flame zone. The fuel sources in the drop tower tests were restricted to laminar gas-jet diffusion flames and very rapidly overheated wire insulation. The gas-jet tests indicated, through thermophoretic sampling, (2) that soot primaries and aggregates (groups of primary particles) in low-gravity may be significantly larger than those in normal gravity (1-g). This raises new scientific questions about soot processes as well as practical issues for particulate size sensitivity and detection alarm threshold levels used in on-orbit smoke detectors. Preliminary tests in the 2.2 second drop tower suggest that particulate generated by overheated wire insulation may be larger in low-g than in 1-g. Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) grids downstream of the fire region in the Wire Insulation Flammability experiment as well as visual observation of long string-like aggregates, further confirm this suggestion. The combined impact of these limited results and theoretical predictions is that, as opposed to extrapolation from l-g data, direct knowledge of low-g combustion particulate is needed for more confident design of smoke detectors for spacecraft. This paper describes the operation and preliminary results of the CSD, a project conceived and developed at NASA Lewis Research Center. The CSD flight experiment was conducted in the Middeck Glovebox Facility (MGBX) on USMP-3. The project is support by NASA Headquarters Microgravity Science and Applications Division and Code Q. The results presented here are from the microgravity portion of the experiment, including the temporal response of the detectors and average sizes of the primary and aggregate particles captured on the

  2. [Primary prevention: physical activity].

    PubMed

    Schuler, G

    2004-01-01

    Traditional risk factors such as smoking, hypertension and being overweight have received considerable attention in recent years, whereas physical activity as a preventive strategy does not enjoy the same public attention. In recent years the level of physical activity has decreased dramatically in children and adolescents in favor of time spent on the internet and in front of the TV. If this trend is allowed to develop along the same direction, a sharp increase in cardiovascular disease can be anticipated. The protective action of physical activity on the cardiovascular system has been well documented in large numbers of patients, and the basic physiological mechanisms have been elucidated. Metabolic changes comprise loss of weight, reduction in triglyceride and LDL levels, as well as an increase in HDL. Insulin sensitivity is enhanced in all tissues postponing the manifestation of diabetes mellitus. Shear forces created by physical activity induce ecNOS within the endothelial lining of the arteries. This enzyme is responsible for controlling vasomotion through the elaboration of NO which causes vasodilation in the smooth muscle within the vessel wall. Utilization of preformed collateral vessels has been postulated repeatedly; so far, however, it only could be documented in animals, not in humans. Nearly all studies concerned with primary prevention have shown a significant negative correlation between energy expenditure during exercise and cardiovascular mortality, even light and moderate exercise will result in a lower incidence. In order to eliminate a sedentary life style in children and adolescents, adequate programs should be initiated in all schools; they should aim for 60 min of physical activity on a daily basis. PMID:15021990

  3. Preliminary LISA Telescope Spacer Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Livas, J.; Arsenovic, P.; Catellucci, K.; Generie, J.; Howard, J.; Stebbins, R. T.

    2010-01-01

    The Laser Interferometric Space Antenna (LISA) mission observes gravitational waves by measuring the separations between freely floating proof masses located 5 million kilometers apart with an accuracy of approximately 10 picometers. The separations are measured interferometrically. The telescope is an afocal Cassegrain style design with a magnification of 80x. The entrance pupil has a 40 cm diameter and will either be centered on-axis or de-centered off-axis to avoid obscurations. Its two main purposes are to transform the small diameter beam used on the optical bench to a diffraction limited collimated beam to efficiently transfer the metrology laser between spacecraft, and to receive the incoming light from the far spacecraft. It transmits and receives simultaneously. The basic optical design and requirements are well understood for a conventional telescope design for imaging applications, but the LISA design is complicated by the additional requirement that the total optical path through the telescope must remain stable at the picometer level over the measurement band during the mission to meet the measurement accuracy. This poster describes the requirements for the telescope and the preliminary work that has been done to understand the materials and mechanical issues associated with the design of a passive metering structure to support the telescope and to maintain the spacing between the primary and secondary mirrors in the LISA on-orbit environment. This includes the requirements flowdown from the science goals, thermal modeling of the spacecraft and telescope to determine the expected temperature distribution,layout options for the telescope including an on- and off-axis design, and plans for fabrication and testing.

  4. Reducing Stress and Preventing Anxiety in African American Adolescents: A Culturally- Grounded Approach

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, W. LaVome; Droege, Jocelyn R.; Case, Mary H.; Jason, Leonard A.

    2016-01-01

    Evidenced-based and culturally adapted stress-reduction interventions for urban African American adolescents who are at risk for anxiety and other problems related to stress are needed. This study presents intervention components and preliminary outcome findings of a culturally adapted stress-reduction intervention for urban African American adolescents. Preliminary findings support the efficacy of the intervention to reduce anxiety and enhance general cognitive competencies, such as coping strategies, self-efficacy, and positive thinking, among participants, in comparison to controls. Clinical implications of the stress-reduction intervention for the prevention of psychopathology, particularly among African American adolescents, are discussed. PMID:27042702

  5. CPFP Summer Curriculum: Molecular Prevention Course | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    This Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program (CPFP) one-week course on molecular aspects of cancer prevention follows the Principles and Practice of Cancer Prevention and Control course. It provides a strong background about molecular biology and genetics of cancer, and an overview of cutting-edge research and techniques in the fields of molecular epidemiology, biomarkers, multi-omic, and translational research. The following topics will be typically presented: |

  6. Firearm injury prevention training in Preventive Medicine Residency programs.

    PubMed

    Khubchandani, Jagdish; Price, James H; Dake, Joseph A

    2009-08-01

    Preventive medicine plays a central role in the reducing the number of deaths due to preventable causes of premature deaths. General Preventive Medicine Residency programs have not been studied in relation to training in this area. A three-wave mail survey was conducted with email and telephone follow-ups. The outcome measures were the portion of program directors involved in training residents on firearm injury prevention issues and their perceived benefits and barriers of training residents on firearm injury prevention issues. Only 25% of the programs provided formal training on firearm injury prevention. Program directors who provided formal training perceived significantly higher number of benefits to offering such training than did directors who did not provide such training but no significant difference was found between the two for number of perceived barriers. If preventive medicine residency graduates are to play a role in reducing premature morbidity and mortality from firearms it will require more residencies to offer formal training in this area. The Association for Prevention Teaching and Research needs to develop guidelines on specific curriculum topics regarding firearm injury prevention. PMID:19326195

  7. Preliminary Evaluation of a Parent Training Program to Prevent Gun Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Amy; Miltenberger, Raymond; Knudson, Peter; Bosch, Amanda; Breitwieser, Carrie Brower

    2007-01-01

    Recent research has shown that behavioral skills training with in situ training is an effective strategy to teach children the safety skills needed if they ever encounter an unattended firearm. The current study evaluated the use of parents as trainers to increase the efficiency of training. The success of parent training on their children's…

  8. 75 FR 50733 - Preliminary Theft Data; Motor Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-17

    ... Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78) or you may visit http://DocketsInfo.dot.gov . Docket.../1984 theft rate data (50 FR 46669, November 12, 1985). The 2008 theft rate for each vehicle line was... compared to the theft rate experienced in CY/MY 2007 (for 2007 theft data, see 75 FR 47720, August 9,...

  9. Jet-lag: prevention with Pycnogenol. Preliminary report: evaluation in healthy individuals and in hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Belcaro, G; Cesarone, M R; Steigerwalt, R J; Di Renzo, A; Grossi, M G; Ricci, A; Stuard, S; Ledda, A; Dugall, M; Cornelli, U; Cacchio, M

    2008-10-01

    This study was conducted with the aim of showing the effects of Pycnogenol on controlling jet-lag symptoms. Oral Pycnogenol, 50 mg tablets 3 times/die, for 7 days starting 2 days prior to the flight was used. The study was divided into two separate parts. In study 1 the most common complaints of patients with jet-lag were evaluated with a rating scale consisting in of a scoring system. In study 2 a brain CT scan was performed after the flight in order to assess minimal brain edema (MBE) in association with typical signs and symptoms, observed in previous published flight studies. Study one included 38 subjects treated with Pycnogenol and 30 controls. The symptomatic jet-lag related total score was significantly lower (indicating a lower level of jet-lag) in the Pycnogenol group. The average duration of any jet lag symptom following the flight was significantly reduced from 39.3 (SD=0.8) hours in controls to an average of 18.2 (SD=3.3) hours in the Pycnogenol group (P<0.05). Study 2 included 34 subjects treated with Pycnogenol and 31 controls. The main observation was the brain CT scan performed within 28 hours after the end of the flight. The difference between the Pycnogenol and the control groups was statistically significant (P<0.05) for all items assessed including the cerebral edema score obtained by CT scan. The short-term memory was significantly altered in the control group and associated to edema and swelling of the lower limbs. The score (and the level of edema) was comparatively higher in a subgroup of hypertensive subjects in the control group. Minor alterations of cardiac function were observed in association with de-stabilisation of blood pressure. Fatigue was also significantly higher in the control group in comparison with the Pycnogenol group. A number of spontaneously reported symptoms was also scored and there was a statistically significant difference (P<0.05) between the Pycnogenol and control groups. In conlusion, Pycnogenol was useful to control jet-lag and minimal brain edema. PMID:19597404

  10. Small-Scale Bullying Prevention Discussion Video for Classrooms: A Preliminary Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Migliaccio, Todd; Raskauskas, Juliana

    2013-01-01

    Bullying has been shown to be negatively related to both academic performance and attendance among students. The present study examined a small-scale bullying intervention using a video-discussion model. Eighty-one students in grades 4 through 6 completed pre- and posttests examining gains in knowledge of bullying and responses to it. Results…

  11. 76 FR 36486 - Preliminary Theft Data; Motor Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-22

    ....2904 181 BMW Z4/M 1 3,637 0.2750 182 TOYOTA VENZA 15 58,897 0.2547 183 HONDA FIT 21 83,765 0.2507 184... 58,240 0.9272 106 SUZUKI SX4 23 24,859 0.9252 107 GENERAL MOTORS......... CHEVROLET EQUINOX...... 30... NISSAN MURANO 96 108,188 0.8873 111 CHRYSLER JEEP WRANGLER 58 67,122 0.8641 112 VOLKSWAGEN JETTA/GLI...

  12. Pilot Testing an Internet-Based STI and HIV Prevention Intervention With Chilean Women

    PubMed Central

    Villegas, Natalia; Santisteban, Daniel; Cianelli, Rosina; Ferrer, Lilian; Ambrosia, Todd; Peragallo, Nilda; Lara, Loreto

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is high among young Chilean women, and there are no STI or HIV prevention interventions available to them that incorporate technology. The purpose of this study was to investigate the preliminary efficacy of an Internet-based STI and HIV prevention intervention (I-STIPI) for Chilean young women on measures of STI- and HIV-related information, motivation, behavioral skills, and preventive behaviors. Design This is a pretest-posttest study. Forty young Chilean women between 18 and 24 years of age participated in an investigation of the I-STIPI’s preliminary efficacy on STI and HIV prevention-related outcomes between baseline and a postintervention assessment. The intervention consisted of four online modules. Data collection was conducted in Santiago, Chile. Paired-samples t test analysis was used to determine whether there were significant differences in each of the outcome variables. Findings After receiving I-STIPI, women reported a significant increase in levels of STI- and HIV-related knowledge, attitudes toward the use of condoms and perceived self-efficacy, and a reduction of risky sexual behaviors with uncommitted partners. Conclusions The I-STIPI showed promise as an Internet-based intervention that can reduce barriers to accessing preventive interventions and increase STI and HIV preventive behaviors in young Chilean women. Clinical Relevance The study provided important information about the ability of an Internet-based intervention to reduce young women’s risk factors and to provide positive preliminary efficacy on STI- and HIV-related outcomes. Internet-based interventions can eliminate many barriers to receiving prevention interventions and may prove to be cost effective. PMID:25410132

  13. Can we really prevent suicide?

    PubMed

    Schwartz-Lifshitz, Maya; Zalsman, Gil; Giner, Lucas; Oquendo, Maria A

    2012-12-01

    Every year, suicide is among the top 20 leading causes of death globally for all ages. Unfortunately, suicide is difficult to prevent, in large part because the prevalence of risk factors is high among the general population. In this review, clinical and psychological risk factors are examined and methods for suicide prevention are discussed. Prevention strategies found to be effective in suicide prevention include means restriction, responsible media coverage, and general public education, as well identification methods such as screening, gatekeeper training, and primary care physician education. Although the treatment for preventing suicide is difficult, follow-up that includes pharmacotherapy, psychotherapy, or both may be useful. However, prevention methods cannot be restricted to the individual. Community, social, and policy interventions will also be essential. PMID:22996297

  14. Can We Really Prevent Suicide?

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz-Lifshitz, Maya; Zalsman, Gil; Giner, Lucas; Oquendo, Maria A.

    2012-01-01

    Every year, suicide is among the top 20 leading causes of death globally for all ages. Unfortunately, suicide is difficult to prevent, in large part because the prevalence of risk factors is high among the general population. In this review, clinical and psychological risk factors are examined and methods for suicide prevention are discussed. Prevention strategies found to be effective in suicide prevention include means restriction, responsible media coverage, and general public education, as well identification methods such as screening, gatekeeper training, and primary care physician education. Although the treatment for preventing suicide is difficult, follow-up that includes pharmacotherapy, psychotherapy, or both may be useful. However, prevention methods cannot be restricted to the individual. Community, social, and policy interventions will also be essential. PMID:22996297

  15. The prevention of coeliac disease.

    PubMed

    Mearin, M Luisa

    2015-06-01

    Primary prevention of coeliac disease is currently not possible. Previously, a 'window of opportunity' was suggested for primary prevention, by introducing gluten between four and six months of age. However, results from recent prospective studies establish that the timing of gluten introduction and the duration or maintenance of breastfeeding do not influence the development of the disease. Secondary prevention is possible through early diagnosis and treatment. Since coeliac disease is severely underdiagnosed, the only way to achieve large-scale secondary prevention is by mass screening. Prospective studies indicate that important health problems, such as reduced foetal growth and birth weight, delayed growth in height and weight in children, and reduced bone mineral density in both children and adults can be prevented by mass screening. Adherence to a strict gluten-free diet may be considered as tertiary prevention. PMID:26060113

  16. Malaria: prevention in travellers

    PubMed Central

    Croft, Ashley

    2000-01-01

    Definition Malaria is caused by a protozoan infection of red blood cells with one of four species of the genus plasmodium: P falciparum, P vivax, P ovale, or P malariae.1 Clinically, malaria may present in different ways, but it is usually characterised by fever (which may be swinging), tachycardia, rigors, and sweating. Anaemia, hepatosplenomegaly, cerebral involvement, renal failure, and shock may occur. Incidence/prevalence Each year there are 300-500 million clinical cases of malaria. About 40% of the world's population is at risk of acquiring the disease.23 Each year 25-30 million people from non-tropical countries visit areas in which malaria is endemic,4 of whom between 10 000 and 30 000 contract malaria.5 Aetiology/risk factors Malaria is mainly a rural disease, requiring standing water nearby. It is transmitted by bites6 from infected female anopheline mosquitoes,7 mainly at dusk and during the night.18 In cities, mosquito bites are usually from female culicene mosquitoes, which are not vectors of malaria.9 Malaria is resurgent in most tropical countries and the risk to travellers is increasing.10 Prognosis Ninety per cent of travellers who contract malaria do not become ill until after they return home.5 “Imported malaria” is easily treated if diagnosed promptly, and it follows a serious course in only about 12% of people.1112 The most severe form of the disease is cerebral malaria, with a case fatality rate in adult travellers of 2-6%,3 mainly because of delays in diagnosis.5 Aims To reduce the risk of infection; to prevent illness and death. Outcomes Rates of malarial illness and death, and adverse effects of treatment. Proxy measures include number of mosquito bites and number of mosquitoes in indoor areas. We found limited evidence linking number of mosquito bites and risk of malaria.13 Methods Clinical Evidence search and appraisal in November 1999. We reviewed all identified systematic reviews and randomised controlled trials (RCTs

  17. [Prevention of bicycle accidents].

    PubMed

    Zwipp, H; Barthel, P; Bönninger, J; Bürkle, H; Hagemeister, C; Hannawald, L; Huhn, R; Kühn, M; Liers, H; Maier, R; Otte, D; Prokop, G; Seeck, A; Sturm, J; Unger, T

    2015-04-01

    For a very precise analysis of all injured bicyclists in Germany it would be important to have definitions for "severely injured", "seriously injured" and "critically injured". By this, e.g., two-thirds of surgically treated bicyclists who are not registered by the police could become available for a general analysis. Elderly bicyclists (> 60 years) are a minority (10 %) but represent a majority (50 %) of all fatalities. They profit most by wearing a helmet and would be less injured by using special bicycle bags, switching on their hearing aids and following all traffic rules. E-bikes are used more and more (145 % more in 2012 vs. 2011) with 600,000 at the end of 2011 and are increasingly involved in accidents but still have a lack of legislation. So even for pedelecs 45 with 500 W and a possible speed of 45 km/h there is still no legislative demand for the use of a protecting helmet. 96 % of all injured cyclists in Germany had more than 0.5 ‰ alcohol in their blood, 86 % more than 1.1 ‰ and 59 % more than 1.7 ‰. Fatalities are seen in 24.2 % of cases without any collision partner. Therefore the ADFC calls for a limit of 1.1 ‰. Some virtual studies conclude that integrated sensors in bicycle helmets which would interact with sensors in cars could prevent collisions or reduce the severity of injury by stopping the cars automatically. Integrated sensors in cars with opening angles of 180° enable about 93 % of all bicyclists to be detected leading to a high rate of injury avoidance and/or mitigation. Hanging lamps reduce with 35 % significantly bicycle accidents for children, traffic education for children and special trainings for elderly bicyclists are also recommended as prevention tools. As long as helmet use for bicyclists in Germany rates only 9 % on average and legislative orders for using a helmet will not be in force in the near future, coming up campaigns seem to be necessary to be promoted by the Deutscher

  18. HIV treatment for prevention.

    PubMed

    Ambrosioni, Juan; Calmy, Alexandra; Hirschel, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    "No virus, no transmission." Studies have repeatedly shown that viral load (the quantity of virus present in blood and sexual secretions) is the strongest predictor of HIV transmission during unprotected sex or transmission from infected mother to child. Effective treatment lowers viral load to undetectable levels. If one could identify and treat all HIV-infected people immediately after infection, the HIV/AIDS epidemic would eventually disappear.Such a radical solution is currently unrealistic. In reality, not all people get tested, especially when they fear stigma and discrimination. Thus, not all HIV-infected individuals are known. Of those HIV-positive individuals for whom the diagnosis is known, not all of them have access to therapy, agree to be treated, or are taking therapy effectively. Some on effective treatment will stop, and in others, the development of resistance will lead to treatment failure. Furthermore, resources are limited: should we provide drugs to asymptomatic HIV-infected individuals without indication for treatment according to guidelines in order to prevent HIV transmission at the risk of diverting funding from sick patients in urgent need? In fact, the preventive potential of anti-HIV drugs is unknown. Modellers have tried to fill the gap, but models differ depending on assumptions that are strongly debated. Further, indications for antiretroviral treatments expand; in places like Vancouver and San Francisco, the majority of HIV-positive individuals are now under treatment, and the incidence of new HIV infections has recently fallen. However, correlation does not necessarily imply causation. Finally, studies in couples where one partner is HIV-infected also appear to show that treatment reduces the risk of transmission.More definite studies, where a number of communities are randomized to either receive the "test-and-treat" approach or continue as before, are now in evaluation by funding agencies. Repeated waves of testing would precisely

  19. ERIS: preliminary design phase overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuntschner, Harald; Jochum, Lieselotte; Amico, Paola; Dekker, Johannes K.; Kerber, Florian; Marchetti, Enrico; Accardo, Matteo; Brast, Roland; Brinkmann, Martin; Conzelmann, Ralf D.; Delabre, Bernard A.; Duchateau, Michel; Fedrigo, Enrico; Finger, Gert; Frank, Christoph; Rodriguez, Fernando G.; Klein, Barbara; Knudstrup, Jens; Le Louarn, Miska; Lundin, Lars; Modigliani, Andrea; Müller, Michael; Neeser, Mark; Tordo, Sebastien; Valenti, Elena; Eisenhauer, Frank; Sturm, Eckhard; Feuchtgruber, Helmut; George, Elisabeth M.; Hartl, Michael; Hofmann, Reiner; Huber, Heinrich; Plattner, Markus P.; Schubert, Josef; Tarantik, Karl; Wiezorrek, Erich; Meyer, Michael R.; Quanz, Sascha P.; Glauser, Adrian M.; Weisz, Harald; Esposito, Simone; Xompero, Marco; Agapito, Guido; Antichi, Jacopo; Biliotti, Valdemaro; Bonaglia, Marco; Briguglio, Runa; Carbonaro, Luca; Cresci, Giovanni; Fini, Luca; Pinna, Enrico; Puglisi, Alfio T.; Quirós-Pacheco, Fernando; Riccardi, Armando; Di Rico, Gianluca; Arcidiacono, Carmelo; Dolci, Mauro

    2014-07-01

    The Enhanced Resolution Imager and Spectrograph (ERIS) is the next-generation adaptive optics near-IR imager and spectrograph for the Cassegrain focus of the Very Large Telescope (VLT) Unit Telescope 4, which will soon make full use of the Adaptive Optics Facility (AOF). It is a high-Strehl AO-assisted instrument that will use the Deformable Secondary Mirror (DSM) and the new Laser Guide Star Facility (4LGSF). The project has been approved for construction and has entered its preliminary design phase. ERIS will be constructed in a collaboration including the Max- Planck Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik, the Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich and the Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri and will offer 1 - 5 μm imaging and 1 - 2.5 μm integral field spectroscopic capabilities with a high Strehl performance. Wavefront sensing can be carried out with an optical high-order NGS Pyramid wavefront sensor, or with a single laser in either an optical low-order NGS mode, or with a near-IR low-order mode sensor. Due to its highly sensitive visible wavefront sensor, and separate near-IR low-order mode, ERIS provides a large sky coverage with its 1' patrol field radius that can even include AO stars embedded in dust-enshrouded environments. As such it will replace, with a much improved single conjugated AO correction, the most scientifically important imaging modes offered by NACO (diffraction limited imaging in the J to M bands, Sparse Aperture Masking and Apodizing Phase Plate (APP) coronagraphy) and the integral field spectroscopy modes of SINFONI, whose instrumental module, SPIFFI, will be upgraded and re-used in ERIS. As part of the SPIFFI upgrade a new higher resolution grating and a science detector replacement are envisaged, as well as PLC driven motors. To accommodate ERIS at the Cassegrain focus, an extension of the telescope back focal length is required, with modifications of the guider arm assembly. In this paper we report on the status of the

  20. Effects of a social cognitive theory-based hip fracture prevention web site for older adults.

    PubMed

    Nahm, Eun-Shim; Barker, Bausell; Resnick, Barbara; Covington, Barbara; Magaziner, Jay; Brennan, Patricia Flatley

    2010-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to develop a Social Cognitive Theory-based, structured Hip Fracture Prevention Web site for older adults and conduct a preliminary evaluation of its effectiveness. The Theory-based, structured Hip Fracture Prevention Web site is composed of learning modules and a moderated discussion board. A total of 245 older adults recruited from two Web sites and a newspaper advertisement were randomized into the Theory-based, structured Hip Fracture Prevention Web site and the conventional Web sites groups. Outcomes included (1) knowledge (hip fractures and osteoporosis), (2) self-efficacy and outcome expectations, and (3) calcium intake and exercise and were assessed at baseline, end of treatment (2 weeks), and follow-up (3 months). Both groups showed significant improvement in most outcomes. For calcium intake, only the Theory-based, structured Hip Fracture Prevention Web site group showed improvement. None of the group and time interactions were significant. The Theory-based, structured Hip Fracture Prevention Web site group, however, was more satisfied with the intervention. The discussion board usage was significantly correlated with outcome gains. Despite several limitations, the findings showed some preliminary effectiveness of Web-based health interventions for older adults and the use of a Theory-based, structured Hip Fracture Prevention Web site as a sustainable Web structure for online health behavior change interventions. PMID:20978408

  1. 75 FR 21314 - Medicaid Program; Final FY 2008, Revised Preliminary FY 2009, and Preliminary FY 2010...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-23

    ...This notice announces the final Federal share disproportionate share hospital (DSH) allotments for Federal FY (FY) 2008 and the preliminary Federal share DSH allotments for FY 2010. This notice also announces the final FY 2008 and the preliminary FY 2010 limitations on aggregate DSH payments that States may make to institutions for mental disease and other mental health facilities. This notice......

  2. Fungal Diseases: Ringworm Risk & Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases Mycotic Diseases Branch Ringworm Risk & Prevention Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Who gets ringworm? Ringworm is very common. Anyone can get ringworm, ...

  3. Prevention of nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Lifton, R.J.

    1980-10-01

    Physicians are exercising their responsibility as healers in their efforts to prevent nuclear war. Death for Hiroshima survivors was experienced in four stages: the immediate impact of destruction, the acute impact of radiation, delayed radiation effects, and later identification as an atomic bomb survivor. Each phase had its physical and psychological impacts and negates Hiroshima as a model for rational behavior despite those who claim survival is possible for those who are prepared. The psychic effects of modern nuclear, chemical, and germ warfare need to be challenged with a symbolization of life and immortality. Studies of psychological reactions to the terror children felt during practice air-raid drills indicate that the fears can be surpressed and re-emerge in adult life as a linking of death with collective annihilation. Other themes which emerge are feelings of impermanence, craziness, identification with the bomb, and a double existence. Psychic numbing and the religion of nuclearism cause dangerous conflicts with the anxieties caused by increasing awareness of death. (DCK)

  4. Prevention of venereal infections

    PubMed Central

    Guthe, T.

    1958-01-01

    In the first part of this paper, a plea is made for a broad view by health administrations of the preventive aspects of venereal disease control, based on epidemiological rather than purely clinical grounds. Stress is laid on the importance of measures directed towards health promotion, specific protection, early recognition and prompt treatment, disability limitation, and rehabilitation. The value of case-finding and contact-tracing and of systematic blood-testing of certain population groups is emphasized. In the second part, measures for local and systemic prophylaxis are discussed. It is also pointed out that in the past 15 years there has been a rapid reduction in syphilis throughout the world as a whole (although some recrudescence has recently been reported in certain countries), but that over the same period the reservoir of gonorrhoea has been but slightly reduced. The possible epidemiological, immunological and other reasons for this phenomenon are gone into, and the conclusion is reached that the outlook for the control of gonorrhoea is now somewhat less favourable than it was a few years ago. Should apprehension on this score bring about a general orientation away from penicillin (particularly the long-acting preparations) in treating gonorrhoea, the effect on the reservoir of syphilis may also be unfortunate. PMID:13596876

  5. Preventing Suicide Among Inpatients

    PubMed Central

    Sakinofsky, Isaac

    2014-01-01

    Objective Inpatient suicide comprises a proportionately small but clinically important fraction of suicide. This study is intended as a qualitative analysis of the comprehensive English literature, highlighting what is known and what can be done to prevent inpatient suicide. Method: A systematic search was conducted on the Cochrane Library, PubMed, Embase, Web of Knowledge, and a personal database for articles on cohort series, preferably controlled, of inpatient suicide (not deliberate self-harm or attempted suicide, unless they also dealt specifically with suicide data). Results: A qualitative discussion is presented, based on the findings of the literature searched. Conclusions: The bulk of inpatient suicides actually occur not on the ward but off premises, when the patient was on leave or had absconded. Peaks occur shortly after admission and discharge. It is possible to reduce suicide risk on the ward by having a safe environment, optimizing patient visibility, supervising patients appropriately, careful assessment, awareness of and respect for suicide risk, good teamwork and communication, and adequate clinical treatment. PMID:24881161

  6. Calcification prevention tablets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindsay, Geoffrey A.; Hasting, Michael A.; Gustavson, Michael A.

    1991-01-01

    Citric acid tablets, which slowly release citric acid when flushed with water, are under development by the Navy for calcification prevention. The citric acid dissolves calcium carbonate deposits and chelates the calcium. For use in urinals, a dispenser is not required because the tablets are non-toxic and safe to handle. The tablets are placed in the bottom of the urinal, and are consumed in several hundred flushes (the release rate can be tailored by adjusting the formulation). All of the ingredients are environmentally biodegradable. Mass production of the tablets on commercial tableting machines was demonstrated. The tablets are inexpensive (about 75 cents apiece). Incidences of clogged pipes and urinals were greatly decreased in long term shipboard tests. The corrosion rate of sewage collection pipe (90/10 Cu/Ni) in citric acid solution in the laboratory is several mils per year at conditions typically found in traps under the urinals. The only shipboard corrosion seen to date is of the yellow brass urinal tail pieces. While this is acceptable, the search for a nontoxic corrosion inhibitor is underway. The shelf life of the tablets is at least one year if stored at 50 percent relative humidity, and longer if stored in sealed plastic buckets.

  7. Prevention of Methamphetamine Abuse: Can Existing Evidence Inform Community Prevention?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birckmayer, Johanna; Fisher, Deborah A.; Holder, Harold D.; Yacoubian, George S.

    2008-01-01

    Little research exists on effective strategies to prevent methamphetamine production, distribution, sales, use, and harm. As a result, prevention practitioners (especially at the local level) have little guidance in selecting potentially effective strategies. This article presents a general causal model of methamphetamine use and harms that…

  8. Annual Advances in Cancer Prevention Lecture | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    2015 Keynote Lecture HPV Vaccination: Preventing More with Less A special keynote lecture became part of the NCI summer Curriculum in Cancer Prevention in 2000. This lecture will be held on Thursday, July 23, 2015 at 3:00pm at Masur Auditorium, Building 10, NIH Main Campus, Bethesda, MD. This year’s keynote speaker is Dr. Douglas Lowy, NCI Acting Director. |

  9. The costs of HIV prevention strategies in developing countries.

    PubMed Central

    Söderlund, N.; Lavis, J.; Broomberg, J.; Mills, A.

    1993-01-01

    Since many evaluations of HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) prevention programmes do not include data on costs, a preliminary analysis of the costs and outputs of a sample of HIV prevention projects was attempted. Case studies, representing six broad HIV prevention strategies in developing countries with differing levels of per capita gross domestic product, were sought on the basis of availability of data and potential generalizability. The six prevention strategies studied were mass media campaigns, peer education programmes, sexually transmitted disease treatment, condom social marketing, safe blood provision, and needle exchange/bleach provision programmes. Financial cost data were abstracted from published studies or were obtained directly from project coordinators. Although estimates of cost-effectiveness were not made, calculations of the relative cost per common process measure of output were compared. Condom distribution costs ranged from US$ 0.02 to 0.70 per condom distributed, and costs of strategies involving personal educational input ranged from US$ 0.15 to 12.59 per contact. PMID:8261563

  10. Cost-Effectiveness of Antiretroviral Therapy for Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Kahn, James G; Marseille, Elliot A; Bennett, Rod; Williams, Brian G; Granich, Reuben

    2011-01-01

    Recent empirical studies and analyses have heightened interest in the use of expanded antiretroviral therapy (ART) for prevention of HIV transmission. However, ART is expensive, approximately $600 per person per year, raising issues of the cost and cost-effectiveness of ambitious ART expansion. The goal of this review is to equip the reader with the conceptual tools and substantive background needed to understand and evaluate the policy and programmatic implications of cost-effectiveness assessments of ART for prevention. We provide this review in six sections. We start by introducing and explaining basic concepts of health economics as they relate to this issue, including resources, costs, health metrics (such as Disability-Adjusted Life Years), and different types of economic analysis. We then review research on the cost and cost-effectiveness of ART as treatment, and on the cost-effectiveness of traditional HIV prevention. We describe critical issues in the epidemic impact of ART, such as suppression of transmission and the role of the acute phase of infection. We then present a conceptual model for conducting and interpreting cost-effectiveness analyses of ART as prevention, and review the existing preliminary estimates in this area. We end with a discussion of future directions for programmatic demonstrations and evaluation. PMID:21999776

  11. Can coffee prevent caries?

    PubMed Central

    Anila Namboodiripad, PC; Kori, Sumathi

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To determine the anti-carious effect of coffee in humans. Coffee represents one of the most consumed products by the population. Materials and Methods: A random sample of 1000 individuals, of both sexes, who consumed only coffee as a beverage and who visited the Out-Patient Department of KLE Society's Institute of Dental Sciences, with a dental complaint and no history of any major illness, were considered as subjects. The patients' histories with regard to the coffee intake, such as, period of consumption, frequency of consumption, whether taken with milk or wihout milk, with sugar or without sugar, and the brand make, was noted. History of the type of diet, consumption of sweets, periodicity of brushing, and whether they had undergone fluoride applications were also noted. A thousand patients who consumed beverages other than coffee were taken as the control. Results: The results showed that coffee most consumed was roasted coffee, and the frequency on an average was about three cups per day, for an average period of 35 years. The Decayed/Missing/Filled Surface (DMFS) scores varied from 2.9, in subjects who drank black coffee, to 5.5 in subjects who consumed coffee together with sweeteners and creaming agents. The DMFS score was 3.4 in subjects who consumed coffee together with milk but no sugar. The DMFS score of the control subjects was 4, indicating that coffee if consumed alone had anticaries action, but in the presence of additives the antibacterial and anticaries action was totally minimized. Conclusion: Thus coffee can help in prevention of dental caries if consumed without additives. PMID:20379435

  12. Vaccination to prevent varicella

    PubMed Central

    King, PG

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is increasing evidence that herpes zoster (HZ) incidence rates among children and adults (aged <60 years) with a history of natural varicella are influenced primarily by the frequency of exogenous exposures, while asymptomatic endogenous reactivations help to cap the rate at approximately 550 cases/100,000 person-years when exogenous boosting becomes rare. The Antelope Valley Varicella Active Surveillance Project was funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in 1995 to monitor the effects of varicella vaccination in one of the three representative regions of the United States. The stability in the data collection and number of reporting sites under varicella surveillance from 1995–2002 and HZ surveillance during 2000–2001 and 2006–2007 contributed to the robustness of the discerned trends. Discussion: Varicella vaccination may be useful for leukemic children; however, the target population in the United States is all children. Since the varicella vaccine inoculates its recipients with live, attenuated varicella–zoster virus (VZV), clinical varicella cases have dramatically declined. Declining exogenous exposures (boosts) from children shedding natural VZV have caused waning cell-mediated immunity. Thus, the protection provided by varicella vaccination is neither lifelong nor complete. Moreover, dramatic increases in the incidence of adult shingles cases have been observed since HZ was added to the surveillance in 2000. In 2013, this topic is still debated and remains controversial in the United States. Summary: When the costs of the booster dose for varicella and the increased shingles recurrences are included, the universal varicella vaccination program is neither effective nor cost-effective. PMID:24275643

  13. Malaria: prevention in travellers

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Malaria transmission occurs most frequently in environments with humidity over 60% and ambient temperature of 25-30 °C. Risks increase with longer visits and depend on activity. Infection can follow a single mosquito bite. Incubation is usually 10-14 days but can be up to 18 months depending on the strain of parasite. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of non-drug preventive interventions in adult travellers? What are the effects of drug prophylaxis in adult travellers? What are the effects of antimalaria vaccines in travellers? What are the effects of antimalaria interventions in child travellers, pregnant travellers, and in airline pilots? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library and other important databases up to February 2006 (BMJ Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 69 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: acoustic buzzers, aerosol insecticides, amodiaquine, air conditioning and electric fans, atovaquone-proguanil, biological control measures, chloroquine (alone or with proguanil), diethyltoluamide (DEET), doxycycline, full-length and light-coloured clothing, insecticide-treated clothing/nets, mefloquine, mosquito coils and vaporising mats, primaquine, pyrimethamine-dapsone, pyrimethamine-sulfadoxine, smoke, topical (skin-applied) insect repellents, and vaccines. PMID:19450348

  14. Selenium for preventing cancer

    PubMed Central

    Vinceti, Marco; Dennert, Gabriele; Crespi, Catherine M; Zwahlen, Marcel; Brinkman, Maree; Zeegers, Maurice PA; Horneber, Markus; D'Amico, Roberto; Del Giovane, Cinzia

    2015-01-01

    Background This review is an update of the first Cochrane publication on selenium for preventing cancer (Dennert 2011). Selenium is a metalloid with both nutritional and toxicological properties. Higher selenium exposure and selenium supplements have been suggested to protect against several types of cancers. Objectives Two research questions were addressed in this review: What is the evidence for: an aetiological relation between selenium exposure and cancer risk in humans? andthe efficacy of selenium supplementation for cancer prevention in humans? Search methods We conducted electronic searches of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, 2013, Issue 1), MEDLINE (Ovid, 1966 to February 2013 week 1), EMBASE (1980 to 2013 week 6), CancerLit (February 2004) and CCMed (February 2011). As MEDLINE now includes the journals indexed in CancerLit, no further searches were conducted in this database after 2004. Selection criteria We included prospective observational studies (cohort studies including sub-cohort controlled studies and nested case-control studies) and randomised controlled trials (RCTs) with healthy adult participants (18 years of age and older). Data collection and analysis For observational studies, we conducted random effects meta-analyses when five or more studies were retrieved for a specific outcome. For RCTs, we performed random effects meta-analyses when two or more studies were available. The risk of bias in observational studies was assessed using forms adapted from the Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale for cohort and case-control studies; the criteria specified in the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions were used to evaluate the risk of bias in RCTs. Main results We included 55 prospective observational studies (including more than 1,100,000 participants) and eight RCTs (with a total of 44,743 participants). For the observational studies, we found lower cancer incidence (summary odds ratio (OR) 0

  15. The Results of Teaching Middle School Students Two Relaxation Techniques as Part of a Conflict Prevention Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dacey, John S.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Boston College Conflict Prevention Program techniques for relaxation and self-control were taught to middle-school students in two Boston schools. Preliminary results from teacher interviews revealed that students spontaneously used these methods to calm their "fight-or-flight" reactions in real conflicts. Results also indicated that females…

  16. Primary Prevention of Eating Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shisslak, Catherine M.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Summarizes current understanding of anorexia nervosa and bulimia (clinical symptoms and outcome, prevalence and risk factors), offering suggestions for the primary prevention of these disorders at the individual, family, and community levels, and emphasizing prevention in the schools. (Author/KS)

  17. Preventive Law for School Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Harold L.

    This chapter focuses on the need for a revised relationship between schools and the courts through the concept of preventive law. The chapter reviews court cases and presents an overview of conflict resolution models and strategies for reducing litigation. Preventive law assumes that greater use of its strategies affords a lesser need for conflict…

  18. Major Depression Can Be Prevented

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz, Ricardo F.; Beardslee, William R.; Leykin, Yan

    2012-01-01

    The 2009 Institute of Medicine report on prevention of mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders (National Research Council & Institute of Medicine, 2009b) presented evidence that major depression can be prevented. In this article, we highlight the implications of the report for public policy and research. Randomized controlled trials have shown…

  19. Preventing Ventilation On Sailboard Skegs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldwell, Richard A.

    1990-01-01

    Design effort undertaken to solve spinout problem plaguing high-performance sailboards. Proposed skeg section designed by use of computer model of pressure field and boundary layer. Prevents ventilation by maintaining attached boundary-layer flow throughout operating environment. Cavitation also avoided by preventing valleys in pressure distribution while skeg operated throughout its range.

  20. Communication Skills for Preventive Interventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dube, Catherine E.; O'Donnell, Joseph F.; Novack, Dennis H.

    2000-01-01

    Defines and examines a communication model for enhancing the provision and adoption of preventive practices in the primary care setting and discusses teaching that model in the medical school context. Methods for integrating communication skills for prevention into the medical school curriculum are discussed, using examples from Dartmouth (New…

  1. Saving the Barrier by Prevention.

    PubMed

    Weisshaar, Elke

    2016-01-01

    One third of all occupation-related diseases are diseases of the skin, and in most of these cases the skin barrier is involved. Professions such as metalworkers, hairdressers, and health care and construction workers are mainly affected. Among them, contact dermatitis is the leading skin disease. It usually presents as hand eczema caused by or leading to impaired barrier function. All this significantly impacts the function of the hands, reduces the ability to work and especially impairs the patient's quality of life. Diagnostics and therapy are of great importance; in addition, prevention programs are meanwhile an important mainstay of the overall therapeutic concept. They comprise measures of secondary (outpatient) and tertiary (inpatient) prevention. Secondary prevention measures include occupation-tailored teaching and prevention programs, and the dermatologist's examination and report. In severe cases or if therapy is not successful in the long term, or if the diagnosis is not clear, measures of tertiary prevention may come into action. They are offered as an inpatient treatment and prevention program. The aims are prevention of the job loss, but especially to reach a long-term healing up and getting back to normal occupational and leisure life in the sense of attaining full quality of life. During the last years, research in Germany has shown that the different measures of prevention in occupational dermatology are very effective. This integrated concept of an in-/outpatient disease management reveals remarkable pertinent efficacy for patients with severe occupational dermatoses in at-risk professions. PMID:26844907

  2. Drug Education & Prevention. Chapter 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acampora, Alfonso P., Ed.; Nebelkopf, Ethan, Ed.

    This document contains seven papers from the ninth World Conference of Therapeutic Communities (TCs) that deal with drug education and prevention. Papers include: (1) "State of the Art of Drug Prevention Programs: A Five Year Retrospective of School Curricula" (Natalie Silverstein, et al.); (2) "TCs: Education for Wholeness" (Christine Grant…

  3. Progress toward a Prevention Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stagner, Matthew W.; Lansing, Jiffy

    2009-01-01

    Matthew Stagner and Jiffy Lansing chart developments in the field of child maltreatment and propose a new framework for preventing child abuse and neglect. They begin by describing the concept of investment-prevention as it has been applied recently in fields such as health care and welfare. They then explain how the new framework applies to…

  4. AIDS. CSAP Prevention Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuckerman, Karen, Ed.

    This resource guide was compiled from a variety of publications and data bases and represents the most current information to date on Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) prevention. The guide is organized into three major sections. The first section lists prevention materials. For each entry, information is provided on the organization…

  5. DIABETES PREVENTION TRIAL TYPE 1

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Diabetes Prevention Trial--Type 1 (DPT-1) is a nationwide study to see if we can prevent or delay type 1 diabetes, also known as insulin-dependent diabetes. Nine medical centers and more than 350 clinics in the United States and Canada are taking part in the study.

  6. Mississippi Substance Abuse Prevention Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Bureau of School Improvement.

    This document presents the Substance Abuse Prevention Curriculum developed for use in Mississippi elementary and secondary schools. The curriculum uses a developmental approach to substance abuse prevention which emphasizes helping students gain information needed to make sound decisions about drug use. Incorporated into the curriculum are all…

  7. Elementary Youth: Prevention Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Office for Substance Abuse Prevention.

    This prevention resource guide (compiled from a variety of publications and data bases and representing the most currently available information) focuses on elementary youth, and is divided into four sections. The first section contains facts and figures from current research about substance abuse prevention for elementary youth. For example, one…

  8. PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE. HONEYWELL PLANNING GUIDE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honeywell, Inc., Minneapolis, Minn.

    THIS HONEYWELL PAMPHLET DISCUSSES SOME ASPECTS OF PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE OF AUTOMATIC CONTROLS, HEATING, VENTILATING, AND AIR CONDITIONING, AND COMPARES IN-PLANT WITH CONTRACT SERVICE, CONCLUDING THAT CONTRACT SERVICE IS PREFERABLE AND DESCRIBING A NUMBER OF MAINTENANCE PLANS WHICH THEY FURNISH. PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE PROVIDES--(1) MORE EFFICIENT…

  9. Crime Prevention Services for Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Harold A.

    The purpose of this guide is to identify the various opportunities available in most communities for delivering crime prevention services to youth so that they will be better prepared to reduce their vulnerability to crime, while enhancing their involvement in prevention efforts. It also serves to outline the benefits of programming with youth;…

  10. Anatomic consideration for preventive implantation.

    PubMed

    Denissen, H W; Kalk, W; Veldhuis, H A; van Waas, M A

    1993-01-01

    The aim of preventive implant therapy is to prevent or delay loss of alveolar ridge bone mass. For use in an anatomic study of 60 mandibles, resorption of the alveolar ridge was classified into four preventive stages: (1) after extraction of teeth; (2) after initial resorption; (3) when the ridge has atrophied to a knife-edge shape; and (4) when only basal bone remains. Implantation in stage 3 necessitates removal of the knife-edge ridge to create space for cylindrical implants. Therefore, implantation in stage 2 is advocated to prevent the development of stage 3. The aim of implantation in stage 4 is to prevent total loss of function of the atrophic mandible. PMID:8359876

  11. Tamoxifen for breast cancer prevention

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, V.C.

    1995-02-01

    The case for tamoxifen to be tested as a preventive for breast cancer has merit. Animal studies demonstrate that tamoxifen prevents mammary carcinogenesis and clinical studies now confirm that adjuvant tamoxifen therapy is the only systemic treatment that will prevent contralateral breast cancer. Developing clinical studies confirm the laboratory data that tamoxifen will maintain post-menopausal bone density in the lumbar spine and the neck of the femur; two important skeletal sites for the ultimate prevention of osteoporosis. However, a most important target site-specific effect of tamoxifen is the decrease in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in postmenopausal women. This positive property of tamoxifen may be responsible for the recorded decreases in hospital visits for the treatment of cardiac conditions and the significant decrease in fatal myocardial infarction for women treated with 5 years of adjuvant tamoxifen. These data provide the scientific basis to undertake randomized, placebocontrolled clinical trials to test the worth of tamoxifen to prevent breast cancer.

  12. Preventive aspects regarding back pain.

    PubMed

    Dorner, Thomas E; Crevenna, Richard

    2016-02-01

    Prevention, as the act of keeping from happening, aims to avert things that would occur if no intervention would be taken. From the epidemiology of back pain, consequences of the disease that are worth preventing can be derived. Biological, psychological, and social factors lead to back pain and chronification and ultimately to various adverse outcomes. The most important preventable consequences of back pain include loss of ability to function in daily life, loss of work productivity, sickness absence, and disability pension, excessive and inappropriate healthcare utilisation, impairments in quality of life, and disturbance of sexual life. The most important tools for prevention of back pain lie within rehabilitation after acute pain treatment and include exercise and physical training as well as health education and increasing health literacy. The bio-psycho-social nature of back pain must be taken into account in all preventive measures. PMID:26695480

  13. [Relapse prevention in drug addicts].

    PubMed

    Rácz, József

    2013-12-01

    The literature review deals with methods of relapse prevention. Relapse prevention is the key in the treatment of clients with drug addictions according to the transtheoretical model of change. If relapse prevention is more effective then not only the relapse would be prevented, but the client would leave the circulus vitiosus of relapses. Among psychotherapies cognitive behavioural methods are proven effective. Shorter forms of cognitive therapies are also available: for example, cognitive bias modification. Pharmacotherapy partly decreases craving of the clients or ceases the effects of psychoactive substances. Specific pharmacotherapeutic methods prevent relapses in a non-abstinent treatment design. Here the goal is not the abstinence in a short time, but the reduction of harms associated with drug use. In this way, a new target group of drug users can be involved in treatment. PMID:24380964

  14. Family Wellness, Not HIV Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Swendeman, Dallas; Flannery, Diane

    2010-01-01

    HIV exceptionalism (and disease-specific programs generally) garner both unbalanced funding and the most talented personnel, distorting local health priorities. In support of HIV exceptionalism, the successful mobilization of significant global health sector resources was not possible prior to HIV. Both sides of the debate have merits; rather than perpetuating polarization, we suggest that sustained improvements in global health require creating a prevention infrastructure to meet multiple health challenges experienced by local communities. We propose four fundamental shifts in HIV and disease prevention: (1) horizontally integrating prevention at one site locally, with priorities tailored to local health challenges and managed by local community leaders; (2) using a family wellness metaphor for services, not disease prevention; (3) implementing evidence-based prevention programs (EBPP) based on common principles, factors, and processes, rather than replication of specific programs; and (4) utilizing the expertise of private enterprise to re-design EBPP into highly attractive, engaging, and accessible experiences. PMID:19148744

  15. Hydrothermal Liquefaction Treatment Preliminary Hazard Analysis Report

    SciTech Connect

    Lowry, Peter P.; Wagner, Katie A.

    2015-08-31

    A preliminary hazard assessment was completed during February 2015 to evaluate the conceptual design of the modular hydrothermal liquefaction treatment system. The hazard assessment was performed in 2 stages. An initial assessment utilizing Hazard Identification and Preliminary Hazards Analysis (PHA) techniques identified areas with significant or unique hazards (process safety-related hazards) that fall outside of the normal operating envelope of PNNL and warranted additional analysis. The subsequent assessment was based on a qualitative What-If analysis. This analysis was augmented, as necessary, by additional quantitative analysis for scenarios involving a release of hazardous material or energy with the potential for affecting the public.

  16. Preliminary evaluation of a serious game for the dissemination and public awareness on preschool children's oral health.

    PubMed

    Ito, Cristina; Marinho Filho, Alfeu V; Ito, Márcia; Azevedo, Marilia M; de Almeida, Maurício Amaral

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the preliminary evaluation by dentists, teachers and parents of a serious game for dissemination of public awareness on preschool children's oral health. In this game, the player keeps a victory condition, while your tooth remains whole. Preliminary evaluation was performed in two parts. The first part was a questionnaire designed to evaluate the applicability of this technology and the opinions on the effectiveness of games in education and in oral health promotion. In the second part, the game is presented and an evaluation questionnaire of it is applied. This study had the participation of 115 persons. There was 80% approval which suggested that the game is an alternative for the prevention of dental awareness. Furthermore, the study perceives that teachers can work together with dentists in order to perform dental prevention. PMID:23920808

  17. Culturally Grounded Stress Reduction and Suicide Prevention for African American Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, W. LaVome; Case, Mary H.; Whipple, Christopher R.; Gooden, Adia S.; Lopez-Tamayo, Roberto; Lambert, Sharon F.; Jason, Leonard A.

    2016-01-01

    Suicide is an often-overlooked manifestation of violence among African American youth that has become more prevalent in the last two decades. This article reports on the process used to culturally adapt a cognitive-behavioral coping with stress prevention intervention for African American adolescents. We implemented this adapted school-based suicide prevention intervention with 758 African American 9th, 10th and 11th grade students at four high schools in a large Midwestern city. The findings presented are preliminary. The adolescents in this sample endorsed high levels of suicide risk, with females endorsing significantly more suicide risk than males. Those receiving the prevention intervention evidenced an 86% relative suicide risk reduction, compared to the standard care control participants. The presented model of adaptation and resulting culturally-grounded suicide prevention intervention significantly reduced suicide risk among African American adolescents. Clinical, research and policy implications are discussed. PMID:27517094

  18. The prediction and prevention of Alzheimer's disease--towards a research agenda.

    PubMed Central

    van Reekum, R; Simard, M; Cohen, T

    1999-01-01

    This paper sets a research agenda for the prediction and prevention of future onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD). From a MEDLINE review of the literature, the authors found age to be a predictor of AD. The literature also indicates that memory and attentional impairments predict AD, although the relative risk is relatively low. Late-onset depression may also predict AD, but these data are limited by a lack of cohort studies. Studying cognitively impaired subjects with late-onset depression may identify a high-risk group, facilitating prevention trials. Characteristics of an "ideal" preventive agent are suggested. There is a biologic rationale, and preliminary evidence, that non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (including ASA), estrogen and vitamin E may play a preventive role in AD. Other compounds (such as acetylcholinesterase inhibitors) are also promising, but costs, side effects, and lack of other health benefits may preclude their use in all but very high-risk groups. PMID:10586533

  19. Prevention strategies in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Trottier, Greg; Lawrentschuk, N.; Fleshner, N.E.

    2010-01-01

    Prostate cancer (pca) prevention has been an exciting and controversial topic since the results of the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (pcpt) were published. With the recently published results of the reduce (Reduction by Dutasteride of Prostate Cancer Events) trial, interest in this topic is at a peak. Primary pca prevention will be unlikely to affect mortality significantly, but the reduction in overtreatment and the effect on quality of life from the avoidance of a cancer diagnosis are important factors to consider. This review provides a comparative update on the reduce and pcpt trials and some clinical recommendations. Other potential primary preventive strategies with statins, selective estrogen response modulators, and nutraceutical compounds—including current evidence for these agents and their roles in clinical practice—are discussed. Many substances that have been examined in the primary prevention of pca and for which clinical data are either negative or particularly weak are not covered. The future of pca prevention continues to expand, with several ongoing clinical trials and much interest in tertiary prostate cancer prevention. PMID:20882132

  20. Prevention of Youthful Marijuana Use.

    PubMed

    Cermak, Timmen L; Banys, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Considerable money and effort have been expended in attempts to prevent drug use by youth, with disappointing results. Too often, prevention programs have singled out youth with simplistic messages of exaggerated risk and the same politically acceptable solution for all-abstinence. Historically, prevention efforts have been less effective by not being soundly based in science and failing also to address adult drug and alcohol use as part of the problem. The Institute of Medicine continuum of care model developed in 1994 offers a framework for a more sophisticated, three-tiered approach to prevention, defined as all services provided prior to a clinical diagnosis of a substance use disorder. By dividing prevention efforts into universal (delivered to broad populations without consideration of individual risk for developing substance use disorder), selected (targeting sub-groups of individuals identified on the basis of characteristics known to create an elevated risk for substance use disorder), and indicated (addressing individuals identified on the basis of manifest risk behaviors), prevention can be better tailored to meet different levels of need. Student Assistance Programs (SAPs) and community coalitions provide examples of how IOM's continuum of care model can be integrated into drug prevention programs for youth. PMID:26891015