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Sample records for endonasal endoscopic repair

  1. Endoscopic Endonasal Reconstruction of Skull Base: Repair Protocol.

    PubMed

    Dehdashti, Amir R; Stofko, Douglas; Okun, Jessica; Obourn, Chelsea; Kennedy, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    Background Endoscopic endonasal skull base reconstructions have been associated with postoperative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks. Objective A repair protocol for endoscopic endonasal skull base reconstruction is presented with the objective of decreasing the overall leak rate. Methods A total of 180 endoscopic endonasal skull base reconstructions were reviewed. Reconstructions were classified I to IV according to the reconstruction method, determined by severity of intraoperatively encountered CSF leaks for types I to III, and planned preoperatively for type IVs, which required nasoseptal flap. Results A total of 11 patients(6%) had postoperative leaks: 0 in type I (0%), 2 in type II (5%), 7 in type III (18%), and 2 (4%) in type IV reconstruction. Type III leak rate was higher than all other reconstructions. Total 31 intraoperative and 16 postoperative lumbar drains were placed. More patients had lumbar drains placed postoperatively for type III and intraoperatively for type IV than all other groups. There were significant overall differences in postoperative CSF leaks and lumbar drain placement between the four reconstruction types. No patient with type III reconstruction and intraoperative lumbar drain had postoperative CSF leak. Conclusions A repair protocol for endoscopic endonasal reconstructions determined by intraoperative CSF leak and preoperative planning minimizes unnecessary repair materials and additional morbidity. Our experience leads to a routine prophylactic lumbar drain placement in all type III leak and reconstructions. We also favor the type III reconstruction for minor intraoperative leaks, and a more generous use of type IV reconstructions in expectation of significant intraoperative CSF leak. The option of rescue flap technique in type III leaks should be strongly considered. PMID:27175324

  2. Endoscopic endonasal multilayer repair of traumatic CSF rhinorrhea.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Ahmed Aly; Okasha, Mohamed; Elwany, Samy

    2016-04-01

    The incidence of traumatic CSF has increased in recent years due to increased incidence of road traffic accidents (RTA) as well the increasing number of endoscopic sinus surgeries (ESS). The objective of this study is to present our experience in management of traumatic CSF leaks using the endoscopic multilayer repair technique. Forty-two patients (aged 10-75 years, 30 males and 12 females) presenting with confirmed post-traumatic CSF rhinorrhea were operated upon between January 2007 and December 2013. The endoscopic multilayer technique was used in all cases. Electromagnetic navigation was used in some cases. All cases presented with intermittent watery rhinorrhea. The duration of the rhinorrhea ranged from 3 days to 1 year before repair. One case presented after 10 years from the causative trauma. Ten cases had a history of meningitis. Nine cases had more than one defect. Iatrogenic defects were larger than defects following accidental trauma. Two cases, following RTA, developed pseudo-aneurysm of internal carotid artery. Ten cases had associated pneumocephalus. The mean duration of postoperative hospitalization was 6 days (range 4-8 days). The mean follow-up duration was 31.2 +/- 11.4 months (range 16-48 months). None of our patient developed serious intra- or postoperative complications. Only one case required another surgery to repair a missed second defect. Post-traumatic CSF leaks can be successfully managed via the endonasal endoscopic route using the multilayer repair technique. It is important to look for multiple defects in these cases. CT angiography is recommended for traumatic leaks involving the lateral wall of the sphenoid sinus to diagnose or exclude the development of pseudo-aneurysm of the internal carotid artery. PMID:26048356

  3. Endoscopic Endonasal Repair of Spontaneous and Traumatic Cerebrospinal Fluid Rhinorrhea: A Review and Local Experience.

    PubMed

    Gonen, Lior; Monteiro, Eric; Klironomos, George; Alghonaim, Yazeed; Vescan, Allan; Zadeh, Gelareh; Gentili, Fred

    2015-07-01

    This article presents an overview of endoscopic endonasal repair of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rhinorrhea. In recent years, endoscopic repair has become the standard of care for managing this condition, because it gradually replaces the traditional open transcranial approach. Discussion includes the etiologic classification of CSF rhinorrhea, management paradigm for each category, diagnosis algorithm, comprehensive description of the surgical technique, and an updated review of the literature regarding the safety and efficacy of this procedure. In addition, the authors present their experience, including 2 surgical videos demonstrating endoscopic repair of CSF rhinorrhea in 2 distinct clinical scenarios. PMID:26141354

  4. Endoscopic Endonasal Dacryocystorhinostomy Combined with Canaliculus Repair for the Management of Dacryocystitis with Canalicular Obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Yunhai; Qian, Zhenbin; Zhang, Jiao; Wu, Wencan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The aim of this study is to propose a simple and efficient combination surgery for the management of dacryocystitis with canalicular obstruction. Methods. A retrospective noncomparative case series of dacryocystitis with canalicular obstruction has been studied. Twelve patients with dacryocystitis and canalicular obstruction underwent a conventional endoscopic endonasal dacryocystorhinostomy (EE-DCR) combined with a modified canalicular repair. Postoperative observations included slit lamp, fluorescein dye disappearance test, lacrimal syringing, lacrimal endoscopy, and nasal endoscopy. Results. After 6–18 months of postoperative follow-up, the symptoms of epiphora and mucopurulent discharge disappeared completely in 10 patients, and occasional or intermittent epiphora remained in 2 patients. All of the twelve patients showed an opened intranasal ostium and normal fluorescein dye disappearance test. Patent bicanalicular irrigation was achieved in 9 patients. One patient had a partial and the other two had a complete reobstruction by lacrimal irrigation to their repaired lower canaliculus; however, all of them had a patent lacrimal irrigation to upper canaliculus. The functional success rate for the combination surgery is 83% (10/12), and anatomical success rate is 75% (9/12). Conclusion. EE-DCR combined with modified canalicular repair is a simple and efficient method for the management of dacryocystitis with canalicular obstruction. PMID:25949821

  5. Endoscopic endonasal dacryocystorhinostomy combined with canaliculus repair for the management of dacryocystitis with canalicular obstruction.

    PubMed

    Tu, Yunhai; Qian, Zhenbin; Zhang, Jiao; Wu, Wencan; Xiao, Tianlin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The aim of this study is to propose a simple and efficient combination surgery for the management of dacryocystitis with canalicular obstruction. Methods. A retrospective noncomparative case series of dacryocystitis with canalicular obstruction has been studied. Twelve patients with dacryocystitis and canalicular obstruction underwent a conventional endoscopic endonasal dacryocystorhinostomy (EE-DCR) combined with a modified canalicular repair. Postoperative observations included slit lamp, fluorescein dye disappearance test, lacrimal syringing, lacrimal endoscopy, and nasal endoscopy. Results. After 6-18 months of postoperative follow-up, the symptoms of epiphora and mucopurulent discharge disappeared completely in 10 patients, and occasional or intermittent epiphora remained in 2 patients. All of the twelve patients showed an opened intranasal ostium and normal fluorescein dye disappearance test. Patent bicanalicular irrigation was achieved in 9 patients. One patient had a partial and the other two had a complete reobstruction by lacrimal irrigation to their repaired lower canaliculus; however, all of them had a patent lacrimal irrigation to upper canaliculus. The functional success rate for the combination surgery is 83% (10/12), and anatomical success rate is 75% (9/12). Conclusion. EE-DCR combined with modified canalicular repair is a simple and efficient method for the management of dacryocystitis with canalicular obstruction. PMID:25949821

  6. Modified Graded Repair of Cerebrospinal Fluid Leaks in Endoscopic Endonasal Transsphenoidal Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jae-Hyun; Choi, Jai Ho; Kim, Young-Il; Kim, Sung Won

    2015-01-01

    Objective Complete sellar floor reconstruction is critical to avoid postoperative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage during transsphenoidal surgery. Recently, the pedicled nasoseptal flap has undergone many modifications and eventually proved to be valuable and efficient. However, using these nasoseptal flaps in all patients who undergo transsphenoidal surgery, including those who had none or only minor CSF leakage, appears to be overly invasive and time-consuming. Methods Patients undergoing endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal tumor surgery within a 5 year-period were reviewed. Since 2009, we classified the intraoperative CSF leakage into grades from 0 to 3. Sellar floor reconstruction was tailored to each leak grade. We did not use any tissue grafts such as abdominal fat and did not include any procedures of CSF diversions such as lumbar drainage. Results Among 200 cases in 188 patients (147 pituitary adenoma and 41 other pathologies), intraoperative CSF leakage was observed in 27.4% of 197 cases : 14.7% Grade 1, 4.6% Grade 2a, 3.0% Grade 2b, and 5.1% Grade 3. Postoperative CSF leakage was observed in none of the cases. Septal bone buttress was used for Grade 1 to 3 leakages instead of any other foreign materials. Pedicled nasoseptal flap was used for Grades 2b and 3 leakages. Unused septal bones and nasoseptal flaps were repositioned. Conclusion Modified classification of intraoperative CSF leaks and tailored repair technique in a multilayered fashion using an en-bloc harvested septal bone and vascularized nasoseptal flaps is an effective and reliable method for the prevention of postoperative CSF leaks. PMID:26279811

  7. Endoscopic Endonasal Transsphenoidal Approach

    PubMed Central

    Cappabianca, Paolo; Alfieri, Alessandra; Colao, Annamaria; Ferone, Diego; Lombardi, Gaetano; de Divitiis, Enrico

    1999-01-01

    The outcome of endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal surgery in 10 patients with pituitary adenomas was compared with that of traditional transnasal transsphenoidal approach (TTA) in 20 subjects. Among the 10 individuals subjected to “pure endoscopy,” 2 had a microadenoma, 1 an intrasellar macroadenoma, 4 had a macroadenoma with suprasellar expansion, 2 had a macroadenoma with supra-parasellar expansion, and 1 a residual tumor; 5 had acromegaly and 5 had a nonfunctioning adenoma (NFA). Among the patients subjected to TTA, 4 had a microadenoma, 2 had an intrasellar macroadenoma, 6 had a macroadenoma with suprasellar expansion, 4 had a macroadenoma with supra-parasellar expansion, and 4 had a residual tumor; 9 patients had acromegaly, 1 hyperprolactinemia, 1 Cushing's disease, and 9 a NFA. At the macroscopic evaluation, tumor removal was total (100%) after endoscopy in 9 patients and after TTA in 14 patients. Six months after surgery, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) confirmed the total tumor removal in 21 of 23 patients (91.3%). Circulating growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) significantly decreased 6 months after surgery in all 14 acromegalic patients: normalization of plasma IGF-I levels was obtained in 4 of 5 patients after the endoscopic procedure and in 4 of 9 patients after TTA. Before surgery, pituitary hormone deficiency was present in 14 out of 30 patients: pituitary function improved in 4 patients, remaining unchanged in the other 10 patients. Visual field defects were present before surgery in 4 patients, and improved in all. Early surgical results in the group of 10 patients who underwent endoscopic pituitary tumor removal were at least equivalent to those of standard TTA, with excellent postoperative course. Postsurgical hospital stay was significantly shorter (3.1 ± 0.4 vs. 6.2 ± 0.3 days, p < 0.001) after endoscopy as compared to TTA. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2 PMID:17171126

  8. Resolution of Chronic Aspiration Pneumonitis Following Endoscopic Endonasal Repair of Spontaneous Cerebrospinal Fluid Fistula of the Skull Base

    PubMed Central

    Seltzer, Justin; Babadjouni, Arash; Wrobel, Bozena B.; Zada, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rhinorrhea due to a skull base defect requires prompt diagnosis and treatment. Multiple surgical options are available for repairing the fistula, including the two-layer “fascial apposition” method and use of a pedicled nasal-septal flap. A 44-year-old obese woman presented with 4 months of progressive cough, exertional dyspnea, hoarseness, and intermittent fluid drainage from the right nostril. Chest computed tomography (CT) imaging and bronchoscopy showed chronic pneumonitis, which was confirmed by pulmonary wedge resection. CT and magnetic resonance imaging of the skull base, as well as laboratory analysis of the nasal fluid for β2-transferrin, confirmed a skull base defect causing CSF rhinorrhea. During surgery, insertion of a lumbar drain with the intrathecal fluorescein administration was performed, followed by endoscopic endonasal repair using an autologous fascial apposition graft and pedicled nasal-septal flap. Both the CSF leak and the pulmonary complications resolved following the operation with no symptoms at 11-month follow-up. This is the first reported case of spontaneous CSF rhinorrhea complicated by chronic aspiration and pneumonitis. Increased diagnostic complexity due to chronic pulmonary complications resulted in unnecessary interventions and treatment delays. Prompt recognition of spontaneous CSF leaks is essential to prevent potentially harmful complications. PMID:27247911

  9. Resolution of Chronic Aspiration Pneumonitis Following Endoscopic Endonasal Repair of Spontaneous Cerebrospinal Fluid Fistula of the Skull Base.

    PubMed

    Seltzer, Justin; Babadjouni, Arash; Wrobel, Bozena B; Zada, Gabriel

    2016-06-01

    Spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rhinorrhea due to a skull base defect requires prompt diagnosis and treatment. Multiple surgical options are available for repairing the fistula, including the two-layer "fascial apposition" method and use of a pedicled nasal-septal flap. A 44-year-old obese woman presented with 4 months of progressive cough, exertional dyspnea, hoarseness, and intermittent fluid drainage from the right nostril. Chest computed tomography (CT) imaging and bronchoscopy showed chronic pneumonitis, which was confirmed by pulmonary wedge resection. CT and magnetic resonance imaging of the skull base, as well as laboratory analysis of the nasal fluid for β2-transferrin, confirmed a skull base defect causing CSF rhinorrhea. During surgery, insertion of a lumbar drain with the intrathecal fluorescein administration was performed, followed by endoscopic endonasal repair using an autologous fascial apposition graft and pedicled nasal-septal flap. Both the CSF leak and the pulmonary complications resolved following the operation with no symptoms at 11-month follow-up. This is the first reported case of spontaneous CSF rhinorrhea complicated by chronic aspiration and pneumonitis. Increased diagnostic complexity due to chronic pulmonary complications resulted in unnecessary interventions and treatment delays. Prompt recognition of spontaneous CSF leaks is essential to prevent potentially harmful complications. PMID:27247911

  10. Spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid leakage through fistulas at the clivus repaired with endoscopic endonasal approach

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Yasuhiko; Iwato, Masayuki; Kita, Daisuke; Fukui, Issei

    2015-01-01

    Background: Causes of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage are primarily traumatic or iatrogenic in origin. In contrast, spontaneous CSF leakage is somewhat rare, and detection of the fistula can be challenging. Meningitis associated with CSF leakage can be life threatening. It is therefore critical to surgically repair the fistula once the underlying cause has been accurately identified. Spontaneous CSF leakage located at the clivus is an extremely rare condition. Case Description: We present the case of a 38-year-old male with sudden-onset headache and subsequent disturbances of consciousness. The patient was diagnosed with severe meningitis caused by CSF leakage through fistulas at the clivus, which were clearly identified on dynamic imaging using high-resolution computed tomography (CT) with intrathecal injection of contrast medium. After the meningitis was resolved, successful endoscopic repair of the CSF fistula with autologous materials was performed. There has been no recurrence of meningitis for 5 years. Conclusion: Spontaneous CSF leakage at the clivus is an extremely rare condition. High-resolution CT cisternogram could accurately detect CSF leakage through the clivus. A transnasal endoscopic approach was a useful and reliable method of repairing the fistula at the clivus. PMID:26110086

  11. Endonasal Endoscopic Closure of Cerebrospinal Fluid Rhinorrhea

    PubMed Central

    Schmerber, S.; Righini, Ch.; Lavielle, J.-P.; Passagia, J.-G.; Reyt, E.

    2001-01-01

    The authors review their experience with endoscopic repair of skull base defects associated with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rhinorrhea involving the paranasal sinuses. A total of 22 patients was treated endoscopically between 1992 and 1998. The repair method consisted of closure of the CSF fistula with a free autologous abdominal fat graft and fibrin glue, supported with a sheet of silastic. The primary closure rate was 82% (18/22), and the overall closure rate was 95.5% (21/22) without recurrence or complications within an average follow-up of 5 years (14-83 months). A single patient still complains of cerebrospinal rhinorrhea, although this was never proved by any clinical, endoscopic, or biological (β2-transferrin) examination. The repair of ethmoidal-sphenoidal cerebrospinal fluid fistulae by endonasal endoscopic surgery is an excellent technique, both safe and effective. Fat is a material of choice, as it is tight and resists infection well. The technique and indications for endoscopic management of cerebrospinal fluid leaks are discussed. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5 PMID:17167603

  12. Comprehensive review on endonasal endoscopic sinus surgery

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Rainer K.; Hosemann, Werner

    2015-01-01

    Endonasal endoscopic sinus surgery is the standard procedure for surgery of most paranasal sinus diseases. Appropriate frame conditions provided, the respective procedures are safe and successful. These prerequisites encompass appropriate technical equipment, anatomical oriented surgical technique, proper patient selection, and individually adapted extent of surgery. The range of endonasal sinus operations has dramatically increased during the last 20 years and reaches from partial uncinectomy to pansinus surgery with extended surgery of the frontal (Draf type III), maxillary (grade 3–4, medial maxillectomy, prelacrimal approach) and sphenoid sinus. In addition there are operations outside and beyond the paranasal sinuses. The development of surgical technique is still constantly evolving. This article gives a comprehensive review on the most recent state of the art in endoscopic sinus surgery according to the literature with the following aspects: principles and fundamentals, surgical techniques, indications, outcome, postoperative care, nasal packing and stents, technical equipment. PMID:26770282

  13. Hemostasis in Endoscopic Endonasal Skull Base Surgery.

    PubMed

    Vaz-Guimaraes, Francisco; Su, Shirley Y; Fernandez-Miranda, Juan C; Wang, Eric W; Snyderman, Carl H; Gardner, Paul A

    2015-08-01

    William Halsted established the basic principles of modern surgical technique highlighting the importance of meticulous hemostasis and careful tissue handling. These concepts hold true today and are even more critical for endoscopic visualization, making hemostasis one of the most relevant cornerstones for the safe practice of endoscopic endonasal surgery (EES) of the skull base. During preoperative assessment, patients at higher risk for serious hemorrhagic complications must be recognized. From an anatomical point of view, EES can be grossly divided in two major components: sinonasal surgery and sellar-cranial base surgery. This division affects the choice of appropriate technique for control of bleeding that relies mainly on the source of hemorrhage, the tissue involved, and the proximity of critical neurovascular structures. Pistol-grip or single-shaft instruments constitute the most important and appropriately designed instruments available for EES. Electrocoagulation and a variety of hemostatic materials are also important tools and should be applied wisely. This article describes the experience of our team in the management of hemorrhagic events during EES with an emphasis on technical nuances. PMID:26225320

  14. Expanded Endoscopic Endonasal Approaches to Skull Base Meningiomas

    PubMed Central

    Prosser, J. Drew; Vender, John R.; Alleyne, Cargill H.; Solares, C. Arturo

    2012-01-01

    Anterior cranial base meningiomas have traditionally been addressed via frontal or frontolateral approaches. However, with the advances in endoscopic endonasal treatment of pituitary lesions, the transphenoidal approach is being expanded to address lesions of the petrous ridge, anterior clinoid, clivus, sella, parasellar region, tuberculum, planum, olfactory groove, and crista galli regions. The expanded endoscopic endonasal approach (EEEA) has the advantage of limiting brain retraction and resultant brain edema, as well as minimizing manipulation of neural structures. Herein, we describe the techniques of transclival, transphenoidal, transplanum, and transcribiform resections of anterior skull base meningiomas. Selected cases are presented. PMID:23730542

  15. Endoscopic endonasal versus transfacial approach for blowout fractures of the medial orbital wall.

    PubMed

    Pagnoni, Mario; Giovannetti, Filippo; Amodeo, Giulia; Priore, Paolo; Iannetti, Giorgio

    2015-05-01

    In the last decades, the introduction of computed tomography has allowed an increase in the number of diagnosed fractures of the medial orbital wall. To repair medial wall fractures, many surgical techniques have been proposed (1), each one with its advantages and disadvantages. In this study, we compared endoscopic endonasal and transcutaneous reduction approaches in terms of surgery time and clinical outcome. Between 2001 and 2005, 81 patients with orbital wall fractures were treated at our department. Among these 81 patients, 24 (29.63%) were affected by a medial orbital fracture. Patients with fracture to both floor and medial walls underwent floor reduction by a transcutaneous subpalpebral approach (n = 9, 11.1%), whereas patients with isolated medial wall fracture underwent medial wall reduction by a transcutaneous subpalpebral approach using alloplastic implants (n = 8, 9.88%) or were treated by endoscopic approach (n = 5, 6.17%). After surgery, oculomotor function improved in all 22 patients. None of the patients had complications. Computed tomography revealed a well-consolidated site of fracture in both endoscopic endonasal and transcutaneous approaches. The average operating time for endoscopic endonasal and transfacial approach was 50 and 45 minutes, respectively. In this paper, the author proposed a results comparison between the endoscopic approach and the transcutaneous one. PMID:25974823

  16. Endoscopic Endonasal Management of Recurrent Petrous Apex Cholesterol Granuloma

    PubMed Central

    McLaughlin, Nancy; Kelly, Daniel F.; Prevedello, Daniel M.; Shahlaie, Kiarash; Carrau, Ricardo L.; Kassam, Amin B.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Petrous apex cholesterol granulomas (PACGs) are uncommon lesions. Recurrence following transcranial or endonasal approaches to aerate the cyst occurs in up to 60% of cases. We describe the technical nuances pertinent to the endonasal endoscopic management of a recurrent symptomatic PACG and review the literature. Results A 19-year-old woman presented with a recurrent abducens nerve paresis. Four months prior, she underwent an endonasal transsphenoidal surgery (TSS) for drainage of a symptomatic PACG. Current imaging documented recurrence of the right PACG. Transsphenoidal and infrapetrous approaches were performed to obtain a wider bony opening along the petrous apex and drain the cyst. A Doyle splint was inserted into the cyst's cavity and extended out into the sphenoid sinus, maintaining patency during the healing process. Three months after surgery, the splint was removed endoscopically, allowing visualization of a patent cylindrical communication between both aerated cavities. The patient remains symptom-free and recurrence-free. Conclusion Endoscopic endonasal surgery must be adapted to manage a recurrent PACG. A TSS may not be sufficient. An infrapetrous approach with wider bony opening, extensive removal of the cyst's anterior wall, and the use of a stent are indicated for the treatment of recurrent PACG and to prevent recurrences. PMID:23730548

  17. [ENDOSCOPIC REMOVAL OF TUBERCULUM SELLAE MENINGEOMA THROUGH ENDONASAL TRANSSPHENOIDAL APPROACH].

    PubMed

    Fülöp, Béla; Bella, Zsolt; Palágyi, Péter; Barzó, Pál

    2016-03-30

    Experiences acquired in our department with endoscope assisted microsurgical transsphenoidal pituitary surgery encouraged us to expanded the endoscopic approach to skull base lesions. The endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approach proved to be less traumatic to the traditional microsurgical approaches, yet very effective. The endoscopic transsphenoidal technique was applied in a patient havin anterior skull base tumor. The patient was a 49-year-old woman with several months history of left visual defect. The magnetic resonance (MR) scans of the skull revealed a midline anterior fossa space-occupying lesion measuring 21 x 16 x 22 mm located on planum sphenoidale, tuberculum sellae and intrasellar. The tumor compressed both optic nerves and optic chiasm. Total resection of the tumor was achieved by use of endoscopic transnasal, transsphenoidal technique. This is the first reported case of an anterior fossa meningeoma being treated by an endoscopic transsphenoidal technique in Hungary. PMID:27188006

  18. Expanding indications for the extended endoscopic endonasal approach to hypothalamic gliomas: preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Zoli, Matteo; Mazzatenta, Diego; Valluzzi, Adelaide; Marucci, Gianluca; Acciarri, Nicola; Pasquini, Ernesto; Frank, Giorgio

    2014-01-01

    Object In the last decade the indications for the endoscopic endonasal approach have been progressively expanded to include lesions that have not been traditionally considered amenable to resection through the transsphenoidal route. In this study, the authors analyze their experience with hypothalamic gliomas treated via the endoscopic endonasal approach. Methods Consecutive cases of hypothalamic gliomas treated since 2007 via an endoscopic endonasal approach were reviewed. Preoperative and postoperative neuroimaging as well as endocrinological, neurological, and visual symptoms were analyzed to assess the surgical outcome. Signs and symptoms of hypothalamic dysfunction including body mass index (BMI), memory, sleep-wake rhythm, and polyphagia were prospectively collected pre- and postoperatively to assess hypothalamic function. Quality of life was evaluated using the Katz scale. Results In the initial phase the endoscopic endonasal approach was adopted in 3 cases with a palliative intent, to obtain a biopsy sample or for debulking of the mass followed by radio- or chemotherapy. In 2 later cases it was successfully adopted to achieve gross-total tumor resection. Complications consisted of 2 postoperative CSF leaks, which required an endoscopic endonasal reintervention. Visual deficit improved in 3 cases and normalized in the other 2. Four patients developed diabetes insipidus, and 3 an anterior panhypopituitarism. All patients had a moderate increase in BMI. No patients presented with any other signs of hypothalamic damage, and their quality of life at follow-up is normal. Conclusions Despite the limitations of a short follow-up and small sample, the authors' early experience with the endoscopic endonasal approach has revealed it to be a direct, straightforward, and safe approach to third ventricle astrocytomas. It allowed the authors to perform tumor resection with the same microsurgical technique: dissecting the tumor with 2 hands, performing a central debulking

  19. A physical simulator for endoscopic endonasal drilling techniques: technical note.

    PubMed

    Tai, Bruce L; Wang, Anthony C; Joseph, Jacob R; Wang, Page I; Sullivan, Stephen E; McKean, Erin L; Shih, Albert J; Rooney, Deborah M

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, the authors present a physical model developed to teach surgeons the requisite drilling techniques when using an endoscopic endonasal approach (EEA) to the skull base. EEA is increasingly used for treating pathologies of the ventral and ventrolateral cranial base. Endonasal drilling is a unique skill in terms of the instruments used, the long reach required, and the restricted angulation, and gaining competency requires much practice. Based on the successful experience in creating custom simulators, the authors used 3D printing to build an EEA training model from post-processed thin-cut head CT scans, formulating the materials to provide realistic haptic feedback and endoscope handling. They performed a preliminary assessment at 2 institutions to evaluate content validity of the simulator as the first step of the validation process. Overall results were positive, particularly in terms of bony landmarks and haptic response, though minor refinements were suggested prior to use as a training device. PMID:26339850

  20. Mucosal-sparing posterior septectomy for endoscopic endonasal approach to the craniocervical junction.

    PubMed

    Eloy, Jean Anderson; Vazquez, Alejandro; Mady, Leila J; Patel, Chirag R; Goldstein, Ira M; Liu, James K

    2015-01-01

    Recent technological advances and developments in surgical technique have made the craniocervical junction (CCJ) accessible through the transnasal surgical corridor. Endoscopic endonasal transclival and transodontoid approaches have been previously described in the literature. Traditionally, these approaches entail a posterior bony and mucosal septectomy. This posterior bony and mucosal septectomy can compromise the integrity of the posterior septum and damage the vascularized pedicled nasoseptal flap (PNSF), a robust reconstructive option. With the possibility of an intraoperative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak and the reported success of the PNSF for repair of these defects, preserving the integrity of the PNSF is beneficial during the endoscopic endonasal approach to the CCJ. Here, we present a new variation which preserves the mucosal integrity of the posterior nasal septum and PNSF. This mucosal-sparing variation of the traditional endoscopic endonasal transclival and transodontoid approaches allows for the preservation of posterior mucosal nasoseptal integrity, and salvages a reconstructive option for future usage. This is accomplished at no expense to visualization, surgical access, or maneuverability. PMID:25582640

  1. Endonasal Endoscopic Management of Parasellar and Cavernous Sinus Meningiomas.

    PubMed

    Lobo, Bjorn; Zhang, Xin; Barkhoudarian, Garni; Griffiths, Chester F; Kelly, Daniel F

    2015-07-01

    The management of cavernous sinus and invasive parasellar meningiomas often requires a multimodality treatment approach. Early attempts at complete or near-complete removal of parasellar meningiomas involving the cavernous sinus, Meckel cave, clivus, and sella using anterolateral or lateral skull base approaches were typically unsuccessful and yielded high rates of new cranial neuropathy and other complications. This article presents a strategy of endonasal endoscopic parasellar skull base bony decompression and limited tumor removal followed by stereotactic radiotherapy, stereotactic radiosurgery, or observation. Patient selection, technical nuances, potential complications, and initial outcomes in a small series of patients are discussed. PMID:26141358

  2. Combined External-Endoscopic Endonasal Assisted Removal of a Nail Gun.

    PubMed

    Dehgani Mobaraki, Puya; Longari, Fabrizio; Lapenna, Ruggero; Ricci, Giampietro

    2016-06-01

    Management of penetrating trauma to the paranasal sinuses with retained foreign bodies represents a challenge due to the proximity to vital neurovascular structures. The authors report the successful treatment of a patient with a work-related nail gun injury, carried out by means of a combined endoscopic endonasal external assisted procedure.A transnasal endoscopic approach was planned to minimize inadvertent movements of the nail during surgery and in case necessary to repair the orbit or skull base. No major bleeding or neurovascular complication was observed after surgery and a computed tomography scan was performed after surgery confirming the complete removal of the nail and with no damage of the orbit nor the skull base. PMID:27192640

  3. Teamwork Endoscopic Endonasal Surgery in Failed External Dacryocystorhinostomy

    PubMed Central

    Yarmohammadi, Mohammad Ebrahim; Ghasemi, Hassan; Jafari, Farhad; Izadi, Pupak; Nadoushan, Mohammadreza Jalali; Chin, Narges Saghari

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the results of a teamwork revision endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) in eyes with previously failed external DCR. Methods: This retrospective study was performed on 50 failed external DCR subjects who underwent a teamwork revision endoscopic DCR by an ophthalmologist and an otolaryngologist. Paranasal sinus CT scanning was performed for each patient before the revision surgery. During surgery, any abnormal tissue noticed before silicone intubation was sent for pathological evaluation. Results: Endoscopic revision DCR was performed on 50 failed external DCR subjects with one-year follow-up. Of these, 31 were female (62%). The age range of the subjects was 18-88 years (mean: 59.98 years). Sinus CT showed at least one abnormality in 94% of cases. Revision endoscopy showed septal deviation (66%), scar formation (32%), ostium problems (28%), and sump syndrome (6%). Pathologic and clinical findings showed that chronic inflammation had a significant association with scar tissue and septal synechia (P = 0.001 and 0.008, respectively). At the final follow-up, anatomical and functional success was achieved in 45 out of 50 (90%) of subjects. Conclusion: Endoscopic revision DCR when performed as cooperation of otolaryngologists and ophthalmologists may help resolve the endonasal problems and increase the success rate.

  4. Postoperative Low-Flow Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak of Endoscopic Endonasal Transsphenoidal Surgery for Pituitary Adenoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Rucai; Chen, Songyu; Xu, Shujun; Liu, James K.; Li, Xingang

    2015-01-01

    Abstract To assess the effectiveness of continuous lumbar drainage (LD) for management of postoperative cerebrospinal fluid leaks after endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approach for resection of pituitary adenoma. Three hundred eighty-four medical records of patients who were admitted to our institute during a 2.5-year period were retrospectively reviewed, 33 of them experienced low-flow cerebrospinal fluid leak postoperatively. If LD was used, all patients with low-flow cerebrospinal fluid leak were classified into 2 groups, lumbar drained group and conservatively treated group. The age, sex, management of cerebrospinal fluid leaks, and related complications were reviewed. Statistical comparisons between the 2 groups were made using SPSS 19.0 (IBM Corp, Armonk, NY). The differences were considered statistically significant if the P value was less than 0.05. Thirty-three of 384 (8.6%) experienced low-flow postoperative cerebrospinal fluid leaks. Cured rate of cerebrospinal fluid leak was 94.4% (17/18) in continuous lumbar drained group, and 93.3% (14/15) in control group. There were 2 (11.2%) patients who developed meningitis in the LD group and 1 (5.6%) patient in the control group. One patient required endoscopic repair of skull base because of persistent cerebrospinal fluid leak in both groups, with the rates of 5.6% and 6.7%, respectively. There was no significant difference noted in each rate in both groups. Placement of LD may not be necessary for the management of low-flow postoperative cerebrospinal fluid leak after using endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approach to pituitary adenoma. PMID:26080170

  5. Endoscopic endonasal transclival transodontoid approach for ventral decompression of the craniovertebral junction: operative technique and nuances.

    PubMed

    Liu, James K; Patel, Jimmy; Goldstein, Ira M; Eloy, Jean Anderson

    2015-04-01

    The transoral approach is considered the gold-standard surgical route for performing anterior odontoidectomy and ventral decompression of the craniovertebral junction for pathological conditions that result in symptomatic cervicomedullary compression, including basilar invagination, rheumatoid pannus, platybasia with retroflexed odontoid processes, and neoplasms. Extended modifications to increase the operative corridor and exposure include the transmaxillary, extended "open-door" maxillotomy, transpalatal, and transmandibular approaches. With the advent of extended endoscopic endonasal skull base techniques, there has been increased interest in the last decade in the endoscopic endonasal transclival transodontoid approach to the craniovertebral junction. The endonasal route represents an attractive minimally invasive surgical alternative, especially in cases of irreducible basilar invagination in which the pathology is situated well above the palatine line. Angled endoscopes and instrumentation can also be used for lower-lying pathology. By avoiding the oral cavity and subsequently using a transoral retractor, the endonasal route has the advantages of avoiding complications related to tongue swelling, tracheal swelling, prolonged intubation, velopharyngeal insufficiency, dysphagia, and dysphonia. Postoperative recovery is quicker, and hospital stays are shorter. In this report, the authors describe and illustrate their method of purely endoscopic endonasal transclival odonotoidectomy for anterior decompression of the craniovertebral junction and describe various operative pearls and nuances of the technique for avoiding complications. PMID:25828493

  6. Endoscopic endonasal approach of congenital meningoencephalocele surgery: first reported case in lithuania.

    PubMed

    Balseris, Svajūnas; Strazdas, Giedrius; Ročka, Saulius; Jakštas, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    Meningoencephalocele is a rare condition that usually occurs in children and is treated by neurosurgeons with occasional help from ENT doctors. The symptoms of meningoencephalocele might not develop until adulthood, but usually they are apparent immediately after birth. The case of small anterior basal transethmoidal meningoencephalocele in a 24-year-old patient who had headaches and runny nose since childhood is presented. Endonasal endoscopic approach for meningoencephalocele removal and skull base defect reconstruction was used. It was concluded that endoscopic endonasal approach is less invasive and provides an acceptable operative outcome with short recovery time and less postoperative complications in comparison with other external microsurgical approaches. PMID:25874148

  7. Endoscopic Endonasal Approach of Congenital Meningoencephalocele Surgery: First Reported Case in Lithuania

    PubMed Central

    Balseris, Svajūnas; Strazdas, Giedrius; Ročka, Saulius; Jakštas, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    Meningoencephalocele is a rare condition that usually occurs in children and is treated by neurosurgeons with occasional help from ENT doctors. The symptoms of meningoencephalocele might not develop until adulthood, but usually they are apparent immediately after birth. The case of small anterior basal transethmoidal meningoencephalocele in a 24-year-old patient who had headaches and runny nose since childhood is presented. Endonasal endoscopic approach for meningoencephalocele removal and skull base defect reconstruction was used. It was concluded that endoscopic endonasal approach is less invasive and provides an acceptable operative outcome with short recovery time and less postoperative complications in comparison with other external microsurgical approaches. PMID:25874148

  8. Intraoperative Neurophysiological Monitoring for Endoscopic Endonasal Approaches to the Skull Base: A Technical Guide

    PubMed Central

    Lober, Robert M.; Doan, Adam T.; Matsumoto, Craig I.; Kenning, Tyler J.; Evans, James J.

    2016-01-01

    Intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring during endoscopic, endonasal approaches to the skull base is both feasible and safe. Numerous reports have recently emerged from the literature evaluating the efficacy of different neuromonitoring tests during endonasal procedures, making them relatively well-studied. The authors report on a comprehensive, multimodality approach to monitoring the functional integrity of at risk nervous system structures, including the cerebral cortex, brainstem, cranial nerves, corticospinal tract, corticobulbar tract, and the thalamocortical somatosensory system during endonasal surgery of the skull base. The modalities employed include electroencephalography, somatosensory evoked potentials, free-running and electrically triggered electromyography, transcranial electric motor evoked potentials, and auditory evoked potentials. Methodological considerations as well as benefits and limitations are discussed. The authors argue that, while individual modalities have their limitations, multimodality neuromonitoring provides a real-time, comprehensive assessment of nervous system function and allows for safer, more aggressive management of skull base tumors via the endonasal route. PMID:27293965

  9. Intraoperative Neurophysiological Monitoring for Endoscopic Endonasal Approaches to the Skull Base: A Technical Guide.

    PubMed

    Singh, Harminder; Vogel, Richard W; Lober, Robert M; Doan, Adam T; Matsumoto, Craig I; Kenning, Tyler J; Evans, James J

    2016-01-01

    Intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring during endoscopic, endonasal approaches to the skull base is both feasible and safe. Numerous reports have recently emerged from the literature evaluating the efficacy of different neuromonitoring tests during endonasal procedures, making them relatively well-studied. The authors report on a comprehensive, multimodality approach to monitoring the functional integrity of at risk nervous system structures, including the cerebral cortex, brainstem, cranial nerves, corticospinal tract, corticobulbar tract, and the thalamocortical somatosensory system during endonasal surgery of the skull base. The modalities employed include electroencephalography, somatosensory evoked potentials, free-running and electrically triggered electromyography, transcranial electric motor evoked potentials, and auditory evoked potentials. Methodological considerations as well as benefits and limitations are discussed. The authors argue that, while individual modalities have their limitations, multimodality neuromonitoring provides a real-time, comprehensive assessment of nervous system function and allows for safer, more aggressive management of skull base tumors via the endonasal route. PMID:27293965

  10. Endoscopic Endonasal Transclival Approaches: Case Series and Outcomes for Different Clival Regions

    PubMed Central

    Little, Ryan E.; Taylor, Robert J.; Miller, Justin D.; Ambrose, Emily C.; Germanwala, Anand V.; Sasaki-Adams, Deanna M.; Ewend, Matthew G.; Zanation, Adam M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Transclival endoscopic endonasal approaches to the skull base are novel with few published cases. We report our institution's experience with this technique and discuss outcomes according to the clival region involved. Design Retrospective case series. Setting Tertiary care academic medical center Participants All patients who underwent endoscopic endonasal transclival approaches for skull base lesions from 2008 to 2012. Main Outcome Measures Pathologies encountered, mean intraoperative time, intraoperative complications, gross total resection, intraoperative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak, postoperative CSF leak, postoperative complications, and postoperative clinical course. Results A total of 49 patients underwent 55 endoscopic endonasal transclival approaches. Pathology included 43 benign and 12 malignant lesions. Mean follow-up was 15.4 months. Mean operative time was 167.9 minutes, with one patient experiencing an intraoperative internal carotid artery injury. Of the 15 cases with intraoperative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks, 1 developed postoperative CSF leak (6.7%). There were six other postoperative complications: four systemic complications, one case of meningitis, and one retropharyngeal abscess. Gross total resection was achieved for all malignancies approached with curative intent. Conclusions This study provides evidence that endoscopic endonasal transclival approaches are a safe and effective strategy for the surgical management of a variety of benign and malignant lesions. Level of Evidence 4. PMID:25093148

  11. Surgery for paranasal sinus mucocoeles: efficacy of endonasal micro-endoscopic management and long-term results of 185 patients.

    PubMed

    Bockmühl, Ulrike; Kratzsch, Barabara; Benda, Karin; Draf, Wolfgang

    2006-03-01

    This study evaluates the most extensive long-term treatment outcome of paranasal sinus mucocoeles with particular emphasis on the efficacy of endonasal micro-endoscopic management. It is a retrospective, consecutive case review of 255 patients with 290 mucocoeles including 125 frontal sinus, 23 frontoethmoid, 41 ethmoid, 72 maxillary sinus and 26 sphenoid mucocoeles. The median follow-up of the patients is 12 years (range 1 - 19 years). Sixtysix percent of the mucocoeles resulted after previous sinus surgery, whereas only 1.5% developed after endonasal micro-endoscopic surgery. The median period until mucocoele appearence was 10.8 years. Two hundred one mucocoeles (69.3%) were managed endonasally micro-endoscopically, 18.6% via the osteoplastic approach, 10% endoscopically in combination with an osteoplastic procedure, and 2% according to Lynch/Howarth. Thereafter, recurrence was found in 4 patients only (2.2%). In relation to the endonasal approach the recurrence rate was 1.6%. None of the patients treated endonasally had any complication. In view of these results this paper verifies endonasal micro-endoscopic surgery as a reliable treatment with favourable long-term outcome for paranasal sinus mucocoele management, but also describes contraindications for an endonasal procedure. PMID:16550953

  12. Endoscopic Endonasal Approach for Removal of Tuberculum Sellae Meningiomas.

    PubMed

    Ditzel Filho, Leo F S; Prevedello, Daniel M; Jamshidi, Ali O; Dolci, Ricardo L; Kerr, Edward E; Campbell, Raewyn; Otto, Bradley A; Carrau, Ricardo L; Kassam, Amin

    2015-07-01

    Tuberculum sellae meningiomas are challenging lesions; their critical location and often insidious growth rate enables significant distortion of the superjacent optic apparatus before the patient notices any visual impairment. This article describes the technical nuances, selection criteria and complication avoidance strategies for the endonasal resection of tuberculum sellae meningiomas. A stepwise description of the surgical technique is presented; indications, adjuvant technologies, pitfalls and the relevant anatomy are also reviewed. Tuberculum sellae meningiomas may be safely and effectively resected through the endonasal route; invasion of the optic canals does not represent a limitation. PMID:26141355

  13. Surgical Technique: Endoscopic Endonasal Transphenoidal Resection of a Large Suprasellar Mixed Germ Cell Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Chakravarthy, Vikram; Hanna, George; DeLos Reyes, Kennethy

    2016-01-01

    The endoscopic endonasal transphenoidal approach has proven to be a very versatile surgical approach for the resection of small midline skull base tumors. This is due to its minimally invasive nature, the potentially fewer neurological complications, and lower morbidity in comparison to traditional craniotomies. This surgical approach has been less commonly utilized for large midline tumors such as suprasellar germ cell tumors, due to numerous reasons including the surgeon’s comfort with the surgical approach, a higher chance of postoperative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak, limited visualization due to arterial/venous bleeding, and limited working space. We present our surgical technique in the case of a large suprasellar and third ventricular mixed germ cell tumor that was resected via an endoscopic endonasal approach with favorable neurological outcome and no postoperative CSF leak. PMID:27014537

  14. Intranasal Volume Changes Caused by the Endoscopic Endonasal Transsphenoidal Approach and Their Effects on Nasal Functions

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Do Hyun; Hong, Yong-Kil; Jeun, Sin-Soo; Park, Yong Jin; Kim, Soo Whan; Cho, Jin Hee; Kim, Boo Young; Han, Sungwoo; Lee, Yong Joo; Hwang, Jae Hyung; Kim, Sung Won

    2016-01-01

    Objective We evaluated postoperative changes in nasal cavity volume and their effects on nasal function and symptoms after endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approach for antero-central skull base surgery. Study Design Retrospective chart review at a tertiary referral center. Methods We studied 92 patients who underwent binostril, four-hand, endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approach surgery using the bilateral modified nasoseptal rescue flap technique. Pre- and postoperative paranasal computed tomography and the Mimics® program were used to assess nasal cavity volume changes at three sections. We also performed several pre- and postoperative tests, including the Connecticut Chemosensory Clinical Research Center test, Cross-Cultural Smell Identification Test, Nasal Obstruction Symptoms Evaluation, and Sino-Nasal Outcome Test-20. In addition, a visual analog scale was used to record subjective symptoms. We compared these data with the pre- and postoperative nasal cavity volumes. Results Three-dimensional, objective increases in nasal passage volumes were evident between the inferior and middle turbinates (p<0.001) and between the superior turbinate and choana (p = 0.006) postoperatively. However, these did not correlate with subjectively assessed symptoms (NOSE, SNOT-20 and VAS; all nasal cavity areas; p≥0.05) or olfactory dysfunction (CCCRC and CCSIT test; all nasal cavity areas; p≥0.05). Conclusion Skull base tumor surgery via an endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approach altered the patients’ nasal anatomy, but the changes in nasal cavity volumes did not affect nasal function or symptoms. These results will help surgeons to appropriately expose the surgical field during an endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approach. PMID:27010730

  15. Endonasal Endoscopic Transsphenoidal Approach to Lesions of the Sellar Region in Pediatric Patients

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Rucai; Xin, Tao; Li, Xueen; Li, Weiguo; Li, Xingang

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Endoscopic endonasal (transnasal) transsphenoidal approach (EETA) for management of sellar lesions has gained popularity as a reliable and atraumatic method. Most reported studies of EETA have focused on surgical outcome in adult patients; and there are few reports to describe outcome in pediatric patients. The authors report our early experience of 11 patients aged 14 to 18 years managed with EETA to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of EETA in the pediatric. Methods: Retrospective review of hospital records of 11 pediatric patients who underwent endonasal endoscopic transsphenoidal approach for resection of sellar region lesion over 2 years. Age, sex, symptoms, tumor size, extent of tumor resection, clinical outcome, and surgical complications were reviewed. Results: Total resection was achieved in 9 (81.8%) patients, subtotal resection in 2 (18.2%), and no patient had partial or insufficient resection. All (100%) patients achieved visual remission, 7 (87.5%) of 8 patients with hyperhormone preoperative had endocrinological remission. Two (18.2%) patients incurred temporary diabetes insipidus (DI) postoperatively. One (9.1%) patient incurred postoperative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage which resolved following lumbar drainage. Three (27.3%) patients developed hypopituitarism needed hormone replacement therapy. There were no cases of meningitis, intracranial hematoma, or death. Conclusions: Endoscopic endonasal (transnasal) transsphenoidal approach (EETA) provides a safe and effective surgical option with low morbidity and mortality in pediatric patients. PMID:26352366

  16. Endoscopic Endonasal Approach for Transclival Resection of a Petroclival Meningioma: A Technical Note

    PubMed Central

    Jean, Walter C; Anaizi, Amjad; DeKlotz, Timothy R

    2016-01-01

    The endoscopic endonasal transclival approach has been widely described for its use to resect clivus chordomas, but there have only been isolated reports of its use for petroclival meningiomas. These tumors are most often resected utilizing open transpetrosal approaches, but these operations, difficult even in the hands of dedicated skull base surgeons, are particularly challenging if the meningiomas are medially-situated and positioned mainly behind the clivus. For this subset of petroclival meningiomas, a transclival approach may be preferable. We report a meningioma resected via an endoscopic endonasal transclival technique. The patient was a 63-year-old man who presented originally for medical attention because of diplopia related to an abducens palsy on the left. A workup at that time revealed a meningioma contained entirely in the left cavernous sinus, and this was treated with stereotactic radiosurgery. His symptoms resolved and his meningioma was stable on MRI for several years after treatment. The patient was then lost to follow-up until 13 years after radiosurgery when he experienced intermittent diplopia again. At this point, workup revealed a large petroclival meningioma compressing the brainstem. He underwent a successful endoscopic endonasal transclival resection of this tumor. A demonstration of the step-by-step surgical technique, discussion of the nuances of the operation, and a comparison with the open transpetrosal approaches are included in our report. PMID:27433420

  17. Endoscopic Endonasal Approach to Ventral Posterior Fossa Meningiomas: From Case Selection to Surgical Management.

    PubMed

    Beer-Furlan, André; Vellutini, Eduardo A S; Balsalobre, Leonardo; Stamm, Aldo C

    2015-07-01

    Clival, petroclival, and foramen magnum meningiomas are challenging lesions to manage independently of the selected surgical approach. The expanded endoscopic endonasal approach (EEA) provided a safe alternative on the armamentarium of skull base approaches. There is a paucity of literature regarding endoscopic management of meningiomas because of certain limiting factors, including rarity of the pathologic condition, technical challenges, expertise of the surgical team, and available resources. The surgical technique, possible complications, and postoperative care are described in detail. This article highlights the important aspects in choosing this surgical approach and managing ventral posterior fossa meningiomas through the EEA. PMID:26141360

  18. Endoscopic Endonasal and Keyhole Surgery for the Management of Skull Base Meningiomas.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Joshua W; Zada, Gabriel

    2016-04-01

    The resection of anterior skull base meningiomas has traditionally been performed via pterional or unilateral/bilateral subfrontal craniotomies. The supraorbital keyhole approach and the endoscopic endonasal approach, techniques in which the endoscope is used to aid visualization, were developed to provide alternative, less-invasive approaches to aid the resection of these tumors. The individual characteristics of each tumor, such as location and size, are the main determinants guiding the choice of approach. In this article, the advantages and disadvantages of each approach are discussed, along with complications specific to each technique. Furthermore, a detailed procedural description of each surgical approach is described. PMID:27012385

  19. Endoscopic Endonasal Access to the Jugular Foramen: Defining the Surgical Approach

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dennis L.Y.; McCoul, Edward D.; Anand, Vijay K.; Schwartz, Theodore H.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The endoscopic endonasal approach to the parapharyngeal space (PPS) and jugular foramen is not well defined. We sought to systematically define the important landmarks and limitations of this new surgical technique using an endoscopic transmaxillary transpterygoid corridor. Methods Endoscopic dissection was performed in both sides of two latex-injected cadaver heads. Left-sided dissections were facilitated by the addition of a sublabial maxillary antrostomy. The pterygopalatine fossa, infratemporal fossa, and PPS were sequentially dissected and the endoscopic perspective was examined. Measurements were obtained from the surgical orifices to the upper cervical internal carotid artery (ICA) and internal jugular vein (IJV). Results Successful access to the PPS and jugular foramen was achieved in each dissection. The lateral pterygoid plate, mandibular branch of the trigeminal nerve, middle meningeal artery, levator veli palatini muscle, Eustachian tube, and stylopharyngeal fascia were identified as landmarks for the upper cervical ICA and the IJV. The mean distance from the nasal sill was markedly greater than from an ipsilateral sublabial antrostomy. Conclusion The endoscopic endonasal approach can provide adequate access to the PPS, carotid sheath, and jugular foramen. Multiple landmarks are useful to guide the dissection within these deep spaces and may facilitate the clinical application of this approach. PMID:24083127

  20. The expanding role of the endonasal endoscopic approach in pituitary and skull base surgery: A 2014 perspective

    PubMed Central

    Lobo, Bjorn; Heng, Annie; Barkhoudarian, Garni; Griffiths, Chester F.; Kelly, Daniel F.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The past two decades have been the setting for remarkable advancement in endonasal endoscopic neurosurgery. Refinements in camera definition, surgical instrumentation, navigation, and surgical technique, including the dual surgeon team, have facilitated purely endonasal endoscopic approaches to the majority of the midline skull base that were previously difficult to access through the transsphenoidal microscopic approach. Methods: This review article looks at many of the articles from 2011 to 2014 citing endonasal endoscopic surgery with regard to approaches and reconstructive techniques, pathologies treated and outcomes, and new technologies under consideration. Results: Refinements in approach and closure techniques have reduced the risk of cerebrospinal fluid leak and infection. This has allowed surgeons to more aggressively treat a variety of pathologies. Four main pathologies with outcomes after treatment were identified for discussion: pituitary adenomas, craniopharyngiomas, anterior skull base meningiomas, and chordomas. Within all four of these tumor types, articles have demonstrated the efficacy, and in certain cases, the advantages over more traditional microscope-based techniques, of the endonasal endoscopic technique. Conclusions: The endonasal endoscopic approach is a necessary tool in the modern skull base surgeon's armamentarium. Its efficacy for treatment of a wide variety of skull base pathologies has been repeatedly demonstrated. In the experienced surgeon's hands, this technique may offer the advantage of greater tumor removal with reduced overall complications over traditional craniotomies for select tumor pathologies centered near the midline skull base. PMID:26015870

  1. Endonasal endoscopic resection of ossifying fibroma involving the ethmoid sinus, orbit and anterior skull base: case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Jurlina, M; Skitarelić, N; Passali, D; Passali, F M; Mladina, R

    2016-04-01

    Ossifying fibroma is a benign fibro-osseous tumour that rarely involves the ethmoid sinuses and orbit. It is classified as a benign fibroosseous lesion, a term that is synonymous with a variety of lesions reported in the literature. Recurrence rate with deleterious effects in cases of extramandibular ossifying fibroma is the impetus for open en bloc resection of the tumour. Continuously evolving techniques in endonasal endoscopic sinus surgery has rendered resection of large benign sinonasal and cephalonasal tumours possible. The authors report a case of ossifying fibroma involving the ethmoid sinus, orbit and anterior skull base in a 65-year-old previously healthy woman completely resected by endonasal endoscopic sinus surgery. The patient was free from postoperative complications and was dismissed from hospital on the sixth postoperative day. At present, the patient is disease-free at a regular five-year postoperative follow-up. Endonasal endoscopic resection of sinonasal ossifying fibromas is an excellent therapeutic option when performed by a surgeon experienced in endoscopic sinonasal surgery. The advantages of an endonasal endoscopic approach include direct visualization, enhanced visibility and magnification resulting in decreased intraoperative and postoperative morbidity. Aesthetic outcome is excellent in the absence of facial scars. PMID:27196080

  2. Panorama of Reconstruction of Skull Base Defects: From Traditional Open to Endonasal Endoscopic Approaches, from Free Grafts to Microvascular Flaps

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, Camilo; Mason, Eric; Solares, C. Arturo

    2014-01-01

    Introduction A substantial body of literature has been devoted to the distinct characteristics and surgical options to repair the skull base. However, the skull base is an anatomically challenging location that requires a three-dimensional reconstruction approach. Furthermore, advances in endoscopic skull base surgery encompass a wide range of surgical pathology, from benign tumors to sinonasal cancer. This has resulted in the creation of wide defects that yield a new challenge in skull base reconstruction. Progress in technology and imaging has made this approach an internationally accepted method to repair these defects. Objectives Discuss historical developments and flaps available for skull base reconstruction. Data Synthesis Free grafts in skull base reconstruction are a viable option in small defects and low-flow leaks. Vascularized flaps pose a distinct advantage in large defects and high-flow leaks. When open techniques are used, free flap reconstruction techniques are often necessary to repair large entry wound defects. Conclusions Reconstruction of skull base defects requires a thorough knowledge of surgical anatomy, disease, and patient risk factors associated with high-flow cerebrospinal fluid leaks. Various reconstruction techniques are available, from free tissue grafting to vascularized flaps. Possible complications that can befall after these procedures need to be considered. Although endonasal techniques are being used with increasing frequency, open techniques are still necessary in selected cases. PMID:25992142

  3. Endonasal endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy: how to achieve optimal results with simple punch technique.

    PubMed

    Naraghi, Mohsen; Tabatabaii Mohammadi, Sayed Ziaeddin; Sontou, Alain Fabrice; Farajzadeh Deroee, Armin; Boroojerdi, Masoud

    2012-05-01

    Endonasal endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy (EEDCR) has been popularized as a minimally invasive technique. Although preliminary reports revealed less success in comparison with external approaches, recent endonasal endoscopic surgeries on various types of DCR have preserved advantages of this technique while diminishing the failures. We described our experience on EEDCR, including the main advantages and disadvantages of it. Hundred consecutive cases of lachrymal problems underwent EEDCR utilizing simple punch removal of bone, instead of powered instrumentation or lasers. The medial aspect of the sac was removed in all of patients, while preserving normal mucosa around the sac. Hundred cases of EEDCR were performed on 81 patients, with 19 bilateral procedures. Nine procedures were performed under local anesthesia. Based on a mean 14 months follow-up, 95 cases were free of symptoms, revealing 95% success rate. The punch technique diminishes the expenses of powered or laser instrumentation with comparable results. It seems that preserving normal tissues and creating a patent rhinostomy with least surgical trauma and less subsequent scar, plays the most important role in achieving desirable results. PMID:22065173

  4. Application of Ultrasonic Bone Curette in Endoscopic Endonasal Skull Base Surgery: Technical Note

    PubMed Central

    Rastelli, Milton M.; Pinheiro-Neto, Carlos D.; Fernandez-Miranda, Juan C.; Wang, Eric W.; Snyderman, Carl H.; Gardner, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Endoscopic endonasal surgery (EES) of the skull base often requires extensive bone work in proximity to critical neurovascular structures. Objective To demonstrate the application of an ultrasonic bone curette during EES. Methods Ten patients with skull base lesions underwent EES from September 2011 to April 2012 at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center. Most of the bone work was done with high-speed drill and rongeurs. The ultrasonic curette was used to remove specific structures. Results All the patients were submitted to fully endoscopic endonasal procedures and had critical bony structures removed with the ultrasonic bone curette. Two patients with degenerative spine diseases underwent odontoid process removal. Five patients with clival and petroclival tumors underwent posterior clinoid removal. Two patients with anterior fossa tumors underwent crista galli removal. One patient underwent unilateral optic nerve decompression. No mechanical or heat injury resulted from the ultrasonic curette. The surrounding neurovascular structures and soft tissue were preserved in all cases. Conclusion In selected EES, the ultrasonic bone curette was successfully used to remove loose pieces of bone in narrow corridors, adjacent to neurovascular structures, and it has advantages to high-speed drills in these specific situations. PMID:24719795

  5. Endoscopic Endonasal Dacryocystorhinostomy: Best Surgical Management for DCR.

    PubMed

    Bharangar, Sandeep; Singh, Nirupama; Lal, Vikram

    2012-12-01

    EEDCR is a highly rewarding Endoscopic procedure for management of dacryocystitis when epiphora does not respond to medications or repeated syringing of nasolacrimal duct. It is a simple, less time consuming, safe but skilful, highly satisfying surgery both for the patients as well as the surgeons. There is very big advantage of EEDCR, it is close 100% successful procedure, even if there is recurrence of epiphora it is again correctable fully with no residual affects. EEDCR is far more superior to External DCR/Laser DCR and there are definite reasons for it. A total number of 578 cases have been operated by me from April 1, 2005 to March 31, 2011, only very few reoccurrences were there and they were corrected easily so much so that it can be said that it is a close 100% successful procedure and best surgical management of DACRYOCYSTITIS up to date. The successful outcome was defined as symptomatic relief from epiphora and dacryocystitis and a patent nasolacrimal duct upon syringing at the end of procedure and on follow up of patient. PMID:24294581

  6. The endoscopic endonasal approach for the management of craniopharyngiomas involving the third ventricle.

    PubMed

    Cavallo, Luigi Maria; Solari, Domenico; Esposito, Felice; Cappabianca, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    The third ventricle has historically represented one of the most challenging areas to access surgically, so that lesions directly harboring into the ventricular chamber or secondarily extending into it from adjacent areas have been approached by means of different transcranial routes. The aim of this work is to report our experience with the endoscopic endonasal approach in the management of a series of patients affected by craniopharyngiomas, extending into or arising from the third ventricle, evaluating pros and cons of this technique, also in regards of the anatomy and the pathology dealt with. During the period between January 2001 and February 2011, 12 patients, 9 male and 3 female (mean age 50.4 years; range 12-68) underwent an endoscopic endonasal approach for the treatment of a craniopharyngioma involving or arising from the third ventricle. According to the grade of involvement of the third ventricle, we identified three main ventricular growth patterns: (1) stalk-infundibulum; (2) infundibulum-ventricular chamber; (3) stalk-infundibulum-ventricular chamber. Though gross total removal was achieved in eight patients (66.7%), in three patients (25%) was possible a near total removal (>95%) and only in one case (8.3%) tumor removal has been partial (<50%). The overall analysis revealed a rate of 77.8% improvement of post-operative visual defects. Concerning the complications, we reported an overall CSF rate of 16.7%; two patients developed a subdural hematoma that has been treated with a surgical drainage. One patient died after the occurrence of a brainstem hemorrhage. The endoscopic endonasal route provides a good exposure, especially of the sub- and retro-chiasmatic areas, as well as of the stalk-infundibulum axis, which represents, when directly involved by a lesion, a gate to access the third ventricle chamber. Despite this study reporting only a preliminary experience, it seems that in properly selected cases--namely tumors growing mostly along the

  7. Endoscopic Endonasal Transsphenoidal Treatment of Pituitary Apoplexy: Outcomes in a Series of 20 Patients

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Tong; Bayad, Fatema; Schaberg, Madeleine R; Sigounas, Dimigtri; Nyquist, Gurston; Bonci, Gregory; Patel, Kunal; Tsiouris, Apostolos John; Anand, Vijay K

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Pituitary apoplexy is a rare clinical entity and few cases treated with an endonasal endoscopic approach (EEA) have been reported. We report our experience of treating pituitary apoplexy using an EEA approach. Methods: We performed a retrospective chart review on all the patients who underwent EEA skull base and pituitary surgery between December 2003 and March 2012 performed by the senior authors (THS and VKA) and identified patients with pituitary apoplexy. The extent of resection was determined volumetrically and the visual and endocrine outcome was evaluated.  Results: From a total of 488 skull base surgeries, there were 241 pituitary cases, of which 20 had apoplexy. The most common presenting symptoms included headaches (80%), endocrinopathy (95%), and visual symptoms (60%). Surgery was performed within 24 hours in 15% of patients, and > one month after ictus in 40% due to late referral. Gross-total resection (GTR) was achieved in 18 (90%) patients. There was one (5%) postoperative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak treated with lumbar drainage. Of 12 patients with preoperative visual disturbances, seven had improvements. For those patients with visual field cuts, only 33.3% showed improvement. There was no postoperative visual deterioration. Two patients developed new transient postoperative diabetes insipidus (DI) but there was no new permanent DI. The mean duration of follow-up was 22 months (range: 6 days – 72 months). Conclusion: The endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approach is an effective modality to treat pituitary apoplexy with a high rate of GTR and minimal risk. Delayed surgery may result in lower rates of visual field defect improvement. PMID:26623212

  8. A panoramic view of the skull base: systematic review of open and endoscopic endonasal approaches to four tumors.

    PubMed

    Graffeo, Christopher S; Dietrich, August R; Grobelny, Bartosz; Zhang, Meng; Goldberg, Judith D; Golfinos, John G; Lebowitz, Richard; Kleinberg, David; Placantonakis, Dimitris G

    2014-08-01

    Endoscopic endonasal surgery has been established as the safest approach to pituitary tumors, yet its role in other common skull base lesions has not been established. To answer this question, we carried out a systematic review of reported series of open and endoscopic endonasal approaches to four major skull base tumors: olfactory groove meningiomas (OGM), tuberculum sellae meningiomas (TSM), craniopharyngiomas (CRA), and clival chordomas (CHO). Data from 162 studies containing 5,701 patients were combined and compared for differences in perioperative mortality, gross total resection (GTR), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak, neurological morbidity, post-operative visual function, post-operative anosmia, post-operative diabetes insipidus (DI), and post-operative obesity/hyperphagia. Weighted average rates for each outcome were calculated using relative study size. Our findings indicate similar rates of GTR and perioperative mortality between open and endoscopic approaches for all tumor types. CSF leak was increased after endoscopic surgery. Visual function symptoms were more likely to improve after endoscopic surgery for TSM, CRA, and CHO. Post-operative DI and obesity/hyperphagia were significantly increased after open resection in CRA. Recurrence rates per 1,000 patient-years of follow-up were higher in endoscopy for OGM, TSM, and CHO. Trends for open and endoscopic surgery suggested modest improvement in all outcomes over time. Our observations suggest that endonasal endoscopy is a safe alternative to craniotomy and may be preferred for certain tumor types. However, endoscopic surgery is associated with higher rates of CSF leak, and possibly increased recurrence rates. Prospective study with long-term follow-up is required to verify these preliminary observations. PMID:24014055

  9. A panoramic view of the skull base: systematic review of open and endoscopic endonasal approaches to four tumors

    PubMed Central

    Graffeo, Christopher S.; Dietrich, August R.; Grobelny, Bartosz; Zhang, Meng; Goldberg, Judith D.; Golfinos, John G.; Lebowitz, Richard; Kleinberg, David; Placantonakis, Dimitris G.

    2014-01-01

    Endoscopic endonasal surgery has been established as the safest approach to pituitary tumors, yet its role in other common skull base lesions has not been established. To answer this question, we carried out a systematic review of reported series of open and endoscopic endonasal approaches to four major skull base tumors: olfactory groove meningiomas (OGM), tuberculum sellae meningiomas (TSM), craniopharyngiomas (CRA), and clival chordomas (CHO). Data from 162 studies containing 5,701 patients were combined and compared for differences in perioperative mortality, gross total resection (GTR), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak, neurological morbidity, post-operative visual function, post-operative anosmia, post-operative diabetes insipidus (DI), and post-operative obesity/hyperphagia. Weighted average rates for each outcome were calculated using relative study size. Our findings indicate similar rates of GTR and perioperative mortality between open and endoscopic approaches for all tumor types. CSF leak was increased after endoscopic surgery. Visual function symptoms were more likely to improve after endoscopic surgery for TSM, CRA, and CHO. Post-operative DI and obesity/hyperphagia were significantly increased after open resection in CRA. Recurrence rates per 1,000 patient-years of follow-up were higher in endoscopy for OGM, TSM, and CHO. Trends for open and endoscopic surgery suggested modest improvement in all outcomes over time. Our observations suggest that endonasal endoscopy is a safe alternative to craniotomy and may be preferred for certain tumor types. However, endoscopic surgery is associated with higher rates of CSF leak, and possibly increased recurrence rates. Prospective study with long-term follow-up is required to verify these preliminary observations. PMID:24014055

  10. Surgical Outcomes Using a Medial-to-Lateral Endonasal Endoscopic Approach to Pituitary Adenomas Invading the Cavernous Sinus

    PubMed Central

    Woodworth, Graeme F.; Patel, Kunal S.; Shin, Benjamin; Burkhardt, Jan-Karl; Tsouris, A. John; McCoul, Edward D.; Anand, Vijay K.; Schwartz, Theodore H.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECT To detail the extent of resection and complications with endonasal endoscopic surgery for pituitary tumors invading the cavernous sinus (CS) using a moderately aggressive approach to maximize extent of resection through the medial cavernous sinus wall while minimizing the risk of cranial neuropathy and blood loss. Tumor in the medical cavernous sinus was aggressively pursued while tumor in the lateral cavernous sinus was debulked in preparation for radiosurgery. METHODS A prospective surgical database of consecutive endonasal pituitary surgeries with verified CS invasion on intraoperative visual inspection was reviewed. The extent of resection as a whole and within the CS was assessed by an independent neuroradiologist using pre- and post-operative Knosp-Steiner (KS) categorization and volumetrics of the respective magnetic resonance images. The extent of resection and clinical outcomes were compared for medial (KS1-2) and lateral (KS3-4) lesions. RESULTS Thirty-six consecutive patients with pituitary adenomas involving the CS who had surgery via an endonasal endoscopic approach were identified. The extent of resection was 84.6% for KS 1–2 and 66.6% for KS 3–4 (p=.04). Gross-total resection was 53.8% for KS 1–2 and 8.7% for KS 3–4 (p=.0006). Of six patients (16.8%) with pre-operative cranial neuropathies, all showed subjective improvement after surgery. Surgical complications included 2 transient post-operative cranial neuropathies (5.6%), 1 postoperative CSF leak (2.8%), 1 reoperation for mucocele (2.8%) and 1 infection (2.8%). CONCLUSIONS The endoscopic endonasal “medial-to-lateral” approach permits safe debulking of tumors in the medial and lateral CS. Although GTR rates are moderate, particularly in the lateral CS, the risk of permanent cranial neuropathy is extremely low with a high chance of improvement of pre-existing deficits. This approach can also facilitate targeting for post-operative radiosurgery. PMID:24527820

  11. Postoperative Low-Flow Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak of Endoscopic Endonasal Transsphenoidal Surgery for Pituitary Adenoma--Wait and See, or Lumbar Drain?

    PubMed

    Zhan, Rucai; Chen, Songyu; Xu, Shujun; Liu, James K; Li, Xingang

    2015-06-01

    To assess the effectiveness of continuous lumbar drainage (LD) for management of postoperative cerebrospinal fluid leaks after endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approach for resection of pituitary adenoma. Three hundred eighty-four medical records of patients who were admitted to our institute during a 2.5-year period were retrospectively reviewed, 33 of them experienced low-flow cerebrospinal fluid leak postoperatively. If LD was used, all patients with low-flow cerebrospinal fluid leak were classified into 2 groups, lumbar drained group and conservatively treated group. The age, sex, management of cerebrospinal fluid leaks, and related complications were reviewed. Statistical comparisons between the 2 groups were made using SPSS 19.0 (IBM Corp, Armonk, NY). The differences were considered statistically significant if the P value was less than 0.05.Thirty-three of 384 (8.6%) experienced low-flow postoperative cerebrospinal fluid leaks. Cured rate of cerebrospinal fluid leak was 94.4% (17/18) in continuous lumbar drained group, and 93.3% (14/15) in control group. There were 2 (11.2%) patients who developed meningitis in the LD group and 1 (5.6%) patient in the control group. One patient required endoscopic repair of skull base because of persistent cerebrospinal fluid leak in both groups, with the rates of 5.6% and 6.7%, respectively. There was no significant difference noted in each rate in both groups.Placement of LD may not be necessary for the management of low-flow postoperative cerebrospinal fluid leak after using endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approach to pituitary adenoma. PMID:26080170

  12. Sigmoid incision rescue nasoseptal flap technique for endoscopic endonasal skull base surgery.

    PubMed

    Ozawa, Hiroyuki; Tomita, Toshiki; Watanabe, Yoshihiro; Sekimizu, Mariko; Ito, Fumihiro; Ikari, Yuichi; Saito, Shin; Toda, Masahiro; Ogawa, Kaoru

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion The sigmoid-incision (S-I) rescue flap technique has the advantage of both reduced-invasiveness and providing a sufficient surgical corridor for endoscopic endonasal skull base surgery (EESBS). Objective Skull base reconstruction with nasoseptal flap (NSF) is critically important in managing post-operative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage after tumor removal by EESBS. The NSF needs to be elevated before sphenoidotomy and posterior septectomy to preserve the pedicle. However, most extradural surgery without CSF leakage does not require NSF and, therefore, NSF preparation is often futile. As a result, a rescue flap technique to overcome this problem has been developed, whereby a new S-I rescue flap method is used that enables wide exposure of the sphenoidal rostrum and smooth manipulation of surgical instruments to preserve the NSF pedicle. Materials and methods Starting in April 2014, 19 cases underwent EESBS with S-I rescue flap. Results All patients underwent tumor resection under an adequate operative field with smooth manipulation of surgical instruments. Two complications were experienced. One patient had CSF leak after removal of the nasal packing, but the leakage was successfully closed by conventional NSF. Another patient had epistaxis from the septal wall, but this was controlled by electrocautery. PMID:26901123

  13. The Risk of Meningitis Following Expanded Endoscopic Endonasal Skull Base Surgery: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Leon T.; Trooboff, Spencer; Morgan, Michael K.; Harvey, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the risk of postoperative meningitis following expanded endoscopic endonasal skull base (EESB) surgery. Setting A systematic analysis of publications identified through searches of the electronic databases from Embase (1980–July 17, 2012), Medline (1950–July 17, 2012), and references of review articles. Main Outcome Measures Incidence of meningitis following EESB surgery. Results A total of 2,444 manuscripts were selected initially, and full-text analysis produced 67 studies with extractable data. Fifty-two contained data regarding the frequency of postoperative meningitis. The overall risk of postoperative meningitis following EESB surgery was 1.8% (36 of 2,005). For those reporting a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak, meningitis occurred in 13.0% (35 of 269). For those not reporting a CSF leak, meningitis occurred in 0.1% (1 of 1,736). The odds ratio for the development of meningitis in the presence of a postoperative CSF leak was 91.99 (95% confidence interval, 11.72–721.88; p < 0.01). There was no difference in reported incidence of meningitis or CSF leak between anterior and posterior cranial fossa surgery. There was one reported case of meningitis-related mortality following EESB surgery. Conclusion The evidence in skull base surgery is limited. This study demonstrates a low incidence of meningitis (1.8%) following EESB procedures. The incidence of meningitis from EESB surgery without an associated CSF leak is uncommon. PMID:24498585

  14. Results of Endoscopic Endonasal Dacryocystorhinostomy; Necessity of Teamwork and Patient Selection

    PubMed Central

    ERFANIAN SALIM, Reza; MOHAMMADI, Shabahang

    2015-01-01

    Our aim was to evaluate the clinical results of endoscopic endonasal surgical dacryocystorhinostomy (EES-DCR) as team work by an ophthalmologist and an ear-nose-throat (ENT) surgeon and the appropriate selection of the patients. All candidates for DCR underwent computed tomography (CT) scan of the paranasal sinuses (PNS). Patients who did not want a scar on the medial canthus skin or who had intranasal problems received EES-DCR, which was performed as team work by an ophthalmologist and an ENT surgeon. Surgical success was the resolution of epiphora (i.e., functional success) and free passage of the fluid on irrigation (i.e., anatomical success) by six months after surgery. One hundred twenty-eight patients underwent EES-DCR. Six months after the operation, six patients had surgical failure (three cases of anatomical failure and three cases of functional failure); the success rate was therefore 95.3%. The most common intranasal problems that led to EES-DCR were septal deviation, sinusitis, close proximity of the agger nasi to the lacrimal bone, and concha bullosa; moreover, 15.5% of patients selected EES-DCR for cosmetic reasons. In conclusion, Cooperation between ophthalmologists and ENT surgeons in the preoperative assessment of patients with epiphora before EES-DCR increases its success rate, and it can replace external DCR in some patients. PMID:27350952

  15. Pure endoscopic expanded endonasal approach for olfactory groove and tuberculum sellae meningiomas.

    PubMed

    Khan, Osaama H; Krischek, Boris; Holliman, Damian; Klironomos, George; Kucharczyk, Walter; Vescan, Allan; Gentili, Fred; Zadeh, Gelareh

    2014-06-01

    The expanded endoscopic endonasal (EEE) approach for the removal of olfactory groove (OGM) and tuberculum sellae (TSM) meningiomas is currently becoming an acceptable surgical approach in neurosurgical practice, although it is still controversial with respect to its outcomes, indications and limitations. Here we provide a review of the available literature reporting results with use of the EEE approach for these lesions together with our experience with the use of the endoscope as the sole means of visualization in a series of patients with no prior surgical biopsy or resection. Surgical cases between May 2006 and January 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. Twenty-three patients (OGM n=6; TSM n=17) were identified. In our series gross total resection (GTR) was achieved in 4/6 OGM (66.7%) and 11/17 (64.7%) TSM patients. Vision improved in the OGM group (2/2) and 8/11 improved in the TSM group with no change in visual status in the remaining three patients. Post-operative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak occurred in 2/6 (33%) OGM and 2/17 (11.8%) TSM patients. The literature review revealed a total of 19 OGM and 174 TSM cases which were reviewed. GTR rate was 73% for OGM and 56.3% for TSM. Post-operative CSF leak was 30% for OGM and 14% for TSM. With careful patient selection and a clear understanding of its limitations, the EEE technique is both feasible and safe. However, longer follow-ups are necessary to better define the appropriate indications and ideal patient population that will benefit from the use of these newer techniques. PMID:24433951

  16. Endoscopic Endonasal Approach in the Management of Rathke’s Cleft Cysts

    PubMed Central

    Solari, Domenico; Cavallo, Luigi Maria; Somma, Teresa; Chiaramonte, Carmela; Esposito, Felice; Del Basso De Caro, Marialaura; Cappabianca, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Objective Rathke’s cleft cysts (RCCs) are quite uncommon sellar lesions that can extend or even arise in the suprasellar area. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of both standard and extended endoscopic endonasal approaches in the management of different located RCCs. Methods We retrospectively analyzed a series of 29 patients (9 males, 20 females) complaining of a RCC, who underwent a standard or an extended endoscopic transsphenoidal approach at the Division of Neurosurgery, Department of Neurosciences and Reproductive and Odontostomatological Sciences, of the Università degli Studi di Napoli "Federico II”. Data regarding patients’ demographics, clinical evaluation, cyst characteristics, surgical treatments, complications and outcomes were extracted from our electronic database (Filemaker Pro 11, File Maker Inc., Santa Clara, California, USA). Results A standard transsphenoidal approach was used in 19 cases, while the extended variation of the approach in 10 cases (5 purely suprasellar and 5 intra-suprasellar RCC). Cysts contents was fully drained in all the 29 cases, whilst a gross total removal, that accounts on the complete cyst wall removal, was achieved in an overall 55,1% of patients (16/29), specifically 36,8% (7/19) that received standard approach and 90% (9/10) of those that underwent to extended approach. We reported a 56.2% of recovery from headache, 38.5% of complete recovery and 53.8% of improvement from visual field defect and an overall 46.7% of improvement of the endocrine functions. Postoperative permanent DI rate was 10.3%, overall post-operative CSF leak rate 6.9%; recurrence/regrowth occurred in 4 patients (4/29, 13.8%), but only one required a second surgery. Conclusion The endoscopic transsphenoidal approach for the removal of a symptomatic RCC offers several advantages in terms of visualization of the surgical field during both the exposure and removal of the lesion. The “extended” variation of the

  17. Predicting the limits of the endoscopic endonasal approach in children: a radiological anatomical study.

    PubMed

    Youssef, Carl A; Smotherman, Carmen R; Kraemer, Dale F; Aldana, Philipp R

    2016-04-01

    OBJECT The endoscopic endonasal approach (EEA) has been established as an alternative approach to craniovertebral junction (CVJ) pathology in adults. The authors have previously described the nasoaxial line (NAxL) as an accurate predictor of the lower limit of the EEA to the CVJ in adults. The surgical anatomy limiting the EEA to the pediatric CVJ has not been well studied. Furthermore, predicting the lower limit of the EEA in various pediatric age groups is important in surgical planning. To better understand the anatomy affecting the EEA to the CVJ, the authors examined the skull base anatomy relevant to the EEA in children of different age groups and used the NAxL to predict the EEA lower limit in children. METHODS Axial brain CT scans of 39 children with normal skull base anatomy were reconstructed sagittally. Children were divided into 4 groups according to age: 3-6, 7-10, 11-14, and 15-18 years old. The intersection of the NAxL with the odontoid process of C-2 was described for each group. Analyses of variance were used to estimate the effect of age, sex, interaction between age and sex on different anatomical parameters relevant to the endonasal corridor (including the length of the hard palate [HPLe]), dimensions of choana and piriform aperture, and the length of the NAxL to C-2. The effect of the HPLe on the working distance of NAxL to the odontoid was also estimated using analysis of covariance, controlling for age, sex, and their interaction. RESULTS The NAxL extended to the odontoid process in 38 of the 39 children. Among the 39 children, the NAxL intersected the upper third of the odontoid process in 25 while intersecting the middle third in the remaining 13 children. The measurements of the inferior limits did not differ with age, varying between 9 and 11 mm below the hard palate line at the ventral surface of C-2. Significant increases in the size of the piriform aperture and choana and the HPLe were observed after age 10. The HPLe predicted the

  18. Surgical outcomes of the endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approach for large and giant pituitary adenomas: institutional experience with special attention to approach-related complications.

    PubMed

    Constantino, Edson Rocha; Leal, Rafael; Ferreira, Christian Cândido; Acioly, Marcus André; Landeiro, José Alberto

    2016-05-01

    Objective In this study, we investigate our institutional experience of patients who underwent endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approach for treatment of large and giant pituitary adenomas emphasizing the surgical results and approach-related complications. Method The authors reviewed 28 consecutive patients who underwent surgery between March, 2010 and March, 2014. Results The mean preoperative tumor diameter was 4.6 cm. Gross-total resection was achieved in 14.3%, near-total in 10.7%, subtotal in 39.3%, and partial in 35.7%. Nine patients experienced improvement in visual acuity, while one patient worsened. The most common complications were transient diabetes insipidus (53%), new pituitary deficit (35.7%), endonasal adhesions (21.4%), and cerebrospinal fluid leak (17.8%). Surgical mortality was 7.1%. Conclusions Endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal surgery is a valuable treatment option for large or giant pituitary adenomas, which results in high rates of surgical decompression of cerebrovascular structures. PMID:27191235

  19. Endoscopic endonasal cranial base surgery simulation using an artificial cranial base model created by selective laser sintering.

    PubMed

    Oyama, Kenichi; Ditzel Filho, Leo F S; Muto, Jun; de Souza, Daniel G; Gun, Ramazan; Otto, Bradley A; Carrau, Ricardo L; Prevedello, Daniel M

    2015-01-01

    Mastery of the expanded endoscopic endonasal approach (EEA) requires anatomical knowledge and surgical skills; the learning curve for this technique is steep. To a great degree, these skills can be gained by cadaveric dissections; however, ethical, religious, and legal considerations may interfere with this paradigm in different regions of the world. We assessed an artificial cranial base model for the surgical simulation of EEA and compared its usefulness with that of cadaveric specimens. The model is made of both polyamide nylon and glass beads using a selective laser sintering (SLS) technique to reflect CT-DICOM data of the patient's head. It features several artificial cranial base structures such as the dura mater, venous sinuses, cavernous sinuses, internal carotid arteries, and cranial nerves. Under endoscopic view, the model was dissected through the nostrils using a high-speed drill and other endonasal surgical instruments. Anatomical structures around and inside the sphenoid sinus were accurately reconstructed in the model, and several important surgical landmarks, including the medial and lateral optico-carotid recesses and vidian canals, were observed. The bone was removed with a high-speed drill until it was eggshell thin and the dura mater was preserved, a technique very similar to that applied in patients during endonasal cranial base approaches. The model allowed simulation of almost all sagittal and coronal plane EEA modules. SLS modeling is a useful tool for acquiring the anatomical knowledge and surgical expertise for performing EEA while avoiding the ethical, religious, and infection-related problems inherent with use of cadaveric specimens. PMID:25323096

  20. Isolated trapdoor-type medial blowout fracture in an adult presenting horizontal diplopia treated by endoscopic endonasal approach.

    PubMed

    Noh, Woong Jae; Park, Tae Jung; Kim, Joo Yeon; Kwon, Jae Hwan

    2013-01-01

    Orbital blowout fracture frequently occurs along the floor or medial aspect of the orbital wall, which are the two thinnest areas of the bony orbit. True trapdoor injury of the orbit is less common and is rare as an isolated medial wall injury, because the medial orbital wall has several bony septa within the ethmoid sinus that provide support and decrease the risk of a trapdoor fracture. Additionally, the incidence of trapdoor-type blowout fracture in adults is lower than in children. In a trapdoor-type blowout fracture with restricted ocular movement, prompt diagnosis and early intervention are associated with better clinical outcomes. We encountered a case of trap door-type medial blowout fracture with horizontal eye ball movement limitation in an adult. She underwent endonasal endoscopic reduction surgery for the medial blowout fractures. Here we report this case, and suggest early diagnosis and prompt surgical exploration. PMID:24964421

  1. Endonasal endoscopic transsphenoidal chiasmapexy using a clival cranial base cranioplasty for visual loss from massive empty sella following macroprolactinoma treatment with bromocriptine: case report.

    PubMed

    Alvarez Berastegui, G Rene; Raza, Shaan M; Anand, Vijay K; Schwartz, Theodore H

    2016-04-01

    Visual deterioration after dopamine-agonist treatment of prolactinomas associated with empty sella syndrome and secondary optic apparatus traction is a rare event. Chiasmapexy has been described as a viable treatment option, although few cases exist in the literature. Here, a novel endonasal endoscopic approach to chiasmapexy is described and its efficacy is demonstrated in a case report. A 55-year-old female patient with a history of a giant prolactinoma and 14 years of treatment using dopaminergic agonist therapy presented to our institution with a 1-month history of visual changes. Neuroophthalmological examination confirmed severe bitemporal field defects, and MRI revealed a large empty sella with downward optic chiasmal herniation. Endoscopic endonasal chiasmapexy was performed by elevating the chiasm with lumbar drainage and filling the clival and sellar defect with an extradural liquid (HydroSet; a cranioplasty bone cement), and a piece of AlloDerm was used to cover and cushion the chiasm. Postoperative imaging demonstrated successful anatomical elevation of the optic apparatus, and the patient showed functional improvement in the visual field at 3 months postoperatively. Although rare, massive empty sellar and chiasmal descent from macroadenoma treatment can result in progressive visual loss. Here, a novel technique of endonasal endoscopic extradural cranioplasty aided by lumbar drainage is reported, which appears to be an effective technique for stabilizing and possibly reversing anatomical and visual deterioration. PMID:26339851

  2. A Perfusion-based Human Cadaveric Model for Management of Carotid Artery Injury during Endoscopic Endonasal Skull Base Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Martin; Kale, Aydemir; Marquez, Yvette; Winer, Jesse; Lee, Brian; Harris, Brianna; Minnetti, Michael; Carey, Joseph; Giannotta, Steven; Zada, Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    Objective To create and develop a reproducible and realistic training environment to prepare residents and trainees for arterial catastrophes during endoscopic endonasal surgery. Design An artificial blood substitute was perfused at systolic blood pressures in eight fresh human cadavers to mimic intraoperative scenarios. Setting The USC Keck School of Medicine Fresh Tissue Dissection Laboratory was used as the training site. Participants Trainees were USC neurosurgery residents and junior faculty. Main Outcome A 5-point questionnaire was used to assess pre- and posttraining confidence scores. Results High-pressure extravasation at normal arterial blood pressure mimicked real intraoperative internal carotid artery (ICA) injury. Residents developed psychomotor skills required to achieve hemostasis using suction, cottonoids, and muscle grafts. Questionnaire responses from all trainees reported a realistic experience enhanced by the addition of the perfusion model. Conclusions The addition of an arterial perfusion system to fresh tissue cadavers is among the most realistic training models available. This enables the simulation of rare intraoperative scenarios such as ICA injury. Strategies for rapid hemostasis and implementation of techniques including endoscope manipulation, suction, and packing can all be rehearsed via this novel paradigm. PMID:25301092

  3. A Perfusion-based Human Cadaveric Model for Management of Carotid Artery Injury during Endoscopic Endonasal Skull Base Surgery.

    PubMed

    Pham, Martin; Kale, Aydemir; Marquez, Yvette; Winer, Jesse; Lee, Brian; Harris, Brianna; Minnetti, Michael; Carey, Joseph; Giannotta, Steven; Zada, Gabriel

    2014-10-01

    Objective To create and develop a reproducible and realistic training environment to prepare residents and trainees for arterial catastrophes during endoscopic endonasal surgery. Design An artificial blood substitute was perfused at systolic blood pressures in eight fresh human cadavers to mimic intraoperative scenarios. Setting The USC Keck School of Medicine Fresh Tissue Dissection Laboratory was used as the training site. Participants Trainees were USC neurosurgery residents and junior faculty. Main Outcome A 5-point questionnaire was used to assess pre- and posttraining confidence scores. Results High-pressure extravasation at normal arterial blood pressure mimicked real intraoperative internal carotid artery (ICA) injury. Residents developed psychomotor skills required to achieve hemostasis using suction, cottonoids, and muscle grafts. Questionnaire responses from all trainees reported a realistic experience enhanced by the addition of the perfusion model. Conclusions The addition of an arterial perfusion system to fresh tissue cadavers is among the most realistic training models available. This enables the simulation of rare intraoperative scenarios such as ICA injury. Strategies for rapid hemostasis and implementation of techniques including endoscope manipulation, suction, and packing can all be rehearsed via this novel paradigm. PMID:25301092

  4. Evolution of transoral approaches, endoscopic endonasal approaches, and reduction strategies for treatment of craniovertebral junction pathology: a treatment algorithm update.

    PubMed

    Dlouhy, Brian J; Dahdaleh, Nader S; Menezes, Arnold H

    2015-04-01

    The craniovertebral junction (CVJ), or the craniocervical junction (CCJ) as it is otherwise known, houses the crossroads of the CNS and is composed of the occipital bone that surrounds the foramen magnum, the atlas vertebrae, the axis vertebrae, and their associated ligaments and musculature. The musculoskeletal organization of the CVJ is unique and complex, resulting in a wide range of congenital, developmental, and acquired pathology. The refinements of the transoral approach to the CVJ by the senior author (A.H.M.) in the late 1970s revolutionized the treatment of CVJ pathology. At the same time, a physiological approach to CVJ management was adopted at the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics in 1977 based on the stability and motion dynamics of the CVJ and the site of encroachment, incorporating the transoral approach for irreducible ventral CVJ pathology. Since then, approaches and techniques to treat ventral CVJ lesions have evolved. In the last 40 years at University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, multiple approaches to the CVJ have evolved and a better understanding of CVJ pathology has been established. In addition, new reduction strategies that have diminished the need to perform ventral decompressive approaches have been developed and implemented. In this era of surgical subspecialization, to properly treat complex CVJ pathology, the CVJ specialist must be trained in skull base transoral and endoscopic endonasal approaches, pediatric and adult CVJ spine surgery, and must understand and be able to treat the complex CSF dynamics present in CVJ pathology to provide the appropriate, optimal, and tailored treatment strategy for each individual patient, both child and adult. This is a comprehensive review of the history and evolution of the transoral approaches, extended transoral approaches, endoscopie assisted transoral approaches, endoscopie endonasal approaches, and CVJ reduction strategies. Incorporating these advancements, the authors update the

  5. A new multilayer reconstruction using nasal septal flap combined with fascia graft dural suturing for high-flow cerebrospinal fluid leak after endoscopic endonasal surgery.

    PubMed

    Horiguchi, Kentaro; Nishioka, Hiroshi; Fukuhara, Noriaki; Yamaguchi-Okada, Mitsuo; Yamada, Shozo

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the usefulness and reliability of a new endoscopic multilayer reconstruction using nasal septal flap (NSF) to prevent high-flow cerebrospinal fluid leak after endoscopic endonasal surgery. This study was a retrospective review on 97 patients who underwent multilayer reconstructions using NSF combined with fascia graft dural suturing after endoscopic endonasal surgery between July 2012 and March 2014. Patients were divided into two groups, third ventricle opening group and nonopening group, based on the presence of a direct connection between the third ventricle and the paranasal sinus after tumor removal. Furthermore, we compared this procedure with our previous reconstruction after resection of craniopharyngioma. Finally, we checked the patients who had postoperative prolonged discomfort of the nasal cavity for over a year. Postoperative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak occurred in three patients (3.1 %): one from the third ventricle opening group and the remaining two from the nonopening group. External lumbar drain was performed after surgery in only seven patients (7.2 %). The incidence of postoperative CSF leak was similar in both groups, whereas the rate of craniopharyngioma in the third ventricle opening group was significantly higher. The incidence of postoperative CSF leak after resection of craniopharyngioma was not statistically significant but obviously higher in the previous group (12.2 %) compared with that in the present group (2.3 %). Twelve patients (12.4 %) had postoperative nasal discomfort of the nasal cavity for over a year. Multilayer reconstruction using NSF combined with fascia graft dural suturing is a more reliable method for preventing postoperative high-flow CSF leakage after endoscopic endonasal surgery even if there is a direct connection between the third ventricle and the paranasal sinus. However, we should pay close attention especially to prolonged discomfort of the nasal cavity after harvesting NSF

  6. Subtemporal Retrolabyrinthine (Posterior Petrosal) versus Endoscopic Endonasal Approach to the Petroclival Region: An Anatomical and Computed Tomography Study.

    PubMed

    Mason, Eric; Rompaey, Jason Van; Solares, C Arturo; Figueroa, Ramon; Prevedello, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    Background The petroclival region seats many neoplasms. Traditional surgical corridors to the region can result in unacceptable patient morbidity. The combined subtemporal retrolabyrinthine transpetrosal (posterior petrosal) approach provides adequate exposure with hearing preservation; however, the facial nerve and labyrinth are put at risk. Approaching the petroclival region with an endoscopic endonasal approach (EEA) could minimize morbidity. Objective To provide an anatomical and computed tomography (CT) comparison between the posterior petrosal approach and EEA to the petroclival region. Methods The petroclival region was approached transclivally with EEA. Different aspects of dissection were compared with the posterior petrosal approach. The two approaches were also studied using CT analysis. Results A successful corridor medial to the internal auditory canal (IAC) was achieved with EEA. Wide exposure was achieved with no external skin incisions, although significant sinonasal resection was required. The posterior petrosal was comparable in terms of exposure medially; however, the dissection involved more bone removal, greater skill, and a constricting effect upon deeper dissection. Importantly, access lateral to the IAC was obtained, whereas EEA could not reach this area. Conclusion An EEA to the petroclival region is feasible. This approach can be considered in lesions medial to the IAC. PMID:27175318

  7. Interactive 3D-PDF Presentations for the Simulation and Quantification of Extended Endoscopic Endonasal Surgical Approaches.

    PubMed

    Mavar-Haramija, Marija; Prats-Galino, Alberto; Méndez, Juan A Juanes; Puigdelívoll-Sánchez, Anna; de Notaris, Matteo

    2015-10-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) model of the skull base was reconstructed from the pre- and post-dissection head CT images and embedded in a Portable Document Format (PDF) file, which can be opened by freely available software and used offline. The CT images were segmented using a specific 3D software platform for biomedical data, and the resulting 3D geometrical models of anatomical structures were used for dual purpose: to simulate the extended endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approaches and to perform the quantitative analysis of the procedures. The analysis consisted of bone removal quantification and the calculation of quantitative parameters (surgical freedom and exposure area) of each procedure. The results are presented in three PDF documents containing JavaScript-based functions. The 3D-PDF files include reconstructions of the nasal structures (nasal septum, vomer, middle turbinates), the bony structures of the anterior skull base and maxillofacial region and partial reconstructions of the optic nerve, the hypoglossal and vidian canals and the internal carotid arteries. Alongside the anatomical model, axial, sagittal and coronal CT images are shown. Interactive 3D presentations were created to explain the surgery and the associated quantification methods step-by-step. The resulting 3D-PDF files allow the user to interact with the model through easily available software, free of charge and in an intuitive manner. The files are available for offline use on a personal computer and no previous specialized knowledge in informatics is required. The documents can be downloaded at http://hdl.handle.net/2445/55224 . PMID:26306875

  8. Impact of nasoseptal flap elevation on sinonasal quality of life in endoscopic endonasal approach to pituitary adenomas.

    PubMed

    Jalessi, Maryam; Jahanbakhshi, Amin; Amini, Elahe; Kamrava, Seyyed Kamran; Farhadi, Mohammad

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate the impact of nasoseptal flap (NSF) elevation on sinonasal quality of life (QOL) in patients with pituitary adenomas who underwent endoscopic endonasal trans-sphenoidal approach (EETSA), the data of 106 eligible patients were included from February 2011 to December 2014. The scores of Sinonasal Outcome Test (SNOT-22) Questionnaire were assessed in case (that received reconstruction with NSF) and control groups preoperatively as well as 1, 3, 6, and more than 12 months postoperatively. Nine most related sinonasal questions were evaluated separately (9Q). There were no significant inter-group differences in the mean SNOT-22, 9Q, and sense of taste/smell scores in preoperative and all postoperative assessments. Within each group, a significant improvement of SNOT-22 and 9Q scores were noted after 12 months of surgery compared to preoperative data. In the NSF group, comparison of the pre- and first postoperative evaluation revealed a significant deterioration in 9Q score (p = 0.007) and "sense of taste/smell" (p < 0.001) which both returned to baseline in the 3rd month. Patients who used nasal paper mask for more than 100 "hour-days" showed a better SNOT-22 scores at 1st (p = 0.04) and 3rd (p < 0.001) months after surgery. Patients with adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) secretory adenomas showed significantly higher scores of SNOT-22 in all postoperative assessments compared to the others. Although nasal symptoms deteriorated at first postoperative month (compare to preoperative data) in the NSF group, no negative impacts on the sinonasal QOL was showed comparing to the control group. ACTH-secreting adenomas could be assumed as a risk factor for poorer sinonasal QOL in EETSA. PMID:26220192

  9. Using the Endoscopic Endonasal Transclival Approach to Access Aneurysms Arising from AICA, PICA, and Vertebral Artery: An Anatomical Study.

    PubMed

    Doan, Vivian; Lemos-Rodriguez, Ana M; Sreenath, Satyan B; Unnithan, Ajay; Recinos, Pablo F; Zanation, Adam M; Sasaki-Adams, Deanna M

    2016-06-01

    Objective To explore the use of the endoscopic endonasal transclival approach (EEA) for clipping anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA), posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA), and vertebral artery (VA) aneurysms. Design Anatomical study. Participants Fifteen adult cadavers. Main Outcome Measures Length of artery exposed and distance from the nasal ala to the arteries. Results The length of the right and left VA exposed were 1.7 ± 0.6 cm and 1.6 ± 0.6 cm, respectively. The distance to the right VA was 11.1 ± 0.9 cm and to the left was 11.1 ± 0.8 cm. Right and left AICA were exposed for an average length of 1.1 ± 0.3 cm and 0.8 ± 0.3 cm, respectively. The distance to the right AICA was 10.3 ± 0.8 cm and to the left was 10.3 ± 0.8 cm. The right PICA was exposed for a length of 0.5 ± 0.2 cm at a distance of 10.9 ± 0.5 cm. The left PICA was exposed for a length of 0.5 ± 0.2 cm at a distance of 11.1 ± 0.9 cm. Conclusion The EEA can provide direct access to AICA, PICA, and VA, making it a potential alternative to the traditional approaches for the clipping of aneurysms arising from those arteries. PMID:27175314

  10. Management of Major Vascular Injury During Endoscopic Endonasal Skull Base Surgery.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Paul A; Snyderman, Carl H; Fernandez-Miranda, Juan C; Jankowitz, Brian T

    2016-06-01

    A major vascular injury is the most feared complication of endoscopic sinus and skull base surgery. Risk factors for vascular injury are discussed, and an algorithm for management of a major vascular injury is presented. A team of surgeons (otolaryngology and neurosurgery) is important for identification and control of a major vascular injury applying basic principles of vascular control. A variety of techniques can be used to control a major injury, including coagulation, a muscle patch, sacrifice of the artery, and angiographic stenting. Immediate and close angiographic follow-up is critical to prevent and manage subsequent complications of vascular injury. PMID:27267028

  11. Endoscopic extraperitoneal repair of a Grynfeltt hernia.

    PubMed

    Postema, R R; Bonjer, H J

    2002-04-01

    There are three types of lumbar hernia: congenital, acquired, and incisional hernias. Acquired hernia can appear in two forms: the inferior (Petit) type and the superior type, first described by Grynfeltt in 1866. We report endoscopic extraperitoneal repair of a Grynfeltt hernia. A 46-year-old woman presented with a painful swelling in the left lumbar region that had caused her increasing discomfort. The diagnosis of Grynfeltt's hernia was made, and she underwent surgery. With the patient in a left-side decubitus position, access to the extraperitoneal space was gained by inserting a 10-mm inflatable balloon trocar just anteriorly to the midaxillary line between the 12th rib and the superior iliac crest through a muscle-splitting incision into the extraperitoneal space. After the balloon trocar had been removed a blunt-tip trocar was inserted. Using two 5-mm trocars, one above and another below the 10-mm port in the midaxillary line, the hernia could be reduced. A polypropylene mesh graft was introduced through the 10-mm trocar and tacked with spiral tackers. The patient could be discharged the next day after requiring only minimal analgesics. At this writing, 2 (1/2) years after the operation, there is no sign of recurrence. This Grynfeltt hernia could safely be treated using the extraperitoneal approach, which obviates opening and closing the peritoneum, thereby reducing operative time and possibly postoperative complications. PMID:11972231

  12. [Endonasal dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR)].

    PubMed

    Bambule, G; Chamero, J

    2001-10-01

    The main symptoms of chronic obstruction of lacrymal pathways are epiphora and chronic dacryocystitis occurring mostly in elderly women. The aim of the surgery is to perform intranasal drainage of the lacrymal sac. The authors performed 30 dacryocystorhinostomies (DCR) in 26 patients with an intranasal endoscopic approach. 24 DCR with a mean follow-up of 25 months and a success rate of 91.7% after one single procedure are discussed. Among three current surgical techniques, the endonasal approach has been shown to be a safe and effective method with many advantages compared to the external transcutaneous way. PMID:11715292

  13. Magnetic resonance imaging fluid-attenuated inversion recovery sequence signal reduction after endoscopic endonasal transcribiform total resection of olfactory groove meningiomas

    PubMed Central

    Prevedello, Daniel M.; Ditzel Filho, Leo F. S.; Fernandez-Miranda, Juan C.; Solari, Domenico; do Espírito Santo, Marcelo Prudente; Wehr, Allison M.; Carrau, Ricardo L.; Kassam, Amin B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Olfactory groove meningiomas grow insidiously and compress adjacent cerebral structures. Achieving complete removal without further damage to frontal lobes can be difficult. Microsurgical removal of large lesions is a challenging procedure and usually involves some brain retraction. The endoscopic endonasal approaches (EEAs) for tumors arising from the anterior fossa have been well described; however, their effect on the adjacent brain tissue has not. Herein, the authors utilized the magnetic resonance imaging fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequence signal as a marker for edema and gliosis on pre- and post-operative images of olfactory groove meningiomas, thus presenting an objective parameter for brain injury after surgical manipulation. Methods: Imaging of 18 olfactory groove meningiomas removed through EEAs was reviewed. Tumor and pre/postoperative FLAIR signal volumes were assessed utilizing the DICOM image viewer OsiriX®. Inclusion criteria were: (1) No previous treatment; (2) EEA gross total removal; (3) no further treatment. Results: There were 14 females and 4 males; the average age was 53.8 years (±8.85 years). Average tumor volume was 24.75 cm3 (±23.26 cm3, range 2.8–75.7 cm3), average preoperative FLAIR volume 31.17 cm3 (±39.38 cm3, range 0–127.5 cm3) and average postoperative change volume, 4.16 cm3 (±6.18 cm3, range 0–22.2 cm3). Average time of postoperative scanning was 6 months (range 0.14–20 months). In all cases (100%) gross total tumor removal was achieved. Nine patients (50%) had no postoperative FLAIR changes. In 2 patients (9%) there was minimal increase of changes postoperatively (2.2 cm3 and 6 cm3 respectively); all others demonstrated image improvement. The most common complication was postoperative cerebrospinal fluid leakage (27.8%); 1 patient (5.5%) died due to systemic complications and pulmonary sepsis. Conclusions: FLAIR signal changes tend to resolve after endonasal tumor resection and do not seem

  14. Endoscopic Repair of CSF Rhinorrhea: An Institutional Experience

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Sarita Kumari; Mathew, George Ani; Paul, Roshna Rose; Asif, Syed Kamran; John, Mary; Varghese, Ajoy Mathew; Kurien, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Endoscopic repair is considered the treatment of choice in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rhinorrhea. The aim of our study was to analyze the etiopathogenesis of CSF rhinorrhea, the outcome of treatment and the causes of failure in a developing-country setting. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review of patients treated with endoscopic repair for CSF rhinorrhea at a tertiary care hospital in southern India from January 2002 to December 2009 identified 36 patients, the majority of them being women. The defects were closed in three layers using fat, fascia lata and nasal mucosa along with a fibrin sealant in the majority of the patients. Per-operatively, a subarachnoid drain was placed in all patients. Patients were followed up for 1 year. Results: Spontaneous onset of CSF rhinorrhea was noted in 61% of patients. The most common site of leak was found to be the left cribriform plate area. Hence the most common cause of CSF rhinorrhea in our study was spontaneous and the second most common was post-traumatic. Our success rate on the first attempt at endoscopic repair was 100%, with a recurrence rate of 6%. A large defect, failure of localization of the defect, or other co-morbid conditions such as chronic cough may be the most likely causes of recurrence of leak. Conclusion: Accurate localization of the site of lesion using a high-resolution computed tomography (CT) scan with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and confirmation of the site of leak by intraoperative Valsalva maneuver along with multilayered closure of the dural defect and post-operative lumbar drain appear to be essential for the successful endoscopic repair of CSF rhinorrhea. PMID:26878002

  15. Endoscopic-Assisted Repair of Superior Canal Dehiscence.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yew Song; Kozin, Elliott D; Lee, Daniel J

    2016-10-01

    Superior canal dehiscence (SCD) is a bony defect of the superior canal that can cause vestibular and/or auditory symptoms. Surgical repair of SCD provides effective relief from symptoms, and the middle fossa craniotomy approach with binocular microscopy offers direct visualization and surgical access to the arcuate eminence. However, for SCDs located along the downsloping tegmen medial to the peak of the arcuate eminence, a direct light of sight may be obscured, rendering visualization with traditional microscopy difficult. The endoscope is the ideal adjunct in middle fossa craniotomy approach SCD surgery and offers a safe, effective means to identify and repair arcuate eminence defects hidden from microscopic view. PMID:27565386

  16. Comparison of endoscopic endonasal and bifrontal craniotomy approaches for olfactory groove meningiomas: A matched pair analysis of outcomes and frontal lobe changes on MRI.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, John R; Carvalho, Felipe; Vaz Guimaraes Filho, Francisco; Kiehl, Tim-Rasmus; Koutourousiou, Maria; Su, Shirley; Vescan, Allan D; Witterick, Ian J; Zadeh, Gelareh; Wang, Eric W; Fernandez-Miranda, Juan C; Gardner, Paul A; Gentili, Fred; Snyderman, Carl H

    2015-11-01

    We compare the outcomes and postoperative MRI changes of endoscopic endonasal (EEA) and bifrontal craniotomy (BFC) approaches for olfactory groove meningiomas (OGM). All patients who underwent either BFC or EEA for OGM were eligible. Matched pairs were created by matching tumor volumes of an EEA patient with a BFC patient, and matching the timing of the postoperative scans. The tumor dimensions, peritumoral edema, resectability issues, and frontal lobe changes were recorded based on preoperative and postoperative MRI. Postoperative fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) hyperintensity and residual cystic cavity (porencephalic cave) volume were compared using univariable and multivariable analyses. From a total of 70 patients (46 EEA, 24 BFC), 10 matched pairs (20 patients) were created. Three patients (30%) in the EEA group and two (20%) in the BFC had postoperative cerebrospinal fluid leaks (p=0.61). Gross total resections were achieved in seven (70%) of the EEA group and nine (90%) of the BFC group (p=0.26), and one patient from each group developed a recurrence. On postoperative MRI, there was no significant difference in FLAIR signal volumes between EEA and BFC approaches (6.9 versus 13.3 cm(3); p=0.17) or in porencephalic cave volumes (1.7 versus 5.0 cm(3); p=0.11) in univariable analysis. However, in a multivariable analysis, EEA was associated with less postoperative FLAIR change (p=0.02) after adjusting for the volume of preoperative edema. This study provides preliminary evidence that EEA is associated with quantifiable improvements in postoperative frontal lobe imaging. PMID:26275331

  17. Prospective comparison of sinonasal outcomes after microscopic sublabial or endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal surgery for nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas.

    PubMed

    Pledger, Carrie L; Elzoghby, Mohamed A; Oldfield, Edward H; Payne, Spencer C; Jane, John A

    2016-08-01

    OBJECT Both endoscopic and microscopic transsphenoidal approaches are accepted techniques for the resection of pituitary adenomas. Although studies have explored patient outcomes for each technique individually, none have prospectively compared sinonasal and quality of life outcomes in a concurrent series of patients at the same institution, as has been done in the present study. METHODS Patients with nonfunctioning adenomas undergoing transsphenoidal surgery were assessed for sinonasal function, quality of life, and pain using the Sino-Nasal Outcome Test-20 (SNOT-20), the short form of the Nasal Obstruction Symptom Evaluation (NOSE) instrument, the SF-36, and a headache scale. Eighty-two patients undergoing either endoscopic (47 patients) or microscopic (35 patients) surgery were surveyed preoperatively and at 24-48 hours, 2 weeks, 4 weeks, 8 weeks, and 1 year after surgery. RESULTS Patients who underwent endoscopic and microscopic transsphenoidal surgery experienced a similar recovery pattern, showing an initial increase in symptoms during the first 2 weeks, followed by a return to baseline by 4 weeks and improvement beyond baseline functioning by 8 weeks. Patients who underwent endoscopic surgery experienced better sinonasal outcomes at 24-48 hours (SNOT total p = 0.015, SNOT rhinologic subscale [ssRhino] p < 0.001), 2 weeks (NOSE p = 0.013), and 8 weeks (SNOT total p = 0.032 and SNOT ssRhino p = 0.035). By 1 year after surgery, no significant differences in sinonasal outcomes were observed between the 2 groups. Headache scales at 1 year improved in all dimensions except duration for both groups (total result 73%, p = 0.004; severity 46%, p < 0.001; frequency 53%, p < 0.001), with 80% of either microscopic or endoscopic patients experiencing improvement or resolution of headache symptoms. Endoscopic and microscopic patients experienced reduced vitality preoperatively compared with US population norms and remained low postoperatively. By 8 weeks after surgery

  18. Endoscopic repair technique for traumatic penetrating injuries of the clivus.

    PubMed

    Liebelt, Brandon D; Boghani, Zain; Haider, Ali S; Takashima, Masayoshi

    2016-06-01

    Unlike basilar skull fractures, penetrating traumatic injuries to the clivus are uncommon. We present two novel and interesting cases of traumatic crossbow arrow injury and penetrating screwdriver injury to the clivus. A review of the literature describing methods to repair these injuries was performed. A careful, systematic approach is required when working up and treating these injuries, as airway preservation is critical. An adaptation to the previously described "gasket-seal" method for skull base repair was utilized to repair the traumatic cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) fistulas. This repair technique is unique in that it is tailored to a much smaller defect than typical post-surgical defects. Two patients are presented, one with a post-traumatic CSF fistula after penetrating crossbow injury to the clivus and one with a penetrating screwdriver injury to the clivus. The patients were treated successfully with transnasal endoscopic repair with fascia lata graft and a nasoseptal flap, a novel adaptation to the previously described "gasket-seal" technique of skull base repair. PMID:26924184

  19. Surgical challenge: endoscopic repair of cerebrospinal fluid leak

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cerebrospinal fluid leaks (CSF) result from an abnormal communication between the subarachnoid space and the extracranial space. Approximately 90% of CSF leak at the anterior skull base manifests as rhinorrhea and can become life-threatening condition. Endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) has become a common otolaryngologist procedure. The aim of this article is to consider our experience and to evaluate the outcomes in patients who underwent a purely endoscopic repair of CSF leaks of the anterior skull base. Findings Retrospective chart review was performed of all patients surgically treated for CSF leaks presenting to the Section of Nasal and Sinus Disorders at the Service of ENT–Head and Neck Surgery, University Hospital Complex of Santiago de Compostela (CHUS), between 2004 and 2010. A total of 30 patients who underwent repair CSF leak by ESS. The success rate was 93.4% at the first attempt; only two patients (6.6%) required a second surgical procedure, and none of it was necessary to use a craniotomy for closure. Follow-up periods ranged from 4 months to 6 years. Conclusion Identifying the size, site, and etiology of the CSF leak remains the most important factor in the surgical success. It is generally accepted that the ESS have made procedures minimally invasive, and CSF leak is now one of its well-established indications with low morbidity and high success rate, with one restriction for fistulas of the posterior wall of the frontal sinus should be repaired in conjunction with open techniques. PMID:22925201

  20. All-Endoscopic Single-Row Repair of Full-Thickness Gluteus Medius Tears

    PubMed Central

    Levy, David M.; Bogunovic, Ljiljana; Grzybowski, Jeffrey S.; Kuhns, Benjamin D.; Bush-Joseph, Charles A.; Nho, Shane J.

    2016-01-01

    Abductor tendon tears typically develop insidiously in middle-aged women and can lead to debilitating lateral hip pain and a Trendelenburg limp. The gluteus medius tendon is most commonly torn and may show fatty degeneration over time, similar to the rotator cuff muscles of the shoulder. Endoscopic repair offers a therapeutic alternative to traditional open techniques. This article describes the workup, examination, and endoscopic repair of a full-thickness gluteus medius tear presenting as lateral hip pain and weakness. The surgical repair for this case used a single-row suture anchor technique. In addition, the indications and technique for a double-row repair will be discussed. PMID:27073767

  1. Endoscopic Removal of a Bullet in Rosenmuller Fossa: Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Burks, Joshua D.; Glenn, Chad A.; Conner, Andrew K.; Bonney, Phillip A.; Sanclement, Jose A.; Sughrue, Michael E.

    2016-01-01

    Fractures of the anterior skull base may occur in gunshot victims and can result in traumatic cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak. Less commonly, CSF leaks occur days or even weeks after the trauma occurred. Here, we present the case of a 21-year-old man with a delayed-onset, traumatic CSF leak secondary to a missile injury that left a bullet fragment in the Rosenmuller fossa. The patient was treated successfully with endoscopic, endonasal extraction of the bullet, and repair with a nasal septal flap. Foreign bodies lodged in Rosenmuller fossa can be successfully treated with endoscopic skull base surgery. PMID:27330924

  2. Repair of Posterior Glottic Stenosis with the Modified Endoscopic Postcricoid Advancement Flap.

    PubMed

    Damrose, Edward J; Beswick, Daniel M

    2016-03-01

    Posterior glottic stenosis is a difficult clinical problem that frequently results in bilateral vocal fold immobility, dyspnea, and tracheostomy dependence. Charts were reviewed of all patients undergoing a modified endoscopic postcricoid advancement flap procedure for posterior glottic stenosis between October 1, 2003, and June 30, 2015. Age, sex, operative findings, complications, and outcomes were noted. Follow-up was available in 10 of 11 patients, 10 of whom were successfully decannulated. There were no complications. Regular diet was maintained in all patients. In patients with bilateral vocal fold immobility secondary to posterior glottis stenosis, endoscopic repair via endoscopic postcricoid advancement flap can restore full vocal fold motion and allow decannulation. In select patients with posterior glottic stenosis, repair via endoscopic postcricoid advancement flap should be considered in lieu of ablative methods, such as cordotomy, cordectomy, or arytenoidectomy. PMID:26861233

  3. Endoscopic repair of post-surgical gastrointestinal complications.

    PubMed

    Manta, Raffaele; Magno, Luca; Conigliaro, Rita; Caruso, Angelo; Bertani, Helga; Manno, Mauro; Zullo, Angelo; Frazzoni, Marzio; Bassotti, Gabrio; Galloro, Giuseppe

    2013-11-01

    Complications following gastrointestinal surgery may require re-intervention, can lead to prolonged hospitalization, and significantly increase health costs. Some complications, such as anastomotic leakage, fistula, and stricture require a multidisciplinary approach. Therapeutic endoscopy may play a pivotal role in these conditions, allowing minimally invasive treatment. Different endoscopic approaches, including fibrin glue injection, endoclips, self-expanding stents, and endoscopic vacuum-assisted devices have been introduced for both anastomotic leakage and fistula treatment. Similarly endoscopic treatments, such as endoscopic dilation, incisional therapy, and self-expanding stents have been used for anastomotic strictures. All these techniques can be safely performed by skilled endoscopists, and may achieve a high technical success rate in both the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract. Here we will review the endoscopic management of post-surgical complications; these techniques should be considered as first-line approach in selected patients, allowing to avoid re-operation, reduce hospital stay, and decrease costs. PMID:23623147

  4. Purely endoscopic pterional extradural approach: A novel technique for repair of cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Ajit Kumar; Goyal, Sumit

    2016-01-01

    Study Design: Retrospective descriptive study of an innovative surgical technique. Objective: To assess the feasibility and success of repair of transfrontal sinus cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rhinorrhea through pterional transcranial extradural approach using endoscope. Summary of Background Data: Repair of CSF rhinorrhea has seen advancement with the evolution of endoscopic transnasal techniques. However, leaks from defect in the posterior wall of frontal sinus still remain a challenge for the skull base surgeons and requires conventional craniotomy more often. We describe a novel technique to repair these leaks by purely endoscopic pterional extradural (PEPE) approach thereby avoiding complications associated with conventional craniotomy and endoscopic transnasal approaches. Materials and Methods: Thirty-five patients with traumatic CSF rhinorrhea from the posterior wall of frontal sinus underwent repair with the present technique. They were followed up for 6–18 months and were evaluated for feasibility of procedure, recurrence of leak, and occurrence of the fresh neurological deficit. Results: Thirty-five patients underwent CSF rhinorrhea repair using the above technique. The procedure was accomplished in all patients without any intraoperative complications. There was no requirement of blood transfusion in any case. All patients had a cessation of CSF leak in the postoperative period, and there was no recurrence. There was no evidence of frontal lobe retraction injury in any of these patients, and no fresh neurological deficit was observed. Conclusion: This PEPE approach to repair CSF leak through the posterior wall of the frontal sinus is a novel technique in which we can avoid disadvantages associated with both conventional craniotomy as well as transnasal endoscopic approaches. PMID:27114672

  5. Minimizing the Submandibular Incision in Endoscopic Subcondylar Fracture Repair.

    PubMed

    Aboelatta, Yasser Abdallah; Elbarbary, Amir S; Abdelazeem, Sarah; Massoud, Karim S; Safe, Ikram I

    2015-12-01

    Endoscope-assisted treatment of mandibular condylar fractures is an evolving surgical technique of this controversial subject. The approach is performed through an intraoral and additional submandibular incision. This study presents a technique for minimizing the length of the optional submandibular incision. Ten patients with displaced subcondylar fractures and malocclusion underwent endoscope-assisted open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF). A limited (<1 cm) submandibular incision (dissected under endoscopic guidance from within) was needed in eight patients to complement the intraoral incision and facilitate the reduction in the fractures. Satisfactory small scar could be obtained in all patients with neither wound complications nor facial nerve injuries. Our technique depends on dissection first then incision. Performing the external incision after complete intraoral dissection is safe for the facial nerve and minimizes scarring markedly. This very limited submandibular incision facilitates reduction in relatively difficult cases and enables clear visualization of posterior border of the mandible to confirm adequate fracture reduction. PMID:26576236

  6. Lamb’s head: The model for novice education in endoscopic sinus surgery

    PubMed Central

    Skitarelić, Neven; Mladina, Ranko

    2015-01-01

    Structured training in endonasal endoscopic sinus surgery (EESS) and skull base surgery is essential considering serious potential complications. We have developed a detailed concept on training these surgical skills on the lamb’s head. This simple and extremely cheap model offers the possibility of training even more demanding and advanced procedures in human endonasal endoscopic surgery such as: frontal sinus surgery, orbital decompression, cerebrospinal fluid-leak repair followed also by the naso-septal flap, etc. Unfortunately, the sphenoid sinus surgery cannot be practiced since quadrupeds do not have this sinus. Still, despite this anatomical limitation, it seems that the lamb’s head can be very useful even for the surgeons already practicing EESS, but in a limited edition because of a lack of the experience and dexterity. Only after gaining the essential surgical skills of this demanding field it makes sense to go for the expensive trainings on the human cadaveric model. PMID:26413487

  7. Lamb's head: The model for novice education in endoscopic sinus surgery.

    PubMed

    Skitarelić, Neven; Mladina, Ranko

    2015-09-26

    Structured training in endonasal endoscopic sinus surgery (EESS) and skull base surgery is essential considering serious potential complications. We have developed a detailed concept on training these surgical skills on the lamb's head. This simple and extremely cheap model offers the possibility of training even more demanding and advanced procedures in human endonasal endoscopic surgery such as: frontal sinus surgery, orbital decompression, cerebrospinal fluid-leak repair followed also by the naso-septal flap, etc. Unfortunately, the sphenoid sinus surgery cannot be practiced since quadrupeds do not have this sinus. Still, despite this anatomical limitation, it seems that the lamb's head can be very useful even for the surgeons already practicing EESS, but in a limited edition because of a lack of the experience and dexterity. Only after gaining the essential surgical skills of this demanding field it makes sense to go for the expensive trainings on the human cadaveric model. PMID:26413487

  8. Unilateral Endoscopic Approach for Repair of Frontal Sinus Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak

    PubMed Central

    Roehm, Corrie E.; Brown, Seth M.

    2011-01-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak closure remains one of the most difficult surgeries for skull base surgeons, particularly with frontal sinus involvement. Technological advances in endoscopic surgery increasingly allow for less morbid approaches to the frontal sinus. We describe a series of patients who underwent endoscopic frontal sinus CSF leak repair utilizing a unilateral approach, to evaluate the utility and outcomes of this method. We performed a retrospective review of four cases in tertiary care centers. Participants included patients with CSF leak involving the frontal sinus. Main outcome measures included cessation of CSF leak and frontal sinus patency. Three patients were closed on the first surgical attempt; one with a communicating hydrocephalus required a revision procedure. Leak etiologies included prior craniotomy for frontal sinus mucopyocele, spontaneous meningoencephalocele, erosion due to mucormycosis, and prior endoscopic sinus surgery. The frontal sinus remained patent in three of four patients. No patients have evidence of a leak at a minimum of 1 year after surgery. The repair of frontal sinus CSF leaks is possible in specific cases with an endoscopic unilateral approach in leaks with multiple etiologies. Surgeons should consider this approach when selecting the appropriate procedure for repair of frontal sinus CSF leaks. PMID:22451816

  9. Endoscopic Repair of Frontal Sinus Cerebrospinal Fluid Leaks after Firearm Injuries: Report of Two Cases

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, Camilo; Solares, C. Arturo

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To describe two cases of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak repair after gunshot wound to the head. Design Retrospective review of two cases. Settings A large regional tertiary care facility. Participants Two patients with gunshot wounds to the skull base. Main Outcome Measures Preoperative and postoperative physical and radiologic findings. Results Patients in this series underwent endoscopic surgery, debridement, and repair of CSF leaks after gunshot wounds to the head. To date, the patients are without CSF leak. Conclusions Endoscopic closure of anterior skull base CSF leaks in patients with gunshot wounds can be safe and effective. Treatment should be decided by the severity of neurologic deterioration throughout the emergency period and the existence or absence of associated intracranial lesions. Timing for surgery should be decided with great care and with a multidisciplinary approach. PMID:26251818

  10. Endoscopic Repair of a Gluteus Medius Tear at the Musculotendinous Junction

    PubMed Central

    Yanke, Adam B.; Hart, Michael A.; McCormick, Frank; Nho, Shane J.

    2013-01-01

    Abductor tendon tears are an increasingly recognized clinical entity in patients with lateral thigh pain and weakness. These “rotator cuff tears of the hip” typically result from chronic, nontraumatic rupture of the anterior fibers of the gluteus medius. Although the abductor tendon typically tears from the osseous insertion, the case discussed here ruptured at the musculotendinous junction. This is the first report of this abductor tear subtype and its endoscopic repair. PMID:23875152

  11. Endonasal modification of the frontal sinus drainage type IIb according to Draf.

    PubMed

    Al Kadah, Basel; Schick, B

    2015-08-01

    The description of different endonasal drainage options (type I, II and III according to Draf) and their successful use in numerous patients has reached a milestone in frontal sinus surgery. We herein describe a modification of an endonasal frontal sinus drainage type IIb with the additional removal of the lower part of the frontal sinus septum without opening the frontal recess of the other side and without resection of the nasal septum. The modified endonasal endoscopic frontal sinus drainage type IIb was performed on 9 patients at the Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University Medical Center, Homburg/Saar between 02/2011 and 6/2013 after having gained patients' consent. Follow-ups with endoscopic examination were performed after 6, 12 and 24 months (median follow-up: 14 months). Endonasal endoscopic opening of the frontal sinus was achieved in all patients. Endoscopic examination 6, 12 and 24 months after surgery revealed patent frontal sinus drainage in 8 patients. The frontal sinus drainage could not be visualized endoscopically in one patient who was free of symptoms for 24 months and where a ventilated frontal sinus was proven radiologically by computed tomography. The study demonstrates the option to additionally remove the lower part of the inter-frontal septum with a frontal sinus drainage type IIb. As the number of patients treated by this modified frontal sinus type IIb drainage is limited, further investigations are needed to define the value of a modified frontal sinus drainage type IIb. PMID:25294052

  12. Primary Endoscopic Repair of a Large Tracheal Rupture Through Tracheal Stoma.

    PubMed

    Eroglu, Atilla; Aydin, Yener; Altuntas, Bayram; Ahiskalioglu, Ali

    2015-10-01

    We describe the case of an 83-year-old man who presented with a large trauma to the membranous wall of the trachea and was treated with endoscopic primary repair of the tracheal wall through a preexisting tracheal stoma. Assessment with an optical telescope through the tracheal stoma revealed a 5-cm laceration in the membranous wall of the trachea starting immediately above the carina. The laceration was closed using continuous 4-0 monofilament polydioxanone sutures with direct visualization of tissues through a fiberoptic telescope. This approach is particularly effective in cases of traumatic rupture of the membranous trachea. PMID:26434482

  13. Long-term study of endonasal duraplasty and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Schick, B; Ibing, R; Brors, D; Draf, W

    2001-02-01

    Many different techniques have been proposed to repair frontobasal dura mater lesions. Because of its low morbidity and high success rate, the endonasal approach has become a preferred route for treating cerebrospinal fluid fistulas of the anterior skull base. This article presents a retrospective evaluation of 136 endonasal duraplasties (126 patients) performed between July 1980 and May 1998 at a tertiary care facility. Follow-up consisted of clinical examinations including nasal endoscopy, objective measures, and telephone interviews. The following measures were used to evaluate the results of these duraplasties: postoperative nasal fluorescein endoscopy in 71 cases, computed tomographic cisternography in 2, nasal fluorescein endoscopy with computed tomographic cistemography in 19, magnetic resonance imaging in 6, and nasal fluorescein endoscopy with magnetic resonance imaging in 1. Tight closure was accomplished in 129 dural lesions (94.9%) on the first attempt. In 3 cases, recurrence of cerebrospinal fluid leakage was treated successfully by 1 endonasal revision, and in 1 case, a tight duraplasty was achieved after 2 endonasal revisions. Its high success rate, low rate of morbidity, and good long-term results recommend endonasal duraplasty as a primary treatment modality for frontobasal dural lesions. For extended frontobasal dural lesions, for which intracranial dural repair is the preferred approach, the endonasal approach should be used to close additional dural leaks of the sphenoid sinus. PMID:11219521

  14. Successful application of endoscopic modified medial maxillectomy to orbital floor trapdoor fracture in a pediatric patient.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Yasunori; Sakaida, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Masayoshi; Takeuchi, Kazuhiko

    2016-10-01

    Although surgical treatment of orbital floor fractures can be performed by many different approaches, the application of endoscopic modified medial maxillectomy (EMMM) for this condition has rarely been described in the literature. We report on a case of a 7-year-old boy with a trapdoor orbital floor fracture successfully treated with the application of EMMM. The patient suffered trauma to the right orbit floor and the inferior rectus was entrapped at the orbital floor. Initially, surgical repair via endoscopic endonasal approach was attempted. However, we were unable to adequately access the orbital floor through the maxillary ostium. Therefore, an alternative route of access to the orbital floor was established by EMMM. With sufficient visualization and operating space, the involved orbital content was completely released from the entrapment site and reduced into the orbit. To facilitate wound healing, the orbital floor was supported with a water-inflated urethral balloon catheter for 8 days. At follow-up 8 months later, there was no gaze restriction or complications associated with the EMMM. This case illustrates the efficacy and safety of EMMM in endoscopic endonasal repair of orbital floor fracture, particularly for cases with a narrow nasal cavity such as in pediatric patients. PMID:26926254

  15. Endoscopic Shelf Acetabuloplasty Combined With Labral Repair, Cam Osteochondroplasty, and Capsular Plication for Treating Developmental Hip Dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Uchida, Soshi; Wada, Takahiko; Sakoda, Shinsuke; Ariumi, Akihiro; Sakai, Akinori; Iida, Hirokazu; Nakamura, Toshitaka

    2014-01-01

    In addition to the underlying shallow acetabular deformity, a patient with hip dysplasia has a greater risk of development of a labral tear, a cam lesion, and capsular laxity. This combination of abnormalities exacerbates joint instability, ultimately leading to osteoarthritis. Unsurprisingly, only repairing the acetabular labrum remains controversial, and the outcome is unpredictable. In this technical note, with video, we demonstrate an entirely endoscopic approach for simultaneously repairing the most common mechanical abnormalities found in moderate hip dysplasia: labral repair, cam osteochondroplasty, capsular plication, and shelf acetabuloplasty using an autologous iliac bone graft. PMID:24749043

  16. Indocyanine Green Fluorescence Endoscopy at Endonasal Transsphenoidal Surgery for an Intracavernous Sinus Dermoid Cyst: Case Report

    PubMed Central

    HIDE, Takuichiro; YANO, Shigetoshi; KURATSU, Jun-ichi

    2014-01-01

    The complete resection of intracavernous sinus dermoid cysts is very difficult due to tumor tissue adherence to important anatomical structures such as the internal carotid artery (ICA), cavernous sinus, and cranial nerves. As residual dermoid cyst tissue sometimes induces symptoms and repeat surgery may be required after cyst recurrence, minimal invasiveness is an important consideration when selecting the surgical approach to the lesion. We addressed a recurrent intracavernous sinus dermoid cyst by the endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approach assisted by neuronavigation and indocyanine green (ICG) endoscopy to confirm the ICA and patency of the cavernous sinus. The ICG endoscope detected the fluorescence signal from the ICA and cavernous sinus; its intensity changed with the passage of time. The ICG endoscope was very useful for real-time imaging, and its high spatial resolution facilitated the detection of the ICA and the patent cavernous sinus. We found it to be of great value for successful endonasal transsphenoidal surgery. PMID:25446381

  17. Nanofibrous Synthetic Dural Patch for Skull Base Defects: Preliminary Experience for Reconstruction after Extended Endonasal Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Zenga, Francesco; Tardivo, Valentina; Pacca, Paolo; Garzaro, Massimiliano; Garbossa, Diego; Ducati, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Setting One of the consequences of the widespread use of endoscopic endonasal approaches (EEA) to skull base pathologies is the management of complex skull base defects. Nowadays, the gold standard is a multilayer closure that reproduces the physiological tissue barriers. Several techniques have been described in the literature; however, skull base reconstruction after EEA still represents a matter of debate, especially after extended EEA. A watertight closure is paramount to prevent cerebrospinal fluid leak and meningitis. Design Regarding this issue, we present our experience with a new synthetic dural patch, ReDura (Medprin Biotech, La Mirada, California, United States), as a subdural inlay in three patients who underwent endoscopic endonasal removal of sellar and suprasellar lesions. Conclusions ReDura patch showed the same versatility of autologous iliotibial tract. A dural patch that easily adapts to all defects, revealed to be a useful tool for performing watertight closure, possibly in a short operative time, after endoscopic approaches. PMID:26937335

  18. Endoscopic graduated multiangle, multicorridor resection of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma: an individualized, tailored, multicorridor skull base approach.

    PubMed

    Liu, James K; Husain, Qasim; Kanumuri, Vivek; Khan, Mohemmed N; Mendelson, Zachary S; Eloy, Jean Anderson

    2016-05-01

    OBJECT Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibromas (JNAs) are formidable tumors because of their hypervascularity and difficult location in the skull base. Traditional transfacial procedures do not always afford optimal visualization and illumination, resulting in significant morbidity and poor cosmesis. The advent of endoscopic procedures has allowed for resection of JNAs with greater surgical freedom and decreased incidence of facial deformity and scarring. METHODS This report describes a graduated multiangle, multicorridor, endoscopic approach to JNAs that is illustrated in 4 patients, each with a different tumor location and extent. Four different surgical corridors in varying combinations were used to resect JNAs, based on tumor size and location, including an ipsilateral endonasal approach (uninostril); a contralateral, transseptal approach (binostril); a sublabial, transmaxillary Caldwell-Luc approach; and an orbitozygomatic, extradural, transcavernous, infratemporal fossa approach (transcranial). One patient underwent resection via an ipsilateral endonasal uninostril approach (Corridor 1) only. One patient underwent a binostril approach that included an additional contralateral transseptal approach (Corridors 1 and 2). One patient underwent a binostril approach with an additional sublabial Caldwell-Luc approach for lateral extension in the infratemporal fossa (Corridors 1-3). One patient underwent a combined transcranial and endoscopic endonasal/sublabial Caldwell-Luc approach (Corridors 1-4) for an extensive JNA involving both the lateral infratemporal fossa and cavernous sinus. RESULTS A graduated multiangle, multicorridor approach was used in a stepwise fashion to allow for maximal surgical exposure and maneuverability for resection of JNAs. Gross-total resection was achieved in all 4 patients. One patient had a postoperative CSF leak that was successfully repaired endoscopically. One patient had a delayed local recurrence that was successfully resected

  19. Endoscopic Achilles tenolysis for management of heel cord pain after repair of acute rupture of Achilles tendon.

    PubMed

    Lui, Tun Hing

    2013-01-01

    Tendon pain after repair of an acute Achilles tendon rupture can result from suture granuloma formation, modification of the threshold of the pain receptors inside the tendon by scar tissue, expansion of the paratenon by tendon enlargement with secondary stimulation of mechanoreceptors, or underlying tendon degeneration. In the present technique report, an endoscopic technique of Achilles tenolysis for denervation and debulking is described that might be applicable in cases in which conservative treatment fails to alleviate the pain. PMID:23085384

  20. Endoscopic Transnasal Approach for Urgent Decompression of the Craniocervical Junction in Acute Skull Base Osteomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Terry C.; Mindea, Stefan A.; Pendharkar, Arjun V.; Lapustea, Nicolae B.; Irime, Ioana; Nayak, Jayakar V.

    2015-01-01

    Ventral epidural abscess with osteomyelitis at the craniocervical junction is a rare occurrence that typically mandates spinal cord decompression via a transoral approach. However, given the potential for morbidity with transoral surgery, especially in the setting of immunosuppression, together with the advent of extended endonasal techniques, the transnasal approach could be attractive for selected patients. We present two cases of ventral epidural abscess and osteomyelitis at the craniocervical junction involving C1/C2 that were successfully treated via the endoscopic transnasal approach. Both were treated in staged procedures involving posterior cervical fusion followed by endoscopic transnasal resection of the ventral C1 arch and odontoid process for decompression of the ventral spinal cord and medulla. Dural repairs were successfully performed using multilayered, onlay techniques where required. Both patients tolerated surgery exceedingly well, had brief postoperative hospital stays, and recovered uneventfully to their neurologic baselines. Postoperative magnetic resonance imaging confirmed complete decompression of the foramen magnum and upper C-spine. These cases illustrate the advantages and low morbidity of the endonasal endoscopic approach to the craniocervical junction in the setting of frank skull base infection and immunosuppression, representing to our knowledge a unique application of this technique to osteomyelitis and epidural abscess at the craniocervical junction. PMID:26251807

  1. Dual-Port 2D and 3D Endoscopy: Expanding the Limits of the Endonasal Approaches to Midline Skull Base Lesions with Lateral Extension

    PubMed Central

    Beer-Furlan, Andre; Evins, Alexander I.; Rigante, Luigi; Anichini, Giulio; Stieg, Philip E.; Bernardo, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate a novel dual-port endonasal and subtemporal endoscopic approach targeting midline lesions with lateral extension beyond the intracavernous carotid artery anteriorly and the Dorello canal posteriorly. Methods Ten dual-port approaches were performed on five cadaveric heads. All specimens underwent an endoscopic endonasal approach from the sella to middle clivus. The endonasal port was combined with an anterior or posterior endoscopic extradural subtemporal approach. The anterior subtemporal port was placed directly above the middle third of the zygomatic arch, and the posterior port was placed at its posterior root. The extradural space was explored using two-dimensional and three-dimensional endoscopes. Results The anterior subtemporal port complemented the endonasal port with direct access to the Meckel cave, lateral sphenoid sinus, superior orbital fissure, and lateral and posterosuperior compartments of the cavernous sinus; the posterior subtemporal port enhanced access to the petrous apex. Endoscopic dissection and instrument maneuverability were feasible and performed without difficulty in both the anterior and posterior subtemporal ports. Conclusion The anterior and posterior subtemporal ports enhanced exposure and control of the region lateral to the carotid artery and Dorello canal. Dual-port neuroendoscopy is still minimally invasive yet dramatically increases surgical maneuverability while enhancing visualization and control of anatomical structures. PMID:25072012

  2. Nonendoscopic endonasal dacryocystorhinostomy: Outcome in 134 eyes

    PubMed Central

    Ganguly, Anasua; Videkar, Chetan; Goyal, Ritin; Rath, Suryasnata

    2016-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate the outcome of nonendoscopic endonasal dacryocystorhinostomy (NEN-DCR) in patients with nasolacrimal duct obstruction (NLDO) in India. Methods: Retrospective case series of NEN-DCR between July 2012 and October 2014. All patients had follow-up >3 months. Success was defined anatomically as patency on irrigation and functionally as relief from epiphora. Statistical Analysis Used: Fischer's exact test and Chi-square test. Results: A total of 122 patients (134 eyes; 81 female; mean age 37 ± 18 years) were included. Indications were primary acquired NLDO in 92 (68%) eyes of adults (>18 years), NLDO in children (<18 years) in 22 eyes (16%), acute dacryocystitis in 13 eyes, failed prior DCR in six eyes, and secondary acquired NLDO in one eye. Mean duration of surgery was 36 min (range: 16–92). At a median follow-up of 6 months (range: 3–15), 86% eyes had functional success and 85% had anatomical success. Revision NEN-DCR was successful in 13/16 eyes. All patients with acute dacryocystitis were completely symptom-free at final visit. In children, (17/22) 77% achieved functional success after primary NEN-DCR which improved to 100% after one revision. Tube-related epiphora and granuloma in ten eyes resolved after removal. Conclusion: NEN-DCR gives good outcome in primary NLDO and is also effective in those with acute dacryocystitis and in children with NLDO. The technique obviates the need for an endoscope and has an acceptable safety profile and thus may be particularly suited for the developing nations. PMID:27146931

  3. Primary Endonasal DCR Without Stent: Our Experience and Case Series Analysis.

    PubMed

    Raghuwanshi, Shiv Kumar; Raghuwanshi, Sapna; Agarwal, Mohit; Batni, Gaurav

    2015-09-01

    Endonasal dacryocystorhinostomy is widely accepted and effective treatment option for nasolacrimal duct obstruction. It can be done with or without the use of stents. This study was carried out to evaluate the results of endonasal DCR surgery and to access efficacy of this procedure without stenting. This is a prospective clinical study conducted in Departments of ENT and Ophthalmology, L.N. Medical College and J.K. Hospital, Bhopal from October 2008 to April 2012. A total of 90 patients with epiphora as evidenced by nasolacrimal duct blockage on syringing were included in the study. These patients underwent endoscopic DCR without stenting. The cases were followed up to 18 months postoperative. Surgical success was defined as anatomical patency and symptomatic relief at the end of the follow up period. Failure was defined as no symptomatic relief, and/or acute dacryocystitis, and/or non patent lacrimal drainage system. Surgical success was observed in 80 of 90 (88.89 %) patients. Incidence of complication was low as only 6 patients had minor complication of bleeding, synechie and granulation tissue formation. It was concluded that high success rates could be achieved in case of nasolacrimal duct obstruction by endoscopic DCR. Thus, we can minimize complications, discomfort, the cost of stenting and follow up visits after endonasal DCR surgery. PMID:26405663

  4. A checklist for endonasal transsphenoidal anterior skull base surgery.

    PubMed

    Laws, Edward R; Wong, Judith M; Smith, Timothy R; de Los Reyes, Kenneth; Aglio, Linda S; Thorne, Alison J; Cote, David J; Esposito, Felice; Cappabianca, Paolo; Gawande, Atul

    2016-06-01

    OBJECT Approximately 250 million surgical procedures are performed annually worldwide, and data suggest that major complications occur in 3%-17% of them. Many of these complications can be classified as avoidable, and previous studies have demonstrated that preoperative checklists improve operating room teamwork and decrease complication rates. Although the authors' institution has instituted a general preoperative "time-out" designed to streamline communication, flatten vertical authority gradients, and decrease procedural errors, there is no specific checklist for transnasal transsphenoidal anterior skull base surgery, with or without endoscopy. Such minimally invasive cranial surgery uses a completely different conceptual approach, set-up, instrumentation, and operative procedure. Therefore, it can be associated with different types of complications as compared with open cranial surgery. The authors hypothesized that a detailed, procedure-specific, preoperative checklist would be useful to reduce errors, improve outcomes, decrease delays, and maximize both teambuilding and operational efficiency. Thus, the object of this study was to develop such a checklist for endonasal transsphenoidal anterior skull base surgery. METHODS An expert panel was convened that consisted of all members of the typical surgical team for transsphenoidal endoscopic cases: neurosurgeons, anesthesiologists, circulating nurses, scrub technicians, surgical operations managers, and technical assistants. Beginning with a general checklist, procedure-specific items were added and categorized into 4 pauses: Anesthesia Pause, Surgical Pause, Equipment Pause, and Closure Pause. RESULTS The final endonasal transsphenoidal anterior skull base surgery checklist is composed of the following 4 pauses. The Anesthesia Pause consists of patient identification, diagnosis, pertinent laboratory studies, medications, surgical preparation, patient positioning, intravenous/arterial access, fluid management

  5. Three-Dimensional Hand-to-Gland Combat: The Future of Endoscopic Surgery?

    PubMed Central

    Nassimizadeh, A.; Muzaffar, S. J.; Nassimizadeh, M.; Beech, T.; Ahmed, S. K.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare two dimensional (2D), three-dimensional (3D) non–high-definition (HD), and 3D HD endoscopic surgical techniques. Methods We describe our initial operative experience with a novel 3D HD endoscopic endonasal approach involving a pituitary adenoma resection, provide a case series, and review the current literature. This is the first case in Europe using the new 3D HD endoscope. Results Although research evidence remains limited, there are no significant negative perioperative or postoperative outcomes when compared with 2D endoscopic techniques. In our experience the narrow operating corridors of endoscopic surgery cannot be addressed with 3D endoscopic techniques. The new 3D HD endoscope creates imaging quality similar to conventional 2D HD systems. Conclusion Three-dimensional endoscopic endonasal techniques provide an exciting new avenue, effectively addressing potential depth perception difficulties with current 2D systems. PMID:26623227

  6. Three-Dimensional Hand-to-Gland Combat: The Future of Endoscopic Surgery?

    PubMed

    Nassimizadeh, A; Muzaffar, S J; Nassimizadeh, M; Beech, T; Ahmed, S K

    2015-11-01

    Objective To compare two dimensional (2D), three-dimensional (3D) non-high-definition (HD), and 3D HD endoscopic surgical techniques. Methods We describe our initial operative experience with a novel 3D HD endoscopic endonasal approach involving a pituitary adenoma resection, provide a case series, and review the current literature. This is the first case in Europe using the new 3D HD endoscope. Results Although research evidence remains limited, there are no significant negative perioperative or postoperative outcomes when compared with 2D endoscopic techniques. In our experience the narrow operating corridors of endoscopic surgery cannot be addressed with 3D endoscopic techniques. The new 3D HD endoscope creates imaging quality similar to conventional 2D HD systems. Conclusion Three-dimensional endoscopic endonasal techniques provide an exciting new avenue, effectively addressing potential depth perception difficulties with current 2D systems. PMID:26623227

  7. A New Irrigation System (Endosplash) for a Rigid Endoscope in Trans-sphenoidal Endoscopic Surgery

    PubMed Central

    KURODA, Rintarou; NAKAJIMA, Takeshi; YAMAGUCHI, Takashi; WATANABE, Eiju

    2016-01-01

    Obstruction of the visual field by blood is a major hindrance during endonasal endoscopic surgery, and a rapid and effective method for cleaning the lens is needed. We developed a new lens-cleaning system that does not employ a sheath or an irrigation-suction system. It is a 20-mm long cylinder with side holes that is attached to the barrel of the endoscope and is connected to a syringe containing saline. When the syringe is pressed, saline flows down to the tip along the barrel and washes the lens without requiring a sheath. We report the use of the system in six cases of endonasal endoscopic surgery. The lens was wiped significantly less often than during similar surgery performed without the use of this system. The Endosplash is simple and enables the surgeon to clean the lens with a single press of a syringe, thereby greatly enhancing the efficacy of endoscopic surgery. PMID:27063147

  8. Cervical Deuk Laser Disc Repair®: A novel, full-endoscopic surgical technique for the treatment of symptomatic cervical disc disease

    PubMed Central

    Deukmedjian, Ara J.; Cianciabella, Augusto; Cutright, Jason; Deukmedjian, Arias

    2012-01-01

    Background: Cervical Deuk Laser Disc Repair® is a novel full-endoscopic, anterior cervical, trans-discal, motion preserving, laser assisted, nonfusion, outpatient surgical procedure to safely treat symptomatic cervical disc diseases including herniation, spondylosis, stenosis, and annular tears. Here we describe a new endoscopic approach to cervical disc disease that allows direct visualization of the posterior longitudinal ligament, posterior vertebral endplates, annulus, neuroforamina, and herniated disc fragments. All patients treated with Deuk Laser Disc Repair were also candidates for anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). Methods: A total of 142 consecutive adult patients with symptomatic cervical disc disease underwent Deuk Laser Disc Repair during a 4-year period. This novel procedure incorporates a full-endoscopic selective partial decompressive discectomy, foraminoplasty, and posterior annular debridement. Postoperative complications and average volume of herniated disc fragments removed are reported. Results: All patients were successfully treated with cervical Deuk Laser Disc Repair. There were no postoperative complications. Average volume of herniated disc material removed was 0.09 ml. Conclusions: Potential benefits of Deuk Laser Disc Repair for symptomatic cervical disc disease include lower cost, smaller incision, nonfusion, preservation of segmental motion, outpatient, faster recovery, less postoperative analgesic use, fewer complications, no hardware failure, no pseudoarthrosis, no postoperative dysphagia, and no increased risk of adjacent segment disease as seen with fusion. PMID:23230523

  9. Endoscopic feature tracking for augmented-reality assisted prosthesis selection in mitral valve repair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelhardt, Sandy; Kolb, Silvio; De Simone, Raffaele; Karck, Matthias; Meinzer, Hans-Peter; Wolf, Ivo

    2016-03-01

    Mitral valve annuloplasty describes a surgical procedure where an artificial prosthesis is sutured onto the anatomical structure of the mitral annulus to re-establish the valve's functionality. Choosing an appropriate commercially available ring size and shape is a difficult decision the surgeon has to make intraoperatively according to his experience. In our augmented-reality framework, digitalized ring models are superimposed onto endoscopic image streams without using any additional hardware. To place the ring model on the proper position within the endoscopic image plane, a pose estimation is performed that depends on the localization of sutures placed by the surgeon around the leaflet origins and punctured through the stiffer structure of the annulus. In this work, the tissue penetration points are tracked by the real-time capable Lucas Kanade optical flow algorithm. The accuracy and robustness of this tracking algorithm is investigated with respect to the question whether outliers influence the subsequent pose estimation. Our results suggest that optical flow is very stable for a variety of different endoscopic scenes and tracking errors do not affect the position of the superimposed virtual objects in the scene, making this approach a viable candidate for annuloplasty augmented reality-enhanced decision support.

  10. Repair of esophageal atresia with proximal fistula using endoscopic magnetic compression anastomosis (magnamosis) after staged lengthening.

    PubMed

    Dorman, Robert M; Vali, Kaveh; Harmon, Carroll M; Zaritzky, Mario; Bass, Kathryn D

    2016-05-01

    We describe the treatment of a patient with long-gap esophageal atresia with an upper pouch fistula, mircogastria and minimal distal esophageal remnant. After 4.5 months of feeding via gastrostomy, a proximal fistula was identified by bronchoscopy and a thoracoscopic modified Foker procedure was performed reducing the gap from approximately 7-5 cm over 2 weeks of traction. A second stage to ligate the fistula and suture approximate the proximal and distal esophagus resulted in a gap of 1.5 cm. IRB and FDA approval was then obtained for endoscopic placement of 10-French catheter mounted magnets in the proximal and distal pouches promoting a magnetic compression anastomosis (magnamosis). Magnetic coupling occurred at 4 days and after magnet removal at 13 days an esophagram demonstrated a 10 French channel without leak. Serial endoscopic balloon dilation has allowed drainage of swallowed secretions as the baby learns bottling behavior at home. PMID:27012861

  11. Endoscopic epiglottopexy using Lichtenberger's needle carrier to avoid breakdown of repair.

    PubMed

    Sandu, Kishore; Monnier, Philippe; Reinhard, Antoine; Gorostidi, Francois

    2015-11-01

    Severe type III laryngomalacia LM is represented by a retroflexed epiglottis that touches the posterior pharyngeal wall and obstructs the laryngeal inlet. Endoscopic epiglottopexy is advised in such cases wherein pexy sutures are passed between the epiglottis and base of tongue. Using conventional needle carriers, it is difficult to pass such sutures that go deep enough into the tongue base. Such a pexy is prone to a break down. We describe a novel technique of placing these glossoepiglottic sutures using the Lichtenberger's needle carrier. We used this technique in three patients with excellent results and report no complications. We propose to use this technique in cases of epiglottic prolapse seen in severe LM and certain hypotonic conditions. PMID:26162449

  12. Advanced virtual endoscopic pituitary surgery.

    PubMed

    Neubauer, André; Wolfsberger, Stefan; Forster, Marie-Thérèse; Mroz, Lukas; Wegenkittl, Rainer; Bühler, Katja

    2005-01-01

    Endoscopy has recently been introduced to endonasal transsphenoidal pituitary surgery as a minimally invasive procedure for the removal of various kinds of pituitary tumors. To reduce morbidity and mortality with this new technique, the surgeon must be well-trained and well-prepared. Virtual endoscopy can be beneficial as a tool for training, preoperative planning, and intraoperative support. This paper introduces STEPS, a virtual endoscopy system designed to aid surgeons in getting acquainted with the endoscopic view of the anatomy, the handling of instruments, the transsphenoidal approach, and challenges associated with the procedure. STEPS also assists experienced surgeons in planning a real endoscopic intervention by getting familiar with the individual patient anatomy, identifying landmarks, planning the approach, and deciding upon the ideal target position of the actual surgical activity. The application provides interactive visualization, navigation, and perception aids and the possibility of simulating the procedure, including haptic feedback and simulation of surgical instruments. PMID:16144247

  13. Microsurgical endonasal decompression in dysthyroid orbitopathy.

    PubMed

    May, A; Fries, U; Reimold, I; Weber, A

    1999-01-01

    Diagnosis of thyroid eye disease can be established by its history, signs, symptoms, clinical and laboratory findings of an autoimmune thyroid disease. Therapy for this disease is limited to a few options, which should be administered depending on its stage and inflammatory activity. When medication and radiation therapy fail indications for decompression are: loss of visual acuity or visual field defects, increasing strabism and severe keratopathy due to eyelid retraction. Numerous surgical decompression techniques have been described in endocrine orbitopathy. We have adopted endonasal microsurgery, because this technique gives the freedom to work bimanually, ensures a stereomicoscopic view of the intranasal landmarks of orbital walls and allows simultaneous decompression of the medial and inferior orbital wall as well as a good relief of pressure at the orbital apex. Decompressions were performed on 27 orbits in 17 patients, via the endonasal microsurgical, 3 via external approach. The microscopic approach was entirely comparable with regard to reduction of proptosis with a mean improvement of 4.1 mm against a mean of 4.7 mm by external approach and a mean 0.2 of better visual acuity in both procedures. The microsurgical technique is considered superior to an external approach avoiding external scars, neural pains and reportedly less diplopia. Also, trauma to the nalolacrimal and nasofrontal ducts are avoided. The healing phase and the hospitalization time is shorter. PMID:10687942

  14. [Functional morphology of endonasal blood capillaries].

    PubMed

    Grevers, G

    1989-01-01

    Harvey (1628) was the first to describe the blood circulatory system. 50 years later, the capillary system was discovered by Marcello Malpighi as a link between arteries and veins. Since then, the microvascular network has been examined abundantly by means of various morphological and physiological techniques. During the last decades the development of the technical equipment enabled us to receive detailed informations on the structural and ultrastructural aspects of the vasculature and--particularly--the capillary endothelium. New electron microscopic investigations on the behaviour of this special cell system. In the present study we combined our own morphological results on the endonasal microcirculatory system--using different morphological techniques--to interpret these anatomical finding under functional aspects. PMID:2644502

  15. Laser-assisted surgery of endonasal diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sroka, Ronald; Leunig, Andreas; Janda, P.; Rosler, P.; Grevers, G.; Baumgartner, Reinhold

    2000-06-01

    Clinical studies were performed to assess the clinical outcome of laser assisted endonasal turbinate surgery in long-term. By means of a pulsed Ho:YAG laser emitting at (lambda) equals 2100nm 57 patients suffering form nasal obstruction due to allergic rhinitis and vasomotoric rhinitis were treated under local anesthesia. Furthermore 50 patients were treated by means of light of a diode laser. The light was fed into a fiber being introduced into a fiber guidance system which serves for suction of smoke and pyrolyse products. The distal part of this system could be bent in the range of -5 degrees up to 45 degrees due to the optical axes of the fiber. The study was conducted by a standardized questionnaire, photo documentation, allergy test, mucocilliar function test, rhinomanometry, radiology and histology. Within 2 weeks after laser treatment a significant improvement of nasal airflow correlating to the extent of the ablated turbinate tissue could be determined. This effect lasted up until 1 year post treatment resulting in an improved quality of life in more than 80 percent of the patients. Side effects like nasal dryness and pain were rare, no immediate complications were observed. The total treatment time took 3-8 minutes/turbinate and nasal packing was not necessary after the laser procedure. In conclusion laser treatment by means of the fiber guidance system can be performed as an outpatient procedure under local anesthesia with excellent ablation of soft tissue in a short treatment time with promising results. It will become a time and cost effective treatment modality in endonasal laser surgery.

  16. Endoscopic totally extraperitoneal (TEP) hernia repair for inguinal disruption (Sportsman's hernia): rationale and design of a prospective observational cohort study (TEP-ID-study)

    PubMed Central

    Voorbrood, C E H; Goedhart, E; Verleisdonk, E J M M; Sanders, F; Naafs, D; Burgmans, J P J

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Chronic inguinal pain is a frequently occurring problem in athletes. A diagnosis of inguinal disruption is performed by exclusion of other conditions causing groin pain. Up to now, conservative medical management is considered to be the primary treatment for this condition. Relevant large and prospective clinical studies regarding the treatment of inguinal disruption are limited; however, recent studies have shown the benefits of the totally extraperitoneal patch (TEP) technique. This study provides a complete assessment of the inguinal area in athletes with chronic inguinal pain before and after treatment with the TEP hernia repair technique. Methods and analysis We describe the rationale and design of an observational cohort study for surgical treatment with the endoscopic TEP hernia repair technique in athletes with a painful groin (inguinal disruption). The study is being conducted in a high-volume, single centre hospital with specialty in TEP hernia repair. Patients over 18 years, suffering from inguinal pain for at least 3 months during or after playing sports, and whom have not undergone previous inguinal surgery and have received no benefit from physiotherapy are eligible for inclusion. Patients with any another cause of inguinal pain, proven by physical examination, inguinal ultrasound, X-pelvis/hip or MRI are excluded. Primary outcome is reduction in pain after 3 months. Secondary outcomes are pain reduction, physical functioning, and resumption of sport (in frequency and intensity). Ethics and dissemination An unrestricted research grant for general study purposes was assigned to the Hernia Centre. This study itself is not directly subject to the above mentioned research grant or any other financial sponsorship. We intend to publish the outcome of the study, regardless of the findings. All authors will give final approval of the manuscript version to be published. PMID:26739740

  17. Interdomal Suture through a Nondelivery Endonasal Approach: A New Technique

    PubMed Central

    Leibou, Lior

    2016-01-01

    Background: The use of interdomal sutures for tip refinement is common in open rhinoplasty and in endonasal rhinoplasty using a delivery technique, but there is paucity of reports in the literature regarding the use of interdomal suturing techniques when the nondelivery endonasal approach is chosen. Objective: The authors describe a technique designed to refine the nasal tip with an interdomal suture placed through a nondelivery endonasal approach. Methods: In this study, the authors retrospectively review the cases of 45 patients who underwent endonasal rhinoplasty with the authors’ interdomal suturing technique between the years 2011 and 2013. The average age of the patients was 25.3 years. Intercrural sutures (PDS 4.0 straight needle, Cincinnati, Ohio) were placed as mattress-like suture in the tip region, with the knot buried between both alar cartilages. The suture is tightened progressively according to the tip definition and narrowing sought. Results: The patients were followed for 12 months. All of the patients demonstrated a significant reduction in lobule and tip widths. This series had only 1 complication of tip asymmetry that was revised 1 year after the initial operation. There were no cases of infection, allergic reaction, or extrusion of the suture. Conclusions: Despite the lack of a large volume of patients, our study confirms that this technique is indeed an attractive and highly predictable option for achieving adequate tip refinement and definition when using a nondelivery endonasal rhinoplasty. PMID:27622086

  18. Endoscopic ultrasound

    MedlinePlus

    Endoscopic ultrasound is a type of imaging test. It is used to see organs in and near the digestive ... Ultrasound is a way to see the inside of the body using high-frequency sound waves. Endoscopic ...

  19. Endoscopic Ankle Lateral Ligament Graft Anatomic Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Michels, Frederick; Cordier, Guillaume; Guillo, Stéphane; Stockmans, Filip

    2016-09-01

    Chronic instability is a common complication of lateral ankle sprains. If nonoperative treatment fails, a surgical repair or reconstruction may be indicated. Today, endoscopic techniques to treat ankle instability are becoming more popular. This article describes an endoscopic technique, using a step-by-step approach, to reconstruct the ATFL and CFL with a gracilis graft. The endoscopic technique is reproducible and safe with regard to the surrounding anatomic structures. Short and midterm results confirm the benefits of this technique. PMID:27524711

  20. Purely endoscopic trans-nasal management of orbital intraconal cavernous haemangiomas: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Lenzi, Riccardo; Bleier, Benjamin S; Felisati, Giovanni; Muscatello, Luca

    2016-09-01

    The surgical management of medial and inferior orbital lesions is demanding via traditional external approach, since the conic-shaped surgical field is narrow and damage to neural, muscular or vascular structures of the orbit can have serious consequences. In recent years, the evolution of endoscopic endonasal approaches for lesions that goes beyond the nose brought the orbit to the attention of rhinosurgeons. If procedures such as transnasal orbital decompression and lacrimal pathways surgery have been described some decades ago, the last frontier of transnasal orbital surgery, namely intraconal tumor surgery, is a new and rapidly expanding field. Papers describing endoscopic endonasal approaches to the orbit appeared in the international literature, but most of them contain a small number of cases, also because the relatively rarity of intraorbital lesions. We herein report the results of a systematic review of the literature regarding the endoscopic endonasal approach to intraconal cavernous haemangiomas, the most common benign orbital lesion. The endoscopic management of intraconal cavernous haemangiomas results feasible and safe. A critical step of this kind of surgery is the management of the medial rectus muscle, mandatory to expose the intraconal space. PMID:26210157

  1. Application of endoscopic techniques in orbital blowout fractures.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shu; Li, Yinwei; Fan, Xianqun

    2013-09-01

    Minimally invasive surgical techniques, particularly endoscopic techniques, have revolutionized otolaryngeal surgery. Endoscopic techniques have been gradually applied in orbital surgery through the sinus inferomedial to the orbit and the orbital subperiosteal space. Endoscopic techniques help surgeons observe fractures and soft tissue of the posterior orbit to precisely place implants and protect vital structures through accurate, safe, and minimally invasive approaches. We reviewed the development of endoscopic techniques, the composition of endoscopic systems for orbital surgery, and the problems and developmental prospects of endoscopic techniques for simple orbital wall fracture repair. PMID:23794028

  2. Evolving endoscopic surgery.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Paulo; Faintuch, Joel

    2014-06-01

    Since the days of Albukasim in medieval Spain, natural orifices have been regarded not only as a rather repugnant source of bodily odors, fluids and excreta, but also as a convenient invitation to explore and treat the inner passages of the organism. However, surgical ingenuity needed to be matched by appropriate tools and devices. Lack of technologically advanced instrumentation was a strong deterrent during almost a millennium until recent decades when a quantum jump materialized. Endoscopic surgery is currently a vibrant and growing subspecialty, which successfully handles millions of patients every year. Additional opportunities lie ahead which might benefit millions more, however, requiring even more sophisticated apparatuses, particularly in the field of robotics, artificial intelligence, and tissue repair (surgical suturing). This is a particularly exciting and worthwhile challenge, namely of larger and safer endoscopic interventions, followed by seamless and scarless recovery. In synthesis, the future is widely open for those who use together intelligence and creativity to develop new prototypes, new accessories and new techniques. Yet there are many challenges in the path of endoscopic surgery. In this new era of robotic endoscopy, one will likely need a virtual simulator to train and assess the performance of younger doctors. More evidence will be essential in multiple evolving fields, particularly to elucidate whether more ambitious and complex pathways, such as intrathoracic and intraperitoneal surgery via natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES), are superior or not to conventional techniques. PMID:24628672

  3. Chicken wing training model for endoscopic microsurgery.

    PubMed

    Jusue-Torres, Ignacio; Sivakanthan, Sananthan; Pinheiro-Neto, Carlos Diogenes; Gardner, Paul A; Snyderman, Carl H; Fernandez-Miranda, Juan C

    2013-10-01

    Objectives To present and validate a chicken wing model for endoscopic endonasal microsurgical skill development. Setting A surgical environment was constructed using a Styrofoam box and measurements from radiological studies. Endoscopic visualization and instrumentation were utilized in a manner to mimic operative setting. Design Five participants were instructed to complete four sequential tasks: (1) opening the skin, (2) exposing the main artery in its neurovascular sheath, (3) opening the neurovascular sheath, and (4) separating the nerve from the artery. Time to completion of each task was recorded. Participants Three junior attendings, one senior resident, and one medical student were recruited internally. Main Outcome Measures Time to perform the surgical tasks measured in seconds. Results The average time of the first training session was 48.8 minutes; by the 10th training session, the average time was 22.4 minutes. The range of improvement was 25.7 minutes to 72.4 minutes. All five participants exhibited statistically significant decrease in time after 10 trials. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that an improvement of 50% was achieved by an average of five attempts at the 95% confidence interval. Conclusions The ex vivo chicken wing model is an inexpensive and relatively realistic model to train endoscopic dissection using microsurgical techniques. PMID:24436926

  4. Quality of life following endonasal skull base surgery.

    PubMed

    Pant, Harshita; Bhatki, Amol M; Snyderman, Carl H; Vescan, Allan D; Carrau, Ricardo L; Gardner, Paul; Prevedello, Daniel; Kassam, Amin B

    2010-01-01

    The importance of quality of life (QOL) outcomes following treatments for head and neck tumors are now increasingly appreciated and measured to improve medical and surgical care for these patients. An understanding of the definitions in the setting of health care and the use of appropriate QOL instruments and measures are critical to obtain meaningful information that guides decision making in various aspects of patient health care. QOL outcomes following cranial base surgery is only recently being defined. In this article, we describe the current published data on QOL outcomes following cranial base surgery and provide preliminary prospective data on QOL outcomes and sinonasal morbidity in patients who underwent endonasal cranial base surgery for management of various skull base tumors at our institution. We used a disease-specific multidimensional instrument to measure QOL outcomes in these patients. Our results show that although sinonasal morbidity is increased, this is temporary, and the vast majority of patients have a very good QOL by 4 to 6 months after endonasal approach to the cranial base. PMID:20592856

  5. [Endonasal Dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) with Transcanalicular Endoillumination (TCE) of the Saccus Lacrimalis].

    PubMed

    Hefner, J; Klask, J; Gerding, H

    2016-04-01

    Endonasal dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) has been established as a standard procedure of lacrimal surgery, since it causes much less tissue damage than ab externo procedures. Diffiulties in visualization of the target area has been a limitation to the transnasal approach. An improvement of the classical endonasal DCR was achieved by the introduction of a transcanalicular endoillumination (TCE) of the lacrimal sac using a 23-Gauge vitreoretinal light probe, which can easily be intubated into the cannaliculi and advanced into the the lacrimal sac. Illumination of the lacrimal sac guides the endonasal approach and facilitates the creation of a lacrimal bypass. In our standard procedure a bicanalicular silicone intubation through the osteotomy is finally placed. Due to the introduction of TCE of the lacrimal sac, the surgical procedure of endonasal DCR became less traumatic and needed a significantly reduced operating time. PMID:27116496

  6. Visual Outcomes after Endoscopic Endonasal Approach for Craniopharyngioma: The Pittsburgh Experience.

    PubMed

    Stefko, S Tonya; Snyderman, Carl; Fernandez-Miranda, Juan; Tyler-Kabara, Elizabeth; Wang, Eric; Bodily, Lance; Bilonick, Richard A; Gardner, Paul A

    2016-08-01

    This series of patients has been published in the neurosurgical literature earlier this year, detailing multiple aspects of both the surgical technique and postoperative outcomes. Our aim in this series is not to revisit all the aspects of this publication, but rather to analyze more specifically the benefits of this procedure as it pertains to the preservation of neurological structures of vision-specifically the optic chiasm-and provide a more detailed analysis of visual outcomes in these patients. PMID:27441158

  7. Endoscopic endonasal resection of clival xanthoma: case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    González-García, Laura; Asenjo-García, Beatriz; Bautista-Ojeda, María Dolores; Domínguez-Páez, Miguel; Romero-Moreno, Lorena; Martín-Gallego, Álvaro; Arráez-Sánchez, Miguel Ángel

    2015-10-01

    Bone xanthoma is an extremely rare and benign tumor in terms of its nature and growth over time. We describe the first case coexisting with ventriculomegaly secondary to aqueduct stenosis (non-tumoral hydrocephalus), the second xanthoma of the clivus described to date. The patient was a 51-year-old woman with headaches and absence seizures. Axial T1-weighted MRI showed a well-demarcated, hypointense, osteolytic, 25 × 18 × 15 mm lesion with cortical erosion located at the right margin of the clivus. Sagittal T2-weighted MRI demonstrated a hypointense mass without associated edema. Sagittal gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted MRI showed contrast uptake with a partially hypointense rim. The increased ventricular size without periventricular edema was associated with aqueduct stenosis, and there was no contiguity with the tumor. A neuronavigation image-guided transsphenoidal approach was chosen to perform a macroscopically complete resection. Intraoperative histopathological study showed a chordoma of the clivus. Exhaustive postsurgical study revealed the benign nature of a bone xanthoma. Given the finding of a clival lesion, the differential diagnosis is essentially with other malignant entities with a rapidly fatal outcome, such as metastases, or with a possible invasive evolution, such as clivus chordomas. This report describes the clinical, radiological, and pathological keys for such differentiation in order to avoid unnecessarily aggressive treatment with ablative surgery and radiotherapy. PMID:25820465

  8. Danger points, complications and medico-legal aspects in endoscopic sinus surgery

    PubMed Central

    Hosemann, W.; Draf, C.

    2013-01-01

    Endoscopic endonasal sinus surgery represents the overall accepted type of surgical treatment for chronic rhinosinusitis. Notwithstanding raised and still evolving quality standards, surgeons performing routine endoscopic interventions are faced with minor complications in 5% and major complications in 0.5–1%. A comprehensive review on all minor and major complications of endoscopic surgery of the paranasal sinuses and also on the anterior skull base is presented listing the actual scientific literature. The pathogenesis, signs and symptoms of each complication are reviewed and therapeutic regimens are discussed in detail relating to actual publication references. Potential medico-legal aspects are explicated and recent algorithms of avoidance are mentioned taking into account options in surgical training and education. PMID:24403974

  9. Brief history of endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery--from Philipp Bozzini to the First World Congress of Endoscopic Skull Base Surgery.

    PubMed

    Doglietto, Francesco; Prevedello, Daniel M; Jane, John A; Han, Joseph; Laws, Edward R

    2005-12-15

    Since its inception, one of the major issues in transsphenoidal surgery has been the adequate visualization of anatomical structures. As transsphenoidal surgery evolved, technical advancements improved the surgical view of the operative field and the orientation. The operating microscope replaced Cushing's headlight and Dott's lighted speculum retractor, and fluoroscopy provided intraoperative imaging. These advances led to the modern concept of microsurgical transsphenoidal procedures in the early 1970s. For the past 30 years the endoscope has been used for the treatment of diseases of the sinus and, more recently, in the surgical treatment of pituitary tumors. The collaboration between neurological and otorhinolaryngological surgeons has led to the development of novel surgical procedures for the treatment of various pathological conditions in the skull base. In this paper the authors review the history of the endoscope--its technical development and its application--from the first endoscope described by Philipp Bozzini to the First World Congress of Endoscopic Skull Base Surgery held in 2005 in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Specifically, in this review the history of endoscopy and its application in endonasal neurosurgery are presented. PMID:16398480

  10. Simulation Training for Vascular Emergencies in Endoscopic Sinus and Skull Base Surgery.

    PubMed

    Valentine, Rowan; Padhye, Vikram; Wormald, Peter-John

    2016-06-01

    Carotid artery injury during endonasal surgery is a feared and potentially catastrophic complication. Simulation training provides the opportunity for a realistic experience with management of major vascular injuries. The sheep model of carotid artery injury reproduces the challenges of dealing with vascular emergencies during endoscopic sinus and skull base surgery, which include working in narrow nasal confines, high-flow/high-pressure vascular injury, and the immediately challenging surgical field. Simulated vascular emergencies allow for research and development; training using various surgical techniques to control the field, including hemostatic products or direct vascular closure techniques; and consequently improved patient care and outcomes. PMID:27267032

  11. Microbiological monitoring of endoscopes: 5-year review.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Elizabeth E; Kotsanas, Despina; Stuart, Rhonda L

    2008-07-01

    Periodic microbiological monitoring of endoscopes is a recommendation of the Gastroenterological Society of Australia (GENSA). The aim of monitoring has been to provide quality assurance of the cleaning and disinfection of endoscopes; however, there is controversy regarding its frequency. This lack of consensus stimulated a review of the experience within our health service. At Southern Health, routine microbiological sampling has involved 4-weekly monitoring of bronchoscopes, duodenoscopes and automated flexible endoscope reprocessors (AFER), and 3-monthly monitoring of all other gastrointestinal endoscopes. Records of testing were reviewed from 1 January 2002 until 31 December 2006. A literature review was conducted, cost analysis performed and positive cultures investigated. There were 2374 screening tests performed during the 5-year period, including 287 AFER, 631 bronchoscopes for mycobacteria and 1456 endoscope bacterial screens. There were no positive results of the AFER or bronchoscopes for mycobacteria. Of the 1456 endoscopic bacterial samples, six were positive; however, retesting resulted in no growth. The overall cost of tests performed and cost in time for nursing staff to collect the samples was estimated at $AUD 100,400. Periodic monitoring of endoscopes is both time-consuming and costly. Our review demonstrates that AFER (Soluscope) perform well in cleaning endoscopes. Based on our 5-year experience, assurance of quality for endoscopic use could be achieved through process control as opposed to product control. Maintenance of endoscopes and AFER should be in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions and microbiological testing performed on commissioning, annually and following repair. Initial prompt manual leak testing and manual cleaning followed by mechanical leak testing, cleaning and disinfection should be the minimum standard in reprocessing of endoscopes. PMID:18086113

  12. Endoscopic Sinus Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... The nasal endoscope is a small, lighted metal telescope placed into the nostril. The endoscope allows the ... sinus surgery involves the use of a small telescope (nasal endoscope) that is inserted through the nostril ...

  13. Localization of Transcranial Targets for Photoacoustic-Guided Endonasal Surgeries.

    PubMed

    Lediju Bell, Muyinatu A; Ostrowski, Anastasia K; Li, Ke; Kazanzides, Peter; Boctor, Emad M

    2015-06-01

    Neurosurgeries to remove pituitary tumors using the endonasal, transsphenoidal approach often incur the risk of patient death caused by injury to the carotid arteries hidden by surrounding sphenoid bone. To avoid this risk, we propose intraoperative photoacoustic vessel visualization with an optical fiber attached to the surgical tool and an external ultrasound transducer placed on the temple. Vessel detection accuracy is limited by acoustic propagation properties, which were investigated with k-Wave simulations. In a two-layer model of temporal bone (3200 m/s sound speed, 1-4 mm thickness) and surrounding tissues, the localization error was ≤2 mm in the tranducer's axial dimension, while temporal bone curvature further degraded target localization. Phantom experiments revealed that multiple image targets (e.g. sphenoid bone and vessels) can be visualized, particularly with coherence-based beamforming, to determine tool-to-vessel proximity despite expected localization errors. In addition, the potential flexibility of the fiber position relative to the transducer and vessel was elucidated. PMID:26236644

  14. An Experimental Feasibility Study on Robotic Endonasal Telesurgery

    PubMed Central

    Wirz, Raul; Torres, Luis; Swaney, Philip; Gilbert, Hunter; Alterovitz, Ron; Webster, Robert J.; Weaver, Kyle D.; Russell, Paul T.

    2014-01-01

    Background Novel robots have recently been developed specifically for endonasal surgery. They can deliver several thin, tentacle-like surgical instruments through a single nostril. Among the many potential advantages of such a robotic system is the prospect of telesurgery over long distances. Objective To describe a phantom pituitary tumor removal done by a surgeon in Nashville, Tennessee, controlling a robot located approximately 800 km away in Chapel Hill, North Carolina. This is the first remote telesurgery experiment involving tentacle-like concentric tube manipulators. Methods A phantom pituitary tumor removal experiment was conducted twice – once locally and once remotely – using the robotic system. Robot commands and video were transmitted across the Internet. The latency of the system was evaluated quantitatively in both local and remote cases to determine the effect of the 800 km between the surgeon and robot. Results We measured a control and video latency of less than 100 ms in the remote case. Qualitatively, the surgeon was able to carry out the experiment easily, and observed no discernable difference between the remote and local cases. Conclusion Telesurgery over long distances is feasible with this robotic system. In the longer term, this may enable expert skull base surgeons to help many more patients by performing surgeries remotely over long distances. PMID:25599203

  15. Advances in endonasal low intensity laser irradiation therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Jian-Ling; Liu, Timon C.; Liu, Jiang; Cui, Li-Ping; Liu, Song-hao

    2005-07-01

    Endonasal low intensity laser therapy (ELILT) began in China in 1998. Now in China it is widely applied to treat hyperlipidemia and brain diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, insomnia, poststroke depression, intractable headache, ache in head or face, cerebral thrombosis, acute ischemic cerebrovascular disease, migraine, brain lesion and mild cognitive impairment. There are four pathways mediating EILILT, Yangming channel, autonomic nervous systems and blood cells. Two unhealth acupoints of Yangming channal inside nose might mediate the one as is low intensity laser acupuncture. Unbalance autonomic nervous systems might be modulated. Blood cells might mediate the one as is intravascular low intensity laser therapy. These three pathways are integrated in ELILT so that serum amyloid β protein, malformation rate of erythrocyte, CCK-8, the level of viscosity at lower shear rates and hematocrit, or serum lipid might decrease, and melanin production/SOD activity or β endorphin might increase after ELILT treatment. These results indicate ELILT might work, but it need to be verified by randomized placebo-controlled trial.

  16. Localization of Transcranial Targets for Photoacoustic-Guided Endonasal Surgeries

    PubMed Central

    Lediju Bell, Muyinatu A.; Ostrowski, Anastasia K.; Li, Ke; Kazanzides, Peter; Boctor, Emad M.

    2015-01-01

    Neurosurgeries to remove pituitary tumors using the endonasal, transsphenoidal approach often incur the risk of patient death caused by injury to the carotid arteries hidden by surrounding sphenoid bone. To avoid this risk, we propose intraoperative photoacoustic vessel visualization with an optical fiber attached to the surgical tool and an external ultrasound transducer placed on the temple. Vessel detection accuracy is limited by acoustic propagation properties, which were investigated with k-Wave simulations. In a two-layer model of temporal bone (3200 m/s sound speed, 1-4 mm thickness) and surrounding tissues, the localization error was ≤2 mm in the tranducer's axial dimension, while temporal bone curvature further degraded target localization. Phantom experiments revealed that multiple image targets (e.g. sphenoid bone and vessels) can be visualized, particularly with coherence-based beamforming, to determine tool-to-vessel proximity despite expected localization errors. In addition, the potential flexibility of the fiber position relative to the transducer and vessel was elucidated. PMID:26236644

  17. Endoscopic neurosurgery.

    PubMed

    Auer, L M; Holzer, P; Ascher, P W; Heppner, F

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes an ultrasound-guided, laser-assisted, and TV-controlled endoscopic technique which has been used so far in 133 patients for a variety of intracranial lesions. Following CT or MRI image reconstruction, and a decision on the placement of a 1 cm or a 2 cm burrhole, a 1 cm 5.0 mHz or 7.5 mHz intraoperative ultrasound probe is used to direct the endoscope from the burrhole to the target area. A 22.5 cm long rigid endoscope tube with an outer diameter of 6 mm with an inbuilt suction irrigation system, Neodymium Yag laser with 600 micron Quartz glass-fibre and an inlet for various microinstruments is then introduced. The attachment of a TV camera to the ocular lens allows the operator to control further surgical steps in the target area via the TV screen and thus warrants sterility in the operating field. The technique has been used for evacuation of 77 spontaneous intracerebral haematomas (lobar, putaminal, thalamic), 8 traumatic intracerebral haematomas, 13 ventricular haematomas, 8 cerebellar haematomas and 1 brainstem haematoma. Total or subtotal evacuation was achieved in 33% of intracerebral haematomas, removal of more than 50% of the clot in 55%. Twenty-four brain tumours (12 ventricular, 12 cystic cerebral or cerebellar tumours) were operated on for biopsy, evacuation of cyst, resection or removal of the cyst wall and/or laser irradiation of solid tumour or the inner cyst wall of cystic tumours. The complication rate probably related to surgery was 1.6%, morbidity 1.6%, mortality 0%. This high-tec endoscopic technique with its minimal surgical trauma and short operation time can be recommended as a low-risk alternative to conventional neurosurgical techniques. PMID:3278501

  18. Endoscopic Cyclophotocoagulation

    PubMed Central

    Seibold, Leonard K.; SooHoo, Jeffrey R.; Kahook, Malik Y.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, many new procedures and implants have been introduced as safer alternatives for the surgical treatment of glaucoma. The majority of these advances are implant-based with a goal of increased aqueous drainage to achieve lower intraocular pressure (IOP). In contrast, endoscopic cyclophotocoagulation (ECP) lowers IOP through aqueous suppression. Although ciliary body ablation is a well-established method of aqueous suppression, the novel endoscopic approach presents a significant evolution of this treatment with marked improvement in safety. The endoscope couples a light source, video imaging, and diode laser to achieve direct visualization of the ciliary processes during controlled laser application. The result is an efficient and safe procedure that can achieve a meaningful reduction in IOP and eliminate or reduce glaucoma medication use. From its initial use in refractory glaucoma, the indications for ECP have expanded broadly to include many forms of glaucoma across the spectrum of disease severity. The minimally-invasive nature of ECP allows for easy pairing with phacoemulsification in patients with coexisting cataract. In addition, the procedure avoids implant or device-related complications associated with newer surgical treatments. In this review, we illustrate the differences between ECP and traditional cyclophotocoagulation, then describe the instrumentation, patient selection, and technique for ECP. Finally, we summarize the available clinical evidence regarding the efficacy and safety of this procedure. PMID:25624669

  19. Endoscopic cyclophotocoagulation.

    PubMed

    Seibold, Leonard K; SooHoo, Jeffrey R; Kahook, Malik Y

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, many new procedures and implants have been introduced as safer alternatives for the surgical treatment of glaucoma. The majority of these advances are implant-based with a goal of increased aqueous drainage to achieve lower intraocular pressure (IOP). In contrast, endoscopic cyclophotocoagulation (ECP) lowers IOP through aqueous suppression. Although ciliary body ablation is a well-established method of aqueous suppression, the novel endoscopic approach presents a significant evolution of this treatment with marked improvement in safety. The endoscope couples a light source, video imaging, and diode laser to achieve direct visualization of the ciliary processes during controlled laser application. The result is an efficient and safe procedure that can achieve a meaningful reduction in IOP and eliminate or reduce glaucoma medication use. From its initial use in refractory glaucoma, the indications for ECP have expanded broadly to include many forms of glaucoma across the spectrum of disease severity. The minimally-invasive nature of ECP allows for easy pairing with phacoemulsification in patients with coexisting cataract. In addition, the procedure avoids implant or device-related complications associated with newer surgical treatments. In this review, we illustrate the differences between ECP and traditional cyclophotocoagulation, then describe the instrumentation, patient selection, and technique for ECP. Finally, we summarize the available clinical evidence regarding the efficacy and safety of this procedure. PMID:25624669

  20. Transnasal, intracranial penetrating injury treated endoscopically.

    PubMed

    Cetinkaya, Erdem Atalay; Okan, Cinemre; Pelin, Kesapli

    2006-04-01

    Intracranial penetrating injury through the nose is uncommon. We present the case of a four-year-old girl who sustained a transnasal, intracranial penetrating injury with a sharp wooden object. We performed endoscopic removal of the foreign body and repair of the associated cerebrospinal fluid fistula. PMID:16623978

  1. Endoscopic Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Sokolov, Konstantin; Sung, Kung-Bin; Collier, Tom; Clark, Anne; Arifler, Dizem; Lacy, Alicia; Descour, Michael; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

    2002-01-01

    In vivo endoscopic optical microscopy provides a tool to assess tissue architecture and morphology with contrast and resolution similar to that provided by standard histopathology – without need for physical tissue removal. In this article, we focus on optical imaging technologies that have the potential to dramatically improve the detection, prevention, and therapy of epithelial cancers. Epithelial pre-cancers and cancers are associated with a variety of morphologic, architectural, and molecular changes, which currently can be assessed only through invasive, painful biopsy. Optical imaging is ideally suited to detecting cancer-related alterations because it can detect biochemical and morphologic alterations with sub-cellular resolution throughout the entire epithelial thickness. Optical techniques can be implemented non-invasively, in real time, and at low cost to survey the tissue surface at risk. Our manuscript focuses primarily on modalities that currently are the most developed: reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) and optical coherence tomography (OCT). However, recent advances in fluorescence-based endoscopic microscopy also are reviewed briefly. We discuss the basic principles of these emerging technologies and their current and potential applications in early cancer detection. We also present research activities focused on development of exogenous contrast agents that can enhance the morphological features important for cancer detection and that have the potential to allow vital molecular imaging of cancer-related biomarkers. In conclusion, we discuss future improvements to the technology needed to develop robust clinical devices. PMID:14646041

  2. Endoscopic approaches to brainstem cavernous malformations: Case series and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Nikhil R.; Thawani, Jayesh P.; Sanborn, Matthew R.; Storm, Phillip B.; Lee, John Y.K.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Symptomatic cavernous malformations involving the brainstem are frequently difficult to access via traditional methods. Conventional skull-base approaches require significant brain retraction or bone removal to provide an adequate operative corridor. While there has been a trend toward limited employment of the most invasive surgical approaches, recent advances in endoscopic technology may complement existing methods to access these difficult to reach areas. Case Descriptions: Four consecutive patients were treated for symptomatic, hemorrhagic brainstem cavernous malformations via fully endoscopic approaches (endonasal, transclival; retrosigmoid; lateral supracerebellar, infratentorial; endonasal, transclival). Together, these lesions encompassed all three segments of the brainstem. Three of the patients had complete resection of the cavernous malformation, while one patient had stable residual at long-term follow up. Associated developmental venous anomalies were preserved in the two patients where one was identified preoperatively. Three of the four patients maintained stable or improved neurological examinations following surgery, while one patient experienced ipsilateral palsies of cranial nerves VII and VIII. The first transclival approach resulted in a symptomatic cerebrospinal fluid leak requiring re-operation, but the second did not. Although there are challenges associated with endoscopic approaches, relative to our prior microsurgical experience with similar cases, visualization and illumination of the surgical corridors were superior without significant limitations on operative mobility. Conclusion: The endoscope is a promising adjunct to the neurosurgeon's ability to approach difficult to access brainstem cavernous malformations. It allows the surgeon to achieve well-illuminated, panoramic views, and by combining approaches, can provide minimally invasive access to most regions of the brainstem. PMID:25984383

  3. Lateral intercrural suture in the caucasian nose: Decreased domal divergence angle in endonasal rhinoplasty without delivery

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Cezar Augusto Sarraf; Mocelin, Marcos; Soares, Caio Márcio Correia; Pasinato, Rogério; Frota, Andreia Ellery

    2012-01-01

    Summary Introduction: Several techniques can be performed to improve nasal tip definition such as cartilage resection, tip grafts, or sutures. Objctive: To evaluate the outcome of lateral intercrural suture at the lower lateral cartilage by endonasal rhinoplasty with a basic technique without delivery in decreasing the angle of domal divergence and improving the nasal tip definition. Method: This prospective study was performed in 64 patients in which a suture was made on the board head of the lower lateral cartilage in the joint between the dome and lateral crus, using polydioxanone (PDS) with sharp, curved needle. Results: In all of the cases, better definition of the nasal tip was achieved by intercrural suturing for at least 6 months postoperatively. Conclusion: Lateral intercrural suture of the lower lateral cartilage provides improved nasal tip definition and can be performed by endonasal rhinoplasty without delivery in the Caucasian nose. PMID:25991941

  4. Morphological Characteristics of the Sphenoid Sinus and Endoscopic Localization of the Cavernous Sinus.

    PubMed

    Yang, Youxiong; Zhan, Guowen; Liao, Jianchun; Dang, Ruishan; Wang, Hongli; Li, Yang; Zhang, Xiaote

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the morphological characteristics of the sphenoid sinus and endoscopic localization of the cavernous sinus (CS) using an extended endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approach. Thirty sides of CS in 15 adult cadaver heads were dissected to simulate the extended endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approach, and the morphology of the sphenoid sinus and anatomic structures of CS were observed. The opticocarotid recess (OCR), ophthalmomaxillary recess (V1V2R), and maxillomandibular recess (V2V3R) in the lateral wall of the sphenoid sinus were presented in 16 sides (53.3%), 6 sides (20%), and 4 sides (13.3%) of the 30 sides, respectively. OCR is a constant anatomic landmark in endoscopy and coincides with the anterior portion of the clinoidal triangle. The C-shaped internal carotid artery (ICA) in the lateral wall of the sphenoid sinus was presented in 11 sides (36.7%), the upper one-third of which corresponds to the middle portion of the clinoidal triangle, and the lower two-thirds of which correlates to the supratrochlear triangle, infratrochlear triangle, and ophthalmic nerve in CS, around which the medial, lateral, and anteroinferior interspaces are distributed. From a front-to-behind perspective, the C-shaped ICA consists of inferior horizontal segment, anterior vertical segment, clinoidal segment as well as partial subarachnoid segment of the ICA. OCR and C-shaped ICA in the lateral wall of the sphenoid sinus are the 2 reliable anatomic landmarks in the intraoperative location of the parasellar region of CS. PMID:26221856

  5. Recent Advanced Endoscopic Management of Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography Related Duodenal Perforations

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seon Mee

    2016-01-01

    The management strategy for endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography-related duodenal perforation can be determined based on the site and extent of injury, the patient’s condition, and time to diagnosis. Most cases of perivaterian or bile duct perforation can be managed with a biliary stent or nasobiliary drainage. Duodenal wall perforations had been treated with immediate surgical repair. However, with the development of endoscopic devices and techniques, endoscopic closure has been reported to be a safe and effective treatment that uses through-the-scope clips, ligation band, fibrin glue, endoclips and endoloops, an over-the-scope clipping device, suturing devices, covering luminal stents, and open-pore film drainage. Endoscopic therapy could be instituted in selected patients in whom perforation was identified early or during the procedure. Early diagnosis, proper conservative management, and effective endoscopic closure are required for favorable outcomes of non-surgical management. If endoscopic treatment fails, or in the cases of clinical deterioration, prompt surgical management should be considered. PMID:27484814

  6. Combined Endoscopic and Percutaneous Treatment of a Duodenocutaneous Fistula Using an Amplatzer Septal Occluder

    SciTech Connect

    Boulougouri, K.; Theodoropoulos, Emmanouil Karydas, G.; Tachtaras, E.; Hatzinikolaou, A.; Georgountzos, V.

    2009-03-15

    We describe an innovative interventional technique for the repair of a postoperative enterocutaneous fistula (ECF). In the reported case, surgical repair of the ECF was contraindicated, while endoscopic closure was unsuccessful. Correction of this high-outflow fistula was achieved using an Amplatzer septal occluder, which was deployed under simultaneous fluoroscopic and endoscopic guidance. The use of an Amplatzer septal occluder should be taken into consideration when there is a need to treat high-outflow ECF in patients who cannot undergo surgery.

  7. Endoscopic Evaluation of Swallowing (Endoscopy)

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Public / Speech, Language and Swallowing / Swallowing Endoscopic Evaluation of Swallowing (Endoscopy) Do you have problems swallowing? ... Some names you might hear are: Endoscopy Endoscopic Evaluation of swallowing FEES (Fiberoptic Endoscopic Evaluation of Swallowing) ...

  8. Feasibility of purely endoscopic intramedullary fixation of mandibular condyle fractures.

    PubMed

    Frake, Paul C; Goodman, Joseph F; Joshi, Arjun S

    2015-01-01

    The investigators of this study hypothesized that fractures of the mandibular condyle can be repaired using short-segment intramedullary implants and purely endoscopic surgical technique, using a basic science, human cadaver model in an academic center. Endoscopic instrumentation was used through a transoral mucosal incision to place intramedullary implants of 2 cm in length into osteotomized mandibular condyles. The surgical maneuvers that required to insert these implants, including condyle positioning, reaming, implant insertion, and seating of the mandibular ramus, are described herein. Primary outcome was considered as successful completion of the procedure. Ten cadaveric mandibular condyles were successfully repaired with rigid intramedullary internal fixation without the use of external incisions. Both insertion of a peg-type implant and screwing a threaded implant into the condylar head were possible. The inferior portion of the implant remained exposed, and the ramus of the mandible was manipulated into position on the implant using retraction at the sigmoid notch. The results of this study suggest that purely endoscopic repair of fractures of the mandibular condyle is possible by using short-segment intramedullary titanium implants and a transoral endoscopic approach without the need for facial incisions or punctures. The biomechanical advantages of these intramedullary implants, including improved strength and resistance to mechanical failure compared with miniplates, have been recently established. The combination of improved implant design and purely endoscopic technique may allow for improved fixation and reduced surgical- and implant-related morbidity in the treatment of condylar fractures. PMID:25534058

  9. Meningocele repair

    MedlinePlus

    ... dysraphism repair; Meningomyelocele repair; Neural tube defect repair; Spina bifida repair ... a medical team with experience in children with spina bifida. Your baby will likely have an MRI (magnetic ...

  10. Endoscopic Devices for Obesity.

    PubMed

    Sampath, Kartik; Dinani, Amreen M; Rothstein, Richard I

    2016-06-01

    The obesity epidemic, recognized by the World Health Organization in 1997, refers to the rising incidence of obesity worldwide. Lifestyle modification and pharmacotherapy are often ineffective long-term solutions; bariatric surgery remains the gold standard for long-term obesity weight loss. Despite the reported benefits, it has been estimated that only 1% of obese patients will undergo surgery. Endoscopic treatment for obesity represents a potential cost-effective, accessible, minimally invasive procedure that can function as a bridge or alternative intervention to bariatric surgery. We review the current endoscopic bariatric devices including space occupying devices, endoscopic gastroplasty, aspiration technology, post-bariatric surgery endoscopic revision, and obesity-related NOTES procedures. Given the diverse devices already FDA approved and in development, we discuss the future directions of endoscopic therapies for obesity. PMID:27115879

  11. Endoscopic Skull Base Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Senior, Brent A

    2008-01-01

    Endoscopic skull base surgery has undergone rapid advancement in the past decade moving from pituitary surgery to suprasellar lesions and now to a myriad of lesions extending from the cribriform plate to C2 and laterally out to the infratemporal fossa and petrous apex. Evolution of several technological advances as well as advances in understanding of endoscopic anatomy and the development of surgical techniques both in resection and reconstruction have fostered this capability. Management of benign disease via endoscopic methods is largely accepted now but more data is needed before the controversy on the role of endoscopic management of malignant disease is decided. Continued advances in surgical technique, navigation systems, endoscopic imaging technology, and robotics assure continued brisk evolution in this expanding field. PMID:19434274

  12. Endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy as treatment for lower lacrimal pathway obstructions in adults: Review article

    PubMed Central

    Smirnov, Grigori; Tuomilehto, Henri; Kaarniranta, Kai; Seppä, Juha

    2015-01-01

    Obstruction of the lacrimal pathway is manifested by epiphora, infection, and blurred vision as well as ocular and facial pain. Conservative treatments only achieve temporary relief of symptoms, thus surgery is the treatment of choice. Dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) is recognized as the most suitable treatment for patients with obstructions of the lacrimal system at the level of the sac or in the nasolacrimal duct. The aim of this operation is to create a bypass between the lacrimal sac and the nasal cavity. During the past 2 decades, advances in rigid endoscopic equipment and other instruments have made it possible to obtain more information about the anatomic landmarks of the nasolacrimal system, which led to the development of less-invasive and safer endoscopic techniques. However, many parts of the treatment process related to endoscopic endonasal dacryocystorhinostomy (EN-DCR) still remain controversial. This article reviews the published literature about the technical issues associated with the success of EN-DCR, and clarifies the pros and cons of different pre- and postoperative procedures in adults with lower lacrimal pathway obstructions. PMID:25860166

  13. Endonasal Skull Base Tumor Removal Using Concentric Tube Continuum Robots: A Phantom Study.

    PubMed

    Swaney, Philip J; Gilbert, Hunter B; Webster, Robert J; Russell, Paul T; Weaver, Kyle D

    2015-03-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study is to experimentally evaluate the use of concentric tube continuum robots in endonasal skull base tumor removal. This new type of surgical robot offers many advantages over existing straight and rigid surgical tools including added dexterity, the ability to scale movements, and the ability to rotate the end effector while leaving the robot fixed in space. In this study, a concentric tube continuum robot was used to remove simulated pituitary tumors from a skull phantom. Design The robot was teleoperated by experienced skull base surgeons to remove a phantom pituitary tumor within a skull. Percentage resection was measured by weight. Resection duration was timed. Setting Academic research laboratory. Main Outcome Measures Percentage removal of tumor material and procedure duration. Results Average removal percentage of 79.8 ± 5.9% and average time to complete procedure of 12.5 ± 4.1 minutes (n = 20). Conclusions The robotic system presented here for use in endonasal skull base surgery shows promise in improving the dexterity, tool motion, and end effector capabilities currently available with straight and rigid tools while remaining an effective tool for resecting the tumor. PMID:27054057

  14. Olfactory Function and Quality of Life Following Microscopic Endonasal Transsphenoidal Pituitary Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shousen; Chen, Yehuang; Li, Jianzhong; Wei, Liangfeng; Wang, Rumi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Olfactory outcomes as well as oronasal postoperative complications of transsphenoidal pituitary surgery have not been well studied. The objective of this study was to investigate nasal symptoms including olfactory function as well as quality of life following transsphenoidal pituitary surgery. The study is designed as a prospective cohort study set in a single tertiary hospital. A total of 53 patients with pituitary adenomas were included. All patients underwent pituitary surgery with the right-sided endonasal transsphenoidal approach. Outcomes were assessed with the Chinese version of the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 (SF-36) to survey patient health, the Chinese version of the 22-item Sinonasal Outcome Test (SNOT-22), and a Toyota and Takagi (T&T) olfactometer. Assessments were carried out before surgery and at 1 week, and 1 and 4 months after surgery. The overall SF-36 scores were significantly lower, but the SNOT-22 scores were higher at 1 week and 1 month postoperatively compared with baseline (all P < 0.001). The results of T&T olfactometer testing showed that there was a significant decline in the ability to detect odors postoperatively, even at 4 months. Multivariate linear regression analysis showed that lower education level, partial tumor removal, and longer duration of surgery were independent risk factors for a higher SNOT-22 score at 1 week after surgery. The findings show that microscopic endonasal transsphenoidal pituitary surgery impairs olfactory function in most patients for at least 4 months after surgery. PMID:25634190

  15. Current applications of endoscopic suturing

    PubMed Central

    Stavropoulos, Stavros N; Modayil, Rani; Friedel, David

    2015-01-01

    Endoscopic suturing had previously been considered an experimental procedure only performed in a few centers and often by surgeons. Now, however, endoscopic suturing has evolved sufficiently to be easily implemented during procedures and is more commonly used by gastroenterologists. We have employed the Apollo OverStitch suturing device in a variety of ways including closure of perforations, closure of full thickness defects in the gastrointestinal wall created during endoscopic full thickness resection, closure of mucosotomies during peroral endoscopic myotomy, stent fixation, fistula closure, post endoscopic submucosal dissection, endoscopic mucosal resection and Natural Orifice Transluminal Endoscopic Surgery defect closures, post-bariatric surgery gastrojejunal anastomosis revision and primary sleeve gastroplasty. PMID:26191342

  16. Endoscopic Bariatric Therapies.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Deepinder; Watson, Rabindra R

    2016-06-01

    Obesity and its associated cardio-metabolic comorbidities have emerged as a global pandemic. The efficacy of various hypo-caloric diets and prescription drugs has been poor with respect to sustained weight loss. Recent advancements in endoscopic technology and techniques have opened a new field of minimally invasive endoscopic treatment options for combatting obesity both as a first line and adjunctive therapy. Presently, two endoscopic space-occupying devices in the form of intragastric balloons have received FDA approval for 6-month implantation in patients within a BMI range of 30-40 kg/m(2). Furthermore, full-thickness suturing has led to the development of primary endoscopic sleeve gastroplasty and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass revision as viable endoscopic alternatives to surgical approaches. These techniques have the potential to reduce adverse events, cost, and recovery times. Looking forward, a variety of promising and novel medical devices and endoscopic platforms that target obesity and diabetes are in various phases of development and investigation. The present review aims to discuss the current and forthcoming endoscopic bariatric therapies with emphasis on relevant procedural technique and review of available evidence. PMID:27098813

  17. Feasibility of transcranial photoacoustic imaging for interventional guidance of endonasal surgeries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lediju Bell, Muyinatu A.; Ostrowski, Anastasia K.; Kazanzides, Peter; Boctor, Emad

    2014-03-01

    Endonasal surgeries to remove pituitary tumors incur the deadly risk of carotid artery injury due to limitations with real-time visualization of blood vessels surrounded by bone. We propose to use photoacoustic imaging to overcome current limitations. Blood vessels and surrounding bone would be illuminated by an optical fiber attached to the endonasal drill, while a transducer placed on the pterional region outside of the skull acquires images. To investigate feasibility, a plastisol phantom embedded with a spherical metal target was submerged in a water tank. The target was aligned with a 1-mm optical fiber coupled to a 1064nm Nd:YAG laser. An Ultrasonix L14-5W/60 linear transducer, placed approximately 1 cm above the phantom, acquired photoacoustic and ultrasound images of the target in the presence and absence of 2- and 4-mm-thick human adult cadaveric skull specimens. Though visualized at 18 mm depth when no bone was present, the target was not detectable in ultrasound images when the 4-mm thick skull specimen was placed between the transducer and phantom. In contrast, the target was visible in photoacoustic images at depths of 17-18 mm with and without the skull specimen. To mimic a clinical scenario where cranial bone in the nasal cavity reduces optical transmission prior to drill penetration, the 2-mm-thick specimen was placed between the phantom and optical fiber, while the 4-mm specimen remained between the phantom and transducer. In this case, the target was present at depths of 15-17 mm for energies ranging 9-18 mJ. With conventional delay-and-sum beamforming, the photoacoustic signal-tonoise ratios measured 15-18 dB and the contrast measured 5-13 dB. A short-lag spatial coherence beamformer was applied to increase signal contrast by 11-27 dB with similar values for SNR at most laser energies. Results are generally promising for photoacoustic-guided endonasal surgeries.

  18. Endoscopic treatment of gastroparesis

    PubMed Central

    McCarty, Thomas R; Rustagi, Tarun

    2015-01-01

    Gastroparesis has traditionally been a largely medically managed disease with refractory symptoms typically falling under the umbrella of the surgical domain. Surgical options include, but are not limited to, gastrostomy, jejunostomy, pyloromyotomy, or pyloroplasty, and the Food and Drug Administration approved gastric electrical stimulation implantation. Endoscopic management of gastroparesis most commonly involves intrapyloric botulinum toxin injection; however, there exists a variety of endoscopic approaches on the horizon that have the potential to radically shift standard of care. Endoscopic management of gastroparesis seeks to treat delayed gastric emptying with a less invasive approach compared to the surgical approach. This review will serve to highlight such innovative and potentially transformative, endoscopic interventions available to gastroenterologists in the management of gastroparesis. PMID:26078560

  19. Understanding EUS (Endoscopic Ultrasonography)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Certification (MOC) Course Calendar GI Outlook (GO) Practice Management Conference Endoscopic Learning Library IT&T Hands-On Training Training and ... ASGE Endorsed Activities Ambassador Program Trainee Resources Traveling Learning ... MANAGEMENT GI Outlook (GO) Practice Management Conference Featured Courses ...

  20. DNA repair

    SciTech Connect

    Friedberg, E.C.; Hanawalt, P.C. )

    1988-01-01

    Topics covered in this book included: Eukaryote model systems for DNA repair study; Sensitive detection of DNA lesions and their repair; and Defined DNA sequence probes for analysis of mutagenesis and repair.

  1. Endoscopic Techniques in Tympanoplasty.

    PubMed

    Anzola, Jesus Franco; Nogueira, João Flávio

    2016-10-01

    The endoscope has transformed the way we observe, understand, and treat chronic ear disease. Improved view, exclusive transcanal techniques, assessment of ventilation routes and mastoid tissue preservation have led to decreased morbidity and functional enhancement of minimally invasive reconstruction of the middle ear. The philosophical identity of endoscopic ear surgery is evolving; new research, long-term results, and widespread acknowledgement of its postulates will undoubtedly define its role in otology. PMID:27565390

  2. Standardized endoscopic reporting.

    PubMed

    Aabakken, Lars; Barkun, Alan N; Cotton, Peter B; Fedorov, Evgeny; Fujino, Masayuki A; Ivanova, Ekaterina; Kudo, Shin-Ei; Kuznetzov, Konstantin; de Lange, Thomas; Matsuda, Koji; Moine, Olivier; Rembacken, Björn; Rey, Jean-Francois; Romagnuolo, Joseph; Rösch, Thomas; Sawhney, Mandeep; Yao, Kenshi; Waye, Jerome D

    2014-02-01

    The need for standardized language is increasingly obvious, also within gastrointestinal endoscopy. A systematic approach to the description of endoscopic findings is vital for the development of a universal language, but systematic also means structured, and structure is inherently a challenge when presented as an alternative to the normal spoken word. The efforts leading to the "Minimal Standard Terminology" (MST) of gastrointestinal endoscopy offer a standardized model for description of endoscopic findings. With a combination of lesion descriptors and descriptor attributes, this system gives guidance to appropriate descriptions of lesions and also has a normative effect on endoscopists in training. The endoscopic report includes a number of items not related to findings per se, but to other aspects of the procedure, formal, technical, and medical. While the MST sought to formulate minimal lists for some of these aspects (e.g. indications), they are not all well suited for the inherent structure of the MST, and many are missing. Thus, the present paper offers a recommended standardization also of the administrative, technical, and other "peri-endoscopic" elements of the endoscopic report; important also are the numerous quality assurance initiatives presently emerging. Finally, the image documentation of endoscopic findings is becoming more obvious-and accessible. Thus, recommendations for normal procedures as well as for focal and diffuse pathology are presented. The recommendations are "minimal," meaning that expansions and subcategories will likely be needed in most centers. Still, with a stronger common grounds, communication within endoscopy will still benefit. PMID:24329727

  3. Endoscopic video manifolds.

    PubMed

    Atasoy, Selen; Mateus, Diana; Lallemand, Joe; Meining, Alexander; Yang, Guang-Zhong; Navab, Nassir

    2010-01-01

    Postprocedural analysis of gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopic videos is a difficult task because the videos often suffer from a large number of poor-quality frames due to the motion or out-of-focus blur, specular highlights and artefacts caused by turbid fluid inside the GI tract. Clinically, each frame of the video is examined individually by the endoscopic expert due to the lack of a suitable visualisation technique. In this work, we introduce a low dimensional representation of endoscopic videos based on a manifold learning approach. The introduced endoscopic video manifolds (EVMs) enable the clustering of poor-quality frames and grouping of different segments of the GI endoscopic video in an unsupervised manner to facilitate subsequent visual assessment. In this paper, we present two novel inter-frame similarity measures for manifold learning to create structured manifolds from complex endoscopic videos. Our experiments demonstrate that the proposed method yields high precision and recall values for uninformative frame detection (90.91% and 82.90%) and results in well-structured manifolds for scene clustering. PMID:20879345

  4. Toxic shock syndrome after functional endonasal sinus surgery: an all or none phenomenon?

    PubMed

    Abram, A C; Bellian, K T; Giles, W J; Gross, C W

    1994-08-01

    Reported cases of toxic shock syndrome (TSS) following nasal surgery or functional endonasal sinus surgery (FESS) are uncommon. Classic TSS is a serious multisystem disorder resulting from Staphylococcus aureus phage I toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1), and it is characterized by fever, rash, hypotension, mucosal hyperemia, vomiting, diarrhea, and laboratory evidence of multisystem organ dysfunction. TSS cases following nasal surgery have been associated with nasal packing, mucosal barrier violation, prior S aureus phage I colonization, as well as low antitoxin antibody levels. Of the 1700 FESS procedures performed at our institution, 3 cases were complicated by classic TSS, with 2 additional patients having a postsurgical course compromised by a milder degree of TSS. Diagnostic criteria, clinical presentation, management, and etiology are discussed, and the possibility of a continuum from mild-to-classic TSS is addressed. PMID:8052075

  5. Initial Experiments with the Leap Motion as a User Interface in Robotic Endonasal Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Travaglini, T. A.; Swaney, P. J.; Weaver, Kyle D.; Webster, R. J.

    2016-01-01

    The Leap Motion controller is a low-cost, optically-based hand tracking system that has recently been introduced on the consumer market. Prior studies have investigated its precision and accuracy, toward evaluating its usefulness as a surgical robot master interface. Yet due to the diversity of potential slave robots and surgical procedures, as well as the dynamic nature of surgery, it is challenging to make general conclusions from published accuracy and precision data. Thus, our goal in this paper is to explore the use of the Leap in the specific scenario of endonasal pituitary surgery. We use it to control a concentric tube continuum robot in a phantom study, and compare user performance using the Leap to previously published results using the Phantom Omni. We find that the users were able to achieve nearly identical average resection percentage and overall surgical duration with the Leap. PMID:26752501

  6. The Usefulness of the Endonasal Incisional Approach for the Treatment of Nasal Bone Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyo Seong; Suh, Hyeun Woo; Ha, Ki Young; Kim, Boo Yeong

    2012-01-01

    Background Among all facial fractures, nasal bone fractures are the most common, and they have been reduced by closed reduction (CR) for a long time. But several authors have reported suboptimal results when using CR, and the best method of nasal bone reduction is still being debated. We have found that indirect open reduction (IOR) through an endonasal incisional approach is a useful method for more accurate reduction of the nasal bone. Methods A retrospective chart review was performed of 356 patients who underwent reduction of a nasal bone fracture in our department from January, 2006, to July, 2011. We treated 263 patients with IOR. We assessed patients' and doctors' satisfaction with surgical outcomes after IOR or CR. We evaluated the frequency of nasal bleeding owing to mucosal injury, and followed the surgical outcomes of patients who had simultaneous dorsal augmentation rhinoplasty. Results According to the analysis of the satisfaction scores, both patients and doctors were significantly more satisfied in the IOR group than the CR group (P<0.05). Mucosal injury with nasal bleeding occurred much less in the IOR group (5.3%) than the CR group (12.9%). Dorsal augmentation rhinoplasty with IOR was performed simultaneously in 34 cases. Most of them (31/34) showed satisfaction with the outcomes. Conclusions IOR enables surgeons to manipulate the bony fragment directly through the endonasal incisional approach. However, we propose that CR is the proper technique for patients under 16 and for those with comminuted nasal bone fractures because submucosal dissection in IOR can damage the growth or circulation of nasal bone. PMID:22783528

  7. Intravesical explosions during transurethral endoscopic procedures.

    PubMed

    Khan, A; Masood, J; Ghei, M; Kasmani, Z; Ball, A J; Miller, R

    2007-01-01

    Every Urologist, during the course of fulguration treatment of bladder tumours, has at some time or another experienced small intravesical explosions usually manifesting as a "pop". Major intravesical explosions are rare but potentially devastating complications of transurethral endoscopic resections. The damage to the bladder can range from small mucosal tears to bladder rupture, which can either be intraperitoneal (requiring laparotomy and open bladder repair) or extraperitoneal. We review the literature on intravesical explosions to determine the aetiology of these explosions and suggest strategies to prevent these. A comprehensive literature search was performed using Medline and Ovid to obtain information using search terms: intravesical explosions, transurethral procedures, endoscopic procedures, diathermyIntravesical explosions occur due to the production of explosive gases during use of diathermy on human tissues. The most dangerous combination is hydrogen and oxygen. Hydrogen alone is not explosive and it only becomes explosive when admixed with oxygen. Oxygen is not produced in sufficient quantity during diathermy to cause explosions but can enter into the bladder from the atmosphere during endoscopic procedures. Careful operative technique (correct use of the Ellick evacuator bulb and reducing the frequency of manual irrigations of the bladder) with minimisation of the operative time and using the coagulation current at moderate power as well as judicious coagulation of tissues can reduce the risk of this dangerous complication arising. PMID:17171415

  8. Sparse aperture endoscope

    DOEpatents

    Fitch, J.P.

    1999-07-06

    An endoscope is disclosed which reduces the volume needed by the imaging part, maintains resolution of a wide diameter optical system, while increasing tool access, and allows stereographic or interferometric processing for depth and perspective information/visualization. Because the endoscope decreases the volume consumed by imaging optics such allows a larger fraction of the volume to be used for non-imaging tools, which allows smaller incisions in surgical and diagnostic medical applications thus produces less trauma to the patient or allows access to smaller volumes than is possible with larger instruments. The endoscope utilizes fiber optic light pipes in an outer layer for illumination, a multi-pupil imaging system in an inner annulus, and an access channel for other tools in the center. The endoscope is amenable to implementation as a flexible scope, and thus increases it's utility. Because the endoscope uses a multi-aperture pupil, it can also be utilized as an optical array, allowing stereographic and interferometric processing. 7 figs.

  9. Sparse aperture endoscope

    DOEpatents

    Fitch, Joseph P.

    1999-07-06

    An endoscope which reduces the volume needed by the imaging part thereof, maintains resolution of a wide diameter optical system, while increasing tool access, and allows stereographic or interferometric processing for depth and perspective information/visualization. Because the endoscope decreases the volume consumed by imaging optics such allows a larger fraction of the volume to be used for non-imaging tools, which allows smaller incisions in surgical and diagnostic medical applications thus produces less trauma to the patient or allows access to smaller volumes than is possible with larger instruments. The endoscope utilizes fiber optic light pipes in an outer layer for illumination, a multi-pupil imaging system in an inner annulus, and an access channel for other tools in the center. The endoscope is amenable to implementation as a flexible scope, and thus increases the utility thereof. Because the endoscope uses a multi-aperture pupil, it can also be utilized as an optical array, allowing stereographic and interferometric processing.

  10. Transvaginal endoscopic appendectomy.

    PubMed

    Shin, Eung Jin; Jeong, Gui Ae; Jung, Jun Chul; Cho, Gyu Seok; Lim, Chul Wan; Kim, Hyung Chul; Song, Ok Pyung

    2010-12-01

    Since Kalloo and colleagues first reported the feasibility and safety of a peroral transgastric approach in the porcine model in 2004, various groups have reported more complex natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) procedures, such as the cholecystectomy, splenectomy and liver biopsy, in the porcine model. Natural orifice access to the abdominal cavity, such as transgastric, transvesical, transcolonic, and transvaginal, has been described. Although a novel, minimally invasive approach to the abdominal cavity is a peroral endoscopic transgastric approach, there are still some challenging issues, such as the risk of infection and leakage, and the method of gastric closure. Hybrid-NOTES is an ideal first step in humans. Human hybrid transvaginal access has been used for years by many surgeons for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. Here, we report a transvaginal flexible endoscopic appendectomy, with a 5-mm umbilical port using ultrasonic scissors in a 74-year-old woman with acute appendicitis. PMID:21221245

  11. Endoscopic-assisted minimally invasive resection of a papillary muscle blood cyst in an adult patient.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Kazuma; Kudo, Mikihiko; Hayashi, Kanako; Shimizu, Hideyuki

    2016-02-01

    We describe endoscopic-assisted minimally invasive resection of a blood cyst originating from the papillary muscle that caused severe mitral regurgitation and necessitated mitral valve replacement in an active adult woman, as well as a review of the relevant literature. An endoscopic view increases the visibility of the surgical target and facilitates a precise observation of the tumour and dissection at the appropriate layer. The On-X mechanical valve was chosen for mitral valve repair to minimize thromboembolic risk. This patient additionally benefited from endoscopic-assisted right minithoracotomy in terms of both cosmetic and functional aspects. PMID:26586675

  12. Endoscopic Management of a Giant Cholesterol Cyst of the Petrous Apex

    PubMed Central

    Fucci, Michael J.; Alford, Eugene L.; Lowry, Louis D.; Keane, William M.; Sataloff, Robert T.

    1994-01-01

    Giant cholesterol cyst (GCC) of the petrous apex is a rare clinical entity. This benign cystic lesion can cause neurologic deficits and vascular compromise by persistent growth and progressive bone destruction. Magnetic resonance imaging studies of GCC show the lesions to be hyperintense on T1-weighted sequences with progressively lower signal intensities on the first and second echoes of T2-weighted sequences. These findings are relatively specific for GCC, permitting a narrow differential diagnosis. The goal of surgery is to provide adequate drainage with the creation of a permanent fistula. The classic approaches to these lesions are the posterior fossa craniotomy and the middle fossa extradural craniotomy. The translabyrinthine approach provides wide exposure at the expense of cochlear and vestibular function. The transsphenoidal approach provides adequate drainage with hearing preservation and no craniotomy. The endoscopic, endonasal transsphenoidal approach to a 2.5 cm GCC of the petrous apex accomplished complete drainage with the creation of a fistula. Advances in endoscopic technique and instrumentation facilitated the addition of the approach to the surgeon's armamentarium. In selected cases, this approach provides adequate surgical exposure with minimal morbidity. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5 PMID:17170927

  13. Technicalities of endoscopic biopsy.

    PubMed

    Tytgat, G N; Ignacio, J G

    1995-11-01

    Despite the wealth of biopsy forceps currently available, it is obvious that there are sufficient drawbacks and shortcomings to reconsider the overall design of the endoscopic biopsy depth, the short lifespan of reusable forceps, damage to the working channel, excessive time consumption, cleaning and disinfection difficulties, etc. Improvements should be possible that approach the same degree of sophistication as is currently available in endoscopic equipment. Fully-automated, repetitive, quickly targeted biopsy sampling should be possible, but it will require the utmost technical ingenuity and expertise to achieve. PMID:8903983

  14. Endoscopic Facial Nerve Surgery.

    PubMed

    Marchioni, Daniele; Soloperto, Davide; Rubini, Alessia; Nogueira, João Flávio; Badr-El-Dine, Mohamed; Presutti, Livio

    2016-10-01

    Tympanic facial nerve segment surgery has been traditionally performed using microscopic approaches, but currently, exclusive endoscopic approaches have been performed for traumatic, neoplastic, or inflammatory diseases, specially located at the geniculate ganglion, greater petrosal nerve, and second tract of the facial nerve, until the second genu. The tympanic segment of the facial nerve can be reached and visualized using an exclusive transcanal endoscopic approach, even in poorly accessible regions such as the second genu and geniculate ganglion, avoiding mastoidectomy, bony demolition, and meningeal or cerebral lobe tractions, with low complication rates using a minimally invasive surgical route. PMID:27468633

  15. Endoscopic Sedation: Medicolegal Considerations.

    PubMed

    Kralios, Andreas A; Feld, Kayla A; Feld, Andrew D

    2016-07-01

    Goals of endoscopic sedation are to provide patients with a successful procedure, and ensure that they remain safe and are relieved from anxiety and discomfort; agents should provide efficient, appropriate sedation and allow patients to recover rapidly. Sedation is usually safe and effective; however, complications may ensue. This paper outlines some medicolegal aspects of endoscopic sedation, including informed consent, possible withdrawal of consent during the procedure, standard of care for monitoring sedation, use of anesthesia personnel to deliver sedation, and new agents and devices. PMID:27372770

  16. Outcomes Following Endoscopic Stapes Surgery.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Jacob B; Rivas, Alejandro

    2016-10-01

    There are limited studies describing the surgical and hearing outcomes following endoscopic stapes surgeries, despite the burgeoning interest and excitement in endoscopic ear surgery. Current studies have demonstrated that endoscopic stapes surgery is safe and has similar audiologic outcomes when compared with microscopic stapes procedures. However, preliminary studies show decreased postoperative pain in endoscopic cases compared with microscopic controls. In regards to possible endoscopic advantages, these few studies demonstrate mixed results when comparing the need to remove the bony medial external auditory canal wall to improve visualization and access to the oval window niche. PMID:27565387

  17. Endoscopic Optical Coherence Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chao; Fujimoto, James G.; Tsai, Tsung-Han; Mashimo, Hiroshi

    New gastrointestinal (GI) cancers are expected to affect more than 290,200 new patients and will cause more than 144,570 deaths in the United States in 2013 [1]. When detected and treated early, the 5-year survival rate for colorectal cancer increases by a factor of 1.4 [1]. For esophageal cancer, the rate increases by a factor of 2 [1]. The majority of GI cancers begin as small lesions that are difficult to identify with conventional endoscopy. With resolutions approaching that of histopathology, optical coherence tomography (OCT) is well suited for detecting the changes in tissue microstructure associated with early GI cancers. Since the lesions are not endoscopically apparent, however, it is necessary to survey a relatively large area of the GI tract. Tissue motion is another limiting factor in the GI tract; therefore, in vivo imaging must be performed at extremely high speeds. OCT imaging can be performed using fiber optics and miniaturized lens systems, enabling endoscopic OCT inside the human body in conjunction with conventional video endoscopy. An OCT probe can be inserted through the working channel of a standard endoscope, thus enabling depth-resolved imaging of tissue microstructure in the GI tract with micron-scale resolution simultaneously with the endoscopic view (Fig. 68.1).

  18. Endoscopic treatment of obesity

    PubMed Central

    Swidnicka-Siergiejko, Agnieszka; Wróblewski, Eugeniusz; Dabrowski, Andrzej

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The increasing incidence of obesity and overweight among children and adolescents will be reflected by the imminent increase in the number of obese patients who require more definitive methods of treatment. There is great interest in new, safe, simple, nonsurgical procedures for weight loss. OBJECTIVE: To provide an overview of new endoscopic methods for the treatment of obesity. METHODS: An English-language literature search on endoscopic interventions, endoscopically placed devices and patient safety was performed in the MEDLINE and Cochrane Library databases. RESULTS: The literature search yielded the following weight loss methods: space-occupying devices (widely used), gastric capacity reduction, modifying gastric motor function and malabsorptive procedures. A commercially available intragastric balloon was the most commonly used device for weight loss. In specific subgroups of patients, it improved quality of life, decreased comorbidities and served as a bridge to surgery. More evidence regarding the potential benefits and safety of other commercially available intragastric balloons is needed to clarify whether they are superior to the most commonly used one. Moreover, early experiences with transoral gastroplasty, the duodenaljejunal bypass sleeve and an adjustable, totally implantable intragastric prosthesis, indicate that they may be viable options for obesity treatment. Other agents, such as botulinum toxin and a device known as the ‘butterfly’, are currently at the experimental stage. CONCLUSION: New endoscopic methods for weight loss may be valuable in the treatment of obesity; however, more clinical experience and technical improvements are necessary before implementing their widespread use. PMID:22059171

  19. Clubfoot repair

    MedlinePlus

    ... release; Talipes equinovarus - repair; Tibialis anterior tendon transfer Images Clubfoot repair - series References Kelly DM. Congenital Anomalies ... provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of ...

  20. Automated endoscope reprocessors.

    PubMed

    Desilets, David; Kaul, Vivek; Tierney, William M; Banerjee, Subhas; Diehl, David L; Farraye, Francis A; Kethu, Sripathi R; Kwon, Richard S; Mamula, Petar; Pedrosa, Marcos C; Rodriguez, Sarah A; Wong Kee Song, Louis-Michel

    2010-10-01

    The ASGE Technology Committee provides reviews of existing, new, or emerging endoscopic technologies that have an impact on the practice of GI endoscopy. Evidence-based methodology is used, with a MEDLINE literature search to identify pertinent clinical studies on the topic and a MAUDE (U.S. Food and Drug Administration Center for Devices and Radiological Health) database search to identify the reported complications of a given technology. Both are supplemented by accessing the "related articles" feature of PubMed and by scrutinizing pertinent references cited by the identified studies. Controlled clinical trials are emphasized, but in many cases data from randomized, controlled trials are lacking. In such cases, large case series, preliminary clinical studies, and expert opinions are used. Technical data are gathered from traditional and Web-based publications, proprietary publications, and informal communications with pertinent vendors. Technology Status Evaluation Reports are drafted by 1 or 2 members of the ASGE Technology Committee, reviewed and edited by the committee as a whole, and approved by the Governing Board of the ASGE. When financial guidance is indicated, the most recent coding data and list prices at the time of publication are provided. For this review, the MEDLINE database was searched through February 2010 for articles related to automated endoscope reprocessors, using the words endoscope reprocessing, endoscope cleaning, automated endoscope reprocessors, and high-level disinfection. Technology Status Evaluation Reports are scientific reviews provided solely for educational and informational purposes. Technology Status Evaluation Reports are not rules and should not be construed as establishing a legal standard of care or as encouraging, advocating, requiring, or discouraging any particular treatment or payment for such treatment. PMID:20883843

  1. Coagulative and ablative characteristics of a novel diode laser system (1470nm) for endonasal applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betz, C. S.; Havel, M.; Janda, P.; Leunig, A.; Sroka, R.

    2008-02-01

    Introduction: Being practical, efficient and inexpensive, fibre guided diode laser systems are preferable over others for endonasal applications. A new medical 1470 nm diode laser system is expected to offer good ablative and coagulative tissue effects. Methods: The new 1470 nm diode laser system was compared to a conventional 940 nm system with regards to laser tissue effects (ablation, coagulation, carbonization zones) in an ex vivo setup using fresh liver and muscle tissue. The laser fibres were fixed to a computer controlled stepper motor, and the light was applied using comparable power settings and a reproducible procedure under constant conditions. Clinical efficacy and postoperative morbidity was evaluated in two groups of 10 patients undergoing laser coagulation therapy of hyperplastic nasal turbinates. Results: In the experimental setup, the 1470 nm laser diode system proved to be more efficient in inducing tissue effects with an energy factor of 2-3 for highly perfused hepatic tissue to 30 for muscular tissue. In the clinical case series, the higher efficacy of the 1470 nm diode laser system led to reduced energy settings as compared to the conventional system with comparable clinical results. Postoperative crusting was less pronounced in the 1470 nm laser group. Conclusion: The 1470 nm diode laser system offers a highly efficient alternative to conventional diode laser systems for the coagulation of hyperplastic nasal turbinates. According to the experimental results it can be furthermore expected that it disposes of an excellent surgical potential with regards to its cutting abilities.

  2. [Endoscopic Therapy for Esophageal Cancer].

    PubMed

    Sakai, Makoto; Kuwano, Hiroyuki

    2016-07-01

    Endoscopic treatment for esophageal neoplasms includes endoscopic resection, argon plasma coagulation(APC), photodynamic therapy( PDT) and stent placement. Endoscopic resection is widely used as an effective, less invasive treatment for superficial esophageal carcinoma in Japan. APC is considered to be safe and effective treatment for superficial esophageal carcinoma which cannot be resected endoscopically because of severe comorbidities, as well as for local recurrence after endoscopic resection or chemoradiotherapy. PDT is thought to be an effective option as salvage treatment for local failure after chemoradiotherapy. Stent placement mainly using self-expanding metallic stents have been used as a minimally invasive and effective modality for the palliative treatment of malignant esophageal obstruction. Endoscopic treatment is expected to have more important role in the treatment of esophageal neoplasms in the future. PMID:27440040

  3. Sellar reconstruction without intrasellar packing after endoscopic surgery of pituitary macroadenomas is better than its reputation

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Mostafa; Fares, Abd Alla; Abdelhak, Balegh; D’Haens, Jean; Michel, Olaf

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Sellar reconstruction with intrasellar packing following endoscopic resection of pituitary macroadenomas remains a subject of clinical and radiological discussion particularly, when an intraoperative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage is absent. This study was conducted to contribute our experience with sellar reconstruction after a standard endoscopic surgery of pituitary macroadenomas without intraoperative CSF leakage to the ongoing discussion between techniques with and without intrasellar packing. Methods: A consecutive series of 47 pituitary macroadenomas undergoing excision via a standard endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal surgery (EETS) without evident intraoperative CSF leakage were retrospectively evaluated over a 10-months mean follow-up period. According to the sellar reconstruction technique, three groups could be identified: Group A – with no intrasellar packing, Group B – with haemostatic materials packing, and Group C – with abdominal fat packing. Postoperative clinical and radiological assessments of the three groups were documented and analyzed for differences in outcome. Results: Postoperative clinical assessment did not differ significantly between the three groups. In group A, postoperative CSF leakage, sphenoid sinusitis and empty sella syndrome were not observed. However, a significant difference in radiological assessment could be identified; the interpretation of sellar contents in postoperative MRI of group A succeeded earlier and more reliably than in other groups with intrasellar packing. Conclusions: There is no difference in the incidence of postoperative CSF leakage and empty sella syndrome among the various reconstructive techniques with and without intrasellar packing, irrespective of size and extension of the pituitary adenoma. Sellar reconstruction without intrasellar packing following a standard EETS is not inferior to other techniques with packing and even shows more radiological advantages, which made it our

  4. Endoscopic Gastrointestinal Laser Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Buchi, Kenneth N.

    1985-01-01

    The development of flexible fibers for the delivery of laser energy led to the first endoscopic laser applications in humans in the early 1970s. Since that time, much has been learned about applications throughout the gastrointestinal tract. The risks appear to be minimal. The coagulative effect of laser energy is used to treat gastrointestinal hemorrhage and small, benign mucosal lesions. The ablative effect of the Nd:YAG laser on tissue is used for palliative therapy for malignant gastrointestinal disorders and incisional therapy for anatomic lesions such as strictures or cysts. New laser modalities that potentially can be tuned throughout large segments of the electromagnetic spectrum, new fiber-optic delivery systems with specialized tips and new methods of sensitizing tissue to laser energy all indicate that the endoscopic laser should continue to have many new and innovative applications. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3. PMID:3911589

  5. Endoscopic and Microscopic Microvascular Decompression.

    PubMed

    Piazza, Matthew; Lee, John Y K

    2016-07-01

    The introduction of the endoscope into the neurosurgeon's armamentarium has revolutionized ventral and anterior skull-base surgery and, more recently, has been used in the surgical treatment of cerebellopontine angle (CPA) pathology. The utilization of the endoscope in microvascular decompression (MVD) for trigeminal neuralgia and other associated cranial nerve hyperactivity syndromes allows for unparalleled panoramic views and illumination of the neurovascular structures within the CPA and identification of vessel-nerve contact traditionally unseen using the microscope. In this article, the technical advantages and challenges of using the endoscope for MVD, operative technique, and patient outcomes of endoscopic MVD are discussed. PMID:27324997

  6. [Endoscopic interventions in pulmonology].

    PubMed

    Gompelmann, D; Herth, F J F

    2016-08-01

    Bronchoscopy plays a significant role in the diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary diseases. Hemoptysis, or central airway obstruction, is a common indication for interventional bronchoscopy. In addition, the treatment of early lung cancer is the domain of bronchoscopy in inoperable patients. In recent years, endoscopic techniques have also been established as new therapeutic options in advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and uncontrolled bronchial asthma. PMID:27351790

  7. Fluorescence endoscopic video system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papayan, G. V.; Kang, Uk

    2006-10-01

    This paper describes a fluorescence endoscopic video system intended for the diagnosis of diseases of the internal organs. The system operates on the basis of two-channel recording of the video fluxes from a fluorescence channel and a reflected-light channel by means of a high-sensitivity monochrome television camera and a color camera, respectively. Examples are given of the application of the device in gastroenterology.

  8. Peroral endoscopic myotomy.

    PubMed

    Kumbhari, Vivek; Khashab, Mouen A

    2015-05-16

    Peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) incorporates concepts of natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery and achieves endoscopic myotomy by utilizing a submucosal tunnel as an operating space. Although intended for the palliation of symptoms of achalasia, there is mounting data to suggest it is also efficacious in the management of spastic esophageal disorders. The technique requires an understanding of the pathophysiology of esophageal motility disorders as well as knowledge of surgical anatomy of the foregut. POEM achieves short term response in 82% to 100% of patients with minimal risk of adverse events. In addition, it appears to be effective and safe even at the extremes of age and regardless of prior therapy undertaken. Although infrequent, the ability of the endoscopist to manage an intraprocedural adverse event is critical as failure to do so could result in significant morbidity. The major late adverse event is gastroesophageal reflux which appears to occur in 20% to 46% of patients. Research is being conducted to clarify the optimal technique for POEM and a personalized approach by measuring intraprocedural esophagogastric junction distensibility appears promising. In addition to esophageal disorders, POEM is being studied in the management of gastroparesis (gastric pyloromyotomy) with initial reports demonstrating technical feasibility. Although POEM represents a paradigm shift the management of esophageal motility disorders, the results of prospective randomized controlled trials with long-term follow up are eagerly awaited. PMID:25992188

  9. Peroral endoscopic myotomy

    PubMed Central

    Kumbhari, Vivek; Khashab, Mouen A

    2015-01-01

    Peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) incorporates concepts of natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery and achieves endoscopic myotomy by utilizing a submucosal tunnel as an operating space. Although intended for the palliation of symptoms of achalasia, there is mounting data to suggest it is also efficacious in the management of spastic esophageal disorders. The technique requires an understanding of the pathophysiology of esophageal motility disorders as well as knowledge of surgical anatomy of the foregut. POEM achieves short term response in 82% to 100% of patients with minimal risk of adverse events. In addition, it appears to be effective and safe even at the extremes of age and regardless of prior therapy undertaken. Although infrequent, the ability of the endoscopist to manage an intraprocedural adverse event is critical as failure to do so could result in significant morbidity. The major late adverse event is gastroesophageal reflux which appears to occur in 20% to 46% of patients. Research is being conducted to clarify the optimal technique for POEM and a personalized approach by measuring intraprocedural esophagogastric junction distensibility appears promising. In addition to esophageal disorders, POEM is being studied in the management of gastroparesis (gastric pyloromyotomy) with initial reports demonstrating technical feasibility. Although POEM represents a paradigm shift the management of esophageal motility disorders, the results of prospective randomized controlled trials with long-term follow up are eagerly awaited. PMID:25992188

  10. New Endoscopic Hemostasis Methods

    PubMed Central

    Leung Ki, En-Ling

    2012-01-01

    Endoscopic treatment for non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding has evolved over decades. Injection with diluted epinephrine is considered as a less than adequate treatment, and the current standard therapy should include second modality if epinephrine injection is used initially. Definitive hemostasis rate following mono-therapy with either thermo-coagulation or hemo-clipping compares favorably with dual therapies. The use of adsorptive powder (Hemo-spray) is a promising treatment although it needs comparative studies between hemospray and other modalities. Stronger hemo-clips with better torque control and wider span are now available. Over-the-scope clips capture a large amount of tissue and may prove useful in refractory bleeding. Experimental treatments include an endoscopic stitch device to over-sew the bleeding lesion and targeted therapy to the sub-serosal bleeding artery as guided by echo-endoscopy. Angiographic embolization of bleeding artery should be considered in chronic ulcers that fail endoscopic treatment especially in elderly patients with a major bleed manifested in hypotension. PMID:22977807

  11. New endoscopic hemostasis methods.

    PubMed

    Leung Ki, En-Ling; Lau, James Y W

    2012-09-01

    Endoscopic treatment for non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding has evolved over decades. Injection with diluted epinephrine is considered as a less than adequate treatment, and the current standard therapy should include second modality if epinephrine injection is used initially. Definitive hemostasis rate following mono-therapy with either thermo-coagulation or hemo-clipping compares favorably with dual therapies. The use of adsorptive powder (Hemo-spray) is a promising treatment although it needs comparative studies between hemospray and other modalities. Stronger hemo-clips with better torque control and wider span are now available. Over-the-scope clips capture a large amount of tissue and may prove useful in refractory bleeding. Experimental treatments include an endoscopic stitch device to over-sew the bleeding lesion and targeted therapy to the sub-serosal bleeding artery as guided by echo-endoscopy. Angiographic embolization of bleeding artery should be considered in chronic ulcers that fail endoscopic treatment especially in elderly patients with a major bleed manifested in hypotension. PMID:22977807

  12. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography-related perforations: Diagnosis and management

    PubMed Central

    Vezakis, Antonios; Fragulidis, Georgios; Polydorou, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) has become an important therapeutic modality for biliary and pancreatic disorders. Perforation is one of the most feared complications of ERCP and endoscopic sphincterotomy. A MEDLINE search was performed from 2000-2014 using the keywords “perforation”, “ERCP” and “endoscopic sphincterotomy”. All articles including more than nine cases were reviewed. The incidence of ERCP-related perforations was low (0.39%, 95%CI: 0.34-0.69) with an associated mortality of 7.8% (95%CI: 3.80-13.07). Endoscopic sphincterotomy was responsible for 41% of perforations, insertion and manipulations of the endoscope for 26%, guidewires for 15%, dilation of strictures for 3%, other instruments for 4%, stent insertion or migration for 2% and in 7% of cases the etiology was unknown. The diagnosis was made during ERCP in 73% of cases. The mechanism, site and extent of injury, suggested by clinical and radiographic findings, should guide towards operative or non-operative management. In type I perforations early surgical repair is indicated, unless endoscopic closure can be achieved. Patients with type II perforations should be treated initially non-operatively. Non-operative treatment includes biliary stenting, fasting, intravenous fluid resuscitation, nasogastric drainage, broad spectrum antibiotics, percutaneous drainage of fluid collections. Non-operative treatment was successful in 79% of patients with type II injuries, with an overall mortality of 9.4%. Non-operative treatment was sufficient in all patients with type III injuries. Surgical technique depends on timing, site and size of defect and clinical condition of the patient. In conclusion, diagnosis is based on clinical suspicion and clinical and radiographic findings. Whilst surgery is usually indicated in patients with type I injuries, patients with type II or III injuries should be treated initially non-operatively. A minority of them will finally require surgical

  13. Endoscopic surveillance strategy after endoscopic resection for early gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Nishida, Tsutomu; Tsujii, Masahiko; Kato, Motohiko; Hayashi, Yoshito; Akasaka, Tomofumi; Iijima, Hideki; Takehara, Tetsuo

    2014-01-01

    Early detection of early gastric cancer (EGC) is important to improve the prognosis of patients with gastric cancer. Recent advances in endoscopic modalities and treatment devices, such as image-enhanced endoscopy and high-frequency generators, may make endoscopic treatment, such as endoscopic submucosal dissection, a therapeutic option for gastric intraepithelial neoplasia. Consequently, short-term outcomes of endoscopic resection (ER) for EGC have improved. Therefore, surveillance with endoscopy after ER for EGC is becoming more important, but how to perform endoscopic surveillance after ER has not been established, even though the follow-up strategy for more advanced gastric cancer has been outlined. Therefore, a surveillance strategy for patients with EGC after ER is needed. PMID:24891981

  14. Percutaneous endoscopic cervical discectomy using working channel endoscopes.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Yong

    2016-06-01

    Percutaneous endoscopic cervical discectomy has evolved as an efficient, minimally invasive spine surgery for cervical disc herniation or radiculopathy. The development of the working channel endoscope makes definitive decompression surgery through a percutaneous approach feasible. There are two methods of approach to target the pathology: anterior and posterior approach. The approach can be determined according to the zone of pathology or the surgeon's preference. The most significant benefits of this endoscopic surgical technique are minimal access tissue trauma and early recovery from the intervention. However, this technique is still evolving and have a steep learning curve. Extensive development of surgical technique and working channel endoscopes will enable us to treat cervical disc herniation more practically. The objective of this review is to describe the cutting-edge techniques of endoscopic surgery in the cervical spine and to discuss the pros and cons of these minimally invasive surgical techniques. PMID:27086505

  15. Experimental assessment of energy requirements and tool tip visibility for photoacoustic-guided endonasal surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lediju Bell, Muyinatu A.; Dagle, Alicia B.; Kazanzides, Peter; Boctor, Emad M.

    2016-03-01

    Endonasal transsphenoidal surgery is an effective approach for pituitary adenoma resection, yet it poses the serious risk of internal carotid artery injury. We propose to visualize these carotid arteries, which are hidden by bone, with an optical fiber attached to a surgical tool and a transcranial ultrasound probe placed on the patient's temple (i.e. intraoperative photoacoustic imaging). To investigate energy requirements for vessel visualization, experiments were conducted with a phantom containing ex vivo sheep brain, ex vivo bovine blood, and 0.5-2.5 mm thick human cadaveric skull specimens. Photoacoustic images were acquired with 1.2-9.3 mJ laser energy, and the resulting vessel contrast was measured at each energy level. The distal vessel boundary was difficult to distinguish at the chosen contrast threshold for visibility (4.5 dB), which was used to determine the minimum energies for vessel visualization. The blood vessel was successfully visualized in the presence of the 0-2.0 mm thick sphenoid and temporal bones with up to 19.2 dB contrast. The minimum energy required ranged from 1.2-5.0 mJ, 4.2-5.9 mJ, and 4.6-5.2 mJ for the 1.0 temporal and 0-1.5 mm sphenoid bones, 1.5 mm temporal and 0-0.5 mm sphenoid bones, and 2.0 mm temporal and 0-0.5 mm sphenoid bones, respectively, which corresponds to a fluence range of 4-21 mJ/cm2. These results hold promise for vessel visualization within safety limits. In a separate experiment, a mock tool tip was placed, providing satisfactory preliminary evidence that surgical tool tips can be visualized simultaneously with blood vessels.

  16. Endoscopic vs external dacryocystorhinostomy-comparison from the patients' aspect

    PubMed Central

    Ozer, Serdar; Ozer, Pinar A.

    2014-01-01

    AIM To compare the success and complication rates, duration of surgeries and clinical comfort after endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy (END-DCR) or external dacryocystorhinostomy (EXT-DCR). METHODS Fifty patients who underwent EXT- or END-DCR between January 2010-2012 were involved in the study. A questionnaire was applied to patients preoperatively, and postoperatively. Subjective success was defined by absence of epiphora, objective success by a normal nasolacrimal lavage and a positive functional endoscopic dye test (FEDT). Postoperative pain and cosmetic result of surgery were interpreted by the patients, who were also asked whether they would offer this surgery to a friend or would prefer this surgery once more if necessary. RESULTS Twenty-five patients underwent END-DCR and 25 underwent EXT-DCR. Mean duration of surgeries were 35min both for EXT-DCR (30-50) and END-DCR (35-50) (P=0.778). Intraoperative bleeding were documented in 48% of EXT-DCR and 4% of END-DCR cases (P<0.001). In total 96% of EXT-DCR and 100% of END-DCR patients had subjective success. Objective success was 100% in each group. There was no significant difference between the epiphora scorings and FDDT results in postoperative visits among the groups. END-DCR group reported less pain in first week and month (P<0.05, P<0.05). More patients in END-DCR group were happy with the cosmetic result in first week and month (P<0.001, P<0.001). More patients in END-DCR group offered this surgery to a friend (P<0.001). All patients in END-DCR group preferred this surgery once more if necessary, only 48% in EXT-DCR preferred the same method (P<0.001). CONCLUSION Although both END- and EXT-DCRs provide satisfactory outcomes with similar objective and subjective success rates, we demonstrated that the endonasal approach caused significantly less pain in early postoperative period than the external approach. Clinical comfort defined by the patients was quite higher in END-DCR group, in which patients mainly

  17. Rinsability of orthophthalaldehyde from endoscopes.

    PubMed

    Miner, Norman; Harris, Valerie; Lukomski, Natalie; Ebron, Towanda

    2012-01-01

    Orthophthalaldehyde high level disinfectants are contraindicated for use with urological instruments such as cystoscopes due to anaphylaxis-like allergic reactions during surveillance of bladder cancer patients. Allergic reactions and mucosal injuries have also been reported following colonoscopy, laryngoscopy, and transesophageal echocardiography with devices disinfected using orthophthalaldehyde. Possibly these endoscopes were not adequately rinsed after disinfection by orthophthalaldehyde. We examined this possibility by means of a zone-of-inhibition test, and also a test to extract residues of orthophthalaldehyde with acetonitrile, from sections of endoscope insertion tube materials, to measure the presence of alkaline glutaraldehyde, or glutaraldehyde plus 20% w/w isopropanol, or ortho-phthalaldehyde that remained on the endoscope materials after exposure to these disinfectants followed by a series of rinses in water, or by aeration overnight. Zones of any size indicated the disinfectant had not been rinsed away from the endoscope material. There were no zones of inhibition surrounding endoscope materials soaked in glutaraldehyde or glutaraldehyde plus isopropanol after three serial water rinses according to manufacturers' rinsing directions. The endoscope material soaked in orthophthalaldehyde produced zones of inhibition even after fifteen serial rinses with water. Orthophthalaldehyde was extracted from the rinsed endoscope material by acetonitrile. These data, and other information, indicate that the high level disinfectant orthophthalaldehyde, also known as 1,2-benzene dialdehyde, cannot be rinsed away from flexible endoscope material with any practical number of rinses with water, or by drying overnight. PMID:22665966

  18. Endoscopic Gastrocnemius Intramuscular Aponeurotic Recession

    PubMed Central

    Lui, Tun Hing

    2015-01-01

    Gastrocnemius aponeurotic recession is the surgical treatment for symptomatic gastrocnemius contracture. Endoscopic gastrocnemius recession procedures has been developed recently and reported to have fewer complications and better cosmetic outcomes. Classically, this is performed at the aponeurosis distal to the gastrocnemius muscle attachment. We describe an alternative endoscopic approach in which the intramuscular portion of the aponeurosis is released. PMID:26900563

  19. [Endoscopic vacuum-assisted closure].

    PubMed

    Wedemeyer, J; Lankisch, T

    2013-03-01

    Anastomotic leakage in the upper and lower intestinal tract is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Within the last 10 years endoscopic treatment options have been accepted as sufficient treatment option of these surgical complications. Endoscopic vacuum assisted closure (E-VAC) is a new innovative endoscopic therapeutic option in this field. E-VAC transfers the positive effects of vacuum assisted closure (VAC) on infected cutaneous wounds to infected cavities that can only be reached endoscopically. A sponge connected to a drainage tube is endoscopically placed in the leakage and a continuous vacuum is applied. Sponge and vacuum allow removal of infected fluids and promote granulation of the leakage. This results in clean wound grounds and finally allows wound closure. Meanwhile the method was also successfully used in the treatment of necrotic pancreatitis. PMID:23430199

  20. Endoscopic ultrasound in mediastinal tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Malay; Ecka, Ruth Shifa; Somasundaram, Aravindh; Shoukat, Abid; Kirnake, Vijendra

    2016-01-01

    Background: Tubercular lymphadenitis is the commonest extra pulmonary manifestation in cervical and mediastinal locations. Normal characteristics of lymph nodes (LN) have been described on ultrasonography as well as by Endoscopic Ultrasound. Many ultrasonic features have been described for evaluation of mediastinal lymph nodes. The inter and intraobserver agreement of the endosonographic features have not been uniformly established. Methods and Results: A total of 266 patients underwent endoscopic ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration and 134 cases were diagnosed as mediastinal tuberculosis. The endoscopic ultrasound location and features of these lymph nodes are described. Conclusion: Our series demonstrates the utility of endoscopic ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration as the investigation of choice for diagnosis of mediastinal tuberculosis and also describes various endoscopic ultrasound features of such nodes. PMID:27051097

  1. Endoscopic resection of subepithelial tumors

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Arthur; Bauder, Markus; Riecken, Bettina; Caca, Karel

    2014-01-01

    Management of subepithelial tumors (SETs) remains challenging. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) has improved differential diagnosis of these tumors but a definitive diagnosis on EUS findings alone can be achieved in the minority of cases. Complete endoscopic resection may provide a reasonable approach for tissue acquisition and may also be therapeutic in case of malignant lesions. Small SET restricted to the submucosa can be removed with established basic resection techniques. However, resection of SET arising from deeper layers of the gastrointestinal wall requires advanced endoscopic methods and harbours the risk of perforation. Innovative techniques such as submucosal tunneling and full thickness resection have expanded the frontiers of endoscopic therapy in the past years. This review will give an overview about endoscopic resection techniques of SET with a focus on novel methods. PMID:25512768

  2. Endoscopic Therapy in Chronic Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Damien Meng Yew

    2011-01-01

    Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is a debilitating disease that can result in chronic abdominal pain, malnutrition, and other related complications. The main aims of treatment are to control symptoms, prevent disease progression, and correct any complications. A multidisciplinary approach involving medical, endoscopic, and surgical therapy is important. Endoscopic therapy plays a specific role in carefully selected patients as primary interventional therapy when medical measures fail or in patients who are not suitable for surgery. Endoscopic therapy is also used as a bridge to surgery or as a means to assess the potential response to pancreatic surgery. This review addresses the role of endoscopic therapy in relief of obstruction of the pancreatic duct (PD) and bile du ct, closure of PD leaks, and drainage of pseudocysts in CP. The role of endoscopic ultrasound-guided celiac plexus block for pain in chronic pancreatitis is also discussed. PMID:22205838

  3. Endoscopic treatment of oesophageal varices.

    PubMed

    Krige, J E; Bornman, P C

    2000-12-01

    Major variceal bleeding is a life-threatening complication of portal hypertension. Therapy for bleeding may be difficult and requires expertise and appropriate facilities. Endoscopic therapy using either injection sclerotherapy or band ligation after adequate resuscitation and diagnostic endoscopy is the preferred first-line treatment. Bleeding not controlled by initial endoscopic therapy requires balloon tamponade followed by repeat variceal ligation or sclerotherapy. Patients who continue to bleed after endoscopic therapy are best treated with percutaneous radiological transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt stent (TIPSS) insertion. After variceal eradication, patients require lifelong surveillance endoscopy and re-obliteration of varices by endoscopic therapy if they recur. Beta-blockers to prevent recurrent bleeding are reserved for selected patients. Patients with severe liver decompensation have a poor prognosis and should be evaluated for liver transplantation. Prophylactic endoscopic therapy in patients who have never bled from varices is contraindicated as it is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. PMID:11424860

  4. Endoscopic laser-urethroplasty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilbert, Peter

    2006-02-01

    The objective was to prove the advantage of endoscopic laser-urethroplasty over internal urethrotomy in acquired urethral strictures. Patients and Method: From January, 1996 to June, 2005, 35 patients with a mean age of 66 years were submitted to endoscopic laser-urethroplasty for strictures of either the bulbar (30) or membranous (5) urethra. The operations were carried out under general anesthesia. First of all, the strictures were incised at the 4, 8 and 12 o'clock position by means of a Sachse-urethrotom. Then the scar flap between the 4 and 8 o'clock position was vaporized using a Nd:YAG laser, wavelength 1060 nm and a 600 pm bare fiber, the latter always being in contact with the tissue. The laser worked at 40W power in continuous mode. The total energy averaged 2574 J. An indwelling catheter was kept in place overnight and the patients were discharged the following day. Urinalysis, uroflowmetry and clinical examination were performed at two months after surgery and from then on every six months. Results: No serious complications were encountered. Considering a mean follow-up of 18 months, the average peak flow improved from 7.3 ml/s preoperatively to 18.7 mVs postoperatively. The treatment faded in 5 patients ( 14.3% ) who finally underwent open urethroplasty. Conclusions: Endoscopic laser-urethroplasty yields better short-term results than internal visual urethrotomy. Long-term follow-up has yet to confirm its superiority in the treatment of acquired urethral strictures.

  5. Endoscopic pituitary surgery.

    PubMed

    Cappabianca, Paolo; Cavallo, Luigi Maria; de Divitiis, Oreste; Solari, Domenico; Esposito, Felice; Colao, Annamaria

    2008-01-01

    Pituitary surgery is a continuous evolving speciality of the neurosurgeons' armamentarium, which requires precise anatomical knowledge, technical skills and integrated appreciation of the pituitary pathophysiology. What we consider "pure" endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery is a procedure performed through the nose and the sphenoid bone, with the endoscope alone throughout the whole approach to visualize the surgical target area and without the use of any transsphenoidal retractor. It offers some advantages due to the endoscope itself: a superior close-up view of the relevant anatomy and an enlarged working angle are provided with an increased panoramic vision inside the surgical area. Concerning results in terms of mass removal, relief of clinical symptoms, cure of the underlying disease and complication rate, they are, at least, similar to those reported in the major microsurgical series, but patient compliance is by far better. Furthermore transsphenoidal endoscopy brings advantages to the patient (less nasal traumatism, no nasal packing, less post-op pain and usually quick recovery), to the surgeon (wider and closer view of the surgical target area, increase of the scientific activity as from the peer-reviewed literature on the topic in the last 10 years, smoothing of interdisciplinary cooperation), to the institution (shorter post-op hospital stay, increase of the case load). Besides, further progress and technological advance are expected from the close cooperation between different technologies and industries. Continuing works in such field of "minimalism" will offer further possibilities to provide the surgeon with even more effectiveness and safety, and, on the other hand, the patient with improvement of results. PMID:18286374

  6. Dry Endoscopic-Assisted Mini-Open Approach With Neuromonitoring for Chronic Hamstring Avulsions and Ischial Tunnel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Hoyos, Juan; Reddy, Manoj; Martin, Hal D.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic hamstring origin avulsions and ischial tunnel syndrome are common causes of posterior hip pain. Although physical therapy has shown benefits in some cases, recent evidence has reported better outcomes with surgical treatment in appropriately selected patients. The full-open approach has been the classic procedure to address this problem. However, the complications related to extensive tissue exposure and the proximity of the incision to the perianal zone have led to the description of full-endoscopic techniques. Achieving an accurate hamstring repair could be technically demanding with a full-endoscopic procedure. Accurate reattachment is crucial in hamstring repair because of the functional demand of the muscles crossing of 2 major joints (hip and knee). This surgical note describes a mixed technique including a mini-open approach, neuromonitoring, and dry endoscopic-assisted repair of the hamstring origin as an alternative for treating patients with chronic hamstring avulsions and ischial tunnel syndrome that remain symptomatic despite nonoperative treatment. PMID:26258031

  7. Endoscopic extraperitoneal lumbar sympathectomy.

    PubMed

    Hourlay, P; Vangertruyden, G; Verduyckt, F; Trimpeneers, F; Hendrickx, J

    1995-05-01

    From June 24, 1993, until November 9, 1993, eight sympathectomies were performed by extraperitoneal endoscopy for treatment of Sudeck atrophy. Seventy-five percent of the patients were satisfied with the result of the intervention. A follow-up after 4 months shows that four patients are free of pain. Two are satisfied, but some pain remains. In two cases, the intensity of the pain remains unchanged but the character of the pain has changed. This new technique is safe and offers the well-known advantages of minimal invasive surgery. Moreover, this endoscopic approach opens perspectives for the exploration of the entire retroperitoneum. PMID:7545831

  8. Endoscopic mucosal resection.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Joo Ha; Konda, Vani; Abu Dayyeh, Barham K; Chauhan, Shailendra S; Enestvedt, Brintha K; Fujii-Lau, Larissa L; Komanduri, Sri; Maple, John T; Murad, Faris M; Pannala, Rahul; Thosani, Nirav C; Banerjee, Subhas

    2015-08-01

    EMR has become an established therapeutic option for premalignant and early-stage GI malignancies, particularly in the esophagus and colon. EMR can also aid in the diagnosis and therapy of subepithelial lesions localized to the muscularis mucosa or submucosa. Several dedicated EMR devices are available to facilitate these procedures. Adverse event rates, particularly bleeding and perforation, are higher after EMR relative to other basic endoscopic interventions but lower than adverse event rates for ESD. Endoscopists performing EMR should be knowledgeable and skilled in managing potential adverse events resulting from EMR. PMID:26077453

  9. Therapeutic Endoscopic Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Cheriyan, Danny

    2015-01-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) technology has evolved dramatically over the past 20 years, from being a supplementary diagnostic aid available only in large medical centers to being a core diagnostic and therapeutic tool that is widely available. Although formal recommendations and practice guidelines have not been developed, there are considerable data supporting the use of EUS for its technical accuracy in diagnosing pancreaticobiliary and gastrointestinal pathology. Endosonography is now routine practice not only for pathologic diagnosis and tumor staging but also for drainage of cystic lesions and celiac plexus neurolysis. In this article, we cover the use of EUS in biliary and pancreatic intervention, ablative therapy, enterostomy, and vascular intervention. PMID:27118942

  10. Endoscopic Intermetatarsal Ligament Decompression.

    PubMed

    Lui, Tun Hing

    2015-12-01

    Morton neuroma is an entrapment of the intermetatarsal nerve by the deep intermetatarsal ligament. It is usually treated conservatively. Surgery is considered if there is recalcitrant pain that is resistant to conservative treatment. The surgical options include resection of the neuroma or decompression of the involved nerve. Decompression of the nerve by release of the intermetatarsal ligament can be performed by either an open or minimally invasive approach. We describe 2-portal endoscopic decompression of the intermetatarsal nerve. The ligament is released by a retrograde knife through the toe-web portal under arthroscopic guidance through the plantar portal. PMID:27284515

  11. A novel method for endoscopic perforation management by using abdominal exploration and full-thickness sutured closure

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Nitin; Thompson, Christopher C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Perforation of the GI tract during endoscopy can result in significant morbidity and mortality. Early recognition and immediate management of endoscopic perforation are essential to optimize outcome. Larger perforations, defects with complex geometry, and those complicated by leakage of luminal contents have traditionally required surgical management. Objective To assess the feasibility of a new method for managing complex perforations that incorporates abdominal exploration and endoscopic sutured closure. Design Case series. Setting Tertiary care center. Patients Two patients with large, complicated perforations and peritoneal contamination. Interventions Endoscopic exploration of abdomen with angiocatheter placement under direct visualization, management of leaked luminal contents, and full-thickness sutured defect closure. Results Endoscopic abdominal exploration through the perforation site allowed safe placement of an angiocatheter for management of pneumoperitoneum, inspection for injury that may warrant surgical management, and removal of leaked luminal contents. Endoscopic sutured closure allowed safe and robust perforation management. Repair of gastrojejunal anastomotic perforation required 2 sutures and 63 minutes. Repair of gastric perforation required 4 sutures and 48 minutes. Patients had successful endoscopic defect closure confirmed by an upper GI series and were discharged 1 day later. Limitations Report of a new method in 2 patients performed at tertiary care center. Conclusions We demonstrate successful management of complex perforations with peritoneal contamination by incorporating endoscopic exploration and sutured closure with standard treatment measures. Traditional practice would have directed these patients to surgical management, which introduces additional morbidity and cost. A means for safe and broad implementation of these techniques should be evaluated. PMID:24721517

  12. Endoscopic Total Thyroidectomy

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Titus D.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Objective: Endoscopic neck surgery for the thyroid and parathyroid is being tested as an alternative to open thyroidectomy. The aim of this study was to determine the safety and feasibility of endoscopic transaxillary total thyroidectomy (ETTT). Methods and Results: Twenty-two consecutive patients from January 2006 to September 2008 underwent ETTT. No conversions to open were necessary. Mean age was 49.3±12.9 years, 20 were female, and 2 were male. Mean operating time was 238 minutes±72.7. Mean blood loss was 40mL±28.3mL. Mean weight of the gland was 137.05g±129.21g. The recurrent laryngeal nerve was identified with no permanent injury. Six patients developed hoarseness of the voice for a mean of 15.1±8.01 days. No patient developed tetany or hypocalcemia requiring treatment. Six patients experienced transient numbness in the anterior chest wall lasting 2 weeks in 5 patients and 2 months in one. All patients were discharged within 24 hours of admission. Conclusion: ETTT requires additional operative time compared with the open approach, but is cosmetically favorable. Visualization of the nerve and parathyroid is much better. Although the learning curve is steep, with experience the operative time will decrease. ETTT is different but safe and feasible. PMID:20202393

  13. Endoscopic simple prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Borkowski, Tomasz; Chłosta, Piotr; Dobruch, Jakub; Fiutowski, Marek; Jaskulski, Jarosław; Słojewski, Marcin; Szydełko, Tomasz; Szymański, Michał; Demkow, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Many options exist for the surgical treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) due to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), including transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP), laser surgery, and open adenomectomy. Recently, endoscopic techniques have been used in the treatment of BPH. Material and methods We reviewed clinical studies in PubMed describing minimally invasive endoscopic procedures for the treatment of BPH. Results Laparoscopic adenomectomy (LA) and robotic–assisted simple prostatectomy (RASP) were introduced in the early 2000s. These operative techniques have been standardized and reproducible, with some individual modifications. Studies analyzing the outcomes of LA and RASP have reported significant improvements in urinary flow and decreases in patient International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS). These minimally invasive approaches have resulted in a lower rate of complications, shorter hospital stays, smaller scars, faster recoveries, and an earlier return to work. Conclusions Minimally invasive techniques such as LA and RASP for the treatment BPH are safe, efficacious, and allow faster recovery. These procedures have a short learning curve and offer new options for the surgeon treating BPH. PMID:25667758

  14. Characterization of Complications Associated with Open and Endoscopic Craniosynostosis Surgery at a Single Institution

    PubMed Central

    Han, Rowland H.; Nguyen, Dennis C.; Bruck, Brent S.; Skolnick, Gary B.; Yarbrough, Chester K.; Naidoo, Sybill D.; Patel, Kamlesh B.; Kane, Alex A.; Woo, Albert S.; Smyth, Matthew D.

    2016-01-01

    Object We present a retrospective cohort study examining complications in patients undergoing surgery for craniosynostosis using both minimally invasive endoscopic and open approaches. Methods Over the past ten years, 295 non-syndromic patients (140 endoscopic, 155 open) and 33 syndromic patients (10 endoscopic, 23 open) met our criteria. Variables analyzed included: age at surgery, presence of pre-existing CSF shunt, skin incision method, estimated blood loss (EBL), transfusions of packed red blood cells (PRBC), use of intravenous (IV) steroids or tranexamic acid (TXA), intraoperative durotomies, procedure length, and length of hospital stay. Complications were classified as either surgically or medically related. Results In the non-syndromic endoscopic group, we experienced 3 (2.1%) surgical and 5 (3.6%) medical complications. In the non-syndromic open group, there were 2 (1.3%) surgical and 7 (4.5%) medical complications. Intraoperative durotomies occurred in 5 (3.6%) endoscopic and 12 (7.8%) open cases, were repaired primarily, and did not result in reoperations for CSF leakage. Syndromic cases resulted in similar complication rates. No mortality or permanent morbidity occurred. Additionally, endoscopic procedures were associated with significantly decreased EBL, transfusions, procedure lengths, and lengths of hospital stay compared to open procedures. Conclusions Rates of intraoperative durotomies, surgical and medical complications were comparable between endoscopic and open techniques. This is the largest direct comparison to date between endoscopic and open interventions for synostosis, and the results are in agreement with previous series that endoscopic surgery confers distinct advantages over open in appropriate patient populations. PMID:26588461

  15. Characterization of complications associated with open and endoscopic craniosynostosis surgery at a single institution.

    PubMed

    Han, Rowland H; Nguyen, Dennis C; Bruck, Brent S; Skolnick, Gary B; Yarbrough, Chester K; Naidoo, Sybill D; Patel, Kamlesh B; Kane, Alex A; Woo, Albert S; Smyth, Matthew D

    2016-03-01

    OBJECT The authors present a retrospective cohort study examining complications in patients undergoing surgery for craniosynostosis using both minimally invasive endoscopic and open approaches. METHODS Over the past 10 years, 295 nonsyndromic patients (140 undergoing endoscopic procedures and 155 undergoing open procedures) and 33 syndromic patients (endoscopic procedures in 10 and open procedures in 23) met the authors' criteria. Variables analyzed included age at surgery, presence of a preexisting CSF shunt, skin incision method, estimated blood loss, transfusions of packed red blood cells, use of intravenous steroids or tranexamic acid, intraoperative durotomies, procedure length, and length of hospital stay. Complications were classified as either surgically or medically related. RESULTS In the nonsyndromic endoscopic group, the authors experienced 3 (2.1%) surgical and 5 (3.6%) medical complications. In the nonsyndromic open group, there were 2 (1.3%) surgical and 7 (4.5%) medical complications. Intraoperative durotomies occurred in 5 (3.6%) endoscopic and 12 (7.8%) open cases, were repaired primarily, and did not result in reoperations for CSF leakage. Similar complication rates were seen in syndromic cases. There was no death or permanent morbidity. Additionally, endoscopic procedures were associated with significantly decreased estimated blood loss, transfusions, procedure length, and length of hospital stay compared with open procedures. CONCLUSIONS Rates of intraoperative durotomies and surgical and medical complications were comparable between endoscopic and open techniques. This is the largest direct comparison to date between endoscopic and open interventions for synostosis, and the results are in agreement with previous series that endoscopic surgery confers distinct advantages over open surgery in appropriate patient populations. PMID:26588461

  16. Guideline Implementation: Processing Flexible Endoscopes.

    PubMed

    Bashaw, Marie A

    2016-09-01

    The updated AORN "Guideline for processing flexible endoscopes" provides guidance to perioperative, endoscopy, and sterile processing personnel for processing all types of reusable flexible endoscopes and accessories in all procedural settings. This article focuses on key points of the guideline to help perioperative personnel safely and effectively process flexible endoscopes to prevent infection transmission. The key points address verification of manual cleaning, mechanical cleaning and processing, storage in a drying cabinet, determination of maximum storage time before reprocessing is needed, and considerations for implementing a microbiologic surveillance program. Perioperative RNs should review the complete guideline for additional information and for guidance when writing and updating policies and procedures. PMID:27568535

  17. Endoscopic management of esophageal varices

    PubMed Central

    Poza Cordon, Joaquin; Froilan Torres, Consuelo; Burgos García, Aurora; Gea Rodriguez, Francisco; Suárez de Parga, Jose Manuel

    2012-01-01

    The rupture of gastric varices results in variceal hemorrhage, which is one the most lethal complications of cirrhosis. Endoscopic therapies for varices aim to reduce variceal wall tension by obliteration of the varix. The two principal methods available for esophageal varices are endoscopic sclerotherapy (EST) and band ligation (EBL). The advantages of EST are that it is cheap and easy to use, and the injection catheter fits through the working channel of a diagnostic gastroscope. Endoscopic variceal ligation obliterates varices by causing mechanical strangulation with rubber bands. The following review aims to describe the utility of EBL and EST in different situations, such as acute bleeding, primary and secondary prophylaxis PMID:22816012

  18. [Endoscopic management of biliary stones].

    PubMed

    Barinagarrementería, R

    1990-07-01

    Endoscopic sphincterotomy is one of the more effective therapeutic procedures for the management of some biliary tree abnormalities. In choledocolitiasis, a 90% succesfull rate has been obtained. Complications include bleeding, perforation, cholangitis, and pancreatitis. Mortality rates between 1.0 to 1.3% are informed. Contraindications are the same as for panendoscopy as well as the presence of stones greater than 2.5 cms. In giant stones, some other endoscopic approaches can be used, including mechanical lithotripsy, chemical treatment, electrohydraulic shockwaves, laser and biliary stent application. Endoscopic sphincterotomy is also indicated as an adjuvant therapy previous to extracorporeal lithotripsy. PMID:19256137

  19. Endoscopic Management of Cerebrospinal Fluid Rhinorrhea: The Charing Cross Experience

    PubMed Central

    Virk, Jagdeep Singh; Elmiyeh, Behrad; Saleh, Hesham A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe our experience of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rhinorrhea management. Design Retrospective. Setting Charing Cross Hospital, London, a tertiary referral center. Participants Fifty-four patients with CSF rhinorrhea managed from 2003 to 2011. Main outcome measures Surgical technique; Recurrence. Results Etiologically, 36 were spontaneous and 18 traumatic. Eight patients with spontaneous and two with traumatic leaks had previous failed repairs in other units. Success rates after first and second surgery were 93% and 100%, respectively. Mean follow-up was 21 months. Four patients, all of spontaneous etiology, had recurrences; three of these underwent successful second repair with three layered technique, and the fourth had complete cessation of the leak after gastric bypass surgery and subsequent weight reduction. Adaptation of anatomic three-layered repair since then averted any further failure in the following 7 years. Mean body mass index was 34.0 kg/m2 in spontaneous and 27.8 kg/m2 in traumatic cases (p < 0.05). Fifty percent of spontaneous leaks were from the cribriform plate, 22% sphenoid, 14% ethmoid, and 14% frontal sinus. In the traumatic CSF leak group: 33.3% were from the cribriform plate, 33.3% sphenoid, 22.2% ethmoid, and 11.1% frontal. Conclusion Endoscopic CSF fistula closure is a safe and effective operation. All sites of leak can be accessed endoscopically. We recommend the use of an anatomic three-layered closure in difficult cases. PMID:24436890

  20. Gastroschisis repair

    MedlinePlus

    ... and surgery in general are: Allergic reactions to medicines Breathing problems Bleeding Infection Risks for gastroschisis repair are: Breathing problems if the baby's belly area (abdominal space) is smaller than normal. The baby may need ...

  1. Hydrocele repair

    MedlinePlus

    ... is excellent. However, another hydrocele may form over time, or if there was also a hernia present. Alternative Names Hydrocelectomy Images Hydrocele repair - series References Aiken JJ, Oldham KT. Inguinal hernias. In: ...

  2. Endoscopic surgery - exploring the modalities

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Daniel Jin Keat; Tan, Kok-Yang

    2015-01-01

    The adoption of endoscopic surgery continues to expand in clinical situations with the recent natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery technique enabling abdominal organ resection to be performed without necessitating any skin incision. In recent years, the development of numerous devices and platforms have allowed for such procedures to be carried out in a safer and more efficient manner, and in some ways to better simulate triangulation and surgical tasks (e.g., suturing and dissection). Furthermore, new novel techniques such as submucosal tunneling, endoscopic full-thickness resection and hybrid endo-laparoscopic approaches have further widened its use in more advanced diseases. Nevertheless, many of these new innovations are still at their pre-clinical stage. This review focuses on the various innovations in endoscopic surgery, with emphasis on devices and techniques that are currently in human use. PMID:26649156

  3. Celiac Disease Diagnosis: Endoscopic Biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... This is done in a procedure called a biopsy: the physician eases a long, thin tube called ... the tissue using instruments passed through the endoscope. Biopsy of the small intestine is the only way ...

  4. Foveated endoscopic lens

    PubMed Central

    Hagen, Nathan

    2012-01-01

    Abstract. We present a foveated miniature endoscopic lens implemented by amplifying the optical distortion of the lens. The resulting system provides a high-resolution region in the central field of view and low resolution in the outer fields, such that a standard imaging fiber bundle can provide both the high resolution needed to determine tissue health and the wide field of view needed to determine the location within the inspected organ. Our proof of concept device achieves 7∼8  μm resolution in the fovea and an overall field of view of 4.6 mm. Example images and videos show the foveated lens’ capabilities. PMID:22463022

  5. Endoscopic third ventriculostomy

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Yad Ram; Parihar, Vijay; Pande, Sonjjay; Namdev, Hemant; Agarwal, Moneet

    2012-01-01

    Endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) is considered as a treatment of choice for obstructive hydrocephalus. It is indicated in hydrocephalus secondary to congenital aqueductal stenosis, posterior third ventricle tumor, cerebellar infarct, Dandy-Walker malformation, vein of Galen aneurism, syringomyelia with or without Chiari malformation type I, intraventricular hematoma, post infective, normal pressure hydrocephalus, myelomeningocele, multiloculated hydrocephalus, encephalocele, posterior fossa tumor and craniosynostosis. It is also indicated in block shunt or slit ventricle syndrome. Proper Pre-operative imaging for detailed assessment of the posterior communicating arteries distance from mid line, presence or absence of Liliequist membrane or other membranes, located in the prepontine cistern is useful. Measurement of lumbar elastance and resistance can predict patency of cranial subarachnoid space and complex hydrocephalus, which decides an ultimate outcome. Water jet dissection is an effective technique of ETV in thick floor. Ultrasonic contact probe can be useful in selected patients. Intra-operative ventriculo-stomography could help in confirming the adequacy of endoscopic procedure, thereby facilitating the need for shunt. Intraoperative observations of the patent aqueduct and prepontine cistern scarring are predictors of the risk of ETV failure. Such patients may be considered for shunt surgery. Magnetic resonance ventriculography and cine phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging are effective in assessing subarachnoid space and stoma patency after ETV. Proper case selection, post-operative care including monitoring of ICP and need for external ventricular drain, repeated lumbar puncture and CSF drainage, Ommaya reservoir in selected patients could help to increase success rate and reduce complications. Most of the complications develop in an early post-operative, but fatal complications can develop late which indicate an importance of long term follow

  6. Endoscopic management of chronic pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Oza, Veeral M; Kahaleh, Michel

    2013-01-01

    Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is a common gastrointestinal illness, which affects the quality of life with substantial morbidity and mortality. The management includes medical, endoscopic and surgical approaches with the need for interaction between various specialties, calling for a concerted multidisciplinary approach. However, at the time of this publication, guidelines to establish care of these patients are lacking. This review provides the reader with a comprehensive overview of the studies summarizing the various treatment options available, including medical, surgical and endoscopic options. In addition, technological advances such as endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatogrophy, endoscopic shock wave lithotripsy and endoscopic ultrasound can now be offered with reasonable success for pancreatic decompression, stricture dilatation with stent placement, stone fragmentation, pseudocyst drainage, and other endoscopic interventions such as celiac plexus block for pain relief. We emphasize the endoscopic options in this review, and attempt to extract the most up to date information from the current literature. The treatment of CP and its complications are discussed extensively. Complications such as biliary strictures. pancreatic pseudocysts, and chronic pain are common issues that arise as long-term complications of CP. These often require endoscopic or surgical management and possibly a combination of approaches, however choosing amongst the various therapeutic and palliative modalities while weighing the risks and benefits, makes the management of CP challenging. Treatment goals should be not just to control symptoms but also to prevent disease progression. Our aim in this paper is to advocate and emphasize an evidence based approach for the management of CP and associated long term complications. PMID:23330050

  7. Endoscopic Distal Tibiofibular Syndesmosis Arthrodesis.

    PubMed

    Lui, Tun Hing

    2016-04-01

    Chronic distal tibiofibular syndesmosis disruption can be managed by endoscopic arthrodesis of the syndesmosis. This is performed through the proximal anterolateral and posterolateral portals. The scar tissue and bone block are resected to facilitate the subsequent reduction of the syndesmosis. The reduction of the syndesmosis can be guided either arthroscopically or endoscopically. The tibial and fibular surfaces of the tibiofibular overlap can be microfractured to facilitate subsequent fusion. PMID:27462544

  8. Endoscopic Management of Portal Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Al-Busafi, Said A.; Ghali, Peter; Wong, Philip; Deschenes, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Cirrhosis is the leading cause of portal hypertension worldwide, with the development of bleeding gastroesophageal varices being one of the most life-threatening consequences. Endoscopy plays an indispensible role in the diagnosis, staging, and prophylactic or active management of varices. With the expected future refinements in endoscopic technology, capsule endoscopy may one day replace traditional gastroscopy as a diagnostic modality, whereas endoscopic ultrasound may more precisely guide interventional therapy for gastric varices. PMID:22830037

  9. Endoscopic management of cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Yad Ram; Parihar, Vijay; Janakiram, Narayanan; Pande, Sonjay; Bajaj, Jitin; Namdev, Hemant

    2016-01-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rhinorrhea occurs due to communication between the intracranial subarachnoid space and the sinonasal mucosa. It could be due to trauma, raised intracranial pressure (ICP), tumors, erosive diseases, and congenital skull defects. Some leaks could be spontaneous without any specific etiology. The potential leak sites include the cribriform plate, ethmoid, sphenoid, and frontal sinus. Glucose estimation, although non-specific, is the most popular and readily available method of diagnosis. Glucose concentration of > 30 mg/dl without any blood contamination strongly suggests presence and the absence of glucose rules out CSF in the fluid. Beta-2 transferrin test confirms the diagnosis. High-resolution computed tomography and magnetic resonance cisternography are complementary to each other and are the investigation of choice. Surgical intervention is indicated, when conservative management fails to prevent risk of meningitis. Endoscopic closure has revolutionized the management of CSF rhinorrhea due to its less morbidity and better closure rate. It is usually best suited for small defects in cribriform plate, sphenoid, and ethmoid sinus. Large defects can be repaired when sufficient experience is acquired. Most frontal sinus leaks, although difficult, can be successfully closed by modified Lothrop procedure. Factors associated with increased recurrences are middle age, obese female, raised ICP, diabetes mellitus, lateral sphenoid leaks, superior and lateral extension in frontal sinus, multiple leaks, and extensive skull base defects. Appropriate treatment for raised ICP, in addition to proper repair, should be done to prevent recurrence. Long follow-up is required before leveling successful repair as recurrences may occur very late. PMID:27366243

  10. Endoscopic management of cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Yad Ram; Parihar, Vijay; Janakiram, Narayanan; Pande, Sonjay; Bajaj, Jitin; Namdev, Hemant

    2016-01-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rhinorrhea occurs due to communication between the intracranial subarachnoid space and the sinonasal mucosa. It could be due to trauma, raised intracranial pressure (ICP), tumors, erosive diseases, and congenital skull defects. Some leaks could be spontaneous without any specific etiology. The potential leak sites include the cribriform plate, ethmoid, sphenoid, and frontal sinus. Glucose estimation, although non-specific, is the most popular and readily available method of diagnosis. Glucose concentration of > 30 mg/dl without any blood contamination strongly suggests presence and the absence of glucose rules out CSF in the fluid. Beta-2 transferrin test confirms the diagnosis. High-resolution computed tomography and magnetic resonance cisternography are complementary to each other and are the investigation of choice. Surgical intervention is indicated, when conservative management fails to prevent risk of meningitis. Endoscopic closure has revolutionized the management of CSF rhinorrhea due to its less morbidity and better closure rate. It is usually best suited for small defects in cribriform plate, sphenoid, and ethmoid sinus. Large defects can be repaired when sufficient experience is acquired. Most frontal sinus leaks, although difficult, can be successfully closed by modified Lothrop procedure. Factors associated with increased recurrences are middle age, obese female, raised ICP, diabetes mellitus, lateral sphenoid leaks, superior and lateral extension in frontal sinus, multiple leaks, and extensive skull base defects. Appropriate treatment for raised ICP, in addition to proper repair, should be done to prevent recurrence. Long follow-up is required before leveling successful repair as recurrences may occur very late. PMID:27366243

  11. Endoscopic treatment of pancreatic calculi.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong Hoon; Jang, Sung Ill; Rhee, Kwangwon; Lee, Dong Ki

    2014-05-01

    Chronic pancreatitis is a progressive inflammatory disease that destroys pancreatic parenchyma and alters ductal stricture, leading to ductal destruction and abdominal pain. Pancreatic duct stones (PDSs) are a common complication of chronic pancreatitis that requires treatment to relieve abdominal pain and improve pancreas function. Endoscopic therapy, extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL), and surgery are treatment modalities of PDSs, although lingering controversies have hindered a consensus recommendation. Many comparative studies have reported that surgery is the superior treatment because of reduced duration and frequency of hospitalization, cost, pain relief, and reintervention, while endoscopic therapy is effective and less invasive but cannot be used in all patients. Surgery is the treatment of choice when endoscopic therapy has failed, malignancy is suspected, or duodenal stricture is present. However, in patients with the appropriate indications or at high-risk for surgery, endoscopic therapy in combination with ESWL can be considered a first-line treatment. We expect that the development of advanced endoscopic techniques and equipment will expand the role of endoscopic treatment in PDS removal. PMID:24944986

  12. Flexible endoscopes: structure and function--the air and water system.

    PubMed

    Holland, P; Shoop, N

    2000-01-01

    Flexible endoscopes are complex medical instruments that are easily damaged. To maintain the flexible endoscope in optimum working condition, the user must have a thorough understanding of the structure and function of the instrument. This series of articles will present an in-depth look at the care and handling of these expensive devices. The flexible endoscope is constructed of several systems that operate simultaneously to produce a highly technical, yet effective diagnostic and therapeutic medical device. These systems include the air and water system, the suction and operating channel system, the mechanical system, the endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) elevator system, the optical system, and the electrical system. This first article in a series will focus on the air and water system of the endoscope. A review of the internal and external structure of the flexible endoscope and the functions of the air and water system, including infection control issues, potential problems and evaluation, and prevention of minor problems to avoid expensive repairs, will be addressed. PMID:11854970

  13. Endoscopic Removal of a Bullet Penetrating the Middle Cranial Fossa

    PubMed Central

    Hatch, Neal U.; Riley, Kristen O.; Woodworth, Bradford A.

    2011-01-01

    Reports of intracranial retained foreign bodies are relatively rare in the literature. Such objects can cause numerous complications requiring removal, such as infection, persistent cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak, or new-onset seizures. The transnasal endoscopic approach provides an excellent alternative to craniotomy for repairing middle cranial fossa (MCF) defects. We describe a case of a 57-year-old woman with a self-inflicted bullet piercing the MCF, creating a persistent CSF leak. The details regarding the removal of this penetrating foreign body from the MCF, including the unique management in the setting of a contralateral spontaneous CSF leak, are discussed. PMID:23984202

  14. An alternative method for cardioplegia delivery during totally endoscopic robotic surgery.

    PubMed

    Guden, Mustafa; Korkmaz, Askin A; Sagbas, Ertan; Sanisoglu, Ilhan; Akpinar, Belhhan

    2009-01-01

    The optimal technique for myocardial protection and cardioplegia delivery during totally endoscopic robotic surgery is still under evolution. Cardioplegia delivery with endovascular clamping of the aorta is a common method used for this purpose but has several disadvantages and may lead to serious complications. Here we describe an alternative cardioplegia delivery method during totally endoscopic atrial septal defect closure and mitral valve repair. The method using a transthoracic aortic clamp and an antegrade cardioplegia cannula without any thoracotomy seems to be a safe and reproducible technique, which may enhance myocardial protection and prevent some of the complications of the endoclamp technique during robotically assisted cardiac surgery. PMID:19732223

  15. Long-term results of endonasal dacryocystorhinostomy with and without stenting

    PubMed Central

    Khan, I; Shakeel, M; Nandapalan, V

    2013-01-01

    Introduction This study aimed to evaluate the short and long-term results of endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) with and without silicone stenting in chronic dacrocystorhinitis due to postsaccal blockage. Methods The study involved a case series of consecutive 89 patients (128 eyes) who underwent endoscopic DCR. All patients were operated on by the senior author. The stent group comprised 63 eyes (44 patients), for which the DCR was performed between September 2002 and September 2005. The non-stent group with 65 eyes (45 patients) underwent the DCR between October 2005 and December 2006. The follow-up duration was up to 33 months after surgery. The statistical significance (p-value) was calculated using the chi-squared test. Results The short-term success rate at six months’ follow-up was 70% in the stent group and 97% in the non-stent group (p=0.0005) while the long-term success rate at 33 months was only 57% in stent group compared with 89% in the non-stent group (p=0.0003). Conclusions In this study, the non-stent group showed a higher success rate than the stent group on both short and longterm follow-up. Our study suggests that postoperative stents are not necessary for primary DCR and may be associated with a worse outcome. PMID:23827291

  16. Tissue repair

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    As living beings that encounter every kind of traumatic event from paper cut to myocardial infarction, we must possess ways to heal damaged tissues. While some animals are able to regrow complete body parts following injury (such as the earthworm who grows a new head following bisection), humans are sadly incapable of such feats. Our means of recovery following tissue damage consists largely of repair rather than pure regeneration. Thousands of times in our lives, a meticulously scripted but unseen wound healing drama plays, with cells serving as actors, extracellular matrix as the setting and growth factors as the means of communication. This article briefly reviews the cells involved in tissue repair, their signaling and proliferation mechanisms and the function of the extracellular matrix, then presents the actors and script for the three acts of the tissue repair drama. PMID:21220961

  17. Huge biloma after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and endoscopic biliary sphincterotomy

    PubMed Central

    Alkhateeb, Harith M.; Aljanabi, Thaer J.; Al-azzawi, Khairallh H.; Alkarboly, Taha A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Biliary leak can occur as a complication of biliary surgery, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography manipulations and endoscopic biliary sphincterotomy. Consequently, bile may collect in the abdominal cavity, a condition called biloma. Rarely, it may reach a massive size. Case presentation A 72-year-old man presented with gastric upset with gradual abdominal distension reaching a large size due to intra-abdominal bile collection (biloma) after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography plus endoscopic biliary sphincterotomy and stenting for post laparoscopic cholecystectomy common bile duct stricture. This huge biloma was treated by percutaneous insertion of a tube drain for a few days, evacuating the collection successfully without recurrence. Discussion This patient might sustain injury to the common bile duct either by the guide wire or stent, or the injury occurred at the angle between the common bile duct and duodenum during sphincterotomy of the ampulla. Although any of these rents may lead to a bile leak, causing a huge biloma, they could be successfully treated by percutaneous drainage. Conclusions (1) Following endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, a patient’s complaints should not be ignored. (2) A massive biloma can occur due to such procedures. (3) Conservative treatment with minimal invasive technique can prove to be effective. PMID:26402876

  18. Ensuring the Safety of Your Endoscopic Procedure

    MedlinePlus

    ... an endoscope are as follows: Mechanical cleaning The operating channels and external portions of the endoscope are ... that there are no leaks in its internal operating channels. This not only ensures peak performance of ...

  19. Clinical Practice Guidelines for Endoscope Reprocessing

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Hyun Jin

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal endoscopy is effective and safe for the screening, diagnosis, and treatment of gastrointestinal disease. However, issues regarding endoscope-transmitted infections are emerging. Many countries have established and continuously revise guidelines for endoscope reprocessing in order to prevent infections. While there are common processes used in endoscope reprocessing, differences exist among these guidelines. It is important that the reprocessing of gastrointestinal endoscopes be carried out in accordance with the recommendations for each step of the process. PMID:26473117

  20. Endoscopic submucosal dissection.

    PubMed

    Maple, John T; Abu Dayyeh, Barham K; Chauhan, Shailendra S; Hwang, Joo Ha; Komanduri, Sri; Manfredi, Michael; Konda, Vani; Murad, Faris M; Siddiqui, Uzma D; Banerjee, Subhas

    2015-01-01

    ESD is an established effective treatment modality for premalignant and early-stage malignant lesions of the stomach, esophagus, and colorectum. Compared with EMR, ESD is generally associated with higher rates of en bloc, R0, and curative resections and a lower rate of local recurrence. Oncologic outcomes with ESD compare favorably with competing surgical interventions, and ESD also serves as an excellent T-staging tool to identify noncurative resections that will require further treatment. ESD is technically demanding and has a higher rate of adverse events than most endoscopic procedures including EMR. As such,sufficient training is critical to ensure safe conduct and high-quality resections. A standardized training model for Western endoscopists has not been clearly established,but will be self-directed and include courses, animal model training, and optimally an observership at an expert center.Numerous dedicated ESD devices are now available in the United States from different manufacturers. Although the use of ESD in the United States is increasing, issues related to technical difficulty, limited training opportunities and mentors, risk of adverse events, long procedure duration,and suboptimal reimbursement may limit ESD adoption in the United States to a modest number of academic referral centers for the foreseeable future. PMID:25796422

  1. Endoscopic Transaxillary Near Total Thyroidectomy

    PubMed Central

    Ejeh, Ijeoma Acholonu; Speights, Fredne; Rashid, Qammar N.; Ideis, Mustafa

    2006-01-01

    Background: Since first reported in 1996, endoscopic minimally invasive surgery of the cervical region has been shown to be safe and effective in the treatment of benign thyroid and parathyroid disease. The endoscopic transaxillary technique uses a remote lateral approach to the thyroid gland. Because of the perceived difficulty in accessing the contralateral anatomy of the thyroid gland, this technique has typically been reserved for patients with unilateral disease. Objectives: The present study examines the safety and feasibility of the transaxillary technique in dissecting and assessment of both thyroid lobes in performing near total thyroidectomy. Methods: Prior to this study we successfully performed endoscopic transaxillary thyroid lobectomy in 32 patients between August 2003 and August 2005. Technical feasibility in performing total thyroidectomy using this approach was accomplished first utilizing a porcine model followed by three human cadaver models prior to proceeding to human surgery. After IRB approval three female patients with histories of enlarging multinodular goiter were selected to undergo endoscopic near total thyroidectomy. Results: The average operative time for all models was 142 minutes (range 57–327 min). The three patients in this study had clinically enlarging multinodular goiters with an average size of 4 cm. The contralateral recurrent laryngeal nerve and parathyroid glands were identified in all cases. There was no post-operative bleeding, hoarseness or subcutaneous emphysema. Conclusion: Endoscopic transaxillary near total thyroidectomy is feasible and can be performed safely in human patients with bilateral thyroid disease. PMID:16882421

  2. Hydrocele repair

    MedlinePlus

    ... small surgical cut in the fold of the groin, and then drains the fluid. The sac (hydrocele) holding the fluid may be removed. The surgeon strengthens the muscle wall with stitches. This is called a hernia repair. Sometimes the surgeon uses a laparoscope to do ...

  3. Outboard Repair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardway, Jack

    This consortium-developed instructor's manual for small engine repair (with focus on outboard motors) consists of the following nine instructional units: electrical remote control assembly, mechanical remote control assembly, tilt assemblies, exhaust housing, propeller and trim tabs, cooling system, mechanical gearcase, electrical gearcase, and…

  4. Motorcycle Repair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hein, Jim; Bundy, Mike

    This motorcycle repair curriculum guide contains the following ten areas of study: brake systems, clutches, constant mesh transmissions, final drives, suspension, mechanical starting mechanisms, electrical systems, fuel systems, lubrication systems, and overhead camshafts. Each area consists of one or more units of instruction. Each instructional…

  5. Snowmobile Repair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helbling, Wayne

    This guide is designed to provide and/or improve instruction for occupational training in the area of snowmobile repair, and includes eight areas. Each area consists of one or more units of instruction, with each instructional unit including some or all of the following basic components: Performance objectives, suggested activities for teacher and…

  6. Bladder exstrophy repair

    MedlinePlus

    Bladder birth defect repair; Everted bladder repair; Exposed bladder repair; Repair of bladder exstrophy ... in boys and is often linked to other birth defects. Surgery is necessary to: Allow the child to ...

  7. Turbine repair process, repaired coating, and repaired turbine component

    DOEpatents

    Das, Rupak; Delvaux, John McConnell; Garcia-Crespo, Andres Jose

    2015-11-03

    A turbine repair process, a repaired coating, and a repaired turbine component are disclosed. The turbine repair process includes providing a turbine component having a higher-pressure region and a lower-pressure region, introducing particles into the higher-pressure region, and at least partially repairing an opening between the higher-pressure region and the lower-pressure region with at least one of the particles to form a repaired turbine component. The repaired coating includes a silicon material, a ceramic matrix composite material, and a repaired region having the silicon material deposited on and surrounded by the ceramic matrix composite material. The repaired turbine component a ceramic matrix composite layer and a repaired region having silicon material deposited on and surrounded by the ceramic matrix composite material.

  8. Surgical outcomes of the endoscopic transsphenoidal route to pituitary tumours in paediatric patients >10 years of age: 5 years of experience at a single institute

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Rucai; Xu, Guangming; Wiebe, Timothy M; Li, Xingang

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of the endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approach (EETA) for the management of pituitary adenomas in paediatric patients >10 years of age. Methods A retrospective chart review was performed to identify 56 paediatric patients between 10 and 18 years of age who underwent an endonasal endoscopic transsphenoidal approach for the resection of a pituitary adenoma during the last 5 years. The age, sex, symptoms, tumour size, extent of tumour resection, clinical outcome and surgical complications of patients were reviewed. Results Total resection was achieved in 49 (87.5%) cases, subtotal resection was achieved in 7 (12.5%) cases and no patient had a partial or insufficient resection. Of the 35 patients who experienced preoperative deterioration of vision, 33 (94.2%) achieved visual remission with rates of 34.2% and 60% for normalisation and improvement, respectively. Endocrinological normalisation was achieved in 13 (31.7%) of 41 patients who had preoperative hyperhormonal levels; hormone levels decreased in 25 (61.0%) patients, and 3 (7.3%) patients had no change in hormone level. Two (3.5%) patients incurred postoperative cerebrospinal fluid leakage, which was resolved after lumbar drainage. Four (7.1%) patients developed hypopituitarism, which required hormone therapy. Post-surgery, five (8.9%) patients incurred transient diabetes insipidus (DI), of which one (1.7%) patient developed persistent DI and was administered Minirin. Meningitis occurred in one (1.7%) patient who was cured by the administration of a third-generation antibiotic. There were no cases of intracranial haematoma, reoperation or death. Conclusions EETA allows neurosurgeons to safely and effectively remove paediatric pituitary adenomas with low morbidity and mortality. PMID:26006173

  9. Catheter-based photoacoustic endoscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Joon-Mo; Li, Chiye; Chen, Ruimin; Zhou, Qifa; Shung, K. Kirk; Wang, Lihong V.

    2014-06-01

    We report a flexible shaft-based mechanical scanning photoacoustic endoscopy (PAE) system that can be potentially used for imaging the human gastrointestinal tract via the instrument channel of a clinical video endoscope. The development of such a catheter endoscope has been an important challenge to realize the technique's benefits in clinical settings. We successfully implemented a prototype PAE system that has a 3.2-mm diameter and 2.5-m long catheter section. As the instrument's flexible shaft and scanning tip are fully encapsulated in a plastic catheter, it easily fits within the 3.7-mm diameter instrument channel of a clinical video endoscope. Here, we demonstrate the intra-instrument channel workability and in vivo animal imaging capability of the PAE system.

  10. Endoscopic Management of Bladder Diverticula.

    PubMed

    Pham, Khanh N; Jeldres, Claudio; Hefty, Thomas; Corman, John M

    2016-01-01

    A 50-year-old man with benign prostatic hyperplasia and urinary retention had a very large diverticulum on the posterior wall of the bladder. The patient was managed with transurethral resection of the prostate and endoscopic fulguration of the bladder diverticulum mucosa using the Orandi technique. There was near-complete resolution of the bladder diverticulum following endoscopic management, obviating the need for bladder diverticulectomy. The patient now empties his bladder, with a postvoid residual < 50 mL and the absence of urinary tract infection after 6-month follow-up. We report the successful treatment of a large bladder diverticulum with endoscopic fulguration to near-complete resolution. This minimally invasive technique is a useful alternative in patients unfit for a more extensive surgical approach. PMID:27601971